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Title: Works of John Bunyan — Volume 03
Author: Bunyan, John
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Works of John Bunyan — Volume 03" ***

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As I walked through the wilderness of this world, I lighted on
a certain place, where was a den;[1] and I laid me down in that
place to sleep: and as I slept, I dreamed a dream. I dreamed,
and, behold, "I saw a man clothed with rags, standing in a certain
place, with his face from his own house, a book in his hand, and
a great burden upon his back," (Isa. 64:6; Luke 14:33; Psa. 38:4;
Hab. 2:2; Acts 16:31). I looked, and saw him open the book,[2]
and read therein; and as he read, he wept and trembled; and not
being able longer to contain, he brake out with a lamentable cry,
saying, "What shall I do?" (Acts 2:37).[3]

In this plight, therefore, he went home, and refrained himself as
long as he could, that his wife and children should not perceive
his distress; but he could not be silent long, because that his
trouble increased. Wherefore at length he brake his mind to his
wife and children; and thus he began to talk to them: "O my dear
wife," said he, "and you, the children of my bowels, I, your dear
friend, am in myself undone, by reason of a burden that lieth hard
upon me; moreover, I am for certain informed that this our city
will be burned with fire from Heaven; in which fearful overthrow,
both myself, with thee, my wife, and you, my sweet babes, shall
miserably come to ruin, except (the which yet I see not) some way
of escape can be found, whereby we may be delivered." At this, his
relations were sore amazed; not for that they believed that what
he had said to them was true, but because they thought that some
frenzy distemper had got into his head;[4] therefore, it drawing
towards night, and they hoping that sleep might settle his
brains, with all haste they got him to bed. But the night was as
troublesome to him as the day; wherefore, instead of sleeping, he
spent it in sighs and tears. So when the morning was come, they
would know how he did; he told them, worse and worse; he also set
to talking to them again, but they began to be hardened. They also
thought to drive away his distemper by harsh and surly carriages
to him. Sometimes they would deride, sometimes they would chide,
and sometimes they would quite neglect him. Wherefore he began
to retire himself to his chamber to pray for, and pity them, and
also to condole his own misery. He would also walk solitarily in
the fields, sometimes reading, and sometimes praying; and thus
for some days he spent his time.[5]

Now I saw upon a time, when he was walking in the fields, that he
was, as he was wont, reading in his book, and greatly distressed
in his mind; and as he read, he burst out, as he had done before,
crying, "What shall I do to be saved?" (Acts 16:30, 31).

I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he would
run; yet he stood still, because, as I perceived, he could not tell
which way to go.[6] I looked then, and saw a man named Evangelist
coming to him, who asked, "Where fore dost thou cry?"

He answered, Sir, I perceive, by the book in my hand, that I am
condemned to die, and after that to come to judgment, (Heb. 9:27);
and I find that I am not willing (Job 16:21, 22) to do the first,
nor able (Eze. 22:14) to do the second.

Then said Evangelist, Why not willing to die, since this life
is attended with so many evils? The man answered, Because I fear
that this burden that is upon my back will sink me lower than the
grave; and I shall fall into Tophet (Isa. 30:33). And, Sir, if
I be not fit to go to prison, I am not fit, I am sure, to go to
judgment, and from thence to execution; and the thoughts of these
things make me cry.

Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why standest thou
still? He answered, Because I know not whither to go. Then he gave
him a parchment roll, and there was written within, "Fly from the
wrath to come" (Matt. 3:7).

The man therefore, read it, and looking upon Evangelist very
carefully, said, Whither must I fly? Then said Evangelist, pointing
with his finger over a very wide field, Do you see yonder wicket
gate? (Matt. 7:13). The man said, No. Then said the other, Do you
see yonder shining light? (Psa. 119:105; 2 Peter 1:19). He said,
I think I do. Then said Evangelist, Keep that light in your eye,
and go up directly thereto, so shalt thou see the gate; at which,
when thou knockest, it shall be told thee what thou shalt do.[7]
So I saw in my dream that the man began to run. Now, he had not
ran far from his own door, but his wife and children perceiving
it, began to cry after him to return (Luke 14:26); but the man put
his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, Life! life! Eternal
life! So he looked not behind him (Gen. 19:17), but fled towards
the middle of the plain.[8]

The neighbours also came out to see him run, and as he ran, some
mocked, others threatened, and some cried after him to return;
and among those that did so, there were two that were resolved
to fetch him back by force (Jer. 20:10). The name of the one was
Obstinate, and the name of the other Pliable.[9] Now by this time,
the man was got a good distance from them; but, however, they were
resolved to pursue him; which they did, and in a little time they
overtook him. Then said the man, Neighbours, wherefore are ye come?
They said, To persuade you to go back with us. But he said, That
can by no means be. You dwell, said he, in the City of Destruction,
the place also where I was born; I see it to be so; and dying
there, sooner or later, you will sink lower than the grave, into
a place that burns with fire and brimstone. Be content, good
neighbours, and go along with me.

What, said Obstinate, and leave our friends and our comforts behind

Yes, said Christian, for that was his name, because that all "which
you shall forsake" (2 Cor. 4:18), is not worthy to be compared with
a little of that which I am seeking to enjoy; and if you will go
along with me, and hold it, you shall fare as I myself, for there,
where I go, is enough and to spare (Luke 15:17). Come away, and
prove my words.

OBST. What are the things you seek, since you leave all the world
to find them?

CHR. I seek an "inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that
fadeth not away" (1 Peter 1:4), and it is laid up in Heaven (Heb.
11:16), and safe there, to be bestowed, at the time appointed, on
them that diligently seek it. Read it so, if you will, in my book.

OBST. Tush, said Obstinate, away with your book; will you go back
with us, or no?

CHR. No, not I, saith the other; because I have laid my hand to
the plough (Luke 9:62).

OBST. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again, and go home
without him; there is a company of these crazed-headed coxcombs,
that when they take a fancy by the end, are wiser in their own
eyes than seven men that can render a reason (Prov. 26:16).

PLI. Then said Pliable, Do not revile; if what the good Christian
says is true, the things he looks after are better than ours; my
heart inclines to go with my neighbour.

OBST. What! more fools still? Be ruled by me, and go back; who
knows whither such a brain-sick fellow will lead you? Go back, go
back, and be wise.

CHR. Nay, but do thou come with thy neighbour Pliable: there are
such things to be had which I spoke of, and many more glories
besides; if you believe not me, read here in this book, and for
the truth of what is expressed therein, behold, all is confirmed
by the blood of Him that made it (Heb. 13:20, 21; 9:17-21).

PLI. Well, neighbour Obstinate, saith Pliable, I begin to come to
a point; I intend to go along with this good man, and to cast in
my lot with him. But, my good companion, do you know the way to
this desired place?

CHR. I am directed by a man whose name is Evangelist, to speed
me to a little gate that is before us, where we shall receive
instructions about the way.

PLI. Come then, good neighbour, let us be going. Then they went
both together.

OBST. And I will go back to my place, said Obstinate; I will be
no companion of such misled fantastical fellows.

Now I saw in my dream, that when Obstinate was gone back, Christian
and Pliable went talking over the plain; and thus they began their

CHR. Come, neighbour Pliable, how do you do? I am glad you are
persuaded to go along with me; had even Obstinate himself but
felt what I have felt, of the powers and terrors of what is yet
unseen, he would not thus lightly have given us the back.

PLI. Come, neighbour Christian, since there is none but us two here,
tell me now further, what the things are, and how to be enjoyed,
whither we are going.

CHR. I can better conceive of them with my mind, than speak of
them with my tongue; but yet since you are desirous to know, I
will read of them in my book.

PLI. And do you think that the words of your book are certainly

CHR. Yes, verily, for it was made by Him that cannot lie (Titus

PLI. Well said. What things are they?

CHR. There is an endless kingdom to be inhabited, and everlasting
life to be given us, that we may inhabit that kingdom forever
(Isa. 45:17; John 10:27-29).

PLI. Well said. And what else?

CHR. There are crowns of glory to be given us, and garments that
will make us shine like the sun in the firmament of Heaven! (2
Tim. 4:8; Rev. 3:4; Matt. 13:43).

PLI. This is very pleasant. And what else?

CHR. There shall be no more crying, nor sorrow; for He that is
owner of the place will wipe all tears from our eyes (Isa. 25:8;
Rev. 7:17, 17; 21:4).

PLI. And what company shall we have there?

CHR. There we shall be with seraphims, and Cherubims, creatures
that will dazzle your eyes to look on them. There, also, you shall
meet with thousands and ten thousands that have gone before us to
that Place; none of them are hurtful, but loving and holy, everyone
walking in the sight of God, and standing in His presence with
acceptance forever; in a word, there we shall see the elders with
their golden crowns; there we shall see the holy virgins with their
golden harps; there we shall see men, that by the world were cut
in pieces, burnt in flames, eaten of beasts, drowned in the seas,
for the love that they bare to the Lord of the Place; all well,
and clothed with immortality as with a garment[11] (Isa. 6:2; 1
Thess. 4:16, 17; Rev. 7:17; 4:4; 14:1-5; John 12:25; 2 Cor. 5:2-5).

PLI. The hearing of this is enough to ravish one's heart; but are
these things to be enjoyed? How shall we get to be sharers thereof?

CHR. The Lord, the Governor of the country, hath recorded, that
in this book, the substance of which is, if we be truly willing
to have it, He will bestow it upon us freely (Isa. 55:1, 2, 12;
John 7:37; 6:37; Psa. 21:6; 22:17).

PLI. Well, my good companion, glad am I to hear of these things;
come on, let us mend our pace.[12]

CHR. I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden
that is on my back. Now I saw in my dream, that, just as they had
ended this talk, they drew near to a very miry slough that was in
the midst of the plain; and they, being heedless, did both fall
suddenly into the bog. The name of the slough was De spond.[13]
Here, therefore, they wallowed for a time, being grievously bedaubed
with the dirt; and Christian, because of the burden that was on
his back, began to sink in the mire.

PLI. Then said Pliable, Ah! neighbour Christian, where are you

CHR. Truly, said Christian, I do not know.

PLI. At that Pliable began to be offended, and angrily said to
his fellow, Is this the happiness you have told me all this while
of? If we have such ill speed at our first setting out, what may
we expect betwixt this and our journey's end? May I get out again
with my life, you shall possess the brave country alone for me.
And with that he gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out
of the mire on that side of the slough which was next to his own
house: so away he went, and Christian saw him no more. Wherefore
Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Despond alone; but
still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the slough that
was still further from his own house, and next to the wicket-gate;
the which he did, but could not get out, because of the burden
that was upon his back.[14] But I beheld in my dream, that a man
came to him, whose name was Help, and asked him what he did there?

CHR. Sir, said Christian, I was bid go this way by a man called
Evangelist, who directed me also to yonder gate, that I might
escape the wrath to come. And as I was going thither, I fell in

HELP. But why did not you look for the steps?

CHR. Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way, and fell

HELP. Then said he, Give me thy hand; so he gave him his hand,
and he drew him out, and set him upon sound ground, and bid him
go on his way (Psa. 40:2).

Then I stepped to him that plucked him out, and said, Sir, wherefore
(since over this place is the way from the City of Destruction,
to yonder gate) is it that this plat is not mended, that poor
travelers might go thither with more security? And he said unto
me, This miry slough is such a place as cannot be mended. It is
the descent whither the scum and filth that attends conviction for
sin, doth continually run, and therefore it is called the Slough
of Despond: for still, as the sinner is awakened about his lost
condition, there ariseth in his soul many fears, and doubts, and
discouraging apprehensions, which all of them get together, and
settle in this place. And this is the reason of the badness of
this ground.

It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should remain
so bad (Isa. 35:3, 4); his labourers, also, have, by the directions
of his Majesty's surveyors, been, for above these 1,600 years,
employed about this patch of ground, if, perhaps, it might have
been mended; yea, and to my knowledge, said he, here have been
swallowed up at least 20,000 cart-loads; yea, millions of wholesome
instructions, that have, at all seasons, been brought from all
places of the King's dominions, and they that can tell, say, they
are the best materials to make good ground of the place, if so be
it might have been mended; but it is the Slough of Despond still;
and so will be when they have done what they can.[16]

True, there are, by the direction of the Lawgiver, certain good
and substantial steps, placed even through the very midst of this
slough; but at such time as this place doth much spew out its
filth, as it doth against change of weather, these steps are hardly
seen; or if they be, men, through the dizziness of their heads,
step besides, and then they are bemired to purpose, notwithstanding
the steps be there; but the ground is good, when they are once
got in at the gate[17] (1 Sam. 12:23).

Now I saw in my dream, that, by this time, Pliable was got home
to his house again; so that his neighbours came to visit him; and
some of them called him wise man for coming back, and some called
him fool for hazarding himself with Christian; others, again, did
mock at his cowardliness, saying, "Surely, since you began to
venture, I would not have been so base to have given out for a few
difficulties." So Pliable sat sneaking among them. But, at last,
he got more confidence, and then they all turned their tales,
and began to deride poor Christian behind his back. And thus much
concerning Pliable.

Now as Christian was walking solitarily by himself,[18] he espied
one afar off come crossing over the field to meet him; and their
hap was to meet just as they were crossing the way of each other.
The gentleman's name that met him was Mr. Worldly-wiseman; he
dwelt in the town of Carnal Policy, a very great town, and also
hard by from whence Christian came. This man, then, meeting with
Christian, and having some inkling[19] of him, for Christian's
setting forth from the City of Destruction was much noised abroad,
not only in the town where he dwelt, but, also, it began to be the
town-talk in some other places. Master Worldly-wiseman, therefore,
having some guess of him, by beholding his laborious going, by
observing his sighs and groans, and the like, began thus to enter
into some talk with Christian.

WORLD. How now, good fellow, whither away after this burdened

CHR. A burdened manner, indeed, as ever, I think, poor creature
had! And whereas you ask me, Whither away? I tell you, Sir, I am
going to yonder wicket-gate before me; for there, as I am informed,
I shall be put into a way to be rid of my heavy burden.

WORLD. Hast thou a wife and children?

CHR. Yes; but I am so laden with this burden, that I cannot take
that pleasure in them as formerly; methinks I am as if I had none
(1 Cor. 7:29).

WORLD. Wilt thou hearken unto me if I give thee counsel?

CHR. If it be good, I will; for I stand in need of good counsel.

WORLD. I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed get
thyself rid of thy burden: for thou wilt never be settled in thy
mind till then; nor canst thou enjoy the benefits of the blessing
which God hath bestowed upon thee till then.

CHR. That is that which I seek for, even to be rid of this heavy
burden; but get it off myself, I cannot; nor is there any man
in our country that can take it off my shoulders; therefore am I
going this way, as I told you, that I may be rid of my burden.

WORLD. Who bid you go this way to be rid of thy burden?

CHR. A man that appeared to me to be a very great and honourable
person; his name, as I remember, is Evangelist.

WORLD. I beshrew him for his counsel! there is not a more dangerous
and trouble some way in the world than is that unto which he hath
directed thee; and that thou shalt find, if thou wilt be ruled by
his counsel. Thou hast met with something, as I perceive already;
for I see the dirt of the Slough of Despond is upon thee; but that
slough is the beginning of the sorrows that do attend those that
go on in that way. Hear me, I am older than thou; thou art like to
meet with, on the way which thou goest, wearisomeness, painfulness,
hunger, perils, nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, darkness, and,
in a word, death, and what not! These things are certainly true,
having been confirmed by many testimonies. And why should a man
so carelessly cast away himself, by giving heed to a stranger?

CHR. Why, Sir, this burden upon my back is more terrible to me
than are all these things which you have mentioned; nay, methinks
I care not what I meet with in the way, if so be I can also meet
with deliverance from my burden.

WORLD. How camest thou by the burden at first?

CHR. By reading this book in my hand.

WORLD. I thought so; and it is happened unto thee as to other
weak men, who, meddling with things too high for them, do suddenly
fall into thy distractions; which distractions do not only unman
men, as thine, I perceive, has done thee, but they run them upon
desperate ventures, to obtain they know not what.

CHR. I know what I would obtain; it is ease for my heavy burden.

WORLD. But why wilt thou seek for ease this way, seeing so many
dangers attend it? especially since, hadst thou but patience to
hear me, I could direct thee to the obtaining of what thou desirest,
without the dangers that thou in this way wilt run thyself into;
yea, and the remedy is at hand. Besides, I will add, that, instead
of those dangers, thou shalt meet with much safety, friendship,
and content. [20]

CHR. Pray, Sir, open this secret to me.

WORLD. Why, in yonder village-the village is named Morality-there
dwells a gentleman whose name is Legality, a very judicious man,
and a man of a very good name, that has skill to help men off
with such burdens as thine are from their shoulders: yea, to my
knowledge, he hath done a great deal of good this way; aye, and
besides, he hath skill to cure those that are somewhat crazed in
their wits with their burdens.[21] To him, as I said, thou mayest
go, and be helped presently. His house is not quite a mile from
this place, and if he should not be at home himself, be hath a
pretty young man to his son, whose name is Civility, that can do
it (to speak on) as well as the old gentleman himself; there, I
say, thou mayest be eased of thy burden; and if thou art not minded
to go back to thy former habitation, as, indeed, I would not wish
thee, thou mayest send for thy wife and children to thee to this
village, where there are houses now stand empty, one of which thou
mayest have at reasonable rates; provision is there also cheap and
good; and that which will make thy life the more happy is, to be
sure, there thou shalt live by honest neighbours, in credit and
good fashion.

Now was Christian somewhat at a stand; but presently he concluded,
if this be true, which this gentleman hath said, my wisest course
is to take his advice; and with that he thus further spoke.

CHR. Sir, which is my way to this honest man's house?

WORLD. Do you see yonder hill?

CHR. Yes, very well.

WORLD. By that hill you must go, and the first house you come at
is his.

So Christian turned out of his way, to go to Mr. Legality's house
for help; but, behold, when he was got now hard by the hill, it
seemed so high, and also that side of it that was next the wayside,
did hang so much over, that Christian was afraid to venture further,
lest the hill should fall on his head; wherefore there he stood
still, and wotted[22] not what to do. Also his burden now seemed
heavier to him, than while he was in his way. There came also
flashes of fire out of the hill, that made Christian afraid that
he should be burned (Exo. 19:16, 18). Here, therefore, he sweat
and did quake for fear (Heb. 12:21). And now he began to be sorry
that he had taken Mr. Worldly-wiseman's counsel. And with that he
saw Evangelist coming to meet him; at the sight also of whom he
began to blush for shame. So Evangelist drew nearer and nearer;
and coming up to him, he looked upon him with a severe and dreadful
countenance, and thus began to reason with Christian.

EVAN. What dost thou here, Christian? said he: at which words
Christian knew not what to answer; wherefore at present he stood
speechless before him. Then said Evangelist further, Art not
thou the man that I found crying without the walls of the City of

CHR. Yes, dear Sir, I am the man.

EVAN. Did not I direct thee the way to the little wicket-gate?

CHR. Yes, dear Sir, said Christian.

EVAN. How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned aside? for
thou art now out of the way.

CHR. I met with a gentleman so soon as I had got over the Slough
of Despond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before
me, find a man that could take off my burden.

EVAN. What was he?

CHR. He looked like a gentleman,[23] and talked much to me, and
got me at last to yield; so I came hither: but when I beheld this
hill, and how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand, lest
it should fall on my head.

EVAN. What said that gentleman to you?

CHR. Why, he asked me whither I was going? And I told him.

EVAN. And what said he then?

CHR. He asked me if I had a family? And I told him. But, said I,
I am so loaden with the burden that is on my back, that I cannot
take pleasure in them as formerly.

EVAN. And what said he then?

CHR. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden; and I told him
it was ease that I sought. And, said I, I am therefore going to
yonder gate, to receive further direction how I may get to the
place of deliverance. So he said that he would show me a better
way, and short, not so attended with difficulties as the way,
Sir, that you set me in; which way, said he, will direct you to a
gentleman's house that hath skill to take off these burdens: so I
believed him,[24] and turned out of that way into this, if haply I
might be soon eased of my burden. But when I came to this place,
and beheld things as they are, I stopped for fear (as I said) of
danger: but I now know not what to do.

EVAN. Then, said Evangelist, stand still a little, that I may show
thee the words of God. So he stood trembling. Then said Evangelist,
"See that ye refuse not Him that speaketh. For if they escaped
not who refused Him that spake on earth, much more shall not we
escape, if we turn away from Him that speaketh from Heaven" (Heb.
12:25). He said, moreover, "Now the just shall live by faith:
but if any man draw back, My soul shall have no pleasure in him"
(Heb. 10:38). He also did thus apply them: Thou art the man that
art running into this misery; thou hast begun to reject the counsel
of the Most High, and to draw back thy foot from the way of peace,
even almost to the hazarding of thy perdition!

Then Christian fell down at his foot as dead, crying, "Woe is me,
for I am undone!" At the sight of which, Evangelist caught him by
the right hand, saying, "All manner of sin and blasphemies shall
be forgiven unto men" (Matt. 12:31; Mark 3:28); "Be not faithless,
but believing" (John 20:27). Then did Christian again a little
revive, and stood up trembling, as at first, before Evangelist.[25]

Then Evangelist proceeded, saying, Give more earnest heed to the
things that I shall tell thee of. I will now show thee who it was
that deluded thee, and who it was also to whom he sent thee.-The
man that met thee is one Worldly-wiseman, and rightly is he so called;
partly, because he savoureth only the doctrine of this world (1
John 4:5), (therefore he always goes to the town of Morality to
church); and partly because he loveth that doctrine best, for
it saveth him best from the cross (Gal. 6:12). And because he is
of this carnal temper, therefore he seeketh to prevent my ways,
though right. Now there are three things in this man's counsel,
that thou must utterly abhor.

1. His turning thee out of the way. 2. His labouring to render
the cross odious to thee. And, 3. His setting thy feet in that
way that leadeth unto the administration of death.

First, Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way; yea, and
thine own consenting thereto: because this is to reject the counsel
of God for the sake of the counsel of a Worldly-wiseman. The Lord
says, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate" (Luke 13:24), the
gate to which I send thee; for "strait is the gate which leadeth
unto life, and few there be that find it" (Matt. 7:14). From this
little wicket-gate, and from the way thereto, hath this wicked
man turned thee, to the bringing of thee almost to destruction;
hate, therefore, his turning thee out of the way, and abhor thyself
for hearkening to him.

Secondly, Thou must abhor his labouring to render the cross
odious unto thee; for thou art to prefer it "before the treasures
in Egypt" (Heb. 11:25, 26). Besides, the King of glory hath told
thee, that he that "will save his life shall lose it" (Mark 8:35;
John 12:25; Matt. 10:39). And, "He that comes after Him, and hate
not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren,
and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be My disciple"
(Luke 14:26). I say, therefore, for man to labour to persuade
thee, that that shall be thy death, without which, THE TRUTH hath
said, thou canst not have eternal life; this doctrine thou must

Thirdly, Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way that
leadeth to the ministration of death. And for this thou must
consider to whom he sent thee, and also how unable that person
was to deliver thee from thy burden.

He to whom thou wast sent for ease, being by name Legality, is
the son of the bond woman which now is, and is in bondage with her
children (Gal. 4:21-27); and is, in a mystery, this mount Sinai,
which thou hast feared will fall on thy head. Now, if she, with
her children, are in bondage, how canst thou expect by them to be
made free? This Legality, therefore, is not able to set thee free
from thy burden. No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by him;
no, nor ever is like to be: ye cannot be justified by the works
of the law; for by the deeds of the law no man living can be rid
of his burden: therefore, Mr. Worldly-wiseman is an alien, and Mr.
Legality is a cheat; and for his son Civility, notwithstanding
his simpering looks, he is but a hypocrite, and cannot help thee.
Believe me, there is nothing in all this noise, that thou hast
heard of these sottish men, but a design to beguile thee of thy
salvation, by turning thee from the way in which I had set thee.
After this, Evangelist called aloud to the heavens for confirmation
of what he had said: and with that there came words and fire out
of the mountain under which poor Christian stood, that made the
hair of his flesh stand up. The words were thus pronounced: "As
many as are of the works of the law are under the curse; for it
is written, Cursed is everyone that continueth not in all things
which are written in the book of the law to do them[26]" (Gal.

Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to cry
out lamentably; even cursing the time in which he met with
Mr. Worldly-wiseman; still calling himself a thousand fools for
hearkening to his counsel: he also was greatly ashamed to think
that this gentleman's arguments, flowing only from the flesh,
should have the prevalency with him as to cause him to forsake the
right way. This done, he applied himself again to Evangelist, in
words and sense as follows:-

CHR. Sir, what think you? Is there hope? May I now go back, and
go up to the wicket-gate? Shall I not be abandoned for this, and
sent back from thence ashamed? I am sorry I have hearkened to this
man's counsel. But may my sin be forgiven?

EVAN. Then said Evangelist to him, Thy sin is very great, for by
it thou hast committed two evils; thou hast forsaken the way that
is good, to tread in forbidden paths; yet will the man at the gate
receive thee, for he has good-will for men; only, said he, take
heed that thou turn not aside again, "lest thou perish from the
way, when His wrath is kindled but a little" (Psa. 2:12). Then
did Christian address himself to go back; and Evangelist, after
he had kissed him, gave him one smile, and bid him God-speed. So
he went on with haste, neither spake he to any man by the way;
nor, if any asked him, would he vouchsafe them an answer. He went
like one that was all the while treading on forbidden ground, and
could by no means think himself safe, till again he was got into
the way which he left, to follow Mr. Worldly-wiseman's counsel.
So, in process of time, Christian got up to the gate. Now, over
the gate there was written, "Knock, and it shall be opened unto
you" (Matt. 7:8).

He knocked, therefore, more than once or twice, saying--"May I now
enter here? Will He within Open to sorry me, though I have been
An undeserving rebel? Then shall I Not fail to sing His lasting
praise on high."

At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Good-will, who
asked who was there? and whence he came? and what he would have?[27]

CHR. Here is a poor burdened sinner. I come from the City of
Destruction, but am going to Mount Zion, that I may be delivered
from the wrath to come. I would, therefore, Sir, since I am informed
that by this gate is the way thither, know if you are willing to
let me in!

GOOD-WILL. I am willing with all my heart, said he; and with that
he opened the gate.[28]

So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him a pull.
Then said Christian, What means that? The other told him. A little
distance from this gate, there is erected a strong castle, of which
Beelzebub is the captain; from thence, both he and them that are
with him shoot arrows at those that come up to this gate, if haply
they may die before they can enter in.[29]

Then said Christian, I rejoice and tremble. So when he was got
in, the man of the gate asked him who directed him thither?

CHR. Evangelist bid me come hither, and knock (as I did); and he
said that you, Sir, would tell me what I must do.

GOOD-WILL. An open door is set before thee, and no man can shut

CHR. Now I begin to reap the benefits of my hazards.

GOOD-WILL. But how is it that you came alone? CHR. Because none
of my neighbours saw their danger, as I saw mine.

GOOD-WILL. Did any of them know of your coming?

CHR. Yes; my wife and children saw me at the first, and called
after me to turn again; also, some of my neighbours stood crying
and calling after me to return; but I put my fingers in my ears,
and so came on my way.

GOOD-WILL. But did none of them follow you, to persuade you to go

CHR. Yes, both Obstinate and Pliable; but when they saw that they
could not prevail, Obstinate went railing back, but Pliable came
with me a little way.

GOOD-WILL. But why did he not come through?

CHR. We, indeed, came both together, until we came at the Slough
of Despond, into the which we also suddenly fell. And then was my
neighbour, Pliable, discouraged, and would not adventure further.
Wherefore getting out again on that side next to his own house,
he told me I should possess the brave country alone for him; so
he went his way, and I came mine-he after Obstinate, and I to this

GOOD-WILL. Then said Good-will, Alas, poor man! is the celestial
glory of so small esteem with him, that he counteth it not worth
running the hazards of a few difficulties to obtain it?

CHR. Truly, said Christian, I have said the truth of Pliable,
and if I should also say all the truth of myself, it will appear
there is no betterment[30] betwixt him and myself. It is true, he
went back to his own house, but I also turned aside to go in the
way of death, being persuaded thereto by the carnal arguments[31]
of one Mr. Worldly-wiseman.

GOOD-WILL. Oh! did he light upon you? What! he would have had you
a sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Legality. They are, both of
them, a very cheat. But did you take his counsel?

CHR. Yes, as far as I durst; I went to find out Mr. Legality,
until I thought that the mountain that stands by his house would
have fallen upon my head; wherefore, there I was forced to stop.

GOOD-WILL. That mountain has been the death of many, and will be
the death of many more; it is well you escaped being by it dashed
in pieces.

CHR. Why, truly, I do not know what had become of me there, had
not Evangelist happily met me again, as I was musing in the midst
of my dumps; but it was God's mercy that he came to me again, for
else I had never come hither. But now I am come, such a one as I
am, more fit, indeed, for death, by that mountain, than thus to
stand talking with my Lord; but, O! what a favour is this to me,
that yet I am admitted entrance here!

GOOD-WILL. We make no objections against any, notwithstanding
all that they have done before they come hither. They are "in no
wise cast out" (John 6:37); and therefore, good Christian, come a
little way with me, and I will teach thee about the way thou must
go. Look before thee; dost thou see this narrow way? THAT is the
way thou must go; it was cast up by the patriarchs, prophets,
Christ, and His Apostles; and it is as straight as a rule can make
it. This is the way thou must go.[32]

CHR. But, said Christian, are there no turnings nor windings, by
which a stranger may lose his way?

GOOD-WILL. Yes, there are many ways butt down upon this, and they
are crooked and wide. But thus thou mayest distinguish the right
from the wrong, the right only being straight and narrow (Matt.

Then I saw in my dream, that Christian asked him further if he
could not help him off with his burden that was upon his back;
for as yet he had not got rid thereof, nor could he by any means
get it off without help.

He told him, as to thy burden, be content to bear it, until thou
comest to the place of deliverance; for there it will fall from
thy back of itself.

Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address himself
to his journey. So the other told him, That by that he was gone
some distance from the gate, he would come at the house of the
Interpreter; at whose door he should knock, and he would show him
excellent things. Then Christian took his leave of his friend,
and he again bid him God-speed.

Then he went on till he came at the house of the Interpreter,[33]
where he knocked over and over; at last one came to the door, and
asked who was there.

CHR. Sir, here is a traveler, who was bid by an acquaintance of
the good man of this house to call here for my profit; I would
therefore speak with the master of the house. So he called for the
master of the house, who, after a little time, came to Christian,
and asked him what he would have.

CHR. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come from the City
of Destruction, and am going to the Mount Zion; and I was told by
the man that stands at the gate, at the head of this way, that if
I called here, you would show me excellent things, such as would
be a help to me in my journey.[34]

INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Come in; I will show thee that
which will be profitable to thee. So He commanded His man to light
the candle,[35] and bid Christian follow Him: so He had him into
a private room, and bid His man open a door; the which when he
had done, Christian saw the picture of a very grave person hang
up against the wall; and this was the fashion of it. It had eyes
lifted up to Heaven, the best of books in his hand, the law of
truth was written upon his lips, the world was behind his back.
It stood as if it pleaded with men, and a crown of gold did hang
over its head.[36]

CHR. Then said Christian, What meaneth this?

INTER. The man whose picture this is, is one of a thousand; he
can beget children (1 Cor. 4:15), travail in birth with children
(Gal. 4;19), and nurse them himself when they are born. And whereas
thou seest him with his eves lift up to Heaven, the best of books
in his hand, and the law of truth writ on his lips, it is to show
thee, that his work is to know and unfold dark things to sinners;
even as also thou seest him stand as if he pleaded with men; and
whereas thou seest the world as cast behind him, and that a crown
hangs over his head, that is to show thee that slighting and
despising the things that are present, for the love that he hath
to his Master's service, he is sure in the world that comes next
to have glory for his reward. Now, said the Interpreter, I have
showed thee this picture first, because the man whose picture
this is, is the only man whom the Lord of the place whither thou
art going, hath authorized to be thy guide in all difficult places
thou mayest meet with in the way; wherefore, take good heed to
what I have showed thee, and bear well in thy mind what thou hast
seen, lest in thy journey thou meet with some that pretend to
lead thee right, but their way goes down to death.

Then He took him by the hand, and led him into a very large parlour
that was full of dust, because never swept; the which, after He
had reviewed a little while, the Interpreter called for a man to
sweep. Now, when he began to sweep, the dust began so abundantly
to fly about, that Christian had almost therewith been choked.
Then said the Interpreter to a damsel that stood by, Bring hither
the water, and sprinkle the room; the which, when she had done,
it was swept and cleansed with pleasure.

CHR. Then said Christian, What means this?

INTER. The Interpreter answered, This parlour is the heart of a
man that was never sanctified by the sweet grace of the Gospel;
the dust is his original sin and inward corruptions, that have
defiled the whole man. He that began to sweep at first, is the Law;
but she that brought water, and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel.
Now, whereas thou sawest, that so soon as the first began to
sweep, the dust did so fly about that the room by him could not
be cleansed, but that thou wast almost choked therewith; this is
to show thee, that the law, instead of cleansing the heart (by its
working) from sin, doth revive, put strength into, and increase it
in the soul, even as it doth discover and forbid it, for it doth
not give power to subdue[37] (Rom. 7:6; 1 Cor. 15:56; Rom. 5:20).

Again, as thou sawest the damsel sprinkle the room with water,
upon which it was cleansed with pleasure; this is to show thee,
that when the Gospel comes in the sweet and precious influences
thereof to the heart, then, I say, even as thou sawest the damsel
lay the dust by sprinkling the floor with water, so is sin vanquished
and subdued, and the soul made clean, through the faith of it,
and consequently fit for the King of glory to inhabit (John 15:3;
Eph. 5:26; Acts 15:9; Rom. 16:25, 26; John 15:13).

I saw, moreover, in my dream, that the Interpreter took him by
the hand, and had him into a little room, where sat two little
children, each one in his chair. The name of the elder was Passion,
and the name of the other Patience. Passion seemed to be much
discontented; but Patience was very quiet. Then Christian asked,
What is the reason of the discontent of Passion? The Interpreter
answered, The Governor of them would have him stay for his best
things till the beginning of the next year; but he will have all
now; but patience is willing to wait.

Then I saw that one came to Passion, and brought him a bag of
treasure, and poured it down at his feet, the which he took up
and rejoiced therein, and withal laughed Patience to scorn. But I
beheld but a while, and he had lavished all away, and had nothing
left him but rags.

CHR. Then said Christian to the Interpreter, Expound this matter
more fully to me.

INTER. So He said, These two lads are figures: Passion, of the men
of this world; and Patience, of the men of that which is to come;
for, as here thou seest, Passion will have all now this year, that
is to say, in this world; so are the men of this world: they must
have all their good things now, they cannot stay till next year,
that is, until the next world, for their portion of good. That
proverb, "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush," is of
more authority with them than are all the Divine testimonies of
the good of the world to come. But as thou sawest that he had
quickly lavished all away, and had presently left him nothing but
rags; so will it be with all such men at the end of this world.[38]

CHR. Then said Christian, Now I see that Patience has the best
wisdom, and that upon many accounts. First, Because he stays for
the best things. Second, And also because he will have the glory
of his, when the other has nothing but rags.

INTER. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory of the next
world will never wear out; but these are suddenly gone. Therefore
Passion had not so much reason to laugh at Patience, because he had
his good things first, as Patience will have to laugh at Passion,
because he had his best things last; for first must give place to
last, because last must have his time to come; but last gives place
to nothing; for there is not another to succeed. He, therefore,
that hath his portion first, must needs have a time to spend it;
but he that hath his portion last, must have it lastingly; therefore
it is said of Dives, "Thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good
things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted,
and thou art tormented" (Luke 16:25).

CHR. Then I perceive it is not best to covet things that are now,
but to wait for things to come.

INTER. You say the truth: "For the things which are seen are
temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal" (2 Cor.
4:18). But though this be so, yet since things present, and our
fleshly appetite, are such near neighbours one to another; and
again, because things to come, and carnal sense, are such strangers
one to another; therefore it is that the first of these so suddenly
fall into amity, and that distance is so continued between the
second. Then I saw in my dream that the Interpreter took Christian
by the hand, and led him into a place where was a fire burning
against a wall, and one standing by it, always casting much water
upon it, to quench it; yet did the fire burn higher and hotter.

Then said Christian, What means this?

The Interpreter answered, This fire is the work of grace that is
wrought in the heart; he that casts water upon it, to extinguish
and put it out, is the Devil; but in that thou seest the fire
notwithstanding burn higher and hotter, thou shalt also see the
reason of that. So he had him about to the backside of the wall,
where be saw a man with a vessel of oil in his hand, of the which
He did also continually cast, but secretly, into the fire.[39]

Then said Christian, What means this?

The Interpreter answered, This is Christ, who continually, with the
oil of his grace, maintains the work already begun in the heart:
by the means of which, notwithstanding what the devil can do, the
souls of His people prove gracious still (2 Cor. 12:9). And in
that thou sawest that the man stood behind the wall to maintain
the fire, that is to teach thee that it is hard for the tempted
to see how this work of grace is maintained in the soul.

I saw also, that the Interpreter took him again by the hand, and
led him into a pleasant place, where was builded a stately palace,
beautiful to behold; at the sight of which Christian was greatly
delighted; he saw also, upon the top thereof, certain persons
walking, who were clothed all in gold.

Then said Christian, May we go in thither?

Then the Interpreter took him, and led him up towards the door of
the palace; and behold, at the door stood a great company of men,
as desirous to go in, but durst not. There also sat a man at a
little distance from the door, at a table-side, with a book and
his inkhorn before him, to take the name of him that should enter
therein; he saw also, that in the doorway stood many men in armour
to keep it, being resolved to do the men that would enter what
hurt and mischief they could. Now was Christian somewhat in amaze.
At last, when every man started back for fear of the armed men,
Christian saw a man of a very stout countenance come up to the
man that sat there to write, saying, "Set down my name, Sir":[40]
the which when he had done, he saw the man draw his sword, and put
an helmet upon his head, and rush toward the door upon the armed
men, who laid upon him with deadly force: but the man, not at all
discouraged, fell to cutting and hacking most fiercely. So after
he had received and given many wounds to those that attempted to
keep him out, he cut his way through them all (Acts 14:22), and
pressed forward into the palace, at which there was a pleasant
voice heard from those that were within, even of those that walked
upon the top of the palace, saying--"Come in, come in; Eternal
glory thou shalt win."

So he went in, and was clothed with such garments as they. Then
Christian smiled and said, I think verily I know the meaning of

Now, said Christian, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said the Interpreter,
till I have showed thee a little more, and after that thou shalt
go on thy way. So He took him by the hand again, and led him into
a very dark room, where there sat a man in an iron cage.

Now the man, to look on, seemed very sad; he sat with his eyes
looking down to the ground, his hands folded together, and he
sighed as if he would break his heart. Then said Christian, What
means this? At which the Interpreter bid him talk with the man.

Then Said Christian to the man, What art thou? The man answered,
I am what I was not once.

CHR. What wast thou once?

MAN. The man said, I was once a fair and flourishing professor,
both in mine own eyes, and also in the eyes of others; I once was,
as I thought, fair for the Celestial City, and had then even joy
at the thoughts that I should get thither (Luke 8:13).

CHR. Well, but what art thou now?

MAN. I am now a man of despair, and am shut up in it, as in this
iron cage. I cannot get out. O now I cannot!

CHR. But how camest thou in this condition?

MAN. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins upon the
neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of the Word, and
the goodness of God; I have grieved the Spirit, and He is gone; I
tempted the devil, and he is come to me; I have provoked God to
anger, and He has left me; I have so hardened my heart, that I
cannot repent.

Then said Christian to the Interpreter, But is there no hope
for such a man as this? Ask him, said the Interpreter. Nay, said
Christian, pray Sir, do you.

INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Is there no hope, but you must
be kept in the iron cage of despair?

MAN. No, none at all.

INTER. Why, the Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.

MAN. I have crucified Him to myself afresh (Heb. 4:6); I have
despised His person (Luke 19:14); I have despised His righteousness;
I have "counted His blood an unholy thing"; I have "done despite
to the Spirit of grace" (Heb. 10:28, 29). Therefore I have shut
myself out of all the promises, and there now remains to me nothing
but threatenings, dreadful threatenings, fearful threatenings of
certain judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour me as
an adversary.[42]

INTER. For what did you bring yourself into this condition?

MAN. For the lusts, pleasures, and profits of this world; in the
enjoyment of which I did then promise myself much delight; but
now every one of those things also bite me, and gnaw me like a
burning worm.

INTER. But canst thou not now repent and turn?

MAN. God hath denied me repentance. His Word gives me no encouragement
to believe; yea, Himself hath shut me up in this iron cage; nor
can all the men in the world let me out. O eternity! eternity! how
shall I grapple with the misery that I must meet with in eternity!

INTER. Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Let this man's misery
be remembered by thee, and be an everlasting caution to thee.[43]

CHR. Well, said Christian, this is fearful! God help me to watch
and be sober, and to pray that I may shun the cause of this man's
misery![44] Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now?[45]

INTER. Tarry till I shall show thee one thing more, and then thou
shalt go on thy way.

So He took Christian by the hand again, and led him into a chamber,
where there was one rising out of bed; and as he put on his
raiment, he shook and trembled. Then said Christian, Why doth this
man thus tremble? The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian
the reason of his so doing. So he began and said, This night, as
I was in my sleep, I dreamed, and behold the heavens grew exceeding
black; also it thundered and lightened in most fearful wise, that
it put me into an agony; so I looked up in my dream, and saw the
clouds rack[46] at an unusual rate, upon which I heard a great
sound of a trumpet, and saw also a man sit upon a cloud, attended
with the thousands of Heaven; they were all in flaming fire: also
the heavens were in a burning flame. I heard then a voice saying,
"Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment"; and with that the rocks
rent, the graves opened, and the dead that were therein came
forth. Some of them were exceeding glad, and looked upward; and
some sought to hide themselves under the mountains (1 Cor. 15:52;
1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 14; John 5:28, 29; 2 Thess. 1:7, 8; Rev.
20:11-14; Isa. 26:21; Micah 7:16, 17; Psa. 95:1-3; Dan. 7:10). Then
I saw the man that sat upon the cloud open the book, and bid the
world draw near. Yet there was, by reason of a fierce flame which
issued out and came from before him, a convenient distance betwixt
him and them, as betwixt the judge and the prisoners at the bar
(Mal. 3:2, 3; Dan. 7:9, 10). I heard it also proclaimed to them
that attended on the man that sat on the cloud, "Gather together
the tares, the chaff, and stubble, and cast them into the burning
lake" (Matt. 3:12; 13:30; Mal. 4:1). And with that, the bottomless
pit opened, just whereabouts I stood; out of the mouth of which
there came, in an abundant manner, smoke and coals of fire, with
hideous noises. It was also said to the same persons, "Gather
My wheat into the garner" (Luke 3:17). And with that I saw many
catched up and carried away into the clouds, but I was left behind
(1 Thess. 4:16, 17). I also sought to hide myself, but I could
not, for the man that sat upon the cloud still kept his eye upon
me: my sins also came into my mind; and my conscience did accuse me
on every side (Rom. 2:14, 15). Upon this I awaked from my sleep.

CHR. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight?

MAN. Why, I thought that the day of judgment was come, and that I
was not ready for it: but this frighted me most, that the angels
gathered up several, and left me behind; also the pit of hell
opened her mouth just where I stood. My conscience, too, afflicted
me; and, as I thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me,
showing indignation in his countenance.[47]

Then said the Interpreter to Christian, Hast thou considered all
these things?

CHR. Yes, and they put me in hope and fear.[48]

INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they may be as
a goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou must
go. Then Christian began to gird up his loins, and to address
himself to his journey. Then said the Interpreter, The Comforter
be always with thee, good Christian, to guide thee in the way that
leads to the City. So Christian went on his way, saying--"Here I
have seen things rare and profitable; Things pleasant, dreadful,
things to make me stable In what I have begun to take in hand;
Then let me think on them, and understand Wherefore they showed
me were, and let me be Thankful, O good Interpreter, to thee."

Now I saw in my dream, that the highway up which Christian was
to go, was fenced on either side with a wall, and that wall was
called Salvation (Isa. 26:1). Up this way, therefore, did burdened
Christian run, but not without great difficulty, because of the
load on his back.[49]

He ran thus till be came at a place somewhat ascending, and upon
that place stood a cross, and a little below, in the bottom,
a sepulchre. So I saw in my dream, that just as Christian came
up with the cross, his burden loosed from off his shoulders, and
fell from off his back, and began to tumble, and so continued to
do, till it came to the mouth of the sepulchre, where it fell in,
and I saw it no more.

Then was Christian glad and lightsome, and said, with a merry
heart, "He hath given me rest by His sorrow, and life by His
death." Then he stood still awhile to look and wonder; for it was
very surprising to him, that the sight of the cross should thus
ease him of his burden. He looked, therefore, and looked again,
even till the springs that were in his head sent the waters down
his checks (Zech. 12:10).[50] Now, as he stood looking and weeping,
behold three Shining Ones came to him and saluted him with "Peace
be to thee." So the first said to him, "Thy sins be forgiven thee"
(Mark 2:15): the second stripped him of his rags, and clothed him
"with change of raiment" (Zech. 3:4); the third also set a mark
in his forehead, and gave him a roll with a seal upon it, which
he bade him look on as he ran, and that he should give it in at
the Celestial Gate (Eph. 1:13).[51] So they went their way. Then
Christian gave three leaps for joy, and went on singing--Thus
far I did come laden with my sin; Nor could aught ease the grief
that I was in Till I came hither: What a place is this! Must here
be the beginning of my bliss? Must here the burden fall from off
my back Must here the strings that bound it to me crack? Blest
cross! blest sepulchre! blest rather be The man that there was
put to shame for me![52]

I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even until he came
at a bottom, where he saw, a little out of the way, three men
fast asleep, with fetters upon their heels. The name of the one
was Simple, another Sloth, and the third Presumption.

Christian then seeing them lie in this case, went to them, if
peradventure he might awake them, and cried, You are like them
that sleep on the top of a mast, for the Dead Sea is under you-a
gulf that hath no bottom (Prov. 23:34). Awake, therefore, and come
away; be willing also, and I will help you off with your irons.
He also told them, If he that "goeth about like a roaring lion"
comes by, you will certainly become a prey to his teeth (1 Peter
5:8). With that they looked upon him, and began to reply in this
sort: Simple said, "I see no danger"; Sloth said, "Yet a little
more sleep"; and Presumption said, "Every fat[53] must stand upon
its own bottom; what is the answer else that I should give thee?"
And so they lay down to sleep again, and Christian went on his

Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should so
little esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to help
them, both by awakening of them, counseling of them, and proffering
to help them off with their irons.[54] And as he was troubled
thereabout, he espied two men come tumbling over the wall, on the
left hand of the narrow way; and they made up apace to him. The
name of the one was Formalist, and the name of the other Hypocrisy.
So, as I said, they drew up unto him, who thus entered with them
into discourse.

CHR. Gentlemen, whence came you, and whither go you?

FORM. and HYP. We were born in the land of Vain-glory, and are
going for praise to Mount Sion.

CHR. Why came you not in at the gate, which standeth at the beginning
of the way? Know you not that it is written, that he that cometh
not in by the door, "but climbeth up some other way, the same is
a thief and a robber?" (John 10:1).

FORM. and HYP. They said, That to go to the gate for entrance
was, by all their countrymen, counted too far about; and that,
therefore, their usual way was to make a short cut of it, and to
climb over the wall, as they had done.

CHR. But will it not be counted a trespass against the Lord of
the city whither we are bound, thus to violate His revealed will?

FORM. and HYP. They told him, that, as for that, he needed not to
trouble his head thereabout; for what they did, they had custom
for; and could produce, if need were, testimony that would witness
it for more than a thousand years.

CHR. But, said Christian, will your practice stand a trial at law?

FORM. and HYP. They told him, That custom, it being of so long a
standing as above a thousand years, would, doubtless, now be admitted
as a thing legal by any impartial judge; and beside, said they,
if we get into the way, what's matter which way we get in? if we
are in, we are in; thou art but in the way, who, as we perceive,
came in at the gate; and we, are also in the way, that came tumbling
over the wall; wherein, now, is thy condition better than ours?

CHR. I walk by the rule of my Master; you walk by the rude working
of your fancies. You are counted thieves already, by the Lord of
the way; therefore, I doubt you will not be found true men at the
end of the way. You come in by yourselves, without His direction;
and shall go out by yourselves, without His mercy.[55]

To this they made him but little answer; only they bid him look
to himself. Then I saw that they went on every man in his way,
without much conference one with another; save that these two men
told Christian, that as to laws and ordinances, they doubted not
but they should as conscientiously do them as he; therefore, said
they, we see not wherein thou differest from us, but by the coat
that is on thy back, which was, as we trow[56] given thee by some
of thy neighbours, to hide the shame of thy nakedness.

CHR. By laws and ordinances you will not be saved, since you came
not in by the door (Gal. 1:16). And as for this coat that is on
my back, it was given me by the Lord of the place whither I go;
and that, as you say, to cover my nakedness with. And I take it as
a token of His kindness to me; for I had nothing but rags before.
And, besides, thus I comfort myself as I go: Surely, think I, when
I come to the gate of the city, the Lord thereof will know me for
good, since I have His coat on my back-a coat that He gave me in
the day that He stripped me of my rags. I have, moreover, a mark
in my forehead, of which, perhaps, you have taken no notice, which
one of my Lord's most intimate associates fixed there in the day
that my burden fell off my shoulders. I will tell you, moreover,
that I had then given me a roll, sealed, to comfort me by reading,
as I go on the way; I was also bid to give it in at the Celestial
Gate, in token of my certain going in after it; all which things,
I doubt, you want, and want them because you came not in at the

To these things they gave him no answer; only they looked upon
each other, and laughed.[57] Then I saw that they went on all,
save that Christian kept before, who had no more talk but with
himself, and that sometimes sighingly and sometimes comfortably;[58]
also he would be often reading in the roll that one of the Shining
Ones gave him, by which he was refreshed.

I beheld, then, that they all went on till they came to the foot
of the Hill Difficulty; at the bottom of which was a spring. There
were also in the same place two other ways besides that which
came straight from the gate; one turned to the left hand, and the
other to the right, at the bottom of the hill; but the narrow way
lay right up the hill, and the name of the going up the side of
the hill is called Difficulty. Christian now went to the spring,
and drank thereof, to refresh himself (Isa. 49:10), and then began
to go up the hill, saying-

"The hill, though high, I covet to ascend, The difficulty will not
me offend; For I perceive the way to life lies here. Come, pluck
up heart, let's neither faint nor fear; Better, though difficult,
the right way to go, Than wrong, though easy, where the end is

The other two also came to the foot of the hill; but when they saw
that the hill was steep and high, and that there were two other
ways to go; and supposing also that these two ways might meet
again, with that up which Christian went, on the other side of
the hill; therefore they were resolved to go in those ways. Now
the name of one of those ways was Danger, and the name of the
other Destruction. So the one took the way which is called Danger,
which led him into a great wood, and the other took directly up
the way to Destruction, which led him into a wide field, full of
dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell, and rose no more.[59]

I looked, then, after Christian, to see him go up the hill, where
I perceived he fell from running to going, and from going to
clambering upon his hands and his knees, because of the steepness
of the place. Now, about the midway to the top of the hill was a
pleasant arbour, made by the Lord of the hill for the refreshing
of weary travelers; thither, therefore, Christian got, where also
he sat down to rest him. Then he pulled his roll out of his bosom,
and read therein to his comfort; he also now began afresh to take
a review of the coat or garment that was given him as he stood
by the cross. Thus pleasing himself awhile, he at last fell into
a slumber, and thence into a fast sleep,[60] which detained him
in that place until it was almost night; and in his sleep his roll
fell out of his hand.[61] Now, as he was sleeping, there came one
to him, and awaked him, saying, "Go to the ant, thou sluggard;
consider her ways, and be wise" (Prov. 6:6). And with that
Christian suddenly started up, and sped him on his way, and went
apace, till be came to the top of the hill.

Now, when he was got up to the top of the hill, there came two
men running to meet him amain; the name of the one was Timorous,
and of the other Mistrust; to whom Christian said, Sirs, what's
the matter? You run the wrong way. Timorous answered, that they
were going to the City of Zion, and had got up that difficult
place; but, said he, the further we go, the more danger we meet
with; wherefore we turned, and are going back again.[62]

Yes, said Mistrust, for just before us lie a couple of lions in
the way, whether sleeping or waking we know not, and we could not
think, if we came within reach, but they would presently pull us
in pieces.

CHR. Then said Christian, You make me afraid, but whither shall I
fly to be safe? If I go back to mine own country, that is prepared
for fire and brimstone, and I shall certainly perish there. If I
can get to the Celestial City, I am sure to be in safety there.
I must venture. To go back is nothing but death; to go forward
is fear of death, and life everlasting beyond it. I will yet
go forward.[63] So Mistrust and Timorous ran down the hill, and
Christian went on his way. But, thinking again of what he heard
from the men, be felt in his bosom for his roll, that he might
read therein, and be comforted; but he felt, and found it not.
Then was Christian in great distress, and knew not what to do; for
he wanted that which used to relieve him, and that which should
have been his pass into the Celestial City. Here, therefore, he
began to be much perplexed, and knew not what to do.[64] At last,
he bethought himself, that he had slept in the arbour that is on
the side of the hill; and, falling down upon his knees, he asked
God's forgiveness for that his foolish act, and then went back to
look for his roll. But all the way he went back, who can sufficiently
set forth the sorrow of Christian's heart! Sometimes he sighed,
sometimes he wept, and oftentimes he chid himself for being so
foolish to fall asleep in that place, which was erected only for
a little refreshment for his weariness. Thus therefore he went
back, carefully looking on this side, and on that, all the way
as he went, if happily he might find his roll, that had been his
comfort so many times in his journey. He went thus, till he came
again within sight of the arbour where he sat and slept; but that
sight renewed his sorrow the more, by bringing again, even afresh,
his evil of sleeping into his mind (Rev. 2:5; 1 Thess. 5:7, 8).
Thus, therefore, he now went on bewailing his sinful sleep, saying,
"O wretched man that I am!" that I should sleep in the day time!
that I should sleep in the midst of difficulty! that I should
so indulge the flesh, as to use that rest for ease to my flesh,
which the Lord of the hill hath erected only for the relief of
the spirits of pilgrims![65]

How many steps have I took in vain! Thus it happened to Israel,
for their sin; they were sent back again by the way of the Red
Sea; and I am made to tread those steps with sorrow, which I might
have trod with delight, had it not been for this sinful sleep. How
far might I have been on my way by this time! I am made to tread
those steps thrice over, which I needed not to have trod but once;
yea, now also I am like to be benighted, for the day is almost
spent. O that I had not slept!

Now by this time be was come to the arbour again, where for a
while he sat down and wept; but at last, as Christian would have
it, looking sorrowfully down under the settle, there he espied
his roll; the which he, with trembling and haste, catched up, and
put it into his bosom. But who can tell how joyful this man was
when he had gotten his roll again! for this roll was the assurance
of his life and acceptance at the desired haven. Therefore he
laid it up in his bosom, gave thanks to God for directing his eye
to the place where it lay, and with joy and tears betook himself
again to his journey. But O how nimbly now did he go up the rest
of the hill! Yet, before be got up, the sun went down upon Christian;
and this made him again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his
remembrance; and thus he again began to condole with himself.
O thou sinful sleep! how, for thy sake am I like to be benighted
in my journey! I must walk without the sun; darkness must cover
the path of my feet; and I must hear the noise of the doleful
creatures, because of my sinful sleep (1 Thess. 5:6, 7). Now also
he remembered the story that Mistrust and Timorous told him of,
how they were frighted with the sight of the lions. Then said
Christian to himself again, These beasts range in the night for
their prey; and if they should meet with me in the dark, how should
I shift them? How should I escape being by them torn in pieces?
Thus he went on his way. But while he was thus bewailing his
unhappy miscarriage, he lift up his eyes, and behold there was a
very stately palace before him, the name of which was Beautiful;
and it stood just by the highway side.[66]

So I saw in my dream, that he made haste and went forward, that if
possible he might get lodging there. Now before he had gone far,
be entered into a very narrow passage, which was about a furlong
off of the porter's lodge; and looking very narrowly before him
as he went, he espied two lions in the way.[67] Now, thought he,
I see the dangers that Mistrust and Timorous were driven back by.
(The lions were chained, but he saw not the chains). Then he was
afraid, and thought also himself to go back after them, for he
thought nothing but death was before him. But the porter at the
lodge, whose name is Watchful, perceiving that Christian made
a halt as if he would go back, cried unto him, saying, Is thy
strength so small? (Mark 13:34-37). Fear not the lions, for they
are chained, and are placed there for trial of faith where it is,
and for discovery of those that have none. Keep in the midst of
the path, and no hurt shall come unto thee.

Then I saw that he went on, trembling for fear of the lions, but
taking good heed to the directions of the porter; he heard them
roar, but they did him no harm. Then he clapped his hands, and
went on till he came and stood before the gate, where the porter
was. Then said Christian to the porter, Sir, what house is this?
and may I lodge here tonight? The porter answered, This house was
built by the Lord of the hill, and He built it for the relief and
security of pilgrims. The porter also asked whence he was, and
whither he was going.

CHR. I am come from the City of Destruction, and am going to Mount
Zion; but because the sun is now set, I desire, if I may, to lodge
here tonight.

POR. What is your name?

CHR. My name is now Christian, but my name at the first was
Graceless; I came of the race of Japheth, whom God will persuade
to dwell in the tents of Shem (Gen. 9:27).

POR. But how doth it happen that you come so late? The sun is set.

CHR. I had been here sooner, but that, "wretched man that I am!"
I slept in the arbour that stands on the hill side; nay, I had,
notwithstanding that, been here much sooner, but that, in my sleep,
I lost my evidence, and came without it to the brow of the hill;
and then feeling for it, and finding it not, I was forced, with
sorrow of heart, to go back to the place where I slept my sleep,
where I found it, and now I am come.

POR. Well, I will call out one of the virgins of this place, who
will, if she likes your talk, bring you in to the rest of the
family, according to the rules of the house. So Watchful, the
porter, rang a bell, at the sound of which came out at the door
of the house, a grave and beautiful damsel, named Discretion, and
asked why she was called.

The porter answered, This man is in a journey from the City of
Destruction to Mount Zion, but being weary and benighted, he asked
me if he might lodge here tonight; so I told him I would call for
thee, who, after discourse had with him, mayest do as seemeth thee
good, even according to the law of the house.

Then she asked him whence he was, and whither he was going; and
he told her. She asked him also how he got into the way; and he
told her. Then she asked him what he had seen and met with in the
way; and he told her. And last she asked his name; so he said, It
is Christian, and I have so much the more a desire to lodge here
tonight, because, by what I perceive, this place was built by the
Lord of the hill, for the relief and security of pilgrims. So she
smiled, but the water stood in her eyes; and after a little pause,
she said, I will call forth two or three more of the family. So
she ran to the door, and called out Prudence, Piety, and Charity,
who, after a little more discourse with him, had him into the family;
and many of them meeting him at the threshold of the house, said,
"Come in, thou blessed of the Lord"; this house was built by the
Lord of the hill, on purpose to entertain such pilgrims in.[68]
Then he bowed his head, and followed them into the house. So when
he was come in and sat down, they gave him something to drink,
and consented together, that until supper was ready, some of them
should have some particular discourse with Christian, for the best
improvement of time; and they appointed Piety, and Prudence, and
Charity to discourse with him; and thus they began:

PIETY. Come, good Christian, since we have been so loving to you,
to receive you into our house this night, let us, if perhaps we
may better ourselves thereby, talk with you of all things that
have happened to you in your pilgrimage.

CHR. With a very good will, and I am glad that you are so well

PIETY. What moved you at first to betake yourself to a pilgrim's

CHR. I was driven out of my native country, by a dreadful sound
that was in mine ears; to wit, that unavoidable destruction did
attend me, if I abode in that country place where I was.

PIETY. But how did it happen that you came out of your country
this way?

CHR. It was as God would have it; for when I was under the fears
of destruction, I did not know whither to go; but by chance there
came a man, even to me, as I was trembling and weeping, whose name
is Evangelist, and he directed me to the wicket-gate, which else
I should never have found, and so set me into the way that hath
led me directly to this house.

PIETY. But did you not come by the house of the Interpreter?

CHR. Yes, and did see such things there, the remembrance of which
will stick by me as long as I live; especially three things, to
wit, how Christ, in despite of Satan, maintains His work of grace
in the heart; how the man had sinned himself quite out of hopes of
God's mercy; and also the dream of him that thought in his sleep
the day of judgment was come.

PIETY. Why, did you hear him tell his dream?

CHR. Yes, and a dreadful one it was. I thought it made my heart
ache as he was telling of it; but yet I am glad I heard it.

PIETY. Was that all that you saw at the house of the Interpreter?

CHR. No; he took me and had me where he showed me a stately palace,
and how the people were clad in gold that were in it; and how
there came a venturous man and cut his way through the armed men
that stood in the door to keep him out; and how he was bid to come
in, and win eternal glory. Methought those things did ravish my
heart! I would have staid at that good man's house a twelvemonth,
but that I knew I had further to go.

PIETY. And what saw you else in the way?

CHR. Saw! why, I went but a little further, and I saw one, as
I thought in my mind, hang bleeding upon the tree; and the very
sight of Him made my burden fall off my back (for I groaned under
a very heavy burden), but then it fell down from off me. It was
a strange thing to me, for I never saw such a thing before; yea,
and while I stood looking up, for then I could not forbear looking,
three Shining Ones came to me. One of them testified that my sins
were forgiven me; another stripped me of my rags, and gave me this
broidered coat which you see; and the third set the mark which you
see in my forehead, and gave me this sealed roll. (And with that
he plucked it out of his bosom).

PIETY. But you saw more than this, did you not?

CHR. The things that I have told you were the best, yet some
other matters I saw, as, namely, I saw three men, Simple, Sloth,
and Presumption, lie asleep a little out of the way, as I came,
with irons upon their heels; but do you think I could awake them?
I also saw Formality and Hypocrisy come tumbling over the wall, to
go, as they pretended, to Zion, but they were quickly lost, even
as I myself did tell them; but they would not believe. But above
all, I found it hard work to get up this hill, and as hard to come
by the lions' mouths; and truly if it had not been for the good
man, the porter that stands at the gate, I do not know but that
after all I might have gone back again; but now, I thank God I am
here, and I thank you for receiving of me.

Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions, and desired
his answer to them.

PRUD. Do you not think sometimes of the country from whence you

CHR. Yes, but with much shame and detestation: "truly if I had been
mindful of that country from whence I came out, I might have had
opportunity to have returned; but now I desire a better country,
that is, an heavenly" (Heb. 11:15, 16).

PRUD. Do you not yet bear away with you some of the things that
then you were conversant withal?

CHR. Yes, but greatly against my will; especially my inward and
carnal cogitations, with which all my countrymen, as well as
myself, were delighted; but now all those things are my grief; and
might I but choose mine own things, I would choose never to think
of those things more; but when I would be doing of that which is
best, that which is worst is with me (Rom. 7).

PRUD. Do you not find sometimes, as if those things were vanquished,
which at other times are your perplexity?

CHR. Yes, but that is but seldom; but they are to me golden hours,
in which such things happen to me.[69]

PRUD. Can you remember by what means you find your annoyances, at
times, as if they were vanquished?

CHR. Yes; when I think what I saw at the cross, that will do it;
and when I look upon my broidered coat, that will do it; also
when I look into the roll that I carry in my bosom, that will do
it; and when my thoughts wax warm about whither I am going, that
will do it.[70]

PRUD. And what is it that makes you so desirous to go to Mount

CHR. Why, there I hope to see Him alive that did hang dead on the
cross; and there I hope to be rid of all those things that to this
day are in me an annoyance to me; there, they say, there is no
death; and there I shall dwell with such company as I like best
(Isa. 25:8; Rev. 21:4). For, to tell you truth, I love Him, because
I was by Him eased of my burden; and I am weary of my inward
sickness. I would fain be where I shall die no more, and with the
company that shall continually cry, "Holy, holy, holy."

Then said Charity to Christian, Have you a family? Are you a
married man?

CHR. I have a wife and four small children.[71]

CHAR. And why did you not bring them along with you?

CHR. Then Christian wept, and said, O how willingly would I have
done it! but they were all of them utterly averse to my going on

CHAR. But you should have talked to them, and have endeavoured to
have shown them the danger of being behind.

CHR. So I did; and told them also what God had shown to me of the
destruction of our city; "but I seemed to them as one that mocked,"
and they believed me not (Gen. 19:14).

CHAR. And did you pray to God that He would bless your counsel to

CHR. Yes, and that with much affection; for you must think that
my wife and poor children were very dear unto me.

CHAR. But did you tell them of your own sorrow, and fear of
destruction? for I suppose that destruction was visible enough to

CHR. Yes, over, and over, and over. They might also see my fears
in my countenance, in my tears, and also in my trembling under
the apprehension of the judgment that did hang over our heads;
but all was not sufficient to prevail with them to come with me.

CHAR. But what could they say for themselves, why they came not?

CHR. Why, my wife was afraid of losing this world, and my children
were given to the foolish delights of youth; so what by one thing,
and what by another, they left me to wander in this manner alone.

CHAR. But did you not, with your vain life, damp all that you by
words used by way of persuasion to bring them away with you?[72]

CHR. Indeed, I cannot commend my life; for I am conscious to
myself of many failings therein; I know also, that a man by his
conversation may soon overthrow, what by argument or persuasion
he doth labour to fasten upon others for their good. Yet this I
can say, I was very wary of giving them occasion, by any unseemly
action, to make them averse to going on pilgrimage.[73] Yea, for
this very thing, they would tell me I was too precise, and that
I denied myself of things, for their sakes, in which they saw
no evil. Nay, I think I may say, that if what they saw in me did
hinder them, it was my great tenderness in sinning against God,
or of doing any wrong to my neighbour.

CHAR. Indeed Cain hated his brother, "because his own works were
evil, and his brother's righteous" (1 John 3:12); and if thy wife
and children have been offended with thee for this, they thereby
show themselves to be implacable to good, and "thou hast delivered
thy soul from their blood" (Ezek. 3:19).

Now I saw in my dream, that thus they sat talking together until
supper was ready.[74] So when they had made ready, they sat down
to meat. Now the table was furnished "with fat things, and with
wine that was well refined": and all their talk at the table was
about the Lord of the hill; as, namely, about what He had done, and
wherefore He did what He did, and why He had builded that house.
And by what they said, I perceived that He had been a great warrior,
and had fought with and slain "him that had the power of death,"
but not without great danger to Himself, which made me love Him
the more[75] (Heb. 2:14, 15).

For, as they said, and as I believe (said Christian), He did it
with the loss of much blood; but that which put glory of grace into
all He did, was, that He did it out of pure love to His country.
And besides, there were some of them of the household that said
they had been and spoke with Him since He did die on the cross;
and they have attested that they had it from His own lips, that
He is such a lover of poor pilgrims, that the like is not to be
found from the east to the west.

They, moreover, gave an instance of what they affirmed, and that
was, He had stripped Himself of His glory, that He might do this
for the poor; and that they heard Him say and affirm, "that He
would not dwell in the mountain of Zion alone." They said, moreover,
that He had made many pilgrims princes, though by nature they were
beggars born, and their original had been the dunghill (1 Sam.
2:8; Psa. 113:7).

Thus they discoursed together till late at night; and after they
had committed themselves to their Lord for protection, they betook
themselves to rest: the Pilgrim they laid in a large upper chamber,
whose window opened toward the sun-rising; the name of the chamber
was Peace;[76] where he slept till break of day, and then he awoke
and sang[77]-

Where am I now? Is this the love and care Of Jesus for the men
that pilgrims are? Thus to provide! that I should be forgiven!
And dwell already the next door to Heaven!

So, in the morning, they all got up; and after some more discourse,
they told him that he should not depart till they had shown him
the rarities of that place. And first, they had him into the study,
where they showed him records of the greatest antiquity; in which,
as I remember my dream, they showed him first the pedigree of the
Lord of the hill, that He was the Son of the Ancient of Days, and
came by that eternal generation. Here also was more fully recorded
the acts that He had done, and the names of many hundreds that
He had taken into His service; and how He had placed them in such
habitations, that could neither by length of days, nor decays of
nature, be dissolved.

Then they read to him some of the worthy acts that some of His
servants had done: as, how they had "subdued kingdoms, wrought
righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions,
quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out
of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, and turned
to flight the armies of the aliens" (Heb. 11:33, 34).

They then read again in another part of the records of the house,
where it was showed how willing their Lord was to receive into His
favour any, even any, though they in time past had offered great
affronts to His person and proceedings. Here also were several
other histories of many other famous things, of all which Christian
had a view; as of things both ancient and modern; together with
prophecies and predictions of things that have their certain
accomplishment, both to the dread and amazement of enemies, and
the comfort and solace of pilgrims.

The next day they took him and had him into the armoury, where they
showed him all manner of furniture, which their Lord had provided
for pilgrims, as sword, shield, helmet, breastplate, all-prayer,
and shoes that would not wear out.[78] And there was here enough
of this to harness out as many men, for the service of their Lord,
as there be stars in the Heaven for multitude.[79]

They also showed him some of the engines with which some of his
servants had done wonderful things. They showed him Moses' rod;
the hammer and nail with which Jael slew Sisera; the pitchers,
trumpets, and lamps too, with which Gibeon put to flight the armies
of Midian. Then they showed him the ox's goad wherewith Shamgar
slew 600 men. They showed him, also, the jaw-bone with which Samson
did such mighty feats. They showed him, moreover, the sling and
stone with which David slew Goliath of Gath; and the sword, also,
with which their Lord will kill the Man of Sin, in the day that
he shall rise up to the prey. They showed him, besides, many
excellent things, with which Christian was much delighted. This
done, they went to their rest again.[80]

Then I saw in my dream, that, on the morrow, he got up to go
forward; but they desired him to stay till the next day also;
and then, said they, we will, if the day be clear, show you the
Delectable Mountains,[81] which, they said, would yet further add
to his comfort, because they were nearer the desired haven than
the place where at present he was; so he consented and staid. When
the morning was up, they had him to the top of the house, and bid
him look south; so he did; and, behold, at a great distance, he
saw a most pleasant mountainous country, beautified with woods,
vineyards, fruits of all sorts, flowers also, with springs and
fountains, very delectable to behold (Isa. 33:16, 17). Then he
asked the name of the country. They said it was Immanuel's Land;
and it is as common, said they, as this hill is, to and for all
the pilgrims. And when thou comest there, from thence, said they,
thou mayest see to the gate of the Celestial City, as the shepherds
that live there will make appear.

Now, he bethought himself of setting forward, and they were willing
he should, But first, said they, let us go again into the armoury.
So they did; and when they came there, they harnessed him from
head to foot with what was of proof, lest, perhaps, he should meet
with assaults in the way. He being, therefore, thus accoutred,
walketh out with his friends to the gate, and there he asked the
porter if he saw any pilgrims pass by. Then the porter answered,

CHR. Pray, did you know him? said he.

POR. I asked his name, and he told me it was Faithful.

CHR. O, said Christian, I know him; he is my townsman, my near
neighbour; he comes from the place where I was born. How far do
you think he may be before?

POR. He is got by this time below the hill.

CHR. Well, said Christian, good Porter, the Lord be with thee,
and add to all thy blessings much increase, for the kindness that
thou hast showed to me.

Then he began to go forward; but Discretion, Piety, Charity, and
Prudence, would accompany him down to the foot of the hill. So
they went on together, reiterating their former discourses, till
they came to go down the hill. Then, said Christian, as it was
difficult coming up, so, so far as I can see, it is dangerous
going down. Yes, said Prudence, so it is, for it is a hard matter
for a man to go down into the Valley of Humiliation, as thou art
now, and to catch no slip by the way; therefore, said they, are
we come out to accompany thee down the hill. So he began to go
down, but very warily; yet he caught a slip or two.[82] Then I
saw in my dream that these good companions, when Christian was
gone to the bottom of the hill, gave him a loaf of bread, a bottle
of wine, and a cluster of raisins; and then he went on his way.

But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was hard
put to it; for he had gone but a little way, before he espied a
foul fiend coming over the field to meet him; his name is Apollyon.
Then did Christian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his mind
whether to go back or to stand his ground. But he considered again
that he had no armour for his back; and, therefore, thought that
to turn the back to him might give him the greater advantage, with
ease to pierce him with his darts.[83] Therefore he resolved to
venture and stand his ground; for, thought he, had I no more in
mine eye than the saving of my life, it would be the best way to

So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the monster was hideous
to behold; he was clothed with scales, like a fish (and they are
his pride), he had wings like a dragon, feet like a bear, and out
of his belly came fire and smoke, and his mouth was as the mouth
of a lion.[84] When he was come up to Christian, he beheld him with
a disdainful countenance, and thus began to question with him.

APOL. Whence come you? and whither are you bound?

CHR. I am come from the City of Destruction, which is the place
of all evil, and am going to the City of Zion.

APOL. By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects, for all
that country is mine, and I am the prince and god of it. How is
it, then, that thou hast run away from thy king? Were it not that
I hope thou mayest do me more service, I would strike thee now,
at one blow, to the ground.

CHR. I was born, indeed, in your dominions, but your service was
hard, and your wages such as a man could not live on, "for the
wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23); therefore, when I was come
to years, I did as other considerate persons do, look out, if,
perhaps, I might mend myself.

APOL. There is no prince that will thus lightly lose his subjects,[85]
neither will I as yet lose thee; but since thou complainest of thy
service and wages, be content to go back; what our country will
afford, I do here promise to give thee.

CHR. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of princes;
and how can I, with fairness, go back with thee?

APOL. Thou hast done in this according to the proverb, "Changed a
bad for a worse"; but it is ordinary for those that have professed
themselves His servants, after a while to give Him the slip, and
return again to me. Do thou so too, and all shall be well.

CHR. I have given Him my faith, and sworn my allegiance to Him;
how, then, can I go back from this, and not be hanged as a traitor?

APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing to pass by
all, if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.

CHR. What I promised thee was in my nonage;[86] and, besides, I
count the Prince under whose banner now I stand is able to absolve
me; yea, and to pardon also what I did as to my compliance with
thee; and besides, O thou destroying Apollyon! to speak truth,
I like His service, His wages, His servants, His government, His
company, and country, better than thine; and, therefore, leave off
to persuade me further; I am His servant, and I will follow Him.

APOL. Consider again, when thou art in cool blood, what thou art
like to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest that,
for the most part, His servants come to an ill end, because they
are transgressors against me and my ways. How many of them have
been put to shameful deaths! and, besides, thou countest His service
better than mine, whereas He never came yet from the place where
He is to deliver any that served Him out of their hands; but as
for me, how many times, as all the world very well knows, have I
delivered, either by power or fraud, those that have faithfully
served me, from Him and His, though taken by them; and so I will
deliver thee.

CHR. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose to
try their love, whether they will cleave to Him to the end; and
as for the ill end thou sayest they come to, that is most glorious
in their account; for, for present deliverance, they do not much
expect it, for they stay for their glory, and then they shall have
it, when their Prince comes in His and the glory of the angels.

APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to Him;
and how dost thou think to receive wages of Him?

CHR. Wherein, O Apollyon! have I been unfaithful to Him?

APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast almost
choked in the Gulf of Despond; thou didst attempt wrong ways to
be rid of thy burden, whereas against thou shouldest have stayed
till thy Prince had taken it off; thou didst sinfully sleep, and
lose thy choice thing; thou wast, also, almost persuaded to go back,
at the sight of the lions; and when thou talkest of thy journey,
and of what thou hast heard and seen, thou art inwardly desirous
of vain-glory in all that thou sayest or doest.[87]

CHR. All this is true, and much more which thou has left out;
but the Prince, whom I serve and honour, is merciful, and ready
to forgive; but, besides, these infirmities possessed me in thy
country, for there I sucked them in; and I have groaned under
them, been sorry for them, and have obtained pardon of my Prince.[88]

APOL. Then Apollyon broke out into a grievous rage, saying, I am
an enemy to this Prince; I hate His person, His laws, and people;
I am come out on purpose to withstand thee.

CHR. Apollyon, beware what you do; for I am in the king's highway,
the way of holiness; therefore take heed to yourself.

APOL. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth of the
way, and said, I am void of fear in this matter: prepare thyself
to die; for I swear by my infernal den, that thou shalt go no
further; here will I spill thy soul.

And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast;[89] but
Christian had a shield in his hand, with which he caught it, and
so prevented the danger of that.

Then did Christian draw; for he saw it was time to bestir him: and
Apollyon as fast made at him, throwing darts as thick as hail; by
the which, notwithstanding all that Christian could do to avoid
it, Apollyon wounded him in his head, his hand, and foot. This
made Christian give a little back; Apollyon, therefore, followed
his work amain, and Christian again took courage, and resisted
as manfully as he could. This sore combat lasted for above half
a day, even till Christian was almost quite spent; for you must
know, that Christian, by reason of his wounds, must needs grow
weaker and weaker.

Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, began to gather up close
to Christian, and wrestling with him, gave him a dreadful fall;
and with that, Christian's sword flew out of his hand. Then said
Apollyon, I am sure of thee now.[90] And with that he had almost
pressed him to death; so that Christian began to despair of life:
but as God would have it, while Apollyon was fetching of his last
blow, thereby to make a full end of this good man, Christian nimbly
stretched out his hand for his sword, and caught it, saying,
"Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy: when I fall, I shall arise"
(Micah. 7:8); and with that gave him a deadly thrust, which made
him give back, as one that had received his mortal wound. Christian
perceiving that, made at him again, saying, "Nay, in all these
things we are more than conquerors, through Him that loved us"
(Rom. 8:37). And with that Apollyon spread forth his dragon's
wings, and sped him away, that Christian for a season[91] saw him
no more[92] (James 4:7).

In this combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen and heard as
I did, what yelling and hideous roaring Apollyon made all the time
of the fight-he spake like a dragon; and, on the other side, what
sighs and groans burst from Christian's heart. I never saw him all
the while give so much as one pleasant look, till he perceived he
had wounded Apollyon with his two-edged sword; then, indeed, he
did smile, and look upward; but it was the most dreadful sight
that ever I saw.[93]

So when the battle was over, Christian said, "I will here give
thanks to Him that delivered me out of the mouth of the lion, to
Him that did help me against Apollyon." And so he did, saying-

Great Beelzebub, the captain of this fiend, Design'd my ruin;
therefore to this end He sent him harness'd out; and he with rage,
That hellish was, did fiercely me engage. But blessed Michael helped
me, and I, By dint of sword, did quickly make him fly. Therefore
to him let me give lasting praise, And thank and bless his holy
name always.

Then there came to him a hand, with some of the leaves of the tree
of life, the which Christian took, and applied to the wounds that
he had received in the battle, and was healed immediately.[94]
He also sat down in that place to eat bread, and to drink of the
bottle that was given him a little before; so being refreshed,
he addressed himself to his journey, with his sword drawn in his
hand; for he said, I know not but some other enemy may be at hand.
But he met with no other affront from Apollyon quite through this

Now, at the end of this valley, was another, The Valley of the
Shadow of Death. and Christian must needs go through it, because
the way to the Celestial City lay through the midst of it. Now
this valley is a very solitary place. The prophet Jeremiah thus
describes it: "A wilderness, a land of deserts, and of pits, a
land of drought, and of the shadow of death, a land that no man"
(but a Christian) "passed through, and where no man dwelt" (Jer.

Now here Christian was worse put to it than in his fight with
Apollyon; as by the sequel you shall see.[95]

I saw then in my dream, that when Christian was got to the borders
of the Shadow of Death, there met him two men, children of them
that brought up an evil report of the good land (Num. 13), making
haste to go back; to whom Christian spake as follows-

CHR. Whither are you going?

MEN. They said, Back! back! and we would have you to do so too,
if either life or peace is prized by you.

CHR. Why? what's the matter? said Christian.

MEN. Matter! said they; we were going that way as you are going,
and went as far as we durst; and indeed we were almost past coming
back; for had we gone a little further, we had not been here to
bring the news to thee.

CHR. But what have you met with? said Christian.

MEN. Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of Death; but
that, by good hap, we looked before us, and saw the danger before
we came to it (Psa. 44:19; 107:10).

CHR. But what have you seen? said Christian.

MEN. Seen! Why, the valley itself, which is as dark as pitch; we
also saw there the hobgoblins, satyrs, and dragons of the pit; we
heard also in that Valley a continual howling and yelling, as of
a people under unutterable misery, who there sat bound in affliction
and irons; and over that Valley hangs the discouraging clouds of
confusion. Death also doth always spread his wings over it. In a
word, it is every whit dreadful, being utterly without order (Job
3:5; 10:26).

CHR. Then said Christian, I perceive not yet, by what you have
said, but that this is my way to the desired haven[96] (Jer. 2:6).

MEN. Be it thy way; we will not choose it for ours. So they parted,
and Christian went on his way, but still with his sword drawn in
his hand; for fear lest he should be assaulted.

I saw then in my dream so far as this valley reached, there was
on the right hand a very deep ditch: that ditch is it into which
the blind have led the blind in all ages, and have both there
miserably perished[97] (Psa. 69:14, 15). Again, behold, on the
left hand, there was a very dangerous quag, into which, if even
a good man falls, he can find no bottom for his foot to stand on.
Into that quag king David once did fall, and had no doubt therein
been smothered, had not HE that is able plucked him out.

The pathway was here also exceeding narrow, and therefore good
Christian was the more put to it; for when he sought, in the dark,
to shun the ditch on the one hand, he was ready to tip over into
the mire on the other; also when he sought to escape the mire,
without great carefulness he would be ready to fall into the ditch.
Thus he went on, and I heard him here sigh bitterly; for besides
the dangers mentioned above, the pathway was here so dark, that
ofttimes, when he lift up his foot to set forward, he knew not
where, or upon what he should set it next.

About the midst of this valley, I perceived the mouth of hell to
be, and it stood also hard by the way-side. Now, thought Christian,
what shall I do? And ever and anon the flame and smoke would come
out in such abundance, with sparks and hideous noises (things that
cared not for Christian's sword, as did Apollyon before), that
he was forced to put up his sword, and betake himself to another
weapon, called All-prayer (Eph. 4:18). So he cried in my hearing,
"O Lord, I beseech Thee, deliver my soul!" (Psa. 116:4). Thus
he went on a great while, yet still the flames would be reaching
towards him.[98] Also be heard doleful voices, and rushings to and
fro, so that sometimes he thought he should be torn in pieces, or
trodden down like mire in the streets. This frightful sight was
seen, and these dreadful noises were heard by him for several miles
together. And, coming to a place, where be thought he heard a
company of fiends coming forward to meet him, he stopped and began
to muse what he had best to do. Sometimes he had half a thought
to go back; then again he thought he might be half way through
the valley; he remembered also how be had already vanquished many
a danger, and that the danger of going back might be much more
than for to go forward; so he resolved to go on. Yet the fiends
seemed to come nearer and nearer; but when they were come even
almost at him, he cried out with a most vehement voice, "I will
walk in the strength of the Lord God"; so they gave back, and came
no further.

One thing I would not let slip; I took notice that now poor
Christian was so confounded, that he did not know his own voice;
and thus I perceived it. Just when he was come over against the
mouth of the burning pit, one of the wicked ones got behind him,
and stept up softly to him, and, whisperingly, suggested many
grievous blasphemies to him, which he verily thought had proceeded
from his own mind. This put Christian more to it than anything
that he met with before; even to think that he should now blaspheme
Him that he loved so much before; yet, if he could have helped it,
he would not have done it; but he had not the discretion either
to stop his ears, or to know from whence these blasphemies came.[99]

When Christian had traveled in this disconsolate condition some
considerable time, he thought he heard the voice of a man, as
going before him, saying, "Though I walk through the valley of
the shadow of death, I will fear no evil; for Thou art with me"
(Psa. 23:4).[100]

Then he was glad, and that for these reasons:

First, Because he gathered from thence, that some who feared God,
were in this valley as well as himself.

Secondly, For that he perceived God was with them, though in that
dark and dismal state; and why not, thought he, with me? though,
by reason of the impediment that attends this place, I cannot
perceive it (Job. 9:11).

Thirdly, For that he hoped, could he overtake them, to have company
by and by. So he went on, and called to him that was before; but
he knew not what to answer; for that he also thought himself to be
alone. And by and by the day broke; then said Christian, He hath
turned "the shadow of death into the morning" (Amos 5:8).[101]

Now morning being come, he looked back, not out of desire to
return, but to see, by the light of the day, what hazards he had
gone through in the dark. So he saw more perfectly the ditch that
was on the one hand, and the quag that was on the other; also
how narrow the way was which led betwixt them both; also now he
saw the hobgoblins, and satyrs, and dragons of the pit, but all
afar off (for after break of day, they came not nigh); yet they
were discovered to him, according to that which is written, "He
discovereth deep things out of darkness, and bringeth out to light
the shadow of death" (Job 12:22).

Now was Christian much affected with his deliverance from all the
dangers of his solitary way; which dangers, though he feared them
more before, yet he saw them more clearly now, because the light
of the day made them conspicuous to him. And about this time the
sun was rising, and this was another mercy to Christian; for you
must note, that though the first part of the Valley of the Shadow
of Death was dangerous, yet this second part which he was yet to
go, was, if possible, far more dangerous:[102] for from the place
where he now stood, even to the end of the valley, the way was
all along set so full of snares, traps, gins, and nets here, and
so full of pits, pitfalls, deep holes, and shelvings down there,
that had it now been dark, as it were when he came the first part
of the way, had he had a thousand souls, they had in reason been
cast away;[103] but, as I said, just now the sun was rising. Then
said he, "His candle shineth upon my head, and by His light I walk
through darkness" (Job 29:3).

In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley. Now I
saw in my dream, that at the end of this valley lay blood, bones,
ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even of pilgrims that had gone
this way formerly; and while I was musing what should be the
reason, I espied a little before me a cave, where two giants, POPE
and PAGAN, dwelt in old time; by whose power and tyranny the men
whose bones, blood, ashes, &c., lay there, were cruelly put to
death.[104] But by this place Christian went without much danger,
whereat I somewhat wondered; but I have learnt since, that PAGAN
has been dead many a day; and as for the other, though he be yet
alive, he is, by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd brushes
that he met with in his younger days, grown so crazy and stiff in
his joints, that he can now do little more than sit in his cave's
mouth, grinning at pilgrims as they go by, and biting his nails
because he cannot come at them.[105]

So I saw that Christian went on his way; yet, at the sight of the
Old Man that sat in the mouth of the cave, he could not tell what
to think, especially because he spake to him, though he could not
go after him; saying, "You will never mend, till more of you be
burned." But he held his peace, and set a good face on it, and so
went by and catched no hurt.[106] Then sang Christian,

O world of wonders! (I can say no less) That I should be preserv'd
in that distress That I have met with here! O blessed be That
hand that from it hath deliver'd me! Dangers in darkness, devils,
hell, and sin, Did compass me, while I this vale was in: Yea,
snares and pits, and traps, and nets, did lie My path about, that
worthless, silly I Might have been catch'd, entangled, and cast
down; But since I live, let JESUS wear the crown.

Now, as Christian went on his way, he came to a little ascent,
which was cast up on purpose, that pilgrims might see before them.
Up there, therefore, Christian went; and looking forward, he saw
Faithful before him, upon his journey. Then said Christian aloud,
"Ho! ho! Soho! stay, and I will be your companion."[107] At that,
Faithful looked behind him; to whom Christian cried again, "Stay,
stay, till I come up to you." But Faithful answered, "No, I am
upon my life, and the avenger of blood is behind me."

At this, Christian was somewhat moved, and putting to all his strength,
he quickly takes got up with Faithful, and did also overrun him;
so the last was first. Then did Christian vain-gloriously smile,
because he had gotten the start of his brother;[108] but not
taking good heed to his feet, he suddenly stumbled and fell, and
could not rise again, until Faithful came up to help him.

Then I saw in my dream, they went very lovingly on together, and
had sweet discourse of all things that had happened to them in
their pilgrimage; and thus Christian began.

CHR. My honoured and well-beloved brother, Faithful, I am glad that
I have overtaken you; and that God has so tempered our spirits,
that we can walk as companions in this so pleasant a path.

FAITH. I had thought, dear friend, to have had your company quite
from our town; but you did get the start of me, wherefore I was
forced to come thus much of the way alone.

CHR. How long did you stay in the City of Destruction, before you
set out after me on your pilgrimage

FAITH. Till I could stay no longer; for there was great talk
presently after you were gone out, that our city would, in short
time, with fire from Heaven, be burned down to the ground.

CHR. What! did your neighbours talk so?

FAITH. Yes, it was for a while in everybody's mouth.

CHR. What! and did no more of them but you come out to escape the

FAITH. Though there were, as I said, a great talk thereabout, yet
I do not think they did firmly believe it. For in the heat of the
discourse, I heard some of them deridingly speak of you, and of
your desperate journey (for so they called this your pilgrimage),
but I did believe, and do still, that the end of our city will be
with fire and brimstone from above; and therefore I have made my

CHR. Did you hear no talk of neighbour Pliable?

FAITH. Yes, Christian, I heard that he followed you till he came
at the Slough of Despond, where, as some said, he fell in; but he
would not be known to have so done; but I am sure he was soundly
bedabbled with that kind of dirt.

CHR. And what said the neighbours to him?

FAITH. He hath, since his going back, been had greatly in derision,
and that among all sorts of people; some do mock and despise him;
and scarce will any set him on work. He is now seven times worse
than if he had never gone out of the City.[109]

CHR. But why should they be so set against him, since they also
despise the way that he forsook?

FAITH. O! they say, Hang him, he is a turn-coat; he was not true
to his profession. I think God has stirred up even his enemies
to hiss at him, and make him a proverb, because he hath forsaken
the way (Jer. 29:18, 19).

CHR. Had you no talk with him before you came out?

FAITH. I met him once in the streets, but be leered away on the
other side, as one ashamed of what he had done; so I spake not to

CHR. Well, at my first setting out, I had hopes of that man; but
now I fear he will perish in the overthrow of the city; For it is
happened to him according to the true proverb, "The dog is turned
to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed, to her
wallowing in the mire" (2 Peter 2:22).

FAITH. These are my fears of him too; but who can hinder that
which will be?

CHR. Well, neighbour Faithful, said Christian, let us leave him,
and talk of things that more immediately concern ourselves. Tell
me now, what you have met with in the way as you came; for I know
you have met with some things, or else it may be writ for a wonder.

FAITH. I escaped the Slough that I perceived you fell into, and
got up to the gate without that danger; only I met with one whose
name was Wanton, who had like to have done me a mischief.

CHR. It was well you escaped her net; Joseph was hard put to it by
her, and he escaped her as you did; but it had like to have cost
him his life (Gen. 39:11-13). But what did she do to you?

FAITH. You cannot think, but that you know something, what a
flattering tongue she had; she lay at me hard to turn aside with
her, promising me all manner of content.

CHR. Nay, she did not promise you the content of a good conscience.

FAITH. You know what I mean; all carnal and fleshly content.

CHR. Thank God you have escaped her; "the abhorred of the Lord
shall fall into her ditch" (Pro. 22:14).

FAITH. Nay, I know not whether I did wholly escape her or no.

CHR. Why, I trow[110] you did not consent to her desires?

FAITH. No, not to defile myself; for I remembered an old writing
that I had seen, which said, "Her steps take hold on hell" (Prov.
5:5). So I shut mine eyes, because I would not be bewitched with
her looks (Job 31:1). Then she railed on me, and I went my way.[111]

CHR. Did you meet with no other assault as you came?

FAITH. When I came to the foot of the hill called Difficulty,
I met with a very aged man, who asked me what I was, and whither
bound. I told him that I am a pilgrim, going to the Celestial
City. Then said the old man, Thou lookest like an honest fellow;
wilt thou be content to dwell with me for the wages that I shall
give thee? Then I asked him his name, and where he dwelt. He said
his name was Adam the First, and that he dwelt in the town of
Deceit (Eph. 4:22). I asked him then, what was his work, and what
the wages that he would give. He told me, that his work was many
delights; and his wages, that I should be his heir at last.
I further asked him, what house he kept, and what other servants
he had. So he told me, that his house was maintained with all the
dainties in the world; and that his servants were those of his
own begetting. Then I asked if he had any children. He said that
he had but three daughters; the Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the
Eyes, and the Pride of Life, and that I should marry them all[112]
if I would (1 John 2:16). Then I asked how long time he would
have me live with him? And he told me, As long as he lived himself.

CHR. Well, and what conclusion came the old man and you to, at

FAITH. Why, at first, I found myself somewhat inclinable to go
with the man, for I thought he spake very fair; but looking in
his forehead, as I talked with him, I saw there written, "Put off
the old man with his deeds."

CHR. And how then?

FAITH. Then it came burning hot into my mind, whatever he said,
and however he flattered, when he got me home to his house, he
would sell me for a slave.[113] So I bid him forbear to talk, for
I would not come near the door of his house. Then he reviled me,
and told me, that he would send such a one after me, that should
make my way bitter to my soul. So I turned to go away from him;
but just as I turned myself to go thence, I felt him take hold of
my flesh, and give me such a deadly twitch back, that I thought
he had pulled part of me after himself. This made me cry, "O
wretched man!" (Rom. 7:24). So I went on my way up the hill.

Now when I had got about half way up, I looked behind, and saw one
coming after me, swift as the wind; so he overtook me just about
the place where the settle stands.

CHR. Just there, said Christian, did I sit down to rest me; but
being overcome with sleep, I there lost this roll out of my bosom

FAITH. But, good brother, hear me out. So soon as the man overtook
me, he was but a word and a blow, for down he knocked me, and laid
me for dead.[114] But when I was a little come to myself again, I
asked him wherefore he served me so. He said, because of my secret
inclining to Adam the First: and with that he struck me another
deadly blow on the breast, and beat me down backward; so I lay
at his foot as dead as before. So, when I came to myself again,
I cried him mercy; but he said, I know not how to show mercy; and
with that knocked me down again.[115] He had doubtless made an
end of me, but that One came by, and bid him forbear.

CHR. Who was that that bid him forbear.

FAITH. I did not know Him at first, but as He went by, I perceived
the holes in His hands, and in His side; then I concluded that He
was our Lord. So I went up the hill.

CHR. That man that overtook you was Moses. He spareth none, neither
knoweth he how to show mercy to those that transgress his law.

FAITH. I know it very well; it was not the first time that he has
met with me. It was he that came to me when I dwelt securely at
home, and that told me he would burn my house over my head, if I
stayed there.

CHR. But did you not see the house that stood there on the top of
the hill, on the side of which Moses met you?

FAITH. Yes, and the lions too, before I came at it; but for the
lions, I think they were asleep; for it was about noon; and because
I had so much of the day before me, I passed by the porter, and
came down the hill.

CHR. He told me indeed, that he saw you go by, but I wish you
had called at the house, for they would have showed you so many
rarities, that you would scarce have forgot them to the day of
your death. But pray tell me, Did you meet nobody in the Valley
of Humility?

FAITH. Yes, I met with one Discontent, who would willingly have
persuaded me to go back again with him; his reason was, for that
the valley was altogether without honour. He told me, moreover,
that there to go was the way to disobey all my friends, as Pride,
Arrogancy, Self-conceit, Worldly-glory, with others, who, he knew,
as he said, would be very much offended, if I made such a fool of
myself as to wade through this valley.

CHR. Well, and how did you answer him?

FAITH. I told him that although all these that he named might
claim kindred of me, and that rightly, for indeed they were my
relations according to the flesh, yet since I became a pilgrim,
they have disowned me, as I also have rejected them; and therefore
they were to me now no more than if they had never been of my

I told him, moreover, that as to this valley he had quite misrepresented
the thing; "for before honour is humility; and a haughty spirit
before a fall." Therefore, said I, I had rather go through this
valley to the honour that was so accounted by the wisest, than
choose that which he esteemed most worthy our affections.

CHR. Met you with nothing else in that valley?

FAITH. Yes, I met with Shame; but of all the men that I met with
in my pilgrimage, he, I think, bears the wrong name. The others
would be said nay, after a little argumentation, and somewhat
else; but this bold-faced Shame would never have done.[116]

CHR. Why, what did he say to you?

FAITH. What! why, he objected against religion itself; he said it
was a pitiful, low, sneaking business for a man to mind religion;
he said that a tender conscience was an unmanly thing; and that
for a man to watch over his words and ways, so as to tie up himself
from that hectoring liberty, that the brave spirits of the times
accustom themselves unto, would make him the ridicule of the times.
He objected also, that but few of the mighty, rich, or wise, were
ever of my opinion (1 Cor. 1:26; 3:18; Phil. 3:7, 8); nor any of
them neither (John 7:48), before they were persuaded to be fools,
and to be of a voluntary fondness, to venture the loss of all, for
nobody knows what. He moreover objected the base and low estate
and condition of those that were chiefly the pilgrims, of the
times in which they lived; also their ignorance, and want of
understanding in all natural science. Yea, he did hold me to
it at that rate also, about a great many more things than here I
relate; as, that it was a shame to sit whining and mourning under
a sermon, and a shame to come sighing and groaning home; that it
was a shame to ask my neighbour forgiveness for petty faults, or
to make restitution where I have taken from any. He said also,
that religion made a man grow strange to the great, because of a
few vices, which he called by finer names; and made him own and
respect the base, because of the same religious fraternity. And
is not this, said he, a shame?[117]

CHR. And what did you say to him?

FAITH. Say! I could not tell what to say at the first. Yea, he
put me so to it, that my blood came up in my face; even this Shame
fetched it up, and had almost beat me quite off. But, at last, I
began to consider, that "that which is highly esteemed among men,
is had in abomination with God" (Luke 16:15). And I thought again,
this Shame tells me what men are; but it tells me nothing what
God, or the Word of God is. And I thought, moreover, that at the
day of doom, we shall not be doomed to death or life, according
to the hectoring spirits of the world, but according to the wisdom
and law of the Highest. Therefore, thought I, what God says is
best, indeed is best, though all the men in the world are against
it. Seeing, then, that God prefers His religion; seeing God prefers
a tender conscience; seeing they that make themselves fools for the
kingdom of Heaven are wisest; and that the poor man that loveth
Christ is richer than the greatest man in the world that hates
Him; Shame, depart, thou art an enemy to my salvation. Shall I
entertain thee against my sovereign Lord? How then shall I look
Him in the face at His coming? Should I now be ashamed of His ways
and servants, how can I expect the blessing? (Mark 8:38). But,
indeed, this Shame was a bold villain; I could scarce shake him
out of my company; yea, he would be haunting of me, and continually
whispering me in the ear, with some one or other of the infirmities
that attend religion; but at last I told him it was but in vain
to attempt further in this business; for those things that he
disdained, in those did I see most glory; and so at last I got
past this importunate one. And when I had shaken him off, then I
began to sing-

The trials that those men do meet withal, That are obedient to the
heavenly call, Are manifold, and suited to the flesh, And come,
and come, and come again afresh; That now, or sometime else, we
by them may Be taken, overcome, and cast away. O let the pilgrims,
let the pilgrims, then, Be vigilant, and quit themselves like men.

CHR. I am glad, my brother, that thou didst withstand this villain
so bravely; for of all, as thou sayest, I think he has the wrong
name; for he is so bold as to follow us in the streets, and to
attempt to put us to shame before all men; that is, to make us
ashamed of that which is good; but if he were not himself audacious,
he would never attempt to do as he does. But let us still resist
him; for notwithstanding all his bravadoes, he promoteth the fool,
and none else. "The wise shall inherit glory," said Solomon, "but
shame shall be the promotion of fools" (Prov. 3:35).

FAITH. I think we must cry to Him for help against Shame, who
would have us to be valiant for the truth upon the earth.

CHR. You say true; but did you meet nobody else in that valley?

FAITH. No, not I, for I had sunshine all the rest of the way through
that, and also through the Valley of the Shadow of Death.[118]

CHR. It was well for you. I am sure it fared far otherwise with
me; I had for a long season, as soon almost as I entered into that
valley, a dreadful combat with that foul fiend Apollyon; yea, I
thought verily he would have killed me, especially when he got me
down and crushed me under him, as if he would have crushed me to
pieces; for as he threw me, my sword flew out of my hand; nay, he
told me he was sure of me; but I cried to God, and He heard me,
and delivered me out of all my troubles. Then I entered into the
Valley of the Shadow of Death, and had no light for almost half
the way through it.[119] I thought I should have been killed there,
over and over; but at last day broke, and the sun rose, and I went
through that which was behind with far more ease and quiet.

Moreover, I saw in my dream, that as they went on, Faithful, as he
chanced to look on one side, saw a man whose name is Talkative,[120]
walking at a distance besides them; for in this place, there was
room enough for them all to walk. He was a tall man, and something
more comely at a distance than at hand. To this man Faithful
addressed himself in this manner.

FAITH. Friend, whither away? Are you going to the heavenly country?

TALK. I am going to the same place.

FAITH. That is well; then I hope we may have your good company.

TALK. With a very good will, will I be your companion.

FAITH. Come on, then, and let us go together, and let us spend
our time in discoursing of things that are profitable.

TALK. To talk of things that are good, to me is very acceptable,
with you, or with any other; and I am glad that I have met with
those that incline to so good a work; for, to speak the truth,
there are but few that care thus to spend their time (as they are
in their travels), but choose much rather to be speaking of things
to no profit; and this hath been a trouble to me.

FAITH. That is indeed a thing to be lamented; for what things so
worthy of the use of the tongue and mouth of men on earth, as are
the things of the God of Heaven?

TALK. I like you wonderful well, for your sayings are full of
conviction; and I will add, what thing is so pleasant, and what
so profitable, as to talk of the things of God? What things so
pleasant (that is, if a man hath any delight in things that are
wonderful)? For instance, if a man doth delight to talk of the
history or the mystery of things; or if a man doth love to talk of
miracles, wonders, or signs, where shall he find things recorded
so delightful, and so sweetly penned, as in the Holy Scripture?

FAITH. That is true; but to be profited by such things in our talk
should be that which we design.

TALK. That is it that I said; for to talk of such things is most
profitable; for by so doing, a man may get knowledge of many
things; as of the vanity of earthly things, and the benefit of
things above. Thus, in general, but more particularly, by this,
a man may learn the necessity of the new birth; the insufficiency
of our works; the need of Christ's righteousness, &c. Besides, by
this a man may learn, by talk, what it is to repent, to believe,
to pray, to suffer, or the like; by this also a man may learn what
are the great promises and consolations of the Gospel, to his own
comfort. Further, by this a man may learn to refute false opinions,
to vindicate the truth, and also to instruct the ignorant.[121]

FAITH. All this is true, and glad am I to hear these things from

TALK. Alas! the want of this is the cause why so few understand
the need of faith, and the necessity of a work of grace in their
soul, in order to eternal life; but ignorantly live in the works
of the law, by which a man can by no means obtain the kingdom of

FAITH. But, by your leave, heavenly knowledge of these is the
gift of God; no man attaineth to them by human industry, or only
by the talk of them.

TALK. All this I know very well. For a man can receive nothing,
except it be given him from Heaven; all is of grace, not of works. I
could give you a hundred scriptures for the confirmation of this.

FAITH. Well, then, said Faithful, what is that one thing that we
shall at this time found our discourse upon?

TALK. What you will. I will talk of things heavenly, or things
earthly; things moral, or things evangelical; things sacred, or
things profane; things past, or things to come; things foreign, or
things at home; things more essential, or things circumstantial;
provided that all be done to our profit.

FAITH. Now did Faithful begin to wonder; and stepping to Christian
(for he walked all this while by himself), he said to him (but
softly), What a brave companion have we got! Surely this man will
make a very excellent pilgrim.

CHR. At this Christian modestly smiled, and said, This man, with
whom you are so taken, will beguile, with that tongue of his, 20
of them that know him not.

FAITH. Do you know him, then?

CHR. Know him! Yes, better than he knows himself.

FAITH. Pray, what is he?

CHR. His name is Talkative; he dwelleth in our town; I wonder that
you should be a stranger to him, only I consider that our town is

FAITH. Whose son is he? And whereabout does he dwell?

CHR. He is the son of one Say-well; he dwelt in Prating Row; and
he is known of all that are acquainted with him, by the name of
Talkative in Prating Row; and notwithstanding his fine tongue, he
is but a sorry fellow.[122]

FAITH. Well, he seems to be a very pretty man.

CHR. That is, to them who have not thorough acquaintance with him;
for he is best abroad; near home, he is ugly enough. Your saying
that he is a pretty man, brings to my mind what I have observed in
the work of the painter, whose pictures show best at a distance,
but, very near, more unpleasing.

FAITH. But I am ready to think you do but jest, because you smiled.

CHR. God forbid that I should jest (although I smiled) in this
matter, or that I should accuse any falsely! I will give you
a further discovery of him. This man is for any company, and for
any talk; as he talketh now with you, so will he talk when he
is on the ale-bench; and the more drink he hath in his crown, the
more of these things he hath in his mouth; religion hath no place
in his heart, or house, or conversation; all he hath, lieth in
his tongue, and his religion is to make a noise therewith. FAITH.
Say you so! then am I in this man greatly deceived.[123]

CHR. Deceived! you may be sure of it; remember the proverb, "They
say, and do not" (Matt. 23:3). But the "kingdom of God is not
in word, but in power" (1 Cor. 4:20). He talketh of prayer, of
repentance, of faith, and of the new birth; but he knows but only
to talk of them. I have been in his family, and have observed
him both at home and abroad; and I know what I say of him is the
truth. His house is as empty of religion, as the white of an egg
is of savour. There is there, neither prayer, nor sign of repentance
for sin; yea, the brute in his kind serves God far better than
he. He is the very stain, reproach, and shame of religion, to all
that know him; it can hardly have a good word in all that end of
the town where he dwells, through him (Rom. 2:24, 25). Thus say the
common people that know him, A saint abroad, and a devil at home.
His poor family finds it so, he is such a churl, such a railer
at, and so unreasonable with his servants, that they neither know
how to do for, or speak to him. Men that have any dealings with
him, say, it is better to deal with a Turk than with him; for fairer
dealing they shall have at their hands. This Talkative (if it be
possible) will go beyond them, defraud, beguile, and over-reach
them. Besides, he brings up his sons to follow his steps; and
if he findeth in any of them a foolish timorousness (for so he
calls the first appearance of a tender conscience), he calls them
fools, and blockheads, and by no means will employ them in much,
or speak to their commendations before others. For my part, I
am of opinion, that he has, by his wicked life, caused many to
stumble and fall; and will be, if God prevent not, the ruin of
many more.[124]

FAITH. Well, my brother, I am bound to believe you; not only
because you say you know him, but also because, like a Christian,
you make your reports of men. For I cannot think that you speak
these things of ill-will, but because it is even so as you say.

CHR. Had I known him no more than you, I might perhaps have thought
of him as, at the first, you did; yea, had he received this report
at their hands only that are enemies to religion, I should have
thought it had been a slander-a lot that often falls from bad
men's mouths upon good men's names and professions; but all these
things, yea, and a great many more as bad, of my own knowledge,
I can prove him guilty of. Besides, good men are ashamed of him;
they can neither call him brother, nor friend; the very naming
of him among them makes them blush, if they know him.

FAITH. Well, I see that saying and doing are two things, and
hereafter I shall better observe this distinction.

CHR. They are two things indeed, and are as diverse as are the
soul and the body; for as the body without the soul is but
a dead carcass, so saying, if it be alone, is but a dead carcass
also. The soul of religion is the practical part: "Pure religion
and undefiled, before God and the Father, is this, to visit the
fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself
unspotted from the world" (James 1:27; see ver. 22-26). This
Talkative is not aware of; he thinks that hearing and saying will
make a good Christian, and thus he deceiveth his own soul. Hearing
is but as the sowing of the seed; talking is not sufficient to
prove that fruit is indeed in the heart and life; and let us assure
ourselves, that at the day of doom men shall be judged according
to their fruits (Matt. 13:25). It will not be said then, Did you
believe? but, Were you doers, or talkers only? and accordingly shall
they be judged. The end of the world is compared to our harvest;
and you know men at harvest regard nothing but fruit. Not that
anything can be accepted that is not of faith, but I speak this
to show you how insignificant the profession of Talkative will be
at that day.

FAITH. This brings to my mind that of Moses, by which he describeth
the beast that is clean (Lev. 11; Deut. 14). He is such a one that
parteth the hoof and cheweth the cud; not that parteth the hoof
only, or that cheweth the cud only. The hare cheweth the cud, but
yet is unclean, because be parteth not the hoof. And this truly
resembleth Talkative, he cheweth the cud, he seeketh knowledge, he
cheweth upon the word; but he divideth not the hoof, he parteth
not with the way of sinners; but, as the hare, he retaineth the
foot of a dog or bear, and therefore he is unclean.[125]

CHR. You have spoken, for aught I know, the true Gospel sense of
those texts. And I will add another thing: Paul calleth some men,
yea, and those great talkers too, "sounding brass, and tinkling
cymbals," that is, as he expounds them in another place, "things
without life, giving sound" (1 Cor. 13:1-3; 14:7). Things without
life, that is, without the true faith and grace of the Gospel;
and consequently, things that shall never be placed in the kingdom
of Heaven among those that are the children of life; though their
sound, by their talk, be as if it were the tongue or voice of an

FAITH. Well, I was not so fond of his company at first, but I am
as sick of it now. What shall we do to be rid of him?

CHR. Take my advice, and do as I bid you, and you shall find that
he will soon be sick of your company too, except God shall touch
his heart, and turn it.

FAITH. What would you have me to do?

CHR. Why, go to him, and enter into some serious discourse about
the power of religion; and ask him plainly (when he has approved
of it, for that he will) whether this thing be set up in his heart,
house, or conversation?[126]

FAITH. Then Faithful stepped forward again, and said to Talkative,
Come, what cheer? How is it now?

TALK. Thank you, well. I thought we should have had a great deal
of talk by this time.

FAITH. Well, if you will, we will fall to it now; and since you
left it with me to state the question, let it be this: How doth
the saving grace of God discover itself, when it is in the heart
of man?

TALK. I perceive then, that our talk must be about the power of
things. Well, it is a very good question, and I shall be willing
to answer you. And take my answer in brief, thus: First, Where
the grace of work of God is in the heart, it causeth there a great
outcry against sin. Secondly-

FAITH. Nay, hold, let us consider of one at once. I think you
should rather say, It shows itself by inclining the soul to abhor
its sin.

TALK. Why, what difference is there between crying out against,
and abhorring of sin?

FAITH. O! a great deal. A man may cry out against sin of policy,
but he cannot abhor it, but by virtue of a godly antipathy against
it. I have heard many cry out against sin in the pulpit, who yet
can abide it well enough in the heart, house, and conversation.
Joseph's mistress cried out with a loud voice, as if she had been
very holy; but she would willingly, notwithstanding that, have
committed uncleanness with him (Gen. 39:15). Some cry out against
sin, even as the mother cries out against her child in her lap,
when she calleth it slut and naughty girl, and then falls to
hugging and kissing it.[127]

TALK. You lie at the catch, I perceive.[128]

FAITH. No, not I; I am only for setting things right. But what is
the second thing whereby you would prove a discovery of a work of
grace in the heart?

TALK. Great knowledge of Gospel mysteries.

FAITH. This sign should have been first; but first or last, it
is also false; for knowledge, great knowledge, may be obtained in
the mysteries of the Gospel, and yet no work of grace in the soul
(1 Cor. 13). Yea, if a man have all knowledge, he may yet be
nothing, and so consequently be no child of God. When Christ said,
"Do you know all these things?" and the disciples had answered,
Yes; He addeth, "Blessed are ye if ye do them." He doth not lay
the blessing in the knowing of them, but in the doing of them.
For there is a knowledge that is not attended with doing: "He
that knoweth his master's will, and doeth it not." A man may know
like an angel, and yet be no Christian, therefore your sign of
it is not true. Indeed, to know is a thing that pleaseth talkers
and boasters; but to do is that which pleaseth God. Not that the
heart can be good without knowledge; for without that the heart
is naught. There is, therefore, knowledge and knowledge. Knowledge
that resteth in the bare speculation of things; and knowledge
that is accompanied with the grace of faith and love; which puts
a man upon doing even the will of God from the heart: the first
of these will serve the talker; but without the other the true
Christian is not content. "Give me understanding, and I shall keep
Thy law; yea, I shall observe it with my whole heart" (Psa. 119:34).

TALK. You lie at the catch again; this is not for edification.[129]

FAITH. Well, if you please, propound another sign how this work
of grace discovereth itself where it is.

TALK. Not I, for I see we shall not agree.

FAITH. Well, if you will not, will you give me leave to do it?

TALK. You may use your liberty.

FAITH. A work of grace in the soul discovereth itself, either to
him that hath it, or to standers by.

To him that hath it thus: It gives him conviction of sin, especially
of the defilement of his nature and the sin of unbelief (for the
sake of which he is sure to be damned, if he findeth not mercy at
God's hand, by faith in Jesus Christ) (John 16:8; Rom. 7:24; John
16:9; Mark 16:16). This sight and sense of things worketh in him
sorrow and shame for sin; he findeth, moreover, revealed in Him the
Saviour of the world, and the absolute necessity of closing with
Him for life, at the which he findeth hungerings and thirstings
after Him; to which hungerings, &c., the promise is made (Psa.
38:18; Jer. 31:19; Gal. 2:16; Acts 4:12; Matt. 5:6; Rev. 21:60).
Now, according to the strength or weakness of his faith in his
Saviour, so is his joy and peace, so is his love to holiness, so
are his desires to know Him more, and also to serve Him in this
world. But though I say it discovereth itself thus unto him, yet
it is but seldom that he is able to conclude that this is a work
of grace; because his corruptions now, and his abused reason, make
his mind to misjudge in this matter; therefore, in him that hath
this work, there is required a very sound judgment before he can,
with steadiness, conclude that this is a work of grace.

To others, it is thus discovered:

1. By an experimental confession of his faith in Christ (Rom.
10:10; Phil. 1:27; Matt. 5:19).

2. By a life answerable to that confession; to wit, a life of
holiness; heart-holiness, family-holiness (if he hath a family),
and by conversation-holiness in the world; which, in the general,
teacheth him, inwardly, to abhor his sin, and himself for that, in
secret; to suppress it in his family, and to promote holiness in
the world; not by talk only, as a hypocrite or talkative person
may do, but by a practical subjection, in faith and love, to
the power of the Word (John 14:15; Psa. 1:23; Job 42:5, 6; Ezek.
20:43). And now, Sir, as to this brief description of the work of
grace, and also the discovery of it, if you have aught to object,
object; if not, then give me leave to propound to you a second

TALK. Nay, my part is not now to object, but to hear; let me,
therefore, have your second question.

FAITH. It is this: Do you experience this first part of this
description of it? and doth your life and conversation testify the
same? or standeth your religion in word or in tongue, and not in
deed and truth? Pray, if you incline to answer me in this, say
no more than you know the God above will say Amen to; and, also,
nothing but what your conscience can justify you in; "for, not he
that commendeth himself is approved, but whom the Lord commendeth."
Besides, to say, I am thus, and thus, when my conversation, and
all my neighbours, tell me I lie, is great wickedness.[130]

TALK. Then Talkative at first began to blush; but, recovering
himself, thus he replied: You come now to experience, to conscience,
and God; and to appeal to Him for justification of what is spoken.
This kind of discourse I did not expect; nor am I disposed to
give an answer to such questions, because I count not myself bound
thereto, unless you take upon you to be a catechiser, and, though
you should so do, yet I may refuse to make you my judge. But, I
pray, will you tell me why you ask me such questions?[131]

FAITH. Because I saw you forward to talk, and because I knew not
that you had aught else but notion. Besides, to tell you all the
truth, I have heard of you, that you are a man whose religion lies
in talk, and that your conversation gives this your mouth-profession
the lie. They say, you are a spot among Christians; and that
religion fareth the worse for your ungodly conversation; that some
already have stumbled at your wicked ways, and that more are in
danger of being destroyed thereby; your religion, and an ale-house,
and covetousness, and uncleanness, and swearing, and lying, and
vain company keeping, &c., will stand together. The proverb is
true of you which is said of a whore, to wit, that she is a shame
to all women; so are you a shame to all professors.[132]

TALK. Since you are ready to take up reports, and to judge so
rashly as you do, I cannot but conclude you are some peevish or
melancholy man, not fit to be discoursed with; and so adieu.[133]

CHR. Then came up Christian, and said to his brother, I told you
how it would happen; your words and his lusts could not agree;
he had rather leave your company than reform his life. But he is
gone, as I said; let him go, the loss is no man's but his own;
he has saved us the trouble of going from him; for he continuing
(as I suppose he will do) as he is, he would have been but a blot
in our company; besides, the apostle says, "From such withdraw

FAITH. But I am glad we had this little discourse with him; it
may happen that he will think of it again; however, I have dealt
plainly with him, and so am clear of his blood, if he perisheth.

CHR. You did well to talk so plainly to him as you did; there is
but little of this faithful dealing with men now-a-days, and that
makes religion to stink so in the nostrils of many, as it doth;
for they are these talkative fools whose religion is only in word,
and are debauched and vain in their conversation, that (being
so much admitted into the fellowship of the godly) do puzzle the
world, blemish Christianity, and grieve the sincere. I wish that
all men would deal with such as you have done; then should they
either be made more conformable to religion, or the company of
saints would be too hot for them. Then did Faithful say,

How Talkative at first lifts up his plumes! How bravely doth he
speak! How he presumes To drive down all before him! But so soon
As Faithful talks of heart-work, like the moon That's past the
full, into the wane he goes. And so will all, but he that HEART-WORK

Thus they went on talking of what they had seen by the way, and
so made that way easy which would, otherwise, no doubt, have been
tedious to them; for now they went through a wilderness.

Now, when they were got almost quite out of this wilderness,
Faithful chanced to cast his eye back, and espied one coming after
them, and he knew him. Oh! said Faithful to his brother, Who comes
yonder? Then Christian looked, and said, It is my good friend
Evangelist. Aye, and my good friend too, said Faithful, for it
was he that set me the way to the gate. Now was Evangelist come
up unto them, and thus saluted them:

EVAN. Peace be with you, dearly beloved; and peace be to your
helpers. CHR. Welcome, welcome, my good Evangelist; the sight of
thy countenance brings to my remembrance thy ancient kindness and
unwearied labouring for my eternal good.

FAITH. And a thousand times welcome, said good Faithful. Thy company,
O sweet Evangelist, how desirable it is to us poor pilgrims![134]

EVAN. Then said Evangelist, How hath it fared with you, my friends,
since the time of our last parting? What have you met with, and
how have you behaved yourselves?

Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things that had happened
to them in the way; and how and with what difficulty, they had
arrived to that place.[135]

EVAN. Right glad am I, said Evangelist, not that you have met with
trials, but that you have been victors; and for that you have,
notwithstanding many weaknesses, continued in the way to this very

I say, right glad am I of this thing, and that for mine own sake
and yours. I have sowed, and you have reaped; and the day is
coming, when both he that sowed and they that reaped shall rejoice
together; that is, if you hold out; "for in due season ye shall
reap, if ye faint not" (John 4:36; Gal. 6:9). The crown is before
you, and it is an incorruptible one; "so run, that you may obtain"
it (1 Cor. 9:24-27). Some there be that set out for this crown,
and, after they have gone far for it, another comes in, and takes
it from them; hold fast, therefore, that you have, let no man take
your crown (Rev. 3:11).[136] You are not yet out of the gun-shot
of the devil; you have not resisted unto blood, striving against
sin; let the kingdom be always before you, and believe steadfastly
concerning things that are invisible. Let nothing that is on this
side the other world get within you; and, above all, look well to
your own hearts, and to the lusts thereof, "for they are deceitful
above all things, and desperately wicked"; set your faces like a
flint; you have all power in Heaven and earth on your side.

CHR. Then Christian thanked him for his exhortation; but told him,
withal, that they would have him speak further to them for their
help the rest of the way, and the rather, for that they well knew
that he was a prophet, and could tell them of things that might
happen unto them, and also how they might resist and overcome them.
To which request Faithful also consented. So Evangelist began as

EVAN. My sons, you have heard in the words of the truth of the Gospel
that you must, through many tribulations, enter into the kingdom
of Heaven. And again, that in every city bonds and afflictions
abide in you; and therefore you cannot expect that you should go
long on your pilgrimage without them, in some sort or other. You
have found something of the truth of these testimonies upon you
already, and more will immediately follow; for now, as you see,
you are almost out of this wilderness, and therefore you will soon
come into a town that you will by and by see before you; and in
that town you will be hardly beset with enemies, who will strain
hard but they will kill you; and be you sure that one or both of
you must seal the testimony which you hold, with blood; but be you
faithful unto death, and the King will give you a crown of life.
He that shall die there, although his death will be unnatural,
and his pain perhaps great, he will yet have the better of his
fellow; not only because he will be arrived at the Celestial City
soonest, but because he will escape many miseries that the other
will meet with in the rest of his journey. But when you are come
to the town, and shall find fulfilled what I have here related,
then remember your friend and quit yourselves like men, and commit
the keeping of your souls to your God in well-doing, as unto a
faithful Creator.[137]

Then I saw in my dream, that when they were got out of the wilderness,
they presently saw a town before them, and the name of that town
is Vanity; and at the town there is a fair kept, called Vanity
Fair: it is kept all the year long; it beareth the name of Vanity
Fair, because the town where it is kept is lighter than vanity;
and also because all that is there sold, or that cometh thither,
is vanity. As is the saying of the wise, "All that cometh is
vanity" (Eccl. 1; 2:11, 17; 11:8; Isa. 40:17).

This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient
standing; I will show you the original of it.

Almost 5,000 years agone, there were pilgrims walking to the
Celestial City as these two honest persons are: and Beelzebub,
Apollyon, and Legion, with their companions, perceiving by the
path that the pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay through
this town of Vanity, they contrived here to set up a fair; a fair
wherein should be sold all sorts of vanity, and that it should last
all the year long: therefore at this fair are all such merchandise
sold, as houses, lands, trades, places, honours, preferments,
titles, countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures, and delights of
all sorts, as whores, bawds, wives, husbands, children, masters,
servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls,
precious stones, and what not.[138] And, moreover, at this fair
there is at all times, to be seen juggling, cheats, games, plays,
fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and that of every kind.

Here are to be seen too, and that for nothing, thefts, murders,
adulteries, false swearers, and that of a blood-red colour.[139]

And as in other fairs of less moment, there are the several rows
and streets, under their proper names, where such and such wares
are vended; so here likewise you have the proper places, rows,
streets (viz. countries and kingdoms), where the wares of this
fair are soonest to be found. Here is the Britain Row, the French
Row, the Italian Row, the Spanish Row, the German Row, where
several sorts of vanities are to be sold. But, as in other fairs,
some one commodity is as the chief of all the fair, so the ware
of Rome and her merchandise is greatly promoted in this fair;
only our English nation, with some others, have taken a dislike

Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through
this town where this lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to
the City, and yet not go through this town, must needs "go out
of the world" (1 Cor. 5:10). The Prince of princes Himself, when
here, went through this town to His own country, and that upon
a fair day too; yea, and as I think, it was Beelzebub, the chief
lord of this fair, that invited Him to buy of his vanities; yea,
would have made Him lord of the fair, would He but have done him
reverence as He went through the town (Matt. 4:8; Luke 4:5-7). Yea,
because He was such a person of honour, Beelzebub had Him from
street to street, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world
in a little time, that he might, if possible, allure the Blessed
One to cheapen and buy some of his vanities; but He had no mind to
the merchandise, and therefore left the town, without laying out
so much as one farthing upon these vanities. This fair, therefore,
is an ancient thing, of long standing, and a very great fair. Now
these Pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this fair.[141]
Well, so they did; but, behold, even as they entered into the
fair, all the people in the fair were moved, and the town itself
as it were in a hubbub about them; and that for several reasons;

First, The pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment as
was diverse from the raiment of any that traded in that fair. The
people, therefore, of the fair, made a great gazing upon them:
some said they were fools, some they were bedlams, and some they
are outlandish men[142] (1 Cor. 2:7, 8).

Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so they did
likewise at their speech; for few could understand what they said;
they naturally spoke the language of Canaan, but they that kept
the fair were the men of this world; so that, from one end of the
fair to the other, they seemed barbarians each to the other.

Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchandisers
was, that these pilgrims set very light by all their wares; they
cared not so much as to look upon them; and if they called upon
them to buy, they would put their fingers in their ears, and cry,
"Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity,"[143] and look upwards,
signifying that their trade and traffic was in Heaven (Psa. 119:37;
Phil. 3:19, 20).

One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriage of the men, to say
unto them, What will ye buy? But they, looking gravely upon him,
answered, "We buy the truth" (Psa. 23:23).[144] At that there
was an occasion taken to despise the men the more: some mocking,
some taunting, some speaking reproachfully, and some calling upon
others to smite them. At last things came to a hubbub, and great
stir in the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded. Now was
word presently brought to the great one of the fair, who quickly
came down, and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take these
men into examination, about whom the fair was almost overturned.
So the men were brought to examination; and they that sat upon
them, asked them whence they came, whither they went, and what
they did there in such an unusual garb? The men told them, that
they were pilgrims and strangers in the world, and that they were
going to their own country, which was the heavenly Jerusalem (Heb.
9:13-16); and that they had given no occasion to the men of the
town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thus to abuse them, and to
let them in their journey, except it was, for that, when one asked
them what they would buy, they said they would buy the truth. But
they that were appointed to examine them did not believe them to
be any other than bedlams and mad, or else such as came to put
all things into a confusion in the fair. Therefore they took them
and beat them, and besmeared them with dirt, and then put them
into the cage, that they might be made a spectacle to all the men
of the fair. There, therefore, they lay for some time, and were
made the objects of any man's sport, or malice, or revenge, the
great one of the fair laughing still at all that befell them. But
the men being patient, and not rendering railing for railing, but
contrariwise, blessing, and giving good words for bad, and kindness
for injuries done, some men in the fair that were more observing,
and less prejudiced than the rest, began to check and blame the
baser sort for their continual abuses done by them to the men; they,
therefore, in angry manner, let fly at them again, counting them
as bad as the men in the cage, and telling them that they seemed
confederates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes.[145]
The other replied, that for aught they could see, the men were
quiet, and sober, and intended nobody any harm; and that there
were many that traded in their fair, that were more worthy to be
put into the cage, yea, and pillory too, than were the men that
they had abused. Thus, after divers words had passed on both
sides, the men behaving themselves all the while very wisely and
soberly before them, they fell to some blows among themselves,
and did harm one to another. Then were these two poor men brought
before their examiners again, and there charged as being guilty
of the late hubbub that had been in the fair. So they beat them
pitifully, and hanged irons upon them, and led them in chains up
and down the fair, for an example and a terror to others, lest any
should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto them.[146]
But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves yet more wisely, and
received the ignominy and shame that was cast upon them, with so
much meekness and patience, that it won to their side, though but
few in comparison of the rest, several of the men in the fair.
This put the other party yet into greater rage, insomuch that they
concluded the death of these two men. Wherefore they threatened,
that the cage nor irons should serve their turn, but that they
should die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men
of the fair.

Then were they remanded to the cage again, until further order
should be taken with them. So they put them in, and made their
feet fast in the stocks.

Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they had heard
from their faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed
in their way and sufferings, by what he told them would happen
to them.[147] They also now comforted each other, that whose lot
it was to suffer, even he should have the best of it; therefore
each man secretly wished that he might have that preferment: but
committing themselves to the all-wise disposal of Him that ruleth
all things, with much content they abode in the condition in which
they were, until they should be otherwise disposed of.[148]

Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth
to their trial, in order to their condemnation. When the time was
come, they were brought before their enemies and arraigned. The
Judge's name was Lord Hate-good. Their indictment was one and the
same in substance, though somewhat varying in form, the contents
whereof were this-

"That they were enemies to, and disturbers of their trade; that
they had made commotions and divisions in the town, and had won
a party to their own most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the
law of their prince."[149]

Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself against
that which had set itself against Him that is higher than the
highest. And, said he, as for disturbance, I make none, being
myself a man of peace; the parties that were won to us, were won
by beholding our truth and innocence, and they are only turned from
the worse to the better. And as to the king you talk of, since be
is Beelzebub, the enemy of our Lord, I defy him and all his angels.

Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught to say for
their lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, should
forthwith appear and give in their evidence. So there came in
three witnesses, to wit, Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. They
were then asked if they knew the prisoner at the bar; and what
they had to say for their lord the king against him.

Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect, My Lord, I have
known this man a long time, and will attest upon my oath before
this honourable bench, that he is-

JUDGE. Hold. Give him his oath. (So they sware him). Then he said-

ENVY. My Lord, this man, notwithstanding his plausible name, is
one of the vilest men in our country. He neither regardeth prince
nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can to possess
all men with certain of his disloyal notions,[150] which he in the
general calls principles of faith and holiness. And, in particular,
I heard him once myself affirm, that Christianity and the customs
of our town of Vanity, were diametrically opposite, and could not
be reconciled. By which saying, my Lord, he doth at once not only
condemn all our laudable doings, but us in the doing of them.

JUDGE. Then did the Judge say to him, Hast thou any more to say?

ENVY. My Lord, I could say much more, only I would not be tedious
to the court. Yet, if need be, when the other gentlemen have given
in their evidence, rather than anything shall be wanting that will
despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony against him. So he was
bid stand by.

Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon the prisoner.
They also asked, what he could say for their lord the king against
him. Then they sware him; so he began.

SUPER. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with this man, nor do
I desire to have further knowledge of him; however, this I know,
that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse that,
the other day, I had with him in this town; for then talking with
him, I heard him say, that our religion was naught, and such by
which a man could by no means please God. Which sayings of his,
my Lord, your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily thence
will follow, to wit, that we do still worship in vain, are yet
in our sins, and finally shall be damned; and this is that which
I have to say.[151]

Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, in behalf of
their lord the king, against the prisoner at the bar.

PICK. My Lord, and you gentlemen all, This fellow I have known of
a long time, and have heard him speak things that ought not to be
spoke; for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub, and hath
spoken contemptibly of his honourable friends, whose names are
the Lord Old Man, the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious,
the Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir Having
Greedy, with all the rest of our nobility; and he hath said,
moreover, That if all men were of his mind, if possible, there is
not one of these noblemen should have any longer a being in this
town. Besides, he hath not been afraid to rail on you, my Lord,
who are now appointed to be his judge, calling you an ungodly
villain, with many other such like vilifying terms, with which he
hath bespattered most of the gentry of our town.[152]

When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his
speech to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate, heretic,
and traitor, hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have
witnessed against thee?

FAITH. May I speak a few words in my own defence?

JUDGE. Sirrah! Sirrah! thou deservest to live no longer, but to
be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that all men may see
our gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou, vile runagate,
hast to say.

FAITH. 1. I say, then, in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken,
I never said aught but this, That what rule, or laws, or custom,
or people, were flat against the Word of God, are diametrically
opposite to Christianity. If I have said amiss in this, convince
me of my error, and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.

2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge
against me, I said only this, That in the worship of God there is
required a Divine faith; but there can be no Divine faith without
a Divine revelation of the will of God. Therefore, whatever is
thrust into the worship of God that is not agreeable to Divine
revelation, cannot be done but by a human faith, which faith will
not be profitable to eternal life.

3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding terms, as
that I am said to rail, and the like), that the prince of this
town, with all the rabblement, his attendants, by this gentleman
named, are more fit for a being in hell, than in this town and
country: and so, the Lord have mercy upon me![153]

Then the Judge called to the jury (who all this while stood by,
to hear and observe);[154] Gentlemen of the jury, you see this
man about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this town.
You have also heard what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed
against him. Also you have heard his reply and confession. It
lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life; but yet
I think meet to instruct you into our law.

There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, servant
to our prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should
multiply, and grow too strong for him, their males should be
thrown into the river (Exo. 1). There was also an Act made in the
days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another of his servants, that
whosoever would not fall down and worship his golden image, should
be thrown into a fiery furnace (Dan. 3). There was also an Act made
in the days of Darius, that whoso, for some time, called upon any
God but him, should be cast into the lions' den (Dan. 6). Now the
substance of these laws this rebel has broken, not only in thought
(which is not to be borne) but also in word and deed; which must
therefore needs be intolerable.

For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, to
prevent mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime
apparent. For the second and third, you see he disputeth against
our religion; and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth
to die the death.

Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blind-man, Mr.
No-good, Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Live-loose, Mr. Heady,
Mr. High-mind, Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light,
and Mr. Implacable; who every one gave in his private verdict
against him among themselves, and afterwards unanimously concluded
to bring him in guilty before the Judge. And first, among themselves,
Mr. Blind-man, the foreman, said, I see clearly that this man is
a heretic.[155] Then said Mr. No-good, Away with such a fellow
from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very looks of
him. Then said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor I,
said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my way. Hang
him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said Mr. High-mind.
My heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity. He is a rogue, said
Mr. Liar. Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. Cruelty. Let us
despatch him out of the way, said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr.
Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, I could not
be reconciled to him; therefore, let us forthwith bring him in
guilty of death.[156] And so they did; therefore he was presently
condemned, to be had from the place where he was, to the place
from whence he came, and there to be put to the most cruel death
that could be invented.[157]

They, therefore, brought him out, to do with him according to their
law; and, first, they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then
they lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him
with stones, then pricked him with their swords; and, last of all,
they burned him to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his

Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude, a chariot and
a couple of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his
adversaries had despatched him) was taken up into it, and straightway
was carried up through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the
nearest way to the Celestial Gate.[159] But as for Christian, he
had some respite, and was remanded back to prison. So he there
remained for a space; but He that overrules all things, having
the power of their rage in His own hand, so wrought it about, that
Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way;[160] and
as he went, he sang, saying-

Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully profest Unto thy Lord; with
whom thou shalt be blest, When faithless ones, with all their
vain delights, Are crying out under their hellish plights, Sing,
Faithful, sing, and let thy name survive; For, though they kill'd
thee, thou art yet alive.

Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth alone, for
there was one whose name was Hopeful (being made so by the beholding
of Christian and Faithful in their words and behaviour, in their
sufferings at the Fair), who joined himself unto him, and, entering
into a brotherly covenant, told him that he would be his companion.
Thus, one died to bear testimony to the truth, and another
rises out of his ashes, to be a companion with Christian in his
pilgrimage.[161] This Hopeful also told Christian, that there were
many more of the men in the Fair, that would take their time and
follow after.

So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the Fair, they
overtook one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends;
so they said to him, What countryman, Sir? and how far go you this
way? He told them, that he came from the town of Fair-speech, and
he was going to the Celestial City, but told them not his name.

From Fair-speech! said Christian. Is there any good that lives
there? (Prov. 26:25).

BY-ENDS. Yes, said By-ends, I hope.

CHR. Pray, Sir, What may I call you? Said Christian.

BY-ENDS. I am a stranger to you, and you to me: if you be going this
way, I shall be glad of your company; if not, I must be content.

CHR. This town of Fair-speech, said Christian, I have heard of;
and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place.

BY-ENDS. Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many
rich kindred there.

CHR. Pray, who are your kindred there? if a man may be so bold.

BY-ENDS. Almost the whole town; and in particular, my Lord
Turn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech (from whose
ancestors that town first took its name), also Mr. Smooth-man,
Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing; and the parson of our parish,
Mr. Two-tongues, was my mother's own brother, by father's side;
and to tell you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality,
yet my great-grandfather was but a waterman, looking one way and
rowing another, and I got most of my estate by the same occupation.

CHR. Are you a married man?

BY-ENDS. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous woman, the daughter
of a virtuous woman; she was my Lady Feigning's daughter, therefore
she came of a very honourable family, and is arrived to such
a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all, even
to prince and peasant. It is true we somewhat differ in religion
from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two small points;
first, we never strive against wind and tide; secondly, we are
always most zealous when religion goes in his silver slippers; we
love much to walk with him in the street, if the sun shines, and
the people applaud him.[162]

Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow Hopeful, saying,
It runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Fair-speech; and if
it be he, we have as very a knave in our company, as dwelleth in
all these parts. Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should
not be ashamed of his name. So Christian came up with him again,
and said, Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the
world doth;[163] and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have
half a guess of you: Is not your name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech?

BY-ENDS. This is not my name, but indeed it is a nickname that is
given me by some that cannot abide me; and I must be content to
bear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before

CHR. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this

BY-ENDS. Never, never! The worst that ever I did to give them an
occasion to give me this name was, that I had always the luck to
jump in my judgment with the present way of the times, whatever it
was, and my chance was to get thereby; but if things are thus cast
upon me, let me count them a blessing; but let not the malicious
load me therefore with reproach.

CHR. I thought, indeed, that you were the man that I heard of;
and to tell you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you more
properly than you are willing we should think it doth.

BY-ENDS. Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it; you
shall find me a fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me
your associate.

CHR. If you will go with us, you must go against wind and tide;[164]
the which, I perceive, is against your opinion; you must also own
religion in his rags, as well as when in his silver slippers; and
stand by him, too, when bound in irons, as well as when he walketh
the streets with applause.

BY-ENDS. You must not impose, nor lord it over my faith; leave me
to my liberty, and let me go with you.

CHR. Not a step further, unless you will do in what I propound,
as we.

Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old principles, since
they are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I must
do as I did before you overtook me, even go by myself, until some
overtake me that will be glad of my company.[165]

Now I saw in my dream, that Christian and Hopeful forsook him,
and kept their distance before him; but one of them looking back,
saw three men following Mr. By-ends, and behold, as they came up
with him, he made them a very low conge; and they also gave him a
compliment. The men's names were Mr. Hold-the-world, Mr. Money-love,
and Mr. Save-all;[166] men that Mr. By-ends had formerly been
acquainted with; for in their minority they were schoolfellows,
and were taught by one Mr. Gripeman, a schoolmaster in Love-gain,
which is a market town in the county of Coveting, in the north. This
schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence,
cozenage, flattery, lying, or by putting on a guise of religion;
and these four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their
master, so that they could each of them have kept such a school

Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr.
Money-love said to Mr. By-ends, Who are they upon the road before
us? (for Christian and Hopeful were yet within view). BY-ENDS.
They are a couple of far countrymen, that, after their mode, are
going on pilgrimage.

MONEY-LOVE. Alas! Why did they not stay, that we might have had
their good company? for they, and we, and you, Sir, I hope, are
all going on a pilgrimage.

BY-ENDS. We are so, indeed; but the men before us are so rigid,
and love so much their own notions,[167] and do also so lightly
esteem the opinions of others, that let a man be never so godly,
yet if he jumps not with them in all things, they thrust him quite
out of their company.

SAVE-ALL. That is had, but we read of some that are righteous
overmuch;[168] and such men's rigidness prevails with them to
judge and condemn all but themselves. But, I pray, what, and how
many, were the things wherein you differed?[169]

BY-ENDS. Why, they, after their headstrong manner, conclude that
it is duty to rush on their journey all weathers; and I am for
waiting for wind and tide. They are for hazarding all for God at
a clap; and I am for taking all advantages to secure my life and
estate. They are for holding their notions, though all other men
are against them; but I am for religion in what, and so far as the
times, and my safety, will bear it. They are for religion when in
rags and contempt; but I am for him when he walks in his golden
slippers, in the sunshine, and with applause.[170]

MR. HOLD-THE-WORLD. Aye, and hold you there still, good Mr. By-ends;
for, for my part, I can count him but a fool, that, having the
liberty to keep what he has, shall be so unwise as to lose it.
Let us be wise as serpents; it is best to make hay when the sun
shines; you see how the bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs her
only when she can have profit with pleasure. God sends sometimes
rain, and sometimes sunshine; if they be such fools to go through
the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather along with
us. For my part, I like that religion best, that will stand with
the security of God's good blessings unto us; for who can imagine,
that is ruled by his reason, since God has bestowed upon us the
good things of this life, but that He would have us keep them
for His sake? Abraham and Solomon grew rich in religion. And Job
says, that a good man shall lay up gold as dust. But he must not
be such as the men before us, if they be as you have described

MR. SAVE-ALL. I think that we are all agreed in this matter, and
therefore there needs no more words about it.[171]

MR. MONEY-LOVE. No, there needs no more words about this matter
indeed; for he that believes neither Scripture nor reason (and
you see we have both on our side), neither knows his own liberty,
nor seeks his own safety.[172]

MR. BY-ENDS. My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pilgrimage;
and for our better diversion from things that are bad, give me
leave to propound unto you this question: Suppose a man, a minister,
or a tradesman, &c., should have an advantage lie before him,
to get the good blessings of this life, yet so as that he can by
no means come by them except, in appearance at least, he becomes
extraordinary zealous in some points of religion that he meddled
not with before; may he not use this means to attain his end, and
yet be a right honest man?

MR. MONEY-LOVE. I see the bottom of your question; and, with these
gentlemen's good leave, I will endeavour to shape you an answer.
And first to speak to your question as it concerns a minister
himself: Suppose a minister, a worthy man, possessed but of a
very small benefice, and has in his eye a greater, more fat, and
plump by far; he has also now an opportunity of getting of it, yet
so as by being more studious, by preaching more frequently, and
zealously, and, because the temper of the people requires it, by
altering of some of his principles; for my part, I see no reason
but a man may do this (provided he has a call), aye, and more a
great deal besides, and yet be an honest man. For why-

1. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this cannot be
contradicted), since it is set before him by Providence; so then,
he may get it, if he can, making no question for conscience sake.

2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious,
a more zealous preacher, &c., and so makes him a better man; yea,
makes him better improve his parts, which is according to the mind
of God.

3. Now, as for his complying with the temper of his people, by
dissenting, to serve them, some of his principles, this argueth-(l).
That he is of a self-denying temper. (2). Of a sweet and winning
deportment. And so (3). More fit for the ministerial function.

4. I conclude then, that a minister that changes a small for a
great, should not, for so doing, be judged as covetous; but rather,
since he is improved in his parts and industry thereby, be counted
as one that pursues his call, and the opportunity put into his
hand to do good.[173]

And now to the second part of the question, which concerns the
tradesman you mentioned. Suppose such an one to have but a poor
employ in the world, but by becoming religious, he may mend his
market, perhaps get a rich wife, or more, and far better customers
to his shop; for my part, I see no reason but that this may be
lawfully done. For why-

1. To become religious is a virtue, by what means soever a man
becomes so.

2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to my

3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, gets
that which is good, of them that are good, by becoming good himself;
so then here is a good wife, and good customers, and good gain,
and all these by becoming religious, which is good; therefore,
to become religious to get all these, is a good and profitable

This answer, thus made by this Mr. Money-love to Mr. By-end's
question, was highly applauded by them all; wherefore they concluded,
upon the whole, that it was most wholesome and advantageous. And
because, as they thought, no man was able to contradict it, and
because Christian and Hopeful were yet within call, they jointly
agreed to assault them with the question as soon as they overtook
them; and the rather because they had opposed Mr. By-ends before.
So they called after them, and they stopped, and stood still till
they came up to them; but they concluded, as they went, that not
Mr. By-ends, but old Mr. Hold-the-world, should propound the question
to them, because, as they supposed, their answer to him would be
without the remainder of that heat that was kindled betwixt Mr.
By-ends and them, at their parting a little before.

So they came up to each other, and after a short salutation, Mr.
Hold-the-world propounded the question to Christian and his fellow,
and bid them to answer it if they could.

CHR. then said Christian, Even a babe in religion may answer 10,000
such questions. For if it be unlawful to follow Christ for loaves
(as it is in the sixth of John), how much more abominable is it
to make of him and religion a stalking-horse, to get and enjoy the
world![175] Nor do we find any other than heathens, hypocrites,
devils, and witches, that are of this opinion.[176]

1. Heathens; for when Hamor and Shechem had a mind to the daughter
and cattle of Jacob, and saw that there was no ways for them
to come at them, but by becoming circumcised; they say to their
companions, if every male of us be circumcised, as they are
circumcised, shall not their cattle, and their substance, and
every beast of theirs, be ours? Their daughter and their cattle
were that which they sought to obtain, and their religion the
stalking-horse they made use of to come at them. Read the whole
story (Gen. 34:20-23).

2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of this religion; long
prayers were their pretence; but to get widows' houses was their
intent; and greater damnation was from God their judgment (Luke
20:46, 47).

3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was religious
for the bag, that he might be possessed of what was therein; but
he was lost, cast away, and the very son of perdition.

4. Simon the witch was of this religion too; for he would have
had the Holy Ghost, that he might have got money therewith; and
his sentence from Peter's mouth was according (Acts 8:19-20).

5. Neither will it out of my mind, but that that man that takes
up religion for the world, will throw away religion for the world;
for so surely as Judas designed the world in becoming religious,
so surely did he also sell religion and his Master for the same.
To answer the question therefore affirmatively, as I perceive you
have done; and to accept of, as authentic, such answer, is both
heathenish, hypocritical, and devilish; and your reward will be
according to your works.[177] Then they stood staring one upon
another, but had not wherewith to answer Christian. Hopeful also
approved of the soundness of Christian's answer; so there was a
great silence among them. Mr. By-ends and his company also staggered
and kept behind, that Christian and Hopeful might outgo them. Then
said Christian to his fellow, If these men cannot stand before
the sentence of men, what will they do with the sentence of God?
And if they are mute when dealt with by vessels of clay, what will
they do when they shall be rebuked by the flames of a devouring

Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again, and went till they
came at a delicate plain, called Ease, where they went with much
content; but that plain was but narrow, so they were quickly got
over it. Now at the further side of that plain, was a little Hill
called Lucre, and in that hill a silver mine, which some of them
that had formerly gone that way, because of the rarity of it, had
turned aside to see; but going too near the brink of the pit, the
ground being deceitful under them, broke, and they were slain;
some also had been maimed there, and could not, to their dying
day, be their own men again.

Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road, over against
the silver mine, stood Demas (gentleman-like) to call to passengers
to come and see; who said to Christian and his fellow, Ho! turn
aside hither, and I will show you a thing.[179]

CHR. What thing so deserving as to turn us out of the way to see

DEMAS. Here is a silver mine, and some digging in it for treasure.
If you will come, with a little pains you may richly provide for

HOPE. Then said Hopeful, Let us go see.[180]

CHR. Not I, said Christian, I have heard of this place before now;
and how many have there been slain; and besides that, treasure
is a snare to those that seek it; for it hindereth them in their
pilgrimage. Then Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not the
place dangerous? Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage?
(Hosea 14:8).

DEMAS. Not very dangerous, except to those that are careless (but
withal, he blushed as he spake).

CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful, Let us not stir a step, but
still keep on our way.

HOPE. I will warrant you, when By-ends comes up, if he hath the
same invitation as we, he will turn in thither to see.

CHR. No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him that way, and
a hundred to one but he dies there.

DEMAS. Then Demas called again, saying, But will you not come over
and see?

CHR. Then Christian roundly answered, saying, Demas, thou art an
enemy to the right ways of the Lord of this way, and hast been
already condemned for thine own turning aside, by one of his
Majesty's judges (2 Tim. 4:10); and why seekest thou to bring us
into the like condemnation? Besides, if we at all turn aside, our
Lord the King will certainly hear thereof, and will there put us
to shame, where we would stand with boldness before Him. Demas
cried again, That he also was one of their fraternity; and that if
they would tarry a little, he also himself would walk with them.

CHR. Then said Christian, What is thy name? Is it not the same by
the which I have called thee?

DEMAS. Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of Abraham.

CHR. I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather, and Judas
your father; and you have trod in their steps (2 Kings 5:20; Matt.
26:14, 15; 27:1-5). It is but a devilish prank that thou usest;
thy father was hanged for a traitor, and thou deservest no better
reward. Assure thyself, that when we come to the King, we will do
Him word of this thy behaviour. Thus they went their way.

By this time By-ends and his companions were come again within
sight, and they, at the first beck, went over to Demas. Now,
whether they fell into the pit by looking over the brink thereof,
or whether they went down to dig, or whether they were smothered
in the bottom by the damps that commonly arise, of these things
I am not certain; but this I observed, that they never were seen
again in the way.[181] Then sang Christian-

By-ends and silver Demas both agree; One calls, the other runs,
that he may be A sharer in his lucre; so these do Take up in this
world, and no further go.

Now I saw that, just on the other side of this plain, the Pilgrims
came to a place where stood an old monument, hard by the highway
strange side; at the sight of which they were both concerned,
because of the strangeness of the form thereof; for it seemed to
them as if it had been a woman transformed into the shape of a
pillar; here therefore they stood looking, and looking upon it, but
could not for a time tell what they should make thereof. At last
Hopeful espied written above the head thereof, a writing in an
unusual hand; but he being no scholar, called to Christian (for he
was learned) to see if he could pick out the meaning; so he came,
and after a little laying of letters together, he found the same
to be this, "Remember Lot's wife." So he read it to his fellow;
after which they both concluded that that was the pillar of
salt into which Lot's wife was turned, for her looking back with
a covetous heart, when she was going from Sodom for safety[182]
(Gen. 19:260); which sudden and amazing sight gave them occasion
of this discourse.

CHR. Ah, my brother! this is a seasonable sight; it came opportunely
to us after the invitation which Demas gave us to come over to
view the Hill Lucre; and had we gone over, as he desired us, and
as thou wast inclining to do, my brother, we had, for aught I
know, been made ourselves like this woman, a spectacle for those
that shall come after to behold.

HOPE. I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am made to wonder
that I am not now as Lot's wife; for wherein was the difference
betwixt her sin and mine? She only looked back; and I had a desire
to go see. Let grace be adored, and let me be ashamed, that ever
such a thing should be in mine heart.

CHR. Let us take notice of what we see here, for our help for time
to come. This woman escaped one judgment, for she fell not by the
destruction of Sodom; yet she was destroyed by another, as we see
she is turned into a pillar of salt.

HOPE. True, and she may be to us both caution and example;
caution, that we should shun her sin; or a sign of what judgment
will overtake such as shall not be prevented by this caution; so
Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, with the 250 men that perished in their
sin, did also become a sign or example to others to beware (Num.
26:9, 10). But above all, I muse at one thing, to wit, how Demas
and his fellows can stand so confidently yonder to look for that
treasure, which this woman, but for looking behind her, after (for
we read not that she stepped one foot out of the way) was turned
into a pillar of salt; especially since the judgment which overtook
her did make her an example, within sight of where they are; for
they cannot choose but see her, did they but lift up their eyes.

CHR. It is a thing to be wondered at, and it argueth that their
hearts are grown desperate in the case; and I cannot tell who
to compare them to so fitly, as to them that pick pockets in the
presence of the judge, or that will out purses under the gallows.[183]
It is said of the men of Sodom, that they were sinners exceedingly,
because they were sinners before the Lord, that is, in His eyesight,
and notwithstanding the kindnesses that He had showed them (Gen.
13:13), for the land of Sodom was now like the garden of Eden
heretofore (Gen. 13:10). This, therefore, provoked Him the more to
jealousy, and made their plague as hot as the fire of the Lord out
of Heaven could make it. And it is most rationally to be concluded,
that such, even such as these are, that shall sin in the sight, yea,
and that too in despite of such examples that are set continually
before them, to caution them to the contrary, must be partakers
of severest judgments.

HOPE. Doubtless thou hast said the truth; but what a mercy is
it, that neither thou, but especially I, am not made myself this
example! This ministereth occasion to us to thank God, to fear
before Him, and always to remember Lot's wife.[184]

I saw, then, that they went on their way to a pleasant river; which
David the king called "the river of God," but John "the river of
the water of life"[185] (Psa. 65:9; Rev. 22; Ezek. 47). Now their
way lay just upon the bank of the river; here, therefore, Christian
and his companion walked with great delight; they drank also
of the water of the river, which was pleasant, and enlivening to
their weary spirits:[186] besides, on the banks of this river, on
either side, were green trees, that bore all manner of fruit; and
the leaves of the trees were good for medicine; with the fruit
of these trees they were also much delighted; and the leaves they
eat to prevent surfeits, and other diseases that are incident
to those that heat their blood by travels. On either side of the
river was also a meadow, curiously beautified with lilies, and
it was green all the year long. In this meadow they lay down, and
slept; for here they might lie down safely. When they awoke, they
gathered again of the fruit of the trees, and drank again of the
water of the river, and then lay down again to sleep (Psa. 23:2;
Isa. 14:30). Thus they did several days and nights.[187] Then they

Behold ye how these crystal streams do glide, To comfort pilgrims
by the highway side; The meadows green, besides their fragrant
smell, Yield dainties for them: and he that can tell What pleasant
fruit, yea, leaves, these trees do yield, Will soon sell all, that
he may buy this field.

So when they were disposed to go on (for they were not, as yet,
at their journey's end), they ate and drank, and departed.[188]

Now, I beheld in my dream, that they had not journeyed far, but
the river and the way for a time parted; at which they were not a
little sorry; yet they durst not go out of the way. Now the way
from the river was rough, and their feet tender, by reason of
their travels; "so the souls of the pilgrims were much discouraged
because of the way" (Num. 21:4). Wherefore, still as they went
on, they wished for better way.[189] Now, a little before them,
there was on the left hand of the road a meadow, and a stile to
go over into it; and that meadow is called By-path Meadow. Then
said Christian to his fellow, If this meadow lieth along by our
way-side, let us go over into it.[190] Then he went to the stile
to see, and behold, a path lay along by the way, on the other side
of the fence. It is according to my wish, said Christian. Here is
the easiest going; come, good Hopeful, and let us go over.

HOPE. But how if this path should lead us out of the way?[191]

CHR. That is not like, said the other. Look, doth it not go along
by the way-side? So Hopeful, being persuaded by his fellow, went
after him over the stile. When they were gone over, and were got
into the path, they found it very easy for their feet; and withal,
they, looking before them, espied a man walking as they did (and
his name was Vain-confidence); so they called after him, and asked
him whither that way led. He said, to the Celestial Gate.[192]
Look, said Christian, did not I tell you so? By this you may see
we are right. So they followed, and he went before them. But,
behold, the night came on, and it grew very dark; so that they
that were behind, lost the sight of him that went before.

He, therefore, that went before[193] (Vain-confidence by name),
not seeing the way before him, fell into a deep pit (Isa. 9:16),
which was on purpose there made, by the Prince of those grounds,
to catch vain-glorious fools withal, and was dashed in pieces with
his fall.[194]

Now Christian and his fellow heard him fall. So they called to
know the matter, but there was none to answer; only they heard a
groaning. Then said Hopeful, Where are we now? Then was his fellow
silent, as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way; and now
it began to rain, and thunder, and lighten[195] in a very dreadful
manner; and the water rose amain.[196]

Then Hopeful groaned in himself, saying, O that I had kept on my

CHR. Who could have thought that this path should have led us out
of the way?

HOPE. I was afraid on it at the very first, and therefore gave
you that gentle caution. I would have spoke plainer, but that you
are older than I.[197]

CHR. Good brother, be not offended; I am sorry I have brought
thee out of the way, and that I have put thee into such imminent
danger; pray, my brother, forgive me; I did not do it of an evil

HOPE. Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive thee; and believe
too that this shall be for our good.

CHR. I am glad I have with me a merciful brother; but we must not
stand thus: let us try to go back again.

HOPE. But, good brother, let me go before.

CHR. No, if you please, let me go first, that if there be any
danger, I may be first therein, because by my means we are both
gone out of the way.

HOPE. No, said Hopeful, you shall not go first; for your mind
being troubled may lead you out of the way again. Then, for their
encouragement, they heard the voice of one saying, "Set thine heart
toward the highway, even the way which thou wentest; turn again"
(Jer. 31:21). But by this time the waters were greatly risen, by
reason of which the way of going back was very dangerous. (Then
I thought that it is easier going out of the way when we are in,
than going in when we are out). Yet they adventured to go back,
but it was so dark, and the flood was so high, that in their going
back they had like to have been drowned nine or 10 times.[199]

Neither could they, with all the skill they had, get again to
the stile that night. Wherefore, at last, lighting under a little
shelter, they sat down there until the day-break; but, being weary,
they fell asleep. Now there was, not far from the place where they
lay, a castle, called Doubting Castle, the owner whereof was Giant
Despair;[200] and it was in his grounds they now were sleeping:
wherefore he, getting up in the morning early, and walking up and
down in his fields, caught Christian and Hopeful asleep in his
grounds. Then, with a grim and surly voice, he bid them awake;
and asked them whence they were, and what they did in his grounds.
They told him they were pilgrims, and that they had lost their
way. Then said the Giant, You have this night trespassed on me,
by trampling in, and lying on my grounds, and therefore you must
go along with me. So they were forced to go, because he was stronger
than they.[201] They also had but little to say, for they knew
themselves in a fault. The Giant therefore drove them before him,
and put them into his castle, into a very dark dungeon, nasty and
stinking to the spirits of these two men (Psa. 88:18). Here then
they lay from Wednesday morning till Saturday night, without one
bit of bread, or drop of drink, or light, or any to ask how they
did; they were therefore here in evil case, and were far from
friends and acquaintance. Now in this place Christian had double
sorrow,[202] because it was through his unadvised counsel that
they were brought into this distress.[203]

Now, Giant Despair had a wife, and her name was Diffidence.[204]
So, when he was gone to bed, he told his wife what he had done; to
wit, that he had taken a couple of prisoners, and cast them into
his dungeon, for trespassing on his grounds. Then he asked her
also what he had best to do further to them. So she asked him
what they were, whence they came, and whither they were bound; and
he told her. Then she counselled him, that when he arose in the
morning he should beat them without any mercy. So, when he arose,
he getteth him a grievous crab-tree cudgel, and goes down into
the dungeon to them, and there first falls to rating of them as if
they were dogs, although they never gave him a word of distaste.
Then he falls upon them, and beats them fearfully, in such sort,
that they were not able to help themselves, or to turn them upon
the floor. This done, he withdraws and leaves them, there to condole
their misery, and to mourn under their distress. So all that day
they spent the time in nothing but sighs and bitter lamentations.
The next night, she, talking with her husband about them further,
and understanding that they were yet alive, did advise him to
counsel them to make away themselves. So when morning was come,
he goes to them in a surly manner as before, and perceiving them
to be very sore with the stripes that he had given them the day
before, he told them, that since they were never like to come out
of that place, their only way would be forthwith to make an end
of themselves, either with knife, halter, or poison, for why, said
he, should you choose life, seeing it is attended with so much
bitterness?[205] But they desired him to let them go. With that
he looked ugly upon them, and, rushing to them, had doubtless made
an end of them himself, but that he fell into one of his fits (for
he sometimes, in sunshiny weather, fell into fits),[206] and lost
for a time the use of his hand; wherefore he withdrew, and left
them as before, to consider what to do. Then did the prisoners
consult between themselves, whether it was best to take his counsel
or no; and thus they began to discourse:

CHR. Brother, said Christian, what shall we do? The life that we
now live is miserable. For my part, I know not whether is best,
to live thus, or to die out of hand. "My soul chooseth strangling
rather than life," and the grave is more easy for me than this
dungeon (Job 7:15). Shall we be ruled by the Giant?[207]

HOPE. Indeed, our present condition is dreadful, and death would
be far more welcome to me than thus for ever to abide; but yet,
let us consider, the Lord of the country to which we are going hath
said, Thou shalt do no murder: no, not to another man's person;
much more, then, are we forbidden to take his counsel to kill
ourselves. Besides, he that kills another, can but commit murder
upon his body; but for one to kill himself, is to kill body and
soul at once. And, moreover, my brother, thou talkest of ease in
the grave; but hast thou forgotten the hell, whither for certain
the murderers go? For "no murderer hath eternal life," &c.[208]
And let us consider, again, that all the law is not in the hand
of Giant Despair. Others, so far as I can understand, have been
taken by him, as well as we; and yet have escaped out of his hand.
Who knows, but that God that made the world may cause that Giant
Despair may die? or that, at some time or other, he may forget to
lock us in? or that he may, in a short time, have another of his
fits before us, and may lose the use of his limbs? and if ever that
should come to pass again, for my part, I am resolved to pluck up
the heart of a man, and to try my utmost to get from under his
hand. I was a fool that I did not try to do it before; but, however,
my brother, let us be patient, and endure a while. The time may
come that may give us a happy release; but let us not be our own
murderers. With these words, Hopeful at present did moderate the
mind of his brother; so they continued together (in the dark) that
day, in their sad and doleful condition.[209]

Well, towards evening, the Giant goes down into the dungeon again,
to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel; but when he came
there, he found them alive; and truly, alive was all; for now,
what for want of bread and water, and by reason of the wounds
they received when he beat them, they could do little but breathe.
But, I say, he found them alive; at which he fell into a grievous
rage, and told them, that seeing they had disobeyed his counsel,
it should be worse with them than if they had never been born.

At this they trembled greatly,[210] and I think that Christian
fell into a swoon;[211] but, coming a little to himself again,
they renewed their discourse about the Giant's counsel, and whether
yet they had best to take it or no. Now Christian again seemed to
be for doing it,[212] but Hopeful made his second reply as followeth-

HOPE. My brother, said he, rememberest thou not how valiant thou
hast been heretofore? Apollyon could not crush thee, nor could
all that thou didst hear, or see, or feel, in the Valley of the
Shadow of Death. What hardship, terror, and amazement hast thou
already gone through! And art thou now nothing but fear! Thou seest
that I am in the dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by nature
than thou art; also, this Giant has wounded me as well as thee,
and hath also cut off the bread and water from my mouth; and with
thee I mourn without the light. But let us exercise a little more
patience; remember how thou playedst the man at Vanity Fair, and
wast neither afraid of the chain, nor cage, nor yet of bloody
death. Wherefore let us (at least to avoid the shame, that becomes
not a Christian to be found in) bear up with patience as well as
we can.[213]

Now, night being come again, and the Giant and his wife being in
bed, she asked him concerning the prisoners, and if they had taken
his counsel. To which he replied, They are sturdy rogues, they
choose rather to bear all hardship, than to make away themselves.
Then said she, Take them into the castle-yard tomorrow, and show them
the bones and skulls of those that thou hast already despatched,
and make them believe, ere a week comes to an end, thou also
wilt tear them in pieces, as thou hast done their fellows before

So when the morning was come, the Giant goes to them again, and
takes them into the castle-yard, and shows them, as his wife had
bidden him. These, said he, were pilgrims as you are, once, and
they trespassed in my grounds, as you have done; and when I thought
fit, I tore them in pieces, and so, within 10 days, I will do you.
Go, get you down to your den again; and with that, he beat them
all the way thither. They lay, therefore, all day on Saturday
in a lamentable case, as before.[215] Now, when night was come,
and when Mrs. Diffidence and her husband, the Giant, were got to
bed, they began to renew their discourse of their prisoners; and
withal the old Giant wondered, that he could neither by his blows
nor his counsel bring them to an end. And with that his wife
replied, I fear, Said she, that they live in hope that some will
come to relieve them, or that they have picklocks about them, by
the means of which they hope to escape. And sayest thou so, my
dear? said the Giant; I will, therefore, search them in the morning.

Well, on Saturday, about midnight, they began to pray, and continued
in prayer till almost break of day.[216]

Now, a little before it was day, good Christian, as one half-amazed,
brake out in this passionate speech: What a fool, quoth he, am
I, thus to lie in a stinking dungeon, when I may as well walk at
liberty! I have a key in my bosom, called Promise, that will, I
am persuaded, open any lock in Doubting Castle. Then said Hopeful,
That is good news, good brother; pluck it out of thy bosom, and

Then Christian pulled it out of his bosom, and began to try at
the dungeon door, whose bolt (as he turned the key) gave back,
and the door flew open with ease, and Christian and Hopeful both
came out. Then he went to the outward door that leads into the
castle-yard, and, with his key, opened that door also. After, he
went to the iron gate, for that must be opened too; but that lock
went damnable hard,[218] yet the key did open it. Then they thrust
open the gate to make their escape with speed, but that gate, as
it opened, made such a creaking, that it waked Giant Despair, who,
hastily rising to pursue his prisoners, felt his limbs to fail,
for his fits took him again, so that he could by no means go after
them.[219] Then they went on, and came to the King's highway, and
so were safe, because they were out of his jurisdiction.[220]

Now, when they were gone over the stile, they began to contrive
with themselves what they should do at that stile, to prevent
those that should come after, from falling into the hands of Giant
Despair.[221] So they consented to erect there a pillar, and to
engrave upon the side thereof this sentence-"Over this stile is
the way to Doubting Castle, which is kept by Giant Despair, who
despiseth the King of the Celestial Country, and seeks to destroy
His holy pilgrims." Many, therefore, that followed after, read
what was written, and escaped the danger. This done, they sang
as follows-

Out of the way we went, and then we found What 'twas to tread upon
forbidden ground; And let them that come after have a care, Lest
heedlessness makes them, as we, to fare. Lest they for trespassing
his prisoners are, Whose castle's Doubting, and whose name's

They went then till they came to the Delectable Mountains, which
mountains belong to the Lord of that hill of which we have spoken
before; so they went up to the mountains, to behold the gardens
and orchards, the vineyards and fountains of water; where
also they drank and washed themselves, and did freely eat of the
vineyards.[222] Now there were on the tops of these mountains,
shepherds feeding their flocks, and they stood by the highway
side. The Pilgrims therefore went to them, and leaning upon their
staves (as is common with weary pilgrims, when they stand to talk
with any by the way), they asked, Whose Delectable Mountains are
these? And whose be the sheep that feed upon them?

SHEP. These mountains are Immanuel's Land, and they are within
sight of His city; and the sheep also are His, and He laid down
His life for them (John 10:11).

CHR. Is this the way to the Celestial City?

SHEP. You are just in your way.

CHR. How far is it thither? SHEP. Too far for any but those that
shall get thither indeed.

CHR. Is the way safe or dangerous?

SHEP. Safe for those for whom it is to be safe; but the transgressors
shall fall therein[223] (Hosea 14:9).

CHR. Is there, in this place, any relief for pilgrims that are
weary and faint in the way?

SHEP. The Lord of these mountains hath given us a charge not to
be "forgetful to entertain strangers" (Heb. 13:2); therefore the
good of the place is before you.

I saw also in my dream, that when the Shepherds perceived that
they were wayfaring men, they also put questions to them, to which
they made answer as in other places; as, Whence came you? And, How
got you into the way? And, By what means have you so persevered
therein? For but few of them that begin to come hither, do show
their face on these mountains. But when the Shepherds heard their
answers, being pleased therewith, they looked very lovingly upon
them, and said, Welcome to the Delectable Mountains.[224]

The Shepherds, I say, whose names were Knowledge, Experience, Watchful,
and Sincere, took them by the hand, and had them to their tents,
and made them partake of that which was ready at present.[225]
They said, moreover, We would that ye should stay here a while,
to be acquainted with us; and yet more to solace yourselves with
the good of these Delectable Mountains. They then told them that
they were content to stay; so they went to their rest that night,
because it was very late.

Then I saw in my dream, that in the morning the Shepherds called
up Christian and Hopeful to walk with them upon the mountains: so
they went forth with them, and walked a while, having a pleasant
prospect on every side. Then said the Shepherds one to another,
Shall we show these Pilgrims some wonders? So when they had concluded
to do it, they had them first to the top of a hill Error, which
was very steep on the furthest side, and bid them look down to
the bottom. So Christian and Hopeful looked down, and saw at the
bottom several men dashed all to pieces by a fall that they had
from the top. Then said Christian, What meaneth this? The Shepherds
answered, Have you not heard of them that were made to err, by
hearkening to Hymeneus and Philetus, as concerning the faith of the
resurrection of the body? (2 Tim. 2:17, 18). They answered, Yes.
Then said the Shepherds, Those that you see lie dashed in pieces
at the bottom of this mountain are they; and they have continued
to this day unburied, as you see, for an example to others to
take heed how they clamber too high, or how they come too near
the brink of this mountain.[226]

Then I saw that they had them to the top of another mountain,
and the name of that is Caution, and bid them look afar off;[227]
which, when they did, they perceived, as they thought, several
men walking up and down among the tombs that were there; and they
perceived that the men were blind, because they stumbled sometimes
upon the tombs, and because they could not get out from among
them.[228] Then said Christian, What means this?

The Shepherds then answered, Did you not see a little below these
mountains a stile that led into a meadow, on the left hand of
this way? They answered, Yes. Then said the Shepherds, From that
stile there goes a path that leads directly to Doubting Castle,
which is kept by Giant Despair, and these, pointing to them among
the tombs, came once on pilgrimage as you do now, even till they
came to that same stile; and because the right way was rough in
that place, they chose to go out of it into that meadow, and there
were taken by Giant Despair, and cast into Doubting Castle: where,
after they had been a while kept in the dungeon, he at last did put
out their eyes, and led them among those tombs, where he has left
them to wander to this very day, that the saying of the wise man
might be fulfilled, "He that wandereth out of the way of understanding,
shall remain in the congregation of the dead" (Prov. 21:16).[229]
Then Christian and Hopeful looked upon one another, with tears
gushing out, but yet said nothing to the Shepherds.[230]

Then I saw in my dream, that the Shepherds had them to another
place, in a bottom, where was a door in the side of a hill, and they
opened the door, and bid them look in. They looked in, therefore,
and saw that within it was very dark and smoky; they also thought
that they heard there a rumbling noise as of fire, and a cry of
some tormented, and that they smelt the scent of brimstone. Then
said Christian, What means this? The Shepherds told them, This
is a byway to hell, a way that hypocrites go in at; namely, such
as sell their birthright, with Esau; such as sell their master,
with Judas; such as blaspheme the Gospel, with Alexander; and that
lie and dissemble, with Ananias and Sapphira his wife.[231] Then
said Hopeful to the Shepherds, I perceive that these had on them,
even every one, a show of pilgrimage, as we have now; had they

SHEP. Yes, and held it a long time too.

HOPE. How far might they go on in pilgrimage in their day, since
they notwithstanding were thus miserably cast away?

SHEP. Some further, and some not so far, as these mountains.[232]

Then said the Pilgrims one to another, We had need to cry to the
Strong for strength.

SHEP. Aye, and you will have need to use it, when you have it,

By this time the Pilgrims had a desire to go forward, and the
Shepherds a desire they should; so they walked together towards
the end of the mountains. Then said the Shepherds one to another,
Let us here show to the Pilgrims the gates of the Celestial City,
if they have skill to look through our perspective glass.[233]
The Pilgrims then loving accepted the motion; so they had them to
the top of a high hill, called Clear, and gave them their glass
to look.

Then they essayed to look, but the remembrance of that last thing
that the Shepherds had showed them, made their hands shake; by
means of which impediment, they could not look steadily through
the glass; yet they thought they saw something like the gate, and
also some of the glory of the place.[234] Then they went away,
and sang this song-

Thus, by the Shepherds, secrets are reveal'd, Which from all other
men are kept conceal'd Come to the Shepherds, then, if you would
see Things deep, things hid, and that mysterious be.[235]

When they were about to depart, one of the Shepherds gave them a
note of the way. Another of them bid them beware of the Flatterer.
The third bid them take heed that they sleep not upon the Enchanted
Ground. And the fourth bid them God speed. So I awoke from my

And I slept, and dreamed again, and saw the same two Pilgrims going
down the mountains along the highway towards the city. Now, a
little below these mountains, on the left hand, lieth the country
of Conceit;[237] from which country there comes into the way in
which the Pilgrims walked, a little crooked lane. Here, therefore,
they met with a very brisk lad, that came out of that country; and
his name was Ignorance. So Christian asked him from what parts he
came, and whither he was going.

IGNOR. Sir, I was born in the country that lieth off there, a
little on the left hand, and I am going to the Celestial City.

CHR. But how do you think to get in at the gate? for you may find
some difficulty there.

IGNOR. As other good people do, said he.

CHR. But what have you to show at that gate, that may cause that
the gate should be opened to you?

IGNOR. I know my Lord's will, and I have been a good liver; I pay
every man his own; I pray, fast, pay tithes, and give alms, and
have left my country for whither I am going.[238]

CHR. But thou camest not in at the wicket-gate that is at the
head of this way; thou camest in hither through that same crooked
lane, and therefore, I fear, however thou mayest think of thyself,
when the reckoning day shall come, thou wilt have laid to thy charge
that thou art a thief and a robber, instead of getting admittance
into the city.

IGNOR. Gentlemen, ye be utter strangers to me, I know you not; be
content to follow the religion of your country, and I will follow
the religion of mine. I hope all will be well. And as for the
gate that you talk of, all the world knows that that is a great
way off of our country. I cannot think that any man in all our
parts doth so much as know the way to it, nor need they matter
whether they do or no, since we have, as you see, a fine pleasant
green lane, that comes down from our country, the next way into
the way.

When Christian saw that the man was "wise in his own conceit,"
he said to Hopeful, whisperingly, "There is more hope of a fool
than of him" (Prov. 26:12). And said, moreover, "When he that is
a fool walketh by the way, his wisdom faileth him, and he saith
to everyone that he is a fool" (Eccl. 10:3). What, shall we talk
further with him, or out-go him at present, and so leave him to
think of what he hath heard already, and then stop again for him
afterwards, and see if by degrees we can do any good to him? Then
said Hopeful-

Let Ignorance a little while now muse On what is said, and let him
not refuse Good counsel to embrace, lest he remain Still ignorant
of what's the chiefest gain. God saith, those that no understanding
have, Although He made them, them He will not save.

HOPE. He further added, It is not good, I think, to say all to him
at once; let us pass him by, if you will, and talk to him anon,
even as he is able to bear it.[239]

So they both went on, and Ignorance he came after. Now when they
had passed him a little way, they entered into a very dark lane,
where they met a man whom seven devils had bound with seven strong
cords, and were carrying of him back to the door that they saw
on the side of the hill[240] (Matt. 12:45; Prov. 5:22). Now good
Christian began to tremble, and so did Hopeful his companion; yet
as the devils led away the man, Christian looked to see if he knew
him; and he thought it might be one Turn-away, that dwelt in the
town of Apostasy. But he did not perfectly see his face, for he
did hang his head like a thief that is found.[241] But being once
past, Hopeful looked after him, and espied on his back a paper with
this inscription, "Wanton professor, and damnable apostate."[242]
Then said Christian to his fellow, Now I call to remembrance, that
which was told me of a thing that happened to a good man hereabout.
The name of the man was Little-faith, but a good man, and he dwelt
in the town of Sincere. The thing was this: At the entering in at
this passage, there comes down from Broad-way Gate, a lane called
Dead Man's Lane;[243] so called because of the murders that are
commonly done there; and this Little-faith going on pilgrimage,
as we do now, chanced to sit down there, and slept. Now there
happened, at that time, to come down the lane from Broad-way Gate,
three sturdy rogues, and their names were Faint-heart, Mistrust,
and Guilt (three brothers), and they espying Little-faith, where
he was, came galloping up with speed. Now the good man was just
awake from his sleep, and was getting up to go on his journey.
So they came up all to him, and with threatening language bid him
stand. At this, Little-faith looked as white as a cloud, and had
neither power to fight nor fly. Then said Faint-heart, Deliver thy
purse. But he making no haste to do it (for he was loath to lose
his money), Mistrust ran up to him, and thrusting his hand into
his pocket, pulled out thence a bag of silver. Then he cried out,
Thieves! Thieves! With that, Guilt, with a great club that was
in his hand, struck Little-faith on the head, and with that blow
felled him flat to the ground; where be lay bleeding as one that
would bleed to death.[244] All this while the thieves stood by. But,
at last, they hearing that some were upon the road, and fearing
lest it should be one Great-grace, that dwells in the city of
good-confidence, they betook themselves to their heels, and left
this good man to shift for himself. Now, after a while, Little-faith
came to himself, and getting up, made shift to scrabble on his
way.[245] This was the story.

HOPE. But did they take from him all that ever he had?

CHR. No; the place where his jewels were they never ransacked, so
those he kept still. But, as I was told, the good man was much
afflicted for his loss, for the thieves got most of his spending-money.
That which they got not (as I said) were jewels,[246] also he had
a little odd money left, but scarce enough to bring him to his
journey's end (1 Peter 4:18); nay, if I were not misinformed,
he was forced to beg as be went, to keep himself alive; for his
jewels he might not sell. But beg, and do what he could, he went
(as we say) with many a hungry belly the most part of the rest of
the way.[247]

HOPE. But is it not a wonder they got not from him his certificate,
by which he was to receive his admittance at the Celestial Gate?

CHR. It is a wonder; but they got not that, though they missed it
not through any good cunning of his; for he, being dismayed with
their coming upon him, had neither power nor skill to hide anything;
so it was more by good Providence than by his endeavour, that they
missed of that good thing.[248]

HOPE. But it must needs be a comfort to him, that they got not
this jewel from him.[249]

CHR. It might have been great comfort to him, had he used it as
he should; but they that told me the story said, that he made but
little use of it all the rest of the way, and that because of the
dismay that he had in the taking away his money; indeed, he forgot
it a great part of the rest of his journey; and besides, when
at any time it came into his mind, and he began to be comforted
therewith, then would fresh thoughts of his loss come again upon
him, and those thoughts would swallow up all (1 Peter 1:9).

HOPE. Alas! poor man. This could not but be a great grief to him.

CHR. Grief! aye, a grief indeed. Would it not have been so to any
of us, had we been used as he, to be robbed, and wounded too, and
that in a strange place, as he was? It is a wonder he did not die
with grief, poor heart! I was told that he scattered almost all
the rest of the way with nothing but doleful and bitter complaints;
telling also to all that overtook him, or that he overtook in the
way as he went, where he was robbed, and how; who they were that
did it, and what he lost; how he was wounded, and that he hardly
escaped with his life.[250]

HOPE. But it is a wonder that his necessity did not put him upon
selling or pawning some of his jewels,[251] that he might have
wherewith to relieve himself in his journey.

CHR. Thou talkest like one upon whose head is the shell to this
very day; for what should he pawn them, or to whom should he sell
them? In all that country where he was robbed, his jewels were
not accounted of; nor did he want that relief which could from
thence be administered to him. Besides, had his jewels been missing
at the gate of the Celestial City, he had (and that he knew well
enough) been excluded from an inheritance there; and that would
have been worse to him than the appearance and villany of 10,000

HOPE. Why art thou so tart, my brother? Esau sold his birthright, and
that for a mess of pottage, and that birthright was his greatest
jewel; and if he, why might not Little-faith do so too? (Heb.

CHR. Esau did sell his birthright indeed, and so do many besides,
and by so doing exclude themselves from the chief blessing, as
also that caitiff did; but you must put a difference betwixt Esau
and Little-faith, and also betwixt their estates. Esau's birthright
was typical, but Little-faith's jewels were not so; Esau's belly
was his god, but Little-faith's belly was not so; Esau's want lay
in his fleshly appetite, Little-faith's did not so. Besides, Esau
could see no further than to the fulfilling of his lusts; "Behold
I am at the point to die (said he), and what profit shall this
birthright do me?" (Gen. 25:32). But Little-faith, though it was
his lot to have but a little faith, was by his little faith kept
from such extravagances, and made to see and prize his jewels
more than to sell them, as Esau did his birthright. You read not
anywhere that Esau had faith, no, not so much as a little; therefore
no marvel if, where the flesh only bears sway (as it will in that
man where no faith is to resist), if he sells his birthright, and
his soul and all, and that to the devil of hell; for it is with
such, as it is with the ass, who in her occasions cannot be turned
away (Jer. 2:24). When their minds are set upon their lusts, they
will have them whatever they cost. But Little-faith was of another
temper, his mind was on things divine; his livelihood was upon
things that were spiritual, and from above; therefore, to what
end should he that is of such a temper sell his jewels (had there
been any that would have bought them) to fill his mind with empty
things? Will a man give a penny to fill his belly with hay; or can
you persuade the turtle-dove to live upon carrion like the crow?
Though faithless ones can, for carnal lusts, pawn, or mortgage,
or sell what they have, and themselves outright to boot; yet they
that have faith, saving faith, though but a little of it, cannot
do so. Here, therefore, my brother, is thy mistake.

HOPE. I acknowledge it; but yet your severe reflection had almost
made me angry.[252]

CHR. Why, I did but compare thee to some of the birds that are
of the brisker sort, who will run to and fro in untrodden paths,
with the shell upon their heads; but pass by that, and consider
the matter under debate, and all shall be well betwixt thee and

HOPE. But, Christian, these three fellows, I am persuaded in
my heart, are but a company of cowards;[253] would they have run
else, think you, as they did, at the noise of one that was coming
on the road? Why did not Little-faith pluck up a greater heart? He
might, methinks, Have stood one brush with them, and have yielded
when there had been no remedy.

CHR. That they are cowards, many have said, but few have found it
so in the time of trial. As for a great heart, Littlefaith had
none; and I perceive by thee, my brother, hadst thou been the
man concerned, thou art but for a brush, and then to yield. And,
verily, since this is the height of thy stomach, now they are at
a distance from us, should they appear to thee as they did to him,
they might put thee to second thoughts.

But, consider again, they are but journeymen thieves, they serve
under the king of the bottomless pit, who, if need be, will come
in to their aid himself, and his voice is as the roaring of a
lion (Psa. 7:2; 1 Peter 5:8). I myself have been engaged as this
Little-faith was, and I found it a terrible thing. These three
villains set upon me, and I beginning, like a Christian, to resist,
they gave but a call, and in came their master. I would, as the
saying is, have given my life for a penny; but that, as God would
have it, I was clothed with armour of proof. Aye, and yet, though
I was so harnessed, I found it hard work to quit myself like a
man. No man can tell what in that combat attends us, but he that
hath been in the battle himself.[254]

HOPE. Well, but they ran, you see, when they did but suppose that
one Great-grace was in the way.[255]

CHR. True, they have often fled, both they and their master, when
Great-grace hath but appeared; and no marvel; for he is the King's
Champion. But, I trow,[256] you will put some difference betwixt
Little-faith and the King's Champion. All the King's subjects
are not His champions, nor can they, when tried, do such feats of
war as he. Is it meet to think that a little child should handle
Goliath as David did? Or that there should be the strength of
an ox in a wren? Some are strong, some are weak; some have great
faith, some have little. This man was one of the weak, and therefore
he went to the wall.

HOPE. I would it had been Great-grace for their sakes.

CHR. If it had been, he might have had his hands full; for I must
tell you, that though Great-grace is excellent good at his weapons,
and has, and can, so long as be keeps them at sword's point, do well
enough with them; yet, if they get within him, even Faint-heart,
Mistrust, or the other, it shall go hard but they will throw up
his heels. And when a man is down, you know, what can he do?

Whoso looks well upon Great-grace's face, shall see those scars
and cuts there, that shall easily give demonstration of what I
say. Yea, once I heard that he should say (and that when he was
in the combat), "We despaired even of life."[257] How did these
sturdy rogues and their fellows make David groan, mourn, and roar?
Yea, Heman and Hezekiah, too, though champions in their day,
were forced to bestir them, when by these assaulted; and yet,
notwithstanding, they had their coats soundly brushed by them.
Peter, upon a time, would go try what he could do; but though some
do say of him that he is the prince of the apostles, they handled
him so, that they made him at last afraid of a sorry girl.

Besides, their king is at their whistle. He is never out of hearing;
and if at any time they be put to the worst, he, if possible, comes
in to help them; and of him it is said, "The sword of him that
layeth at him cannot hold; the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon:
he esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood. The arrow
cannot make him flee; sling stones are turned with him into
stubble. Darts are counted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking
of a spear" (Job. 12:26-29). What can a man do in this case? It
is true, if a man could, at every turn, have Job's horse, and had
skill and courage to ride him, he might do notable things; "for
his neck is clothed with thunder, he will not be afraid of the
grasshopper; the glory of his nostrils is terrible; he paweth in
the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength, he goeth on to meet
the armed men. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted, neither
turneth he back from the sword. The quiver rattleth against him,
the glittering spear, and the shield. He swalloweth the ground with
fierceness and rage, neither believeth he that it is the sound of
the trumpet. He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha! and he smelleth
the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting"
(Job 34:19-25).

But for such footmen as thee and I are, let us never desire to
meet with an enemy, nor vaunt as if we could do better, when we
hear of others that they have been toiled, nor be tickled at the
thoughts of our own manhood; for such commonly come by the worst
when tried.[258] Witness Peter, of whom I made mention before. He
would swagger, aye, he would; he would, as his vain mind prompted
him to say, do better, and stand more for his Master than all men;
but who so foiled, and run down by these villains, as he?[259]

When, therefore, we hear that such robberies are done on the King's
highway, two things become us to do:

1. To go out harnessed, and to be sure to take a shield with
us; for it was for want of that, that he that laid so lustily at
Leviathan could not make him yield; for, indeed, if that be wanting,
he fears us not at all. Therefore, he that had skill hath said,
"Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able
to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked" (Eph. 6:16).

2. It is good, also, that we desire of the King a convoy,[260] yea,
that he will go with us Himself. This made David rejoice when in
the Valley of the Shadow of Death; and Moses was rather for dying
where he stood, than to go one step without his God (Exo. 33:15).
O my brother, if He will but go along with us, what need we
be afraid of ten thousands that shall set themselves against us?
(Psa. 3:5-8; 27:1-3). But, without Him, the proud helpers "fall
under the slain" (Isa. 10:4).

I, for my part, have been in the fray before now; and though,
through the goodness of Him that is best, I am, as you see, alive;
yet I cannot boast of my manhood: Glad shall I be, if I meet with
no more such brunts; though, I fear, we are not got beyond all
danger.[261] However, since the lion and the bear have not as
yet devoured me, I hope God will also deliver us from the next
uncircumcised Philistine. Then sang Christian-

Poor Little-faith! Hast been among the thieves? Wast robb'd?
Remember this, whoso believes, And gets more faith, shall then a
victor be Over ten thousand, else scarce over three.

So they went on, and Ignorance followed. They went then till they
came at a place where they saw a way put itself into their way,
and seemed withal to lie as straight as the way which they should
go; and here they knew not which of the two to take, for both
seemed straight before them; therefore, here they stood still to
consider. And as they were thinking about the way, behold a man,
black of flesh, but covered with a very light robe, came to them,
and asked them why they stood there.[262] They answered, they were
going to the Celestial City, but knew not which of these ways
to take. Follow me, said the man, it is thither that I am going.
So they followed him in the way that but now came into the road,
which by degrees turned, and turned them so from the city that they
desired to go to, that, in little time, their faces were turned
away from it; yet they followed him. But by and by, before they
were aware, he led them both within the compass of a net, in which
they were both so entangled, that they knew not what to do; and
with that the white robe fell off the black man's back. Then they
saw where they were. Wherefore, there they lay crying some time,
for they could not get themselves out.[263]

CHR. Then said Christian to his fellow, Now do I see myself in an
error. Did not the Shepherds bid us beware of the flatterers? As
is the saying of the wise man, so we have found it this day, "A
man that flattereth his neighbour, spreadeth a net for his feet"
(Prov. 29:5).

HOPE. They also gave us a note of directions about the way, for
our more sure finding thereof; but therein we have also forgotten
to read, and have not kept ourselves from the paths of the destroyer.
Here David was wiser than we; for, saith he, "Concerning the works
of men, by the word of thy lips, I have kept me from the paths of
the destroyer" (Psa. 16:4). Thus they lay bewailing themselves in
the net. At last they espied a Shining One coming towards them,
with a whip of small cord in his hand. When he was come to the
place where they were, he asked them whence they came, and what
they did there. They told him that they were poor pilgrims going
to Zion, but were led out of their way by a black man, clothed in
white, who bid us, said they, follow him, for he was going thither
too. Then said he with the whip, It is Flatterer, a false apostle,
that hath transformed himself into an angel of light (Prov. 29:5;
Dan. 11:32; 2 Cor. 11:13, 14). So he rent the net, and let the men
out. Then said he to them, Follow me, that I may set you in your
way again. So he led them back to the way which they had left to
follow the Flatterer. Then he asked them, saying, Where did you lie
the last night? They said, With the Shepherds, upon the Delectable
Mountains. He asked them then, if they had not of those Shepherds
a note of direction for the way. They answered, Yes. But did you,
said he, when you were at a stand, pluck out and read your note?
They answered, No. He asked them, Why? They said, they forgot. He
asked, moreover, if the Shepherds did not bid them beware of the
Flatterer. They answered, Yes, but we did not imagine, said they,
that this fine-spoken man had been he[264] (Rom. 16:18).

Then I saw in my dream, that he commanded them to lie down; which,
when they did, he chastised them sore, to teach them the good way
wherein they should walk, (Deut. 25:2); and as he chastised them,
he said, "As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous,
therefore, and repent" (Rev. 3:19; 2 Chron. 6:26, 27). This done,
he bid them go on their way, and take good heed to the other
directions of the Shepherds. So they thanked him for all his
kindness, and went softly along the right way, singing-

Come hither, you that walk along the way; See how the pilgrims
fare that go astray! They catched are in an entangling net, 'Cause
they good counsel lightly did forget: 'Tis true, they rescued were,
but yet you see, They're scourg'd to boot. Let this your caution

Now, after a while, they perceived, afar off, one coming softly
and alone, all along the highway to meet them. Then said Christian
to his fellow, Yonder is a man with his back toward Zion, and he
is coming to meet us.

HOPE. I see him, let us take heed to ourselves now, lest he should
prove a flatterer also. So he drew nearer and nearer, and at last
came up unto them. His name was Atheist, and he asked them whither
they were going.

CHR. We are going to the Mount Zion.

Then Atheist fell into a very great laughter.

CHR. What is the meaning of your laughter?

ATHEIST. I laugh to see what ignorant persons you are, to take
upon you so tedious a journey, and yet are like to have nothing
but your travel for your pains.

CHR. Why, man, do you think we shall not be received?

ATHEIST. Received! There is no such place as you dream of in all
this world.[265]

CHR. But there is in the world to come.

ATHEIST. When I was at home in mine own country, I heard as you
now affirm, and from that hearing went out to see, and have been
seeking this city this 20 years; but find no more of it than I
did the first day I set out (Jer. 22:12; Eccl. 10:15).

CHR. We have both heard and believe that there is such a place to
be found.

ATHEIST. Had not I, when at home, believed, I had not come thus
far to seek; but finding none (and yet I should, had there been
such a place to be found, for I have gone to seek it further than
you), I am going back again, and will seek to refresh myself with
the things that I then cast away, for hopes of that which, I now
see, is not.[266]

CHR. Then said Christian to Hopeful his fellow, Is it true which
this man hath said?

HOPE. Take heed, he is one of the flatterers; remember what it hath
cost us once already for our hearkening to such kind of fellows.
What! no Mount Zion? Did we not see, from the Delectable Mountains,
the gate of the city?[267] Also, are we not now to walk by faith?
Let us go on, said Hopeful, lest the man with the whip overtake
us again[268] (2 Cor. 5:7).

You should have taught me that lesson, which I will round[269] you
in the ears withal: "Cease, my son, to hear the instruction that
causeth to err from the words of knowledge" (Prov. 19:17). I say,
my brother, cease to hear him, and let us "believe to the saving
of the soul" (Heb. 10:39).

CHR. My brother, I did not put the question to thee, for that I
doubted of the truth of our belief myself, but to prove thee, and
to fetch from thee a fruit of the honesty of thy heart. As for
this man, I know that he is blinded by the god of this world. Let
thee and I go on, knowing that we have belief of the truth, "and
no lie is of the truth" (1 John 2:21).

HOPE. Now do I rejoice in hope of the glory of God. So they turned
away from the man; and he, laughing at them, went his way.

I saw then in my dream, that they went till they came into a
certain country, whose air naturally tended to make one drowsy,
if he came a stranger into it. And here Hopeful began to be very
dull and heavy of sleep; wherefore he said unto Christian, I do
now begin to grow so drowsy that I can scarcely hold up mine eyes;
let us lie down here, and take one nap.[270]

CHR. By no means, said the other; lest, sleeping, we never awake

HOPE. Why, my brother? Sleep is sweet to the labouring man; we
may be refreshed if we take a nap.[271]

CHR. Do you not remember that one of the Shepherds bid us beware
of the Enchanted Ground?[272] He meant by that, that we should
beware of sleeping; "Therefore let us not sleep, as do others,
but let us watch and be sober"[273] (1 Thess. 5:6).

HOPE. I acknowledge myself in a fault; and had I been here alone,
I had by sleeping run the danger of death. I see it is true that
the wise man saith, "Two are better than one." Hitherto hath thy
company been my mercy, and thou shalt have a good reward for thy
labour. (Eccl. 4:9). CHR. Now then, said Christian, to prevent
drowsiness in this place, let us fall into good discourse.

HOPE. With all my heart, said the other.

CHR. Where shall we begin?

HOPE. Where God began with us. But do you begin, if you please.

CHR. I will sing you first this song-

When saints do sleepy grow, let them come hither, And hear how
these two pilgrims talk together: Yea, let them learn of them, in
any wise, Thus to keep ope their drowsy slumb'ring eyes. Saints'
fellowship, if it be manag'd well, Keeps them awake, and that in
spite of hell.

CHR. Then Christian began, and said, I will ask you a question.
How came you to think at first of so doing as you do now?

HOPE. Do you mean, how came I at first to look after the good of
my soul?

CHR. Yes, that is my meaning.

HOPE. I continued a great while in the delight of those things
which were seen and sold at our fair; things which, I believe now,
would have, had I continued in them still, drowned me in perdition
and destruction.

CHR. What things were they?

HOPE. All the treasures and riches of the world. Also I delighted
much in rioting, revelling, drinking, swearing, lying, uncleanness,
Sabbath-breaking, and what not, that tended to destroy the soul.
But I found at last, by hearing and considering of things that are
Divine, which indeed I heard of you, as also of beloved Faithful,
that was put to death for his faith and good living in Vanity Fair,
that "the end of these things is death" (Rev. 6:21-23). And that
for these things' sake, "cometh the wrath of God upon the children
of disobedience" (Eph. 5:6).

CHR. And did you presently fall under the power of this conviction?

HOPE. No, I was not willing presently to know the evil of sin,
nor the damnation that follows upon the commission of it; but
endeavoured, when my mind at first began to be shaken with the
Word, to shut mine eyes against the light thereof.

CHR. But what was the cause of your carrying of it thus to the
first workings of God's blessed Spirit upon you?

HOPE. The causes were, 1. I was ignorant that this was the work
of God upon me. I never thought that by awakenings for sin, God
at first begins the conversion of a sinner. 2. Sin was yet very
sweet to my flesh, and I was loath to leave it. 3. I could not tell
how to part with mine old companions, their presence and actions
were so desirable unto me. 4. The hours in which convictions were
upon me, were such troublesome and such heart-affrighting hours,
that I could not bear, no not so much as the remembrance of them
upon my heart.[274]

CHR. Then, as it seems, sometimes you got rid of your trouble?

HOPE. Yes, verily, but it would come into my mind again, and then
I should be as bad, nay, worse than I was before.

CHR. Why, what was it that brought your sins to mind again?

HOPE. Many things; as,

1. If I did but meet a good man in the streets; or,

2. If I have heard any read in the Bible; or,

3. If mine head did begin to ache; or,

4. If I were told that some of my neighbours were sick; or,

5. If I heard the bell toll for some that were dead; or,

6. If I thought of dying myself; or,

7. If I heard that sudden death happened to others;

8. But especially, when I thought of myself, that I must quickly
come to judgment.

CHR. And could you at any time, with ease, get off the guilt of
sin,[275] when, by any of these ways, it came upon you?

HOPE. No, not I, for then they got faster hold of my conscience;
and then, if I did but think of going back to sin (though my mind
was turned against it), it would be double torment to me.

CHR. And how did you do then?

HOPE. I thought I must endeavour to mend my life; for else, thought
I, I am sure to be damned.

CHR. And did you endeavour to mend? HOPE. Yes; and fled from not
only my sins, but sinful company too; and betook me to religious
duties, as prayer, reading, weeping for sin, speaking truth to
my neighbours, &c. These things did I, with many others, too much
here to relate.

CHR. And did you think yourself well then?

HOPE. Yes, for a while; but, at the last, my trouble came tumbling
upon me again, and that over the neck of all my reformations.

CHR. How came that about, since you were now reformed?

HOPE. There were several things brought it upon me, especially
such sayings as these: "All our righteousnesses are as filthy rags"
(Isa. 64:6). "By the works of the law shall no flesh be justified"
(Gal. 2:16). "When ye shall have done all those things, say, We
are unprofitable" (Luke 17:10); with many more such like. From
whence I began to reason with myself thus: If ALL my righteousnesses
are filthy rags; if, by the deeds of the law, NO man can be
justified; and if, when we have done ALL, we are yet unprofitable,
then it is but a folly to think of Heaven by the law. I further
thought thus: If a man runs a hundred pounds into the shopkeeper's
debt, and after that shall pay for all that he shall fetch; yet,
if this old debt stands still in the book uncrossed, for that the
shopkeeper may sue him, and cast him into prison till he shall
pay the debt.

CHR. Well, and how did you apply this to yourself?

HOPE. Why, I thought thus with myself: I have, by my sins, run
a great way into God's book, and that my now reforming will not
pay off that score; therefore I should think still, under all my
present amendments, But how shall I be freed from that damnation
that I have brought myself in danger of, by my former transgressions?

CHR. A very good application; but, pray, go on.

HOPE. Another thing that hath troubled me, even since my late
amendments, is, that if I look narrowly into the best of what I
do now, I still see sin, new sin, mixing itself with the best of
that I do; so that now I am forced to conclude, that notwithstanding
my former fond conceits of myself and duties, I have committed
sin enough in one duty to send me to hell,[276] though my former
life had been faultless.[277]

CHR. And what did you do then?

HOPE. Do! I could not tell what to do, until I brake my mind to
Faithful, for he and I were well acquainted. And he told me, that
unless I could obtain the righteousness of a man that never had
sinned, neither mine own, nor all the righteousness of the world,
could save me.

CHR. And did you think he spake true?

HOPE. Had he told me so when I was pleased and satisfied with
mine own amendment, I had called him fool for his pains; but now,
since I see mine own infirmity, and the sin that cleaves to my
best performance, I have been forced to be of his opinion.

CHR. But did you think, when at first he suggested it to you,
that there was such a man to be found, of whom it might justly be
said, that He never committed sin?

HOPE. I must confess the words at first sounded strangely, but
after a little more talk and company with him, I had full conviction
about it.

CHR. And did you ask him what man this was, and how you must be
justified by Him?

HOPE. Yes, and he told me it was the Lord Jesus, that dwelleth on
the right hand of the Most High. And thus, said he, you must be
justified by Him, even by trusting to what He hath done by Himself
in the days of His flesh, and suffered when He did hang on the
tree. I asked him further, how that man's righteousness could be
of that efficacy to justify another before God? And he told me He
was the mighty God, and did what He did, and died the death also,
not for Himself, but for me; to whom His doings, and the worthiness
of them, should be imputed, if I believed on Him (Heb. 10; Rom.
4; Col. 1; 1 Peter 1).

CHR. And what did you do then?

HOPE. I made my objections against my believing, for that I thought
He was not willing to save me.

CHR. And what said Faithful to you then?

HOPE. He bid me go to Him and see. Then I said it was presumption;
but he said, No, for I was invited to come (Matt. 11:28). Then he
gave me a book of Jesus, His inditing, to encourage me the more
freely to come; and he said, concerning that book, that every
jot and tittle thereof stood firmer than Heaven and earth (Matt.
24:35). Then I asked him, What I must do when I came; and he told
me, I must entreat upon my knees, with all my heart and soul, the
Father to reveal Him to me (Psa. 95:6; Dan. 6:10; Jer. 29:12, 13).
Then I asked him further, how I must make my supplication to Him?
And he said, Go, and thou shalt find Him upon a mercy-seat, where
He sits all the year long, to give pardon and forgiveness to them
that come. I told him that I knew not what to say when I came.
And he bid me say to this effect, God be merciful to me a sinner,
and make me to know and believe in Jesus Christ; for I see, that
if His righteousness had not been, or I have not faith in that
righteousness, I am utterly cast away.[278] Lord, I have heard
that Thou art a merciful God, and hast ordained that Thy Son Jesus
Christ should be the Saviour of the world; and moreover, that thou
art willing to bestow Him upon such a poor sinner as I am (and I
am a sinner indeed), Lord, take therefore this opportunity, and
magnify Thy grace in the salvation of my soul, through Thy Son
Jesus Christ. Amen. (Exo. 25:22; Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89; Heb. 4:16).

CHR. And did you do as you were bidden?

HOPE. Yes; over, and over, and over.

CHR. And did the Father reveal His Son to you?

HOPE. Not at the first, nor second, nor third, nor fourth, nor
fifth; no, nor at the sixth time neither.

CHR. What did you do then?

HOPE. What! why I could not tell what to do.

CHR. Had you not thoughts of leaving off praying?

HOPE. Yes, a hundred times twice told.

CHR. And what was the reason you did not?

HOPE. I believed that that was true which had been told me, to
wit, that without the righteousness of this Christ, all the world
could not save me; and therefore, thought I with myself, if I leave
off I die, and I can but die at the throne of grace. And withal,
this came into my mind, "Though it tarry, wait for it; because it
will surely come, it will not tarry" (Hab. 2:3). So I continued
praying until the Father showed me His Son.[279]

CHR. And how was He revealed unto you?

HOPE. I did not see Him with my bodily eyes, but with the eyes of
my understanding (Eph. 1:18, 19); and thus it was: One day I was
very sad, I think sadder than at any one time in my life, and this
sadness was through a fresh sight of the greatness and vileness
of my sins. And as I was then looking for nothing but hell, and
the everlasting damnation of my soul, suddenly, as I thought,
I saw the Lord Jesus look down from Heaven upon me, and saying,
"Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved" (Acts

But I replied, Lord, I am a great, a very great sinner. And He
answered, "My grace is sufficient for thee"[280] (2 Cor. 12:9).
Then I said, But, Lord, what is believing? And then I saw from
that saying, "He that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that
believeth on Me shall never thirst"; that believing and coming
was all one; and that he that came, that is, ran out in his heart
and affections after salvation by Christ, he indeed believed in
Christ (John 6:35). Then the water stood in mine eyes, and I asked
further, But, Lord, may such a great sinner as I am, be indeed
accepted of Thee, and be saved by Thee? And I heard him say, "And
him that cometh to Me, I will in no wise cast out" (John 6:37).
Then I said, But how, Lord, must I consider of Thee in my coming
to Thee, that my faith may be placed aright upon Thee? Then He
said, "Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners" (1 Tim.
1:15). "He is the end of the law for righteousness to every one
that believeth" (Rom. 10:4). "He died for our sins, and rose again
for our justification" (Rom. 4:25). "He loved us, and washed us
from our sins in His own blood" (Rev. 1:5). "He is mediator betwixt
God and us" (1 Tim. 2:5). "He ever liveth to make intercession
for us" (Heb. 7:25). From all which I gathered, that I must look
for righteousness in His person, and for satisfaction for my sins
by His blood; that what He did in obedience to His Father's law,
and in submitting to the penalty thereof, was not for Himself, but
for him that will accept it for his salvation, and be thankful.
And now was my heart full of joy, mine eyes full of tears, and
mine affections running over with love to the name, people, and
ways of Jesus Christ.[281]

CHR. This was a revelation of Christ to your soul indeed; but tell
me particularly what effect this had upon your spirit.[282]

HOPE. It made me see that all the world, notwithstanding all the
righteousness thereof, is in a state of condemnation. It made me
see that God the Father, though He be just, can justly justify the
coming sinner. It made me greatly ashamed of the vileness of my
former life, and confounded me with the sense of mine own ignorance;
for there never came thought into my heart before now, that showed
me so the beauty of Jesus Christ. It made me love a holy life,
and long to do something for the honour and glory of the name of
the Lord Jesus; yea, I thought that had I now a thousand gallons
of blood in my body, I could spill it all for the sake of the Lord

I saw then in my dream that Hopeful looked back and saw Ignorance,
whom they had left behind, coming after. Look, said he to Christian,
how far yonder youngster loitereth behind.

CHR. Aye, aye, I see him; he careth not for our company.

HOPE. But I trow it would not have hurt him, had he kept pace with
us hitherto.

CHR. That is true; but I warrant you he thinketh otherwise.

HOPE. That I think he doth; but, however, let us tarry for him.
So they did.

Then Christian said to him, Come away, man, why do you stay so

IGNOR. I take my pleasure in walking alone, even more a great deal
than in company, unless I like it the better.[284]

Then said Christian to Hopeful (but softly), Did I not tell you
he cared not for our company? But, however, said he, come up, and
let us talk away the time in this solitary place. Then, directing
his speech to Ignorance, he said, Come, how do you? How stands it
between God and your soul now?

IGNOR. I hope well; for I am always full of good motions, that
come into my mind, to comfort me as I walk (Prov. 28:26).

CHR. What good motions? pray, tell us.

IGNOR. Why, I think of God and Heaven.

CHR. So do the devils and damned souls.

IGNOR. But I think of them, and desire them.[285]

CHR. So do many that are never like to come there. "The soul of
the sluggard desireth, and hath nothing" (Prov. 13:4).

IGNOR. But I think of them, and leave all for them.

CHR. That I doubt; for leaving all is a hard matter; yea, a harder
matter than many are aware of. But why, or by what, art thou
persuaded that thou hast left all for God and Heaven?

IGNOR. My heart tells me so.

CHR. The wise man says, "He that trusts his own heart is a fool"[286]
(Prov. 28:26).

IGNOR. This is spoken of an evil heart, but mine is a good one.

CHR. But how dost thou prove that?

IGNOR. It comforts me in hopes of Heaven.

CHR. That may be through its deceitfulness; for a man's heart may
minister comfort to him in the hopes of that thing, for which he
yet has no ground to hope.

IGNOR. But my heart and life agree together, and therefore my hope
is well grounded.

CHR. Who told thee that thy heart and life agree together?

IGNOR. My heart tells me so.

CHR. Ask my fellow if I be a thief! Thy heart tells thee so! Except
the Word of God beareth witness in this matter, other testimony
is of no value.

IGNOR. But is it not a good heart that hath good thoughts? and is
not that a good life that is according to God's commandments?

CHR. Yea, that is a good heart that hath good thoughts, and that
is a good life that is according to God's commandments; but it is
one thing, indeed, to have these, and another thing only to think

IGNOR. Pray, what count you good thoughts, and a life according
to God's commandments?

CHR. There are good thoughts of divers kinds; some respecting
ourselves, some God, some Christ, and some other thing.

IGNOR. What be good thoughts respecting ourselves?

CHR. Such as agree with the Word of God.

IGNOR. When do our thoughts of ourselves agree with the Word of

CHR. When we pass the same judgment upon ourselves which the Word
passes. To explain myself-the Word of God saith of persons in a
natural condition, "There is none righteous, there is none that
doeth good" (Rom. 3). It saith also, that "every imagination of
the heart of man is only evil, and that continually" (Gen. 6:5).
And again, "The imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth"
(Gen. 8:21). Now then, when we think thus of ourselves, having
sense thereof then are our thoughts good ones, because according
to the Word of God.

IGNOR. I will never believe that my heart is thus bad.

CHR. Therefore thou never hadst one good thought concerning thyself
in thy life. But let me go on. As the Word passeth a judgment
upon our heart, so it passeth a judgment upon our ways; and when
our thoughts of our hearts and ways agree with the judgment which
the Word giveth of both, then are both good, because agreeing

IGNOR. Make out your meaning.

CHR. Why, the Word of God saith that man's ways are crooked ways;
not good, but perverse (Psa. 125; Prov. 2:15). It saith they are
naturally out of the good way, that they have not known it (Rom.
3). Now, when a man thus thinketh of his ways; I say, when he
doth sensibly, and with heart humiliation, thus think, then hath
he good thoughts of his own ways, because his thoughts now agree
with the judgment of the Word of God.[287]

IGNOR. What are good thoughts concerning God?

CHR. Even as I have said concerning ourselves, when our thoughts
of God do agree with what the Word saith of Him; and that is, when
we think of His being and attributes as the Word hath taught, of
which I cannot now discourse at large; but to speak of Him with
reference to us: Then we have right thoughts of God, when we think
that He knows us better than we know ourselves, and can see sin
in us when and where we can see none in ourselves; when we think
He knows our inmost thoughts, and that our heart, with all its
depths, is always open unto His eyes; also, when we think that all
our righteousness stinks in His nostrils, and that, therefore, He
cannot abide to see us stand before Him in any confidence, even
in all our best performances.

IGNOR. Do you think that I am such a fool as to think God can see
no further than I? or, that I would come to God in the best of my

CHR. Why, how dost thou think in this matter?

IGNOR. Why, to be short, I think I must believe in Christ for

CHR. How! think thou must believe in Christ, when thou seest
not thy need of Him! Thou neither seest thy original nor actual
infirmities; but hast such an opinion of thyself, and of what
thou dost, as plainly renders thee to be one that did never see
a necessity of Christ's personal righteousness to justify thee
before God.[288] How, then, dost thou say, I believe in Christ?

IGNOR. I believe well enough for all that.

CHR. How dost thou believe?

IGNOR. I believe that Christ died for sinners; and that I shall
be justified before God from the curse, through His gracious
acceptance of my obedience to His law. Or thus, Christ makes my
duties, that are religious, acceptable to His Father, by virtue
of His merits; and so shall I be justified.[289]

CHR. Let me give an answer to this confession of thy faith.

1. Thou believest with a fantastical faith; for this faith is
nowhere described in the Word.

2. Thou believest with a false faith; because it taketh justification
from the personal righteousness of Christ, and applies it to thy

3. This faith maketh not Christ a justifier of thy person, but
of thy actions; and of thy person for thy actions' sake, which is

4. Therefore, this faith is deceitful, even such as will leave
thee under wrath, in the day of God Almighty; for true justifying
faith puts the soul, as sensible of its lost condition by the
law, upon flying for refuge unto Christ's righteousness, which
righteousness of His is not an act of grace, by which He maketh, for
justification, thy obedience accepted with God; but His personal
obedience to the law, in doing and suffering for us what that
required at our hands; this righteousness, I say, true faith
accepteth; under the skirt of which, the soul being shrouded, and
by it presented as spotless before God, it is accepted, and acquit
from condemnation.[292]

IGNOR. What! would you have us trust to what Christ, in His own
person, has done without us? This conceit would loosen the reins
of our lust, and tolerate us to live as we list; for what matter
how we live, if we may be justified by Christ's personal righteousness
from all, when we believe it?

CHR. Ignorance is thy name, and as thy name is, so art thou; even
this thy answer demonstrateth what I say. Ignorant thou art of
what justifying righteousness is, and as ignorant how to secure
thy soul, through the faith of it, from the heavy wrath of God.
Yea, thou also art ignorant of the true effects of saving faith
in this righteousness of Christ, which is, to bow and win over
the heart to God in Christ, to love His name, His Word, ways, and
people, and not as thou ignorantly imaginest.

HOPE. Ask him if ever he had Christ revealed to him from Heaven.[293]

IGNOR. What! you are a man for revelations! I believe that what
both you, and all the rest of you, say about that matter, is but
the fruit of distracted brains.

HOPE. Why, man! Christ is so hid in God from the natural apprehensions
of the flesh, that He cannot by any man be savingly known, unless
God the Father reveals Him to them.[294]

IGNOR. That is your faith, but not mine; yet mine, I doubt not,
is as good as yours, though I have not in my head so many whimsies
as you.

CHR. Give me leave to put in a word. You ought not so slightly to
speak of this matter; for this I will boldly affirm, even as my
good companion hath done, that no man can know Jesus Christ but by
the revelation of the Father (Matt. 11:27); yea, and faith too,
by which the soul layeth hold upon Christ, if it be right, must be
wrought by the exceeding greatness of His mighty power; the working
of which faith, I perceive, poor Ignorance, thou art ignorant
of (1 Cor. 12:3; Eph 1:18, 19). Be awakened then, see thine own
wretchedness, and fly to the Lord Jesus; and by His righteousness,
which is the righteousness of God, for He Himself is God, thou
shalt be delivered from condemnation.[295]

IGNOR. You go so fast, I cannot keep pace with you. Do you go on
before; I must stay a while behind.[296]

Then they said-

Well, Ignorance, wilt thou yet foolish be, To slight good counsel,
ten times given thee? And if thou yet refuse it, thou shalt know,
Ere long, the evil of thy doing so. Remember, man, in time, stoop,
do not fear; Good counsel taken well, saves: therefore hear. But
if thou yet shalt slight it, thou wilt be The loser (Ignorance)
I'll warrant thee.

Then Christian addressed thus himself to his fellow-

CHR. Well, come, my good Hopeful, I perceive that thou and I must
walk by ourselves again.

So I saw in my dream that they went on apace before, and Ignorance
he came bobbling after. Then said Christian to his companion, It
pities me much for this poor man, it will certainly go ill with
him at last.

HOPE. Alas! there are abundance in our town in his condition,
whole families, yea, whole streets, and that of pilgrims too; and
if there be so many in our parts, how many, think you, must there
be in the place where he was born?

CHR. Indeed the Word saith, "He hath blinded their eyes, lest they
should see," &c. But now we are by ourselves, what do you think
of such men? Have they at no time, think you, convictions of sin,
and so consequently fears that their state is dangerous?

HOPE. Nay, do you answer that question yourself, for you are the
elder man.

CHR. Then I say, sometimes (as I think) they may; but they being
naturally ignorant, understand not that such convictions tend to
their good; and therefore they do desperately seek to stifle them,
and presumptuously continue to flatter themselves in the way of
their own hearts.

HOPE. I do believe, as you say, that fear tends much to men's
good, and to make them right, at their beginning to go on pilgrimage.

CHR. Without all doubt it doth, if it be right; for so says the
Word, "The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom"[297] (Prov.
1:7; 9:10; Psa. 111:10; Job. 28:28).

HOPE. How will you describe right fear?

CHR. True or right fear is discovered by three things-

1. By its rise; it is caused by saving convictions for sin.

2. It driveth the soul to lay fast hold of Christ for salvation.

3. It begetteth and continueth in the soul a great reverence of
God, his Word, and ways, keeping it tender, and making it afraid
to turn from them, to the right hand or to the left, to anything,
that may dishonour God, break its peace, grieve the Spirit, or
cause the enemy to speak reproachfully.[298]

HOPE. Well said; I believe you have said the truth. Are we now
almost got past the Enchanted Ground?

CHR. Why, art thou weary of this discourse?

HOPE. No, verily, but that I would know where we are.

CHR. We have not now above two miles further to go thereon. But
let us return to our matter. Now the ignorant know not that such
convictions as tend to put them in fear are for their good, and
therefore they seek to stifle them.

HOPE. How do they seek to stifle them?

CHR. 1. They think that those fears are wrought by the devil
(though indeed they are wrought of God); and, thinking so, they
resist them as things that directly tend to their overthrow. 2.
They also think that these fears tend to the spoiling of their
faith, when, alas for them, poor men that they are, they have none
at all! and therefore they harden their hearts against them. 3.
They presume they ought not to fear; and therefore, in despite of
them, wax presumptuously confident. 4. They see that those fears
tend to take away from them their pitiful old self-holiness,[299]
and therefore they resist them with all their might.

HOPE. I know something of this myself; for, before I knew myself,
it was so with me.[300]

CHR. Well, we will leave, at this time, our neighbour Ignorance
by himself, and fall upon another profitable question.

HOPE. With all my heart, but you shall still begin.

CHR. Well then, did you not know, about 10 years ago, one Temporary
in your parts, who was a forward man in religion then?[301]

HOPE. Know him! yes, he dwelt in Graceless, a town about two miles
off of Honesty, and he dwelt next door to one Turnback.

CHR. Right, he dwelt under the same roof with him. Well, that man
was much awakened once; I believe that then he had some sight of
his sins, and of the wages that were due thereto.

HOPE. I am of your mind, for, my house not being above three miles
from him, he would ofttimes come to me, and that with many tears.
Truly I pitied the man, and was not altogether without hope of
him; but one may see, it is not every one that cries, Lord, Lord.

CHR. He told me once that he was resolved to go on pilgrimage,
as we do now; but all of a sudden he grew acquainted with one
Save-self, and then he became a stranger to me.

HOPE. Now, since we are talking about him, let us a little inquire
into the reason of the sudden backsliding of him and such others.

CHR. It may be very profitable, but do you begin.

HOPE. Well then, there are in my judgment four reasons for it-

1. Though the consciences of such men are awakened, yet their
minds are not changed; therefore, when the power of guilt weareth
away, that which provoked them to be religious ceaseth, wherefore
they naturally turn to their own course again, even as we see the
dog that is sick of what he has eaten, so long as his sickness
prevails, he vomits and casts up all; not that he doth this
of a free mind (if we may say a dog has a mind), but because it
troubleth his stomach; but now, when his sickness is over, and so
his stomach eased, his desire being not at all alienate from his
vomit, he turns him about and licks up all, and so it is true which
is written, "The dog is turned to his own vomit again" (2 Peter
2:22).[302] Thus I say, being hot for Heaven, by virtue only of
the sense and fear of the torments of hell, as their sense of hell,
and the fears of damnation, chills and cools, so their desires for
Heaven and salvation cool also. So then it comes to pass, that
when their guilt and fear is gone, their desires for Heaven and
happiness die, and they return to their course again.[303]

2. Another reason is, they have slavish fears that do overmaster
them; I speak now of the fears that they have of men, for "the
fear of man bringeth a snare" (Prov. 29:25). So then, though they
seem to be hot for Heaven, so long as the flames of hell are about
their ears, yet, when that terror is a little over, they betake
themselves to second thoughts; namely, that it is good to be
wise, and not to run (for they know not what) the hazard of losing
all, or, at least, of bringing themselves into unavoidable and
unnecessary troubles, and so they fall in with the world again.

3. The shame that attends religion lies also as a block in their
way; they are proud and haughty, and religion in their eye is low
and contemptible; therefore, when they have lost their sense of
hell and wrath to come, they return again to their former course.

4. Guilt, and to meditate terror, are grievous to them. They like
not to see their misery before they come into it; though perhaps
the sight of it first, if they loved that sight, might make them
fly whither the righteous fly and are safe. But because they do,
as I hinted before, even shun the thoughts of guilt and terror,
therefore, when once they are rid of their awakenings about the
terrors and wrath of God, they harden their hearts gladly, and
choose such ways as will harden them more and more.

CHR. You are pretty near the business, for the bottom of all is,
for want of a change in their mind and will. And therefore they
are but like the felon that standeth before the judge, he quakes
and trembles, and seems to repent most heartily, but the bottom
of all is the fear of the halter; not that he hath any detestation
of the offence, as is evident, because, let but this man have his
liberty, and he will be a thief, and so a rogue still, whereas,
if his mind were changed, he would be otherwise.

HOPE. Now, I have showed you the reasons of their going back, do
you show me the manner thereof.[304]

CHR. So I will, willingly.

1. They draw off their thoughts, all that they may, from the
remembrance of God, death, and judgment to come.

2. Then they cast off by degrees private duties, as closet prayer,
curbing their lusts, watching, sorrow for sin, and the like.

3. Then they shun the company of lively and warm Christians.

4. After that, they grow cold to public duty, as hearing, reading,
godly conference, and the like.

5. Then they begin to pick holes, as we say, in the coats of some
of the godly; and that devilishly, that they may have a seeming
colour to throw religion (for the sake of some infirmity they have
espied in them) behind their backs.

6. Then they begin to adhere to, and associate themselves with,
carnal, loose, and wanton men.

7. Then they give way to carnal and wanton discourses in secret;
and glad are they if they can see such things in any that are
counted honest, that they may the more boldly do it through their

8. After this, they begin to play with little sins openly.

9. And then, being hardened, they show themselves as they are.
Thus, being launched again into the gulf of misery, unless a
miracle of grace prevent it, they everlastingly perish in their
own deceivings.[305]

Now I saw in my dream, that by this time the Pilgrims were got
over the Enchanted Ground, and entering into the country of Beulah,
whose air was very sweet and pleasant, the way lying directly through
it, they solaced themselves there for a season (Isa. 62:4). Yea,
here they heard continually the singing of birds, and saw every
day the flowers appear in the earth, and heard the voice of the
turtle in the land (Song. 2:10-12). In this country the sun shineth
night and day; wherefore this was beyond the Valley of the Shadow
of Death, and also out of the reach of Giant Despair, neither
could they from this place so much as see Doubting Castle.[306]
Here they were within sight of the city they were going to, also
here met them some of the inhabitants thereof; for in this land
the Shining Ones commonly walked, because it was upon the borders
of Heaven. In this land also the contract between the bride and the
bridegroom was renewed; yea, here, "As the bridegroom rejoiceth
over the bride, so did their God rejoice over them" (Isa. 62:5).
Here they had no want of corn and wine; for in this place they met
with abundance of what they had sought for in all their pilgrimage
(v. 8). Here they heard voices from out of the city, loud voices,
saying, "Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation
cometh! Behold, His reward is with Him!" (v. 11). Here all the
inhabitants of the country called them, "The holy people, The
redeemed of the Lord, Sought out," &c. (v. 12).

Now, as they walked in this land, they had more rejoicing than in
parts more remote from the kingdom to which they were bound; and
drawing near to the city, they had yet a more perfect view thereof.
It was builded of pearls and precious stones, also the street
thereof was paved with gold; so that by reason of the natural
glory of the city, and the reflection of the sunbeams upon it,
Christian with desire fell sick. Hopeful also had a fit or two
of the same disease.[307] Wherefore, here they lay by it a while,
crying out, because of their pangs, "If ye find my Beloved, tell
Him that I am sick of love[308]" (Song. 5:8).

But being a little strengthened, and better able to bear their
sickness, they walked on their way, and came yet nearer and nearer,
where were orchards, vineyards, and gardens, and their gates opened
into the highway. Now, as they came up to these places, behold,
the gardener stood in the way, to whom the Pilgrims said, Whose
goodly vineyards and gardens are these? He answered, They are the
King's, and are planted here for His own delight, and also for the
solace of pilgrims. So the gardener had them into the vineyards,
and bid them refresh themselves with the dainties (Deut. 23:24).
He also showed them there the King's walks, and the arbours, where
He delighted to be; and here they tarried and slept.[309]

Now I beheld in my dream, that they talked more in their sleep at
this time than ever they did in all their journey; and being in
a muse thereabout, the gardener said even to me, Wherefore musest
thou at the matter? It is the nature of the fruit of the grapes
of these vineyards to go down so sweetly, as to cause the lips of
them that are asleep to speak.[310]

So I saw that when they awoke, they addressed themselves to go up
to the city. But, as I said, the reflection of the sun upon the
city (for "the city was pure gold)," (Rev. 21:18), was so extremely
glorious, that they could not, as yet, with open face behold it,
but through an instrument made for that purpose (2 Cor. 3:18). So
I saw, that as they went on, there met them two men, in raiment
that shone like gold; also their faces shone as the light.[311]

These men asked the Pilgrims whence they came; and they told them.
They also asked them where they had lodged, what difficulties and
dangers, what comforts and pleasures they had met in the way; and
they told them. Then said the men that met them, You have but two
difficulties more to meet with, and then you are in the city.[312]

Christian then, and his companion, asked the men to go along
with them; so they told them they would. But, said they, you must
obtain it by your own faith. So I saw in my dream that they went
on together, until they came in sight of the gate.

Now, I further saw, that betwixt them and the gate was a river,
but there was no bridge to go over; the river was very deep. At the
sight, therefore, of this river, the Pilgrims were much stunned:
but the men that went with them said, You must go through, or you
cannot come at the gate.[313]

The Pilgrims then began to inquire if there was no other way to
the gate; to which they answered, Yes; but there hath not any,
save two, to wit, Enoch and Elijah, been permitted to tread that
path, since the foundation of the world, nor shall, until the
last trumpet shall sound (1 Cor. 15:51, 52). The Pilgrims then,
especially Christian, began to despond in their minds, and looked
this way and that, but no way could be found by them, by which
they might escape the river.[314] Then they asked the men if the
waters were all of a depth. They said, No; yet they could not
help them in that case; for, said they, you shall find it deeper
or shallower, as you believe in the King of the place.

They then addressed themselves to the water; and entering, Christian
began to sink, and crying out to his good friend Hopeful, he said,
I sink in deep waters; the billows go over my head, all his waves
go over me! Selah.[315]

Then said the other, Be of good cheer, my brother, I feel the
bottom, and it is good. Then, said Christian, Ah! my friend, "the
sorrows of death have compassed me about"; I shall not see the
land that flows with milk and honey; and with that a great darkness
and horror fell upon Christian, so that he could not see before
him. Also here he in great measure lost his senses, so that he
could neither remember, nor orderly talk of any of those sweet
refreshments that he had met with in the way of his pilgrimage.
But all the words that he spake still tended to discover that he
had horror of mind, and heart fears that he should die in that
river, and never obtain entrance in at the gate. Here also, as they
that stood by perceived, he was much in the troublesome thoughts
of the sins that he had committed, both since and before he began
to be a pilgrim. It was also observed that he was troubled with
apparitions of hobgoblins and evil spirits; for ever and anon he
would intimate so much by words.[316] Hopeful, therefore, here had
much ado to keep his brother's head above water; yea, sometimes
he would be quite gone down, and then, ere awhile, he would rise
up again half dead. Hopeful also would endeavour to comfort him,
saying, Brother, I see the gate, and men standing by to receive
us; but Christian would answer, It is you, it is you they wait
for; you have been Hopeful ever since I knew you.[317] And so
have you, said he to Christian. Ah, brother! said he, surely if I
were right He would now arise to help me; but for my sins He hath
brought me into the snare, and hath left me. Then said Hopeful,
My brother, you have quite forgot the text, where it is said of
the wicked, "There are no bands in their death; but their strength
is firm. They are not in trouble as other men, neither are they
plagued like other men" (Psa. 73:4, 5). These troubles and distresses
that you go through in these waters are no sign that God hath
forsaken you; but are sent to try you, whether you will call to
mind that which heretofore you have received of His goodness, and
live upon Him in your distresses.[318]

Then I saw in my dream, that Christian was as in a muse a while.
To whom also Hopeful added this word, Be of good cheer, Jesus
Christ maketh thee whole;[319] and with that Christian brake out
with a loud voice, O! I see Him again, and He tells me, "When thou
passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the
rivers, they shall not overflow thee" (Isa. 43:2). Then they both
took courage, and the enemy was after that as still as a stone,
until they were gone over. Christian therefore presently found
ground to stand upon, and so it followed that the rest of the river
was but shallow. Thus they got over.[320] Now, upon the bank of
the river, on the other side, they saw the two shining men again,
who there waited for them; wherefore, being come out of the river,
they saluted them, saying, We are ministering spirits, sent forth
to minister for those that shall be heirs of salvation. Thus they
went along towards the gate.[321] Now you must note that the city
stood upon a mighty hill, but the Pilgrims went up that hill with
ease, because they had these two men to lead them up by the arms;
also, they had left their mortal garments behind them in the
river, for though they went in with them, they came out without
them. They, therefore, went up here with much agility and speed,
though the foundation upon which the city was framed was higher
than the clouds.[322] They, therefore, went up through the regions
of the air, sweetly talking as they went, being comforted, because
they safely got over the river, and had such glorious companions
to attend them.[323]

The talk they had with the Shining Ones was about the glory of
the place; who told them that the beauty and glory of it was
inexpressible. There, said they, is the "Mount Zion, the heavenly
Jerusalem, the innumerable company of angels, and the spirits of
just men made perfect" (Heb. 12:22-24). You are going now, said
they, to the paradise of God, wherein you shall see the tree of
life, and eat of the never-fading fruits thereof; and when you
come there, you shall have white robes given you, and your walk
and talk shall be every day with the King, even all the days of
eternity (Rev. 2:7; 3:4; 22:5). There you shall not see again
such things as you saw when you were in the lower region upon the
earth, to wit, sorrow, sickness, affliction, and death, "for the
former things are passed away." You are now going to Abraham, to
Isaac, and Jacob, and to the prophets-men that God hath taken away
from the evil to come, and that are now resting upon their beds,
each one walking in his righteousness[324] (Isa. 57:1, 2; 65:17).
The men then asked, What must we do in the holy place? To whom
it was answered, You must there receive the comforts of all your
toil, and have joy for all your sorrow; you must reap what you
have sown, even the fruit of all your prayers, and tears, and
sufferings for the King by the way (Gal. 6:7). In that place you
must wear crowns of gold, and enjoy the perpetual sight and vision
of the Holy One, for "there you shall see Him as He is" (1 John
3:2). There also you shall serve Him continually with praise,
with shouting and thanksgiving, whom you desired to serve in the
world, though with much difficulty, because of the infirmity of
your flesh. There your eyes shall be delighted with seeing, and
your ears with hearing the pleasant voice of the Mighty One. There
you shall enjoy your friends again, that are gone thither before
you; and there you shall with joy receive, even every one that
follows into the holy place after you. There also shall you be
clothed with glory and majesty, and put into an equipage fit to
ride out with the King of glory. When He shall come with sound of
trumpet in the clouds, as upon the wings of the wind, you shall
come with Him; and when He shall sit upon the throne of judgment,
you shall sit by Him; yea, and when He shall pass sentence upon
all the workers of iniquity, let them be angels or men, you also
shall have a voice in that judgment, because they were His and your
enemies (1 Thess. 4:13-17; Jude 14; Dan. 7:9, 10; 1 Cor. 6:2, 3).
Also when He shall again return to the city, you shall go too,
with sound of trumpet, and be ever with Him.

Now, while they were thus drawing towards the gate, behold a company
of the heavenly host came out to meet them; to whom it was said,
by the other two Shining Ones, These are the men that have loved
our Lord when they were in the world, and that have left all for
His holy name; and He hath sent us to fetch them, and we have
brought them thus far on their desired journey, that they may go
in and look their Redeemer in the face with joy. Then the heavenly
host gave a great shout, saying, "Blessed are they which are
called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb" (Rev. 19:9). There
came out also at this time to meet them, several of the King's
trumpeters, clothed in white and shining raiment, who, with melodious
noises, and loud, made even the heavens to echo with their sound.
These trumpeters saluted Christian and his fellow with 10,000
welcomes from the world; and this they did with shouting, and
sound of trumpet.

This done, they compassed them round on every side; some went
before, some behind, and some on the right hand, some on the left
(as it were to guard them through the upper regions), continually
sounding as they went, with melodious noise, in notes on high;
so that the very sight was to them that could behold it, as if
Heaven itself was come down to meet them.[325] Thus, therefore,
they walked on together; and as they walked, ever and anon these
trumpeters, even with joyful sound, would, by mixing their music
with looks and gestures, still signify to Christian and his brother,
how welcome they were into their company, and with what gladness
they came to meet them; and now were these two men, as it were,
in Heaven, before they came at it, being swallowed up with the
sight of angels, and with hearing of their melodious notes. Here
also they had the city itself in view, and they thought they heard
all the bells therein to ring, to welcome them thereto. But above
all, the warm and joyful thoughts that they had about their own
dwelling there, with such company, and that forever and ever. O
by what tongue or pen can their glorious joy be expressed![326]
And thus they came up to the gate.

Now, when they were come up to the gate, there was written over
it in letters of gold, "Blessed are they that do His commandments,
that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in
through the gates into the city" (Rev. 22:14).

Then I saw in my dream, that the Shining Men bid them call at the
gate; the which, when they did, some looked from above over the
gate, to wit, Enoch, Moses, and Elijah, &c., to whom it was said,
These pilgrims are come from the City of Destruction, for the love
that they bear to the King of this place; and then the pilgrims
gave in unto them each man his certificate,[327] which they had
received in the beginning; those, therefore, were carried into
the King, who, when He had read them, said, Where are the men?
To whom it was answered, They are standing without the gate. The
King then commanded to open the gate, "That the righteous nation,"
said He, "which keepeth the truth, may enter in"[328] (Isa. 26:2).

Now I saw in my dream that these two men went in at the gate; and
lo, as they entered, they were transfigured, and they had raiment
put on that shone like gold. There were also that met them with
harps and crowns, and gave them to them-the harps to praise withal,
and the crowns in token of honour. Then I heard in my dream that
all the bells in the city rang again for joy, and that it was said
unto them, "ENTER YE INTO THE JOY OF YOUR LORD."[329] I also heard
the men themselves, that they sang with a loud voice, saying,

Now just as the gates were opened to let in the men, I looked in
after them, and, behold, the City shone like the sun; the streets
also were paved with gold, and in them walked many men, with
crowns on their heads, palms in their hands, and golden harps to
sing praises withal. There were also of them that had wings, and
they answered one another without intermission, saying, "Holy,
holy, holy, is the Lord" (Rev. 4:8). And after that, they shut up
the gates; which, when I had seen, I wished myself among them.

Now while I was gazing upon all these things, I turned my head to
look back, and saw Ignorance come up to the river side; but he
soon got over, and that without half that difficulty which the
other two men met with.[330] For it happened that there was then
in that place, one Vain-hope,[331] a ferryman, that with his boat
helped him over; so he, as the other I saw, did ascend the hill,
to come up to the gate, only he came alone; neither did any man
meet him with the least encouragement. When he was come up to
the gate, he looked up to the writing that was above, and then
began to knock, supposing that entrance should have been quickly
administered to him; but he was asked by the men that looked over
the top of the gate, Whence came you? and what would you have? He
answered, I have eat and drank in the presence of the King, and He
has taught in our streets. Then they asked him for his certificate,
that they might go in and show it to the King; so he fumbled in
his bosom for one, and found none. Then said they, Have you none?
But the man answered never a word. So they told the King, but He
would not come down to see him, but commanded the two Shining Ones
that conducted Christian and Hopeful to the City, to go out and
take Ignorance, and bind him hand and foot, and have him away.
Then they took him up, and carried him through the air, to the door
that I saw in the side of the hill, and put him in there. Then I
saw that there was a way to hell, even from the gates of Heaven,
as well as from the City of Destruction![332] So I awoke, and
behold it was a dream.


Now, READER, I have told my dream to thee; See if thou canst
interpret it to me, Or to thyself, or neighbour; but take heed Of
misinterpreting; for that, instead Of doing good, will but thyself
abuse: By misinterpreting, evil ensues.

Take heed also, that thou be not extreme, In playing with the
outside of my dream: Nor let my figure or similitude Put thee
into a laughter or a feud. Leave this for boys and fools; but as
for thee, Do thou the substance of my matter see.

Put by the curtains, look within my veil, Turn up my metaphors,
and do not fail; There, if thou seekest them, such things to find,
As will be helpful to an honest mind.

What of my dross thou findest there, be bold To throw away, but
yet preserve the gold; What if my gold be wrapped up in ore?--None
throws away the apple for the core. But if thou shalt cast all
away as vain, I know not but 'twill make me dream again.



[1] The jail. Mr. Bunyan wrote this precious book in Bedford
jail, where he was imprisoned 12 years for preaching the Gospel.
His bonds were those of the Gospel; and, like Peter, he could
sleep soundly in prison. Blessed be God for even the toleration
and religious privileges we now enjoy in consequence of it.
Our author, thus prevented from preaching, turned his thoughts
to writing; and, during his confinement, composed "The Pilgrim's
Progress," and many other useful works. Thus the Lord causes "the
wrath of man to praise Him." The servants of Christ, when restrained
by wicked laws from publishing the word of life from the pulpit,
have become more abundantly useful by their writings-(G. Burder).

[2] You will observe what honour, from his Pilgrim's first setting
out, Bunyan puts upon the Word of God. He would give to no inferior
instrumentality, not even to one of God's providences, the business
of awakening his Pilgrim to a sense of his danger; but he places
him before us reading his book, awakened by the Word. And he
makes the first efficacious motive in the mind of this Pilgrim a
salutary fear of the terrors of that Word, a sense of the wrath
to come, beneath the burden of sin upon his soul-(Cheever, Lect.
6). The alarms of such an awakened soul are very different from the
terrors of superstitious ignorance, which, arising from fright
or danger, are easily quitted, with the silly mummeries of

[3] "What shall I do?" This is his first exclamation. He has not
as yet advanced so far as to say, What shall I do to be saved?-(Cheever,
Lect. 6).

[4] Sometimes I have been so loaden with my sins, that I could not
tell where to rest, nor what to do; yea, at such times, I thought
it would have taken away my senses-(Bunyan's Law and Grace). [5]
See the picture of a true penitent; a deep sense of danger, and
solemn concern for his immortal soul, and for his wife and children;
clothed with rags; his face turned from his house; studying the
Bible with intense interest; a great burden on his back; praying;
"the remembrance of his sins is grievous, and the burden of them
is intolerable." Reader, have you felt this?-(Dr. Dodd).

[6] Reader! be persuaded to pause a moment, and ask yourself the
question-What is my case? Did I ever feel a deep concern about my
soul? Did I ever see my danger as a sinner? Did I ever exclaim, in
the agony of my spirit, "What must I do to be saved?" Be assured
that real godliness begins in feeling the burden of sin-(G. Border).

[7] The advice is to fly at once to Christ, and that he will then
be told what to do. He is not told to get rid of his burden first,
by reforming his life, and then to apply for further instruction
to the Saviour-(J. B.).

[8] When a sinner begins to fly from destruction, carnal relations
will strive to prevent him; but the sinner who is in earnest for
salvation will be deaf to invitations to go back. The more he is
solicited by them, the faster he will fly from them-(Mason).

[9] The names of these two neighbours are admirably characteristic,
not confined to any age or place, but always accompany the young
convert to godliness, as the shadow does the substance. Christian
is firm, decided, bold, and sanguine. Obstinate is profane, scornful,
self-sufficient, and contemns God's Word. Pliable is yielding, and
easily induced to engage in things of which he understands neither
the nature nor the consequences-(Thomas Scott).

[10] Objection. If I would run as you would have me, then I must
run from all my friends, for none of them are running that way.
Answ. And if thou dost, thou wilt run into the bosom of Christ,
and of God. And what harm will that do thee? Objec. But if I ran
this way, I must run from all my sins. Answ. That's true indeed;
yet if thou dost not, thou wilt run into hell-fire. Objec. But I
shall be mocked of all my neighbours. Answ. But if thou lose the
benefit of Heaven, God will mock at thy calamity. Objec. But,
surely, I may begin this, time enough a year or two hence. Answ.
Hast thou any lease of thy life? Did ever God tell thee thou shalt
live half a year or two months longer? Art thou a wise man to let
thy immortal soul hang over hell by a thread of uncertain time,
which may soon be cut asunder by death?-(Bunyan's Preface to the
Heavenly Footman).

[11] It is interesting to compare this account of Heaven with
that which Bunyan gave in the Preface to his "Sighs from Hell,"
published 20 years before-"O sinner, sinner, there are better
things than hell to be had, and at a cheaper rate by the thousandth
part than that. O there is no comparison; there is Heaven, there
is God, there is Christ, there is communion with an innumerable
company of saints and angels"-(ED). [12] Here you have another
volume of meaning in a single touch of the pencil. Pliable is
one of those who is willing, or think they are willing, to have
Heaven, but without any sense of sin, or of the labour and self-denial
necessary to enter Heaven. But now his heart is momentarily fired
with Christian's ravishing descriptions, and as he seems to have
nothing to trouble his conscience, and no difficulties to overcome,
the pace of an honest, thorough inquirer, the movement of a soul
sensible of its distresses and its sins, and desiring comfort
only in the way of healing and of holiness, seems much too slow
for him. He is for entering Heaven at once, going much faster
than poor Christian can keep up with him. Then, said Christian,
I cannot go so fast as I would, by reason of this burden that is
on my back--(Cheever). [13] Satan casts the professor into the
mire, to the reproach of religion, the shame of their brethren,
the derision of the world, and the dishonour of God. He holds our
hands while the world buffets us. He puts bears' skins upon us,
and then sets the dogs at us. He bedaubeth us with his own foam,
and then tempts us to believe that that bedaubing comes from
ourselves-(Good News to the Vilest of Men, vol. 1, P. 69). [14]
Guilt is not so much a wind and a tempest, as a load and burden.
The devil, and sin, and the curse of the law, and death, are
gotten upon the shoulders of this poor man, and are treading of
him down, that he may sink into, and be swallowed up of, his miry
place (Job 41:30)-(Bunyan's Saints' Know ledge of Christ's Love,
vol. 2, p. 6).

[15] In this Slough of Despond there were good and firm steps, sound
promises to stand upon, a causeway, indeed, better than adamant,
clear across the treacherous quagmires; but mark you, fear followed
Christian so hard, that he fled the nearest way, and fell in, not
stopping to look for the steps, or not thinking of them. Now this
is often just the operation of fear; it sets the threatenings
against the promises, when it ought simply to direct the soul
from the threatenings to the promises. It is the object of the
threatenings to make the promises shine, and to make the soul
lay hold upon them, and that is the purpose and the tendency of
a salutary fear of the Divine wrath on account of sin, to make
the believer flee directly to the promises, and advance on them
to Christ-(Cheever). [16] Signifying that there is nothing but
despondency and despair in the fallen nature of sinful man: the
best that we can do, leaves us in the Slough of Despond, as to
any hope in ourselves-(Mason).

[17] That is, the Lord Jesus Christ. We never find good ground,
nor safe sounding, nor comfortable walking, till we enter into
possession of Christ by faith, and till our feet are set upon
Christ, who is the Rock of ages-(Mason).

[18] And now you may think, perhaps, that Christian having got out
of the Slough of Despond, and fairly on his way, it is all well
with him; but not so, for now he comes into a peril that is far
greater than the last-a peril through which we suppose that every
soul that ever goes on pilgrimage passes, and a peril in which
multitudes that get safely across the Slough of Despond, perish

[19] "Some inkling"; some intimation, hint, or slight knowledge:

[20] There is great beauty in this dialogue, arising from the exact
regard to character preserved throughout. Indeed, this forms one
of our author's peculiar excellencies; as it is a very difficult
attainment, and always manifests a superiority of genius-(Scott).

[21] Mr. Worldly-wiseman prefers morality to Christ the strait
gate. This is the exact reasoning of the flesh. Carnal reason
ever opposes spiritual truth. The notion of justification by our
own obedience to God's Law ever works in us, contrary to the way
of justification by the obedience of Christ. Self-righteousness
is as contrary to the faith of Christ as indulging the lusts of
the flesh. The former is the white devil of pride, the latter the
black devil of rebellion and disobedience. See the awful consequences
of listening to the reasonings of the flesh-(Mason).

[22] And "wotted": and knew. From the Saxon witen, to know; see
Imperial Dictionary-(ED).

[23]Beware of taking men by their looks. They may look as gentle
as lambs, while the poison of asps is under their tongue; whereby
they infect many souls with pernicious errors and pestilent heresies,
turning them from Christ and the hope of full justification and
eternal life through Him ONLY, to look to, and rely upon, their
own works, in whole, or in part, for salvation-(Mason).

[24] As the belief of the truth lies at the fountain of the hope
of eternal life, and is the cause of anyone becoming a pilgrim;
so the belief of a lie is the cause of anyone's turning out of the
way which leads to glory-(Mason). [25] See the glory of Gospel grace
to sinners. See the amazing love of Christ in dying for sinners.
O remember the price, which obtained the pardon of our sins, at
nothing less than His most precious blood! Believe His wonderful
love. Rejoice in His glorious salvation. Live in the love of Him,
in the hatred of your sins, and in humbleness of mind before

[26] Legality is as great an enemy to the cross of Christ as
licentiousness; for it keeps the soul from coming to, believing
in, and trusting wholly in the blood of Christ for pardon, and the
righteousness of Christ for justification! so that it keeps the soul
in bondage, and swells the mind with pride, while licentiousness
brings a scandal on the cross--(Mason). [27] The straitness of
this gate is not to be understood carnally, but mystically. This
gate is wide enough for all the truly sincere lovers of Jesus
Christ, but so strait that it will keep all others out. The gate
of Eden was wide enough for Adam and his wife to go out at, yet
it was too strait for them to go in at. Why? They had sinned; and
the cherubim and the flaming sword made it too strait for them.
The gates of the temple were six cubits wide, yet they were so
strait that none who were unclean might enter them-(Bunyan's Strait
Gate, vol. 1, p. 367).

[28] Here behold the love of Jesus, in freely and heartily receiving
every poor sinner who comes unto Him; no matter how vile they have
been, nor what sins they have committed, He loves them freely and
receives them graciously; for He has nothing but GOOD-WILL to them.
Hence, the heavenly host sang at his birth, "Good-will towards
men" (Luke 2:14)-(Mason).

[29] As sinners become more decided in applying to Christ, and
assiduous in the means of grace, Satan, if permitted, will be more
vehement in his endeavours to discourage them, that, if possible,
he may induce them to desist, and so come short of the prize-(Scott).
A whole Heaven and eternal life is wrapped up in this little
word-"Strive to enter in"; this calls for the mind and heart.
Many professors make their striving to stand rather in an outcry
of words, than in a hearty labour against the lusts and love of
the world. But this kind of striving is but a beating the air,
and will come to nothing at last-(Bunyan's Strait Gate, vol. 1,
p. 866). Coming souls will have opposition from Satan. He casts
his fiery darts at them; wanderings in prayer, enticements to old
sins, and even blasphemous thoughts, assail the trembling penitent,
when striving to enter into the strait gate, to drive him from
"the way and the life"-(ED).

[30] "No betterment" is an admirable expression of the Christian's
humility-he set out in company, but reached the gate alone; still
it is not unto me, but unto Thy name be all the glory-(ED).

[31] "Carnal arguments" is altered to "carnal agreement," in
several of Mr. Bunyan's editions: see third to the ninth-(ED).

[32] Christian, when admitted at the strait gate, is directed
in the narrow way; not in the broad fashionable religion. In the
broad road, every man may choose a path suited to his inclinations,
shift about to avoid difficulties, or accommodate himself
to circumstances; and he may be sure of company agreeable to his
taste. But Christians must follow one another in the narrow way
on the same track, facing enemies, and bearing hardships, without
attempting to evade them; nor is any indulgence given to different
tastes, habits, or propensities-(Scott).

[33] With gnat propriety Bunyan places the house of the Interpreter
beyond the strait gate; for the knowledge of Divine things, that
precedes conversion to God by faith in Christ, is very scanty,
compared with the diligent Christian's subsequent attainments-(Scott).

[34] It would be difficult to find 12 consecutive pages in the
English language, that contain such volumes of meaning, in such
beautiful and instructive lessons, with such heavenly imagery,
in so pure and sweet a style, and with so thrilling an appeal to
the best affections of the heart, as these pages descriptive of
Christian's sojourning in the house of the Interpreter. This good
man of the house, the Interpreter, we are, without doubt, to take
as the representative of the Holy Spirit, with His enlightening and
sanctifying influences on the heart-(Cheever). The order in which
these heavenly lessons are taught, is worthy of our admiration-(ED).

[35] As in creation, so in conversion, God's command is, "Let there
be light"; it comes by the Word; no Bible, no light. God divided
the light from the darkness; a blessed mystery to prove the
Christian indeed-light in his mind at variance with his native
darkness-(Bunyan, on Genesis).

[36] The FIRST object presented by the Holy Spirit to the mind
of a young believer, is the choice of his minister; not to be
submissive to human orders, but to choose for himself. The leading
features are, that he be grave, devotional, a lover of his Bible,
one who rejects error and preaches the truth; uninfluenced by
paltry pelf or worldly honours; pleading patiently to win souls;
seeking only his Master's approbation; souls, and not money, for
his hire; an immortal crown for his reward. With the laws of men
and friendship to mislead us, how essential is the guidance of
the Holy Spirit in this important choice!-(ED). And whose portrait
is Bunyan describing here? We think he had only Mr. Gifford in
his eye as a faithful minister of Christ; but Bunyan too had been
the pleader with men, and over his own head the crown of gold was
shining, and while he wrote these words, you may be sure that his
spirit thrilled within him as he said, And I too am a minister of
Jesus Christ-(Cheever).

[37]Christian well knew this in his own deep experience; for the
burden of sin was on him still, and sorely did he feel it while
the Interpreter was making this explanation; and had it not been
for his remembrance of the warning of the man at the gate, he would
certainly have besought the Interpreter to take off his burden.
The law could not take it off; he had tried that; and grace had
not yet removed it; so he was forced to be quiet, and to wait
patiently. But when the damsel came and sprinkled the floor, and
laid the dust, and then the parlour was swept so easily, there
were the sweet influences of the Gospel imaged; there was Divine
grace distilling as the dew; there was the gentle voice of Christ
hushing the storm; there were the corruptions of the heart, which
the law had but roused into action, yielding under the power of
Christ; and there was the soul made clean, and fit for the King
of glory to inhabit. Indeed, this was a most instructive emblem.
O that my heart might be thus cleansed, thought Christian, and
then I verily believe I could bear my burden with great ease to
the end of my pilgrimage; but I have had enough of that fierce
sweeper, the Law. The Lord deliver me from his besom!-(Cheever).

[38] This was a vivid and striking emblem, and one which, in its
general meaning, a child could understand. Passion stands for the
men of this world, Patience of that which is to come; Passion for
those who will have all their good things now, Patience for those
who are willing, with self-denial, to wait for something better;
Passion for those who are absorbed in temporal trifles, Patience
for those whose hearts are fixed upon eternal realities; Passion
the things which are seen, and the impatient eagerness with which
they are followed, Patience the things which are unseen, and the
faith, humility, and deadness to the world exercised in order to
enjoy them. It is a good commentary upon Psalm 73-(Cheever).

[39] This instructive vision springs from the author's painful,
but blessed experience. The flame of love in a Christian's heart
is like the fire of despair in Satan's spirit-unquenchable. Before
Bunyan had been behind the wall, the tempter suggested to him-"You
are very hot for mercy, but I will cool you, though I be seven
years in chilling your heart, I can do it at last; I will have you
cold before long"-(Grace Abounding, No. 110). He is the father of
lies. Thus he said to Christian in the fight, "Here will I spill
thy soul"; instead of which, Apollyon was put to flight. We cannot
fail with such a prop, That bears the earth's huge pillars up.
Satan's water can never be so powerful to quench, as Christ's oil
and grace are to keep the fire burning. Sinner, believe this, and
love, praise, and rejoice in thy Lord. He loves with an everlasting
love; He saves with an everlasting salvation; without His perpetual
aid, we should perish; Christ is the Alpha and Omega of our safety;
but how mysterious is the Saint's perseverance until we have seen
the secret supply!-(ED).

[40] For a man to fight his way through infernal enemies, is in
every age a fearful battle; but in addition to this, to enter his
name as a nonconformist in Bunyan's time, demanded intrepidity of
no ordinary degree; their enemies were the throne, the laws, and
the bishops, armed with malignity against these followers of Jesus
Christ. But there were noble spirits, "of very stout countenance," that
by the sword of the Spirit cut their way through all opposition.
Bunyan was one of these worthies-(Ivimey). [41] Verily thou didst,
noble Christian! And who is there that does not know the meaning
of it, and what heart so cold as not to be ravished by it! Yea,
we should think that this passage alone might set any man out on
this pilgrimage, might bring many a careless traveler up to the
gate of this glorious palace to say, Set down my name, Sir! How
full of instruction is this passage! It set Christian's own heart
on fire to run forward on his journey, although the battle was
before him-(Cheever).

[42] All these deeply interesting pictures are intended for every
age and every clime. This iron cage of despair has ever shut up
its victims. Many have supposed that it had a special reference
to one John Child, who, under the fear of persecution, abandoned
his profession, and, in frightful desperation, miserably perished
by his own hand. See Introduction, page 73; see also the sickness
and death of Mr. Badman's brother-(ED).

[43] Bunyan intended not to represent this man as actually beyond
the reach of mercy, but to show the dreadful consequences of
departing from God, and of being abandoned of Him to the misery
of unbelief and despair-(Cheever).

[44] "An everlasting caution"-"God help me to watch." The battle
with Apollyon, the dread valley, the trying scene at Vanity Fair,
the exhilarating victory over By-ends and Demas, dissipated the
painful scene of the iron cage; and want of prayerful caution led
Christian into the dominion of Despair, and he became for a season
the victim shut up in this frightful cage. Reader, may we be ever
found "looking unto Jesus," then shall we be kept from Doubting
Castle and the iron cage-(ED).

[45] "In the midst of these heavenly instructions, why in such
haste to go?" Alas! the burden of sin upon his back pressed him
on to seek deliverance-(ED).

[46] "Rack." Driven violently by the wind-(ED).

[47] We go about the world in the day time, and are absorbed in
earthly schemes; the world is as bright as a rainbow, and it bears
for us no marks or predictions of the judgment, or of our sins;
and conscience is retired, as it were, within a far inner circle
of the soul. But when it comes night, and the pall of sleep is
drawn over the senses, then conscience comes out solemnly, and
walks about in the silent chambers of the soul, and makes her
survey and her comments, and sometimes sits down and sternly reads
the record of a life that the waking man would never look into,
and the catalogue of crimes that are gathering for the judgment.
Imagination walks tremblingly behind her, and they pass through
the open gate of the Scriptures into the eternal world-for thither
all things in man's being naturally and irresistibly tend-and
there, imagination draws the judgment, the soul is presented at
the bar of God, and the eye of the Judge is on it, and a hand of
fire writes, "Thou art weighed in the balances, and found wanting!"
Our dreams sometimes reveal our character, our sins, our destinies,
more clearly than our waking thoughts; for by day the energies
of our being are turned into artificial channels, by night our
thoughts follow the bent that is most natural to them; and as man
is both an immortal and a sinful being, the consequences both of
his immortality and his sinfulness will sometimes be made to stand
out in overpowering light, when the busy pursuits of day are not
able to turn the soul from wandering towards eternity-(Cheever).
Bunyan profited much by dreams and visions. "Even in my childhood
the Lord did scare and affright me with fearful dreams, and
did terrify me with dreadful visions." That is a striking vision
of church fellowship in the Grace Abounding, (Nos. 53-56); and
an awful dream is narrated in the Greatness of the Soul-"Once I
dreamed that I saw two persons, whom I knew, in hell; and methought
I saw a continual dropping from Heaven, as of great drops of fire
lighting upon them, to their sore distress" (vol. 1, p. 148)-(ED).

[48] Our safety consists in a due proportion of hope and fear.
When devoid of hope, we resemble a ship without an anchor; when
unrestrained by fear, we are like the same vessel under full
sail without ballast. True comfort is the effect of watchfulness,
diligence, and circumspection. What lessons could possibly have
been selected of greater importance or more suited to establish the
new convert, than these are which our author has most ingeniously
and agreeably inculcated, under the emblem of the Interpreter's

[49] This is an important lesson, that a person may be in Christ and
yet have a deep sense of the burden of sin upon the soul-(Cheever).
So also Bunyan-"Every height is a difficulty to him that is loaden;
with a burden, how shall we attain the Heaven of heavens?"-(Knowledge
of Christ's Love).

[50] This efficacious sight of the cross is thus narrated in
Grace Abounding, (No. 115)-"Traveling in the country, and musing
on the wickedness and blasphemy of my heart, that scripture came
in my mind-"Having made peace through the blood of His cross" (Col.
1:20). I saw that day again and again, that God and my soul were
friends by His blood; yea, that the justice of God and my soul
could embrace and kiss each other. This was a good day to me; I
hope I shall not forget it." He was glad and lightsome, and had
a merry heart; he was before inspired with hope, but now he is a
happy believer-(ED).

[51] None but those who have felt such bliss, can imagine the joy
with which this heavenly visitation fills the soul. The Father
receives the poor penitent with, "Thy sins be forgiven thee." The
Son clothes him with a spotless righteousness. "The prodigal when
he returned to his father was clothed with rags; but the best
robe is brought out, also the gold ring and the shoes; yea, they
are put upon him to his rejoicing" (Come and Welcome, vol. 1, p.
265). The Holy Spirit gives him a certificate; thus described by
Bunyan in the House of God--"But bring with thee a certificate, To
show thou seest thyself most desolate; Writ by the Master, with
repentance seal'd; To show also, that here thou would'st be healed
By those fair leaves of that most blessed tree By which alone poor
sinners healed be: And that thou dost abhor thee for thy ways, And
would'st in holiness spend all thy days; And here be entertained;
or thou wilt find To entertain thee here are none inclined!"
(Vol. 2, p. 680). Such a certificate, written upon the heart by
the Holy Spirit, may be lost for a season, as in the arbour on
the hill, but cannot be stolen even by Faith-heart, Mistrust, and
Guilt. For the mark in his forehead, see 2 Corinthians 3:2, 3;
"not with ink, but with the spirit of the living God, known and
read of all men"-(ED).

[52] He that has come to Christ, has cast his burden upon Him.
By faith he hath seen himself released thereof; but he that is
but coming, hath it yet, as to sense and feeling, upon his own
shoulders-(Come and Welcome, vol. 1, p. 264).

[53] "Fat"; a vessel in which things are put to be soaked, or to
ferment; a vat-(ED).

[54] No sooner has Christian "received Christ" than he at once
preaches to the sleeping sinners the great salvation. He stays not
for human calls or ordination, but attempts to awaken them to a
sense of their danger, and presently exhorts with authority the
formalist and hypocrite. So it was in the personal experience
of Bunyan; after which, when his brethren discovered his talent,
they invited him to preach openly and constantly. Dare anyone find
fault with that conduct, which proved so extensively useful?-(ED).

[55] The formalist has only the shell of religion; he is hot for
forms because it is all that he has to contend for. The hypocrite
is for God and Baal too; he can throw stones with both hands. He
carries fire in one hand, and water in the other-(Strait Gate,
vol. 1, p. 389). These men range from sect to sect, like wandering
stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever. They
are barren trees; and the axe, whetted by sin and the law, will
make deep gashes. Death sends Guilt, his first-born, to bring
them to the King of terrors-(Barren Fig-tree).

[56] "We trow"; we believe or imagine: from the Saxon. See Imperial

[57] These men occupied the seat of the scorner; they had always
been well dressed. His coat might do for such a ragamuffin as he
had been, but they needed no garment but their own righteousness-the
forms of their church. The mark, or certificate of the new birth,
was an object of scorn to them. Probably they pitied him as a
harmless mystic, weak in mind and illiterate. Alas! how soon was
their laughter turned into mourning. Fear and calamity overwhelmed
them. They trusted in themselves, and there was none to deliver-(ED).

[58] The Christian can hold no communion with a mere formal
professor. The Christian loves to be speaking of the Lord's grace
and goodness, of his conflicts and consolations, of the Lord's
dealings with his soul, and of the blessed confidence which he is
enabled to place in Him-(J. B.).

[59] Such is the fate of those who keep their sins with their
profession, and will not encounter difficulty in cutting them off.
"Not all their pretences of seeking after and praying to God will
keep them from falling and splitting themselves in sunder"-(A Holy
Life the Beauty of Christianity). There are heights that build
themselves up in us, and exalt themselves to keep the knowledge
of God from our hearts. They oppose and contradict our spiritual
understanding of God and His Christ. These are the dark mountains
at which we should certainly stumble and fall, but for one who can
leap and skip over them to our aid-(Saints' Knowledge of Christ's
Love, vol. 2, p. 8).

[60] Pleased with the gifts of grace, rather than with the gracious
giver, pride secretly creeps in; and we fall first into a sinful
self-complacence, and then into indolence and security. This is
intended by his falling fast asleep-(Dr. Dodd).

[61] Sinful sloth deprives the Christian of his comforts. What
he intended only for a moment's nap, like a man asleep during
sermon-time in church, became a deep sleep, and his roll fell out
of his hand; and yet he ran well while there was nothing special
to alarm him. Religious privileges should refresh and not puff

[62] But why go back again? That is the next way to hell. Never go
over hedge and ditch to hell. They that miss life perish, because
they will not let go their sins, or have no saving faith-(Bunyan's
Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. 388).

[63] To go forward is attended with the fear of death, but eternal
life is beyond. I must venture. My hill was further: so I slung
away, Yet heard a cry Just as I went, "None goes that way And
lives." If that be all, said I, After so foul a journey, death is
fair And but a chair.--(G. Herbert's Temple-The Pilgrimage)

[64] He is perplexed for his roll; this is right. If we suffer
spiritual loss, and are easy and unconcerned about it, it is a
sad sign that we indulge carnal security and vain confidences-(Mason).

[65] The backslider is attended with fears and doubts such a he
felt not before, built on the vileness of his backsliding; more
dreadful scriptures look him in the face, with their dreadful
physiognomy. His new sins all turn talking devils, threatening
devils, roaring devils, within him. Besides, he doubts the truth
of his first conversion, and thus adds lead to his heels in
returning to God by Christ. He can tell strange stories, and yet
such as are very true. No man can tell what is to be seen and
felt in the whale's belly but Jonah-(Bunyan's Christ a Complete
Saviour, vol. 1, p. 224).

[66] "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is
Mount Zion; God is known in her palaces for a refuge." Those who
enter must joyfully submit to the laws and ordinances of this

[67] The two lions, civil despotism and ecclesiastical tyranny,
terrified many young converts, when desirous of joining a Christian
church, here represented by the Beautiful Palace. In the reign of
the Tudors they committed sad havoc. In Bunyan's time, they were
chained, so that few suffered martyrdom, although many were ruined,
imprisoned, and perished in dungeons. When Faithful passed they
were asleep. It was a short cessation from persecution. In the
Second Part, Great-heart slew Giant Bloody-man, who backed the
lions; probably referring to the wretched death of that monster,
Judge Jefferies. And in the experience of Mr. Fearing, it is clear
that the Hill Difficulty and the lions were intended to represent
temporal and bodily troubles, and not spiritual difficulties-"When
we came at the Hill Difficulty, he made no stick at that, nor did
he much fear the lions; for you must know that his trouble was not
about such things as these; his fear was about his acceptance at

[68] Christian, after feeling the burden of sin, entering by Christ
the gate, taught by the Holy Spirit lessons of high concern in
the Bible or House of the Interpreter; after losing his burden by
faith in his crucified Saviour, his sins pardoned, clothed with
his Lord's righteousness, marked by a godly profession, he becomes
fit for church-fellowship; is invited by Bishop Gifford, the porter;
and, with the consent of the inmates, he enters the house called
Beautiful. Mark, reader, not as essential to salvation; it is by
the side of the road, not across it; all that was essential had
taken place before. Faithful did not enter. Here is no compulsion
either to enter or pay: that would have converted it into the
house of arrogance or persecution. It is upon the Hill Difficulty,
requiring personal, willing efforts to scramble up; and holy
zeal and courage to bear the taunts of the world and the growling
frowns of the lions. Here he has new lessons to learn of Discretion,
Piety, Prudence, and Charity, to bear with his fellow-members,
and they with him; and here he is armed for his journey. Many are
the blessed enjoyments of church-fellowship. "Esther was had to the
house of the women to be purified, and so came to the king. God
also hath appointed that those who come into His royal presence
should first go to the house of the women, the church." (See
Bunyan's Greatness of the Soul, vol. 1, p. 145). Every soul must
be fitted for the royal presence, usually in church fellowship:
but these lovely maidens sometimes wait on and instruct those
who never enter the house Beautiful; who belong to the church
universal, but not to any local body of Christians. John directs
his Revelations to the seven churches in Asia; Paul, his epistles to
the churches in Galatia, or to the church at Corinth-all distinct
bodies of Christians; James to the 12 tribes; and Peter to the
strangers, and "to them that have obtained like precious faith,"
of all churches-(ED).

[69] The true Christian's inmost feelings will best explain these
answers, which no exposition can elucidate to those who are
unacquainted with the conflict to which they refer, the golden
hours, fleeting and precious, are earnests of the everlasting holy
felicity of Heaven-(Scott). [70] The only true mode of vanquishing
carnal thoughts is looking at Christ crucified, or dwelling upon
His dying love, the robe of righteousness which clothes his naked
soul, his roll or evidence of his interest, and the glory and happiness
of Heaven! Happy souls who THUS oppose their corruptions!-(Dr.

[71]This was the fact as it regards Bunyan when he was writing
the "Pilgrim." He had a wife, two sons, and two daughters. This
conversation was first published in the second edition, 1678;
and if he referred to his own family, it was to his second wife,
a most worthy and heroic woman; but she and some of his children
were fellow-pilgrims with him. His eldest son was a preacher 11
years before the Second Part of the "Pilgrim" was published-(ED).

[72] O soul! consider this deeply. It is the life of a Christian
that carries more conviction and persuasion than his words-(Mason).

[73] Those that religiously name the name of Christ, and do not
depart from iniquity, cause the perishing of many. A professor
that hath not forsaken his iniquity is like one that comes out of
a pest-house to his home, with all his plague-sores running. He
hath the breath of a dragon, and poisons the air round about him.
This is the man that slays his children, his kinsmen, his friends,
and himself. O! the millstone that God will shortly hang about
your necks, when you must be drowned in the sea and deluge of
God's wrath-(Bunyan's Holy Life, vol. 2, p. 530).

[74] How beautiful must that church be where Watchful is the
porter; where Discretion admits the members; where Prudence takes
the oversight; where Piety conducts the worship; and where Charity
endears the members one to another! They partake of the Lord's
Supper, a feast of fat things, with wine well refined-(J.B.).

[75] Ah! theirs was converse such as it behooves Man to maintain,
and such as God approves--Christ and His character their only
scope, Their subject, and their object, and their hope. O days of
Heaven, and nights of equal praise! Serene and peaceful as those
heavenly days When souls drawn upwards in communion sweet, Enjoy
the stillness of some close retreat, Discourse, as if releas'd
and safe at home, Of dangers past, and wonders yet to come-(Cowper).

[76] When Christiana and her party arrived at this house Beautiful,
she requested that they might repose in the same chamber, called
Peace, which was granted. The author, in his marginal note, explains
the nature of this resting-place by the words, "Christ's bosom is
for all pilgrims"-(ED).

[77] How suddenly that straight and glittering shaft Shot 'thwart
the earth! In crown of living fire Up comes the day! As if they,
conscious, quaff'd The sunny flood, hill, forest, city, spire,
Laugh in the wakening light. Go, vain Desire! The dusky lights
have gone; go thou thy way! And pining Discontent, like them expire!
Be called my chamber Peace, when ends the day, And let me, with
the dawn, like Pilgrim, sing and pray. Great is the Lord our God,
And let His praise be great: He makes His churches His abode,
His most delightful seat-(Dr. Watts).

[78] Should you see a man that did not go from door to door, but
he must be clad in a coat of mail, and have a helmet of brass
upon his head, and for his life-guard not so few as a thousand
men to wait on him, would you not say, Surely this man has store
of enemies at hand? If Solomon used to have about his bed no less
than threescore of the most valiant of Israel, holding swords, and
being expert in war, what guard and safeguard doth God's people
need, who are, night and day, roared on by the unmerciful fallen
angels? Why, they lie in wait for poor Israel in every hole, and
he is forever in danger of being either stabbed or destroyed-(Bunyan's
Israel's Hope, vol. 1, p. 602).

[79] Christ himself is the Christian's armoury. When he puts on
Christ, he is then completely armed from head to foot. Are his
loins girt about with truth? Christ is the truth. Has he on the
breastplate of righteousness? Christ is our righteousness. Are
his feet shod with the Gospel of peace? Christ is our peace. Does
he take the shield of faith, and helmet of salvation? Christ is
that shield, and all our salvation. Does he take the sword of the
Spirit, which is the Word of God? Christ is the Word of God. Thus
he puts on the Lord Jesus Christ; by his Spirit fights the fight
of faith; and, in spite of men, of devils, and of his own evil
heart, lays hold of eternal life. Thus Christ is all in all-(J.

[80] The church in the wilderness, even her porch, is full of
pillars-apostles, prophets, and martyrs of Jesus. There are hung
up also the shields that the old warriors used, and on the walls
are painted the brave achievements they have done. There, also, are
such encouragements that one would think that none who came thither
would ever attempt to go back. Yet some forsake the place-(Bunyan's
House of Lebanon).

[81] The Delectable Mountains, as seen at a distance, represent
those distinct views of the privileges and consolations, attainable
in this life, with which believers are sometimes favoured. This
is the pre-eminent advantage of Christian communion, and can only
be enjoyed at some special seasons, when the Sun of Righteousness
shines upon the soul-(Scott).

[82] Thus it is, after a pilgrim has been favoured with any special
and peculiar blessings, there is danger of his being puffed up
by them, and exalted on account of them; so was even holy Paul;
therefore, the messenger of Satan was permitted to buffet him (2
Cor. 3:7)-(Mason). We are not told here what these slips were; but
when Christian narrates the battle to Hopeful, he lets us into the
secret-"These three villains," Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt,
"set upon me, and I beginning, like a Christian, to resist, they
gave but a call, and in came their master. I would, as the saying
is, have given my life for a penny, but that, as God would have
it, I was clothed with armour of proof." In the Second Part,
Great-heart attributed the sore combat with Apollyon to have
arisen from "the fruit of those slips that he got in going down
the hill." Great enjoyments need the most prayerful watchfulness
in going down from them, lest those three villains cause us to
slip. Christian's heavenly enjoyment in the communion of saints
was followed by his humbling adventures in the valley-a needful
proof of Divine love to his soul. "Whom the Lord loveth He
chasteneth"-(ED). "A broken heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise."
Has He given it to thee, my reader? Then He has given thee a cabinet
to hold His grace in. True, it is painful now, it is sorrowful,
it bleeds, it sighs, it sobs, well, very well; all this is because
He has a mind that thou mayest rejoice in Heaven-(Bunyan's Acceptable

[83] "No armour for his back"; to desist is inevitable ruin. He
sees no safety except in facing his enemy. Fear itself creates
additional courage, and induces him to stand his ground-(Drayton).

[84] The description of Apollyon is terrible. This dreadful imagery
is collected from various parts of Scripture, where the attributes
of the most terrible animals are given him; the attributes
of leviathan, the dragon, the lion, and the bear; to denote his
strength, his pride, his rage, his courage, and his cruelty-(Andronicus).

[85] In our days, when emigration is so encouraged by the state,
it may be difficult for some youthful readers to understand this
argument of Apollyon's. In Bunyan's time, every subject was deemed
to be Crown property, and no one dared depart the realm without a
license. Thus, when Cromwell and his heroes had hired ships, and
were ready to start for America, Charles II providentially detained
them, to work out the great Revolution-(ED).

[86] Promises or vows, whether made by us or by others on our
behalf, before we possessed powers of reason or reflection, cannot
be binding. The confirmation or rejection of all vows made by or
for us in our nonage, should, on arriving at years of discretion,
be our deliberate choice, for we must recollect that no personal
dedication can be acceptable to God unless it is the result of
solemn inquiry-(ED).

[87] Mark the subtlety of this gradation in temptation. The profits
of the world and pleasures of sin are held out as allurements.
The apostasy of others suggested. The difficulties, dangers, and
sufferings of the Lord's people, are contrasted with the prosperity
of sinners. The recollections of our sins and backslidings, under a
profession of religion. The supposition that all our profession is
founded in pride and vain-glory. All backed by our own consciences;
as if Apollyon straddled quite across the way, and stopped us from
going on-(Andronicus).

[88] This dialogue is given, in different words, in the Jerusalem
Sinner Saved, Volume 1, pages 79, 80. Satan is loath to part with
a great sinner. What, my true servant, quoth he, my old servant,
wilt thou forsake me now? Having so often sold thyself to me to
work wickedness, wilt thou forsake me now? Thou horrible wretch,
dost not know that thou hast sinned thyself beyond the reach
of grace, and dost thou think to find mercy now? Art not thou
a murderer, a thief, a harlot, a witch, a sinner of the greatest
size, and dost thou look for mercy now? Dost thou think that
Christ will foul His fingers with thee? It is enough to make angels
blush, saith Satan, to see so vile a one knock at Heaven's gates
for mercy, and wilt thou be so abominably bold to do it? Thus
Satan dealt with me, says the great sinner, when at first I came
to Jesus Christ. And what did you reply? saith the tempted. Why,
I granted the whole charge to be true, says the other. And what,
did you despair, or how? No, saith he, I said, I am Magdalene, I
am Zaccheus, I am the thief, I am the harlot, I am the publican,
I am the prodigal, and one of Christ's murderers-yea, worse than
any of these; and yet God was so far off from rejecting of me, as
I found afterwards, that there was music and dancing in His house
for me, and for joy that I was come home unto Him. When Satan
charged Luther with a long list of crimes, he replied, This is all
true; but write another line at the bottom, "The blood of Jesus
Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin"-(ED).

[89] The devil is that great and dogged leviathan, that "spreadeth
sharp pointed things upon the mire" (Job 40:30). For be the
spreading nature of our corruptions never so broad, he will find
sharp pointed things enough to stick in the mire of them for our
affliction; they are called fiery darts, and he has abundance
of them with which he can and will sorely prick and wound our
spirits-(Bunyan on Christ's Love, vol. 2, p. 65).

[90] When infidel thoughts prevail, so that doubts of the truth
of Scripture take hold of the mind, the sword of the Spirit flies
out of the hand. Unarmed before a ferocious enemy, it was an awful
moment; but God revives his faith in the Divine Word, he recovers
his sword, and gives his enemy a deadly plunge-I shall rise-(Drayton).

[91] "For a season," is only found in the first edition. These
words may have been omitted, in Bunyan's subsequent editions, by
a typographical error, or have been struck out by him. My impression
is, that they were left out by the printer in error; because, in
the Second Part, when the pilgrims pass the spot and talk of the
battle, we are told that "when Apollyon was beat, he made his
retreat to the next valley." And there poor Christian was awfully
beset with him again-(ED).

[92] You will find, from the perusal of Bunyan's own spiritual
life, that he has here brought together, in the assault of Apollyon
upon Christian, many of the most grievous temptations with which
his own soul was beset, as also, in Christian's answers against
them, the very method of defence which he himself was taught by
Divine grace in the midst of the conflict. It is here condensed
into a narrow and vivid scene, but it extended over years of
Bunyan's life; and the wisdom that is in it, and the points of
experience illustrated, were the fruit of many months of painfulness,
danger, and desperate struggle with the adversary, which he had
to go through-(Cheever).

[93] The literal history of this terrific conflict may be found in
Bunyan's experience recorded in Grace Abounding, (Nos. 131-173),
when he recovered his sword, and put his enemy to flight. He
describes his agonies in the combat as if he were being racked
upon the wheel, and states that it lasted for about a year. Floods
of blasphemies were poured in upon him, but he was saved from
utter despair, because they were loathsome to him. Dr. Cheever
eloquently says, "What made the fight a thousand times worse for
poor Christian was, that many of these hellish darts were tipped,
by Apollyon's malignant ingenuity, with sentences from Scripture";
so that Christian thought the Bible was against him. One of these
fiery darts penetrated his soul with the awful words, "no place
for repentance"; and another with, "hath never forgiveness." The
recovery of his sword was by a heavenly suggestion that He BEGIN
did not "refuse him that speaketh"; new vigour was communicated.
"When I fall, I SHALL arise," was a home-thrust at Satan; who left
him, richly to enjoy the consolations of the Gospel after this
dreadful battle-(ED).

[94] By "leaves" here (Rev. 22: 2), we are to understand the
blessed and precious promises, consolations, and encouragements,
that, by virtue of Christ, we find everywhere growing on the new
covenant, which will be handed freely to the wounded conscience that
is tossed on the reckless waves of doubt and unbelief. Christ's
leaves are better than Adam's aprons. He sent His Word, and healed
them-(Bunyan's Holy City).

[95] However terrible these conflicts are, they are what every
Christian pilgrim has to encounter that is determined to win
Heaven. Sin and death, reprobates and demons, are against him.
The Almighty, all good angels and men, are for him. Eternal life
is the reward. Be not discouraged, young Christian! "If God be for
us, who can be against us?" We shall come off more than conquerors,
through him that hath loved us. Equal to our day so shall be our
strength. The enemies had a special check from our Lord, while Mr.
Fearing passed through. "Though death and hell obstruct the way
The meanest saint shall win the day"-(ED).

[96] "Desired Heaven," in some of Bunyan's editions-(ED).

[97] The ditch on the right hand is error in principle, into which
the blind, as to spiritual truth, fall. The ditch on the left hand
means outward sin and wickedness, which many fall into. Both are
alike dangerous to pilgrims: but the Lord "will keep the feet
of his saints" (1 Sam. 2:9)-(Mason). Dr. Dodd considers that by
the deep ditch is intended "presumptuous hopes," and the no less
dangerous quag to be "despairing fears"-(ED).

[98] The sight of an immortal soul in peril of its eternal interests,
beset with enemies, engaged in a desperate conflict, with hell
opening her mouth before, and fiends and temptations pressing
after, is a sublime and awful spectacle. Man cannot aid him; all
his help is in God only-(Cheever).

[99] And as for the secrets of Satan, such as are suggestions
to question the being of God, the truth of His Word, and to be
annoyed with devilish blasphemies, none are more acquainted with
these than the biggest sinners at their conversion; wherefore
thus also they are prepared to be helps in the church to relieve
and comfort others-(Jerusalem Sinner Saved, vol. 1, p. 80). See also
a very interesting debate upon this subject in Come and Welcome
to Jesus Christ, volume 1, page 250. O, no one knows the terrors
of these days but myself-(Grace Abounding, Nos. 100-102). Satan
and his angels trouble his head with their stinking breath. How
many strange, hideous, and amazing blasphemies have some, that
are coming to Christ, had injected upon their spirits against
Him-(Christ a Complete Saviour, vol. 1, p. 209). He brought me up
also out of a horrible pit; a pit of noise of devils, and of my
heart answering them with distrust and fear-(Saint's Knowledge of
Christ's Love).

[100] The experience of other saints is very encouraging; for the
soul finds that others have gone before him in dreadful, dark,
and dreary paths-(Mason).

[101] To walk in darkness, and not be distressed for it, argues
stupidity of the soul. To have the light of God's countenance
shine upon us, and not to rejoice and be thankful for it, is

[102] I would not be too confident, but I apprehend that by this
second part of the valley we are taught that believers are not
most in danger when under the deepest distress; that the snares
and devices of the enemy are so many and various, through the
several stages of our pilgrimage, as to baffle all description;
and that all the emblems of these valleys could not represent the
thousandth part of them. Were it not that the Lord guides His people
by the light of His Word and Spirit, they never could possibly
escape them-(Scott).

[103] The wicked spirits have made and laid for us snares, pits,
holes, and what not, if peradventure by something we may be
destroyed. Yea, and we should most certainly be so, were it not
for the Rock that is higher than they-(Bunyan's Saints' Knowledge
of Christ's Love, vol. 2, p. 8).

[104] Alas, my dear country! I would to God it could not be said
to thee, since the departure of paganism and popery, "The blood of
the poor innocents is found in thy skirts, not by a secret search,
but upon thy kings, princes, priests, and prophets" (Jer. 2:34,
26). Let us draw a veil over the infamy of PROTESTANT PERSECUTION,
and bless Jehovah, who has broken the arrow and the bow-(Andronicus).
It may be questioned whether popery may not yet so far recover
its vigour as to make one more alarming struggle against vital
Christianity, before that Man of Sin be finally destroyed. Our
author, however, has described no other persecution than what
Protestants, in his time, carried on against one another with very
great alacrity-(Scott).

[105] The quaint and pithy point of this passage stamps it as one
of Bunyan's most felicitous descriptions. We who live in a later
age may, indeed, suspect that he has somewhat antedated the death
of Pagan, and the impotence of Pope; but his picture of their
cave and its memorials, his delineation of the survivor of this
fearful pair, rank among those master-touches which have won such
lasting honour for his genius-(Bernard Barton).

[106] Christian having passed the gloomy whirlwind of temptation
to despair, now walks in the light of the Sun of Righteousness,
through the second part of the valley. There he encounters the
persecution of the state church. Act after act of Parliament had
been passed-full of atrocious penalties, imprisonments, transportation,
and hanging-to deter poor pilgrims from the way to Zion. "The way
was full of snares, traps, gins, nets, pitfalls, and deep holes."
Had the darkness of mental anguish been added to these dangers,
he must have perished. The butcheries of Jefferies strewed the way
with blood, bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of pilgrims. Pope
reared his ugly head, and growled out, "More of you must be burned."
The desolating tyranny of the church was curbed by the King's
turning papist, which paved the way for the glorious Revolution
of 1688. It appears from the Grace Abounding, that to the time of
Bunyan's imprisonment for preaching the Gospel, he was involved
frequently in deeply-distressing spiritual darkness; but, from his
entering the prison, be walked in the light of God's countenance
to his dying day-(ED).

[107] We are now to be introduced to a new pilgrim, and Christian
is no more to go on his way alone. The sweet Christian communion
depicted in this book forms one of the most delightful features
in it, and Faithful and Hopeful are both of them portraits that
stand out in as firm relief as that of Christian himself. Faithful
is the Martyr Pilgrim, who goes in a chariot of fire to Heaven,
and leaves Christian alone; Hopeful springs, as it were, out of
Faithful's ashes, and supplies his place all along the remainder
of the pilgrimage. The communion between these loving Christians,
their sympathy and share in each other's distresses, their mutual
counsels and encouragements, temptations and dangers, experience
and discipline, their united joys and sorrows, and their very
passing of the river of death together, form the sweetest of all
examples of the true fellowship of saints, united to the same
Saviour, made to drink into the same Spirit, baptized with the same
sufferings, partakers of the same consolations, crowned with the
same crown of life, entering together upon glory everlasting-(Cheever).
The author has displayed great skill in introducing a companion
to his Pilgrim in this place. Thus far the personal adventures of
Christian had been of the most extraordinary kind, and sufficient of
themselves to exercise the reader's sympathies for him; but these
feelings would have languished from weariness, however intensely
the sequel might have been wrought, had attention been claimed
for a solitary wanderer to the end of the journey. Here then the
history, which had probably reached its climax in the preceding
scenes, revives, by taking a new form, and exciting a fresh interest,
rather doubled than divided, though two have thenceforward to
share it instead of one. Besides, the individual experience of one
man, however varied, would not have been sufficient to exemplify
all the most useful lessons of the Gospel, unless the trials of many
persons, of different age, sex, and disposition, were interwoven.
The instance at hand will illustrate this point-(Montgomery).

[108] Ah, what a smile was that! How much sin was there in it,
instead of humble spiritual gratitude, and joy. Now see how
he that exalteth himself shall be abased, and how surely, along
with spiritual pride, comes carelessness, false security, and a
grievous fall-(Cheever). The very person's hand we need to help
us, whom we thought we had exceeded-(Mason). When a consciousness
of superiority to other Christians leads to vain glory, a fall
will be the consequence; but while it excites compassion, it also
cements Christian friendship-(Ivimey).

[109] Mr. Anything became a brisk man in the broil; but both
sides were against him, because he was true to none. He had, for
his malapertness, one of his legs broken, and he that did it wished
it had been his neck-(Holy War).

[110] "I trow," I believe or imagine (Imp. Dict.)-(ED).

[111] If the experience of Christian is an exhibition of Bunyan's
own feelings, the temptations of Madam Wanton are very properly
laid in the way of Faithful, and not of Christian. She would have
had no chance with the man who admired the wisdom of God in making
him shy of women, who rarely carried it pleasantly towards a woman,
and who abhorred the common salutation of women-(Grace Abounding,
No. 316)-ED.

[112] "All" is omitted from every edition by Bunyan, except the
first; probably a typographical error.

[113] An awful slavery! "None that go unto her return again,
neither take they hold of the paths of life" (Prov. 2:19)--(ED).

[114] That sinner who never had a threatening fiery visit from
Moses, is yet asleep in his sins, under the curse and wrath of
the law of God-(C.C.V.G.).

[115] As the law giveth no strength, nor life to keep it, so it
accepteth none of them that are under it. Sin and Die, is forever
its language. There is no middle way in the law. It hath not
ears to hear, nor heart to pity, its penitent ones--(Bunyan on
Justification, vol. 1, p. 316).

[116] The delineation of this character is a masterly grouping
together of the arguments used by men of this world against
religion, in ridicule and contempt of it. Faithful's account of
him, and of his arguments, is a piece of vigorous satire, full of
truth and life-(Cheever).

[117] Nothing can be a stronger proof that we have lost the image
of God, than shame concerning the things of God. This shame, joined
to the fear of man, is a very powerful enemy to God's truths,
Christ's glory, and our soul's comfort. Better at once get out
of our pain, by declaring boldly for Christ and His cause, than
stand shivering on the brink of profession, ever dreading the loss
of our good name and reputation: for Christ says (awful words):
"Whosoever shall be ashamed of Me and of My words, in this
adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of
man be ashamed when He cometh in the glory of His Father" (Mark
8:38). It is one thing to be attacked by shame, and another to be
conquered by it-(Mason).

[118] Christian in a great measure escaped the peculiar temptations
that assaulted Faithful, yet he sympathized with him; nor did
the latter deem the gloomy experiences of his brother visionary
or imaginative, though he had been exempted from them. One man,
from a complication of causes, is exposed to temptations of which
another is ignorant; and in this case he needs much sympathy,
which he seldom meets with; while they, who are severe on him are
liable to be baffled in another way, which, for want of coincidence
in habit, temperature, and situation, he is equally prone to
disregard. Thus Christians are often led reciprocally to censure,
suspect, or dislike each other, on those very grounds which would
render them useful and encouraging counselors and companions!-(Scott).

[119] Bunyan, in his Pilgrim's Progress, places the Valley of
the Shadow of Death, not where we should expect it, at the end of
Christian's pilgrimage, but about the middle of it. Those who have
studied the history of Bunyan and his times will hardly wonder at
this. It was then safer to commit felony than to become a Dissenter.
Indeed, a felon was far surer of a fair trial than any Dissenting
minister, after the restoration of Charles II. This Bunyan found.
Simply and solely for preaching, he was condemned by Keeling to
imprisonment. That was to be followed by banishment if he did not
conform, and, in the event of his return from banishment without
license from the King, the judge added, "You must stretch by the
neck for it; I tell you plainly." Christian endured, in the first
portion of this dismal valley, great darkness and distress of mind
about his soul's safety for eternity; and, in the latter part of
the valley, the dread of an ignominious, and cruel, and sudden
execution in the midst of his days-a fear more appalling than the
prospect of a natural death. This he was enabled to bear, because
he then enjoyed the light, the presence, and the approbation of
his God-(ED).

[120] The character now introduced under a most expressive name,
is an admirable portrait, drawn by a masterly hand, from some
striking original, but exactly resembling numbers in every age
and place, where the truths of the Gospel are generally known.
Such men are more conspicuous than humble believers, but their
profession will not endure a strict investigation-(Scott). Reader,
be careful not to judge harshly, or despise a real believer, who
is blessed with fluency of utterance on Divine subjects-(ED).

[121] As an outward profession, without a holy life, is no evidence
of religion, neither are excellent gifts any proof that the persons
who possess them are partakers of grace: so it is an awful fact,
that some have edified the church by their gifts, who have themselves
been destitute of the spirit of life-(Ivimey). I concluded, a
little grace, a little love, a little of the true fear of God, is
better than all gifts-(Grace Abounding).

[122] The Pharisee goes on boldly, fears nothing, but trusteth
in himself that his state is good; he hath his mouth full of many
fine things, whereby he strokes himself over the head, and calls
himself one of God's white boys, that, like the Prodigal's brother,
never transgressed-(Pharisee and Publican, vol. 2, p. 215).

[123] Talkative seems to have been introduced on purpose that the
author might have a fair opportunity of stating his sentiments
concerning the practical nature of evangelical religion, to which
numbers in his day were too inattentive; so that this admired
allegory has fully established the important distinction between
a dead and a living faith, on which the whole controversy
depends-(Scott). "Though I speak with the tongues of men and of
angels, and have not charity, I am as sounding brass or a tinkling
cymbal" (1 Cor. 13:1). Just thus it is with him who has gifts,
but wants grace. Shall I be proud, because I am sounding brass? Is
it so much to be a fiddle? Hath not the least creature that hath
life, more of God in it than these?-(Grace Abounding, No. 297-300).
Some professors are pretty busy and ripe, able to hold you in a
very large discourse of the glorious Gospel; but, if you ask them
concerning heart work, and its sweet influences and virtues on
their souls and consciences, they may answer, I find by preaching
that I am turned from my sins in a good measure, and have learned
[in tongue] to plead for the Gospel. This is not far enough to
prove them under the covenant of grace-(Law and Grace, vol. 1, p.

[124] Read this, and tremble, ye whose profession lies only on
your tongue, but who never knew the love and grace of Christ in
your souls. O how do you trifle with the grace of God, with precious
Christ, and with the holy Word of truth! O what an awful account
have you to give hereafter to a holy, heart-searching God! Ye
true pilgrims of Jesus, read this, and give glory to your Lord,
for saving you from resting in barren notions, and taking up with
talking of truths; and that he has given you to know the truth
in its power, to embrace it in your heart, and to live and walk
under its constraining, sanctifying influences. Who made you to

[125] This spiritual application of the law of Moses is found in
the narrative of Bunyan's experience in the Grace Abounding, (No.
71): "I was also made, about this time, to see something concerning
the beasts that Moses counted clean and unclean. I thought those
beasts were types of men: the clean, types of them that were the
people of God; but the unclean, types of such as were the children
of the wicked one. Now, I read, that the clean beasts chewed the
cud; that is, thought I, they show us we must feed upon the Word
of God; they also parted the hoof, I thought that signified we
must part, if we would be saved with the ways of ungodly men."

[126] True faith will ever show itself by its fruits; real conversion,
by the life and conversation. Be not deceived; God is not to be
mocked with the tongue, if the heart is not right towards Him in
love and obedience-(Mason).

[127] This distinction between speaking against sin, and feeling
a hatred to it, is so vastly important, that it forms the only
infallible test to distinguish between those who are "quickened"
by the Spirit of God, and those who "have a name to live and are
dead." It is a very awful statement, but, it is to be feared,
strictly correct, that ministers may declaim against sin in the
pulpit, who yet indulge it in the parlour. There may be much head
knowledge, where there is no heart religion-(Ivimey).

[128] Christian faithfulness detects mere talkatives, and they
complain, "in so saying thou condemnest us also"; they will bear
no longer, but seek refuge under more comfortable preachers, or
in more candid company, and represent those faithful monitors as
censorious, peevish, and melancholy men-lying at the catch-(Scott).

[129] In the Jerusalem Sinner Saved, Bunyan explains his meaning
of "lying at the catch" in these solemn words, referring to those
who abide in sin, and yet expect to be saved by grace: "Of this
sort are they that build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with
iniquity; that judge for reward, and teach for hire, and divine
for money, and lean upon the Lord (Micah 3:10, 11). This is doing
things with a high hand against the Lord our God, and a taking Him,
as it were, at the catch! This is, as we say among men, to seek
to put a trick upon God, as if He had not sufficiently fortified
his proposals of grace by his Holy Word, against all such kind of
fools as these"-(Vol. 1, p. 93).

[130] Blessed faithful dealing! O that it were more practised
in the world, and in the church! How then would vain talkers be
detected in the one, and driven out of the other-(Mason).

[131] Heart searching, soul examining, and close questioning of
the conduct of life, will not do with talkative professors. Ring
a peal on the doctrines of grace, and many will chime in with you;
but speak closely how grace operates upon the heart, and influences
the life to follow Christ in self-denying obedience, they cannot
bear it; they are offended with you, and will turn away from you,
and call you legal-(Mason).

[132] I observe that, as there are trees wholly noble, so there
are also their semblance; not right, but ignoble. There is the
grape, and the wild grape; the rose, and the canker rose; the
apple and the crab. Now, fruit from these wild trees, however it
may please children to play with, yet the prudent count it of no
value. There are also in the world a generation of professors that
bring forth nothing but wild olive berries; saints only before
men, devils and vipers at home; saints in word, but sinners in
heart and life. Well, saith God, this profession is but a cloak:
I will loose the reins of this man, and give him up to his own
vile affections. "I will answer him by Myself" (Ezek. 14:7). Thou
art too hard for the church: she knows not how to deal with thee.
Well, I will deal with that man Myself-(Bunyan's Barren Fig-tree).

[133] Where the heart is rotten, it will ward off conviction,
turn from a faithful reprover, condemn him, and justify itself.
Faithful dealing will not do for unfaithful souls. Mind not that,
but be faithful to the truth-(Mason).

[134] How they rejoiced again to meet Evangelist, and listen
to his encouraging and animating exhortations; of which, as they
were now near the great town of Vanity Fair, they would stand in
special need. Indeed, it was to forewarn them of what they were
to meet with there, and to exhort them, amidst all persecutions,
to quit themselves like men, that Evangelist now came to them.
His voice, so solemn and deep, yet so inspiring and animating,
sounded like the tones of a trumpet on the eve of battle-(Cheever).

[135] The pilgrims are now about to enter upon a new era-to leave
their privacy in the wilderness, and commence a more public
scene-perhaps alluding to Bunyan's being publicly set apart to
the work of the ministry. It was in the discharge of these public
duties that he was visited with such severe persecution. This
interview with Evangelist reminds one of the setting apart of
Dissenting ministers. It is usual, on these occasions, for the
Christians entering on such important duties, to give a short
account of what "had happened in the way," and their reasons for
hoping that they were called by God to the work. They receive the
advice of their ministering elder, and the pastor prays for their
peace and prosperity. Evangelist's address would make a good outline
of an ordination sermon. Bunyan's account of his being thus set
apart in 1656 (with seven other members of the same church) is
narrated in Grace Abounding, Nos. 266-270. The second address of
Evangelist peculiarly relates to the miseries endured by Nonconformist
ministers in the reign of Charles II-(ED).

[136] Shall the world venture their soul's ruin for a poor corruptible
crown; and shall not we venture the loss of a few trifles for an
eternal crown? Shall they venture the loss of eternal life for
communion with base, drunken, covetous wretches; and shall we not
labour as hard, run as fast, nay, a hundred times more diligently,
for such glorious and eternal friends as God to love, Christ
to redeem, the Holy Spirit to comfort, and saints and angels in
Heaven for company? Shall it be said at the last day, that the
wicked made more haste to hell than you to Heaven? O let it not
be so, but run with all might and main! They that will have Heaven
must run for it, because the devil will follow them. There is
never a poor soul that is gone to it, but he is after that soul.
And I assure them the devil is nimble; he is light of foot, and
can run apace. He hath overtaken many, tripped up their heels,
and given them an everlasting fall--(Heavenly Footman).

[137] Bunyan illustrates the care of Christ for his afflicted ones
with striking simplicity. "I love to play the child with children.
I have met with a child that had a sore finger, so that it was
useless. Then have I said, Shall we cut off this finger, and buy
my child a better, a brave golden finger? At this he started, and
felt indignation against me. Now, if a child has such tenderness
for a useless member, how much more tender is the Son of God to
his afflicted members?"-(Saint's Privilege, vol. 1, p. 674). The
text here quoted forms the foundation of Bunyan's admirable Advice
to Sufferers, in which he delightfully dwells upon the topics
which Evangelist addresses to the Pilgrims, when on the verge of
bitter persecution-(ED).

[138] Vanity Fair is the City of Destruction in its gala dress,
in its most seductive and sensual allurements. It is this world in
miniature, with its various temptations. Hitherto we have observed
the pilgrims by themselves, in loneliness, in obscurity, in the
hidden life and experience of the people of God. The allegory
thus far has been that of the soul, amidst its spiritual enemies,
toiling towards Heaven; now there comes a scene more open, tangible,
external; the allurements of the world are to be presented, with
the manner in which the true pilgrim conducts himself amidst
them. It was necessary that Bunyan should show his pilgrimage in
its external as well as its secret spiritual conflicts; it was
necessary that he should draw the contrast between the pursuits
and deportment of the children of this world and the children
of light; that he should show how a true pilgrim appears, and is
likely to be regarded, who, amidst the world's vanities, lives
above the world, is dead to it, and walks through it as a stranger
and a pilgrim towards Heaven-(Cheever).

[139] A just description of this wicked world. How many, though
they profess to be pilgrims, have never yet set one foot out of
this fair; but live in it all the year round! They "walk according
to the course of this world" (Eph. 2:2); for "the god of this
world hath blinded their minds" (1 Cor. 4:4). But all those for
whose sins Jesus hath died "He delivers from this present evil
world" (Gal. 1:4). You cannot be a pilgrim, if you are not delivered
from this world and its vanities; for if you love the world, if
it has your supreme affections, the love of God is not in you, (1
John 2:15); you have not one grain of precious faith in precious

[140] Mr. James, who, in 1815, published the "Pilgrim" in verse,
conjectures that Bunyan's description of the Fair arose from
his having been at Sturbridge Fair, near Cambridge. It was thus
described in 1786-"The shops or booths are built in rows like
streets, having each its name; as Garlick Row, Bookseller's Row,
Cook Row, &c. Here are all sorts of traders, who sell by wholesale
or retail; as goldsmith's toymen, braziers, turners, milliners,
haberdashers, hatters, mercers, drapers, pewterers, china warehouses,
and in a word, most trades that can be found in London. Here are
also taverns, coffee-houses, and eating-houses, in great plenty.
The chief diversions are puppets, rope-dancing, and music booths.
To this Fair, people from Bedfordshire and the adjoining counties
still resort. Similar kinds of fairs are now kept at Frankfort and
Leipzig. These mercantile fairs were very injurious to morals;
but not to the extent of debauchery and villany, which reign in
our present annual fairs, near the metropolis and large cities."
See an account of this fair in Hone's Year Book, page 1538-(ED).
Our author evidently designed to exhibit in his allegory the grand
outlines of the difficulties, temptations, and sufferings, to
which believers are exposed in this evil world; which, in a work
of this nature, must be related as if they came upon them one
after another in regular succession; though in actual experience
several may meet together, many may molest the same person again
and again, and some harass him in every stage of his journey. We
should, therefore, singly consider the instruction conveyed by
every allegorical incident, without measuring our experience, or
calculating our progress, by comparing them with circumstances
which might be reversed or altered with almost endless variety.
In general, Vanity Fair represents the wretched state of things
in those populous places especially, where true religion is
neglected and persecuted; and, indeed, "in the whole world lying
in wickedness," as distinguished from the church of "redeemed

[141] Christ will not allow his followers to bury their talent in
the earth, or to put their light under a bushel; they are not to
go out of the world, or to retire into cloisters, monasteries,
or deserts; but they MUST all go through this fair. Thus our Lord
endured all the temptations and sufferings of this evil world,
without being impeded or entangled by them, or stepping in the
least aside to avoid them; and he was exposed to greater enmity
and contempt than any of His followers-(Scott).

[142] The world will seek to keep you out of Heaven with mocks,
flouts, taunts, threatenings, jails, gibbets, halters, burnings,
and deaths. There ever was enmity between the seed of the serpent
and the seed of the woman, and no endeavours can reconcile them.
The world says, They will never come over to us; and we again say,
By God's grace we will not go over to them.

[143] Holy Hunt of Hitchin, as he was called, a friend of Bunyan's,
passing the market-place where mountebanks were performing, one
cried after him, "Look there, Mr. Hunt!" Turning his head another
way, he replied, "Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity"-(Ivimey).

[144] An odd reply. What do they mean? That they are neither
afraid nor ashamed to own what was the one subject of their souls'
pursuit-the truth. Understand hereby, that the whole world, which
lieth in wickedness, is deceived by a lie, and is under the delusion
of the father of lies. In opposition to this, all believers in
Christ are said to be of the truth (1 John 3:19). They know and
believe that capital truth with which God spake from Heaven, "This
is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matt. 3:17). This
truth-that Jesus is the Son of God, and our only Saviour-lies at the
foundation of all their hope; and to get more and more acquainted
with Him, is the grand object of their pursuits. For this the
world hates them; and Satan, who is an enemy to this truth, stirs
up the world against them. "For," says our Lord, "they are not of
the world, even as I am not of the world" (John 17:16)-(Mason).

[145] In 1670, the town porters of Bedford being commanded to
assist in a brutal attack upon the Nonconformists, ran away,
saying, "They would be hanged, drawn, and quartered, before they
would assist in that work"; for which cause the justices committed
two of them (which they could take) to the jail. The shops were
shut up, so that it seemed like a place visited with the pest,
where usually is written upon the door, "Lord, have mercy upon
us!"-(Narrative of Proceedings against Nonconformists, p. 5. 4to,

[146] This is a true representation of what took place in England
in Bunyan's time. It was a disgrace to our nation, that Englishmen,
urged on by a fanatic church, treated two young and interesting
women with a barbarity that would make savages (so called) blush.
It was at Carlisle that two female pilgrims, Dorothy Waugh and
Ann Robinson, were dragged through the streets, with each an iron
instrument of torture, called a bridle, upon their heads; and were
treated with gross indecency-(ED).

[147] The great object of the Gospel is to fit man for his active
duties in this world, and prepare him for heavenly enjoyments in
the world to come. Not like those lazy creeping things that shut
themselves up in nunneries or monasteries to avoid the temptations
and troubles, the resistance or hearing of which glorifies God.
Christians are to be as lights-not hid under a bushel but seen of
all men. The prayer of their Lord was and is, not that they should
be taken out of the world, but kept from its evil contaminations-(ED).

[148] In Bunyan's account of his imprisonment, he closes it with
these words-"Thus have I, in short, declared the manner and occasion
of my being in prison; where I lie waiting the good will of God
to do with me as He pleaseth; knowing that not one hair of my head
can fall to the ground without the will of my Father which is in
Heaven. Let the rage and malice of men be ever so great, they can
do no more, nor go any further, than God permits them. When they
have done their worst, 'we know that all things work together for
good to them that love God'" (Rom. 8:28).

[149] The description of the process against the pilgrims, is
framed in such a manner as emphatically to expose the secret reasons
which influence men thus to persecute their innocent neighbours.
The very names employed declare the several corrupt principles of
the heart from whence this atrocious conduct results-(Scott).

[150] This is one of Satan's lies, much used by his emissaries,
to the present day. A Christian fears God, and honours the king;
he renders unto civil government that which belongs to civil and
temporal things, but he dares not render unto Caesar the things
that belong to God; and for thus righteously doing he is called

[151] Superstition, or false devotion, is a most bitter enemy to
Christ's truth and his followers. This fellow's evidence is very
true; for as the lawyer said of Christ's doctrine, "Master, thus
saying, thou reproachest us also" (Luke 11:45). So false worshippers,
who rest in forms, and rites, and shadows, are stung to the quick
at those who worship God in the Spirit, rejoice in Christ Jesus,
and have no confidence in the flesh; such a conduct pours the
utmost contempt upon all the will-worship, and doctrines, and
superstition of carnal men-(Mason). With such, traditions, human
inventions, forms, and externals, appear venerable and sacred; and
they are mistaken with pertinaceous ignorance for the substance
of religion. What is pompous and burdensome appears to such men
meritorious; and the excitement of mere natural passions, as at a
tragedy, is falsely deemed a needful help to true devotion. Their
zeal hardens their hearts, and causes bitter rage, enmity, and
calumny, against the pious Christians-(Scott).

[152] As soon as the poor sinner says, "O Lord our God, other lords
beside Thee have had dominion over us: but by Thee only will we
make mention of Thy name" (Isa. 26:13), your officious Pickthanks
are always ready to bear testimony against him; and a blessed
testimony this is; it is well worth living to gain, and dying in
the cause of. If we are real disciples of Christ, we shall, as
He did, testify of the world that the works thereof are evil, and
the world will hate us for His sake (John 7:7)-(Mason). Pickthank
has no real principle, but puts on zeal for any party that will
promote his interests; he inwardly despises both the superstitious
and the spiritual worshipper-(Scott).

[153] This is the Christian's plea and glory. While he knows "the
tender mercies of the wicked are cruel" (Prov. 12:10), yet he
also knows that the "merciful kindness of the Lord is great, and
the truth of the Lord endureth forever" (Psa. 118:2)-(Mason).

[154] A more just and keen satirical description of such legal
iniquities can scarcely be imagined, than that contained in this
passage. The statutes and precedents adduced, with a humourous
reference to the style in which charges are commonly given to
juries, show what patterns persecutors choose to copy, and whose
kingdom they labour to uphold. Nor can any impartial man deny
that the inference is fair, which our author meant the reader to
deduce, namely, that nominal Protestants, enacting laws requiring
conformity to their own creeds and forms, and inflicting punishments
on such as peaceably dissent from them, are actually involved in
the guilt of these heathen persecutors--(Scott).

[155] These words, and this trial, were quoted (January 25, 1848)
by the Attorney-General, at Westminster Hall, in answer to the
manner in which Dr. Hampden was then charged with heresy by the

[156] If the Lord were to leave us in the hands of men, we should
still find that their tender mercies are cruel. Such a jury as
tried Faithful might be found in every county of Britain-(Burder).
To this may be added, that the witnesses are still living-(ED).

[157] Nothing can be more masterly than the satire contained in
this trial. The judge, the witnesses, and the jury, are portraits
sketched to the life, and finished, every one of them, in quick,
concise, and graphic touches; the ready testimony of Envy is
especially characteristic. Rather than anything should be wanting
that might be necessary to despatch the prisoner, he would enlarge
his testimony against him to any requisite degree. The language
and deportment of the judge are a copy to the life of some of
the infamous judges under King Charles, especially Jefferies. You
may find, in the trial of the noble patriot Algernon Sidney, the
abusive language of the judge against Faithful almost word for
word. The charge to the jury, with the Acts and laws on which the
condemnation of the prisoner was founded, wax full of ingenuity
and meaning-(Cheever).

[158] Bunyan gives a good portrait of Faithful in his Howe of
Lebanon, referring to the character of Pomporius Algerius, mentioned
in Fox's Book of Martyrs. "Was not this man, think you, a giant?
did he not behave himself valiantly? was not his mind elevated a
thousand degrees beyond sense, carnal reason, fleshly love, and
the desires of embracing temporal things? This man had got that
by the end that pleased Him; neither could all the flatteries,
promises, threats, reproaches, make him once listen to, or inquire
after, what the world, or the glory of it could afford. His mind
was captivated with delights invisible. He coveted to show his
love to his Lord, by laying down his life for His sake. He longed
to be where there shall be no more pain, nor sorrow, nor sighing,
nor tears, nor troubles. He was a man of a thousand!" Speaking
of the pillars in that house at Lebanon, he says, "These men had
the faces of lions, they have triumphed in the flames."

[159] This is a most exquisitely beautiful sketch; it is drawn to
the life from many an era of pilgrimage in this world; there are
in it the materials of glory, that constituted spirits of such noble
greatness as are catalogued in the eleventh of Hebrews-traits of
cruel mockings and scourgings, bonds and imprisonments-(Cheever).

[160] Political interests engage ungodly princes to promote
toleration, and chain up the demon of persecution. The cruelties
they exercise disgust the people, and they are disheartened by
the ill success of their efforts to extirpate the hated sect-(Scott).

[161] I have often recorded it with thankfulness, that though in
the dreary day of my pilgrimage, the Lord hath taken away a dear
and faithful Christian friend, yet he has always raised up another.
A very great blessing this, for which Christians can never be
thankful enough-(Mason).

[162] Is not this too much the case with professors of this day?
The Spirit of truth says, "All that will live godly in Christ
Jesus shall suffer persecution" (2 Tim. 3:12). But how many act
as if they had found the art of making the Spirit of truth a liar!
for they can so trim and shape their conduct, as they vainly think
to follow Christ, and yet to keep in with the world, which is at
enmity against Him-a most fatal and soul-deceiving error-(Mason).

[163] What is this something that By-ends knew more than all the
world? How to unite Heaven and hell-how to serve God and Mammon-how
to be a Christian and a hypocrite at the same time. O the depth of
the depravity of the human heart; alas! how many similar characters
now exist, with two tongues in one mouth, looking one way and
rowing another-(ED).

[164] Fear not, therefore, in her for to abide, She keeps her ground,
come weather, wind, or tide.--(Bunyan's House of God, vol. 2, p.
579). If we will follow Christ, He tells us that we must take up
our cross. The wind sets always on my face; and the foaming rage
of the sea of this world, and the proud and lofty waves thereof
do continually beat upon the sides of the bark, or ship, that
myself, my cause, and my followers are in-(Bunyan's Greatness of
the Soul, vol. 1, p. 107).

[165] Mind how warily these pilgrims acted to this deceitful
professor. They did not too rashly take up an ill opinion against
him; but when they had full proof of what he was, they did not hesitate
one moment, but dealt faithfully with him, and conscientiously
withdrew from him-(Mason). In a letter written in 1661, from Exeter
jail, by Mr. Abraham Chear, a Baptist minister of Plymouth, who
suffered greatly for nonconformity, and at length died in a state
of banishment, there is this remark, "We have many brought in here
daily, who go out again almost as soon, for a week in a prison
tries a professor more than a month in a church"-(Ivimey).

[166] It might have been supposed that the persons here introduced
were settled inhabitants of the town of Vanity, or the City
of Destruction; but, indeed, they professed themselves pilgrims,
and desired, during the "sunshine," to associate with pilgrims,
provided they would allow them to hold the world, love money,
and save all, whatever became of faith and holiness, of honesty,
piety, truth, and charity?-(Scott).

[167] Pretended friends come with such expostulations as these:
Why, dear Sir, will you give such offence? How much would it be
for your comfort and interest in the world if you would but be a
little more complying, and give way in some particular points and
phrases. O what a syren's song! May the Lord enable every faithful
servant to reply, "Get thee behind me, Satan"-(J. B.).

[168] These words of Solomon are thus wickedly misapplied by many
to the present day. Ecclesiastes 7:16, 17 probably refers to the
administration of justice which should be tempered with mercy, but
not with laxity; or it may refer to the foolish opinions expressed
upon the characters of Pharisee and publican, exalting the one
or decrying the other overmuch. It cannot be meant to censure
the utmost efforts after true righteousness, nor to sanction the
slightest degree of wickedness-(ED).

[169]Woe unto them who wander from the way. Art bound for hell,
against all wind and weather? Or art thou one agoing backward
thither? Or dost thou wink, because thou would'st not see? Or dost
thou sideling go, and would'st not be Suspected Yet these prophets
can thee tell, Which way thou art agoing down to hell.--(Acts
7:20-22. Bunyan's House of God, vol. 2, p. 582).

[170] Notwithstanding By-ends could be reserved with faithful
pilgrims, yet he can speak out boldly to those of his own spirit
sad character. O the treacherous deceivings of the desperate
wickedness of the human heart! Who can know it? No one but the
heart-searching God-(Mason).

[171] Some men's hearts are narrow upwards, and wide downwards:
narrow as for God, but wide for the world. They gape for the one,
but shut themselves up against the other. The heart of a wicked
man is widest downward; but it is not so with the righteous man.
His desires, like the temple Ezekiel saw in the vision, are still
widest upwards, and spread towards Heaven. A full purse, with a
lean soul, is a great curse. Many, while lean in their estates,
had fat souls; but the fattening of their estates has made their
souls as lean as a rake as to good-(Bunyan's Righteous Man's
Desires, vol. 1, p. 745).

[172] This dialogue is not in the least more absurd and selfish
than the discourse of many who now attend on the preaching of the
Gospel. If worldly lucre be the honey, they imitate the bee, and
only attend to religion when they can gain by it; they determine
to keep what they have at any rate, and to get more, if it can be
done without open scandal-(Scott).

[173] There is a fund of satirical humour in the supposed case
here very gravely stated; and if the author, in his accurate
observations on mankind, selected his example from among the
mercenaries that are the scandal of the Established Church, her
most faithful friends will not greatly resent this conduct of
a dissenter-(Scott). Dr. Paley would have done well to have read
this chapter in Bunyan before composing some of the chapters in
his Moral Philosophy, and his Sermon on the Utility of Distinctions
in the Ministry-(Cheever).

[174] Here is worldly wisdom, infernal logic, and the sophistry of
Satan. We hear this language daily, from money-loving professors,
who are destitute of the power of faith. But in opposition to all
this, the Holy Ghost testifies, "The love of money is the root of
all evil" (1 Tim. 6:10), and a covetous man is an idolater (Col.
3:5). Hear this, and tremble, ye avaricious professors. Remember,
ye followers of the Lamb, ye are called to "let your conversation
be without covetousness" (Heb, 13:5); your Lord testifies, "Ye
cannot serve God and Mammon" (Luke 16:13)--(Mason).

[175] How doth this commend itself to those who make merchandise
of souls. What swarms of such locusts are there in this day!-(J.B.).

[176] If thou art one who tradeth in both ways: God's now, the
devil's then; or if delays Thou mak'st of coming to thy God for
life; Or if thy light and lusts are at a strife About who should
be master of thy soul, And lovest one, the other dost control;
These prophets tell thee can which way thou bendest, On which thou
frown'st, to which a hand thou lendest.--(Titus 1:16. See vol. 2,
p. 582).

[177] Bunyan, in his Holy Life the Beauty of Christianity, thus
addresses such characters: "This is the man that hath the breath
of a dragon; he poisons the air round about him. This is the man
that slays his children, his kinsmen, his friend, and himself-he
that offends God's little ones. O the millstone that God will
shortly hang about your neck, when the time is come that you must
be drowned in the sea and deluge of God's wrath!"-(See vol. 2, p.
539). The answer of Christian, though somewhat rough, is so conclusive
as to fortify every honest mind against all the arguments which
the whole tribe of time-serving professors ever did, or ever can
adduce, in support of their ingenious schemes and insidious efforts
to reconcile religion with covetousness and the love of the world,
or to render it subservient to their secular interests-(Scott).

[178] Here see the blessedness of being mighty in the Scripture,
and the need of that exhortation, "Let the Word of Christ dwell
in you richly" (Col. 3:16). For the Word of God is quick and
powerful, and sharper than a two-edged sword; it pierces through
all the subtle devices of Satan, and the cunning craftiness
of carnal professors; and divideth asunder the carnal reasonings
of the flesh, and the spiritual wisdom which cometh from above.

Teach me, my God and King,
In all things THEE to see,
And what I do in any thing
To do it as for THEE--(Mason).

[179] The Hill Lucre stands somewhat out of the way, but temptingly
near. They that will profit by the mine must turn aside for it (Prov.
28:20, 22). Sir J. Mandeville, in his Travels, says, that in the
Vale Perilous is plenty of gold and silver, and many Christian
men go in for the treasure, but few come out again, for this are
strangled of the devil. But good Christian men, that are stable
in the faith, enter without peril-(ED).

[180] Eve expected some sweet and pleasant sight, that would tickle
and delight her deluded fancy; but, behold sin, and the wrath of
God, appear to the shaking of her heart; and thus, even to this
day, doth the devil delude the world. His temptations are gilded
with sweet and fine pretences, that men shall be wiser, richer,
more in favour, live merrier, fare better, or something; and by
such like things the fools are easily allured. But when their eyes
are opened, instead of seeing what the devil falsely told them,
they see themselves involved in wrath-(Bunyan on Genesis, vol. 2.
p. 431).

[181] Here you see the end of double-minded men, who vainly attempt
to temper the love of money with the love of Christ. They go on
with their art for a season, but the end makes it manifest what
they were. Take David's advice, "Fret not thyself because of
evil-doers" (Psa. 37:1) "Be not thou afraid when one is made rich,
when the glory of his house is increased" (Psa. 49:16). But go
thou into the sanctuary of thy God, read His Word, and understand
the end of these men-(Mason). Often, as the motley reflexes of my
experience move in long processions of manifold groups before me,
the distinguished and world-honoured company of Christian mammonists
appear to the eye of my imagination as a drove of camels heavily
laden, yet all at full speed; and each in the confident expectation
of passing through the eye of the needle, without stop or halt,
both beasts and baggage-(Coleridge).

[182] I have sometimes wondered at Lot. His wife looked behind
her, and died immediately; but he would not so much as look behind
him to see her. We do not read that he did so much as once look
where she was, or what was become of her. His heart was set upon
his journey; and well it might. There were the mountains before
him, and the fire and brimstone behind him. His life lay at stake;
and had he looked behind him he had lost it. Do thou so run, and
"remember Lot's wife"-(Bunyan's Heavenly Footman).

[183] In former times, the purse was carried hanging to a girdle
round the waist, and great dexterity was requisite to cut and carry
it away without the knowledge of the owner. Public executions for
theft had so little effect in repressing crime, that thefts were
committed in sight of, or even under the gallows-(ED).

[184] Alas! poor pilgrims, like Peter, you soon forgot the judgment,
although your sight of Lot's wife had so affected your spirits.
How soon yon went into By-path Meadow! "wherefore, let him that
thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall" (1 Cor. 10:12)-(ED).

[185] By this river, which is called "a pure river of water of
life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and
of the Lamb" (Rev. 22:1), we may understand clear and comfortable
views of God's everlasting love and electing grace. They could see
in it God's glory shining in the face of Jesus Christ, and view
their own faces in it, to their inexpressible joy. This is the river
"the streams whereof make glad the city of God" (Psa. 46:4). The
stream which flow from this river of electing love, are vocation
to Christ, justification by Christ, sanctification in Christ,
perseverance through Christ, glorification with Christ, and all
joy and peace in believing on Christ. All this these pilgrims now
enjoyed, and all this every fellow-citizen of the saints is called
to enjoy in his pilgrimage to Zion. God hath chosen us in Christ,
and blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Him. O how happy,
peaceful, and joyful are pilgrims, when the Spirit takes of the
things of Christ, shows them to us, and blesses us with a sense
of interest in all the love of God, and finished salvation of

[186] Blessed state indeed, but of short duration! Too often these
desirable consolations of the Spirit render the Christian careless
and unwatchful-(Burder).

[187] A scene to soothe and calm a mind fretted and harassed with
the cares and turmoils of this every-day world; a sunny vista
into the future, welcome in a weary hour to the worn spirit, which
longs, as for the wings of the dove, that it may flee away, and
be at rest; a glimpse of Sabbath quietness on earth, given as a
pledge and foretaste of the more glorious and eternal Sabbath of
Heaven-(Bernard Barton).

[188] Now had I an evidence, as I thought, of my salvation from
Heaven, with many golden seals thereon, all hanging in my sight.
Now could I remember the manifestations of grace with comfort;
and longed that the last day were come, that I might forever be
inflamed with the sight, and joy, and communion with Him, whose
soul was made an offering for my sins. Before this I lay trembling
at the mouth of hell; now I had got so far therefrom that I could
scarce discern it. O, thought I, that I were fourscore years old,
that I might die quickly, and my soul be gone to rest--(Grace
Abounding, No. 128).

[189] They should have said, It is true this way is not so pleasant
as the meadow, but it is the Lord's way, and the best, doubtless,
for us to travel in. A man speedily enters into temptation when
he becomes discontented with God's allotments; then Satan presents
allurements, and from wishing for a better way, the soul goes into
a worse. The discontented wish is father to a sinful will; I wish
for a better is followed by, I will have a better, and so the
soul goes astray-(Cheever).

[190] The transition into the by-path is easy, for it lies close
to the right way; only you must get over a stile, that is, you must
quit Christ's imputed righteousness, and trust in your own inherent
righteousness; and then you are in By-path Meadow directly-(Mason).

[191] The best caution I can give to others, or take myself, is, not
to be guided in matters of faith by men, but to make the Scriptures
our only rule-to look to God for the teaching of His blessed
Spirit, that He may keep our feet from the ways of death-(J.B.).

[192] "There is a way that seems right unto a man, but the end
thereof are the ways of death" (Prov. 14:12). Vain confidence is
this very way. O how easy do professors get into it! yea, real
pilgrims are prone also to take up with it, owing to that legality,
pride, and self-righteousness, which work in their fallen mature.
See the end of it, and tremble; for it leads to darkness, and
ends in death. Lord, humble our proud hearts, and empty us of
self-righteousness, pride, and vain confidence-(Mason).

[193] So, sometimes, real pilgrims take counsel and example of
strangers, of worldly men, and of presumptuous careless persons.
Vain confidence is a sad guide anywhere, but especially when one
has wandered out of the way--(Cheever).

[194] If thou be prying into God's secret decrees, or entertain
questions about nice curiosities, thou mayest stumble and fall
to thine eternal ruin. Take heed of that lofty spirit, that,
devil-like, cannot be content with its own station--(Heavenly

[195] The thunder and lightning plainly show that this by-path leads
to Sinai, not to Zion. One step over the stile, by giving way to
a self-righteous spirit, and you enter the territories of despair-(J.

[196] How varied is the experience of a Christian! he had just
before overcome Demas, and conquered By-ends and his companions;
is warned by Lot's wife, and now elated with the strength of his
principles; boldness takes the place of caution; he ventures upon
an easier path, and is involved in misery-(ED).

[197] When Bunyan pleaded, so energetically, for the communion of
saints, irrespective of water-baptism, one of his arguments was,
"The strongest may sometimes be out of the way." "Receive ye one
another as Christ also received us"-(Vol. 2, p. 610).

[198] Here see, that as Christians are made helpful, so also,
through prevailing corruptions, they are liable to prove hurtful
to each other. But observe how grace works: it humbles, it makes
the soul confess and be sorry for its misfortunes. Here is no
reviling one another; but a tender sympathy and feeling concern
for each other. O the mighty power of that grace and truth which
came by Jesus Christ! How does it cement souls in the fellowship
of love!--(Mason).

[199] How easy it is to trace the path that led the pilgrims astray!
To avoid the roughness of the way, they entered the by-path, that
by measures of carnal policy they might avoid afflictions. Guided
by Vain-confidence, they were led from the road, and when this
Vain-confidence was destroyed, they were involved in distress and

[200] The personification of Despair is one of the most instructive
and beautiful portions of Bunyan's allegory. It appeals either to
every man's experience, or to every man's sense of what may come
upon him, on account of sin. It is at once, in some respects, the
very gloomiest and very brightest part of the "Pilgrim's Progress";
for it shows at once to what a depth of misery sin may plunge the
Christian, and also to what a depth the mercy of God in Christ
may reach. The colouring of the picture is extremely vivid, the
remembrance of it can never pass from the mind; and, as in a gallery
of beautiful paintings, there may often be one that so strongly
reminds you of your own experience, or that in itself is so
remarkably beautiful as to keep you dwelling upon it with unabated
interest; so it is with this delineation of Giant Despair, among
the many admirable sketches of Bunyan's piety and genius. It is
so full of deep life and meaning that you cannot exhaust it, and
it is of such exquisite propriety and beauty that you are never
tired with examining it-(Cheever).

[201] Sooner or later Doubting Castle will be the prison, and
Giant Despair the keeper of all those who turn aside from Christ
and His righteousness, to trust in any wise in themselves, and to
their righteousness. "Our God is a jealous God," ever jealous of
His own glory, and of the honour of His beloved Son-(Mason). So
under the old cut, illustrating the Pilgrims in Doubting Castle,
are these lines--"The pilgrims now, to gratify the flesh, Will seek
its ease; but O! how they afresh Do thereby plunge themselves new
griefs into! Who seek to please the flesh, themselves undo."

[202] Blessed sorrow! how many are there who never tasted the bread
of Heaven, nor the water of life from the wells of salvation; who
are strangers to the communion of saints, but do not feel themselves
to be "in evil case," nor have wept under a sense of their wretched

[203] What! such highly-favoured Christians in Doubting Castle?
After having traveled so far in the way of salvation, seen so many
glorious things in the way, experienced so much of the grace and
love of their Lord, and having so often proved His faithfulness?
Is not this strange? No; it is common-the strongest Christians
are liable to err and get out of the way, and then to be beset
with very great and distressing doubts-(Mason). Despair, like
a tremendous giant, will at last seize on the souls of all
unbelievers; and when Christians conclude, from some misconduct,
that they belong to that company, they are exposed to be taken captive
by him. They do not, indeed, fall and perish with Vain-confidence;
but for a season they find it impossible to rise superior to
prevailing gloomy doubts bordering on despair, or to obtain the
least comfortable hope of deliverance, or encouragement to use
the proper means of seeking it-(Scott).

[204] The wife of Despair is Diffidence, or a distrust of God's
faithfulness, and a want of confidence in His mercy. When a
Christian follows such counsels, gloom and horror of mind will be
produced, and life become a burden--(Ivimey).

[205] Bunyan, in one of his delightful treatises of comfort against
despair, introduces the following striking colloquy-"Says Satan,
Dost thou not know that thou art one of the vilest in all the pack
of professors? Yes, says the soul, I do. Says Satan, Dost thou
not know that thou hast horribly sinned? Yes, says the soul, I
do. Well, saith Satan, now will I come upon thee with my appeals.
Art thou not a graceless wretch? Yes. Hast thou an heart to be
sorry for this wickedness? No, not as I should. And albeit, saith
Satan, thou prayest sometimes, yet is not thy heart possessed with
a belief that God will not regard thee? Yes, says the sinner. Why,
then, despair, and go hang thyself, saith the devil. And now we
are at the end of the thing designed and driven at by Satan. But
what shall I now do, saith the sinner? I answer, take up the words
of the text against him, "That ye may be able to comprehend the
breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love
of Christ, which passeth knowledge-(Saints' Knowledge of Christ's
Love, vol. 2, p. 37).

[206] Giant Despair, it seems, has fits in sunshiny weather;
that is, a gleam of hope, from Christ the Sun of righteousness,
sometimes darted into their minds-(Burder).

[207] Satan and his angels will not be wanting to help forward
the calamity of the man, who, in coming to Christ, is beat out
of breath, out of heart, out of courage, by wind that blows him
backward. They will not be wanting to throw up his heels in their
dirty places, nor to trouble his head with the fumes of their
foul breath. And now it is hard coming to God; Satan has the art
of making the most of every sin; he can make every hair on the head
as big as a cedar. But, soul, Christ can save unto the uttermost!
come, man, come. He can do exceeding abundantly above all we can
ask or think!-(Bunyan's Complete Saviour, vol. 1, p. 209). Poor
Christian! What! tempted to destroy thyself? Lord, what is man!
But see, despairing souls, mark the truth of that word, "There hath
no temptation taken you but such as is common to man; but God is
faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that ye are
able; but will, with the temptation, also make a way to escape,
that ye may be able to bear it" (1 Cor. 10:13)-(Mason).

[208] Bunyan had an acute sense of the exceeding sinfulness of
sin, and no saint had suffered more severely from despair. One of
his great objects, in most of his works, is to arm poor pilgrims
against desponding fears. Thus, in his first treatise on Gospel
Truths-"He (the devil) will be sure to present to thy conscience
the most sad sentences of the Scripture; yea, and set them home
with such cunning arguments, that if it be possible he will make
thee despair, and make away thyself as did Judas"-(Vol. 2, p.132).
Sin, when seen in its colours, and when appearing in its monstrous
shape and hue, frighteth all mortals out of their wits, away from
God, and, if He stops them not, also out of the world. This is
manifest by Cain, Judas, Saul, and others. They fly from before
God, one to one fruit of despair, and one to another-(Pharisee
and Publican, vol. 2, p. 260).

[209] An admirable chain of reasoning, pointing out the evils of
despair, is to be found in the Jerusalem Sinner Saved (vol. 1,
pp. 91, 92), under the head Fifthly. "It will make a man his own
tormentor, and flounce and fling like a wild bull in a net (Isa.
51:20). Despair! it drives a man to the study of his own ruin, and
brings him at last to be his own executioner" (2 Sam. 17:3-5)-(ED).

[210] Alas, how chang'd! Expressive of his mind, His eyes are sunk,
arms folded, head reclin'd; Those awful syllables, hell, death, and
sin, Though whisper'd, plainly tell what works within.--(Cowper's

"A wounded spirit who can bear?"

[211] To bring the state of Christian's mind before us, read the
lamentations of the Psalmist, when he was a prisoner in Doubting
Castle, under Giant Despair, in Psalm 88; and Bunyan's experience,
as narrated in No. 163 of Grace Abounding. Despair swallowed him
up, and that passage fell like a hot thunderbolt upon his conscience,
"He was rejected, for he found no place for repentance"-(Ivimey).

[212] Dr. Donne, the celebrated Dean of St. Paul's, had recently
published a thesis, to prove that suicide, under some circumstances,
was justifiable. Hopeful answers all his arguments, and proves
it to be the foulest of murders. Bunyan, in his treatise on
Justification, volume 1, page 314, thus notices the jailer's intent
to commit suicide, when the doors of the prison in which Paul was
confined were thrown open-"Even now, while the earthquake shook
the prison, he had murder in his heart-murder, I say, and that
of a high nature, even to have killed his own body and soul at

[213] Here is the blessing of a hopeful companion; here is excellent
counsel. Let vain professors say what they may against looking
back to past experiences, it is most certainly good and right so
to do; not to encourage present sloth and presumption, but to excite
fresh confidence of hope in the Lord. We have David's example, and
Paul's word to encourage us to this, "The Lord that delivered me
out of the paw of the lion, and out of the paw of the bear, he
will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine" (1 Sam. 17:37);
and says Paul, "We had the sentence of death in ourselves, that
we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the
dead" (2 Cor. 1:9)-(Mason).

[214] It is a curious picture which Bunyan has drawn of the
intercourse between the giant and his wife Diffidence. They form
a very loving couple in their way; and the giant takes no new step
in the treatment of the pilgrims without consulting Mrs. Diffidence
over night, so that the curtain lectures to which we listen
are very curious. But Mrs. Diffidence ought rather to have been
called Dame Desperation, or Desperate Resolution; for she seems,
if anything, the more stubborn genius of the two-(Cheever). By
these conversations between Diffidence and Despair, after they
had retired to bed, Bunyan perhaps designed to intimate that, as
melancholy persons seldom get rest at night, the gloominess of
the season contributes to the distress of their minds. So Asaph
complains: "My sore ran in the night, and ceased not: my soul
refused to be comforted" (Psa. 67:2)-(Ivimey).

[215] How would the awful lesson of the man in the iron cage, at
the Interpreter's house, now recur to poor Christian's mind: "I
cannot get out, O now I cannot! I left off to watch, and am shut
up in this iron cage, nor can all the men in the world let me out."
Christian's answer to the despairing pilgrim now soon broke upon
his memory: "The Son of the Blessed is very pitiful"-(ED).

[216] What! Pray in the custody of Giant Despair, in the midst of
Doubting Castle, and when their own folly brought them there too?
Yes; mind this, ye pilgrims, ye are exhorted, "I will that men
pray everywhere, without doubting" (1 Tim. 2:8). We can be in no
place but God can hear, nor in any circumstance but God is able
to deliver us from. And be assured, that when the spirit of prayer
comes, deliverance is nigh at hand-(Mason). Perhaps the author
selected Saturday at midnight for the precise time when the prisoners
began to pray, in order to intimate that the preparation for the
Lord's day, which serious persons are reminded to make for its
sacred services, are often the happy means of recovering those
that have fallen into sin and despondency-(Scott).

[217] All at once, by a new revelation, which none but the Saviour
could make, Christian finds the promises. Christ had been watching
over his erring disciples-He kept back the hand of Despair from
destroying them-He binds up the broken heart, and healeth all
their wounds-(Cheever). As a key enters all the intricate wards
of a lock, and throws back its bolts, so the precious promises of
God in his Word, if turned by the strong hand of faith, will open
all the doors which unbelief and despair have shut upon us-(Burder).

[218] Bunyan was a plain-spoken man, and feared not to offend
delicate ears when truth required honest dealing. In his treatise
on the Law and Grace, he says: "And therefore, my brethren, seeing
God, our Father, hath sent us, damnable traitors, a pardon from
Heaven, even all the promises of the Gospel, and hath also sealed
to the certainty of it with the heart-blood of His dear Son, let
us not be daunted"-(Vol. 1, p. 562).

[219] Precious promise! The promises of God in Christ are the life
of faith, and the quickeners of prayer. O how oft do we neglect
God's great and precious promises in Christ Jesus, while doubts
and despair keep us prisoners! So it was with these pilgrims; they
were kept under hard bondage of soul for four days. Hence see what
it is to grieve the Spirit of God: for He only is the Comforter:
and if He withdraws His influences, who or what can comfort us?
Though precious promises are revealed in the Word, yet we can get
no comfort from them but by the grace of the Spirit-(Mason).

[220] It was Sabbath morning. The sun was breaking over the hills,
and fell upon their pale, haggard countenances, it was to them a
new creation; they breathed the fresh, reviving air, and brushed,
with hasty steps, the dew from the untrodden grass, and fled
the nearest way to the stile, over which they had wandered. They
had learned a lesson by suffering, which nothing else could have
taught them, and which would remain with them to the day of their
death--(Cheever). The experience of these "three or four" dreadful
days is specially recorded in Grace Abounding, (Nos. 261-263). The
key which opened the doors in Doubting Castle was these words,
applied with power to his soul, "I must go to Jesus," in connection
with Hebrews 12:22-24. Of the first night of his deliverance
he says, "I could scarcely lie in my bed for joy and peace, and
triumph through Christ"-(ED).

[221] They fell to devising what soldiers, and how many, Diabolus
should go against Mansoul with, to take it; and after some debate,
it was concluded that none were more fit for that expedition than
an army of terrible DOUBTERS. They therefore concluded to send
against Mansoul an army of sturdy doubters. Diabolus was to beat
up his drum for 20 or 30,000 men in the Land of Doubting, which
land lieth upon the confines of a place called Hell-gate Hill.
Captain Rage was over the election doubters; his were the red
colours; his standard-bearer was Mr. Destructive; and the great
red dragon he had for his scutcheon. Captain Fury was over the
vocation doubters; his standard-bearer was darkness; his colours
were pale; and his scutcheon the fiery flying serpent. Captain
Damnation was over the grace doubters; his were the red colours;
Mr. No-life bore them; his scutcheon was the Black Den, &c.-(Holy

[222] When offending Christians are brought to deep repentance,
renewed exercises of lively faith, and willing obedience in those
self-denying duties which they had declined, the Lord "restores to
them the joy of His salvation," and their former comforts become
more abundant and permanent. The Delectable Mountains seem intended
to represent those calm seasons of peace and comfort-(Scott).

[223] O how many professors grow weary of the way, fall short, and
fail of coming to the end! Though the way be too far, too strait,
and too narrow for many who set out, and never hold out to the
end; yet all who are begotten by the Word of grace, and born of
the Spirit of truth, shall persevere to the end, being kept by
the mighty power of God, through faith, unto eternal salvation (1
Peter 1:5)-(Mason).

[224] There is in this laconic description of the homely dreamer
a richness of beauty which no efforts of the artist can adequately
portray; and in the concise dialogue of the speakers, a simple
sublimity of eloquence which any commentary could only weaken.
While our feelings are excited by this description, we cannot
but remember that "eye hath not seen nor ear heard, neither have
entered into the heart of man: the things which God hath prepared
for them that love Him"-(Bernard Barton).

[225] Precious names! What is a pilgrim without knowledge? What
is head-knowledge without heart-experience? And watchfulness and
sincerity ought to attend us every step. When these graces are in
us and abound, they make delectable mountains indeed-(Mason).

[226] Fine-spun speculations and curious reasonings lead men from
simple truth and implicit faith into many dangerous and destructive

[227] It is well for us to be much on this mount. We have constant
need of caution. Take heed and beware, says our Lord. Paul takes
the Corinthians up to this Mount Caution, and shows them what
awful things have happened to professors of old; and he leaves
this solemn word for us, "Wherefore, let him that thinketh he
standeth, take heed lest he fall" (1 Cor. 10:12)-(Mason).

[228] O the unthought-of imaginations, frights, fears, and terrors,
that are effected by a thorough application of guilt, yielding
to desperation! This is the man that hath his dwelling among the
tombs with the dead, that is always crying out, and cutting himself
with stones (Mark 5:3). But all in vain; desperation will not
comfort him, the old covenant will not save him-(Grace Abounding,
No. 185).

[229] Some retain the name of Christ, and the notion of Him as a
Saviour; but cast Him off in the very things wherein the essential
parts of His sacrifice, merits, and priesthood consist. In this
lies the mystery of their iniquity. They dare not altogether deny
that Christ doth save His people, as a Priest; but then their
art is to confound His offices, until they jostle out of doors
the merit of His blood and the perfection of His justifying
righteousness. Such draw away the people from the cross (put out
their eyes), and lead them among the infidels-(Bunyan's Israel's
Hope, vol. 1, p. 615).

[230] Probably to guard pilgrims against the Popish doctrine of
auricular confession-(ED).

[231] Those seem to shun the common broad road; but having only the
mark of religion, while their hearts are not right with God, are
as effectually ruined as the most profligate and open offenders-(Burder).

[232] Thus we read of some who were once enlightened, and had
tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the world
to come (Heb. 6:6). It is hard to say how far or how long a person
may carry on a profession, and yet fall away, and come short of
the kingdom at last. This should excite to diligence, humility, and
circumspection, ever looking to Jesus to keep us from falling-(Mason).

[233] It reflects the highest credit on the diffidence of Bunyan's
genius-a genius as rich in its inventions, and as aspiring in
its imaginative flights, as ever poet could possess or lay claim
to-that, after such an exordium, he should have made no effort
minutely to describe what was in its own splendour of glory
indescribable. How beautifully, without exciting any disappointment
in a reader of taste, feeling, and judgment, does he, by a few
artless words, render most impressive and sublime, what more elaborate
description could only have made confused and unsatisfactory.
Nothing can be more admirable than this brief and indistinct report
of the perspective glass, it cannot offend the most fastidious taste,
yet leaves scope for the exercise of the most ardent and aspiring
imagination-(Bernard Barton). [234] Such mountains round about this
house do stand. As one from thence may see the Holy Land.--(Bunyan's
House of God, vol. 2, p. 579).

[235] After going through the conflict with Apollyon, the Valley
of the Shadow of Death, the scenes in Vanity Fair, and the dread
experience of the pilgrims in Giant Despair's Castle, it is well
to note what a gallery of solemn REALITIES is here, what a system
of Divine truth, commending itself to all men's consciences. It
is not so much the richness of imagination, nor the tenderness
of feeling here exhibited, nor the sweetness and beauty of the
imagery, with which this book is filled, as it is the presence
of these REALITIES that constitutes the secret of its unbounded
power over the soul. Walk up and down in this rich and solemn
gallery. How simple are its ornaments! How grave, yet beautiful,
its architecture! Amidst all this deep, serene beauty to the
imagination, by how much deeper a tone do these pictures speak to
the inner spiritual being of the soul! When you have admired the
visible beauty of the paintings, turn again to seek their meaning
in that light from eternity by which the artist painted them, and
by which he would have all men examine their lessons, and receive
and feel the full power of their colouring. In this light, the
walls of this gallery seem moving with celestial figures speaking
to the soul. They are acting the drama of a life which, by most
men, is only dreamed of; but the drama is the reality, and it is
the spectators only who are walking in a vain show-(Cheever).

[236] This is the first break in the dream, and, doubtless, had
an important meaning. Perhaps the pilgrimage may be divided into
four parts: 1. The convert flying from the wrath to come; instructed
at the Interpreter's house; relieved of his burden at the cross;
ascends the Hill Difficulty; overcomes his timidity; and, 2.
Enters a church at the House Beautiful; and, as a private member,
continues his journey, until, 3. He meets Evangelist, near Vanity
Fair, and is found fit to become an itinerant preacher; in which
calling he suffers persecution, and obtains that fitness which
enables him, 4. On the Delectable Mountains, to enter upon the
responsible duties of a ministering elder or pastor of a church,
and is ordained by Knowledge, Experience, Watchful, and Sincere.
Is this commencement of his public labours the important point
when the author "awoke from his dream"?-(ED).

[237] This country we are all born in; all are ignoramuses by
nature. Some live long in the country of Conceit, and many end
their days in it. Are you come out of it? So was Ignorance; but
he breathed his native air. So long as a sinner thinks he can do
anything towards making himself righteous before God, his name is
Ignorance; he is full of self-conceit, and destitute of the faith
of Christ-(Mason).

[238] Now, is it not very common to hear professors talk at this
rate? Yes, and many who make a very high profession too; their
hopes are plainly grounded upon what they are in themselves,
and how they differ from their former selves and other sinners,
instead of what Christ is to us and what we are in Christ. But the
profession of such is begun with an ignorant, whole, self-righteous
heart; it is continued in pride, self-seeking, and self-exalting,
and ends in awful disappointment. For such are called by our Lord
thieves and robbers; they rob Him of the glory of His grace and
the gift of His imputed righteousness-(Mason).

[239] It is best not to converse much at once with persons of
this character, but, after a few warnings, to leave them to
their reflections; for their self-conceit is often cherished by
altercations, in which they deem themselves very expert, however
disgusting their discourse may prove to others-(Scott).

[240] An awful scene was beheld by the pilgrims. A professor, named
Turn-away, bound with seven cords, was led by devils to the by-way
to hell. Let everyone inquire, Who is this wanton professor?-He
who discovers a trifling, worldly, wanton spirit, dreads not
the appearance of evil, complies with the fashions of the carnal
world, and associates with the enemies of our Lord; and, in time,
becomes a damnable apostate. Lord, keep us from such a beginning
and such an end!-(Burder).

[241] The "very dark lane" in which "Turn-away" was met by the
pilgrims, represents the total darkness of the minds of such
wicked professors; for "if the light that is in them be darkness,
how great is that darkness!" When their characters are made
manifest, they are ashamed to look their former pious friends in
the face. "The wicked shall be holden with the cords of his sins"
(Prov. 5:22)-(Ivimey).

[242] O beware of a light trifling spirit and a wanton behaviour.
It is often the forerunner of apostasy from God. It makes one tremble
to hear those who profess to follow Christ in the regeneration,
crying, What harm is there in this game and the other diversion?
The warmth of love is gone, and they are become cold, dead, and
carnal. O how many instances of these abound!-(Mason).

[243] In times of persecution, loose professors are driven down
Dead Man's Lane to Broad-way Gate; thus Satan murders the souls
of men, by threatening to kill their bodies. Believers that are
weak in faith are betrayed into sinful compliances; they sleep
when they ought to watch, they conceal or deny their profession,
and thus contract guilt; Faint-heart assaults them, Mistrust
plunders them, and Guilt beats them down-(Scott).

[244] The fly in the spider's net is the emblem of the soul in
such a condition. If the soul struggleth, Satan laboureth to hold
it down. If it make a noise, he bites it with blasphemous mouth;
insomuch that it must needs die at last in the net, if the Lord
Jesus help not. Believing is sure sweating work. Only strong
faith can make Satan flee. O the toil of a gracious heart in this
combat, if faith be weak! The man can get no higher than his knees,
till an arm from Heaven help him up-(Bunyan's Holy City).

[245] When Bunyan was imprisoned, his sentence was-To be transported,
if he did not conform in three months; and then, if found as a
Nonconformist, in this country, he should be hung. Determined at
all hazards not to be a traitor to his God, he anticipated being
hung; and was anxious, in such a cause, to meet death with firmness.
When his fears prevailed, he dreaded lest he should make but a
scrabbling shift to clamber up the ladder-(See Grace Abounding,
No. 334).

[246] Where there is a faint heart in God's cause, and mistrust
of God's truths, there will be guilt in the conscience, and but
little faith. These rogues will prevail over, and rob such souls
of the comforts of God's love and of Christ's salvation. By his
jewels, we may understand those radical graces of the Spirit-faith,
hope, and love. By his spending-money, the sealing and earnest of
the Spirit in his heart (2 Cor. 1:22). Of this Divine assurance,
and the sense of the peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, he was robbed;
so that, though he still went on in the ways of the Lord, yet he
dragged on but heavily and uncomfortably-(Mason).

[247] Bunyan throws great light upon this subject in his Christ
a Complete Saviour, (vol. 1, p. 215)-"We are saved by Christ;
brought to glory by Christ; and all our works are no otherwise made
acceptable to God, but by the person and excellencies of Christ.
Therefore, whatever the jewels are, and the bracelets and the
pearls that thou shalt be adorned with, as a reward of service
done to God in this world, for them thou must thank Christ, and,
before all, confess that He was the meritorious cause thereof."

[248] What was this good thing? His precious faith, whose author,
finisher, and object is precious Jesus. And where he gives this
precious gift of faith, though it be but little, even as a grain
of mustard-seed, not all the powers of earth and hell can rob the
heart of it. Christ prayed for His disciple that his faith should
not fail, or be totally lost; therefore, though Peter lost his
comforts for a season, yet not his faith totally, not his soul
eternally; for, says Jesus, of all his dear flock, yea, of those
of little faith too, None shall pluck them out of My hand. There
is one blessed security, not in ourselves, but in our Lord-(Mason).

[249] Hope, love, humility, meekness, patience, longsuffering,
compassion, and mercy, are gracious dispositions wrought in the
heart by the Holy Ghost. These are the believer's jewels; and it
is his duty to keep them clean, that their beauty and lustre may
be apparent-(Andronicus).

[250] Little-faith cannot come all the way without crying. So
long as its holy boldness lasts, so long it can come with peace,
but it will go the rest of the way with crying-(Bunyan's Come and
Welcome, vol. 1, p. 288).

[251] Bunyan shows the difference between "his spending-money," or
that treasure which the Christian carries in his earthen vessel,
and his jewels, in Grace Abounding (No. 232)-"It was glorious to
me to see His [Christ's] exaltation. Now I could look from myself
to Him, and should reckon that all those graces of God that
now were green in me, were yet but like those cracked groats and
fourpence-halfpennies, (Irish sixpences, which, in the dearth of
silver coin in England, were made current at fourpence-halfpenny-ED),
that rich men carry in their purses, when their GOLD is in their
trunks at home. Oh! I saw that my gold was in my trunk at home,
in Christ my Lord and Saviour. Now, Christ was all; all my wisdom,
all my righteousness, all my sanctification, and all my redemption."

[252] Hopeful was not the first pilgrim who has been "almost made
angry" while holding a friendly debate upon that highly-important
subject, the doctrine of the saints' final perseverance. Pilgrims
ought to debate upon those subjects without being angry-(ED).

[253] Hopeful here expresses himself as if he had read Bunyan on
Christ's Love-"But to fear man is to forget God. He taketh part
with them that fear HIM; so that we may boldly say, "The Lord is
my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me" (Heb.
13:6). Would it not be amazing to see a man encompassed with
chariots, and horses, and weapons of defence, yet afraid of being
sparrow-blasted, or overrun by a grasshopper?"-(Vol. 2, p. 13).

[254] Who can stand in the evil day of temptation, when beset with
Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt, backed by the power of their
master, Satan? No one, unless armed with the whole armour of God;
and even then, the power of such infernal foes makes it a hard
fight to the Christian. But this is our glory, the Lord shall
fight for us, and we shall hold our peace. We shall be silent as
to ascribing any glory to ourselves, knowing our very enemies are
part of ourselves, and that we are more than conquerors over all
these (only) through HIM who loved us (Rom. 8:37)-(Mason).

[255] "One Great-grace"; a believer, or minister, who having
honourably stood his ground, endeavours to restore the fallen. The
remembrance of such, helps to drive away despondency, and inspires
the trembling penitent with hope of mercy-(Scott).

[256] "I trow"; I imagine or believe: nearly obsolete-(ED).

[257] Now here you see what is meant by Great-grace, who is so
often mentioned in this book, and by whom so many valiant things
were done. We read, "With great power the apostles gave witness
of the resurrection of Jesus." Why was it? Because "great grace
was upon them all" (Acts 4:33). So you see all is of grace, from
first to last, in salvation. If we do great things for Christ,
yet, not unto us, but unto the great grace of our Lord, be all
the glory-(Mason).

[258] If we saw our own weakness, we should never court dangers,
nor run in the way of temptation; yet, if our temptations be ever
so sharp and strong, and our dangers ever so great, if the Lord
is our strength, we need not fear-(J. B.).

[259] From this sweet and edifying conversation, learn not to
think more highly of yourself than you ought to think; but to
think soberly, according to the measure of faith which God hath
dealt to you (Rom. 12:3). Now, it is of the very essence of faith
to lead us out of all self-confidence and vain vaunting. For we
know not how soon Faint-heart, Mistrust, and Guilt may spring up
in us, and rob us of our comforts, and spoil our joys-(Mason).

[260] Instead of saying, "Though all men deny thee, yet will not
I," it behooves us to use all means of grace diligently, and to
be instant in prayer, that the Lord Himself may protect us by His
power, and animate us by His presence, and then only shall we be
enabled to overcome both the fear of man and the temptations of
the devil-(Scott).

[261] But how contrary to this is the walk and conduct of some who
profess to be pilgrims, and yet can willfully and deliberately go
upon the devil's ground, and indulge themselves in carnal pleasures
and sinful diversions! Such evidently declare in plain language,
that they desire not the presence of God, but that He should
depart from them; but a day will come which will bring on terrible
reflections of mind for such things-(Mason).

[262] Mr. Ivimey's opinion is, that this "way which put itself
into their way," and the flatterer, relates to Antinomianism. Of
this I can form no accurate judgment, never having met with an
Antinomian, or one who professed to be against the law of God. I
have met with those who consider that believers are bound to prefer
the law of God as revealed by Jesus Christ, in Matthew 22:37-40,
to be their rule of life, instead of limiting themselves to the
law of God as given by Moses, in Exodus 20; but it has been for
this reason, that the law proclaimed by Christ unites in it the
law given by Moses, and ALL the law and the prophets. This law,
as given by Christ, is in a few words of beautiful simplicity,
which can neither be misunderstood nor be forgotten. Mason says,
"It is plain the author means the way of self-righteousness," into
which the flatterer enticed the pilgrims, out of the Scripture
highway to Heaven, in the righteousness of Christ. When ministers
differ, private Christians must think for themselves. My judgment
goes with Mr. Mason-(ED). This way, which seemed as straight
as the right way, and in entering on which there was no stile to
be passed, must denote some very plausible and gradual deviation
from the simplicity of the Gospel, in doctrine or practice. If,
in such a case, instead of a personal prayerful searching the
Scripture, we rely upon the opinion of our friends, and listen
to the flatterer, we shall certainly be misled-(Scott).

[263] Luther was wont to caution against the white devil as much
as the black one; for Satan transforms himself into an angel of
light, and his ministers as ministers of righteousness (2 Cor.
11:14, 15). And how do they deceive souls? By flattery. Leading
poor sinners into a fine notion of some righteous character they
have in themselves, what great advances they have made, and what
high attainments they have arrived to, even to be perfect in
themselves, to be free from sin, and full of nothing but love.
These are black men clothed in white-(Mason).

[264] By this shining one understand the loving Lord the Holy
Ghost, the leader and guide of Christ's people. When they err and
stray from Jesus the way, and are drawn from Him as the truth,
the Spirit comes with His rod of convic-tion and chastisement, to
whip souls for their self-righteous pride and folly, back to Christ,
to trust wholly in Him, to rely only on Him, and to walk in sweet
fellowship with Him. So he acted by the Galatian church, which was
flattered into a notion of self-righteousness, and self-justification.
So David, when he found himself nearly lost, cries out, "He
restoreth my soul: He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for
His name's sake" (Psa. 23:3)-(Mason). The devil, in his attempts
after our destruction, maketh use of the most suitable means. The
serpent, Adam knew, was subtle, therefore Satan useth him, thereby
to catch this goodly creature, man. Hereby the devil least appeared
[this fine-spoken man], and least appearing, the temptation soonest
took the tinder-(Bunyan on Genesis, vol. 2, p. 428).

[265] The backsliding of a Christian comes through the overmuch
persuading of Satan and lust; that the man was mistaken, and that
there was no such horror in the things from which he fled; nor
so much good in the things to which he hosted. Turn again, fool,
says the devil. I wonder what frenzy it was that drove thee to
thy heels, and that made thee leave so much good behind thee as
other men find in the lusts of the flesh and the good of the world.
As for the law, and death, and the day of judgment, they are but
mere scarecrows, set up by politic heads, to keep the ignorant in
subjection. Well, he goes back, fool as he is, conscience sleeps,
and flesh is sweet; but, behold, he again sees his own nakedness-he
sees the law whetting his axe-the world is a bubble. He also smells
the brimstone which begins to burn within him. Oh! saith he, I am
deluded! "Have mercy upon me, O God!"-(Christ a Complete Saviour,
vol. 1, p. 223).

[266] A wicked man, though he may hector it at times with his
proud heart, as though he feared neither God nor hell; yet again,
at times, his soul is even drowned with terrors. If one knew the
wicked, when they are under warm convic-tions, then the bed shakes
on which they be; then the proud tongue doth falter in their mouth,
and their knees knock one against another. Then their conscience
stares, and roars, and tears, and arraigns them. O! none can
imagine what fearful plights a wicked man is in at times!-(Bunyan's
Desires of the Righteous, vol. 1, p. 746).

[267] On the Delectable Mountains, the pilgrims had a sight of the
Celestial City. No matter if it were but a glimpse; still they saw
it, they really saw it, and the remembrance of that sight never
left them. There it was in glory! Their hands trembled, their eyes
were dim with tears, but still that vision was not to be mistaken.
There, through the rifted clouds, for a moment, the gates of pearl
were shining, the jasper walls, the endless domes, the jeweled
battlements! The splendour of the city seemed to pour, like a
river of light, down upon the spot where they were standing--(Cheever).

[268] See how we are surrounded with different enemies! No sooner
have they escaped the self-righteous flatterer, but they meet with
the openly profane and licentious mocker-aye, and he set out, and
went far too; yea, further than they. But, behold, he has turned
his back upon all; and though he had been 20 years a seeker, yet
now he proves, that he has neither faith nor hope, but ridicules
all as delusion. Awful to think of! O what a special mercy to be
kept believing and persevering, and not regarding the ridicule of

[269] "To round"; to be open, sincere, candid. "Maister Bland
answered flatly and roundly"-(Fox's Book of Martyrs).

[270] Upon the declaration for liberty of conscience, the church
for a season was free from persecution. It was like enchanted ground;
and some, who had been watchful in the storm, became careless and
sleepy in this short deceitful calm-(ED).

[271] Ah, these short naps for pilgrims! The sleep of death, in
the enchanted air of this world, usually begins with one of these
short naps-(Cheever).

[272] The Enchanted Ground may represent worldly prosperity;
agreeable dispensations succeeding long-continued difficulties.
This powerfully tends to produce a lethargic frame of mind; the
man attends to religious duties more from habit, than from delight
in the service of God. No situation requires so much watchfulness.
Other experiences resemble storms, which keep a man awake; this
is a treacherous calm, which lulls him to sleep-(Scott).

[273] O Christian, beware of sleeping on this enchanted ground!
When all things go easy, smooth, and well, we are prone to grow
drowsy in soul. How many are the calls in the Word against spiritual
slumber! and yet how many professors, through the enchanting
air of this world, are fallen into the deep sleep of formality!
Be warned by them to cry to thy Lord to keep thee awake to
righteousness, and vigorous in the ways of thy Lord-(Mason).

[274] Here you see, as our Lord says, "It is the Spirit who
quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing" (John 6:63). Our carnal
nature is so far from profiting in the work of conversion to
Christ, that it is at enmity against Him, and opposes the Spirit's
work in showing us our want of Him, and bringing us to Him. Man's
nature and God's grace are two direct opposites. Nature opposes,
but grace subdues nature, and brings it to submission and subjection.
Are we truly convinced of sin, and converted to Christ? This is
a certain and sure evidence of it-we shall say from our hearts,
Not unto us, nor unto any yieldings and compliances of our nature,
free-will, and power, but unto Thy name, O Lord, be all the glory.
For it is by Thy free, sovereign, efficacious grace, we are what
we are. Hence, see the ignorance, folly, and pride of those who
exalt free-will, and nature's power, &c. Verily they do not know
themselves, even as they are known-(Mason).

[275] Not the evil of sin in the sight of God, but the remorse
and fear of wrath, with which the convinced sinner is oppressed,
and from which he, at times, seeks relief by means which exceedingly
increase his actual guilt. Nothing but a free pardon, by faith
in the atoning sacrifice of Christ, can take away guilt; but the
uneasiness of a man's conscience may be for a time removed by
various expedients-(Scott).

[276] In modern editions, this has been altered to "sin enough in
one day." But in any period of time, selecting that duty in the
discharge of which we have felt the most pure, there has been
a mixture of sin. "For there is not a day, nor a duty; not a day
that thou livest, nor a duty that thou dost, but will need that
mercy should come after to take away thy iniquity"-(Bunyan's
Saints' Privilege, vol. 1, p. 679). These are solemn and humbling

[277] Thus, you see, in conversion, the Lord does not act upon
us as though we were mere machines. No, we have understanding; He
enlightens it. Then we come to a sound mind; we think right, and
reason justly. We have wills; what the understanding judges best,
the will approves, and then the affections follow after; and thus
we choose Christ for our Saviour, and glory only in His righteousness
and salvation. When the heavenly light of truth makes manifest
what we are, and the danger we are in, then we rationally flee
from the wrath to come, to Christ the refuge set before us-(Mason).

[278] Pray mind this. The grand object of a sensible sinner is
righteousness. He has it not in himself; this he knows. Where
is it to be found? In Christ only. This is a revealed truth; and
without faith in this, every sinner must be lost. Consider, it
is at the peril of your soul that you reject the righteousness of
Christ; and do not believe that God imputeth it without works for
the justification of the ungodly. O ye stout-hearted, self-righteous
sinners, ye who are far from righteousness, know this and

[279] The true nature of faith is to believe and rest upon the Word
of truth, and wait for the promised comfort. That faith which is
the gift of God leads the soul to wait upon and cry to God, and
not to rest till it has some blessed testimony from God of interest
in the love and favour of God in Christ Jesus. But O how many
professors rest short of this!-(Mason).

[280] As I thought my case most sad and fearful, these words did
with great power suddenly break in upon me, "My grace is sufficient
for thee," three times together. O! methought every word was
a mighty word for me; as My, and grace, and sufficient, and for
thee; they were then, and sometimes are still, far bigger than
others be-(Grace Abounding, No. 206).

[281] The Lord's dealings with his children are various, but all
lead to the same end; some are shaken with terror, while others
are more gently drawn, as with cords of love. In these things
believers should not make their experiences standards one for
another; still there is a similarity in their being brought to the
same point of rejecting both sinful and righteous self, and believing
on the Lord Jesus Christ as their complete salvation-(Andronicus).

[282] Christ did not appear to Hopeful's senses, but to his
understanding; and the words spoken are no other than texts of
Scripture taken in their genuine meaning-not informing him, as by
a new revelation, that his sins were pardoned, but encouraging him
to apply for this mercy, and all other blessings of salvation-(Scott).

[283] Since the dear hour that brought me to Thy foot, And cut up
all my follies by the root, I never trusted in an arm but Thine,
Nor hoped, but in Thy righteousness Divine. My prayers and alms,
imperfect and defiled, Were but the feeble efforts of a child.
Howe'er perform'd, it was their brightest part That they proceeded
from a grateful heart. Cleans'd in Thine own all-purifying blood,
Forgive their evil, and accept their good. I cast them at Thy
feet--my only plea Is what it was, DEPENDENCE UPON THEE!--(Cowper).

[284] Not governed by the Word of God, but by his own will, his
grounds of confidence for salvation unfitted him for Christian
fellowship, unless he happened to fall in with a man who had
imbibed his own notions-(ED).

[285] The desire of Heaven-when its nature is not understood,
the proper means of obtaining it are neglected, other objects
are preferred to it-is no proof that a man will be saved. The
expression, "The desire of grace is grace," is very fallacious. But
to hunger and thirst for God, and His righteousness, His favour,
image, and service, as the supreme good, so that no other object
can satisfy the heart, is grace indeed, and shall be completed in

[286] Real Christians are often put to a stand, while they find
and feel the workings of all corruptions and sins in their nature;
and when they hear others talk so highly of themselves, how full
their hearts are of love to God, and of good motions, without any
complainings of their hearts. But all this is from the ignorance
of their own hearts; and pride and self-righteousness harden them
against feeling its desperate wickedness-(Mason).

[287] I saw that it was not my good frame of heart that made my
righteousness better, nor yet my bad frame that made my righteousness
worse; for my righteousness was Jesus Christ, the same yesterday,
and today, and forever (Heb. 13:8)-(Grace Abounding, No. 229).

[288] Here we see how naturally the notion of man's righteousness
blinds his eyes to, and keeps his heart from believing, that
Christ's personal righteousness alone justifies a sinner in the
sight of God; and yet such talk bravely of believing, but their
faith is only fancy. They do not believe unto righteousness; but
imagine they have now, or shall get, a righteousness of their own,
some how or other. Awful delusion!-(Mason).

[289] Here is the very essence of that delusion which works by a
lie, and so much prevails, and keeps up an unscriptural hope in
the hearts of so many professors. Do, reader, study this point
well; for here seems to be a show of scriptural truth, while the
rankest poison lies concealed in it. For it is utterly subversive
of, and contrary to, the faith and hope of the Gospel-(Mason).

[290] The way of being justified by faith for which Ignorance
pleads may well be called "fanatical," as well as "false"; for it
is nowhere laid down in Scripture; and it not only changes the
way of acceptance, but it takes away the rule and standard of
righteousness, and substitutes a vague notion, called sincerity, in
its place, which never was, nor can be, defined with precision-(Scott).

[291] Justification before God comes, not by imitating Christ as
exemplary in morals, but through faith in His precious blood. To
feed on Jesus is by respecting Him as made of God a curse for our
sin. I have been pleased with observing, that none of the signs
and wonders in Egypt could deliver the children of Israel thence,
until the lamb was slain--(Bunyan on Justification, vol. 2, p.

[292] Under these four heads, we have a most excellent detection
of a presumptive and most dangerous error which now greatly prevails,
as well as a scriptural view of the nature of true faith, and the
object it flies on wholly and solely for justification before God,
and acceptance with God. Reader, for thy soul's sake, look to thy
foundation. See that thou build upon nothing in self, but all upon
that sure foundation which God hath laid, even his beloved Son,
and his perfect righteousness-(Mason).

[293] This, by all natural men, is deemed the very height of
enthusiasm; but a spiritual man knows its blessedness, and rejoices
in its comfort. It is a close question. What may we understand by
it? Doubtless, what Paul means when he says, "It pleased God to
reveal His Son in me," (Gal. 1:15, 16): that is, he had such an
internal, spiritual, experimental sight, and knowledge of Christ,
and of salvation by Him, that his heart embraced Him, his soul
cleaved to Him, his spirit rejoiced in Him; his whole man was
swallowed up with the love of Him, so that he cried out in the joy
of his soul, This is my Beloved and my Friend-my Saviour, my God,
and my Salvation. He is the chief of ten thousand, and altogether
lovely. We know nothing of Christ savingly, comfortably, and
experimentally, till He is pleased thus to reveal Himself to us
(Matt. 11:27). This spiritual revelation of Christ to the heart
is a blessing and comfort agreeable to, and consequent upon,
believing on Christ, as revealed outwardly in the Word. Therefore,
every believer should wait, and look, and long, and pray for it.
Beware you do not despise it; if you do, you will betray your
ignorance of spiritual things, as Ignorance did-(Mason).

[294] Many of these revelations appear in the Grace Abounding, as
"that scripture fastened on my heart" (No. 201); "that sentence
darted in upon me" (No. 204); "these words did with great power
break in upon me" (No. 206); "suddenly this sentence fell upon my
soul" (No. 229); and many others-(ED).

[295] That sinner is not thoroughly awakened, who does not see
his need of Christ's righteousness to be imputed to him. Nor is
he quickened, who has not fled to Christ as "the end of the law
for righteousness to every one that believeth" (Rom. 10:4)-(Mason).

[296] Ignorant professors cannot keep pace with spiritual pilgrims,
nor can they relish the doctrine of making Christ all in all, in
the matter of justification and salvation, and making the sinner
nothing at all, as having no hand in the work, nor getting any
glory to himself by what he is able to do of himself. Free grace
and free will; Christ's imputed righteousness, and the notion of
man's personal righteousness, cannot accord-(Mason).

[297] Take heed of hardening thy heart at any time, against
convictions or judgments. I bid you before to beware of a hard
heart; now I bid you beware of hardening your soft heart. The fear
of the Lord is the pulse of the soul. Pulses that beat best are
the best signs of life; but the worst show that life is present.
Intermitting pulses are dangerous. David and Peter had an intermitting
pulse, in reference to this fear-(Bunyan on the Fear of God,
vol. 1, pp. 487, 489). [298] Mark well Christian's definition of
"fear." It is one of those precious passages in which our author
gives us the subject matter of a whole treatise in a few short and
plain sentences. Treasure it up in your heart, and often ponder
it there. It will prove, through the blessing of the Spirit, a
special means of enlivening, when spiritual langour, in consequence
of worldly ease, is creeping upon your soul-(Andronicus).

[299] "Pitiful old self-holiness." Mind this phrase. Far was it
from the heart of good Mr. Bunyan to decry personal holiness. It
is nothing but self-holiness, or the holiness of the old man of
sin; for true holiness springs from the belief of the truth, and
love to the truth. All besides this only tends to self-confidence,
and self-applause-(Mason).

[300] It is good to call to mind one's own ignorance, when in our
natural estate, to excite humility of heart, and thankfulness to
God, who made us to differ, and to excite pity towards those who are
walking in nature's pride, self-righteousness, and self-confidence-(Mason).

[301] "Temporary"; one who is doctrinally acquainted with the
Gospel, but a stranger to its sanctifying power. The reasons and
manner of such men's declensions and apostasy are very justly and
emphatically stated-(Scott).

[302] In Hoffman's poetical version of the "Pilgrim," this sentence
is, "And nature will return, like Pope, to pork"; alluding to one
of the Popes, who used daily to have a dish of pork; but, being
sick, his physicians forbade it, when the Pope, in a rage, cried
out, "Give me my pork, in spite of God"-(ED).

[303] A true description of the state of some professors. Here
see the reason why so many saints, as they are called, fall away.
From hence, some take occasion to deny the scriptural, soul-comforting
doctrine, of the certain perseverance of God's saints unto eternal
glory. So they display the pride of their own hearts, their ignorance
of God's Word, while they make God's promises of no effect, and
the Gospel of his grace, only much ado about nothing-(Mason).

[304] Three young fellows, Mr. Tradition, Mr. Human-wisdom, and
Mr. Man's-invention, proffered their services to Shaddai. The
captains told them not to be rash; but, at their entreaty, they
were listed into Boanerges' company, and away they went to the
war. Being in the rear, they were taken prisoners. Then Diabolus
asked them if they were willing to serve against Shaddai. They
told him, that as they did not so much live by religion as by the
fates of fortune, they would serve him. So he made two of them
sergeants; but he made Mr. Man's-invention his ancient-bearer
[standard-bearer]-(Bunyan's Holy War).

[305] See how gradually, step by step, apostates go back. It begins
in the unbelief of the heart, and ends in open sins in the life.
Why is the love of this world so forbidden? Why is covetousness
called idolatry? Because, whatever draws away the heart from God,
and prevents enjoying close fellowship with him, naturally tends
to apostasy from him. Look well to your hearts and affections.
"Keep thy heart with all diligence, for out of it are the issues
of life" (Prov. 4:23). If you neglect to watch, you will be sure to
smart under the sense of sin on earth, or its curse in hell. "See
then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming
the time, because the days are evil" (Eph. 5:15, 16)-(Mason).

[306] O what a blessed state! what a glorious frame of soul is
this! Job speaks of it as the candle of the Lord shining upon his
head (29:3). The church, in a rapture, cries out, "Sing, O heavens;
and be joyful, O earth; break forth into singing, O mountains:
for the Lord hath comforted His people" (Isa. 49:13). Paul calls
this, "The fullness of the blessing of the Gospel of Christ" (Rom.
15:29). O rest not short of enjoying the full blaze of Gospel
peace and spiritual joy-(Mason). During the last days of that
eminent man of God, Dr. Payson, he once said, "When I formerly read
Bunyan's description of the Land of Beulah, where the sun shines
and the birds sing day and night, I used to doubt whether there
was such a place; but now my own experience has convinced me of
it, and it infinitely transcends all my previous conceptions." The
best possible commentary on the glowing descriptions in Bunyan is
to be found in that very remarkable letter dictated by Dr. Payson
to his sister, a few weeks before his death-"Were I to adopt the
figurative language of Bunyan, I might date this letter from the
Land Beulah, of which I have been for some weeks a happy inhabitant.
The Celestial City is full in my view. Its glories have been upon
me, its breezes fan me, its odours are wafted to me, its sounds
strike upon my ears, and its spirit is breathed into my heart.
Nothing separates me from it but the River of Death, which now
appears but as an insignificant rill, that may be crossed at a single
step, whenever God shall give permission. The Sun of Righteousness
has been gradually drawing nearer and nearer, appearing larger and
brighter as He approached, and now He fills the whole hemisphere,
pouring forth a flood of glory, in which I seem to float, like an
insect in the beams of the sun; exulting, yet almost trembling,
while I gaze on this excessive brightness, and wondering, with
unutterable wonder, why God should deign thus to shine upon a
sinful worm"-(Cheever). [307] In the immediate view of heavenly
felicity, Paul "desired to depart hence, and be with Christ, as
far better" than life. David "fainted for God's salvation." In
the lively exercise of holy affections, the believer grows weary
of this sinful world, longs to have his faith changed for sight,
his hope swallowed up in enjoyment, and his love perfected--(Scott).

[308] No other language than that of Bunyan himself, perused in
the pages of his own sweet book, could be successful in portraying
this beauty and glory; for now he seems to feel that all the
dangers of the pilgrimage are almost over, and he gives up himself
without restraint so entirely to the sea of bliss that surrounds
him, and to the gales of Heaven that are wafting him on, and to
the sounds of melody that float in the whole air around him, that
nothing in the English language can be compared with this whole
closing part of the "Pilgrim's Progress," for its entrancing
splendour, yet serene and simple loveliness. The colouring is that
of Heaven in the soul; and Bunyan has poured his own Heaven-entranced
soul into it. With all its depth and power, there is nothing
exaggerated, and it is made up of the simplest and most scriptural
materials and images. We seem to stand in a flood of light, poured
on as from the open gates of paradise. It falls on every leaf and
shrub by the way-side; it is reflected from the crystal streams
that, between grassy banks, wind amidst groves of fruit-trees
into vineyards and flower-gardens. These fields of Beulah are just
below the gate of Heaven; and with the light of Heaven there come
floating down the melodies of Heaven, so that here there is almost
an open revelation of the things which God hath prepared for them
that love Him--(Cheever).

[309] This is the place, this is the state, Of all that fear the
Lord; Which men nor angels may relate With tongue, or pen, or word.
No night is here for to eclipse Its spangling rays so bright; Nor
doubt, nor fear, to shut the lips Of those within this light.

The strings of music here are timed For heavenly harmony, And every
spirit here perfumed With perfect sanctity. Here run the crystal
streams of life, Quite thorow all our veins; And here by love we
do unite With glory's golden chains.--(Bunyan's One Thing Needful).

[310] Mr. Flavel, being on a journey, set himself to improve the
time by meditation; when his mind grew intent, till at length he
had such ravishing tastes of heavenly joys, and such full assurance
of his interest therein, that he utterly lost the sight and sense
of this world and all its concerns, so that for hours he knew not
where he was. At last, perceiving himself faint, he alighted from
his horse and sat down at a spring, where he refreshed himself,
earnestly desiring, if it were the will of God, that he might there
leave the world. His spirit reviving, he finished his journey in
the same delightful frame; and all that night passed without a
wink of sleep, the joy of the Lord still overflowing him, so that
he seemed an inhabitant of the other world-(Pneumatologia, 4to,
2d edit. p. 210).

[311] Who are these ministering spirits, that the author calls
"men"? Are they the glorified inhabitants of the Celestial City?
Moses and Elias appeared at the transfiguration; so the spirit who
spake with John (Rev. 20:10), was his fellow-servant. Are these
"spirits of just men made perfect"-the angel-ministering spirits
which are sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of
salvation? (Heb. 1:14; 12:22, 23)-(ED).

[312] What are these two difficulties? Are they not death without,
and unbelief within? It is through the latter that the former is
all-distressing to us. O for a strong, world-conquering, sin-subduing,
death-overcoming faith, in life and death! Jesus, Master, speak
the word, unbelief shall flee, our faith shall not fail, and our
hope shall be steady-(Mason).

[313] Well, now the pilgrims must meet with, and encounter, their
last enemy, death. When he stares them in the face, their fears
arise. Through the river they must go. What have they to look at?
What they are in themselves, or what they have done and been? No.
Only the same Jesus who conquered death for us, and can overcome
the fear of death in us-(Mason).

[314] But tim'rous mortals start and shrink To cross this narrow
sea; They linger, shivering on the brink, And fear to launch
away-(Watts). Evodias could not join in the petition of the
Liturgy-"From sudden death, good Lord, deliver us." He had his
wish; and expired suddenly on a Lord's-day morning, while thousands
were assembling to hear him preach-(Andronicus).

[315] Bunyan died in perfect peace, though it is probable that he
expected darkness in the trying hour. Thus he says, in his treatise
on Paul's Departure, "Aye, this will make thee cry, though thou
be as good as David. Wherefore learn by his sorrows to serve thy
generation, by the will of God, before falling asleep. God can
pardon thy sins, and yet make them a bitter thing and a burden at
death. It is easy to HIM to pardon, and yet break all thy bones;
or show Himself in such dreadful majesty, that Heaven and earth
shall tremble at His presence. Let the thoughts of this prevail
with thee to manage thy time and work in wisdom, while thou art
well" (Vol. 1, p. 730)-(ED).

[316] Satan is suffered to be very busy with God's people in their
last moments, but he too, like death, is a conquered enemy by our
Jesus; therefore, amidst all his attacks, they are safe. He cannot
destroy them whom Jesus hath redeemed, for He is faithful to them,
and almighty to save-(Mason).

[317] Hopeful, agreeably to his name, was not only preserved from
terror, but enabled to encourage his trembling companion telling
him the welcome news that "he felt the bottom, and it was good."
Blessed experience! If Christ is our foundation, we have nothing
to fear, even in the swellings of Jordan, for death itself cannot
separate us from the love of Christ-(Burder).

[318] When you visit a sick or death bed, be sure that you take
God's Word with you, in your heart and in your mouth. It is from
that only that you may expect a blessing upon, and to the soul of,
the sick or the dying; for it is by the Word of God faith came at
the first; it is by that, faith is strengthened at the last; and
Jesus is the sum and substance of the Scriptures-(Mason).

[319] Jesus Christ, He is indeed the Alpha and Omega, the first
and the last, the beginning of our hope, and the end of our
confidence. We begin and end the Christian pilgrimage with Him;
and all our temptations and trials speak loudly, and fully confirm
to us that truth of our Lord, "Without Me ye can do nothing" (John

[320] The temporary distresses of dying believers often arise
from bodily disease, which interrupt the free exercise of their
intellectual powers. Of this Satan will be sure to take advantage,
as far as he is permitted, and will suggest gloomy imaginations,
not only to distress them, but to dishearten others by their example.
Generally they who, for a time, have been most distressed, have
at length died most triumphantly-(Scott).

[321] I cannot trust myself to read the account of Christian going
up to the Celestial Gate, after his passage though the River of

[322] Bunyan, in his Saint's Knowledge of Christ's Love, describes the
feelings of the pilgrim, while clothed with mortality, looking up
to the heights of Heaven. Christ could mount up-Elijah had a chariot
of fire-Enoch was taken by God. But I, poor I, how shall I get
thither? How often are considering thoughts wanting in professors! The
question is happily solved in Christian and Hopeful's experience;
they left all their mortal garments and burdens behind them in the
river, and their free spirits for the first time felt the sweets
of liberty in their perfection-(ED).

[323] I know that all who go to paradise, are conducted thither
by these holy ones; but yet, for all that, such as die under the
cloud, for unchristian walking with God, may meet with darkness
on that day, and go heavily hence. But as for those who have been
faithful to their God, they shall see before them, or from earth
see glory-(Bunyan's Paul's Departure, vol. 1, p. 741).

[324] Ah, Christian! None can conceive or describe what it is
to live in a state separate from a body of sin and death. Surely
in some happy, highly-favoured moments, we have had a glimpse, a
foretaste of this, and could realize it by faith. O for more and
more of this, till we possess and enjoy it in all its fullness!
If Jesus be so sweet to faith below, who can tell what He is in
full fruition above? This we must die to know-(Mason).

[325] Bunyan has, with great beauty and probability, brought in the
ministry of angels, and regions of the air, to be passed through
in their company, rising, and still rising, higher and higher,
before they come to that mighty mount on which He has placed the
gates of the Celestial City. The angels receive His pilgrims as
they come up from the River of Death, and form for them a bright,
glittering, seraphic, loving convoy, whose conversation prepares
them gradually for that exceeding and eternal weight of glory
which is to be theirs as they enter in at the gate. Bunyan has
thus, in this blissful passage from the river to the gate, done
what no other devout writer, or dreamer, or speculator, that we
are aware of, has ever done; he has filled what perhaps in most
minds is a mere blank, a vacancy, or at most a bewilderment and
mist of glory, with definite and beatific images, with natural
thoughts, and with the sympathizing communion of gentle spirits,
who form, as it were, an outer porch and perspective of glory,
through which the soul passes into uncreated light. Bunyan has
thrown a bridge, as it were, for the imagination, over the deep,
sudden, open space of an untried spiritual existence; where it
finds, ready to receive the soul that leaves the body, ministering
spirits, sent forth to minister unto them who are to be heirs of

[326] Glory beyond all glory ever seen By waking sense, or by the
dreaming soul! The appearance, instantaneously disclosed, Was of
a mighty City-boldly say A wilderness of building, sinking far, And
self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth, Far sinking into splendour
without end! Fabric it seemed of diamond and of gold, With alabaster
domes and silver spires, And blazing terrace upon terrace, high
Uplifted: here, serene pavilions bright, In avenues disposed;
there, towers begirt With battlements, that on their restless
fronts Bore stars-illumination of all gems!--(Wordsworth).

[327]A certificate, To show thou seest thyself most desolate; Writ
by the Master, with repentance seal'd. To show also that here [by
Christ] thou would'st be healed. And that thou dost abhor thee
for thy ways, And would'st in holiness spend all thy days.--(Bunyan's
House of God, vol. 2, p. 580).

[328] Blessed indeed is that man who, while encumbered with a
sinful body, can truly say, "I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth
in me." In Him all the commandments are obeyed-all my sins washed
away by His blood-and my soul clothed with righteousness and
immortality. Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord: they enter
the Celestial City. This is the righteous nation, which keepeth the
truth. O my reader, would you be one of the glorified inhabitants
of that city whose builder and maker is God? Then must you live
the life of faith; so run that ye may obtain; ever be found looking
unto Jesus-(ED). "Prepare me, Lord, for Thy right hand, Then come
the joyful day; Come death, and some celestial hand, And fetch my
soul away."

[329] O what acclamations of joy will there be, when all the
children of God meet together, without the fear of being disturbed
by Antichrist! How will the heavens echo of joy, when the Bride,
the Lamb's wife, shall come to dwell with her Husband! If you would
be better satisfied what the beatific vision means, my request
is, that you would live holily, and thus go and see. Christ is
the desire of all nations, the joy of angels, the delight of the
Father. What solace, then, must that soul be filled with, which
hath the possession of Christ to all eternity?-(Bunyan's Dying
Sayings, vol.1, pp. 64, 65).

[330] When a formal visit from a minister, a few general questions,
and a prayer, with or without the sacrament, calm the mind of
a dying person, whose life has been unsuitable to the Christian
profession; no doubt, could we penetrate the veil, we should see
him wafted across the river in the boat of Vain-hope, and meeting
with the awful doom that is here described. From such fatal
delusions, good Lord, deliver us!-(Scott).

[331] Vain-hope ever dwells in the bosom of fools, and is ever
ready to assist Ignorance. He wanted him at the last, and he found
him. He had been his companion through life, and will not forsake
him in the hour of death. You see Ignorance had no pangs in his
death, no fears, doubts, and sorrows, no terror from the enemy,
but all was serene and happy. Vain-hope was his ferryman; and he,
as the good folks say, died like a lamb. Ah, but did such lambs
see what was to follow, when Vain-hope had wafted them over the
river, they would roar like lions!-(Mason).

[332] This is a most awful conclusion. Consider it deeply. Weigh
it attentively, so as to get good satisfaction from the Word to
these important questions-Am I in Christ, the way, the only way,
to the kingdom, or not? Do I see that all other ways, whether of
sin or self-righteousness, lead to hell? Does Christ dwell in my
heart by faith? Am I a new creature in Him? Do I renounce my own
righteousness, as well as abhor my sins? Do I look alone to Christ
for righteousness, and depend only on Him for holiness? Is He the
only hope of my soul, and the only confidence of my heart? And
do I desire to be found in Him; knowing by the Word, and feeling
by the teaching of His Spirit, that I am totally lost in myself?
Thus, is Christ formed in me, the only hope of glory? Do I study
to please Him, as well as hope to enjoy Him? Is fellowship with
God the Father, and His Son, Jesus Christ, so prized by me, as to
seek it, and to esteem it above all things? If so, though I may find
all things in nature, in the world, and from Satan, continually
opposing this, yet I am in Christ the way, and He is in me the truth
and the life-(Mason). How far may such an one go? This important
question is very solemnly argued in Bunyan's Law and Grace. He may
be received into church-fellowship-and, like the foolish virgins,
be clear from outward pollution-have gone forth from the rudiments
and traditions of men-and had their lamps, but still lost their
precious souls. They may bear office in the church, as Judas carried
the bag, and as Demas! They may become preachers and ministers of
the Gospel, with rare gifts, and a fluent tongue, like an angel,
to speak of the hidden mysteries; but may die under the curse.
They may have the gifts of the Spirit and prophecy, and be but
a Balaam. They may stand thus until Christ come and reveal them.
They may, with confidence, say, Lord, Lord, have we not eaten and
drank in Thy presence, and taught in Thy name, and in Thy name
have cast out devils? and yet, poor creatures, be shut out!-(ED).









'I have used similitudes.'--Hosea 12:10.

London: Printed for Nathaniel Ponder, at the Peacock in the Poultry,
near the Church, 1684.


Go now, my little book, to every place,
Where my first Pilgrim has but shown his face,
Call at their door. If any say, Who's there?
Then answer thou, CHRISTIANA is here.
If they bid thee come in, then enter thou,
With all thy boys; and then, as thou know'st how,
Tell who they are, also from whence they came;
Perhaps they know them by their looks, or name.
But if they should not, ask them yet again
If formerly they did not entertain
One CHRISTIAN, a Pilgrim? If they say
They did; and were delighted in his way:
Then let them know, that those related were
Unto him; yea, his wife and children are.

Tell them, that they have left their house and home,
Are turned Pilgrims, seek a world to come;
That they have met with hardships in the way,
That they do meet with troubles night and day;
That they have trod on serpents, fought with devils,
Have also overcome a many evils.
Yea, tell them also of the next, who have
Of love to pilgrimage, been stout and brave
Defenders of that way, and how they still
Refuse this world, to do their Father's will.

Go, tell them also of those dainty things,
That pilgrimage unto the Pilgrim brings.
Let them acquainted be, too, how they are
Beloved of their King, under His care:
What goodly mansions for them He provides,
Tho' they meet with rough winds, and swelling tides,
How brave a calm they will enjoy at last,
Who to their Lord, and by His ways hold fast.

Perhaps with heart and hand they will embrace
Thee, as they did my firstling, and will grace
Thee, and thy fellows, with such cheer and fare,
As show will they of Pilgrims lovers are.

But how, if they will not believe of me
That I am truly thine; cause some there be
That counterfeit the Pilgrim and his name,
Seek, by disguise, to seem the very same;
And by that means have wrought themselves into
The hands and houses of I know not who?

'Tis true, some have of late, to counterfeit
My Pilgrim, to their own my title set;[1]
Yea others, half my name and title too
Have stitched to their book, to make them do;
But yet they, by their features, do declare
Themselves not mine to be, whose e'er they are.

If such thou meet'st with, then thine only way
Before them all, is, to say out thy say,
In thine own native language, which no man
Now useth, nor with ease dissemble can.
If, after all, they still of you shall doubt,
Thinking that you, like gipsies, go about

In naughty wise, the country to defile,
Or that you seek good people to beguile
With things unwarrantable; send for me,
And I will testify you PILGRIMS be.
Yea, I will testify that only you
My Pilgrims are; and that alone will do.

But yet, perhaps, I may inquire for him,
Of those that wish him damned, life and limb.
What shall I do, when I at such a door
For Pilgrims ask, and they shall rage the more?[2]

Fright not thyself, my book, for such bugbears
Are nothing else but ground for groundless fears.
My Pilgrim's book has travell'd sea and land,
Yet could I never come to understand
That it was slighted, or turn'd out of door
By any kingdom, were they rich or poor.

In France and Flanders, where men kill each other,
My Pilgrim is esteem'd a friend, a brother.
In Holland too, 'tis said, as I am told,
My Pilgrim is with some worth more than gold.

Highlanders and wild Irish can agree
My Pilgrim should familiar with them be.
'Tis in New England under such advance,
Receives there so much loving countenance,
As to be trimm'd, new cloth'd, and deck'd with gems
That it may show its features and its limbs,
Yet more; so comely doth my Pilgrim walk,
That of him thousands daily sing and talk.[3]

If you draw nearer home, it will appear,
My Pilgrim knows no ground of shame or fear;
City and country will him entertain
With, Welcome Pilgrim; yea, they can't refrain
From smiling, if my Pilgrim be but by,
Or shows his head in any company.

Brave gallants do my Pilgrim hug and love,
Esteem it much, yea, value it above
Things of a greater bulk: yea, with delight,
Say, My lark's leg is better than a kite.

Young ladies, and young gentlewomen too,
Do no small kindness to my Pilgrim show.
Their cabinets, their bosoms, and their hearts,
My Pilgrim has, 'cause he to them imparts
His pretty riddles in such wholesome strains,
As yields them profit double to their pains
Of reading; yea, I think, I may be bold
To say, some prize him far above their gold.

The very children that do walk the street,
If they do but my holy Pilgrim meet,
Salute him well, will wish him well, and say,
He is the only stripling of the day.

They that have never seen him, yet admire
What they have heard of him, and much desire
To have his company, and hear him tell
Those pilgrim stories which he knows so well.

Yea, some who did not love him at the first,
But called him fool and noddy, say they must,
Now they have seen and heard him, him commend
And to those whom they love, they do him send.[4]

Wherefore, my Second Part, thou need'st not be
Afraid to show thy head; none can hurt thee,
That wish but well to him that went before,
'Cause thou com'st after with a second store
Of things as good, as rich, as profitable,
For young, for old, for stagg'ring, and for stable.

But some there he that say, He laughs too loud
And some do say, His head is in a cloud.
Some say, His words and stories are so dark,
They know not how, by them, to find his mark.

One may, I think, say, Both his laughs and cries,
May well be guess'd at by his wat'ry eyes.
Some things are of that nature, as to make
One's fancy chuckle, while his heart doth ache.
When Jacob saw his Rachel with the sheep,
He did at the same time both kiss and weep.

Whereas some say, A cloud is in his head,
That doth but show how wisdom's covered
With its own mantles, and to stir the mind
To a search after what it fain would find.
Things that seem to be hid in words obscure,
Do but the godly mind the more allure
To study what those sayings should contain,
That speak to us in such a cloudy strain.

I also know a dark similitude
Will on the fancy more itself intrude,
And will stick faster in the heart and head,
Than things from similes not borrowed.
Wherefore, my book, let no discouragement
Hinder thy travels. Behold, thou art sent
To friends, not foes; to friends that will give place
To thee, thy Pilgrims, and thy words embrace.

Besides, what my first Pilgrim left conceal'd
Thou, my brave second Pilgrim, hast reveal'd;
What CHRISTIAN left lock'd up, and went his way,
Sweet CHRISTIANA opens with her key.[5]

But some love not the method of your first;
Romance they count it, throw't away as dust,
If I should meet with such, what should I say?
Must I slight them as they slight me, or nay?

My CHRISTIANA, if with such thou meet,
By all means, in all loving-wise, them greet;
Render them not reviling for revile;
But if they frown, I prithee on them smile;
Perhaps 'tis nature, or some ill report,
Has made them thus despise, or thus retort.

Some love no cheese, some love no fish, and some
Love not their friends, nor their own house or home;
Some start at pig, slight chicken, love not fowl,
More than they love a cuckoo, or an owl;
Leave such, my CHRISTIANA, to their choice,
And seek those who to find thee will rejoice;
By no means strive, but in humble-wise,
Present thee to them in thy Pilgrim's guise.

Go, then, my little book, and show to all
That entertain, and bid thee welcome shall,
What thou shalt keep close, shut up from the rest,
And wish what thou shalt show them may be blest
To them for good, may make them choose to be
Pilgrims better by far than thee or me.

Go, then, I say, tell all men who thou art;
Say, I am CHRISTIANA, and my part
Is now, with my four sons, to tell you what
It is for men to take a Pilgrims lot.

Go also, tell them who and what they be,
That now do go on pilgrimage with thee;
Say, Here's my neighbour, Mercy, she is one
That has long time with me a Pilgrim gone.
Come, see her in her virgin race, and learn
'Twixt idle ones and Pilgrims to discern.
Yea, let young damsels learn of her to prize
The world which is to come, in any wise.
When little tripping maidens follow God,
And leave old doting sinners to His rod;
'Tis like those days wherein the young ones cried,
Hosanna! to whom old ones did deride.

Next, tell them of old Honest, who you found
With his white hairs, treading the Pilgrim's ground.
Yea, tell them how plain-hearted this man was,
How after his good Lord he bare his cross.
Perhaps with some gray head this may prevail
With Christ to fall in love, and sin bewail.

Tell them also, how Master Fearing went
On pilgrimage, and how the time he spent
In solitariness, with fears and cries;
And how, at last, he won the joyful prize.
He was a good man, though much down in spirit,
He is a good man, and doth life inherit.

Tell them of Master Feeble-mind also,
Who, not before, but still behind would go.
Show them also, how he had like been slain,
And how one Great-heart did his life regain.
This man was true of heart, though weak in grace,
One might true godliness read in his face.

Then tell them of Master Ready-to-halt,
A man with crutches, but much without fault;
Tell them how Master Feeble-mind and he
Did love, and in opinions much agree.
And let all know, though weakness was their chance,
Yet sometimes one could sing, the other dance.

Forget not Master Valiant-for-the-truth,
That man of courage, though a very youth.
Tell everyone his spirit was so stout,
No man could ever make him face about;
And how Great-heart and he could not forbear,
But put down Doubting Castle, slay Despair.

Overlook not Master Despondency,
Nor Much-afraid, his daughter, though they lie
Under such mantles, as may make them look
(With some) as if their God had them forsook.
They softly went, but sure, and at the end,
Found that the Lord of Pilgrims was their friend.
When thou hast told the world of all these things,
Then turn about, my book, and touch these strings,
Which, if but touch'd, will such music make,
They'll make a cripple dance, a giant quake.

These riddles that lie couch'd within thy breast,
Freely propound, expound; and for the rest
Of thy mysterious lines, let them remain
For those whose nimble fancies shall them gain.

Now may this little book a blessing be
To those who love this little book and me;
And may its buyer have no cause to say,
His money is but lost or thrown away;
Yea, may this Second Pilgrim yield that fruit,
As may with each good Pilgrim's fancy suit;
And may it persuade some that go astray,
To turn their feet and heart to the right way,
Is the hearty prayer of
 The Author,





SOME time since, to tell you my dream that I had of Christian the
Pilgrim, and of his dangerous journey towards the Celestial Country,
was pleasant to me, and profitable to you. I told you then, also,
what I saw concerning his wife and children, and how unwilling they
were to go with him on pilgrimage, insomuch that he was forced to
go on his progress without them; for he durst not run the danger
of that destruction which he feared would come by staying with
them in the City of Destruction. Wherefore, as I then showed you,
he left them and departed.[6]

Now it hath so happened, through the multiplicity of business, that
I have been much hindered and kept back from my wonted travels
into those parts whence he went, and so could not, till now, obtain
an opportunity to make further inquiry after whom he left behind,
that I might give you an account of them.[7] But having had some
concerns that way of late, I went down again thitherward. Now,
having taken up my lodgings in a wood, about a mile off the place,
as I slept, I dreamed again.[8]

And as I was in my dream, behold, an aged gentleman came by where
I lay; and because he was to go some part of the way that I was
travelling, methought I got up and went with him. So as we walked,
and as travelers usually do, I was as if we fell into discourse,
and our talk happened to be about Christian and his travels; for
thus I began with the old man:

Sir, said I, what town is that there below, that lieth on the left
hand of our way?

Then said Mr. Sagacity (for that was his name), It is the City of
Destruction, a populous place, but possessed with a very ill-conditioned
and idle sort of people.

I thought that was that city, quoth I; I went once myself through
that town, and, therefore, know that this report you give of it is

SAG. Too true; I wish I could speak truth in speaking better of
them that dwell therein.

Well, Sir, quoth I, then I perceive you to be a well-meaning man;
and so one that takes pleasure to hear and tell of that which is
good. Pray, did you never hear what happened to a man some time ago
in this town, whose name was Christian, that went on pilgrimage
up towards the higher regions?

SAG. Hear of him! Aye, and I also heard of the molestations, troubles,
wars, captivities, cries, groans, frights, and fears that he met
with and had in his journey; besides, I must tell you, all our
country rings of him. There are but few houses that have heard of
him and his doings but have sought after and got the records of
his pilgrimage; yea, I think I may say that that his hazardous
journey, has got a many well-wishers to his ways; for though,
when he was here, he was fool in every man's mouth, yet, now he
is gone, he is highly commended of all. For, it is said, he lives
bravely where he is; yea, many of them that are resolved never to
run his hazards, yet have their mouths water at his gains.[9]

They may, quoth I, well think, if they think anything that is true,
that he liveth well where he is; for he now lives at and in the
Fountain of Life, and has what he has without labour and sorrow,
for there is no grief mixed therewith. [But, pray, what talk have
the people about him?][10]

SAG. Talk! the people talk strangely about him; some say that he
now walks in white (Rev. 3:4; 6:11); that he has a chain of gold
about his neck; that he has a crown of gold, beset with pearls,
upon his head. Others say that the Shining Ones, that sometimes
showed themselves to him in his journey, are become his companions,
and that he is as familiar with them in the place where he is as
here one neighbour is with another. Besides, it is confidently
affirmed concerning him, that the King of the place where he is
has bestowed upon him already a very rich and pleasant dwelling
at court (Zech. 3:7); and that he every day eateth (Luke 14:15),
and drinketh, and walketh, and talketh with Him; and receiveth of
the smiles and favours of Him that is Judge of all there. Moreover,
it is expected of some, that his Prince, the Lord of that country,
will shortly come into these parts, and will know the reason, if
they can give any, why his neighbours set so little by him, and
had him so much in derision, when they perceived that he would
be a pilgrim (Jude 14, 15). For, they say, that now he is so in
the affections of his Prince, and that his Sovereign is so much
concerned with the indignities that were cast upon Christian, when
he became a pilgrim, that He will look upon all as if done unto
Himself;[11] and no marvel, for it was for the love that he had
to his Prince that he ventured as he did[12] (Luke 10:16).

I dare say, quoth I, I am glad on it; I am glad for the poor man's
sake, for that he now has rest from his labour (Rev. 14:13); and
for that he now reapeth the benefit of his tears with joy (Psa.
126:5, 6); and for that he has got beyond the gunshot of his
enemies, and is out of the reach of them that hate him. I also am
glad, for that a rumour of these things is noised abroad in this
country; who can tell but that it may work some good effect on
some that are left behind? But, pray Sir, while it is fresh in my
mind, do you hear anything of his wife and children? Poor hearts!
I wonder in my mind what they do.[13]

SAG. Who! Christiana and her sons? They are like to do as well as
did Christian himself; for though they all played the fool at the
first, and would by no means be persuaded by either the tears or
entreaties of Christian, yet second thoughts have wrought wonderfully
with them; so they have packed up, and are also gone after him.[14]

Better and better, quoth I. But what! wife and children, and all?
SAG. It is true; I can give you an account of the matter, for I
was upon the spot at the instant, and was thoroughly acquainted
with the whole affair.

Then, said I, a man, it seems, may report it for a truth? SAG.
You need not fear to affirm it; I mean that they are all gone on
pilgrimage, both the good woman and her four boys. And being (we
are, as I perceive) going some considerable way together, I will
give you an account of the whole of the matter.

This Christiana (for that was her name from the day that she, with
her children, betook themselves to a pilgrim's life), after her
husband was gone over the river, and she could hear of him no
more, her thoughts began to work in her mind. First, for that she
had lost her husband, and for that the loving bond of that relation
was utterly broken betwixt them. For you know, said he to me,
nature can do no less but entertain the living with many a heavy
cogitation in the remembrance of the loss of loving relations. This,
therefore, of her husband did cost her many a tear. But this was
not all; for Christiana did also begin to consider with herself,
whether her unbecoming behaviour towards her husband was not one
cause that she saw him no more; and that in such sort he was taken
away from her. And upon this, came into her mind, by swarms, all
her unkind, unnatural, and ungodly carriages to her dear friend;
which also clogged her conscience, and did load her with guilt.
She was, moreover, much broken with calling to remembrance the
restless groans, brinish tears, and self-bemoanings of her husband,
and how she did harden her heart against all his entreaties, and
loving persuasions, of her and her sons, to go with him; yea, there
was not anything that Christian either said to her or did before
her all the while that his burden did hang on his back, but it
returned upon her like a flash of lightning, and rent the caul of
her heart in sunder. Specially that bitter outcry of his, 'What
shall I do to be saved?' did ring in her ears most dolefully.[15]

Then said she to her children, Sons, we are all undone. I have sinned
away your father, and he is gone; he would have had us with him,
but I would not go myself. I also have hindered you of life.[16]
With that the boys fell all into tears, and cried out to go after
their father. O! said Christiana, that it had been but our lot to
go with him, then had it fared well with us, beyond what it is like
to do now; for though I formerly foolishly imagined, concerning
the troubles of your father, that they proceeded of a foolish fancy
that he had, or for that he was overrun with melancholy humours;
yet now it will not out of my mind but that they sprang from
another cause, to wit, for that the Light of light was given him
(James 1:23-25); by the help of which, as I perceive, he has escaped
the snares of death.[17] Then they all wept again, and cried out,
O woe worth the day![18]

The next night Christiana had a dream; and, behold, she saw as if
a broad parchment was opened before her, in which were recorded
the sum of her ways (Luke 18:13); and the times, as she thought,
looked very black upon her. Then she cried out aloud in her sleep,
'Lord, have mercy upon me a sinner!'[19] and the little children
heard her.

After this, she thought she saw two very ill-favoured ones standing
by her bedside, and saying, What shall we do with this woman? for
she cries out for mercy waking and sleeping; if she be suffered to
go on as she begins, we shall lose her as we have lost her husband.
Wherefore we must, by one way or other, seek to take her off from
the thoughts of what shall be hereafter, else all the world cannot
help it but she will become a pilgrim.

Now she awoke in a great sweat, also a trembling was upon her;
but after a while she fell to sleeping again. And then she thought
she saw Christian her husband in a place of bliss, among many
immortals, with a harp in his hand, standing and playing upon it
before One that sat on a throne, with a rainbow about His head.
She saw also as if he bowed his head, with his face to the paved
work that was under the Prince's feet, saying, I heartily thank my
Lord and King, for bringing of me into this place. Then shouted
a company of them that stood round about, and harped with their
harps; but no man living could tell what they said, but Christian
and his companions.[20]

Next morning, when she was up, had prayed to God, and talked with
her children a while, one knocked hard at the door, to whom she
spake out, saying, If thou comest in God's name, come in. So he
said, Amen, and opened the door, and saluted her with 'Peace be
to this house.' The which, when he had done, he said, Christiana,
knowest thou wherefore I am come? Then she blushed and trembled,
also her heart began to wax warm with desires to know whence
he came, and what was his errand to her. So he said unto her, My
name is Secret;[21] I dwell with those that are high. It is talked
of, where I dwell, as if thou hadst a desire to go thither; also,
there is a report, that thou art aware of the evil thou hast formerly
done to thy husband, in hardening of thy heart against his way,
and in keeping of these thy babes in their ignorance.

Christiana, the Merciful One has sent me to tell thee, that He is
a God ready to forgive, and that He taketh delight to multiply to
pardon offences. He also would have thee know, that He inviteth
thee to come into His presence, to His table, and that He will feed
thee with the fat of His house, and with the heritage of Jacob thy

There is Christian thy husband (that was), with legions more, his
companions, ever beholding that face that doth minister life to
beholders; and they will all be glad when they shall hear the sound
of thy feet step over thy Father's threshold.

Christiana at this was greatly abashed in herself, and bowing her
head to the ground, this Visitor proceeded, and said, Christiana,
here is also a letter for thee, which I have brought from thy
husband's King. So she took it and opened it, but it smelt after
the manner of the best perfume (Song. 1:3); also it was written
in letters of gold. The contents of the letter was, That the King
would have her do as did Christian her husband; for that was the
way to come to His city, and to dwell in His presence with joy
forever. At this the good woman was quite overcome; so she cried
out to her visitor, Sir, will you carry me and my children with
you, that we also may go and worship this King?

Then said the visitor, Christiana, the bitter is before the sweet.
Thou must through troubles, as did he that went before thee, enter
this Celestial City. Wherefore I advise thee to do as did Christian
thy husband. Go to the wicket-gate yonder, over the plain, for
that stands in the head of the way up which thou must go, and I
wish thee all good speed. Also I advise that thou put this letter
in thy bosom; that thou read therein to thyself, and to thy children,
until you have got it by rote of heart,[22] for it is one of the
songs that thou must sing while thou art in this house of thy
pilgrimage (Psa. 119:54); also this thou must deliver in at the
further gate.[23] Now I saw in my dream, that this old gentleman,
as he told me this story, did himself seem to be greatly affected
therewith. He, moreover, proceeded and said, So Christiana called
her sons together, and began thus to address herself unto them:
My sons, I have, as you may perceive, been of late under much
exercise in my soul, about the death of your father; not for that
I doubt at all of his happiness, for I am satisfied now that he
is well. I have been also much affected with the thoughts of mine
own state and yours, which I verily believe is by nature miserable.
My carriages, also, to your father in his distress, is a great
load to my conscience; for I hardened both my own heart and yours
against him, and refused to go with him on pilgrimage.[24]

The thoughts of these things would now kill me outright, but that
for a dream which I had last night, and but for the encouragement
that this stranger has given me this morning. Come, my children,
let us pack up and begone to the gate that leads to the Celestial
Country, that we may see your father, and be with him and his
companions in peace, according to the laws of that land.

Then did her children burst out into tears for joy, that the heart
of their mother was so inclined.[25] So their visitor bade them
farewell; and they began to prepare to set out for their journey.

But while they were thus about to be gone, two of the women, that
were Christiana's neighbours, came up to her house, and knocked at
her door. To whom she said as before, If you come in God's name,
come in. At this the women were stunned; for this kind of language
they used not to hear, or to perceive to drop from the lips of
Christiana.[26] Yet they came in; but, behold, they found the good
woman a-preparing to be gone from her house.

So they began and said, Neighbour, pray what is your meaning by

Christiana answered and said to the eldest of them, whose name was
Mrs. Timorous, I am preparing for a journey. (This Timorous was
daughter to him that met Christian upon the Hill Difficulty, and
would have had him go back for fear of the lions).

Tim. For what journey, I pray you?

CHRIST. Even to go after my good husband. And with that she fell

Tim. I hope not so, good neighbour; pray, for your poor children's
sakes, do not so unwomanly cast away yourself.

CHRIST. Nay, my children shall go with me, not one of them is
willing to stay behind.[27]

Tim. I wonder, in my very heart, what, or who has brought you into
this mind.

CHRIST. Oh! neighbour, knew you but as much as I do, I doubt not
but that you would go with me.

Tim. Prithee, what new knowledge hast thou got, that so worketh
off thy mind from thy friends, and that tempteth thee to go, nobody
knows where?

CHRIST. Then Christiana replied, I have been sorely afflicted
since my husband's departure from me; but especially since he went
over the river. But that which troubleth me most, is my churlish
carriages to him, when he was under his distress. Besides, I am
now as he was then; nothing will serve me but going on pilgrimage.
I was a-dreaming last night that I saw him. O that my soul was
with him! He dwelleth in the presence of the King of the country;
he sits and eats with Him at His table; he is become a companion
of immortals (1 Cor. 5:1-5), and has a house now given him to
dwell in, to which the best palaces on earth, if compared, seem
to me to be but as a dunghill. The Prince of the place has also
sent for me, with promise of entertainment if I shall come to Him;
His messenger was here even now, and has brought me a letter, which
invites me to come. And with that she plucked out her letter,[28]
and read it, and said to them, What now will ye say to this?

Tim. O the madness that has possessed thee and thy husband, to
run yourselves upon such difficulties! You have heard, I am sure,
what your husband did meet with, even, in a manner, at the first
step that he took on his way, as our neighbour Obstinate can yet
testify, for he went along with him; yea, and Pliable too, until
they, like wise men, were afraid to go any further. We also heard,
over and above, how he met with the lions, Apollyon, the Shadow of
Death, and many other things. Nor is the danger that he met with
at Vanity Fair to be forgotten by thee; for if he, though a man,
was so hard put to it, what canst thou, being but a poor woman,
do? Consider also, that these four sweet babes are thy children,
thy flesh and thy bones. Wherefore, though thou shouldest be so
rash as to cast away thyself; yet, for the sake of the fruit of
thy body, keep thou at home.[29]

But Christiana said unto her, Tempt me not, my neighbour. I have
now a price put into my hand to get gain, and I should he a fool
of the greatest size, if I should have no heart to strike in with
the opportunity.[30] And for that you tell me of all these troubles
that I am like to meet with in the way, they are so far off from
being to me a discouragement, that they show I am in the right.
'The bitter must come before the sweet,' and that also will make
the sweet the sweeter. Wherefore, since you came not to my house
in God's name, as I said, I pray you to be gone, and not to disquiet
me farther.[31]

Then Timorous also reviled her, and said to her fellow, Come,
neighbour Mercy, let us leave her in her own hands, since she
scorns our counsel and company. But Mercy was at a stand, and could
not so readily comply with her neighbour, and that for a twofold
reason. First, her bowels yearned over Christiana. So she said
within herself, If my neighbour will needs be gone, I will go
a little way with her and help her. Secondly, her bowels yearned
over her own soul, for what Christiana had said had taken some
hold upon her mind.[32] Wherefore she said within herself again,
I will yet have more talk with this Christiana, and if I find
truth and life in what she shall say, myself with my heart shall
also go with her. Wherefore Mercy began thus to reply to her
neighbour Timorous.

MERCY. Neighbour, I did, indeed, come with you to see Christiana
this morning; and since she is, as you see, a-taking of her last
farewell of her country, I think to walk, this sun-shine morning,
a little way with her, to help her on the way. But she told her
not of the second reason, but kept that to herself.

TIM. Well, I see you have a mind to go a-fooling too, but take
heed in time, and be wise. While we are out of danger, we are out;
but when we are in, we are in. So Mrs. Timorous returned to her
house, and Christiana betook herself to her journey.[33] But when
Timorous was got home to her house, she sends for some of her
neighbours, to wit, Mrs. Bat's-eyes, Mrs. Inconsiderate, Mrs.
Light-mind, and Mrs. Know-nothing. So when they were come to her
house, she falls to telling of the story of Christiana, and of her
intended journey. And thus she began her tale.[34]

TIM. Neighbours, having had little to do this morning, I went to
give Christiana a visit; and when I came at the door, I knocked,
as you know it is our custom. And she answered, If you come in
God's name, come in. So in I went, thinking all was well. But when
I came in, I found her preparing herself to depart the town, she,
and also her children. So I asked her what was her meaning by
that. And she told me, in short, that she was now of a mind to go
on pilgrimage, as did her husband. She told me also a dream that
she had, and how the King of the country where her husband was,
had sent her an inviting letter to come thither.

Then said Mrs. Know-nothing, what! do you think she will go?

TIM. Aye, go she will, whatever come on't; and methinks I know it
by this; for that which was my great argument to persuade her to
stay at home (to wit, the troubles she was like to meet with in
the way) is one great argument with her to put her forward on her
journey. For she told me in so many words, 'The bitter goes before
the sweet.' Yea, and forasmuch as it so doth, it makes the sweet
the sweeter.

MRS. BAT'S-EYES. O, this blind and foolish woman! said she; will
she not take warning by her husband's afflictions? For my part, I
see, if he were here again, he would rest him content in a whole
skin, and never run so many hazards for nothing.

MRS. INCONSIDERATE also replied, saying, Away with such fantastical
fools from the town! A good riddance, for my part, I say, of
her. Should she stay where she dwells, and retain this her mind,
who could live quietly by her? for she will either be dumpish or
unneighbourly, or talk of such matters as no wise body can abide;
wherefore, for my part, I shall never be sorry for her departure.
Let her go, and let better come in her room. It was never a good
world since these whimsical fools dwelt in it.[35]

Then Mrs. Light-mind added as followeth--Come, put this kind of
talk away. I was yesterday at Madam Wanton's, where we were as
merry as the maids. For who do you think should be there, but I
and Mrs. Love-the-flesh, and three or four more, with Mr. Lechery,
Mrs. Filth, and some others. So there we had music, and dancing,
and what else was meet to fill up the pleasure. And, I dare say,
my lady herself is an admirably well-bred gentlewoman, and Mr.
Lechery is as pretty a fellow.

By this time, Christiana was got on her way, and Mercy went along
with her. So as they went, her children being there also, Christiana
began to discourse. And, Mercy, said Christiana, I take this as an
unexpected favour, that thou shouldst set foot out of doors with
me, to accompany me a little in my way.

MERCY. Then said young Mercy (for she was but young), If I thought
it would be to purpose to go with you, I would never go near the
town any more.

CHRIST. Well, Mercy, said Christiana, cast in thy lot with me;
I well know what will be the end of our pilgrimage. My husband
is where he would not but be for all the gold in the Spanish
mines. Nor shalt thou be rejected, though thou goest but upon my
invitation.[36] The King who hath sent for me and my children is
one that delighteth in mercy. Besides, if thou wilt, I will hire
thee, and thou shalt go along with me as my servant; yet we will
have all things in common betwixt thee and me; only, go along with

MERCY. But how shall I be ascertained that I also shall be
entertained? Had I this hope but from one that can tell, I would
make no stick at all, but would go, being helped by him that can
help, though the way was never so tedious.[38]

CHRIST. Well, loving Mercy, I will tell thee what thou shalt do.
Go with me to the wicket-gate, and there I will further inquire
for thee; and if there thou shalt not meet with encouragement, I
will be content that thou shalt return to thy place. I also will
pay thee for thy kindness which thou showest to me and my children,
in thy accompanying us in our way, as thou dost.

MERCY. Then will I go thither, and will take what shall follow;
and the Lord grant that my lot may there fall, even as the King of
Heaven shall have His heart upon me.[39]

Christiana then was glad at her heart, not only that she had a
companion, but also that she had prevailed with this poor maid to
fall in love with her own salvation. So they went on together, and
Mercy began to weep. Then said Christiana, Wherefore weepeth my
Sister so?

MERCY. Alas! said she, who can but lament, that shall but rightly
consider, what a state and condition my poor relations[40] are in
that yet remain in our sinful town? and that which makes my grief
the more heavy is, because they have no instructor, nor any to
tell them what is to come.

CHRIST. Bowels becometh pilgrims; and thou dost for thy friends as
my good Christian did for me when he left me; he mourned for that
I would not heed nor regard him; but his Lord and ours did gather
up after his tears and put them into His bottle; and now both I and
thou, and these my sweet babes, are reaping the fruit and benefit
of them. I hope, Mercy, these tears of thine will not be lost;
for the truth hath said, that 'They that sow in tears shall reap
in joy' in singing. And 'he that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing
precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing
his sheaves with him' (Psa. 126:5, 6).

Then said Mercy--
Let the Most Blessed be my guide,
If't be His blessed will;
Unto His gate, into His fold,
Up to His holy hill.
And let Him never suffer me
To swerve or turn aside
From His free grace, and holy ways,
Whate'er shall me betide.

And let Him gather them of mine,
That I have left behind;
Lord, make them pray they may be Thine,
With all their heart and mind.[41]

Now my old friend proceeded, and said: But when Christiana came
up to the Slough of Despond, she began to be at a stand; for, said
she, this is the place in which my dear husband had like to have
been smothered with mud. She perceived, also, that notwithstanding
the command of the King to make this place for pilgrims good, yet
it was rather worse than formerly. So I asked if that were true.
Yes, said the old gentleman, too true; for that many there be
that pretend to be the King's labourers, and that say they are
for mending the King's highway, that bring dirt and dung instead
of stones, and so mar instead of mending.[42] Here Christiana,
therefore, with her boys, did make a stand; but, said Mercy, Come,
let us venture, only let us be wary. Then they looked well to the
steps, and made a shift to get staggeringly over.[43] Yet, Christiana
had like to have been in, and that not once nor twice. Now they
had no sooner got over, but they thought they heard words that
said unto them, 'Blessed is she that believed; for there shall be
a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord'
(Luke 1:45).

Then they went on again; and said Mercy to Christiana, Had I as
good ground to hope for a loving reception at the wicket-gate as
you, I think no Slough of Despond would discourage me. Well, said
the other, you know your sore,[44] and I know mine; and, good friend,
we shall all have enough evil before we come at our journey's end.

For can it be imagined, that the people that design to attain such
excellent glories as we do, and that are so envied that happiness
as we are; but that we shall meet with what fears and scares, with
what troubles and afflictions they can possibly assault us with,
that hate us?

And now Mr. Sagacity left me to dream out my dream by myself.
Wherefore, methought I saw Christiana and Mercy, and the boys, go
all of them up to the gate; to which, when they were come, they
betook themselves to a short debate about how they must manage
their calling at the gate, and what should be said to Him that did
open to them. So it was concluded, since Christiana was the eldest,
that she should knock for entrance, and that she should speak to
Him that did open, for the rest. So Christiana began to knock;
and, as her poor husband did, she knocked, and knocked again. But,
instead of any that answered, they all thought that they heard
as if a dog came barking upon them; a dog, and a great one too,
and this made the women and children afraid: nor durst they, for
a while, to knock any more, for fear the mastiff should fly upon
them. Now, therefore, they were greatly tumbled up and down in
their minds, and knew not what to do: knock they durst not, for
fear of the dog; go back they durst not, for fear the Keeper of
that gate should espy them as they so went, and should be offended
with them; at last they thought of knocking again, and knocked
more vehemently than they did at the first. Then said the Keeper
of the gate, Who is there? So the dog left off to bark, and He
opened unto them.[45] Then Christiana made low obeisance, and said,
Let not our Lord be offended with his handmaidens, for that we
have knocked at His princely gate. Then said the Keeper, Whence
come ye, and what is that you would have?

Christiana answered, We are come from whence Christian did come,
and upon the same errand as he; to wit, to be, if it shall please
You, graciously admitted by this gate into the way that leads to
the Celestial City. And I answer, my Lord, in the next place, that
I am Christiana, once the wife of Christian, that now is gotten

With that the Keeper of the gate did marvel, saying, What! is she
become now a pilgrim that, but a while ago, abhorred that life
Then she bowed her head, and said, Yes, and so are these my sweet
babes also.

Then He took her by the hand, and let her in, and said also, 'Suffer
the little children to come unto Me'; and with that He shut up the
gate. This done, He called to a trumpeter that was above, over the
gate, to entertain Christiana with shouting and sound of trumpet
for joy. So he obeyed, and sounded, and filled the air with his
melodious notes (Luke 15:7).

Now all this while poor Mercy did stand without, trembling and
crying, for fear that she was rejected. But when Christiana had
gotten admittance for herself and her boys, then she began to make
intercession for Mercy.

CHRIST. And she said, My Lord, I have a companion of mine that
stands yet without, that is come hither upon the same account as
myself; one that is much dejected in her mind, for that she comes,
as she thinks, without sending for; whereas I was sent to by my
husband's King to come.

Now Mercy began to be very impatient, for each minute was as long to
her as an hour; wherefore she prevented Christiana from a fuller
interceding for her, by knocking at the gate herself. And she
knocked then so loud, that she made Christiana to start. Then said
the Keeper of the gate, Who is there? and said Christiana, It is
my friend.

So He opened the gate and looked out, but Mercy was fallen down
without, in a swoon, for she fainted, and was afraid that no gate
would he opened to her.

Then He took her by the hand, and said, Damsel, I bid thee arise.
O Sir, said she, I am faint; there is scarce life left in me. But
He answered, That one once said, 'When my soul fainted within
me, I remembered the Lord; and my prayer came in unto Thee, into
Thine holy temple' (Jonah 2:7). Fear not, but stand upon thy feet,
and tell Me wherefore thou art come.[47]

MERCY. I am come for that unto which I was never invited, as my
friend Christiana was. Hers was from the King, and mine was but
from her. Wherefore I fear I presume.[48]

KEEP. Did she desire thee to come with her to this place?

MERCY. Yes; and, as my Lord sees, I am come. And, if there is any
grace or forgiveness of sins to spare, I beseech that I, thy poor
handmaid, may be partaker thereof.

Then He took her again by the hand, and led her gently in, and
said, I pray for all them that believe on Me, by what means soever
they come unto Me. Then said He to those that stood by, Fetch
something, and give it Mercy to smell on, thereby to stay her
fainting. So they fetched her a bundle of myrrh; and a while after,
she was revived.[49]

And now was Christiana and her boys, and Mercy, received of the
Lord at the head of the way, and spoke kindly unto by Him. Then
said they yet further unto Him, We are sorry for our sins, and beg
of our Lord His pardon, and further information what we must do.
I grant pardon, said He, by word and deed: by word, in the promise
of forgiveness; by deed, in the way I obtained it. Take the first
from My lips with a kiss, (Song. 1:2); and the other as it shall
be revealed.[50] (John 20:20).

Now, I saw in my dream, that He spake many good words unto them,
whereby they were greatly gladded. He also had them up to the top
of the gate, and showed them by what deed they were saved; and
told them withal, That that sight they would have again, as they
went along in the way, to their comfort.

So He left them a while in a summer parlour below, where they entered
into talk by themselves; and thus Christiana began: O Lord! how
glad am I that we are got in hither.

MERCY. So you well may; but I of all have cause to leap for joy.

CHRIST. I thought one time, as I stood at the gate (because I had
knocked, and none did answer), that all our labour had been lost,
especially when that ugly cur made such a heavy barking against

MERCY. But my worse fear was after I saw that you was taken into
His favour, and that I was left behind. Now, thought I, it is
fulfilled which is written, 'Two women shall he grinding together,
the one shall be taken and the other left'[52] (Matt. 24:41). I
had much ado to forbear crying out, Undone! undone![53]

And afraid I was to knock any more; but when I looked up to what
was written over the gate, I took courage.[54] I also thought that
I must either knock again, or die; so I knocked, but I cannot tell
how, for my spirit now struggled betwixt life and death.

CHRIST. Can you not tell how you knocked? I am sure your knocks
were so earnest that the very sound of them made me start; I
thought I never heard such knocking in all my life; I thought you
would have come in by violent hands, or have taken the kingdom by
storm (Matt. 11:12).

MERCY. Alas! to be in my case, who that so was could but have done
so? You saw that the door was shut upon me, and that there was a
most cruel dog thereabout. Who, I say, that was so faint-hearted
as I, that would not have knocked with all their might? But, pray,
what said my Lord to my rudeness? Was He not angry with me?

CHRIST. When He heard your lumbering noise, He gave a wonderful
innocent smile; I believe what you did pleased Him well enough,
for He showed no sign to the contrary. But I marvel in my heart,
why He keeps such a dog; had I known that before,[55] I fear I
should not have had heart enough to have ventured myself in this
manner. But now we are in, we are in; and I am glad with all my

MERCY. I will ask, if you please, next time He comes down, why He
keeps such a filthy cur in His yard; I hope He will not take it

Aye, do, said the children, and persuade Him to hang him; for we
are afraid he will bite us when we go hence.

So at last He came down to them again, and Mercy fell to the ground
on her face before Him, and worshipped, and said, Let my Lord
accept of the sacrifice of praise which I now offer unto Him with
the calves of my lips.

So He said unto her, 'Peace be to thee, stand up.' But she continued
upon her face, and said, 'Righteous art Thou, O Lord, when I plead
with Thee: yet let me talk with Thee of Thy judgments' (Jer. 12:1).
Wherefore dost Thou keep so cruel a dog in Thy yard, at the sight
of which, such women and children as we, are ready to fly from
Thy gate for fear?

He answered and said, That dog has another owner, he also is kept
close in another man's ground, only My pilgrims hear his barking;
he belongs to the castle which you see there at a distance, but can
come up to the walls of this place. He has frighted many an honest
pilgrim from worse to better, by the great voice of his roaring.
Indeed, he that owneth him doth not keep him of any goodwill to Me
or Mine, but with intent to keep the pilgrims from coming to Me,
and that they may be afraid to knock at this gate for entrance.
Sometimes also he has broken out, and has worried some that I
loved; but I take all at present patiently. I also give My pilgrims
timely help, so they are not delivered up to his power, to do to
them what his doggish nature would prompt him to. But what! my
purchased one, I trow, hadst thou known never so much beforehand,
thou wouldst not have been afraid of a dog.

The beggars that go from door to door will, rather than they will
lose a supposed alms, run the hazard of the bawling, barking, and
biting, too, of a dog; and shall a dog--a dog in another man's
yard, a dog whose barking I turn to the profit of pilgrims--keep
any from coming to Me? I deliver them from the lions, their darling
from the power of the dog.[57]

MERCY. Then said Mercy, I confess my ignorance; I spake what I
understood not; I acknowledge that Thou dost all things well.

CHRIST. Then Christiana began to talk of their journey, and to
inquire after the way. So He fed them, and washed their feet, and
set them in the way of His steps, according as He had dealt with
her husband before. So I saw in my dream, that they walked on in
their way, and had the weather very comfortable to them.

Then Christiana began to sing, saying--
Blessed be the day that I began
A pilgrim for to be;
And blessed also be that man
That thereto moved me.
'Tis true, 'twas long ere I began
To seek to live forever:
But now I run fast as I can;
'Tis better late then never.

Our tears to joy, our fears to faith,
Are turned, as we see,
That our beginning, as one saith,
Shows what our end will be.

Now there was, on the other side of the wall that fenced in the
way up which Christiana and her companions were to go, a garden,
and that garden belonged to him whose was that barking dog of whom
mention was made before. And some of the fruit-trees that grew in
that garden shot their branches over the wall; and being mellow,
they that found them did gather them up, and oft eat of them to
their hurt. So Christiana's boys, as boys are apt to do, being
pleased with the trees, and with the fruit that did hang thereon,
did plash[58] them, and began to eat. Their mother did also chide
them for so doing, but still the boys went on.[59]

Well, said she, my sons, you transgress, for that fruit is none
of ours; but she did not know that they did belong to the enemy;
I will warrant you, if she had, she would have been ready to die
for fear. But that passed, and they went on their way. Now, by
that they were gone about two bow-shots from the place that let
them into the way, they espied two very ill-favoured ones coming
down apace to meet them.[60] With that, Christiana and Mercy, her
friend, covered themselves with their veils, and so kept on their
journey; the children also went on before; so that at last they
met together. Then they that came down to meet them, came just up
to the women, as if they would embrace them; but Christiana said,
Stand back, or go peaceably by, as you should. Yet these two, as
men that are deaf, regarded not Christiana's words, but began to
lay hands upon them. At that Christiana, waxing very wroth, spurned
at them with her feet. Mercy also, as well as she could, did what
she could to shift them. Christiana again said to them, Stand back,
and begone; for we have no money to lose, being pilgrims, as you
see, and such, too, as live upon the charity of our friends.

ILL-FAVOURED. Then said one of the two of the men, We make no
assault upon you for money, but are come out to tell you, that if
you will but grant one small request, which we shall ask, we will
make women of you forever.

CHRIST. Now Christiana, imagining what they should mean, made
answer again, We will neither bear, nor regard, nor yield to what
you shall ask. We are in haste, cannot stay; our business is a
business of life and death. So, again, she and her companions made
a fresh essay to go past them; but they letted them in their way.

ILL-FAV. And they said, We intend no hurt to your lives; it is
another thing we would have.

CHRIST. Ah, quoth Christiana, you would have us body and soul, for
I know it is for that you are come; but we will die rather upon
the spot, than suffer ourselves to be brought into such snares as
shall hazard our well-being hereafter. And with that they both
shrieked out, and cried, Murder! murder! and so put themselves under
those laws that are provided for the protection of women (Deut.
22:23-27). But the men still made their approach upon them, with
design to prevail against them. They, therefore, cried out again.[61]

Now, they being, as I said, not far from the gate in at which
they came, their voice was heard from where they were, thither;
wherefore some of the house came out, and knowing that it was
Christiana's tongue, they made haste to her relief. But by that
they were got within sight of them, the women were in a very great
scuffle, the children also stood crying by. Then did he that came
in for their relief call out to the ruffians, saying, What is that
thing that you do? Would you make my Lord's people to transgress?
He also attempted to take them, but they did make their escape
over the wall, into the garden of the man to whom the great dog
belonged; so the dog became their protector. This Reliever then came
up to the women, and asked them how they did. So they answered,
We thank thy Prince, pretty well; only we have been somewhat
affrighted; we thank thee also, for that thou camest in to our
help, for otherwise we had been overcome.

RELIEVER. So after a few more words, this Reliever said as
followeth: I marveled much when you were entertained at the gate
above, being, [as] ye knew, that ye were but weak women, that you
petitioned not the Lord there for a conductor; then might you have
avoided these troubles and dangers, for He would have granted you

CHRIST. Alas! said Christiana, we were so with our present blessing,
that dangers to come were forgotten by us; besides, who could have
thought, that so near the King's palace, there should have lurked
such naughty ones? Indeed, it had been well for us, had we asked
our Lord for one; but, since our Lord knew it would be for our
profit, I wonder He sent not one along with us![63]

REL. It is not always necessary to grant things not asked for, lest,
by so doing, they become of little esteem; but when the want of a
thing is felt, it then comes under, in the eyes of him that feels
it, that estimate that properly is its due, and so, consequently,
will be thereafter used. Had my Lord granted you a conductor, you
would not neither so have bewailed that oversight of yours, in
not asking for one, as now you have occasion to do. So all things
work for good, and tend to make you more wary.

CHRIST. Shall we go back again to my Lord, and confess our folly,
and ask one?

REL. Your confession of your folly I will present Him with. To go
back again you need not; for in all places where you shall come,
you will find no want at all; for in every of my Lord's lodgings,
which He has prepared for the reception of His pilgrims, there is
sufficient to furnish them against all attempts whatsoever. But,
as I said, 'He will be inquired of by them, to do it for them'
(Ezek. 36:37). And it is a poor thing that is not worth asking
for. When he had thus said, he went back to his place, and the
Pilgrims went on their way.

MERCY. Then said Mercy, What a sudden blank is here! I made
account we had now been past all danger, and that we should never
see sorrow more.[64]

CHRIST. Thy innocency, my sister, said Christiana to Mercy, may
excuse thee much; but as for me, my fault is so much the greater,
for that I saw this dancer before I came out of the doors, and yet
did not provide for it where provision might have been had. I am
therefore much to be blamed.[65]

MERCY. Then said Mercy, How knew you this before you came from
home? Pray open to me this riddle.

CHRIST. Why, I will tell you. Before I set foot out of doors, one
night, as I lay in my bed, I had a dream about this; for, methought I
saw two men, as like these as ever the world they could look, stand
at my bed's feet, plotting how they might prevent my salvation. I
will tell you their very words. They said (it was when I was in my
troubles), What shall we do with this woman? for she cries out,
waking and sleeping, for forgiveness. If she be suffered to go on
as she begins, we shall lose her, as we have lost her husband.
This, you know, might have made me take heed, and have provided
when provision might have been had.

MERCY. Well, said Mercy, as by this neglect we have an occasion
ministered unto us, to behold our own imperfections; so our Lord
has taken occasion thereby, to make manifest the riches of His
grace; for He, as we see, has followed us with unasked kindness,
and has delivered us from their hands that were stronger than we,
of His mere good pleasure.[66]

Thus, now when they had talked away a little more time, they drew
nigh to a house which stood in the way, which house was built for
the relief of pilgrims; as you will find more fully related in the
First Part of these Records of the Pilgrim's Progress. So they drew
on towards the house (the House of the Interpreter), and when they
came to the door, they heard a great talk in the house. They then
gave ear, and heard, as they thought, Christiana mentioned by name.
For you must know that there went along, even before her, a talk
of her and her children's going on pilgrimage. And this thing was
the more pleasing to them, because they had heard that she was
Christian's wife, that woman who was sometime ago so unwilling to
hear of going on pilgrimage. Thus, therefore, they stood still,
and heard the good people within commending her, who, they little
thought, stood at the door. At last Christiana knocked, as she had
done at the gate before. Now, when she had knocked, there came to
the door a young damsel, named Innocent, and opened the door and
looked, and behold two women were there.

DAMSEL. Then said the damsel to them, With whom would you speak
in this place?

CHRIST. Christiana answered, We understand that this is a privileged
place for those that are become pilgrims, and we now at this door
are such; wherefore we pray that we may be partakers of that for
which we at this time are come; for the day, as thou seest, is
very far spent, and we are loath tonight to go any further.

DAMSEL. Pray, what may I call your name, that I may tell it to my
Lord within?

CHRIST. My name is Christiana; I was the wife of that pilgrim, that
some years ago did travel this way, and these be his four children.
This maiden also is my companion, and is going on pilgrimage too.

INNOCENT. Then ran Innocent in (for that was her name) and said to
those within, Can you think who is at the door? There is Christiana
and her children, and her companion, all waiting for entertainment
here. Then they leaped for joy, and went and told their Master.
So He came to the door, and looking upon her, He said, Art thou
that Christiana whom Christian, the good man, left behind him,
when he betook himself to a pilgrim's life?

CHRIST. I am that woman that was so hard-hearted, as to slight
my husband's troubles, and that left him to go on in his journey
alone, and these are his four children; but now I also am come,
for I am convinced that no way is right but this.

INTER. Then is fulfilled that which also is written of the man that
said to his son, 'Go, work today in my vineyard. He answered and
said, I will not: but afterward he repented and went' (Matt. 21:29).

CHRIST. Then said Christiana, So be it, Amen. God make it a true
saying upon me, and grant that I may be found at the last of Him
in peace, without spot, and blameless!

INTER. But why standest thou thus at the door? Come in, thou
daughter of Abraham. We were talking of thee but now, for tidings
have come to us before, how thou art become a pilgrim. Come,
children, come in; come, maiden, come in. So He had them all into
the house.[67]

So, when they were within, they were bidden sit down and rest them;
the which when they had done, those that attended upon the Pilgrims
in the house, came into the room to see them. And one smiled, and
another smiled, and they all smiled, for joy that Christiana was
become a pilgrim. They also looked upon the boys. They stroked
them over the faces with the hand, in token of their kind reception
of them. They also carried it lovingly to Mercy, and bid them all
welcome into their Master's house.[68]

After a while, because supper was not ready, the Interpreter took
them into his significant rooms, and showed them what Christian,
Christiana's husband, had seen some time before. Here, therefore,
they saw the man in the cage, the man and his dream, the man that
cut his way through his enemies, and the picture of the biggest of
them all, together with the rest of those things that were then so
profitable to Christian.

This done, and after these things had been somewhat digested by
Christiana and her company, the Interpreter takes them apart again,
and has them first into a room where was a man that could look no
way but downwards, with a muck-rake in his hand. There stood also
one over His head with a celestial crown in His hand, and proffered
him that crown for his muck-rake; but the man did neither look
up, nor regard, but raked to himself the straws, the small sticks,
and dust of the floor.[69]

Then said Christiana, I persuade myself that I know somewhat the
meaning of this; for this is a figure of a man of this world, is
it not, good Sir?

INTER. Thou hast said the right, said He, and his muck-rake doth
show his carnal mind. And whereas thou seest him rather give heed
to rake up straws and sticks, and the dust of the floor, than to
what He says that calls to him from above with the celestial crown
in His hand, it is to show that Heaven is but as a fable to some,
and that things here are counted the only things substantial. Now,
whereas, it was also showed thee, that the man could look no way
but downwards, it is to let thee know that earthly things, when
they are with power upon men's minds, quite carry their hearts
away from God.[70]

CHRIST. Then said Christiana, O deliver me from this muck-rake![71]

INTER. That prayer, Said the Interpreter, has lain by till it is
almost rusty. 'Give me not riches,' is scarce the prayer of one
of ten thousand (Prov. 30:8). Straws, and sticks, and dust, with
most, are the great things now looked after.[72] With that Mercy
and Christiana wept, and said, It is, alas! too true.[73]

When the Interpreter had shown them this, He has them into the very
best room in the house; a very brave room it was. So He bid them
look round about, and see if they could find anything profitable
there. Then they looked round and round; for there was nothing
there to be seen but a very great spider on the wall: and that
they overlooked.

MERCY. Then said Mercy, Sir, I see nothing; but Christiana held
her peace.

INTER. But, said the Interpreter, look again, and she therefore
looked again, and said, Here is not anything but an ugly spider,
who hangs by her hands upon the wall. Then said He, Is there but
one spider in all this spacious room? Then the water stood in
Christiana's eyes, for she was a woman quick of apprehension; and
she said, Yea, Lord, there is here more than one. Yea, and spiders
whose venom is far more destructive than that which is in her. The
Interpreter then looked pleasantly upon her, and said, Thou hast
said the truth. This made Mercy blush, and the boys to cover their
faces, for they all began now to understand the riddle.[74]

Then said the Interpreter again, 'The spider taketh hold with their
hands (as you see), and is in kings' palaces' (Prov. 30:28). And
wherefore is this recorded, but to show you, that how full of the
venom of sin soever you be, yet you may, by the hand of faith, lay
hold of, and dwell in the best room that belongs to the King's
house above![75]

CHRIST. I thought, said Christiana, of something of this; but
I could not imagine it all. I thought that we were like spiders,
and that we looked like ugly creatures, in what fine room soever
we were; but that by this spider, this venomous and ill-favoured
creature, we were to learn how to act faith, that came not into
my mind. And yet she has taken hold with her hands, as I see, and
dwells in the best room in the house. God has made nothing in vain.

Then they seemed all to be glad; but the water stood in their
eyes; yet they looked one upon another, and also bowed before the

He had them then into another room, where was a hen and chickens,
and bid them observe a while. So one of the chickens went to the
trough to drink, and every time she drank, she lift up her head,
and her eyes towards Heaven. See, said He, what this little chick
doth, and learn of her to acknowledge whence your mercies come,
by receiving them with looking up. Yet again, said He, observe
and look; so they gave heed, and perceived that the hen did walk
in a fourfold method towards her chickens. 1. She had a common
call, and that she hath all day long. 2. She had a special call,
and that she had but sometimes. 3. She had a brooding note. And
4. She had an outcry (Matt. 23:37).

Now, said He, compare this hen to your King, and these chickens
to His obedient ones.[76] For, answerable to her, Himself has His
methods, which He walketh in towards His people; by His common call,
He gives nothing; by His special call, He always has something to
give; He has also a brooding voice, for them that are under His
wing; and He has an outcry, to give the alarm when He seeth the
enemy come.[77] I chose, My darlings, to lead you into the room
where such things are, because you are women, and they are easy
for you.[78]

CHRIST. And Sir, said Christiana, pray let us see some more. So
He had them into the slaughter-house, where was a butcher killing
of a sheep; and behold the sheep was quiet, and took her death
patiently. Then said the Interpreter, You must learn of this sheep
to suffer, and to put up wrongs without murmurings and complaints.
Behold how quietly she taketh her death, and without objecting,
she suffereth her skin to be pulled over her ears. Your King doth
call you His sheep.

After this He led them into His garden, where was great variety of
flowers; and he said, Do you see all these? So Christiana Said, Yes.
Then said He again, Behold the flowers are diverse in stature, in
quality, and colour, and smell, and virtue; and some are better than
some; also where the gardener hath set them, there they stand, and
quarrel not with one another.[79]

Again, He had them into His field, which He had sowed with wheat
and corn; but when they beheld, the tops of all were cut off, only
the straw remained; He said again, This ground was dunged, and
ploughed, and sowed; but what shall we do with the crop? Then
said Christiana, Burn some, and make muck of the rest. Then Said
the Interpreter again, Fruit, you see, is that thing you look
for,[80] and for want of that you condemn it to the fire, and to
be trodden under foot of men: beware that in this you condemn not

Then, as they were coming in from abroad, they espied a little
robin with a great spider in his mouth; so the Interpreter said,
Look here. So they looked, and Mercy wondered; but Christiana
said, What a disparagement is it to such a little pretty bird as
the robin-redbreast is, he being also a bird above many, that loveth
to maintain a kind of socialbleness with man; I had thought they
had lived upon crumbs of bread, or upon other such harmless matter;
I like him worse than I did.

The Interpreter then replied, This robin is an emblem, very apt
to set forth some professors by; for to sight, they are, as this
robin, pretty of note, colour, and carriage. They seem also to
have a very great love for professors that are sincere; and above
all other, to desire to sociate with them, and to be in their
company, as if they could live upon the good man's crumbs. They
pretend also, that therefore it is that they frequent the house
of the godly, and the appointments of the Lord; but, when they are
by themselves, as the robin, they can catch and gobble up spiders,
they can change their diet, drink iniquity, and swallow down
sin like water.[82] So, when they were come again into the house,
because supper as yet was not ready, Christiana again desired that
the Interpreter would either show or tell of some other things that
are profitable. Then the Interpreter began, and said, The fatter
the sow is, the more she desires the mire; the fatter the ox is,
the more gamesomely he goes to the slaughter; and the more healthy
the lusty man is, the more prone he is unto evil.

There is a desire in women to go neat and fine, and it is a comely
thing to be adorned with that that in God's sight is of great price.
It is easier watching a night or two, than to sit up a whole year
together. So it is easier for one to begin to profess well, than
to hold out as he should to the end.

Every shipmaster, when in a storm, will willingly cast that overboard
that is of the smallest value in the vessel; but who will throw
the best out first? None but he that feareth not God. One leak
will sink a ship; and one sin will destroy a sinner. He that
forgets his friend, is ungrateful unto him; but he that forgets
his Saviour, is unmerciful to himself.

He that lives in sin, and looks for happiness hereafter, is like
him that soweth cockle, and thinks to fill his barn with wheat or
barley. If a man would live well, let him fetch his last day to
him, and make it always his company keeper.

Whispering, and change of thoughts, prove that sin is in the world.
If the world, which God sets light by, is counted a thing of that
worth with men; what is Heaven, which God commendeth?

If the life that is attended with so many troubles, is so loath to
be let go by us, what is the life above?

Everybody will cry up the goodness of men; but who is there that
is, as he should, affected with the goodness of God?

We seldom sit down to meat, but we eat and leave; so there is in
Jesus Christ more merit and righteousness than the whole world has
need of.[83]

When the Interpreter had done, He takes them out into His garden
again, and had them to a tree, whose inside was all rotten and gone,
and yet it grew and had leaves. Then said Mercy, What means this?
This tree, said He, whose outside is fair, and whose inside
is rotten, it is to which many may be compared, that are in the
garden of God; who with their mouths speak high in behalf of God,
but indeed will do nothing for Him; whose leaves are fair, but
their heart good for nothing but to be tinder for the devil's
tinder box.[84] Now supper was ready, the table spread, and all
things set on the board; so they sat down and did eat, when one
had given thanks. And the Interpreter did usually entertain those
that lodged with Him, with music at meals; so the minstrels played.
There was also one that did sing, and a very fine voice he had.
His song was this:

The Lord is only my support,
And he that doth me feed;
How can I then want anything
Whereof I stand in need?

When the song and music was ended,[85] the Interpreter asked
Christiana what it was that at first did move her to betake herself
to a Pilgrim's life. Christiana answered, First, the loss of my
husband came into my mind, at which I was heartily grieved; but
all that was but natural affection. Then, after that, came the
troubles and pilgrimage of my husband into my mind, and also how
like a churl I had carried it to him as to that. So guilt took
hold of my mind, and would have drawn me into the pond; but that
opportunely I had a dream of the well-being of my husband, and a
letter sent me by the King of that country where my husband dwells,
to come to Him. The dream and the letter together so wrought upon
my mind, that they forced me to this way.

INTER. But met you with no opposition before you set out of doors?

CHRIST. Yes, a neighbour of mine, one Mrs. Timorous (she was akin
to him that would have persuaded my husband to go back, for fear
of the lions). She all to befooled me for, as she called it, my
intended desperate adventure; she also urged what she could to
dishearten me to it; the hardship and troubles that my husband met
with in the way, but all this I got over pretty well.[86] But a
dream that I had of two ill-looked ones, that I thought did plot
how to make me miscarry in my journey, that hath troubled me much;
yea, it still runs in my mind, and makes me afraid of everyone
that I meet, lest they should meet me to do me a mischief, and to
turn me out of the way. Yea, I may tell my Lord, though I would
not have everybody know it, that between this and the gate by
which we got into the way, we were both so sorely assaulted that
we were made to cry out, Murder! and the two them made this assault
upon us were like the two that I saw in my dream.

Then said the Interpreter, thy beginning is good, thy latter end
shall greatly increase. So He addressed Himself to Mercy, and said
unto her, And what moved thee to come hither, sweet heart?

Then Mercy blushed and trembled, and for a while continued silent.

INTER. Then, said He, be not afraid, only believe, and speak thy

MERCY. So she began, and said, Truly, Sir, my want of experience
is that which makes me covet to be in silence, and that also
that fills me with fears of coming short at last. I cannot tell of
visions and dreams as my friend Christiana can; nor know I what
it is to mourn for my refusing of the counsel of those that were
good relations.[87]

INTER. What was it then, dear heart, that hath prevailed with thee
to do as thou hast done?

MERCY. Why, when our friend here was packing up to be gone from
our town, I and another went accidentally to see her; so we knocked
at the door and went in. When we were within, and seeing what she
was doing, we asked what was her meaning. She said, she was sent
for to go to her husband; and then she up and told us how she had
seen him in a dream, dwelling in a curious place, among immortals,
wearing a crown, playing upon a harp, eating and drinking at
his Prince's table, and singing praises to Him for bringing him
thither, &c. Now, methought, while she was telling these things
unto us, my heart burned within me; and I said in my heart, If
this be true, I will leave my father and my mother, and the land
of my nativity, and will, if I may, go along with Christiana. So
I asked her further of the truth of these things, and if she would
let me go with her; for I saw now that there was no dwelling, but
with the danger of ruin, any longer in our town. But yet I came
away with a heavy heart, not for that I was unwilling to come
away, but for that so many of my relations were left behind. And
I am come, with all the desire of my heart, and will go, if I may,
with Christiana, unto her husband, and his King.[88]

INTER. Thy setting out is good, for thou hast given credit to the
truth.[89] Thou art a Ruth, who did, for the love she bare to Naomi,
and to the Lord her God, leave father and mother, and the land of
her nativity, to come out, and go with a people that she knew not
heretofore. 'The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be
given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou art
come to trust' (Ruth 2:12).

Now supper was ended, and preparation was made for bed; the women
were laid singly alone, and the boys by themselves. Now when Mercy
was in bed, she could not sleep for joy, for that now her doubts
of missing at last, were removed further from her than ever they
were before. So she lay blessing and praising God, who had had
such favour for her.

In the morning they rose with the sun, and prepared themselves for
their departure; but the Interpreter would have them tarry awhile,
for, said He, you must orderly go from hence. Then, said He to the
damsel that first opened unto them, Take them and have them into
the garden to the bath, and there wash them, and make them clean
from the soil which they have gathered by travelling. Then Innocent
the damsel took them, and had them into the garden, and brought
them to the bath; so she told them that there they must wash and
be clean, for so her Master would have the women to do that called
at His house, as they were going on pilgrimage. They then went in
and washed, yea, they and the boys and all; and they came out of
that bath, not only sweet and clean, but also much enlivened and
strengthened in their joints.[90] So when they came in, they looked
fairer a deal than when they went out to the washing.[91]

When they were returned out of the garden from the bath, the
Interpreter took them, and looked upon them, and said unto them,
Fair as the moon. Then he called for the seal, wherewith they used
to be sealed that were washed in His bath. So the seal was brought,
and He set His mark upon them, that they might be known in the
places whither they were yet to go. Now the seal was the contents
and sum of the passover which the children of Israel did eat when
they came out from the land of Egypt, and the mark was set between
their eyes.[92] This seal greatly added to their beauty, for it
was an ornament to their faces. It also added to their gravity, and
made their countenances more like them of angels[93] (Exo. 13:8-10).

Then said the Interpreter again to the damsel that waited upon
these women, Go into the vestry and fetch out garments for these
people; so she went and fetched out white raiment, and laid down
before Him; so He commanded them to put it on. 'It was fine linen,
white and clean.' When the women were thus adorned, they seemed
to be a terror one to the other; for that they could not see that
glory each one on herself, which they could see in each other. Now,
therefore, they began to esteem each other better than themselves.
'For you are fairer than I am,' said one; and 'you are more comely
than I am,' said another.[94] The children also stood amazed to
see into what fashion they were brought.[95]

The Interpreter then called for a man-servant of His, one Great-heart,
and bid him take sword, and helmet, and shield; and take these My
daughters, said He, and conduct them to the house called Beautiful,
at which place they will rest next.[96] So he took his weapons
and went before them; and the Interpreter said, God speed. Those
also that belonged to the family, sent them away with many a good
wish. So they went on their way and sang--

This place has been our second stage;
Here we have heard and seen
Those good things that, from age to age,
To others hid have been.

The dunghill-racer, spider, hen,
The chicken, too, to me
Hath taught a lesson; let me then
Conformed to it be.

The butcher, garden, and the field,
The robin and his bait,
Also the rotten tree doth yield
Me argument of weight;

To move me for to watch and pray,
To strive to be sincere;
To take my cross up day by day,
And serve the Lord with fear.

Now I saw in my dream, that they went on, and Great-heart went
before them: so they went and came to the place where Christian's
burden fell off his back, and tumbled into a sepulchre. Here then
they made a pause; and here also they blessed God. Now, said
Christiana, it comes to my mind, what was said to us at the gate,
to wit, that we should have pardon by word and deed; by word, that
is, by the promise; by deed, to wit, in the way it was obtained.
What the promise is, of that I know something; but what it is
to have pardon by deed, or in the way that it was obtained, Mr.
Great-heart, I suppose you know; wherefore, if you please, let us
hear you discourse thereof.

GREAT-HEART. Pardon by the deed done, is pardon obtained by someone,
for another that hath need thereof: not by the person pardoned,
but in the way, saith another, in which I have obtained it. So
then, to speak to the question more [at] large, the pardon that you
and Mercy, and these boys have attained, was obtained by another,
to wit, by Him that let you in at the gate; and He hath obtained
it in this double way. He has performed righteousness to cover
you, and spilt blood to wash you in.[97]

CHRIST. But if He parts with His righteousness to us, what will
He have for Himself?

GREAT-HEART. He has more righteousness than you have need of, or
than He needeth Himself.

CHRIST. Pray make that appear.

GREAT-HEART. With all my heart; but first I must premise, that He
of whom we are now about to speak is one that has not His fellow.
He has two natures in one Person, plain to be distinguished,
impossible to be divided. Unto each of these natures a righteousness
belongeth, and each righteousness is essential to that nature;
so that one may as easily cause the nature to be extinct, as to
separate its justice or righteousness from it. Of these righteousnesses,
therefore, we are not made partakers, so as that they, or any of
them, should be put upon us, that we might be made just, and live
thereby. Besides these, there is a righteousness which this Person
has, as these two natures are joined in one: and this is not the
righteousness of the Godhead, as distinguished from the manhood;
nor the righteousness of the manhood, as distinguished from
the Godhead; but a righteousness which standeth in the union of
both natures, and may properly be called, the righteousness that
is essential to His being prepared of God to the capacity of the
mediatory office, which He was to be intrusted with. If He parts with
His first righteousness, He parts with His Godhead; if He parts
with His second righteousness, He parts with the purity of His
manhood; if He parts with this third, He parts with that perfection
that capacitates Him to the office of mediation. He has, therefore,
another righteousness, which standeth in performance, or obedience,
to a revealed will; and that is it that He puts upon sinners, and
that by which their sins are covered. Wherefore He saith, 'As by
one man's disobedience, many were made sinners; so by the obedience
of one, shall many be made righteous'[98] (Rom. 5:19).

CHRIST. But are the other righteousnesses of no use to us?

GREAT-HEART. Yes; for though they are essential to His natures and
office and so cannot be communicated unto another, yet it is by
virtue of them, that the righteousness that justifies, is, for
that purpose, efficacious. The righteousness of His Godhead gives
virtue to His obedience; the righteousness of His manhood giveth
capability to His obedience to justify; and the righteousness that
standeth in the union of these two natures to His office, giveth
authority to that righteousness to do the work for which it is

So then, here is a righteousness that Christ, as God, has no need of,
for He is God without it; here is a righteousness that Christ, as
man, has no need of to make Him so, for He is perfect man without
it; again, here is a righteousness that Christ, as God-man, has
no need of, for He is perfectly so without it. Here, then, is
a righteousness that Christ, as God, as man, as God-man, has no
need of, with reference to Himself, and therefore He can spare
it; a justifying righteousness, that He for Himself wanteth not,
and therefore He giveth it away; hence it is called 'the gift of
righteousness' (Rom. 5:17). This righteousness, since Christ Jesus
the Lord has made Himself under the law, must be given away; for
the law doth not only bind him that is under it 'to do justly,'
but to use charity. Wherefore he must, he ought, by the law, if
he hath two coats, to give one to him that hath none. Now, our
Lord, indeed, hath two coats, one for Himself, and one to spare;
wherefore He freely bestows one upon those that have none. And
thus, Christiana, and Mercy, and the rest of you that are here,
doth your pardon come by deed, or by the work of another man.
Your Lord Christ is He that has worked, and has given away what
he wrought for, to the next poor beggar He meets.[99]

But, again, in order to pardon by deed, there must something be
paid to God as a price, as well as something prepared to cover us
withal. Sin has delivered us up to the just curse of a righteous law;
now, from this curse we must be justified by way of redemption, a
price being paid for the harms we have done (Rom. 4:24); and this
is by the blood of your Lord, who came and stood in your place and
stead, and died your death for your transgressions (Gal. 3:13).
Thus has He ransomed you from your transgressions by blood, and
covered your polluted and deformed souls with righteousness. For
the sake of which, God passeth by you, and will not hurt you, when
He comes to judge the world.

CHRIST. This is brave. Now, I see there was something to be learned
by our being pardoned by word and deed. Good Mercy, let us labour
to keep this in mind; and my children, do you remember it also.
But, Sir, was not this it that made my good Christian's burden
fall from off his shoulder, and that made him give three leaps
for joy?[100]

GREAT-HEART. Yes, it was the belief of this, that cut those
strings, that could not be cut by other means; and it was to give
him a proof of the virtue of this, that he was suffered to carry
his burden to the Cross.

CHRIST. I thought so; for though my heart was lightful and joyous
before, yet it is ten times more lightsome and joyous now. And I
am persuaded by what I have felt, though I have felt but little as
yet, that if the most burdened man in the world was here, and did
see and believe as I now do, it would make his heart the more merry
and blithe.[101]

GREAT-HEART. There is not only comfort, and the ease of a burden
brought to us, by the sight and consideration of these, but an
endeared affection begot in us by it; for who can, if he doth but
once think that pardon comes not only by promise, but thus, but be
affected with the way and means of his redemption, and so, with
the Man that hath wrought it for him?

CHRIST. True; methinks it makes my heart bleed to think that He
should bleed for me. O Thou loving One! O Thou blessed One! Thou
deservest to have me; Thou hast bought me; Thou deservest to have
me all; Thou hast paid for me ten thousand times more than I am
worth! No marvel that this made the water stand in my husband's
eyes, and that it made him trudge so nimbly on; I am persuaded he
wished me with him; but, vile wretch that I was, I let him come
all alone. O Mercy, that thy father and mother were here; yea,
and Mrs. Timorous also; nay, I wish now with all my heart, that
here was Madam Wanton too. Surely, surely their hearts would be
affected; nor could the fear of the one, nor the powerful lusts
of the other, prevail with them to go home again, and to refuse
to become good pilgrims.[102]

GREAT-HEART. You speak now in the warmth of your affections. Will
it, think you, be always thus with you? Besides, this is not
communicated to everyone that did see your Jesus bleed. There
were that stood by, and that saw the blood run from His heart to
the ground, and yet were so far off this, that, instead of lamenting,
they laughed at Him; and, instead of becoming His disciples,
did harden their hearts against Him. So that all that you have,
my daughters, you have by a peculiar impression made by a Divine
contemplating upon what I have spoken to you. Remember that it
was told you, that the hen, by her common call, gives no meat to
her chickens. This you have, therefore, by a special grace.[103]

Now, I saw still in my dream, that they went on until they were
come to the place that Simple, and Sloth, and Presumption,[104] lay
and slept in, when Christian went by on pilgrimage; and, behold,
they were hanged up in irons a little way off on the other side.[105]

MERCY. Then said Mercy to him that was their guide and conductor,
What are those three men? and for what are they hanged there?

GREAT-HEART. These three men were men of very bad qualities. They
had no mind to be pilgrims themselves, and whosoever they could
they hindered. They were for sloth and folly themselves, and whoever
they could persuade with, they made so too; and, withal, taught
them to presume that they should do well at last. They were asleep
when Christian went by; and now you go by, they are hanged.[106]

MERCY. But could they persuade any to be of their opinion?

GREAT-HEART. Yes; they turned several out of the way. There was
Slow-pace that they persuaded to do as they. They also prevailed
with one Short-wind, with one No-heart, with one Linger-after-lust,
and with one Sleepy-head, and with a young woman, her name was
Dull, to turn out of the way, and become as they. Besides, they
brought up an ill report of your Lord, persuading others that He
was a taskmaster. They also brought up an evil report of the good
land, saying it was not half so good as some pretend it was. They
also began to vilify His servants, and to count the very best of
them meddlesome, troublesome, busybodies. Further, they could call
the bread of God husks; the comforts of His children, fancies;
the travel and labour of pilgrims, things to no purpose.[107]

CHRIST. Nay, said Christiana, if they were such, they shall never
be bewailed by me. They have but what they deserve; and I think it
is well that they hang so near the highway, that others may see
and take warning. But had it not been well if their crimes had
been engraven on some plate of iron or brass, and left here, even
where they did their mischiefs, for a caution to other bad men?

GREAT-HEART. So it is, as you well may perceive, if you will go a
little to the wall.

MERCY. No, no; let them hang, and their names rot, and their crimes
live forever against them. I think it a high favour that they were
hanged before we came hither; who knows else what they might have
done to such poor women as we are? Then she turned it into a song,

Now then, you three, hang there, and be a sign
To all that shall against the truth combine.
And let him that comes after fear this end,
If unto pilgrims he is not a friend.
And thou, my soul, of all such men beware,
That unto holiness opposers are.

Thus they went on, till they came at the foot of the Hill
Difficulty,[108] where, again, their good friend, Mr. Great-heart,
took an occasion to tell them of what happened there when Christian
himself went by. So he had them first to the spring. Lo, said
he, this is the spring that Christian drank of, before he went up
this hill; and then it was clear and good, but now it is dirty with
the feet of some that are not desirous that pilgrims here should
quench their thirst (Ezek. 34:18). Thereat Mercy said, And why so
envious, trow? But, said their guide, it will do, if taken up, and
put into a vessel that is sweet and good; for then the dirt will
sink to the bottom, and the water come out by itself more clear.[109]
Thus, therefore, Christiana and her companions were compelled to
do. They took it up, and put it into an earthen pot, and so let
it stand till the dirt was gone to the bottom, and then they drank
thereof.[110] Next, he showed them the two by-ways that were at the
foot of the hill, where Formality and Hypocrisy lost themselves.
And, said he, these are dangerous paths. Two were here cast away
when Christian came by. And although, as you see, these ways are
since stopped up with chains, posts, and a ditch, yet there are
that will choose to adventure here, rather than take the pains to
go up this hill.[111]

CHRIST. 'The way of transgressors is hard' (Prov. 13:15). It is a
wonder that they can get into those ways without danger of breaking
their necks.

GREAT-HEART. They will venture. Yea, if at any time any of the
King's servants do happen to see them, and do call unto them, and
tell them that they are in the wrong ways, and do bid them beware
the danger, then they will railingly return them answer, and say,
'As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of
the Lord, we will not hearken unto thee; but we will certainly
do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth,' &c. (Jer.
44:16, 17). Nay, if you look a little further, you shall see that
these ways are made cautionary enough, not only by these posts,
and ditch, and chain; but also by being hedged up, yet they will
choose to go there.[112]

CHRIST. They are idle; they love not to take pains; uphill way is
unpleasant to them. So it is fulfilled unto them as it is written,
'The way of the slothful man is as an hedge of thorns' (Prov.
15:19). Yea, they will rather choose to walk upon a snare, than
to go up this hill, and the rest of this way to the city.

Then they set forward, and began to go up the hill, and up the
hill they went; but before they got to the top, Christiana began
to pant; and said, I dare say, this is a breathing hill. No marvel
if they that love their ease more than their souls, choose to
themselves a smoother way.[113] Then said Mercy, I must sit down;
also the least of the children began to cry. Come, come, said
Great-heart, sit not down here, for a little above is the Prince's
arbour. Then took he the little boy by the hand, and led him up

When they were come to the arbour, they were very willing to sit
down, for they were all in a pelting heat. Then said Mercy, How
sweet is rest to them that labour[114] (Matt. 11:28). And how good
is the Prince of pilgrims, to provide such resting-places for them!
Of this arbour I have heard much; but I never saw it before. But
here let us beware of sleeping; for, as I have heard, for that it
cost poor Christian dear.

Then said Mr. Great-heart to the little ones, Come, my pretty
boys, how do you do? What think you now of going on pilgrimage?
Sir, said the least, I was almost beat out of heart? but I thank
you for lending me a hand at my need.[115] And I remember now what
my mother hath told me, namely, that the way to Heaven is as up
a ladder, and the way to hell is as down a hill. But I had rather
go up the ladder to life, than down the hill to death.[116]

Then said Mercy, But the proverb is, To go down the hill is easy.
But James said (for that was his name), The day is coming, when,
in my opinion, going down hill will be the hardest of all. 'Tis
a good boy, said his Master, thou hast given her a right answer.
Then Mercy smiled; but the little boy did blush.[117]

CHRIST. Come, said Christiana, will you eat a bit, a little to
sweeten your mouths, while you sit here to rest your legs? For I
have here a piece of pomegranate, which Mr. Interpreter put in my
hand, just when I came out of His doors. He gave me also a piece
of a honeycomb, and a little bottle of spirits. I thought He gave
you something, said Mercy, because He called you aside. Yes; so
He did, said the other. But, said Christiana, it shall still be,
as I said it should, when at first we came from home, thou shalt
be a sharer in all the good that I have, because thou so willingly
didst become my companion. Then she gave to them, and they did eat,
both Mercy and the boys. And, said Christiana to Mr. Great-heart,
Sir, will you do as we? But he answered, You are going on pilgrimage,
and presently I shall return. Much good may what you have do to
you. At home I eat the same every day. Now, when they had eaten
and drank, and had chatted a little longer, their guide said to
them. The day wears away, if you think good, let us prepare to
be going. So they got up to go, and the little boys went before.
But Christiana forgot to take her bottle of spirits with her; so
she sent her little boy back to fetch it. Then said Mercy, I think
this is a losing place. Here Christian lost his roll; and here
Christiana left her bottle behind her. Sir, what is the cause of
this? So their guide made answer, and said, The cause is sleep or
forgetfulness. Some sleep when they should keep awake; and some
forget when they should remember; and this is the very cause why,
often at the resting-places, some pilgrims, in some things, come
off losers. Pilgrims should watch, and remember what they have
already received under their greatest enjoyments; but for want
of doing so, ofttimes their rejoicing ends in tears, and their
sunshine in a cloud.[118] Witness the story of Christian at this

When they were come to the place where Mistrust and Timorous met
Christian to persuade him to go back for fear of the lions, they
perceived as it were a stage, and before it, towards the road, a
broad plate, with a copy of verses written thereon, and underneath,
the reason of raising up of that stage in that place, rendered.
The verses were these--

Let him who sees this stage take heed
Unto his heart and tongue;
Lest if he do not, here he speed,
As some have long agone.

The words underneath the verses were, 'This stage, was built
to punish such upon, who through Timorousness or Mistrust, shall
be afraid to go further on pilgrimage; also, on this stage, both
Mistrust and Timorous were burned through the tongue with a hot
iron, for endeavouring to hinder Christian in his journey.'[120]
Then said Mercy, This is much like to the saying of the Beloved,
'What shall be given unto thee? or what shall be done unto thee, thou
false tongue? Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of juniper'
(Psa. 120:3-4).

So they went on, till they came within sight of the lions. Now Mr.
Great-heart was a strong man, So he was not afraid of a lion; but
yet when they were come up to the place where the lions were, the
boys that went before were glad when to cringe behind, for they
were afraid of the lions; so they stepped back, and went behind.
At this their guide smiled, and said, How now, my boys, do you
love to go before, when no danger doth approach, and love to come
behind so soon as the lions appear?

Now, as they went up, Mr. Great-heart drew his sword, with intent
to make a way for the Pilgrims, in spite of the lions. Then there
appeared one, that it seems, had taken upon him to back the lions;
and he said to the Pilgrims' guide, What is the cause of your coming
hither? Now the name of that man was Grim, or Bloody-man, because
of his slaying of Pilgrims, and he was of the race of the giants.[121]

GREAT-HEART. Then said the Pilgrims' guide, These women and children
are going on pilgrimage; and this is the way they must go, and go
it they shall, in spite of thee and the lions.[122]

GRIM. This is not their way, neither shall they go therein. I am come
forth to withstand them, and to that end will back the lions.[123]

Now, to say truth, by reason of the fierceness of the lions, and of
the grim carriage of him that did back them, this way had of late
lain much unoccupied, and was almost all grown over with grass.

CHRIST. Then said Christiana, Though the highways have been
unoccupied heretofore, and though the travelers have been made in
time past to walk through by-paths, it must not be so now I am
risen. Now 'I am risen a mother in Israel' (Judg. 5:6, 7).

GRIM. Then he swore by the lions, but it should; and therefore bid
them turn aside, for they should not have passage there.

GREAT-HEART. But their guide made first his approach unto Grim,
and laid so heavily at him with his sword, that he forced him to
a retreat.[124]

GRIM. Then said he that attempted to back the lions, Will you slay
me upon mine own ground?

GREAT-HEART. It is the King's highway that we are in, and in His
way it is that thou hast placed thy lions; but these women and
these children, though weak, shall hold on their way in spite
of thy lions. And with that he gave him again a downright blow,
and brought him upon his knees. With this blow he also broke his
helmet, and with the next he cut off an arm. Then did the giant roar
so hideously, that his voice frighted the women, and yet they were
glad to see him lie sprawling upon the ground. Now the lions were
chained, and so of themselves could do nothing.[125] Wherefore,
when old Grim, that intended to back them, was dead, Mr. Great-heart
said to the Pilgrims, Come now, and follow me, and no hurt shall
happen to you from the lions. They therefore went on, but the women
trembled as they passed by them; the boys also looked as if they
would die, but they all got by without further hurt.[126] Now then
they were within sight of the Porter's Lodge, and they soon came
up unto it; but they made the more haste after this to go thither,
because it is dangerous travelling there in the night. So when
they were come to the gate, the guide knocked, and the Porter
cried, Who is there? But as soon as the guide had said, It is I,
he knew his voice, and came down (for the guide had oft before
that, come thither, as a conductor of pilgrims). When he was come
down, he opened the gate, and seeing the guide standing just before
it (for he saw not the women, for they were behind him), he said
unto him, How now, Mr. Great-heart, what is your business here so
late tonight? I have brought, said he, some pilgrims hither, where,
by my Lord's commandment, they must lodge; I had been here some
time ago, had I not been opposed by the giant that did use to back
the lions; but I, after a long and tedious combat with him, have
cut him off, and have brought the Pilgrims hither in safety.[127]

PORTER. Will you not go in, and stay till morning?

GREAT-HEART. No, I will return to my Lord tonight.

CHRIST. Oh, Sir, I know not how to be willing you should leave us
in our pilgrimage, you have been so faithful and so loving to us,
you have fought so stoutly for us, you have been so hearty in
counseling of us, that I shall never forget your favour towards

MERCY. Then said Mercy, O that we might have thy company to our
journey's end! How can such poor women as we hold out in a way so
full of troubles as this way is, without a friend and defender?

JAMES. Then said James, the youngest of the boys, Pray, Sir, be
persuaded to go with us, and help us, because we are so weak, and
the way so dangerous as it is.[128]

GREAT-HEART. I am at my Lord's commandment; if He shall allot me
to be your guide quite through, I will willingly wait upon you.
But here you failed at first; for, when He bid me come thus far
with you, then you should have begged me of Him to have gone quite
through with you, and He would have granted your request. However,
at present, I must withdraw; and so, good Christiana, Mercy, and
my brave children, Adieu.

Then the Porter, Mr. Watchful, asked Christiana of her country, and
of her kindred; and she said, I came from the City of Destruction;
I am a widow woman, and my husband is dead; his name was Christian,
the Pilgrim. How! said the Porter, was he your husband? Yes, said
she, and these are his children; and this, pointing to Mercy, is
one of my townswomen. Then the Porter rang his bell, as at such
times he is wont, and there came to the door one of the damsels,
whose name was Humble-mind; and to her the Porter said, Go tell it
within, that Christiana, the wife of Christian, and her children,
are come hither on pilgrimage. She went in, therefore, and told
it. But O what noise for gladness was there within, when the damsel
did but drop that word out of her mouth! So they came with haste
to the Porter, for Christiana stood still at the door. Then some
of the most grave said unto her, Come in, Christiana, come in,
thou wife of that good man; come in, thou blessed woman; come in,
with all that are with thee. So she went in, and they followed
her that were her children and her companions. Now when they were
gone in, they were had into a very large room, where they were
bidden to sit down; so they sat down, and the chief of the house
was called to see and welcome the guests. Then they came in, and
understanding who they were, did salute each other with a kiss,
and said, Welcome, ye vessels of the grace of God; welcome to us
your friends.[129]

Now, because it was somewhat late, and because the Pilgrims were
weary with their journey, and also made faint with the sight of
the fight, and of the terrible lions, therefore they desired, as
soon as might be, to prepare to go to rest. Nay, said those of the
family, refresh yourselves first with a morsel of meat; for they
had prepared for them a lamb, with the accustomed sauce belonging
thereto[130] (Exo. 12:21, 28; John 1:29); for the Porter had heard
before of their coming, and had told it to them within. So when
they had supped, and ended their prayer with a psalm, they desired
they might go to rest. But let us, said Christiana, if we may be so
bold as to choose, be in that chamber[131] that was my husband's
when he was here; so they had them up thither, and they lay all in
a room. When they were at rest, Christiana and Mercy entered into
discourse about things that were convenient.

CHRIST. Little did I think once, that when my husband went on
pilgrimage, I should ever have followed.

MERCY. And you as little thought of lying in his bed, and in his
chamber to rest, as you do now.

CHRIST. And much less did I ever think of seeing his face with
comfort, and of worshipping the Lord the King with him; and yet
now I believe I shall.

MERCY. Hark! Don't you hear a noise?

CHRIST. Yes; it is, as I believe, a noise of music, for joy that
we are here.[132]

MERCY. Wonderful! music in the house, music in the heart, and music
also in Heaven, for joy that we are here![133] Thus they talked a
while, and then betook themselves to sleep. So, in the morning,
when they were awake, Christiana said to Mercy:

CHRIST. What was the matter that you did laugh in your sleep
tonight? I suppose you were in a dream.

MERCY. So I was, and a sweet dream it was; but are you sure I

CHRIST. Yes; you laughed heartily; but, prithee, Mercy, tell me
thy dream.

MERCY. I was a-dreamed that I sat all alone in a solitary place,
and was bemoaning of the hardness of my heart. Now, I had not sat
there long, but methought many were gathered about me, to see
me, and to hear what it was that I said. So they hearkened, and I
went on bemoaning the hardness of my heart. At this, some of them
laughed at me, some called me fool, and some began to thrust me
about. With that, methought I looked up, and saw one coming with
wings towards me. So he came directly to me, and said, Mercy, what
aileth thee? Now, when he had heard me make my complaint, he said
'Peace be to thee.' He also wiped mine eyes with his handkerchief,
and clad me in silver and gold. He put a chain about my neck, and
ear-rings in mine ears, and a beautiful crown upon my head (Ezek.
16:8-12). Then he took me by the hand, and said, Mercy, come after
me. So he went up, and I followed, till we came at a golden gate.
Then he knocked; and when they within had opened, the man went
in, and I followed him up to a throne, upon which one sat, and
He said to me, Welcome, daughter. The place looked bright and
twinkling, like the stars, or rather like the sun; and I thought
that I saw your husband there. So I awoke from my dream.[134] But
did I laugh?

CHRIST. Laugh! aye, and well you might, to see yourself so well.
For you must give me leave to tell you, that I believe it was
a good dream; and that, as you have begun to find the first part
true, so you shall find the second at last. 'God speaketh once,
yea twice, yet man perceiveth it not. In a dream, in a vision of
the night, when deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon
the bed'[135] (Job 28:14, 15). We need not, when a-bed, lie awake
to talk with God. He can visit us while we sleep, and cause us
then to hear His voice. Our heart ofttimes wakes when we sleep;
and God can speak to that, either by words, by proverbs, by signs
and similitudes, as well as if one was awake.[136]

MERCY. Well, I am glad of my dream; for I hope, ere long, to see
it fulfilled, to the making me laugh again.[137]

CHRIST. I think it is now high time to rise, and to know what we
must do.

MERCY. Pray, if they invite us to stay awhile, let us willingly
accept of the proffer. I am the willinger to stay awhile here, to
grow better acquainted with these maids. Methinks Prudence, Piety,
and Charity have very comely and sober countenances.[138]

CHRIST. We shall see what they will do. So when they were up and
ready, they came down, and they asked one another of their rest,
and if it were comfortable, or not.

MERCY. Very good, said Mercy; it was one of the best night's lodging
that ever I had in my life.

Then said Prudence and Piety, If you will be persuaded to stay here
awhile, you shall have what the house will afford.

CHAR. Aye, and that with a very good will, said Charity. So they
consented and staid there about a month, or above, and became very
profitable one to another. And because Prudence would see how
Christiana had brought up her children, she asked leave of her to
catechise them. So she gave her free consent.[139] Then she began
at the youngest, whose name was James.

PRUDENCE. And she said, Come, James, canst thou tell me who made

JAMES. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.

PRUD. Good boy. And canst thou tell me who saves thee?

JAMES. God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.

PRUD. Good boy still. But how doth God the Father save thee?

JAMES. By his grace.

PRUD. How doth God the Son save thee?

JAMES. By His righteousness, death, and blood, and life.

PRUD. And how doth God the Holy Ghost save thee?

JAMES. By His illumination, by His renovation, and by His

Then said Prudence to Christiana, You are to be commended for
thus bringing up your children. I suppose I need not ask the rest
these questions, since the youngest of them can answer them so
well. I will therefore now apply myself to the next youngest.

PRUD. Then she said, Come, Joseph (for his name was Joseph), will
you let me catechise you?

JOSEPH. With all my heart.

PRUD. What is man?

JOSEPH. A reasonable creature, so made by God, as my brother said.

PRUD. What is supposed by this word 'saved'?

JOSEPH. That man, by sin, has brought himself into a state of
captivity and misery.

PRUD. What is supposed by his being saved by the Trinity?

JOSEPH. That sin is so great and mighty a tyrant, that none can
pull us out of its clutches, but God; and that God is so good and
loving to man, as to pull him indeed out of this miserable state.

PRUD. What is God's design in saving, of poor men?

JOSEPH. The glorifying of His name, of His grace, and justice,
&c., and the everlasting happiness of His creature.

PRUD. Who are they that must be saved?

JOSEPH. Those that accept of His salvation.[141]

PRUD. Good boy, Joseph; thy mother has taught thee well, and thou
hast hearkened to what she hath said unto thee. Then said Prudence
to Samuel, who was the eldest but one,

PRUD. Come, Samuel, are you willing that I should catechise you

SAMUEL. Yes, forsooth, if you please.

PRUD. What is Heaven?

SAM. A place and state most blessed, because God dwelleth there.

PRUD. What is hell?

SAM. A place and state most woeful, because it is the dwelling-place
of sin, the devil, and death.

PRUD. Why wouldest thou go to Heaven?

SAM. That I may see God, and serve Him without weariness; that I
may see Christ, and love Him everlastingly; that I may have that
fullness of the Holy Spirit in me that I can by no means here enjoy.

PRUD. A very good boy also, and one that has learned well. Then
she addressed herself to the eldest, whose name was Matthew; and
she said to him, Come, Matthew, shall I also catechise you?

MATTHEW. With a very good will.

PRUD. I ask, then, if there were ever anything that had a being
antecedent to, or before God?

MATT. No; for God is eternal; nor is there anything excepting
Himself, that had a being until the beginning of the first day.
'For in six days the Lord made Heaven and earth, the sea, and all
that in them is.'

PRUD. What do you think of the Bible?

MATT. It is the holy Word of God.

PRUD. Is there nothing written therein but what you understand?

MATT. Yes. A great deal.

PRUD. What do you do when you meet with such places therein that
you do not understand?

MATT. I think God is wiser than I. I pray also that He will please
to let me know all therein that He knows will be for my good.[142]

PRUD. How believe you, as touching the resurrection of the dead?

MATT. I believe they shall rise, the same that was buried; the
same in nature, though not in corruption. And I believe this upon
a double account: First, because God has promised it secondly,
because He is able to perform it.[143]

Then said Prudence to the boys, You must still hearken to your
mother, for she can learn you more. You must also diligently give
ear to what good talk you shall hear from others; for, for your
sakes do they speak good things. Observe, also, and that with
carefulness, what the heavens and the earth do teach you; but
especially be much in the meditation of that Book that was the cause
of your father's becoming a pilgrim. I, for my part, my children,
will teach you what I can while you are here, and shall be glad
if you will ask me questions that tend to godly edifying. Now,
by that these Pilgrims had been at this place a week, Mercy had
a visitor that pretended some goodwill unto her, and his name was
Mr. Brisk, a man of some breeding, and that pretended to religion;
but a man that stuck very close to the world. So he came once or
twice, or more, to Mercy, and offered love unto her. Now Mercy was
of a fair countenance, and therefore the more alluring. Her mind
also was, to be always busying of herself in doing; for when she
had nothing to do for herself, she would be making of hose and
garments for others, and would bestow them upon them that had
need.[144] And Mr. Brisk, not knowing where or how she disposed
of what she made, seemed to be greatly taken, for that he found
her never idle. I will warrant her a good housewife, quoth he to

Mercy then revealed the business to the maidens that were of the
house, and inquired of them concerning him, for they did know him
better than she.[146] So they told her, that he was a very busy
young man, and one that pretended to religion; but was, as they
feared, a stranger to the power of that which was good. Nay then,
said Mercy, I will look no more on him; for I purpose never to
have a clog to my soul.[147]

Prudence then replied that there needed no great matter of
discouragement to be given to him, her continuing so as she had
begun to do for the poor, would quickly cool his courage. So the
next time he comes, he finds her at her old work, a-making of
things for the poor. Then said he, What! always at it? Yes, said
she, either for myself or for others. And what canst thou earn a
day? quoth he. I do these things, said she, 'that I may he rich in
good works, laying up in store a good foundation against the time
to come, that I may lay hold on eternal life' (1 Tim. 6:17-19).
Why, prithee, what dost thou with them? said he. Clothe the naked,
said she. With that his countenance fell. So he forbore to come
at her again; and when he was asked the reason why, he said, that
Mercy was a pretty lass, but troubled with ill conditions.[148]
When he had left her, Prudence said, Did I not tell thee, that Mr.
Brisk would soon forsake thee? yea, he will raise up an ill report
of thee; for, notwithstanding his pretence to religion, and his
seeming love to Mercy, yet Mercy and he are of tempers so different,
that I believe they will never come together.

MERCY. I might have had husbands afore now, though I spake not of
it to any; but they were such as did not like my conditions, though
never did any of them find fault with my person. So they and I
could not agree.

PRUD. Mercy in our days is little set by, any further than as
to its name; the practice, which is set forth by thy conditions,
there are but few that can abide.

MERCY. Well, said Mercy, if nobody will have me, I will die a maid,
or my conditions shall be to me as a husband. For I cannot change
my nature; and to have one that lies cross to me in this, that I
purpose never to admit of as long as I live. I had a sister named
Bountiful, that was married to one of these churls; but he and she
could never agree; but because my sister was resolved to do as she
had begun, that is, to show kindness to the poor, therefore her
husband first cried her down at the cross, and then turned her out
of his doors.[149]

PRUD. And yet he was a professor, I warrant you.

MERCY. Yes, such a one as he was, and of such as he, the world is
now full; but I am for none of them all.

Now Matthew, the eldest son of Christiana, fell sick, and his
sickness was sore upon him, for he was much pained in his bowels,
so that he was with it, at times, pulled as it were both ends
together.[150] There dwelt also not far from thence, one Mr. Skill,
an ancient and well approved physician. So Christiana desired it,
and they sent for him, and he came. When he was entered the room,
and had a little observed the boy, he concluded that he was sick
of the gripes. Then he said to his mother, What diet has Matthew
of late fed upon? Diet, said Christiana, nothing but that which
is wholesome. The physician answered, This boy has been tampering
with something that lies in his maw undigested, and that will not
away without means. And I tell you, he must he purged, or else he
will die.

SAM. Then said Samuel, Mother, mother, what was that which my
brother did gather up and eat, so soon as we were come from the
gate that is at the head of this way? You know that there was an
orchard on the left hand, on the other side of the wall, and some
of the trees hung over the wall, and my brother did plash and did

CHRIST. True, my child, said Christiana, he did take thereof, and
did eat; naughty boy as he was, I did chide him, and yet he would
eat thereof.[151]

SKILL. I knew he had eaten something that was not wholesome food;
and that food, to wit, that fruit, is even the most hurtful of all.
It is the fruit of Beelzebub's orchard. I do marvel that none did
warn you of it; many have died thereof.

CHRIST. Then Christiana began to cry; and she said, O naughty boy!
and O careless mother! What shall I do for my son![152]

SKILL. Come, do not be too much dejected; the boy may do well
again, but he must purge and vomit.

CHRIST. Pray, Sir, try the utmost of your skill with him, whatever
it costs.

SKILL. Nay, I hope I shall be reasonable. So he made him a purge,
but it was too weak; it was said, it was made of the blood of a
goat, the ashes of a heifer, and with some of the juice of hyssop,
&c. (Heb. 10:1-4). When Mr. Skill had seen that that purge was
too weak, he made him one to the purpose; it was made excarne
et sanguine Christi [153] (John 6:54-57; Heb. 9:14). (You know
physicians give strange medicines to their patients). And it was
made up into pills, with a promise or two, and a proportionable
quantity of salt (Mark 9:49). Now he was to take them three at a
time fasting, in half a quarter of a pint of the tears of repentance.
When this potion was prepared, and brought to the boy, he was
loath to take it, though torn with the gripes, as if he should be
pulled in pieces. Come, come, said the physician, you must take
it. It goes against my stomach, said the boy (Zech. 12:10). I must
have you take it, said his mother. I shall vomit it up again, said
the boy. Pray, Sir, said Christiana to Mr. Skill, how does it
taste? It has no ill taste, said the doctor; and with that she
touched one of the pills with the tip of her tongue. Oh, Matthew,
said she, this potion is sweeter than honey. If thou lovest thy
mother, if thou lovest thy brothers, if thou lovest Mercy, if thou
lovest thy life, take it. So with much ado, after a short prayer
for the blessing of God upon it, he took it, and it wrought kindly
with him. It caused him to purge, it caused him to sleep, and rest
quietly; it put him into a fine heat and breathing sweat, and did
quite rid him of his gripes.[154] So in little time he got up,
and walked about with a staff, and would go from room to room,
and talk with Prudence, Piety, and Charity, of his distemper, and
how he was healed.[155]

So when the boy was healed, Christiana asked Mr. Skill, saying, Sir,
what will content you for your pains and care to, and of my child?
And he said, You must pay the Master of the College of Physicians,
according to rules made in that case and provided (Heb. 13:11-16).

CHRIST. But, Sir, said she, what is this pill good for else?

SKILL. It is an universal pill; it is good against all the diseases
that Pilgrims are incident to; and when it is well prepared, it
will keep good, time out of mind.

CHRIST. Pray, Sir, make me up twelve boxes of them; for if I can
get these, I will never take other physic.[156]

SKILL. These pills are good to prevent diseases, as well as to
cure when one is sick. Yea, I dare say it, and stand to it, that
if a man will but use this physic as he should, it will make him
live forever (John 6:50). But, good Christiana, thou must give
these pills no other way but as I have prescribed; for, if you
do, they will do no good.[157] So he gave unto Christiana physic
for herself, and her boys, and for Mercy; and bid Matthew take
heed how he eat any more green plums, and kissed them, and went
his way.

It was told you before, that Prudence bid the boys, that if at any
time they would, they should ask her some questions that might be
profitable, and she would say something to them.

MATT. Then Matthew, who had been sick, asked her, Why, for the
most part, physic should he bitter to our palates.

PRUD. To show how unwelcome the Word of God, and the effects
thereof, are to a carnal heart.

MATT. Why does physic, if it does good, purge, and cause that we

PRUD. To show that the Word, when it works effectually, cleanseth
the heart and mind. For look, what the one doth to the body, the
other doth to the soul.[158]

MATT. What should we learn by seeing the flame of our fire go
upwards? and by seeing the beams and sweet influences of the sun
strike downwards?

PRUD. By the going up of the fire we are taught to ascend to
Heaven, by fervent and hot desires. And by the sun's sending his
heat, beams, and sweet influences downwards, we are taught that the
Saviour of the world, though high, reacheth down with His grace
and love to us below.

MATT. Where have the clouds their water?

PRUD. Out of the sea.

MATT. What may we learn from that?

PRUD. That ministers should fetch their doctrine from God.

MATT. Why do they empty themselves upon the earth?

PRUD. To show that ministers should give out what they know of God
to the world.

MATT. Why is the rainbow caused by the sun?

PRUD. To show that the covenant of God's grace is confirmed to us
in Christ.

MATT. Why do the springs come from the sea to us, through the

PRUD. To show that the grace of God comes to us through the body
of Christ.

MATT. Why do some of the springs rise out of the tops of high

PRUD. To show that the spirit of grace shall spring up in some that
are great and mighty, as well as in many that are poor and low.

MATT. Why doth the fire fasten upon the candlewick?

PRUD. To show, that unless grace doth kindle upon the heart there
will be no true light of life in us.

MATT. Why is the wick and tallow, and all, spent to maintain the
light of the candle?

PRUD. To show that body and soul, and all, should be at the service
of, and spend themselves to maintain, in good condition, that
grace of God that is in us.

MATT. Why doth the pelican pierce her own breast with her bill?

PRUD. To nourish her young ones with her blood, and thereby to
show that Christ the blessed so loveth His young, His people, as
to save them from death by His blood.

MATT. What may one learn by hearing the cock crow?

PRUD. Learn to remember Peter's sin, and Peter's repentance. The
cock's crowing shows also that day is coming on; let then the
crowing of the cock put thee in mind of that last and terrible day
of judgment.[159]

Now, about this time their month was out; wherefore they signified
to those of the house that it was convenient for them to up and be
going. Then said Joseph to his mother, It is convenient that you
forget not to send to the house of Mr. Interpreter, to pray him to
grant that Mr. Great-heart should be sent unto us, that he may be
our conductor the rest of our way. Good boy, said she, I had almost
forgot. So she drew up a petition,[160] and prayed Mr. Watchful,
the Porter, to send it by some fit man, to her good friend Mr.
Interpreter; who, when it was come, and He had seen the contents
of the petition, said to the messenger, Go tell them that I will
send him.

When the family where Christiana was, saw that they had a purpose
to go forward, they called the whole house together, to give thanks
to their King for sending of them such profitable guests as these.
Which done, they said to Christiana, And shall we not show thee
something, according as our custom is to do to pilgrims, on which
thou mayest meditate when thou art upon the way? So they took
Christiana, her children, and Mercy, into the closet, and showed
them one of the apples that Eve did eat of, and that she also did
give to her husband, and that for the eating, of which they both
were turned out of Paradise; and asked her what she thought that
was? Then Christiana said, It is food or poison, I know not
which.[161] So they opened the matter to her, and she held up her
hands and wondered[162] (Gen. 3:6; Rom. 7:24).

Then they had her to a place, and showed her Jacob's ladder. Now at
that time there were some angels ascending upon it. So Christiana
looked, and looked, to see the angels go up; and so did the rest
of the company. Then they were going into another place, to show
them something else; but James said to his mother, Pray, bid
them stay here a little longer, for this is a curious sight.[163]
So they turned again, and stood feeding their eyes with this so
pleasant a prospect (Gen. 28:12; John 1:51). After this, they had
them into a place where did hang up a golden anchor, so they bid
Christiana take it down; for, said they, you shall have it with you,
for it is of absolute necessity that you should, that you may lay
hold of that within the veil, and stand steadfast, in case you should
meet with turbulent weather; so they were glad thereof[164] (Heb.
6:19). Then they took them, and had them to the mount upon which
Abraham our father had offered up Isaac his son, and showed them
the altar, the wood, the fire, and the knife, for they remain to
be seen to this very day (Gen. 22:9). When they had seen it, they
held up their hands and blessed themselves, and said, O what a man
for love to his Master, and for denial to himself, was Abraham!
After they had showed them all these things, Prudence took them into
the dining-room, where stood a pair of excellent virginals;[165]
so she played upon them, and turned what she had showed them into
this excellent song, saying--

Eve's apple we have showed you,
Of that be you aware;
You have seen Jacob's ladder, too,
Upon which angels are.
An anchor you received have;
But let not these suffice,
Until, with Abr'am, you have gave
Your best a sacrifice.

Now, about this time, one knocked at the door; so the Porter opened,
and behold Mr. Great-heart was there; but when he was come in,
what joy was there! For it came now fresh again into their minds,
how but a while ago he had slain old Grim Bloody-man the giant,
and had delivered them from the lions.

Then said Mr. Great-heart to Christiana, and to Mercy, My Lord
hath sent each of you a bottle of wine, and also some parched corn,
together with a couple of pomegranates; He has also sent the boys
some figs and raisins, to refresh you in your way.[166]

Then they addressed themselves to their journey; and Prudence and
Piety went along with them. When they came at the gate, Christiana
asked the Porter if any of late went by? He said, No; only one
some time since, who also told me, that of late there had been a
great robbery committed on the King's highway, as you go; but, he
said, the thieves are taken, and will shortly he tried for their
lives.[167] Then Christiana and Mercy were afraid; but Matthew
said, Mother, fear nothing, as long as Mr. Great-heart is to go
with us, and to be our conductor.

Then said Christiana to the Porter, Sir, I am much obliged to you
for all the kindnesses that you have showed me since I came hither;
and also for that you have been so loving and kind to my children;
I know not how to gratify your kindness. Wherefore, pray, as a
token of my respects to you, accept of this small mite; so she put
a gold angel in his hand, and he made her a low obeisance, and
said, Let thy garments be always white, and let thy head want no
ointment.[168] Let Mercy live, and not die, and let not her works
be few. And to the boys he said, Do you fly youthful lusts, and
follow after godliness with them that are grave and wise; so shall
you put gladness into your mother's heart, and obtain praise of
all that are sober-minded. So they thanked the Porter, and departed.

Now I saw in my dream, that they went forward until they were come
to the brow of the hill, where Piety, bethinking herself, cried
out, Alas! I have forgot what I intended to bestow upon Christiana
and her companions; I will go back and fetch it. So she ran and
fetched it. While she was gone, Christiana thought she heard in a
grove, a little way off, on the right hand, a most curious melodious
note, with words much like these--

Through all my life Thy favour is
So frankly show'd to me,
That in Thy house for evermore
My dwelling-place shall be.

And, listening still, she thought she heard another answer it,

For why? The Lord our God is good,
His mercy is forever sure;
His truth at all times firmly stood,
And shall from age to age endure.

So Christiana asked Prudence what it was that made those curious
notes? They are, said she, our country birds; they sing these notes
but seldom, except it be at the spring, when the flowers appear, and
the sun shines warm, and then you may hear them all day long[169]
(Song 2:11, 12). I often, said she, go out to hear them; we also
ofttimes keep them tame in our house. They are very fine company for
us when we are melancholy; also they make the woods, and groves,
and solitary places, places desirous to be in.[170]

By this time Piety was come again; so she said to Christiana,
Look here, I have brought thee a scheme of all those things that
thou hast seen at our house, upon which thou mayest look when
thou findest thyself forgetful, and call those things again to
remembrance for thy edification and comfort.[171]

Now they began to go down the hill into the Valley of Humiliation.
It was a steep hill, and the way was slippery; but they were very
careful, so they got down pretty well. When they were down in the
Valley,[172] Piety said to Christiana, This is the place where
Christian your husband met with the foul fiend Apollyon, and where
they had that dreadful fight that they had; I know you cannot but
have heard thereof, But be of good courage, as long as you have
here Mr. Great-heart to be your guide and conductor, we hope you
will fare the better. So when these two had committed the Pilgrims
unto the conduct of their guide, he went forward, and they went

GREAT-HEART. Then said Mr. Great-heart, We need not to be so afraid
of this Valley, for here is nothing to hurt us, unless we procure
it to ourselves. It is true, Christian did here meet with Apollyon,
with whom he also had a sore combat; but that fray was the fruit
of those slips that he got in his going down the hill; for they
that get slips there, must look for combats here. And hence it is,
that this Valley has got so hard a name. For the common people,
when they hear that some frightful thing has befallen such a one
in such a place, are of an opinion, that that place is haunted
with some foul fiend, or evil spirit; when, alas! it is for the
fruit of their doing, that such things do befall them there.

This Valley of Humiliation is of itself as fruitful a place, as
any the crow flies over; Christian was and I am persuaded, if we
could hit upon it, we might find somewhere hereabouts, something
that might give us an account why Christian was so hardly beset
in this place.

Then James said to his mother, Lo, yonder stands a pillar, and it
looks as if something was written thereon; let us go and see what
it is. So they went, and found there written, 'Let Christian's
slips, before he came hither, and the battles that he met with
in this place, be a warning to those that come after.' Lo, said
their guide, did not I tell you, that there was something hereabouts,
that would give intimation of the reason why Christian was so hard
beset in this place? Then, turning himself to Christiana, he said,
No disparagement to Christian, more than to many others, whose hap
and lot his was; for it is easier going up, than down this hill,
and that can he said but of few hills in all these parts of the
world. But we will leave the good man, he is at rest, he also had
a brave victory over his enemy; let Him grant that dwelleth above,
that we fare no worse, when we come to be tried, than he.

But we will come again to this Valley of Humiliation. It is the
best and most useful brave piece of ground in all those parts. It
is fat ground, and, as you see, consisteth much in meadows; and
if a man were to come here in the summer-time, as we do now, if
he knew not anything before, thereof, and if he also delighted
himself in the sight of his eyes, he might see that that would
be delightful to him. Behold how green this Valley is, also
how beautified with lilies[173] (Song. 2:1). I have also known
many labouring men that have got good estates in this Valley of
Humiliation 'for God resisteth the proud, but gives grace unto
the humble,' (James 4:6; 1 Peter 5:5), for indeed it is a very
fruitful soil, and doth bring forth by handfuls.[174] Some also
have wished, that the next way to their Father's house were here,
that they might be troubled no more with either hills or mountains
to go over; but the way is the way, and there is an end.[175]

Now, as they were going along and talking, they espied a boy
feeding his father's sheep. The boy was in very mean clothes, but
of a very fresh and well-favoured countenance; and as he sat by
himself, he sang. Hark, said Mr. Great-heart, to what the shepherd's
boy saith. So they hearkened, and he said--

He that is down needs fear no fall;
He that is low, no pride;
He that is humble, ever shall
Have God to be his guide.(Phil. 4:12, 13)
I am content with what I have,
Little be it, or much;
And, Lord, contentment still I crave,
Because Thou savest such.
Fullness to such a burden is,
That go on pilgrimage;
Here little, and hereafter bliss,
Is best from age to age.[176](Heb. 13:5)

Then said the guide, Do you hear him? I will dare to say,
that this boy lives a merrier life, and wears more of that herb
called heart's-ease in his bosom, than he that is clad in silk and
velvet;[177] but we will proceed in our discourse.

In this Valley our Lord formerly had His country house; He loved
much to be here; He loved also to walk these meadows, for He found
the air was pleasant.[178] Besides, here a man shall be free from
the noise, and from the hurryings of this life. All states are full
of noise and confusion, only the Valley of Humiliation is that empty
and solitary place. Here a man shall not be so let and hindered in
his contemplation, as in other places he is apt to be. This is a
Valley that nobody walks in, but those that love a pilgrim's life.
And though Christian had the hard hap to meet here with Apollyon,
and to enter with him a brisk encounter, yet I must tell you, that
in former times men have met with angels here, have found pearls
here, and have in this place found the words of life[179] (Hosea
12:4, 5).

Did I say, our Lord had here in former days his country-house, and
that He loved here to walk? I will add, in this place, and to the
people that live, and trace these grounds, He has left a yearly
revenue, to be faithfully paid them at certain seasons, for their
maintenance by the way, and for their further encouragement to go
on in their pilgrimage (Matt. 11:29).

SAMUEL.[180] Now, as they went on, Samuel said to Mr. Great-heart;
Sir, I perceive that in this Valley my father and Apollyon had
their battle; but whereabout was the fight? for I perceive this
Valley is large.

GREAT-HEART. Your father had that battle with Apollyon, at a place
yonder, before us, in a narrow passage, just beyond Forgetful
Green.[181] And indeed, that place is the most dangerous place in
all these parts. For if at any time the pilgrims meet with any
brunt, it is when they forget what favours they have received,
and how unworthy they are of them.[182] This is the place also,
where others have been hard put to it; but more of the place when
we are come to it; for I persuade myself, that to this day there
remains either some sign of the battle, or some monument to testify
that such a battle there was fought.

MERCY. Then said Mercy, I think I am as well in this Valley, as I
have been anywhere else in all our journey; the place, methinks,
suits with my spirit. I love to be in such places where there is
no rattling with coaches, nor rumbling with wheels; methinks, here
one may, without much molestation, be thinking what he is, whence
he came, what he has done, and to what the King has called him;
here one may think, and break at heart, and melt in one's spirit,
until one's eyes become like 'the fish-pools of Heshbon' (Song.
7:4). They that go rightly through this Valley of Baca, make it
a well, the rain that God sends down from Heaven upon them that
are here, also filleth the pools (Psa. 84:6, 7). This Valley is
that from whence also the King will give to His their vineyards
(Hosea 2:15); and they that go through it, shall sing, as Christian
did, for all he met with Apollyon.

GREAT-HEART. It is true, said their guide, I have gone through
this Valley many a time, and never was better than when here. I
have also been a conductor to several pilgrims, and they have
confessed the same. 'To this man will I look (saith the King), even
to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at My
Word'[183] (Isa. 66:2).

Now they were come to the place where the afore-mentioned battle
was fought. Then said the guide to Christiana, her children, and
Mercy, This is the place, on this ground Christian stood, and up
there came Apollyon against him. And look, did not I tell you?
here is some of your husband's blood upon these stones to this
day; behold, also, how here and there are yet to be seen upon the
place, some of the shivers of Apollyon's broken darts; see also,
how they did beat the ground with their feet as they fought, to
make good their places against each other; how also, with their
by-blows, they did split the very stones in pieces. Verily,
Christian did here play the man, and showed himself as stout,
as could, had he been there, even Hercules himself.[184] When
Apollyon was beat, he made his retreat to the next Valley, that
is called, the Valley of the Shadow of Death, unto which we shall
come anon.[185]

Lo, yonder also stands a monument, on which is engraven this
battle, and Christian's victory, to his fame throughout all ages.
So, because it stood just on the wayside before them, they stepped
to it, and read the writing, which word for word was this--

Hard by, here was a battle fought,
Most strange, and yet most true;[186]
Christian and Apollyon sought
Each other to subdue.
The man so bravely play'd the man,
He made the fiend to fly;
Of which a monument I stand,
The same to testify.

When they had passed by this place, they came upon the borders of
the Shadow of Death; and this Valley was longer than the other; a
place, also, most strangely haunted with evil things, as many are
able to testify;[187] but these women and children went the better
through it, because they had daylight, and because Mr. Great-heart
was their conductor.

When they were entered upon this Valley, they thought that they heard
a groaning, as of dead men, a very great groaning. They thought,
also, they did hear words of lamentation spoken, as of some in
extreme torment. These things made the boys to quake, the women
also looked pale and wan; but their guide bid them be of good

So they went on a little further, and they thought that they felt
the ground begin to shake under them, as if some hollow place was
there; they heard also a kind of a hissing, as of serpents, but
nothing as yet appeared. Then said the boys, Are we not yet at the
end of this doleful place? But the guide also bid them be of good
courage, and look well to their feet, lest haply, said he, you be
taken in some snare.[188]

Now James began to be sick, but I think the cause thereof was fear;
so his mother gave him some of that glass of spirits that she had
given her at the Interpreter's house, and three of the pills that
Mr. Skill had prepared, and the boy began to revive. Thus they
went on, till they came to about the middle of the Valley, and
then Christiana said, Methinks I see something yonder upon the
road before us, a thing of such a shape such as I have not seen.
Then said Joseph, Mother, what is it? An ugly thing, child; an
ugly thing, said she. But, mother, what is it like? said he. It
is like I cannot tell what, said she. And now it was but a little
way off; then said she, It is nigh.

Well, well, said Mr. Great-heart, Let them that are most afraid,
keep close to me. So the fiend came on, and the conductor met it;
but when it was just come to him, it vanished to all their sights.
Then remembered they what had been said some time ago, 'Resist the
devil, and he will flee from you' (James 4:7).

They went therefore on, as being a little refreshed; but they
had not gone far, before Mercy, looking behind her, saw, as she
thought, something most like a lion, and it came a great padding
pace after; and it had a hollow voice of roaring; and at every
roar that it gave, it made all the Valley echo, and their hearts
to ache, save the heart of him that was their guide. So it came up;
and Mr. Great-heart went behind, and put the Pilgrims all before
him. The lion also came on apace, and Mr. Great-heart addressed
himself to give him battle. But when he saw that it was determined
that resistance should be made, he also drew back, and came no
further[189] (1 Peter 5:8, 9).

Then they went on again, and their conductor did go before them,
till they came at a place where was cast up a pit the whole breadth
of the way; and, before they could be prepared to go over that,
a great mist and darkness fell upon them, so that they could not
see. Then said the Pilgrims, Alas! now what shall we do? But their
guide made answer, Fear not, stand still, and see what an end will
be put to this also. So they staid there, because their path was
marred. They then also thought that they did hear more apparently
the noise and rushing of the enemies; the fire, also, and the
smoke of the pit, was much easier to be discerned.[190] Then said
Christiana to Mercy, Now I see what my poor husband went through;
I have heard much of this place, but I never was here before now.
Poor man, he went here all alone in the night; he had night almost
quite through the way; also, these fiends were busy about him,
as if they would have torn him in pieces. Many have spoke of it,
but none can tell what the Valley of the Shadow of Death should
mean, until they come in it themselves. 'The heart knows its own
bitterness; and a stranger intermeddleth not with its joy.' To be
here is a fearful thing.

GREAT-HEART. This is like doing business in great waters, or like
going down into the deep; this is like being in the heart of the
sea, and like going down to the bottoms of the mountains; now it
seems as if the earth, with its bars, were about us forever. But
let them that walk in darkness, and have no light, trust in the
name of the Lord, and stay upon their God[191] (Isa. 1:10). For my
part, as I have told you already, I have gone often through this
Valley, and have been much harder put to it than now I am, and
yet you see I am alive. I would not boast, for that I am not mine
own saviour; but I trust we shall have a good deliverance. Come,
let us pray for light to Him that can lighten our darkness, and
that can rebuke not only these, but all the Satans in hell.

So they cried and prayed, and God sent light and deliverance, for
there was now no let in their way; no not there, where but now they
were stopped with a pit. Yet they were not got through the Valley;
so they went on still, and behold great stinks and loathsome smells,
to the great annoyance of them.[192] Then said Mercy to Christiana,
There is not such pleasant being here, as at the gate, or at the
Interpreter's, or at the house where we lay last.

O but, said one of the boys, it is not so bad to go through here,
as it is to abide here always; and for aught I know, one reason
why we must go this way to the house prepared for us, is, that
our home might be made the sweeter to us.[193]

Well said, Samuel, quoth the guide, thou hast now spoke like
a man. Why, if ever I get out here again said the boy, I think I
shall prize light and good way better than ever I did in all my
life. Then said the guide, We shall he out by and by.[194]

So on they went, and Joseph said, Cannot we see to the end of this
Valley as yet? Then said the guide, Look to your feet, for you shall
presently be among the snares. So they looked to their feet, and
went on; but they were troubled much with the snares. Now, when
they were come among the snares, they espied a man cast into the
ditch on the left hand, with his flesh all rent and torn. Then said
the guide, That is one Heedless, that was agoing this way; he has
lain there a great while.[195] There was one Take-heed with him,
when he was taken and slain; but he escaped their hands. You
cannot imagine how many are killed hereabout, and yet men are so
foolishly venturous, as to set out lightly on pilgrimage, and to
come without a guide.[196] Poor Christian! it was a wonder that he
here escaped; but he was beloved of his God: also, he had a good
heart of his own,[197] or else he could never have done it. Now they
drew towards the end of the way; and just there where Christian
had seen the cave when he went by, out thence came forth Maul, a
giant. This Maul did use to spoil young pilgrims with sophistry;
and he called Great-heart by his name, and said unto him, How many
times have you been forbidden to do these things? Then said Mr.
Great-heart, What things? What things? quoth the giant; you know
what things; but I will put an end to your trade. But pray, said
Mr. Great-heart, before we fall to it, let us understand wherefore
we must fight. Now the women and children stood trembling, and knew
not what to do. Quoth the giant, You rob the country, and rob it
with the worst of thefts.[198] These are but generals, said Mr.
Great-heart; come to particulars, man. Then said the giant, Thou
practisest the craft of a kidnapper; thou gatherest up women
and children, and carriest them into a strange country, to the
weakening of my master's kingdom. But now Great-heart replied,
I am a servant of the God of Heaven; my business is to persuade
sinners to repentance; I am commanded to do my endeavour to turn
men, women, and children, 'from darkness to light, and from the
power of Satan unto God': and if this be indeed the ground of thy
quarrel, let us fall to it as soon as thou wilt.

Then the giant came up, and Mr. Great-heart went to meet him; and
as he went, he drew his sword, but the giant had a club. So without
more ado, they fell to it, and at the first blow the giant struck
Mr. Great-heart down upon one of his knees; with that the women
and children cried out; so Mr. Great-heart recovering himself, laid
about him in full lusty manner, and gave the giant a wound in his
arm; thus he fought for the space of an hour, to that height of
heat, that the breath came out of the giant's nostrils, as the
heat doth out of a boiling caldron.

Then they sat down to rest them, but Mr. Great-heart betook him to
prayer; also the women and children did nothing but sigh and cry
all the time that the battle did last.[199]

When they had rested them, and taken breath, they both fell to it
again,[200] and Mr. Great-heart with a full blow, fetched the giant
down to the ground. Nay, hold, and let me recover, quoth he; so Mr.
Great-heart fairly let him get up. So to it they went again, and
the giant missed but little of all-to-breaking Mr. Great-heart's
skull with his club.

Mr. Great-heart seeing that, runs to him in the full heat of his
spirit, and pierceth him under the fifth rib; with that the giant
began to faint, and could hold up his club no longer. Then Mr.
Great-heart seconded his blow, and smote the head of the giant
from his shoulders. Then the women and children rejoiced, and Mr.
Great-heart also praised God, for the deliverance He had wrought.[201]
When this was done, they among them erected a pillar, and fastened
the giant's head thereon, and wrote underneath in letters, that
passengers might read--

He that did wear this head, was one
That pilgrims did misuse;
He stopp'd their way, he spared none,
But did them all abuse;
Until that I, Great-heart, arose,
The pilgrim's guide to be;
Until that I did him oppose,
That was their enemy.

Now I saw, that they went to the ascent that was a little way off,
cast up to be a prospect for pilgrims (that was the place from
whence Christian had the first sight of Faithful his brother);
wherefore here they sat down, and rested; they also here did eat
and drink, and make merry, for that they had gotten deliverance
from this so dangerous an enemy.[202] As they sat thus, and did
eat, Christiana asked the guide if he had caught no hurt in the
battle. Then said Mr. Great-heart, No, save a little on my flesh;
yet that also shall be so far from being to my detriment, that it
is at present a proof of my love to my Master and you, and shall
be a means, by grace, to increase my reward at last[203] (2 Cor.

CHRIST. But were you not afraid, good Sir, when you saw him come
out with his club?[204]

GREAT-HEART. It is my duty, said he, to distrust my own ability,
that I may have reliance on Him that is stronger than all.

CHRIST. But what did you think when he fetched you down to the
ground at the first blow?

GREAT-HEART. Why, I thought, quoth he, that so my Master Himself
was served, and yet He it was that conquered at the last.

MATT. When you all have thought what you please, I think God has
been wonderful good unto us, both in bringing us out of this Valley,
and in delivering us out of the hand of this enemy; for my part,
I see no reason, why we should distrust our God any more, since
He has now, and in such a place as this, given us such testimony
of His love as this.

Then they got up and went forward. Now a little before them stood
an oak; and under it, when they came to it, they found an old pilgrim
fast asleep; they knew that he was a pilgrim by his clothes, and
his staff, and his girdle.

So the guide, Mr. Great-heart, awaked him, and the old gentleman,
as he lift up his eyes, cried out, What's the matter? Who are you?
and what is your business here?[205]

GREAT-HEART. Come, man, be not so hot, here is none but friends;
yet the old man gets up, and stands upon his guard, and will know
of them what they were. Then said the guide, My name is Great-heart;
I am the guide of these Pilgrims, which are going to the Celestial

HONEST. Then said Mr. Honest, I cry you mercy; I feared that you
had been of the company of those that sometime ago did rob Little-faith
of his money; but now I look better about me, I perceive you are
honester people.

GREAT-HEART. Why, what would, or could you have done, to have
helped yourself, if we indeed had been of that company. HON. Done!
why I would have fought as long as breath had been in me; and had
I so done, I am sure you could never have given me the worst on
it; for a Christian can never be overcome, unless he should yield
of himself.[206]

GREAT-HEART. Well said, father Honest, quoth the guide; for by
this I know thou art a cock of the right kind, for thou hast said
the truth.

HON. And by this, also, I know that thou knowest what true pilgrimage
is; for all others do think that we are the soonest overcome of

GREAT-HEART. Well, now we are so happily met, pray let me crave
your name, and the name of the place you came from.

HON. My name I cannot; but I came from the town of Stupidity; it
lieth about four degrees beyond the City of Destruction.

GREAT-HEART. Oh! are you that countryman, then? I deem I have
half a guess of you; your name is Old Honesty, is it not? So the
old gentleman blushed, and said, Not Honesty, in the abstract,[207]
but Honest is my name; and I wish that my nature shall agree to
what I am called.

HON. But, Sir, said the old gentleman, how could you guess that I
am such a man, since I came from such a place?

GREAT-HEART. I had heard of you before, by my Master; for He knows
all things that are done on the earth; but I have often wondered
that any should come from your place, for your town is worse than
is the City of Destruction itself.

HON. Yes, we lie more off from the sun, and so are more cold and
senseless; but was a man in a mountain of ice, yet if the Sun of
Righteousness will arise upon him, his frozen heart shall feel a
thaw; and thus it hath been with me.[208]

GREAT-HEART. I believe it, father Honest, I believe it; for I know
the thing is true.

Then the old gentleman saluted all the Pilgrims with a holy kiss
of charity; and asked them of their names, and how they had fared
since they set out on their pilgrimage.[209]

CHRIST. Then said Christiana, My name, I suppose you have heard of;
good Christian was my husband, and these four were his children.
But can you think how the old gentleman was taken, when she told
him who she was! He skipped, he smiled, and blessed them with a
thousand good wishes, saying:

HON. I have heard much of your husband, and of his travels and wars,
which he underwent in his days. Be it spoken to your comfort, the
name of your husband rings over all these parts of the world: his
faith, his courage, his enduring, and his sincerity under all, has
made his name famous. Then he turned him to the boys, and asked
them of their names, which they told him. And then said he unto
them: Matthew, be thou like Matthew the publican, not in vice,
but in virtue (Matt. 10:3). Samuel, said he, be thou like Samuel
the Prophet, a man of faith and prayer (Psa. 99:6). Joseph, said
he, be thou like Joseph in Potiphar's house, chaste, and one that
flees from temptation (Gen. 39). And James, be thou like James
the Just, and like James the brother of our Lord (Acts 1:13, 14).
Then they told him of Mercy, and how she had left her town and her
kindred to come along with Christiana and with her sons. At that
the old honest man said, Mercy is thy name; by Mercy shalt thou be
sustained, and carried through all those difficulties that shall
assault thee in thy way, till thou shalt come thither, where thou
shalt look the Fountain of Mercy in the face with comfort. All
this while the guide, Mr. Great-heart, was very much pleased, and
smiled upon his companion.

Now, as they walked along together, the guide asked the old gentleman,
if he did not know one Mr. Fearing, that came on pilgrimage out
of his parts?

HON. Yes, very well, said he. He was a man that had the root of
the matter in him; but he was one of the most troublesome pilgrims
that ever I met with in all my days.[210]

GREAT-HEART. I perceive you knew him; for you have given a very
right character of him.

HON. Knew him! I was a great companion of his; I was with him most
an end; when he first began to think of what would come upon us
hereafter, I was with him.

GREAT-HEART. I was his guide from my Master's house to the gates
of the Celestial City.

HON. Then you knew him to be a troublesome one.

GREAT-HEART. I did so, but I could very well bear it; for men of
my calling are oftentimes intrusted with the conduct of such as he

HON. Well then, pray let us hear a little of him, and how he managed
himself under your conduct.

GREAT-HEART. Why, he was always afraid that he should come short
of whither he had a desire to go. Everything frightened him that
he heard anybody speak of, that had but the least appearance of
opposition in it. I hear that he lay roaring at the Slough of Despond
for about a month together; nor durst he, for all he saw several
go over before him, venture, though they, many of them, offered
to lend him their hand. He would not go back again neither.[211]
The Celestial City, he said, he should die if he came not to it;
and yet was dejected at every difficulty, and stumbled at every
straw that anybody cast in his way. Well, after he had lain at the
Slough of Despond a great while, as I have told you, one sunshine
morning, I do not know how, he ventured, and so got over; but
when he was over, he would scarce believe it. He had, I think, a
Slough of Despond in his mind; a slough that he carried everywhere
with him, or else he could never have been as he was. So he came
up to the gate, you know what I mean, that stands at the head of
this way; and there also he stood a good while, before he would
adventure to knock. When the gate was opened, he would give back,
and give place to others, and say that he was not worthy. For,
for all he got before some to the gate, yet many of them went in
before him. There the poor man would stand, shaking and shrinking.
I dare say, it would have pitied one's heart to have seen him; nor
would he go back again. At last, he took the hammer that hanged
on the gate in his hand, and gave a small rap or two; then One
opened to him, but he shrank back as before. He that opened stepped
out after him, and said, Thou trembling one, what wantest thou?
With that he fell down to the ground. He that spoke to him wondered
to see him so faint. So he said to him, Peace be to thee; up, for
I have set open the door to thee. Come in, for thou art blessed.
With that he got up, and went in trembling; and when he was in, he
was ashamed to show his face. Well, after he had been entertained
there a while, as you know how the manner is, he was bid go on
his way, and also told the way he should take. So he came till
he came to our house. But as he behaved himself at the gate, so
he did His behaviour at my Master the Interpreter's door. He lay
thereabout in the cold a good while, before he would adventure to
call; yet he would not go back, and the nights were long and cold
then. Nay, he had a note of necessity in his bosom to my Master,
to receive him and grant him the comfort of His house, and also
to allow him a stout and valiant conductor, because he was himself
so chicken-hearted a man; and yet, for all that, he was afraid to
call at the door. So he lay up and down thereabouts, till, poor
man! he was almost starved. Yea, so great was his dejection, that
though he saw several others, for knocking, get in, yet he was
afraid to venture. At last, I think, I looked out of the window,
and perceiving a man to be up and down about the door, I went out
to him, and asked what he was; but, poor man! the water stood in
his eyes; so I perceived what he wanted. I went, therefore, in and
told it in the house, and we showed the thing to our Lord. So He
sent me out again, to entreat him to come in; but, I dare say, I
had hard work to do it. At last he came in; and I will say that
for my Lord, He carried it wonderfully lovingly to him. There were
but a few good bits at the table, but some of it was laid upon his
trencher. Then he presented the note, and my Lord looked thereon,
and said his desire should he granted. So, when he had been there
a good while, he seemed to get some heart, and to be a little more
comfortable; for my Master, you must know, is one of very tender
bowels, especially to them that are afraid; wherefore He carried
it so towards him, as might tend most to his encouragement. Well,
when he had had a sight of the things of the place, and was ready to
take his journey to go to the city, my Lord, as He did to Christian
before, gave him a bottle of spirits, and some comfortable things
to eat. Thus we set forward, and I went before him; but the man
was but of few words, only he would sigh aloud.

When we were come to where the three fellows were hanged, he said
that he doubted that that would be his end also. Only he seemed
glad when he saw the Cross and the Sepulchre. There, I confess,
he desired to stay a little to look, and he seemed, for a while
after, to be a little cheery. When we came at the Hill Difficulty,
he made no stick at that, nor did he much fear the lions; for you
must know that his trouble was not about such things as those;
his fear was about his acceptance at last.[212]

I got him in at the House Beautiful, I think, before he was willing.
Also, when he was in, I brought him acquainted with the damsels
that were of the place; but he was ashamed to make himself much
for company. He desired much to be alone, yet he always loved good
talk, and often would get behind the screen to hear it. He also
loved much to see ancient things, and to be pondering them in
his mind. He told me afterwards that he loved to be in those two
houses from which he came last, to wit, at the gate, and that of
the Interpreter, but that he durst not be so bold to ask.

When we went also from the House Beautiful, he went down the hill,
into the Valley of Humiliation, he went down as well as ever I
saw man in my life; for he cared not how mean he was, so he might
he happy at last. Yea, I think, there was a kind of a sympathy
betwixt that valley and him; for I never saw him better in all his
pilgrimage than when he was in that valley.[213]

Here he would lie down, embrace the ground, and kiss the very
flowers that grew in this valley (Lam. 3:27-29). He would now be
up every morning by break of day, tracing and walking to and fro
in this valley.

But when he was come to the entrance of the Valley of the Shadow
of Death, I thought I should have lost my man; not for that he
had any inclination to go back; that he always abhorred; but he
was ready to die for fear. Oh! the hobgoblins will have me! the
hobgoblins will have me! cried he; and I could not beat him out on
it. He made such a noise, and such an outcry here, that, had they
but heard him, it was enough to encourage them to come and fall
upon us.[214]

But this I took very great notice of, that this valley was as quiet
while he went through it, as ever I knew it before or since. I
suppose these enemies here had now a special check from our Lord,
and a command not to meddle until Mr. Fearing was passed over it.

It would he too tedious to tell you of all. We will, therefore,
only mention a passage or two more. When he was come at Vanity
Fair, I thought he would have fought with all at the men at the
fair. I feared there we should both have been knocked on the head,
so hot was he against their fooleries.[215] Upon the Enchanted
Ground, he was also very wakeful. But when he was come at the
river, where was no bridge, there again he was in a heavy case.
Now, now, he said, he should be drowned forever, and so never see
that Face with comfort that he had come so many miles to behold.

And here, also, I took notice of what was very remarkable; the
water of that river was lower at this time than ever I saw it in
all my life. So he went over at last, not much above wet-shod.[216]
When he was going up to the gate, I began to take his leave of
him, and to wish him a good reception above. So he said, I shall,
I shall. Then parted we asunder, and I saw him no more.

HON. Then, it seems, he was well at last.

GREAT-HEART. Yes, yes; I never had doubt about him; he was a man
of a choice spirit, only he was always kept very low, and that made
his life so burdensome to himself, and so troublesome to others
(Psa. 88). He was, above many, tender of sin. He was so afraid
of doing injuries to others, that he often would deny himself of
that which was lawful, because he would not offend (Rom. 14:21;
1 Cor. 8:13).

HON. But what should be the reason that such a good man should be
all his days so much in the dark?[217]

GREAT-HEART. There are two sorts of reasons for it: One is, the
wise God will have it so; some must pipe, and some must weep (Matt.
11:16-18). Now Mr. Fearing was one that played upon this bass; he
and his fellows sound the sackbut, whose notes are more doleful
than the notes of other music are; though, indeed, some say the
bass is the ground of music. And, for my part, I care not at all
for that profession that begins not in heaviness of mind. The
first string that the musician usually touches is the bass, when
he intends to put all in tune. God also plays upon this string
first, when he sets the soul in tune for Himself. Only here was
the imperfection of Mr. Fearing, he could play upon no other music
but this, till towards his latter end.[218]

I make bold to talk thus metaphorically, for the ripening of the
wits of young readers; and because, in the book of the Revelations,
the saved are compared to a company of musicians that play upon
their trumpets and harps, and sing their songs before the throne
(Rev. 8:2; 14:2, 3).

HON. He was a very zealous man, as one may see by what relation you
have given of him; difficulties, lions, or Vanity Fair, he feared
not at all. It was only sin, death, and hell that was to him
a terror, because he had some doubts about his interest in that
celestial country.[219]

GREAT-HEART. You say right. Those were the things that were his
troublers, and they, as you have well observed, arose from the
weakness of his mind thereabout, not from weakness of spirit as
to the practical part of a pilgrim's life. I dare believe that,
as the proverb is, 'he could have bit a firebrand, had it stood
in his way'; but the things with which he was oppressed, no man
ever yet could shake off with ease.

CHRIST. Then said Christiana, This relation of Mr. Fearing has
done me good. I thought nobody had been like me; but I see there
was some semblance betwixt this good man and I; only we differed
in two things: His troubles were so great, they break out; but mine
I kept within. His, also, lay so hard upon him, they made him that
he could not knock at the houses provided for entertainment; but
my trouble was always such as made me knock the louder.

MERCY. If I might also speak my heart, I must say, that something
of him has also dwelt in me; for I have ever been more afraid of
the lake, and the loss of a place in Paradise, than I have been of
the loss of other things. O, thought I, may I have the happiness
to have a habitation there, it is enough, though I part with all
the world to win it!

MATT. Then said Matthew, Fear was one thing that made me think that
I was far from having that within me that accompanies salvation;
but if it were so with such a good man as he, why may it not also
go well with me?

JAMES. No fears, no grace, said James. Though there is not always
grace where thereis the fear of hell, yet, to be sure, there is
no grace where there is no fear of God.[220]

GREAT-HEART. Well said, James, thou hast hit the mark; for the
fear of God is the beginning of wisdom; and, to be sure, they that
lack the beginning, have neither middle nor end. But we will here
conclude our discourse of Mr. Fearing, after we have sent after
him this farewell.

Well, Master Fearing, thou didst fear
Thy God, and wast afraid
Of doing anything, while here,
That would have thee betray'd.
And didst thou fear the lake and pit?
Would others did so too!
For, as for them that want thy wit,
They do themselves undo.[221]

Now I saw, that they still went on in their talk; for after Mr.
Great-heart had made an end with Mr. Fearing, Mr. Honest began to
tell them of another, but his name was Mr. Self-will. He pretended
himself to be a pilgrim, said Mr. Honest; but I persuade myself he
never came in at the gate that stands at the head of the way.

GREAT-HEART. Had you ever any talk with him about it?

HON. Yes, more than once or twice; but he would always be like
himself, self-willed. He neither cared for man, nor argument, nor
yet example; what his mind prompted him to, that he would do, and
nothing else could he be got to.

GREAT-HEART. Pray, what principles did he hold? for I suppose you
can tell.

HON. He held, that a man might follow the vices as well as the
virtues of the pilgrims; and that if he did both, he should be
certainly saved.

GREAT-HEART. How! if he had said, It is possible for the heart to
be guilty of the vices, as well as to partake of the virtues of
pilgrims, he could not much have been blamed; for indeed we are
exempted from no vice absolutely, but on condition that we watch
and strive.[222] But this, I perceive, is not the thing; but if I
understand you right, your meaning is, that he was of that opinion,
that it was allowable so to be.

HON. Aye, aye, so I mean; and so he believed and practised.

GREAT-HEART. But what ground had he for his so saying?

HON. Why, he said he had the Scripture for his warrant.

GREAT-HEART. Prithee, Mr. Honest, present us with a few particulars.

HON. So I will. He said, To have to do with other men's wives, had
been practised by David, God's beloved; and therefore he could do
it. He said, To have more women than one, was a thing that Solomon
practised; and therefore he could do it. He said, That Sarah and
the godly midwives of Egypt lied, and so did saved Rahab; and
therefore he could do it. He said, That the disciples went at
the bidding of their Master, and took away the owner's ass; and
therefore he could do so too. He said, That Jacob got the inheritance
of his father in a way of guile and dissimulation; and therefore
he could do so too.[223]

GREAT-HEART. Highly base! indeed. And you are sure he was of this

HON. I have heard him plead for it, bring Scripture for it, bring
argument for it, &c.

GREAT-HEART. An opinion that is not fit to be with any allowance
in the world.

HON. You must understand me rightly. He did not say that any man
might do this; but that those that had the virtues of those that
did such things, might also do the same.

GREAT-HEART. But what more false than such a conclusion? for this
is as much as to say, that because good men heretofore have sinned
of infirmity, therefore he had allowance to do it of a presumptuous
mind; or if, because a child by the blast of the wind, or for that
it stumbled at a stone, fell down, and defiled itself in mire,
therefore he might willfully lie down and wallow like a boar therein.
Who could have thought that anyone could so far have been blinded
by the power of lust? But what is written must be true: They
'stumble at the Word, being disobedient; whereunto also they were
appointed' (1 Peter 2:8).

His supposing that such may have the godly men's virtues, who
addict themselves to their vices, is also a delusion as strong as
the other. It is just as if the dog should say, I have, or may
have, the qualities of the child, because I lick up its stinking
excrements. To eat up the sin of God's people, is no sign of one
that is possessed with their virtues (Hosea 4:8). Nor can I believe,
that one that is of this opinion, can at present have faith or
love in him. But I know you have made strong objections against
him; prithee, what can he say for himself?[224]

HON. Why, he says, To do this by way of opinion, seems abundance
more honest, than to do it, and yet hold contrary to it in opinion.

GREAT-HEART. A very wicked answer; for though to let loose the
bridle to lusts, while our opinions are against such things, is
bad; yet, to sin, and plead a toleration so to do, is worse. The
one stumbles beholders accidentally, the other pleads them into
the snare.

HON. There are many of this man's mind, that have not this man's
mouth; and that makes going on pilgrimage of so little esteem as
it is.

GREAT-HEART. You have said the truth, and it is to be lamented;
but he that feareth the King of Paradise, shall come out of them

CHRIST. There are strange opinions in the world; I know one that
said, It was time enough to repent when they come to die.[225]

GREAT-HEART. Such are not over wise. That man would have been loath,
might he have had a week to run twenty miles in for his life, to
have deferred that journey to the last hour of that week.

HON. You say right; and yet the generality of them, that count
themselves pilgrims, do indeed do thus. I am, as you see, an old
man, and have been a traveler in this road many a day; and I have
taken notice of many things.[226]

I have seen some that have set out as if they would drive all the
world afore them, who yet have, in few days, died as they in the
wilderness, and so never got sight of the promised land. I have
seen some that have promised nothing, at first setting out to be
pilgrims, and that one would have thought could not have lived a
day, that have yet proved very good pilgrims.

I have seen some who have run hastily forward, that again have,
after a little time, run as fast just back again.

I have seen some who have spoken very well of a pilgrim's life at
first, that, after a while, have spoken as much against it. I have
heard some, when they first set out for Paradise, say positively
there is such a place; who when they have been almost there, have
come back again, and said there is none.

I have heard some vaunt what they would do, in case they should
he opposed, that have, even at a false alarm, fled faith, the
pilgrim's way, and all.[227]

Now, as they were thus in their way, there came one running to
meet them, and said, Gentlemen, and you of the weaker sort, if you
love life, shift for yourselves, for the robbers are before you.[228]

GREAT-HEART. Then said Mr. Great-heart, They be the three that
set upon Little-faith heretofore. Well, said he, we are ready for
them; so they went on their way. Now, they looked at every turning,
when they should have met with the villains; but whether they
heard of Mr. Great-heart, or whether they had some other game,
they came not up to the Pilgrims.

Christiana then wished for an inn for herself and her children,
because they were weary.[229] Then said Mr. Honest, There is one
a little before us, where a very honourable disciple, one Gaius,
dwells (Rom. 16:23). So they all concluded to turn in thither, and
the rather, because the old gentleman gave him so good a report.
So when they came to the door, they went in, not knocking, for
folks use not to knock at the door of an inn. Then they called for
the master of the house, and he came to them. So they asked if they
might lie there that night.

GAIUS. Yes, gentlemen, if ye be true men, for my house is for none
but pilgrims. Then was Christiana, Mercy, and the boys, the more
glad, for that the Inn-keeper was a lover of pilgrims. So they
called for rooms, and he showed them one for Christiana and her
children, and Mercy, and another for Mr. Great-heart and the old

GREAT-HEART. Then said Mr. Great-heart, Good Gaius, what hast thou
for supper? for these pilgrims have come far today, and are weary.

GAIUS. It is late, said Gaius, so we cannot conveniently go out to
seek food; but such as we have, you shall be welcome to, if that
will content.[230]

GREAT-HEART. We will be content with what thou hast in the house;
forasmuch as I have proved thee, thou art never destitute of that
which is convenient.

Then he went down and spake to the cook, whose name was
Taste-that-which-is-good, to get ready supper for so many pilgrims.
This done, he comes up again, saying, Come, my good friends, you
are welcome to me, and I am glad that I have a house to entertain
you; and while supper is making ready, if you please, let us
entertain one another with some good discourse. So they all said,

GAIUS. Then said Gaius, Whose wife is this aged matron? and whose
daughter is this young damsel.

GREAT-HEART. The woman is the wife of one Christian, a Pilgrim
of former times; and these are his four children. The maid is one
of her acquaintance; one that she hath persuaded to come with her
on pilgrimage. The boys take all after their father, and covet to
tread in his steps; yea, if they do but see any place where the
old Pilgrim hath lain, or any print of his foot, it ministereth
joy to their hearts, and they covet to lie or tread in the same.

GAIUS. Then said Gaius, Is this Christian's wife? and are these
Christian's children? I knew your husband's father, yea, also his
father's father. Many have been good of this stock; their ancestors
dwelt first at Antioch (Acts 11:26). Christian's progenitors (I
suppose you have heard your husband talk of them) were very worthy
men. They have, above any that I know, showed themselves men of
great virtue and courage, for the Lord of the Pilgrims, His ways,
and them that loved Him. I have heard of many of your husband's
relations, that have stood all trials for the sake of the truth.
Stephen, that was one of the first of the family from whence your
husband sprang, was knocked on the head with stones (Acts 7:59,
60). James, another of this generation, was slain with the edge
of the sword (Acts 12:2). To say nothing of Paul and Peter, men
anciently of the family from whence your husband came, there was
Ignatius, who was cast to the lions;[231] Romanus, whose flesh
was cut by pieces from his bones, and Polycarp, that played the
man in the fire. There was he that was hanged up in a basket in
the sun, for the wasps to eat; and he who they put into a sack, and
cast him into the sea to be drowned. It would be utterly impossible
to count up all of that family that have suffered injuries and
death, for the love of a pilgrim's life. Nor can I but be glad, to
see that thy husband has left behind him four such boys as these.
I hope they will bear up their father's name, and tread in their
father's steps, and come to their father's end.

GREAT-HEART. Indeed, Sir, they are likely lads; they seem to choose
heartily their father's ways.

GAIUS. That is it that I said; wherefore Christian's family is like
still to spread abroad upon the face of the ground, and yet to be
numerous upon the face of the earth; wherefore, let Christiana look
out some damsels for her sons, to whom they may be betrothed, &c.,
that the name of their father and the house of his progenitors may
never be forgotten in the world.[232]

HON. It is pity this family should fall and be extinct.

GAIUS. Fall it cannot, but be diminished it may; but let Christiana
take my advice, and that is the way to uphold it.

And, Christiana, said this Innkeeper, I am glad to see thee and
thy friend Mercy together here, a lovely couple. And may I advise,
take Mercy into a nearer relation to thee; if she will, let her be
given to Matthew, thy eldest son; it is the way to preserve you a
posterity in the earth. So this match was concluded, and in process
of time they were married; but more of that hereafter.

Gaius also proceeded, and said, I will now speak on the behalf of
women, to take away their reproach. For as death and the curse came
into the world by a woman, (Gen. 3), so also did life and health:
'God sent forth His Son made of a woman' (Gal. 4:4). Yea, to show
how much those that came after, did abhor the act of the mother,
this sex, in the Old Testament, coveted children, if happily this
or that woman might be the mother of the Saviour of the world.

I will say again, that when the Saviour was come, women rejoiced
in Him before either man or angel (Luke 2). I read not, that ever
any man did give unto Christ so much as one groat; but the women
followed Him, and ministered to Him of their substance (Luke 8:2,
3). It was a woman that washed His feet with tears, and a woman
that anointed His body to the burial (Luke 7:37, 50; John 11:2;
12:3). They were women that wept, when He was going to the Cross,
and women that followed Him from the Cross, and that sat by His
sepulchre, when he was buried (Luke 23:27; Matt. 27:55, 56, 61).
They were women that were first with Him at His resurrection-morn;
and women that brought tidings first to His disciples, that He
was risen from the dead (Luke 24:22, 23). Women, therefore, are
highly favoured, and show by these things that they are sharers
with us in the grace of life.

Now the cook sent up to signify that supper was almost ready, and
sent one to lay the cloth, the trenchers, and to set the salt and
bread in order.

Then said Matthew, The sight of this cloth, and of this fore-runner
of the supper, begetteth in me a greater appetite to my food than
I had before.

GAIUS. So let all ministering doctrines to thee, in this life,
beget in thee a greater desire to sit at the supper of the great
King in His kingdom; for all preaching, books, and ordinances
here, are but as the laying of the trenchers, and as setting of
salt upon the board, when compared with the feast that our Lord
will make for us when we come to His house.

So supper came up;[233] and first, a heave-shoulder, and a wave-breast
(Lev. 7:32-34; 10:14, 15), were set on the table before them, to
show that they must begin their meal with prayer and praise to
God (Psa. 25:1; Heb. 13:15). The heave-shoulder, David lifted his
heart up to God with; and with the wave-breast, where his heart
lay, with that he used to lean upon his harp when he played. These
two dishes were very fresh and good, and they all eat heartily well

The next they brought up, was a bottle of wine, red as blood (Deut.
32:14). So Gaius said to them, Drink freely; this is the juice of
the true vine, that makes glad the heart of God and man (Judg.
9:13; John 15:1). So they drank and were merry.

The next was a dish of milk well crumbed; but Gaius said, Let the
boys have that, that they may grow thereby (1 Peter 2:1, 2). Then
they brought up in course a dish of butter and honey. Then said
Gaius, Eat freely of this; for this is good to cheer up, and
strengthen your judgments and understandings. This was our Lord's
dish when He was a child: 'Butter and honey shall He eat, that He
may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good' (Isa. 7:15).

Then they brought them up a dish of apples, and they were very
good tasted fruit. Then said Matthew, May we eat apples, since
they were such, by, and with which, the serpent beguiled our first

Then said Gaius-

Apples were they with which we were beguil'd
Yet sin, not apples, hath our souls defil'd.
Apples forbid, if eat, corrupt the blood;
To eat such, when commanded, does us good.
Drink of His flagons, then, thou church, His dove,
And eat His apples, who are sick of love.

Then said Matthew, I made the scruple, because I awhile since was
sick with eating of fruit.

GAIUS. Forbidden fruit will make you sick but not what our Lord
has tolerated.

While they were thus talking, they were presented with another
dish, and it was a dish of nuts (Song. 6:11). Then said some at the
table, Nuts spoil tender teeth, especially the teeth of children;
which when Gaius heard, he said--

Hard texts are nuts (I will not call them cheaters),
Whose shells do keep their kernels from the eaters.
Ope then the shells, and you shall have the meat;
They here are brought for you to crack and eat.

Then were they very merry, and sat at the table a long time, talking
of many things. Then said the old gentleman, My good landlord,
while we are cracking your nuts, if you please, do you open this

A man there was though some did count him mad,
The more he cast away, the more he had.

Then they all gave good heed, wondering what good Gaius would say;
so he sat still awhile, and then thus replied--

He that bestows his goods upon the poor,
Shall have as much again, and ten times more.

Then said Joseph, I dare say, Sir, I did not think you could have
found it out.

Oh! said Gaius, I have been trained up in this way a great while;
nothing teaches like experience; I have learned of my Lord to be
kind; and have found by experience, that I have gained thereby.
'There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth; and there is that
withholdeth more than is meet; but it tendeth to poverty' (Prov.
11:24). 'There is that maketh himself rich, yet hath nothing; there
is that maketh himself poor, yet hath great riches'[235] (Prov.
13:7). Then Samuel whispered to Christiana, his mother, and said,
Mother, this is a very good man's house, let us stay here a good
while, and let my brother Matthew be married here to Mercy, before
we go any further.[236]

The which Gaius the host overhearing, said, With a very good will,
my child.

So they staid there more than a month, and Mercy was given to
Matthew to wife.

While they staid here, Mercy, as her custom was, would be making
coats and garments to give to the poor, by which she brought up a
very good report upon the Pilgrims.[237]

But to return again to our story. After supper the lads desired a
bed; for that they were weary with travelling: then Gaius called
to show them their chamber; but said Mercy, I will have them to
bed. So she had them to bed, and they slept well; but the rest
sat up all night; for Gaius and they were such suitable company,
that they could not tell how to part. Then after much talk of their
Lord, themselves, and their journey, old Mr. Honest, he that put
forth the riddle to Gaius, began to nod. Then said Great-heart,
What, Sir, you begin to be drowsy; come, rub up; now here is a
riddle for you. Then said Mr. Honest, Let us hear it. Then said
Mr. Great-heart,

He that will kill, must first be overcome,
Who live abroad would, first must die at home.

Ha! said Mr. Honest, it is a hard one, hard to expound, and harder
to practise. But come, landlord, said he, I will, if you please,
leave my part to you; do you expound it, and I will hear what you
say. No, said Gaius, it was put to you, and it is expected that
you should answer it. Then said the old gentleman,

He first by grace must conquer'd be,
That sin would mortify;
And who, that lives, would convince me,
Unto himself must die.[238]

It is right, said Gaius; good doctrine and experience teaches
this. For, first, until grace displays itself, and overcomes the
soul with its glory, it is altogether without heart to oppose sin;
besides if sin is Satan's cords, by which the soul lies bound, how
should it make resistance, before it is loosed from that infirmity?

Secondly, nor will any, that knows either reason or grace, believe
that such a man can be a living monument of grace that is a slave
to his own corruptions.

And now it comes in my mind, I will tell you a story worth the
hearing. There were two men that went on pilgrimage; the one began
when he was young, the other when he was old. The young man had
strong corruptions to grapple with; the old man's were decayed
with the decays of nature. The young man trod his steps as even
as did the old one, and was every way as light as he. Who now,
or which of them, had their graces shining clearest, since both
seemed to be alike

HON. The young man's, doubtless. For that which heads it against
the greatest opposition, gives best demonstration that it is
strongest; especially when it also holdeth pace with that that
meets not with half so much; as, to be sure, old age does not.[239]
Besides, I have observed that old men have blessed themselves with
this mistake, namely, taking the decays of nature for a gracious
conquest over corruptions, and so have been apt to beguile
themselves. Indeed, old men that are gracious, are best able to
give advice to them that are young, because they have seen most
of the emptiness of things. But yet, for an old and a young [man]
to set out both together, the young one has the advantage of the
fairest discovery of a work of grace within him, though the old
man's corruptions are naturally the weakest.

Thus they sat talking till break of day. Now, when the family was
up, Christiana bid her son James that he should read a chapter; so
he read the fifty-third of Isaiah. When he had done, Mr. Honest
asked, why it was said that the Saviour is said to come 'out of a
dry ground'; and also, that 'He had no form or comeliness in him?'

GREAT-HEART. Then said Mr. Great-heart, To the first, I answer,
Because the church of the Jews, of which Christ came, had then
lost almost all the sap and spirit of religion. To the second, I
say, The words are spoken in the person of the unbelievers, who,
because they want that eye that can see into our Prince's heart,
therefore they judge of Him by the meanness of His outside. Just
like those that know not that precious stones are covered over with
a homely crust; who, when they have found one, because they know
not what they have found, cast it again away, as men do a common

Well, said Gaius, now you are here, and since, as I know, Mr.
Great-heart is good at his weapons, if you please, after we have
refreshed ourselves, we will walk into the fields, to see if we can
do any good.[240] About a mile from hence, there is one Slay-good,
a giant that does much annoy the King's highway in these parts;
and I know whereabout his haunt is. He is master of a number of
thieves; it would be well if we could clear these parts of him. So
they consented, and went, Mr. Great-heart with his sword, helmet,
and shield, and the rest with spears and staves.[241] When they
came to the place where he was, they found him with one Feeble-mind
in his hands, whom his servants had brought unto him, having taken
him in the way. Now the giant was rifling him, with a purpose, after
that, to pick his bones, for he was of the nature of flesh-eaters.

Well, so soon as he saw Mr. Great-heart and his friends at the
mouth of his cave, with their weapons, he demanded what they wanted.

GREAT-HEART. We want thee; for we are come to revenge the quarrel
of the many that thou hast slain of the pilgrims, when thou hast
dragged them out of the King's highway; wherefore, come out of
thy cave. So he armed himself and came out; and to a battle they
went, and fought for above an hour, and then stood still to take

SLAY. Then said the giant, Why are you here on my ground?

GREAT-HEART. To revenge the blood of pilgrims, as I also told thee
before. So they went to it again, and the giant made Mr. Great-heart
give back; but he came up again, and, in the greatness of his mind,
he let fly with such stoutness at the giant's head and sides, that
he made him let his weapon fall out of his hand; so he smote him,
and slew him, and cut off his head, and brought it away to the
inn. He also took Feeble-mind, the pilgrim, and brought him with
him to his lodgings. When they were come home, they showed his
head to the family, and then set it up, as they had done others
before, for a terror to those that shall attempt to do as he

Then they asked Mr. Feeble-mind how he fell into his hands?

FEEBLE-MIND. Then said the poor man, I am a sickly man, as you
see; and, because death did usually once a day knock at my door,
I thought I should never be well at home; so I betook myself to a
pilgrim's life, and have traveled hither from the town of Uncertain,
where I and my father were born. I am a man of no strength at all
of body, nor yet of mind; but would, if I could, though I can but
crawl, spend my life in the pilgrim's way.[243] When I came at
the gate that is at the head of the way, the Lord of that place
did entertain me freely; neither objected He against my weakly
looks, nor against my feeble mind; but gave me such things that
were necessary for my journey, and bid me hope to the end. When
I came to the house of the Interpreter, I received much kindness
there; and because the Hill Difficulty was judged too hard for
me, I was carried up that by one of His servants. Indeed, I have
found much relief from pilgrims, though none were willing to go so
softly as I am forced to do; yet still, as they came on, they bid
me be of good cheer, and said that it was the will of their Lord
that comfort should be given to the feeble-minded, and so went
on their own pace (1 Thess. 5:14). When I was come up to Assault
Lane, then this giant met with me, and bid me prepare for an
encounter; but, alas! feeble one that I was, I had more need of
a cordial. So he came up and took me. I conceited he should not
kill me. Also, when he had got me into his den, since I went not
with him willingly, I believed I should come out alive again;
for I have heard, that not any pilgrim that is taken captive by
violent hands, if he keeps heart-whole towards his Master, is, by
the laws of Providence, to die by the hand of the enemy. Robbed
I looked to be, and robbed to be sure I am; but I am, as you see,
escaped with life; for the which I thank my King as author, and
you as the means. Other brunts I also look for; but this I have
resolved on, to wit, to run when I can, to go when I cannot run,
and to creep when I cannot go. As to the main, I thank Him that
loves me, I am fixed. My way is before me, my mind is beyond the
river that has no bridge, though I am, as you see, but of a feeble

HON. Then said old Mr. Honest, Have you not, some time ago, been
acquainted with one Mr. Fearing, a pilgrim.

FEEBLE. Acquainted with him! Yes; he came from the town of
Stupidity, which lieth four degrees to the northward of the City
of Destruction, and as many off of where I was born; yet we were
well acquainted, for, indeed, he was my uncle, my father's brother.
He and I have been much of a temper. He was a little shorter than
I, but yet we were much of a complexion.

HON. I perceive you know him; and I am apt to believe also, that
you were related one to another; for you have his whitely look, a
cast like his with your eye, and your speech is much alike.

FEEBLE. Most have said so that have known us both; and besides,
what I have read in him, I have, for the most part, found in myself.

GAIUS. Come, Sir, said good Gaius, be of good cheer, you are welcome
to me, and to my house, and what thou hast a mind to, call for
freely; and what thou wouldest have my servants do for thee, they
will do it with a ready mind.

Then said Mr. Feeble-mind, This is unexpected favour, and as the
sun shining out of a very dark cloud. Did Giant Slay-good intend
me this favour when he stopped me, and resolved to let me go no
further? Did he intend, that after he had rifled my pockets, I
should go to Gaius, mine host? Yet so it is.[245]

Now, just as Mr. Feeble-mind and Gaius were thus in talk, there
comes one running, and called at the door, and told that, about a
mile and a half off, there was one Mr. Not-right, a pilgrim, struck
dead upon the place where he was with a thunder-bolt.[246]

FEEBLE. Alas! said Mr. Feeble-mind, is he slain? He overtook me some
days before I came so far as hither, and would be my company-keeper.
He also was with me when Slay-good, the giant, took me; but he
was nimble of his heels, and escaped. But, it seems, he escaped
to die, and I was took to live.[247]

What, one would think, doth seek to slay outright,
Ofttimes delivers from the saddest plight.
That very providence, whose face is death,
Doth ofttimes to the lowly life bequeath.
I taken was, he did escape and flee;
Hands cross'd gives death to him, and life to me.

Now, about this time, Matthew and Mercy were married. Also Gaius
gave his daughter Phoebe to James, Matthew's brother, to wife;
after which time they yet staid above ten days at Gaius' house,
spending their time, and the seasons, like as pilgrims used to

When they were to depart, Gaius made them a feast, and they did eat
and drink, and were merry. Now the hour was come that they must
be gone; wherefore, Mr. Great-heart called for a reckoning; but
Gaius told him, that at his house it was not the custom for pilgrims
to pay for their entertainment. He boarded them by the year, but
looked for his pay from the good Samaritan, who had promised him,
at his return, whatsoever charge he was at with them, faithfully
to repay him (Luke 10:34, 35). Then said Mr. Great-heart to him,

GREAT-HEART. 'Beloved, thou dost faithfully whatsoever thou dost
to the brethren, and to strangers; which have borne witness of
thy charity before the church; whom if thou (yet) bring forward
on their journey after a godly sort, thou shalt do well' (3 John
5, 6). Then Gaius took his leave of them all, and of his children,
and particularly of Mr. Feeble-mind. He also gave him something
to drink by the way.

Now Mr. Feeble-mind, when they were going out of the door, made as
if he intended to linger; the which when Mr. Great-heart espied,
he said, Come, Mr. Feeble-Mind, pray do you go along with us, I
will be your conductor, and you shall fare as the rest.

FEEBLE. Alas! I want a suitable companion; you are all lusty and
strong; but I, as you see, am weak; I choose, therefore, rather
to come behind, lest, by reason of my many infirmities, I should
be both a burden to myself and to you. I am, as I said, a man of
a weak and feeble mind, and shall be offended and made weak at
that which others can bear. I shall like no laughing; I shall like
no gay attire; I shall like no unprofitable questions. Nay, I
am so weak a man, as to be offended with that which others have
liberty to do. I do not yet know all the truth; I am a very ignorant
Christian man; sometimes, if I hear some rejoice in the Lord, it
troubles me, because I can not do so too. It is with me, as it
is with a weak man among the strong, or as with a sick man among
the healthy, or as a lamp despised ('He that is ready to slip with
his feet, is as a lamp despised in the thought of him that is at
ease' Job 12:5), so that I know not what to do.[249]

GREAT-HEART. But, brother, said. Mr. Great-heart, I have it in
commission to 'comfort the feeble-minded,' and to 'support the
weak' (1 Thess. 5:14). You must needs go along with us; we will
wait for you; we will lend you our help (Rom. 14:1); we will deny
ourselves of some things, both opinionative and practical, for
your sake (1 Cor. 8), we will not enter into doubtful disputations
before you; we will be made all things to you, rather than you
shall be left behind[250] (1 Cor. 9:22).

Now all this while they were at Gaius' door; and behold, as they
were thus in the heat of their discourse, Mr. Ready-to-halt came
by, with his crutches [promises] in his hand (Psa. 38:17); and he
also was going on pilgrimage.

FEEBLE. Then said Mr. Feeble-mind to him, Man, How camest thou
hither? I was but just now complaining, that I had not a suitable
companion, but thou art according to my wish. Welcome, welcome,
good Mr. Ready-to-halt, I hope thee and I may be some help.

READY-TO-HALT. I shall be glad of thy company, said the other; and
good Mr. Feeble-mind, rather than we will part, since we are thus
happily met, I will lend thee one of my crutches.[251]

FEEBLE. Nay, said he, though I thank thee for thy goodwill, I
am not inclined to halt before I am lame. Howbeit, I think, when
occasion is, it may help me against a dog.[252]

READY. If either myself or my crutches can do thee a pleasure, we
are both at thy command, good Mr. Feeble-mind.

Thus therefore they went on; Mr. Great-heart and Mr. Honest went
before, Christiana and her children went next, and Mr. Feeble-mind
and Mr. Ready-to-halt, came behind with his crutches.[253] Then
said Mr. Honest,

HON. Pray, Sir, now we are upon the road, tell us some profitable
things of some that have gone on pilgrimage before us.

GREAT-HEART. With a good will. I suppose you have heard how Christian
of old did meet with Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation; and
also what hard work he had, to go through the Valley of the Shadow
of Death. Also I think you cannot but have heard how Faithful
was put to it with Madam Wanton, with Adam the first, with one
Discontent, and Shame, four as deceitful villains as a man can
meet with upon the road.

HON. Yes, I have heard of all this; but indeed, good Faithful was
hardest put to it with Shame; he was an unwearied one.

GREAT-HEART. Aye; for, as the Pilgrim well said, he of all men had
the wrong name.

HON. But pray, Sir, where was it that Christian and Faithful met
Talkative? That same was also a notable one.

GREAT-HEART. He was a confident fool, yet many follow his ways.

HON. He had like to have beguiled Faithful.

GREAT-HEART. Aye, but Christian put him into a way quickly to
find him out. Thus they went on till they came at the place where
Evangelist met with Christian and Faithful, and prophesied to them
of what should befall them at Vanity Fair.

GREAT-HEART. Then said their guide, Hereabouts did Christian and
Faithful meet with Evangelist, who prophesied to them of what
troubles they should meet with at Vanity Fair.

HON. Say you so? I dare say it was a hard chapter that then he did
read unto them.[254]

GREAT-HEART. It was so; but he gave them encouragement withal. But
what do we talk of them? they were a couple of lion-like men; they
had set their faces like flint. Don't you remember how undaunted
they were when they stood before the judge?

HON. Well, Faithful bravely suffered.

GREAT-HEART. So he did, and as brave things came on it; for Hopeful
and some others, as the story relates it, were converted by his

HON. Well, but pray go on; for you are well acquainted with things.

GREAT-HEART. Above all that Christian met with after he had passed
through Vanity Fair, one By-ends was the arch one.

HON. By-ends! What was he?

GREAT-HEART. A very arch fellow; a downright hypocrite. One that
would be religious which way ever the world went; but so cunning,
that he would be sure neither to lose nor suffer for it. He had
his mode of religion for every fresh occasion; and his wife was as
good at it as he. He would turn and change from opinion to opinion;
yea, and plead for so doing too. But, so far as I could learn,
he came to an ill end with his by-ends; nor did I ever hear that
any of his children were ever of any esteem with any that truly
feared God.

Now, by this time, they were come within sight of the town of
Vanity, where Vanity Fair is kept. So, when they saw that they were
so near the town, they consulted with one another, how they should
pass through the town; and some said one thing, and some another.
At last Mr. Great-heart said, I have, as you may understand, often
been a conductor of pilgrims through this town; now I am acquainted
with one Mr. Mnason, a Cyprusian by nation, an old disciple, at
whose house we may lodge (Acts 21:16). If you think good, said
he, we will turn in there.[255]

Content, said old Honest; Content, said Christiana; Content, said
Mr. Feeble-mind; and so they said all. Now, you must think, it was
even-tide by that they got to the outside of the town; but Mr.
Great-heart knew the way to the old man's house. So thither they
came; and he called at the door, and the old man within knew his
tongue so soon as ever he heard it; so he opened, and they all
came in. Then said Mnason their host, How far have ye come today?
So they said, From the house of Gaius our friend. I promise you,
said he, you have gone a good stitch, you may well be a weary;
sit down. So they sat down.

GREAT-HEART. Then said their guide, Come, what cheer, Sirs? I dare
say you are welcome to my friend.

MNASON. I also, said Mr. Mnason, do bid you welcome, and, whatever
you want, do but say, and we will do what we can to get it for

HON. Our great want, a while since, was harbour and good company,
and now I hope we have both.

MNASON. For harbour, you see what it is; but for good company,
that will appear in the trial.

GREAT-HEART. Well, said Mr. Great-heart, will you have the Pilgrims
up into their lodging?

MNASON. I will, said Mr. Mnason. So he had them to their respective
places; and also showed them a very fair dining-room, where they
might be, and sup together, until time was come to go to rest.

Now, when they were set in their places, and were a little cheery
after their journey, Mr. Honest asked his landlord, if there were
any store of good people in the town?

MNASON. We have a few, for indeed they are but a few, when compared
with them on the other side.

HON. But how shall we do to see some of them? for the sight
of good men to them that are going on pilgrimage, is like to the
appearing of the moon and the stars to them that are sailing upon
the seas.[256]

Then Mr. Mnason stamped with his foot, and his daughter Grace
came up; so he said unto her, Grace, go you, tell my friends, Mr.
Contrite, Mr. Holy-man, Mr. Love-saint, Mr. Dare-not-lie, and Mr.
Penitent; that I have a friend or two at my house that have a mind
this evening to see them.

So Grace went to call them, and they came; and, after salutation
made, they sat down together at the table.

Then said Mr. Mnason, their landlord, My neighbours, I have, as you
see, a company of strangers come to my house; they are Pilgrims;
they come from afar, and are going to mount Zion. But who, quoth
he, do you think this is? pointing with his finger to Christiana;
it is Christiana, the wife of Christian, that famous Pilgrim,
who, with Faithful his brother, were so shamefully handled in our
town. At that they stood amazed, saying, We little thought to see
Christiana, when Grace came to call us; wherefore this is a very
comfortable surprise. Then they asked her of her welfare, and if
these young men were her husband's sons? And when she had told
them they were, they said, The King whom you love and serve, make
you as your father, and bring you where he is in peace!

HON. Then Mr. Honest (when they were all sat down) asked Mr.
Contrite, and the rest, in what posture their town was at present?

CONTRITE. You may be sure we are full of hurry in fair-time. It
is hard keeping our hearts and spirits in any good order, when we
are in a cumbered condition. He that lives in such a place as this
is, and that has to do with such as we have, has need of an item,
to caution him to take heed, every moment of the day.

HON. But how are your neighbours for quietness?

CONTRITE. They are much more moderate now than formerly. You know
how Christian and Faithful were used at our town; but of late,
I say, they have been far more moderate. I think the blood of
Faithful lieth with load upon them till now; for since they burned
him, they have been ashamed to burn any more. In those days we
were afraid to walk the streets, but now we can show our heads.
Then the name of a professor was odious; now, especially in some
parts of our town (for you know our town is large), religion is
counted honourable.[257]

Then said Mr. Contrite to them, Pray how fareth it with you in
your pilgrimage? How stands the country affected towards you?

HON. It happens to us as it happeneth to wayfaring men; sometimes
our way is clean, sometimes foul, sometimes up hill, sometimes
down hill; we are seldom at a certainty; the wind is not always
on our backs, nor is everyone a friend that we meet with in the
way. We have met with some notable rubs already; and what are yet
behind, we know not; but for the most part, we find it true, that
has been talked of, of old, A good man must suffer trouble.

CONTRITE. You talk of rubs; what rubs have you met withal?

HON. Nay, ask Mr. Great-heart, our guide, for he can give the best
account of that.

GREAT-HEART. We have been beset three or four times already.
First, Christiana and her children were beset with two ruffians,
that they feared would a took away their lives. We were beset with
Giant Bloody-man, Giant Maul, and Giant Slay-good. Indeed we did
rather beset the last, than were beset of him. And thus it was:
After we had been some time at the house of 'Gaius, mine host, and
of the whole church' (Rom. 16:23), we were minded upon a time to
take our weapons with us, and so go see if we could light upon any
of those that were enemies to pilgrims (for we heard that there
was a notable one thereabouts). Now Gaius knew his haunt better
than I, because he dwelt thereabout; so we looked, and looked,
till at last we discerned the mouth of his cave; then we were
glad, and plucked up our spirits. So we approached up to his den,
and lo, when we came there, he had dragged, by mere force, into
his net, this poor man, Mr. Feeble-mind, and was about to bring
him to his end. But when he saw us, supposing, as we thought, he
had had another prey, he left the poor man in his hole, and came
out. So we fell to it full sore, and he lustily laid about him;
but in conclusion, he was brought down to the ground, and his
head cut off, and set up by the way-side, for a terror to such as
should after practise such ungodliness. That I tell you the truth,
here is the man himself to affirm it, who was as a lamb taken out
of the mouth of the lion.

FEEBLE-MIND. Then said Mr. Feeble-mind, I found this true, to my
cost, and comfort; to my cost, when he threatened to pick my bones
every moment; and to my comfort, when I saw Mr. Great-heart and
his friends with their weapons, approach so near for my deliverance.

HOLY-MAN. Then said Mr. Holy-man, There are two things that they
have need to be possessed with, that go on pilgrimage; courage,
and an unspotted life. If they have not courage, they can never
hold on their way; and if their lives be loose, they will make the
very name of a Pilgrim stink.

LOVE-SAINT. Then said Mr. Love-saint, I hope this caution is not
needful amongst you. But truly, there are many that go upon the
road, that rather declare themselves strangers to pilgrimage, than
strangers and pilgrims in the earth.

DARE-NOT-LIE. Then said Mr. Dare-not-lie, It is true, they neither
have the pilgrim's need, nor the pilgrim's courage; they go not
uprightly, but all awry with their feet; one shoe goes inward,
another outward, and their hosen out behind; there a rag, and there
a rent, to the disparagement of their Lord.

PENITENT. These things, said Mr. Penitent, they ought to be troubled
for; nor are the pilgrims like to have that grace put upon them
and their pilgrim's progress, as they desire, until the way is
cleared of such spots and blemishes.

Thus they sat talking and spending the time, until supper was set
upon the table; unto which they went and refreshed their weary
bodies; so they went to rest. Now they stayed in this fair a great
while, at the house of this Mr. Mnason, who, in process of time,
gave his daughter Grace unto Samuel, Christiana's son, to wife,
and his daughter Martha to Joseph.

The time, as I said, that they lay here, was long (for it was not
now as in former times). Wherefore the Pilgrims grew acquainted
with many of the good people of the town, and did them what service
they could. Mercy, as she was wont, laboured much for the poor;
wherefore their bellies and backs blessed her, and she was there an
ornament to her profession.[258] And, to say the truth for Grace,
Phoebe, and Martha, they were all of a very good nature, and did
much good in their place. They were also all of them very fruitful;
so that Christian's name, as was said before, was like to live in
the world.

While they lay here, there came a monster out of the woods, and
slew many of the people of the town. It would also carry away their
children, and teach them to suck its whelps.[259] Now, no man in
the town durst so much as face this monster; but all men fled when
they heard of the noise of his coming.

The monster was like unto no one beast upon the earth; its body was
like a dragon, and it had seven heads and ten horns (Rev. 17:3).
It made great havoc of children, and yet it was governed by a
woman.[260] This monster propounded conditions to men, and such
men as loved their lives more than their souls, accepted of those
conditions. So they came under.[261]

Now this Mr. Great-heart, together with these that came to visit
the pilgrims at Mr. Mnason's house, entered into a covenant to go
and engage this beast, if perhaps they might deliver the people
of this town from the paws and mouth of this so devouring a serpent.

Then did Mr. Great-heart, Mr. Contrite, Mr. Holy-man, Mr. Dare-not-lie,
and Mr. Penitent, with their weapons go forth to meet him. Now
the monster, at first, was very rampant, and looked upon these
enemies with great disdain; but they so belaboured him, being
sturdy men at arms, that they made him make a retreat; so they
came home to Mr. Mnason's house again.

The monster, you must know, had his certain seasons to come out
in, and to make his attempts upon the children of the people of the
town; also these seasons did these valiant worthies watch him in,
and did still continually assault him; insomuch, that in process
of time he became not only wounded, but lame; also he has not made
that havoc of the townsmen's children, as formerly he has done.
And it is verily believed by some, that this beast will die of his

This, therefore, made Mr. Great-heart and his fellows of great fame
in this town; so that many of the people that wanted their taste
of things, yet had a reverend esteem and respect for them.[263]
Upon this account therefore it was, that these pilgrims got not
much hurt here. True, there were some of the baser sort, that
could see no more than a mole, nor understand more than a beast;
these had no reverence for these men, nor took they notice of
their valour or adventures.[264]

Well, the time grew on that the Pilgrims must go on their way,
wherefore they prepared for their journey. They sent for their
friends; they conferred with them; they had some time set apart,
therein to commit each other to the protection of their Prince.
There were again, that brought them of such things as they had,
that were fit for the weak and the strong, for the women and the
men, and so laded them with such things as were necessary (Acts

Then they set forward on their way; and their friends accompanying
them so far as was convenient, they again committed each other to
the protection of their King, and parted. They, therefore, that
were of the Pilgrims' company went on, and Mr. Great-heart went
before them. Now the women and children being weakly, they were
forced to go as they could bear; by this means Mr. Ready-to-halt
and Mr. Feeble-mind had more to sympathize with their condition.

When they were gone from the townsmen, and when their friends had
bid them farewell; they quickly came to the place where Faithful
was put to death; there therefore they made a stand, and thanked
Him that had enabled him to bear his cross so well; and the rather
because they now found that they had a benefit by such a manly
suffering as his was.[265]

They went on, therefore, after this, a good way further, talking
of Christian and Faithful; and how Hopeful joined himself to
Christian after that Faithful was dead.

Now they were come up with the Hill Lucre, where the silver mine
was, which took Demas off from his pilgrimage, and into which, as
some think, By-ends fell and perished; wherefore they considered
that. But when they were come to the old monument that stood over
against the Hill Lucre, to wit, to the pillar of salt that stood
also within view of Sodom and its stinking lake; they marveled,
as did Christian before, that men of that knowledge and ripeness
of wit, as they were, should be so blinded as to turn aside here.
Only they considered again, that nature is not affected with the
harms that others have met with, especially if that thing upon
which they look, has an attracting virtue upon the foolish eye.

I saw now that they went on, till they came at the river that was
on this side of the Delectable Mountains. To the river where the
fine trees grow on both sides; and whose leaves, if taken inwardly,
are good against surfeits, where the meadows are green all the
year long, and where they might lie down safely (Psa. 23).

By this river side, in the meadow, there were cotes and folds for
sheep, a house built for the nourishing and bringing up of those
lambs, the babes of those women that go on pilgrimage (Heb. 5:2).
Also there was here one that was intrusted with them, who could
have compassion, and that could gather these lambs with His arm,
and carry them in His bosom, and that could gently lead those
that were with young (Isa. 40:11). Now to the care of THIS MAN,
Christiana admonished her four daughters to commit their little ones,
that by these waters they might be housed, harboured, succoured,
and nourished, and that none of them might be lacking in time to
come.[266] This Man, if any of them go astray, or be lost, He will
bring them again; He will also bind up that which was broken, and
will strengthen them that are sick (Ezek. 34:11-16). Here they
will never want meat, and drink, and clothing; here they will be
kept from thieves and robbers; for this Man will die before one
of those committed to His trust shall be lost (Jer. 23:4).

Besides, here they shall be sure to have good nurture and admonition,
and shall be taught to walk in right paths, and that you know is
a favour of no small account. Also here, as you see, are delicate
waters, pleasant meadows, dainty flowers, variety of trees, and
such as bear wholesome fruit; fruit not like that that Matthew ate
of, that fell over the wall out of Beelzebub's garden; but fruit
that procureth health where there is none, and that continueth and
increaseth it where it is.[267]

So they were content to commit their little ones to Him; and that
which was also an encouragement to them so to do, was, for that
all this was to be at the charge of the King, and so was as an
hospital for young children and orphans.

Now they went on; and when they were come to By-path Meadow, to
the stile over which Christian went with his fellow Hopeful, when
they were taken by Giant Despair, and put into Doubting Castle;
they sat down and consulted what was best to be done; to wit, now
they were so strong, and had got such a man as Mr. Great-heart
for their conductor, whether they had not best to make an attempt
upon the Giant, demolish his castle, and, if there were any pilgrims
in it, to set them at liberty, before they went any further. So
one said one thing, and another said the contrary. One questioned
if it were lawful to go upon unconsecrated ground; another said
they might, provided their end was good; but Mr. Great-heart said,
Though that assertion offered last cannot be universally true,
yet I have a commandment to resist sin, to overcome evil, to fight
the good fight of faith; and, I pray, with whom should I fight
this good fight, if not with Giant Despair? I will, therefore,
attempt the taking away of his life, and the demolishing of Doubting
Castle. Then said he, Who will go with me? Then said old Honest,
I will. And so will we too, said Christiana's four sons, Matthew,
Samuel, James, and Joseph; for they were young men and strong (1
John 3:13, 14). So they left the women in the road, and with them
Mr. Feeble-mind and Mr. Ready-to-halt with his crutches, to be
their guard, until they came back; for in that place though Giant
Despair dwelt so near, they keeping in the road, a little child
might lead them (Isa. 11:6). So Mr. Great-heart, old Honest, and
the four young men, went to go up to Doubting Castle, to look for
Giant Despair. When they came at the Castle-gate, they knocked
for entrance with an unusual noise. At that the old Giant comes
to the gate, and Diffidence, his wife, follows. Then said he, Who,
and what is he that is so hardy, as after this manner to molest
the Giant Despair?

Mr. Great-heart replied, It is I, Great-heart, one of the King of
the Celestial Country's conductors of pilgrims to their place;
and I demand of thee that thou open thy gates for my entrance.
Prepare thyself also to fight, for I am come to take away thy
head, and to demolish Doubting Castle.

Now Giant Despair, because he was a giant, thought no man could
overcome him; and, again, thought he, since heretofore I have
made a conquest of angels, shall Great-heart make me afraid! So he
harnessed himself, and went out. He had a cap of steel upon his
head, a breast-plate of fire girded to him, and he came out in iron
shoes with a great club in his hand. Then these six men made up to
him, and beset him behind and before. Also when Diffidence, the
giantess, came up to help him, old Mr. Honest cut her down at
one blow. Then they fought for their lives, and Giant Despair was
brought down to the ground, but was very loath to die. He struggled
hard, and had, as they say, as many lives as a cat; but Great-heart
was his death, for he left him not till he had severed his head
from his shoulders.[268]

Then they fell to demolishing Doubting Castle, that you know might
with ease be done, since Giant Despair was dead. They were seven
days in destroying of that; and in it of pilgrims they found one
Mr. Despondency, almost starved to death, and one Much-afraid, his
daughter; these two they saved alive. But it would have made you
a-wondered to have seen the dead bodies that lay here and there
in the castle-yard, and how full of dead men's bones the dungeon

When Mr. Great-heart and his companions had performed this
exploit, they took Mr. Despondency, and his daughter Much-afraid,
into their protection; for they were honest people, though they
were prisoners in Doubting Castle, to that tyrant Giant Despair.
They, therefore, I say, took with them the head of the Giant,
for his body they had buried under a heap of stones, and down to
the road and to their companions they came, and showed them what
they had done. Now when Feeble-mind and Ready-to-halt saw that it
was the head of Giant Despair indeed, they were very jocund and
merry.[269] Now Christiana, if need was, could play upon the viol,
and her daughter Mercy upon the lute; so, since they were so merry
disposed, she played them a lesson, and Ready-to-halt would dance.
So he took Despondency's daughter, named Much-afraid, by the hand,
and to dancing they went in the road. True, he could not dance
without one crutch in his hand; but, I promise you, he footed
it well. Also the girl was to be commended, for she answered the
music handsomely.

As for Mr. Despondency, the music was not much to him; he was for
feeding rather than dancing, for that he was almost starved. So
Christiana gave him some of her bottle of spirits, for present
relief, and then prepared him something to eat; and, in little
time, the old gentleman came to himself, and began to be finely

Now I saw in my dream, when all these things were finished, Mr.
Great-heart took the head of Giant Despair, and set it upon a pole
by the highway side, right over against the pillar that Christian
erected for a caution to pilgrims that came after, to take heed of
entering into his grounds.[270]

Though Doubting Castle be demolish'd,
And the Giant Despair hath lost his head,
Sin can rebuild the Castle, make't remain,
And make Despair the Giant live again.

Then he writ under it, upon a marble stone these verses following:

This the head of him, whose name only
In former times did pilgrims terrify.
His Castle's down; and Diffidence, his wife,
Brave Master Great-heart has bereft of life.
Despondency, his daughter Much-afraid,
Great-heart for them also the man has play'd;
Who hereof doubts, if he'll but cast his eye
Up hither, may his scruples satisfy.
This head also, when doubting cripples dance,
Doth show from fears they have deliverance.

When these men had thus bravely showed themselves against Doubting
Castle, and had slain Giant Despair, they went forward; and went
on till they came to the Delectable Mountains, where Christian
and Hopeful refreshed themselves with the varieties of the place.
They also acquainted themselves with the shepherds there, who
welcomed them, as they had done Christian before, unto the Delectable

Now the Shepherds, seeing, so great a train follow Mr. Great-heart,
for with him they were well acquainted, they said unto him, Good
Sir, you have got a goodly company here. Pray, where did you find
all these?

Then Mr. Great-heart replied:

First, here is Christiana and her train,
Her sons, and her sons' wives, who like the wain,[271]
Keep by the pole, and do by compass steer,
From sin to grace, else they had not been here;
Next, here's old Honest come on pilgrimage,
Ready-to-halt, too, who, I dare engage,
True-hearted is, and so is Feeble-mind,
Who willing was not to be left behind;
Despondency, good man, is coming after,
And so also is Much-afraid his daughter.
May we have entertainment here, or must
We further go? Let's know whereon to trust.

Then said the Shepherds, This is a comfortable company. You are
welcome to us, for we have [comfort] for the feeble as for the
strong. Our Prince has an eye to what is done to the least of these;
therefore infirmity must not be a block to our entertainment (Matt.
25:40). So they had them to the palace door, and then said unto
them, Come in, Mr. Feeble-mind; Come in, Mr. Ready-to-halt; come
in, Mr. Despondency, and Mrs. Much-afraid, his daughter.[272]
These, Mr. Great-heart, said the Shepherds to the guide, we call
in by name, for that they are most subject to draw back; but as
for you, and the rest that are strong, we leave you to your wonted
liberty. Then said Mr. Great-heart, This day I see that grace doth
shine in your faces, and that you are my Lord's Shepherds indeed;
for that you have not pushed these diseased neither with side nor
shoulder, but have rather strewed their way into the palace with
flowers, as you should[273] (Ezek. 34:21). So the feeble and weak
went in, and Mr. Great-heart and the rest did follow. When they
were also set down, the Shepherds said to those of the weaker
sort, What is it that you would have? for, said they, all things
must be managed here to the supporting of the weak, as well as
the warning of the unruly.

So they made them a feast of things easy of digestion, and that
were pleasant to the palate, and nourishing; the which, when they
had received, they went to their rest, each one respectively unto
his proper place. When morning was come, because the mountains
were high, and the day clear, and because it was the custom of the
Shepherds to show to the Pilgrims, before their departure, some
rarities;[274] therefore, after they were ready, and had refreshed
themselves, the Shepherds took them out into the fields, and
showed them first what they had showed to Christian before. Then
they had them to some new places. The first was to Mount Marvel,
where looked, and beheld a man at a distance, that tumbled the
hills about with words. Then they asked the Shepherds what that
should mean? So they told them, that that man was a son of one
Great-grace, of whom you read in the First Part of the Records of
the Pilgrim's Progress. And he is set there to teach pilgrims how
to believe down, or to tumble out of their way, what difficulties
they shall meet with, by faith[275] (Mark 11:23, 24). Then said
Mr. Great-heart, I know him. He is a man above many.

Then they had them to another place, called Mount Innocent; and
there they saw a man clothed all in white, and two men, Prejudice
and Ill-will, continually casting dirt upon him. Now, behold, the
dirt, whatsoever they cast at him, would in little time fall off
again, and his garments would look as clear as if no dirt had been
cast thereat.[276]

Then said the Pilgrims, What means this? The Shepherds answered,
This man is named Godly-man, and this garment is to show the innocency
of his life. Now, those that throw dirt at him, are such as hate
his well-doing; but, as you see the dirt will not stick upon his
clothes, so it shall be with him that liveth truly innocently in
the world. Whoever they be that would make such men dirty, they
labour all in vain; for God, by that a little time is spent, will
cause that their innocence shall break forth as the light, and
their righteousness as the noon-day.

Then they took them, and had them to Mount Charity, where they
showed them a man that had a bundle of cloth lying before him, out
of which he cut coats and garments for the poor that stood about
him; yet his bundle or roll of cloth was never the less. Then said
they, What should this be? This is, said the Shepherds, to show
you, that he that has a heart to give of his labour to the poor,
shall never want wherewithal. He that watereth shall be watered
himself. And the cake that the widow gave to the Prophet did not
cause that she had ever the less in her barrel.

They had them also to a place where they saw one Fool, and one
Want-wit, washing of an Ethiopian, with intention to make him
white; but the more they washed him the blacker he was. They then
asked the Shepherds what that should mean. So they told them,
saying, Thus shall it be with the vile person. All means used to
get such a one a good name shall, in conclusion, tend but to make
him more abominable. Thus it was with the Pharisees, and so shall
it be with all hypocrites.[277]

Then said Mercy, the wife of Matthew, to Christiana, her mother,
Mother, I would, if it might be, see the hole in the hill, or that
commonly called the by-way to hell. So her mother brake her mind
to the Shepherds. Then they went to the door. It was in the side of
a hill, and they opened it, and bid Mercy hearken awhile. So she
hearkened, and heard one saying, Cursed be my father, for holding
of my feet back from the way of peace and life; and another said,
O that I had been torn in pieces, before I had, to save my life,
lost my soul! and another said, If I were to live again, how would
I deny myself, rather than come to this place! Then there was as
if the very earth had groaned and quaked under the feet of this
young woman for fear. So she looked white, and came trembling
away, saying, Blessed be he and she that are delivered from this
place.[278] Now when the Shepherds had shown them all these things,
then they had them back to the palace, and entertained them with
what the house would afford. But Mercy being a young and breeding
woman, longed for something that she saw there, but was ashamed
to ask. Her mother-in-law then asked her what she ailed; for she
looked as one not well. Then said Mercy, There is a looking-glass
hangs up in the dining-room, off which I cannot take my mind: if,
therefore, I have it not, I think I shall miscarry. Then said her
mother, I will mention thy wants to the Shepherds, and they will
not deny it thee. But she said, I am ashamed that these men should
know that I longed. Nay, my daughter, said she, it is no shame but
a virtue, to long for such a thing as that. So Mercy said, Then,
mother, if you please, ask the Shepherds if they are willing to
sell it.

Now the glass was one of a thousand. It would present a man, one
way, with his own features exactly (James 1:23); and, turn it but
another way, and it would show one the very face and similitude of
the Prince of Pilgrims Himself (1 Cor. 13:12). Yea, I have talked
with them that can tell, and they have said, that they have seen
the very crown of thorns upon His head, by looking in that glass;
they have therein also seen the holes in His hands, in His feet,
and His side (2 Cor. 3:18). Yea, such an excellency is there in
that glass, that it will show Him, to one where they have a mind
to see Him; whether living or dead; whether in earth or Heaven;
whether in a state of humiliation, or in His exaltation; whether
coming to suffer, or coming to reign.[279]

Christiana, therefore, went to the Shepherds apart[280]--now
the names of the Shepherds are Knowledge, Experience, Watchful,
and Sincere--and said unto them, There is one of my daughters, a
breeding woman, that I think doth long for something that she hath
seen in this house; and she thinks she shall miscarry, if she shall
by you be denied.

EXPERIENCE. Call her, call her; she shall assuredly have what we
can help her to. So they called her, and said to her, Mercy, what
is that thing thou wouldst have? Then she blushed, and said, The
great glass that hangs up in the dining-room. So Sincere ran and
fetched it, and, with a joyful consent, it was given her. Then she
bowed her head, and gave thanks, and said, By this I know that I
have obtained favour in your eyes.

They also gave to the other young women such things as they
desired, and to their husbands great commendations, for that they
had joined with Mr. Great-heart, to the slaying of Giant Despair,
and the demolishing of Doubting Castle.

About Christiana's neck, the Shepherds put a bracelet, and so they
did about the necks of her four daughters; also they put earrings
in their ears, and jewels on their foreheads.[281]

When they were minded to go hence, they let them go in peace, but
gave not to them those certain cautions which before were given to
Christian and his companion. The reason was, for that these had
Great-heart to be their guide, who was one that was well acquainted
with things, and so could give them their cautions more seasonably;
to wit, even then when the danger was nigh the approaching.

What cautions Christian and his companion had received of the
Shepherds, they had also lost, by that the time was come that they
had need to put them in practice. Wherefore, here was the advantage
that this company had over the other.

From hence they went on singing, and they said,
Behold, how fitly are the stages set
For their relief that pilgrims are become!
And how they us receive without one let,
That makes the other life our mark and home!

What novelties they have to us they give,
That we, though Pilgrims, joyful lives may live;
They do upon us, too, such things bestow,
That show we Pilgrims are, where'er we go.

When they were gone from the Shepherds, they quickly came to the
place where Christian met with one Turn-away, that dwelt in the
town of Apostasy. Wherefore of him Mr. Great-heart, their guide,
did now put them in mind, saying, This is the place where Christian
met with one Turn-away, who carried with him the character of
his rebellion at his back. And this I have to say concerning this
man; he would hearken to no counsel, but once falling, persuasion
could not stop him.

When he came to the place where the Cross and the Sepulchre were,
he did meet with one that did bid him look there, but he gnashed
with his teeth, and stamped, and said, he was resolved to go back
to his own town. Before he came to the gate, he met with Evangelist,
who offered to lay hands on him, to turn him into the way again.
But this Turn-away resisted him, and having done much despite
unto him, he got away over the wall, and so escaped his hand (Heb.

Then they went on; and just at the place where Little-faith formerly
was robbed, there stood a man with his sword drawn, and his face
all bloody. Then said Mr. Great-heart, What art thou? The man made
answer, saying, I am one whose name is Valiant-for-truth. I am a
pilgrim, and am going to the Celestial City. Now, as I was in my
way, there were three men did beset me, and propounded unto me
these three things: 1. Whether I would become one of them. 2. Or
go back from whence I came. 3. Or die upon the place.[282] To
the first, I answered, I had been a true man a long season, and
therefore it could not be expected that I now should cast in my
lot with thieves (Prov. 1:10-14). Then they demanded what I would
say to the second. So I told them that the place from whence I
came, had I not found incommodity there, I had not forsaken it at
all; but finding it altogether unsuitable to me, and very unprofitable
for me, I forsook it for this way. Then they asked me what I said
to the third. And I told them, My life cost more dear far, than
that I should lightly give it away. Besides, you have nothing to
do thus to put things to my choice; wherefore, at your peril be it,
if you meddle. Then these three, to wit, Wild-head, Inconsiderate,
and Pragmatic, drew upon me, and I also drew upon them.

So we fell to it, one against three, for the space of above three
hours. They have left upon me, as you see, some of the marks of
their valour, and have also carried away with them some of mine.
They are but just now gone. I suppose they might, as the saying
is, heard your horse dash, and so they betook them to flight.

GREAT-HEART. But here was great odds, three against one.

VALIANT. It is true; but little or more are nothing to him that
has the truth on his side. 'Though an host should encamp against
me,' said one, 'my heart shall not fear; though war should rise
against me, in this will I be confident' (Psa. 27:3). Besides,
saith he, I have read in some records, that one man has fought
an army. And how many did Samson slay with the jaw-bone of an
ass?[283] (Judg. 15:15, 16).

GREAT-HEART. Then said the guide, Why did you not cry out, that
some might have come in for your succour?

VALIANT. So I did, to my King, who, I knew, could hear, and afford
invisible help, and that was sufficient for me.

GREAT-HEART. Then said Great-heart to Mr. Valiant-for-truth, Thou
hast worthily behaved thyself. Let me see thy sword. So he showed
it him. When he had taken it in his hand, and looked thereon a
while, he said, Ha! it is a right Jerusalem blade (Isa. 2:3).

VALIANT. It is so. Let a man have one of these blades, with a hand
to wield it and skill to use it, and he may venture upon an angel
with it. He need not fear its holding, if he can but tell how to
lay on. Its edges will never blunt. It will cut flesh and bones,
and soul and spirit, and all (Eph. 6:12-17; Heb. 4:12).

GREAT-HEART. But you fought a great while; I wonder you was not

VALIANT. I fought till my sword did cleave to my hand; and when
they were joined together, as if a sword grew out of my arm, and
when the blood ran through my fingers, then I fought with most
courage[284] (2 Sam. 23:10).

GREAT-HEART. Thou hast done well. Thou hast 'resisted unto blood,
striving against sin.' Thou shalt abide by us, come in and go out
with us, for we are thy companions.

Then they took him, and washed his wounds, and gave him of what
they had to refresh him; and so they went on together. Now, as
they went on, because Mr. Great-heart was delighted in him, for
he loved one greatly that he found to be a man of his hands, and
because there were with his company them that were feeble and weak,
therefore he questioned with him about many things; as, first,
what countryman he was?[285]

VALIANT. I am of Dark-land; for there I was born, and there my
father and mother are still.

GREAT-HEART. Dark-land, said the guide; doth not that lie up on
the same coast with the City of Destruction?

VALIANT. Yes, it doth. Now, that which caused me to come on
pilgrimage was this; we had one Mr. Tell-true came into our parts,
and he told it about what Christian had done, that went from the
City of Destruction; namely, how he had forsaken his wife and
children, and had betaken himself to a pilgrim's life. It was also
confidently reported, how he had killed a serpent that did come out
to resist him in his journey, and how he got through to whither he
intended. It was also told, what welcome he had at all his Lord's
lodgings, especially when he came to the gates of the Celestial City;
for there, said the man, he was received with sound of trumpet,
by a company of Shining Ones. He told it also, how all the bells
in the city did ring for joy at his reception, and what golden
garments he was clothed with, with many other things that now I
shall forbear to relate. In a word, that man so told the story of
Christian and his travels, that my heart fell into a burning haste
to be gone after him; nor could father or mother stay me! So I got
from them, and am come thus far on my way.

GREAT-HEART. You came in at the gate, did you not?

VALIANT. Yes, yes; for the same man also told us that all would
be nothing, if we did not begin to enter this way at the gate.[286]

GREAT-HEART. Look you, said the guide to Christiana, the pilgrimage
of your husband, and what he has gotten thereby, is spread abroad
far and near.

VALIANT. Why, is this Christian's wife?

GREAT-HEART. Yes, that it is; and these are also her four sons.

VALIANT. What! and going on pilgrimage too?

GREAT-HEART. Yes, verily; they are following after.

VALIANT. It glads me at heart. Good man! how joyful will he be when
he shall see them that would not go with him, yet to enter after
him in at the gates into the City!

GREAT-HEART. Without doubt it will be a comfort to him; for, next
to the joy of seeing himself there, it will be a joy to meet there
his wife and children.

VALIANT. But, now you are upon that, pray let me hear your opinion
about it. Some make a question, Whether we shall know one another
when we are there.

GREAT-HEART. Do they think they shall know themselves then, or
that they shall rejoice to see themselves in that bliss? and if
they think they shall know and do these, why not know others, and
rejoice in their welfare also?[287]

Again, since relations are our second self, though that state will
be dissolved there; yet why may it not be rationally concluded,
that we shall be more glad to see them there, than to see they
are wanting?

VALIANT. Well, I perceive whereabouts you are as to this. Have you
any more things to ask me about my beginning to come on pilgrimage?[288]

GREAT-HEART, Yes. Was your father and mother willing that you
should become a pilgrim?

VALIANT. O no! They used all means imaginable to persuade me to
stay at home.

GREAT-HEART, What could they say against it?

VALIANT. They said it was an idle life; and if I myself were
not inclined to sloth and laziness, I would never countenance a
pilgrim's condition.[289]

GREAT-HEART. And what did they say else?

VALIANT. Why, they told me that it was a dangerous way; yea, the
most dangerous way in the world, said they, is that which the
pilgrims go.

GREAT-HEART. Did they show wherein this way is so dangerous?

VALIANT. Yes; and that in many particulars.

GREAT-HEART. Name some of them.

VALIANT. They told me of the Slough of Despond, where Christian
was well nigh smothered. They told me that there were archers
standing ready in Beelzebub Castle, to shoot them that should
knock at the wicket-gate for entrance. They told me also of the
wood, and dark mountains; of the Hill Difficulty; of the lions; and
also of the three giants, Bloody-man, Maul, and Slay-good. They
said, moreover, that there was a foul fiend haunted the Valley of
Humiliation, and that Christian was by him almost bereft of life.
Besides, said they, you must go over the Valley of the Shadow
of Death, where the hobgoblins are; where the light is darkness;
where the way is full of snares, pits, traps, and gins. They told
me also of Giant Despair, of Doubting Castle, and of the ruin that
the Pilgrims met with there. Further they said I must go over the
Enchanted Ground: which was dangerous. And that, after all this, I
should find a river, over which I should find no bridge, and that
that river did be betwixt me and the Celestial Country.

GREAT-HEART. And was this all?

VALIANT. No. They also told me that this way was full of deceivers,[290]
and of persons that laid in wait there to turn good men out of
the path.

GREAT-HEART. But how did they make that out?

VALIANT. They told me that Mr. Worldly-wiseman did there lie in
wait to deceive. They also said, that there was Formality and
Hypocrisy continually on the road. They said also that By-ends,
Talkative, or Demas would go near to gather me up; that the Flatterer
would catch me in his net; or that, with green-headed Ignorance,
I would presume to go on to the gate, from whence he always was
sent back to the hole that was in the side of the hill, and made
to go the by-way to hell.

GREAT-HEART. I promise you this was enough to discourage; but did
they make an end here?

VALIANT. No; stay. They told me also of many that had tried that
way of old, and that had gone a great way therein, to see if they
could find something of the glory there, that so many had so much
talked of from time to time; and how they came back again, and
befooled themselves for setting a foot out of doors in that path,
to the satisfaction of all the country. And they named several
that did so; as Obstinate and Pliable, Mistrust and Timorous,
Turn-away and old Atheist, with several more, who, they said, had
some of them, gone far to see if they could find; but not one of
them found so much advantage by going as amounted to the weight
of a feather.[291]

GREAT-HEART. Said they anything more to discourage you?

VALIANT. Yes. They told me of one Mr. Fearing who was a pilgrim;
and how he found this way so solitary, that he never had comfortable
hour therein. Also that Mr. Despondency had like to have been
starved therein; yea, and also, which I had almost forgot, that
Christian himself, about whom there has been such a noise, after
all his ventures for a celestial crown, was certainly drowned in
the Black River, and never went foot further, however it was
smothered up.[292]

GREAT-HEART. And did none of these things discourage you?

VALIANT. No; they seemed but as so many nothings to me.

GREAT-HEART. How came that about?

VALIANT. Why, I still believed what Mr. Tell-true had said, and
that carried me beyond them all.

GREAT-HEART. Then this was your victory, even your faith.

VALIANT. It was so. I believed, by the grace of God, and therefore
came out, got into the way, fought all that set themselves against
me, and, by believing, am come to this place.[293]

Who would true valour see,
Let him come hither;
One here will constant be,
Come wind, come weather.
There's no discouragement
Shall make him once relent,
His first avow'd intent
To be a pilgrim.

Who so beset him round
With dismal stories,
Do but themselves confound.
His strength the more is;
No lion can him fright,
He'll with a giant fight;
But he will have a right
To be a pilgrim.

Hobgoblin nor foul fiend
Can daunt his spirit;
He knows he at the end
Shall life inherit.
Then fancies fly away,
He'll fear not what men say;
He'll labour night and day
To be a pilgrim.

By this time they were got to the Enchanted Ground,[294] where the
air naturally tended to make one drowsy; and that place was all
grown over with briars and thorns, excepting here and there, where
was an Enchanted Arbour, upon which if a man sits, or in which, if
a man sleeps, it is a question, say some, whether ever he shall
rise or wake again in this world.[295] Over this forest, therefore,
they went, both one and the other, and Mr. Great-heart went before,
for that he was the guide; and Mr. Valiant-for-truth, he came
behind, being there a guard, for fear, lest peradventure some
fiend, or dragon, or giant, or thief, should fall upon their rear,
and so do mischief. They went on here, each man with his sword
drawn in his hand, for they knew it was a dangerous place. Also
they cheered up one another as well as they could; Feeble-mind,
Mr. Great-heart commanded, should come up after him, and Mr.
Despondency was under the eye of Mr. Valiant.[296]

Now they had not gone far, but a great mist and darkness fell upon
them all, so that they could scarce, for a great while, see the one
the other; wherefore they were forced, for some time, to feel for
one another by words; for they walked not by sight.

But anyone must think that here was but sorry going for the best
of them all; but how much worse for the women and children, who
both of feet and heart, were but tender. Yet so it was, that through
the encouraging words of he that led in the front, and of him that
brought them up behind, they made a pretty good shift to wag along.

The way also was here very wearisome, through dirt and slabbiness.
Nor was there on all this ground so much as one inn, or victualling
house, therein to refresh the feebler sort. Here, therefore, was
grunting, and puffing, and sighing. While one tumbleth over a bush,
another sticks fast in the dirt; and the children, some of them,
lost their shoes in the mire. While one cries out, I am down; and
another, Ho! where are you? and a third, The bushes have got such
fast hold on me, I think I cannot get away from them.

Then they came at an arbour, warm, and promising much refreshing
to the Pilgrims; for it was finely wrought above the head, beautified
with greens, furnished with benches and settles.[297] It also had
in it a soft couch, whereon the weary might lean. This, you must
think, all things considered, was tempting; for the Pilgrims
already began to be foiled with the badness of the way; but there
was not one of them that made so much as a motion to stop there.
Yea, for aught I could perceive, they continually gave so good
heed to the advice of their guide, and he did so faithfully tell
them of dangers, and of the nature of dangers, when they were at
them, that usually, when they were nearest to them, they did most
pluck up their spirits, and hearten one another to deny the flesh.
This arbour was called The Slothful's Friend, on purpose to allure,
if it might be, some of the pilgrims there to take up their rest
when weary.

I saw then in my dream, that they went on in this their solitary
ground, till they came to a place at which a man is apt to lose
his way.[298] Now, though when it was light, their guide could
well enough tell how to miss those ways that led wrong, yet in the
dark he was put to a stand; but he had in his pocket a map of all
ways leading to, or from the Celestial City; wherefore he struck
a light, for he never goes also without his tinder-box, and takes
a view of his book or map, which bids him be careful, in that
place, to turn to the right-hand way. And had he not here been
careful to look in his map, they had all, in probability, been
smothered in the mud; for, just a little before them, and that at
the end of the cleanest way too, was a pit, none knows how deep,
full of nothing but mud, there made on purpose to destroy the
Pilgrims in.[299]

Then thought I with myself, who that goeth on pilgrimage, but would
have one of these maps about him, that he may look when he is at
a stand, which is the way he must take.[300]

They went on, then, in this Enchanted Ground, till they came to
where there was another arbour, and it was built by the highway-side.
And in that arbour there lay two men, whose names were Heedless
and Too-bold.[301] These two went thus far on pilgrimage; but here,
being wearied with their journey, they sat down to rest themselves,
and so fell fast asleep. When the Pilgrims saw them, they stood
still, and shook their heads; for they knew that the sleepers were
in a pitiful case. Then they consulted what to do, whether to go
on and leave them in their sleep, or to step to them, and try to
awake them. So they concluded to go to them, and awake them; that
is, if they could; but with this caution, namely, to take heed
that themselves did not sit down nor embrace the offered benefit
of that arbour.

So they went in, and spake to the men, and called each by his
name,[302] for the guide, it seems, did know them; but there was
no voice nor answer. Then the guide did shake them, and do what
he could to disturb them. Then said one of them, I will pay you
when I take my money. At which the guide shook his head. I will
fight so long as I can hold my sword in my hand, said the other.
At that one of the children laughed.

Then said Christiana, What is the meaning of this? The guide said,
They talk in their sleep. If you strike them, beat them, or whatever
else you do to them, they will answer you after this fashion; or,
as one of them said in old time, when the waves of the sea did
beat upon him, and he slept as one upon the mast of a ship, 'When
shall I awake? I will seek it yet again' (Prov. 23:34, 35). You
know, when men talk in their sleep, they say anything, but their
words are not governed either by faith or reason. There is an
incoherency in their words now, as there was before, betwixt their
going on pilgrimage, and sitting down here.[303] This, then, is
the mischief of it, when heedless ones go on pilgrimage, it is
twenty to one but they are served thus; for this Enchanted Ground
is one of the last refuges that the enemy to pilgrims has. Wherefore
it is, as you see, placed almost at the end of the way, and so
it standeth against us with the more advantage. For when, thinks
the enemy, will these fools be so desirous to sit down, as when
they are weary? and when so like to be weary, as when almost at
their journey's end? Therefore it is, I say, that the Enchanted
Ground is placed so nigh to the Land Beulah, and so near the end
of their race.[304] Wherefore, let pilgrims look to themselves,
lest it happen to them as it has done to these, that, as you see,
are fallen asleep, and none can wake them.[305]

Then the Pilgrims desired, with trembling, to go forward; only they
prayed their guide to strike a light, that they might go the rest
of their way by the help of the light, of a lantern.[306] So he
struck a light, and they went by the help of that through the rest
of this way, though the darkness was very great (2 Peter 1:19).

But the children began to be sorely weary; and they cried out unto
Him that loveth pilgrims, to make their way more comfortable. So
by that they had gone a little further, a wind arose, that drove
away the fog; so the air became more clear.

Yet they were not off, by much, of the Enchanted Ground, only now
they could see one another better, and the way wherein they should

Now, when they were almost at the end of this ground, they perceived
that, a little before them, was a solemn noise of one that was
much concerned. So they went on and looked before them; and behold,
they saw, as they thought, a man upon his knees, with hands and
eyes lift up, and speaking, as they thought, earnestly to One that
was above.[307] They drew nigh, but could not tell what he said.
So they went softly till he had done. When he had done, he got up,
and began to run towards the Celestial City. Then Mr. Great-heart
called after him, saying, Soho! friend, let us have your company,
if you go, as I suppose you do, to the Celestial City. So the man
stopped, and they came up to him. But so soon as Mr. Honest saw
him, he said, I know this man. Then said Mr. Valiant-for-truth,
Prithee, who is it? It is one, said he, who comes from whereabouts I
dwelt. His name is Stand-fast; he is certainly a right good pilgrim.

So they came up one to another; and presently Stand-fast said to
old Honest, Ho, father Honest, are you there? Aye, said he, that I
am, as sure as you are there. Right glad am I, said Mr. Stand-fast,
that I have found you on this road. And as glad am I, said the
other, that I espied you upon your knees. Then Mr. Stand-fast
blushed, and said, But why, did you see me? Yes, that I did, quoth
the other, and with my heart was glad at the sight. Why, what did
you think? said Stand-fast. Think! said old Honest, what should I
think? I thought we had an honest man upon the road, and therefore
should have his company by and by. If you thought not amiss [said
Stand-fast], how happy am I; but if I be not as I should, I alone
must bear it. That is true, said the other; but your fear doth
further confirm me, that things are right betwixt the Prince of
Pilgrims and your soul; for, saith he, 'Blessed is the man that
feareth always.'

VALIANT. Well, but brother, I pray thee tell us what was it that
was the cause of thy being upon thy knees even now? Was it for
that some special mercies laid obligations upon thee, or how?

STAND-FAST. Why, we are, as you see, upon the Enchanted Ground;
and as I was coming along, I was musing with myself of what a
dangerous road the road in this place was, and how many that had
come even thus far on pilgrimage had here been stopped, and been
destroyed. I thought also of the manner of the death with which
this place destroyeth men. Those that die here, die of no violent
distemper. The death which such die is not grievous to them; for
he that goeth away in a sleep, begins that journey with desire
and pleasure; yea, such acquiesce in the will of that disease.

HON. Then Mr. Honest, interrupting of him, said, Did you see the
two men asleep in the arbour?

STAND-FAST. Aye, aye, I saw Heedless and Too-bold there; and, for
aught I know, there they will lie till they rot (Prov. 10:7). But
let me go on in my tale. As I was thus musing, as I said, there
was one, in very pleasant attire, but old, who presented herself
unto me, and offered me three things; to wit, her body, her purse,
and her bed. Now, the truth is, I was both a-weary and sleepy;
I am also as poor as an owlet,[308] and that, perhaps, the witch
knew. Well, I repulsed her once and twice, but she put by my
repulses, and smiled. Then I began to be angry; but she mattered
that nothing at all. Then she made offers again, and said, If I
would be ruled by her, she would make me great and happy; for, said
she, I am the mistress of the world, and men are made happy by me.
Then I asked her name, and she told me it was Madam Bubble.[309]
This set me further from her; but she still followed me with
enticements. Then I betook me as you saw, to my knees; and with
hands lift up, and cries, I prayed to Him that had said He would
help.[310] So, just as you came up, the gentlewoman went her way.
Then I continued to give thanks for this my great deliverance; for
I verily believe she intended no good, but rather sought to make
stop of me in my journey.[311]

HON. Without doubt her designs were bad. But stay, now you talk
of her, methinks I either have seen her, or have read some story
of her.

STAND-FAST. Perhaps you have done both.

HON. Madam Bubble! is she not a tall, comely dame, something of
a swarthy complexion?

STAND-FAST. Right, you hit it, she is just such a one.

HON. Doth she not speak very smoothly, and give you a smile at the
end of a sentence?

STAND-FAST. You fall right upon it again, for these are her very

HON. Doth she not wear a great purse by her side; and is not her
hand often in it, fingering her money, as if that was her heart's

STAND-FAST. It is just so; had she stood by all this while, you
could not more amply have set her forth before me, nor have better
described her features.

HON. Then he that drew her picture was a good limner, and he that
wrote of her said true.[312]

GREAT-HEART. This woman is a witch, and it is by virtue of her
sorceries that this ground is enchanted. Whoever doth lay their
head down in her lap, had as good lay it down upon that block
over which the axe doth hang; and whoever lay their eyes upon her
beauty, are counted the enemies of God (James 4:4; 1 John 2:15).
This is she that maintaineth in their splendour all those that are
the enemies of pilgrims. Yea, this is she that hath bought off
many a man from a pilgrim's life. She is a great gossipper; she
is always, both she and her daughters, at one pilgrim's heels or
another, now commending, and then preferring the excellencies of
this life. She is a bold and impudent slut; she will talk with
any man. She always laugheth poor pilgrims to scorn; but highly
commends the rich. If there be one cunning to get money in a
place, she will speak well of him from house to house; she loveth
banqueting and feasting mainly well; she is always at one full
table or another. She has given it out in some places, that she
is a goddess, and therefore some do worship her. She has her times
and open places of cheating; and she will say and avow it, that
none can show a good comparable to hers. She promiseth to dwell
with children's children, if they will but love and make much of
her. She will cast out of her purse gold like dust, in some places,
and to some persons. She loves to be sought after, spoken well of,
and to lie in the bosoms of men. She is never weary of commending
her commodities, and she loves them most that think best of her.
She will promise to some crowns and kingdoms, if they will but
take her advice; yet many hath she brought to the halter, and ten
thousand times more to hell.

STAND-FAST. O, said Stand-fast, what a mercy is it that I did
resist! for whither might she have drawn me!

GREAT-HEART. Whither! nay, none but God knows whither. But, in
general, to be sure, she would have drawn thee into 'many foolish
and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition'--(1
Tim. 6:9).

It was she that set Absalom against his father, and Jeroboam against
his master. It was she that persuaded Judas to sell his Lord, and
that prevailed with Demas to forsake the godly pilgrims' life;
none can tell of the mischief that she doth. She makes variance
betwixt rulers and subjects, betwixt parents and children, betwixt
neighbour and neighbour, betwixt a man and his wife, betwixt a man
and himself, betwixt the flesh and the heart.

Wherefore, good Master Stand-fast, be as your name is, and 'when
you have done all, Stand.'[313]

At this discourse there was, among the Pilgrims, a mixture of joy
and trembling; but at length they brake out, and sang--

What danger is the pilgrim in!
How many are his foes!
How many ways there are to sin
No living mortal knows.
Some of the ditch shy are, yet can
Lie tumbling in the mire;
Some, though they shun the frying-pan,
Do leap into the fire.

After this, I beheld until they were come unto the Land of Beulah,
where the sun shineth night and day.[314] Here, because they were
weary, they betook themselves a while to rest; and, because this
country was common for pilgrims, and because the orchards and
vineyards that were here belonged to the King of the Celestial
country, therefore they were licensed to make bold with any of His
things. But a little while soon refreshed them here; for the bells
did so ring, and the trumpets continually sound so melodiously,
that they could not sleep; and yet they received as much refreshing,
as if they had slept their sleep ever so soundly. Here also all
the noise of them that walked in the streets, was, More pilgrims
are come to town. And another would answer, saying, And so many
went over the water, and were let in at the golden gates today.
They would cry again, There is now a legion of Shining Ones just
come to town, by which we know that there are more pilgrims upon
the road; for here they come to wait for them, and to comfort
them after all their sorrow. Then the Pilgrims got up, and walked
to and fro; but how were their ears now filled with heavenly
noises, and their eyes delighted with celestial visions! In this
land they heard nothing, saw nothing, felt nothing, smelled nothing,
tasted nothing, that was offensive to their stomach or mind; only
when they tasted of the water of the river over which they were
to go, they thought that tasted a little bitterish to the palate,
but it proved sweeter when it was down.

In this place there was a record kept of the names of them that had
been pilgrims of old, and a history of all the famous acts that
they had done. It was here also much discoursed how the river to
some had had its flowings, and what ebbings it has had while others
have gone over. It has been in a manner dry for some, while it
has overflowed its banks for others.

In this place the children of the town would go into the King's
gardens, and gather nosegays for the Pilgrims, and bring them to them
with much affection. Here also grew camphire, with spikenard, and
saffron, calamus, and cinnamon, with all its trees of frankincense,
myrrh, and aloes, with all chief spices. With these the Pilgrims'
chambers were perfumed, while they staid here; and with these were
their bodies anointed, to prepare them to go over the river when
the time appointed was come.

Now, while they lay here, and waited for the good hour, there was
a noise in the town, that there was a post come from the Celestial
City, with matter of great importance to one Christiana, the wife
of Christian the Pilgrim. So inquiry was made for her, and the
house was found out where she was; so the post presented her with
a letter; the contents whereof were, 'Hail, good woman! I bring
thee tidings that the Master calleth for thee, and expecteth that
thou shouldest stand in His presence, in clothes of immortality,
within these ten days.'

When he had read this letter to her, he gave her therewith a sure
token that he was a true messenger, and was come to bid her make
haste to be gone. The token was, an arrow with a point sharpened
with love, let easily into her heart, which by degrees wrought
so effectually with her, that at the time appointed she must be

When Christiana saw that her time was come, and that she was the
first of this company that was to go over, she called for Mr.
Great-heart her guide, and told him how matters were. So he told
her he was heartily glad of the news, and could have been glad
had the post come for him. Then she bid that he should give advice
how all things should be prepared for her journey. So he told
her, saying, thus and thus it must be; and we that survive will
accompany you to the river side.

Then she called for her children, and gave them her blessing, and
told them, that she yet read with comfort the mark that was set
in their foreheads, and was glad to see them with her there, and
that they had kept their garments so white. Lastly, she bequeathed
to the poor that little she had, and commanded her sons and her
daughters to be ready against the messenger should come for them.
When she had spoken these words to her guide and to her children,
she called for Mr. Valiant-for-truth, and said unto him, Sir, you
have in all places showed yourself truehearted; 'be faithful unto
death,' and my King will give you 'a crown of life.' I would also
entreat you to have an eye to my children; and if at any time
you see them faint, speak comfortably to them. For my daughters,
my sons' wives, they have been faithful, and a fulfilling of the
promise upon them will be their end. But she gave Mr. Stand-fast
a ring. Then she called for old Mr. Honest, and said of him, 'Behold
an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile.' Then said he, I wish
you a fair day, when you set out for Mount Zion, and shall be glad
to see that you go over the river dry-shod. But she answered, Come
wet, come dry, I long to be gone; for, however the weather is in
my journey, I shall have time enough when I come there to sit down
and rest me, and dry me.

Then came in that good man Mr. Ready-to-halt, to see her. So she
said to him, Thy travel hither has been with difficulty; but that
will make thy rest the sweeter. But watch and be ready; for at an
hour when you think not, the messenger may come. After him came
in Mr. Despondency, and his daughter Much-afraid, to whom she said,
You ought with thankfulness, forever to remember your deliverance
from the hands of Giant Despair, and out of Doubting Castle. The
effect of that mercy is, that you are brought with safety hither.
Be ye watchful, and cast away fear; 'be sober and hope to the

Then she said to Mr. Feeble-mind, Thou wast delivered from the
mouth of Giant Slay-good, that thou mightest live in the light of
the living forever, and see thy King with comfort; only I advise
thee to repent thee of thine aptness to fear and doubt of His
goodness, before He sends for thee; lest thou shouldest, when He
comes, be forced to stand before Him, for that fault, with blushing.
Now the day drew on, that Christiana must be gone. So the road was
full of people to see her take her journey. But, behold, all the
banks beyond the river were full of horses and chariots, which
were come down from above to accompany her to the city gate. So
she came forth, and entered the river, with a beckon of farewell
to those that followed her to the river side. The last words that
she was heard to say here, were, I come, Lord, to be with Thee,
and bless Thee.[316]

So her children and friends returned to their place, for that those
that waited for Christiana had carried her out of their sight.
So she went and called, and entered in at the gate with all the
ceremonies of joy that her husband Christian had done before her.

At her departure her children wept. But Mr. Great-heart and Mr.
Valiant played upon the well-tuned cymbal and harp for joy. So all
departed to their respective places.[317]

In process of time there came a post to the town again, and his
business was with Mr. Ready-to-halt. So he inquired him out, and
said to him, I am come to thee in the name of Him whom thou hast
loved and followed, though upon crutches; and my message is to
tell thee, that He expects thee at His table to sup with Him, in
His kingdom, the next day after Easter; wherefore prepare thyself
for this journey.[318]

Then he also gave him a token that he was a true messenger, saying,
I have broken thy golden bowl, and loosed thy silver cord (Eccl.

After this, Mr. Ready-to-halt called for his fellow-pilgrims, and
told them, saying, I am sent for, and God shall surely visit you
also. So he desired Mr. Valiant to make his will; and because
he had nothing to bequeath to them that should survive him, but
his crutches, and his good wishes, therefore thus he said, These
crutches I bequeath to my son that shall tread in my steps, with
a hundred warm wishes that he may prove better than I have done.
Then he thanked Mr. Great-heart for his conduct and kindness, and
so addressed himself to his journey. When he came at the brink of
the river, he said, Now I shall have no more need of these crutches,
since yonder are chariots and horses for me to ride on. The last
words he was heard to say was, Welcome life![319] So he went his

After this, Mr. Feeble-mind had tidings brought him, that the post
sounded his horn at his chamber door. Then he came in, and told
him, saying, I am come to tell thee, that thy Master hath need of
thee; and that, in very little time, thou must behold His face in
brightness. And take this as a token of the truth of my message,
'Those that look out of the windows shall be darkened'[320] (Eccl.

Then Mr. Feeble-mind called for his friends, and told them what
errand had been brought unto him, and what token he had received
of the truth of the message. Then he said, Since I have nothing
to bequeath to any, to what purpose should I make a will As for
my feeble mind, that I will leave behind me, for that I have no
need of that in the place whither I go. Nor is it worth bestowing
upon the poorest pilgrim; wherefore, when I am gone, I desire that
you, Mr. Valiant, would bury it in a dunghill. This done, and the
day being come in which he was to depart, he entered the river as
the rest. His last words were, Hold out, faith and patience. So
he went over to the other side.

When days had many of them passed away, Mr. Despondency was sent
for; for a post was come, and brought this message to him: Trembling
man, these are to summon thee to be ready with thy King by the
next Lord's Day, to shout for joy for thy deliverance from all
thy doubtings.

And, said the messenger, that my message is true, take this for
a proof; so he gave him the grasshopper to be a burden unto him
(Eccl. 12:5). Now, Mr. Despondency's daughter, whose name was
Much-afraid, said, when she heard what was done, that she would go
with her, father. Then Mr. Despondency said to his friends, Myself
and my daughter, you know what we have been, and how troublesomely we
have behaved ourselves in every company. My will and my daughter's
is, that our desponds and slavish fears be by no man ever received,
from the day of our departure, forever; for I know that after my
death they will offer themselves to others.[321] For, to be plain
with you, they are ghosts the which we entertained when we first
began to be pilgrims, and could never shake them off after; and
they will walk about and seek entertainment of the pilgrims; but,
for our sakes, shut ye the doors upon them.[322]

When the time was come for them to depart, they went to the brink
of the river. The last words of Mr. Despondency were, Farewell
night, welcome day. His daughter went through the river singing,
but none could understand what she said.[323]

Then it came to pass, a while after, that there was a post in the
town that inquired for Mr. Honest. So he came to his house where
he was, and delivered to his hand these lines: Thou art commanded
to be ready against this day sevennight, to present thyself before
thy Lord, at His Father's house. And for a token that my message
is true, 'All thy daughters of music shall he brought low' (Eccl.
12:4). Then Mr. Honest called for his friends, and said unto them,
I die, but shall make no will. As for my honesty, it shall go with
me; let him that comes after be told of this. When the day that
he was to be gone was come, he addressed himself to go over the
river. Now the river at that time overflowed the banks in some places;
but Mr. Honest in his lifetime had spoken to one Good-conscience
to meet him there, the which he also did, and lent him his hand,
and so helped him over. The last words of Mr. Honest were, Grace
reigns. So he left the world.

After this, it was noised abroad, that Mr. Valiant-for-truth was
taken with a summons, by the same post as the other; and had this
for a token that the summons was true, 'That his pitcher was broken
at the fountain' (Eccl. 12:6). When he understood it, he called
for his friends, and told them of it. Then, said he, I am going
to my Father's; and though with great difficulty I am got hither,
yet now I do not repent me of all the trouble I have been at to
arrive where I am. My sword I give to him that shall succeed me
in my pilgrimage, and my courage and skill to him that can get it.
My marks and scars I carry with me, to be a witness for me, that
I have fought His battles, who now will be my Rewarder. When the
day that he must go hence was come, many accompanied him to the
river-side, into which as he went, he said, 'Death, where is thy
sting?' And as he went down deeper, he said, 'Grave, where is thy
victory?' So he passed over, and all the trumpets sounded for him
on the other side.[324]

Then there came forth a summons for Mr. Stand-fast--this Mr. Stand-fast
was he that the rest of the Pilgrims found upon his knees in the
Enchanted Ground--for the post brought it him open in his hands.
The contents whereof were, that he must prepare for a change of
life, for his Master was not willing that he should be so far from
Him any longer. At this Mr. Stand-fast was put into a muse. Nay,
said the messenger, you need not doubt of the truth of my message,
for here is a token of the truth thereof: 'Thy wheel is broken at
the cistern' (Eccl. 12:6). Then he called unto him Mr. Great-heart,
who was their guide, and said unto him, Sir, although it was not
my hap to be much in your good company in the days of my pilgrimage;
yet, since the time I knew you, you have been profitable to me.
When I came from home, I left behind me a wife and five small
children; let me entreat you, at your return (for I know that you
will go, and return to your Master's house, in hopes that you may
yet be a conductor to more of the holy pilgrims), that you send
to my family, and let them be acquainted with all that hath, or
shall happen unto me. Tell them, moreover, of my happy arrival to
this place, and of the present [and] late blessed condition that
I am in. Tell them also of Christian, and Christiana his wife, and
how she and her children came after her husband. Tell them also
of what a happy end she made, and whither she is gone. I have a
little or nothing to send to my family, except it be prayers and
tears for them; of which it will suffice if thou acquaint them, if
peradventure they may prevail.

When Mr. Stand-fast had thus set things in order, and the time being
come for him to haste him away, he also went down to the river.
Now there was a great calm at that time in the river; wherefore
Mr. Stand-fast, when he was about half-way in, stood a while and
talked to his companions that had waited upon him thither; and he
said, This river has been a terror to many; yea, the thoughts of
it also have often frightened me. Now, methinks, I stand easy, my
foot is fixed upon that upon which the feet of the priests that
bare the ark of the covenant stood, while Israel went over this
Jordan (Josh. 3:17). The waters, indeed, are to the palate bitter,
and to the stomach cold; yet the thoughts of what I am going to,
and of the conduct that waits for me on the other side, doth lie
as a glowing coal at my heart.

I see myself now at the end of my journey, my toilsome days
are ended. I am going now to see that Head that was crowned with
thorns, and that Face that was spit upon for me.[325]

I have formerly lived by hearsay and faith; but now I go where
I shall live by sight, and shall be with Him in whose company I
delight myself.

I have loved to hear my Lord spoken of; and wherever I have seen
the print of His shoe in the earth, there I have coveted to set my
foot too.

His name has been to me as a civet-box; yea, sweeter than all
perfumes. His voice to me has been most sweet; and His countenance
I have more desired than they that have most desired the light
of the sun. His Word I did use to gather for my food, and for
antidotes against my faintings. 'He has held me, and hath kept me
from mine iniquities; yea, my steps hath He strengthened in His

Now, while he was thus in discourse, his countenance changed, his
strong man bowed under him; and after he had said, Take me, for I
come unto Thee, he ceased to be seen of them.

But glorious it was to see how the open region was filled with
horses and chariots, with trumpeters and pipers, with singers and
players on stringed instruments, to welcome the Pilgrims as they
went up, and followed one another in at the beautiful gate of the

As for Christian's children, the four boys that Christiana brought
with her, with their wives and children, I did not stay where I was
till they were gone over. Also, since I came away, I heard one say
that they were yet alive, and so would be for the increase of the
CHURCH in that place where they were, for a time.[328]

Shall it be my lot to go that way again, I may give those that desire
it an account of what I here am silent about.[329] Meantime, I bid
my reader ADIEU.


[1] In 1683, the year before Bunyan published his Second Part, a
little volume was printed under the same title, by some anonymous
author; for a description of it, see the Introduction (p. 57)--(ED).

[2] While the carnal heart is in a state of such bitter enmity
against the Gospel, it requires wisdom to introduce the subject
of religion; still we have a duty to perform, even if the truth
should prove a savour of death unto death. We must live the Gospel
in the sight of such, and not be daunted from inviting them to
become pilgrims to the Celestial City--(ED).

[3] I went over the Tract House in New York, and was delighted to
see there six steam-presses. During the last year, they printed
17,000 copies of Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress'--(American Scenes,
by Eben. Davies, London, 1849, p. 299).

[4] This poem was written within six years of the first publication of
the First Part. In that short period it had become so wonderfully
popular as to have been extensively circulated in the languages which
the author names, and to have had a large circulation in America.
After another four years, namely in 1688, upwards of 100,00 copies
had been issued in English; and to the present time it has been
steadily increasing in popularity, so that, after 170 years have
elapsed, it is more popular than ever. This is a fact without
parallel in the annals of literature--(ED).

[5] After the author had heard the criticisms of friends and
foes upon the First Part, he adopts this second narrative to be
a key explaining many things which appeared dark in Christian's

[6] This address prepares the reader for a greater variety of
experience and adventures than he meets with in the First Part; all
of which are different: and the behaviour of the several pilgrims,
under their various calamities, are beautifully described. Their
conflicts and their consolations being manifold, convince us that
the exercises of every experienced soul are for the most part
dissimilar, notwithstanding, if they proceed from the operation
of the Spirit, they have the same happy tendency--(Mason). The
Second Part is peculiarly adapted to direct and encourage female
Christians and young persons; and it is hoped will be a blessing to
such--(Burder). Perhaps the Second Part of this pilgrimage comes
nearer to the ordinary experience of the great multitude of Christians
than the First Part; and this may have been Bunyan's intention.
The First Part shows, as in Christian, Faithful, and Hopeful,
the great examples and strong lights of this pilgrimage; it is as
if Paul and Luther were passing over the scene. The Second Part
shows a variety of pilgrims, whose stature and experience are more
on a level with our own. The First Part is more severe, sublime,
inspiring; the Second Part is more soothing and comforting. The
First Part has deep and awful shadows mingled with its light,
terribly instructive, and like warnings from hell and the grave.
The Second Part is more continually and uninterruptedly cheerful,
full of good nature and pleasantry, and showing the pilgrimage in
lights and shades that are common to weaker Christians--(Cheever).

[7] The First Part had been published six years, during which time
Mr. Bunyan had been so fully occupied by his pastoral labours and
frequent preaching in different parts of England, that he had not
been able to accomplish his design of publishing A FEMALE PILGRIM'S
PROGRESS. He was without exception the most popular preacher of
his day--(Ivimey).

[8] The First Part was written in Bedford jail; this is 'about a
mile off the place,' at the village of Elstow, where Mr. Bunyan
resided, and where his house is still standing--a very humble
cottage, and an object of curiosity, as is also the very ancient
church and tower. The tower answers to the description of the
'steeple-house' in which Mr. Bunyan was engaged in ringing the
bells. 'The main beam that lay overthwart the steeple from side
to side,' and under which he stood lest 'one of the bells should
fall and kill him,' presents exactly that appearance---(Ivimey).

[9] This is quite natural, and very common. The men of this world
will canonize those for saints, when dead, whom they stigmatized
with the vilest names when living. Besides many others I could
mention, this I have peculiarly remarked in respect to that man of
God, that faithful minister of Christ, the late Rev. Mr. Whitefield.
Scarce anyone went through more public reproach than he did; yet
how often have I been amazed to hear persons who held him, his
character and conduct, in the vilest contempt when living, who,
now he is dead, speak in the most respectful manner of him! O let
us leave our characters to Him who died for our sins, and to whom
we can commit our souls--(Mason). 'The memory of the just is
blessed.' All men's minds water at a pilgrim's gains, while they
are resolved never to run a pilgrim's hazards. O let me die his
death! all nature cries: Then live his life--all nature falters

[10] These words were introduced after the author's decease. Not
being able to discover by what authority they were added, I have
put them within brackets--(ED).

[11] What a thunderbolt is this! Reader, have you ever spoken
harshly to, or persecuted, a child of God--a poor penitent sinner?
Hear the Word of the Judge of all the earth--'Inasmuch as ye have
done it to the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto
Me.'--(ED). Read this and tremble, ye who speak evil of those
things which ye know not--(J. B.).

[12] Mark this well. No matter what profession we make, if the love
of Christ be not its foundation, all is nothing without this love.
It is this love in the heart that, like oil in the lamp, keeps the
profession of Christ burning bright. The more this love is felt,
the more ardent the fire of zeal burns, and the more steadily we
shall follow on to know the Lord; and never leave off nor give
over, till we see and enjoy the Lord in His kingdom--(Mason).

[13] It is not improbable that Mr. Bunyan had an eye to his own
wife and four children, and that these were the leading characters
in this religious drama; and also that the history of Christians
of his acquaintance furnished the other personages--(Ivimey). The
Editor differs in this opinion, believing that all the experience
narrated in the 'Pilgrim's Progress' is drawn from the Sacred
Scriptures, and which fits it for every age of the church, to
the final consummation of all things. Others have agreed with Mr.
Ivimey. Reader, you must form your own opinion--(ED).

[14] Though moral suasion, and all the affectionate arguments from
a tender husband, or an affectionate parent, may prove ineffectual
for the present; yet, when the Lord works by His mighty power,
then only they prove effectual to saving purposes. Then let us
not neglect our duty, but be earnest in it, and leave the event
to sovereign grace--(Mason).

[15] Those who cruelly and unkindly treat their godly relations and
friends on account of their religion, must come to feel it in the
bitterness of their spirit, and groan in the sorrow of their soul,
if ever the Lord grants them repentance unto life--(Mason).

[16]Happy is that death which brings the believer to Heaven, and
the surviving relatives to Christ; which opens the gate of glory
to one, and the door of conversion to the other--(Barder).

[17]Is it any marvel, that a quickened enlightened sinner should be
judged by those around him, who are yet dead in their sins, to Be
full of whims and melancholy? No! it is very natural for them to
think us fools and mad; but we know that they really are so--(Mason).

[18] One of God's ends in instituting marriage is, that, under
a figure, Christ and His church should be set forth. There is a
sweet scent wrapped up in that relation. Be such a husband to thy
believing wife, that she may say, God hath given to me a husband
that preacheth Christ's carriage to the church every day.--If thy
wife be unbelieving, thou hast a duty to perform under a double
obligation; for she is liable every moment to eternal ruin. O how
little sense of the worth of souls is there in the hearts of some
husbands! This is manifest by their unchristian carriage to and
before their wives.--Wives also should be discreet, chaste, keepers
at home, good, obedient to their own husbands. Why? Because,
otherwise, the Word of God will he blasphemed (Titus 2:5). Take
heed of an idling, talking, wrangling tongue. It is odious in maids
or wives to be like parrots, not bridling the tongue. It is unseemly
to see a woman, as much as once in her lifetime, to offer to over-top
her husband. I do not intend that women should he slaves by this
subjection: 'Let every man love his wife as himself and the wife
see that she reverence her husband' (Eph. 5:33). Abigail would
not speak a word to her churlish husband until he was in a sober
temper, and his wine gone out of him--(Bunyan's Christian Behaviour,
vol. 2, pp. 558-561).

[19] This is the first cry of an awakened sinner--mercy for the
lost and miserable; and no sooner are the sinner's eyes opened
to see his ruined, desperate state, and to cry for mercy, but the
god of this world, who hitherto had blinded the eyes, and kept the
heart securely by presumption, now opposes the sinner's progress
to a Throne of Grace, to a God of mercy, and to the Saviour of
the lost. Satan does not easily part with his prey. But Jesus, the
strong man, armed with almighty power and everlasting love, will
conquer and cast him out. That is the sinner's mercy, or none
could ever be saved--(Mason).

[20] The mind, during sleep, is often occupied with those subjects
that have most deeply engaged the waking thoughts; and it sometimes
pleases God to make use of ideas thus suggested, to influence
the conduct by exciting fears or hopes. But if we attempt to draw
conclusions on doctrines, or to discover hidden things by them,
it becomes a dangerous species of enthusiasm--(Scott). There
is no just reason to doubt that God still employs dreams for the
conversion of sinners. 'In a dream, in a vision of the night, when
deep sleep falleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed; then
He openeth the ears of men, and sealeth their instruction' (Job
33:15, 16)--(Ivimey). Dreams are sometimes of use to warn and
encourage a Christian, and seem to be really 'from God'; but great
caution is necessary, lest they mislead us, as they do weak and
enthusiastic persons. They must never Be depended on as the ground
of hope, or the test of our state; nothing must be put in the place
of the Word of God--(Burder).

[21] 'The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom' (Psa.
111:10); and 'the secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him'
(Psa. 25:14). The Spirit, the Comforter, never convinces the soul
of sin, but He also revives and comforts the heart with glad
tidings of free and full pardon of sin, through the blood of
the Lamb--(Mason). Probably the name of this visitor was derived
from what was said by the heavenly visitor to Manoah (Judg.
13:18)--(Ivimey). The silent influences of the Holy Spirit are here
personified. The intimations of Secret represent the teachings of
the Holy Spirit, by which the sinner understands the real meaning of
the Sacred Scriptures as to the way of salvation--(Scott, abridged).

[22] 'Rote of heart'; 'rote' is to commit to memory, so as to be able
to repeat fluently, as a wheel runs round, but without attaching
any idea or sense to the words; 'rote of heart' is to do this with
a full understanding of the meaning--(ED).

[23] As the Spirit testifies of Christ, so He leads the soul to
Christ, that He may be the sinner's only hope, righteousness, and

Thus He glorifies Christ--(Mason).
But bring thou with thee a certificate,
To show thou seest thyself most desolate;
Writ by the Master, with repentance seal'd.
--(House of God, vol. 2, p. 580).

[24] Blessed penitence! Christian's children, when he set out in
his pilgrimage, had been liable to Mr. Bunyan's severe remarks in
his valuable book on Christian Behaviour--'I observe a vile spirit
amongst some children, who overlook, or have slighting or scornful
thoughts of their parents. Such an one hath got just the heart
of a dog or a beast, that will bite those that begot them. But my
father is poor, and I am rich, and it will he a hindrance to me
to respect him. I tell thee, thou arguest like an atheist and a
beast, and standest full flat against the Son of God (Mark 7:9-13).
Must a little of the glory of the butterfly make thee not honour
thy father and mother? Little dost thou know how many prayers,
sighs, and tears have been wrung from their hearts on thine
account.'--(Vol. 2, pp. 562, 563)--(ED).

[25] The awakening of a sinner may be effected by very different
means. Lydia's heart was opened through attending to Paul's ministry;
the jailer's, through the alarm produced in his mind by the fear
of disgrace and punishment. Christian was brought to a sense of his
lost condition by reading the Scriptures; Christiana, by reflecting,
after the death of her husband, upon her unkind treatment of him
on account of his religion, the thought of which 'rent the caul
of her heart in sunder'; and the four boys, by the conversation
of their mother with them about their departed father, and about
her having neglected their souls. Religion is a personal concern,
and begins with repentance and sorrow for sin. Children are
not saved by the faith of their parents, but must be individually
brought to feel their own sinfulness, and to confess their own
guilt and danger; nor will a mother's prayers save her children,
unless they heartily unite with her in them--(Ivimey).

[26] Reader, stop and examine. Did ever any of your carnal
acquaintance take knowledge of a difference of your language and
conduct? [Does it stun them?] Or do they still like and approve of
you as well as ever? What reason, then, have you to think yourself a
pilgrim? If the heart be ever so little acquainted with the Lord,
the tongue will discover it, and the carnal and profane will ridicule
and despise you for it--(Mason).

[27] 'Is willing to stay behind.' Mr. Bunyan has strongly intimated,
in this account, that children, very young persons, may be the
subjects of renewing grace, and may experience the power of the
Gospel upon their hearts, producing that faith that is of the
operation of God, and works meet for repentance. This fact is
abundantly confirmed by many living instances of very young persons
knowing the grace of God in truth, and adorning the doctrine of
God our Saviour--(Ivimey).

[28] This was a love-letter, full of the love of Jesus, and the
precious invitations of His loving heart to sinners to come unto
Him as recorded in his blessed Word. Happy sinners, whose eyes
are opened to read it! But this the world calls madness--(Mason).

[29] The observations of the unconverted, when they perceive the
conscience of a poor sinner alarmed for fear of the wrath to come,
are admirably put in Bunyan's Come and Welcome, (vol. 1, p. 278):
'They attribute the change to melancholy--to sitting alone--to
overmuch reading--to going to too many sermons--to too much studying
and musing on what they hear. They conclude that it is for want of
merry company--for want of physic; and they advise them to leave
off reading, going to sermons, the company of sober people, and
to be merry, to go a-gossiping. But, poor ignorant sinner, let
me deal with thee. It seems that thou hast turned counsellor for
Satan. Thou judgest foolishly. Thou art like Elymas the sorcerer,
that sought to turn the deputy from the faith, to pervert the right
ways of the Lord. Take heed, lest some heavy judgment overtake
thee.' Pilgrim, beware of the solemn warnings of God in Deuteronomy
13:6, and Hebrews 10:38--(ED).

[30] Bunyan probably alludes to Proverbs 17:16: 'Wherefore is
there a price in the hand of a fool to get wisdom, seeing he hath
no heart to it?'--(Ivimey).

[31] It is well to be bold in the name of the Lord, and blunt with
those who seek to turn us away from following on to know the Lord;
for nothing less than life and salvation, or death and damnation,
will be the issue of it--(Mason).

[32] The very things which excite the rage and scorn of some
persons, penetrate the hearts of others. Thus the Lord waked one
to differ from another, by preparing the heart to receive the good
seed of Divine truth. Yet everyone willingly chooses the way he
takes, without constraint or hindrance, except his own prevailing

[33] Here we see our Lord's Word verified, 'The one shall be taken,
and the other left' (Matt. 24:41). Mercy is called, and Timorous
left. All, to appearance, seems chance and accident; but sovereign
grace overrules all things. 'All things are of God, who hath
reconciled us to Himself by Jesus Christ' (2 Cor. 5:18)--(Mason).

[34] This tale, by the names, arguments, and discourse introduced
into it, shows what kind of persons despise and revile all those
that fear God, and seek the salvation of their souls. Profligates,
who never studied religion, pass sentence upon the most difficult
controversies without hesitation. Such persons call for our
compassion and prayers even more than our detestation--(Scott).

[35] O how do such carnal wretches sport with their own damnation,
while they despise the precious truths of God, and ridicule His
beloved, chosen, and called people! But as it was in the beginning,
he who was born after the flesh persecuted Him who was born after
the Spirit, so it is now, and will be as long as the seed of the
woman and the seed of the serpent are upon the earth--(Mason). Such
characters are portrayed by the apostle, in his solemn riddle (1
Tim. 5:6)--(Ivimey).

[36] The singular dispensations of Providence, and the strong
impressions made by the Word of God upon some minds, seem to amount
to a special invitation; while others are gradually and gently
brought to embrace the Gospel, and these are sometimes discouraged
lest they have never been truly awakened. They should recollect
that the Lord delighteth in mercy; that Christ will in no wise cast
out any that come to Him; and that they who trust in the mercy of
God, solely through the redemption of His Son, shall assuredly be

[37] Such is the true spirit of real pilgrims, that do not love to
eat their precious morsel alone. They wish others to know Christ,
and to become followers of Him with themselves--(Mason).

[38] Though Christiana clearly knew her calling of God, yet Mercy
did not; therefore she is in doubt about it. Just so it is with
many at their first setting out. Hence they are ready to say--and
I have met with many who have said--that they could even wish to
have had the most violent convictions of sin, and to have been,
as it were, shook over the mouth of hell, that they might have
a greater certainty of their being called of God. But this is
speaking unadvisedly. Better to take the apostle's advice--'Give
all diligence to make your calling sure.'--(Mason).

[39] Here is a precious discovery of a heart divinely instructed.
Mind, here is no looking to anything Mercy was in herself, nor to
anything she could do for herself, for hope. But all is resolved
Reader, can you be content with this? Can you cast all, and rest
all, upon the love of Christ? Then bless His loving name for giving
you a pilgrim's heart--(Mason). Mercy clearly discovered a work
of grace on her heart. She was anxious about her acceptance at
last; she began to pray; she threw herself on the mere mercy of
Christ's heart; and proved 'the bowels of a pilgrim,' by lamenting
the sad condition of her carnal relations--(Burder).

[40] This truth is exemplified in the Holy War--'Now Mr. Desires,
when he saw that he must go on this errand, besought that Mr. Wet-eyes
should go with him to petition the Prince. This Mr. Wet-eyes was a
poor man, a man of a broken spirit, yet one that could speak well
to a petition. Then Mr. Wet-eyes fell on his face to the ground,
and said, O my Lord, I see dirt in my own tears, and filthiness
at the bottom of my prayers; but, I pray Thee, mercifully pass by
the sin of Mansoul.'--(ED).

[41] Perhaps the most delightful portion of the Second Dream of
Bunyan is its sweet representation of the female character. There
never were two more attractive beings drawn than Christiana and
Mercy; as different from each other as Christian and Hopeful, and
yet equally pleasing in their natural traits of character, and
under the influence of Divine grace, each of them reflecting the
light of Heaven in an original and lovely variety. His own conception
of what constitutes a bright example of beauty and consistency of
character in a Christian woman, Bunyan has here given us, as well
as in his First Dream, the model of steadfast excellence in a
Christian man. The delineation, in both Christiana and Mercy, is
eminently beautiful. We have, in these characters, his own ideal
of the domestic virtues, and his own conception of a well-ordered
Christian family's domestic happiness. Wherever he may have formed
his notions of female loveliness and excellence, he has, in the
combination of them in the Second Part of the 'Pilgrim's Progress,'
presented two characters of such winning modesty and grace, such
confiding truth and frankness, such simplicity and artlessness,
such cheerfulness and pleasantness, such native good sense and
Christian discretion, such sincerity, gentleness, and tenderness,
that nothing could be more delightful. The matronly virtues of
Christiana, and the maidenly qualities of Mercy, are alike pleasing
and appropriate. There is a mixture of timidity and frankness in
Mercy, which is as sweet in itself as it is artlessly and unconsciously
drawn; and in Christiana we discover the very characteristics
that can make the most lovely feminine counterpart, suitable to
the stern and lofty qualities of her husband--(Cheever).

[42] Instead of being what they profess, the King's labourers, Paul
calls them soul-troublers (Gal. 5:10). For instead of preaching a
free, full, and finished salvation, bestowed as a free gift, by rich
grace, upon poor sinners who can do nothing to entitle themselves
to it; behold, these wretched daubers set forth salvation to sale
upon certain terms and conditions which sinners are to perform and
fulfil. Thus they distress the upright and sincere, and deceive
the self-righteous and unwary, into pride and delusion. Thus they
mar, instead of mend, the way; and bring dirt and dung, instead
of stones, to make the way sound and safe for pilgrims--(Mason).

[43] 'Looked well to the steps'; that is, 'the promises,' as Bunyan
explains in the margin of Part First. 'Struggling to be rid of our
burden, it only sinks us deeper in the mire, if we do not rest by
faith upon the promises, and so come indeed to Christ. Precious
promises they are, and so free and full of forgiveness and eternal
life, that certainly the moment a dying soul feels its guilt and
misery, that soul may lay hold upon them, and find Christ in them;
and were it not for unbelief, there need be no Slough of Despond for the
soul to struggle, and plunge, in its mire of depravity.'--(Cheever)--(ED).

[44] All the varieties in the experience of those who are walking
in the same path can never he enumerated; some of their sores are
not only unreasonable but unaccountable, through the weakness of
the human mind, the abiding effects of peculiar impressions, the
remains of unbelief, and the artifices of Satan--(Scott).

[45] No sooner does a poor sinner open his lips in prayer to Jesus,
but the devil will bark at him, and by all means try to terrify and
discourage him. Do you find this? What is our remedy? 'Resist the
devil, and he will flee from you. Draw nigh to God, and He will
draw nigh to you' (James 4:7, 8)--(Mason). When the fear of God
possesses the heart, such disturbances cannot long prevent earnest
cries for mercy, but will eventually render them more fervent and
importunate than ever--(Scott).

[46] Think much of them that have gone before; how safe they are
in the bosom of Jesus. Would they be here again for a thousand
worlds? Sometimes when my base heart hath been inclining to
this world, and to loiter in my journey towards Heaven, the very
consideration of the glorious saints and angels--what they enjoy,
what low thoughts they have of the things of this world, how they
would befool me if they did but know that my heart was drawing
back--this hath made me rush forward, and disdain those beggarly
things; and say to my soul, Come, soul, let us not be weary; let
us see what Heaven is; let us venture all for it. Reader, what
sayest thou to this? Art thou resolved to follow me? Nay, resolve
to get before me if thou canst--(Heavenly Footman).

[47] Being made to understand what great sinners the Lord hath had
mercy upon, and how large His promises were still to sinners, this
made me, through the assistance of the Holy Spirit, to cleave to
Him, to hang upon Him, and yet to cry, though as yet there were
no answer. The Lord help all His poor, tempted, afflicted people
to do the like--(Bunyan).

[48] Mercy's case is not singular. Many have set out just as she
did, and have been discouraged by the same reason as she was.
She, as many have been, was encouraged to set out in the ways of
the Lord by her neighbour and friend. Hence she, as many others
also have thought, there was no cause to conclude that she was
effectually called by the Lord, but it was only the effect of moral
persuasion, and therefore doubted and fainted, lest she should not
meet with acceptance. But her very doubts, fears, and distress,
proved the earnestness of her heart, and the desire of her soul,
after the Saviour; and also that His attracting love and gracious
power had a hand in the work. Well therefore might Bunyan call
upon his readers to mark her gracious reception by Christ. Mark
this, ye poor, doubting, fearing, trembling souls, who are halting
every step, and fearing you have not set out aright, hear what
Christ's angel said, and be not discouraged: 'Fear not ye, for I
know that ye seek Jesus!'--(Matt. 28:5)--(Mason).

[49] The prisoners taken in the Holy War were affected like Mercy.
'Why did you not cry to Me before, said the Prince, yet I will
answer you so as will be for My glory. At this Mr. Wet-eyes gave
a great sigh, and death seemed to sit on their eye-brows; they
covered their faces, and threw themselves down before Him. Then
the Prince bid them stand upon their feet, and said, I have power
to forgive, and I do forgive. Moreover, He stripped the prisoners
of their mourning-weeds, and gave them beauty for ashes.'--(ED).

[50] Pardon by word seems to denote the general discovery of free
salvation by Jesus Christ to all that believe, which is sealed by
transient comforts and lively affections. Pardon by deed may relate
to the manner in which the blessing was purchased by the Saviour;
and when this is clearly understood, the believer attains to stable
peace and hope--(Scott).

[51] The devil often barks most at us, and brings his heaviest
accusations against us, when mercy, peace, comfort, and salvation
are nearest to us.

'Press on, nor fear to win the day,
Though earth and hell obstruct the way'--(Mason).

[52] Many hellish darts are tipped by Apollyon's malignant ingenuity
with sentences of Scripture, made to flame just like the fiery
darts of the wicked one; so that the Scriptures appear to stand
against the trembling Christian--(ED).

[53] Here is genuine humility; no replying against God--no calling
in question His sovereign right to receive or to reject. No; all
that this poor humble heart thought was, now is fulfilled what is
written, 'One shall be taken and the other left.' If so, what had
she to say? No impeachment of the Lord's dealings, but only, I am
undone. But yet, on seeing what was written over the gate, 'Knock,
and it shall be opened,' from that, and not from any sight
of worthiness in herself, but lost as she felt herself, she was
encouraged to knock again, or to cry and pray more vehemently
than ever. Here is a blessed example of deep humility, and of holy
boldness, excited by the Divine Word. Go thou, ruined sinner, and
do likewise--(Mason).

[54] The express words of such invitations, exhortations, and
promises, WRITTEN in the Bible, are more efficacious to encourage
those who are ready to give up their hopes, than all the consolatory
topics that can possibly he substituted in their place--(Scott).

[55] When a mariner enters upon a voyage, or a soldier on
a campaign, they know not what hardships they may encounter, nor
whether their lives may be sacrificed without attaining their
object; but whatever hardships the Christian has to encounter,
he will come off more than conqueror--he will reach the desired
haven in safety--through Him that loved us. Fear not--'Though
death and hell obstruct the way, The meanest saint shall win the

[56] Strive to enter in; a whole Heaven and eternal life is wrapped
up in this little word IN. Strive; this calls for the mind and
heart. Many professors make their striving to stand rather in an
outcry of words, than in a hearty labour against the lusts and
love of the world, and their own corruptions. But this kind of
striving is but a beating the air, and will come to nothing at
last--(Bunyan's Strait Gate, vol. 1, p. 869).

[57] Thus the dog of hell may be of service, not only in keeping
the sheep close together, but in making them keep close to their
Shepherd--(J. B.).

[58] 'Plash' was, in later editions, altered to 'Pluck.' To plash,
is to cut hedges or trees. The boys did plash, or had a cut at
the trees, to knock the fruit off--(ED).

[59] What is this garden but the world? What is the fruit they here
found? 'The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride
of life' (1 John 2:16). Of this the boys ate. The mother chides
them for taking that which did not belong to them, but she did
not know that it grew in the devil's garden. Mark the consequence
of their eating this fruit hereafter--(Mason). The terrifying
suggestions of Satan [the dog's barking] give believers much
present uneasiness, yet they often do them great good, and seldom
eventually hurt them; but the allurements of those worldly objects
which he throws in their way are far more dangerous and pernicious.
Many of these are very attractive to young persons; but all
parents who love the souls of their children should employ all
their influence and authority to restrain them from those vain
pleasures which 'war against the soul,' and are most dangerous
when least suspected. This fruit may be found in the pilgrim's
path, but it grows in Beelzebub's garden, and should be shunned as
poison. Many diversions and pursuits, both in high and low life,
are of this nature, though often pleaded for as innocent, by some
persons who ought to know better--(Scott).

[60] What are these ill-favoured ones? Such as you will be sure to
meet with in your pilgrimage; some vile lusts, or cursed corruptions,
which are suited to your carnal nature. These will attack you, and
strive to prevail against you. Mind how these pilgrims acted, and
follow their example. If one was to fix names to these ill-favoured
ones, they might he called Unbelief and Licentiousness, which aim
to rob Christ's virgins of their chastity to Him--(Mason).

[61] Here we see that the most violent temptation to the greatest
evil is not sin, if resisted and not complied with. Our Lord
Himself was tempted in all things like as we are, yet without sin.
Therefore, ye followers of Him, do not be dejected and cut down,
though you should be exercised with temptations to the blackest
crimes, and the most heinous sins. You cannot be assaulted with
worse than your Lord was. He was tempted, but He resisted Satan,
and overcame all, in our nature. Cry to Him; He is the Reliever
who will come in the hour of distress--(Mason).

[62] 'Ye have not, because ye ask not.' (James 4:2).

[63] It is well to be taken with present blessings, to be joyful
in them, and thankful for them; but it is wrong to forget our
dangers, and grow secure--(Mason).

[64] When the soul is happy in the love of God, it is ready to
conclude that dangers are past, that doubts and fears are entirely
removed; but as long as we are in this world, we shall find the
expediency of our Lord's exhortation--'Watch and pray.'--(J. B.).
[65] Here is a display of a truly Christian spirit, in that open
and ingenuous confession of her fault, taking all the blame upon
herself, and excusing Mercy. This is not natural to us, but the
grace of Christ humbles the heart, and silences the tongue to
self-justifying pleas. O for more of this precious grace!--(Mason).

[66] Mark those phrases--'the riches of His grace,' and 'His mere
good pleasure.' You cannot entertain too exalted ideas of these,
nor speak too highly of them. Pilgrims should be known by their
language as well as their walk. Those who talk highly of their own
perfection, speak little, if at all, of the riches of God's grace,
and the good pleasure of His will. Beware of the infection of
pride and self-righteous leaven--(Mason).

[67] The Holy Spirit, the Interpreter, who was promised by the Lord
Jesus to be sent in His name, guides believers into all truth. 'And
they shall be all taught of God' (John 6:45). Humble confession,
and serious consecration of heart, are sacrifices acceptable,
well-pleasing to God; and such simple-hearted pilgrims are received
by the church with a hearty welcome. 'The Spirit and the bride
say, Come; and let him that heareth say, Come' (Rev. 22:17)--(ED).

[68] Here is joy indeed, which strangers to the love of Christ
intermeddle not with. Surely, this is the joy of Heaven; and if thou
hast this joy, thou hast the love that reigns in Heaven. Glory to
Jesus, I think I can truly say, I have this blessed evidence in my
heart, that I know somewhat of this joy arising from seeing poor
lost sinners converted to Jesus, so as to love Him and follow Him.
O for a spread and increase of this spirit among Christians of all

[69]The emblematical instruction at the Interpreter's house, in
the former part, was so important and comprehensive, that we are
astonished at the striking additions here adduced. The first emblem
is very plain; and so apposite, that it is wonderful any person
should read it without lifting up a prayer to the Lord, and saying,
'O deliver me from this muck-rake!'--(Scott, altered by ED). Awful
thought! Straws, and sticks, and dust, Preferred to Christ and
salvation! 'If angels weep, it is at such a sight!'--(Burder).

[70] Our Lord said, 'Where your treasure is, there will your heart be
also.' To be carnally-minded is death, but to be spiritually-minded
is life and peace. If our treasure is in Heaven, we need not envy
those griping muck-worms who are cursed in their basket and in
their store--(J. B.).

[71]--The vulture of insatiate minds
Still wants, and wanting seeks, and seeking finds
New fuel to increase her rav'nous fire.
The grave is sooner cloy'd than men's desire.
--(Quarles' Emblems).

[72] A full purse and a lean soul, is a sign of a great curse. O
it is a sad grant, when the desire is only to make the belly big,
the estate big, the name big; when even by this bigness the soul
pines, is made to dwindle, to grow lean, and to look like an anatomy!
Like a man in a dropsy, they desire this world, as he doth drink,
till they desire themselves quite down to hell--(Bunyan's Desire
of the Righteous, vol. 1, p. 767).

[73] Reader, didst thou never shed a tear for thy base and disingenuous
conduct towards thy Lord, in preferring the sticks and straws of
this world to the unsearchable riches of Christ, and the salvation
of thy immortal soul? O this is natural to us all! and though
made wise unto salvation, yet this folly cleaves to our old nature
still. Let the thought humble us, and make us weep before the

[74] They knew the venom of sin which was in their fallen nature.
This made them cover their faces with shame, and sink into deep
humility of heart. Every true interpreter of God's Word--yea, the
blessed Interpreter of God's heart, Jesus--will look pleasantly
upon such who confess the truth; while He beholds the proud,
self-righteous sinner afar off--(Mason).

[75] Faith apprehends, and then the soul dwells in the best room
indeed, even in the very heart of God in Christ. The Lord increase
our faith in this precious truth, that we may the more love and
glorify the God of grace and truth! O let not our venom of sin
deject us, while there is the blood of Christ to cleanse us! O for
a stronger love to Christ, and greater hatred of sin! Both spring
from believing--(Mason). The emblem of the spider is illustrated
in Bunyan's invaluable treatise on the Resurrection and Eternal
Judgment--'The spider will be a witness against man, for she layeth
hold with her hands, and is in kings' palaces. It is man only that
will not lay hold on the kingdom of Heaven, as the spider doth bid
him (Prov. 30:28).'--(Vol. 2, p. 111)--(ED).

--Call me not ugly thing;
God' wisdom hath unto the pismire given,
And spiders may teach men the way to Heaven.
                             (Bunyan's Emblems).

[76] It is very humbling to human pride to be compared to chickens,
as dependants on the fostering care of the hen, or as children
relying upon a parent. In Bunyan's Last Sermon, are some striking
allusions to the Christian's dependence upon his heavenly Father--'It
is natural for a child, if he wants shoes, to tell his father; if
he wants bread, they go and tell him. So should the children of God
do for spiritual bread--strength of grace--to resist Satan. When
the devil tempts you, run home and tell your heavenly Father--pour
out your complaints to God; this is natural to children. If any
wrong them, they tell their father; so do those that are born
of God, when they meet with temptations, they go and tell God of
them--(Vol. 2, p. 757)--(ED).

[77] Common call, the invitations; brooding voice, the promises;
outcry, the warnings of the Gospel--(Ivimey).

[78] Observations and experience justify this excellent simile.
God's common call is to all His creatures who live within the sound
of His Gospel. His special call is when He bestows the grace,
peace, and pardon of the Gospel of Christ upon His people. The
brooding note is when He gathers them under His wings, warms their
hearts with the comforts of His love, nourishes their souls with
close fellowship with Himself, and refreshes their spirits with
the overflowings of joy in the Holy Ghost. 'In the shadow of Thy
wings will I rejoice,' says David (Psa. 63:7). 'I sat down under
His shadow with great delight, and His fruit was sweet to my
taste' (Song. 2:3). O for more of these precious brooding notes,
to be gathered under the wing of Immanuel! But be our frames and
experiences what they may, still we are ever in danger; for our
enemies surround us on every side, and our worst are within us.
Therefore our Lord has an outcry; He gives the alarm, calls us,
and warns us of danger. Why? That we should flee. O pilgrims,
when dangers are near, run unto Him! For 'the name of the Lord is
a strong tower; the righteous runneth into it, and is safe' (Prov.

[79] The church is a garden enclosed, Christ is the Gardener, His
people are called God's husbandry. The difference in the plants and
flowers shows the different effects of grace upon the heart--(J.
B.). When Christians stand everyone in his place, and do their own
work, then they are like the flowers in the garden, that stand and
grow where the Gardener hath planted them; and then they shall
both honour the garden in which they are planted, and the Gardener
that hath so disposed of them. From the hyssop in the wall, to the
cedar in Lebanon, their fruit is their glory. Christians are like
the several flowers in a garden, that have upon each of them the
dew of Heaven; which, being shaken with the wind, they let fall
their dew at each others' roots, whereby they are jointly nourished,
and become nourishers of one another. For Christians to commune
savourly of God's matters one with another, it is as if they
opened to each others' nostrils boxes of perfume. Saith Paul to
the church at Rome, 'I long to see you, that I may impart unto
you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may he established; that
is, that I may be comforted together with you, by the mutual faith
both of you and me' (Rom. 1:11, 12)--(Bunyan's Christian Behaviour,
vol. 2, pp. 550, 570). I have observed, that as there are herbs
and flowers in our gardens, so there are their counterfeits in
the field; only they are distinguished from the other by the name
of wild ones. There is faith and wild faith; and wild faith is
presumption. I call it wild faith, because God never placed it in
His garden--His church; it is only to be found in the field--the
world--(Bunyan's Good News, vol. 1, p. 93). We ought not to be
contented with a situation among the noxious weeds of the desert;
but if we be planted among the ornamental and fragrant flowers of
the Lord's garden, we are honoured indeed. We should watch against
envy and ambition, contempt of our brethren and contention. We
ought to be satisfied in our places, doing 'nothing through strife
or vain glory, or with murmurings and disputings'; but endeavour,
in the meekness of wisdom, to diffuse a heavenly fragrance around
us, and to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things--(Scott).

[80] The husbandman is not repaid by the straw or chaff. So the
sufferings of Christ, the preaching, promises, and ordinances
of the Gospel, were not intended to bring men to profess certain
doctrines, or observe certain forms; but to render men fruitful in
good works, by the influences of the Spirit of Christ. All profession
will terminate in everlasting misery, which is not productive of
this good fruit. 'True religion and undefiled' consists not in
forms, creeds, and ceremonies, but is 'to visit and comfort the
widows and the fatherless'--(Scott).

[81] This is a necessary caution. Paul says, 'Thou art inexcusable,
O man, whosoever thou art that judgest; for wherein thou judgest
another, thou condemnest thyself, for thou that judgest doest the
same things.' James has laid down an excellent rule of conduct--O
that it were more attended to!--'So speak ye, and so do, as they
that shall he judged by the law of liberty.' How inconsistent for a
pardoned malefactor to insult even those who are under condemnation!
If any man seemeth to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue
from commending himself and condemning others, this man's religion
is vain. He that judgeth his brother speaketh evil of the law,
and judgeth the law--(J. B.).

[82] A very striking emblem this, and most pertinently applied; and
if your soul is sincere, it will cause a holy fear, create a godly
jealousy, put you upon self-examining, and make you sigh out in
some such words as David, 'Search me, O God, and know my heart;
try me, and know my thoughts: and see if there be any wicked way
in me, and lead me in the way everlasting' (Psa. 139:23, 24). O
what will it avail in a dying hour, or in the judgment day, that
we have worn the mark of profession, and seemed to man, what
we were not in heart and reality of life before God! From all
self-deceiving, good Lord, deliver us! for we are naturally prone
to it--(Mason).

[83] This observation is grounded on the good old distinction,
that the merit of Christ's obedience unto death is sufficient all
who by faith apply for an interest in it. Nothing but pride, the
carnal mind, and enmity to God and religion, influence men to
neglect so great salvation; and when the regenerating power of
the Holy Spirit accompanies the Word, sinners are made willing
to accept the proffered mercy, and encouraged by the invitations
which before they sinfully slighted--(Scott).

[84] That is my very character, says many a doubting, broken hearted
sinner. Well, thank God, says many a self-confident, whole-hearted
Pharisee, it is far from being mine. We can only say this, he
that knows most of his own superlatively deceitful and desperately
wicked heart, suspects himself most, and exercises most godly
jealousy over himself; while persons, who see least of themselves,
are most self-confident and daring. Even Judas could as boldly
ask, 'Master, is it I' who shall betray Thee? as any of the rest
of His disciples--(Mason).

[85] Mr. Ivimey supposes this to be intended by Mr. Bunyan to show
his approbation of the practice of singing in public worship. It
was then a custom which had been recently introduced, and was a
subject of strong controversy. Soon after Bunyan's death, Benjamin
Keach vindicated the practice, by proving that singing is an
ordinance of Jesus Christ, in answer to Marlowe's Discourse against
Singing. It must not be forgotten, that our pilgrim forefathers
generally met in secret, and that singing would have exposed them
to imminent peril of their lives. Now we have no such fear; we
can unite heart and voice in the language of Dr. Watts--

'Lord, how delightful 'tis to see
A whole assembly worship Thee!
At once they sing.'

That is, when singing men or women do not prevent the godly from
uniting in this delightful part of Divine worship by introducing
new tunes, to sing to the praise and glory of themselves. Let such
as are guilty of this solemnly ask the question, Was the late Mr.
Huntingdon right in estimating their piety at less than twopence
per dozen?--(ED).

[86] Ah, Mrs. Timorous, how many professed pilgrims hast thou
befooled and turned back! How often does she attack and affright
many real pilgrims! I am sure she has often made my poor heart
ache with her ghastly looks and terrifying speeches. O may we ever
say to her, in our Lord's words, 'Get thee behind me, Satan; thou
savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men'
(Matt. 16:23)--(Mason).

[87] A very simple and artless confession. The Lord works very
differently upon His elect; but always to the same end, namely,
to make us prize Christ, His salvation and His ways, and to abhor
ourselves, the paths of sin, and to cast off all self-righteous
hopes. If this is effected in thy heart, reader, it is no matter
whether thou canst tell of visions and dreams, or talk high of
experiences. Where the soul is rooted and grounded in the knowledge
of Christ, and love to His ways, though there may be many fears,
yet this is an indubitable proof of a real and sincere pilgrim--(Mason).

[88] They who are acquainted with the manner in which persons are
received into Congregational churches, by relating a verbal account
of their experience, will recognize in this narrative a resemblance
to that practice. Christiana, a grave matron, appears to have felt
no difficulty in complying with the requisition; but Mercy, young
and inexperienced, blushed and trembled, and for awhile continued
silent. Their profession being approved, the readiness of the
church to receive them is expressed by the warmest wishes for
their spiritual prosperity--(Ivimey).

[89] 'Thou hast given credit to the truth'; what is this but
faith--the faith of the operation of God? But some may ask, What!
is justifying, saving faith, nothing more than a belief of the
truth? If so, the very devils believe; yea, more, they tremble
also. True; but mind how Mercy's faith wrought by her works. She
fled for refuge to the hope set before her in the Gospel. She fled
from sin, from the City of Destruction, to Christ for salvation.
Though she had not the joy of faith, yet she followed on to know
the Lord, walking in His ways, and hoping for comfort from the Lord
in His due time. O! if thou hast a grain of this precious faith
in thy heart, bless Jesus for it, and go on thy way rejoicing--(Mason).

[90] Mr. Ivimey considers that this bath in the garden refers to
the baptism of the pilgrims by immersion, after having related
their experience, as a publicly putting on of Christ. 'And now
why tarriest thou? Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins,
calling on the name of the Lord' (Acts 22:16). Innocent says that
'her Master would have them do'; and they went out into the garden
to the bath, and were much enlivened by it. Bunyan left it to the
convert to act for himself as to water-baptism; all that he required,
as a prerequisite to church-communion, was the new birth, or the
baptism of the Holy Spirit. He calls this the 'bath of sanctification';
no Christian considers water-baptism a source of sanctification;
it is only the outward sign. It must be left to the reader's candid
judgment to decide whether baptism, upon a profession of faith,
is here intended by that that the Master would have them do--(ED).

[91] There is no travelling on pilgrimage without gathering soil.
There are no pilgrims but daily need to have recourse to this bath
of sanctification--the blood of Jesus, which cleanses from all
sin (1 John 1:7). Christ is the fountain opened for sin and for
uncleanness (Zech. 13:1). Christ is the soul's only bath. As all
baths are for the purification of the body, such is this bath to
our soul. But unless a bath be used, this cannot be effected; so,
unless we have recourse to Christ, we cannot enjoy the purification
of the soul; but the Holy Ghost, the Sanctifier, convinces us
of sin, shows us our fresh-contracted spots and defilements, and
leads us to the blood of the Lamb. O how does this enliven and
strengthen our souls, by filling our conscience with joy and peace
in believing!--(Mason).

[92] Baptism and the Lord's Supper I receive and own as signs
of the covenant of grace; the former as a sign of our engrafting
into Christ, and the latter to show forth His death, as an emblem
or type of the benefits purchased thereby to His church and
people--(Philip Henry, altered by ED).

[93] This means the sealing of the Spirit, whereby they were sealed
unto the day of redemption (Eph. 4:30). O this is blessed sealing!
None know the comfort and joy of it but those who have experienced
it. It confirms our faith, establishes our hope, and inflames
our affections to God the Father for His everlasting love, to God
the Son for His everlasting atonement and righteousness, and to
God the Spirit for His enlightening mercy, regenerating grace,
quickening, sanctifying, testifying, and assuring influences,
whereby we know that we are the children of God; for 'the Spirit
itself beareth witness with our spirits, that we are the children of
God' (Rom. 8:16). All the comfort of our souls lies in keeping this
seal clear in our view. Therefore grieve not the Holy Spirit--(Mason).

[94] They who have put on this raiment are clothed with humility;
they readily perceive the excellence of other believers, but can
only discern their own in the glass of God's Word. At the same
time, they become very observant of their own defects, and severe
in condemning them, but proportionally candid to their brethren;
and thus they learn the hard lesson of esteeming others better
than themselves--(Scott).

[95] This is always the case when souls are clothed in the robe of
Christ's righteousness. They are little, low, and mean in their own
eyes, and they esteem each other better than themselves; whereas
they who at all look to, or depend upon, their own righteousness
for their clothing and justification before God, always look down
with an air of supercilious contempt upon others who they think
are not so righteous as themselves. Lord, hide self-righteous pride
from my heart, and sink me into the depth of humility, that I may
ever glory in Thee, in whom I am perfectly righteous!--(Mason).
See also Romans 6:1-5, and Galatians 3:27--(Ivimey).

[96] The conductor, named Great-heart, is a Gospel minister under
the direction of the Holy Spirit; courageous, armed with the sword
of the Spirit, enjoying the hope of salvation, and defended by the
shield of faith--(Barder).

[97] This is the comfort, joy, and glorying of a pilgrim's heart.
Hath Jesus performed righteousness to cover us, and spilled blood
to wash us? Have we the faith of this? O how ought we to love
Him, rejoice in Him, and study to glorify Him in every step of
our pilgrimage!--(Mason).

[98] Here Bunyan gives a very clear and distinct account of that
righteousness of Christ, as Mediator, which He wrought out by His
perfect obedience to the law of God for all His seed. And by this
righteousness, and no other, are they fully justified from all
condemnation in the sight of God. Reader, study this point deeply,
so as to be established in it. It is the essence of the Gospel, enters
into the life and joy of faith, brings relief to the conscience,
and influence to the love of the Lord our Righteousness; and so
brings forth the fruits of righteousness which are by Him to the
praise and glory of God, and administers Divine consolation in
the hour of death--(Mason).

[99] Is there righteousness in Christ? That is mine, the believer
may say. Did He bleed for sins? It was for mine. Hath He overcome
the law, the devil, and hell? The victory is mine. And I do count
this a most glorious life?--Sometimes (I bless the Lord) my soul
hath this life not only imputed to me, but the glory of it upon my
spirit. Upon a time, when I was under many condemnings of heart,
and fearing I should miss glory, methought I felt such a secret
motion as this--Thy righteousness is in Heaven. The splendour and
shining of the Spirit of grace upon my soul, gave me to see clearly
that my righteousness, by which I should be justified, was the Son
of God Himself representing me before the mercy-seat in His own
Person; so that I saw clearly, that day and night, wherever I was,
and whatever I was doing, there was my righteousness, just before
the eyes of the Divine glory, and continually at the right hand of
God. At another time, whilst musing, being afraid to die, these
words came upon my soul, 'Being justified freely by His grace,
through the redemption which is in Christ.' This stayed my heart.
And thus is the sinner made alive from the dead, by being justified
through the righteousness of Christ, which is unto all and upon
all them that believe--(Bunyan's Law and Grace).

[100] Sometimes I have been so loaden with my sins, that I could not
tell where to rest, nor what to do; yea, at such times, I thought
it would have taken away my senses; yet, at that time, God through
grace hath all on a sudden so effectually applied the blood that
was spilt at Mount Calvary out of the side of Jesus, unto my
poor, wounded, guilty conscience, that presently I have found such
a sweet, solid, sober, heart-comforting peace, that I have been
in a strait to think that I should love and honour Him no more.
Sometimes my sins have appeared as big as all the sins of all the
men in the nation--(reader, these things be not fancies, for I have
smarted for this experience); but yet the least stream of the
heart-blood Jesus hath vanished all away, and I have been delivered up
into sweet and heavenly peace and joy in the Holy Ghost--(Bunyan's
Law and Grace, vol. 1, p. 549).

[101] While the soul lives upon the sweet impressions which are
made by the application of the promises, it may be said to live
upon frames and feelings; for as its comforts abate, so will its
confidence. The heart can never be established in grace, till the
understanding is enlightened to discern what it is to have pardon
by the deed done--(J. B.).

[102] O brave Christiana! See what it is to have one's heart
inflamed with a sense of the love of Christ. Christiana thinks
everyone would naturally be affected as she was, if they were
present; but she forgets that which she sees and feels is of
special, peculiar, distinguishing grace--(Mason). Shall I have my
sins and lose my soul? Would not Heaven be better to me than my
sins?--the company of God, Christ, saints, and angels, than the
company of Cain, Judas, Balaam, with the devils, in the furnace
of fire? Canst thou now that readest, or hearest these lines, turn
thy back, and go on in thy sins?--(Bunyan's Law and Grace, vol.
1, p. 575). Reader, thus would Christiana plead with ungodly
relatives and friends; and if thou art in such a case, wilt thou
not listen to such a plea?--(ED).

[103] Mind how tenderly Great-heart deals with warm-hearted
Christiana. He does not attempt to throw cold water upon the fire
of her affections, but gently insinuates, 1. The peculiar frame
of the mind she speaks from; 2. Suggests that she must not always
expect to be in such raptures; and, 3. Reminds her that her
indulgences were of a peculiar nature, not common to all, but
bestowed upon the faithful in Christ only; and that, therefore,
amidst all her joyful feelings, she should know to whom she
was indebted for them, and give all the glory to the God of all

[104] Simple, contented in gross ignorance; Sloth, an indolence
which smothers all conviction; Presumption, carnal security, which
hardens against reproof--(Andronicus). These are the great opposers
of vital religion. The end of these things is death--(Barder).

[105] It was a custom, to a late period, to hang up murderers
in irons, until the body dropped to pieces; that such terrible
examples might deter others from the like crimes; hence, under
the old wood-cut illustrating this passage, is written--

'Behold here how the slothful are a sign,
Hung up, because holy ways they did decline.'

[106] God, as it were, gibbets some professors, and causes their
names and characters to be publicly exhibited, as a terror to
others, and as a warning to His own people--(Mason). The dreadful
falls and awful deaths of some professors are to put others upon
their guard against superficial, slothful, and presumptuous hopes.
The real occasion of turning aside lies in the concealed lusts of
the heart--(Scott).

[107] Let us consider the characters of these three professors: 1.
Here is a Simple, a foolish credulous professor, ever learning,
but never coming to the knowledge of the truth, so as to believe
it, love it, and be established on it; hence liable to be carried
away by every wind of doctrine. 2. Sloth, a quiet, easy professor,
who never disturbs anyone by his diligence in the Word of God,
nor his zeal for the truths and glory of God. 3. Presumption, one
who expects salvation in the end, without the means prescribed by
God for attaining it. O beware of these three sorts of professors,
for they turn many aside!--(Mason).

[108] What is meant by the Hill Difficulty? Christiana has set out
from Destruction, been received and encouraged at the wicket-gate,
and directed on her journey. The path is comparatively easy, until
she is about to put on a public profession, by joining a church. This
is situated upon the summit of this hill of difficult ascent. Is it
intended to represent that prayerful, watchful, personal investigation
into Divine truth, which ought to precede church-fellowship? Nothing
is more difficult to flesh and blood than to be compelled, upon
pain of endless ruin, to think for ourselves on matters of religion.
The formalist and hypocrite follow the persuasions of man, and
take an easier path, and are lost. The fear of man causes some to
abandon the ascent. Dr. Cheever has, in his Hill Difficulty, very
happily described the energy that is needful to enable the pilgrim
to make the ascent. He forcibly proves the utter impossibility of
making the ascent by ceremonial observances, or while encumbered
with worldly cares or pride in trinkets of gold and costly array.
He reminds us of the solemn advice of Peter, 'be ye built up a
spiritual house, a holy priesthood to offer up spiritual sacrifice
acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.' Every weight must be set aside,
and salvation must be worked out with fear and trembling--(ED).

[109] The river of life is pure and clear as crystal. Is the doctrine
offered to thee so? Or is it muddy, and mixed with the doctrines
of men? Look, man, and see, if the foot of the worshippers of Baal
be not there, and the water fouled thereby. What water is fouled
is not the water of life, or at least not in its clearness.
Wherefore, if thou findest it not right, go up higher towards the
spring-head, for nearer the spring the more pure and clear is the
water--(Bunyan's Water of Life).

[110] This represents to us that some preachers, as the Prophet says,
foul the water with their feet (Ezek. 24:18); that is, though they
preach somewhat about Christ, and salvation by Him, yet they so clog,
mire, and pollute the stream of free grace, with pre-requisites,
terms, and conditions, that the poor thirsty soul cannot drink
the water, nor allay his thirst with it; but is forced to let it
stand, till these gross dregs sink to the bottom. Yea, we ought
to beware of drinking such filthy dregs; for they will certainly
swell us up with the company of pride of our free will, human
merit, and self-righteousness, which oppose the glory of Jesus,
and comfort of our souls--(Mason).

[111] Although the cautious of Holy Writ are plain as posts and
chains, and the warnings as a ditch, and the solemn threatenings
of the New Testament against pharisaic formalism and hypocrisy
are like a hedge, to prevent pilgrims wandering into paths that
end in eternal misery, yet there are many who break through all
these merciful restraints, and rush upon destruction--(ED).

[112] Examine, which do you like better, self-soothing or soul-searching
doctrine? Formalists and hypocrites love the former, and hate the
latter. But the sincere and upright are discovered by desiring to
have their hearts searched to the quick, and their ways tried to
the utmost; and, therefore, with David will cry, 'Search me, O
God, and know my heart; try me, and know my thoughts; and see if
there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting'
(Psa. 129:23, 24)--(Mason).

[113] Heart-work is hard work; it is hard work to be stripped; it
is hard work to deny self, take up your cross, and follow Jesus.
It is hard work to fight the fight of faith; it is hard work
against hope to believe in hope. A formalist and hypocrite will
go, in outward things, as far as the real Christian; but touch
him on the inward work, and he will start aside--(J. B.).

[114] He who is a stranger to the hard work of self-denial, and how
difficult it is to the flesh, knows not what this Hill Difficulty
means; for the nearer to the arbour of Jesus' rest, the more
difficulties in the way, but the sweeter it is when attained--(Mason).

[115] Regard not in thy pilgrimage how difficult the passage is,
but whither it tends; not how delicate the journey is, but where
it ends. If it be easy, suspect it; if hard, endure it. He that
cannot excuse a bad way, accuseth his own sloth; and he that sticks
in a bad passage, can never attain a good journey's end--(Quarles'

[116] There were stairs in the temple, and but one pair, and these
winding. He that went up must turn with the stairs. This is a type
of a twofold repentance; that by which we turn from nature to
grace, and that by which we turn from the imperfections of a state
of grace to glory. But this turning and turning still, displeases
some much. They say it makes them giddy; but I say, Nothing like
this to make a man steady. A straight stair is like the ladder
that leads to the gallows. They are turning stairs that lead to
the heavenly mansion. Stay not at their foot; but go up them, and
up them, and up them, till you come to Heaven--(Bunyan's Solomon's

[117] When we are praised, a conscious blush should pervade us, well
knowing how much we have to be ashamed of. But some have got such
vain confidence in their own righteousness, merits, and perfection,
that they have hereby got what the Scriptures call a whore's
forehead, and refuse to be ashamed (Jer. 3:3). O cry to the Lord
continually against spiritual pride, and for an humble heart,
knowing thyself to be a poor sinner!--(Mason).

[118] Eve looking first into those worthy privileges which God had
given her, and dilating delightfully of them before the devil,
she lost the dread of the command from off her heart, which Satan
perceiving, now added to his former forged doubt a plain and flat
denial--'Ye shall not surely die.' When people dally with the
devil, and sit too near their outward advantages, they fall into
temptation--(Bunyan on Genesis, vol. 2, p. 429).

[119] Reader, mind this well, remember it often, and it will do thee
good. I am a witness against myself, of how much I have lost by
indulging the flesh, and how much I have suffered by forgetfulness.
But O what a gracious Lord do we serve! this is no excuse for
our folly, but an aggravation of our faults; and ought to sink us
lower in shame, and to excite us to greater care, diligence, and
watchfulness; else we shall surely smart for our folly, if not in
hell, yet in our consciences--(Mason).

[120] This may refer to the awful end of one of Bunyan's early
friends, who became a notorious apostate--one John Child, whose
sufferings were published with those of Spira. Child was so afraid
of persecution, as to give up his profession; and then, overwhelmed by
despair, he committed suicide. Or to such an one as the professor,
in the Marian days, who recanted to save burning, but who was
burnt to death by his house catching fire--(Ivimey).

[121] It is not very easy to determine the precise idea of the author
in each of the giants who assault the Pilgrims, and are slain by
the conductor and his assistants. Some have supposed that unbelief
is here meant, but Grim or Bloody-man seem not to be opposite
names for this inward foe; nor can it be conceived, that unbelief
should more violently assault those who are under the care of
a valiant conductor, than it had done the solitary pilgrims. I
apprehend, therefore, that this giant was intended for the emblem
of certain active men who busied themselves in framing and executing
persecuting statutes, which was done at the time when this was
written, more violently than it had been before. Thus the temptation
to fear man, which at all times assaults the believer when required
to make an open profession of his faith, was exceedingly increased;
and as heavy fines and severe penalties, in accession to reproach
and contempt, deterred men from joining themselves in communion
with dissenting churches, that way was almost unoccupied, and the
travelers went through bypaths, according to the author's sentiments
on the subject. But the preaching of the Gospel, by which the
ministers of Christ wielded the sword of the Spirit, overcame
this enemy; for the example and exhortations of such courageous
combatants animated even weak believers to overcome their fears,
and to act according to their consciences, leaving the event to
God. This seems to have been the author's meaning; and perhaps
he also intended to encourage his brethren boldly to persevere in
resisting such persecuting statutes, confidently expecting that
they should prevail for the repeal of them; by which, as by the
death of the giant, the pilgrims might be freed from additional
terror, in acting consistently with their avowed principles--(Scott).

[122] This reminds us of the words of Mr. Godly-fear to Diabolus,
when Captain Credence sent a petition to Immanuel for mercy--'We
are resolved to resist thee as long as a captain, a man, a sling,
or a stone shall be found in Mansoul to throw at thee. Then said
the Lord Mayor to Diabolus, O thou devouring tyrant, be it known
to thee, we shall hearken to none of thy words!'--(Bunyan's Holy
War). Happy are the Godly-fears and Great-hearts who use such
decided language to the enemy of souls--(ED).

[123] Sincere and earnest Christiana, at this time, had a proverbial
expression--'It is better that the body should die to this world
by the lions without, than that body and soul should die eternally
by our lusts within.'--(ED).

[124] O pilgrims, when dangers beset you, and fears arise in you,
hear what the Lord speaks to you; and in the belief of his truth,
quit yourselves manfully: 'Fight the good fight of faith,' ever
remembering that 'you are more than conquerors through Christ who
hath loved you!' Faith will exalt the love and power of Christ
above the fear of every enemy--(Mason).

[125] O pilgrim, it is sweet to reflect that every lion-like foe
is under the control of thy God, and cannot come one link of the
chain nearer to thee than thy Lord will permit! Therefore, when
fears and terrors beset thee, think of thy Lord's love to thee,
His power engages to preserve thee, and His promises to comfort
thee. For 'the Lord is nigh unto all them that call upon Him'
(Psa. 145:18)--(Mason).

[126] From the deeply interesting narrative of the experience of
Mr. Fearing, it is plain that the lions and their backer, Giant
Grim or Bloody-man, relates entirely to temporal troubles; most
likely to those infamous penal statutes under which Dissenters so
severely suffered. The uniting in church-fellowship was not only
attended with the ordinary difficulties, but with danger from
the lions--church and state; especially when backed by ferocious
judges, such as Jefferies and others. Spiritual enemies--sin, death,
and hell--were the only terrors under which Mr. Fearing suffered;
temporal persecutions--'difficulties, lions, or Vanity Fair--he
feared not at all.' The battle probably refers to the flimsy
sophistry used in defence of persecution, as opposed to the Word
of God, the sword of the Spirit, by which our Puritan heroes
destroyed these anti-Christian arguments--(ED). Now that the lions
are removed, may we not fear that hypocrites will thrust themselves
into our churches? It is easy, cheap, and almost fashionable, to
be religious: this should promote solemn investigation--(Andronicus).

[127] How mindful is our Lord of us! How gracious is He to us! What
blessed provision doth He make for us! If pilgrims are attacked
by Giant Grim, and terrified with the sight of lions, they may be
sure that it is only a prelude to some sweet enjoyment of their
Lord's love, and that they are near to some asylum, some sanctuary
of rest, peace, and comfort. Some bitter generally precedes the
sweet, and makes the sweet the sweeter--(Mason).

[128] O it is hard work to part with Great-heart! How many blessings
do we lose for want of asking! Great-heart is at the command of
our Lord. O for more power to cry incessantly to the Lord for the
presence of Great-heart, that we may go on more cheerfully and
more joyfully in the ways of the Lord!--(Mason).

[129] Here is a blessed mark of being vessels of the grace of God,
when we delight in the sight of, salute, and welcome others in the
way to Zion, and mutually have our hearts and affections drawn out
to each other in love. O how sweet is the fellowship of pilgrims
below! What must it be above? Infinitely above conception--(Mason).

[130] Reader, can you feed upon Christ by faith? Is the Lamb the
nourishment of thy soul, and the portion of thy heart? Canst thou
say, from blessed experience, 'His flesh is meat indeed, and His
blood is drink indeed?' Is it thy delight to think of Him, hear
of Him, speak of Him, abide in Him, and live upon Him? O bless
Him and praise Him for His distinguishing mercy, this spiritual
appetite! It is peculiar to His beloved ones only--(Mason).

[131] Pray mind the above note, 'Christ's bosom is for all
pilgrims.' [This is the room in which they all lay, and its name
is Peace--ED]. It is there the weary find rest, and the burdened
soul ease. O for more reclinings of soul upon the precious bosom
of our Lord! We can be truly happy nowhere else--(Mason).

[132] Immanuel also made a feast for them. He feasted them with food
that grew not in the fields of Mansoul, nor in the whole kingdom
of the Universe. It came from the Father's court. There was music
also all the while at the table, and man did eat angels' food. I
must not forget to tell you, that the musicians were the masters
of the songs sung at the court of Shaddai--(Bunyan's Holy War).

[133] O what precious harmony is this! How joyful to be the subjects
of it, and to join in it! The free, sovereign grace of God is the
delightful theme, and glory to God in the highest the universal
chorus. It is the wonder and joy of sinners on earth, and of angels
in Heaven--(Mason).

[134] Our author intimates that God sometimes communicates spiritual
knowledge and heavenly joy by 'dreams and visions of the night.'
The Holy One 'worketh all things after the counsel of His own
will,' and employs what means He pleases to bring into captivity
every thought to the obedience of Christ. The effect produced by
dreams must be brought to this test. It is a good maxim, that what
leads to God, must have come from God--(Ivimey).

[135] If Mercy were sweetly surprised with this dream, we are sure
that nothing but the surprise of mercy can overcome the hardened
sinner's heart, who, expecting the stroke of justice, instead of
the executioner with a death-warrant, finds a messenger of peace,
with a pardon free and full, revealing the grace, mercy, and
love of God, through the redemption which there is in the love of
God--(J. B.).

[136] O how blessed are they who are watching and waiting continually
to hear the small, still voice of the Spirit, speaking rest and
peace to their souls by the blood of the Lamb! O how condescending
is our Lord, thus to visit us, and converse with us in the way to
his kingdom!--(Mason). And how blessed is church fellowship when
the members are governed by these heavenly principles, watchfulness,
humility of mind, prudence, piety, and charity--(ED).

[137] The assurance that the dream should he accomplished, is
grounded on the effects produced upon Mercy's heart; there is no
danger of delusion, when so scriptural an encouragement is inferred
even from a dream--(Scott).

[138] Can we wonder that the pilgrims longed to spend some time with
such lovely companions? Reader, how is your inclination? Add to
these 'Simplicity, Innocence, and Godly-sincerity; without which
three graces thou wilt be a hypocrite, let thy notions, thy
knowledge, thy profession, and commendations from others, be what
they will.'--(Holy Life, vol. 2, p. 539). Christian, in choosing
thy companions, specially cleave to these six virgins, for they not
only have very comely and sober countenances, but Christ dwells
with them--(ED).

[139] When Christiana was admitted into the church, care was taken
to inquire into the religious knowledge of her children. This is
an important branch of ministerial and parental duty. The answers
given by the children do their mother honour, and prove that
she had not laboured in vain. Let every pious parent imitate her
example, and hope for her success--(Burder).

[140] This is a very sensible mode of catechising the boys according
to their ages and acquirements, with questions, exciting their
attention to subjects of the gravest importance. Compare this with
the custom of asking a child its name, and requiring it to narrate
circumstances which took place in the time of unconscious babyhood;
instead of impressing upon it the existence of God and the solemn
realities of eternity. The Assembly's, Dr. Watts', and especially
Bunyan's catechisms, are admirably adapted to assist a parent in
these important and responsible exercises--(ED).

[141] The young pupil is not here taught to answer, 'all the
elect,' but practically 'those that accept of His salvation.'
This is perfectly consistent with the other, while it instructs
and encourages the learner without perplexing him. It is absurd to
teach the hardest lessons to the youngest scholars in the school
of Christ--(Scott).

[142] Though this is answered with the simplicity of a child; yet
it is, and ever will be, the language of every father in Christ.
Happy those whose spirits are cast into this humble, evangelical
mold! O that this Spirit may accompany us in all our researches,
in all our ways, and through all our days!--(Mason). Our inability
to discover the meaning of these passages should teach us humility,
and submission to the decisions of our infallible Instructor--(Scott).

[143] Here is the foundation of faith, and the triumph of hope,
God's faithfulness to His promise, and His power to perform.
Having these to look to, what should stagger our faith, or deject
our hope? We may, we ought to smile at all carnal objections, and
trample upon all corrupt reasonings--(Mason).

[144] This is an important lesson to young females, how they may
profitably employ their time, adorn the Gospel, and be useful. It
is much better to imitate Dorcas, in making garments for the poor,
than to waste time and money in frivolous amusements, or needless
decorations; or in more elegant and fashionable accomplishments--(Scott).

[145] The character of Mr. Brisk is portrayed to the life in Bunyan's

'Candles that do blink within the socket,
And saints whose eyes are always in their pocket,
Are much alike: such candles make us fumble;
And at such saints, good men and bad do stumble.'

[146] The character of Mercy is lovely throughout the pilgrimage;
but in the important choice of a partner for life, she manifests
great prudence and shrewdness; she asks the advice of those who
knew Mr. Brisk, and whose names proved how capable they were to
give it. And she acted upon their knowledge of his character. And
when she discovered the utter selfishness of his disposition, she
thankfully bid him, Good bye, sweet heart; and parts for life--(ED).

[147] Most blessed resolution! Ah, pilgrims, if ye were more wary,
lest, by your choice and conduct, ye brought clogs to your souls,
how many troubles would ye escape, and how much more happy would
you be in your pilgrimage! It is for want of this wisdom and
conduct, that many bring evil upon themselves--(Mason).

[148] How easily are the best of characters traduced, and false
constructions put upon the best of actions! Reader, is this your
lot also? Mind your duty. Look to your Lord. Persevere in His
works and ways; and leave your character with Him, to whom you can
trust your soul. 'For if God be for us, who shall be against us?
what shall harm us, if we be followers of that which is good?'--(Mason).

[149] Crying at the cross, and turning a wife out of doors, refers
to a vulgar error, which had its influence to a late period in
Bedfordshire. It was a speedy mode of divorce, similar to that
practised in London, by leading a wife by a halter to Smithfield,
and selling her. The crying at the market cross that a man would
not be answerable for the debts that might be incurred by his
wife, was the mode of advertising, which was supposed to absolve
a husband from maintaining his wife; a notion now fully exploded--(ED).

[150] See the effects of sin. It will pinch and gripe the conscience,
and make the heart of a gracious soul sick--(Mason). Matthew, in
being admitted a member of the church, represented by the house
Beautiful and its happy family, had to relate his experience, and
this brought to his recollection plashing the trees, and eating
the enemy's fruit, of which his brother also reminds them--(ED).

[151] How often do we suffer by neglecting the cautions of a pious
parent or friend. 'In time of temptation it is our duty to keep
close to the Word, then we have Satan at the end of the staff.
When Eve was tempted, she went to the outside of her liberty, and
sat herself on the brink of danger, when she said, we may eat of
all but one.'--(Bunyan on Genesis, vol. 2, p. 429). Christiana
had chided the boys: 'You transgress, for that fruit is none of
ours.' Still the boys went on, and now Matthew feels the bitterness
of repentance--(ED).

[152] Although the mother did warn and chide her son, yet she did
not use her authority to prevent his taking the fruit which belonged
to another. She takes the fault home, falls under the sense of it,
and is grieved for it. A tender conscience is a blessed sign of
a gracious heart. Ye parents, who know the love of Christ, watch
over your children; see to it, lest you smart for your sins, in
not warning and preventing them, that 'the fear of the Lord is to
depart from all evil'; yea, to abstain from the very appearance
of it--(Mason, altered by ED).

[153] Mr. Bunyan's great modesty and humility are truly admirable;
he quotes Latin, but is careful to tell us, 'The Latin I borrow'
[in his notes]. The English is, 'Of the flesh and of the blood
of Christ.' This is the only portion for sin-sick souls. Feeding
upon Christ's flesh and blood by faith, keeps us from sinning,
and when sick of sin, these, and nothing but these, can heal and
restore us. Yet there is in our nature an unaccountable reluctance
to receive these, through the unbelief which works in us. So
Matthew found it--(Mason).

[154] See the blessed effects of receiving Christ, when under the
sense of sin, and distressed for sin. O what a precious Saviour
is Jesus! What efficacy is there in His flesh and blood, to purge
the conscience from guilt! Lord, what a mercy is it, that though
we sin, yet Thou art abundant to pardon, yea, multipliest Thy
pardons; yea, and also giveth poor, pained, broken-hearted sinners
to know and feel Thy pardoning love!--(Mason).

[155] How correctly are the effects of an indulgence in sinful lusts
described. Sin and sorrow are inseparable. The burdened conscience
of a backslider can be relieved in no other way, than that in
which it was first 'purged from dead works,' by exercising faith
in the atoning blood of the Lord Jesus as the only sacrifice for
sin, 'If a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual,
restore such an one in the spirit of meekness' (Gal. 6:1). 'Flee
youthful lusts,' and be upon your guard against the fruit of
Beelzebub's orchard--(Ivimey).

[156] The relation of Matthew's sickness, and the method of his
cure, may be justly esteemed among the finest passages of this
work. He ate the fruit of Beelzebub's orchard, sin, the disease of
the soul, threatening eternal death. It is an unspeakable mercy
to be exceedingly pained with it. Such need the physician, and
the remedy is at hand.

Nothing but Thy blood, O Jesus!
Can relieve us from our smart;
Nothing else from guilt release us
Nothing else can melt the heart--(Hart).
It is the universal medicine; blessed are those that will never take
any other physic--(Burder).

[157] This advice should be carefully noted. Numbers abuse the
doctrine of free salvation by the merits and redemption of Christ,
and presume on forgiveness, when they are destitute of genuine
repentance, and give no evidence of sanctification. But this most
efficacious medicine in that case will do no good; or rather, the
perverse abuse of it will increase their guilt, and tend to harden
their hearts in sin--(Scott).

[158] Bunyan's bill of his Master's water of life--'As men, in their
bills, do give an account of the persons cured, and the diseases
removed, so could I give you account of numberless numbers that
have not only been made to live, but to live forever, by drinking
this pure water of life. No disease comes amiss to it. It cures
blindness, deafness, dumbness, deadness. This right holy water (all
other is counterfeit) will drive away evil spirits. It will make you
have a white soul, and that is better than a white skin.'--(Bunyan's
Water of Life). Whoever offers to purify the heart, and heal a wounded
conscience, by any other means, is a deceiver and a soul-destroyer--(ED).

[159] This conversation is adapted for the meditation of a restored
backslider. Evangelical truth prescribes the most powerful antidotes
to presumption and despair--'My little children, these things
write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have
an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous' (1 John

[160] Having experienced the great advantage of a pious minister or
elder, they were naturally desirous of having such comfort through
their pilgrimage. The petition may refer to the custom, among
dissenting churches, of letters of dismission given to members
when they move to a distant locality--(ED).

[161] How much is contained in that answer of Christiana as to
the origin of evil--'It is food or poison, I know not which!' To
believers, it will be their elevation to a degree of bliss that
they would never have otherwise enjoyed; to the faithless, it will
be poison of the deadliest kind. Here is no attempt to explain the
origin of evil in our world; a subject far beyond all our powers
of investigation--(ED).

[162] It is not enough that the Holy Spirit convince us of sin at
our first setting out on pilgrimage, and makes us sensible of our
want of Christ; but He also keeps up a sight and sense of the evil
of sin in its original nature, as well as actual transgressions.
This often makes us wonder at sin, at ourselves, and at the love
of Christ in becoming a sacrifice for our sins. And this also humbles
us, makes us hate sin the more; and makes Christ, His atonement,
and righteousness, more and more precious in our eyes, and
inestimable in our hearts--(Mason).

[163] The ministration of angels is an animating theme to believers,
and is well adapted to promote their confidence in the care and
protection of God. 'Are they not all ministering spirits, sent
forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?' (Heb.

[164] This is the anchor of hope. This keeps the soul safe, and
steady to Jesus, who is the alone object of our hopes. Hope springs
from faith. It is an expectation of the fulfillment of those things
that are promised in the Word of truth, by the God of all grace.
Faith receives them, trusts in them, relies upon them; and hope
waits for the full accomplishment and enjoyment of them--(Mason).

[165] Bunyan loved harmony--he had a soul for music. But whether
he intended by this to sanction the introduction of instrumental
music into public worship, is not clear. 'The late Abraham Booth and
Andrew Fuller were extremely averse to it; others are as desirous
of it. Music has a great effect on the nervous system, and of
all instruments the organ is the most impressive. The Christian's
inquiry is, whether sensations so produced assist the soul in
holding communion with the Father of spirits, or whether, under our
spiritual dispensation, the Holy Ghost makes use of such means to
promote intercourse between our spirits and the unseen hierarchies
of Heaven--(ED).

[166] O how reviving and refreshing are those love-tokens from our
Lord! Great-heart never comes empty-handed. He always inspires
with courage and confidence. Let us look more into, and heartily
believe the Word of truth and grace; and cry more to our precious
Immanuel, and we shall have more of Great-heart's company. It is
but sad travelling without him--(Mason).

[167] What this great robbery was, whether spiritual or temporal,
is left to the reader to imagine. The sufferings of the Dissenters
were awfully severe at this time. Had it been a year later, we
might have guessed it to have referred to the sufferings of that
pious, excellent woman, Elizabeth Gaunt, who was burnt, October 23,
1685. She was a Baptist, and cruelly martyred. Penn, the Quaker,
saw her die. 'She laid the straw about her for burning her speedily,
and behaved herself in such a manner that all the spectators melted
in tears.'--(ED).

[168] Mr. Ivimey is of opinion that by this Bunyan sanctioned
a hireling ministry, but it appears more to refer to the common
custom of rewarding servants to whom you have given trouble. He
adduces Luke 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:18; and 1 Corinthians 9:11-14. It
is a subject of considerable difficulty; but how is it that no
minister ever thinks of referring to the plainest passage upon this
subject in the New Testament? It is Acts 20:17-38, especially verses
33-35. The angel was a gold coin, in value half a sovereign--(ED).

[169] Such mountains round about this house do stand
As one from thence may see the Holy Land (Psa. 125:2).
Her fields are fertile, do abound with corn;
The lilies fair her valleys do adorn (Song. 2:1).
The birds that do come hither every spring,
For birds, they are the very best that sing (Song. 2:11, 12).
Her friends, her neighbours too, do call her blest (Psa. 48:2);
Angels do here go by, turn in, and rest (Heb. 13:2).
The road to paradise lies by her gate (Gen. 28:17),
Here pilgrims do themselves accommodate
With bed and board; and do such stories tell,
As do for truth and profit all excel.
Nor doth the porter here say any nay,
That hither would turn in, that here would stay.
This house is rent free; here the man may dwell
That loves his landlord, rules his passions well.
--(Bunyan's House of God, vol. 2 p. 579).

[170] It is sweet melody when we can sing with grace in the heart.
The joy arising from God's free grace and pardoning love, is greater
than the joy of harvest, or of one who rejoices when he divides
the spoil--(J. B.). Those joyful notes spring from a sense of
nearness to the Lord, and a firm confidence in His Divine truth and
everlasting mercy. O when the Sun of Righteousness shines warmly
on the soul, it makes the pilgrims sing most sweetly! These
songs approach very nearly to the heavenly music in the realm of

[171] Forgetfulness makes things nothings. It makes us as if things
had never been; and so takes away from the soul one great means
of stay, support, and encouragement. When David was dejected, the
remembrance of the hill Hermon was his stay. When he was to go
out against Goliath, the remembrance of the lion and the bear was
his support. The recovery of a backslider usually begins at the
remembrance of former things--(Bunyan's Holy Life, vol. 2, p. 507).

[172] After being thus highly favoured with sensible comforts, in
the views of faith, the comforts of hope, and the joy of love, the
next step these pilgrims are to take is down the Hill Difficulty,
into the Valley of Humiliation. What doth this place signify? A deep
and abiding sight and sense of our ruined state, lost condition,
and desperate circumstances, as fallen sinners. This is absolutely
necessary, lest we should think more highly of ourselves than we
ought to think. For the Lord oft favours us with manifestations
of His love, and the comforts of His Spirit; but, through the
corruption of our nature, we are prone to be exalted in ourselves,
and, as it were, intoxicated by them. Hence we are exhorted 'to
think soberly' (Rom. 12:3). This the Valley of Humiliation causes
us to do--(Mason).

[173] Thus beautifully does our author describe the grace of
humility. O that every reader may know its excellence by happy

[174] These are the rare times; above all, when I can go to God
as the Publican, sensible of His glorius majesty, sensible of my
misery, and bear up and affectionately cry, 'God be merciful to
me a sinner.' For my part, I find it one of the hardest things I
can put my soul upon, when warmly sesnsible that I am a sinner,
to come to God for a share in mercy and grace; I cannot but with
a thousand tears say, 'God be merciful to me a sinner.'--(Bunyan's
Pharisee and Publican, vol. 2, p. 261).

[175] Though this Valley of Humiliation, or a clear sight and
abiding sense of the sinfulness of our nature, and the wickedness
of our hearts, may be very terrifying to pilgrims, after they have
been favoured with peace and joy, and comforted by the views of
faith and hope, yet it is a very safe place; and though, at first
entering into it, and seeing more of themselves than was ever
before showed them, they may fear and tremble, yet, after some
continuing here, they are more reconciled and contented; for here
they find the visits of their Lord, and in the depths of their
humility, they behold the heights of His love and the depths of His
mercy, and cry out in joy, Where sin aboundeth, grace superabounds.
Though sin abounds in me, the grace of Jesus superabounds towards
me. Though I am emptied of all, yet I have an inexhaustible fullness
in Jesus, to supply me with all I want and all I hope--(Mason).

[176] The humble man is contented; if his estate be low, his heart
is lower still. He that is little in his own eyes, will not be
much troubled at being little in the eyes of others--(Watson).
Those circumstances that will not disturb a humble man's sleep,
will break a proud man's heart--(Matthew Henry). They that get slips
in going down the hill, or would hide his descent by deception, or
repine at it, must look for combats when in the valley--(Ivimey).

[177] Perhaps the shepherd's boy may refer to the obscure but quiet
station of some pastors over small congregations, who live almost
unknown to their brethren, but are, in a measure, useful and very

[178] Our Lord chose retirement, poverty, and an obscure station;
remote from bustle, and favourable to devotion; so that His
appearance in a public character, and in crowded scenes, for the
good of mankind and the glory of the Father, was a part of His
self-denial, in which 'He pleased not Himself.' Some are banished
into this valley, but the poor in spirit love to walk in it; and
though some believers here struggle with distressing temptations,
others, in passing through it, enjoy much communion with God--(Scott).

[179] Ever remember the words of our Lord, 'It is enough for the
disciple that he be as his master.' If your Lord made it his chief
delight to be in this Valley of Humiliation, learn from His example
to prize this valley. Though you may meet with an Apollyon or a
destroyer here, yet you are safe in the arms and under the power
of your all-conquering Lord: 'For though the Lord is high, yet
hath He respect unto the lowly.' Therefore you may add with David,
'Though I walk in the midst of trouble, Thou wilt revive me: Thou
shalt stretch forth Thine hand against the wrath of mine enemies,
and Thy right hand shall save me' (Psa. 138:7). Such are the
confidence, the reasoning, and the pleading of humble souls in the
power of faith, which leads them quite out of themselves to their

[180] In the first edition this name is printed 'Simon'; it was
corrected to Samuel in Bunyan's later editions--(ED).

[181] It is marvellous to see how some men are led captive by
forgetfulness. Those that sometime thought no pains too much, no
way too far, no hazards too great to run for eternal life, become
as if they had never thought of such things. Should one say to
some--Art not thou that man I saw crying out under a sermon, 'What
shall I do to be saved?' that I heard speak well of the holy Word
of God? how askew they will look upon one. Or if they acknowledge
that such things were with them once, they do it more like dejected
ghosts than as men--(Bunyan's Holy Life, vol. 2, p. 507).

[182] O pilgrims, attend to this! Pride and ingratitude go hand in
hand. Study, ever study the favours of your Lord; how freely they
are bestowed upon you, and how utterly unworthy you are of the
least of them. Beware of Forgetful Green. Many, after going some
way on pilgrimage, get into this Green, and continue here; and talk
of their own faithfulness to grace received, the merit of their
works, and a second justification by their works, &c. Hence it is
plain that they are fallen asleep on this Forgetful Green, and talk
incoherently, as men do in their sleep; for they forget that they
are still sinners--poor, needy, wretched sinners; and that they want
the blood of Christ to cleanse them, the righteousness of Christ
to justify them, and the Spirit of Christ to keep them humble,
and to enable them to live by faith upon the fullness of Christ
to sanctify them, as much as they did when they first set out as
pilgrims. O it is a most blessed thing to be kept mindful of what
we are, and of the Lord's free grace and unmerited goodness to

[183] 'Trembles at God's Word,' so as not to dare pick and choose
which doctrines he will receive, and which reject. Would you act
thus by God's holy commandments? Would you choose one and reject
another? Are they not all of equal authority? And are not all His
holy doctrines also stamped with the same Divine sanction? Where
there is true faith in them, it will make a man tremble to act
thus by God's Word!--(Mason).

[184] We ought to study the records of the temptations, conflicts,
faith, patience, and victories of believers; mark their wounds, by
what misconduct they were occasioned, that we may watch and pray
lest we fall in like manner. Learn how they repelled the assaults
of the tempter, that we may learn to resist him steadfast in the
faith. Their triumphs should animate us to keep on the whole armour
of God, that we may be able to withstand in the evil day--(Scott).

[185] If Satan be driven back from one attack, prepare for another.
Bless God for your armour. Never put it off--(Mason).

[186] If this monument refers to the experience of Bunyan, as
exhibited in his Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, it is
well called, 'Most strange, and yet most true.'--(ED).

[187] This valley represents the inward distress, conflict, and
alarm, arising from darkness and insensibility of mind. It varies
according to the constitution, animal spirits, health, education,
and strength of mind of different persons--(Scott).

[188] None know the distress, anguish, and fear that haunt pilgrims
in this valley, but those who have been in it. The hissings,
revilings, and injections of that old serpent, with all his infernal
malice, seem to be let loose upon pilgrims in this valley. Asaph
seems to be walking in this valley when he says, 'As for me, my feet
were almost gone, my steps had well nigh slipped' (Psa. 73:2)--(Mason).

[189] Satan is often must dreadful at a distance, and, courageously
resisted, will not advance nearer. This advice is ever needful, 'Be
sober; be vigilant.' These pilgrims kept up their watch. Satan did
come upon them unawares; still they heard his approach; they were
prepared for his attack; lo, Satan drew back--(Mason).

[190] Miserable, uncomfortable walking, with a pit before us, mid
darkness around, yea, within us, and hell seeming to move from beneath
to meet us who have been left to the darkness of our nature, the
terrors of a fiery law, the sense of guilt, and the fear of hell! O
what an unspeakable mercy, in such a distressing season, to have
an Almighty Saviour to look to and call upon for safety and
salvation! 'For He will hear our cry and save us' (Psa. 145:19)--(Mason).

[191] This text has been a sheet anchor to my soul under darkness
and distress. I doubt not but it has been so to many others. O
there is an amazing depth of grace and a wonderful height of mercy
in it. Bless God for it. Study it deeply--(Mason).

[192]What must the pure and holy Jesus have suffered when He tasted
death in all its bitterness? His soul was in an agony. Hell was
let loose upon Him. This is your hour, said He, and the power of
darkness, when He cried out, 'My God, My God, why hast Thou
forsaken Me?' It seemed as if the pains of hell had got hold of
Him. O what justice and judgment! what love and mercy! what power
and might were here displayed! And all this for us, and for our
salvation. What shall we render to the Lord for all His benefits?--(J.

[193] Precious thought; under the worst and most distressing
circumstances think of this. Their continuance is short. The
appointment, love. Their end shall be crowned with glory. Our dark
and distressing nights make us prize our light and joyful days the

[194] The tremendous horrors of the Valley of the Shadow of Death,
figuratively represents the gloomy frame of mind in which fears
rise high, and temptations greatly abound, more especially when
they are augmented by bodily disease. Few Christians are wholly
exempted from such distressing seasons, but all are not distressed
alike--(Burder). Bunyan's experience, recorded in his Grace
Abounding, shows that he was, when under conviction, very familiar
with these horrors--(ED).

[195] Heedless professors, be warned. The doctrines of grace were
never intended to lull any asleep in carnal security. If they do
so by you, it is a sure sign that what should have been for your
health proves an occasion of your falling--(Mason). O the miserable
end of them that obey not the Gospel--punished with everlasting
destruction from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of His
power--(J. B.).

[196] Prayer prevailed, and they were delivered.
By glimm'ring hopes, and gloomy fears,
We trace the sacred road;
Through dismal deeps, and dang'rous snares,
We make our way to God--(Burder).

[197] By a good heart is here meant, that Christian was endued
with boldness and courage from above; as the Psalmist says, 'Wait
on the Lord, be of good courage, and He shall strengthen thine
heart.'--(J. B.).

[198] Satan's master argument is, Thou art a horrible sinner, a
hypocrite, one that has a profane heart, and one that is an utter
stranger to a work of grace. I say this is his Maul, his club, his
master-piece. He doth with this as some do by their most enchanting
songs, sings them everywhere. I believe there are but few saints
in the world that have not had this temptation sounding in their
ears. But were they but aware, Satan by all this does but drive
them to the gap, out at which they should go, and so escape his
roaring. Saith he, Thou art a great sinner, a horrible sinner, a
profane-hearted wretch, one that cannot be matched for a vile one
in the country. The tempted may say, Aye, Satan, so I am, a sinner of
the biggest size, and, therefore, have most need of Jesus Christ;
yea, because I am such a wretch Jesus calls me first. I am he,
wherefore stand back, Satan, make a lane; my right is first to come
to Jesus Christ. This, now, would be like for like; this would foil
the devil: this would make him say, I must not deal with this man
thus; for then I put a sword into his hand to cut off my head--(Good
News for the Vilest of Men, vol. 1, p 96).

[199] The greatest heart cannot understand without prayer, nor
conquer without the almighty power of God. The belief of this will
excite prayer--(Mason).

[200] The severity of Job's sufferings probably suggested to the
author, the idea of taking rest during the conflict. 'How long wilt
thou not depart from me, nor let me alone till I swallow down my
spittle?' (Job 7:19). Here is no timidly mincing the matter with
sophistry or infidelity; but a manful, prayerful, fighting it

[201] Mr. Ivimey considers, that in Giant Maul is characterised that
erroneous but common notion, that the church of Christ consists
exclusively of some one state religion, to dissent from which is to
cause schism, and to rend the seamless coat of Christ. Maul dwelt
in the place where Pagan and Pope had resided; the club being the
temporal power to compel uniformity. If so, the declaration for
liberty of conscience slew the giant, and the Act of toleration
prevented his resurrection. Alas, how little do such Anti-Christians
know of that spiritual kingdom which extends over all the temporal
kingdoms of the earth, and which constitutes Christ the King
of kings--(ED). Carnal reasoning upon the equity of the Divine
proceedings have mauled many a Christian--robbed him of his
comfort, and spoiled his simplicity. As soon as we turn aside to
vain janglings and doubtful disputations, we get upon the devil's
ground. As Great-heart was knocked down with this giant's club,
so many a faithful minister has been confounded with the subtle
arguments of a cunning disputer. The way to overcome this giant is
to keep close to Scripture, and pray for the teaching of the Holy
Spirit--(J.B.). Though Maul was baffled, disabled, and apparently
slain; it will appear that he has left a posterity on earth to
revile, injure, and oppose the spiritual worshippers of God in
every generation--(Scott).

[202] Well may Giant Maul, with his sophistry, be called a dangerous
enemy. Many of this tribe are mentioned in the Holy War, as Lord
Cavil, the Lord Brisk, the Lord Pragmatic, the Lord Murmur, and
one Clip-promise, a notorious villain. These lords felt the edge of
Lord Will-be-will's sword, for which his Prince Immanuel honoured
him. Clip-promise was set in the pillory, whipped, and hanged. One
clipper-of-promise does great abuse to Mansoul in a little time.
Bunyan's judgment was, that 'all those of his name and life should
be served even as he!'--(ED).

[203] Light afflictions, but for a moment, and which work out for
us an eternal weight of glory--'a little hurt on my flesh.' If
this refers to Bunyan's twelve years' imprisonment under the maul
of sophistry, how must his natural temper have been subdued by

[204] This club we may suppose to mean human power, under
which many godly ministers, in the seventeenth century, suffered
greatly. Blessed be God, we have nothing of this to fear in our
day; therefore, the more shame for such professors who desert
Christ when they have nothing to fear but the breath of reproach,
a nickname, or a by-word of contempt--(Mason).

[205] The experienced Christian will be afraid of new acquaintance;
in his most unwatchful seasons he is fully convinced that no enemy
can hurt him, unless he is induced to yield to temptation, and
commit sin--(Scott).

[206] The character of Honesty is beautifully drawn by a masterly
hand. The aged pilgrim, worn out with fatigue, can say without
fear, 'I laid me down and slept; I awaked; for the Lord sustained
me.' He blushed when his name was mentioned, and proved to be a
most valuable acquisition to the Pilgrim party--(ED).

[207] By honesty, in the abstract, he means to distinguish between
his earnest desire to be honest, and a perfect character. Every
Christian is the subject of honesty or justice, uprightness
and sincerity; yet when we come to describe these virtues in the
abstract, or what they really are in their strict purity and utmost
perfection, where is the Christian but must wear the conscientious
blush, as Honesty did, under a sense of his imperfections--(Mason).

[208] This is the confession of an honest heart. It is never afraid
of ascribing too much to the sovereignty of grace; nor of giving
all the glory to the Sun of Righteousness, for shining upon, and
melting down its hard frozen soul--(Mason).

[209] If the kiss of charity be given, great care should be taken
that it is a 'holy' kiss. 'Some have urged the holy kiss, but then
I have asked why they made baulks; why they did salute the most
handsome, and let the ill-favoured go. This has been unseemly in
my sight.'--(Grace Abounding, No. 315). However such a custom may
have been innocent in the oriental scenes of apostolic labours,
it has been very properly discontinued in later ages, unless it be
as in the case of old Honest, or the unexpected meeting of very
old friends and relatives--(ED).

[210] The character and narrative of Fearing is drawn and arranged
with great judgment, and in a very affecting manner. Little-faith,
mentioned in the First Part, was faint-hearted and distrustful;
and thus he contracted guilt, and lost his comfort; but Fearing
dreaded sin and coming short of Heaven, more than all that flesh
could do unto him. He was alarmed more at the fear of being
overcome by temptation, than from a reluctance to undergo derision
or persecution. The peculiarity of this description of Christians
must be traced back to constitution, habit, first impressions,
disproportionate and partial views of truth, and improper
instructions; these, concurring with weakness of faith, and the
common infirmities of human nature, give a cast to their experience
and character, which renders them uncomfortable to themselves,
and troublesome to others. Yet no competent judges doubt that they
have the root of the matter in them; and none are more entitled
to the patient, sympathizing, and tender attention of ministers
and Christians--(Scott).

[211] We cannot but admire the variety of experiences introduced
into the Pilgrim's Progress. Many have died remarkably happy in the
Lord, who, till very near their last moments have been in bondage
through the fear of death. We may be sure of this, that wherever
the Lord has begun a work, He will carry it on to the great decisive
day. The proof of this is 'he would not go back!' 'If ye continue
in My Word, then are ye My disciples indeed.'--(J.B.).

[212] See all through this character, what a conflict there was
between fear, and the influence of grace. Though it may not be
the most comfortable, yet the end of Mr. Fearing was very joyful.
O what a godly jealousy displayed itself all through his life!
Better this, than strong, vain-glorious confidence. The Valley of
Humiliation suits well with fearing hearts--(Mason).

[213] When persons are naturally fearful and low-spirited, it will
be found, notwithstanding the courage and comfort they sometimes
are favoured with, that the constitutional bias of their tempers
and dispositions will discover itself, more or less, all through
their pilgrimage. Thus there is a kind of sympathy between Fearing
and the Valley of Humiliation, which seems congenial to him--(J.B.).

[214] O what a time of need is the day of death, when I am to pack
up all, to be gone from hence; now a man grows near the borders of
eternity; he sees into the skirts of the next world. Now death is
death, and the grave the grave indeed. Has he laid up grace for this
day, while cold death strokes his hand over his face, and over his
heart, and is turning his blood into jelly; while strong death is
loosing his silver cord, and breaking his golden bowl?--(Bunyan's
Saints' Privilege, vol. 1, p. 678). Can a great-hearted saint wonder
that Mr. Fearing was at his wit's end?--(ED).

[215] Here is a glorious display of a fearing heart. Full of courage
against evil, and fired with zeal for God's glory--(Mason).

[216] O how gracious is our Lord! as thy day is, O Pilgrim, so
shall thy strength be. Even the river of death, though there can
be no bridge to go over, yet faith makes one; and the Lord of faith
makes the waters low, to suit the state of His beloved ones--(Mason).

[217] We know the least appearance of a sin better by its native
hue, than we know a grace of the Spirit. Sin is sooner felt in
its bitterness upon a sanctified soul than is the grace of God.
Sin is dreadful and murderous in the sight of a sanctified soul.
Grace lies deep in the hidden part, but sin floats above in the
flesh, and is easier seen. Grace as to quantity, seems less than
sin. What is leaven, or a grain of mustard seed, to the bulky lump
of a body of death? It is a rare thing for some Christians to see
their graces, but a thing very common for such to see their sins,
to the shaking of their souls--(Bunyan's Desire of the Righteous,
vol. 1, p. 755).

[218] This is an every-day character in the church, delicately and
accurately drawn, a man, as Mr. Ivimey says, that 'carried the
Slough of Despond in his mind everywhere with him,' not from the
difficulties of the way, nor the frowns of the world, but from
doubts lest sin, death, and hell, should prevail over them. They
walk safely, however sorrowfully; and seldom give the enemy an
occasion to rejoice--(ED).

[219] Here is a very striking lesson for professors. Talk not of
your great knowledge, rich experience, comfortable frames, and
joyful feelings; all are vain and delusive, if the Gospel has not
a holy influence upon your practice. On the other hand, be not
dejected if you are not favoured with these; for if a holy fear
of God, and a godly jealousy over yourselves, possess your heart,
verily you are a partaker of the grace of Christ--(Mason).

[220] Hatred to sin can only arise from the love of God. In vain
do men think of deterring others from sin, or driving them to duty
by low terrors, or low requirements. The strong man armed will
keep his palace, till a stronger than he cometh and taketh from
him the armour wherein he trusted. But herein they err, not knowing
the Scriptures, which set forth love as the constraining motive
to true obedience--(J.B.).

[221] Christians who resemble Fearing, are greatly retarded in their
progress by discouraging apprehensions; they are apt to spend too
much time in unavailing complaints; yet they cannot think of giving
up their feeble hopes, or of returning to their forsaken worldly
pursuits and pleasures. They are indeed helped forward, through
the mercy of God, in a very extraordinary manner; yet they still
remain exposed to alarms and discouragements, in every stage of
their pilgrimage. They are afraid even of relying on Christ for
salvation, because they have not distinct views of His love, and
the methods of His grace; and imagine some other qualification to
be necessary besides the willingness to seek, knock, and ask for
the promised blessings, with a real desire of obtaining them.
They imagine, that there has been something in their past life,
or that there is some peculiarity in their present habits, and way
of applying to Christ, which may exclude them from the benefit: so
that they pray with diffidence; and, being consciously unworthy,
can hardly believe that the Lord will grant their requests. They
are also prone to overlook the most decisive evidences of their
reconciliation to God; and to persevere in arguing with perverse
ingenuity against their own manifest happiness. The same mixture of
humility and unbelief renders persons of this description backward
in associating with their brethren, and in frequenting those
companies in which they might obtain further instruction; for
they are afraid of being considered as believers, or even serious
inquirers; so that affectionate and earnest persuasion is requisite
to prevail with them to join in those religious exercises, by which
Christians especially receive the teaching of the Holy Spirit. Yet
this arises not from disinclination, but diffidence; and though
they are often peculiarly favoured with seasons of great comfort,
to counterbalance their dejections, yet they never hear or read of
those who 'have drawn back to perdition,' but they are terrified
with the idea that they shall shortly resemble them; so that every
warning given against hypocrisy or self-deception seems to point
them out by name, and every new discovery of any fault or mistake
in their views, temper, or conduct, seems to decide their doom.
At the same time, they are often remarkably melted into humble,
admiring gratitude, by contemplating the love and sufferings of
Christ, and seem to delight in hearing of that subject above all
others. They do not peculiarly fear difficulties, self-denial,
reproaches, or persecution, which deter numbers from making an
open profession of religion; and yet they are more backward in
this respect than others, because they deem themselves unworthy
to be admitted to such privileges and into such society, or else
are apprehensive of being finally separated from them or becoming
a disgrace to religion--(Scott).

[222] This is a solid, scriptural definition; pray mind it. Here
conditions may safely be admitted; and happy is the Christian who
keeps closest to these conditions, in order to enjoy peace of
conscience, and joy of heart in Christ--(Mason).

[223] That heart, which is under the teaching and influence of the
grace of God, will detect such horrid notions, and cry out against
them. God forbid that ever I should listen one moment to such
diabolical sentiments! for they are hatched in hell, and propagated
on earth, by the father of lies--(Mason).

[224] It is a horrible and blasphemous perversion of Scripture, to
take encouragement in sin, from those sad examples of it in the
saints, which are held up, in terrorem, as so many beacons by
which we may avoid the same. To talk, and especially to act like
Self-will affords the fullest proof that a man never came in at
the gate. The Lord change every such perverse will, and preserve
the church from principles and practices so diabolical--(Burder).
What shall we say to these things? Lord, keep me!--(J.B.).

[225] It may be seriously inquired as to whether in all Satan's
temptations, any one is so fatal to immortal souls as the idea of
a death-bed repentance. Have not prayers against sudden death a
tendency to interfere with or obstruct that daily walk with God,
which alone can fit us to meet the king of terrors? When heart
and strength fail; when the body is writhing in agony, or lying
an insensible lump of mortality; is that the time to make peace
with God? Such persons must he infatuated with strange notions
of the Divine Being. No, my reader, life is the time to serve
the Lord, the time to insure the great reward. Sudden death is a
release from much pain and anxiety. It is the most merciful gate
by which we can enter upon immortality--(ED).

[226] Pray attentively mind, and deeply consider the six following
observations; they are just; they are daily confirmed to us in the
different conduct of professors. Study, and pray to improve them
to your soul's profit--(Mason).

[227] Adam hid himself because he was naked. But how could he be
naked, when before he had made himself an apron? O! the approach
of God consumed and burnt off his apron! His apron would not keep
him from the eye of the incorruptible God. When God deals with such
men for sin, assuredly they will find themselves naked--(Bunyan on
Genesis, vol. 2, p. 432). If the wicked flee when no man pursueth,
how can they stand when God lets loose death and eternity upon
their guilty souls?--(ED).

[228] Thou art bound to Heaven, but the way thither is dangerous.
It is beset everywhere with evil angels, who would rob thee of thy
soul. If thou wouldest go on cheerfully in thy dangerous journey,
commit thy treasure--thy soul, to God, to keep; and then thou
mayest say with comfort, Well, that care is over; my soul is safe;
the thieves, if they meet me, cannot come at that; God will keep
it to my joy and comfort at the great day--(Bunyan's Advice to
Sufferers, vol. 2, p. 701).

[229] The spiritual refreshment, arising from experimental conversation,
seems to be especially intended; but the name of Gaius suggests
also the importance of the Apostle's exhortation, 'Use hospitality
without grudging.' This ought to be obeyed even to strangers,
if they are certified to us as brethren in Christ--(Scott). Every
Christian's house should, so far as ability is given, be an inn
for the refreshment of weary fellow-pilgrims--(ED).

[230] This character is drawn from that of the well-beloved Gaius,
in the third epistle of John. Although, in comparison with the
great bulk of Christians, there are but few such in the church;
yet in all ages, and in most churches, some hospitable Gaius is
to be found. May their numbers be greatly increased--(ED).

[231] Ignatius, a bishop or pastor of a church in Antioch, cruelly
martyred for the truth in the second century; not Ignatius Loyola,
the Jesuit. Mr. Bunyan obtained all this information from Foxe's
Book of Martyrs, which was written before Satan had introduced the
Jesuits into the world--(ED).

[232] 'Marriage is honourable in all' (Heb. 13:4). Notwithstanding
all the cares of a family, while the married have many troubles, the
single have few, if any, real enjoyments of life. The will of our
heavenly Father is here enforced upon the pilgrims by Gaius--only
let pilgrims be united together, marry in the Lord, and we may expect
his blessing to fit us to do His will. Vows of celibacy are from
beneath, from the father of lies--contrary to the order of nature,
and the expressed will of God. 'It is not good to be alone.'--(ED).

[233] The different parts of social worship and Christian fellowship
are here allegorically described. The heave-shoulder and wave-breast
typify the power and love of our great High Priest; that we should
devote to Him our whole heart, with fervent prayer, and grateful
praise. The wine represents the exhilarating effects of the shedding
of Christ's blood, and its application to us by living faith. The
milk is the simple instruction of the Scriptures. The butter and
honey are animating views of God and heavenly joy. The apples are
the promises and privileges of Christians (see Song. 2:3; Prov.
25:11). And the nuts those difficult doctrines, which amply repay
us the trouble of penetrating their meaning. Christians so employed
have far sweeter enjoyments than they ever had in the mirth,
diversions, and pleasures of the world--(Scott).

[234] Bunyan takes advantage of the common past-time of solving
riddles, to teach important truth in a way calculated to be impressed
on the memory. Thus, in the treatise on the Covenants of the Law
and Grace, the second Adam was before the first, and also the
second covenant before the first. This is a riddle--(Vol. 2, p.
524)--(ED). Observe here, the feast of pilgrims was attended with
mirth. Christians have the greatest reason to be merry; but then
it ought to be spiritual mirth, which springs from spiritual views
and spiritual conversation--(Mason).

[235] When Christian intercourse is conducted with gravity and
cheerfulness united, it is both pleasant and instructive. Speech
should be 'always with grace, seasoned with salt, that it may
minister grace to the bearers,' and thus 'provoke one another unto
love, and to good works'; thus are the young encouraged to follow
that which is good--(Ivimey).

[236] Here is a genuine discovery of a gracious heart; when it is
delighted with spiritual company and conversation, and longs for
its continuance. Is it so with you?--(Mason).

[237] If our love to sinners be only shown by seeking their spiritual
good, it will be considered as a bigoted desire to proselyte them
to our sect; but uniform diligent endeavours to relieve their
temporal wants are intelligible to every man, and bring a good
report on the profession of the Gospel (Matt. 5:16)--(Scott).

[238] O, this dying to self, to self-righteous pride, vain confidence,
self-love, and self-complacency, is hard work to the old man; yea,
it is both impracticable and impossible to him. It is only grace
that can conquer and subdue him; and where grace reigns, this
work is carried on day by day. And yet the old man of sin, and
self-righteousness, still lives in us--(Mason).

[239] Old age affords advantage in overcoming some propensities,
yet habits of indulgence often counterbalance the decays of nature;
and avarice, suspicion, and peevishness, with other evils, gather
strength as men advance in years. Some old men may imagine that
they have renounced sin, because they are no longer capable of
committing the crimes in which they once lived--(Scott).

[240] The refreshment of Divine consolations, and Christian
fellowship, are intended to prepare us for vigorously maintaining
the good fight of faith; not only against the enemies of our own
souls, but also against the opposers of our most holy religion.
We are soldiers, and should unite together under the Captain of
Salvation, to contend for the faith once delivered to the saints,
by every method authorized by the Word of God; nor must we shrink
from danger and contumely in so good a cause--(Scott).

[241] It may he asked, how for it is right to expose ourselves to
danger and difficulties, since it is rashness, not courage, to
expose ourselves to unnecessary danger, or to give unnecessary
offence. I would answer, It can never be improper to expose error,
or oppose a prevailing vice, by which God's children are in danger
of being beguiled--(J.B.).

[242] Giant Slay-good represents a wicked, cruel man--a mere
cannibal, invested with judicial authority--a selfish, malignant
persecutor, who intimidated feeble-minded professors by fines and
imprisonments, to the hazard of their souls. By the thieves, of
whom he was master, were perhaps intended the common informers,
who got their living by giving evidence against Nonconformists;
some cruel magistrates pursued them to death. The attack was by
scriptural and rational arguments, which led to a great alteration
in these accursed laws--(Ivimey and Scott).

[243] All pilgrims are not alike vigorous, strong, and lively; some
are weak, creep and crawl on, in the ways of the Lord. No matter,
if there be but a pilgrim's heart, all shall be well at last; for
Omnipotence itself is for us, and then we may boldly ask, 'Who shall
be against us?'--(Mason). Constitutional timidity and lowness of
spirits, arising from a feeble frame, give a peculiar cast to the
views and nature of religious profession, which unfits for hard and
perilous service. The difference between Feeble-mind and Fearing
seems to be this--the former was more afraid of opposition, and the
latter more doubtful about the event, which perhaps may intimate,
that Slay-good rather represents persecutors than deceivers--(Scott).

[244] What a sweet simple relation is here! Doth it not suit many
a feeble mind? Poor soul, weak as he was, yet his Lord provided
against his danger. He sent some strong ones to his deliverance, and
to slay his enemy. Mind his belief, even in his utmost extremity.
Learn somewhat from this Feeble-mind--(Mason).

[245] O how sweet to reflect, that the most gigantic enemies shall
be conquered, and their most malicious designs be overruled for
our good; yea, what they intend for our ruin shall be made to work
for our health and prosperity--(Mason).

[246] 'Whosoever will save his life shall lose it; and whosoever
will lose his life for My sake shall find it' (Matt. 16:25)--(ED).
Here is a contrast between a feeble believer and a specious
hypocrite; the latter eludes persecutions by time-serving, yet
perishes in his sins; the former suffers and trembles, yet hopes
to be delivered and comforted. The frequency with which this is
introduced, and the variety of characters by which it is illustrated,
show us how important the author deemed such warnings--(Scott).

[247] Events, which at first appear big with misery and misfortune,
have been found afterwards to have been as so many dark passages,
to lead into brighter and more glorious displays of the Divine
power, wisdom, and goodness--(J.B.).

[248] 'Marriage is honourable in all'; nor will Christian females
find such a state any hindrance to their abounding in works of
charity and mercy. By fulfilling the duties of the married life,
they will cause the ways of God to be well spoken of. The desire
of Paul was, 'That the younger women marry, be sober, love their
husbands, love their children, be discreet, chaste, keepers at
home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the Word of God
be not blasphemed' (Titus 2:4, 5)--(Ivimey).

[249] What an open, ingenuous confession is here! though feeble in
mind, he was strong in wisdom and sound judgment--(Mason). Woe be
to those who offend one of these little ones; no less dear to God
than the most eminent and distinguished saints--(J.B.).

[250] O that this were more practised among Christians of different
standings, degrees, and judgments! If they who are strong were thus
to bear with the weak, as they ought, how much more love, peace,
and unanimity would prevail!--(Mason).

[251] Excellent! See the nature of Christian love; even to be ready
to spare to a brother, what we ourselves have occasion for. Love
looketh not at the things of our own, but to provide for the wants
of others--(Mason).

[252] The character of Feeble-mind seems to coincide, in some
things, with that of Fearing, and in others with the description
of Little-faith. Constitutional timidity and lowness of spirits,
arising from a feeble frame, and frequent sickness, while they
are frequently the means of exciting men to religion, give also a
peculiar cast to their views and the nature of their profession--tend
to hold them under perpetual discouragements, and unfit them for
hard and perilous services. This seems implied in the name given
to the native place of Feeble-mind; yet this is often connected
with evident sincerity, and remarkable perseverance in the ways
of God--(Scott).

[253] Here, very ingeniously, an associate is found for poor
Feeble-mind; in one equally weak, lame, and limping in his religious
sentiments, who, instead of forming his own sentiments from the
Word of Truth, leant upon the sentiments and opinions of others.
The hesitation of Feeble-mind to accept one of his crutches, is
humourously conceived. He would, weak as he was, think for himself;
though he had no objection to quote the opinion of another Christian
against an adversary--(Ivimey). 'As iron sharpeneth iron, so a man
sharpeneth the countenance of his friend.' How great a comfort to
find a fellow-pilgrim whose experience agrees with our own, and
with whom we can take sweet counsel! Still all our dependence must
be on Ready-to-halt's crutches--'the promises.'--(ED).

[254] The near prospect of persecution is formidable even to true
believers, notwithstanding all the encouragements of God's Word.
It is useful to realize such scenes, that we may pray, without
ceasing, for wisdom, fortitude, patience, meekness, faith, and love
sufficient for us, should matters come to the worst--(Scott).

[255] How happy to find a family, in Vanity Fair, whose master will
receive and entertain pilgrims. Blessed be God for the present
revival of religion in our day, and for the many houses that are
open to friends of the Lamb--(Mason).

[256] The inquiry of disciples, after suitable company, discovers
that they, with David, love the Lord's saints; and in the excellent
of the earth is all their delight (Psa. 16:3). A genuine discovery
this of a gracious heart--(Mason).

[257] Great, indeed, was the change in the town of Vanity, when
Christiana and her party of pilgrims arrived, compared with the
but recent period when Faithful was martyred. The declaration
of liberty of conscience had rendered the profession of vital
godliness more public, still there was persecution enough to make
it comparatively pure. Dr. Cheever has indulged in a delightful
reverie, in his lecture on Vanity Fair, by supposing, at some
length, how our glorious dreamer would now describe the face of
society in our present Vanity Fair. After describing the consequences
that had arisen from religion having become FASHIONABLE, he hints
at the retrograde movement towards Popery, known under the name
of Puseyism. 'It happened, in process of time, that a part of the
pilgrims who remained in Vanity Fair, began to visit the cave of
Giant Pope, and it became a sort of fashionable pilgrimage to
that cave. They brushed up the giant, and gave him medicines to
alleviate the hurts from those bruises which he had received in his
youth; and, to make the place pleasanter, they carefully cleared
away the remains of the bones and skulls of burned pilgrims, and
planted a large enclosure with flowers and evergreens.' 'The cage
in which the Pilgrims were once confined was now never used; some
said it was consecrated for church purposes, and put under the
cathedral, in a deep cell, from which it might again be brought forth
if occasion required it.' The Doctor's description of the present
state of Vanity Fair is very deeply interesting and amusing--(ED).
When religion is counted honourable, we shall not want professors; but
trying times are sifting times. As the chaff flies before the wind,
so will the formal professors before a storm of persecution--(J.B.).
[258] Kindness to the poor increases and builds up the church. It
conquers the prejudices of the worldly, secures their confidence,
and brings them under the preaching of the Gospel. They rationally
conclude that they cannot be bad people who do so much good--(Ivimey).

[259] This monster is Antichrist. The devil is the head; the
synagogue of Satan is the body; the wicked spirit of iniquity is
the soul. The devil made use of the church [the clergy] to midwife
this monster into the world. He had plums in his dragon's mouth,
and so came in by flatteries. He metamorphosed himself into
a beast, a man, or woman; and the inhabitants of the world loved
the woman dearly, became her sons, and took up helmet and shield
to defend her. She arrayed herself in flesh-taking ornaments--gold,
and precious stones, like an harlot. She made the kings drunken,
and they gave her the blood of saints and martyrs until she was
drunken, and did revel and roar. But when her cup is drunk out, God
will call her to such a reckoning, that all her clothes, pearls,
and jewels shall not be able to pay the shot. This beast is compared
to the wild boar that comes out of the wood to devour the church
of God (Psa. 80:13). The temporal sword will kill its body, but
spirit can only be slain by spirit; the Lord the Spirit will slay
its soul--(Bunyan on Antichrist, vol. 2, p. 47). Is not Antichrist
composed of all the State religions in the world?--(ED).

[260] For this woman's name and costume see Revelation 17:1-4. She
has just sent one of her illegitimate sons to England, under the
impudent assumption of Archbishop of Westminster--(ED).

[261] And that you may be convinced of the truth of this, look back
and compare Antichrist four hundred years ago, with Antichrist as
he now is, and you shall see what work the Lord Jesus has begun
to make with him; kingdoms and countries He hath taken from her.
True, the fogs of Antichrist, and the smoke that came with him
out of the bottomless pit, has eclipsed the glorious light of the
Gospel; but you know, in eclipses, when they are recovering, all
the creatures upon the face of the earth cannot put a stop to that
course, until the sun or the moon have recovered their glory. And
thus it shall be now, the Lord is returning to visit this people
with His primitive lustre; he will not go back until the light
of the sun shall be sevenfold--(Bunyan's Antichrist and his ruin,
vol. 2, p. 48).

[262] When nations have restored to the people the property of
which they have been plundered, under the pretence of assisting to
obtain the pardon of sin and the favour of God, the monster will
soon die; when neither rule, nor honour, nor pelf is to be gained
by hypocrisy--(ED).

[263] This may refer to that noble band of eminent men who, in
1675, preached the morning exercises against Popery; among others
were Owen, Manton, Baxter, Doolittle, Jenkyn, Poole, and many
others. They were then, and ever will be, of great fame--(ED).

[264] The plans of Charles II and James II, to re-establish Popery in
England, were defeated by the union of the eminent Nonconformists
with some decided enemies to Rome in the Established Church; this
brought them into esteem and respect. Mr. Scott's note on this
passage is--'The disinterested, and bold decided conduct of many
dissenters, on this occasion, procured considerable favour both
to them and their brethren, with the best friends of the nation;
but the prejudices of others prevented them from reaping all the
advantage from it that they ought to have done.'--(ED).

[265] David Hume, in his History of England, admitted the invaluable
services of the Puritans, 'By whom the precious spark of liberty
was kindled and preserved, and to whom the English owe all the
blessings of their excellent constitution.'--(ED).

[266] This is a most encouraging view of the tender care of the
Saviour, to the children of believers committed to His care, by
godly parents. Not by any ceremonial observance, but by constant
fervent supplications to the Throne of Grace on their behalf, and
by a consistent pious example to train them up in the way in which
they should go, that when they are old they should not depart from
the new and living way--(ED).

[267] Here we frequently find our author speaking of our God and
Saviour as Man; he excels in this. It is to be wished that authors
and preachers wrote and spake of the manhood of Jesus, who was a
perfect Man, like unto us in all things except sin. The view and
consideration of this is sweet to faith, and endears our Saviour
to our hearts--(Mason).

[268] What cannot Great-heart do? what feats not perform? what
victories not gain? Who can stand before Great-heart? Diffidence
shall fall, and Giant Despair be slain by the power of Great-heart,
with 'the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God' (Eph. 6:17);
even Despondency, though almost starved, shall be delivered, and
his daughter Much-afraid shall be rescued. O for more of Great-heart's
company!--(Mason). The struggle with Despair may be dangerous, and
painful, and long-continued, but it shall he finally successful.
'I am persuaded,' saith the Apostle, 'that neither death, nor life,
nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present,
nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature,
shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in
Christ Jesus our Lord.' Paul demolished the castle, and slew the
giant; but,

'Sin can rebuild the castle, make't remain,
And make Despair the Giant live again.'--ED.

[269] How well does Mr. Bunyan describe the experience of the
Much-afraids, Ready-to-halts, and the Feeble-minds, in the Come
and Welcome. 'Poor coming soul, thou art like the man that would
ride full gallop, whose horse will hardly trot! Now, the desire of
his mind is not to be judged of by the slow pace of the dull jade
he rides on, but by the hitching, and kicking, and spurring, as
he sits on his back. Thy flesh is like this dull jade; it will
not gallop after Christ, it will be backward, though thy soul
and Heaven lie at stake. But be of good comfort, Christ judgeth
according to the sincerity of the heart.'--(Vol. 1, p. 252).

[270] This is the work and aim of every faithful minister of Christ,
to destroy Giant Despair, and demolish Doubting Castle, in the
hearts of God's children. A more awful character is not in the
world, than the man who assumes the ministerial name and character,
without understanding the nature of that ministry of reconciliation
which is committed to everyone who is really called and sent of

[271]'The wain,' seven bright stars in the constellation of Ursa
Major, called by country people, the plough, or the wain, or Charles
I's chariot--(ED).

[272]Those ministers who exercise the greatest affection towards
weak and upright Christians, are most according to the description
of pastors, after God's own heart, given in the Scriptures of

[273] Bunyan was peculiarly tender with the weak; they are to
be received, but not to doubtful disputations. Thus, with regard
to the great cause of separation among Christians, he says, 'If
water-baptism' (whether by sprinkling of infants, or immersing of
adults) 'trouble their peace, wound the consciences of the godly,
and dismember their fellowships, it is although an ordinance, for
the present to be prudently shunned, for the edification of the
church.' 'Love is more discovered when we receive, for the sake of
Christ, than when we refuse his children for want of water.'--(Bunyan
on Baptism, vol. 2, p. 608). When will such peaceful sentiments
spread over the church?--(ED).

[274] There are things taught by the Gospel, here called 'rarities,'
which, though high and mysterious, will yet, when clearly stated,
prove the means of exciting Christians to live by faith, and to
cultivate whatsoever things are lovely and of good report--(Ivimey).

[275] Strong faith, in the words of Christ, will 'believe down'
mountains of afflictions, or tumble them out of the Christian's way.
Though it will not perform miracles, it will remove difficulties
resembling mountains--(Ivimey).

[276] The history of Joseph, with that of Mr. Bunyan, and of
thousands besides, proves, that charges against a godly, innocent
man, arising from the prejudice, ill-will, and malice of his enemies,
shall eventually turn out to his honour, and to their confusion.
'Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and
shall say all manner of evil against yon FALSELY, for My sake'
(Matt. 5:11)--(ED).

[277] This represents the folly of those who go about to reform the
manners, without aiming at the conversion of the heart. Nature, in
its highest state of cultivation and improvement, is nature still.
That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born
of the Spirit is spirit--(J.B.).

[278] O, damned souls will have thoughts that will clash with glory,
clash with justice, clash with law, clash with itself, clash with
hell, and with the everlastingness of misery; but the point, the
edge, and the poison of all these thoughts will still be galling,
and dropping their stings into the sore, grieved, wounded, fretted
place, which is the conscience, though not the conscience only;
for I may say of the souls in hell, that they, all over, are but
one wound, one sore--(Bunyan's Greatness of the Soul, vol. 1, p.
119). Well might Mercy say, 'Blessed are they that are delivered
from this place!'--(ED).

[279] O what a blessed thing it is to long for the Word of God so
as not to be satisfied without it, and to prize it above and beyond
all other things! Love to the Word excites the soul to say with
David, 'I have longed for Thy salvation, O Lord' (Psa. 119:174).
This is a special mark of a gracious soul--(Mason). Every true
believer longs to be more completely acquainted with the Scriptures
from day to day, and to look into them continually--(Scott). Abraham
Cheer, who perished in prison for nonconformity in Bunyan's time,
published a little volume of Poems, in which he compares the Bible
to a looking-glass, in these very appropriate lines--'If morn by
morn you in this glass will dress you, I have some hopes that God
by it may bless you.'--(P. 37)--(ED).

[280] This doubtless is meant to intimate, that in times of great
anxiety, and in prospect of seasons of difficulty, Christians
desire above all things the special supports and consolations of
the Word of God--(Ivimey).

[281] By this jewelry is probably intimated, that they gave them
written testimonials of possessing the ornament of a meek and
quiet spirit, that they might he recognized as Christian women by
other churches--(Ivimey).

[282] From the names given to these opposers, they appear to
represent certain wild enthusiasts who intrude themselves in the
way of professors, to perplex their minds, and persuade them that,
unless they adopt their reveries or superstitions, they cannot
be saved. An ungovernable imagination, a mind incapable of sober
reflection, and a dogmatizing spirit, characterize these enemies of
the truth; they assault religious persons with specious reasonings,
caviling objections, confident assertions, bitter reproaches, proud
boastings, sarcastic censures, and rash judgments. They endeavour
to draw them to their party, or drive them from attending to
religion at all. But the Word of God, used with fervent, persevering
prayer, will silence such dangerous assailants, and confirm others

[283] Truth will make a man valiant; and valour for truth will make
a pilgrim fight with wild-headed, inconsiderate, and pragmatic
opposers. The blood he loses in such a battle is his honour, the
scars he gets are his glory--(Mason). He does not attempt to hide
himself, or run from his and his Lord's enemies. O that pilgrims,
especially those that are young were better trained to this battle!
In Bunyan's time, there were comparatively few of these cavilers;
now their name is Legion--(ED).

[284] In this battle, this striving for the truth, three considerations
strike the mind--(1). Reliance upon Divine aid, without which we
can do nothing. (2). A right Jerusalem weapon, forged in the fire
of love, well tempered with Bible truths. Such a sword will make
even the angel of the bottomless pit flee, its edge will never
blunt, and it will cut through everything opposed to it. (3).
Decision of character, perseverance to the utmost; no trimming or
meanly compounding for truth, but a determination, in the Lord's
strength, to come off more than conquerors. It is blessed fighting
when hand and heart are engaged, and the sword grows united to

[285] The church of Christ has produced heroes of the first class
in point of courage, which they have displayed in circumstances
of great danger. Luther and Knox, and Latimer and Bunyan, were
men of this stamp, each of whom might, with great propriety, have
been named Valiant-for-the-truth--(Ivimey).

[286] The reason why so many professors set out, and go on for a
season, but fall away at last, is, because they do not enter into
the pilgrim's path by Christ, who is the gate. They do not see
themselves quite lost, ruined, hopeless, and wretched; their hearts
are not broken for sin; therefore they do not begin by receiving
Christ as the only Saviour of such miserable sinners. But they set
out in nature's strength; and not receiving nor living upon Christ,
they fall away. This is the reason of this inquiry, Did you come
in at the gate? A question we ought to put to ourselves, and be
satisfied about--(Mason).

[287] Among many puzzling questions which agitate the Christian's
mind, this is very generally a subject of inquiry. At the mount of
transfiguration, the Apostles knew the glorified spirits of Moses
and Elias. The rich man and Lazarus and Abraham knew each other.
The most solemn inquiry is, to reconcile with the bliss of Heaven
the discovery that some dear relative has been shut out. Shall
we forget them? or will all our exquisite happiness centre in the
glory of God? Bunyan has no doubt upon personal identity in Heaven--

'Our friends that lived godly here
 Shall there be found again;
The wife, the child, and father dear,
With others of our train.
Those God did use us to convert
We there with joy shall meet.
And jointly shall, with all our heart,
In life each other greet.'
--(One Thing Needful, ver. 69, 71)--(ED).

[288] A sound Christian is not afraid to be examined, and sifted
to the bottom, for he can give reason of the hope that is in him.
He knows why and wherefore he commenced his pilgrimage--(Mason).

[289] This is a reproach cast upon religion in every age. Pharaoh
said to Moses and the Israelites, 'Ye are idle, ye are idle.'
Men by nature imagine, that time spent in reading the Bible and
in prayer is wasted. It behooves all believers to avoid every
appearance of evil; and, by exemplary diligence, frugality, and good
management, to put to silence the ignorance of foolish men--(Scott).

[290] Worldly people, in opposing the Gospel, descant upon the
hypocrisy of religious persons; they pick up every vague report
that they hear to their disadvantage, and narrowly watch for the
halting of such as they are acquainted with; and then they form
general conclusions from a few distorted and uncertain stories.
Thus they endeavour to prove that there is no reality in religion.
This is a frivolous sophistry, often employed after all other
arguments have been silenced--(Scott).

[291] If Judas the traitor, or Francis Spira the backslider, were
alive, to whisper these men in the ear a little, and to tell them
what it hath cost their souls for turning back, it would surely
stick by them as long as they have a day to live in the world.
Agrippa gave a fair step on a sudden; he stepped almost into the
bosom of Christ in less than half an hour. 'Almost thou persuadest
me to be a Christian.' It was but almost, and so he had as good
been not at all. He stepped fair, but stepped short. He was hot
whilst he ran, but he was quickly out of breath. O this but ALMOST!
I tell you, it lost his soul. What a doom they will have, who were
almost at Heaven's gate, but ran back again!--(Bunyan's Heavenly

[292] How natural is it for carnal men to give an evil report of
the ways of the Lord; and to discourage those who are just setting
out, by telling of the dangers and difficulties they shall meet
with! But here is not one word of the pleasures, comforts, and
joys, that are experienced in the ways of the Lord. No, they feel
them not, they believe not one word about them; therefore they
cannot speak of them--(Mason).

[293] Here we see that valiant soldiers of Christ ascribe all
to faith. They set out with faith, and they hold on and hold out
by believing. Thus they give all the glory to Christ, who is the
object, author, and finisher of faith--(Mason).

[294] Various are the enemies we meet with in our Christian warfare.
The world, with its enchantments, has a tendency to stupefy, and
bring on a fatal lethargy. How many professors receive principles,
by which they harden themselves in carnal pursuits and sensual
gratifications; and others, still preserving a religious name and
character, are as dead in their souls, as devoted to the world as
these, though contending for legal principles, and high in their
religious pretensions!--(J.B.).

[295] It behooves all who love their souls to shun that hurry of
business, and multiplicity of affairs and projects, into which many
are betrayed by degrees, in order to supply increasing expenses,
that might be avoided by strict frugality; for they load the soul
with thick clay, are a heavy weight to the most upright, render
a man's way doubtful and joyless, and drown many in perdition--(Scott).

[296] Old pilgrims, ye who have set out well, and gone on well for a
long season, consider ye are yet in the world, which is enchanted
ground. Know your danger of seeking rest here, or of sleeping in
any of its enchanting arbours. Though the flesh may be weary, the
spirit faint, and the arbours inviting, yet beware. Press on. Look
to the Strong for strength; and to the Beloved for rest in His

[297] Mark how the ready hands of death prepare;
His bow is bent, and he hath notch'd his dart;
He aims, he levels at thy slumb'ring heart.
The wound is posting; O be wise, beware!
What, has the voice of danger lost the art
To raise the spirit of neglected care?
Well, sleep thy fill, and take thy soft reposes;
But know, withal, sweet tastes have sour closes;
And he repents in thorns that sleeps in beds of roses.
--(Quarles' Emblems, 1--7).

[298] This inculcates the duty of constant attention to the precepts
and counsels of Scripture, as well as reliance on its promises;
and a habitual application to the Lord by prayer, to teach us the
true meaning of His Word, that we may learn the way of peace and
safety in the most difficult and doubtful cases--(Scott).

[299] The Word of God is compared to a map and a lantern; to these
we shall do well to take heed, as to light shining in a dark place.
Let this be the pilgrim's guide, when the light of spiritual joy
or sensible comfort is withdrawn--(Burder).

[300]--To follow Christ.
HE is to them instead of eyes,
HE must before them go in any wise;
And He must lead them by the water side,
This is the work of Him our faithful guide.
Since snares, and traps, and gins are for us set,
Since here's a hole, and there is spread a net,
O let nobody at my muse deride,
No man can travel here without a guide.
        --(Bunyan's House of God, vol. 2, p. 582.)

[301] Ignorance and pride may long maintain a form of godliness,
though it be a weariness to them; but after a time they will be
gradually drawn back into the world, retaining nothing of their
religion except certain distorted doctrinal notions--(Scott).

[302] It is the duty, and will be the practice of pilgrims, to
strive to be instrumental to the good of others. But, at the same
time, it behooves them to take heed to themselves, and watch, lest
they catch harm from them and their conduct--(Mason).

[303] What a sound sleep of infatuation hath this enchanting world
cast many a professor into! They are proof against all warnings,
and dead as to any means of arousing them. When this sleep of death
seizes the soul, it destroys faith, infatuates reason, and causes
men to talk incoherently. They have lost the language of pilgrims.
Their state is awful; beware of it; pray against it. For 'if any
man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him' (1 John

[304] This view of the Enchanted Ground seems to vary from that
which has been considered in the First Part. The circumstances of
believers who are deeply engaged in business, and constrained to
spend much of their time among worldly people, may here be
particularly intended. This may sometimes be unavoidable; but it is
enchanted ground. Many professors, fascinated by the advantages and
connections thus presented to them, fall asleep, and wake no more;
and others are entangled by those thorns and briers which 'choke the
Word, and render it unfruitful.' The more soothing the scene the
greater the danger, and the more urgent need is there for
watchfulness and circumspection--(Scott).

[305] This is a solemn period in the Christian's pilgrimage.
In the Heavenly Footman, Bunyan has given some admirable general
directions--'Because I would have you think of them, take all in
short in this little bit of paper--1. Get into the way. 2. Then
study on it. 3. Then strip and lay aside everything that would
hinder. 4. Beware of by-paths. 5. Do not gaze and stare much about
thee; but be sure to ponder the path of thy feet. 6. Do not stop
for any that call after thee, whether it be the world, the flesh,
or the devil; for all these will hinder thy journey if possible.
7. Be not daunted with any discouragements thou meetest with as
thou goest. 8. Take heed of stumbling at the Cross. And, 9. Cry
hard to God for an enlightened heart and a willing mind, and God
give thee a prosperous journey. Yet, before I do quite take my
leave of thee, a few motives. It may be they will be as good as a
pair of spurs, to prick on thy lumpish heart in this rich voyage.
If thou winnest, then Heaven, God, Christ, glory eternal is thine.
If thou lose, thou procurest eternal death.'--(ED).

[306] The Word of God is the only light to direct our steps. He who
neglects this is a fool. He who sets up and looks for any other
light to direct him is mad, and knows not what he does. As folly
and madness beset him, danger and distress will come upon him.
Trembling souls will attend closely to God's Word--(Mason).

[307] He who fears always, will pray evermore. The fear of the
heart will bring pilgrims on their knees. He who fears to be or go
wrong, will pray to be set right. The Lord will direct the heart,
and order the goings of all who cry to Him. Fear and prayer go
hand in hand. Joy shall attend them--(Mason).

[308] No more money than an owl loves light. 'The antiquarian,
who delights to solace himself in the benighted days of monkish
owl-light, sometimes passes for a divine.'--(Warburton)--(ED).

[309]                 My soul, what's lighter than a feather? Wind.
Than wind? The fire. And what than fire? The mind.
What's lighter than the mind? A thought. Than thought?
This bubble world. What than this bubble? Naught.
[310]--Prayer's arrow drawn
Down to the head by nervous penitence,
Or meek humility's compliant strings,
Wings to the destin'd mark its certain way,
And ne'er was shot in vain!
--(Dodd's Epiphany, p. 32, 4to).

[311] O pilgrims, beware of this Madam Bubble! Know and consider
well, that ye have a nature exactly suited to accept of her offers,
and to fall in love with her promises. The riches, honours, and
pleasures of this world, what mortal can withstand? or who can
forego them? No one but he who sees more charms in Jesus, more
glory in His Cross, and more comfort in the enjoyment of His love
and presence; and therefore, is continually looking and crying to
Him, 'Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity.'--(Mason). Many,
indeed, are her fair promises and golden dreams. Many hath she
brought to the halter, and ten thousand times more to Hell. O for
precious faith, to overcome the world; and to pass through it, in
pursuit of a nobler portion, as strangers and pilgrims!--(Burder).

[312] Is she not rightly named Bubble? Art thou convinced that
she is nothing more? Why then dost thou not break loose from her
hold? I ask, Why has the world such hold of thee? Why dost thou
listen to her enchantments? For shame! Stir up thy strength, call
forth thy powers! What! be convinced that the world is a bubble,
and be led captive by her. Shake her off, you ought, you should,
it is your duty. Let Mr. Stand-fast answer these questions. His
earnest and solemn prayers plainly prove the sense he had of his own
weakness and inability to extricate himself from her enchantments.
Though some may appear to despise the dominion of sin, I am convinced
that it must be a Divine power to deliver me from it--(J.B.).

[313] It was amidst this Enchanted Ground that good Mr. Stand-fast,
whom the Pilgrims there found upon his knees, was so hard beset and
enticed by Madam Bubble; and indeed it is by her sorceries that
the ground itself is enchanted. Madam Bubble is the world, with
its allurements and vanities; and whosoever, as Mr. Great-heart
said, do lay their eyes upon her beauty are counted the enemies of
God; for God hath said that the friendship of the world is enmity
against God; and he hath said furthermore, 'Love not the world,
nor the things of the world; if any man love the world, the love
of the Father is not in him.' So Mr. Stand-fast did well to betake
him to his knees, praying to Him that could help him. So if all
pilgrims, when worldly proposals and enticements allure them,
and they feel the love of the world tempting them, and gaining
on them, would thus go to more earnest prayer, and be made more
vigilant against temptations, Madam Bubble would not gain so many

[314] The ensuing description represents the happy state of those
that live in places favoured with many lively Christians, united
in heart and judgment; and where instances of triumphant deathbed
scenes are often witnessed. Aged believers, in such circumstances,
have been remarkably delivered from fears and temptations, and
animated by the hopes and earnests of Heaven; so that, while death
seemed bitter to nature, it became pleasant to the soul to think
of the joy and glory that would immediately follow it--(Scott).

O scenes surpassing fable, and yet true!
Scenes of accomplished bliss, which who can see,
Though but in distant prospect, and not feel
His soul refresh'd with foretaste of the joy?
Bright as a sun the sacred City shines;
All kingdoms and all princes of the earth
Flock to that light, the glory of all lands
Flows into her; unbounded is her joy,
And endless her increase. Thy rams are there,
Nebaioth, and the flocks of Kellar there;
The looms of Ormus, and the mines of Ind,
And Saba's spicy groves pay tribute there.
Praise is in all her gates; upon her walls,
And in her streets, and in her spacious courts,
Is heard Salvation!

[315] These messengers are the diseases or decays by which the Lord
takes down the earthly tabernacle, when He sees good to receive
the souls of His people into His immediate presence. In plain
language, it was reported that Christiana was sick and near death,
and she herself became sensible of her situation. 'The arrow sharpened
by love' implies, that the time, manner, and circumstances of the
believer's death, are appointed by Him 'who loved us, and gave
Himself for us.' He, as it were, says to the dying saint, 'It is
I, be not afraid.'--(Scott).

[316] This is the faith and patience of this dying Christian
heroine, who began her pilgrimage with trembling steps, maintained
her journey with holy zeal, and thus finished her course with

[317] O how blessed is the death of the righteous, who die in the
Lord! Even a wicked Balaam could wish for this. But it will be
granted to none but those who have lived in the Lord; whose souls
have been quickened by His Spirit to come unto Jesus, believe in
Him, and glory of Him as their righteousness and salvation--(Mason).

[318] Evident decays of natural powers as effectually convince the
observing person, as if a messenger had been sent to inform him.
But men in general cling to life, willfully overlook such tokens,
and try to keep up to the last the vain hope of recovering; those
around them, by a cruel compassion, soothe them in the delusion;
so that numbers die of chronic diseases as suddenly as if they had
been shot through the heart. Perhaps the author had some reference
to those inexplicable presages of death which some persons evidently

[319] See the joyful end of one ready to halt at every step. Take
courage hence, ye lame, halting pilgrims--(Mason).

[320] The tokens are taken from that well-known portion of
Scripture, Ecclesiastes 12:1-7; in which the dealings of the Lord
are represented as uniformly gentle to the feeble, trembling, humble
believer; and the circumstances of their deaths comparatively
encouraging and easy--(Scott).

[321] In the Holy War, the doubters having been dispersed, three
or four thrust themselves into Mansoul. Now, to whose house should
these Diabolic doubters go, but to that of Old Evil-questioning.
So he made them welcome. Well, said he, be of what shire yon
will, you have the very length of my foot, are one with my heart.
So they thanked him. I, said one, am an election-doubter; I,
said another, am a vocation-doubter; then said the third, I am a
salvation-doubter; and the fourth said, I am a grace-doubter. I
am persuaded you are down boys, and are one with my heart, said
the old gentleman--(ED).

[322] Pilgrims, mind this. It is as much your duty to strive, in the
strength of the Lord, against unreasonable doubts and slavish fears,
as against sin; nay, are they not, in their own nature, the worst of
sins, as they spring from infidelity, and dishonour God's precious
truth, glorious grace, and everlasting salvation? Never, never,
then, cherish or give way to them, but resist, and shut the door of
your hearts against them--(Mason).

[323] How various is the experience of Christians in the hour of
death. Christian and Hopeful inquired 'if the waters were all of
a depth.' The answer was, 'You shall find it deeper or shallower,
as you believe in the King of the place.' 'What ailed thee, O
Jordan, that thou wast driven back?' The answer is, 'At the presence
of the Lord: at the presence of the God of Jacob.' In proportion
as a Christian can say, 'for me to live is Christ,' in that
proportion may he hope to find the water shallow, and feel support
to his feet in the trying passage--(ED).

[324] In the truth of Jesus is victory. He who is valiant for it
shall share most of its comforts in life, and in death. O Lord,
increase our faith in the never-failing Word of truth and grace,
for Thy glory and our soul's triumph!--(Mason).

[325] Such is the joy and blessedness of faith! How does it bring
near and realize the sight of Christ in glory! Do we indeed see
Christ by the eye of faith? Is He the one, the chief object of
our soul? Verily, then we shall count our days on earth toilsome
ones, and long for the full fruition of Him in glory. O it will
be our great glory to see that dear Man, whose blessed head was
crowned with thorns, and whose lovely face was spit upon, for us.
O that we may be living every day upon Him and to Him, till we
see Him as He is!--(Mason).

[326] This speech has been justly admired as one of the most
striking passages in the whole work; but it is so plain that it
only requires an attentive reader. It may, however, be worthy of
our observation, that, in all the instances before us, the pilgrims
are represented as resting their only dependence, at the closing
scene, on the mercy of God, through the righteousness and atonement of
His Son; and yet recollecting their conscious integrity, boldness
in professing and contending for the truth, love to the cause,
example, and words of Christ, obedience to His precepts, delight
in His ways, preservation from their own iniquities, and consistent
behaviour, as evidences that their faith was living, and their
hope warranted; and in this way the retrospect conduced to their
encouragement. Moreover, they all concur in declaring that,
while they left their infirmities behind them, they should take
their graces along with them, and that their works would follow

[327] O who is able to conceive the inexpressible, inconceivable
joys of Heaven! How will the heavens echo with joy, when the bride,
the Lamb's wife, shall come to dwell with her husband forever!
Christ, the desire of nations, the joy of angels, the delight of
the Father; what solace then must the soul be filled with, that
hath the possession of Him to all eternity! O what acclamations
of joy will there be, when all the children of God shall meet
together, without fear of being disturbed by the anti-Christian and
Cainish brood! If you would be better satisfied what the beatific
vision means, my request is, that you would live holily, and go
and see--(Bunyan's Dying Sayings, vol. 1, p. 65).

[328] It was not without design that our excellent author tells us,
that the four boys, with their wives and children, were suffered
to continue in life for a time, for the increase of the church in
the place where they dwelt. He doubtless intended to write a Third
Part of his 'Pilgrims Progress,' founded upon this circumstance,
with a design, probably to show the influence of real religion
and evangelical sentiments on persons in business and in domestic

[329] The view of the peaceful and joyful death of the pilgrims,
cannot but affect every reader; and many, perhaps, may be ready to
say, 'Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end
be like his'; but, except they make it their principal concern to
live the life of the righteous, such a wish will be frustrated. If
any man, therefore, doubt whether this allegory do indeed describe
the rise and progress of religion in the soul--the beginning,
continuance, and termination of the godly man's course to Heaven,
let him diligently search the Scriptures, and fervently pray to
God, from whom alone 'cometh every good and perfect gift,' to enable
him to determine this question. But let such as own themselves to
be satisfied that it does, beware lest they rest in the pleasure
of reading an ingenious work on the subject, or in the ability
of developing many of the author's emblems. Let them beware lest
they be fascinated, as it were, into a persuasion that they actually
accompany the pilgrims in the life of faith and walking with God,
in the same measure as they keep pace with the author in discovering
and approving the grand outlines of His plan. And let everyone
carefully examine his state, sentiments, experience, motives,
tempers, affections, and conduct, by the various characters,
incidents, and observations, that pass under his review--assured
that this is a matter of the greatest consequence. We ought not,
indeed, to call any man master, or subscribe absolutely to all
his sentiments; yet the diligent practical student of Scripture
can scarcely doubt that the warnings, counsels, and instructions
of this singular work agree with that sacred touchstone, or that
characters and actions will at last be approved or condemned by the
Judge of the world, in a great degree according to the sentence
passed on them in this wise and faithful book. The Lord grant
that both the writer and readers of these observations 'may find
mercy in that day,' and be addressed in these gracious words,
'Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for
you from the foundation of the world.'--(Scott).






'I have used similitudes.'--Hosea 12:10.

London: Printed for Dorman Newman, at the King's Arms in the Poultry;
and Benjamin Alsop, at the Angel and Bible in the Poultry, 1682.


Bunyan's account of the Holy War is indeed an extraordinary book,
manifesting a degree of genius, research, and spiritual knowledge,
exceeding even that displayed in the 'Pilgrim's Progress.' To
use the words of Mr. J. Montgomery, 'It is a work of that master
intelligence, which was privileged to arouse kindred spirits from
torpor and inactivity, to zeal, diligence, and success.'

It was first published in 1682, in a small octavo volume, and,
like the first edition of the Pilgrim, it was printed in a very
superior manner to all the subsequent editions, to a recent period.
The portrait of the author, by White, which faced the title-page,
is without doubt the best likeness that has ever appeared of our
great allegorist.[1] In addition to this is a whole length figure
of the author, with a representation of Heart-castle on his left
breast; the town of Mansoul, behind, being partly seen through
him; Emmanuel and his army on the heart side, and Diabolus with
his dragons on his right. From the publication of this popular
book in 1682, it has been constantly kept in print, so that it is
impossible to calculate the numbers that have been circulated. As
time rolls on, the 'Holy War,' allegorized by John Bunyan, becomes
more and more popular; nor can there be a doubt, but that so long
as the internal conflict and spiritual warfare between the renewed
soul and its deadly enemies are maintained, this book will become
increasingly popular.

The 'Holy War,' although so very extraordinary an allegory, has not
been translated into so many languages, nor has it been so much
read in English, as the 'Pilgrim's Progress.' This would naturally
arise from the Pilgrimage being a more simple narrative. It is a
journey full of the most striking scenery and incidents, which is
read with the deepest interest by all classes, from the children
in a work-house to the profoundest Christian philosopher. The facts
which are intended to be impressed upon the mind by the force of
the allegory, are seen and appreciated by the Christian without
requiring much investigation; while the 'Holy War' is carried on
under an allegorical representation by no means so transparent.
Man's soul is figured under the simile of a town, which having
surrendered to an insidious and mortal enemy, is besieged by its
lawful Sovereign with all the 'pomp and circumstances' of war;
the arch-enemy is driven out, the town retaken, new-modelled, and
garrisoned by Emmanuel.

To the Christian, whose aim and end is peace, war presents a most
forbidding aspect. He loves not to see the garments rolled in blood,
nor to hear the dying groans of the wounded, nor the heart-rending
cries of the bereaved, especially those of the widow and the orphan.
Spoliation and robbery are not the pastimes of the child of God,
nor is cruelty the element of his happiness or peace. To read of
such scenes, produces painfully interesting sensations; but even
these are not so strong or intense as those delightful feelings which
pervade the mind while watching the poor pilgrim in his struggles
to get through the Slough of Despond, his terror under the flames
of Mount Sinai, his passing unhurt the darts from Beelzebub's
castle, and his finding refuge at the Wicket Gate. It is true, that
the most delicate Christian must become a stern warrior--the most
sensitive ear must be alarmed with the sound of Diabolus' drum, and
at times feel those inward groanings which cannot be uttered--pass
through 'the fiery trial,' and 'endure hardness, as a good soldier
of Jesus Christ'; while at other periods of his experience, flushed
with victory, he will cry out, 'Who shall separate us from the
love of Christ?' We must fight the good fight of faith, or we can
never lay hold on eternal life. We must be engaged in this holy
war, and FIGHT or PERISH. There is no neutrality, no excuse that
can be awaiting at the day of judgment. The servant of Christ is
therefore found trusting in the Captain of salvation, furnished
with the whole armour of God, with which his soul is clothed
by the Holy Spirit--having the shield of faith, the helmet, the
breastplate, the two-edged sword. It was being thus mysteriously,
invulnerably armed, that gave the delicate, learned, pious Lady
Anne Askew strength to triumph over her agonies, when the Papists
disjointed every bone and sinew of her body on the rack. Her
spiritual armour enabled her with patience to bless God at the
stake, when, for refusing to worship Antichrist, she was burned
in Smithfield, and her soul ascended to heaven in a flaming fiery
chariot. It is the same spiritual armour, the same Captain to
guide, the same Spirit to sanctify, the same Father to bless us,
by which alone we can become more than conquerors over our vigilant
and powerful enemies. The Holy War is in this volume presented to
us by an old, experienced, faithful warrior; it is an allegorical
narrative, written by a master hand, guided by deeply penetrating,
searching powers of mind. It is his own severe brunts with the
great enemy, who is aided by his army of pomps, vanities, lusts,
and allurements, many lurking within, disguised to appear like
angels, while under their masquerade dress they are very devils.
It is written by one who possessed almost boundless resources of
imagination. It is more profound, more deeply spiritual than the
pilgrimage from Destruction to the Celestial City; and to understand
its hidden meaning, requires the close and mature application
of the renewed mind. There are, alas! comparatively few that are
blessed with spiritual discernment; and even of these, there are
but few inclined to mental investigation and research. These are
reasons why it has not been so popular a book as the 'Pilgrim's
Progress.' To aid those whose time for reading is limited, notes
are given, by which obsolete words and customs are explained, and
the reader assisted to appreciate the beauties, and to understand
the meaning of this allegory. It is earnestly hoped that many
will richly enjoy the comforts, instructions, consolations, and
strength which the author ardently wished to convey to Zion's
warriors, by the study of this important subject.

I have already, in my long Introduction to the 'Pilgrim's Progress,'
noticed the peculiar genius and originality which are conspicuous
in all Bunyan's works, and which most resplendently appear in his
allegorical writings. That genius became hallowed and sanctified
by prison discipline, by an intense study of the Sacred Scriptures,
and by his controversies with great men of various sects and
parties. In the 'Holy War' Bunyan's peculiar genius shines forth
in its most beauteous lustre; the whole is new, genuine, flowing
forth from his own deep and rich experience. It is, in fact, the
same narrative that he had published under the title of 'Grace
Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, or a brief and faithful relation
of the exceeding mercy of God, in Christ, to his poor servant John
Bunyan.' This simple, heart-affecting narrative, is here related
under the allegorical representation of the 'Holy War.' In this,
all the circumstances of his conviction of sin, and his conversion
to God, are narrated with startling interest from the first
alarm--his being roused from a state of death-like lethargy, his
opposition to the grace of God, his refusals of the invitations of
Emmanuel, and his being at length conquered to become a monument
of divine mercy--a temple of the Holy Ghost. Then came his declension
by carnal security, and his misery in that state, until he was
finally reconquered; and his heart is permanently occupied by
Emmanuel. The 'Grace Abounding,' aided by the marginal notes of
the author to the 'Holy War,' forms a very valuable key to the
mysteries of this allegory; without their aid some passages would
be found deeply mysterious, and hard to be understood. Nor can
this be considered extraordinary, when it is recollected that the
whole of the allegory is a revelation of scenes, feelings, hopes,
fears, and enjoyments, which are unknown, unfelt, and invisible to
all except to those whose minds are enlightened by Divine truth;
and even of these, very few have had the deep and trying experience
with which the author was exercised.

That the 'Holy War' allegorically represents Bunyan's personal
feelings, is clearly declared by him in the poetical Introduction
or Address to the Reader, prefixed to the book. He adverts to
books of fiction, and solemnly declares--

'I have somewhat else to do,
Than with vain stories thus to trouble you,
For my part, I (myself) was in the town,
Both when 'twas set up, and when pulling down;
I saw Diabolus in his possession,--
Yea, I was there when she own'd him for Lord.'

A remarkable verse describes his state before conversion--

'When Mansoul trampled upon things divine,
And wallowed in filth as doth a swine;
When she betook herself unto her arms,
Fought her Emmanuel, despis'd his charms,
Then I was there, and did rejoice to see
Diabolus and Mansoul so agree.'

Some editor, imagining that Bunyan could never have so rejoiced,
forgetting his own words in the fourth section of his 'Grace
Abounding'--'It was my delight to be taken captive by the devil,
at his will'--altered these words to--

'Then I was there, and grieved for to see
Diabolus and Mansoul so agree.'

This alteration, which perverts the author's meaning, appears
in a London edition, 1752, and has been copied into many modern
editions, even into those by Mason and Burder.[2]

The author having in the above lines described his unconverted
state, goes on to delineate his convictions in these words:--

'What is here in view,
Of mine own knowledge, I dare say is true.
I saw the Prince's armed men come down,
I saw the captains, heard the trumpets sound;
Yea, how they set themselves in battle-ray,
I shall remember to my dying day.'

The whole of this address is descriptive of what the author saw,
felt, or heard--

'What shall I say? I heard the people's cries,
And saw the Prince wipe tears from Mansoul's eyes;
I heard the groans, and saw the joy of many,
Tell you of all, I neither will, nor can I;
But by what here I say, you well may see
That Mansoul's matchless wars no fables be.'

The narrative of this eventful war is authenticated by his personal
feelings while under the chastising, correcting, hand of his heavenly
Father; in his new birth and subsequent experience; in bringing
his soul from darkness to marvellous light, and from the wretched
bondage of sin to the glorious liberty of the gospel. This address
is closed with a very important notice, which all our readers
should keep constantly in mind--it is to attend to the author's
key to the allegory, and that is his marginal notes--

'Nor do thou go to work without my key,
(In mysteries men soon do lose their way),
And also turn it right, if thou would'st know
My riddle, and would'st with my heifer plough,
It lies there in the window, fare thee well,
My next may be to ring thy passing-bell.'

The last line strongly reminds us of the author's difficulty to
quit the gin and beer-drinking practice of bell-ringing, to which
in his youth he was so much addicted. It is recorded in his 'Grace
Abounding,' Nos. 33 and 34.[3]

The form and order of the narrative is exceedingly beautiful, and
deeply interesting to those who have been engaged in a similar
warfare. Passing over the short and vivid narration of the fall of
man, our personal feelings are excited by witnessing the methods
of grace, adapted by a covenant-keeping God and Father, to rescue
his people from their natural state of Diabolonian slavery. Many of
the incidents will bring, to the enlightened reader's recollection,
the solemn and powerful impressions under which he struggled, when
opposing the invitations of Emmanuel. His holy joy, when a sense
of pardoning love and mercy came over his soul; and his anxieties,
when in conflict with doubts, and fears, and bloodmen.

Our young readers must be cautioned not to give way to doubts
and fears for their soul's safety, because they have never passed
through the same feelings which fitted Bunyan for a sphere of
extraordinary usefulness. God brings his lambs and sheep into the
fold by such means as are agreeable to his infinite wisdom and
grace. Some surrender at the first summons; others hold out during
a long and distressing siege. 'God's ways are not our ways.' All
our anxious inquiries should be, Is Emmanuel in Heart-castle? is
he 'formed in me the hope of glory?' do I live and believe in him
who has immutably decreed that 'whosoever'--be he rich or poor,
learned or unlearned--if he 'liveth and believeth in me, shall never
die?' It matters not, as to my salvation, whether the siege was
long or short. The vital question is, Has my heart been conquered;
do I love Emmanuel? If I do, it is because he first loved me, and
he changeth not. In proportion to the trouble that I gave to my
Conqueror, so should be my zealous, holy, happy obedience to his
commands. Much is expected from those to whom much as been forgiven.
The Conqueror, by his victory, fits us for those peculiar duties
to which he intends to devote us in extending his kingdom. In
the history of this war, the reader's attention will be naturally
arrested by the fact that Mansoul, having voluntarily surrendered
to the dominion of Satan, made no effort to relieve herself. No
spiritual feelings lurked in the walls to disturb the reign of
Diabolus; not even a prayer or a sigh breaks forth from her heart
for deliverance; she felt not her degradation nor her danger; she
was dead while she yet lived--dead in sin; and from this state
would have sunk, as thousands have, from spiritual and temporal
death into eternal and irretrievable ruin. The first conception of
a scheme for her deliverance from such awful danger, arises in
the celestial court of her Creator; grace lays the foundation,
and raises the top-stone. All the redeemed of God will unite in
one song, 'Not unto us, O Lord; not unto us, but unto thy name
give glory.' A covenant is made, ordered in all things and sure, to
save Mansoul; and from this emanates the vast, the costly design
of her deliverance. To effect this great object, the Mosaic
dispensation--the Law, with all its terrors, is sent, in fearful
array, to conquer or destroy. This is allegorically represented
under the similitude of an army of forty thousand warriors, 'stout,
rough-hewn men, fit to break the ice, and make their way by dint
of sword.' They are under the command of four captains, each with
his ensign--Boanerges and Thunder, Conviction and Sorrow, Judgment
and Terror, Execution and Justice. To resist this force, Diabolus
arms the town, hardens the conscience, and darkens the understanding.
He places at Eargate a guard of DEAF MEN, under old Mr. Prejudice,
and plants over that important gate two great guns, Highmind and
Heady. He arms Mansoul with the whole armour of Satan, which is
very graphically described. Summons after summons is unheeded.
The death of friends, sickness, and troubles, pass by apparently
without any good result. They 'will not hearken to the voice
of charmers, charming never so wisely.' At length, the town
is assaulted, conscience becomes alarmed, but the will remains
stubborn. The beleaguering of the town--planting the ensigns--throwing
up batteries--the slings casting, with irresistible force, portions
of the Word into the mind--the battering-rams beating upon the
gates, especially Eargate--exciting alarm under the fear of the
just and awful punishment due to sin--all are described with an
extraordinary knowledge of military terms and tactics. The episode
of the three volunteers who enlisted under Shaddai, into Captain
Boanerges' company--Tradition, Human-wisdom, and Man's-invention--are
inimitably beautiful. When they were aught in the rear, and taken
prisoners--'as they did not live so much by religion as by the
fates of fortune'--they offer their services to Diabolus, and are
joined to Captain Anything's company. After a few sharp assaults,
convictions of sin alarm the conscience, and six of Diabolus' new
Aldermen are slain with one shot. Their names are well worthy an
attentive consideration, showing what open vices are abandoned upon
the soul being first terrified with the fear of retribution--Swearing,
Whoring, Fury, Stand-to-lies, Drunkenness, and Cheating.

Alarms are continued by day and night, until it is said to Mansoul,
'Upon all her pleasant things there was a blast, and burning instead
of beauty; with shows of the shadow of death.' Thus was it with
David--'My soul is cast down within me: deep calleth unto deep at
the noise of thy waterspouts; all thy waves and thy billows are
gone over me' (Psa 42:6,7).

All the assaults of Moses and the Law are ineffectual; the gates
remain closed against her King and God. The thunders of Sinai and
the voice of the prophets may alarm, but cannot conquer Mansoul.
The thundering, terrifying captains appeal to the celestial court,
and Emmanuel--God with us--condescends to fight the battle, and
secure the victory. The angelic hosts desire to look into these
things--they are the peers of the heavenly realm--the news 'flew
like lightning round about the court'--and the greatest peers
did covet to have commissions under Emmanuel. The captains that
accompany him in this grand expedition are Faith, Hope, Charity,
Innocence, and Patience. Mansoul is to be won by persuasion to
receive her Saviour. The cost of the enterprise is vast indeed;
the army is numerous as our thoughts, and who can number 'the
multitude of his thoughts?' The battering rams and slings, we are
told by the margin, mean the books of Sacred Scripture, sent to us
by the influence of the Holy Ghost. Emmanuel is irresistible--Mansoul
is taken--Diabolus is dragged out, stripped of his armour, and sent
to the parched places in a salt land, 'seeking rest, but finding

The heart at first trembles lest punishment should be justly poured
out upon her for treason, but it becomes the throne of its lawful
King; and instead of God's anger, his pardon and blessings are
proclaimed, and Mansoul is filled with joy, happiness, and glory.

Reader, can you call to mind the peace and holy enjoyment which
took possession of your soul, when--having passed through the
fears and hopes, the terrors and alarms, of the new birth--you sat
down, for the first time, at the table of the Lord, to celebrate
the wonders of his grace? Then you rejoiced in hope full of
immortality; then you could exclaim, 'O tidings! glad tidings! good
tidings of good, and of great joy to my soul!' 'Then they leaped
and skipped upon the walls for joy, and shouted, Let Emmanuel live
for ever!' And then you fondly thought that happiness was secure
for the rest of your pilgrimage, until your glorified spirit should
enter into the celestial city.

Alas! your enemies were not dead. They insidiously seized an
unguarded moment. Remiss in watchfulness, and formal in prayer,
Carnal-security invade the mind. Your ardent love is cooled--intercourse
with heaven is slight--and by slow degrees, and almost unperceived,
Emmanuel leaves Heart-castle; and the prince of the power of the
air promotes the treason, and foments rebellion, by the introduction
of loose thoughts, under the name of harmless mirth. The news
soon reach Diabolus, and an infernal conference, or dialogue of
devils, is revealed by our author; who had watched the course and
causes of spiritual declension, and was not 'ignorant of Satan's

The malignant craft and subtilty displayed in Satan's counsel, are
described in a manner far beyond an ordinary imagination. They
display the almost unbounded resources of genius and invention so
richly possessed by the prince of allegorists, John Bunyan. It
reminds us of the dialogue between Lucifer and Beelzebub, in that
rare work by Barnardine Ochine, a reformer, published in 1549,
called, A Tragedy or Dialogue of the unjust usurped Primacy of
the Bishop of Rome.[4] In this is represented, in very popular
language, the designs of Lucifer to ruin Christianity by the
establishment of Popery. Lucifer thus addresses his diabolical
conclave--'I have devised to make a certain new kingdom, replenished
with idolatry, superstition, ignorance, error, falsehoods, deceit,
compulsion, extortion, treason, contention, discord, tyranny, and
cruelty; with spoiling, murder, ambition, filthiness, injuries,
factions, sects, wickedness, and mischief; in the which kingdom
all kinds of abomination shall be committed. And notwithstanding
that it shall be heaped up with all kinds of wickedness, yet shall
the [professed] Christian men think it to be a spiritual kingdom,
most holy and most godly. The supreme head of this kingdom shall
be a man which is not only sinful, and an abominable robber and
thief, but he shall be sin and abomination itself; and yet, for
all that, shall be thought of Christian men a God in earth, and
his members, being most wicked, shall be called of men most holy.
God sent his Son into the world, who, for the salvation of mankind,
hath humbled himself even to the death of the cross. I will send
my son into the world, who, for the destruction and condemnation
of mankind, shall so advance himself that he shall take upon him
to be made equal with God.' 'I will, by craft and diligence, shadow
and cover superstition and idolatry with a fair face, and beauty
of holy ceremonies, that men shall be made so drunken and so amazed
with this outward pomp and show, that they shall not be able to
discern truth from falsehood, when they be drowned in the flood
of idolatry and superstition.' 'I will cause them to be most cruel
tyrants and butchers of Christ and his members, under a pretence
of zeal to the house of God. They shall hide their uncleanness
and filthy behaviour with an exceeding wide cloak of hypocrisy,
and with glorious shining titles.' Thus this intrepid reformer
opened up the origin, the development, the desolations, of Popery;
and, with a similar knowledge of Satan's devices, the Nonconformist
Bunyan shows the means by which Diabolus urges the young Christian
into a backsliding state. 'Let our Diabolonian friends in Mansoul
draw it into sin, for there is nothing like sin to devour Mansoul;
while we will send against it an army of twenty or thirty thousand
sturdy terrible doubters. Sin renders Mansoul sick and faint, while
doubts are by it made fierce and strong.' At length Diabolus and
his army of doubts march from Hellgate Hill to Mansoul: the order
in which they are placed, and the names of the officers, are very
instructive, as well as curious. Election-doubteres, under Captain
Rage--Vocation-doubters, commanded by Captain Fury--Grace-doubters,
led by Captain Damnation--Faith-doubters, under Captain
led by Captain Brimstone--Resurrection-doubters, by Captain
Torment--Salvation-doubters, under Captain Noease--Glory-doubters,
commanded by Captain Sepulchre--Felicity-doubters, led by Captain
Pasthope. Incredulity was Lord-general, and Diabolus was King
and Commander-in-chief. The roaring of the drum--their alarming
outcries, Hell-fire! Hell-fire!--their furious assaults--the
multitude of doubts--and the perplexity of poor distracted Mansoul,
are admirably and truly narrated. The town makes a sortie in the
night, but Diabolus and his legions, experienced in night work,
drive them back, and severely wound Captains Faith, Hope, and
Experience. Again the gates are assaulted, and Diabolus and his
doubters gain an entrance, by the senses, into the town, but cannot
force the heart; and Mansoul is reduced to the greatest straits
and sadness. In this extremity, prayers are incessantly offered up
to Emmanuel; but, for a long time, they can obtain no satisfactory
answers. Both parties are on the alert; but Diabolus finds it
impossible, either by treachery or by storming with his legion
of doubts, to gain possession of Heart-castle. Being worsted in
a general engagement, the doubters are slain, and are buried with
their armour; yea, all that did but smell of a Diabolonian Doubter.
The arch-fiend now enters upon a new mode of assault--he sends for
a reinforcement, to try the effect of persecution; and obtains an
army of fifteen thousand Bloodmen, from the province of Loathgood. To
these were added ten thousand new Doubters, under their commander
old Incredulity. These Bloodmen were 'rugged villains, and had
done feats heretofore'; 'they were mastiffs, and would fasten upon
father, mother, brother, yea, upon the Prince of princes. Among
their officers is Captain Pope, whose colours were the stake, the
flame, and the good man in it.' To these I would humbly suggest the
propriety of adding one more--it is Captain State-religion, upon
whose standard should be represented the Nonconformist John Bunyan
in a damp, dreary dungeon, writing his 'Pilgrim's Progress,' with
his poor blind child at his feet. O persecutor, whether you burn
or imprison a Nonconformist, or harass him in Ecclesiastical
courts, or seize his goods to support forms or ceremonies which he
believes to be Antichristian, your commander is old Incredulity--your
king is Diabolus! The Bloodmen send a summons to Mansoul 'as hot as
a red hot iron,' threatening fire and sword, and utter destruction;
but the God who visited our pious author in prison, and cherished
and comforted him in his twelve years' sufferings under persecution,
came to the relief of Mansoul. The Diabolonian army is routed--the
Doubters are slain, excepting a few who escaped--the Bloodmen
or persecutors were not to be slain, but to be taken alive. The
prisoners are brought to trial, with all the forms and solemnities
of law; and the narrative concludes with a most admirable charge
from Emmanuel to keep Mansoul in a state of the most prayerful
vigilance. Enemies still lurk within, to keep her humble; that she
may feel her dependence upon God, and be found much in communion
with him. 'Believe that my love,' says Emmanuel, 'is constant to
thee. Watch, hold fast, till I come.'

In the whole detail of this war, very singular skill is manifested.
A keen observer of all that passed before him, aided by a most
retentive memory, and a fertile imagination, enabled our pilgrim
forefather to gain much knowledge in a short time. He had been
engaged, as a private soldier, in the Civil war; and was at the
siege of Leicester, when it was taken by Prince Rupert. This gave
him a knowledge of the meaning of trumpet or bugle sounds; so that,
when the trumpeters made their best music, in the expectation of
Emmanuel's speedy assistance to help Mansoul, Diabolus exclaims,
'What do these madmen mean? they neither sound to boot and saddle,
nor horse and away, nor a charge.'

Bunyan had been released from his tedious and cruel imprisonment
for conscience sake about ten years, when he published the 'Holy
War.' In this interval of time, although labouring incessantly to
win souls to Christ, being a very popular preacher, yet he must
have found time to gratify his incessant thirst for knowledge;
gaining that he might communicate, and in imparting it, receiving
into his own mind a rich increase. This would doubtless lead him
to read the best of our Puritan and Nonconformists' works, so that
we find him using the Latin words primum mobile, carefully noting
in the margin that he meant 'the soul'; and from hence he must
have scraped acquaintance with Python, Cerberus, and the furies of
mythology, whom he uses in this war, describing accurately their
names and qualities.

At first sight, it may seem strange that the armies, both within
and without the city, should be so numerous, as it is but one man
who is the object of attack and defence--one human body, containing
one immortal Mansoul; but if the reader reflects that every soldier
represents a thought, who can number them? At one time, by the
sin-sickness, eleven thousand--men, women, and children--died in
Mansoul! this is interpreted by Bunyan to mean, that the men
represented 'good thoughts'--the women, 'good conceptions'--and
the children, 'good desires.' The town is assaulted by thirty or
forty thousand doubts, very curiously and methodically arranged.

The value of the marginal notes is very great, throwing immediate
light upon many difficult passages. Every reader should make free
use of the key which lieth in the window [the margin]. The value
of this key is seen by a few quotations. Thus, when Diabolus beat
a charge against the town, my Lord Reason was wounded in the
head--the brave Lord Mayor, Mr. Understanding, in the eye--and
'many also of the inferior sort were not only wounded, but slain
outright.' The margin explains this as meaning 'Hopeful thoughts.'
When the enemy broke into the town at Feelgate, during a night of
terror, and got possession, it is described as being accompanied
by all the horrors of war--by atrocities probably even greater
than those perpetrated by Rupert's cavaliers at Leicester. 'Young
children were dashed in pieces, yea, those unborn were destroyed.'
'The women were beastlike abused.' This is interpreted by two
marginal notes--'Good and tender thoughts,' 'Holy conceptions of

The storming of Leicester took place in the night, and furnished
Bunyan, who was an eyewitness, with a correct notion of raising
the standard, beleaguering the city, and forcing the gates, and a
lively view of the desolations he describes. Awful as is his account
of the sacking of Mansoul, with its murders and desolations, yet
it may prove to be a good description of the conduct of Prince
Rupert and his cavaliers at the storming of Leicester. Strike out
the name of Diabolus, and insert Rupert, and put Leicester instead
of Mansoul, and the account of the brutal conduct of the Royal
army will be found accurately described. Lord Clarendon, who wrote
to gain the smiles of royalty, plainly tells us that, when Prince
Rupert and the King took Leicester, 'The conquerors pursued
their advantage with the usual license of rapine and plunder, and
miserably sacked the whole town, without any distinction of persons
and places. Churches and hospitals, as well as other houses, were
made a prey to the enraged and greedy soldier, to the exceeding
regret of the King.' Clarendon goes on to account for the exceeding
regret of Charles: it was because many of his faithful friends
had suffered, in the confusion of this murderous scene of rapine
and plunder.

In the 'Holy War,' Bunyan has not been, nor can he ever be, charged
with copying from any author who preceded him. Erasmus, Gouge,
and many other of our Reformers, Puritans, and Nonconformists,
commented upon the Christian's armour and weapons. Benjamin Keach,
about the time that the 'Holy War' appeared, published his War
with the Devil, or, the Young Man's Conflict with the Powers of
Darkness. It is a series of admirable poetical dialogues on the
corruption and vanity of youth, the horrible nature of sin, and
deplorable condition of fallen man; with the rule of conscience
and of true conversion. It has nothing allegorical in it, but is
replete with practical warnings and exhortations. No one had ever
attempted, under the form of an allegory, to describe the internal
conflict between the powers of darkness and of the mind in the
renewed man; the introduction of evil thoughts and suggestions,
their unnatural union with the affections, and the offspring of
such union, under the name of Diabolonians, who, when Mansoul is
watchful unto prayer, lurk in the walls; but when in a backsliding
state, are tolerated and encouraged openly to walk the streets.
Some have supposed that there is a slight similarity between the
description, given by John Chrysostom of the battle between the
hosts of hell and mankind, and John Bunyan's 'Holy War.' It is
not at all probable that Bunyan was acquainted with Chrysostom on
the Priesthood, which was then locked up in the Greek language,
but has been since translated into English. Nor can we find any
similarity between the work of the pious apostolically descended
tinker, and the learned Greek father. Chrysostom's picture of the
battle is contained in a letter to Basil, urging him to become
a minister of the gospel. It is in words to this effect:--'Pent
up in this body, like a dungeon, we cannot discern the invisible
powers. Could you behold the black army of the devil and his mad
conflict, you would witness a great and arduous battle, in which
there is no brass or steel,[5] no horses or wheeled chariots, no
fire and arrows, but other instruments much more formidable. No
breastplates, or shields, or swords, or darts. The very sight of
this accursed host is alone sufficient to paralyze a soul which
is not imbued with courage furnished by God, and with even greater
foresight than valour. Could you calmly survey all this array
and war, you would see, not torrents of blood or dead bodies, but
fallen souls! You would see wounds so grievous, that human war,
with all its horrors, is mere child's play or idle pastime, in
comparison to the sight of so many souls struck down every day by
Satan.' Thus this learned Greek father very eloquently represents
the great battle of Satan and his hosts, against all mankind. But
for a description of the internal conflict, Diabolus and his army
of Doubters and Bloodmen arrayed against the powers of Mansoul,
Bunyan stands alone and most beautifully resplendent.

In this war there is no combination of souls to resist Satan, nor
can any human powers in any way assist us in the trying battle.
Here, O my reader, you and I must stand alone far from the aid of
our fellow-men. We must call upon all the resources of our minds,
and while there is unity within, no resisting or treason--while the
Holy Spirit strengthens and inclines the will, the understanding,
the conscience, the affections, and all our powers are united
to resist Satan, God fights for us, and the heart is safe under
the gracious smiles of our Emmanuel. May we never forget that
our spiritual life is totally dependent upon him, in whom, as to
the body, we live, and move, and have our being. But when doubts
enfeeble us, and Bloodmen harass us, there is no help from man.
No pope, cardinal, archbishop, minister, or any human power can
aid us; ALL our hope is in God alone; every effort for deliverance
must be by fervent prayer and supplication, from the heart and
conscience, directly to God. Our petitions must be framed by the
Holy Ghost, and presented unto Shaddai, not by priest or prelate, but
by our Emmanuel, Jesus Christ, the only intercessor and mediator.

The attentive reader of Bunyan's works will notice the difference
between the trial of Faithful in the 'Pilgrim's Progress,' and
that of the prisoners brought to the bar as traitors in the 'Holy
War.' The judge and jury are particularly overbearing to Faithful,
much more so than to the Diabolonians. Still there is one very
strong feature in which they all agree. The prisoners are all
brought to their trial, not that their guilt or innocence might
be proved, but in order to their condemnation and execution. All
are brought up in chains, a custom which then was very prevalent,
if not universal, but which is now only read of as a cruel practice
of a bygone age.

There are a few riddles or questions arising out of this narrative,
the solving of which may afford instructive amusement to the
reader. What is meant by the drum of Diabolus, which so terrified
Mansoul? Refer to Galatians 3:10; Hebrews 6:4-8; 1 John 5:16; Hebrews
12:29. Why were the troops numbered at forty thousand, that came
up to alarm and convince Mansoul of sin, or righteousness, and of
judgment, while Emmanuel's army is not numbered? See Joshua 4:13;
Hebrews 12:22. When the Doubters are slain or driven from Mansoul,
after her conversion, they go straggling up and down the country
enslaving the barbarous people (the margin informs us that the
unbeliever never fights the Doubters). Why do they go by fives,
nines, and seventeens? Do these odd numbers refer to the nine
companies of Doubters, and eight of Bloodmen, who were under
the command of five fallen angels--Diabolus, Beelzebub, Lucifer,
Legion, and Apollyon? Fearful odds against a poor fallen sinner,
five evil spirits, or nine classes of doubts, or these nine doubts
united to eight kinds of Bloodmen or persecutors.

In a work so highly allegorical, and founded upon a plain narrative
of facts in the experience of the author, the editor deemed it
needful to add numerous notes. These contain all that appeared to
be explanatory or illustrative in other commentaries, with many that
are original; obsolete terms and customs are explain; references
are given to about fifty passages in the 'Grace Abounding,' that
the reader's attention may be constantly directed to the solemn
truths which are displayed under this delightful allegory. The
editor has the consolation of hoping that the result of great labour
can do no injury. Those whose deep experience in the spiritual
warfare enables them to understand and enjoy the allegory, can
pass them by; while many of the poor but immortal souls engaged
in this warfare, who are not deeply experienced, may receive aid
and encouragement to persevere, until they shall exclaim, The
battle is fought, the victory is won, eternal praises to the great
and gracious Emmanuel.

Reader, I must not detain you much longer from the pleasure of
entering upon a narrative so deeply interesting to all who possess
the understanding heart--an allegory, believed by very many to be
the most beautiful and extraordinary that mere human genius ever
composed in any language. O consider the worth of an immortal soul!
God sent his servants, Moses and the prophets, with their slings
and battering-rams, their great and precious promises to the early
prophets, who have faithfully handed them down to us; and then came
Emmanuel and his heavenly army, and all this to conquer Mansoul!
Without the shedding of blood, there is no remission of sin. The
blood of bulls and of goats cannot wash out our stains. We must
be found in Christ as part of his mystical body, and thus in
perfection obey the Divine law, and then, through the sin-atoning
offering of Emmanuel, God's equal, eternal Son, a fountain is
opened for sin and uncleanness, in which our souls, being purified,
shall be clothed with the garment of salvation. Who can calculate
the worth of his immortal soul, that God himself should pay so
costly a price for its redemption! May the desire of every reader
be, O that my soul may be engaged in this holy war, my ears be
alarmed by the infernal drum of Diabolus, that my Heart-castle
may receive the King of salvation, and Christ be found there the
hope of glory. Then may we feel the stern necessity of incessant
watchfulness and prayer against carnal security, or any other
cause of backsliding, with its consequent miseries.

Well may the world wonder, how a poor travelling tinker could
gain the extraordinary knowledge, which enabled him to become the
greatest allegorical writer that the world ever saw. The reason is
obvious, he lived and moved and had his being in the atmosphere
of God's revealed will. It was this that enabled him to take the
wings of the morning, and fly not only to the uttermost parts of
the visible but of the invisible world; to enjoy scenes of light
and glory, such as Gabriel contemplated when he came from heaven
to Nazareth, and revealed to Mary her high destiny--that her Son
should be the promised Saviour, who should bear the government of
the universe upon his shoulders--whose name was Wonderful--Counsellor--the
Mighty God--the everlasting Father--the Prince of Peace--Emmanuel,
God with us.

Bunyan's industry and application must have been intense, he could
not by possibility for a single moment say, 'soul take thine ease,'
inglorious, destructive ease. His hands had to labour for his
bread, and to provide for a most exemplary wife and four children,
one of them blind. There was no hour of his life when he could have
said to his soul, Let all thy noble powers be absorbed in eating,
drinking, being merry--mere animal gratifications. The Holy War,
the solemn results depending upon it, salvation or eternal ruin,
the strong desire to glorify Emmanuel, the necessity to labour
for his household--that blessed industry left him no opportunity
for weaving a web of unmeaning casuistic subtilties, in which
to entangle and engulph his soul, like a Puseyite or a German
Rationalist. The thunders and lightnings of Sinai had burnt up
all this wood, hay, and stubble, and with child-like simplicity he
depended upon the Holy Spirit, while drawing all his consolations
and all his spiritual supplies from the sacred Scriptures.

Bunyan's narrative of the Holy War, from its commencement in the
fall of man to that splendid address of Emmanuel with which it
concludes, has been the study of the Editor for more than forty
years, and he hopes that no future year of the residue of his life
will be spent without reading this solemn, soul-stirring, delightful

GEO. OFFOR. Hackney, April 1851


'Tis strange to me, that they that love to tell
Things done of old, yea, and that do excel
Their equals in historiology,
Speak not of Mansoul's wars, but let them lie
Dead, like old fables, or such worthless things,
That to the reader no advantage brings:
When men, let them make what they will their own,
Till they know this, are to themselves unknown.
Of stories I well know there's divers sorts,
Some foreign, some domestic; and reports
Are thereof made, as fancy leads the writers;
By books a man may guess at the inditers.
Some will again of that which never was,
Nor will be, feign, and that without a cause,
Such matter, raise such mountains, tell such things
Of men, of laws, of countries, and of kings:
And in their story seem to be so sage,
And with such gravity clothe ev'ry page,
That though their frontispiece say all is vain,
Yet to their way disciples they obtain[6]
But, readers, I have somewhat else to do,
Than with vain stories thus to trouble you;
What here I say, some men do know so well,
They can with tears and joy the story tell.
The town of Mansoul is well known to many,
Nor are her troubles doubted of by any
That are acquainted with those histories
That Mansoul, and her wars, anatomize.
Then lend thine ear to what I do relate
Touching the town of Mansoul and her state,
How she was lost, took captive, made a slave;
And how against him set, that should her save.
Yea, how by hostile ways, she did oppose
Her Lord, and with his enemy did close.
For they are true; he that will them deny
Must needs the best of records vilify.
For my part, I (myself) was in the town,
Both when 'twas set up, and when pulling down,
I saw Diabolus in his possession,
And Mansoul also under his oppression.
Yea, I was there when she own'd him for Lord,
And to him did submit with one accord.
When Mansoul trampled upon things Divine,
And wallowed in filth as doth a swine;
When she betook herself unto her arms,
Fought her Emmanuel, despis'd his charms,
Then I was there, and did rejoice to see
Diabolus and Mansoul so agree.[7]
Let no men, then, count me a fable-maker,
Nor make my name or credit a partaker
Of their derision; what is here in view,
Of mine own knowledge, I dare say is true.
I saw the prince's armed men come down,
By troops, by thousands, to besiege the town.
I saw the captains, heard the trumpets sound,
And how his forces cover'd all the ground.
Yea, how they set themselves in battle-ray,
I shall remember to my dying day.
I saw the colours waving in the wind,
And they within to mischief how combin'd,
To ruin Mansoul, and to make away
Her primum mobile[8] without delay.
I saw the mounts cast up against the town,
And how the slings were placed to beat it down.
I heard the stones fly whizzing by mine ears,
What longer kept in mind than got in fears,
I heard them fall, and saw what work they made,
And how old Mors did cover with his shade
The face of Mansoul; and I heard her cry,
Woe worth the day, in dying I shall die!
I saw the battering rams, and how they play'd,[9]
To beat ope Ear-gate, and I was afraid
Not only Ear-gate, but the very town,
Would by those battering rams be beaten down.
I saw the fights, and heard the captains shout,
And each in battle saw who faced about;
I saw who wounded were, and who were slain;
And who, when dead, would come to life again.
I heard the cries of those that wounded were,
While others fought like men bereft of fear,
And while the cry, Kill, kill, was in mine ears,
The gutters ran, not so with blood as tears.
Indeed, the captains did not always fight,
But then they would molest us day and night;
Their cry, Up, fall on, let us take the town,
Kept us from sleeping, or from lying down.
I was there when the gates were broken ope,
And saw how Mansoul then was stript of hope.[10]
I saw the captains march into the town,
How there they fought, and did their foes cut down.
I heard the prince bid Boanerges go
Up to the castle, and there seize his foe,
And saw him and his fellows bring him down
In chains of great contempt quite through the town.
I saw Emmanuel when he possest
His town of Mansoul, and how greatly blest
A town, his gallant town of Mansoul was,
When she received his pardon, lived his laws!
When the Diabolonians were caught,
When tried, and when to execution brought,
Then I was there; yea, I was standing by
When Mansoul did the rebels crucify.
I also saw Mansoul clad all in white,
And heard her prince call her his heart's delight.
I saw him put upon her chains of gold,
And rings, and bracelets, goodly to behold.
What shall I say?--I heard the people's cries,
And saw the prince wipe tears from Mansoul's eyes.
I heard the groans, and saw the joy of many:
Tell you of all, I neither will, nor can I.
But by what here I say, you well may see
That Mansoul's matchless wars no fables be.
Mansoul! the desire of both princes was,
One keep his gain would, t'other gain his loss;
Diabolus would cry, The town is mine;
Emmanuel would plead a right Divine
Unto his Mansoul; then to blows they go,
And Mansoul cries, These wars will me undo.
Mansoul! her wars seem'd endless in her eyes,
She's lost by one, becomes another's prize.
And he again that lost her last would swear,
Have her I will, or her in pieces tear.
Mansoul, it was the very seat of war,
Wherefore her troubles greater were by far,
Than only where the noise of war is heard,
Or where the shaking of a sword is fear'd,
Or only where small skirmishes are fought,
Or where the fancy fighteth with a thought.
She saw the swords of fighting men made red,
And heard the cries of those with them wounded;
Must not her frights then be much more by far,
Than theirs that to such doings strangers are?
Or theirs that hear the beating of a drum,
But not made fly for fear from house and home?
Mansoul not only heard the trumpet sound,
But saw her gallants gasping on the ground;
Wherefore, we must not think that she could rest
With them, whose greatest earnest is but jest:
Or where the blust'ring threat'ning of great wars
Do end in parleys, or in wording jars.
Mansoul, her mighty wars, they did portend
Her weal or woe, and that world without end;
Wherefore she must be more concerned than they
Whose fears begin and end the self-same day:
Or where none other harm doth come to him
That is engaged, but loss of life or limb,[11]
As all must needs confess that now do dwell
In Universe, and can this story tell.
Count me not then with them that to amaze
The people, set them on the stars to gaze,
Insinuating with much confidence,
That each of them is now the residence[12]
Of some brave creatures; yea, a world they will
Have in each star, though it be past their skill
To make it manifest to any man,
That reason hath, or tell his fingers can.[13]
But I have too long held thee in the porch,
And kept thee from the sunshine with a torch.
Well, now go forward, step within the door,
And there behold five hundred times much more
Of all sorts of such inward rarities
As please the mind will, and will feed the eyes
With those, which if a Christian, thou wilt see
Not small, but things of greatest moment be.
Nor do thou go to work without my key
(In mysteries men soon do lose their way),
And also turn it right if thou wouldst know
My riddle, and wouldst with my heifer plough.
It lies there in the window,[14] fare thee well,
My next may be to ring thy passing-bell.




[CONTENTS:--The original beauty and splendour of the town of
Mansoul, while under the dominion of Shaddai--Its noble castle
described--Its five gates--The perfection of its inhabitants--The
origin of Diabolus--His pride and fall--Revenge meditated--A council
of war held to deliberate on the best means of seducing the town
of Mansoul--Diabolus marches to the town, and sits down before
Eye-gate--His oration--Captain Resistance slain--My Lord Innocence
killed--The town taken.]

In my travels, as I walked through many regions and countries, it
was my chance to happen into that famous continent of Universe;
a very large and spacious country it is. It lieth between the
two poles, and just amidst the four points of the heavens. It is
a place well-watered, and richly adorned with hills and valleys,
bravely situate; and for the most part (at least where I was) very
fruitful, also well peopled, and a very sweet air.

The people are not all of one complexion, nor yet of one language,
mode, or way of religion; but differ as much as, it is said, do
the planets themselves. Some are right, and some are wrong, even
as it happeneth to be in lesser regions.

In this country, as I said, it was my lot to travel, and there
travel I did; and that so long, even till I learned much of their
mother-tongue, together with the customs and manners of them among
whom I was. And to speak truth, I was much delighted to see and
hear many things which I saw and heard among them. Yea, I had (to
be sure) even lived and died a native among them, so was I taken
with them and their doings, had not my Master sent for me home to
his house, there to do business for him, and to over-see business

Now there is in this gallant country of Universe a fair and delicate
town, a corporation called Mansoul. A town for its building so
curious, for its situation so commodious, for its privileges so
advantageous--I mean with reference to its original--that I may say
of it, as was said before of the continent in which it is placed,
There is not its equal under the whole heaven.[16]

As to the situation of this town, it lieth just between the two
worlds; and the first founder and builder of it, so far as by the
best and most authentic records I can gather, was one Shaddai;
and he built it for his own delight.[17] He made it the mirror
and glory of all that he made, even the top-piece, beyond anything
else that he did in that country (Gen 1:26). Yea, so goodly a town
was Mansoul when first built, that it is said by some, the gods,
at the setting up thereof, came down to see it, and sang for joy.
And as he made it goodly to behold, so also mighty to have dominion
over all the country round about. Yea, all were commanded to
acknowledge Mansoul for their metropolitan, all was enjoined to
do homage to it. Aye, the town itself had positive commission and
power from her King to demand service of all, and also to subdue
any that anyways denied to do it.

There was reared up in the midst of this town a most famous and
stately palace. For strength, it might be called a castle; for
pleasantness, a paradise; for largeness, a place so copious as to
contain all the world (Eccl 3:11). This place the King Shaddai
intended but for himself alone, and not another with him;[18] partly
because of his own delights, and partly because he would not that
the terror of strangers should be upon the town. This place Shaddai
made also a garrison of, but committed the keeping of it only to
the men of the town.

The wall of the town was well built, yea, so fast and firm was it
knit and compact together, that, had it not been for the townsmen
themselves, they could not have been shaken or broken for ever.

For here lay the excellent wisdom of him that built Mansoul, that
the walls could never be broken down, nor hurt, by the most mighty
adverse potentate, unless the townsmen gave consent thereto.

This famous town of Mansoul had five gates, in at which to come,
out at which to go, and these were made likewise answerable to the
walls, to wit, impregnable, and such as could never be opened nor
forced but by the will and leave of those within. The names of the
gates were these, Ear-gate, Eye-gate, Mouth-gate, Nose-gate, and

Other things there were that belonged to the town of Mansoul,
which, if you adjoin to these, will yet give farther demonstration
to all of the glory and strength of the place. It had always a
sufficiency of provision within its walls; it had the best, most
wholesome, and excellent law that then was extant in the world.
There was not a rascal, rogue, or traitorous person then within its
walls. They were all true men, and fast joined together; and this,
you know, is a great matter. And to all these, it had always--so
long as it had the goodness to keep true to Shaddai the king--his
countenance, his protection, and it was his delight, etc.

Well, upon a time, there was one Diabolus,[20] a mighty giant,
made an assault upon this famous town of Mansoul, to take it, and
make it his own habitation. This giant was king of the blacks
or negroes,[21] and a most raving prince he was. We will, if you
please, first discourse of the original of this Diabolus, and then
of his taking of this famous town of Mansoul.

This Diabolus is indeed a great and mighty prince, and yet both
poor and beggarly. As to his original, he was at first one of the
servants of King Shaddai, made, and taken, and put by him into
most high and mighty place; yea, was put into such principalities
as belonged to the best of his territories and dominions. This
Diabolus was made son of the morning, and a brave place he had
of it (Isa 14:12). It brought him much glory, and gave him much
brightness, an income that might have contented his Luciferian
heart, had it not been insatiable, and enlarged as hell itself.

Well, he seeing himself thus exalted to greatness and honour, and
raging in his mind for higher state and degree, what doth he but
begins to think with himself how he might be set up as Lord over
all, and have the sole power under Shaddai! Now that did the King
reserve for his Son, yea, and had already bestowed it upon him.
Wherefore he first consults with himself what had best to be done,
and then breaks his mind to some other of his companions, to the
which they also agreed. So, in fine, they came to this issue,
that they should make an attempt upon the King's Son to destroy
him, that the inheritance might be theirs. Well, to be short, the
treason, as I said, was concluded, the time appointed, the word
given, the rebels rendezvoused, and the assault attempted.[22]
Now the King and his Son being ALL and always EYE, could not but
discern all passages in his dominions; and he having always love
for his Son as for himself, could not, at what he saw, but be
greatly provoked and offended; wherefore, what does he, but takes
them in the very nick; and, first trip that they made towards
their design, convicts them of the treason, horrid rebellion, and
conspiracy that they had devised, and now attempted to put into
practice; and casts them altogether out of all place of trust,
benefit, honour, and preferment. This done, he banishes them the
court; turns them down into the horrible pits, as fast bound in
chains, never more to expect the least favour from his hands, but
to abide the judgment that he had appointed, and that for ever (2
Peter 2:4; Jude 6).

And yet, now, they being thus cast out of all place of trust,
profit, and honour, and also knowing that they had lost their
prince's favour for ever, being banished his courts, and cast down
to the horrible pits, you may be sure they would now add to their
former pride what malice and rage against Shaddai, and against his
Son, they could. Wherefore, roving and ranging in much fury from
place to place, if perhaps they might find something that was the
King's, to revenge (by spoiling of that themselves) on him (1 Peter
5:8); at last they happened into this spacious country of Universe,
and steer their course towards the town of Mansoul; and considering
that that town was one of the chief works and delights of King
Shaddai, what do they but, after counsel taken, make an assault
upon that! I say they knew that Mansoul belonged unto Shaddai; for
they were there when he built it, and beautified it for himself.[23]
So when they had found the place, they shouted horribly for joy,
and roared on it as a lion upon the prey, saying, Now we have
found the prize, and how to be revenged on King Shaddai for what
he hath done to us. So they sat down, and called a council of war,
and considered with themselves what ways and methods they had best
to engage in, for the winning to themselves this famous town of
Mansoul; and these four things were then propounded to be considered
of. First. Whether they had best all of them, to show themselves
in this design to the town of Mansoul. Second. Whether they had
best to go and sit down against Mansoul, in their now ragged and
beggarly guise. Third. Whether they had best to show to Mansoul
their intentions, and what design they came about, or whether to
assault it with words and ways of deceit. Fourth. Whether they had
not best, to some of their companions, to give out private orders
to take the advantage, if they see one or more of the principal
townsmen, to shoot them; if thereby they shall judge their cause
and design will the better be promoted.

First. It was answered to the first of these proposals in the
negative, to wit, that it would not be best that all should show
themselves before the town, because the appearance of many of
them might alarm and fright the town; whereas a few, or but one
of them, was not so likely to do it. And to enforce this advice
to take place, it was added further, that if Mansoul was frighted,
or did take the alarm, it is impossible, said Diabolus--for he
spake now--that we should take the town; for that none can enter
into it without its own consent.[24] Let therefore but few or but
one assault Mansoul, and in mine opinion, said Diabolus, let me
be he. Wherefore to this they all agreed, and then to the second
proposal they came, namely,

Second. Whether they had best go and sit down before Mansoul in
their now ragged and beggarly guise. To which it was answered also
in the negative, By no means; and that because though the town of
Mansoul had been made to know and to have to do, before now, with
things that are invisible, they did never as yet see any of their
fellow-creatures in so sad and rascal condition as they. And this
was the advice of that fierce Alecto.[25] Then said Apollyon, the
advice is pertinent, for even one of us appearing to them as we
are now, must needs both beget and multiply such thoughts in them
as will both put them into a consternation of spirit, and necessitate
them to put themselves upon their guard. And if so, said he, then,
as my Lord Alecto said but now, it is in vain for us to think of
taking the town. Then said that mighty giant Beelzebub, the advice
that already is given is safe; for though the men of Mansoul have
seen such things as we once were, yet hitherto they did never
behold such things as we now are. And it is best, in mine opinion,
to come upon them in such a guise as is common to, and most familiar
among them.[26] To this, when they had consented, the next thing
to be considered was, in what shape, hue, or guise, Diabolus had
best to show himself, when he went about to make Mansoul his own.
Then one said one thing, and another the contrary; at last Lucifer
answered, that in his opinion it was best that his lordship should
assume the body of some of those creatures that they of the town
had dominion over. For, quoth he, these are not only familiar to
them, but being under them, they will never imagine that an attempt
should by them be made upon the town; and, to blind all, let him
assume the body of one of these beasts that Mansoul deems to be
wiser than any of the rest (Gen 3:1; Rev 20:1,2). This advice was
applauded of all; so it was determined that the giant Diabolus
should assume the dragon, for that he was in those days as familiar
with the town of Mansoul as now is the bird with the boy. For
nothing that was in its primitive state was at all amazing to
them.[27] Then they proceeded to the third thing, which was,

Third. Whether they had best to show their intentions or the design
of his coming to Mansoul, or no. This also was answered in the
negative, because of the weight that was in the former reasons, to
wit, for that Mansoul were a strong people, a strong people in a
strong town, whose wall and gates were impregnable, to say nothing
of their castle, nor can they by any means be won but by their own
consent. Besides, said Legion,[28] (for he gave answer to this),
a discovery of our intentions may make them send to their King
for aid, and if that be done, I know quickly what time of day it
will be with us. Therefore let us assault them in all pretended
fairness, covering of our intentions with all manner of lies,
flatteries, delusive words; feigning of things that never will be,
and promising of that to them that they shall never find. This is
the way to win Mansoul, and to make them, of themselves, to open
their gates to us; yea, and to desire us too, to come in to them.

And the reason why I think that this project will do is, because
the people of Mansoul now are every one simple and innocent; all
honest and true; nor do they as yet know what it is to be assaulted
with fraud, guile, and hypocrisy. They are strangers to lying and
dissembling lips; wherefore we cannot, if thus we be disguised, by
them at all be discerned; our lies shall go for true sayings, and
our dissimulations for upright dealings. What we promise them,
they will in that believe us, especially if in all our lies and
feigned words we pretend great love to them, and that our design
is only their advantage and honour. Now there was not one bit of
a reply against this; this went as current down as doth the water
down a steep descent; wherefore they go to consider of the last
proposal, which was,

Fourth. Whether they had not best to give out orders to some of
their company, to shoot some one or more of the principal of the
townsmen, if they judge that their cause may be promoted thereby.

This was carried in the affirmative, and the man that was designed
by this stratagem to be destroyed was one Mr. Resistance, otherwise
called Captain Resistance. And a great man in Mansoul this Captain
Resistance was; and a man that the giant Diabolus and his band
more feared than they feared the whole town of Mansoul besides.[29]
Now who should be the actor to do the murder, that was the next,
and they appointed one Tisiphone, a fury of the lake, to do it.

They thus having ended their council of war, rose up, and essayed
to do as they had determined. They marched towards Mansoul, but
all in a manner invisible, save one, only one; nor did he approach
the town in his own likeness, but under the shape and in the body
of the dragon.[30]

So they drew up, and sat down before Ear-gate, for that was the
place of hearing for all without the town, as Eye-gate was the
place of perspection. So, as I said, he came up with his train
to the gate, and laid his ambuscado for Captain Resistance within
bow-shot of the town. This done, the giant ascended up close to
the gate, and called to the town of Mansoul for audience. Nor took
he any with him, but one All-pause,[31] who was his orator in all
difficult matters. Now, as I said, he being come up to the gate,
as the manner of those times was, sounded his trumpet for audience. At
which the chief of the town of Mansoul, such as my Lord Innocent,
my Lord Will-be-will,[32] my Lord Mayor, Mr. Recorder,[33] and
Captain Resistance came down to the wall to see who was there, and
what was the matter. And my Lord Will-be-will, when he had looked
over and saw who stood at the gate, demanded what he was, wherefore
he was come, and why he roused the town of Mansoul with so unusual
a sound.

Diab. Diabolus then, as if he had been a lamb, began his oration,
and said; Gentlemen of the famous town of Mansoul, I am, as you
may perceive, no far dweller from you, but near, and one that is
bound by the King to do you my homage, and what service I can;
wherefore, that I may be faithful to myself, and to you, I have
somewhat of concern to impart unto you. Wherefore grant me your
audience, and hear me patiently. And, first, I will assure you,
it is not myself, but you; not mine, but your advantage that I
seek, by what I now do, as will full well be made manifest by that
I have opened my mind unto you. For, gentlemen, I am, to tell you
the truth, come to show you how you may obtain great and ample
deliverance from a bondage that, unawares to yourselves, you are
captivated and enslaved under. At this the town of Mansoul began
to prick up its ears, and what is it, pray, what is it, thought
they; and he said, I have somewhat to say to you concerning your
King, concerning his law, and also touching yourselves. Touching
your King, I know he is great and potent, but yet all that he
hath said to you is neither true, nor yet for your advantage. 1.
It is not true, for that wherewith he hath hitherto awed you shall
not come to pass, nor be fulfilled, though you do the thing that
he hath forbidden. But if there was danger, what a slavery is it
to live always in fear of the greatest of punishments, for doing
so small and trivial a thing as eating of a little fruit is? 2.
Touching his laws, this I say further, they are both unreasonable,
intricate, and intolerable. Unreasonable, as was hinted before, for
that the punishment is not proportioned to the offence. There is
great difference and disproportion betwixt the life and an apple;
yet the one must go for the other, by the law of your Shaddai.
But it is also intricate, in that he saith, first, you may eat of
all; and yet after, forbids the eating of one. And then, in the
last place, it must needs be intolerable, forasmuch as that fruit
which you are forbidden to eat of, if you are forbidden any, is
that, and that alone, which is able, by your eating, to minister
to you a good as yet unknown by you. This is manifest by the very
name of the tree; it is called the tree of knowledge of good and
evil; and have you that knowledge as yet? No, no, nor can you
conceive how good, how pleasant, and how much to be desired to make
one wise it is, so long as you stand by your King's commandment.
Why should you be holden in ignorance and blindness? Why should
you not be enlarged in knowledge and understanding? And now,
ah! ye inhabitants of the famous town of Mansoul, to speak more
particularly to yourselves, you are not a free people! You are
kept both in bondage and slavery, and that by a grievous threat;
no reason being annexed but, so I will have it, so it shall be.
And is it not grievous to think on, that that very thing that you
are forbidden to do, might you but do it, would yield you both
wisdom and honour; for then your eyes will be opened, and you
shall be as gods. Now, since this is thus, quoth he, can you be
kept by any prince in more slavery, and in greater bondage, than
you are under this day? You are made underlings, and are wrapped
up in inconveniences, as I have well made appear. For what bondage
greater than to be kept in blindness? Will not reason tell you that
it is better to have eyes than to be without them; and so to be
at liberty, to be better than to be shut up in a dark and stinking

And just now, while Diabolus was speaking these words to Mansoul,
Tisiphone shot at Captain Resistance, where he stood on the gate,
and mortally wounded him in the head; so that he, to the amazement
of the townsmen, and the encouragement of Diabolus, fell down dead
quite over the wall.[34] Now, when Captain Resistance was dead,
and he was the only man of war in the town, poor Mansoul was wholly
left naked of courage, nor had she now any heart to resist. But
this was as the devil would have it.[35] Then stood forth that
He,[36] Mr. Ill-pause, that Diabolus brought with him, who was
his orator,[37] and he addressed himself to speak to the town of
Mansoul: the tenour of whose speech here follows.

ILL-PAUSE. Gentlemen, quoth he, it is my master's happiness that
he has this day a quiet and teachable auditory,[38] and it is hoped
by us that we shall prevail with you not to cast off good advice;
my master has a very great love for you, and although, as he very
well knows, that he runs the hazard of the anger of King Shaddai,
yet love to you will make him do more than that.[39] Nor doth there
need that a word more should be spoken to confirm for truth what
he hath said; there is not a word but carries with it self-evidence
in its bowels; the very name of the tree may put an end to all
controversy in this matter. I therefore at this time shall only
add this advice to you, under, and by the leave of my Lord [and
with that he made Diabolus a very low conge]. Consider his words,
look on the tree, and the promising fruit thereof; remember also
that yet you know but little, and that this is the way to know
more; and if your reasons be not conquered to accept of such good
counsel, you are not the men that I took you to be. But when the
towns-folk saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was
pleasant to the eye, and a tree to be desired to make one wise,
they did as old Ill-pause advised, they took and did eat thereof.
Now this I should have told you before, that even then, when
this Ill-pause was making of his speech to the townsmen, my Lord
Innocency--whether by a shot from the camp of the giant, or from
some sinking qualm that suddenly took him, or whether by the
stinking breath of that treacherous villain old Ill-pause, for
so I am most apt to think--sunk down in the place where he stood,
nor could he be brought to life again.[40] Thus these two brave
men died; brave men I call them, for they were the beauty and
glory of Mansoul, so long as they lived therein; nor did there now
remain any more a noble spirit in Mansoul, they all fell down, and
yielded obedience to Diabolus, and became his slaves and vassals,
as you shall hear.[41]

Now these being dead, what do the rest of the towns-folk, but as
men that had found a fool's paradise, they presently, as afore was
hinted, fall to prove the truth of the giant's words; and first they
did as Ill-pause had taught them, they looked, they considered,
they were taken with the forbidden fruit, they took thereof, and did
eat; and having eaten, they became immediately drunken therewith;
so they opened the gate, both Ear-gate and Eye-gate, and let in
Diabolus with all his bands, quite forgetting their good Shaddai,
his law, and the judgment that he had annexed with solemn threatening
to the breach thereof.[42]


[CONTENTS:--Diabolus takes possession of the castle--The Lord
Mayor, Mr. Understanding, is deposed, and a wall built before his
house, to darken it--Mr. Conscience, the Recorder, is put out of
office, and becomes very obnoxious both to Diabolus and to the
inhabitants--My Lord Will-be-will, heartily espousing the cause
of Diabolus, is made the principal governor of the town--The image
of Shaddai defaced, and that of Diabolus set up in its stead--Mr.
Lustings is made Lord Mayor, and Mr. Forget-good, Recorder--New
alderman appointed--Three forts built to defend the town against

Diabolus having now obtained entrance in at the gates of the town,
marches up to the middle thereof, to make his conquest as sure as
he could, and finding by this time the affections of the people
warmly inclining to him, he, as thinking it was best striking while
the iron is hot, made this further deceivable speech unto them,
saying, Alas, my poor Mansoul! I have done thee indeed this
service, as to promote thee to honour, and to greaten thy liberty,
but alas! alas! poor Mansoul, thou wantest now one to defend thee,
for assure thyself that when Shaddai shall hear what is done, he
will come; for sorry will he be that thou hast broken his bonds,
and cast his cords away from thee. What wilt thou do--wilt thou
after enlargement suffer thy privileges to be invaded and taken
away? or what wilt resolve with thyself? Then they all with one
consent said to this bramble, Do thou reign over us. So he accepted
the motion, and became the king of the town of Mansoul. This being
done, the next thing was to give him possession of the castle, and
so of the whole strength of the town. Wherefore into the castle
he goes--it was that which Shaddai built in Mansoul for his own
delight and pleasure--this now was become a den and hold for the
giant Diabolus.[43]

Now having got possession of this stately palace or castle, what
doth he but make it a garrison for himself, and strengthens and
fortifies it with all sorts of provision against the King Shaddai,
or those that should endeavour the regaining of it to him and his
obedience again.

This done, but not thinking himself yet secure enough, in the next
place, he bethinks himself of new-modelling the town; and so he
does, setting up one, and putting down another at pleasure.[44]
Wherefore my Lord Mayor, whose name was my Lord Understanding, and
Mr. Recorder, whose name was Mr. Conscience, those he puts out of
place and power.

As for my Lord Mayor, though he was an understanding man, and
one too that had complied with the rest of the town of Mansoul in
admitting of the giant into the town, yet Diabolus thought not fit
to let him abide in his former lustre and glory, because he was a
seeing man. Wherefore he darkened it not only by taking from him
his office and power, but by building of a high and strong tower,
just between the sun's reflections, and the windows of my Lord's
palace (2 Cor 10:4,5); by which means his house and all, and the
whole of his habitation, was made as dark as darkness itself. And
thus being alienated from the light, he became as one that was born
blind (Eph 4:18,19). To this his house my Lord was confined as to
a prison; nor might he be upon his parole go farther than within
his own bounds. And now had he had a heart to do for Mansoul,
what could he do for it or wherein could he be profitable to her?
So then, so long as Mansoul was under the power and government of
Diabolus--and so long it was under him as it was obedient to him;
which was even until by a war it was rescued out of his hands--so
long my Lord Mayor was rather an impediment in, than advantage to,
the famous town of Mansoul.

As for Mr. Recorder, before the town was taken he was a man
well read in the laws of his King, and also a man of courage and
faithfulness, to speak truth at every occasion; and he had a tongue
as bravely hung as he had an head filled with judgment. Now this
man, Diabolus could by no means abide, because, though he gave
his consent to his coming into the town, yet he could not, by all
wiles, trials, stratagems, and devices that he could use, make him
wholly his own. True, he was much degenerated from his former King,
and also much pleased with many of the giant's laws and service;
but all this would not do, forasmuch as he was not wholly his. He
would now and then think upon Shaddai, and have dread of his law
upon him, and then he would speak with a voice as great against
Diabolus as when a lion roareth;[45] yea, and would also at certain
times when his fits were upon him--for you must know that sometimes
he had terrible fits--[he would] make the whole town of Mansoul
shake with his voice: and, therefore, the now king of Mansoul
could not abide him.[46]

Diabolus therefore feared the Recorder more than any that was left
alive in the town of Mansoul, because, as I said, his words did
shake the whole town; they were like the rattling thunder, and also
like thunder-claps. Since therefore the giant could not make him
wholly his own, what doth he do but studies all that he could to
debauch the old gentleman; and by debauchery to stupefy his mind,
and more harden his heart in ways of vanity. And as he attempted,
so he accomplished his design; he debauched the man, and by little
and little so drew him into sin and wickedness, that at last he
was not only debauched as at first, and so by consequence defiled,
but was almost, at last, I say, past all conscience of sin. And
this was the furthest Diabolus could go. Wherefore he bethinks him
of another project; and that was to persuade the men of the town
that Mr. Recorder was mad, and so not to be regarded: and for
this he urged his fits, and said, If he be himself, why doth he
not do thus always? but, quoth he, as all mad folks have their
fits, and in them their raving language, so hath this old and
doating gentleman.

Thus, by one means or another, he quickly got Mansoul to slight,
neglect, and despise whatever Mr. Recorder could say.[47] For
besides what already you have heard, Diabolus had a way to make
the old gentleman, when he was merry, unsay and deny what he in
his fits had affirmed; and, indeed, this was the next way to make
himself ridiculous, and to cause that no man should regard him.
Also, now he never spake freely for King Shaddai, but always by
force and constraint; besides, he would at one time be hot against
that at which at another he would hold his peace, so uneven was he
now in his doings. Sometimes he would be as if fast asleep, and
again sometimes as dead, even then when the whole town of Mansoul
was in her career after vanity, and in her dance after the giant's

Wherefore, sometimes, when Mansoul did use to be frightened with
the thundering voice of the Recorder that was, and when they did
tell Diabolus of it, he would answer that what the old gentleman
said was neither of love to him nor pity to them, but of a foolish
fondness that he had to be prating; and so would hush, still, and
put all to quiet again. And that he might leave no argument unurged
that might tend to make them secure, he said, and said it often,
O Mansoul! consider that notwithstanding the old gentleman's rage,
and the rattle of his high and thundering words, you hear nothing
of Shaddai himself, when, liar and deceiver that he was, every
outcry of Mr. Recorder against the sin of Mansoul was the voice
of God in him to them. But he goes on and says, You see that he
values not the loss, nor rebellion of the town of Mansoul, nor
will he trouble himself with calling of his town to a reckoning
for their giving of themselves to me. He knows that though ye were
his, now you are lawfully mine; so, leaving us one to another, he
now hath shaken his hands of us.[48]

Moreover, O Mansoul! quoth he, consider how I have served you,
even to the uttermost of my power; and that with the best that I
have, could get, or procure for you in all the world: besides, I
dare say, that the laws and customs that you now are under, and
by which you do homage to me, do yield you more solace and content
than did the paradise that at first you possessed. Your liberty
also, as yourselves do very well know, has been greatly widened
and enlarged by me; whereas I found you a pent-up people. I have
not laid any restraint upon you; you have no law, statute, or
judgment of mine to frighten you; I call none of you to account
for your doings, except the madman (you know who I mean). I have
granted you to live, each man, like a prince, in his own, even with
as little control from me as I myself have from you.

And thus would Diabolus hush up, and quiet the town of Mansoul,
when the Recorder, that was, did at times molest them; yea, and
with such cursed orations as these would set the whole town in a
rage and fury against the old gentleman; yea, the rascal crew at
some times would be for destroying of him. They have often wished,
in my hearing, that he had lived a thousand miles off from them:
his company, his words, yea, the sight of him, and especially
when they remembered how in old times he did use to threaten and
condemn them,--for all he was now so debauched--did terrify and
afflict them sore.[49]

But all wishes were vain; for I do not know how, unless by the
power of Shaddai, and his wisdom, he was preserved in being amongst
them. Besides, his house was as strong as a castle, and stood hard
to a stronghold of the town. Moreover, if at any time any of the
crew or rabble attempted to make him away, he could pull up the
sluices, and let in such floods, as would drown all round about

But to leave Mr. Recorder, and to come to my Lord Will-be-will,
another of the gentry of the famous town of Mansoul. This Will-be-will
was as high-born as any man in Mansoul, and was as much, if not
more, a freeholder than many of them were: besides, if I remember
my tale aright, he had some privileges peculiar to himself in the
famous town of Mansoul. Now, together with these, he was a man
of great strength, resolution, and courage; nor in his occasion
could any turn him away. But I say, whether he was proud of his
estate, privileges, strength, or what--but sure it was through
pride of something--he scorns now to be a slave in Mansoul; and
therefore resolves to bear office under Diabolus, that he might,
such an one as he was, be a petty ruler and governor in Mansoul.[50]
And, headstrong man that he was, thus he began betimes; for this
man, when Diabolus did make his oration at Ear-gate, was one of
the first that was for consenting to his words, and for accepting
of his counsel at wholesome, and that was for the opening of the
gate, and for letting him into the town: wherefore Diabolus had
a kindness for him and therefore he designed for him a place; and
perceiving the valour and stoutness of the man, he coveted to have
him for one of his great ones, to act and to do in matters of the
highest concern.[51]

So he sent for him, and talked with him of that secret matter that
lay in his breast, but there needed not much persuasion in the
case; for as at first he was willing that Diabolus should be let
into the town, so now he was as willing to serve him there. When
the tyrant therefore perceived the willingness of my Lord to serve
him, and that his mind stood bending that way, he forthwith made
him the captain of the castle, governor of the wall, and keeper
of the gates of Mansoul; yea, there was a clause in his commission
that nothing without him should be done in all the town of Mansoul.
So that now, next to Diabolus himself, who but my Lord Will-be-will
in all the town of Mansoul; nor could anything now be done, but
at his will and pleasure, throughout the town of Mansoul. He had
also one Mr. Mind[52] for his clerk, a man to speak on, every way
like his master; for he and his Lord were in principle one, and
in practice not far asunder (Rom 8:7). And now was Mansoul brought
under to purpose, and made to fulfil the lusts of the will and of
the mind.

But it will not out of my thoughts, what a desperate one this
Will-be-will was, when power was put into his hand. First, he flatly
denied that he owed any suit or service to his former prince and
liege Lord. This done, in the next place he took an oath, and swore
fidelity to his great master Diabolus, and then, being stated and
settled in his places, offices, advancements, and preferments, oh!
you cannot think, unless you had seen it, the strange work that
this workman made in the town of Mansoul!

First, he maligned Mr. Recorder to death; he would neither endure
to see him, nor to hear the words of his mouth; he would shut his
eyes when he saw him, and stop his ears when he heard him speak:
also, he could not endure that so much as a fragment of the law
of Shaddai should be anywhere seen in the town. For example, his
clerk, Mr. Mind, had some old, rent, and torn parchments of the
law of good Shaddai in his house,[53] but when Will-be-will saw
them, he cast them behind his back (Neh 9:26). True, Mr. Recorder
had some of the laws in his study, but my Lord could by no means
come at them: he also thought, and said, that the windows of my
old Lord Mayor's house were always too light for the profit of the
town of Mansoul. The light of a candle he could not endure. Now,
nothing at all pleased Will-be-will but what pleased Diabolus his

There was none like him to trumpet about the streets the brave
nature, the wise conduct, and great glory of the King Diabolus. He
would range and rove throughout all the streets of Mansoul to cry
up his illustrious Lord, and would make himself even as an abject,
among the base and rascal crew, to cry up his valiant prince.
And I say, when and wheresoever he found these vassals, he would
even make himself as one of them. In all ill courses he would act
without bidding, and do mischief without commandment.

The Lord Will-be-will also had a deputy under him, and his name
was Mr. Affection; one that was also greatly debauched in his
principles, and answerable thereto in his life (Rom 1:25). He was
wholly given to the flesh, and therefore they called him Vile-affection.
Now there was he, and one Carnal-lust, the daughter of Mr. Mind
(like to like, quoth the devil to the collier) that fell in love,
and made a match, and were married; and, as I take it, they had
several children, as Impudent, Blackmouth, and Hate-reproof; these
three were black boys. And besides these they had three daughters,
as Scorn-truth, and Slightgod, and the name of the youngest was
Revenge; these were all married in the town and also begot and
yielded many bad brats, too many to be here inserted.[54] But to
pass by this.

When the giant had thus engarrisoned himself in the town of Mansoul,
and had put down and set up whom he thought good; he betakes
himself to defacing. Now there was in the market-place in Mansoul,
and also upon the gates of the castle, an image of the blessed King
Shaddai; this image was so exactly engraven, and it was engraven
in gold, that it did the most resemble Shaddai himself of anything
that then was extant in the world. This he basely commanded to be
defaced, and it was as basely done by the hand of Mr. No-truth.
Now you must know, that as Diabolus had commanded, and that by the
hand of Mr. No-truth, the image of Shaddai was defaced. He likewise
gave order that the same Mr. No-truth should set up in its stead
the horrid and formidable image of Diabolus; to the great contempt
of the former King, and debasing of his town of Mansoul.

Moreover, Diabolus made havoc of all remains of the laws and
statutes of Shaddai that could be found in the town of Mansoul; to
wit, such as contained either the doctrines of morals, with all
civil and natural documents. Also relative severities he sought
to extinguish.[55] To be short, there was nothing of the remains
of good in Mansoul which he and Will-be-will sought not to destroy;
for their design was to turn Mansoul into a brute, and to make it
like to the sensual sow, by the hand of Mr. No-truth.[56]

When he had destroyed what law and good orders he could, then,
further to effect his design--namely, to alienate Mansoul from
Shaddai, her king--he commands, and they set up his own vain edicts,
statutes, and commandments, in all places of resort or concourse
in Mansoul; to wit, such as gave liberty to the lusts of the flesh,
the lusts of the eyes, and the pride of life, which are not of
Shaddai, but of the world (1 John 2:16). He encouraged, countenanced,
and promoted lasciviousness, and all ungodliness there. Yea, much
more did Diabolus to encourage wickedness in the town of Mansoul;
he promised them peace, content, joy, and bliss in doing his
commands, and that they should never be called to an account for
their not doing the contrary. And let this serve to give a taste
to them that love to hear tell of what is done beyond their
knowledge, afar off in other countries.[57]

Now Mansoul being wholly at his beck, and brought wholly to his
bow, nothing was heard or seen therein but that which tended to
set up him.

But now, he having disabled the Lord Mayor and Mr. Recorder from
bearing of office in Mansoul, and seeing that the town, before
he came to it, was the most ancient of corporations in the world;
and fearing, if he did not maintain greatness, that they at any
time should object that he had done them an injury, therefore, I
say, that they might see that he did not intend to lessen their
grandeur, or to take from them any of their advantageous things,
he did choose for them a Lord Mayor and a Recorder himself; and
such as contented them at the heart, and such also as pleased him
wondrous well.

The name of the Mayor that was of Diabolus' making was the Lord
Lustings; a man that had neither eyes nor ears; all that he did,
whether as a man or as an officer, he did it naturally, as doth the
beast.[58] And that which made him yet the more ignoble, though
not to Mansoul, yet to them that beheld and were grieved for its
ruins, was, that he never could savour good, but evil.

The Recorder was one whose name was Forget-good; and a very sorry
fellow he was. He could remember nothing but mischief, and to
do it with delight. He was naturally prone to do things that were
hurtful; even hurtful to the town of Mansoul, and to all the
dwellers there. These two, therefore, by their power and practice,
example and smiles upon evil, did much more grammar,[59] and settle
the common people in hurtful ways. For who doth not perceive, but
when those that sit aloft are vile, and corrupt themselves, they
corrupt the whole region and country where they are?[60]

Besides these, Diabolus made several burgesses and aldermen in
Mansoul; such as out of whom the town, when it needed, might choose
them officers, governors, and magistrates. And these are the names
of the chief of them, Mr. Incredulity, Mr. Haughty, Mr. Swearing,
Mr. Whoring, Mr. Hard-heart, Mr. Pitiless, Mr. Fury, Mr. No-truth,
Mr. Stand-to-lies, Mr. False-peace, Mr. Drunkenness, Mr. Cheating,
Mr. Atheism--thirteen in all. Mr. Incredulity is the eldest, and
Mr. Atheism the youngest, of the company.[61]

There was also an election of common councilmen, and others; as
bailiffs, sergeants, constables, and others; but all of them like
to those afore-named, being either fathers, brothers, cousins, or
nephews to them; whose names, for brevity's sake, I omit to mention.

When the giant had thus far proceeded in his work, in the next
place he betook him to build some strongholds in the town. And he
built three that seemed to be impregnable. The first he called the
Hold of Defiance, because it was made to command the whole town,
and to keep it from the knowledge of its ancient King. The second
he called Midnight-hold, because it was built on purpose to keep
Mansoul from the true knowledge of itself. The third was called
Sweet-sin-hold, because by that he fortified Mansoul against all
desires of good. The first of these holds stood close by Eye-gate,
that as much might be light might be darkened there. The second was
built hard by the old castle, to the end that that might be made
more blind, if possible. And the third stood in the market-place.[62]

He that Diabolus made governor over the first of these, was one
Spite-god, a most blasphemous wretch. He came with the whole rabble
of them that came against Mansoul at first, and was himself one
of themselves. He that was made the governor of Midnight-hold, was
one Love-no-light, he was also of them that came first against
the town. And he that was made the governor of the hold called
Sweet-sin-hold, was one whose name was Love-flesh; he was also
a very lewd fellow, but not of that country where the other are
bound.[63] This fellow could find more sweetness when he stood
sucking of a lust, than he did in all the paradise of God.

And now Diabolus thought himself safe; he had taken Mansoul; he
had engarrisoned himself therein; he had put down the old officers,
and had set up new ones; he had defaced the image of Shaddai, and
had set up his own; he had spoiled the old law-books, and had
promoted his own vain lies; he had made him new magistrates, and
set up new aldermen; he had built him new holds, and had manned
them for himself.[64] And all this he did to make himself secure,
in case the good Shaddai, or his Son, should come to make an
incursion upon him.


[CONTENTS:--Information of the revolution carried to the court
of King Shaddai--His great resentment of the rebellion--His
gracious intention of restoring Mansoul--Some intimations of this
published--Care of Diabolus to suppress them--His artifices to
secure the town, and prevent its return to Shaddai.]

Now you may well think, that long before this time word, by some
or other, could not but be carried to the good King Shaddai, how
his Mansoul in the continent of Universe was lost; and that the
runagate giant Diabolus, once one of his Majesty's servants, had,
in rebellion against the King, made sure thereof for himself; yea,
tidings were carried and brought to the King thereof, and that to
a very circumstance.[65]

At first, how Diabolus came upon Mansoul--they being a simple
people, and innocent, with craft, subtlety, lies, and guile. Item,
That he had treacherously slain the right noble and valiant captain,
their Captain Resistance, as he stood upon the gate, with the rest of
the townsmen. Item, How my brave Lord Innocent fell down dead--with
grief, some say, or with being poisoned with the stinking breath
of one Ill-pause, as say others--at the hearing of his just Lord
and rightful prince Shaddai so abused by the mouth of so filthy
a Diabolian as that varlet Ill-pause was. The messenger further
told, that after this Ill-pause had made a short oration to
the townsmen, in behalf of Diabolus, his master, the simple town
believing that what was said was true, with one consent did open
Ear-gate, the chief gate of the corporation, and did let him, with
his crew into a possession of the famous town of Mansoul. He further
showed how Diabolus had served the Lord Mayor and Mr. Recorder,
to wit, that he had put them from all place of power and trust.
Item, He showed also that my Lord Will-be-will was turned a very
rebel and renegade, and that so was one Mr. Mind, his clerk; and
that they two did range and revel it all the town over, and teach
the wicked ones their ways. He said, moreover, that this Will-be-will
was put into great trust; and, particularly, that Diabolus had
put into Will-be-will's hand all the strong places in Mansoul; and
that Mr. Affection was made my Lord Will-be-will's deputy in his
most rebellious affairs. Yea, said the messenger, this monster,
Lord Will-be-will, has openly disavowed his King Shaddai, and hath
horribly given his faith and plighted his troth to Diabolus.[66]

'Also,' said the messenger, 'besides all this, the new king, or
rather rebellious tyrant, over the once famous, but now perishing,
town of Mansoul, has set up a Lord Mayor and a Recorder of his
own. For Mayor, he has set up one Mr. Lustings, and for Recorder,
Mr. Forget-good; two of the vilest of all the town of Mansoul.'
This faithful messenger also proceeded, and told what a sort of
new burgesses Diabolus had made, also that he had builed several
strong forts, towers, and strongholds in Mansoul. He told too,
the which I had almost forgot, how Diabolus had put the town of
Mansoul into arms, the better to capacitate them on his behalf
to make resistance against Shaddai their king, should he come to
reduce them to their former obedience.

Now this tidings-teller did not deliver his relation of things in
private, but in open court, the King and his Son, high lords, chief
captains, and nobles, being all there present to hear. But by that
they had heard the whole of the story, it would have amazed one to
have seen, had he been there to behold it, what sorrow and grief,
and compunction of spirit, there was among all sorts, to think that
famous Mansoul was now taken; only the King, and his Son foresaw
all this long before, yea, and sufficiently provided for the relief
of Mansoul, though they told not everybody thereof. Yet, because
they also would have a share in condoling of the misery of Mansoul,
therefore they also did, and that at a rate of the highest degree,
bewail the losing of Mansoul. The King said plainly, 'That it
grieved him at his heart,' and you may be sure that his Son was
not a whit behind him (Gen 6:5,6). Thus gave they conviction to
all about them, that they had love and compassion for the famous
town of Mansoul. Well, when the King and his Son were retired into
the privy-chamber, there they again consulted about what they had
designed before, to wit, that as Mansoul should in time be suffered
to be lost, so as certainly it should be recovered again; recovered
I say, in such a way as that both the King and his Son would get
themselves eternal fame and glory thereby. Wherefore after this
consult, the Son of Shaddai, a sweet and comely person, and one
that had always great affection for those that were in affliction,
but one that had mortal enmity in his heart against Diabolus,
because he was designed for it, and because he sought his crown
and dignity. This Son of Shaddai, I say, having stricken hands[67]
with his Father, and promised that he would be his servant to
recover his Mansoul again, stood by his resolution, nor would he
repent of the same(Isa 49:5; 1 Tim 1:15; Heb 13:14). The purport
of which agreement was this: to wit, That at a certain time prefixed
by both, the King's Son should take a journey into the country of
Universe; and there, in a way of justice and equity, by making of
amends for the follies of Mansoul, he should lay a foundation of
her perfect deliverance from Diabolus, and from his tyranny.[68]

Moreover, Emmanuel resolved to make, at a time convenient, a war
upon the giant Diabolus, even while he was possessed of the town
of Mansoul; and that he would fairly, by strength of hand, drive
him out of his hold, his nest, and take it to himself, to be his

This now being resolved upon, order was given to the Lord Chief
Secretary, to draw up a fair record of what was determined, and to
cause that it should be published in all the corners of the kingdom
of Universe. A short breviate[69] of the contents thereof you may,
if you please, take here as follows:

'Let all men know who are concerned, That the Son of Shaddai, the
great King, is engaged, by covenant to his Father, to bring his
Mansoul to him again; yea, and to put Mansoul too, through the
power of his matchless love, into a far better, and more happy
condition than it was in before it was taken by Diabolus.'[70]

These papers, therefore, were published in several places, to the
no little molestation of the tyrant Diabolus, for now, thought
he, I shall be molested, and my habitation will be taken from me.

But when this matter, I mean this purpose of the King and his Son,
did at first take air at court, who can tell how the high lords,
chief captains, and noble princes, that were there, were taken
with the business. First, they whispered it one to another, and
after that it began to ring out throughout the King's palace; all
wondering at the glorious design that between the King and his Son
was on foot for the miserable town of Mansoul. Yea, the courtiers
could scarce do anything, either for the King or kingdom, but they
would mix with the doing thereof a noise of the love of the King
and his Son, that they had for the town of Mansoul.

Nor could these lords, high captains, and princes be content
to keep this news at court, yea, before the records thereof were
perfected, themselves came down and told it in Universe. At last
it came to the ears, as I said, of Diabolus, to his no little
discontent. For you must think it would perplex him to hear of such
a design against him; well, but after a few casts in his mind, he
concluded upon these four things.

First. That this news, this good tidings, if possible, should be
kept from the ears of the town of Mansoul.[71] For, said he, if
they shall once come to the knowledge that Shaddai, their former
King, and Emmanuel, his Son, are contriving of good for the town
of Mansoul; what can be expected by me, but that Mansoul will
make a revolt from under my hand and government, and return again
to him.

Now, to accomplish this his design, he renews his flattery with my
Lord Will-be-will, and also gives him strict charge and command,
that he should keep watch by day and by night at all the gates of
the town, especially Ear-gate and Eye-gate. For I hear of a design,
quoth he, a design to make us all traitors, and that Mansoul must
be reduced to its first bondage again. I hope they are but flying
stories, quoth he; however, let no such news by any means be let
into Mansoul, lest the people be dejected thereat; I think, my Lord,
it can be no welcome news to you, I am sure it is none to me. And
I think that at this time it should be all our wisdom and care
to nip the head of all such rumours as shall tend to trouble our
people. Wherefore, I desire, my Lord, that you will in this matter
do as I say, let there be strong guards daily kept at every gate
of the town. Stop also and examine from whence such come, that
you perceive do from far come hither to trade; nor let them by any
means be admitted into Mansoul, unless you shall plainly perceive
that they are favourers of our excellent government. I command,
moreover, said Diabolus, that there be spies continually walking
up and down the town of Mansoul, and let them have power to suppress,
and destroy, any that they shall perceive to be plotting against
us, or that shall prate of what by Shaddai and Emmanuel is intended.

This, therefore, was accordingly done; my Lord Will-be-will hearkened
to his Lord and master, went willingly after the commandment, and,
with all the diligence he could, kept any that would from going
out abroad, or that sought to bring this tidings to Mansoul, from
coming into the town.

Secondly. This done, in the next place, Diabolus, that he might
make Mansoul as sure as he could, frames and imposes a new oath and
horrible covenant upon the townsfolk: to wit, 'That they should
never desert him, nor his government, nor yet betray him, nor
seek to alter his laws; but that they should own, confess, stand
by, and acknowledge him for their rightful king, in defiance to
any that do, or hereafter shall, by any pretence, law, or title
whatever, lay claim to the town of Mansoul.' Thinking belike that
Shaddai had not power to absolve them from this covenant with
death, and agreement with hell (Isa 28:15). Nor did the silly
Mansoul stick or boggle at all at this most monstrous engagement,
but, as if it had been a sprat in the mouth of a whale, they
swallowed it without any chewing. Were they troubled at it? Nay,
they rather bragged and boasted of their so brave fidelity to the
tyrant, their pretended King, swearing that they would never be
changelings, nor forsake their old Lord for a new.[72]

Thus did Diabolus tie poor Mansoul fast; but jealousy, that never
thinks itself strong enough, put him, in the next place, upon
another exploit, which was yet more, if possible, to debauch this
town of Mansoul. Wherefore he caused, by the hand of one Mr. Filth,
an odious, nasty, lascivious piece of beastliness to be drawn up
in writing,[73] and to be set upon the castle gates; whereby he
granted and gave license to all his true and trusty sons in Mansoul,
to do whatsoever their lustful appetites prompted them to do, and
that no man was to let, hinder, or control them, upon pain of
incurring the displeasure of their prince.

Now this he did for these reasons:

1. That the town of Mansoul might be yet made weaker and weaker,
and so more unable, should tiding come that their redemption was
designed, to believe, hope, or consent to the truth thereof. For
reason says, the bigger the sinner, the less grounds of hopes of

2. The second reason was, If perhaps, Emmanuel, the Son of Shaddai
their king, by seeing the horrible and profane doings of the
town of Mansoul, might repent, though entered into a covenant of
redeeming them, of pursuing that covenant of their redemption;
for he knew that Shaddai was holy, and that his Son Emmanuel was
holy; yea, he knew it by woeful experience; for, for his iniquity
and sin was Diabolus cast from the highest orbs. Wherefore what
more rational than for him to conclude, that thus for sin it might
fare with Mansoul. But fearing also lest this knot should break,
he bethinks himself of another, to wit:

3. To endeavour to possess all hearts in the town of Mansoul that
Shaddai was raising of an army, to come to overthrow and utterly
to destroy this town of Mansoul, and this he did to forestal any
tidings that might come to their ears of their deliverance; for,
thought he, if I first bruit[75] this, the tidings that shall
come after, will all be swallowed up of this; for what else will
Mansoul say, when they shall hear that they must be delivered,
but that the true meaning is, Shaddai intends to destroy them;
wherefore, he summons the whole town into the market-place,
and there, with deceitful tongue, thus he addresses himself unto

'Gentlemen, and my very good friends, You are all, as you know, my
legal subjects, and men of the famous town of Mansoul; you know
how, from the first day that I have been with you until now, I have
behaved myself among you, and what liberty, and great privileges
you have enjoyed under my government, I hope to your honour, and
mine, and also to your content and delight. Now, my famous Mansoul,
a noise of trouble there is abroad, of trouble to the town of
Mansoul, sorry I am thereof for your sakes. For I received but
now by the post from my Lord Lucifer--and he useth to have good
intelligence--that your old King Shaddai is raising of an army to
come against you, to destroy you root and branch:[76] and this,
O Mansoul, is now the cause that at this time I have called you
together; namely, to advise what in this juncture is best to be
done; for my part, I am but one, and can with ease shift for myself,
did I list to seek my own ease, and to leave my Mansoul in all the
danger. But my heart is so firmly united to you, and so unwilling
am I to leave you, that I am willing to stand and fall with you,
to the utmost hazard that shall befall me.[77] What say you, O
my Mansoul? Will you now desert your old friend, or do you think
of standing by me?' Then as one man, with one mouth, they cried
out together, 'Let him die the death that will not.'

Then said Diabolus again, 'It is in vain for us to hope for quarter,
for this King knows not how to show it: true, perhaps, he at his
first sitting down before us will talk of, and pretend to, mercy,
that thereby, with the more ease, and less trouble, he may again
make himself the master of Mansoul. Whatever therefore he shall say,
believe not one syllable or tittle of it, for all such language is
but to overcome us, and to make us, while we wallow in our blood,
the trophies of his merciless victory. My mind is, therefore, that
we resolve, to the last man, to resist him, and not to believe
him upon any terms; for in at that door will come our danger.[78]
But shall we be flattered out of our lives? I hope you know more
of the rudiments of politics than to suffer yourselves so pitifully
to be served.

'But suppose he should, if he get us to yield, save some of our
lives, or the lives of some of them that are underlings in Mansoul,
what help will that be to you that are the chief of the town;
especially of you whom I have set up, and whose greatness has been
procured by you through your faithful sticking to me? And suppose
again, that he should give quarter to every one of you, be sure he
will bring you into that bondage under which you were captivated
before, or a worse; and then what good will your lives do you?
Shall you with him live in pleasure as you do now? No, no, you
must be bound by laws that will pinch you, and be made to do that
which at present is hateful to you; I am for you, if you are for
me, and it is better to die valiantly, than to live like pitiful
slaves.[79] But I say, the life of a slave will be counted a life
too good for Mansoul now; blood, blood, nothing but blood is in
every blast of Shaddai's trumpet against poor Mansoul now.[80]
Pray, be concerned, I hear he is coming up; and stand to your
arms, that now while you have any leisure, I may learn you some
feats of war. Armour for you I have, and by me it is; yea, and it
is sufficient for Mansoul from top to toe; nor can you be hurt by
what his force can do, if you shall keep it well girt and fastened
about you. Come therefore to my castle, and welcome, and harness
yourselves for the war. There is helmet, breastplate, sword, and
shield, and what not, that will make you fight like men.

1. 'My helmet, otherwise called an head-piece, is hope of doing
well at last, what lives soever you live. This is that which they
had, who said, that they should have peace though they walked
in the wickedness of their heart, "to add drunkenness to thirst"
(Deut 29:19). A piece of approved armour this is, and whoever has
it and can hold it, so long no arrow, dart, sword, or shield can
hurt him; this therefore, keep on, and thou wilt keep off many a
blow, my Mansoul.[81]

2. 'My breastplate is a breastplate of iron; I had it forged
in mine own country, and all my soldiers are armed therewith; in
plain language it is a hard heart, a heart as hard as iron, and
as much past feeling as a stone; the which if you get, and keep,
neither mercy shall win you, nor judgment fright you (Rev 9:9).
This, therefore, is a piece of armour most necessary for all to
put on that hate Shaddai, and that would fight against him under
my banner.

3. 'My sword is a tongue that is set on fire of hell (Psa 57:4),
and that can bend itself to speak evil of Shaddai, his Son, his
ways, and people (Psa 64:3). Use this; it has been tried a thousand
times twice told; whoever hath it, keeps it, and makes that use
of it as I would have him, can never be conquered by mine enemy
(James 3:3-5).

4. 'My, shield is unbelief, or calling into question the truth
of the Word, or all the sayings that speak of the judgment that
Shaddai has appointed for wic