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´╗┐Title: Higher Lessons in English: A work on English grammar and composition
Author: Reed, Alonzo, Kellogg, Brainerd
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Higher Lessons in English: A work on English grammar and composition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

** Transcriber's Notes **

Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in +pluses+ represent boldface;
Vowels followed by a colon represent a long vowel (printed with a macron in
the original text).

To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are

- The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals
  signs (==).
- Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (--).
- Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (\).
- Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no
  horizontal line under them.
- Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..)
- Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (')
- Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes  (`)
- Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this:

     ----, helping

- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like

      \   ting
** End Transcriber's Notes **









Revised Edition, 1896.


The plan of "Higher Lessons" will perhaps be better understood if we first
speak of two classes of text-books with which this work is brought into

+Method of One Class of Text-books+.--In one class are those that aim
chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space
to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules,
declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,--work of which
a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has
little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing
his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful,
old-time method.

+Method of Another Class of Text-books.+--In another class are those that
present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling,
Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General
Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these
books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some
scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected,
and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good
text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a
clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or
its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.+--It is the plan of
_this_ book to trace with easy steps the natural development of the
sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the
details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to
disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely
intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only
by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices
and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to
discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic
whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not
because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls
into such errors as "How many sounds _have_ each of the vowels?" "Five
years' interest _are_ due." "She is older than _me_." He probably would not
say "each _have_," "interest _are_," "_me_ am." One thoroughly familiar
with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using
correctly the few inflectional forms in English.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.+--Through the study
of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts
of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws
of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of
unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of
good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or
unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the
sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts
in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every
element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He
should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that,
when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the
difficulty and the remedy for it.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.+--The laws of
thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the
sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a
knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign
language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own
language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be
his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of
the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation,
since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those
of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are
beginning to appreciate these facts.

+The Study of the Sentence for Discipline+.--As a means of discipline
nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the
sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to
discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts
of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils
thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come
to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These
results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced
teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the
beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and
little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be
gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To
compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as
"complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional
adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is
grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for

+Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.+--Teachers familiar
with text-books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight
parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following
lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is
remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the
sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of
sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of
the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to
continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The
inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a
separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable
one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent.

+Sentences in Groups--Paragraphs+.--In tracing the growth of the sentence
from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is
introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen
with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil
to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand.
Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with
questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to
prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons
on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They
lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into
paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead
him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the
several models presented.

+The Use of the Diagram+.--In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram,
found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly
and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence,
of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase--to picture
the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts
in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture,
that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole
made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various
relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing
all these things by piecemeal or in succession.

But if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they
may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of
this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams.

+The Objections to the Diagram+.--The fact that the pictorial diagram
groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations,
and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is, on
the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the
literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the
literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so
long as the logical relations are kept clear.

The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne
out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in
written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of
the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a
decision on every point.

+The Abuse of the Diagram+.--Analysis by diagram often becomes so
interesting and so helpful that, like other good things, it is liable to be
overdone. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. When the
ordinary constructions have been made clear, diagrams should be used only
for the more difficult sentences, or, if the sentences are long, only for
the more difficult parts of them. In both oral and written analysis there
is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. When the diagram has
served its purpose, it should be dropped.


During the years in which "Higher Lessons" has been in existence, we have
ourselves had an instructive experience with it in the classroom. We have
considered hundreds of suggestive letters written us by intelligent
teachers using the book. We have examined the best works on grammar that
have been published recently here and in England. And we have done more. We
have gone to the original source of all valid authority in our language--
the best writers and speakers of it. That we might ascertain what present
linguistic usage is, we chose fifty authors, now alive or living till
recently, and have carefully read three hundred pages of each. We have
minutely noted and recorded what these men by habitual use declare to be
good English. Among the fifty are such men as Ruskin, Froude, Hamerton,
Matthew Arnold, Macaulay, De Quincey, Thackeray, Bagehot, John Morley,
James Martineau, Cardinal Newman, J. R. Green, and Lecky in England; and
Hawthorne, Curtis, Prof. W. D. Whitney, George P. Marsh, Prescott, Emerson,
Motley, Prof. Austin Phelps, Holmes, Edward Everett, Irving, and Lowell in
America. When in the pages following we anywhere quote usage, it is to the
authority of such men that we appeal.

Upon these four sources of help we have drawn in the Revision of "Higher
Lessons" that we now offer to the public.

In this revised work we have given additional reasons for the opinions we
hold, and have advanced to some new positions; have explained more fully
what some teachers have thought obscure; have qualified what we think was
put too positively in former editions; have given the history of
constructions where this would deepen interest or aid in composition; have
quoted the verdicts of usage on many locutions condemned by purists; have
tried to work into the pupil's style the felicities of expression found in
the lesson sentences; have taught the pupil earlier in the work, and more
thoroughly, the structure and the function of paragraphs; and have led him
on from the composition of single sentences of all kinds to the composition
of these great groups of sentences. But the distinctive features of "Higher
Lessons" that have made the work so useful and so popular stand as they
have stood--the Study of Words from their Offices in the Sentence, Analysis
for the sake of subsequent Synthesis, Easy Gradation, the Subdivisions and
Modifications of the Parts of Speech after the treatment of these in the
Sentence, etc., etc. We confess to some surprise that so little of what was
thought good in matter and method years ago has been seriously affected by
criticism since.

The additions made to "Higher Lessons"--additions that bring the work up to
the latest requirements--are generally in foot-notes to pages, and
sometimes are incorporated into the body of the Lessons, which in number
and numbering remain as they were. The books of former editions and those
of this revised edition can, therefore, be used in the same class without
any inconvenience.

Of the teachers who have given us invaluable assistance in this Revision,
we wish specially to name Prof. Henry M. Worrell, of the Polytechnic
Institute; and in this edition of the work, as in the preceding, we take
pleasure in acknowledging our great indebtedness to our critic, the
distinguished Prof. Francis A. March, of Lafayette College.

       *       *       *       *       *



Let us talk to-day about a language that we never learn from a grammar or
from a book of any kind--a language that we come by naturally, and use
without thinking of it.

It is a universal language, and consequently needs no interpreter. People
of all lands and of all degrees of culture use it; even the brute animals
in some measure understand it.

This Natural language is the language of cries, laughter, and tones, the
language of the eyes, the nose, the mouth, the whole face; the language of
gestures and postures.

The child's cry tells of its wants; its sob, of grief; its scream, of pain;
its laugh, of delight. The boy raises his eyebrows in surprise and his nose
in disgust, leans forward in expectation, draws back in fear, makes a fist
in anger, and calls or drives away his dog simply by the tone in which he

But feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to communicate.
Early in life we begin to acquire knowledge and learn to think, and then we
feel the need of a better language.

Suppose, for instance, you have formed an idea of a day; could you express
this by a tone, a look, or a gesture?

If you wish to tell me the fact that _yesterday was cloudy_, or that _the
days are shorter in winter than in summer_, you find it wholly impossible
to do this by means of Natural language.

To communicate, then, your thoughts, or even the mental pictures we have
called ideas, you need a language more nearly perfect.

This language is made up of words.

These words you learn from your mothers, and so Word language is your
mother-tongue. You learn them, also, from your friends and teachers, your
playmates and companions, and you learn them by reading; for words, as you
know, may be written as well as spoken.

This Word language we may, from its superiority, call +Language Proper+.

Natural language, as was said, precedes this Word language, but gives way
as Word language comes in and takes its place; yet Natural language may be
used, and always should be used, to assist and strengthen Word language. In
earnest conversation we enforce what we say in words, by the tone in which
we utter them, by the varying expression of the face, and by the movements
of the different parts of the body.

The look or the gesture may even dart ahead of the word, or it may
contradict it, and thus convict the speaker of ignorance or deception.

The happy union of the two kinds of language is the charm of all good
reading and speaking. The teacher of elocution is ever trying to recall the
pupil to the tones, the facial expression, and the action, so natural to
him in childhood and in animated conversation.

+DEFINITION.--_Language Proper_ consists of the spoken and the written
words used to communicate ideas and thoughts+.

+DEFINITION.--_English Grammar_ is the science which teaches the forms,
uses, and relations of the words of the English language.+

       *       *       *       *       *



To express a thought we use more than a single word, and the words arranged
to express a thought we call a sentence.

But there was a time when, through lack of words, we compressed our thought
into a single word. The child says to his father, _up_, meaning, _Take me
up into your lap_; or, _book_, meaning, _This thing in my hand is a book_.

These first words always deal with the things that can be learned by the
senses; they express the child's ideas of these things.

We have spoken of thoughts and sentences; let us see now whether we can
find out what a thought is, and what a sentence is.

A sentence is a group of words expressing a thought; it is a body of which
a thought is the soul. It is something that can be seen or heard, while a
thought cannot be. Let us see whether, in studying a sentence, we may not
learn what a thought is.

In any such sentence as this, _Spiders spin_, something is said, or
asserted, about something. Here it is said, or asserted, of the animals,
spiders, that they spin.

The sentence, then, consists of two parts,--the name of that of which
something is said, and that which is said of it.

The first of these parts we call the +Subject+ of the sentence; the second,
the +Predicate+.

Now, if the sentence, composed of two parts, expresses the thought, there
must be in the thought two parts to be expressed. And there are two: viz.,
something of which we think, and that which we think of it. In the thought
expressed by _Spiders spin_, the animals, spiders, are the something of
which we think, and their spinning is what we think of them. In the
sentence expressing this thought, the word _spiders_ names that of which we
think, and the word _spin_ tells what we think of spiders.

Not every group of words is necessarily a sentence, because it may not be
the expression of a thought. _Spiders spinning_ is not a sentence. There is
nothing in this expression to show that we have formed a judgment, _i.e._,
that we have really made up our minds that spiders do spin. The spinning is
not asserted of the spiders.

_Soft feathers_, _The shining sun_ are not sentences, and for similar
reasons. _Feathers are soft_, _The sun shines_ are sentences. Here the
asserting word is supplied, and something is said of something else.

_The shines sun_ is not a sentence; for, though it contains the asserting
word _shines_, the arrangement is such that no assertion is made, and no
thought is expressed.

       *       *       *       *       *



We have already told you that in expressing our ideas and thoughts we use
two kinds of words, spoken words and written words.

We learned the spoken words first. Mankind spoke long before they wrote.
Not until people wished to communicate with those at a distance, or had
thought out something worth handing down to aftertimes, did they need to

But speaking was easy. The air, the lungs, and the organs of the throat and
mouth were at hand. The first cry was a suggestion. Sounds and noises were
heard on every side, provoking imitation, and the need of speech for the
purposes of communication was imperative.

Spoken words are made up of sounds. There are over forty sounds in the
English language. The different combinations of these give us all the words
of our spoken tongue. That you may clearly understand these sounds, we will
tell you something about the human voice.

In talking, the air driven out from your lungs beats against two flat
muscles, stretched, like bands, across the top of the windpipe, and causes
them to vibrate up and down. This vibration makes sound. Take a thread, put
one end between your teeth, hold the other with thumb and finger, draw it
tight and strike it, and you will understand how voice is made. The shorter
the string, or the tighter it is drawn, the faster will it vibrate, and the
higher will be the pitch of the sound. The more violent the blow, the
farther will the string vibrate, and the louder will be the sound. Just so
with these vocal bands or cords. The varying force with which the breath
strikes them and their different tensions and lengths at different times,
explain the different degrees of loudness and the varying pitch of the

If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open, a
class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds.

But if the voice is held back or obstructed by the palate, tongue, teeth,
or lips, one kind of the sounds called consonant sounds is made. If the
breath is driven out without voice, and is held back by these same parts of
the mouth, the other kind of consonant sounds is formed.

The written word is made up of characters, or letters, which represent to
the eye these sounds that address the ear.

You are now prepared to understand us when we say that +vowels+ are the
+letters+ that stand for the +open sounds+ of the +voice+, and that
+consonants+ are the +letters+ that stand for the sounds made by the
+obstructed voice+ and the +obstructed breath+.

The alphabet of a language is a complete list of its letters. A perfect
alphabet would have one letter for each sound, and only one.

Our alphabet is imperfect in at least these three ways:--

1. Some of the letters are superfluous; _c_ stands for the sound of _s_ or
of _k_, as in _city_ and _can_; _q_ has the sound of _k_, as in _quit_; and
_x_ that of _ks_, _gz_, or _z_, as in _expel_, _exist_, and _Xenophon_.

2. Combinations of letters sometimes represent single sounds; as, _th_ in
thine, _th_ in _thin_, _ng_ in _sing_, and _sh_ in _shut_.

3. Some letters stand each for many sounds. Twenty-three letters represent
over forty sounds. Every vowel does more than single duty; _e_ stands for
two sounds, as in _mete_ and _met_; _i_ for two, as in _pine_ and _pin_;
_o_ for three, as in _note, not_, and _move_; _u_ for four, as in _tube,
tub, full_, and _fur_; _a_ for six, as in _fate, fat, far, fall, fast_, and

_W_ is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a vowel
sound, and _y_ is a vowel when it has the sound of _i_, as in _now, by,
boy, newly_. _W_ and _y_ are consonants at the beginning of a word or

The various sounds of the several vowels and even of the same vowel are
caused by the different shapes which the mouth assumes. These changes in
its cavity produce, also, the two sounds that unite in each of the
compounds, _ou_, _oi_, _ew_, and in the alphabetic _i_ and _o_.

       1.                 2.
_Vocal Consonants_.  _Aspirates_.
  (in _thine_)       (in _thin_)
       z (in _zone_)......s
       z (in _azure_).....sh

The consonants in column 1 represent the sounds made by the obstructed
voice; those in column 2, except _h_ (which represents a mere forcible
breathing), represent those made by the obstructed breath.

The letters are mostly in pairs. Now note that the tongue, teeth, lips, and
palate are placed in the same relative position to make the sounds of both
letters in any pair. The difference in the sounds of the letters of any
pair is simply this: there is voice in the sounds of the letters in column
1, and only whisper in those of column 2. Give the sound of any letter in
column 1, as _b, g, v_, and the last or vanishing part of it is the sound
of the other letter of the pair.

TO THE TEACHER.--Write these letters on the board, as above, and drill the
pupils on the sounds till they can see and make these distinctions. Drill
them on the vowels also.

In closing this talk with you, we wish to emphasize one point brought
before you. Here is a pencil, a real thing; we carry in memory a picture of
the pencil, which we call an idea; and there are the two words naming this
idea, the spoken and the written. Learn to distinguish clearly these four

TO THE TEACHER.--In reviewing these three Lessons, put particular emphasis
on Lesson 2.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--If the pupils have been through "Graded Lessons" or its
equivalent, some of the following Lessons may be passed over rapidly.

+DEFINITION.--A _Sentence_ is the expression of a thought in words+.

+Direction+.--_Analyze the following sentences_:--

+Model+.--_Spiders spin_. Why is this a sentence? Ans.--Because it
expresses a thought. Of what is something thought? Ans.--Spiders. Which
word tells what is thought? Ans.--_Spin_. [Footnote: The word _spiders_,
standing in Roman, names our idea of the real thing; _spin_, used merely as
a word, is in Italics. This use of Italics the teacher and the pupil will
please note here and elsewhere.]

1. Tides ebb.
2. Liquids flow.
3. Steam expands.
4. Carbon burns.
5. Iron melts.
6. Powder explodes.
7. Leaves tremble.
8. Worms crawl.
9. Hares leap.

In each of these sentences there are, as you have learned, two parts--the
+Subject+ and the +Predicate+.

+DEFINITION.--The _Subject of a sentence_ names that of which something is

+DEFINITION.--The _Predicate of a sentence_ tells what is thought.+

+DEFINITION.--The _Analysis of a sentence_ is the separation of it into its

+Direction+.--_Analyze these sentences_:--

+Model+.--_Beavers build_. This is a sentence because it expresses a
thought. _Beavers_ is the subject because it names that of which something
is thought; _build_ is the predicate because it tells what is thought.
[Footnote: When pupils are familiar with the definitions, let the form of
analysis be varied. The reasons may be made more specific. Here and
elsewhere avoid mechanical repetition.]

1. Squirrels climb.
2. Blood circulates.
3. Muscles tire.
4. Heralds proclaim.
5. Apes chatter.
6. Branches wave.
7. Corn ripens.
8. Birds twitter.
9. Hearts throb.

+Explanation+.--Draw a heavy line and divide it into two parts. Let the
first part represent the subject of a sentence; the second, the predicate.

If you write a word over the first part, you will understand that this word
is the subject of a sentence. If you write a word over the second part, you
will understand that this word is the predicate of a sentence.

  Love  |  conquers

You see, by looking at this figure, that _Love conquers_ is a sentence;
that _love_ is the subject, and _conquers_ the predicate.

Such figures, made up of straight lines, we call _Diagrams_.

+DEFINITION.--A _Diagram_ is a picture of the offices and the relations of
the different parts of a sentence.+

+Direction+.--_Analyze these sentences_:--

1. Frogs croak.
2. Hens sit.
3. Sheep bleat.
4. Cows low.
5. Flies buzz.
6. Sap ascends.
7. Study pays.
8. Buds swell.
9. Books aid.
10. Noise disturbs.
11. Hope strengthens.
12. Cocks crow.

       *       *       *       *       *



+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--The first word of every sentence must begin with a
_capital letter_+.

+PERIOD--RULE.--A _period_ must be placed after every sentence that simply
affirms, denies, or commands.+

+Direction+.--_Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the
following predicates_:--

Ask yourselves the questions, What tarnishes? Who sailed, conquered, etc.?

1. ----- tarnishes.
2. ----- capsize.
3. ----- radiates.
4. ----- sentence.
5. ----- careen.
6. ----- sailed.
7. ----- descends.
8. ----- glisten.
9. ----- absorb.
10. ----- corrode.
11. ----- conquered.
12. ----- surrendered.
13. ----- refines.
14. ----- gurgle.
15. ----- murmur.

+Direction+.--_Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the
following subjects_:--

Ask yourselves the question, Glycerine does what?

1. Glycerine -----.
2. Yankees -----.
3. Tyrants -----.
4. Pendulums -----.
5. Caesar -----.
6. Labor -----.
7. Chalk -----.
8. Nature -----.
9. Tempests -----.
10. Seeds -----.
11. Heat -----.
12. Philosophers -----.
13. Bubbles -----.
14. Darkness -----.
15. Wax -----.
16. Reptiles -----.
17. Merchants -----.
18. Meteors -----.
19. Conscience -----.
20. Congress -----.
21. Life -----.
22. Vapors -----.
23. Music -----.
24. Pitch -----.

TO THE TEACHER.--This exercise may profitably be extended by supplying
several subjects to each predicate, and several predicates to each subject.

       *       *       *       *       *



The predicate sometimes contains more than one word.

+Direction+.--_Analyze as in Lesson 4_.

1. Moisture is exhaled.
2. Conclusions are drawn.
3. Industry will enrich.
4. Stars have disappeared.
5. Twilight is falling.
6. Leaves are turning.
7. Sirius has appeared.
8. Constantinople had been captured.
9. Electricity has been harnessed.
10. Tempests have been raging.
11. Nuisances should be abated.
12. Jerusalem was destroyed.
13. Light can be reflected.
14. Rain must have fallen.
15. Planets have been discovered.
16. Palaces shall crumble.
17. Storms may be gathering.
18. Essex might have been saved.
19. Caesar could have been crowned,
20. Inventors may be encouraged.

+Direction+.--_Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in
Lessons 12 and 17_.

Look first for the word that asserts, and then, by putting _who_ or _what_
before this predicate, the subject may easily be found.

TO THE TEACHER.--Let this exercise be continued till the pupils can readily
point out the subject and the predicate in ordinary simple sentences.

When this can be done promptly, the first and most important step in
analysis will have been taken.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Make at least ten good sentences out of the words in the
three columns following_:--

The helping words in column 2 must be prefixed to words in column 3 in
order to make complete predicates. Analyze your sentences.

1            2                 3
Arts         is                progressing.
Allen        was               tested.
Life         are               command.
Theories     will              prolonged.
Science      would             released.
Truth        were              falling.
Shadows      may be            burned.
Moscow       has been          measured.
Raleigh      have been         prevail.
Quantity     should have been  lost.

Review Questions.

What is language proper? What is English grammar? What is a sentence? What
are its two parts? What is the subject of a sentence? The predicate of a
sentence? The analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What rule has been
given for the use of capital letters? For the period? May the predicate
contain more than one word? Illustrate.

TO THE TEACHER.--Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the
close of this recitation. See "Introductory Hints" below.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints+.--We have now reached the point where we must classify
the words of our language. But we are appalled by their number. If we must
learn all about the forms and the uses of a hundred thousand words by
studying these words one by one, we shall die ignorant of English grammar.

But may we not deal with words as we do with plants? If we had to study and
name each leaf and stem and flower, taken singly, we should never master
the botany even of our garden-plants.

But God has made things to resemble one another and to differ from one
another; and, as he has given us the power to detect resemblances and
differences, we are able to group things that have like qualities.

From certain likenesses in form and in structure, we put certain flowers
together and call them roses; from other likenesses, we get another class
called lilies; from others still, violets. Just so we classify trees and
get the oak, the elm, the maple, etc.

The myriad objects of nature fall into comparatively few classes. Studying
each class, we learn all we need to know of every object in it.

From their likenesses, though not in form, we classify words. We group them
according to their similarities in use, or office, in the sentence. Sorting
them thus, we find that they all fall into eight classes, which we call
Parts of Speech.

We find that many words name things--are the names of things of which we
can think and speak. These we place in one class and call them +Nouns+
(Latin _nomen_, a name, a noun).


Without the little words which we shall italicize, it would be difficult
for one stranger to ask another, "Can _you_ tell _me who_ is the postmaster
at B?" The one would not know what name to use instead of _you_, the other
would not recognize the name in the place of _me_, and both would be
puzzled to find a substitute for _who_.

_I, you, my, me, what, we, it, he, who, him, she, them,_ and other words
are used in place of nouns, and are, therefore, called +Pronouns+ (Lat.
_pro_, for, and _nomen_, a noun).

By means of these handy little words we can represent any or every object
in existence. We could hardly speak or write without them now, they so
frequently shorten the expression and prevent confusion and repetition.

+DEFINITION.--A _Noun_ is the name of anything.+

+DEFINITION.--A _Pronoun_ is a word used for a noun.+

The principal office of nouns is to name the things of which we say, or
assert, something in the sentence.

+Direction+.---_Write, according to the model, the names of things that can
burn, grow, melt, love, roar, or revolve._

+Model.+--   _Nouns._
              Wood    |
              Paper   |
              Oil     |
              Houses  +  burn or burns.
              Coal    |
              Leaves  |
              Matches |
              Clothes |

+Remark.+--Notice that, when the subject adds _s_ or _es_ to denote more
than one, the predicate does not take _s_. Note how it would sound if both
should add _s_.

+Every subject+ of a sentence is a +noun+, or some word or words used as a
noun. But not every noun in a sentence is a subject.

+Direction.+--_Select and write all the nouns and pronouns, whether
subjects or not, in the sentences given in Lesson_ 18.

_In writing them observe the following rules_:--

+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--_Proper,_ or _individual, names_ and _words derived
from them_ begin with capital letters.+

+PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--_Abbreviations_ generally begin with
capital letters and are always followed by the period.+

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction.+--_From the following words select and write in one column
those names that distinguish individual things from others of the same
class, and in another column those words that are derived from individual

Observe Rule 1, Lesson 8.

ohio, state, chicago, france, bostonian, country, england, boston, milton,
river, girl, mary, hudson, william, britain, miltonic, city, englishman,
messiah, platonic, american, deity, bible, book, plato, christian,
broadway, america, jehovah, british, easter, europe, man, scriptures, god.

+Direction.+--_Write the names of the days of the week and the months of
the year, beginning each with a capital letter; and write the names of the
seasons without capital letters._

+Remember+ that, when a class name and a distinguishing word combine to
make one individual name, each word begins with a capital letter; as,
_Jersey City_. [Footnote: _Dead Sea_ is composed of the class name _sea_,
which applies to all seas, and the word _Dead_, which distinguishes one sea
from all others.]

But, when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete
name, the class name begins with a small letter; as, _river Rhine_.

+Examples+.--Long Island, Good Friday, Mount Vernon, Suspension Bridge, New
York city, Harper's Ferry, Cape May, Bunker Hill, Red River, Lake Erie,
General Jackson, White Mountains, river Thames, Astor House, steamer Drew,
North Pole.

+Direction+.--_Write these words, using capital letters when needed_:--

ohio river, professor huxley, president adams, doctor brown, clinton
county, westchester county, colonel burr, secretary stanton, lake george,
green mountains, white sea, cape cod, delaware bay, atlantic ocean, united
states, rhode island.

+Remember+ that, when an individual name is made up of a class name, the
word _of_, and a distinguishing word, the class name and the distinguishing
word should each begin with a capital letter; as, _Gulf of Mexico_. But,
when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name,
the class name should begin with a small letter; as, _city of London_.
[Footnote: The need of some definite instruction to save the young writer
from hesitation and confusion in the use of capitals is evident from the
following variety of forms now in use: _City_ of New York, _city_ of New
York, New York _City_, New York _city_, New York _State_, New York _state_,
Fourth _Avenue_, Fourth _avenue_, Grand _Street_, Grand _street_, Grand
_st._, Atlantic _Ocean_, Atlantic _ocean_, Mediterranean _Sea_,
Mediterranean _sea_, Kings _County_, Kings _county_, etc.

The usage of newspapers and of text-books on geography would probably favor
the writing of the class names in the examples above with initial capitals;
but we find in the most carefully printed books and periodicals a tendency
to favor small letters in such cases.

In the superscription of letters, such words as _street_, _city_, and
_county_ begin with capitals.

Usage certainly favors small initials for the following italicized words:
_river_ Rhine, Catskill _village_, the Ohio and Mississippi _rivers_. If
_river_ and _village_, in the preceding examples, are not essential parts
of the individual names, why should _river_, _ocean_, and _county_, in
Hudson _river_, Pacific _ocean_, Queens _county_, be treated differently?
We often say the _Hudson_, the _Pacific_, _Queens_, without adding the
explanatory class name.

The principle we suggest may be in advance of common usage; but it is in
the line of progress, and it tends to uniformity of practice and to an
improved appearance of the page. About a century ago every noun began with
a capital letter.

The American Cyclopedia takes a position still further in advance, as
illustrated in the following: Bed _river_, Black _sea_, _gulf_ of Mexico,
Rocky _mountains_. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Little, Brown, & Co.,
9th ed.) we find Connecticut _river_, Madison _county_, etc., quite
uniformly; but we find _Gulf_ of Mexico, Pacific _Ocean_, etc.]

+Direction+.--_Write these words, using capital letters when needed:_--

city of atlanta, isle of man, straits of dover, state of Vermont, isthmus
of darien, sea of galilee, queen of england, bay of naples, empire of

+Remember+ that, when a compound name is made up of two or more
distinguishing words, as, Henry Clay, John Stuart Mill, each word begins
with a capital letter.

+Direction+.--_Write these words, using capital letters when needed_:--

great britain, lower california, south carolina, daniel webster, new
england, oliver wendell holmes, north america, new orleans, james russell
lowell, british america.

+Remember+ that, in writing the titles of books, essays, poems, plays,
etc., and the names of the Deity, only the chief words begin with capital
letters; as, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Supreme Being, Paradise
Lost, the Holy One of Israel.

+Direction+.--_Write these words, using capital letters when needed_:--

declaration of independence, clarendon's history of the great rebellion,
webster's reply to hayne, pilgrim's progress, johnson's lives of the poets,
son of man, the most high, dombey and son, tent on the beach, bancroft's
history of the united states.

+Direction+.--_Write these miscellaneous names, using capital letters when

erie canal, governor tilden, napoleon bonaparte, cape of good hope, pope's
essay on criticism, massachusetts bay, city of boston, continent of
america, new testament, goldsmith's she stoops to conquer, milton's hymn on
the nativity, indian ocean, cape cod bay, plymouth rock, anderson's history
of the united states, mount washington, english channel, the holy spirit,
new york central railroad, old world, long island sound, flatbush village.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Some words occur frequently, and for convenience may he
abbreviated in writing. Observing Rule 2, Lesson 8, abbreviate these words
by writing the first five letters_:--

Thursday and lieutenant.

_These by writing the first four letters_:--

Connecticut, captain, Colorado, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
Mississippi, Nebraska, Oregon, professor, president, Tennessee, and

_These by writing the first three letters_:--

Alabama, answer, Arkansas, California, colonel, Delaware, England, esquire,
Friday, general, George, governor, honorable, Illinois, Indiana, major,
Monday, Nevada, reverend, Saturday, secretary, Sunday, Texas, Wednesday,
Wisconsin, and the names of the months except May, June, and July.

_These by writing the first two letters_:--

Company, county, credit, example, and idem (the same).

_These by writing the first letter_:--

East, north, south, and west. [Footnote: When these words refer to sections
of the country, they should begin with capitals.]

_These by writing the first and the last letter_:--

Doctor, debtor, Georgia, junior, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Master, Mister, numero (number), Pennsylvania, saint, street, Vermont, and

_These by writing the first letter of each word of the compound with a
period after each letter_:--

Artium baccalaureus (bachelor of arts), anno Domini (in the year of our
Lord), artium magister (master of arts), ante meridiem (before noon),
before Christ, collect on delivery, District (of) Columbia, divinitatis
doctor (doctor of divinity), member (of) Congress, medicinae doctor (doctor
of medicine), member (of) Parliament, North America, North Carolina, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, postmaster, post meridiem (afternoon),
post-office, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and United States.

+Direction.+--_The following abbreviations and those you have made should
be committed to memory_:--

Acct. _or_ acct., account.
Bbl. _or_ bbl., barrel.
Chas., Charles.
Fla., Florida.
LL. D., legum doctor (doctor of laws).[Footnote: The doubling of the
 _l_ to _ll_ and in _LL. D.,_ and of _p_ in _pp.,_
 with no period between the letters, comes from pluralizing the nouns
 _line, lean_, and _page_.]
Messrs., messieurs (gentlemen).
Mme., madame.
Mo., Missouri.
Mrs., (pronounced missis) mistress.
Mts., mountains.
Ph.D., philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy).
Recd., received.
Robt., Robert.
Supt., superintendent.
Thos., Thomas.
bu., bushel.
do., ditto (the same)
doz., dozen.
e.g., exempli gratia (for example)
etc., et caetera (and others).
ft., foot, feet.
hhd., hogshead.
hdkf., handkerchief.
i.e., id est (that is).
l., line.
ll., lines.
lb., libra (pound).
oz., ounce.
p., page.
pp., pages.
qt., quart.
vs., versus (against).
viz., videlicet (namely).
yd., yard.

+Remark.+--In this Lesson we have given the abbreviations of the states as
now regulated by the "U. S. Official Postal Guide." In the "Guide" _Iowa_
and _Ohio_ are not abbreviated. They are, however, frequently abbreviated
thus: _Iowa, Ia._ or _Io.; Ohio, 0._

The similarity, when hurriedly written, of the abbreviations _Cal., Col.;
Ia., Io.; Neb., Nev.; Penn., Tenn.,_ etc., has led to much confusion.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--We told you in Lesson 8 how, by noticing the
essential likenesses in things and grouping the things thus alike, we could
throw the countless objects around us into comparatively few classes.

We began to classify words according to their use, or office, in the
sentence; we found one class of words that name things, and we called them

But in all the sentences given you, we have had to use another class of
words. These words, you notice, tell what the things do, or assert that
they are, or exist.

When we say _Clocks tick_, _tick_ is not the name of anything; it tells
what clocks do: it asserts action.

When we say _Clocks are_, or _There are clocks_, _are_ is not the name of.
anything, nor does it tell what clocks do; it simply asserts existence, or

When we say _Clocks hang, stand, last, lie_, or _remain_, these words
_hang, stand, last_, etc., do not name anything, nor do they tell that
clocks act or simply exist; they tell the condition, or state, in which
clocks are, or exist; that is, they assert state of being.

All words that assert action, being, or state of being, we call +Verbs+
(+Lat+. _verbum_, a word). The name was given to this class because it was
thought that they were the most important words in the sentence.

Give several verbs that assert action. Give some that assert being, and
some that assert state of being.

+DEFINITION+.--+A _Verb_ is a word that asserts action, being-, or state of

There are, however, two forms of the verb, the participle and the
infinitive (see Lessons 37 and 40), that express action, being, or state of
being, without asserting it.

+Direction.+--_Write after each of the following nouns as many appropriate
verbs as you can think of_:--

Let some express being and some express state of being.

                 | burns.
                 | melt.
                 | scorches.
          Fire   | keep.
          (or)   + spreads.
          Fires  | glow.
                 | rages.
                 | heat.
                 | exists.

+Remark.+--Notice that the simple form of the verb, as, _burn, melt,
scorch_, adds _s_ or _es_ when its subject noun names but one thing.

Lawyers, mills, horses, books, education, birds, mind.

A verb may consist of two, three, or even four words; as, _is learning, may
be learned, could have been learned_. [Footnote: Such groups of words are
sometimes called _verb-phrases_. For definition of _phrase_, see Lesson

+Direction.+--_Unite the words in columns_ 2 _and_ 3 _below, and append the
verbs thus formed to the nouns and pronouns in column_ 1 _so as to make
good sentences_:--

+Remark.+--Notice that _is, was_, and _has_ are used with nouns naming one
thing, and with the pronouns _he, she_, and _it_; and that _are, were_, and
_have_ are used with nouns naming more than one thing, and with the
pronouns _we, you_, and _they_. _I_ may be used with _am, was_, and _have_.

1                   2           3
Words               am          confused.
Cotton              is          exported.
Sugar               are         refined.
Air                             coined.
Teas                was         delivered.
Speeches            were        weighed.
I, we, you          has been    imported.
He, she, it, they   have been   transferred.

As verbs are the only words that assert, +every predicate+ must be a verb,
or must contain a verb.

+Naming the class+ to which a word belongs is the +first step in parsing.+

+Direction+.--_Parse five of the sentences you have written_.

+Model+.--_Poland was dismembered_.

+Parsing+.--_Poland_ is a noun because ----; _was dismembered_ is a verb
because it asserts action.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints+.--The subject noun and the predicate verb are not
always or often the whole of the structure that we call the sentence,
though they are the underlying timbers that support the rest of the verbal
bridge. Other words may be built upon them.

We learned in Lesson 8 that things resemble one another and differ from one
another. They resemble and they differ in what we call their qualities.
Things are alike whose qualities are the same, as, two oranges having the
same color, taste, and odor. Things are unlike, as an orange and an apple,
whose qualities are different.

It is by their qualities, then, that we know things and group them.

_Ripe apples are healthful. Unripe apples are hurtful._ In these two
sentences we have the same word apples to name the same general class of
things; but the prefixed words ripe and unripe, marking opposite qualities
in the apples, separate the apples into two kinds--the ripe ones and the
unripe ones.

These prefixed words _ripe_ and _unripe_, then, limit the word _apples_ in
its scope; _ripe apples_ or _unripe apples_ applies to fewer things than
_apples_ alone applies to.

If we say _the, this, that_ apple, or _an, no_ apple, or _some, many,
eight_ apples, we do not mark any quality of the fruit; but _the, this,_ or
_that_ points out a particular apple, and limits the word _apple_ to the
one pointed out; and _an, no, some, many_, or _eight_ limits the word in
respect to the number of apples that it denotes.

These and all such words as by marking quality, by pointing out, or by
specifying number or quantity limit the scope or add to the meaning of the
noun, +modify+ it, and are called +Modifiers+.

In the sentence above, _apples_ is the +Simple Subject+ and _ripe apples_
is the +Modified Subject+.

Words that modify nouns and pronouns are called +Adjectives+ (Lat. _ad_,
to, and _jacere_, to throw).

+DEFINITION.--A _Modifier_ is a word or a group of words joined to some
part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning+.

The +Subject+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified Subject+, or
_Logical Subject_.

+DEFINITION.--An _Adjective_ is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+.

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The cold November rain is falling.

              rain       |  is falling
 \The  \cold  \November  |

+Explanation.+--The two lines shaded alike and placed uppermost stand for
the subject and the predicate, and show that these are of the same rank,
and are the principal parts of the sentence. The lighter lines, placed
under and joined to the subject line, stand for the less important parts,
the modifiers, and show what is modified. [Footnote: TO THE TEACHER.--When
several adjectives are joined to one noun, each adjective does not always
modify the unlimited noun. _That old wooden house was burned._ Here
_wooden_ modifies _house_, _old_ modifies _house_ limited by _wooden_, and
_that_ modifies _house_ limited by _old_ and _wooden_. This may be
illustrated in the diagram by numbering the modifiers in the order of their
rank, thus:--

   \3   \2   \1   |

Adverbs, and both phrase and clause modifiers often differ in rank in the
same way. If the pupils are able to see these distinctions, it will be well
to have them made in the analysis, as they often determine the punctuation
and the arrangement. See Lessons 13 and 21.]

+TO THE TEACHER.+--While we, from experience, are clear in the belief that
diagrams are very helpful in the analysis of sentences, we wish to say that
the work required in this book can all be done without resorting to these
figures. If some other form, or no form, of written analysis is preferred,
our diagrams can be omitted without break or confusion.

When diagrams are used, only the teacher can determine how many shall be
required in any one Lesson, and how soon the pupil may dispense with their
aid altogether.

+Oral Analysis.+--(Here and hereafter we shall omit from the oral analysis
and parsing whatever has been provided for in previous Lessons.) _The,
cold,_ and _November_ are modifiers of the subject. _The cold November
rain_ is the modified subject.

TO THE TEACHER.--While in these "models" we wish to avoid repetition, we
should require of the pupils full forms of oral analysis for at least some
of the sentences in every Lesson.

+Parsing.+--_The, cold,_ and _November_ are adjectives modifying
_rain_--_cold_ and _November_ expressing quality, and _the_ pointing out.

2. The great Spanish Armada was destroyed.
3. A free people should be educated.
4. The old Liberty Bell was rung.
5. The famous Alexandrian library was burned.
6. The odious Stamp Act was repealed.
7. Every intelligent American citizen should vote.
8. The long Hoosac Tunnel is completed.
9. I alone should suffer.
10. All nature rejoices.
11. Five large, ripe, luscious, mellow apples were picked.
12. The melancholy autumn days have come.
13. A poor old wounded soldier returned.
14. The oppressed Russian serfs have been freed.
15. Immense suspension bridges have been built.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution.+--When two or more adjectives are used with a noun, care must be
taken in their arrangement. If they differ in rank, place nearest the noun
the one most closely modifying it. If of the same rank, place them where
they will sound best--generally in the order of length, the shortest first.

+Explanation.+--_Two honest young men were chosen, A tall, straight,
dignified person entered._ _Young_ tells the kind of men, _honest_ tells
the kind of young men, and _two_ tells the number of honest young men;
hence these adjectives are not of the same rank. _Tall_, _straight_, and
_dignified_ modify _person_ independently--the person is tall and straight
and dignified; hence these adjectives are of the same rank.

Notice the comma after _tall_ and _straight_; _and_ may be supplied; in the
first sentence _and_ cannot be supplied. See Lesson 21.

+Direction.+--_Arrange the adjectives below, and give your reasons:_--

1. A Newfoundland pet handsome large dog.
2. Level low five the fields.
3. A wooden rickety large building.
4. Blind white beautiful three mice.
5. An energetic restless brave people.
6. An enlightened civilized nation.

+Direction.+--_Form sentences by prefixing modified subjects to these

1. ------ have been invented.
2. ------ were destroyed.
3. ------ are cultivated.
4. ------ may be abused.
5. ------ was mutilated.
6. ------ were carved.
7. ------ have been discovered.
8. ------ have fallen.
9. ------ will be respected.
10. ------ have been built.

+Direction.+--_Construct ten sentences, each of which shall contain a
subject modified by three adjectives--one from each of these columns:_--

Let the adjectives be appropriate. For punctuation, see Lesson 21.

The      dark      sunny
That     bright    wearisome
This     dingy     commercial
Those    short     blue
These    soft      adventurous
Five     brave     fleecy
Some     tiny      parallel
Several  important cheerless
Many     long      golden
A        warm      turbid

+Direction+.--_Prefix to each of these nouns several appropriate

River, frost, grain, ships, air, men.

+Direction+.--_Couple those adjectives and nouns below that most
appropriately go together:_--

Modest, lovely, flaunting, meek, patient, faithful, saucy, spirited,
violet, dahlia, sheep, pansy, ox, dog, horse, rose, gentle, duck, sly,
waddling, cooing, chattering, homely, chirping, puss, robin, dove, sparrow,
blackbird, cow, hen, cackling.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints+.--You have learned that the subject may be modified;
let us see whether the predicate may be.

If we say, _The leaves fall_, we express a fact in a general way. But, if
we wish to speak of the time of their falling, we can add a word and say,
The leaves fall _early_; of the place of their falling, The leaves fall
_here_; of the manner, The leaves fall _quietly_; of the cause, _Why_ do
the leaves fall?

We may join a word to one of these modifiers and say, The leaves fall
_very_ quietly. Here _very_ modifies _quietly_ by telling the degree.

_Very quietly_ is a group of words modifying the predicate. The predicate
with its modifiers is called the +Modified Predicate+. Such words as _very,
here_, and _quietly_ form another part of speech, and are called +Adverbs+
(Lat. _ad_, to, and _verbum_, a word, or verb).

Adverbs may modify adjectives; as, _Very ripe_ apples are healthful.
Adverbs modify verbs just as adjectives modify nouns--by limiting them. The
horse has a _proud step_ = The horse _steps proudly_.

The +Predicate+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified +Predicate, or
_Logical Predicate_.

+DEFINITION.--An _Adverb_ is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or
an adverb.+ [Footnote: See Lesson 92 and foot-note.]

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The leaves fall very quietly.

 leaves | fall
 \The   |  \quietly

+Oral Analysis+.--_Very quietly_ is a modifier of the predicate; _quietly_
is the principal word of the group; _very_ modifies _quietly_; _the leaves_
is the modified subject; _fall very quietly_ is the modified predicate.

+Parsing+.--_Quietly_ is an adverb modifying _fall_, telling the manner;
_very_ is an adverb modifying _quietly_, telling the degree.

2. The old, historic Charter Oak was blown down.
3. The stern, rigid Puritans often worshiped there.
4. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere.
5. The precious morning hours should not be wasted.
6. The timely suggestion was very kindly received.
7. We turned rather abruptly.
8. A highly enjoyable entertainment was provided.
9. The entertainment was highly enjoyed.
10. Why will people exaggerate so!
11. A somewhat dangerous pass had been reached quite unexpectedly.
12. We now travel still more rapidly.
13. Therefore he spoke excitedly.
14. You will undoubtedly be very cordially welcomed.
15. A furious equinoctial gale has just swept by.
16. The Hell Gate reef was slowly drilled away.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you
intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also.

+Direction+.--_Place the, italicized words below in different positions,
and note the effect on the sound and the sense_:--

1. I _immediately_ ran out.
2. _Only_ one was left there.
3. She looked down _proudly_.
4. _Unfortunately_, this assistance came too late.

+Direction+.--_Construct on each of these subjects three sentences having
modified subjects and modified predicates_:---

For punctuation, see Lesson 21.

+Model+. ---- _clouds_ ----.
  1. _Dark, heavy, threatening clouds are slowly gathering above_.
  2. _Those, brilliant, crimson clouds will very soon dissolve_.
  3. _Thin, fleecy clouds are scudding over_.

l. ---- ocean ----.
2. ---- breeze ----.
3. ---- shadows ----.
4. ---- rock ----.
5. ---- leaves ----.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which these adverbs shall modify

Heretofore, hereafter, annually, tenderly, inaudibly, legibly, evasively,
everywhere, aloof, forth.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which five of these adverbs shall
modify adjectives, and five shall modify adverbs_:--

Far, unusually, quite, altogether, slightly, somewhat, much, almost, too,

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--In all school work, but especially here, where the
philosophy of the sentence and the principles of construction are developed
in progressive steps, success depends largely on the character of the

Let reviews be, so far as possible, topical. Require frequent outlines of
the work passed over, especially of what is taught in the "Introductory
Hints." The language, except that of Rules and Definitions, should be the
pupil's own, and the illustrative sentences should be original.

+Direction+.--_Review from Lesson 8 to Lesson 15, inclusive_.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what
three things such words as _tick, are,_ and _remain_ do in the sentence,
what office they have in common, what such words are called, and why; what
common office such words as _ripe, the,_ and _eight_ have, in what three
ways they perform it, what such words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat
and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate what is taught of the
capitalization and the abbreviation of names, and of the position of
adjectives and adverbs.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 150-153.)

TO THE TEACHER.--After the pupil has learned a few principles of analysis
and construction through the aid of short detached sentences that exclude
everything unfamiliar, he may be led to recognize these same principles in
longer related sentences grouped into paragraphs. The study of paragraphs
selected for this purpose may well be extended as an informal preparation
for what is afterwards formally presented in the regular lessons of the

These "Exercises" are offered only as suggestions. The teacher must, of
course, determine where and how often this composition should be

We invite special attention to the study of the paragraph.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--To express our thoughts with greater exactness we
may need to expand a word modifier into several words; as, A _long_ ride
brought us _there_ = A ride _of one hundred miles_ brought us _to Chicago_.
These groups of words, _of one hundred miles_ and _to Chicago_--the one
substituted for the adjective _long_, the other for the adverb _there_--we
call +Phrases+. A phrase that does the work of an adjective is called an
+Adjective Phrase+. A phrase that does the work of an adverb is called an
+Adverb Phrase+.

As adverbs modify adjectives and adverbs, they may modify their equivalent
phrases; as, The train stops _only at the station_. They sometimes modify
only the introductory word of the phrase--this introductory word being
adverbial in its nature; as, He sailed _nearly around_ the globe.

That we may learn the office of such words as _of, to_, and _at_, used to
introduce these phrases, let us see how the relation of one idea to another
may be expressed. _Wealthy men_. These two words express two ideas as
related. We have learned to know this relation by the form and position of
the words. Change these, and the relation is lost--_men wealth_. But by
using _of_ before _wealth_ the relation is restored---_men of wealth_. The
word _of_, then, shows the relation between the ideas expressed by the
words _men_ and _wealth_.

All such relation words are called +Prepositions+ (Lat. _prae_, before, and
_positus_, placed--their usual position being before the noun with which
they form a phrase).

A phrase introduced by a preposition is called a +Prepositional Phrase+.
This, however, is not the only kind of phrase.

+DEFINITION.--A _Phrase_ is a group of words denoting related ideas, and
having a distinct office, but not expressing a thought+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Preposition_ is a word that introduces a phrase modifier,
and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word

Analysis and Parsing.

1. The pitch of the musical note depends upon the rapidity of vibration.

TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning the use of

pitch           depends
 \The \of        \upon
       \          \
        \ note     \ rapidity
         \--------  \------------
           \the \musical \the \of

+Explanation+.--The diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line
standing for the introductory word, and a horizontal line representing the
principal word. Under the latter are drawn the lines which represent the
modifiers of the principal word.

+Oral Analysis+.---_The_ and the adjective phrase _of the musical note_ are
modifiers of the subject; the adverb phrase _upon the rapidity of
vibration_ is a modifier of the predicate. _Of_ introduces the first
phrase, and _note_ is the principal word; _the_ and _musical_ are modifiers
of _note_; _upon_ introduces the second phrase, and _rapidity_ is the
principal word; _the_ and the adjective phrase _of vibration_ are modifiers
of _rapidity_; _of_ introduces this phrase, and _vibration_ is the
principal word.

TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning oral analysis.

+Parsing+.--_Of_ is a preposition showing the relation, in sense, of _note_
to _pitch_; etc., etc.

TO THE TEACHER.--Insist that, in parsing, the pupils shall give specific
reasons instead of general definitions.

2. The Gulf Stream can be traced along the shores of the United States by
   the blueness of the water.
3. The North Pole has been approached in three principal directions.
4. In 1607, Hudson penetrated within six hundred miles of the North Pole.
   [Footnote: "1607" may be treated as a noun, and "six hundred" as one
5. The breezy morning died into silent noon.
6. The Delta of the Mississippi was once at St. Louis.
7. Coal of all kinds has originated from the decay of plants.
8. Genius can breathe freely only in the atmosphere of freedom.

\in                  \
 \               _____\below
  \atmosphere    \just \
   \___________         \Falls
     \                   \______
      \only                   \

+Explanation+.----_Only_ modifies the whole phrase, and _just_ modifies the

9. The Suspension Bridge is stretched across the Niagara river just below
   the Falls.
10. In Mother Goose the cow jumps clear over the moon.
11. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the fifteenth
12. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected at Seville by
    the Saracens.
13. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100,000,000 miles.
14. The body of the great Napoleon was carried back from St. Helena to

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA-RULE.--Phrases that are placed out of their usual order [Footnote:
For the usual order of words and phrases, see Lesson 51.] and made
emphatic, or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence,
should be set off by the comma.+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a
sentence is set off by two commas; at the beginning or at the end, by one

+Remark.+--This rule must be applied with caution. Unless it is desired to
make the phrase emphatic, or to break the continuity of the thought, the
growing usage among writers is not to set it off.

+Direction.+--_Tell why the comma is, or is not, used in these

1. Between the two mountains lies a fertile valley.
2. Of the scenery along the Rhine, many travelers speak with enthusiasm.
3. He went, at the urgent request of the stranger, for the doctor.
4. He went from New York to Philadelphia on Monday.
5. In the dead of night, with a chosen band, under the cover of a truce, he

+Direction+.--_Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation_:--

1. England in the eleventh century was conquered by the Normans.
2. Amid the angry yells of the spectators he died.
3. For the sake of emphasis a word or a phrase may be placed out of its
   natural order.
4. In the Pickwick Papers the conversation of Sam Weller is spiced with
5. New York on the contrary abounds in men of wealth.
6. It has come down by uninterrupted tradition from the earliest times to
   the present day.

+Direction+.--_See in how many places the phrases in the sentences above
may stand without obscuring the thought._

+Caution+.--So place phrase modifiers that there can be no doubt as to what
yon intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors in position, and use the comma when

1. The honorable member was reproved for being intoxicated by the
2. That small man is speaking with red whiskers.
3. A message was read from the President in the Senate.
4. With his gun toward the woods he started in the morning.
5. On Monday evening on temperance by Mr. Gough a lecture at the old brick
   church was delivered.

+Direction+.--_Form a sentence out of each of these groups of words_:--

(Look sharply to the arrangement and the punctuation.)

1. Of mind of splendor under the garb often is concealed poverty.
2. Of affectation of the young fop in the face impertinent an was seen
3. Has been scattered Bible English the of millions by hundreds of the
   earth over the face.
4. To the end with no small difficulty of the journey at last through deep
   roads we after much fatigue came.
5. At the distance a flood of flame from the line from thirty iron mouths
   of twelve hundred yards of the enemy poured forth.

+Direction+.--_See into how many good, clear sentences you can convert
these by transposing the phrases_:--

1. He went over the mountains on a certain day in early boyhood.
2. Ticonderoga was taken from the British by Ethan Allen on the tenth of
   May in 1775.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Rewrite these sentences, changing the italicized words into
equivalent phrases_:--

+Model+.--The sentence was _carefully_ written. The sentence was written
_with_ care.

1. A _brazen_ image was _then_ set up.
2. Those _homeless_ children were _kindly_ treated.
3. Much has been said about the _Swiss_ scenery.
4. An _aerial_ trip to Europe was _rashly_ planned.
5. The _American_ Continent was _probably_ discovered by Cabot.

+Direction+.--_Change these adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases;
and then, attending carefully to the punctuation, use these phrases in
sentences of your own_:--

1. Bostonian
2. why
3. incautiously
4. nowhere
5. there
6. hence
7. northerly
8. national
9. whence
10. here
11. Arabian
12. lengthy
13. historical
14. lucidly
15. earthward

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences, using these phrases as modifiers_:--

Of copper; in Pennsylvania; from the West Indies; around the world; between
the tropics; toward the Pacific; on the 22d of February; during the reign
of Elizabeth; before the application of steam to machinery; at the
Centennial Exposition of 1876.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints.+--_Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth reigned in England._
The three words _Edward, Mary,_ and _Elizabeth_ have the same
predicate--the same act being asserted of the king and the two queens.
_Edward, Mary_, and _Elizabeth_ are connected by _and_, _and_ being
understood between Edward and Mary. Connected subjects having the same
predicate form a +Compound Subject+.

_Charles I. was seized, was tried, and was beheaded._ The three predicates
_was seized, was tried_, and _was beheaded_ have the same subject--the
three acts being asserted of the same king. Connected predicates having the
same subject form a +Compound Predicate.+

A sentence may have both a compound subject and a compound predicate; as,
_Mary_ and _Elizabeth lived_ and _reigned_ in England.

The words connecting the parts of a compound subject or of a compound
predicate are called +Conjunctions+ (Lat. _con_, or _cum_, together, and
_jungere_, to join).

A conjunction may connect other parts of the sentence, as two word
modifiers--A dark _and_ rainy night follows; Some men sin deliberately
_and_ presumptuously.

It may connect two phrases; as, The equinox occurs in March _and_ in

It may connect two clauses, that is, expressions that, standing alone,
would be sentences; as, The leaves of the pine fall in spring, _but_ the
leaves of the maple drop in autumn.

+Interjections+ (Lat. _inter_, between, and _jacere_, to throw) are the
eighth and last part of speech.

_Oh! ah! pooh! pshaw!_ etc., express bursts of feeling too sudden and
violent for deliberate sentences.

_Hail! fudge! indeed! amen! _etc., express condensed thought as well as

Any part of speech may be wrenched from its construction with other words,
and may lapse into an interjection; _as, behold! shame! what!_

Professor Sweet calls interjections _sentence-words_.

Two or more connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound

Two or more connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound

+DEFINITION.--A _Conjunction_ is a word used to connect words, phrases, or

+DEFINITION.--An _Interjection_ is a word used to express strong or sudden

Analysis and Parsing.

1. Ah! anxious wives, sisters, and mothers wait for the news.

        ' \      |  wait
sisters 'x \=====|===========
========'   \ \anxious   \for
        'and/             \
        '  /               \news
mothers ' /                 -----
========'/                     \the

+Explanation+.--The three short horizontal lines represent each a part of
the compound subject. They are connected by dotted lines, which stand for
the connecting word. The x shows that a conjunction is understood. The line
standing for the word modifier is joined to that part of the subject line
which represents the entire subject. Turn this diagram about, and the
connected horizontal lines will stand for the parts of a compound

+Oral Analysis+.---_Wives, sisters_, and _mothers_ form the compound
subject; _anxious_ is a modifier of the compound subject; _and_ connects
_sisters_ and _mothers_.

+Parsing+.--_And_ is a conjunction connecting _sisters_ and _mothers_; _ah_
is an interjection, expressing a sudden burst of feeling.

2. In a letter we may advise, exhort, comfort, request, and discuss.

(For diagram see the last sentence of the "Explanation" above.)

3. The mental, moral, and muscular powers are improved by use.

    powers                      came
=================             =========
 \The \ X \ and \              \  and  \of
       \...\.....\              \.......\  parentage
        \   \     \muscular      \       \-----------
         \   \moral               \from
          \mental                  \    land

4. The hero of the Book of Job came from a strange land and of a strange
5. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the eyeball, and
   there spreads out.
6. Between the mind of man and the outer world are interposed the nerves of
   the human body.
7. All forms of the lever and all the principal kinds of hinges are found
   in the body.
8. By perfection is meant the full and harmonious development of all the
9. Ugh! I look forward with dread to to-morrow.
10. From the Mount of Olives, the Dead Sea, dark and misty and solemn, is
11. Tush! tush! 't will not again appear.
12. A sort of gunpowder was used at an early period in China and in other
    parts of Asia.
13. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously.
14. Feudalism did not and could not exist before the tenth century.
15. The opinions of the New York press are quoted in every port and in
    every capital.
16. Both friend and foe applauded.

        '           \
        '            \    | applauded
        'and.... Both >===|===========
        '            /
   foe  '           /

+Explanation+.--The conjunction _both_ is used to strengthen the real
connective _and_. _Either_ and _neither_ do the same for _or_ and _nor_ in
_either--or_, _neither--nor_.

+Remark.+--A phrase that contains another phrase as a modifier is called a
+Complex Phrase+. Two or more phrases connected by a conjunction form a
+Compound Phrase+.

+Direction.+--_Pick out the simple, the complex, and the compound phrases
in the sentences above._

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated
from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed.+

+Remark+.--When words and phrases stand in pairs, the pairs are separated
according to the Rule, but the words of each pair are not.

When one of two terms has a modifier that without the comma might be
referred to both, or, when the parts of compound predicates and of other
phrases are long or differently modified, these terms or parts are
separated by the comma though no conjunction is omitted.

When two terms connected by or have the same meaning, the second is
logically explanatory of the first, and is set off by the comma, _i. e._,
when it occurs in the body of a sentence, a comma is placed after the
explanatory word, as well as before the _or_.

+Direction.+--_Justify the punctuation of these sentences:_--

1. Long, pious pilgrimages are made to Mecca.
2. Empires rise, flourish, and decay.
3. Cotton is raised in Egypt, in India, and in the United States.
4. The brain is protected by the skull, or cranium.
5. Nature and art and science were laid under tribute.
6. The room was furnished with a table, and a chair without legs.
7. The old oaken bucket hangs in the well.

+Explanation.+--No comma here, for no conjunction is omitted. _Oaken_
limits _bucket_, _old_ limits _bucket_ modified by _oaken_, and _the_
limits _bucket_ modified by _old_ and _oaken_. See Lesson 13.

8. A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female,
   friend or foe.
9. We climbed up a mountain for a view.

+Explanation+.--No comma. _Up a mountain_ tells where we climbed, and _for
a view_ tells why we climbed up a mountain.

10. The boy hurries away from home, and enters upon a career of business or
    of pleasure.
11. The long procession was closed by the great dignitaries of the realm,
    and the brothers and sons of the king.

+Direction+.--_Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation, and
give your reasons_:--

1. Men and women and children stare cry out and run.
2. Bright healthful and vigorous poetry was written by Milton.
3. Few honest industrious men fail of success in life.

(Where is the conjunction omitted?)

4. Ireland or the Emerald Isle lies to the west of England.
5. That relates to the names of animals or of things without sex.
6. The Hebrew is closely allied to the Arabic the Phoenician the Syriac and
   the Chaldee.
7. We sailed down the river and along the coast and into a little inlet.
8. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables and were fed
   with abundance of hay and grain.
9. Spring and summer autumn and winter rush by in quick succession.
10. A few dilapidated old buildings still stand in the deserted village.

+EXCLAMATION POINT--RULE.--All _Exclamatory Expressions_ must be followed
by the exclamation point.+

+Remark+.--Sometimes an interjection alone and sometimes an interjection
and the words following it form the exclamatory expression; as, _Oh! it
hurts. Oh, the beautiful snow!_

_O_ is used in direct address; as, _O father, listen to me. Oh_ is used as
a cry of pain, surprise, delight, fear, or appeal. This distinction,
however desirable, is not strictly observed, _O_ being frequently used in
place of _Oh_.

+CAPITAL LETTERS--RULE.--The words _I_ and _O_ should be written in capital

+Direction.+--_Correct these violations of the two rules given above:_--

1. o noble judge o excellent young man.
2. Out of the depths have i cried unto thee.
3. Hurrah the field is won.
4. Pshaw how foolish.
5. Oh oh oh i shall be killed.
6. o life how uncertain o death how inevitable.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Beginning with the 8th sentence of the first group of
exercises in Lesson_ 21, _analyze thirteen sentences, omitting the_ 4_th of
the second group._

+Model+.--_A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or
female, friend or foe._

    spirit     |should be shown     / Jew
===============|================ __/'--------
\A  \Christian |    \          /' \' Greek
                     \        / '  \--------
                      \      /  '
                       \to  / x '  / male
                        \--/    '_/'--------
                           \    ' \' female
                            \ x '  \--------
                             \  '
                              \ '  / friend
                                  \'  foe

       *       *       *       *       *



Direction.+--_Using the nouns below, compose sentences with compound
subjects; compose others in which the verbs shall form compound predicates;
and others in which the adjectives, the adverbs, and the phrases shall form
compound modifiers:_--

In some let there be three or more connected terms. Observe Rule, Lesson
21, for punctuation. Let your sentences mean something.


Washington, beauty, grace, Jefferson, symmetry, lightning, Lincoln,
electricity, copper, silver, flowers, gold, rose, lily.


Examine, sing, pull, push, report, shout, love, hate, like, scream, loathe,
approve, fear, obey, refine, hop, elevate, skip, disapprove.


+Direction.+--_See Caution, Lesson_ 13.

Bright, acute, patient, careful, apt, forcible, simple, homely, happy,
short, pithy, deep, jolly, mercurial, precipitous.


+Direction.+--_See Caution, Lesson 15._ Neatly, slowly, carefully, sadly,
now, here, never, hereafter.


On sea; in the city; by day; on land; by night; in the country; by hook;
across the ocean; by crook; over the lands; along the level road; up the

       *       *       *       *       *




Direction.+--_Give the reason for every capital letter and for every mark
of punctuation used below:_--

1. The sensitive parts of the body are covered by the cuticle, or skin.
2. The degrees of A.B., A.M., D.D., and LL.D. are conferred by the colleges
   and the universities of the country.
3. Oh, I am so happy!
4. Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters rejoice at the news.
5. Plants are nourished by the earth, and the carbon of the air.
6. A tide of American travelers is constantly flooding Europe.
7. The tireless, sleepless sun rises above the horizon, and climbs slowly
   and steadily to the zenith.
8. He retired to private life on half pay, and on the income of a large
   estate in the South.

+Direction.+--_Write these expressions, using capital letters and marks of
punctuation where they belong:_--

1. a fresh ruddy and beardless french youth replied
2. maj, cal, bu, p m, rev, no, hon, ft, w, e, oz, mr, n y, a b, mon, bbl,
3. o father o father i cannot breathe here
4. ha ha that sounds well
5. the edict of nantes was established by henry the great of france
6. mrs, vs, co, esq, yd, pres, u s, prof, o, do, dr
7. hurrah good news good news
8. the largest fortunes grow by the saving of cents and dimes and dollars
9. the baltic sea lies between sweden and russia
10. the mississippi river pours into the gulf of mexico
11. supt, capt, qt, ph d, p, cr, i e, doz
12. benjamin franklin was born in boston in 1706 and died in 1790

+Direction.+--_Correct all these errors in capitalization and punctuation,
and give your reasons:_--

1 Oliver cromwell ruled, over the english People,
2. halloo. I must speak to You!
3. john Milton, went abroad in Early Life, and, stayed, for some time, with
   the Scholars of Italy,
4. Most Fuel consists of Coal and Wood from the Forests
5. books are read for Pleasure and the Instruction and improvement of the
6. In rainy weather the feet should be protected by overshoes or galoches
7. hark they are coming!
8. A, neat, simple and manly style is pleasing to Us.
9. alas poor thing alas,
10. i fished on a, dark, and cool, and mossy, trout stream.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. By the streets of By-and-by, one arrives at the house of
   Never.--_Spanish Proverb_ [Footnote: By-and-by has no real streets, the
   London journals do not actually thunder, nor were the cheeks of William
   the Testy literally scorched by his fiery gray eyes. _Streets, house,
   colored, thunder_, and _scorched_ are not, then, used here in their
   first and ordinary meaning, but in a secondary and figurative sense.
   These words we call +Metaphors+. By what they denote and by what they
   only suggest they lend clearness, vividness, and force to the thought
   they help to convey, and add beauty to the expression.

   For further treatment of metaphors and other figures of speech, see
   pages 87, 136, 155, 156, 165, and Lesson 150.]

2. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest
3. The axis of the earth sticks out visibly through the center of each and
   every town or city.--_Holmes_.
4. The arrogant Spartan, with a French-like glorification, boasted forever
   of little Thermopylae.--_De Quincey_.
5. The purest act of knowledge is always colored by some feeling of
   pleasure or pain.--_Hamilton_.
6. The thunder of the great London journals reverberates through every
7. The cheeks of William the Testy were scorched into a dusky red by two
   fiery little gray eyes.--_Irving_.
8. The study of natural science goes hand in hand with the culture of the
   imagination.--_Tyndall_. [Footnote: _Hand in hand_ may be treated as one
   adverb, or _with_ may be supplied.]
9. The whole substance of the winds is drenched and bathed and washed and
   winnowed and sifted through and through by this baptism in the
10. The Arabian Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Chinese Wall, and
    from the shores of the Caspian Sea to those of the Indian
11. One half of all known materials consists of oxygen.--_Cooke_.
12. The range of thirty pyramids, even in the time of Abraham, looked down
    on the plain of Memphis.--_Stanley_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Parse the sentences of Lesson 25 according to this +Model
for Written Parsing_.

        | Nouns. | Pron. | Verbs. |  Adj.  | Adv. | Prep. | Conj.| Int.|
1st     |streets,|       |        |the,the.|      |By,of, |      |     |
sentence|By-and- | one.  |arrives.|        |      |at,of  |      |     |
        | by,    |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |
        |house,  |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |
        |Never.  |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |
        |        |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |
2d      |        |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |
sentence|        |       |        |        |      |       |      |     |

TO THE TEACHER.--Until the +Subdivisions+ and +Modifications+ of parts of
speech are reached, +Oral and Written Parsing+ can be only a classification
of the words in the sentence. You must judge how frequently a lesson like
this is needed, and how much parsing should be done orally day by day. In
their +Oral Analysis+ let the pupils give at first the reasons for every
statement, but guard against their doing this mechanically and in set
terms; and, when you think it can safely be done, let them drop it. But ask
now and then, whenever you think they have grown careless or are guessing,
for the reason of this, that, or the other step taken.

Here it may be well to emphasize the fact that the part of speech to which
any word belongs is determined by the use of the word, and not from its
form. Such exercises as the following are suggested:--

    Use _right_ words.
    Act _right_.
    _Right_ the wrong.
    You are in the _right_.

Pupils will be interested in finding sentences that illustrate the
different uses of the same word. It is hardly necessary for us to make
lists of words that have different uses. Any dictionary will furnish
abundant examples. It is an excellent practice to point out such words in
the regular exercises for analysis.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions, Lesson 16.

+Direction+.--_Review from Lesson_ 17 _to Lesson_ 21, _inclusive_.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what
such words as _long_ and _there_ may be expanded into, how these expanded
forms may be modified, how introduced, what the introductory words are
called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules;
illustrate fully what is taught of the position of phrases, and of the
punctuation of phrases, connected terms, and exclamatory expressions. How
many parts of speech are there?

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 153-156.)

TO THE TEACHER.--See notes to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

       *       *       *       *       *



Introductory Hints.+--In saying _Washington captured_, we do not fully
express the act performed by Washington. If we add a noun and say,
_Washington captured Cornwallis_, we complete the predicate by naming that
which receives the act.

Whatever fills out, or completes, is a +Complement+. As _Cornwallis_
completes the expression of the act by naming the thing acted upon--the
object--we call it the +Object Complement+. Connected objects completing
the same verb form a +Compound Object Complement+; as, Washington captured
_Cornwallis_ and his _army_.

+DEFINITION.--The _Object Complement of a Sentence_ completes the
predicate, and names that which receives the act.+

The complement with all its modifiers is called the +Modified Complement.+


1. Clear thinking makes clear writing.

  thinking  |  makes  |  writing
  \ clear   |             \clear

+Oral Analysis+.---_Writing_ is the object complement; _clear writing_ is
the modified complement, and _makes clear writing_ is the entire predicate.

2. Austerlitz killed Pitt.
3. The invention of gunpowder destroyed feudalism.
4. Liars should have good memories.
5. We find the first surnames in the tenth century.
6. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.
7. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning-rod.
8. At the opening of the thirteenth century, Oxford took and held rank with
   the greatest schools of Europe.

 Oxford | /  '        \  | rank
========|=and'         ==========
        | \  '        /
           \ ' held  /

 moon |  /   '
======|== and'
      |  \   '
          \  ' keeps | side

9. The moon revolves, and keeps the same side toward us.
10. Hunger rings the bell, and orders up coals in the shape of bread and
    butter, beef and bacon, pies and puddings.
11. The history of the Trojan war rests on the authority of Homer, and
    forms the subject of the noblest poem of antiquity.
12. Every stalk, bud, flower, and seed displays a figure, a proportion, a
    harmony, beyond the reach of art.
13. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunk, and thatch roofs with
    the leaves, of the cocoa-nut palm.
14. Richelieu exiled the mother, oppressed the wife, degraded the brother,
    and banished the confessor, of the king.
15. James and John study and recite grammar and arithmetic.

 James                study               grammar
=========\       /===========\       /===============
      '   \  |  /   '         \  |  /   '
      'and ==|== and'          ===== and'
 John '   /  |  \   ' recite  /     \   ' arithmetic
=========/       \===========/       \===============

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--The subject presents one idea; the predicate
presents another, and asserts it of the first. _Corn is growing_ presents
the idea of the thing, corn, and the idea of the act, growing, and asserts
the act of the thing. _Corn growing_ lacks the asserting word, and _Corn_
is lacks the word denoting the idea to be asserted.

In logic, the asserting word is called the _copula_--it shows that the two
ideas are coupled into a thought--and the word expressing the idea asserted
is called the predicate. But, as one word often performs both offices, e.
g., Corn _grows_, and, as it is disputed whether any word can assert
without expressing something of the idea asserted, we pass this distinction
by as not essential in grammar, and call both that which asserts and that
which expresses the idea asserted, by one name--the predicate. [Footnote:
We may call the verb the predicate; but, when it is followed by a
complement, it is an incomplete predicate.]

The _maple leaves become_. The verb become does not make a complete
predicate; it does not fully express the idea to be asserted. The idea may
be completely expressed by adding the adjective _red_, denoting the quality
we wish to assert of leaves, or attribute to them--_The maple leaves become

_Lizards are reptiles_. The noun _reptiles_, naming the class of the
animals called lizards, performs a like office for the asserting word are.
_Rolfe's wife was Pocahontas_. _Pocahontas_ completes the predicate by
presenting a second idea, which _was_ asserts to be identical with that of
the subject.

When the completing word expressing the idea to be attributed does not
unite with the asserting word to make a single verb, we distinguish it as
the +Attribute Complement.+ [Footnote: _Subjective Complement_ may, if
preferred, be used instead of Attribute Complement.] Connected attribute
complements of the same verb form a +Compound Attribute Complement+.

Most grammarians call the adjective and the noun, when so used, the
+Predicate Adjective+ and the +Predicate Noun+.

+DEFINITION.--The _Attribute Complement_ of a Sentence completes the
predicate and belongs to the subject.+


1. Slang is vulgar.

  Slang   |   is   \ vulgar

+Explanation+.--The line standing for the attribute complement is, like the
object line, a continuation of the predicate line; but notice that the line
which separates the incomplete predicate from the complement slants toward
the subject to show that the complement is an attribute of it.

+Oral Analysis+.--_Vulgar_ is the attribute complement, completing the
predicate and expressing a quality of slang; _is vulgar_ is the entire

2. The sea is fascinating and treacherous.
3. The mountains are grand, tranquil, and lovable.
4. The Saxon words in English are simple, homely, and substantial.
5. The French and the Latin words in English are elegant, dignified, and
   artificial. [Footnote: The assertion in this sentence is true only in
   the main.]
6. The ear is the ever-open gateway of the soul.
7. The verb is the life of the sentence.
8. Good-breeding is surface-Christianity.
9. A dainty plant is the ivy green.

+Explanation+.--The subject names that of which the speaker says something.
The terms in which he says it,--the predicate,--he, of course, assumes that
the hearer already understands. Settle, then, which--plant or ivy--Dickens
supposed the reader to know least about, and which, therefore, Dickens was
telling him about; and you settle which word--_plant_ or _ivy_--is the
subject. (Is it not the writer's poetical conception of "the green ivy"
that the reader is supposed not to possess?)

10. The highest outcome of culture is simplicity.
11. Stillness of person and steadiness of features are signal marks of
12. The north wind is full of courage, and puts the stamina of endurance
    into a man.
13. The west wind is hopeful, and has promise and adventure in it.
14. The east wind is peevishness and mental rheumatism and grumbling, and
    curls one up in the chimney-corner.
15. The south wind is full of longing and unrest and effeminate suggestions
    of luxurious ease.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. He went out as mate and came back captain.

            went  \ '  mate
 He | /   '    \out
====|=and '
    | \   ' came  \    captain

+Explanation+.--_Mate_, like _captain_, is an attribute complement. Some
would say that the conjunction _as_ connects _mate_ to _he_; but we think
this connection is made through the verb _went_, and that _as_ is simply
introductory. This is indicated in the diagram.

2. The sun shines bright and hot at midday.
3. Velvet feels smooth, and looks rich and glossy.
4. She grew tall, queenly, and beautiful.
5. Plato and Aristotle are called the two head-springs of all philosophy.
6. Under the Roman law, every son was regarded as a slave.
7. He came a foe and returned a friend.
8. I am here. I am present.

+Explanation+.--The office of an adverb sometimes seems to fade into that
of an adjective attribute and is not easily distinguished from it. _Here_,
like an adjective, seems to complete _am_, and, like an adverb to modify
it. From their form and usual function, _here,_ in this example, should be
called an adverb, and _present_ an adjective.

9. This book is presented to you as a token of esteem and gratitude.
10. The warrior fell back upon the bed a lifeless corpse.
11. The apple tastes and smells delicious.
12. Lord Darnley turned out a dissolute and insolent husband.
13. In the fable of the Discontented Pendulum, the weights hung speechless.
14. The brightness and freedom of the New Learning seemed incarnate in the
    young and scholarly Sir Thomas More.
15. Sir Philip Sidney lived and died the darling of the Court, and the
    gentleman and idol of the time.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_He made the wall white._ Here _made_ does not fully
express the act performed upon the wall. We do not mean to say, He _made_
the white _wall_, but, He _made-white_ (_whitened_) the wall. _White_ helps
_made_ to express the act, and at the same time it denotes the quality
attributed to the wall as the result of the act.

_They made Victoria queen_. Here _made_ does not fully express the act
performed upon Victoria. They did not _make_ Victoria, but _made-queen_
(_crowned_) Victoria. _Queen_ helps _made_ to express the act, and at the
same time denotes the office to which the act raised Victoria.

A word that, like the adjective _white_ or the noun _queen_, helps to
complete the predicate and at the same time belongs to the object
complement, differs from an attribute complement by belonging not to the
subject but to the object complement, and so is called an +Objective

As the objective complement generally denotes what the receiver of the act
is made to be, in fact or in thought, it is sometimes called the _factitive
complement_ or the _factitive object_ (Lat. _facere_, to make). [Footnote:
See Lesson 37, last foot-note.]

Some of the other verbs which are thus completed are _call_, _think_,
_choose_, and _name_.

+DEFINITION.--The _Objective Complement_ completes the predicate and
belongs to the object complement.+


1. They made Victoria queen.

 They | made / queen | Victoria

+Explanation+.--The line that separates _made_ from _queen_ slants toward
the object complement to show that _queen_ belongs to the object.

+Oral Analysis+.--_Queen_ is an objective complement completing _made_ and
belonging to _Victoria_; _made Victoria queen_ is the complete predicate.

2. Some one has called the eye the window of the soul.
3. Destiny had made Mr. Churchill a schoolmaster.
4. President Hayes chose the Hon. Wm. M. Evarts Secretary of State.
5. After a break of sixty years in the ducal line of the English nobility,
   James I. created the worthless Villiers Duke of Buckingham.
6. We should consider time as a sacred trust.

+Explanation+.--_As_ may be used simply to introduce an objective

7. Ophelia and Polonius thought Hamlet really insane.
8. The President and the Senate appoint certain men ministers to foreign
9. Shylock would have struck Jessica dead beside him.
10. Custom renders the feelings blunt and callous.
11. Socrates styled beauty a short-lived tyranny.
12. Madame de Stael calls beautiful architecture frozen music.
13. They named the state New York from the Duke of York.
14. Henry the Great consecrated the Edict of Nantes as the very ark of the

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution.+--Be careful to distinguish an adjective complement from an
adverb modifier.

+Explanation.+--Mary arrived _safe_. We here wish to tell the condition of
Mary on her arrival, and not the manner of her arriving. My head feels
_bad_ (is in a bad condition, as perceived by the sense of feeling). The
sun shines _bright_ (is bright, as perceived by its shining).

When the idea of being is prominent in the verb, as in the examples above,
you see that the adjective, and not the adverb, follows.

+Direction.+--_Justify the use of these adjectives and adverbs_:--

1. The boy is running wild.
2. The boy is running wildly about.
3. They all arrived safe and sound.
4. The day opened bright.
5. He felt awkward in the presence of ladies.
6. He felt around awkwardly for his chair.
7. The sun shines bright.
8. The sun shines brightly on the tree-tops.
9. He appeared prompt and willing.
10. He appeared promptly and willingly.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors and give your reasons_:--

1. My head pains me very bad.
2. My friend has acted very strange in the matter.
3. Don't speak harsh.
4. It can be bought very cheaply.
5. I feel tolerable well.
6. She looks beautifully.

+Direction+.--_Join to each of the nouns below three appropriate adjectives
expressing the qualities as assumed, and then make complete sentences by
asserting these qualities_:--

  Hard         |
  brittle      +  glass.
  transparent  |

Glass is hard, brittle, and transparent.

Coal, iron, Niagara Falls, flowers, war, ships.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences containing these nouns as attribute

Emperor, mathematician, Longfellow, Richmond.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences, using these verbs as predicates, and
these pronouns as attribute complements_:--

Is, was, might have been; I, we, he, she, they.

+Remark+.--Notice that these forms of the pronouns--_I, we, thou, he, she,
ye, they_, and _who_--are never used as object complements or as principal
words in prepositional phrases; and that _me, us, thee, him, her, them_,
and _whom_ are never used as subjects or as attribute complements of

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which each of the following verbs shall
have two complements--the one an object complement, the other an objective

Let some object complements be pronouns, and let some objective complements
be introduced by _as_.

+Model+.--They call _me chief_. We regard composition _as_ very

Make, appoint, consider, choose, call.

        *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_Solomon's temple was destroyed. Solomon's_ limits
_temple_ by telling what or whose temple is spoken of, and is therefore a
modifier of _temple_.

The relation of Solomon to the temple is expressed by the apostrophe and
_s_ ('_s_) added to the noun _Solomon_. When _s_ has been added to the noun
to denote more than one, this relation of possession is expressed by the
apostrophe alone ('); as, _boys'_ hats. This same relation of possession
may be expressed by the preposition _of_; _Solomon's_ temple = the temple
_of Solomon_.

_Dom Pedro, the emperor, was welcomed by the Americans_. The noun _emperor_
modifies _Dom Pedro_ by telling what Dom Pedro is meant. Both words name
the same person.

_Solomon's_ and _emperor_, like adjectives, modify nouns; but they are
names of things, and are modified by adjectives and not by adverbs; as,
_the wise_ Solomon's temple; Dom Pedro, _the Brazilian_ emperor. These are
conclusive reasons for calling such words nouns.

They represent two kinds of +Noun Modifiers+--the +Possessive+ and the

The Explanatory Modifier is often called an +Appositive+. It identifies or
explains by adding another name of the same thing.


1. Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh, was beheaded by James I.

 favorite (Raleigh) | was beheaded
 \Elizabeth's       |  \by
                        \    James I

+Oral Analysts+.--_Elizabeth's_ and _Raleigh_ are modifiers of the subject;
the first word telling whose favorite is meant, the second what favorite.
_Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh_ is the modified subject.

2. The best features of King James's translation of the Bible are derived
   from Tyndale's version.
3. St. Paul, the apostle, was beheaded in the reign of Nero.
4. A fool's bolt is soon shot.
5. The tadpole, or polliwog, becomes a frog.
6. An idle brain is the devil's workshop.
7. Mahomet, or Mohammed, was born in the year 569 and died in 632.
8. They scaled Mount Blanc--a daring feat.

 They | scaled | Mount Blanc     (  feat  )
======|=====================       =======
      |                             \a \daring

+Explanation+.--_Feat_ is explanatory of the sentence, _They scaled Mount
Blanc_, and in the diagram it stands, enclosed in curves, on a short line
placed after the sentence line.

9. Bees communicate to each other the death of the queen, by a rapid
   interlacing of the antennae. [Footnote: For uses of _each other_ and
   _one another_, see Lesson 124.]

+Explanation+.--_Each other_ may be treated as one term, or _each_ may be
made explanatory of _bees_.

10. The lamp of a man's life has three wicks--brain, blood, and breath.

+Explanation.+--Several words may together be explanatory of one.

11. The turtle's back-bone and breast-bone--its shell and coat of
    armor--are on the outside of its body.

  back-bone                        shell
=============\                     ========\
             '\                   /'        \    |  are
          and' \==========(======/ 'and      \=)=|=======
             ' / \turtle's  \its \ '         /   |
 breast-bone '/     \The          \' coat   /
=============/                     ========/

12. Cromwell's rule as Protector began in the year 1653 and ended in 1658.

+Explanation+.--_As, namely, to wit, viz., i.e., e.g.,_ and _that is_ may
introduce explanatory modifiers, but they do not seem to connect them to
the words modified. In the diagram they stand like _as_ in Lesson 30.
_Protector_ is explanatory of _Cromwell's_.

13. In the latter half of the eighteenth century, three powerful nations,
    namely, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, united for the dismemberment of
14. John, the beloved disciple, lay on his Master's breast.
15. The petals of the daisy, _day's-eye_, close at night and in rainy

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--An _Explanatory Modifier_, when it does not restrict the
modified term or combine closely with it, is set off by the comma.+
[Footnote: See foot-note, Lesson 18]

+Explanation+.--_The words I and O should be written in capital_ _letters_.
The phrase _I and O_ restricts _words_, that is, limits its application,
and no comma is needed.

_Jacob's favorite sons, Joseph and Benjamin, were Rachel's children_. The
phrase _Joseph and Benjamin_ explains sons without restricting, and
therefore should be set off by the comma.

In each of these expressions, _I myself, we boys, William the Conqueror_,
the explanatory term combines closely with the word explained, and no comma
is needed.

+Direction+.--_Give the reasons for the insertion or the omission of commas
in these sentences_:--

1. My brother Henry and my brother George belong to a boat-club.
2. The author of Pilgrim's Progress, John Bunyan, was the son of a tinker.
3. Shakespeare, the great dramatist, was careless of his literary
4. The conqueror of Mexico, Cortez, was cruel in his treatment of
5. Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, was a Spaniard.
6. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander met and became fast friends on a
   raft at Tilsit.

+Direction+.--_Insert commas below, where they are needed, and give your

1. The Franks a warlike people of Germany gave their name to France.
2. My son Joseph has entered college.
3. You blocks! You stones! 0 you hard hearts!
4. Mecca a city in Arabia is sacred in the eyes of Mohammedans.
5. He himself could not go.
6. The poet Spenser lived in the reign of Elizabeth.
7. Elizabeth Queen of England ruled from 1558 to 1603.

+Direction.+--_Compose sentences containing these expressions as
explanatory modifiers_:--

The most useful metal; the capital of Turkey; the Imperial City; the great
English poets; the hermit; a distinguished American statesman.

+Direction.+--_Punctuate these expressions, and employ each of them in a

See Remark, Lesson 21. Omit _or_, and note the effect.

1. Palestine or the Holy Land ----.
2. New York or the Empire State ----.
3. New Orleans or the Crescent City ----.
4. The five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch ----.

+Remember+ that (_'s_) and (_'_) are the possessive signs--(_'_) being used
when _s_ has been added to denote more than one, and (_'s_) in other cases.

+Direction.+--_Copy the following, and note the use of the possessive

The lady's fan; the girl's bonnet; a dollar's worth; Burns's poems; Brown &
Co.'s business; a day's work; men's clothing; children's toys; those girls'
dresses; ladies' calls; three years' interest; five dollars' worth.

+Direction.+--_Make possessive modifiers of the following words, and join
them to appropriate nouns_:--

Woman, women; mouse, mice; buffalo, buffaloes; fairy, fairies; hero,
heroes; baby, babies; calf, calves.

+Caution.+--Do not use (_'s_) or (_'_) with the pronouns _its, his, ours,
yours, hers, theirs_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints.+--_He gave me a book_. Here we have what many
grammarians call a _double object_. _Book_, naming the thing acted upon,
they call the _direct_ object; and _me_, naming the person toward whom the
act is directed, they call the +indirect+, or _dative_, +object+.

You see that _me_ and _book_ do not, like _Cornwallis_ and _army_, in
_Washington captured Cornwallis and his army_, form a compound object
complement; they cannot be connected by a conjunction, for they do not
stand in the same relation to the verb _gave_. The meaning is not, He gave
me _and_ the book.

We treat these indirect objects, which generally denote the person to or
for whom something is done, as equivalent to phrase modifiers. If we change
the order of the words, a preposition must be supplied; as, He gave a book
_to me_. He bought _me_ a _book_; He bought a book _for me_. He asked _me_
a _question_; He asked a _question of me_. When the indirect object
precedes the direct, no preposition is expressed or understood.

_Teach, tell, send, promise, permit_, and _lend_ are other examples of
verbs that take indirect objects.

Besides these indirect objects, +nouns denoting measure+, quantity, weight,
time, value, distance, or direction are often used adverbially, being
equivalent to phrase modifiers. We walked four _miles_ an _hour_; It weighs
one _pound_; It is worth a _dollar_ a _yard_; I went _home_ that _way_; The
wall is ten _feet_ six _inches_ high.

The idiom of the language does not often admit a preposition before nouns
denoting measure, direction, etc. In your analysis you need not supply one.


1. They offered Caesar the crown three times.

  They  |  offered      |  crown
        | \    \ times      \the
           \    -------
            \       \three
              \ Caesar

+Oral Analysis.+--_Caesar_ and _times_ are nouns used adverbially, being
equivalent to adverb phrases modifying the predicate _offered_.

2. We pay the President of the United States $50,000 a year.
3. He sent his daughter home that way.
4. I gave him a dollar a bushel for his wheat, and ten cents a pound for
   his sugar.
5. Shakespeare was fifty-two years old the very day of his death.
6. Serpents cast their skin once a year.
7. The famous Charter Oak of Hartford, Conn., fell Aug. 21, 1856.
8. Good land should yield its owner seventy-five bushels of corn an acre.
9. On the fatal field of Zutphen, Sept. 22, 1586, his attendants brought
   the wounded Sir Philip Sidney a cup of cold water.
10. He magnanimously gave a dying soldier the water.
11. The frog lives several weeks as a fish, and breathes by means of gills.
12. Queen Esther asked King Ahasuerus a favor.
13. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great philosophy.
14. The pure attar of roses is worth twenty or thirty dollars an ounce.
15. Puff-balls have grown six inches in diameter in a single night.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions, Lesson 16.

+Direction.+--_Review from Lesson 28 to Lesson 35, inclusive_.

Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (for example, show clearly
what two things are essential to a complete predicate; explain what is
meant by a complement; distinguish clearly the three kinds of complements;
show what parts of speech may be employed for each, and tell what general
idea--action, quality, class, or identity--is expressed by each attribute
complement or objective complement in your illustrations, etc.). Repeat and
illustrate definitions and rules; explain and illustrate fully the
distinction between an adjective complement and an adverb modifier;
illustrate what is taught of the forms _I, we,_ etc., _me, us,_ etc.;
explain and illustrate the use of the possessive sign.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 156-159.)

TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints.+--_Corn grows; Corn growing._ Here _growing_ differs
from _grows_ in lacking the power to assert. _Growing_ is a form of the
verb that cannot, like _grows_, make a complete predicate because it only
assumes or implies that the corn does the act. _Corn_ may be called the
assumed subject of _growing_.

_Birds, singing, delight us._ Here _singing_ does duty (1) as an adjective,
describing birds by assuming or implying an act, and (2) as a verb by
expressing the act of singing as going on at the time birds delight us.

_By singing their songs birds delight us._ Here _singing_ has the nature of
a verb and that of a noun. As a verb it has an object complement, _songs_;
and as a noun it names the act, and stands as the principal word in a
prepositional phrase.

_Their singing so sweetly delights us_. Here, also, _singing_ has the
nature of a verb and that of a noun. As a verb it has an adverb modifier,
_sweetly_, and as a noun it names an act and takes a possessive modifier.

This form of the verb is called the +Participle+ (Lat. _pars_, a part, and
_capere_, to take) because it partakes of two natures and performs two
offices--those of a verb and an adjective, or those of a verb and a noun.
(For definition see Lesson 131.)

_Singing birds delight us_. Here _singing_ has lost its verbal nature, and
expresses a permanent quality of birds--telling what kind of birds,--and
consequently is a mere adjective. _The singing of the birds delights us_.
Here _singing_ is simply a noun, naming the act and taking adjective

There are two kinds of participles; [Footnote: Grammarians are not agreed
as to what these words that have the nature of the verb and that of the
noun should be called. Some would call the simple forms _doing_, _writing_,
and _injuring_, in sentences (1), (6), and (7), Lesson 38, _Infinitives_.
They would also call by the same name such compound forms as _being
accepted_, _having been shown_, and _having said_ in these expressions:
"for the purpose of being accepted;" "is the having been shown over a
place;" "I recollect his having said that." But does it not tax even
credulity to believe that a simple Anglo-Saxon infinitive in _-an_, only
one form of which followed a preposition, and that always _to_, could have
developed into many compound forms, used in both voices, following almost
any preposition, and modified by _the_ and by nouns and pronouns in the
possessive? No wonder the grammarian Mason says, "An infinitive in _-ing_,
set down by some as a modification of the simple infinitive in _-an_ or
_-en_, is a perfectly unwarranted invention."

Others call these words modernized forms of the Anglo-Saxon _Verbal Nouns_
in _-ung_, _-ing_. But this derivation of them encounters the stubborn fact
that those verbal nouns never were compound, and never were or could be
followed by objects. These words, on the contrary, are compound, as we have
seen, and have objects. That they are from nouns in _-ung_ is otherwise,
and almost for the same reasons, as incredible as that they are from
infinitives in _-an_.

Others call these words _Gerunds_. A gerund in Latin is a simple form of
the verb in the active voice, never found in the nominative, and never in
the accusative (objective) after a verb. A gerund in Anglo-Saxon is a
simple form of the verb in the active voice--the dative case of the
infinitive merely--used mainly to indicate purpose, and always preceded by
the preposition _to_. To call these words in question gerunds is to stretch
the term _gerund_ immensely beyond its meaning in Anglo-Saxon, and make it
cover words which sometimes (1) are highly compounded; sometimes (2) are
used in the passive voice; sometimes (3) follow other prepositions than
_to_; sometimes (4) do not follow any preposition; sometimes (5) are
objects of verbs; sometimes (6) are subjects of verbs; sometimes (7) are
modified by _the_; sometimes (8) are modified by a noun or pronoun in the
possessive; and generally (9) do not indicate purpose. We submit that the
extension of a class term so as to include words having these relations
that the Anglo-Saxon gerund never had, is not warranted by any precedent
except that furnished above in the extension of the term _infinitive_ or of
the term _verbal noun_!

Still others call some of these words _Infinitives_; some of them _Verbal
Nouns_; and some of them _Gerunds_.

The forms in question--_seeing, having seen, being seen, having been seen_,
and _having been seeing_, for instance--are now made from the verb in
precisely the same way when partaking the nature of the noun as when
partaking the nature of the adjective. What can they possibly be but the
forms that all grammarians call _participles_ extended to new uses? If the
uses of the original participles have been extended, why may we not carry
over the name? The name _participle_ is as true to its etymology when
applied to the nounal use of the verb as when applied to the adjectival
use. For convenience of classification we call these disputed forms
_participles_, as good grammarians long ago called them and still call
them, though some of them may be traced back to the Saxon verbal noun or to
the infinitive, and though the Saxon participle was adjectival. The name
_participle_ neither confounds terms nor misleads the student. The nounal
and the adjectival uses of participial forms we distinguish very sharply.]
one sharing the nature of the verb and that of the adjective; the other,
the nature of the verb and that of the noun. Participles commonly end in
_ing_, _ed_, or _en_.

The participle, like other forms of the verb, may be followed by an object
complement or an attribute complement.

Analysis and Parsing.

The +participle+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+.

1. Hearing a step, I turned.

   I | turned
   \ |
    \ hea
     \   ring | step

+Explanation+.--The line standing for the participle is broken; one part
slants to represent the adjective nature of the participle, and the other
is horizontal to represent its verbal nature.

+Oral Analysis+.--The phrase _hearing a step_ is a modifier of the subject;
[Footnote: Logically, or in sense, _hearing a step_ modifies the predicate
also. I _turned when_ or _because_ I heard a step. See Lesson 79.] the
principal word is _hearing_, which is completed by the noun _step_; _step_
is modified by _a_.

+Parsing+.--_Hearing_ is a form of the verb called participle because the
act expressed by it is merely assumed, and it shares the nature of an
adjective and that of a verb.

2. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use.

+Explanation+.--The complement is here modified by a participle phrase.

3. The spinal marrow, proceeding from the brain, extends down-ward through
   the back-bone.
4. Van Twiller sat in a huge chair of solid oak, hewn in the celebrated
   forest of the Hague.

+Explanation+.--The principal word of a prepositional phrase is here
modified by a participle phrase.

5. Lentulus, returning with victorious legions, had amused the populace
   with the sports of the amphitheater.

The +participle+ may be used as an +attribute complement+.

6. The natives came crowding around.

+Explanation+.--_Crowding_ here completes the predicate _came_, and belongs
to the subject _natives_. The natives are represented as performing the act
of coming and the accompanying act of crowding. The assertive force of the
predicate _came_ seems to extend over both verbs. [Footnote: Some
grammarians prefer to treat the participle in such constructions as
adverbial. But is _crowding_ any more adverbial here than are _pale_ and
_trembling_ in "The natives came _pale_ and _trembling_"?]

7. The city lies sleeping.
8. They stood terrified.
9. The philosopher sat buried in thought.

       \and \and \
         \    \    \star
          \    \    \   ving
           \    \sav \-------
            \    \  ing
             \gru \----------
              \  bbing
miser | kept   \      / \

10. The old miser kept grubbing and saving and starving.

The +participle+ may be used as an +objective complement+.

11. He kept me waiting.

+Explanation+.--_Waiting_ completes _kept_ and relates to the object
complement _me_. _Kept-waiting_ expresses the complete act performed upon
me. _He kept-waiting me_=_He detained me_. The relation of _waiting_ to
_me_ may be seen by changing the form of the verb; as, I _was kept
waiting_. See Lesson 31.

12. I found my book growing dull. [Footnote: It will be seen by this and
following examples that we extend the application of the term _objective
complement_ beyond its primary, or factitive, sense. In "I struck the man
_dead_," the condition expressed by _dead_ is the result of the act
expressed by _struck_. In "I found the man _dead_," the condition is not
the result of the act, and so grammarians say that in this second example
_dead_ should be treated simply as an "appositive" adjective modifying
_man_. While _dead_ does not belong to _man_ as expressing the result of
the act, it is made to belong to _man_ through the asserting force of the
verb, and therefore is not a mere modifier of _man_. _Dead_ helps _found_
to express the act. Not _found_, but _found-dead_ tells what was done to
the man.

If we put the sentence in the passive form, "The man was found _dead_," it
will be seen that _dead_ is more than a mere modifier; it belongs to _man_
through the assertive force of _was found_. If _dead_ is here merely an
"appositive" adjective, "I found the man dead" must equal "I found the man,
who was dead" (or, "and he was dead"). The two sentences obviously are not
equal. "I caught him asleep" does not mean, "I caught him, and he was

If, in the construction discussed above, _dead_ is an objective complement,
_quiet_, _stirring_, and (to) _stir_ in the
following sentences are objective complements:--

    I saw the leaves quiet.
    I saw the leaves stirring.
    I saw the leaves stir.

The adjective, the participle, and the infinitive do not here seem to
differ essentially in office. See Lesson 31 and page 78.]

               \   wing \ dull
  I  |  found  /   / \   |  book
     |                       \my

+Explanation+.--The diagram representing the phrase complement is drawn
above the complement line, on which it is made to rest by means of a
support. All that stands on the complement line is regarded as the
complement. Notice that the little mark before the phrase points toward the
object complement. The adjective _dull_ completes _growing_ and belongs to
_book_, the assumed subject of _growing_.

13. He owned himself defeated.
14. No one ever saw fat men heading a riot or herding together in turbulent
15. I felt my heart beating faster.
16. You may imagine me sitting there.
17. Saul, seeking his father's asses, found himself suddenly turned into a

       *       *       *       *       *



Analysis and Parsing.

The +participle+ may be used as +principal word+ in a +prepositional

1. We receive good by doing good.

  We | receive  |  good
     |    \by
           \-----,doing | good

+Explanation+.--The line representing the participle here is broken; the
first part represents the participle as a noun, and the other as a verb.

+Oral Analysis+.--The phrase _by doing good_ is a modifier of the
predicate; _by_ introduces the phrase; the principal word is _doing_, which
is completed by the noun _good_.

+Passing+.--_Doing_ is a participle; like a noun, it follows the
preposition _by_, and, like a verb, it takes an object complement.

2. Portions of the brain may be cut off without producing any pain.
3. The Coliseum was once capable of seating ninety thousand persons.
4. Success generally depends on acting prudently, steadily, and vigorously.
5. You cannot fully sympathize with suffering without having suffered.
   (_Suffering_ is here a noun.)

The +participle+ may be the +principal word+ in a phrase used as a
+subject+ or as an +object complement+.

6. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position.

---, writing       | letter
     \Your   | \neatly \that
             |    \so
            / \  | secured | position
                 |            \the

+Explanation+.--The diagram of the subject phrase is drawn above the
subject line. All that rests on the subject line is regarded as the

+Oral Analysis+.--The phrase _your writing that letter so neatly_ is the
subject; the principal word of it is _writing_, which is completed by
_letter; writing_, as a noun, is modified by _your_, and, as a verb, by the
adverb phrase _so neatly_.

7. We should avoid injuring the feelings of others.
8. My going there will depend upon my father's giving his consent.
9. Good reading aloud is a rare accomplishment.

The +participial form+ may be used as a +mere noun+ or a +mere adjective+.

10. The cackling of geese saved Rome.

11. Such was the exciting campaign, celebrated in many a long-forgotten
    song. [Footnote: "_Manig man_ in Anglo-Saxon was used like German
    _mancher mann_, Latin _multus vir_, and the like, until the thirteenth
    century; when the article was inserted to emphasize the distribution
    before indicated by the singular number."--_Prof. F. A. March._]

+Explanation+.--_Many_ modifies _song_ after _song_ has been limited by _a_
and _long-forgotten_.

12. All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility.
13. He was a squeezing, grasping, hardened old sinner.

The +participle+ may be used in +independent+ or +absolute phrases+.

14. The bridge at Ashtabula giving way, the train fell into the river.

+Explanation+.--The diagram of the absolute phrase, which consists of a
noun used independently with a participle, stands by itself. See lesson 44.

15. Talking of exercise, you have heard, of course, of Dickens's

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--The Participle used as an adjective modifier, with the words
belonging to it, is set off+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a
sentence is set off by two commas; at the beginning or at the end, by one
comma.] +by the comma unless restrictive+.

+Explanation+.--_A bird, lighting near my window, greeted me with a song.
The bird sitting on the wall is a wren. Lighting_ describes without
restricting; _sitting_ restricts--limits the application of _bird_ to a
particular bird.

+Direction+.--_Justify the punctuation of the participle phrases in Lesson_

+Caution+.--In using a participle, be careful to leave no doubt as to what
you intend it to modify.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors in arrangement, and punctuate, giving
your reasons:--_

1. A gentleman will let his house going abroad for the summer to a small
   family containing all the improvements.
2. The town contains fifty houses and one hundred inhabitants built of
3. Suits ready made of material cut by an experienced tailor handsomely
   trimmed and bought at a bargain are offered cheap.
4. Seated on the topmost branch of a tall tree busily engaged in gnawing an
   acorn we espied a squirrel.
5. A poor child was found in the streets by a wealthy and benevolent
   gentleman suffering from cold and hunger.

+Direction+.--_Recast these sentences, making the reference of the
participle clear, and punctuating correctly_:--

+Model+.--_Climbing to the top of the hill the Atlantic ocean was seen._
Incorrect because it appears that the ocean did the climbing.

_Climbing to the top of the hill, we saw the Atlantic ocean_.

1. Entering the next room was seen a marble statue of Apollo.
2. By giving him a few hints he was prepared to do the work well.
3. Desiring an early start the horse was saddled by five o'clock.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which each of these three participles
shall be used as an adjective modifier, as the principal word in a
prepositional phrase, as the principal word in a phrase used as a subject
or as an object complement, as a mere adjective, as a mere noun, and in an
absolute phrase_:--

Buzzing, leaping, waving.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_I came to see you_. Here the verb _see_, like the
participle, lacks asserting power--_I to see_ asserts nothing. _See_,
following the preposition _to_, [Footnote: For the discussion of _to_ with
the infinitive, see Lesson 134.] names the act and is completed by _you_,
and so does duty as a noun and as a verb. In office it is like the second
kind of participles, described in Lesson 37, and from many grammarians has
received the same name--some calling both _gerunds_, and others calling
both _infinitives_. It differs from this participle in form, and in
following only the preposition _to_. Came _to see_=came _for seeing_.

This form of the verb is frequently the principal word of a phrase used as
a subject or as an object, complement; as, _To read good books_ is
profitable; I like _to read good books_. Here also the form with _to_ is
equivalent to the participle form _reading_. _Reading good books_ is

As this form of the verb names the action in an indefinite way, without
limiting it to a subject, we call it the +Infinitive+ (Lat. _infinitus_,
without limit). For definition, see Lesson 131. The infinitive, like the
participle, may have what is called an _assumed subject_. The _assumed
subject_ denotes that to which the action or being expressed by the
participle or the infinitive belongs.

Frequently the infinitive phrase expresses purpose, as in the first example
given above, and in such cases _to_ expresses relation, and performs its
full function as a preposition; but, when the infinitive phrase is used as
subject or as object complement, the _to_ expresses no relation. It serves
only to introduce the phrase, and in no way affects the meaning of the

The infinitive, like other forms of the verb, may be followed by the
different complements.

Analysis and Parsing.

The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+ or an
+adverb modifier+.

1. The hot-house is a trap to catch sunbeams.

  hot-house | is \ trap
     \The   |       \a   \to
                          \  catch | sunbeams

+Oral Analysis+.--_To_ introduces the phrase; _catch_ is the principal
word, and _sunbeams_ completes it.

+Parsing+.--_To_ is a preposition, introducing the phrase and showing the
relation, in sense, of the principal word to _trap; catch_ is a form of the
verb called _infinitive_; like a noun, it follows the preposition _to_ and
names the action, and, like a verb, it is completed by _sunbeams_.

2. Richelieu's title to command rested on sublime force of will and
   decision of character.
3. Many of the attempts to assassinate William the Silent were defeated.
4. We will strive to please you.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify
the predicate.

5. Ingenious Art steps forth to fashion and refine the race.
6. These harmless delusions tend to make us happy.

+Explanation+.--_Happy_ completes _make_ and relates to _us_.

7. Wounds made by words are hard to heal.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify
the adjective _hard_. _To heal = to be healed_.

8. The representative Yankee, selling his farm, wanders away to seek new
   lands, to clear new cornfields, to build another shingle palace, and
   again to sell off and wander.
9. These apples are not ripe enough to eat.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify
the adverb _enough_. _To eat = to be eaten_.

The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +subject+ or +complement.+

10. To be good is to be great.

\To          \to
 \ be  \good  \ be  \ great
     |            |
    / \ | is  \  / \

Explanation.--_To_, in each of these phrases, shows no relation--it serves
merely to introduce. The complements _good_ and _great_ are adjectives used
abstractly, having no noun to relate to.

11. To bear our fate is to conquer it.
12. To be entirely just in our estimate of others is impossible.
13. The noblest vengeance is to forgive.
14. He seemed to be innocent.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase here performs the office of an
adjective. _To be innocent = innocent_.

15. The blind men's dogs appeared to know him.
16. We should learn to govern ourselves.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase is here used as an object complement.

17. Each hill attempts to ape her voice.

       *       *       *       *       *




The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +after a preposition+ as the +principal
term+ of another phrase.

1. My friend is about to leave me.

                \ leave | me
          \ about    |
           \        / \
 friend | is \ / \
   \My  |

+Explanation+.--The preposition _about_ introduces the phrase used as
attribute complement; the principal part is the infinitive phrase _to leave

2. Paul was now about to open his mouth.
3. No way remains but to go on.

+Explanation+.--_But_ is here a preposition.

The +infinitive+ and its +assumed subject+ may form the +principal term+ in
a phrase introduced by the preposition +for+.

4. For us to know our faults is profitable.

          |   \to
  \       |    \ know  | faults
   \For   |     \------'--------
    \    / \               \our
        / \  |  is  \  profitable

+Explanation+.--_For_ introduces the subject phrase; the principal part of
the entire phrase is _us to know our faults;_ the principal word is _us_,
which is modified by the phrase _to know our faults_.

5. God never made his work for man to mend.

+Explanation+.---The principal term of the phrase _for man to mend_ is not
_man_, but _man to mend_.

6. For a man to be proud of his learning is the greatest ignorance.

The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +explanatory modifier.+

7. It is easy to find fault.

 \ find | fault
It (/ \) | is \ easy

+Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase _to find fault_ explains the subject
_it_. Read the sentence without _it_, and you will see the real nature of
the phrase. This use of _it_ as a substitute for the real subject is a very
common idiom of our language. It allows the real subject to follow the
verb, and thus gives the sentence balance of parts.

8. It is not the way to argue down a vice to tell lies about it.
9. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope.
10. It is not all of life to live.
11. This task, to teach the young, may become delightful.

The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +objective complement.+

12. He made me wait.

+Explanation+.--The infinitive _wait_ (here used without _to_) completes
_made_ and relates to _me_. _He made-wait me = He detained me_.

See "Introductory Hints," Lesson 31, and participles used as objective
complements, Lesson 37. Compare _I saw him do it_ with _I saw him doing
it_. Compare also _He made the stick bend_--equaling _He made-bend _(=
bent) _the stick_--with _He made the stick straight_--equaling _He
made-straight _(= straightened) _the stick_.

The relation of these objective complements to _me, him_, and _stick_ may
be more clearly seen by changing the form of the verb, thus: I was made _to
wait_; He was seen _to do it_, He was seen _doing it_; The stick was made
_to bend_; The stick was made _straight_.

13.We found the report to be true. [Footnote: Some prefer to treat _the
   report to be true_ as an object clause because it is equivalent to the
   clause _that the report is true_. But many expressions logically
   equivalent are entirely different in grammatical construction; as, I
   desire _his promotion_; I desire _him to be promoted_; I desire _that he
   should be promoted_. Besides, to teach that _him_ is the subject, and
   _to be promoted_ the predicate, of a
   clause would certainly be confusing.]

         \ be    \ true
We | found  /  / \  |  report

14. He commanded the bridge to be lowered. [Footnote: Notice the difference
    in construction between this sentence and the sentence _He commanded
    him to lower the bridge_. _Him_ represents the one to whom the command
    is given, and _to lower the bridge_ is the object complement. This last
    sentence = He commanded _him that he should lower the bridge_. Compare
    _He told me to go_ with _He told (to) me a story_; also _He taught me
    to read_ with _He taught (to) me reading._ In such sentences as (13)
    and (14) it may not always be expedient to demand that the pupil shall
    trace the exact relations of the infinitive phrase to the preceding
    noun and to the predicate verb. If preferred, in such cases, the
    infinitive and its assumed subject may be treated as a kind of phrase
    object, equivalent to a clause. This construction is similar to the
    Latin "accusative with the infinitive."]

15. I saw the leaves stir. [Footnote: See pages 68 and 69, foot-note.]

+Explanation+.--_Stir_ is an infinitive without the _to_.

16. Being persuaded by Poppaesa, Hero caused his mother, Agrippina, to be

       *       *       *       *       *




The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +independently+. [Footnote: These
infinitive phrases can be expanded into dependent clauses. See Lesson 79.

For the infinitive after _as, than_, etc., see Lesson 63. Participles and
infinitives unite with other verbs to make compound forms; as, have
_walked_, shall _walk_.]

+Explanation+.--In the diagram the independent element must stand by

1. England's debt, to put it in round numbers, is $4,000,000,000.
2. Every object has several faces, so to speak.
3. To make a long story short, Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette were

Infinitives and Participles.


4. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord.
5. We require clothing in the summer to protect the body from the heat of
   the sun.
6. Rip Van Winkle could not account for everything's having changed so.
7. This sentence is not too difficult for me to analyze.
8. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole,
9. Conscience, her first law broken, wounded lies.
10. To be, or not to be,--that is the question.
11. I supposed him to be a gentleman.
12. Food, keeping the body in health by making it warm and repairing its
    waste, is a necessity.
13. I will teach you the trick to prevent your being cheated another time.
14. She threatened to go beyond the sea, to throw herself out of the
    window, to drown herself.
15. Busied with public affairs, the council would sit for hours smoking and
    watching the smoke curl from their pipes to the ceiling.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Change the infinitives in these sentences into participles,
and the participles into infinitives_:--

Notice that _to_, the only preposition used with the infinitive, is changed
to _toward, for, of, at, in,_ or _on_, when the infinitive is changed to a

1. I am inclined to believe it.
2. I am ashamed to be seen there.
3. She will be grieved to hear it.
4. They trembled to hear such words.
5. It will serve for amusing the children.
6. There is a time to laugh.
7. I rejoice to hear it.
8. You are prompt to obey.
9. They delight to do it.
10. I am surprised at seeing you.
11. Stones are used in ballasting vessels.

+Direction+.--_Improve these sentences by changing the participles into
infinitives, and the infinitives into participles_:--

1. We began ascending the mountain.
2. He did not recollect to have paid it.
3. I commenced to write a letter.
4. It is inconvenient being poor.
5. It is not wise complaining.

+Direction+.--_Vary these sentences as in the model_:--

+Model+.--_Rising early_ is healthful; _To rise_ early is healthful; _It_
is healthful _to rise_ early; _For one to rise_ early is healthful.

(Notice that the explanatory phrase after _it_ is not set off by the

1. Reading good books is profitable.
2. Equivocating is disgraceful.
3. Slandering is base.
4. Indorsing another's paper is dangerous.
5. Swearing is sinful.

+Direction.+--_Write nine sentences, in three of which the infinitive
phrase shall be used as an adjective, in three as an adverb, and in three
as a noun_.

+Direction.+--_Write eight sentences in which these verbs shall be followed
by an infinitive without the to_:--

+Model.+--We _saw_ the sun _sink_ behind the mountain.

Bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, and see.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints.+--In this Lesson we wish to notice words and phrases
that in certain uses have no grammatical connection with the rest of the

_The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars. Dear Brutus_ serves only to
arrest attention, and is independent by address.

_Poor man! he never came back again. Poor man_ is independent by

_Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me_. _Rod_ and _staff_ simply call
attention to the objects before anything is said of them, and are
independent by pleonasm--a construction used sometimes for rhetorical
effect, but out of place in ordinary speech.

_His master being absent, the business was neglected. His master being
absent_ logically modifies the verb _was neglected_ by assigning the cause,
but the phrase has no connective expressed or understood, and is therefore
grammatically independent. This is called the _absolute phrase_. An
_absolute phrase_ consists of a noun or a pronoun used independently with a
modifying participle.

_His conduct, generally speaking, was honorable. Speaking_ is a participle
without connection, and with the adverb _generally_ forms an independent

_To confess the truth, I was wrong._ The infinitive phrase is independent.

The adverbs _well, now, why, there_ are sometimes independent; as, _Well_,
life is an enigma; _Now_, that is strange; _Why_, it is already noon;
_There_ are pitch-pine Yankees and white-pine Yankees.

Interjections are without grammatical connection, as you have learned, and
hence are independent.

Whatever is enclosed within marks of parenthesis is also independent of the
rest of the sentence; as, I stake my fame (_and I had fame_), my heart, my
hope, my soul, upon this cast.


1. The loveliest things in life, Tom, are but shadows.

+Explanation.+--_Tom_ is independent by address. _But_ is an adjective
modifying _shadows_.

2. There are one-story intellects, two-story intellects, and three-story
   intellects with skylights.

+Explanation+.--Often, as in this sentence, _there_ is used idiomatically,
merely to throw the subject after the verb, the idea of place having faded
out of the word. To express place, another _there_ may follow the
predicate; as, _There_ is gold _there_.

3. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro.
4. Hope lost, all is lost.
5. The smith, a mighty man is he.
6. Why, this is not revenge.
7. Well, this is the forest of Arden.
8. Now, there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep-market, a pool.
9. To speak plainly, your habits are your worst enemies.
10. No accident occurring, we shall arrive to-morrow.
11. The teacher being sick, there was no school Friday.
12. Mr. President, I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts.
13. Properly speaking, there can be no chance in our affairs.
14. But the enemies of tyranny--their path leads to the scaffold.
15. She (oh, the artfulness of the woman!) managed the matter extremely

  retreat | began
             \    day

16. A day later (Oct. 19, 1812) began the fatal retreat of the Grand Army,
    from Moscow.

See Lesson 35.

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--Words and phrases independent or nearly so are set off by
the comma.+

+Remark+.--Interjections, as you have seen, are usually followed by the
exclamation point; and _there_, used merely to introduce, is never set off
by the comma. When the break after pleonastic expressions is slight, as in
(5), Lesson 44, the comma is used; but, if it is more abrupt, as in (14),
the dash is required. If the independent expression can be omitted without
affecting the sense, it may be enclosed within marks of parenthesis, as in
(15) and (16). (For the uses of the dash and the marks of parenthesis, see
Lesson 148.)

Words and phrases nearly independent are those which, like _however, of
course, indeed, in short, by the bye, for instance_, and _accordingly_, do
not modify a word or a phrase alone, but rather the sentence as a whole;
as, Lee did not, _however_, follow Washington's orders.

+Direction.+--_Write sentences illustrating the several kinds of
independent expressions, and punctuate according to the Rule as explained_.

+Direction.+--_Write short sentences in which these words and phrases, used
in a manner nearly independent, shall occur, and punctuate them

In short, indeed, now and then, for instance, accordingly, moreover,
however, at least, in general, no doubt, by the bye, by the way, then, too,
of course, in fine, namely, above all, therefore.

+Direction.+--_Write short sentences in which these words shall modify same
particular word or phrase so closely as not to be set off by the comma_:--

Indeed, surely, too, then, now, further, why, again, still.

+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.+

(SEE PAGES 160-162.)

TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30,150.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--In the previous Lessons we have considered the
sentence with respect to the words and phrases composing it. Let us now
look at it as a whole.

_The mountains lift up their heads_. This sentence is used simply to
affirm, or to declare a fact, and is called a +Declarative Sentence.+

_Do the mountains lift up their heads?_ This sentence expresses a question,
and is called an +Interrogative Sentence.+

_Lift up your heads_. This sentence expresses a command, and is called an
+Imperative Sentence+. Such expressions as _You must go_, _You shall go_
are equivalent to imperative sentences, though they have not the imperative

_How the mountains lift up their heads!_ In this sentence the thought is
expressed with strong emotion. It is called an +Exclamatory Sentence+.
_How_ and _what_ usually introduce such sentences; but a declarative, an
interrogative, or an imperative sentence may become exclamatory when the
speaker uses it mainly to give vent to his feelings; as, _It is impossible!
How can I endure it! Talk of hypocrisy after this!_

+DEFINITION.--A _Declarative Sentence_ is one that is used to affirm or to

+DEFINITION.--An _Interrogative Sentence_ is one that expresses a

+DEFINITION.--An _Imperative Sentence_ is one that expresses a command or
an entreaty.+

+DEFINITION.--An _Exclamatory Sentence_ is one that expresses sudden
thought or strong feeling.+ [Footnote: For punctuation, see page 42.]

+INTERROGATION POINT--RULE.--Every direct interrogative sentence should be
followed by an interrogation point.+

+Remark.+--When an interrogative sentence is made a part of another
sentence, it may be direct; as, He asked, "_What is the trouble?_" or
indirect; as, He asked _what the trouble was_. (See Lesson 74.)


+Direction.+--_Before analyzing these sentences, classify them, and justify
the terminal marks of punctuation:_--

1. There are no accidents in the providence of God.
2. Why does the very murderer, his victim sleeping before him, and his
   glaring eye taking the measure of the blow, strike wide of the mortal
3. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss.

(The subject is _you_ understood.)

4. How wonderful is the advent of spring!
5. Oh! a dainty plant is the ivy green!
6. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work.
7. Alexander the Great died at Babylon in the thirty-third year of his age.
8. How sickness enlarges the dimensions of a man's self to himself!
9. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
10. Lend me your ears.
11. What brilliant rings the planet Saturn has!
12. What power shall blanch the sullied snow of character?
13. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God.
14. How beautiful was the snow, falling all day long, all night long, on
    the roofs of the living, on the graves of the dead!
15. Who, in the darkest days of our Revolution, carried your flag into the
    very chops of the British Channel, bearded the lion in his den, and
    woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon and
    the shouts of his triumph?

       *       *       *       *       *




1. Poetry is only the eloquence and enthusiasm of religion.--_Wordsworth_.
2. Refusing to bare his head to any earthly potentate, Richelieu would
   permit no eminent author to stand bareheaded in his presence.
3. The Queen of England is simply a piece of historic heraldry; a flag,
   floating grandly over a Liberal ministry yesterday, over a Tory ministry
4. The vulgar intellectual palate hankers after the titillation of foaming
5. Two mighty vortices, Pericles and Alexander the Great, drew into strong
   eddies about themselves all the glory and the pomp of Greek literature,
   Greek eloquence, Greek wisdom, Greek art.--_De Quincey_.
6. Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, lie in three words--
   health, peace, and competence.--_Pope_.
7. Extreme admiration puts out the critic's eye.--_Tyler_. [Footnote:
   Weighty thoughts tersely expressed, like (7), (8), and (10) in this
   Lesson, are called Epigrams. What quality do you think they impart to
   one's style?]
8. The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun.--
9. Things mean, the Thistle, the Leek, the Broom of the Plantagenets,
   become noble by association.--_F. W. Robertson_.
10. Prayer is the key of the morning and the bolt of the night.--
11. In that calm Syrian afternoon, memory, a pensive Ruth, went gleaning
    the silent fields of childhood, and found the scattered grain still
    golden, and the morning sunlight fresh and fair.--_Curtis_. [Footnote:
    In _Ruth_ of this sentence, we have a type of the metaphor called
    +Personification+--a figure in which things are raised above their
    proper plane, taken up toward or to that of persons. Things take on
    dignity and importance as they rise in the scale of being.

    Note, moreover, that in this instance of the figure we have an
    +Allusion+. All the interest that the Ruth of the Bible awakens in us
    this allusion gathers about so common a thing as memory.]

       *       *       *       *       *




1. By means of steam man realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries
   the two-and-thirty winds in the boiler of his boat.--_Emerson_.
2. The Angel of Life winds our brains up once for all, then closes the
   case, and gives the key into the hands of the Angel of
3. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the
4. The prominent nose of the New Englander is evidence of the constant
   linguistic exercise of that organ.--_Warner_.
5. Every Latin word has its function as noun or verb or adverb ticketed
   upon it.--_Earle_.
6. The Alps, piled in cold and still sublimity, are an image of
7. I want my husband to be submissive without looking so.--_Gail Hamilton_.
8. I love to lose myself in other men's minds.--_Lamb_.
9. Cheerfulness banishes all anxious care and discontent, soothes and
   composes the passions, and keeps the soul in a perpetual
10. To discover the true nature of comets has hitherto proved beyond the
    power of science.

+Explanation+.--_Beyond the power of science = impossible_, and is
therefore an attribute complement. The preposition _beyond_ shows the
relation, in sense, of _power_ to the subject phrase.

11. Authors must not, like Chinese soldiers, expect to win victories by
    turning somersets in the air.--_Longfellow_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Give the reasons, so far as you have been taught, for the
marks of punctuation used in Lessons_ 44, 46, 47, _and_ 48.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions, Lesson 16.

+Direction+.--_Review from Lesson_ 37 _to Lesson_ 46, _inclusive_.

Give, in some such way as we have outlined in preceding Review Lessons, the
substance of the "Introductory Hints;" repeat and illustrate definitions
and rules; illustrate the different uses of the participle and the
infinitive, and illustrate the Caution regarding the use of the participle;
illustrate the different ways in which words and phrases may be
grammatically independent, and the punctuation of these independent

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--If, from lack of time or from the necessity of conforming
to a prescribed course of study, it is found desirable to abridge these
Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction, the exercises to be written may be
omitted, and the pupil may be required to illustrate the positions of the
different parts, in both the Usual and the Transposed order, and then to
read the examples given, making the required changes orally.

The eight following Lessons may thus be reduced to two or three.

Let us recall the +Usual Order+ of words and phrases in a simple
declarative sentence.

The verb follows the subject, and the object complement follows the verb.

+Example+.--_Drake circumnavigated the globe_.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write three sentences each with an
object complement._

An adjective or a possessive modifier precedes its noun, and an explanatory
modifier follows it.

+Examples+.--_Man's life is a brief span. Moses, the lawgiver_, came down
from the Mount.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write four sentences, two with
possessive modifiers and two with explanatory, each sentence containing an

The attribute complement, whether noun or adjective, follows the verb, the
objective complement follows the object complement, and the indirect object
precedes the direct.

+Examples+.--Egypt _is the valley_ of the Nile. Eastern life _is dreamy_.
They made _Bonaparte consul_. They offered _Caesar a crown_.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write four sentences illustrating the
positions of the noun and of the adjective when they perform these

If adjectives are of unequal rank, the one most closely modifying the noun
stands nearest to it; if of the same rank, they stand in the order of their
length--the shortest first.

+Examples+.--_Two honest young_ men enlisted. Cassino has a _lean_ and
_hungry_ look. A rock, _huge_ and _precipitous_, stood in our path.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write three sentences illustrating the
relative position of adjectives before and after the noun_.

An adverb precedes the adjective, the adverb, or the phrase which it
modifies; precedes or follows (more frequently follows) the simple verb or
the verb with its complement; and follows one or more words of the verb if
the verb is compound.

+Examples+.--The light _far in the distance_ is _so very bright_. I _soon
found him_. I _hurt him badly_. He _had often been there_.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write sentences illustrating these
several positions of the adverb_.

Phrases follow the words they modify; if a word has two or more phrases,
those most closely modifying it stand nearest to it.

+Examples+.--_Facts once established_ are facts forever. He _sailed for
Liverpool on Monday_.

+Direction+.--_Observing this order, write sentences illustrating the
positions of participle and prepositional phrases_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--The usual order of words, spoken of in the preceding
Lesson, is not the only order admissible in an English sentence; on the
contrary, great freedom in the placing of words and phrases is sometimes
allowable. Let the relation of the words be kept obvious and, consequently,
the thought clear, and in poetry, in impassioned oratory, in excited speech
of any kind, one may deviate widely from this order.

A writer's meaning is never distributed evenly among his words; more of it
lies in some words than in others. Under the influence of strong feeling,
one may move words out of their accustomed place, and, by thus attracting
attention to them, give them additional importance to the reader or hearer.

When any word or phrase in the predicate stands out of its usual place,
appearing either at the front of the sentence or at the end, we have what
we may call the +Transposed Order+. _I dare not venture to go down into the
cabin--Venture to go down into the cabin I dare not. You shall die--Die you
shall. Their names will forever live on the lips of the people--Their names
will, on the lips of the people, forever live_.

When the word or phrase moved to the front carries the verb, or the
principal word of it, before the subject, we have the extreme example of
the transposed order; as, _A yeoman had he. Strange is the magic of a
turban._ The whole of a verb is not placed at the beginning of a
declarative sentence except in poetry; as, _Flashed all their sabers bare_.

TO THE TEACHER.----Where, in our directions in these Lessons on Arrangement
and Contraction, we say _change, transpose_, or _restore_, the pupils need
not write the sentences. They should study them and be able to read them.
Require them to show what the sentence has lost or gained in the change.

+Direction+.--_Change these sentences from the usual to the transposed
order by moving words or phrases to the front, and explain the effect_:--

1. He could not avoid it.
2. They were pretty lads.
3. The great Queen died in the year 1603.
4. He would not escape.
5. I must go.
6. She seemed young and sad.
7. He cried, "My son, my son!"
8. He ended his tale here.
9. The moon shone bright.
10. A frozen continent lies beyond the sea.
11. He was a contentious man.
12. It was quoted so.
13. Monmouth had never been accused of cowardice.

+Direction+.--_Change these sentences from the transposed order to the
usual, and explain the effect_:--

1. Him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong.
2. Volatile he was.
3. Victories, indeed, they were.
4. Of noble race the lady came.
5. Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
6. Once again we'll sleep secure.
7. This double office the participle performs.
8. That gale I well remember.
9. Churlish he often seemed.
10. One strong thing I find here below.
11. Overhead I heard a murmur.
12. To their will we must succumb.
13. Him they hanged.
14. Freely ye have received.

+Direction+.--_Write five sentences, each with one of the following nouns
or adjectives as a complement; and five, each with one of the adverbs or
phrases as predicate modifier; then transpose the ten with these same words
moved to the front, and explain the effect_:--

Giant, character, happy, him, serene, often, in the market, long and
deeply, then, under foot.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by placing the italicized words
last, and note the effect_:--

1. The clouds lowering upon our house are _buried_ in the deep bosom of the
2. Aeneas did _bear_ from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old
3. Such a heart _beats_ in the breast of my people.
4. The great fire _roared_ up the deep and wide chimney.

+Direction+.--_Change these to the usual order_:--

1. No woman was ever in this wild humor wooed and won.
2. Let a shroud, stripped from some privileged corpse, be, for its proper
   price, displayed.
3. An old clock, early one summer's morning, before the stirring of the
   family, suddenly stopped.
4. Treasures of gold and of silver are, in the deep bosom of the earth,
5. Ease and grace in writing are, of all the acquisitions made in school,
   the most difficult and valuable.

+Direction+.--_Write three sentences, each with the following noun or
adjective or phrase in its usual place in the predicate, and then
transpose, placing these words wherever they can properly go_:--

Mountains, glad, by and by.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the
object complement and the verb to their customary places, and tell what is
lost by the change_:--

1. Thorns and thistles shall the earth bring forth.
2. "Exactly so," replied the pendulum.
3. Me restored he to mine office.
4. A changed France have we.
5. These evils hath sin wrought.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by moving the object complement
and the verb, and tell what is gained by the change_:--

1. The dial-plate exclaimed, "Lazy wire!"
2. The maiden has such charms.
3. The English character has faults and plenty of them.
4. I will make one effort more to save you.
5. The king does possess great power.
6. You have learned much in this short journey.

+Direction+.--_Write six transposed sentences with these nouns as object
complements, and then restore them to their usual order_:--

Pause, cry, peace, horse, words, gift.

+Direction+.--_Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the
attribute complement and the verb to their usual places, and tell what is
lost by the change_:--

1. A dainty plant is the ivy green.
2. Feet was I to the lame.
3. A mighty man is he.
4. As a mark of respect was the present given.
5. A giant towered he among men.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by moving the attribute complement
and the verb, and tell what is gained by the change_:--

1. We are merry brides.
2. Washington is styled the "Father of his Country."
3. He was a stark mosstrooping Scot.
4. The man seemed an incarnate demon.
5. Henry VIII. had become a despot.

+Direction+.--_Using these nouns as attribute complements, write three
sentences in the usual order, and then transpose them_:--

Rock, desert, fortress.

+Direction+.--_Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the
adjective complement and the verb to their customary places_:--

1. Happy are we to-night, boys.
2. Good and upright is the Lord.
3. Hotter grew the air.
4. Pale looks your Grace.
5. Dark rolled the waves.
6. Louder waxed the applause.
7. Blood-red became the sun.
8. Doubtful seemed the battle.
9. Wise are all his ways.
10. Wide open stood the doors.
11. Weary had he grown.
12. Faithful proved he to the last.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by moving the adjective complement
and the verb_:--

1. My regrets were bitter and unavailing.
2. The anger of the righteous is weighty.
3. The air seemed deep and dark.
4. She had grown tall and queenly.
5. The peacemakers are blessed.
6. I came into the world helpless.
7. The untrodden snow lay bloodless.
8. The fall of that house was great.
9. The uproar became intolerable.
10. The secretary stood alone.

+Direction+.--_Write five transposed sentences, each with one of these
adjectives as attribute complement, and then restore the sentences to the
usual order_:--

Tempestuous, huge, glorious, lively, fierce.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the
adverb and the verb to their customary places, and note the loss_:--

1. Then burst his mighty heart.
2. Here stands the man.
3. Crack! went the ropes.
4. Down came the masts.
5. So died the great Columbus of the skies.
6. Tictac! tictac! go the wheels of thought.
7. Away went Gilpin.
8. Off went his bonnet.
9. Well have ye judged.
10. On swept the lines.
11. There dozed the donkeys.
12. Boom! boom! went the guns.
13. Thus waned the afternoon.
14. There thunders the cataract age after age.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by moving the adverb and the

1. I will never desert Mr. Micawber.
2. The great event occurred soon after.
3. The boy stood there with dizzy brain.
4. The Spaniard's shot went whing! whing!
5. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin.
6. A sincere word was never utterly lost.
7. It stands written so.
8. Venus was yet the morning star.
9. You must speak thus.
10. Lady Impudence goes up to the maid.
11. Thy proud waves shall be stayed here.

+Direction+.--_Write ten sentences in the transposed order, using these

Still, here, now, so, seldom, there, out, yet, thus, never.

+Direction+.--_Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the
phrase and the verb to their customary places, and note the loss_:--

1. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh.
2. Seven years after the Restoration appeared Paradise Lost.
3. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred.
4. To such straits is a kaiser driven.
5. Upon such a grating hinge opened the door of his daily life.
6. Between them lay a mountain ridge.
7. In purple was she robed.
8. Near the surface are found the implements of bronze.
9. Through the narrow bazaar pressed the demure donkeys.
10. In those days came John the Baptist.
11. On the 17th of June, 1775, was fought the battle of Bunker Hill.
12. Three times were the Romans driven back.

+Direction+.--_Transpose these sentences by moving the phrase and the

1. The disciples came at the same time.
2. The dreamy murmur of insects was heard over our heads.
3. An ancient and stately hall stood near the village.
4. His trusty sword lay by his side.
5. Pepin eventually succeeded to Charles Martel.
6. The house stands somewhat back from the street.
7. Our sphere turns on its axis.
8. The bridle is red with the sign of despair.
9. I have served in twenty campaigns.
10. Touch proper lies in the finger-tips and in the lips.

+Direction+.--_Write ten sentences in the usual order, using these
prepositions to introduce phrases, and then transpose the sentences, and
compare the two orders_:--

Beyond, upon, toward, of, by, into, between, in, at, to.

+Direction+.--_Write six sentences in the transposed order, beginning them
with these words_:--

There (independent), nor, neither.

       *       *       *       *       *



If the interrogative word is subject or a modifier of it, the order is

+Examples+.--_Who_ came last evening? _What star_ shines brightest?

+Direction+.--_Write five interrogative sentences, using the first word
below as a subject; the second as a subject and then as a modifier of the
subject; the third as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject_:--

Who, which, what.

If the interrogative word is object complement or attribute complement or a
modifier of either, the order is transposed.

+Examples+.--_Whom_ did you see? _What_ are personal consequences? _Which
course_ will you choose?

+Direction+.--_Write an interrogative sentence with the first word below as
object complement, and another with the second word as attribute
complement. Write four with the third and the fourth as_ _complements, and
four with the third and the fourth as modifiers of the complement_:--

Whom, who, which, what.

If the interrogative word is an adverb, the order is transposed.

+Examples+.--_Why_ is the forum crowded? _Where_ are the flowers, the fair
young flowers?

+Direction+.--_Write five interrogative sentences, using these adverbs_:--

How, when, where, whither, why.

If there is no interrogative word, the subject stands after the verb when
this is simple; after the first word of it when it is compound.

+Examples+.--_Have you_ your lesson? _Has the gentleman_ finished?

+Direction+.--_Write six interrogative sentences, using these words_:--

Is, has, can learn, might have gone, could have been found, must see.

+Direction+.--_Change the sentences you have written in this Lesson into
declarative sentences_.

       *       *       *       *       *



The subject is usually omitted in the imperative sentence; but, when it is
expressed, the sentence is in the transposed order.

+Examples+.--_Praise ye_ the Lord. _Give_ (_thou_) me three grains of corn.

+Direction+.--_Using these verbs, write ten sentences, in five of which the
subject shall be omitted; and in five, expressed_:--

Remember, listen, lend, love, live, choose, use, obey, strive, devote.

Although any sentence may without change of order become exclamatory
(Lesson 46), yet exclamatory sentences ordinarily begin with _how_ or
_what_, and are usually in the transposed order.

+Examples+.--_How quietly_ the child sleeps! _How excellent_ is thy
loving-kindness! _What visions_ have I seen! _What a life_ his was!

+Direction+.--_Write six exclamatory sentences with the word how modifying
(1) an adjective, (2) a verb, and (3) an adverb--in three sentences let the
verb follow, and in three precede, the subject. Write four sentences with
the word what modifying (1) an object complement and (2) an attribute
complement--in two sentences let the verb follow, and in two precede, the

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Contract these sentences by omitting the repeated modifiers
and prepositions, and all the conjunctions except the last_:--

1. Webster was a great lawyer, a great statesman, a great debater, and a
   great writer.
2. By their valor, by their policy, and by their matrimonial alliances,
   they became powerful.
3. Samuel Adams's habits were simple and frugal and unostentatious.
4. Flowers are so fragile, so delicate, and so ornamental!
5. They are truly prosperous and truly happy.
6. The means used were persuasions and petitions and remonstrances and
   resolutions and defiance.
7. Carthage was the mistress of oceans, of kingdoms, and of nations.

+Direction+.--_Expand these by repeating the adjective, the adverb, the
preposition, and the conjunction_:--

1. He was a good son, father, brother, friend.
2. The tourist traveled in Spain, Greece, Egypt, and Palestine.
3. Bayard was very brave, truthful, and chivalrous.
4. Honor, revenge, shame, and contempt inflamed his heart.

+Direction+.--_Write six sentences, each with one of these words used four
times; and then contract them as above, and note the effect of the
repetition and of the omission_:--

Poor, how, with, through, or, and.

+Direction+.--Expand these sentences by supplying subjects:--

1. Give us this day our daily bread.
2. Why dost stare so?
3. Thank you, sir.
4. Hear me for my cause.
5. Where hast been these six months?
6. Bless me!
7. Save us.

+Direction+.--_Expand these by supplying the verb or some part of it_:--

1. Nobody there.
2. Death to the tyrant.
3. All aboard!
4. All hands to the pumps!
5. What to me fame?
6. Short, indeed, his career.
7. When Adam thus to Eve.
8. I must after him.
9. Thou shalt back to France.
10. Whose footsteps these?

+Direction+.--_Expand these by supplying both subject and verb, and note
the loss in vivacity_:--

1. Upon them with the lance.
2. At your service, sir.
3. Why so unkind?
4. Forward, the light brigade!
5. Half-past nine.
6. Off with you.
7. My kingdom for a horse!
8. Hence, you idle creatures!
9. Coffee for two.
10. Shine, sir?
11. Back to thy punishment, false fugitive.
12. On with the dance.
13. Strange, strange!
14. Once more unto the breach.
15. Away, away!
16. Impossible!

+Direction+.--_Contract these by omitting the subject or the verb_:--

1. Art thou gone?
2. Will you take your chance?
3. His career was ably run.
4. Are you a captain?
5. May long life be to the republic.
6. How great is the mystery!
7. Canst thou wonder?
8. May a prosperous voyage be to you.
9. Are you here?

+Direction+.--_Contract these by omitting both subject and verb, and note
the gain in force and animation_:--

1. I offer a world for sale.
2. Now, then, go you to breakfast.
3. Sit you down, soothless insulter.
4. I want a word with you, wife.
5. Those are my sentiments, madam.
6. Bring ye lights there.
7. It is true, sir.
8. We will drink a health to Preciosa.
9. I offer a penny for your thoughts.
10. Whither are you going so early?

+Direction+.--_Construct ten full sentences, using in each, one of these
adverbs or phrases or nouns, and then contract the sentences by omitting
both subject and verb_:--

Why, hence, to arms, silence, out, to your tents, peaches, room, for the
guns, water.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions, Lesson 16.

+Direction+.--_Review from Lesson_ 51 _to Lesson_ 57, _inclusive_.

Illustrate the different positions--Usual and Transposed--that the words
and phrases of a declarative sentence may take; illustrate the different
positions of the parts of an interrogative, of an imperative, and of an
exclamatory sentence; illustrate the different ways of contracting

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

(SEE PAGES 162-165.)

TO THE TEACHER.--See notes to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--The sentences given for analysis in the preceding
Lessons contain each but one subject and one predicate. They are called
+Simple Sentences+.

_A discreet youth makes friends_. In Lesson 17 you learned that you could
expand the adjective _discreet_ into a phrase, and say, A youth of
discretion makes friends. You are now to learn that you can expand it into
an expression that asserts, and say, A youth _that is discreet_ makes
friends. This part of the sentence and the other part, _A youth makes
friends_, containing each a subject and a predicate, we call +Clauses+.

The adjective clause _that is discreet_, performing the office of a single
word, we call a +Dependent Clause+; _A youth makes friends_, not performing
such office, we call an +Independent Clause+.

The whole sentence, composed of an independent and a dependent clause, we
call a +Complex Sentence+.

A dependent clause that does the work of an adjective is called an
+Adjective Clause+.


1. They that touch pitch will be defiled.

  They |  will be defiled
  `    |
that `  | touch  | pitch

+Explanation+.--The relative importance of the two clauses is shown by
their position, by their connection, and by the difference in the shading
of the lines. The pronoun _that_ is written on the subject line of the
dependent clause. _That_ performs the office of a conjunction also. This
office is shown by the dotted line. As modifiers are joined by slanting
lines to the words they modify, you learn from this diagram that _that
touch pitch_ is a modifier of _they_.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a complex sentence because it consists of an
independent clause and a dependent clause. _They will be defiled_ is the
independent clause, and _that touch pitch_ is the dependent. _That touch
pitch_ is a modifier of _they_ because it limits the meaning of _they_; the
dependent clause is connected by its subject _that_ to _they_.

TO THE TEACHER.--Illustrate the connecting force of _who, which_, and
_that_ by substituting for them the words for which they stand, and noting
the loss of connection.

2. The lever which moves the world of mind is the printing-press.
3. Wine makes the face of him who drinks it to excess blush for his habits.

+Explanation+.--The adjective clause does not always modify the subject.

4. Photography is the art which enables commonplace mediocrity to look like
5. In 1685 Louis XIV. signed the ordinance that revoked the Edict of
6. The thirteen colonies were welded together by the measures which Samuel
   Adams framed.

+Explanation+.--The pronoun connecting an adjective clause is not always a

7. The guilt of the slave-trade, [Footnote: See Lesson 61, foot-note.]
   which sprang out of the traffic with Guinea, rests with John Hawkins.
8. I found the place to which you referred.

  I | found | place
    |          \the   `
        you | referred  `
      ------|----------  `
            |     \to     `
                   \ which `

9. The spirit in which we act is the highest matter.
10. It was the same book that I referred to.

+Explanation+.--The phrase _to that_ modifies _referred_. _That_ connects
the adjective clause. When the pronoun _that_ connects an adjective clause,
the preposition never precedes. The diagram is similar to that of (8).

11. She that I spoke to was blind.
12. Grouchy did not arrive at the time that Napoleon most needed him.

+Explanation+.--A preposition is wanting. _That = in which_. (Can you find
a word that would here sound better than _that_?)

13. Attention is the stuff that memory is made of.
14. It is to you that I speak.

+Explanation+.--Here the preposition, which usually would stand last in the
sentence, is found before the complement of the independent clause. In
analysis restore the preposition to its usual place--It is you that I speak
_to_. _That I speak to_ modifies the subject.

15. It was from me that he received the information.

(_Me_ must be changed to _I_ when _from_ is restored to its usual

16. Islands are the tops of mountains whose base is in the bed of the

    `     base | is
     `   ------|-----
      `     \

+Explanation+.--The connecting pronoun is here a possessive modifier of

17. Unhappy is the man whose mother does not make all mothers interesting.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. Trillions of waves of ether enter the eye and hit the retina in the time
   you take to breathe.

+Explanation+.--The connecting pronoun _that_ [Footnote: When _whom_,
_which_, and _that_ would, if used, be object complements, they are often
omitted. Macaulay is the only writer we have found who seldom or never
omits them.] is omitted.

2. The smith takes his name from his smoothing the metals he works on.
3. Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world ever saw.
4. Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth.

+Explanation+.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted antecedent of
_whom_. Supply _him_.

5. He did what was right.

 He | did |      x
    |       `
           what ` | was \ right

+Explanation+.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted word _thing_, or
some word whose meaning is general or indefinite. [Footnote: Many
grammarians prefer to treat _what was right_ as a noun clause (see Lesson
71), the object of _did_. They would treat in the same way clauses
introduced by _whoever_, _whatever_, _whichever_.

"_What_ was originally an interrogative and introduced substantive clauses.
Its use as a compound relative is an extension of its use as an indirect
interrogative; it is confined to clauses which may be parsed as
substantives, and before which no antecedent is needed, or permitted to be
expressed. Its possessive _whose_ has, however, attained the full
construction of a relative."--_Prof. F. A. March_.]

6. What is false in this world below betrays itself in a love of show.
7. The swan achieved what the goose conceived.
8. What men he had were true.

The relative pronoun _what_ here precedes its noun like an adjective.
Analyze as if arranged thus: The men _what_ (= _that_ or _whom_) _he had_
were true.

9. Whoever does a good deed is instantly ennobled.

+Explanation+.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted subject (_man_ or
_he_) of the independent clause.

10. I told him to bring whichever was the lightest.
11. Whatever crushes individuality is despotism.
12. A depot is a place where stores are deposited.

 depot | is  \  place
  \A   |        \a   `
               stores | `     are deposited

+Explanation+.--The line representing _where_ is made up of two parts. The
upper part represents _where_ as a conjunction connecting the adjective
clause to _place_, and the lower part represents it as an adverb modifying
_are deposited_. As _where_ performs these two offices, it may be called a
_conjunctive adverb_. By changing _where_ to the equivalent phrase _in
which_, and using a diagram similar to (8), Lesson 59, the double nature of
the conjunctive adverb will be seen.

13. He raised the maid from where she knelt. (Supply _the place_
    before _where_.)
14. Youth is the time when the seeds of character are sown.
15. Shylock would give the duke no reason why he followed a losing suit
    against Antonio.
16. Mark the majestic simplicity of those laws whereby the operations of
    the universe are conducted.

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--The _Adjective Clause_, when not restrictive, is set off by
the comma.+

+Explanation+.--I picked the apple _that was ripe_. I picked the apple,
_which was ripe_. In the first sentence the adjective clause restricts or
limits _apple_, telling which one was picked; in the second the adjective
clause is added merely to describe the apple picked, the sentence being
nearly equivalent to, I picked the apple, _and it_ was ripe. This
difference in meaning is shown by the punctuation.[Footnote: There are
other constructions in which the relative is more nearly equivalent to _and
he_ or _and it_; as, I gave the letter to my friend, _who will return it to

Those who prefer to let their classification be governed by the logical
relation rather than by the grammatical construction call such a sentence
compound, making the relative clause independent, or co-ordinate with its
antecedent clause.

Such classification will often require very careful discrimination; as, for
instance, between the preceding sentence and the following: I gave the
letter to my friend, _who can be trusted_.

But we know of no author who, in every case, governs his classification of
phrases and clauses strictly by their logical relations. Let us examine the
following sentences:--

    John, _who did not know the law_, is innocent. John is innocent; _he
    did not know the law_. John is innocent _because he did not know the

No grammarian, we think, would class each of these three italicized clauses
as an adverb clause of cause. Do they differ in logical force? The student
should carefully note all those constructions in which the grammatical form
and the logical force differ. (See pages 119, 121, 138, 139, 142, 143.)]

+Caution+.--The adjective clause should be placed as near as possible to
the word it modifies.

+Direction+.--_Correct the following errors of position, and insert the
comma when needed_:--

1. The Knights of the Round Table flourished in the reign of King Arthur
   who vied with their chief in chivalrous exploits.
2. Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple.
3. My brother caught the fish on a small hook baited with a worm which we
   had for breakfast.
4. I have no right to decide who am interested.

+Direction+.--_Construct five complex sentences, each containing an
adjective clause equivalent to one of the following adjectives_:--
Ambitious, respectful, quick-witted, talkative, lovable.

+Direction+.--_Change the following simple sentences to complex sentences
by expanding the participle phrases into adjective clauses_:--

1. Those fighting custom with grammar are foolish.
2. The Constitution framed by our fathers is the sheet-anchor of our
3. I am thy father's spirit, doomed for a certain term to walk the night.
4. Some people, having lived abroad, undervalue the advantages of their
   native land.
5. A wife and children, threatened with widowhood and orphanage, have knelt
   at your feet on the very threshold of the Senate Chamber.

+Direction+.--_Change these simple sentences to complex sentences by
expanding the infinitive phrases into adjective clauses_:--

1. I have many things to tell you.
2. There were none to deliver.
3. He had an ax to grind.
4. It was a sight to gladden the heart.
5. It was a din to fright a monster's ear.

+Direction+.--_Form complex sentences in which these pronouns and
conjunctive adverbs shall be used to connect adjective clauses_:--

Who, which, that, what, whoever, and whatever.

When, where, and why.

+Direction+.--_Change "that which", in the following sentences to "what",
and "what" to "that which"; "whoever" to "he who", and "whatever" to
"anything" or "everything which"; "where" and "when" to "at", "on", or "in
which"; "wherein" to "in which"; and "whereby" to "by which"_:--

1. _That which_ is seen is temporal.
2. _What_ God hath joined together let not man put asunder.
3. _Whoever_ lives a pious life blesses his race.
4. _Whatever_ we do has an influence.
5. Scholars have grown old and blind, striving to put their hands on the
   very spot _where_ brave men died.
6. The year _when_ Chaucer was born is uncertain.
7. The play's the thing _wherein_ I'll catch the conscience of the king.
8. You take my life in taking the means _whereby_ I live.

+Direction+.--_Expand these possessive and explanatory modifiers into
adjective clauses_:--

1. A man's heart deviseth _his_ way.
2. _Reason's_ whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, Lie in three
   words--_health, peace_, and _competence_.

      * * * * *


+Direction+.--_Analyze the first nine sentences in the preceding Lesson,
and write illustrative sentences as here directed_:--

Give an example of an adjective clause modifying a subject; one modifying a
complement; one modifying the principal word of a phrase; one modifying
some word omitted; one whose connective is a subject; one whose connective
is a complement; one whose connective is the principal word of a phrase;
one whose connective is a possessive modifier; one whose connective is
omitted; one whose connective is an adverb.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_He arrived late_. You have learned that you can
expand the adverb _late_ into a phrase, and say, He arrived _at midnight_.
You are now to learn that you can expand it into a clause of +Time+, and
say, He arrived _when the clock struck twelve_.

_He stood where I am_. The clause introduced by _where_ expresses +Place+,
and is equivalent to the adverb _here_ or to the phrase _in this place_.

_This exercise is as profitable as it is pleasant_. The clause introduced
by _as ... as_ modifies _profitable_, telling the +Degree+ of the quality
expressed by it.

A clause that does the work of an adverb is an +Adverb Clause+.


The +adverb clause+ may express +time+.

1. When pleasure calls, we listen.

   we | listen
      |  \
pleasure |  \  calls

+Explanation+.--_When_ modifies both _listen_ and _calls_, denoting that
the two acts take place at the same time. It also connects _pleasure
calls_, as an adverb modifier, to _listen_. The offices of the conjunctive
adverb _when_ may be better understood by expanding it into two phrases
thus: We listen _at the time at which_ pleasure calls. _At the time_
modifies _listen_, _at which_ modifies _calls_, and _which_ connects.

The line representing _when_ is made up of three parts to picture these
three offices. The part representing _when_ as a modifier of _calls_ is,
for convenience, placed above its principal line instead of below it.

2. While Louis XIV. reigned, Europe was at war.
3. When my father and my mother forsake me, then ths Lord will take me up.

Lord  |  will take   | me
 \The |   \up      \
                  ..\ then
                  `  \
   father            \
------------'\        \
    \my     ' \        \
            '  \        \
            '   \     |  \  forsake  |  me
            'and \----|---------------------
            '   /     |
            '  /
   mother   ' /

+Explanation+.--By changing _then_ into _at the time_, and _when_ into _at
which_, the offices of these two words will be clearly seen. For
explanation of the line representing _when_, see Lesson 14 and (1) above.

4. Cato, before he durst give himself the fatal stroke, spent the night in
   reading Plato's "Immortality." [Footnote: Some prefer, in constructions
   like this, to treat _before_, _ere_, _after_, _till_, _until_, and
   _since_ as prepositions followed by noun clauses.]
5. Many a year is in its grave since I crossed this restless wave.
   [Footnote: See (11), Lesson 38, and foot-note.]

+Explanation+.--_Many_ here modifies _year_, or, rather, _year_ as modified
by _a_.

6. Blucher arrived on the field of Waterloo just as Wellington was meeting
   the last onslaught of Napoleon.

  Blucher  |  arrived
           |       \
              \      `as
               \ just `
                \      `
        Wellington  |    \  was meeting | onslaught

+Explanation+.--_Just_ may be treated as a modifier of the dependent
clause. A closer analysis, however would make it a modifier of _as_. _Just
as_=_just at the time at which_. _Just_ here modifies _at the time_. _At
the time_ is represented in the diagram by the first element of the _as_

The +adverb clause+ may express +place+.

7. Where the snow falls, there is freedom.
8. Pope skimmed the cream of good sense and expression wherever he could
   find it.
9. The wind bloweth where it listeth.

The +adverb clause+ may express +degree+.

10. Washington was as good as he was great.

+Explanation+.--The adverb clause _as he was great_ modifies the first
_as_, which is an adverb modifying _good_. The first _as_, modified by the
adverb clause, answers the question, Good to what extent or degree? The
second _as_ modifies _great_ and performs the office of a conjunction, and
is therefore a conjunctive adverb. Transposing, and expanding _as ... as_
into two phrases, we have, Washington was good _in the degree in which_ he
was great. See diagram of (3) and of (20).

11. The wiser he grew, the humbler he became. [Footnote: _The_, here, is
    not the ordinary adjective _the_. It is the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative
    pronoun used in an instrumental sense. It is here an adverb. The first
    _the_ = _by how much_, and modifies _wiser_; the second _the_ = _by so
    much_, and modifies _humbler_.]

+Explanation+.--The words _the ... the_ are similar in office to _as ...
as_--He became humbler _in that degree in which_ he became wiser.

12. Gold is heavier than iron.

  Gold | is \ heavier
       |          \
                   ` than
    iron  |  x  \    \  x

+Explanation+.--_Heavier_ = _heavy beyond the degree_, and _than_ = _in
which_. The sentence = _Gold is heavy beyond the degree in which iron is
heavy_. _Is_ and _heavy_ are omitted. Frequently words are omitted after
_than_ and _as_. _Than_ modifies _heavy_ (understood) and connects the
clause expressing degree to _heavier_, and is therefore a conjunctive

13. To be right is better than to be president.

+Explanation+.--To be right is better (good in a greater degree) than to be
president (would be good).

14. It was so cold that the mercury froze. [Footnote: In this sentence,
    also in (15) and (17), the dependent clause is sometimes termed a
    clause of Result or Consequence. Clauses of Result express different
    logical relations, and cannot always be classed under Degree.]

+Explanation+.--The degree of the cold is here shown by the effect it
produced. The adverb _so_, modified by the adverb clause _that the mercury
froze_, answers the question, Cold to what degree? The sentence = It was
cold _to that degree in which_ the mercury froze. _That_, as you see,
modifies _froze_ and connects the clauses; it is therefore a conjunctive

15. It was so cold as to freeze the mercury.

+Explanation+.--It was so cold as to freeze the mercury (would indicate or

16. Dying for a principle is a higher degree of virtue than scolding for
17. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of hell resounded.
18. To preach is easier than to practice.
19. One's breeding shows itself nowhere more than in his religion.
    [Footnote: For the use of _he_ instead of the indefinite pronoun _one_
    repeated, see Lesson 124.]
20. The oftener I see it, the better I like it.

  I  | like | it
     |     \
       \----\ better
        \the \
      `   \
    I | `   see  |  it
         `     \
          `The  \

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_He lived as the fool lives_. The adverb clause,
introduced by _as_, is a clause of +Manner+, and is equivalent to the
adverb _foolishly_ or to the phrase _in a foolish manner_.

_The ground is wet because it has rained_. The adverb clause, introduced by
_because_, assigns the +Real Cause+ of the ground's being wet.

_It has rained, for the ground is wet_. The adverb clause, introduced by
_for_, does not assign the cause of the raining, but the cause of our
believing that it has rained; it gives the +Evidence+ of what is asserted.
[Footnote: Evidence should be carefully distinguished from Cause. Cause
produces an effect; Evidence produces knowledge of an effect.

Clauses of Evidence are sometimes treated as independent.]


The +adverb clause+ may express +manner+.

1. He died as he lived.

+Explanation+.--He died _in the manner in which_ he lived. For diagram, see
(1), Lesson 63.

2. The upright man speaks as he thinks.
3. As the upright man thinks so he speaks.

(For diagram of _as_ ... _so_, see _when_ ... _then_ (3), Lesson 63.)

4. As is the boy so will be the man.
5. The waves of conversation roll and shape our thoughts as the surf rolls
   and shapes the pebbles on the shore.

The +adverb clause+ may express +real cause+.

6. The ground is wet because it has rained.

  ground  |  is  \  wet
  \The    | `
              ` because
         it  |  ` has rained

+Explanation+.--_Because_, being a mere conjunction, stands on a line
wholly dotted.

7. Slang is always vulgar, as it is an affected way of talking.
8. We keep the pores of the skin open, for through them the blood throws
   off its impurities.
9. Since the breath contains poisonous carbonic acid, wise people ventilate
   their sleeping rooms.
10. Sea-bathing is the most healthful kind of washing, as it combines fresh
    air and vigorous exercise with its other benefits.
11. Wheat is the most valuable of grains because bread is made from its

The +adverb clause+ may express +evidence+.

12. God was angry with the children of Israel, for he overthrew them in the
13. Tobacco and the potato are American products, since Raleigh found them
14. It rained last night, because the ground is wet this morning.
15. We Americans must all be cuckoos, for we build our homes in the nests
    of other birds.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_If it rains, the ground will be wet_. The adverb
clause, introduced by _if_, assigns what, if it occurs, will be the cause
of the ground's being wet, but, as here expressed, is only a +Condition+
ready to become a cause.

_He takes exercise that he may get well_. The adverb clause, introduced by
_that_, assigns the cause or the motive or the +Purpose+ of his exercising.

_The ground is dry, although it has rained_. The adverb clause, introduced
by _although_, expresses a +Concession+. It is conceded that a cause for
the ground's not being dry exists; but, in spite of this opposing cause, it
is asserted that the ground is dry.

All these dependent clauses of real cause, evidence, condition, purpose,
and concession come, as you see, under the general head of +Cause+,
although only the first kind assigns the cause proper.


The +adverb clause+ may express +condition+.

1. If the air is quickly compressed, enough heat is evolved to produce
2. Unless your thought packs easily and neatly in verse, always use prose.
   (_Unless_ = _if not_.)
3. If ever you saw a crow with a king-bird after him, you have an image of
   a dull speaker and a lively listener.
4. Were it not for the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, the harbors and the
   rivers of Britain would be blocked up with ice for a great part of the

+Explanation+.--The relative position of the subject and the verb renders
the _if_ unnecessary. This omission of _if_ is a common idiom.

5. Should the calls of hunger be neglected, the fat of the body is thrown
   into the grate to keep the furnace in play.

The +adverb clause+ may express +purpose+.

6. Language was given us that we might say pleasant things to each other.

+Explanation+.--_That_, introducing a clause of purpose, is a mere

7. Spiders have many eyes in order that they may see in many directions at
   one time.

+Explanation+.--The phrases _in order that_, _so that_ = _that_.

8. The ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez was dug so that European
   vessels need not sail around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Orient.
9. The air draws up vapors from the sea and the land, and retains them
   dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds, that it may drop
   them as rain or dew upon the thirsty earth.

The +adverb clause+ may express +concession+.

10. Although the brain is only one-fortieth of the body, about one-sixth of
    the blood is sent to it.
11. Though the atmosphere presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on
    every square inch of surface, still we do not feel its weight.
12. Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a mortar, yet will not his
    foolishness depart from him.
13. If the War of the Roses did not utterly destroy English freedom, it
    arrested its progress for a hundred years.

+Explanation+.--_If_ here = _even if_ = _though_.

14. Though many rivers flow into the Mediterranean, they are not sufficient
    to make up the loss caused by evaporation.

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--An _Adverb Clause_ is set off by the comma unless it closely
follows and restricts the word it modifies+.

+Explanation+.--I met him in Paris, _when I was last abroad_. I will not
call him villain, _because it would be unparliamentary_. Paper was invented
in China, _if the Chinese tell the truth_. In these sentences the adverb
clauses are not restrictive, but are supplementary, and are added almost as

Glass bends easily _when it is red-hot_. Leaves do not turn red _because
the frost colors them_. It will break _if you touch it_. Here the adverb
clauses are restrictive; each is very closely related in thought to the
independent clause, and may almost be said to be the essential part of the

When the adverb clause precedes, it is set off.

+Direction+.---_Tell why the adverb clauses are or are not set off in
Lessons_ 63 _and_ 64.

+Direction+.---_Write, after these independent clauses, adverb clauses of
time, place, degree, etc. (for connectives, see Lesson _100_), and
punctuate according to the Rule_:--

1. The leaves of the water-maple turn red--_time_.
2. Our eyes cannot bear the light--_time_.
3. Millions of soldiers sleep--_place_.
4. The Bunker Hill Monument stands--_place_.
5. Every spire of grass was so edged and tipped with dew--_degree_.
6. Vesuvius threw its lava so far--_degree_.
7. The tree is inclined--_manner_.
8. The lion springs upon his prey--_manner_.
9. Many persons died in the Black Hole of Calcutta--_cause_.
10. Dew does not form in a cloudy night--_cause_.
11. That thunderbolt fell a mile away--_evidence_.
12. We dream in our sleep--_evidence_.
13. Peter the Great worked in Holland in disguise--_purpose_.
14. We put salt into butter and upon meat--_purpose_.
15. Iron bends and molds easily--_condition_.
16. Apples would not fall to the ground--_condition_.
17. Europe conquered Napoleon at last--_concession_.
18. Punishment follows every violation of nature's laws--_concession_.

       *       *       *       *       *




The adverb clause may stand before the independent clause, between the
parts of it, or after it.

+Direction+.---_Think, if you can, of another adverb clause to follow each
independent clause in the preceding Lesson, and by means of a caret (^)
indicate where this adverb clause may properly stand in the sentence. Note
its force in its several positions, and attend to the punctuation. Some of
these adverb clauses can stand only at the end_.

       *       *       *       *       *



An adverb clause may be contracted into a participle or a participle

+Example+.--_When he saw me_, he stopped = _Seeing me_, he stopped.

+Direction+.--_Contract these complex sentences to simple ones_:--

1. Coral animals, when they die, form vast islands with their bodies.
2. The water will freeze, for it has cooled to 32 deg.
3. Truth, though she may be crushed to earth, will rise again.
4. Error, if he is wounded, writhes with pain, and dies among his
5. Black clothes are too warm in summer, because they absorb heat.

An adverb clause may be contracted to an absolute phrase.

+Example+.--_When night came_ on, we gave up the chase = _Night coming_ on,
we gave up the chase.

+Direction+.--_Contract these complex sentences to simple ones_:--

1. When oxygen and carbon unite in the minute blood-vessels, heat is
2. It will rain to-morrow, for "Probabilities" predicts it.
3. Washington retreated from Long Island because his army was outnumbered.
4. If Chaucer is called the father of our later English poetry, Wycliffe
   should be called the father of our later English prose.

An adverb clause may be contracted to a prepositional phrase having for its
principal word (1) a participle, (2) an infinitive, or (3) a noun.

+Direction+.--_Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional
phrase having a participle for its principal word_:--

+Model+.--They will call _before they leave_ the city = They will call
_before leaving_ the city.

1. The Gulf Stream reaches Newfoundland before it crosses the Atlantic.
2. If we use household words, we shall be better understood.
3. He grew rich because he attended to his business.
4. Though they persecuted the Christians, they did not exterminate them.

+Direction+.--_Contract each of these adverb clauses to an infinitive

+Model+.--She stoops _that she may conquer_ = She stoops _to conquer_.

1. The pine tree is so tall that it overlooks all its neighbors.
2. Philip II. built the Armada that he might conquer England.
3. He is foolish, because he leaves school so early in life.
4. What would I not give if I could see you happy!
5. We are pained when we hear God's name used irreverently.

+Direction+.--_Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional
phrase having a noun for its principal word_:--

+Model+.--He fought _that he might obtain glory_ = He fought _for glory_.

1. Luther died where he was born.
2. A fish breathes, though it has no lungs.
3. The general marched as he was ordered.
4. Criminals are punished that society may be safe.
5. If you are free from vices, you may expect a happy old age.

An adverb clause may be contracted by simply omitting such words as may
easily be supplied.

+Example+.--_When you are right_, go ahead = _When right_, go ahead.

+Direction+.--_Contract these adverb clauses_:--

1. Chevalier Bayard was killed while he was fighting for Francis I.
2. Error must yield, however strongly it may be defended.

+Explanation+.--_However_ modifies _strongly_, and connects a concessive

3. Much wealth is corpulence, if it is not disease.
4. No other English author has uttered so many pithy sayings as Shakespeare
   has uttered.

(Frequently, clauses introduced by _as_ and _than_ are contracted.)

5. The sun is many times larger than the earth is large.

(Sentences like this never appear in the full form.)

6. This is a prose era rather than it is a poetic era.

An adverb clause may sometimes be changed to an adjective clause or phrase.

+Example+.--This man is to be pitied, _because he has no friends_ = This
man, _who has no friends_, is to be pitied = This man, _having no friends_,
is to be pitied = This man, _without friends_, is to be pitied.

+Direction+.--_Change each of the following adverb clauses first to an
adjective clause and then to an adjective phrase_:--

1. A man is to be pitied if he does not care for music.
2. When a man lacks health, wealth, and friends, he lacks three good

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction.+--_Tell the kind of adverb clause in each of the sentences in
Lesson 68, and note the different positions in which these clauses stand.

Select two sentences containing time clauses; one, a place clause; two,
degree; one, manner; two, real cause; two, evidence; two, purpose; two,
condition; and two, concession, and analyze them_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction.+--_Compose sentences illustrating the different kinds of adverb
clauses named in Lessons 63, 64, 65, and explain fully the office of each.
For connectives, see Lesson 100. Tell why the adverb clauses in Lesson 68
are or are not set off by the comma. Compose sentences illustrating the
different ways of contracting adverb clauses_.

+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.+

(SEE PAGES 165-168.)

TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions to the teacher, pages 30, 150.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints.+--In Lessons 40 and 41 you learned that an infinitive
phrase may perform many of the offices of a noun. You are now to learn that
a clause may do the same.

_Obedience_ is better than sacrifice = _To obey_ is better than sacrifice =
_That men should obey_ is better than sacrifice. The dependent clause _that
men should obey_ is equivalent to a noun, and is the +Subject+ of _is_.

_Many people believe that the beech tree is never struck by lightning_. The
dependent clause, introduced by _that_, is equivalent to a noun, and is the
+Object Complement+ of _believe_.

_The fact that mold, mildew, and yeast are plants is wonderful_. The clause
introduced by _that_ is equivalent to a noun, and is +Explanatory+ of

_A peculiarity of English is, that it has so many borrowed words_. The
clause introduced by _that_ is equivalent to a noun, and is an +Attribute
Complement+ relating to _peculiarity_.

_Your future depends very much on who your companions are_. The clause _who
your companions are_ is equivalent to a noun, and is the +Principal Term+
of a +Phrase+ introduced by the preposition _on_.

A clause that does the work of a noun is a +Noun Clause+.


The +noun clause+ may be used as +subject+.

1. That the earth is round has been proved.

 earth | is ' \ round
  \the |  |
         / \ | has been proved

+Explanation+.--The clause _that the earth is round_ is used like a noun as
the subject of _has been proved_. The conjunction _that_ [Footnote: "_That_
was originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun, used to point to the fact
stated in an independent sentence; as, It was good; he saw _that_. By an
inversion of the order this became, He saw _that_ (namely) it was good, and
so passed into the form _He saw that it was good_, where _that_ has been
transferred to the accessory clause, and has become a mere sign of
grammatical subordination."--_C. P. Mason._] introduces the noun clause.

This is a peculiar kind of complex sentence. Strictly speaking, there is
here no principal clause, for the whole sentence cannot be called a clause,
_i.e._, a part of a sentence. We may say that it is a complex sentence in
which the whole sentence takes the place of a principal clause.

2. That the same word is used for the soul of man and for a glass of gin is
3. "What have I done?" is asked by the knave and the thief.
4. Who was the discoverer of America is not yet fully determined by

+Explanation+.--The subject clause is here an indirect question. See Lesson

5. When letters were first used is not certainly known.
6. "Where is Abel, thy brother?" smote the ears of the guilty Cain.
7. When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is a problem never solved
   by some.

+Explanation+.--_When to quit business and enjoy their wealth_ is an
indirect question. _When to quit business = When they are to quit
business_, or _When they ought to quit business_. Such constructions may be
expanded into clauses, or they may be treated as phrases equivalent to

The +noun clause+ may be used as +object complement+.

8. Galileo taught that the earth moves.

             earth | ' moves
               \the  |
 Galileo | taught | / \

+Explanation+.--Here the clause introduced by _that_ is used like a noun as
the object complement of _taught_.

9. The Esquimau feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the
   dishes for his table.
10. The world will not anxiously inquire who you are.
11. It will ask of you, "What can you do?"
12. The peacock struts about, saying, "What a fine tail I have!"
13. He does not know which to choose.

(See explanation of (7), above.)

14. No one can tell how or when or where he will die.
15. Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any control over
    the current of thought in our dreams.

       *       *       *       *       *




The +noun clause+ may be used as +attribute complement+.

1. A peculiarity of English is, that it has so many borrowed words.
2. Tweed's defiant question was, "What are you going to do about it?"
3. The question ever asked and never answered is, "Where and how am I to
   exist in the Hereafter?"
4. Hamlet's exclamation was, "What a piece of work is man!"
5. The myth concerning Achilles is, that he was invulnerable in every part
   except the heel.

The +noun clause+ may be used as +explanatory modifier+.

6. It has been proved that the earth is round.

earth | is ' \ round
 \the |
It  (/ \) | has been proved

+Explanation+.--The grammatical subject _it_ has no meaning till explained
by the noun clause.

7. It is believed that sleep is caused by a diminution in the supply of
   blood to the brain.
8. The fact that mold, mildew, and yeast are plants is wonderful.
9. Napoleon turned his Simplon road aside in order that he might save a
   tree mentioned by Caesar.

+Explanation+.--Unless _in order that_ is taken as a conjunction connecting
an adverb clause of purpose (see (7), Lesson 65), the clause introduced by
_that_ is a noun clause explanatory of _order_. [Footnote: A similar
explanation may be made of _on condition that, in case that_, introducing
adverb clauses expressing condition.]

10. Shakespeare's metaphor, "Night's candles are burnt out," is one of the
    finest in literature.
11. The advice that St. Ambrose gave St. Augustine in regard to conformity
    to local custom was in substance this: "When in Rome, do as the Romans
12. This we know, that our future depends on our present.

The +noun clause+ may be used as +principal term+ of a +prepositional

13. Have birds any sense of why they sing?

 birds | Have | sense
=======|================     they | sing
       |        \any  \      -----|------
                       \ of         |   \why
                        \          / \

+Explanation+.--_Why they sing_ is an indirect question, here used as the
principal term of a prepositional phrase.

14. There has been some dispute about who wrote "Shakespeare's Plays."
15. We are not certain that an open sea surrounds the Pole.

+Explanation+.--By supposing _of_ to stand before _that_, the noun clause
may be treated as the principal term of a prepositional phrase modifying
the adjective _certain_. By supplying _of the fact_, the noun clause will
become explanatory.

16. We are all anxious that the future shall bring us success and triumph.
17. The Sandwich Islander is confident that the strength and valor of his
    slain enemy pass into himself.

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA--RULE.--The _Noun Clause_ used as attribute complement is generally
set off by the comma.+

+Remarks+.--Present usage seems to favor the omission of the comma with the
clause used as subject or as object complement, except where the comma
would contribute to clearness.

The punctuation of the explanatory clause is like that of other explanatory
modifiers. See Lesson 34. But the real subject made explanatory of _it_ is
seldom set off. See next Lesson for the punctuation of noun clauses that
are questions or quotations.

+Direction+.--_Give the reasons for the use or the omission of the comma
with the noun clauses in the preceding Lesson_.

By using _it_ as a substitute for the subject clause, this clause may be
placed last.

+Example+.--_That the story of William Tell is a myth_ is now believed =
_It_ is now believed _that the story of William Tell is a myth_.

+Direction+.--_By the aid of the expletive it, transpose five subject
clauses in Lesson 71_.

Often the clause used as object complement may be placed first.

+Direction+.--_Transpose such of the clauses used as object complements, in
the preceding Lessons, as admit transposition. Punctuate them if they need

The noun clause may be made prominent by separating it and inserting the
independent clause between its parts,

+Example+.--The story of William Tell, _it is now believed_, is a myth.
(Notice that the principal clause, used parenthetically, is set off by the

+Direction+.--_Write the following sentences, using the independent clauses

1. We believe that the first printing-press in America was set up in Mexico
   in 1536.
2. I am aware that refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually
   result from grammatical studies.
3. It is true that the glorious sun pours down his golden flood as cheerily
   on the poor man's cottage as on the rich man's palace.

+Direction+.--_Vary the following sentence so as to illustrate five
different kinds of noun clauses_:--

  1. _That stars are suns_ is the belief of astronomers.
  2. Astronomers believe _that stars are suns_.
  3. The belief of astronomers is, _that stars are suns_.
  4. The belief _that stars are suns_ is held by astronomers.
  5. Astronomers are confident _that stars are suns_.

1. Our conclusion is, that different forms of government suit different
   stages of civilization.

The noun clause may be contracted by changing the predicate to a
participle, and the subject to a possessive.

+Example+.--_That he was brave_ cannot be doubted = _His being brave_
cannot be doubted.

+Direction+.--_Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the
noun clauses to phrases_:--

1. That the caterpillar changes to a butterfly is a curious fact.
2. Everybody admits that Cromwell was a great leader.
3. A man's chief objection to a woman is, that she has no respect for the
4. The thought that we are spinning around the sun at the rate of twenty
   miles a second makes us dizzy.
5. She was aware that I appreciated her situation.

The noun clause may be contracted by making the predicate, when changed to
an infinitive phrase, the objective complement, and the subject the object

+Direction+.--_Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the
predicates of the noun clauses to objective complements, and the subjects
to object complements_:--

+Model+.--King Ahasuerus commanded that _Haman should be hanged_ = King
Ahasuerus commanded _Haman to be hanged_.

1. I believe that he is a foreigner.
2. The Governor ordered that the prisoner should be set free.
3. Many people believe that Webster was the greatest of American statesmen.
4. How wide do you think that the Atlantic ocean is?
5. They hold that taxation without representation is unjust.

+Direction+.--_Expand into complex sentences such of the sentences in
Lesson_ 41 _as contain an objective complement and an object complement
that together are equivalent to a clause_.

A noun clause may be contracted to an infinitive phrase.

+Example+.--_That he should vote_ is the duty of every American citizen =
_To vote_ is the duty of every American citizen.

+Direction+.--_Contract these noun clauses to infinitive phrases_:--

1. That we guard our liberty with vigilance is a sacred duty.
2. Every one desires that he may live long and happily.
3. The effect of looking upon the sun is, that the eye is blinded.
4. Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be taxed.
5. We are all anxious that we may make a good impression.
6. He does not know whom he should send.
7. He cannot find out how he is to go there.

       *       *       *       *       *



+QUOTATION MARKS--RULE.--Quotation marks ("") inclose a copied word or

+Remarks+.--Single marks (' ') inclose a quotation within a quotation. If,
within the quotation having single marks, still another quotation is made,
the double marks are again used; as, "The incorrectness of the dispatches
led Bismarck to declare, 'It will soon come to be said, "He lies like the
telegraph."'" This introduction of a third quotation should generally be
avoided, especially where the three marks come at the end, as above.

When a quotation is divided by a parenthetical expression, each part of the
quotation is inclosed; as, "I would rather be right," said Clay, "than be

In quoting a question, the interrogation point must stand within the
quotation marks; as, He asked, "What are you living for?" but, when a
question contains a quotation, this order is reversed; as, May we not find
"sermons in stones"? So also with the exclamation point.

+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--The first word of a direct quotation making
complete sense or of a direct question introduced into a sentence should
begin with a capital letter+.

+Remarks+.--A +direct quotation+ is one whose exact words, as well as
thought, are copied; as, Nathan said to David, "_Thou art the man_." An
+indirect quotation+ is one whose thought, but not whose exact words, is
copied; as, Nathan told David _that he was the man_. The reference here of
the pronoun _he_ is somewhat ambiguous. Guard against this, especially in
indirect quotations.

The direct quotation is set off by the comma, begins with a capital letter,
and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. The
indirect quotation is not generally set off by the comma, does not
necessarily begin with a capital letter, and is not inclosed within
quotation marks.

A +direct question+ introduced into a sentence is one in which the exact
words and their order in an interrogative sentence (see Lesson 55) are
preserved, and which is followed by an interrogation point; as, Cain asked,
"_Am I my brother's keeper_?" An +indirect question+ is one which is
referred to as a question, but not directly asked or quoted as such, and
which is not followed by an interrogation point; as, Cain asked _whether he
was his brother's keeper_.

The direct question introduced into a sentence is set off by the comma (but
no comma is used after the interrogation point), begins with a capital
letter, and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be
omitted. An indirect question is not generally set off by a comma, does not
necessarily begin with a capital letter, and is not inclosed within
quotation marks.

If the direct quotation, whether a question or not, is formally introduced
(see Lesson 147), it is preceded by the colon; as, Nathan's words to David
were these: "_Thou art the man_." He put the question thus: "_Can you do

+Direction+.--_Point out the direct and the indirect quotations and
questions in the sentences of Lesson_ 71, _tell why they do or do not begin
with capital letters, and justify the use or the omission of the comma, the
interrogation point, and the quotation marks_.

+Direction+.--_Rewrite these same sentences, changing the direct quotations
and questions to indirect, and the indirect to direct_.

+Direction+.--_Write five sentences containing direct quotations, some of
which shall be formally introduced, and some of which shall be questions
occurring at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. Change these
to the indirect form, and look carefully to the punctuation and the

+Direction+.--_Write sentences illustrating the last paragraph of the
Remarks under the Rule for Quotation Marks_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Analyze the sentences given for arrangement and contraction
in Lesson_ 73.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_Cromwell made one revolution, and Monk made
another_. The two clauses are independent of each other. The second clause,
added by the conjunction _and_ to the first, continues the line of thought
begun by the first.

_Man has his will, but woman has her way_. Here the conjunction connects
independent clauses whose thoughts stand in contrast with each other.

_The Tudors were despotic, or history belies them_. The independent
clauses, connected by _or_, present thoughts between which you may choose,
but either, accepted, excludes the other.

_The ground is wet, therefore it has rained_. Here the inferred fact, the
raining, really stands to the other fact, the wetness of the ground, as
cause to effect--the raining made the ground wet. _It has rained_, _hence
the ground is wet_. Here the inferred fact, the wetness of the ground,
really stands to the other fact, the raining, as effect to cause--the
ground is made wet by the raining. But this the real, or logical relation
between the facts in either sentence is expressed in a sentence of the
compound form--an _and_ may be placed before _therefore_ and _hence_.
Unless the connecting word expresses the dependence of one of the clauses,
the grammarian regards them both as independent.

_Temperance promotes health, intemperance destroys it_. Here the
independent clauses are joined to each other by their very position in the
sentence--connected without any conjunction. This kind of connection is

Sentences made up of independent clauses we call +Compound Sentences.

+DEFINITION.--A _Clause_ is a part of a sentence containing' a subject and
its predicate.+

+DEFINITION.--A _Dependent Clause_ is one used as an adjective, an adverb,
or a noun.+

+DEFINITION.--An _Independent Clause_ is one not dependent on another


+DEFINITION.--A _Simple Sentence_ is a sentence that contains but one
subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound.+

+DEFINITION.--A _Complex Sentence_ is a sentence composed of an independent
clause and one or more dependent clauses.+

+DEFINITION.--A _Compound Sentence_ is a sentence composed of two or more
independent clauses.+


+Independent Clauses+ in the +same line+ of thought.

1. Light has spread, and bayonets think.

 Light | has spread
       |  '
          ' and
     bayonets | ' think

+Explanation+.--The clauses are of equal rank, and so the lines on which
they stand are shaded alike, and the line connecting them is not slanting.
As one entire clause is connected with the other, the connecting line is
drawn between the predicates merely for convenience.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a compound sentence because it is made up of
independent clauses.

2. Hamilton smote the rock of the national resources, and abundant streams
   of revenue gushed forth.
3. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness
   thrust upon them.

+Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +contrast.+

4. The man dies, but his memory lives.
5. Put not your trust in money, but put your money in trust.
6. Ready writing makes not good writing, but good writing brings on ready

+Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +alternation+.

7. Be temperate in youth, or you will have to be abstinent in old age.
8. Places near the sea are not extremely cold in winter, nor are they
   extremely warm in summer.

(Here a choice is denied.)

9. Either Hamlet was mad, or he feigned madness admirably.

(See (16), Lesson 20.)

+Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts one of which is an +inference+
from the other.

10. People in the streets are carrying umbrellas, hence it must be raining.
11. I have seen, therefore I believe.

 I | have seen
   |  '
  I | ' believe

+Explanation+.--In such constructions _and_ may be supplied, or the adverb
may be regarded as the connective. The diagram illustrates _therefore_ as

+Independent Clauses+ joined in the sentence +without a conjunction+.

12. The camel is the ship of the ocean of sand; the reindeer is the camel
    of the desert of snow.
13. Of thy unspoken word thou art master; thy spoken word is master of
14. The ship leaps, as it were, from billow to billow.

+Explanation+.--_As it were_ is an independent clause used parenthetically.
_As_ simply introduces it.

15. Religion--who can doubt it?--is the noblest of themes for the exercise
    of intellect.
16. What grave (these are the words of Wellesley, speaking of the two
    Pitts) contains such a father and such a son!

       *       *       *       *       *



+COMMA and SEMICOLON--RULE.--_Independent Clauses_, when short and closely
connected, are separated by the+ +comma; but, when the clauses are slightly
connected, or when they are themselves divided into parts by the comma, the
semi-colon is used+.

+Remark+.--A parenthetical clause may be set oil by the comma or by the
dash, or it may be inclosed within marks of parenthesis--the marks of
parenthesis showing the least degree of connection in sense. See the last
three sentences in the preceding Lesson.

  1. We must conquer our passions, or our passions will conquer us.
  2. The prodigal robs his heirs; the miser robs himself.
  3. There is a fierce conflict between good and evil; but good is in the
     ascendant, and must triumph at last.

(The rule above is another example.)

+Direction+.--_Punctuate the following sentences, and give your reasons_:--

1. The wind and the rain are over the clouds are divided in heaven over the
   green hill flies the inconstant sun.
2. The epic poem recites the exploits of a hero tragedy represents a
   disastrous event comedy ridicules the vices and follies of mankind
   pastoral poetry describes rural life and elegy displays the tender
   emotions of the heart.
3. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought.
4. The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong.
5. Occidental manhood springs from self-respect Oriental manhood finds its
   greatest satisfaction in self-abasement. [Footnote: In this sentence we
   have a figure of speech called +Antithesis+, in which things unlike in
   some particular are set over against each other. Each part shines with
   its own light and with the light reflected from the other part.
   Antithesis gives great force to the thought expressed by it. Sentences
   containing it furnish us our best examples of +Balanced Sentences+. You
   will find other antitheses in this Lesson and in the preceding.]
6. The more discussion the better if passion and personality be avoided and
   discussion even if stormy often winnows truth from error.

+Direction+.--_Assign reasons for the punctuation of the independent
clauses in the preceding Lesson_.

+Direction+.--_Using the copulative and, the adversative but, and the
alternative or or nor, form compound sentences out of the following simple
sentences, and give the reasons for your choice of connectives_:--

Read not that you may find material for argument and conversation. The rain
descended. Read that you may weigh and consider the thoughts of others. Can
the Ethiopian change his skin? Righteousness exalteth a nation. The floods
came. Great was the fall of it. Language is not the dress of thought. Can
the leopard change his spots? The winds blew and beat upon that house. Sin
is a reproach to any people. It is not simply its vehicle. It fell.

Compound sentences may be contracted by using but once the parts common to
all the clauses, and compounding the remaining parts.

+Example+.--_Time_ waits for no man, and _tide waits for no man_ = _Time_
and _tide wait for no man_.

+Direction+.--_Contract these compound sentences, attending carefully to
the punctuation_:--

1. Lafayette fought for American independence, and Baron Steuben fought for
   American independence.
2. The sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn open the mind to
   benevolence, and the sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn dispose
   the mind for contemplation.
3. The spirit of the Almighty is within us, the spirit of the Almighty is
   around us, and the spirit of the Almighty is above us.

A compound sentence may be contracted by simply omitting from one clause
such words as may readily be supplied from the other.

_Example_.--He is witty, _but he is vulgar_ = He is witty _but vulgar_.

+Direction+.--_Contract these sentences_:--

1. Mirth should be the embroidery of conversation, but it should not be the
2. It is called so, but it is improperly called so.
3. Was Cabot the discoverer of America, or was he not the discoverer of
4. William the Silent has been likened to Washington, and he has justly
   been likened to him.
5. It was his address that pleased me, and it was not his dress that
   pleased me.

A compound sentence may sometimes be changed to a complex sentence without
materially changing the sense.

+Example+.--_Take care of the minutes_, and the hours will take care of
themselves = _If you take care of the minutes_, the hours will take care of
themselves. (Notice that the imperative form adds force.)

+Direction+.--_Change these compound sentences to complex sentences_:--

1. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you.
2. Govern your passions, or they will govern you.
3. I heard that you wished to see me, and I lost no time in coming.
4. He converses, and at the same time he plays a difficult piece of music.
5. He was faithful, and he was rewarded.

+Direction+.--_Change one of the independent clauses in each of these
sentences to a dependent clause, and then change the dependent clause to a
participle phrase_:--

+Model+.--The house was built upon a rock, _and therefore_ it did not fall
= The house did not fall, _because_ it was built upon a rock = The house,
_being built_ upon a rock, did not fall.

1. He found that he could not escape, and so he surrendered.
2. Our friends heard of our coming, and they hastened to meet us.

+Direction+.--_Using and, but, and or as connectives, compose three
compound sentences, each containing three independent clauses_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_Sun and moon and stars_ obey. Peter the Great went
_to Holland, to England_, and _to France_. _I came, I saw, I conquered_.
Here we have co-ordinate words, co-ordinate phrases, and co-ordinate
clauses, that is, words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank, or order.

Leaves fall _so very quietly_. They ate _of the fruit from the tree in the
garden_. Regulus would have paused _if he had been the man that he was
before captivity had unstrung his sinews_. Here just as the word modifier
_quietly_ is itself modified by _very_, and _very_ by _so_; and just as
_fruit_, the principal word in a modifying phrase, is modified by another
phrase, and the principal word of that by another: so _man_, in the adverb
clause which modifies _would have paused_, is itself modified by the
adjective clause _that he was_, and _was_ by the adverb clause _before
captivity had unstrung his sinews_. These three dependent clauses in the
complex clause modifier, like the three words and the three phrases in the
complex word modifier and the complex phrase modifier, are not co-ordinate,
or of equal rank.

_Mary married Philip; but Elizabeth would not marry, although Parliament
frequently urged it, and the peace of England demanded it_. This is a
compound sentence, composed of the simple clause which precedes _but_ and
the complex clause which follows it--the complex clause being composed of
an independent clause and two dependent clauses, one co-ordinate with the
other, and the two connected by _and_.


The +clauses+ of +complex+ and +compound+ sentences may themselves be
+complex+ or +compound+.

 `  `  `
  `  `  `which | are admired
   `  `  `=====|=============
    `  `       |   '
     `  `          ' x
      `  `         .....
       `  `            '
        `  `which | are decorated
         `  ======|===============
          `       |   '
           `          'and
            `         ........
             `               '
              ` which | soar '

 hour    | had passed
 \The    |`      '
           `     ' and
            `    .......
             `         '
opportunity | ` had escaped
    \the    |   `    \
                 `   '
                  `  '
                   he | ` tarried
          earth  | ' is   \ round
                 |      '
             that       ' and
             -----      ......
                '            '
           it | ' revolves   '
He  | proved | / \

+Explanation+.--The first diagram illustrates the analysis of the compound
adjective clause in (3) below. Each adjective clause is connected to
_insects_ by _which_. _And_ connects the co-ordinate clauses. The second
diagram shows that the clause _while he tarried_ modifies both predicates
of the independent clauses. _While_ modifies _had passed, had escaped_, and
_tarried_, as illustrated by the short lines under the first two verbs and
the line over _tarried_. The office of _while_ as connective is shown by
the dotted lines. The third diagram illustrates the analysis of a complex
sentence containing a compound noun clause.

1. Sin has a great many tools, but a lie is a handle which fits them all.
2. Some one has said that the milkman's favorite song should be, "Shall we
   gather at the river?"
3. Some of the insects which are most admired, which are decorated with the
   most brilliant colors, and which soar on the most ethereal wings, have
   passed the greater portion of their lives in the bowels of the earth.
4. Still the wonder grew, that one small head could carry all he knew.
5. When a man becomes overheated by working, running, rowing, or making
   furious speeches, the six or seven millions of perspiration tubes pour
   out their fluid, and the whole body is bathed and cooled.
6. Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages,
   because one tongue was enough for a woman. [Footnote: In _tongue_, as
   here used, we have a +Pun+--a witty expression in which a word agreeing
   in sound with another word, but differing in meaning from it, is used in
   place of that other.]
7. Glaciers, flowing down mountain gorges, obey the law of rivers; the
   upper surface flows faster than the lower, and the center faster than
   the adjacent sides.
8. Not to wear one's best things every day is a maxim of New England
   thrift, which is as little disputed as any verse in the catechism.
9. In Holland the stork is protected by law, because it eats the frogs and
   worms that would injure the dikes.
10. It is one of the most marvelous facts in the natural world that, though
    hydrogen is highly inflammable, and oxygen is a supporter of
    combustion, both, combined, form an element, water, which is
    destructive to fire.
11. In your war of 1812, when your arms on shore were covered by disaster,
    when Winchester had been defeated, when the Army of the Northwest had
    surrendered, and when the gloom of despondency hung, like a cloud, over
    the land, who first relit the fires of national glory, and made the
    welkin ring with the shouts of victory? [Footnote: The _when_ clauses
    in (11), as the _which_ clauses in (3), are formed on the same plan,
    have their words in the same order. This principle of +Parallel
    Construction+, requiring like ideas to be expressed alike, holds also
    in phrases, as in (10) and (14), Lesson 28, and in (14) and (15),
    Lesson 46, and holds supremely with sentences in the paragraph, as is
    explained on page 168. Parallel construction contributes to the
    clearness, and consequently to the force, of expression.]

       *       *       *       *       *



+Participles+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+.

+Direction+.--_Expand the participles in these sentences into the clauses

1. Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it. (Adjective clause.)
2. Desiring to live long, no one would be old. (Concession.)
3. They went to the temple, suing for pardon. (Purpose.)
4. White garments, reflecting the rays of the sun, are cool in summer.
5. Loved by all, he must have a genial disposition. (Evidence.)
6. Writing carefully, you will learn to write well. (Condition.)
7. Sitting there, I heard the cry of "Fire!" (Time.)
8. She regrets not having read it. (Noun clause.)
9. The icebergs floated down, cooling the air for miles around,
   (Independent clause.)

+Absolute phrases+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+.

+Direction+.--_Expand these absolute phrases into the clauses indicated_:--

1. Troy being taken by the Greeks, Aeneas came into Italy. (Time.)
2. The bridges having been swept away, we returned. (Cause.)
3. A cause not preceding, no effect is produced. (Condition.)
4. All things else being destroyed, virtue could sustain itself.
5. There being no dew this morning, it must have been cloudy or windy last
   night. (Evidence.)
6. The infantry advanced, the cavalry remaining in the rear. (Independent

+Infinitive+ phrases may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+.

+Direction+.--_Expand these infinitive phrases into the clauses

1. They have nothing to wear. (Adjective clause.)
2. The weather is so warm as to dissolve the snow. (Degree.)
3. Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. (Purpose.)
4. The adversative sentence faces, so to speak, half way about on _but_.
5. He is a fool to waste his time so. (Cause.)
6. I shall be happy to hear of your safe arrival. (Time.)
7. He does not know where to go. (Noun clause.)

+Direction+.--_Complete these elliptical expressions_:--

1. And so shall Regulus, though dead, fight as he never fought before.
2. Oh, that I might have one more day!
3. He is braver than wise.
4. What if he is poor?
5. He handles it as if it were glass.
6. I regard him more as a historian than as a poet.
7. He is not an Englishman, but a Frenchman.
8. Much as he loved his wealth, he loved his children better.
9. I will go whether you go or not.
10. It happens with books as with mere acquaintances.
11. No examples, however awful, sink into the heart.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. Whenever the wandering demon of Drunkenness finds a ship adrift, he
   steps on board, takes the helm, and steers straight for the
2. The energy which drives our locomotives and forces our steamships
   through the waves comes from the sun.--_Cooke_.
3. No scene is continually loved but one rich by joyful human labor, smooth
   in field, fair in garden, full in orchard.--_Ruskin_.
4. What is bolder than a miller's neck-cloth, which takes a thief by the
   throat every morning?--_German Proverb_.
5. The setting sun stretched his celestial rods of light across the level
   landscape, and smote the rivers and the brooks and the ponds, and they
   became as blood.--_Longfellow_.
6. Were the happiness of the next world as closely apprehended as the
   felicities of this, it were a martyrdom to live.--_Sir T. Browne_.
7. There is a good deal of oratory in me, but I don't do as well as I can,
   in any one place, out of respect to the memory of Patrick
8. Van Twiller's full-fed cheeks, which seemed to have taken toll of
   everything that went into his mouth, were curiously mottled and streaked
   with dusky red, like a spitzenburg apple.--_Irving_.
9. The evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is, that it is
   robbing the human race.--_Mill_.
10. There is no getting along with Johnson; if his pistol misses fire, he
    knocks you down with the butt of it.--_Goldsmith_.
11. We think in words; and, when we lack fit words, we lack fit
12. To speak perfectly well one must feel that he has got to the bottom of
    his subject.--_Whately_.
13. Office confers no honor upon a man who is worthy of it, and it will
    disgrace every man who is not.--_Holland_.
14. The men whom men respect, the women whom women approve, are the men and
    women who bless their species.--_Parton_.

       *       *       *       *       *




1. A ruler who appoints any man to an office when there is in his dominions
   another man better qualified for it sins against God and against the
2. We wondered whether the saltness of the Dead Sea was not Lot's wife in
3. There is a class among us so conservative that they are afraid the roof
   will come down if you sweep off the cobwebs.--_Phillips_.
4. Kind hearts are more than coronets; and simple faith, than Norman
5. All those things for which men plow, build, or sail obey
6. The sea licks your feet, its huge flanks purr very pleasantly for you;
   but it will crack your bones and eat you for all that.--_Holmes_.
7. Of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these: "It might have
8. I fear three newspapers more than a hundred thousand bayonets.
9. He that allows himself to be a worm must not complain if he is trodden
10. It is better to write one word upon the rock than a thousand on the
    water or the sand.--_Gladstone_.
11. A breath of New England's air is better than a sup of Old England's
12. We are as near to heaven by sea as by land.--_Sir H. Gilbert_.
13. No language that cannot suck up the feeding juices secreted for it in
    the rich mother-earth of common folk can bring forth a sound and lusty
14. Commend me to the preacher who has learned by experience what are human
    ills and what is human wrong.--_Boyd_.
15. He prayeth best who loveth best all things both [Footnote: See Lesson
    20.] great and small; for the dear God, who loveth us, he made and
    loveth all.--_Coleridge_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Show that an adjective may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause.
Give examples of adjective clauses connected by _who, whose, which, what,
that, whichever, when, where, why_, and show that each connective performs
also the office of a pronoun or that of an adverb. Give and illustrate
fully the Rule for punctuating the adjective clause, and the Caution
regarding the position of the adjective clause. Show that an adjective
clause may be equivalent to an Infinitive phrase or a participle phrase.

Show that an adverb may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause.
Illustrate the different kinds of adverb clauses, and explain the office of
each and the fitness of the name. Give and explain fully the Rule for the
punctuation of adverb clauses. Illustrate the different positions of adverb
clauses. Illustrate the different ways of contracting adverb clauses.

       *       *       *       *       *



Illustrate five different offices of a noun clause. Explain the two
different ways of treating clauses introduced by _in order that_, etc.
Explain the office of the expletive _it_. Illustrate the different
positions of a noun clause used as object complement. Show how the noun
clause may be made prominent. Illustrate the different ways of contracting
noun clauses. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for quotation marks.
Illustrate and explain fully the distinction between direct and indirect
quotations, and the distinction between direct and indirect questions
introduced into a sentence. Tell all about their capitalization and

       *       *       *       *       *



Illustrate and explain the distinction between a dependent and an
independent clause. Illustrate and explain the different ways in which
independent clauses connected by _and, but, or_, and _hence_ are related in
sense. Show how independent clauses may be joined in sense without a
connecting word. Define a clause. Define the different kinds of clauses.
Define the different classes of sentences with regard to form. Give the
Rule for the punctuation of independent clauses, and illustrate fully.
Illustrate the different ways of contracting independent clauses.
Illustrate and explain the difference between compound and complex word
modifiers; between compound and complex phrases; between compound and
complex clauses. Give participle phrases, absolute phrases, and infinitive
phrases, and expand them into different kinds of clauses. What three parts
of speech may connect clauses?


TO THE TEACHER.--This scheme will be found very helpful in a general
review. The pupils should be able to reproduce it except the Lesson

Scheme for the Sentence.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)


    Noun or Pronoun (8).
    Phrase (38, 40).
    Clause (71).

    Verb (11).

      Noun or Pronoun (28).
      Phrase (38, 40).
      Clause (71).
      Adjective (29, 30).
      Participle (37).
      Noun or Pronoun (29, 30).
      Phrase (37, 40).
      Clause (72).
      Adjective (31).
      Participle (37).
      Noun (or Pronoun) (31).
      Phrase (37, 41).

    Adjectives (12).
    Adverbs (14).
    Participles (37).
    Nouns and Pronouns (33, 35).
    Phrases (17, 37, 38, 40, 41).
    Clauses (59, 60, 63, 64, 65).

    Conjunctions (20, 64, 65, 71, 76).
    Pronouns (59, 60).
    Adverbs (60, 63, 64).

  +Independent Parts+ (44).

  +Meaning.+ Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative, Exclamatory (46).
  +Form.+ Simple, Complex, Compound (76).

Additional Selections.

TO THE TEACHER.--We believe that you will find the preceding pages
unusually full and rich in illustrative selections; but, should additional
work be needed for reviews or for maturer classes, the following selections
will afford profitable study. Let the pupils discuss the thought and the
poetic form, as well as the logical construction of these passages. We do
not advise putting them in diagram.

  Speak clearly, if you speak at all;
  Carve every word before you let it fall.--_Holmes_.

  The robin and the blue-bird, piping loud,
    Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee;
  The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud
    Their race in Holy Writ should mentioned be;
  And hungry crows, assembled in a crowd,
    Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly,
  Knowing who hears the ravens cry, and said,
    "Give us, O Lord, this day, our daily bread!"

  Better to stem with heart and hand
    The roaring tide of life than lie,
  Unmindful, on its flowery strand,
    Of God's occasions drifting by.
    Better with naked nerve to bear
    The needles of this goading air
  Than, in the lap of sensual ease, forego
  The godlike power to do, the godlike aim to know.

  Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust,
  Ere her cause bring fame and profit, and 't is prosperous to be just;
  Then it is the brave man chooses, while the coward stands aside,
  Doubting in his abject spirit, till his Lord is crucified.--_Lowell_.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

TO THE TEACHER.--These and similar "Exercises" are entirely outside of the
regular lessons. They are offered to those teachers who may not, from lack
of time or of material, find it convenient to prepare extra or
miscellaneous work better suited to their own needs.

The questions appended to the following sentences are made easy of answer,
but in continuing such exercises the teacher will, of course, so frame the
questions as more and more to throw responsibility on the pupil.

It will be evident that this work aims not only to enforce instruction
given before Lesson 17, but, by an easy and familiar examination of words
and groups of words, to prepare the way for what is afterwards presented
more formally and scientifically. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK."

1. From this piazza the wondering Ichabod entered the hall.
2. This hall formed the center of the mansion and the place of usual
3. Here, rows of resplendent pewter, ranged on a long dresser, dazzled his
4. In one corner stood a huge bag of wool ready to be spun.
5. In another corner stood a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom.
6. Ears of Indian corn and strings of dried apples and peaches hung in gay
   festoons along the walls.
7. These were mingled with the gaud of red peppers.
8. A door left ajar gave him a peep into the best parlor.
9. In this parlor claw-footed chairs and dark mahogany tables shone like
10. Andirons, with their accompanying shovel and tongs, glistened from
    their covert of asparagus tops. [Footnote: _Asparagus tops_ were
    commonly used to ornament the old-fashioned fireplace in summer.]
11. Mock-oranges and conch-shells decorated the mantelpiece.
12. Strings of various-colored birds' eggs were suspended above it.
13. A corner-cupboard, knowingly left open, displayed immense treasures of
    old silver and well-mended china.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--Find the two chief words in each
of the first three sentences. As a part of the sentence what is each of
these words called? To what class of words, or part of speech, does each
belong? Notice that in the fourth and the fifth sentence the subject is put
after the predicate. Change the order of words and read these sentences.
Read in their regular order the two chief words of each. In the sixth
sentence what word says, or asserts, something about both ears and strings?
In the ninth sentence put _what_ before the predicate _shone_ and find two
nouns that answer the question. In the eleventh sentence what two things
does _decorated_ tell something about? In the seventh sentence _these_
stands for what two nouns, or names, found in the preceding sentence? Find
the subject and the predicate of each sentence from the sixth to the
thirteenth inclusive. To what class of words does each of these chief parts
belong? Find in these sentences nouns that are not subjects. Find several
compound nouns the parts of which are joined with the hyphen.

_The_ and _wondering_ in the first sentence go with what noun? The group of
words _from this piazza_ goes with what word? In the second sentence put
_what_ before, and then after, _formed_, and find the names that answer
these questions. What does _of the mansion_ go with? What does _of usual
residence_ describe? In the third sentence what word tells where the
dazzling occurred? Find a group of three words telling what the rows were
composed of. What group of words tells the position of the rows? In the
fourth sentence what group of words shows where the bag stood? _Of wool
ready to be spun_ describes what? _A_ and _huge_ are attached to what?

TO THE TEACHER.--We have here suggested some of the devices by which pupils
may be led to see the functions of words and phrases. We recommend that
this work be varied and continued through the selection above and through
others that may easily be made. Such exercises, together with the more
formal and searching work of the regular lessons, will be found of
incalculable value to the pupil. They will not only afford the best mental
discipline but will aid greatly in getting thought and in expressing

+The Force and the Beauty of the Description above.--+ Can you find any
reason why we are invited to see this picture through the eyes of the
interested and wondering Ichabod? Do you think the word _wondering_ well
chosen and suggestive? Look through this picture carefully and tell what
there is that indicates thrift, industry, and prosperity. Find more common
expressions for _center of the mansion_ and _place of usual residence_.
Notice in the third sentence the effect of _resplendent_ and _dazzled_. How
is a similar effect produced in the ninth and the tenth sentence? You see
that this great artist in words does not here need to repeat his language.
We can easily imagine that he could produce the same effect in a great
variety of ways. In the fourth sentence does the expression _ready to be
spun_ tell what is actually seen, or what is only suggested? What is gained
by this expression and by _just from the loom_ in the next sentence? Do you
think an unskillful artist would have used _in gay festoons?_ Read the
seventh and make it more common but less quaint. Do you think the picture
gains, or loses, by representing the door as "ajar" instead of wide open?
Why? Can you see any similar effect from introducing _their covert_ in the
tenth sentence? What does the expression _knowingly left open_ suggest to
you? This selection from Irving illustrates the +Descriptive+ style of


In the description above we have taken some liberties with the original,
for we have broken it up into single sentences. The parts of this picture
as made by Irving were smoothly and delicately blended together.

You may rewrite this description; and, where it can be done to advantage,
you may join the sentences neatly together. Perhaps some of these sentences
may be changed to become parts of other sentences,

TO THE TEACHER.--It will be found profitable for pupils to break up for
themselves into short sentences model selections from classic English, and,
after examining the structure and style as suggested above, to note and, so
far as possible, explain how these were blended together in the original. A
written reproduction of the selection may then be made from memory.

This study of the thought, the structure, and the style of the great
masters in language must lead to a discriminating taste for literature; and
the effect upon the pupil's own habits of thought and expression will
necessarily be to lift him above the insipid, commonplace matter and
language that characterize much of the so-called "original" composition

In the study of these selections, especially in the work of copying, the
rules for punctuation, and other rules, formally stated further on, may
easily be anticipated informally.

For composition work more nearly original the class might read together or
discuss, descriptions of home scenes; then, drawing from imagination or
experience, they might make descriptions of their own. In these
descriptions different persons might be introduced, with their attitudes,
employments, and acts of hospitality.

For exercises in narration pupils might write about trips to these homes,
telling about the preparation, the start, the journey, and the reception.
(For studies on narrative style, see pages 157-162.)

To insure thoroughness, all such compositions should he short.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. Every window and crevice of the vast barn seemed bursting forth with the
   treasures of the farm.
2. The flail was busily resounding within from morning till night.
3. Swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves.
4. Rows of pigeons were enjoying the sunshine on the roof.
5. Some sat with one eye turned up as if watching the weather.
6. Some sat with their heads under their wings or buried in their bosoms.
7. Others were swelling and cooing and bowing about their dames.
8. Sleek, unwieldy porkers were grunting in the repose and abundance of
   their pens.
9. From these pens sallied forth, now and then, troops of sucking pigs, as
   if to snuff the air.
10. A stately squadron of snowy geese was riding in an adjoining pond,
    convoying whole fleets of ducks.
11. Regiments of turkeys were gobbling through the farmyard.
12. Guinea fowls fretted about, like ill-tempered housewives, with their
    peevish, discontented cry.
13. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock, clapping his burnished
    wings, and crowing in the pride and gladness of his heart--sometimes
    tearing up the earth with his feet, and then generously calling his
    ever-hungry family of wives and children to enjoy the rich morsel which
    he had discovered.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--In the first sentence _seemed_
asserts something about what two things? _Every_ goes with what word or
words? What word or words does the phrase _of the vast barn_ make more
definite in meaning? The two words _window_ and _crevice_ are joined
together by what word? The group of words _bursting forth with the
treasures of the farm_ describes what? Notice that _bursting_ also helps
_seemed_ to say something about window and crevice. _Seemed_ does not make
sense, but _seemed bursting_ does. What does _forth_ modify? What does
_with the treasures of the farm_ modify? In the third sentence what two
nouns form the subject of _skimmed?_ What connects these two nouns? In the
fourth what word tells what the rows were enjoying? In the fifth _turned up
as if watching the weather_ describes what? _As if watching the weather_
goes with what? The expression introduced by _as if_ is a shortened form.
Putting in some of the words omitted, we have _as if they were watching the
weather. They were watching the weather_, if standing by itself, would make
a complete sentence. You see that one sentence may be made a part of
another sentence. What does each of the two phrases _under their wings_ and
_buried in their bosoms_ describe? What connects these two phrases? In the
seventh sentence _were_ is understood before _cooing_ and before _bowing_.
How many predicate verbs do you find, each asserting something about the
pigeons represented by _others_? Why are these verbs not separated by
commas? What two nouns form the principal part of the phrase in the eighth
sentence? What connects these two nouns? Read the ninth sentence and put
the subject before the predicate. You may now explain _as if to snuff the
air_, remembering that a similar expression in the fifth sentence was
explained. In the tenth sentence _convoying whole fleets of ducks_
describes what? Does _convoying_ assert anything about the squadron? Change
it into a predicate verb. In the twelfth sentence find one word and two
phrases joined to _fretted_. _Clapping, crowing, tearing_, and _calling_,
in the thirteenth, all describe what? Notice that all the other words
following the subject go with these four. Find the three words that answer
the questions made by putting _what_ after _clapping, tearing, calling_.
What phrase tells the cause of crowing? The phrase _to enjoy the rich
morsel which he had discovered_ tells the purpose of what? _Which he had
discovered_ limits the meaning of what? The pronoun _which_ here stands for
_morsel_. _Which he had discovered_ = _He had discovered morsel_. Here you
will see a sentence has again been made a part of another sentence. Notice
that without _which_ there would be no connection.

TO THE TEACHER.--It may be well to let the pupils complete the examination
of the structure of the sentences above and point out nouns, verbs,
pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

It will be noticed that in the questions above we especially anticipate the
regular lessons that follow Lesson 27. This we do in all such "Exercises."

+The Beauty and the Force of the Description above+.--Why may we say that
this farmyard scene is surrounded by an atmosphere of plenty, happiness,
and content? Which do you prefer, the first sentence above, or this
substitute for it: "The large barn was entirely full of the products of the
farm"? Give every reason that you can find for your preference. We often
speak of a barn or storehouse as "bursting with plenty," or of a table as
"groaning with a load of good things," when there is really no bursting nor
groaning. Such expressions are called +Figures of Speech+. Examine the
second sentence and compare it with the following: "The men were busy all
day pounding out the grain with flails." Do the words _busily resounding_
joined to _flail_ bring into our imagination men, grain, pounding, sound,
and perhaps other things? A good description mentions such things and uses
such words as will help us to see in imagination many things not mentioned.
In the third sentence would you prefer _skimmed_ to _flew_? Why? Compare
the eighth sentence with this: "Large fat hogs were grunting in their pens
and reposing quietly with an abundant supply of food." _Sleek, unwieldy
porkers_ would be too high-sounding an expression for you to use
ordinarily, but it is in tone with the rest of the description. _In the
repose and abundance of their pens_ is much better than the words
substituted above. It is shorter and stronger. It uses instead of the verb
_reposing_ and the adjective _abundant_ the nouns _repose_ and _abundance_,
and makes these the principal words in the phrase. Repose and abundance are
thus made the striking features of the pen. Arrange the ninth sentence in
as many ways as possible and tell which way you prefer. Is a real squadron
referred to in the tenth sentence? and were the geese actually convoying
fleets? These are figurative uses of words. What can you say of _regiments_
in the eleventh? In the twelfth Guinea fowls are compared to housewives.
Except in this one fancied resemblance the two are wholly unlike. Such
comparisons frequently made by _as_ and _like_ are called +Similes+. If we
leave out _like_ and say, "Guinea fowls are fretting housewives," we have a
figure of speech called +Metaphor+. This figure is used above when flocks
are called "squadrons" and "fleets." In the thirteenth sentence notice how
well chosen and forceful are the words _strutted, gallant, burnished,
generously, ever-hungry, rich morsel_. See whether you can find substitutes
for these italicized words. Were the wings actually burnished? What can you
say of this use of _burnished_?


The sentences in the description above, when read together, have a somewhat
broken or jerky effect. You may unite smoothly such as should be joined.
The fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh can all be put into one. There is
danger of making your sentences too long. Young writers find it difficult
to make very long sentences perfectly clear in meaning.

TO THE TEACHER.--While the pupils' thoughts and style are somewhat toned up
by the preceding exercises, it may he well to let them write similar
descriptions drawn from their reading, their observation, or their

If the compositions contain more than two or three short paragraphs each,
it will be almost impossible to secure good work.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. I was dirty from my journey, my pockets were stuffed out with shirts and
stockings, and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. 2. I was
fatigued with traveling, rowing, and want of rest; I was very hungry; and
my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and about a shilling in
copper. 3. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage, who at
first refused it on account of my rowing; but I insisted on their taking

1. Then I walked up the street, gazing about, till near the markethouse I
met a boy with bread. 2. I had made many a meal on bread, and, inquiring
where he got it, I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to, in
Second Street, and asked for biscuit, intending such as we had in Boston;
but they, it seems, were not made in Philadelphia. 3. Then I asked for a
three-penny loaf, and was told they had none such. 4. So not considering or
knowing the difference of money, or the greater cheapness and the names of
his bread, I bade him give me three-penny worth of any sort. 5. He gave me,
accordingly, three great puffy rolls. 6. I was surprised at the quantity,
but took it; and, having no room in my pockets, walked off with a roll
under each arm, and eating the other.

       *       *       *       *       *

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--Break up sentence 1, paragraph 1,
into three distinct sentences, and tell what changes this will make in
capitals and punctuation. Do the same for 2. Which read more closely
together, and are more closely connected, the parts of 2, or of 1? How is
this shown to the eye? Analyze the first two sentences you made from 1.
Find two object complements of _knew_, one a noun and the other a group of
five words. Find in 2 a phrase whose principal part is made up of three
nouns. What have you learned about the commas used with these nouns? In
making separate sentences of 3 what words do you change or drop? Are these
the words that bind the parts of 3 together? What noun is used adverbially
after _gave_? Supply a preposition and then tell what phrases modify
_gave_. Find the object complement of _gave_. What modifies _refused_ by
telling when? What, by telling _why_?

In 1, paragraph 2, who is described as gazing about? What does _gazing
about_ modify? Read the group of words that tells how far or how long
Franklin walked up the street. Notice that this whole group is used like an
adverb. Find in it a subject, a predicate, and an object complement. Drop
_till_ and see whether the parts of 1 make separate sentences. What word,
then, binds these two sentences into one? Read 2 and make of it three
distinct sentences by omitting the first _and_ and the word _but_. The
second of these three sentences just made contains several sentences which
are not so easily separated, as some are used like single words to make up
the main, or principal, sentence. In this second part of 2 find the leading
subject and its two predicates. Find a phrase belonging to _I_ and
representing Franklin as doing something. Put _what_ after _inquiring_ and
find the object complement. What phrase belongs to _went_, telling where?
_He directed me to (whom)_ belongs to what? Who is represented as
intending? _Intending such as we had in Boston_ belongs to what? _As we had
in Boston_ goes with what? Notice that _it seems_ is a sentence thrown in
loosely between the parts of another sentence. Such expressions are said to
be parenthetical. Notice the punctuation.

Notice that _gazing, inquiring, intending, considering, knowing_, and
_having_ are all modifiers of _I_ found in the different sentences of
paragraph 2. Put _I_ before any one of these words, and you will see that
no assertion is made. These words illustrate one form of the verb (the
participle), and _look_ in 1, paragraph 1, illustrates the other form (the
infinitive), spoken of in Lesson 11 as not asserting. Change each of these
participles to a predicate, or asserting form, and then read the sentences
in which these predicates are found. You will notice that giving these
words the asserting form makes them more prominent and forcible--brings
them up to a level with the other predicate verbs. Participles are very
useful in slurring over the less important actions that the more important
may have prominence. Show that they are so used in Franklin's narrative.

Examine the phrase _with a roll under each arm, and eating the other_, and
see if you do not find an illustration of the fact that even great men
sometimes make slips. Does _other_ properly mean one of three things? Try
to improve this expression.

+The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+.--The sentences above, as you
see, stand in two groups. Those of each group are more closely related to
one another than they are to the sentences of the other group. Do you see
how? In studying this short selection you may find the general topic, or
heading, to be something like this: _My First Experiences in Philadelphia_.
Now examine the first group of sentences and see whether its topic might
not be put thus: _My Condition on Reaching Philadelphia_. Then examine the
sentences of the second group and see whether all will not come under this
heading: _How I Found Something to Eat_. You see that even a short
composition like this has a general topic with topics under it. As _sub_
means _under_, we will call these under topics _sub-topics_. There are two
groups of sentences in this selection because there are two distinct
sub-topics developed. The sentences of each group stand together because
they jointly develop one sub-topic.

A group of sentences related and held together by a common thought we call
a +Paragraph+. How is the paragraph indicated to the eye? What help is it
to the reader to have a composition paragraphed? What, to the writer to
know that he must write in paragraphs?

+The Style of the Author+.--This selection is mainly +Narrative+. The
matter is somewhat tame, and the expression is commonplace. The words are
ordinary, and they stand in their usual place. Figures of speech are not
used. Yet the piece has a charm. The thoughts are homely; the expression is
in perfect keeping; the style is clear, simple, direct, and natural. The
closing sentence is slightly humorous. Benjamin Franklin trudging along the
street, hugging a great roll of bread under each arm, and eating a third
roll, must have been a laughable sight.

Have you ever known boys and girls in writing school compositions, or
reporters in writing for the newspapers, to use large words for small
ideas, and long, high-sounding phrases and sentences for plain, simple
thoughts? Have you ever seen what could be neatly said in three or four
lines "padded out" to fill a page of composition paper or a column in a

When Franklin said. "My pockets were stuffed out with shirts and
stockings," he said a homely thing in a homely way; that is, he fitted the
language to the thought. To fit the expression to the thought on every
occasion is the perfection of style. If Franklin had been a weak, foolish
writer, his sentence might have taken this form:--

"Not having been previously provided with a satchel or other receptacle for
my personal effects, my pockets, which were employed as a substitute, were
protruding conspicuously with extra underclothing."

Compare this sentence with Franklin's and point out the faults you see in
the substitute. Can you find anything in the meaning of _provided_ that
makes previously unnecessary? Do you now understand what Lowell meant when,
in praise of Dryden, he said, "His phrase is always a short cut to his

TO THE TEACHER.--What is here taught of the paragraph and of style will
probably not be mastered at one reading. It will be found necessary to
return to it occasionally, and to refer pupils to it for aid in their
composition work.


TO THE TEACHER.--We suggest that the pupils reproduce from memory the
extract above, and that other selections of narrative be found in the
Readers or elsewhere and studied as above.

The pupils may be able to note to what extent the narrative follows the
order of time and to what extent it is topical. They may also note the
amount of description it contains. They should, so far as possible, find
the topic for each paragraph, thus making an outline for a composition to
be completed from reproduction.

It will now require little effort to write simple original narratives of
real or imagined experiences.

       *       *       *       *       *

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. In the driest days, my fountain became disabled; the pipe was stopped
up. 2. A couple of plumbers, with the implements of their craft, came out
to view the situation. 3. There was a good deal of difference of opinion
about where the stoppage was. 4. I found the plumbers perfectly willing to
sit down and talk about it--talk by the hour. 5. Some of their guesses and
remarks were exceedingly ingenious; and their general observations on other
subjects were excellent in their way, and could hardly have been better if
they had been made by the job. 6. The work dragged a little--as it is apt
to do by the hour.

1. The plumbers had occasion to make me several visits. 2. Sometimes they
would find, upon arrival, that they had forgotten some indispensable tool;
and one would go back to the shop, a mile and a half, after it; and his
comrade would await his return with the most exemplary patience, and sit
down and talk--always by the hour. 3. I do not know but it is a habit to
have something wanted at the shop. 4. They seemed to me very good workmen,
and always willing to stop, and talk about the job or anything else, when I
went near them. 5. Nor had they any of that impetuous hurry that is said to
be the bane of our American civilization. 6. To their credit be it said
that I never observed anything of it in them. 7. They can afford to wait.
8. Two of them will sometimes wait nearly half a day, while a comrade goes
for a tool. 9. They are patient and philosophical. 10. It is a great
pleasure to meet such men. 11. One only wishes there was some work he could
do for them by the hour.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--How can you make the last part of
1 express more directly the cause of becoming disabled? Would you use a
semicolon to separate the sentences thus joined, or would you use a comma?
Give a reason for the comma after _days_, Find in 2 an adverb phrase that
expresses purpose. Use an equivalent adjective in place of _a couple of_.
Explain the use of _there_ in 3. What adjective may be used in place of
_good_ in _a good deal_? What long complex phrase modifies _deal_? Put
_what_ after the preposition _about_ and find a group of words that takes
the place of a noun. Find in this group a subject and a predicate. Find in
4 an objective complement. Find a compound infinitive phrase and tell what
it modifies. Notice that the dash helps to show the break made by repeating
_talk_. When 5 is divided into two sentences, what word is dropped? This,
then, must be the word that connected the two sentences. Notice that the
two main parts of 5 are separated by a semicolon. This enables the writer
to show that the two main divisions of 5 are more widely separated in
meaning than are the parts of the second division where the comma is used.
Give the three leading predicate verbs in 5 and their complements. _If they
had been made by the job_ is joined like an adverb to what verb? What is
the predicate of this modifying group?

The infinitive phrase in 1, paragraph 2, modifies what? Is _me_, or
_visits_, the object complement of _make_? Put _what_ after _would find_ in
2 and get the object complement. Can you make a sentence of this group?
What are its principal parts? Does the writer make an unexpected turn after
_talk_? How is this shown to the eye? Put _what_ after _do know_ in 3 and
find the object complement. Can you make a sentence of this object
complement? What phrase can you put in place of the pronoun _it_ without
changing the sense? By using the word _it_, a better arrangement can be
made. What group of words in 5 is used like an adjective to modify _hurry_?
Change the pronoun _that_ to _hurry_ and make a separate sentence of this
group. What word, then, must have made an adjective of this sentence and
joined it to _hurry_? What is the object complement of _can afford_ in 7?
Supply a preposition after _will wait_ in 8, and then find two groups of
words that tell the time of waiting. Find a subject and a predicate in the
second group. What explains _it_ in 10? Find the object complement of
_wishes_ in 11. What is the subject of _was_? The office of _there_? After
_work_ supply the pronoun _that_ and tell the office of the group it
introduces. What is the object complement of _could do_? What connects this
group to _work_?

+The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+.--There are two distinct sets
of sentences in this selection--distinct because developing two distinct
sub-topics. Accordingly, there are two paragraphs. Let us take for the
general topic _The Visits of the Plumbers_. Let us see whether all the
sentences of the first paragraph will not come under the sub-topic _First
Visit_, and those of the second under the sub-topic _Subsequent Visits_.
The sentences of each paragraph should be closely related to one another
and to the sub-topic. They should stand in their proper order. Do the
paragraphs above stand such tests? If they do, they possess the prime
quality of +Unity+.

+The Author's Style+.--This selection we may call +Narrative+, though there
are descriptive touches in it. It is a story of what? Is the story clearly
told throughout? If not, where is it obscure? Is it made interesting and
entertaining? Is Mr. Warner here giving us a bit of his own experience? Or
do you think he is drawing upon his imagination? Would you call the style
plain, or does it abound with metaphors, similes, or other figures of
speech? Are the sentences generally long, or generally short? What are the
faults or foibles of these real or fancied plumbers? Does the author speak
of them in a genial and lenient way? or is he hostile, and does he hold up
their foibles to scorn and derision? Does he make us laugh with, or does he
make us laugh at, the plumbers? If the former, the style is humorous; if
the latter, the style is satirical or sarcastic. Would you call Mr.
Warner's quality of style +Humor+? or that +form of wit+ known as +Satire+?
Is our author's use of it delicate and refined? or is it gross and coarse?
Does it stop short of making its object grotesque, or not? Can you name any
writers whose humor or satire is coarse?


TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions, pages 159, 160.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. Indolence inclines a man to rely upon others and not upon himself, to
eat their bread and not his own. 2. His carelessness is somebody's loss;
his neglect is somebody's downfall. 3. If he borrows, the article remains
borrowed; if he begs and gets, it is as the letting out of waters--no one
knows where it will stop. 4. He spoils your work, disappoints your
expectations, exhausts your patience, eats up your substance, abuses your
confidence, and hangs a dead weight upon all your plans; and the very best
thing an honest man can do with a lazy man is to get rid of him.

1. Indolence promises without redeeming the pledge; a mist of forgetfulness
rises up and obscures the memory of vows and oaths. 2. The negligence of
laziness breeds more falsehoods than the cunning of the sharper. 3. As
poverty waits upon the steps of indolence, so upon such poverty brood
equivocations, subterfuges, lying denials. 4. Falsehood becomes the
instrument of every plan. 5. Negligence of truth, next occasional
falsehood, then wanton mendacity--these three strides traverse the whole
road of lies.

1. Indolence as surely runs to dishonesty as to lying. 2. Indeed, they are
but different parts of the same road, and not far apart. 3. In directing
the conduct of the Ephesian converts, Paul says, "Let him that stole steal
no more; but rather let him labor, working with his hands the thing which
is good." 4. The men who were thieves were those who had ceased to work. 5.
Industry was the road back to honesty. 6. When stores are broken open, the
idle are first suspected.

       *       *       *       *       *

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--Find in 1 two compound infinitive
phrases and tell their use. Supply the words omitted from the last part of
each compound. What shows that the parts of 2 are not closely connected?
Would a conjunction bring them more closely together? If a conjunction is
used, would you change the punctuation? A sentence that unites with another
to make one greater sentence we call a _clause_. Read the first part of 2
and change _somebody's_ first to a phrase and then to a clause used like an
adjective. What distinction can you make between the use of the semicolon
and the use of the comma in 3? The clause _if he borrows_ is joined like an
adverb to what verb? _If he begs and gets_? What pronoun more indefinite
than _your_ might take its place in 4? What noun? Explain the use of the
semicolon and the comma in 4. Supply _that_ after _thing_ and tell what
clause is here used like an adjective. Find the office of _that_ by placing
it after _do_. Find in 4 an infinitive phrase used as attribute complement.

Change the phrase in 1, paragraph 2, to a clause. Find in 2 the omitted
predicate of the clause introduced by _than_. Find a compound subject in 3.
Are _negligence_, _falsehood_, and _mendacity_, in 5, used as subjects?
Explain their use and punctuation. (See Remark, Lesson 45.)

In 3, paragraph 3, how are the words borrowed from Paul marked? Change the
quotation from Paul so as to give his thought but not his exact words. Are
the quotation marks now needed? In 3 and 4 find clauses introduced by
_that_, _which_, and _who_, and used like adjectives.

+The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+.--You can easily learn the
sub-topic, or thought, each of these paragraphs develops. See whether you
can find it in the first sentence of each. Give the three sub-topics. Put
together the three thoughts established in these paragraphs and tell what
they prove. What they prove is that for which Mr. Beecher is contending; it
may be written at the head of the extract as the general topic. What merits
of the paragraph, already treated, are admirably illustrated in this

+The Style of the Author+.--This selection is neither descriptive nor
narrative; it is +Argumentative+. Mr. Beecher is trying to establish a
certain proposition, and in the three paragraphs is giving three reasons,
or arguments, to prove its truth. But the argument is not all thought, is
not purely intellectual. It is suffused with feeling, is impassioned. Mr.
Beecher's heart is in his work. This feeling warms and colors his style,
and stimulates his fancy. As a consequence, figures of speech abound.

Notice that in 1, paragraph 1, the thought is repeated by means of the
infinitive phrases. Read the words _Indolence inclines a man_ with each of
the four infinitive phrases that follow. You will see that the thought is
repeated. It is first expressed in a general way; by the aid of the second
phrase we see the same thought from the negative side; the third phrase
makes the statement more specific; the fourth puts the specific statement
negatively. The needless repetition of the same thought in different words
is one of the worst faults in writing. But Mr. Beecher's repetition is not
needless. By every repetition here, Mr. Beecher makes his thought clearer
and stronger. Examine the other sentences of this paragraph and see whether
they enforce the leading thought by illustration, example, or consequence.

In what sentence is the style made +energetic+ by the aid of short
predicates? How does the alternation of short sentences with long
throughout the extract affect you? The alternation of plain with figurative
sentences? Can you show that the author's style has +Variety+? Pick out the
metaphors in 1, 2, 3, and 5, paragraph 2; and in 1 and 2, paragraph 3. Pick
out the comparisons, or similes, in 3, paragraph 1, and in 3, paragraph 2.
Figures of speech should add clearness and force. If you think these do,
tell how. _Indolence_ in 1 and 3, paragraph 2, and _laziness_ in 2,
introduce us to another figure. Something belonging to the men, a quality,
is made to represent the men themselves. Such a figure is called


TO THE TEACHER.--Exercises in argumentative writing may be continued by
making selections from the discussion of easy topics.

For original work we suggest debates on current topics. Compositions should
be short.

Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.


1. The assassin enters, through the window already prepared, into an
unoccupied apartment. 2. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall, half
lighted by the moon; he winds up the ascent of the stairs and reaches the
door of the chamber. 3. Of this he moves the lock, by soft and continued
pressure, till it turns on its hinges without noise; and he enters, and
beholds his victim before him.

1. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer, and the
beams of the moon, resting on the gray locks of his aged temple, show him
where to strike. 2. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes, without
a struggle or a motion, from the repose of sleep to the repose of death. 3.
It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work; and he plies the dagger,
though it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the
bludgeon. 4. He even raises the aged arm that he may not fail in his aim at
the heart, and places it again over the wounds of the poniard. 5. To finish
the picture, he explores the wrist for the pulse. 6. He feels for it, and
ascertains that it beats no longer. 7. It is accomplished. 8. The deed is

1. He retreats, retraces his steps to the window, passes out through it as
he came in, and escapes. 2. He has done the murder. No eye has seen him, no
ear has heard him. 3. The secret is his own, and it is safe.

1. Ah! gentlemen, that was a dreadful mistake. 2. Such a secret can be safe
nowhere. 3. The whole creation of God has neither nook nor corner where the
guilty can bestow it, and say it is safe. 4. Not to speak of that eye which
pierces through all disguises and beholds everything as in the splendor of
noon, such secrets of guilt are never safe from detection even by men. 5.
True it is, generally speaking, that "Murder will out." 6. True it is that
Providence hath so ordained, and doth so govern things, that those who
break the great law of heaven by shedding man's blood seldom succeed in
avoiding discovery.

       *       *       *       *       *

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--Do the phrases in 1, paragraph
1, stand in their usual order, or are they transposed? In what different
places may they stand? Does either phrase need to be transposed for
emphasis or for clearness? Explain the punctuation. Begin 2 with _the
lonely hall_, and notice that the sentence is thrown out of harmony with
the other sentences, and that the assassin is for the moment lost sight of.
Can you tell why? Notice that in the latter part of 2 the door is
mentioned, and that 3 begins with _of this_, referring to the door. Can you
find any other arrangement by which 3 will follow 2 so naturally? Can you
change 3 so as to make the reference of _it_ clearer? What is the office of
the _till_ clause? Does the clause following the semicolon modify anything?
Would you call such a clause _dependent_, or would you call it
_independent_? Explain the punctuation of 3.

Give the effect of changing _resting_ in 1, paragraph 2, to the assertive
form. Find in 1 a pronoun used adverbially and a phrase used as object
complement. Expand the phrase into a clause. Give the modifiers of _passes_
in 2. Read the first part of 3 and put the explanatory phrase in place of
_it_. What is the office of the _though_ clause? Find in this a clause
doing the work of a noun and tell its office. In 4 would _his_ in place of
_the_ before _aged_ and before _heart_ be ambiguous? If so, why? Find in
this paragraph an infinitive phrase used independently. Find the object
complement of _ascertains_ in 6. Are 7 and 8 identical in meaning?

Give the modifiers of _passes_ in paragraph 3. Explain the _as_ clause.
What does _that_ in 1, paragraph 4, stand for? What kind of clause is
introduced by _where_ in 3? By _which_ in 4? Expand the _as_ clause in 4
and tell its office. Find in 4 and 5 an infinitive phrase and a participle
phrase used independently. Tell the office of the _that_ clauses in 5 and
6, and of the _who_ clause in 6.

+The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+.--Look (1) at the order of the
sentences in each paragraph, and (2) at the order of the paragraphs
themselves. Neither order could be changed without making the stream of
events run up hill, for each order is the order in which the events
happened. Look (3) at the unity of each paragraph, and (4) at the larger
unity of the four paragraphs--that of each paragraph determined by the
relation of each sentence to the sub-topic of the paragraph, and that of
the four paragraphs determined by their relation to the general topic of
the extract. We add that the obvious reference of the repeated _he_ to the
same person, and of _that_ and _secret_ in paragraph 4 demonstrates both
unities. Look (5), and lastly, at the fact that the sub-topic of each
paragraph is found in the first line of each paragraph. Could Webster have
done more to make his thought seen and felt?

+The Style of the Author.+--This selection is largely +Narrative.+ Its
leading facts were doubtless supplied by the testimony given in the case;
but much of the matter must have come from the imagination of Mr. Webster.
Everything is so skillfully and vividly put that the story, touched with
description, has all the effect of an argument. One quality of it is its
clearness, its perspicuity. It is noticeable also that very little imagery
is used, that the language is plain language. But it is impossible to read
these paragraphs without being most profoundly impressed with their energy,
their force.

The style is forcible because (1) the +subject-matter+ is +easily grasped+;
(2) because +simple words+ are +used+, words understood even by children;
because (3) these +words+ are +specific+ and +individual+, not generic;
because (4) of the grateful +variety of sentences+; (5) because of the
+prevalence of short sentences+; because (6) of the +repetition of the
thought+ in successive sentences; because (7), though the murder took place
some time before, Webster speaks as if it were +now taking place+ in our
very sight. Find proof of what we have just said--proof of (2), in
paragraphs 1 and 3; proof of (3), in sentences 3, 4, and 5, paragraph 2;
proof of (4), throughout; of (5) and (6), in paragraphs 3 and 4; and of
(7), in the first three paragraphs.

In paragraph 3, a remarkable sameness prevails. The sentences here are
framed largely on one plan. They are mostly of the same length. The order
of the words in them is the same; often the words are the same; and, even
when they are not, those in one clause or sentence seem to suggest those in
the next. This sameness is not accidental. The more real the murderer's
fancied security is made in this paragraph to appear, the more startling in
the next paragraph will be the revelation of his mistake. Hence no novelty
in the words or in their arrangement is allowed to distract our attention
from the dominant thought. The sentences are made to look and sound alike
and to be alike that their effect may be cumulative. The principle of
+Parallel Construction+, the principle that sentences similar in thought
should be similar in form, is here allowed free play.

TO THE TEACHER.--Do not be discouraged should your pupils fail to grasp at
first all that is here taught. They probably will not fully comprehend it
till they have returned to it several times. It will, however, be
impossible for them to study it without profit. The meaning will grow upon
them. In studying our questions and suggestions the pupils should have the
"Extract" before them, and should try to verify in it all that is taught
concerning it.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints+.--You have now reached a point where it becomes
necessary to divide the eight great classes of words into subclasses.

You have learned that nouns are the names of things; as, _girl_, _Sarah_.
The name _girl_ is held in common by all girls, and hence does not
distinguish one girl from another. The name _Sarah_ is not thus held in
common; it does distinguish one girl from other girls. Any name which
belongs in common to all things of a class we call a +Common Noun+; and any
particular name of an individual, distinguishing this individual from
others of its class, we call a +Proper Noun+. The "proper, or individual,
names" which in Rule 1, Lesson 8, you were told to begin with capital
letters are proper nouns.

Such a word as _wheat_, _music_, or _architecture_ does not distinguish one
thing from others of its class; there is but one thing in the class denoted
by each, each thing forms a class by itself; and so we call these words
common nouns.

In Lesson 8 you learned that pronouns are not names, but words used instead
of names. Any one speaking of himself may use _I_, _my_, etc., instead of
his own name; speaking to one, he may use _you_, _thou_, _your_, _thy_,
etc., instead of that person's name; speaking of one, he may use _he_,
_she_, _it_, _him_, _her_, etc., instead of that one's name. These little
words that by their form denote the speaker, the one spoken to, or the one
spoken of are called +Personal Pronouns+.

By adding _self_ to _my_, _thy_, _your_, _him_, _her_, and _it_, and
_selves_ to _our_, _your_, and _them_, we form what are called +Compound
Personal Pronouns+, used either for emphasis or to reflect the action of
the verb back upon the actor; as, _Xerxes himself_ was the last to cross
the Hellespont; The _mind_ cannot see _itself_.

If a noun, or some word or words used like a noun, is to be modified by a
clause, the clause is introduced by _who_, _which_, _what_, or _that_; as,
I know the man _that_ did that. These words, relating to words in another
clause, and binding the clauses together, are called +Relative Pronouns+.
By adding _ever_ and _soever_ to _who_, _which_, and _what_, we form what
are called the +Compound Relative Pronouns+ _whoever_, _whosoever_,
_whichever_, _whatever_, etc., used in a general way, and without any word
expressed to which they relate.

If the speaker is ignorant of the name of a person or a thing and asks for
it, he uses _who_, _which_, or _what_; as, _Who_ did that? These pronouns,
used in asking questions, are called +Interrogative Pronouns+.

Instead of naming things a speaker may indicate them by words pointing them
out as near or remote; as, Is _that_ a man? What is _this_? or by words
telling something of their number, order, or quantity; as, _None_ are
perfect; The _latter_ will do; _Much_ has been done. Such words we call
+Adjective Pronouns+.


+A _Noun_ is the name of anything+. [Footnote: Most common nouns are
derived from roots that denote qualities. The root does not necessarily
denote the most essential quality of the thing, only its most obtrusive
quality. The sky, a shower, and scum, for instance, have this most
noticeable feature; they are a cover, they hide, conceal. This the root
+sku+ signifies, and _sku_ is the main element in the words _sky_, _shower_
(Saxon _scu:r_), and _scum_ that name these objects, and in the adjective

A noun denoting at first only a single quality of its object comes
gradually, by the association of this quality with the rest, to denote them

Herein proper nouns differ from common. However derived, as _Smith_ is from
the man's office of smoothing, or _White_ from his color, the name soon
ceases to denote quality, and becomes really meaningless.]

+A _Common Noun_ is a name which belongs to all things of a class+.

+A _Proper Noun_ is the particular name of an individual+.

+Remark+.--It may be well to note two classes of common nouns--_collective_
and _abstract_. A +Collective Noun+ is the name of a number of things taken
together; as, _army_, _flock_, _mob_, _jury_. An +Abstract Noun+ is the
name of a quality, an action, a being, or a state; as, _whiteness_,
_beauty_, _wisdom_, (the) _singing_, _existence_, (the) _sleep_.

+A _Pronoun_ is a word used for a noun+. [Footnote: In our definition and
general treatment of the pronoun, we have conformed to the traditional
views of grammarians; but it may be well for the student to note that
pronouns are something more than mere substitutes for nouns, and that their
primary function is not to prevent the repetition of nouns.

1. Pronouns are not the names of things. They do not, like nouns, lay hold
of qualities and name things by them. They seize upon relations that
objects sustain to each other and denote the objects by these relations.
_I_, _you_, and _he_ denote their objects by the relations these objects
sustain to the act of speaking; _I_ denotes the speaker; _you_, the one
spoken to; and _he_ or _she_ or _it_, the one spoken of. _This_ and _that_
denote their objects by the relative distance of these from the speaker;
_some_ and _few_ and _others_ indicate parts separated from the rest.
Gestures could express all that many pronouns express.

2. It follows that pronouns are more general than nouns. Any person, or
even an animal or a thing personified, may use _I_ when referring to
himself, _you_ when referring to the one addressed, and _he_, _she_, _it_,
and _they_ when referring to the person or persons, the thing or things,
spoken of--and all creatures and things, except the speaker and the one
spoken to, fall into the last list. Some pronouns are so general, and hence
so vague, in their denotement that they show the speaker's complete
ignorance of the objects they denote. In, _Who_ did it? _Which_ of them did
you see? the questioner is trying to find out the one for whom _Who_
stands, and the person or thing that _Which_ denotes. To what does _it_
refer in, _it_ rains; How is _it_ with you?

3. Some pronouns stand for a phrase, a clause, or a sentence, going before
or coming after. _To be_ or _not to be_--_that_ is the question. _It_ is
doubtful _whether the North Pole will ever be reached_. _The sails turned,
the corn was ground_, after _which_ the wind ceased. _Ought you to go_? I
cannot answer _that_. In the first of these sentences, _that_ stands for a
phrase; in the last, for a sentence. _It_ and _which_ in the second and
third sentences stand for clauses.

4. _Which_, retaining its office as connective, may as an adjective
accompany its noun; as, I craved his forbearance a little longer, _which
forbearance_ he allowed me.]

+A _Personal Pronoun_ is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker,
the one spoken to, or the one spoken of+.

+A _Relative Pronoun_ is one that relates to some preceding word or words
and connects clauses+.

+An _Interrogative Pronoun_ is one with which a question is asked+.

+An _Adjective Pronoun_ is one that performs the offices of both an
adjective and a noun+.

The simple personal pronouns are:--_I, thou, you, he, she, and it_.

The compound personal pronouns are:--_Myself, thyself, yourself, himself,
herself, and itself_.

The simple relative pronouns are:--_Who, which, that_, and _what_.
[Footnote: _As_, in such sentences as this: Give such things _as_ you can
spare, may be treated as a relative pronoun. But by expanding the sentence
_as_ is seen to be a conjunctive adverb--Give such things _as those are
which_ you can spare.

_But_ used after a negative is sometimes called a "negative relative" =
_that not_; as, There is not a man here _but_ would die for such a cause.
When the sentence is expanded, _but_ is found to be a preposition--There is
not a man here _but_ (= _except_) the one who would die, etc.]

The compound relative pronouns are:--

_Whoever or whosoever, whichever_ or _whichsoever_, _whatever_ or

The interrogative pronouns are:--

_Who, which_, and _what_.

Some of the more common adjective pronouns are:--

All, another, any, both, each, either, enough, few, former, latter, little,
many, much, neither, none, one, other, same, several, such, that, these,
this, those, whole, etc. [Footnote: The adjective pronouns _this, that,
these_, and _those_ are called +Demonstrative+ pronouns. _All, any, both,
each, either, many, one, other_, etc. are called +Indefinite+ pronouns
because they do not point out and particularize like the demonstratives.
_Each, either_, and _neither_ are also called +Distributives+.

But for the fact that such words as _brave, good_, etc. in the phrases _the
brave_, _the good_, etc. describe--which pronouns never do--we might call
them adjective pronouns. They may be treated as nouns, or as adjectives
modifying nouns to be supplied.

Some adjectives preceded by _the_ are abstract nouns; as, the _grand_, the
_sublime_, the _beautiful_.]

The word, phrase, or clause in the place of which a pronoun is used is
called an +Antecedent+.

+Direction+.--_Point out the pronouns and their antecedents in these

Jack was rude to Tom, and always knocked off his hat when he met him. To
lie is cowardly, and every boy should know it. Daniel and his companions
were fed on pulse, which was to their advantage. To lie is to be a coward,
which one should scorn to be. To sleep soundly, which is a blessing, is to
repair and renew the body.

+Remark+.--When the interrogatives _who_, _which_, and what introduce
indirect questions, it is not always easy to distinguish them from
relatives whose antecedents are omitted. For example--I found _who_ called
and _what_ he wanted; I saw _what_ was done. The first sentence does not
mean, I found the _person who_ called and the _thing that_ he wanted.
"_Who_ called" and "_what_ he wanted" here suggest questions--questions
referred to but not directly asked. I saw _what_ was done = I saw the
_thing that_ was done. No question is suggested.

It should be remembered that _which_ and _what_ may also be interrogative
adjectives; as, _Which_ side won? _What_ news have you?

+Direction+.--_Analyze these sentences, and parse all the pronouns_:--

1. Who steals my purse steals trash.
2. I myself know who stole my purse.
3. They knew whose house was robbed.
4. He heard what was said.
5. You have guessed which belongs to me.
6. Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad.
7. What was said, and who said it?
8. It is not known to whom the honor belongs.
9. She saw one of them, but she cannot positively tell which.
10. Whatever is done must be done quickly.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO THE TEACHER.--In the recitation of all Lessons containing errors for
correction, the pupils' books should be closed, and the examples should be
read by you. To insure care in preparation, and close attention in the
class, read some of the examples in their correct form. Require specific

+Caution+.--Avoid _he_, _it_, _they_, or any other pronoun when its
reference to an antecedent would not be clear. Repeat the noun instead,
quote the speaker's exact words, or recast the sentence.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and relieve these sentences of their

+Model+.--The lad cannot leave his father; for, if he should leave _him_,
_he_ would die = The lad cannot leave his father; for, if he should leave
_his father, his father_ would die. Lysias promised his father never to
abandon _his_ friends = Lysias gave his father this promise: "I will never
abandon _your_ (or _my_) friends."

1. Dr. Prideaux says that, when he took his commentary to the bookseller,
   he told him it was a dry subject.
2. He said to his friend that, if he did not feel better soon, he thought
   he had better go home.

(This sentence may have four meanings. Give them all, using what you may
suppose were the speaker's words.)

3. A tried to see B in the crowd, but could not because he was so short.
4. Charles's duplicity was fully made known to Cromwell by a letter of his
   to his wife, which he intercepted.
5. The farmer told the lawyer that his bull had gored his ox, and that it
   was but fair that he should pay him for his loss.

+Caution+.--Do not use pronouns needlessly.

+Direction+.--_Write, these sentences, omitting needless pronouns_:--

1. It isn't true what he said.
2. The father he died, the mother she followed, and the children they were
   taken sick.
3. The cat it mewed, and the dogs they barked, and the man he shouted.
4. Let every one turn from his or her evil ways.
5. Napoleon, Waterloo having been lost, he gave himself up to the English.

+Caution+.--In addressing a person, do not, in the same sentence, use the
two styles of the pronoun.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. Thou art sad, have you heard bad news?
2. You cannot always have thy way.
3. Bestow thou upon us your blessing.
4. Love thyself last, and others will love you.

+Caution+.--The pronoun _them_ should not be used for the adjective
_those_, nor the pronoun _what_ for the conjunction _that_. [Footnote:
_What_ properly introduces a noun clause expressing a direct or an indirect
question, but a declarative noun clause is introduced by the conjunction
_that_. _But_ may be placed before this conjunction to give a negative
force to the noun clause.

This use of _but_ requires careful discrimination. For example--"I have no
fear _that_ he will do it"; "I have no fear _but that_ he will do it." The
former indicates certainty that he will not do it, and the latter certainty
that he will do it. "No one doubts but that he will do it" is incorrect,
for it contains three negatives--_no_, _doubts_, and _but_. Two negatives
may be used to affirm, but not three. The intended meaning is, "_No_ one
_doubts_ that he will do it," or "_No_ one believes _but_ that he will do
it," or "Every one _believes_ that he will do it."

_But what_, for _but that_ or _but_, is also incorrectly used to connect an
adverb clause; as, "He is not so bad _but what_ he might be worse." For
this office of _but_ or _but that_ in an adverb clause, see Lesson 109,
fourth "Example" of the uses of _but_.]

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. Hand me them things.
2. Who knows but what we may fail?
3. I cannot believe but what I shall see them men again.
4. We ought to have a great regard for them that are wise and good.

+Caution+.--The relative _who_ should always represent persons; _which_,
brute animals and inanimate things; _that_, persons, animals, and things;
and _what_, things. The antecedent of _what_ should not be expressed.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. Those which say so are mistaken.
2. He has some friends which I know.
3. He told that what he knew.
4. The dog who was called Fido went mad.
5. The lion whom they were exhibiting broke loose.
6. All what he saw he described.
7. The horse whom Alexander rode was named Bucephalus.

+Direction+.--_Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these
five Cautions_.



+Caution+.--Several connected relative clauses relating to the same
antecedent require the same relative pronoun.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. It was Joseph that was sold into Egypt, who became governor of the land,
   and which saved his father and brothers from famine.
2. He who lives, that moves, and who has his being in God should not forget
3. This is the horse which started first, and that reached the stand last.
4. The man that fell overboard, and who was drowned was the first mate.

+Caution+.--When the relative clause is not restrictive, [Footnote: See
Lesson 61.] _who_ or _which_, and not _that_, is generally used.

+Example+.--Water, _which_ is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, covers
three-fourths of the earth's surface.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. The earth is enveloped by an ocean of air, that is a compound of oxygen.
   and nitrogen.
2. Longfellow, that is the most popular American poet, has written
   beautiful prose.
3. Time, that is a precious gift, should not be wasted.
4. Man, that is born of woman, is of few days and full of trouble.

+Caution+.--The relative _that_ [Footnote: _That_ is almost always
restrictive. However desirable it may seem to confine _who_ and _which_ to
unrestrictive clauses, they are not confined to them in actual practice.

The wide use of _who_ and _which_ in restrictive clauses is not accounted
for by saying that they occur after _this_, _these_, _those_, and _that_,
and hence are used to avoid disagreeable repetitions of sounds. This may
frequently be the reason for employing _who_ and _which_ in restrictive
clauses; but usage authorizes us to affirm (1) that _who_ and _which_ stand
in such clauses oftener without, than with, _this_, _these_, _those_, or
_that_ preceding them, and (2) that they so stand oftener than _that_
itself does. Especially may this be said of _which_.] should be used
instead of _who_ or _which_ (1) when the antecedent names both persons and
things; (2) when _that_ would prevent ambiguity; and (3) when it would
sound better than _who_ or _which_, _e. g._, after _that_, _same_, _very_,
_all_, the interrogative _who_, the indefinite _it_, and adjectives
expressing quality in the highest degree.

+Example+.--He lived near a _pond that_ was a nuisance. (_That_ relates to
_pond_--the pond was a nuisance. _Which_ might have, for its antecedent,
_pond_, or the whole clause _He lived near a pond_; and so its use here
would be ambiguous.)

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. The wisest men who ever lived made mistakes.
2. The chief material which is used now in building is brick.
3. Who who saw him did not pity him?
4. He is the very man whom we want.
5. He is the same who he has ever been.
6. He sent his boy to a school which did him good.
7. All who knew him respected him.
8. It was not I who did it.
9. That man that you just met is my friend.

+Caution+.--The relative clause should be placed as near as possible to the
word which it modifies.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. The pupil will receive a reward from his teacher who is diligent.
2. Her hair hung in ringlets, which was dark and glossy.
3. A dog was found in the street that wore a brass collar.
4. A purse was picked up by a boy that was made of leather.
5. Claudius was canonized among the gods, who scarcely deserved the name of
6. He should not keep a horse that cannot ride.

+Caution+.--When _this_ and _that_, _these_ and _those_, _the one_ and _the
other_ refer to things previously mentioned, _this_ and _these_ refer to
the last mentioned, and _that_ and _those_ to the first mentioned; _the
one_ refers to the first mentioned, and _the other_ to the last mentioned.
When there is danger of obscurity, repeat the nouns.

+Examples+.--_High_ and _tall_ are synonyms: _this_ may be used in speaking
of what grows--a tree; _that_, in speaking of what does not grow--a
mountain. Homer was a genius; Virgil, an artist: in _the one_ we most
admire the man; in _the other_, the work.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. Talent speaks learnedly at the bar; tact, triumphantly: this is
   complimented by the bench; that gets the fees.
2. Charles XII. and Peter the Great were sovereigns: the one was loved by
   his people; the other was hated.
3. The selfish and the benevolent are found in every community; these are
   shunned, while those are sought after.

+Direction+.--_Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these
five Cautions_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Miscellaneous Errors.

+Direction+.--_Give the Cautions which these sentences violate, and correct
the errors_:--

1. He who does all which he can does enough.
2. John's father died before he was born.
3. Whales are the largest animals which swim.
4. Boys who study hard, and that study wisely make progress.
5. There are miners that live below ground, and who seldom see the light.
6. He did that what was right.
7. General Lee, that served under Washington, had been a British officer.
8. A man should sit down and count the cost who is about to build a house.
9. They need no spectacles that are blind.
10. They buy no books who are not able to read.
11. Cotton, that is a plant, is woven into cloth.
12. Do you know that gentleman that is speaking?
13. There is no book which, when we look through it sharply, we cannot find
    mistakes in it.
14. The reporter which said that was deceived.
15. The diamond, that is pure carbon, is a brilliant gem.
16. The brakemen and the cattle which were on the train were killed.
17. _Reputation_ and _character_ do not mean the same thing: the one
    denotes what we are; the other, what we are thought to be.
18. Kosciusko having come to this country, he aided us in our Revolutionary
19. What pleased me much, and which was spoken of by others, was the
    general appearance of the class.
20. There are many boys whose fathers and mothers died when they were
21. Witness said that his wife's father came to his house, and he ordered
    him out, but he refused to go.
22. Shall you be able to sell them boots?
23. I don't know but what I may.
24. Beer and wine are favorite drinks abroad: the one is made from grapes;
    the other, from barley.
25. There is one marked difference between shiners and trout; these have
    scales, and those have not.
26. They know little of men, who reason thus.
27. Help thyself, and Heaven will help you.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--You learned in Lesson 12 that, in the sentences
_Ripe apples are healthful, Unripe apples are hurtful_, the adjectives
_ripe_ and _unripe_ limit, or narrow, the application of _apples_ by
describing, or by expressing certain qualities of the fruit. You learned
also that _the_, _this_, _an_, _no_, _some_, and _many_ limit, or narrow,
the application of any noun which they modify, as _apple_ or _apples_, by
pointing out the particular fruit, by numbering it, or by denoting the
quantity of it.

Adjectives which limit by expressing quality are called +Descriptive
Adjectives+; and those which limit by pointing out, numbering, or denoting
quantity are called +Definitive Adjectives+.

Adjectives modifying a noun do not limit, or narrow, its application (1)
when they denote qualities that always belong to the thing named; as,
_yellow_ gold, the _good_ God, the _blue_ sky; or (2) when they are
attribute complements, denoting qualities asserted by the verb; as, The
fields were _green_; The ground was _dry_ and _hard_.


+An _Adjective_ is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+.[Footnote:
Pronouns, like nouns, are often modified by an "appositive" adjective, that
is, an adjective joined loosely without restricting: thus--_Faint_ and
_weary_, _he_ struggled on or, _He_, _faint_ and _weary_, struggled on.
Adjectives that complete the predicate belong as freely to pronouns as to

+A _Descriptive Adjective_ is one that modifies by expressing quality+.

+A _Definitive Adjective_ is one that modifies by pointing out, numbering,
or denoting quantity+.[Footnote: The definitive adjectives _one_, _two_,
_three_, etc.; _first_, _second_, _third_, etc. are called +Numeral+
adjectives. _One_, _two_, _three_, etc. are called +Cardinal+ numerals; and
_first_, _second_, _third_--etc. are called +Ordinal+ numerals]

The definitive adjectives _an_ or _a_ and _the_ are commonly called
+Articles+. _An_ or _a_ is called the _Indefinite Article_, and _the_ is
called the _Definite Article_.

A noun may take the place of an adjective.

+Examples+.--_London_ journals, the _New York_ press, _silver_ spoons,
_diamond_ pin, _state_ papers, _gold_ bracelet.

+Direction+.--_Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives
below, and name such as do not limit_:--

Able statesmen, much rain, ten mice, brass kettle, small grains, Mansard
roof, some feeling, all men, hundredth anniversary, the Pitt diamond, the
patient Hannibal, little thread, crushing argument, moving spectacle, the
martyr president, tin pans, few people, less trouble, this toy, any book,
brave Washington, Washington market, three cats, slender cord, that libel,
happy children, the broad Atlantic, The huge clouds were dark and
threatening, Eyes are bright, What name was given? Which book is wanted?

+Direction+.--_Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives in
Lessons 80 and 81, and tell whether they denote color, motion, shape,
position, size, moral qualities, or whether they modify in some other way_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--_An_ and _a_ are different forms of _one_. _An_ is used before
vowel sounds. For the sake of euphony, _an_ drops _n_ and becomes _a_
before consonant sounds.[Footnote: Some writers still use _an_ before words
beginning with unaccented _h_; as, _an historian_.]

+Examples+.--_An_ inkstand, _a_ bag, _a_ historian, _a_ humble petition,
_an_ hour (_h_ is silent), _a_ unit (_unit_ begins with the consonant sound
of _y_), such _a_ one (_one_ begins with the consonant sound of _w_).
+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

A heir, a inheritance, an hook, an ewer, an usurper, a account, an uniform,
an hundred, a umpire, an hard apple, an hero.

+Caution.+--_An_ or _a_ is used to limit a noun to one thing of a class--to
any one. _The_ is used to distinguish (1) one thing or several things from
others, and (2) one class of things from other classes.

+Explanation.+--We can say _a horse_, meaning _any one horse_; but we
cannot say, _A gold_ is heavy, This is a poor kind of a _gas_, William Pitt
received the title of _an earl_ because _gold, gas,_ and _earl_ are here
meant to denote each the whole of a class, and a limits its noun to one
thing of a class.

_The horse_ or _the horses_ must be turned into _the lot_. Here _the_
before _horse_ distinguishes a certain animal, and the before horses
distinguishes certain animals, from others of the same class; and _the_
before _lot_ distinguishes the field from the yard or the stable--things in
other classes. _The horse_ is a noble animal. Here _the_ distinguishes
_this class_ of animals from other classes. But we cannot say, _The man_
(meaning the race) is mortal, _The anger_ is a short madness, _The truth_
is eternal, _The poetry_ and _the painting_ are fine arts, because _man,
anger, truth, poetry,_ and _painting_ are used in their widest sense, and
name things that are sufficiently distinguished without _the_.

+Direction.+--_Study the Caution as explained, and correct these errors_:--

1. This is another kind of a sentence.
2. Churchill received the title of a duke.
3. A _hill_ is from the same root as _column_.
4. Dog is a quadruped.
5. I expected some such an offer.
6. The woman is the equal of man.
7. The sculpture is a fine art.
8. Unicorn is kind of a rhinoceros.
9. Oak is harder than the maple.

+Caution.+--Use _an_, _a_, or _the_ before _each_ of two or more connected
adjectives, when these adjectives modify different nouns, expressed or
understood; but, when they modify the same noun, the article should not be

+Explanation+.--_A cotton and a silk umbrella_ means two umbrellas--one
cotton and the other silk; the word umbrella is understood after _cotton_.
_A cotton and silk umbrella_ means one umbrella partly cotton and partly
silk; _cotton_ and _silk_ modify the same noun--_umbrella_. _The wise and
the good_ means two classes; _the wise and good_ means one class.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution as explained, and correct these errors_:--

1. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
2. The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres.
3. The right and left hand.
4. A Pullman and Wagner sleeping-coach.
5. The fourth and the fifth verses.
6. The fourth and fifth verse.
7. A Webster's and Worcester's dictionary.

+Caution+.--Use _an_, _a_, or _the_ before each of two or more connected
nouns denoting things that are to be distinguished from each other or

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. There is a difference between the sin and sinner.
2. We criticise not the dress but address of the speaker.
3. A noun and pronoun are alike in office.
4. Distinguish carefully between an adjective and adverb.
5. The lion, as well as tiger, belongs to the cat tribe.
6. Neither the North Pole nor South Pole has yet been reached.
7. The secretary and treasurer were both absent.

(_The secretary and treasurer was absent_--referring to one person--is

+Caution+.--_A few_ and _a little_ mean _some_ as opposed to _none_; _few_
means _not many_, and _little_ means _not much_.

+Examples+.--He saved _a few_ things and _a little_ money from the wreck.
_Few_ shall part where many meet. _Little_ was said or done about it.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. There are a few pleasant days in March, because it is a stormy month.
2. He saved a little from the fire, as it broke out in the night.
3. Few men live to be & hundred years old, but not many.
4. Little can be done, but not much.

+Direction+.--_Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Choose apt adjectives, but do not use them needlessly; avoid
such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it.

+Remark+.--The following adjectives are obviously needless: _Good_ virtues,
_verdant_ green, _painful_ toothache, _umbrageous_ shade.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution carefully, and correct these errors_:--

1. It was splendid fun.
2. It was a tremendous dew.
3. He used less words than the other speaker.
4. The lad was neither docile nor teachable.
5. The belief in immortality is common and universal.
6. It was a gorgeous apple.
7. The arm-chair was roomy and capacious.
8. It was a lovely bun, but I paid a frightful price for it.

+Caution+.--So place adjectives that there can be no doubt as to what you
intend them to modify. If those forming a series are of different rank,
place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. If they are of
the same rank, place them where they will sound best--generally in the
order of length, the shortest first.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. A new bottle of wine.
2. The house was comfortable and large.
3. A salt barrel of pork.
4. It was a blue soft beautiful sky.
5. A fried dish of bacon.
6. We saw in the distance a precipitous, barren, towering mountain.
7. Two gray fiery little eyes.
8. A docile and mild pupil.
9. A pupil, docile and mild.

+Direction+.--_Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these
two Cautions_.

Miscellaneous Errors.

+Direction+.--_Give the Cautions which these expressions violate, and
correct the errors_:--

1. I can bear the heat of summer, but not cold of winter.
2. The North and South Pole.
3. The eldest son of a duke is called _a marquis_.
4. He had deceived me, and so I had a little faith in him.
5. An old and young man.
6. A prodigious snowball hit my cheek.
7. The evil is intolerable and not to be borne.
8. The fat, two lazy men.
9. His penmanship is fearful.
10. A white and red flag were flying.
11. His unusual, unexpected, and extraordinary success surprised him.
12. He wanted a apple, an hard apple.
13. A dried box of herrings.
14. He received a honor.
15. Such an use!
16. The day was delightful and warm.
17. Samuel Adams's habits were unostentatious, frugal, and simple.
18. The victory was complete, though a few of the enemy were killed or
19. The truth is mighty and will prevail.
20. The scepter, the miter, and coronet seem to me poor things for great
    men to contend for.
21. A few can swim across the Straits of Dover, for the width is great and
    the current strong.
22. I have a contemptible opinion of you.
23. She has less friends than I.



+Introductory Hints+.--You learned in Lesson 28 that in saying _Washington
captured_ we do not fully express the act performed. Adding _Cornwallis_,
we complete the predicate by naming the one that receives the act that
passes over from the doer. _Transitive_ means _passing over_, and so all
verbs that represent an act as passing over from a doer to a receiver are
called +Transitive Verbs+. If we say _Cornwallis was captured by
Washington_, the verb is still transitive; but the object, _Cornwallis_,
which names the receiver, is here the subject of the sentence, and not, as
before, the object complement. You see that the object, the word that names
the receiver of the act, may be the subject, or it may be the object

All verbs that, like _fall_ in _Leaves fall_, do not represent the act as
passing over to a receiver, and all that express mere being or state of
being are called +Intransitive Verbs+.

A verb transitive in one sentence; as, He _writes_ good English, may be
intransitive in another; as, He _writes_ well--meaning simply He _is_ a
good _writer_. A verb is transitive only when an object is expressed or
obviously understood.

_Washington captured Cornwallis_. Here _captured_ represents the act as
having taken place in past time. _Tense_ means _time_, and hence this verb
is in the past tense. _Cornwallis captured, the war speedily closed_. Here
_captured_ is, as you have learned, a participle; and, representing the act
as past at the time indicated by _closed_, it is a past participle. Notice
that _ed_ is added to _capture_ (final _e_ is always dropped when _ed_ is
added) to form its past tense and its past participle. All verbs that form
the past tense and the past participle by adding _ed_ to the present are
called +Regular Verbs+.

All verbs that do not form the past tense and the past participle by adding
_ed_ to the present; as, _fall, fell, fallen; go, went, gone_, are called
+Irregular Verbs+.

_Early, hereafter, now, often, soon, presently_, etc., used to modify any
verb--as, _will go_ in, I _will go soon_--by expressing time, are called
+Adverbs of Time+.

_Away, back, elsewhere, hence, out, within_, etc., used to modify any
verb--as, _will go_ in, I _will go away_--by expressing direction or place,
are called +Adverbs of Place+.

_Exceedingly, hardly, quite, sufficiently, too, very_, etc., used to modify
a word--as the adjective _hot_ in, The tea is _very hot_--by expressing
degree, are called +Adverbs of Degree+.

_Plainly, so, thus, well, not_, [Footnote: It may be worth remarking that
while there are many negative nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and
conjunctions in oar language, negation is more frequently expressed in
English by the adverb than by any other part of speech--than by all other
parts of speech. A very large per cent of these adverbs modify the verb.
That is to say, it is largely through the adverb that what the predicate
expresses is declared not to be true of the thing named by the subject. It
is very suggestive that much of what is said consists of denial--is taken
up in telling not what is true of things but what is not true of them.

"The negative particle in our language is simply the consonant +n+. In
Saxon it existed as a word +ne+; but we have lost that word, and it is now
a letter only, which, enters into many words, as into _no, not, nought,
none, neither, nor, never_."--_Earle_.

_No_ and _yes_ (_nay_ and _yea_), when used to answer Questions, show how
the thought presented is regarded, and may therefore be classed with
adverbs of manner. They are sometimes called _independent adverbs_. They
seem to modify words omitted in the answer but contained in the question;
as, Did you see him? _No_ = I did _no_ (_not_) see him; Will you go? _Yes_.
The force of _yes_ may be illustrated by substituting _certainly_--Will you
go? _Certainly_. _Certainly_ I will go, or I will _certainly_ go. As _no_
and _yes_ represent or suggest complete answers, they may be called
+sentence-words+.] etc., used to modify a word--as, _spoke_ in, He _spoke
plainly_--by expressing manner, are called +Adverbs of Manner+.

_Hence, therefore, why_, etc., used in making an inference or in expressing
cause--as, It is dark, _hence_, or _therefore_, the sun is down; _Why_ is
it dark?--are called +Adverbs of Cause+.

Some adverbs fall into more than one class; as, _so_ and _as_.

Some adverbs, as you have learned, connect clauses, and are therefore
called +Conjunctive Adverbs+.


+A _Verb_ is a word that asserts action, being, or state of being+.


+A _Transitive Verb_ is one that requires an object+. [Footnote: The
+object+ of a transitive verb, that is, the name of the receiver of the
action, may be the +object complement+, or it may be the +subject+; as,
Brutus stabbed _Caesar_; _Caesar_ was stabbed by Brutus. See page 187.]

+An _Intransitive Verb_ is one that does not require an object+.


+A _Regular Verb_ is one that forms its past tense and past participle by
adding _ed_ to the present+.

+An _Irregular Verb_ is one that does not form its past tense and past
participle by adding _ed_ to the present+.

+An _Adverb_ is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
[Footnote: Adverbs have several exceptional uses. They may be used
independently; as, _Now, there_ must be an error here. They may modify a
phrase or a preposition; as, He came _just_ in time; It went _far_ beyond
the mark. They may modify a clause or a sentence; as, He let go _simply_
because he was exhausted; _Certainly_ you may go.

It may also be noted here that adverbs are used interrogatively; as, _How,
when_, and _where_ is this to be done? and that they may add to the office
of the adverb that of the conjunction; as, I go _where_ I am sent.]


+_Adverbs of Time_ are those that generally answer the question+, _When?_

+_Adverbs of Place_ are those that generally answer the question+, _Where?_

+_Adverbs of Degree_ are those that generally answer the question+, _To
what extent?_

+_Adverbs of Manner_ are those that generally answer the question+, _In
what way?_

+_Adverbs of Cause_ are those that generally answer the question+, _Why?_

+Direction+.--_Point out the transitive and the intransitive, the regular
and the irregular verbs in Lesson_ 14, _and classify the adverbs_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Choose apt adverbs, but do not use them needlessly or instead
of other forms of expression; avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate

+Examples+.--I could _ill_ (not _illy_) afford the time. Do _as_ (not
_like_) I do. A diphthong is _the union of_ two vowels (not _where_ or
_when_ two vowels unite) in the same syllable. _This_ (not _this here_ or
_this 'ere_) sentence is correct. He wrote _that_ (not _how that_) he had
been sick. The belief in immortality is _universally_ held (not
_universally_ held _everywhere_). His nose was _very_ (not _terribly_ or
_frightfully_) red,

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. I returned back here yesterday.
2. He had not hardly a minute to spare.
3. The affair was settled amicably, peaceably, and peacefully.
4. It was awfully amusing.
5. This 'ere knife is dull.
6. That 'ere horse has the heaves.
7. A direct quotation is when the exact words of another are copied.
8. I do not like too much sugar in my tea.
9. He seldom or ever went home sober.
10. The belief in immortality is universally held by all.
11. I am dreadfully glad to hear that.
12. This is a fearfully long lesson.
13. He said how that he would go.

+Caution+.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you
intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also. They seldom stand
between _to_ and the infinitive. [Footnote: Instances of the "cleft, or
split, infinitive"--the infinitive separated from its _to_ by an
intervening adverb--are found in Early English and in English all the way
down, Fitzedward Hall and others have shown this.

But there can be no question that usage is overwhelmingly against an
adverb's standing between _to_ and the infinitive. Few writers ever place
an adverb there at all; and these few, only an occasional adverb, and that
adverb only occasionally.

Whether the adverb should be placed before the _to_ or after the infinitive
is often a nice question, sometimes to be determined by the ear alone. It
should never stand, however, where it would leave the meaning ambiguous or
in any way obscure.]

+Examples+.--_I only_ rowed across the river = _I only_ (= _alone_, an
adjective), and no one else, rowed etc., or = I _only rowed_ etc., +but+
did not _swim_ or _wade_. I rowed _only across_ the river = _across_, not
_up_ or _down_ etc. I rowed across the _river only_ = the _river only_, not
the _bay_ etc. _Merely to see_ (not _to merely see_) her was sufficient.
_Not every collegian_ is a scholar (not _Every collegian_ is _not_ a

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. I have thought of marrying often.
2. We only eat three meals a day.
3. He hopes to rapidly recruit.
4. All is not gold that glitters.
5. He tries to distinctly speak.
6. He tries distinctly to speak.
7. All that glitters is not gold.
8. His sagacity almost appears miraculous.

+Caution+.--Unless you wish to affirm, do not use two negative words so
that they shall contradict each other. [Footnote: _Not in_frequently we use
two negatives to make an affirmation; as, He is _not un_just; _No_ man can
do _nothing_.]

+Examples+.--No one _has_ (not _hasn't_) yet reached the North Pole. _No
un_pleasant circumstance happened (proper, because it is intended to

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. No other reason can never be given.
2. He doesn't do nothing.
3. He isn't improving much, I don't think.
4. There must be something wrong when children do not love neither father
   nor mother.
5. He isn't no sneak.
6. Charlie Ross can't nowhere be found.

+Caution+.--Do not use adverbs for adjectives or adjectives for adverbs.

+Examples+.--The moon looks _calm_ and _peaceful_ (not _calmly_ and
_peacefully_, as the words are intended to describe the moon). The moon
looks down _calmly_ and _peacefully_ on the battlefield (not _calm_ and
_peaceful_, as the words are intended to tell how she performs the act). I
slept _soundly_ (not _good_ or _sound_).

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. It was a softly blue sky.
2. The river runs rapid.
3. You must read more distinct.
4. It was an uncommon good harvest.
5. She is most sixteen.
6. The discussion waxed warmly.
7. The prima donna sings sweet.
8. She is miserable poor.
9. My head feels badly.
10. He spoke up prompt.
11. He went most there.
12. He behaved very bad.
13. This is a mighty cold day.

+Direction+.--_Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these
four Cautions_.

       *       *       *       *       *



Miscellaneous Errors.

+Direction+.--_Give the Cautions which these sentences violate, and correct
the errors_:--

1. Begin it over again.
2. This can be done easier.
3. The house is extra warm.
4. Most every one goes there.
5. I have a pencil that long.
6. He hasn't his lesson, I don't believe.
7. A circle can't in no way be squared.
8. This is a remarkable cold winter.
9. The one is as equally deserving as the other.
10. Feathers feel softly.
11. It is pretty near finished.
12. Verbosity is when too many words are used.
13. It is a wonderful fine day.
14. He is some better just now.
15. Generally every morning we went to the spring.
16. I wish to simply state this point.
17. He tried to not only injure but to also ruin the man.
18. The lesson was prodigiously long.
19. The cars will not stop at this station only when the bell rings.
20. He can do it as good as any one can.
21. Most everybody talks so.
22. He hasn't yet gone, I don't believe.
23. He behaved thoughtlessly, recklessly, and carelessly.
24. That 'ere book is readable.
25. I will not go but once.
26. I can't find out neither where the lesson begins nor where it ends.
27. They were nearly dressed alike.
28. The tortured man begged that they would kill him again and again.
29. The fortune was lavishly, profusely, and prodigally spent.
30. I am real glad to see you.
31. We publish all the information, official and otherwise.



+DEFINITION.--A _Preposition_ is a word that introduces a phrase modifier,
and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word


+Direction+.--_We give below a list of the prepositions in common use. Make
short sentences in which each of these shall be aptly used. Use two or
three of them in a single sentence if you wish_:--


+Remarks+.--_Bating_, _concerning_, _during_, _excepting_,
_notwithstanding_, _pending_, _regarding_, _respecting_, _saving_, and
_touching_ are still participles in form and sometimes are such in use. But
in most cases the participial meaning has faded out of them, and they
express mere relations.

_But_, _except_, and _save_, in such a sentence as, All _but_ or _except_
or _save him_ were lost, are usually classed with prepositions.

The phrases _aboard of_, _according to_, _along with_, _as to_, _because
of_ (by cause of), _from among_, _from between_, _from under_, _instead of_
(in stead of), _out of_, _over against_, and _round about_ may be called
compound prepositions. But _from_ in these compounds; as, He crawled _from
under the ruins_, really introduces a phrase, the principal term of which
is the phrase that follows _from_.

Many prepositions become adverbs when the noun which ordinarily follows
them is omitted; as, He rode _past_; He stands _above_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+To the Teacher+.--Most prepositions express relations so diverse, and so
delicate in their shades of distinction that a definition of them based
upon etymology would mislead. A happy and discriminating use of
prepositions can be acquired only by an extended study of good authors. We
do below all that we think it prudent or profitable to do with them. He
should he a man of wide and careful reading who assumes to teach pupils
that such prepositions, and such only, should be used with certain words.
Nowhere in grammar is dogmatism more dangerous than here. That grammarian
exceeds his commission who marks out for the pupils' feet a path narrower
than the highway which the usage of the best writers and speakers has cast
up. [Footnote: Take a single illustration. Grammarians, in general, teach
that _between_ and _betwixt_ "refer to two," are used "only when two things
or sets of things are referred to." Ordinarily, and while clinging to their
derivation, they are so used, but are they always, and must they be? "There
was a hunting match agreed upon betwixt a lion, an ass, and a fox."--
_L'Estrange_. "A Triple Alliance between England, Holland, and Sweden."--
_J. B. Green_. "In the vacant space between Persia, Syria, Egypt, and
Ethiopia."--_Gibbon_. "His flight between the several worlds."--_Addison_.
"The identity of form between the nominative, accusative, and vocative
cases in the neuter." --_G. P. Marsh_. "The distinction between these three
orders has been well expressed by Prof. Max Mueller."--_W. D. Whitney_.
"Between such dictionaries as Worcester's, The Imperial, and Webster's."--
_B. G. White_. "Betwixt the slender boughs came glimpses of her ivory
neck."--_Bryant_. With what clumsy circumlocutions would our speech be
filled if prepositions could never slip the leash of their etymology! What
simple and graceful substitute could be found for the last phrase in this
sentence, for instance: There were forty desks in the room with ample space
_between them_?

"We observe that _between_ is not restricted to two."--_Imperial
Dictionary_. "In all senses _between_ has been, from its earliest
appearance, extended to more than two. It is still the only word available
to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and
individually--_among_ expressing a relation to them collectively and
vaguely: we should not say, 'The choice lies among the three candidates,'
or 'to insert a needle among the closed petals of a flower.'"--_The New
English Dictionary_.

We have collected hundreds of instances of _between_ used by good writers
with three or more.

Guard against such expressions as _between each_ page; a choice _between
one_ of several.]

+Direction+.--_We give below a few words with the prepositions which
usually accompany them. Form short sentences containing these words
combined with each of the prepositions which follow them, and note
carefully the different relations expressed by the different

(Consult the dictionary for both the preposition and the accompanying

Abide _at, by, with_; accommodate _to, with_; advantage _of, over_; agree
_to, with_; angry _at, with_; anxious _about, for_; argue _against, with_;
arrive _at, in_; attend _on_ or _upon, to_; careless _about, in, of_;
communicate _to, with_; compare _to, with_; consists _in, of_; defend
_against, from_; die _by, for, of_; different _from_; disappointed _in,
of_; distinguish _by, from_; familiar _to, with_; impatient _for, of_;
indulge _in, with_; influence _on, over, with_; insensible _of, to_; sat
_beside_; many _besides_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Do with the following words as with those above_:--

Inquire _after, for, into, of_; intrude _into, upon_; joined _to, with_;
liberal _of, to_; live _at, in, on_; look _after, for, on_; need _of_;
obliged _for, to_; part _from, with_; placed _in, on_; reconcile _to,
with_; regard _for, to_; remonstrate _against, with_; sank _beneath, in,
into_; share _in, of, with_; sit _in, on_ or _upon_; smile _at, on_;
solicitous _about, for_; strive _for, with, against_; taste _for, of_;
touch _at, on_ or _upon_; useful _for, in, to_; weary _of, in, with_; yearn
_for, towards_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Great care must be used in the choice of prepositions.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. This book is different to that.
2. He stays to home.
3. They two quarreled among each other.
4. He is in want for money.
5. I was followed with a crowd.
6. He fell from the bridge in the water. [Footnote: _In_ denotes motion or
   rest in a condition or place; _into_, change from one condition or place
   into another. "When one is outside of a place, he may be able to get
   _into_ it; but he cannot do anything _in_ it until he has got _into_
7. He fought into the Revolution. [See previous footnote]
8. He bears a close resemblance of his father.
9. He entered in the plot.
10. He lives at London.
11. He lives in the turn of the road.
12. I have need for a vacation.
13. The child died with the croup.
14. He took a walk, but was disappointed of it.
15. He did not take a walk; he was disappointed in it.
16. He was accused with felony.
17. School keeps upon Monday.
18. Place a mark between each leaf.
19. He is angry at his father.
20. He placed a letter into my hands.
21. She is angry with your conduct.
22. What is the matter of him?
23. I saw him over to the house.
24. These plants differ with each other.
25. He boards to the hotel.
26. I board in the hotel.
27. She stays at the North.
28. I have other reasons beside these. [Footnote: Beside = _by the side
    of_; besides = _in addition to_.]
29. You make no use with your talents.
30. He threw himself onto the bed.
31. The boys are hard to work.
32. He distributed the apples between his four brothers.
33. He went in the park.
34. You can confide on him.
35. He arrived to Toronto.
36. I agree with that plan.
37. The evening was spent by reading.
38. Can you accommodate me in one of those?
39. What a change a century has produced upon our country!
40. He stays to school late.
41. The year of the Restoration plunged Milton in bitter poverty.
42. The Colonies declared themselves independent from England.
43. I spent my Saturdays by going in the country, and enjoying myself by

       *       *       *       *       *


feeble word to end a sentence _with_," we are told. Sentences (10) and
(13), Lesson 59, (2), Lesson 60, and many in succeeding Lessons violate the
rule so carelessly expressed.

Of this rule, laid down without regard to usage and thoughtlessly repeated,
Prof. Austin Phelps says, "A preposition as such is by no means a feeble
word;" and he quotes a burst of feeling from Rufus Choate which ends thus:
"Never, so long as there is left of Plymouth Rock a piece large enough to
make a gunflint _of_!" "This," Professor Phelps says, "is purest idiomatic
English." He adds, "The old Scotch interrogative, 'What _for_?' is as pure
English in written as in colloquial speech."

Sentences containing two prepositions before a noun are exceedingly common
in English--"The language itself is inseparable _from_, or essentially a
part _of_, the _thoughts_." Such sentences have been condemned, but the
worst that can be urged against them is, that they lack smoothness. But
smoothness is not always desirable.

Sentences containing a transitive verb and a preposition before a noun are
very common--"Powerless to _affect_, or to be affected _by_, the _times_."]

CAUTION.--Do not use prepositions needlessly.

DIRECTION.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. I went there at about noon.
2. In what latitude is Boston in?
3. He came in for to have a talk.
4. I started a week ago from last Saturday.
5. He was born August 15, in 1834.
6. A good place to see a play is at Wallack's.
7. He went to home.
8. I was leading of a horse about.
9. By what states is Kentucky bounded by?
10. His servants ye are to whom ye obey.
11. Where are you going to?
12. They admitted of the fact.
13. Raise your book off of the table.
14. He took the poker from out of the fire.
15. Of what is the air composed of?
16. You can tell by trying of it.
17. Where have you been to?
18. The boy is like to his father.
19. They offered to him a chair.
20. This is the subject of which I intend to write about.
21. Butter brings twenty cents for a pound.
22. Give to me a knife.
23. I have a brother of five years old.
24. To what may Italy be likened to?
25. In about April the farmer puts in his seed.
26. Jack's favorite sport was in robbing orchards.
27. Before answering of you, I must think.
28. He lives near to the river.
29. Keep off of the grass.

+Caution+.--Do not omit prepositions when they are needed.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. There is no use going there.
2. He is worthy our help.
3. I was prevented going.
4. He was banished the country.
5. He is unworthy our charity.
6. What use is this to him?
7. He was born on the 15th August, 1834.
8. Adam and Eve were expelled the garden.
9. It was the size of a pea.
10. Egypt is the west side of the Red Sea.
11. His efforts were not for the great, but the lowly.
12. He received dispatches from England and Russia.

+Direction+.--_Point out the prepositions in Lessons_ 80 _and_ 81, _and
name the words between which, in sense, they show the relation_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--The stars look down upon the roofs of the living
_and_ upon the graves of the dead, _but neither_ the living _nor_ the dead
are conscious of their gaze. Here _and_, _but_, _neither_, and _nor_
connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank, or order, and so are
called +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+. Both clauses may be independent, or both
dependent but of equal rank.

At the burning of Moscow, it seemed _as_ [it would seem] _if_ the heavens
were lighted up _that_ the nations might behold the scene. Here _as_, _if_,
and _that_ connect each a lower, or subordinate, clause to a clause of
higher rank, and hence are called +Subordinate Conjunctions+. One clause
may be independent and the other dependent, or both dependent but of
unequal rank.


+A _Conjunction_ is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses+.
[Footnote: Some of the co-ordinate conjunctions, as _and_ and _but_,
connect, in thought, sentences separated by the period, and even connect
paragraphs. In analysis and parsing, we regard only the individual sentence
and treat such connectives as introductory.]

+_Co-ordinate Conjunctions_ are such as connect words, phrases, or clauses
of the same rank+.

+_Subordinate Conjunctions_ are such as connect clauses of different rank+.

+Remark+.--Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper; some are
relative pronouns; and some are adverbs or adverb phrases, which, in
addition to their office as modifiers, may, in the absence of the
conjunction, take its office upon themselves and connect the clauses.

To THE TEACHER.--We do not advise the memorizing of these lists. The pupils
should he able to name the different groups, and some of the most common
connectives of each group.

+Co-ordinate Connectives.+ [Footnote: +Copulative+ conjunctions join parts
in the same line of thought; +Adversative+ conjunctions join parts
contrasted or opposed in meaning; +Alternative+ conjunctions join parts so
as to offer a choice or a denial. See Lesson 76.]

+Copulative+.--_And_, _both_ ... _and_, _as well as_ [Footnote: The _as
well as_ in, _He, as well as I, went_; and not that in, _He is as well as I
am_.] are conjunctions proper. _Accordingly_, _also_, _besides_,
_consequently_, _furthermore_, _hence_, _likewise_, _moreover_, _now_,
_so_, _then_, and _therefore_ are conjunctive adverbs.

+Adversative+.--_But_ and _whereas_ are conjunctions proper. _However_,
_nevertheless_, _notwithstanding_, _on the contrary_, _on the other hand_,
_still_, and _yet_ are conjunctive adverbs.

+Alternative+.--_Neither_, _nor_, _or_, _either_ ... _or_, and _neither_
... _nor_ are conjunctions proper. _Else_ and _otherwise_ are conjunctive

+Subordinate Connectives.+


_That_, _what_, _whatever_, _which_, _whichever_, _who_, and _whoever_ are
relative pronouns. _When_, _where_, _whereby_, _wherein_, and _why_ are
conjunctive adverbs.


_Time_.--_After_, _as_, _before_, _ere_, _since_, _till_, _until_, _when_,
_whenever_, _while_, and _whilst_ are conjunctive adverbs.

_Place_.--_Whence_, _where_, and _wherever _are conjunctive adverbs.

_Degree_.--_As_, _than_, _that_, and _the_ are conjunctive adverbs,
correlative with adjectives or adverbs.

_Manner_.--_As_ is a conjunctive adverb, correlative, often, with an
adjective or an adverb.

_Real Cause_.--_As_, _because_, _for_, _since_, and _whereas_ are
conjunctions proper.

_Evidence_.--_Because_, _for_, and _since_ are conjunctions proper.

_Purpose_.--_In order that_, _lest_ (= _that not_), _that_, and _so that_
are conjunctions proper.

Condition.--Except, if, in case that, on condition that, provided, provided
that, and unless are conjunctions proper.

_Concession_.--_Although_, _if_ (= _even if_), _notwithstanding_, _though_,
and _whether_ are conjunctions proper. _However_ is a conjunctive adverb.
_Whatever_, _whichever_, and _whoever_ are relative pronouns used


_If_, _lest_, _that_, and _whether_ [Footnote: Etymologically, _whether_ is
restricted to two; but it has burst the bonds of its etymology and is very
freely used with three or more.

The repetition of _whether_, like the use of it with three or more things,
has been condemned, but usage allows us to repeat it.

_Whether or no_ is also allowed.] are conjunctions proper. _What_, _which_,
and _who_ are pronouns introducing questions; and _how_, _when_, _whence_,
_where_, and _why_ are conjunctive adverbs introducing questions.

+Direction+.--_Study the lists above_, _and point out all the connectives
in Lessons_ 80 and 81, _telling which are relative pronouns_, _which are
conjunctions proper_, _and which are conjunctive adverbs_.

+TO THE TEACHER+.--If the pupils lack maturity, or if it is found necessary
to abridge this work in order to conform to a prescribed course of study,
the six following Lessons may be omitted. The authors consider these
exercises very profitable, but their omission will occasion no break in the

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Write twenty compound sentences whose clauses shall be
joined by connectives named in the three subdivisions of co-ordinate

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined
by connectives of adjective clauses, and by connectives of adverb clauses
of time, place, degree, and manner_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined
by connectives of adverb clauses of real cause, evidence, purpose,
condition, and concession, and by connectives of noun clauses_.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Direction+.--_Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below, and
what are the usual connectives of such clauses, and then analyze the

+As+ may connect a clause expressing +manner+, +time+, +degree+, +cause+,
or +evidence+.

1. Mount Marcy is not so high as Mount Washington.
2. As I passed by, I found an altar with this inscription.
3. It must be raining, as men are carrying umbrellas.
4. Ice floats, as water expands in freezing.
5. Half-learned lessons slip from the memory, as an icicle from the hand.

+If+ may connect a clause expressing +condition+, +time+, or +concession+,
or it may introduce a +noun+ clause.

6. If a slave's lungs breathe our air, that moment he is free.
7. If wishes were horses, all beggars might ride.

8. Who knows if one of the Pleiads is really missing? [Footnote: Many
   grammarians say that _if_ here is improperly used for _whether_. But
   this use of _if_ is common with good authors in early and in modern

9. If the flights of Dryden are higher, Pope continues longer on the wing.

+Lest+ may connect a clause expressing +purpose+, or it may introduce a
+noun+ clause.

10. England fears lest Russia may endanger British rule in India.
11. Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation.

+Since+ may connect a clause expressing +time+, +cause+, or +evidence+.

12. It must be raining, since men are carrying umbrellas.
13. Many thousand years have gone by since the Pyramids were built.
14. Since the Puritans could not be convinced, they were persecuted.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Direction+.--_Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below, and
what are the usual connectives of such clauses, and then analyze the

+That+ may connect a +noun+ clause, an +adjective+ clause, or a clause
expressing +degree+, +cause+, or +purpose+.

1. The Pharisee thanked God that he was not like other men.
2. Vesuvius threw its lava so far that Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried.
3. The smith plunges his red-hot iron into water that he may harden the
4. Socrates said that he who might be better employed was idle.
5. We never tell our secrets to people that pump for them.

+When+ may connect a clause expressing +time+, +cause+, or +condition+, an
+adjective+ clause or a +noun+ clause, or it may connect +co-ordinate+

6. The Aztecs were astonished when they saw the Spanish horses.
7. November is the month when the deer sheds its horns.
8. When the future is uncertain, make the most of the present.
9. When the five great European races left Asia is a question.
10. When judges accept bribes, what may we expect from common people?
11. The dial instituted a formal inquiry, when hands, wheels, and weights
    protested their innocence.

+Where+ may connect a clause expressing +place+, an +adjective+ clause, or
a +noun+ clause.

12. No one knows the place where Moses was buried.
13. Where Moses was buried is still a question.
14. No one has been where Moses was buried.

+While+ may connect a clause expressing +time+ or +concession+, or it may
connect +co-ordinate+ clauses.

15. Napoleon was a genius, while Wellington was a man of talents.
16. While we sleep, the body is rebuilt.
17. While Charles I. had many excellent traits, he was a bad king.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Direction+.--_Use the appropriate connectives, and change these compound
sentences to complex without changing the meaning, and then analyze

(Let one dependent clause be an adjective clause; let three express cause;
five, condition; and two, concession.)

1. Caesar put the proffered crown aside, but he would fain have had it.
2. Take away honor and imagination and poetry from war, and it becomes
3. His crime has been discovered, and he must flee.
4. You must eat, or you will die.
5. Wisdom is the principal thing, therefore get wisdom.
6. Let but the commons hear this testament, and they would go and kiss dead
   Caesar's wounds.
7. Men are carrying umbrellas; it is raining.
8. Have ye brave sons? look in the next fierce brawl to see them die.
9. The Senate knows this, the Consul sees it, and yet the traitor lives.
10. Take away the grandeur of his cause, and Washington is a rebel instead
    of the purest of patriots.
11. The diamond is a sparkling gem, and it is pure carbon.

+Direction+.--_Two of the dependent clauses below express condition, and
three express concession. Place an appropriate conjunction before each, and
then analyze the sentences_:--

12. Should we fail, it can be no worse for us.
13. Had the Plantagenets succeeded in France, there would never have been
    an England.
14. Were he my brother, I could do no more for him.
15. Were I so disposed, I could not gratify the reader.
16. Were I [Admiral Nelson] to die this moment, _more frigates_ would be
    found written on my heart.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Some conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs may stand in
correlation with other words. _And_ may be accompanied by _both_; _as_, by
_as_, by _so_, or by _such_; _but_ (_but also_ and _but likewise_), by _not
only_; _if_, by _then_; _nor_, by _neither_; _or_, by _either_ or by
_whether_; _that_, by _so_; _the_, by _the_; _though_, by _yet_; _when_, by
_then_; and _where_, by _there_.

Be careful that the right words stand in correlation, and stand where they

+Examples+.--Give me neither riches _nor_ (not _or_) poverty. I cannot find
either my book _or_ (not _nor_) my hat. Dogs not only bark (not _not only
dogs_ bark) but also bite. _Not only dogs_ (not _dogs not only_) bark but
wolves also. He _was neither_ (not _neither was_) rich nor poor.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution, and correct these errors_:--

1. He not only gave me advice but also money.
2. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture or a
   dissimulation of my real sentiments.
3. She not only dressed richly but tastefully.
4. Neither Massachusetts or Pennsylvania has the population of New York.
5. Thales was not only famous for his knowledge of nature but also for his
   moral wisdom.
6. Not only he is successful but he deserves to succeed.
7. There was nothing either strange nor interesting.

+Caution+.--Choose apt connectives, but do not use them needlessly or
instead of other parts of speech.

+Examples+.--Seldom, _if_ (not _or_) ever, should an adverb stand between
_to_ and the infinitive. I will try _to_ (not _and_) do better next time.
No one can deny _that_ (not _but_) he has money. [Footnote: See foot-note,
page 176.] A harrow is drawn over the ground, _which_ (not _and which_)
covers the seed. Who doubts _that_ (not _but that_ or _but what_) Napoleon
lived [Footnote: See foot-note, page 176.] The doctor had scarcely left
_when_ (not _but_) a patient called. He has no love for his father _or_
(not _nor_) for his mother (the negative _no_ is felt throughout the
sentence, and need not be repeated by _nor_). He was not well, _nor_ (not
_or_) was he sick (_not_ is expended in the first clause; _nor_ is needed
to make the second clause negative).

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. The excellence of Virgil, and which he possesses beyond other poets, is
2. Try and recite the lesson perfectly to-morrow.
3. Who can doubt but that there is a God?
4. No one can eat nor drink while he is talking.
5. He seldom or ever went to church.
6. No one can deny but that the summer is the hottest season.
7. I do not know as I shall like it.
8. He said that, after he had asked the advice of all his friends, that he
   was more puzzled than before.

+Caution+.--_Else_, _other_, _otherwise_, _rather_, and adjectives and
adverbs expressing a comparison are usually followed by _than_. But _else_,
_other_, and _more_, implying something additional, but not different in
kind, may be followed by _but_ or _besides_.

+Examples+.--A diamond is nothing _else than_ carbon. Junius was no _other
than_ Sir Philip Francis. The cripple cannot walk _otherwise than_ on
crutches. Americans would _rather_ travel _than_ stay at home. I rose
_earlier than_ I intended. He can converse on _other_ topics _besides_

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. Battles are fought with other weapons besides pop-guns.
2. The moon is something else but green cheese.
3. Cornwallis could not do otherwise but surrender.
4. It was no other but the President.
5. He no sooner saw the enemy but he turned and ran.

+Caution+.--Two or more connected words or phrases referring to another
word or phrase should each make good sense with it.

+Examples+.--I have always (add _said_) and still do say that labor is
honorable. Shakespeare was greater than any other poet that has (add
_lived_) or is now alive. The boy is stronger than his sister, but not so
tall (not The boy is _stronger_, but not _so tall, as_ his sister).

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Examples, and correct these

1. Gold is heavier, but not so useful, as iron.
2. Gold is not so useful, but heavier, than iron.
3. This is as valuable, if not more so, than that.
4. Faithful boys have always and always will learn their lessons.
5. Bread is more nutritious, but not so cheap, as potatoes.
6. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has, is, or may be

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Correct these errors, telling what Caution each violates_:--

1. Carthage and Rome were rival powers: this city in Africa, and that in
   Europe; the one on the northern coast of the Mediterranean, the other on
   the southern.
2. The right and left lung were diseased.
3. The right and the left lungs were diseased.
4. My friend has sailed for Europe, who was here yesterday.
5. There are some men which are always young.
6. I cannot think but what God is good.
7. Thimbles, that are worn on the finger, are used in pushing the needle.
8. A told B that he was his best friend.
9. Them scissors are very dull.
10. Ethan Allen, being a rash man, he tried to capture Canada.
11. The lady that was thrown from the carriage, and who was picked up
    insensible, died.
12. The eye and ear have different offices.
13. I only laugh when I feel like it.
14. This is the same man who called yesterday.
15. He was an humble man.
16. He was thrown forward onto his face.
17. A knows more, but does not talk so well, as B.
18. The book cost a dollar, and which is a great price.
19. At what wharf does the boat stop at?
20. The music sounded harshly.
21. He would neither go himself or send anybody.
22. It isn't but a short distance.
23. The butter is splendid.
24. The boy was graceful and tall.
25. He hasn't, I don't suppose, laid by much.
26. One would rather have few friends than a few friends.
27. He is outrageously proud.
28. Not only the boy skated but he enjoyed it.
29. He has gone way out West.
30. Who doubts but what two and two are four?
31. Some people never have and never will bathe in salt water.
32. The problem was difficult to exactly understand.
33. It was the length of your finger.
34. He bought a condensed can of milk.
35. The fish breathes with other organs besides lungs.
36. The death is inevitable.
37. She wore a peculiar kind of a dress.
38. When shall we meet together?
39. He talks like you do. [Footnote: The use of the verb _do_ as a
    substitute for a preceding verb is one of the most remarkable idioms in
    the language. In its several forms it stands for the finite forms and
    for the infinitive and the participle of verbs, transitive and
    intransitive, regular and irregular. It prevents repetition, and hence
    is euphonic; it abbreviates expression, and therefore is energetic.]
40. This word has a different source than that.
41. No sooner did I arrive when he called.

       *       *       *       *       *



+What+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+, an +interrogative pronoun+, a
+definitive adjective+, an +adverb+, and an +interjection+.

+Examples+.--He did _what_ was right. _What_ did he say? _What_ man is
happy with the toothache? _What_ with confinement and _what_ with bad diet,
the prisoner found himself reduced to a skeleton (here _what_ = _partly_,
and modifies the phrase following it). _What_! you a lion?

+That+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+, an +adjective+ +pronoun+, a
+definitive adjective+, a +conjunction+, and a +conjunctive adverb+.

+Examples+.--He _that_ does a good deed is instantly ennobled. _That_ is
heroism. _That_ man is a hero. We eat _that_ we may live. It was so cold
_that_ the mercury froze.

+But+ may be used as a +conjunction+, an +adverb+, an +adjective+, and a

+Examples+.--The ostrich is a bird, _but_ (adversative conjunction) it
cannot fly. Not a sparrow falls _but_ (= unless--subordinate conjunction)
God wills it. He was all _but_ (conjunction or preposition) dead = He was
all dead, _but_ he was not dead, or He was all (anything in that line)
_except_ (the climax) dead. No man is so wicked _but_ (conjunctive adverb)
he loves virtue = No man is wicked _to that degree in which_ he loves _not_
virtue (_so_ = _to that degree_, _but_ = _in which not_). We meet _but_
(adverb = _only_) to part. Life is _but_ (adjective = _only_) a dream. All
_but_ (preposition = _except_) him had fled. The tears of love were
hopeless _but_ (preposition = _except_) for thee. I cannot _but_ remember =
I cannot do anything _but_ (preposition = _except_) remember. There is no
fireside _but_ (preposition) has one vacant chair (_except the one which_
has); or, regarding _but_ as a negative relative = _that not_, the sentence
= There is no fireside _that_ has _not_ one vacant chair.

+Direction+.--_Study the examples given above, point out the exact use of
what, that, and but in these sentences, and then analyze the sentences_:--

1. He did nothing but laugh.
2. It was once supposed that crystal is ice frozen so hard that it cannot
   be thawed.
3. What love equals a mother's?
4. There is nobody here but me.
5. The fine arts were all but proscribed.
6. There's not a breeze but whispers of thy name.
7. The longest life is but a day.
8. What if the bee love not these barren boughs?
9. That life is long which answers life's great end.
10. What! I the weaker vessel?
11. Whom should I obey but thee?
12 What by industry and what by economy, he had amassed a fortune.
13. I long ago found that out.
14. One should not always eat what he likes.
15. There's not a white hair on your face but should have its effect of
16. It was a look that, but for its quiet, would have seemed disdain.
17. He came but to return.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Lesson_ 85.--Define a noun. What is the distinction between a common and a
proper noun? Why is _music_ a common noun? What is a collective noun? An
abstract noun? Define a pronoun. What are the classes of pronouns? Define
them. What is an antecedent?

_Lesson_ 86.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting _he_, _it_, and
_they_; the needless use of pronouns; the two styles of the pronoun; the
use of _them_ for _those_, and of _what_ for _that_; and the use of _who_,
_which_, _that_, and _what_.

_Lesson_ 87.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting connected
relative clauses; the relative in clauses not restrictive; the use of
_that_ instead of _who_ or _which_; the position of the relative clause;
and the use of _this_ and _that_, _the one_ and _the other_.

_Lesson_ 89.--Define an adjective. What two classes are there? Define them.
What adjectives do not limit? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 90.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the use of the
adjectives _an_, _a_, and _the_; and the use of _a few_ and _few_, _a
little_ and _little_.

_Lesson_ 91.--Give and illustrate the Cautious respecting the choice and
the position of adjectives.

Lesson_ 93.--Define a verb. What are transitive verbs? Intransitive?
_Illustrate. What distinction is made between the object and the object
complement? What are regular verbs? Irregular? Illustrate. What are the
several classes of adverbs? Define them. What is a conjunctive adverb?

_Lesson_ 93.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the choice and
the position of adverbs, the use of double negatives, and the use of
adverbs for adjectives and of adjectives for adverbs.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Lesson_ 95.--Define a preposition. Name some of the common prepositions.
What is said of some prepositions ending in _ing_? Of _but_, _except_, and
_save_? Of certain compound prepositions? When do prepositions become

_Lesson_ 98.--Give and illustrate the Caution as to the choice of
prepositions. What, in general, is the difference between _in_ and _into_?

_Lesson_ 99.--Give and illustrate the two Cautions relating to the use of

_Lesson_ 100.--Define a conjunction. What are the two great classes of
conjunctions, and what is their difference? What other parts of speech
besides conjunctions connect? What are adverbs that connect called? Into
what three classes are co-ordinate connectives subdivided? Give some of the
conjunctions and the conjunctive adverbs of each class. What three kinds of
clauses are connected by subordinate connectives? The connectives of adverb
clauses are subdivided into what classes? Give a leading connective of each

_Lessons_ 104, 105.--Illustrate two or more offices of each of the
connectives _as_, _if_, _lest_, _since_, _that_, _when_, _where_, and

_Lesson_ 107.--Give and illustrate the four Cautions relating to the
construction of connectives.

_Lesson_ 109.--Illustrate the offices of _what_, _that_, and _but_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Schemes for the Conjunction, Preposition, and Interjection.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

                            | Co-Ordinate. |
THE CONJUNCTION. +Classes+. + Subordinate  + 106-107.
                            |              |

THE PREPOSITION. No Classes (95, 98, 99).

THE INTERJECTION. No Classes (20, 21).


       *       *       *       *       *


+Introductory Hints+.--You have learned that two words may express a
thought, and that the thought may be varied by adding modifying words. You
are now to learn that the meaning or use of a word may be changed by simply
changing its form. The English language has lost most of its inflections,
or forms, so that many of the changes in the meaning and the use of words
are not now marked by changes in form. These changes in the form, the
meaning, and the use of the parts of speech we call their +Modifications+.
[Footnote: Those grammarians that attempt to restrict number, case, mode,
etc.--what we here call _Modifications_--to form, find themselves within
bounds which they continually overleap. They define number, for instance,
as a form, or inflection, and yet speak of nouns "plural in form but
singular in sense," or "singular in form but plural in sense;" that is, if
you construe them rigorously, plural or singular in form but singular or
plural form in sense. They tell you that case is a form, and yet insist
that nouns have three cases, though only two forms; and speak of the
nominative and the objective case of the noun, "although in fact the two
cases are always the same in form"--the two forms always the same in form!

On the other hand, those that make what we call _Modifications_ denote only
relations or conditions of words cannot cling to these abstract terms. For
instance, they ask the pupil to "pronounce and write the possessive of
nouns," hardly expecting, we suppose, that the "condition" of a noun will
be sounded or written; and they speak of "a noun in the singular with a
plural application," in which expression _singular_ must be taken to mean
_singular form_ to save it from sheer nonsense.

We know no way to steer clear of Scylla and keep out of Charybdis but to do
what by the common use of the word we are allowed; viz., to take
_Modifications_ with such breadth of signification that it will apply to
meaning and to use, as well as to form. Primarily, of course, it meant
inflections, used to mark changes in the meaning and use of words. But we
shall use _Modifications_ to indicate changes in meaning and use when the
form in the particular instance is wanting, nowhere, however, recognizing
that as a modification which is not somewhere marked by form.]

Modifications of Nouns and Pronouns.


_The boy shouts_. _The boys shout_. The form of the subject _boy_ is
changed by adding an _s_ to it. The meaning has changed. _Boy_ denotes one
lad; boys, two or more lads. This change in the form and the meaning of
nouns is called +Number+; the word _boy_, denoting one thing, is in the
+Singular Number+; and _boys_, denoting more than one thing, is in the
+Plural Number+. Number expresses only the distinction of one from more
than one; to express more precisely how many, we use adjectives, and say
_two boys_, _four boys_, _many_ or _several boys_.


+_Modifications of the Parts of Speech_ are changes in their form, meaning,
and use+.

+_Number_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes one thing
or more than one.+

+The _Singular Number_ denotes one thing+.

+The _Plural Number_ denotes more than one thing+.


+RULE.--The _plural_ of nouns is regularly formed by adding _s_ to the

To this rule there are some exceptions.

When the singular ends in a sound that cannot unite with that of _s_, _es_
is added and forms another syllable.[Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon, _as_ was the
plural termination for a certain class of nouns. In later English, _as_ was
changed to _es_, which became the regular plural ending; as, _bird-es_,
_cloud-es_. In modern English, _e_ is dropped, and _s_ is joined to the
singular without increase of syllables. But, when the singular ends in an
_s_-sound, the original syllable _es_ is retained, as two hissing sounds
will not unite.]

+Remark+.--Such words as _horse_, _niche_, and _cage_ drop the final _e_
when _es_ is added. See Rule 1, Lesson 137.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns, and note
what letters represent sounds that cannot unite with the sound of +s+_:--

Ax _or_ axe, arch, adz _or_ adze, box, brush, cage, chaise, cross, ditch,
face, gas, glass, hedge, horse, lash, lens, niche, prize, race, topaz.

The following nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a consonant add _es_ without
increase of syllables.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Buffalo, calico, cargo, echo, embargo, grotto, hero, innuendo, motto,
mosquito, mulatto, negro, portico (_oes_ or _os_), potato, tornado,
torpedo, veto, volcano.

The following nouns in _o_ preceded by a consonant add _s_ only.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Canto, domino (_os_ or _oes_), duodecimo, halo, junto, lasso, memento,
octavo, piano, proviso, quarto, salvo, solo, two, tyro, zero (_os_ or

Nouns in _o_ preceded by a vowel add _s_.

Bamboo, cameo, cuckoo, embryo, folio, portfolio, seraglio, trio.

Common nouns [Footnote: See Rule 2, Lesson 127. In old English, such words
as _lady_ and _fancy_ were spelled _ladie_, _fancie_. The modern plural
simply retains the old spelling and adds _s_,] in _y_ after a consonant
change _y_ into _i_ and add _es_ without increase of syllables. Nouns in
_y_ after a vowel add _s_.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Alley, ally, attorney, chimney, city, colloquy, [Footnote: _U_ after _q_ is
a consonant] daisy, essay, fairy, fancy, kidney, lady, lily, money, monkey,
mystery, soliloquy, turkey, valley, vanity.

The following nouns change _f_ or _fe_ into _ves_.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Beef, calf, elf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, staff,
[Footnote: _Staff_ (a stick or support), _staves_ or _staffs_; _staff_ (a
body of officers), _staffs_. The compounds of _staff_ are regular; as,
_flagstaffs_.] thief, wharf, [Footnote: In England, generally _wharfs_.]
wife, wolf.

The following nouns in _f_ and _fe_ are regular.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Belief, brief, chief, dwarf, fife, grief, gulf, hoof, kerchief, proof,
reef, roof, safe, scarf, strife, waif.

(Nouns in _ff_, except _staff_, are regular; as, _cuff_, _cuffs_.)

The following plurals are still more irregular.

+Direction+.--_Learn to form the following plurals_:--

Child, children; foot, feet; goose, geese; louse, lice; man, men; mouse,
mice; Mr., Messrs.; ox, oxen; tooth, teeth; woman, women.

(For the plurals of pronouns, see Lesson 124.)

       *       *       *       *       *



Some nouns adopted from foreign languages still retain their original
plural forms. Some of these take the English plural also.

+Direction+.--_Learn to form the following plurals_:--

Analysis, analyses; antithesis, antitheses; appendix, appendices _or_
appendixes; automaton, automata _or_ automatons; axis, axes; bandit,
banditti _or_ bandits; basis, bases; beau, beaux _or_ beaus; cherub,
cherubim _or_ cherubs; crisis, crises; datum, data; ellipsis, ellipses;
erratum, errata; focus, foci: fungus, fungi _or_ funguses; genus, genera;
hypothesis, hypotheses; ignis fatuus, ignes fatui; madame, mesdames; magus,
magi; memorandum, memoranda _or_ memorandums; monsieur, messieurs; nebula,
nebulae; oasis, oases; parenthesis, parentheses; phenomenon, phenomena;
radius, radii _or_ radiuses; seraph, seraphim _or_ seraphs; stratum,
strata; synopsis, synopses; terminus, termini; vertebra, vertebrae; vortex,
vortices _or_ vortexes.

The following compound nouns, in which the principal word stands first,
vary the first word; as, _sons_-in-law.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of the following words_:--

Aid-de-camp, attorney-at-law, billet-doux, [Footnote: Plural, billets-doux,
pronounced _bil'-la:-doo:z_ ] commander-in-chief, court-martial,
cousin-german, father-in-law, hanger-on, man-of-war.

The following, and most compounds, vary the last word; as, pailfuls,
gentle_men_. [Footnote: _Pails full_ is not a compound. This expression
denotes a number of pails, each full.]

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Courtyard, dormouse, Englishman, fellow-servant, fisherman, Frenchman,
forget-me-not, goose-quill, handful, maid-servant, man-trap, mouthful,
pianoforte, portemonnaie, spoonful, stepson, tete-a-tete, tooth-brush.

The following nouns (except _Norman_) are not compounds of _man_--add _s_
to all.

Brahman, German, Mussulman, Norman, Ottoman, talisman.

The following compounds vary both parts; as, _man-singer_, _men-singers_.

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of each of the following nouns_:--

Man-child, man-servant, woman-servant, woman-singer.

Compounds consisting of a proper name preceded by a title form the plural
by varying either the title or the name; as, the Miss _Clarks_ or the
_Misses_ Clark; but, when the title _Mrs._ is used, the name is usually
varied; as, the Mrs. _Clarks_. [Footnote: Of the two forms, the _Miss
Clarks_ and the _Misses Clark_, we believe that the former is most used by
the best authors. The latter, except in formal notes or when the title is
to be emphasized, is rather stiff if not pedantic. Some authorities say
that, when a numeral precedes the title, the name should always be varied;
as, the _two Miss Clarks_.

The forms, the _Misses Clarks_ and the _two Mrs. Clark_, have little

+Direction+.--_Form the plural of the following compounds_:--

Miss Jones, Mr. Jones, General Lee, Dr. Brown, Master Green.

A title used with two or more different names is made plural; as, _Drs_.
Grimes and Steele, _Messrs_. Clark and Maynard.

+Direction+.--_Put each of the following expressions in its proper form_:--

General Lee and Jackson; Miss Mary, Julia, and Anna Scott; Mr, Green,
Stacy, & Co.

Letters, figures, and other characters add the apostrophe and _s_ to form
the plural; [Footnote: Some good writers form the plural of words named
merely as words, in the same way; as, the _if's_ and _and's_; but the (')
is here unnecessary.] as, _a's, 2's, ----'s_.

+Direction.+--_Form the plural of each of the following characters_:--S,
i, t, +, x, [Dagger], 9, 1, 1/4, [Yough], [Cyrillic: E].

       *       *       *       *       *



Some nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.

+Direction.+--_Learn these plurals and their meanings:_--

   brothers (by blood),
   brethren (of the same society).
   cannons (individuals),
   cannon (in a collective sense).
   dies (stamps for coining),
   dice (cubes for gaming).
   fishes (individuals),
   fish (collection). [Footnote: The names of several sorts of fish, as,
  _herring, shad, trout_, etc. are used in the same way. The compounds of
  _fish_, as _codfish_, have the same form in both numbers.]
   feet (parts of the body),
   foot (foot-soldiers).
   geniuses (men of genius),
   genii (spirits).
   heads (parts of the body),
   head (of cattle).
   horses (animals),
   horse (horse-soldiers).
   indexes (tables of reference),
   indices (signs in algebra).
   pennies (distinct coins),
   pence (quantity in value).
   sails (pieces of canvas),
   sail (vessels).
   shots (number of times fired),
   shot (number of balls).

The following nouns and pronouns have the same form in both numbers.

+Direction.+--_Study the following list:_--

Bellows, corps, [Footnote: The singular is pronounced _ko:r_, the plural
_ko:rz_.] deer, gross, grouse, hose, means, odds, pains (care), series,
sheep, species, swine, vermin, who, which, that (relative), what, any,

(The following have two forms in the plural).

Apparatus, apparatus _or_ apparatuses; heathen, heathen _or_ heathens.

(The following nouns have the same form in both numbers when used with
numerals; they add _s_ in other cases; as, _four score, by scores_.)

Dozen, score, yoke, hundred, thousand.

The following nouns have no plural.

(These are generally names of materials, qualities, or sciences.)

Names of materials when taken in their full or strict sense can have no
plural, but they may be plural when kinds of the material or things made of
it are referred to; as, _cottons, coffees, tins, coppers_.

+Direction.+--_Study the following list of words:_--

Bread, coffee, copper, flour, gold, goodness, grammar (science, not a
book), grass, hay, honesty, iron, lead, marble, meekness, milk, molasses,
music, peace, physiology, pride, tin, water.

The following plural forms are commonly used in the singular.

Acoustics, ethics, mathematics, politics (and other names of sciences in
_ics_), amends, measles, news.

The following words are always plural.

(Such words are generally names of things double or multiform in their

+Direction+.--_Study the following list_:--

Aborigines, annals, ashes, assets, clothes, fireworks, hysterics, literati,
mumps, nippers, oats, pincers, rickets, scissors, shears, snuffers, suds,
thanks, tongs, tidings, trousers, victuals, vitals.

The following were originally singular forms, but they are now treated as

Alms (Anglo-Saxon _aelmaesse_), eaves (A. S. _efese_), riches (Norman
French _richesse_).

The following have no singular corresponding in meaning.

Colors (flag), compasses (dividers), goods (property), grounds (dregs),
letters (literature), manners (behavior), matins (morning service); morals
(character), remains (dead body), spectacles (glasses), stays (corsets),
vespers (evening service).

(The singular form is sometimes an adjective.)

Bitters, greens, narrows, sweets, valuables, etc.

Collective nouns are treated as plural when the individuals in the
collection are thought of, and as singular when the collection as a whole
is thought of.

+Examples+.--The _committee were_ unable to agree, and _they_ asked to be
discharged. A _committee was_ appointed, and _its_ report will soon be

(Collective nouns have plural forms; as, _committees, armies_.)

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Write the plural of the singular nouns and pronouns in the
following list, and the singular of those that are plural; give the Rule or
the Remark that applies to each; and note those that have no plural, and
those that have no singular:_--

Hope, age, bench, bush, house, loss, tax, waltz, potato, shoe, colony,
piano, kangaroo, pulley, wharf, staff, fife, loaf, flagstaff, handkerchief,
Mr., child, ox, beaux, cherubim, mesdames, termini, genus, genius, bagnio,
theory, galley, muff, mystery, colloquy, son-in-law, man-of-war, spoonful,
maid-servant, Frenchman, German, man-servant, Dr. Smith, Messrs. Brown and
Smith, x, 1/2, deer, series, bellows, molasses, pride, politics, news,
sunfish, clothes, alms, goods, grounds, greens, who, that.

+Direction.+--_Give five words that have no plural, five that have no
singular, and five that have the same form in both numbers._

+Direction.+--_Correct the following plurals, and give the Remark that
applies to each:_--

Stagees, foxs, mosquitos, calicos, heros, soloes, babys, trioes, chimnies,
storys, elfs, beefs, scarves, oxes, phenomenons, axises, terminuses,
genuses, mother-in-laws, aldermans, Mussulmen, teeth-brushes, mouthsful,
attorney-at-laws, man-childs, geese-quills, 2s, ms. swines.

       *       *       *       *       *



The number of a noun may be determined not only by its form but also by the
verb, the adjective, and the pronoun used in connection with it.

+Remark.+--_These scissors are_ so dull that I cannot use _them_. The
plurality of _scissors_ is here made known in four ways. In the following
sentence _this, is_, and _it_ are incorrectly used: _This_ scissors _is_ so
dull that I cannot use _it_.

+Direction+.--_Construct sentences in which the number of each of the
following nouns shall be indicated by the form of the verb, by the
adjective, and by the pronoun used in connection with it_:--

(With the singular nouns use the verbs _is, was_, and _has been_; the
adjectives _an, one, this_, and _that_; the pronouns _he, his, him, she,
her, it_, and _its_.)

(With the plural nouns use the verbs _are, were_, and _have been_; the
adjectives _these, those_, and _two_; the pronouns _they, their_, and

Bellows, deer, fish, gross, means, series, species, heathen, trout, iron,
irons, news, eaves, riches, oats, vermin, molasses, Misses, brethren, dice,
head (of cattle), pennies, child, parent, family, crowd, meeting.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which the first three of the following
adjective pronouns shall be used as singular subjects, the fourth as a
plural subject, and the remainder both as singular and as plural

Each, either, neither, both, former, none, all, any.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--_The lion was caged. The lioness was caged_. In the
first sentence something is said about a male lion, and in the second
something is said about a female lion. The modification of the noun to
denote the sex of the thing which it names is called +Gender+. _Lion_,
denoting a male animal, is in the +Masculine Gender; and _lioness_,
denoting a female animal, is in the +Feminine Gender+. Names of things that
are without sex are said to be in the +Neuter Gender+. Such nouns as
_cousin, child, friend, neighbor_ are either masculine or feminine. Such
words are sometimes said to be in the _Common Gender_.

Sex belongs to the thing; and gender, to the noun that names the thing.
Knowing the sex of the thing or its lack of sex, you know the gender of the
noun in English that names it; for in our language gender follows the sex.
But in such modern languages as the French and the German, and in Latin and
Greek, the gender of nouns naming things without reference to sex is
determined by the likeness of their endings in sound to the endings of
words denoting things with sex. The German for table is a masculine noun,
the French is feminine, and the English, of course, is neuter. [Footnote:
In Anglo-Saxon, the mother-tongue of our language, gender was grammatical,
as in the French and the German; but, since the union of the Norman-French
with the Anglo-Saxon to form the English, gender has followed sex.]

       *       *       *       *       *


+_Gender_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes sex+.

+The _Masculine Gender_ denotes the male sex+.

+The _Feminine Gender_ denotes the female sex+.

+The _Neuter Gender_ denotes want of sex+.

Gender Forms.

No English nouns have distinctive neuter forms, but a lew have different
forms to distinguish the masculine from the feminine.

The masculine is distinguished from the feminine in three ways:--

1st. By a difference in the ending of the words.

2d. By different words in the compound names.

3d. By using words wholly or radically different.

_Ess_ is the most common ending for feminine nouns. [Footnote: The suffix
_ess_ came into the English language from the Norman-French. It displaced
the feminine termination of the mother-tongue (A. S. _estre_, old English
_ster_). The original meaning of _ster_ is preserved in _spinster_. _Er_
(A. S. _ere_) was originally a masculine suffix; but it now generally
denotes an agent without reference to sex; as, _read-er, speak-er._]

+Direction+.--_Form the feminine of each of the following masculine nouns
by adding e s s :--_

Author, baron, count, deacon, giant, god (see Rule 3, Lesson 127), heir,
host, Jew, lion, patron, poet, prince (see Rule 1, Lesson 127), prior,
prophet, shepherd, tailor, tutor.

(Drop the vowel _e_ or _o_ in the ending of the masculine, and add _ess_.)

Actor, ambassador, arbiter, benefactor, conductor, director, editor,
enchanter, hunter, idolater, instructor, preceptor, tiger, waiter.

(Drop the masculine _er_ or _or_, and add the feminine _ess_.)

Adventurer, caterer, governor, murderer, sorcerer.

(The following are somewhat irregular.)

+Direction+.--_Learn these forms:_--

Abbot, abbess; duke, duchess; emperor, empress; lad, lass; marquis,
marchioness; master, mistress; negro, negress.

_Ess_ was formerly more common than now. Such words as _editor_ and
_author_ are now frequently used to denote persons of either sex.

+Direction+.--_Give five nouns ending in e r or o r that may be applied to
either sex._

Some words, mostly foreign, have various endings in the feminine.

+Direction+.--Learn the following forms:--

Administrator, administratrix; Augustus, Augusta; beau, belle; Charles,
Charlotte; Cornelius, Cornelia; czar, czarina; don, donna; equestrian,
equestrienne; executor, executrix; Francis, Frances; George, Georgiana;
Henry, Henrietta; hero, heroine; infante, infanta; Jesse, Jessie; Joseph,
Josephine; Julius, Julia _or_ Juliet; landgrave, landgravine; Louis, Louisa
_or_ Louise; Paul, Pauline; signore _or_ signor, siguora; sultan, sultana;
testator, testatrix; widower, widow.

In some compounds distinguishing words are prefixed or affixed.

+Direction+.--_Learn the following forms_:--

Billy-goat, nanny-goat; buck-rabbit, doe-rabbit; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow;
Englishman, Englishwoman; gentleman, gentlewoman; grandfather, grandmother;
he-bear, she-bear; landlord, landlady; man-servant, maid-servant; merman,
mermaid; Mr. Jones, Mrs. or Miss Jones; peacock, peahen.

Words wholly or radically different are used to distinguish the masculine
from the feminine.

(This is a matter pertaining to the dictionary rather than to grammar.)

+Direction+.--_Learn the following forms_:--

Bachelor, maid; buck, doe; drake, duck; earl, countess; friar _or_ monk,
nun; gander, goose; hart, roe; lord, lady; nephew, niece; sir, madam; stag,
hind; steer, heifer; wizard, witch; youth, damsel _or_ maiden.

The pronoun has three gender forms:--Masculine _he_, feminine _she_, and
neuter _it_. [Footnote: _It_, although a neuter form, is used idiomatically
to refer to a male or a female as, _It_ was _John_; _It_ was _Mary_.]

+Direction+.--_Give five examples of each of the three ways of
distinguishing the masculine from the feminine._

       *       *       *       *       *



Gender as a matter of orthography is of some importance, but in grammar it
is chiefly important as involving the correct use of the pronouns _he_,
_she_, and _it_.

When a singular noun is used so as to imply persons of both sexes, it is
commonly represented by a masculine pronoun. [Footnote: When it is
necessary to distinguish the sexes, both the masculine and the feminine
pronoun should be used; as, _Each person was required to name his or her
favorite flower._]

+Example+.--Every _person_ has _his_ faults.

The names of animals are often considered as masculine or feminine without
regard to the real sex.

+Examples+.--The _grizzly bear_ is the most savage of _his_ race. The _cat_
steals upon _her_ prey.

+Remark+.--The writer employs _he_ or _she_ according as he fancies the
animal to possess masculine or feminine characteristics. _He_ is more
frequently employed than _she_.

The neuter pronoun _it_ is often used with reference to animals and very
young children, the sex being disregarded.

+Examples+.--When the _deer_ is alarmed, _it_ gives two or three graceful
springs. The little _child_ reached out _its_ hand to catch the sunbeam.

+Remark+.--_It_ is quite generally used instead of _he_ or _she_, in
referring to an animal, unless some masculine or feminine quality seems to

Inanimate things are often represented as living beings, that is, they are
personified, and are referred to by the pronoun _he_ or _she_.

+Example+.--The _oak_ shall send _his_ roots abroad and pierce thy mold.

+Remark+.--The names of objects distinguished for size, power, or sublimity
are regarded as masculine; and the names of those distinguished for grace,
beauty, gentleness, or productiveness are considered as feminine.
Personification adds beauty and animation to style.

+Direction+.--_Study what is said above, and then fill each of the blanks
in the following sentences with a masculine, a feminine, or a neuter
pronoun, and in each case give the reason for your selection_:--

1. No one else is so much alone in the universe as ---- who denies God.
2. A person's manners not unfrequently indicate ---- morals,
3. Everybody should think for ----.
4. The forest's leaping panther shall yield ---- spotted hide.
5. The catamount lies in the boughs to watch ---- prey.
6. The mocking-bird poured from ---- little throat floods of delirious
7. The wild beast from ---- cavern sprang, the wild bird from ---- grove.
8. The night-sparrow trills ---- song.
9. The elephant is distinguished for ---- strength and sagacity.
10. The bat is nocturnal in ---- habits.
11. The dog is faithful to ---- master.
12. The child was unconscious of ---- danger.
13. The fox is noted for ---- cunning.
14. Belgium's capital had gathered then ---- beauty and ---- chivalry.
15. Despair extends ---- raven wing.
16. Life mocks the idle hate of ---- arch-enemy, Death.
17. Spring comes forth ---- work of gladness to contrive.
18. Truth is fearless, yet ---- is meek and modest.

+Direction+.--_Write sentences in which the things named below shall be
personified by means of masculine pronouns_:--

Death, time, winter, war, sun, river, wind.

+Direction+.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be
personified by means of feminine pronouns:--

Ship, moon, earth, spring, virtue, nature, night, England.

+Caution+.--Avoid changing the gender of the pronoun when referring to the
same antecedent.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. The polar bear is comparatively rare in menageries, as it suffers so
   much from the heat that he is not easily preserved in confinement.
2. The cat, when it comes to the light, contracts and elongates the pupil
   of her eye.
3. Summer clothes herself in green, and decks itself with flowers.
4. War leaves his victim on the field, and homes desolated by it mourn over
   her cruelty.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints+.--Number and gender, as you have learned, are
modifications affecting the meaning of nouns and pronouns--number being
almost always indicated by form, or inflection; gender, sometimes. There
are two modifications which do not refer to changes in the meaning of nouns
and pronouns but to their different uses and relations. These uses and
relations are not generally indicated by form, or inflection.

_I, Paul_, have written. _Paul, thou_ art beside thyself. _He_ brought
_Paul_ before Agrippa. In these three sentences the word _Paul_ has three
different uses, though, as you see, its form is not changed. In the first
it is used to name the speaker; in the second, to name the one spoken to;
in the third, to name the one spoken of. These different uses of nouns and
pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification
called +Person+. _I, thou, and he_ are personal pronouns, and, as you see,
distinguish person by their form. _I_, denoting the speaker, is in the
+First Person+; _thou_, denoting the one spoken to, is in the +Second
Person+; and _he_, denoting the one spoken of, is in the +Third Person+.

Instead of _I_ a writer or speaker may use the plural _we_; and through
courtesy it came to be customary, except among the Friends, or in the
language of prayer and poetry, to use the plural _you_ instead of _thou_.

_The bear killed the man_. _The man killed the bear_. _The bear's grease
was made into hair oil_. In the first sentence the bear is represented as
performing an act; in the second, as receiving an act; in the third, as
possessing something. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the
forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Case+. A
noun used as subject is in the +Nominative Case+; used as object complement
it is in the +Objective Case+; and used to denote possession it is in the
+Possessive Case+.

Some of the pronouns have a special form for each case; but of nouns the
possessive case is the only one that is now marked by a peculiar form. We
inflect below a noun from the Anglo-Saxon, [Footnote: The Anglo-Saxon cases
are nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative; the Latin are
nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative; the
English are nominative, possessive (genitive), and objective.

Hlaford, _lord_.
       Singular.            Plural.
Nom.   hlaford,           hlaford-_as_.
Gen.   hlaford-_es_, hlaford-_a_.
Dat.   hlaford-_e_,  hlaford-_um_.
Acc.   hlaford,           hlaford-_as_.
Voc.   hlaford,           hlaford-_as_.

Dominus, _lord_.
       Singular.          Plural.
Nom.   domin-_us_,   domin-_i_.
Gen.   domin-_i_,    domin-_orum_.
Dat.   domin-_o_,    domin-_is_.
Acc.   domin-_um_,   domin-_os_.
Voc.   domin-_e_,    domin-_i_.
Ab.    domin-_o_,    domin-_is_.

Nom.   lord,
Pos.   lord-_'s_,
Obj.   lord;
Nom.   lord-_s_,
Pos.   lord-_s'_,
Obj.   lord-_s_.]

and one from the Latin, the parent of the Norman-French, in order that you
may see how cases and the inflections to mark them have been dropped in
English. In English, prepositions have largely taken the place of case
forms, and it is thought that by them our language can express the many
relations of nouns to other words in the sentence better than other
languages can by their cumbrous machinery of inflection.


+_Person_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes the
speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of+.

+The _First Person_ denotes the one speaking+.

+The _Second Person_ denotes the one spoken to+.

+The _Third Person_ denotes the one spoken of+.

A noun is said to be of the first person when joined as an explanatory
modifier to a pronoun of the first person; as, _I, John_, saw these things;
_We Americans_ are always in a hurry. [Footnote: It is doubtful whether a
noun is ever of the first person. It may be said that, in the sentence _I,
John, saw these things_, John speaks of his own name, the expression
meaning, _I_, _and my name is John_, etc.]

A noun is of the second person when used as explanatory of a pronoun of the
second person, or when used independently as a term of address; as, _Ye
crags_ and _peaks_; Idle time, _John_, is ruinous.

+Direction+.--_Compose sentences in which there shall be two examples of
nouns and two of pronouns used in each of the three persons_.

+Person Forms+.

Personal pronouns and verbs are the only classes of words that have
distinctive person forms.

+Direction+.--_From the forms of the pronouns given in Lesson 124, select
and write in one list all the first person forms; in another list, all the
second person forms; and in another, all the third person forms._

Person is regarded in grammar because the verb sometimes varies its form to
agree with the person of its subject; as, _I see_; _Thou seest_; _He sees_.


+_Case_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes its office
in the sentence+.

+The _Nominative Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as subject
or as attribute complement+.

+The _Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as
possessive modifier+.

+The _Objective Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as object
complement, or as principal word in a prepositional phrase+.

A noun or pronoun used independently is said to be in the nominative case.

+Examples+.--I am, _dear madam_, your friend. Alas, _poor Yorick_! _He
being dead_, we shall live. _Liberty_, it has fled! (See Lesson 44.)

A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the
word explained--"is put by apposition in the same case."

+Examples+.--The first colonial _Congress_, _that_ of 1774, addressed the
_King_, _George III_. He buys is goods at _Stewart's_, the dry-goods

A noun or pronoun used as objective complement is in the objective case.

+Examples+.--They made him _speaker_. He made it _all_ it is.

A noun or pronoun used as attribute complement of a participle or an
infinitive is in the same case (_Nom._ or _Obj._) as the word to which it
relates as attribute.

+Examples+.--Being an _artist_, _he_ appreciated it. I proved _it_ to be

+Remark+.--When the assumed subject of the participle or the infinitive is
a possessive, the attribute complement is said to be in the nominative
case; as, Its _being he_ [Footnote: The case of _he_ in these examples is
rather doubtful. The nominative and the objective forms of the pronoun
occur so rarely in such constructions that it seems impossible to determine
the usage. It is therefore a matter of no great practical importance.

Some, reasoning from the analogy of the Latin, would put the attribute
complement of the abstract infinitive in the objective, supposing _for_ and
some other word to be understood; as, _For one to be him_, etc. Others,
reasoning from the German, to which our language is closely allied, would
put this complement in the nominative.

The assumed subject of the infinitive being omitted when it is the same in
sense as the principal subject, _him_, in the sentence _I wish_ (_me_ or
_myself_) _to be him_, is the proper form, being in the same case as _me_.]
should make no difference. When the participle or the infinitive is used
abstractly, without an assumed subject, its attribute complement is also
said to be in the nominative case; as, To _be he_ [Footnote: See footnote
above.] is to be a scholar; _Being_ a _scholar_ is not _being_ an _idler_.

+Direction+.--_Study carefully the Definitions and the Remark above, and
then compose sentences in which a noun or a pronoun shall be put in the
nominative case in four ways; in the objective in five ways; in the
possessive in two ways_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction.+--_Analyze the following sentences, and give the case of each
noun and pronoun:_--

1. Not to know what happened before we were born is to be always a child.
2. His being a Roman saved him from being made a prisoner.
3. I am this day weak, though anointed king.

+Explanation.+--Nouns used adverbially are in the objective case because
equivalent to the principal word of a prepositional phrase. (See Lesson

4. What made Cromwell a great man was his unshaken reliance on God.
5. Amos, the herdsman of Tekoa, was not a prophet's son.
6. Arnold's success as teacher was remarkable.

+Explanation.+--_Teacher_, introduced by _as_ and used without a possessive
sign, is explanatory of _Arnold's_.

7. Worship thy Creator, God; and obey his Son, the Master, King, and
   Saviour of men.
8. Bear ye one another's [Footnote: For the use of _one another_, see
   Lesson 124.] burdens.

+Explanation.+--The singular _one_ is explanatory of the plural _ye_, or
_one another's_ may be treated as a compound.

9. What art thou, execrable shape, that darest advance?
10. O you hard hearts! you cruel men of Rome!
11. Everybody acknowledges Shakespeare to be the greatest of dramatists.
12. Think'st thou this heart could feel a moment's joy, thou being absent?
13. Our great forefathers had left him naught to conquer but his country.

(For the case of _him_ see explanation of (3) above.)

14. I will attend to it myself.

+Explanation+.--_Myself_ may be treated as explanatory of _I_.

15. This news of papa's puts me all in a flutter. [Footnote: See second
    foot-note, page 247.]
16. What means that hand upon that breast of thine? [Footnote: See second
    foot-note, page 247.]

       *       *       *       *       *



+TO THE TEACHER+.--We do not believe that the chief end of the study of
grammar Is to be able to parse well, or even to analyze well, though
without question analysis reveals more clearly than parsing the structure
of the sentence, and is immeasurably superior to it as intellectual
gymnastics. We would not do away with parsing altogether, but would give it
a subordinate place.

But we must be allowed an emphatic protest against the needless and
mechanical quoting, in parsing, of "Rules of Syntax." When a pupil has said
that such a noun is in the nominative case, subject of such a verb, what is
gained by a repetition of the definition in the Rule: "A noun or a pronoun
which is the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case"? Let the
reasons for the disposition of words, when given at all, be specific.

+Parsing+--a word is giving its classification, its modifications, and its
syntax, _i.e._, its relation to other words.

+Direction+.--_Select and parse in full all the nouns and pronouns found in
the first ten sentences of Lesson_ 120. _For the agreement of pronouns, see
Lesson_ 142.

+Model for Written Parsing+.--_Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh, was beheaded
by James I_.

                 |_Per- Num-  Gen-_      |
_Nouns.    Kind_.|_son. ber.  der. Case_.|
Elizabeth's Prop.| 3d   Sing. Fem. Pos.  | Mod. of _favorite_.
favorite    Com. | 3d   Sing. Mas. Nom.  | Sub. of _was beheaded_.
Raleigh     Prop.| 3d   Sing. Mas. Nom.  | Expl. Mod. of _favorite_.
James I.    Prop.| 3d   Sing. Mas. Obj.  | Prin. word of Prep. phrase.

TO THE TEACHER.--For exercises in parsing nouns and pronouns, see Lessons
28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 44, 46, 59, 60, 71, 73, 78, 80, and 81. Other
exercises may be selected from examples previously given for analysis, and
parsing continued as long as you think it profitable.

       *       *       *       *       *



Nouns have two case forms, the simple form, common to the nominative and
the objective case, and the possessive form.

+RULE.--The _Possessive Case_ of nouns is formed in the singular by adding
to the nominative the apostrophe and the letter _s_ (_'s_); in the plural
by adding (_'_) only. If the plural does not end in _s_, (_'s_) are both
added. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon, _es_ was a genitive (possessive) ending
of the singular; as, _sta:n_, genitive _sta:n-es_. In old English, _es_ and
_is_ were both used. In modern English, the vowel is generally dropped, and
(') stands in its place. The use of the apostrophe has been extended to
distinguish the possessive from other forms of the plural.

Some have said that our possessive ending is a remnant of the pronoun
_his_. Phrases like, "Mars _his_ sword," "The Prince _his_ Players," "King
Lewis _his_ satisfaction" are abundant in Early, and in Middle, English.
But it has been proved that the _his_ in such expressions is an error that
gained its wide currency largely through the confusion of early English

Professor Hadley has clearly shown that the Saxon termination has never
dropped out of the language, but exists in the English possessive ending

+Examples+.--_Boy's, boys', men's_.

+Remark+.--To avoid an unpleasant succession of hissing sounds, the _s_ in
the possessive singular is sometimes omitted; as, _conscience' sake_,
_goodness' sake_, _Achilles' sword_, _Archimedes' screw_ (the _s_ in the
words following the possessive here having its influence). In prose this
omission of the _s_ should seldom occur. The weight of usage inclines to
the use of _s_ in such names as _Miss Rounds's_, _Mrs. Hemans's_, _King
James's_, _witness's_, _prince's_. Without the _s_ there would be no
distinction, in spoken language, between _Miss Round's_ and _Miss Rounds'_,
_Mrs. Heman's_ and _Mrs. Hemans'_.

+Remark+.--Pronounce the ('_s_) as a separate syllable (= _es_) when the
sound of _s_ will not unite with the last sound of the nominative.

+Remark+.--When the singular and the plural are alike in the nominative,
some place the apostrophe after the _s_ in the plural to distinguish it
from the possessive singular; as, singular, _sheep's_; plural, _sheeps'_.

+Direction+.--_Study the Rule and the Remarks given above, and then write
the possessive singular and the possessive plural of each of the following

Actor, elephant, farmer, king, lion, genius, horse, princess, buffalo,
hero, mosquito, negro, volcano, junto, tyro, cuckoo, ally, attorney, fairy,
lady, monkey, calf, elf, thief, wife, wolf, chief, dwarf, waif, child,
goose, mouse, ox, woman, beau, seraph, fish, deer, sheep, swine.

Compound names and groups of words that may be treated as compound names
add the possessive sign to the last word; as, a _man-of-war's_ rigging, the
_queen of England's_ palace,[Footnote: In parsing the words _queen_ and
_England_ separately, the ('_s_) must be regarded as belonging to _queen_;
but the whole phrase _queen of England's_ may be treated as one noun in the
possessive case.] _Frederick the Great's_ verses.

+Remark+.--The possessive plural of such terms is not used.

The preposition _of_ with the objective is often used instead of the
possessive case form--_David's_ Psalms = Psalms _of David_.

+Remarks+.--To denote the source from which a thing proceeds, or the idea
of belonging to, _of_ is used more frequently than ('_s_).

The possessive sign (_'s_) is confined chiefly to the names of persons, and
of animals and things personified. We do not say the _tree's_ leaves, but
the leaves _of the tree_.

The possessive sign however is often added to names of things which we
frequently hear personified, or which we wish to dignify, and to names of
periods of time, and to words denoting value; as, the _earth's_ surface,
_fortune's_ smile, _eternity's_ stillness, a _year's_ interest, a _day's_
work, a _dollar's_ worth, _two cents'_ worth.

By the use of _of_, such expressions as _witness's statement_,
_mothers-in-law's faults_ may be avoided.

+Direction+.--_Study carefully the principles and Remarks given above, and
then make each of the following terms indicate possession, using either the
possessive sign or the preposition of, as may seem most appropriate, and
join an appropriate name denoting the thing possessed_:--

Father-in-law, William the Conqueror, king of Great Britain, aid-de-camp,
Henry the Eighth, attorney-at-law, somebody else,[Footnote: In such
expressions as _everybody else's business_, the possessive sign is removed
from the noun and attached to the adjective. (See Lesson lai.) The
possessive sign should generally be placed immediately before the name of
the thing possessed.] Jefferson, enemy, eagle, gunpowder, book, house,
chair, torrent, sun, ocean, mountain, summer, year, day, hour, princess,

       *       *       *       *       *



As the possessive is the only case of nouns that has a distinctive
inflection, it is only with this case that mistakes can occur in

+Caution+.--When several possessive nouns modify the same word and imply
common possession, the possessive sign is added to the last only. If they
modify different words, expressed or understood, the sign is added to

+Explanation+.--_William_ and _Henry's_ boat; _William's_ and _Henry's_
boat. In the first example, William and Henry are represented as jointly
owning a boat; in the second, each is represented as owning a separate
boat--_boat_ is understood after _William's_.

+Remark+.--When the different possessors are thought of as separate or
opposed, the sign may be repeated although joint possession is implied; as,
He was his _father's_, _mother's_, and _sister's_ favorite; He was the
_King's_, as well as the _people's_, favorite.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors, and give your reasons_:--

1. The Bank of England was established in William's and Mary's reign.
2. Messrs. Leggett's, Stacy's, Green's, & Co.'s business prospers.
3. This was James's, Charles's, and Robert's estate.
4. America was discovered during Ferdinand's and Isabella's reign.
5. We were comparing Caesar and Napoleon's victories.
6. This was the sage and the poet's theme.

+Explanation+.--If an article precedes the possessive, the sign is

7. It was the king, not the people's, choice.
8. They are Thomas, as well as James's, books.

+Caution+.--When a possessive noun is followed by an explanatory word, the
possessive sign is added to the explanatory word only. But, if the
explanatory word has several modifiers, or if there are more explanatory
words than one, only the principal word takes the sign.

+Remarks+.--When a common noun is explanatory of a proper noun, and the
name of the thing possessed is omitted, the possessive sign may be added
either to the modifying or to the principal word; as, We stopped at
Tiffany, the _jeweler's_, or We stopped at _Tiffany's_, the jeweler.

If the name of the thing possessed is given, the noun immediately before it
takes the sign.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. This is Tennyson's, the poet's, home.
2. I took tea at Brown's, my old friend and schoolmate's.
3. This belongs to Victoria's, queen of England's, dominion.
4. This province is Victoria's, queen of England's.
5. That language is Homer's, the greatest poet of antiquity's.
6. This was Franklin's motto, the distinguished philosopher's statesman's.
7. Wolsey's, the cardinal's, career ended in disgrace.

+Direction+.---Tell which of the sentences above may be improved by using
other forms to denote possession. (See the following Caution.)

+Caution+.--The relation of possession may be expressed not only by (_'s_)
and by _of_ but by the use of such phrases as _belonging to_, _property
of_, etc. In constructing sentences be careful to secure smoothness and
clearness and variety by taking advantage of these different forms.

+Direction+.--_Improve the following sentences_:--

1. This is my wife's father's opinion.

+Correction+.--This is the opinion _of my wife's father_, or _held by my
wife's father_.

2. This is my wife's father's farm.
3. France's and England's interest differs widely.
4. Frederick the Great was the son of the daughter of George I. of England.
5. My brother's wife's sister's drawings have been much admired.
6. The drawings of the sister of the wife of my brother have been much

_Of_ is not always equivalent to the (_'s_),

+Explanation+.--_The president's reception_ means the reception given by
the president, but _the reception of the president_ means the reception
given to the president.

+Direction+.--_Construct sentences illustrating the meaning of the
following expressions_:--

A mother's love, the love of a mother; a father's care, the care of a
father; my friend's picture, a picture of my friend.

+Caution+.--Often ambiguity may be prevented by changing the assumed
subject of a participle from a nominative or an objective to a possessive.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. The writer being a scholar is not doubted.

+Correction+.--This is ambiguous, as it may mean either that the writer is
not doubted because he is a scholar, or that the writer's scholarship is
not doubted. It should be, _The writer's being_ [Footnote: The participle
may be modified not only, as here, by a noun in the possessive but by the
articles _a_ and _the_---as said in Lesson 37. Whether it be _the imposing
a tax_ or _the issuing a paper currency.--Bagehot_. Not _a making war_ on
them, not _a leaving them_ out of mind, but _the putting_ a new
_construction_ upon them, _the taking them_ from under the old conventional
point of view.--_Matthew Arnold_. Poltroonery is _the acknowledging_ an
_infirmity_ to be incurable.--_Emerson_. _The giving_ away a man's
_money_.--_Burke_. It is not _the finding of a thing_ but _the making
something_ out of it, after it is found, that is of consequence.--_Lowell_.

As seen in this last quotation, the participle may be followed by a
preposition and so become a pure noun (Lesson 38).] _a scholar_ is not
doubted, or _That the writer is a scholar_ is not doubted.

2. I have no doubt of the writer being a scholar.
3. No one ever heard of that man running for office.
4. Brown being a politician prevented his election.
5. I do not doubt him being sincere.
6. Grouchy being behind time decided the fate of Waterloo.

       *       *       *       *       *




+DEFINITION.--_Declension_ is the arrangement of the cases of nouns and
pronouns in the two numbers+.

+Direction+.--_Learn the following declensions_:--

Declension of Nouns.

        LADY.                   BOY.               MAN.
_Singular.    Plural.   Singular.  Plural.    Singular. Plural_.

Nom. lady,    ladies,   boy,       boys,      man,      men,
Pos. lady's,  ladies',  boy's,     boys',     man's,    men's,
Obj. lady;    ladies.   boy;       boys.      man;      men.

Declension of Pronouns.


                          _common form_          _old form_.
_Singular.    Plural.   Singular.  Plural.    Singular. Plural.

Nom. I,       we,*      you,       you,       thou,     ye(++) _or_ you
Pos. my _or_  our _or_  your _or_  your _or_  thy _or_  ye(++) _or_ you
     mine,+   ours,     yours,     yours,     thine,    yours,
Obj. me;      us.       you;       you.       thee;     you.

[Footnote *: Strictly speaking, _we_ can hardly be the plural of _I_, says
Professor Sweet, for _I_ does not admit of plurality. _We_ means _I_ and
_you_, _I_ and _he_, _I_ and _she_, or _I_ and _they_, etc.]

[Footnote +: The forms _mine_, _ours_, _yours_, _thine_, _hers_, and
_theirs_ are used only when the name of the thing possessed is omitted; as,
_Yours_ is old, _mine_ is new = _Your book_ is old, etc. _Mine_ and _thine_
were formerly used before words beginning with a vowel sound; as, _thine
enemy_, _mine honor_.

The expression _a friend of mine_ presents a peculiar construction. The
explanation generally given is, that _of_ is partitive, and that the
expression is equivalent to _one friend of my friends_.

It is said that this construction can be used only when more than one thing
is possessed such expressions as _This heart of mine_, _That temper of
yours_ are good, idiomatic English. This naughty world _of ours.--Byron_.
This moral life _of mine.--Sheridan Knowles_. Dim are those heads _of

Some suggest that the word possessing or owning is understood after these
possessives; as, This _temper of yours_ (your possessing); others say that
_of_ simply marks identity, as does of in _city of_ (=viz.) _New York_ (see
Lesson 34). They would make the expression = _This temper, your temper_.

The _s_ in _ours, yours, hers_, and _theirs_ is the _s_ of _his_ and _its_
extended by analogy to _our, your, her_, and _their_, forms already
possessive. _Ours, yours, hers_, and _theirs_ are consequently double

[Footnote ++: _Ye_ is used in Chaucer and in the King James version of the
Bible exclusively in the nominative, as was its original _ge__ in the
Saxon. Shakespeare uses _you_ in the nominative. _You_ (the Saxon
accusative _eow_) has now taken the place of _ye_, and is both nominative
and objective.

_Singular.  Plural.    Singular.  Plural.     Singular.  Plural_.
Nom. he,   they,       she,       they,       it,        they,
Pos. his,  their _or_  her or     their _or_  its,*      their _or_
           theirs,     hers,      theirs,                theirs,
Obj. him;  them.       her;       them.       it;        them.

[Footnote *: The possessive _its_ is our only personal pronoun form not
found in Saxon. _His_, the possessive of the masculine _he_, was there the
possessive (genitive) of the neuter _hit_ also--our _it_. But it came to be
thought improper to employ _his_ to denote inanimate things as well as
animate. The literature of the 16th and 17th centuries shows a growing
sense of this impropriety, and abounds with _of it_, _thereof_, _her_,
_it_, _the_, and _it own_ in place of _his_ as the possessive of _it_. The
first appearance of the new coinage _its_ is placed in 1598. Long after its
introduction many looked askance at _its_, because of the grammatical
blunder it contains--the_ t_ in _its_ being a nominative neuter ending, and
the _s_ a possessive ending. But no one thinks now of shunning what was
then regarded as a grammatical monstrosity.]


_Singular. Plural.    Singular.  Plural.      Singular.  Plural. _
_Nom. and  Nom. and   Nom. and   Nom. and     Nom. and   Nom. and_
_Obj.      Obj.       Obj.       Obj.         Obj.       Obj._

myself*               thyself                 himself;
  _or_     ourselves.  _or_      yourselves.  herself;  themselves.
ourself;              yourself;               itself;

[Footnote *: The compound personal pronouns are used (1) for emphasis; as,
_I myself_ saw it: and (2) as reflexives, to turn the action of the verb
back upon the actor; as, _He_ found _himself_ deserted by his friends. They
are not the only words used in this last relation; where no obscurity would
arise, we may use the simple personal pronouns instead. And _millions_ in
those solitudes ... have laid _them_ down in their last sleep.--_Bryant_.
My uncle stopped a minute to look about _him_.--_Dickens_.

The compound personal pronouns should not be used as subjects.]

+Remark+.--The possessive of these pronouns is wanting.

_Ourself_ and _we_ are used by rulers, editors, and others to hide their
individuality, and give authority to what they say.

+Relative Pronouns+.

_Sing. and Plu.   Sing. and Plu.  Sing. and Plu.  Sing. and Plu._
_Nom_. who,        which,         that,               what,
_Pos_. whose,      whose,        ------,             ------,
_Obj_. whom.       which.         that.               what.

+Remark+.--From the composition of _which_--_hwa:_-lic, or _hwaet-lic_ =
_who-like_, or _what-like_, it is evident that _whose_ is not formed from
_which_. It is, in fact, the possessive of _what_ transferred to _which_.
Much has been said against this _whose_, but it is in general use. Those
who regard usage as the final arbiter in speech need not avoid this form of
the pronoun.

+Interrogative Pronouns+.

The interrogative pronouns _who, which_, and _what_ are declined like the
relatives _who, which_, and _what_.

+Compound Relative Pronouns+.

_Singular and Plural_.                _Singular and Plural_.
_Nom_.  whoever,                               whosoever,
_Pos_.  whosever,                              whosesoever,
_Obj_.  whomever.                              whomsoever.

_Whichever, whichsoever, whatever_, and _whatsoever_ do not change their

+Adjective Pronouns+.

_This_ and _that_ with their plurals, _these_ and _those_, have no
possessive form, and are alike in the nominative and the objective. _One_
and _other_ are declined like nouns; and _another_, declined like _other_
in the singular, has no plural. _Either, neither, former_, and _latter_
sometimes take the apostrophe and _s_ ('_s_) in the singular. _Each_,
_either_, and _neither_ are always singular; _both_ is always plural; and
_all, any, farmery latter, none, same, some_, and _such_ are either
singular or plural. [Footnote: On the pages immediately preceding Lesson 1,
we said that +usage+, as determined by the majority of the best writers and
speakers of the generation, is the only authority in language; and we there
explained how we are able to appeal to usage as we all along have done. In
treating of the adjective pronouns we now appeal to it again. In the first
twelve paragraphs below we give alternative expressions. Only the second of
these alternative locutions in each paragraph is allowed by many
grammarians; they utterly condemn the first. On the warrant of usage we say
that both expressions are correct.

1. We may use +each other+ with more than two; we may use _one another_ in
such a case. We may say, "_Several_ able _men_ were in correspondence with
_each other_," or "with _one another_."

2. We may use +one another+ with only two; we may use _each other_ in such
a case. We may say, "The _two countries_ agreed to stand by _one another_,"
or "by _each other_."

3. We may use +all, both+, and +whole+ with a preposition and a noun
following; we may use these words as adjectives qualifying the noun. We may
say, "_All of_ the _people_," "_Both of_ the _trees_," "The _whole of_ the
farm," or "_All_ the _people_," "_Both trees_," "The _whole farm_."

4. We may use the pronouns +either+ and +neither+, as we do the
conjunctions _either_ and _neither_, with more than two; we may use _any
one_ and _none_ in such cases. We may say, "Here are _three candidates_;
you may vote for _either_ or for _neither_ of them," or "for _any one_ or
for _none_ of them."

5. We may use +he+ or some other personal pronoun after the indefinite one;
we may repeat the _one_ in such a case. We may say, "The home _one_ must
quit, yet taking much of its life along with _him_," or "along with _one_."

6. We may use +such+ before an adjective and its noun; we may use _so_ with
the adjective in such a case. We may say, "_Such a strong argument_,"
"_Such admirable talent_," or "_So strong an argument_," "_Talent so

7. We may use the plural +ones+; we may use the noun for which _ones_
stands. We may say, "You have red roses, I have white _ones_," or "white

8. We may apply +the other two+ to those that remain when one of three
things has been taken from the rest; we may use _the two others_ in such a
case. We may say, "One of them kept his ground; _the other two_ ran away,"
or "_the two others_ ran away."

9. We may use +a+ before a noun in the singular and +or two+ after it; we
may use _one or two_ before the noun in the plural. We may say, "I will go
in _a day or two_," or "in _one or two days_."

10. We may use +either+ in the sense of _each_; we may use _each_ instead.
We may say, "He wrested the land on _either_ side of the Seine," or "on
_each_ side of the Seine."

11. We may insert a noun, or a noun and other words, between +other+ and
+than+; we may place the _than_ immediately after _other_. We may say, "We
must look for somee _other reasons for it than_ those suggested," or "for
some _reasons for it other than_ those suggested."

12. We may use +none+ in the plural; we may use _none_ in the singular. We
may say, "_None hear_ thy voice," or "_None hears_ thy voice."

The paragraphs below contain noteworthy uses of adjective pronouns but no
really alternative expressions.

13. Usage is overwhelmingly in favor of +any one else's, no one else's,
somebody else's, nobody else's+, instead of _any one's else_, etc. There is
scarcely any authority for placing the (_'s_) upon _one_ or _body_.
"Written by Dickens for his own or _any one else's_ children." This form is
common and convenient. We are advised to shun it, but we need not.

14. Usage is also decidedly in favor of +first two, last three+, etc.,
instead of _two first, three last_, etc.]

Descriptive adjectives used as nouns are plural, and are not declined. Such
expressions as "the _wretched's_ only plea" and "the _wicked's_ den" are

       *       *       *       *       *



The pronouns _I_, _thou_, _he_, _she_, and _who_ are the only words in the
language that have each three different case forms.

+Direction+.--_Study the Declensions, and correct these errors_:--

Our's, your's, hi's, her's, it's, their's, yourn, hisn, hern, theirn.

Construction of Case Forms--Pronouns.

+Caution.--I, we, thou, ye, he, she, they,+ and +who+ are +nominative+
forms, and must not be used in the objective case. +Me, us, thee, him, her,
[Footnote: _Her_ is also a possessive.] them,+ and +whom+ are objective
forms, and must not be used in the nominative case.

Remark.--The eight nominative forms and the seven objective forms here
given are the only distinctive nominative and objective forms in the
language. All the rules of syntax given in the grammars to guide in the use
of the nominative and the objective case apply, practically, only to these
fifteen words.

+Direction.+--_Study carefully the Definitions and principles given under
the head of case, Lesson 119, and then correct these errors, giving your
reasons in every instance:--_

1. It is not me you are in love with. [Footnote: Dr. Latham defends _It is
   me,_ but condemns _It is him,_ and _It is her_. Dean Alford regards as
   correct the forms condemned by Latham, and asserts that _thee_ and _me_
   are correct in, "The nations not so blest as _thee_" "Such weak minister
   as me may the oppressor bruise." Professor Bain justifies _If I were
   him, It was her, He is better than me,_ and even defends the use of
   _who_ as an objective form by quoting from Shakespeare, "_Who_ servest
   thou under?" and from Steele, "_Who_ should I meet?"

   They justify such expressions as _It is me_ from the analogy of the
   French _c'est moi_, and on the ground that they are "more frequently
   heard than the prescribed form." But such analogy would justify _It are
   them (ce sont eux)_; and, if the argument from the speech of the
   uneducated is to have weight, we have good authority for _"Her ain't a
   calling we: us don't belong to she."_ A course of reading will satisfy
   one that the best writers and speakers in England are not in the habit
   of using such expressions as _It is me_, and that these are almost, if
   not quite unknown in American literature. No one has freed himself from
   the influence of early associations that are in a careless moment some
   vicious colloquialism may not creep into his discourse. A Violation of
   every principle of grammar may be defended, if such inadvertencies are
   to be erected into authority. To whatever is the prevailing, the
   habitual, usage of a majority of the best writers and speakers the
   grammarian should bow without question; but not to the accidental slips
   of even the greatest writers, or to the common usage of the unreflecting
   and the uncultivated.]

2. She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. [See previous
3. Who servest thou under? [See previous footnote.]
4. It was not them, it was her.
5. Its being me should make no difference.
6. Him and me are of the same age.
7. Them that study grammar talk no better than me.
8. I am not so old as her; she is older than me by ten years.
9. He was angry, and me too.
10. Who will go? Me.
11. It isn't for such as us to sit with the rulers of the land.
12. Not one in a thousand could have done it as well as him.
13. Him being a stranger, they easily misled him.
14. Oh, happy us! surrounded thus with blessings.
15. It was Joseph, him whom Pharaoh promoted.
16. I referred to my old friend, he of whom I so often speak.
17. You have seen Cassio and she together.
18. Between you and I, I believe that he is losing his mind.
19. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend? 20. Who did he refer
    to, he or I?
21. Who did he choose? Did he choose you and I?
22. He that is idle and mischievous reprove.
23. We will refer it to whoever you may choose.
24. Whosoever the court favors is safe.
25. They that are diligent I will reward.
20. Scotland and thee did in each other live.
27. My hour is come, but not to render up my soul to such as thee.
28. I knew that it was him.
29. I knew it to be he.
30. Who did you suppose it to be?
31. Whom did you suppose it was?
32. I took that tall man to be he.
33. I thought that tall man was him.

Although _than_ is not a preposition, it is sometimes followed by _whom,_
as in the familiar passage from Milton: "Beelzebub... _than whom,_ Satan
except, none higher sat." _Than whom_ is an irregularity justified only on
the basis of good usage. _Whom_ here may be parsed as an objective case
form used idiomatically in place of _who_.

       *       *       *       *       *




Direction.--_Correct these errors, and give your reasons:--_

1. Who was Joseph's and Benjamin's mother?
2. It did not occur during Washington, Jefferson, or Adams's
3. I consulted Webster, Worcester, and Walker's dictionary.
4. This state was south of Mason's and Dixon's line.
5. These are neither George nor Fanny's books.
6. Howard's, the philanthropist's, life was a noble one.
7. It is Othello's pleasure, our noble and valiant general's.
8. He visited his sons-in-law's homes.

+Explanation.+--If the possessive plural of such nouns were used, this
would be correct; but it is better to avoid these awkward forms.

9. A valuable horse of my friend William's father's was killed.
10. For Herodias's sake, his brother Philip's wife.
11. For the queen's sake, his sister's.
12. Peter's, John's, and Andrew's occupation was that of fishermen.
13. He spoke of you studying Latin.
14. It being difficult did not deter him.
15. What need is there of the man swearing?
16. I am opposed to the gentleman speaking again.
17. He thought it was us.
18. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn, you or me.
19. I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.
20. A lady entered, whom I afterwards found was Miss B.
21. A lady entered, who I afterwards found to be Miss B.
22. Ask somebody's else opinion.
23. Let him be whom he may.
24. I am sure it could not have been them.
25. I understood it to be they.
26. It is not him whom you thought it was.
27. Let you and I try it.
28. All enjoyed themselves, us excepted.
29. Us boys enjoy the holidays.
30. It was Virgil, him who wrote the "Aeneid."
31. He asked help of men whom he knew could not help him.

TO THE TEACHER.--These schemes and questions under the head of General
Review are especially designed to aid in securing an outline of technical

The questions given below may be made to call for minute details or only
for outlines. In some cases a single question may suffice for a whole

Scheme for the Noun.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

    Subject (4, 8).
    Object Complement (28).
    Attribute Complement (29, 30).
    Objective Complement (31).
    Adjective Modifier (33).
    Adverb Modifier (35).
    Principal word in Prep. Phrase (17).
    Independent (44).
    Common (85). (Abstract and Collective.)
    Proper (85).
      Singular (112-116).
      Plural (112-116).
      Masculine (117, 118).
      Feminine (117, 118).
      Neuter (117, 118).
      First (119).
      Second (119).
      Third (119).
      Nominative (119).
      Possessive (119, 122, 123).
      Objective (119).

Questions on the Noun.

1. Define the noun and its classes.--Lesson 85.

2. Name and define the modifications of the noun.--Lessons 112, 117, 119.

3. Name and define the several numbers, genders, persons, and
cases.--Lessons 112, 117, 119.

4. Give and illustrate the several ways of forming the plural.--Lessons
112, 113, 114.

5. Give and illustrate the several ways of distinguishing the
genders.--Lesson 117.

6. How is the possessive case formed?--Lesson 122.

7. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the
possessive forms.--Lesson 128.

+Scheme for the Pronoun.+

PRONOUN. +Uses+.--Same as those of the Noun. +Classes+. Personal (85, 86,
  87). Relative (85, 86, 87). Interrogative (85). Adjective (85, 87).
  +Modifications+.--Same as those of the Noun (112, 117, 118, 119, 124,
  125, 142).

Questions on the Pronoun.

1. Define the pronoun and its classes, and give the lists.--Lesson 85.

2. Decline the several pronouns.--Lesson 124.

3. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the
different pronouns.--Lessons 86, 87.

4. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the number
forms, the gender forms, and the case forms.--Lessons 118, 125, 142.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Introductory Hints.+--_That apple is sweet, that other is sweeter, but
this one is the sweetest._ The adjective _sweet_, expressing a quality of
the three apples, is, as you see, inflected by adding _er_ and _est_.

Adjectives, then, have one modification, and this is marked by form, or
inflection. This modification is called +Comparison+, because it is used
when things are compared with one another in respect to some quality common
to them all, but possessed by them in different degrees. The form of the
adjective which expresses the simple quality, as _sweet_, is of the
+Positive Degree+; that which expresses the quality in a greater or a less
degree, as _sweeter_, _less sweet_, is of the +Comparative Degree+; and
that which expresses the quality in the greatest or the least degree, as
_sweetest_, _least sweet_, is of the +Superlative Degree+.

But even the positive implies a comparison; we should not say, This _apple_
is _sweet_, unless this particular fruit had more of the quality than
ordinary apples possess.

Notice, too, that the adjective in the comparative and superlative degrees
always expresses the quality relatively. When we say, This _apple_ is
_sweeter than that_, or, This _apple_ is the _sweetest of the three_, we do
not mean that any one of the apples is very sweet, but only that one apple
is sweeter than the other, or the sweetest of those compared.

The several degrees of the quality expressed by the adjective may be
increased or diminished by adverbs modifying the adjective. We can say
_very_, _exceedingly_, _rather_, or _somewhat_ sweet; _far_, _still_, or
_much_, sweeter; _by far_ or _much_ the sweetest.

Some adverbs, as well as adjectives, are compared.

Adjectives have one modification; viz., +Comparison+. [Footnote: Two
adjectives, _this_ and _that_, have number forms--_this_, _these_; _that_,
_those_. In Anglo-Saxon and Latin, adjectives have forms to indicate
gender, number, and case.]


+_Comparison_ is a modification of the adjective (or the adverb) to express
the relative degree of the quality in the things compared.+ [Footnote:
Different degrees of quantity, also, may sometimes be expressed by

+The _Positive Degree_ expresses the simple quality.+

+The _Comparative Degree_ expresses a greater or a less degree of the

+The _Superlative Degree_ expresses the greatest or the least degree of the

+RULE.--Adjectives are regularly compared by adding _er_ to the positive to
form the comparative, and _est_ to the positive to form the superlative+.


+RULE I.--Final e is dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel; as+,
_fine, finer; love, loving._

+Exceptions.+--The _e_ is retained (1) after _c_ and _g_ when the suffix
begins with _a_ or _o_; as, _peaceable, changeable;_ (2) after _o;_ as,
_hoeing;_ and (3) when it is needed to preserve the identity of the word;
as, _singeing, dyeing._

+RULE II.---Y after a consonant becomes _i_ before a suffix net beginning
with _i;_ as,+ _witty, wittier; dry, dried._

Exceptions.---Y does not change before 's, nor in forming the plural of
proper nouns; as, _lady's,_ the _Marys,_ the _Henrys._

+RULE III.--In monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable, a
final consonant after a single vowel doubles before a suffix beginning with
a vowel; as+, _hot, hotter; begin, beginning._

Exceptions.--_X, k,_ and _v_ are never doubled, and _gas_ has _gases_ in
the plural.

Adjectives of more than two syllables are generally compared by prefixing
_more_ and _most._ This method is often used with adjectives of two
syllables and sometimes with those of one.

+Remark+.--_More beautiful, most beautiful_, etc. can hardly be called
degree forms of the adjective. The adverbs _more_ and _most_ have the
degree forms, and in parsing they may be regarded as separate words. The
adjective, however, is varied in sense the same as when the inflections
_er_ and _est_ are added.

Degrees of diminution are expressed by prefixing _less_ and
_least_[Footnote: This use of an adverb to form the comparison was borrowed
from the Norman-French. But note how the adverb is compared, The Saxon
superlative ending +st+ is in _most_ and _least_; and the Saxon comparative
ending +s+, unchanged to +r+, is the last letter in _less_--changed to +r+,
as it regularly was, in coming into English, it is the _r_ in _more_.

When it was forgotten that _less_ is a comparative, _er_ was added, and we
have the double comparative _lesser_--in use to-day.

After the French method of comparing was introduced into English, both
methods were often used with the same adjective; and, for a time, double
comparatives and double superlatives were common; as, _worser_, _most
boldest_. In "King Lear" Shakespeare uses the double comparative a dozen
times.]; as, _valuable_, _less valuable_, _least valuable_. Most
definitive and many descriptive adjectives cannot be compared, as their
meaning will not admit of different degrees.

Direction.--_From this list of adjectives select those that cannot be
compared, and compare those that remain:--_

Observe the Rules for Spelling given above.

Wooden, English, unwelcome, physical, one, that, common, handsome, happy,
able, polite, hot, sweet, vertical, two-wheeled, infinite, witty, humble,
any, thin, intemperate, undeviating, nimble, holy, lunar, superior.

Of the two forms of comparison, that which is more easily pronounced and
more agreeable to the ear is to be preferred.

+Direction+.--_Correct the following_:--

Famousest, virtuousest, eloquenter, comfortabler, amusingest.

Some +adverbs+ are compared by adding _er_ and _est_, and some by prefixing
_more_ and _most_.

+Direction+.--_Compare the following_:--

Early, easily, fast, firmly, foolishly, late, long, often, soon, wisely.

Some adjectives and adverbs are irregular in their comparison.

+Direction+.--_Learn to compare the following adjectives and adverbs_:--

Adjectives Irregularly Compared.

_Pos.      Comp.         Superlative_.
(Aft),*    after,        aftmost _or_
Bad,  |
Evil, +    worse,        worst.
Ill   |
Far,       farther,      fartherest _or_
Fore,      former,       foremost _or_
(Forth),   further,      furtherest _or_
Good,      better,       best.
Hind,      hinder,       hindmost _or_
(In),      inner,        inmost _or_
Late,      later _or_    latest _or_
           latter        last.
Little,+   less _or_     least.
Many _or_  more,         most.
Near,      nearer        nearest _or_
Old,       older _or_    oldest _or_
           elder,        eldest.
(Out),     outer _or_    outmost _or_
           utter,        outermost;
                         utmost _or_
Under,     ----,         undermost.
(Up),      upper,        upmost _or_
Top,       ----,         topmost.

[Footnote *: The words inclosed in curves are adverbs--the adjectives
following having no positive form.]

[Footnote +: For the comparative and the superlative of _little_, in the
sense of small in size, _smaller_ and _smallest_ are substituted; as,
_little_ boy, _smaller_ boy, _smallest_ boy.]

Adverbs Irregularly Compared.

_Pos.      Comp.         Superlative._

Badly,|    worse,        worst.
Ill,  |
Far,       farther,      farthest,
Forth,     further,      furthest.
Little,    less,         least,
Much,      more,         most.
Well,      better,       best.

TO THE TEACHER.--We give below a model for writing the parsing of
adjectives. A similar form may be used for adverbs.

Exercises for the parsing of adjectives and adverbs may be selected from
Lessons 12, 14, 29, 30, 31, 44, 46, 47, 48, 60, 63, 64, 65.

Model for Written Parsing.--_All the dewy glades are still_.

Adjectives.| Kind. | Deg. of Comp. |
All        | Def.  |   ------      | Modifier of _glades_.
the        |  "    |   ------      |   "     "    "
dewy       | Des.  |   Pos.        |   "     "    "
still      |  "    |    "          | Completes _are_ and modifies _glades_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--In stating a comparison avoid comparing a thing with itself.
[Footnote: A thing may, of course, be compared with itself as existing
under different conditions; as, The _star_ is _brighter to-night_; The
_grass_ is _greener to-day_.]

+Remark+.--The comparative degree refers to two things (or sets of things)
as distinct from each other, and implies that one has more of the quality
than the other. The comparative degree is generally followed by _than_.
[Footnote: The comparative is generally used with reference to two things
only, but it may be used to compare one thing with a number of things taken
separately or together as, _He_ is no _better_ than _other men_; _It_
contains _more_ than _all_ the _others_ combined.]

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Remark, and correct these

1. London is larger than any city in Europe.

+Correction+.--The second term of comparison, _any city in Europe_,
includes London, and so London is represented as being larger than itself.
It should be, _London_ is _larger_ _than any other city in Europe_, or,
_London_ is the _largest city in Europe_.

2. China has a greater population than any nation on the globe.
3. I like this book better than any book I have seen.
4. There is no metal so useful as iron.

(A comparison is here stated, although no degree form is employed.)

5. All the metals are less useful than iron.
6. Time ought, above all kinds of property, to be free from invasion.

+Caution+.--In using the superlative degree be careful to make the latter
term of the comparison, or the term introduced by _of_, include the former.

+Remarks+.--The superlative degree refers to one thing (or set of things)
as belonging to a group or class, and as having more of the quality than
any of the rest. The superlative is generally followed by _of_.

Good writers sometimes use the superlative in comparing two things; as,
This is the _best of the two_. But in such cases usage largely favors the
comparative; as, This is the _better of the two_.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Remarks, and correct these

1. Solomon was the wisest of all the other Hebrew kings.

+Correction+.--_Of_ (= _belonging to_) represents Solomon as belonging to a
group of kings, and _other_ excludes him from this group--a contradiction
in terms. It should be, _Solomon_ was the _wisest of Hebrew kings_, or
_Solomon_ was _wiser_ than _any other Hebrew king_.

2. Of all the other books I have examined, this is the most satisfactory.
3. Profane swearing is, of all other vices, the most inexcusable.
4. He was the most active of all his companions.

(He was not one of his own companions.)

5. This was the most satisfactory of any preceding effort.
6. John is the oldest of any boy in his class.

+Caution+.--Avoid double comparatives and double superlatives, and the
comparison of adjectives whose meaning will not admit of different
degrees.[Footnote: Many words which grammarians have considered incapable
of comparison are used in a sense short of their literal meaning, and are
compared by good writers; as, My _chiefest_ entertainment.--_Sheridan_. The
_chiefest_ prize.--_Byron_. _Divinest_ Melan- choly.--_Milton_. _Extremest_
hell.--_Whittier_. _Most perfect_ harmony--_Longfellow_. _Less perfect_
imitations.--_Macaulay_. The extension of these exceptional forms should
not be encouraged.]

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors:_--

1. A more beautifuler location cannot be found.
2. He took the longest, but the most pleasantest, route.
3. Draw that line more perpendicular.

+Correction+.--Draw that line _perpendicular_, or more nearly

4. The opinion is becoming more universal.
5. A worser evil awaits us.
6. The most principal point was entirely overlooked.
7. That form of expression is more preferable.

+Caution+.--When an adjective denoting one, or an adjective denoting more
than one, is joined to a noun, the adjective and the noun must agree in

+Remark+.--A numeral denoting more than one may be prefixed to a singular
noun to form a compound adjective; as, a _ten-foot_ pole (not a _ten-feet_
pole), a _three-cent_ stamp.

+Direction+.--_Study the Caution and the Remark, and correct these

1. These kind of people will never be satisfied.
2. The room is fifteen foot square; I measured it with a two-feet rule.
3. The farmer exchanged five barrel of potatoes for fifty pound of sugar.
4. These sort of expressions should be avoided.
5. We were traveling at the rate of forty mile an hour.
6. Remove this ashes and put away that tongs.


1. He was more active than any other of his companions.

+Correction+.--As he is not one of his companions, _other_ is unnecessary.

2. He did more to accomplish this result than any other man that preceded
   or followed him.
3. The younger of the three sisters is the prettier.

(This is the construction which requires the superlative. See the second
Remark in this Lesson.)

4. This result, of all others, is most to be dreaded.
5. She was willing to take a more humbler part.
6. Solomon was wiser than any of the ancient kings.
7. I don't like those sort of people.
8. I have the most entire confidence in him.
9. This is the more preferable form.
10. Which are the two more important ranges of mountains in North America?
11. He writes better than any boy in his class.


TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions to the teacher, page 255.

Scheme for the Adjective.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

    Modifier (12).
    Attribute Complement (29, 30).
    Objective Complement (31).
    Descriptive (89-91).
    Definitive (89-91).
    Pos. Deg. |
    Comp. "   + 127, 128.
    Sup.  "   |

Questions on the Adjective.

1. Define the adjective and its classes.--Lesson 89.

2. Define comparison and the degrees of comparison.--Lesson 127.

3. Give and illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods
of comparison.--Lesson 127.

4. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of
adjectives.--Lessons 90, 91.

5. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of comparative
and superlative forms.--Lesson 128.

Scheme for the Adverb.

    Time.   |
    Place.  |
    Degree. + 92-94.
    Manner. |
    Cause.  |
    Pos. Deg. |
    Comp. "   + 127, 128.
     Sup. "   |

Questions on the Adverb.

1. Define the adverb and its classes.--Lesson 92.

2. Illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison.
--Lesson 127.

3. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adverbs.
--Lesson 93.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints+.--_He picked a rose. A rose was picked by him._ The
same thing is here told in two ways. The first verb, _picked_, shows that
the subject names the actor; the second verb, _was picked_, shows that the
subject names the thing acted upon. These different forms and uses of the
verb constitute the modification called +Voice+. The first form is in the
+Active Voice+; the second is in the +Passive Voice+.

The active voice is used when the agent, or actor, is to be made prominent;
the passive, when the thing acted upon is to be made prominent. The passive
voice may be used when the agent is unknown, or when, for any reason, we do
not care to name the agent; as, The _ship was wrecked; Money is coined_.


+_Voice_ is that modification of the transitive verb which shows whether
the subject names the _actor_ or the thing _acted upon_+.

+The _Active Voice_ shows that the subject names the actor+.

+The _Passive Voice_ shows that the subject names the thing acted upon.+

The passive form is compound, and may be resolved into an asserting word
(some form of the verb _be_) and an attribute complement (a past participle
of a transitive verb). An expression consisting of an asserting word
followed by an adjective complement or by a participle used adjectively may
be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice.

+Examples.+--The coat _was_ sometimes _worn_ by Joseph (_was worn_--
passive voice). The coat _was_ badly _worn_ (_was_--incomplete predicate,
_worn_--adjective complement).

+Remark.+--To test the passive voice note whether the one named by the
subject is acted upon, and whether the verb may be followed by _by_ before
the name of the agent without changing the sense.

+Direction.+---_Tell which of the following completed predicates may be
treated as single verbs, and which should not be so treated:--_

1. The lady is accomplished.
2. This task was not accomplished in a day.
3. Are you prepared to recite?
4. Dinner was soon prepared.
5. A shadow was mistaken for a foot-bridge.
6. You are mistaken.
7. The man was drunk before the wine was drunk.
8. The house is situated on the bank of the river.
9. I am obliged to you.
10. I am obliged to do this.
11. The horse is tired.
12. A fool and his money are soon parted.
13. The tower is inclined.
14. My body is inclined by years.

+Direction.+--_Name all the transitive verbs in Lesson 78, and give their

       *       *       *       *       *



The +object complement+ of a verb in the +active voice+ becomes the
+subject+ when the verb is changed to the +passive voice.+

+Example.+--The Danes invaded _England = England_ was invaded by the Danes.

+Remark.+--You will notice that in the first sentence the agent is made
prominent; in the second sentence, the receiver.

+Direction.+--_In each of these sentences change the voice of the
transitive verb without altering the meaning of the sentence, and note the
other changes that occur:--_

1. Mercury, the messenger of the gods, wore a winged cap and winged shoes.
2. When the Saxons subdued the Britons, they introduced into England their
   own language, which was a dialect of the Teutonic, or Gothic.
3. My wife was chosen as her wedding dress was chosen, not for a fine,
   glossy surface, but for such qualities as would wear well.
4. Bacchus, the god of wine, was worshiped in many parts of Greece and
5. The minds of children are dressed by their parents as their bodies are
   dressed--in the prevailing fashion.
6. Harvey, an English physician, discovered that blood circulates.
7. The luxury of Capua, more powerful than the Roman legions, vanquished
   the victorious Carthaginians.
8. His eloquence had struck them dumb.

+Remark.+--Notice that the objective complement becomes the attribute
complement when the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice.

9. That tribunal pronounced Charles a tyrant.
10. The town had nicknamed him Beau Seymour.
11. Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal.
12. We saw the storm approaching.

(Notice that the objective complement is here a participle.)

13. He kept his mother waiting.
14. We found him lying dead on the field.
15. We all believe him to be an honest man.

(Notice that the objective complement is here an infinitive phrase.)

16. Some, sunk to beasts, find pleasure end in pain.
17. Everybody acknowledged him to be a genius.

The +indirect,+ or _dative,_ +object+ is sometimes made the +subject+ of a
verb in the passive voice, while the object complement is retained after
the verb. [Footnote: Some grammarians condemn this construction. It is true
that it is a violation of the general analogies, or laws, of language; but
that it is an idiom of our language, established by good usage, is beyond

Concerning the parsing of the noun following this passive, there is
difference of opinion. Some call it an adverbial modifier, some call it a
"retained object," and some say that it is a noun without grammatical
construction. In "I offered him money," _him_ represents the one to whom
the act was directed, and _money_ names the thing directly acted upon. In
"He was offered money," the relation of the act to the person and to the
thing is not changed; _money_ still names the thing directly acted upon.]

+Example.+--The porter refused _him_ admittance = _He_ was refused
_admittance_ by the porter.

+Direction.+--_Change the voice of the transitive verbs in these sentences,
and note the other changes that occur:--_

18. They were refused the protection of the law.
19. He was offered a pension by the government.
20. I was asked that question yesterday.
21. He told me to leave the room.

+Explanation.+--Here the infinitive phrase is the object complement, and
_(to) me_ is used adverbially. _To leave the room = that I should leave the

22. I taught the child to read.
23. I taught the child reading.
24. They told me that your name was Fontibell.

+Direction.+--_Change the following transitive verbs to the passive form,
using first the regular and then the idiomatic construction_:--

+Model.+--_He promised me a present = A present was promised me_ (regular)
= _I was promised a present_ (idiomatic).

25. They must allow us the privilege of thinking for ourselves.
26. He offered them their lives if they would abjure their religion.

An intransitive verb is sometimes made transitive by the aid of a

+Example.+--All his friends _laughed_ at him = He _was laughed at_
(ridiculed) by all his friends.

+Remark.+---_Was laughed at_ may be treated as one verb. Some grammarians,
however, would call _at_ an adverb. The intransitive verb and preposition
are together equivalent to a transitive verb in the passive voice.

+Direction.+--_Change the voice of the following verbs:--_

27. This artful fellow has imposed upon us all.
28. The speaker did not even touch upon this topic.
29. He dropped the matter there, and did not refer to it afterward.

+Remark.+--The following sentences present a peculiar idiomatic
construction. A transitive verb which, in the active voice, is followed by
an object complement and a prepositional phrase, takes, in the passive, the
principal word of the phrase for its subject, retaining the complement and
the preposition to complete its meaning; as, They _took care of it, It was
taken care of._

+Direction.+--_Put the following sentences into several different forms,
and determine which is the best:--_

30. His original purpose was lost sight of (forgotten). [Footnote: Some
    would parse _of_ as an adverb relating to _was lost,_ and _sight_ as a
    noun used adverbially to modify _was lost;_ others would treat _sight_
    as an object [complement] of _was lost;_ others would call _was lost
    sight of_ a compound verb; and others, believing that the logical
    relation of these words is not lost by a change of position, analyze
    the expression as if arranged thus: _Sight of his original purpose was
31. Such talents should be made much of.
32. He was taken care of by his friends.
33. Some of his characters have been found fault with as insipid.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Introductory Hints.+--_James walks_. Here the walking is asserted as an
actual fact. _James may walk._ Here the walking is asserted not as an
actual, but as a possible, fact. _If James walk out, he will improve._ Here
the walking is asserted only as thought of, without regard to its being or
becoming either an actual or a possible fact. _James, walk out._ Here the
walking is not asserted as a fact, but as a command--James is ordered to
make it a fact. These different uses and forms of the verb constitute the
modification which we call +Mode.+ The first verb is in the +Indicative
Mode;+ the second in the +Potential Mode;+ the third in the +Subjunctive
Mode;+ the fourth in the +Imperative Mode.+

For the two forms of the verb called the +Participle+ and the +Infinitive,+
see Lessons 37 and 40.

_I walk. I walked. I shall walk._ In these three sentences the manner of
asserting the action is the same, but the time in which the action takes
place is different. _Walk_ asserts the action as going on in present time,
and, as +Tense+ means time, is in the +Present Tense.+ _Walked_ asserts the
action as past, and is in the +Past Tense.+ _Shall walk_ asserts the action
as future, and is in the +Future Tense.+

_I have walked out to-day. I had walked out when he called. I shall have
walked out by to-morrow._ Have walked asserts the action as completed at
the present, and is in the +Present Perfect Tense.+ _Had walked_ asserts
the action as completed in the past, and is in the +Past Perfect Tense.+
_Shall have walked_ asserts action to be completed in the future, and is in
the +Future Perfect Tense.+

_I walk. Thou walkest. He walks. They walk._ In the second sentence _walk_
is changed by adding +est+; in the third sentence, by adding +s.+ Verbs are
said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. But this
agreement is not generally marked by a change in the form of the verb.


+_Mode_ is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of
asserting the action or being+.

+The _Indicative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a fact+. [Footnote:
In "Are you going?" or "You are going?" a fact is referred to the hearer
for his admission or denial. In "Who did it?" the fact that some person did
it is asserted, and the hearer is requested to name the person. It will be
seen that the Indicative Mode may be used in asking a question.]

+The _Potential Mode_ asserts the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity
of acting or being+.

+The _Subjunctive Mode_ asserts the action or being as a mere condition,
supposition, or wish+.

+The _Imperative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a command or an

+The _Infinitive_ is a form of the verb which names the action or being in
a general way, without asserting it of anything+.

+The _Participle_ is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an
adjective or of a noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed+.

+The _Present Participle_ denotes action or being as continuing at the time
indicated by the predicate+.

+The _Past Participle_ denotes action or being as past or completed at the
time indicated by the predicate+.

+The _Past Perfect Participle_ denotes action or being as completed at a
time previous to that indicated by the predicate+.

+_Tense_ is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the
action or being+.

+The _Present Tense_ expresses action or being as present+.

+The _Past Tense_ expresses action or being as past+.

+The _Future Tense_ expresses action or being as yet to come+.

+The _Present Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at the
present time+.

+The _Past Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at some
past time+.

+The _Future Perfect Tense _expresses action or being to be completed at
some future time+.

+_Number _and _Person _of a verb are those modifications that show its
agreement with the number and person of its subject+.

       *       *       *       *       *





+_Conjugation_ is the regular arrangement of all the forms of the verb+.

+_Synopsis _is the regular arrangement of the forms of one number and
person in all the modes and tenses+.

+_Auxiliary Verbs _are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs.+

The auxiliaries are _do, did, have, had, shall, should, will, would, may,
might, can, could, must,_ and _be_ (with all its variations, see Lesson

+The _Principal Parts_ of a verb, or those from which the other parts are
derived, are the present indicative or the present infinitive, the past
indicative, and the past participle.+

List of Irregular Verbs. [Footnote: Grammarians have classed verbs on the
basis of their form or history as Strong (or Old) and Weak (or New).

Strong verbs form their past tense by changing the vowel of the present
without adding anything; weak verbs form their past tense by adding _ed,
d,_ or _t._ Some weak verbs change the vowel of the present; as, _tell,
told; teach, taught._ These are weak because they add _d_ or _t._

Some weak verbs shorten the vowel of the present without adding anything;
as, _feed, fed; lead, led;_ and some have the present and the past alike;
as, _set, set; rid, rid._ They have dropped the past tense ending.

The past participle of all strong verbs once ended in _en_ or _n,_ but in
many verbs this ending is now lost.

Since most verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding _ed,_
we call such Regular, and all others Irregular. Our irregular verbs include
all strong verbs and those that may be called "irregular weak" verbs.

Of the _ed_ added to form the past tense of regular verbs, _d_ is what
remains of _did;_ _we did love,_ for instance, being written _love-did-we._
This derivation of _d_ in _ed_ is questioned. The _d_ of the participle is
not from _did_ but is from an old participle suffix. The _e_ in the _ea_ of
both these forms is the old connecting vowel.]

TO THE TEACHER.--It would be well to require the pupils, in studying and in
reciting these lists of irregular verbs, to frame short sentences
illustrating the proper use of the past tense and the past participle,
_e.g._ I _began_ yesterday; He has _begun_ to do better. In this way the
pupils will be saved the mechanical labor of memorizing forms which they
already know how to use, and they will be led to correct what has been
faulty in their use of other forms.

+Remarks.+--Verbs that have both a regular and an irregular form are called

Verbs that are wanting in any of their parts, as _can_ and _may,_ are
called +Defective.+

The present participle is not here given as a principal part. It may always
be formed from the present tense by adding _ing._

In adding _ing_ and other terminations, the Rules for Spelling (see
Lesson 127) should be observed.

The forms below in Italics are regular; and those in smaller type are
obsolete, and need not be committed to memory.

_Present.           Past.        Past Par._
Abide,              abode,       abode.
Awake,              awoke,       _awaked.
Be _or_ am,         was,         been.
Bear,               bore,        born,
(_bring forth_)     bare,        borne.
Bear,               bore,        borne.
(_carry_)           bare,
Beat,               beat,        beaten,
Begin,              began,       begun.
Bend,               bent,        bent,
                   _bended,      bended._
Bereave,            bereft,      bereft,
                   _bereaved,    bereaved._
Beseech,            besought,    besought.
Bet,                bet,         bet,
                   _betted,      betted._
Bid,                bade, bid,   bidden, bid.
Bind,               bound,       bound.
Bite,               bit,         bitten, bit.
Bleed,              bled,        bled.
Blend,              blent,       blent,
                   _blended,     blended._
Bless,              blest,       blest,
                    blessed,     blessed.
Blow,               blew,        blown.
Break,              broke,       broken.
Breed,              bred,        bred.
Bring,              brought,     brought.
Build,              built,       built.
Burn                burnt,       burnt,
                    burned,      burned.
Burst,              burst,       burst.
Buy,                bought,      bought.
Can,[1]             could,       -----.
Cast,               cast,        cast.
Catch,              caught,      caught.
Chide,              chid,        chidden,
Choose,             chose,       chosen.
Cleave,            _cleaved,     cleaved._
(_adhere_)          clave,
Cleave              cleft,       cleft,
(_split_)           clove,       cloven,
                    clave,      _cleaved._
Cling,              clung,       clung.
Clothe,             clad,        clad,
                   _clothed      clothed._
(Be)Come,           came,        come.
Cost,               cost,        cost.
Creep,              crept,       crept.
Crow                crew,       _crowed._
Cut,                cut,         cut.
Dare,               durst,      _dared_.
(_venture_)        _dared_,
Deal,               dealt,       dealt.
Dig,                dug,         dug,
                   _digged_,    _digged._
Do,                 did,         done.
Draw,               drew,        drawn.
Dream,              dreamt,      dreamt,
                   _dreamed,     dreamed._
Dress               drest,       drest,
                   _dressed,     dressed._
Drink,              drank,       drunk.
Drive,              drove,       driven.
Dwell               dwelt,       dwelt,
                   _dwelled,     dwelled._
Eat,                ate,         eaten.
(Be) Fall,          fell,        fallen.
Feed,               fed,         fed.
Feel,               felt,        felt.
Fight,              fought,      fought.
Find,               found,       found.
Flee,               fled,        fled.
Fling,              flung,       flung.
Fly,                flew,        flown.
Forsake,            forsook,     forsaken.
Forbear,            forbore,     forborne.
Freeze,             froze,       frozen.
(For)Get,           got,         got, gotten.[2]
Gild,               gilt,        gilt,
                   _gilded,      gilded._
Gird,               girt,        girt,
                   _girded,      girded._
(For)Give,          gave,        given.
Go,                 went,[3]     gone.
(En)Grave          _graved,      graved,_
Grind,              ground,      ground.
Grow,               grew,        grown.
Hang,               hung,        hung,
                   _hanged,      hanged_.[4]
Have,               had,         had.
Hear,               heard        heard.
Heave               hove,        hove,[5]
                   _heaved,      heaved._
Hew,               _hewed,       hewed,_
Hide,               hid,         hidden, hid.
Hit,                hit,         hit.
(Be)Hold,           held,        held,
Hurt,               hurt,        hurt.
Keep,               kept,        kept.
Kneel               knelt,       knelt,
                   _kneeled,     kneeled._
Knit                knit,        knit,
                   _knitted,     knitted._
Know,               knew,        known.
Lade,              _laded,       laded,_
(load)                           laden.
Lay,                laid,        laid.
Lead,               led,         led.

[Footnote 1: Can, may, shall, will, must, and ought were originally past
forms. This accounts for their having no change in the third person.]

[Footnote 2: Gotten is obsolescent except in forgotten.]

[Footnote 3: _Went_ is the past of _wend,_ to _go_.]

[Footnote 4: _Hang,_ to execute by hanging, is regular.]

[Footnote 5: _Hove_ is used in sea language.]

       *       *       *       *       *



_Present.           Past.        Past Par._

Lean,               leant,       leant,
                   _leaned,      leaned_.
Leap,               leapt,       leapt,
                   _leaped,      leaped_.
Learn,              learnt,      learnt,
                   _learned,     learned_.
Leave,              left,        left.
Lend,               lent,        lent.
Let,                let,         let.
Lie,                lay,         lain.
Light,             _lighted,     lighted_,
                    lit,         lit.[1]
Lose,               lost,        lost.
Make,               made,        made.
May,                might,       ----.
Mean,               meant,       meant.
Meet,               met,         met.
Mow,               _mowed,       mowed_,
Must,               ----,        ----.
Ought,              ----,        ----.
Pay,                paid,        paid.
Pen,                pent,        pent,
(_inclose_)        _penned,      penned_.
Put,                put,         put.
Quit,               quit,        quit,
                   _quitted,     quitted_.
----,               quoth,[2]    ----.
Rap,                rapt,        rapt,
                   _rapped,      rapped_.
Read,               read,        read.
Rend,               rent,        rent.
Rid,                rid,         rid.
Ride,               rode,        ridden.
Ring,               rang,        rung,
(A)Rise,            rose,        risen.
Rive,              _rived_,      riven,
Run,                ran,         run.
Saw,               _sawed,       sawed_,
Say,                said,        said.
See,                saw,         seen.
Seek,               sought,      sought.
Seethe,            _seethed,     seethed_,
                    sod,         sodden.
Sell,               sold,        sold.
Send,               sent,        sent.
(Be)Set,            set,         set.
Shake,              shook,       shaken.
Shall,              should,      ------.
Shape,             _shaped,      shaped_,
Shave,             _shaved,      shaved_,
Shear,             _sheared,     sheared_,
                    shore,       shorn.
Shed,               shed,        shed.
Shine,              shone,       shone.
Shoe,               shod,        shod.
Shoot,              shot,        shot.
Show,              _showed_,     shown,
Shred,              shred,       shred.
Shrink,             shrank,      shrunk,
                    shrunk,      shrunken.
Shut,               shut,        shut.
Sing,               sang,        sung.
Sink,               sank,        sunk,
                    sunk,        sunken.
Sit,                sat,         sat.
Slay,               slew,        slain.
Sleep,              slept,       slept.
Slide,              slid,        slidden,
Sling,              slung,       slung.
Slink,              slunk,       slunk.
Slit,               slit,        slit,
                   _slitted,     slitted_.
Smell,              smelt,       smelt,
                   _smelled,     smelled_.
Smite,              smote,       smitten,
Sow,               _sowed_,      sown,
Speak,              spoke,       spoken.
Speed,              sped,        sped.
Spell,              spelt,       spelt,
                   _spelled,     spelled_.
Spend,              spent,       spent.
Spill,              spilt,       spilt,
                   _spilled,     spilled_.
Spin,               spun,        spun.
Spit,               spit,        spit,
                    spat,        spitten.
Split,              split,       split.
Spoil,              spoilt,      spoilt,
                   _spoiled,     spoiled_.
Spread,             spread,      spread.
Spring,             sprang,      sprung.
Stand,              stood,       stood.
Stave,              stove,       stove,
                   _staved,      staved_.
Stay,               staid,       staid,
                   _stayed,      stayed_.
Steal,              stole,       stolen.
Stick,              stuck,       stuck.
Sting,              stung,       stung.
Stink,              stunk,       stunk.
Strew,             _strewed_,    strewn,
Stride,             strode,      stridden.
Strike,             struck,      struck,
String,             strung,      strung,
Strive,             strove,      striven.
Strow,             _strowed_,    strown,
Swear,              swore,       sworn
Sweat,              sweat,       sweat,
                   _sweated,     sweated_.
Sweep,              swept,       swept.
Swell,             _swelled_,   _swelled_,
Swim,               swam,        swum.
Swing,              swung,       swung.
Take,               took,        taken,
Teach,              taught,      taught.
Tear,               tore,        torn.
Tell,               told,        told.
Think,              thought,     thought.
Thrive,             throve,      thriven,
                   _thrived_,   _thrived_.
Throw,              threw,       thrown.
Thrust,             thrust,      thrust.
Tread,              trod,        trodden,
Wake,              _waked_,     _waked_,
                    woke,        woke.
Wax,               _waxed_,     _waxed_,
Wear,               wore,        worn.
Weave,              wove,        woven.
Weep,               wept,        wept.
Wet,                wet,         wet.
Will,               would,       ----.
Win,                won,         won.
Wind,               wound,       wound.
Work,               wrought,     wrought,
                   _worked_,    _worked_.
  wot,             wist,         ----.
Wring,             wrung,        wrung.
Write,             wrote,        written.

[Footnote 1: _Lighted_ Is preferred to _lit_.]

[Footnote 2: _Quoth_, now nearly obsolete, is used only in the first and
the third person of the past tense. _Quoth_ I = _said_ I. Other forms
nearly obsolete are sometimes met in literature; as, "_Methinks_ I scent
the morning air"; "Woe _worth_ the day." _Methinks_ (A. S. _thincan_, to
seem, not _thencan_, to think) = _seems to me_. In the sentence above, _I
scent the morning air_ is the subject, _thinks_ is the predicate, and _me_
is a "dative," or a pronoun used adverbially. Woe _worth_ (A. S.
_weorthan_, to _be_ or _become_) the day = Woe _be_ to the day, or _Let_
woe _be_ to the day, or _May_ woe _be_ to the day.]

NOTE.--Professor Lounsbury says, "Modern English has lost not a single one
[irregular, or strong, verb] since the reign of Queen Elizabeth"; and adds,
"The present disposition of the language is not only to hold firmly to the
strong verbs it already possesses but ... even to extend their number
whenever possible." And he instances a few which since 1600 have deserted
from the regular conjugation to the irregular.

But it should be said that new English verbs, from whatever source derived,
form their past tense and participle in _ed_. So that while the regular
verbs are not increasing by desertions from the irregular, the regular
verbs are slowly gaining in number.

       *       *       *       *       *



CONJUGATION [Footnote: We give the conjugation of the verb in the simplest
form consistent with what is now demanded of a text-book. Much of this
scheme might well be omitted.

Those who wish to reject the Potential Mode, and who prefer a more
elaborate and technical classification of the mode and tense forms, are
referred to pages 373, 374. ]--SIMPLEST FORM.

REMARK.--English verbs have few inflections compared with those of other
languages. Some irregular verbs have seven forms--+see+, +saw+, +seeing+,
+seen+, +sees+, +seest+, +sawest+; regular verbs have six--+walk+,
+walked+, +walking+, +walks+, +walkest+, +walkedst+. As a substitute for
other inflections we prefix auxiliary verbs, and make what are called
_compound_, or _periphrastic_, forms.

+Direction+.--_Fill out the following forms, using the principal parts of
the verb walk--present +walk+; past +walked+; past participle +walked+:_--



   Singular.                             Plural.
1. (I)    /Pres./,                     1. (We)   /Pres./,
2. (You)  /Pres./,                     2. (You)  /Pres./,
   (Thou) /Pres./+est,[1],
3. (He)   /Pres./+s;[1]                3. (They) /Pres./.


1. (I)    /Past/,                      1. (We)   /Past/,
2. (You)  /Past/,                      2. (You)  /Past/,
   (Thou) /Past/+st+,
3. (He)   /Past/;                      3. (They) /Past/.


1. (I)    shall   /Pres./,             1. (We)   shall /Pres./,
2. (You)  will    /Pres./,             2. (You)  will  /Pres./,
   (Thou) wil-+t+ /Pres./,
3. (He)   will    /Pres./;             3. (They) will  /Pres./.


1. (I)    have    /Past Par./,         1. (We)   have /Past Par./,
2. (You)  have    /Past Par./,         2. (You)  have /Past Par./,
   (Thou) ha-+st+ /Past Par./,
3. (He)   ha-+s+  /Past Par./;         3. (They) have /Past Par./.


1. (I)    had      /Past Par./,        1. (We)   had /Past Par./
2. (You)  had      /Past Par./,        2. (You)  had /Past Par./
   (Thou) had-+st+ /Past Par./,
3. (He)   had      /Past Par./;        3. (They) had /Past Par./


1. (I)    shall have   /Past Par./,    1. (We)  shall have /Past Par./,
2. (You)  will have    /Past Par./,    2. (You)  will have /Past Par./,
   (Thou) wil-+t+ have /Past Par./,

3. (He)...will have..../Past Par./;    3. (They) will have /Past Par./.

[Footnote 1: In the indicative present, second, singular, old style, _st_
is sometimes added in stead of _est_; and in the third person, common
style, _es_ is added when _s_ will not unite. In the third person, old
style, _eth_ is added.]



   Singular.                              Plural.

1. (I)    may      /Pres./,            1. (We)   may /Pres./,
2. (You)  may      /Pres./,            2. (You)  may /Pres./,
   (Thou) may-+st+ /Pres./,
3. (He)   may      /Pres./;            3. (They) may /Pres./.


1. (I)    might      /Pres./,          1. (We)   might /Pres./,
2. (You)  might      /Pres./,          2. (You)  might /Pres./,
   (Thou) might-+st+ /Pres./,
3. (He)   might      /Pres./;          3. (They) might /Pres./.


1. (I)    may have      /Past Par./,   1. (We)   may have /Past Par./,
2. (You)  may have      /Past Par./,   2. (You)  may have /Past Par./,
   (Thou) may-+st+ have /Past Par./,
3. (He)   may have      /Past Par./.   3. (They) may have /Past Par./.


1. (I)    might have      /Past Par./, 1. (We)   might have /Past Par./,
2. (You)  might have      /Past Par./, 2. (You)  might have /Past Par./,
   (Thou) might-+st+ have /Past Par./,
3. (He)   might have      /Past Par./. 3. (They) might have /Past Par./.


[Footnote 2: Those who do not wish to recognize a Potential Mode, but
prefer the unsatisfactory task of determining when _may, can, must, might,
could, would, and should_ are independent verbs in the indicative, and when
auxiliaries in the subjunctive, are referred to pages 370-374.]




2. (If thou) /Pres./                   3. (If he) /Pres./

[Footnote 3: The subjunctive as a form of the verb is fading out of the
language. The only distinctive forms remaining (except for the verb _be_)
are the second and the third person singular of the present, and even these
ate giving way to the indicative. Such forms as If he _have loved_, etc.
are exceptional. It is true that other forms, as, If he _had known, Had_ he
_been_, _Should_ he _fall_, may be used in a true subjunctive sense, to
assert what is a mere conception of the mind, i. e., what is merely thought
of, without regard to its being or becoming a fact; but in these cases it
is not the form of the verb but the connective or something in the
construction of the sentence that determines the manner of assertion. In
parsing, the verbs in such constructions may be treated as indicative or
potential, with a subjunctive meaning.

The offices of the different mode and tense forms are constantly
interchanging; a classification based strictly on meaning would be very
difficult, and would confuse the learner.]



Singular.                              Plural.

2. /Pres./ (you or thou);              2. /Pres./ (you or ye).

[Footnote 4: From such forms as _Let us sing, Let them talk_, some
grammarians make a first and a third person imperative. But _us_ is not the
subject of the verb-phrase _let-sing_, and _let_ is not of the first
person. _Us_ is the object complement of _let_, and the infinitive _sing_
is the objective complement, having us for its assumed subject.

Some would find a first and a third person imperative in such sentences as
"Now tread _we_ a measure"; "_Perish_ the _thought_." But these verbs
express strong wish or desire and by some grammarians are called "optative
subjunctives." "Perish the thought" = "May the thought perish," or "I
desire that the thought may perish," or "Let the thought perish."]



  (To)[5] /Pres./                     (To) have /Past Par./

[Footnote 5: _To_, as indicated by the (), is not treated as a part of the
verb. Writers on language are generally agreed that when _to_ introduces an
infinitive phrase used as an adjective or an adverb, it performs its proper
function as a preposition, meaning _toward_, _for_, etc.; as, I am inclined
_to_ believe; I came _to_ hear. When the infinitive phrase is used as a
noun, the _to_ expresses no relation; it seems merely to introduce the
phrase. When a word loses its proper function without taking on the
function of some other part of speech, we do not see why it should change
its name. In the expressions, _For_ me to do this would be wrong; _Over_
the fence is out of danger, few grammarians would hesitate to call _for_
and _over_ prepositions, though they have no antecedent term of relation.

We cannot see that _to_ is a part of the verb, for it in no way affects the
meaning, as does an auxiliary, or as does the to in He was spoken to. Those
who call it a part of the verb confuse the learner by speaking of it as the
"preposition _to_" (which, as they have said, is not a preposition) "placed
before the infinitive," _i.e._, placed before that of which it forms a part
--placed before itself.

In the Anglo-Saxon, _to_ was used with the infinitive only in the dative
case, where it had its proper function as a preposition; as, nominative
_etan_ (to eat); dative _to etanne_; accusative _e:tan_. When the dative
ending _ne_ was dropped, making the three forms alike, the _to_ came to be
used before the nominative and the accusative, but without expressing

This dative of the infinitive, with _to_, was used mainly to indicate
purpose. When, after the dropping of the _ne_ ending, the idea of purpose
had to be conveyed by the infinitive, it became usual in Elizabethan
literature to place _for_ before the _to_, "And _for to_ deck heaven's
battlements."-_Greene_. "What went ye out _for to_ see?"-_Bible_. "Shut the
gates _for to_ preserve the town."--_K. Hen. VI., Part III_.]


PRESENT                PAST               PAST PERFECT.
/Pres./+ing+.        /Past Par./          Having /Past Par./

+May+, +can+, and +must+ are potential auxiliaries in the present and the
present perfect tense; +might+, +could+, +would+, and +should+, in the past
and the past perfect.

The +emphatic+ form of the present and the past tense indicative is made by
prefixing +do+ and +did+ to the present. _Do_ is prefixed to the imperative

TO THE TEACHES.--Require the pupils to fill out these forma with other
verbs, regular and irregular, using the auxiliaries named above.

       *       *       *       *       *




[Footnote: The conjugation of _be_ contains three distinct roots--_as, be,
was_. _Am, art, is, are_ are from _as_. _Am_ = _as-m_ (_m_ is the _m_ in
_me_). _Art_ = _as-t_ (_t_ is the _th_ in _thou_).

Be was formerly conjugated, I _be_, Thou _beest_, He _beth_ or _bes_; _We
be_, _Ye be_, _They be_.]

+Direction+.--Learn the following forms, paying no attention to the line at
the right of each verb:--


  _Singular.                           Plural._

1. (I) am ----,                     1. (We) are ----,
2. (You) are ---- _or_              2. (You) are ----,
   (Thou) art ----,
3. (He) is ----;                    3. (They) are ----.


1. (I) was ----,                    1. (We) were ----,
2. (You) were ---- _or_             2. (You) were ----,
   (Thou) wast ----,
3. (He) was ----;                   3. (They) were ----.


1. (I) shall be ----,               1. (We) shall be ----,
2. (You) will be ---- _or_          2. (You) will be ----,
   (Thou) wilt be ----,
3. (He) will be ----;               3. (They) will be ----.


1. (I) have been ----,              1. (We) have been ----,
2. (You) have been ---- _or_        2. (You) have been ----,
   (Thou) hast been ----,
3. (He) has been ----;              3. (They) have been ----.


1. (I) had been ----,               1. (We) had been ----,
2. (You) had been ---- _or_         2. (You) had been ----,
   (Thou) hadst been ----,
3. (He) had been ----;              3. (They) had been ----.


1. (I) shall have been ----,        1. (We) shall have been ----,
2. (You) will have been ---- _or_   2. (You) will have been ----,
   (Thou) wilt have been ----,
3. (He) will have been ----;        3. (They) will have been ----.



     _Singular.                        Plural._
1. (I) may be ----,                 1. (We) may be ----,
2. (You) may be ---- _or_           2. (You) may be ----,
   (Thou) mayst be ----,
3. (He) may be ----;                3. (They) may be ----.


1. (I) might be ----,               1. (We) might be ----,
2. (You) might be ---- _or_         2. (You) might be ----,
   (Thou) mightst be ----,
3. (He) might be ----;              3. (They) might be ----.


1. (I) may have been ----,          1. (We) may have been ----,
2. (You) may have been ---- _or_    2. (You) may have been ----,
   (Thou) mayst have been ----,
3. (He) may have been ----;         3. (They) may have been ----.


1. (I) might have been ----,        1. (We) might have been ----,
2. (You) might have been ---- _or_  2. (You) might have been ----,
   (Thou) mightst have been ----,
3. (He) might have been ----;       3. (They) might have been ----.



     _Singular.                       Plural._
1. (If I) may have been ----,       1. (If we) may have been ----,
2. (If you) may have been ---- _or_ 2. (If you) may have been ----,
   (If thou) mayst have been ----,
3. (If he) may have been ----;      3. (If they) may have been ----.


1. (If I) were -----,
2. (If you) were ----, _or_
   (If thou) wert ----,
3. (If he) were ----;



  _Singular.                            Plural._
2. Be (you or thou) ----;            2. Be (you or ye) ----.


     (To) be ----.                   (To) have been ----.


PRESENT.              PAST.          PAST PERFECT.
Being ----.           Been.          Having been ----.

       *       *       *       *       *




A verb is conjugated in the +progressive form+ by joining its present
participle to the different forms of the verb _be_.

A transitive verb is conjugated in the +passive voice+ by joining its past
participle to the different forms of the verb _be_.

+Remark+.--The progressive form denotes a continuance of the action or
being; as, The birds _are singing_.

Verbs that in their simple form denote continuance--such as _love_,
_respect_, _know_--should not be conjugated in the progressive form. We
say, I _love_ the child--not I _am loving_ the child.

+Remarks+.--The progressive form is sometimes used with a passive meaning;
as, The house _is building_. In such cases the word in _ing_ was once a
verbal noun preceded by the preposition _a_, a contraction from _on_ or
_in_; as, While the ark _was a preparing_; While the flesh _was in
seething_. In modern language the preposition is dropped, and the word in
_ing_ is treated adjectively.

Another passive progressive form, consisting of the verb _be_ completed by
the present passive participle, has recently appeared in our language--The
house _is being built_, or _was being built_. Although condemned by many
linguists as awkward and otherwise objectionable, it has grown rapidly into
good use, especially in England, Such a form seems to be needed when the
simpler form would be ambiguous, _i.e._, when its subject might be taken to
name either the actor or the receiver; as, The child _is whipping_; The
prisoner _is trying_. Introduced only to prevent ambiguity, the so-called
neologism has pushed its way, and is found where the old form would not be
ambiguous. As now used, the new form stands to the old in about the ratio
of three to one.

+Direction+.--_Conjugate the verb choose in the progressive form by filling
all the blanks left after the different forms of the verb be, in the
preceding Lesson, with the present participle choosing; and then in the
passive form by filling these blanks with the past participle chosen_.

Notice that after the past participle of the verb _be_ no blank is left.
The past participle of the passive is not formed by the aid of _be_; it is
never compound. The past participle of a transitive verb is always passive
except in such forms as _have chosen, had chosen_. (See _have written_,
Lesson 138.) In the progressive, the past participle is wanting. All the
participles of the verb _choose_ are arranged in order

                  _Present.          Past.      Past Perfect_.

_Simplest form_.    Choosing,         chosen,    having chosen.
_Progressive form_. Being choosing,*  ------,    having been choosing.
_Passive form_.     Being chosen,     chosen,    having been chosen.

[Footnote *: This form is not commonly used.]

+Direction+.--_Write and arrange as above all the participles of the verbs
break, drive, read, lift_.

TO THE TEACHER.--Select other verbs, and require the pupils to conjugate
them in the progressive and in the passive form. Require them to give
synopses of all the forms. Require them in some of their synopses to use
_it_ or some noun for the subject in the third person.

       *       *       *       *       *




A verb may be conjugated +interrogatively+ in the indicative and potential
modes by placing the subject after the first auxiliary; as, _Does he sing?_

A verb may be conjugated +negatively+ by placing _not_ after the first
auxiliary; as, He _does not sing_. _Not_ is placed before the infinitive
and the participles; as, _not to sing, not singing_.

A question with negation is expressed in the indicative and potential
modes by placing the subject and _not_ after the first auxiliary; as, _Does
he not sing?_

+Remark+.--Formerly, it was common to use the simple form of the present
and past tenses interrogatively and negatively thus: _Loves he? I know
not_. Such forms are still common in poetry, but in prose they are now
scarcely used. We say, _Does he love?_ _I do not know_. The verbs _be_ and
_have_ are exceptions, as they do not take the auxiliary _do_. We say, _Is
it right? Have you another?_

+Direction+.--_Write a synopsis in the third person, singular, of the verb
walk conjugated_ (1) _interrogatively_, (2) _negatively, and _(3) _so as to
express a question with negation. Remember that the indicative and the
potential are the only modes that can be used interrogatively._

To THE TEACHER.--Select other verbs, and require the pupils to conjugate
them negatively and interrogatively in the progressive and in the passive
form. Require the pupils to give synopses of all the forms.

       *       *       *       *       *




The +compound+, or +periphrastic, forms+ of the verb consisting of two
words may each be resolved into an +asserting word and a participle+ or an

If we look at the original meaning of the forms +I do write, I shall write,
I will write+, we shall find that the so-called auxiliary is the real verb,
and that _write_ is an infinitive used as object complement. +I do write =
I do+ or +perform+ the action (_to_) write. +I shall write = I owe+ (_to_)
+write. I will write = I determine+ (_to_) +write+.

+May write, can write, must write, might write, could write, would write+,
and +should write+ may each be resolved into an asserting word and an

The forms +is writing, was written+, etc. consist each of an asserting word
(the verb _be_), and a participle used as attribute complement.

The forms +have written+ and +had written+ are so far removed from their
original meaning that their analysis cannot be made to correspond with
their history. They originated from such expressions as _I have a letter
written_, in which _have_ ( = _possess_) is a transitive verb taking
_letter_ for its object complement, and _written_ is a passive participle
modifying _letter_. The idea of possession has faded out of _have_, and the
participle has lost its passive meaning. The use of this form has been
extended to intransitive verbs--Spring _has come_, Birds _have flown_, etc.
being now regularly used instead of the more logical perfect tense forms,
Spring _is come_, Birds _are flown_. (_Is come, are flown_, etc. must not
be mistaken for transitive verbs in the passive voice.) [Footnote: A
peculiar use of _had_ is found in the expressions _had rather go_ and _had
better go_, condemned by many grammarians who suppose _had_ to be here used
incorrectly for _would_ or _should_. Of these expressions the "Standard
Dictionary," an authority worthy of our attention, says:--

"Forms disputed by certain grammatical critics from the days of Samuel
Johnson, the critics insisting upon the substitution of _would_ or
_should_, as the case may demand, for _had_; but _had rather_ and _had
better_ are thoroughly established English, idioms having the almost
universal popular and literary sanction of centuries. 'I _would rather_ not
go' is undoubtedly correct when the purpose is to emphasize the element of
choice, or will, in the matter; but in all ordinary cases 'I _had rather_
not go' has the merit of being idiomatic and easily and universally

"If for 'You _had better_ stay at home' we substitute 'You _should better_
stay at home,' an entirely different meaning is expressed, the idea of
expediency giving place to that of obligation."

In the analysis of "_I had rather go_," _had_ is the predicate verb, the
infinitive _go_ is the object complement, and the adjective _rather_
completes _had_ and belongs to _go_, i.e., is objective complement. _Had_
(= _should hold_ or _regard_) is treated as a past subjunctive. _Rather_ is
the comparative of the old adjective _rathe_ = _early_, from which comes
the idea of preference. The expression means, "I should hold going

The expressions "You _had better_ stay," "I _had as lief_ not be," are
similar in construction to "I _had rather_ go." "I _had sooner_ go" is
condemned by grammarians because _sooner_ is never an adjective. If
_sooner_ is here allowed as an idiom, it is a modifier of _had_. The
expression equals, "I should more willingly have going."]

Compounds of more than two words may be analyzed thus: +May have been
written+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have been+ and the
participle +written; may have been+ is composed of the compound auxiliary
+may have+ and the participle +been+; and +may have+ is composed of the
auxiliary +may+ and the infinitive +have+. _May_ is the asserting word--the
first auxiliary is always the asserting word.

+Direction+.--_Study what has been said above and analyze the following
verbal forms, distinguishing carefully between participles that may be
considered as part of the verb and words that must be treated as attribute

1. I may be mistaken.
2. The farm was sold.
3. I shall be contented.
4. Has it been decided?
5. You should have been working.
6. The danger might have been avoided.
7. He may have been tired and sleepy.
8. She is singing.
9. I shall be satisfied.
10. The rule has not been observed.
11. Stars have disappeared.
12. Times will surely change.


The +Present Tense+ is used to express (1) what is actually present, (2)
what is true at all times, (3) what frequently or habitually takes place,
(4) what is to take place in the future, and it is used (5) in describing
past or future events as if occurring at the time of the speaking.

+Examples+.--I _hear_ a voice (action as present). The sun _gives_ light
(true at all times). He _writes_ for the newspapers (habitual). Phillips
_speaks_ in Boston to-morrow night (future). He _mounts_ the scaffold; the
executioners _approach_ to bind him; he _struggles, resists_, etc. (past
events pictured to the imagination as present). The clans of Culloden _are_
scattered in fight; they _rally_, they _bleed_, etc. (future events now
seen in vision).

The +Past Tense+ may express (1) simply past action or being, (2) a past
habit or custom, (3) a future event, and (4) it may refer to present time.

+Examples+.--The birds _sang_ (simply past action). He _wrote_ for the
newspapers (past habit). If I _should go_, you _would miss_ me (future
events). If he _were_ here, he _would enjoy_ this (refers to present time).

The +Future Tense+ may express (1) simply future action or being, (2) a
habit or custom as future or as indefinite in time.

+Examples+.--I _shall write_ soon (simply future action). He _will sit_
there by the hour (indefinite in time).

The +Present Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed in
present time (_i.e._, a period of time--an hour, a year, an age--of which
the present forms a part), and (2) action or being to be completed in a
future period.

+Examples+.--Homer _has written_ poems (the period of time affected by this
completed action embraces the present). When I _have finished_ this, you
_shall have_ it (action to be completed in a future period).

The +Past Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed at some
specified past time, and (2) in a conditional or hypothetical clause it may
express past time.

+Examples+.--I _had seen_ him when I met you (action completed at a
specified past time). If I _had had_ time, I _should have written_ (I _had_
not time--I _did_ not _write_.)

The +Future Perfect Tense+ expresses action to be completed at some
specified future time.

+Example+.--I _shall have seen_ him by to-morrow noon.

+Direction+.--_Study what has been said above about the meaning of the
tense forms, and describe carefully the time expressed by each of the
following verbs_:--

1. I go to the city to-morrow.
2. The village master taught his little school.
3. Plato reasons well.
4. A triangle has three sides.
5. To-morrow is the day appointed.
6. Moses has told many important facts.
7. The ship sails next week.
8. She sings well.
9. Cicero has written orations.
10. He would sit for hours and watch the smoke curl from his pipe.
11. You may hear when the next mail arrives,
12. Had I known this before, I could have saved you much trouble.
13. He will occasionally lose his temper.
14. At the end of this week I shall have been in school four years.
15. If I were you, I would try that.
16. He will become discouraged before he has thoroughly tried it.
17. She starts, she moves, she seems to feel the thrill of life along her

+Model for Written Parsing adapted to all Parts of Speech+. _Oh! it has a
voice for those who on their sick beds lie and waste away._

[Transcriber's Note: The following two tables have been split to fit within
Doctrine Publishing Corporation line-width requirements. The first column of each table
has been repeated for easier reference.]

Sentence.|Class. |Sub-C.   |Voice.|Mode.|Tense.|Num. |Per.|  Gen.  |Case.|
         |       |         |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
Oh!      |Int.   |         |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
it       |Pro.   |Per.     |      |     |      |Sing.| ad.|  Neut. |Nom. |
has      |Vb.    |Ir., Tr. | Act. | Ind.|Pres. | "   | "  |        |     |
a        |Adj.   |Def.     |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
voice    |N.     |Com.     |      |     |      | "   | "  | "      |Obj. |
for      |Prep.  |         |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
those    |Pro.   |Adj.     |      |     |      |Plu. | "  |M. or F.| "   |
who      |Pro.   |Rel.     |      |     |      | "   | "  |   "    |Nom. |
on       |Prep.  |         |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
their    |Pro.   |Per.     |      |     |      | "   | "  |   "    |Pos. |
sick     |Adj.   |Des.     |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
beds     |N.     |Com.     |      |     |      | "   | "  | Neut.  |Obj. |
lie      |Vb.    |Ir.,Int. |  --  | Ind.|Pres. | "   | "  |        |     |
and      |Conj.  |Co-or.   |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |
waste    |Vb.    |Reg.,Int.|  --  |  "  |  "   | "   | "  |        |     |
away.    |Adv.   |Place.   |      |     |      |     |    |        |     |

         |       |  SYNTAX.
Sentence.|Deg. of|
         |  Comp.|
Oh!      |       |Independent.
it       |       |Subject of _has_.
has      |       |Predicate of _it_.
a        |  --   |Modifier of _voice_.
voice    |       |Object comp of _has_.
for      |       |Shows Rel. of _has_ to _those_.
those    |       |Prin. word in Prep. phrase.
who      |       |Subject of _lie_ and _waste_.
on       |       |Shows Rel. of _lie_ to _beds_.
their    |       |Possessive Mod. of _beds_.
sick     | Pos.  |Modifier of _beds_.
beds     |       |Prin. word in Prep. phrase.
lie      |       |Predicate of _who_.
and      |       |Connects _lie_ and _waste_.
waste    |       |Predicate of _who_.
away.    |  --   |Modifier of _waste_.

TO THE TEACHER.--For further exercises in parsing the verb and for
exercises in general parsing, select from the preceding Lessons on

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Select and parse, according to the Model below, the verbs in
the sentences of Lesson_ 42. _For the agreement of verbs, see Lesson_ 142.

+Model for Written Parsing--_Verbs_+.--_The Yankee, selling his farm,
wanders away to seek new lands_.

Verbs.  | Kind.            |Voice.|Mode.|Tense.|Num. |Per.|
*selling|Pr. Par., Ir., Tr.| Act. | --  |  --  | --  | -- |
wanders |Reg., Int.        |  --  |Ind. |Pres. |Sing.| 3d.|
*seek   |Inf., Ir., Tr.    | Act. | --  |  "   |  -- |    |
        |                  |      |     |      |     |    |

        | SYNTAX
Verbs.  |
selling |Mod. of _Yankee_.
wanders |Pred. of _Yankee_.
seek    |Prin. word in phrase
        |   Mod. of _wanders_.

[Footnote: Participles and infinitives have neither person nor number.]

(See Model for Written Parsing on opposite page.)

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Be careful to give every verb its proper form and meaning.

+Direction+.--_Correct the following errors, and give your reasons_:--

1. I done it myself.
2. He throwed it into the river, for I seen him when he done it.
3. She sets by the open window enjoying the scene that lays before her.

+Explanation+.--_Lay_ (to place) is transitive, _lie_ (to rest) is
intransitive; _set_ (to place) is transitive, _sit_ (to rest) is
intransitive. _Set_ in some of its meanings is intransitive.

4. The tide sits in.
5. Go and lay down.
6. The sun sits in the west.
7. I remember when the corner stone was lain.
8. Sit the plates on the table.
9. He sat out for London yesterday.
10. Your dress sets well.
11. The bird is setting on its eggs.
12. I laid there an hour.
13. Set down and talk a little while.
14. He has laid there an hour.
15. I am setting by the river.
16. He has went and done it without my permission.
17. He flew from justice.
18. Some valuable land was overflown.
19. She come just after you left.
20. They sung a new tune which they had not sang before.
21. The water I drunk there was better than any that I had drank before.
22. The leaves had fell.
23. I had rode a short distance when the storm begun to gather.
24. I found the water froze.
25. He raised up.
26. He run till he became so weary that he was forced to lay down.
27. I knowed that it was so, for I seen him when he done it.
28. I had began to think that you had forsook us.
29. I am afraid that I cannot learn him to do it.
30. I guess that I will stop.
31. I expect that he has gone to Boston.
32. There ain't any use of trying.
33. I have got no mother.
34. Can I speak to you?
35. He had ought to see him.

+Explanation+.--As _ought_ is never a participle, it cannot be used after
_had_ to form a compound tense.

+Caution+.--A conditional or a concessive clause takes a verb in the
indicative mode when the action or being is assumed as a fact, or when the
uncertainty lies merely in the speaker's knowledge of the fact. But when
the action or being in such a clause is merely thought of as a contingency,
or in such a clause the speaker prefers to put hypothetically something of
whose truth or untruth he has no doubt, the subjunctive is used. The
subjunctive is frequently used in indirect questions, in expressing a wish
for that which it is impossible to attain at once or at all, and instead of
the potential mode in independent clauses.

  1. If (= _since_) it rains, why do you go?
  2. If it _rains_ (now), I cannot go out.
  3. If it _rain_, the work will be delayed.
  4. Though it _rain_ to-morrow, we must march.
  5. If there _be_ mountains, there must be valleys between.
  6. Though honey _be_ sweet, one can't make a meal of it.
  7. If my friend _were_ here, he would enjoy this.
  8. Though immortality _were_ improbable, we should still believe in it.
  9. One may doubt whether the best men _be known_.
  10. I wish the lad _were_ taller.
  11. Oh! that I _were_ a Samson in strength.
  12. It _were_ better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck.

+Explanation+.--In (1) the raining is assumed as a fact. In (2) the speaker
is uncertain of the fact. In the conditional clause of (3) and in the
concessive clause of (4) the raining is thought of as a mere contingency.
The speaker is certain of the truth of what is hypothetically expressed in
the conditional clause of (5) and in the concessive clause of (6), and is
certain of the untruth of what is hypothetically expressed in the
conditional clause of (7) and in the concessive clause of (8). There is an
indirect question in (9), a wish in (10) for something not at once
attainable and in (11) for something forever unattainable, and in (12) the
subjunctive mode is used in place of the potential.

+Remarks+.--When there is doubt as to whether the indicative or the
subjunctive mode is required, use the indicative.

The present subjunctive forms may be treated as infinitives used to
complete omitted auxiliaries; as, If it (_should_) _rain_, the work will be
delayed; Till one greater man (_shall_) _restore_ us, etc. This will often
serve as a guide in distinguishing the indicative from the subjunctive

_If, though, lest, unless_, etc. are usually spoken of as signs of the
subjunctive mode, but these words are now more frequently followed by the
indicative than by the subjunctive.

+Direction+.--_Justify the mode of the italicized verbs in the following

1. If this _were_ so, the difficulty would vanish.
2. If he _was_ there, I did not see him.
3. If to-morrow _be_ fine, I will walk with you.
4. Though this _seems_ improbable, it is true.
5. If my friend _is_ in town, he will call this evening.
6. If he ever _comes_, we shall know it.

+Explanation+.--In (6) and (7) the coming is referred to as a fact to be
decided in future time.

7. If he _comes_ by noon, let me know.
8. The ship leaps, as it _were_, from billow to billow.
9. Take heed that thou _speak_ not to Jacob.
10. If a pendulum _is drawn _to one side, it will swing to the other.

+Explanation+.--_Be_ is often employed in making scientific statements like
the preceding, and may therefore be allowed, _If a pendulum is drawn =
Whenever a pendulum is drawn_.

11. I wish that I _were_ a musician.
12. _Were_ I so disposed, I could not gratify you.
13. This sword shall end thee unless thou _yield_.
14. Govern well thy appetite, lest sin _surprise_ thee.
15. I know not whether it _is_ so or not.
16. Would he _were_ fatter!
17. If there _were_ no light, there would be no colors.
18. Oh, that he _were_ a son of mine!
19. Though it _be_ cloudy to-night, it will be cold.
20. Though the whole _exceed_ a part, we sometimes prefer a part to the
21. Whether he _go_ or not, I must be there.
22. Though an angel from heaven _command_ it, we should not steal.
23. If there _be_ an eye, it was made to see.
24. It _were_ well it _were done_ quickly.

+Direction+.--_Supply in each of the following sentences a verb in the
indicative or the subjunctive mode, and give a reason for your choice_:--

1. I wish it ---- in my power to help you.
2. I tremble lest he ----.
3. If he ---- guilty, the evidence does not show it.
4. He deserves our pity, unless his tale ---- a false one.
5. Though he ---- there, I did not see him.
6. If he ---- but discreet, he will succeed.
7. If I ---- he, I would do differently.
8. If ye ---- men, fight.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Be careful to employ the tense forms of the different modes in
accordance with their meaning, and in such a way as to preserve the proper
order of time.

+Direction+.--_Correct the following errors, and give your reasons_:--

1. That custom has been formerly quite popular.
2. Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
3. He that was dead sat up and began to speak.
4. A man bought a horse for one hundred dollars; and, after keeping it
   three months, at an expense of ten dollars a month, he sells it for two
   hundred dollars. What per cent does he gain?
5. I should say that it was an hour's ride.
6. If I had have seen him, I should have known him.
7. I wish I was in Dixie.
8. We should be obliged if you will favor us with a song.
9. I intended to have called.

+Explanation+.--This is incorrect; it should be, _I intended to call_. The
act of calling was not completed at the time indicated by _intended_.

+Remark+.--Verbs of commanding, desiring, expecting, hoping, intending,
permitting, etc. are followed by verbs denoting present or future time.
[Footnote: The "Standard Dictionary" makes this restriction: "The doubling
of the past tenses in connection with the use of _have_ with a past
participle is proper and necessary when the completion of the future act
was intended before the occurrence of something else mentioned or thought
of. Attention to this qualification, which has been overlooked in the
criticism of tense-formation and connection, is especially important and
imperative. If one says, 'I meant _to have visited_ Paris and _to have
returned_ to London before my father _arrived_ from America,' the past
[present perfect] infinitive ... is necessary for the expression of the
completion of the acts purposed. 'I meant _to visit_ Paris and _to return_
to London before my father _arrived_ from America,' may convey suggestively
the thought intended, but does not express it."]

The present infinitive expresses an action as present or future, and the
present perfect expresses it as completed, at the time indicated by the
principal verb. I _am glad to have met you_ is correct, because the meeting
took place before the time of being glad.

I _ought to have gone_ is exceptional. _Ought_ has no past tense form, and
so the present perfect infinitive is used to make the expression refer to
past time.

10. We hoped to have seen you often.
11. I should not have let you eaten it.
12. I should have liked to have seen it.
13. He would not have dared done that.
14. You ought to have helped me to have done it.
15. We expected that he would have arrived last night.
16. The experiment proved that air had weight.

+Remark+.--What is true or false at all times is generally expressed in the
present tense, whatever tense precedes.

There seems to be danger of applying this rule too rigidly. When a speaker
does not wish to vouch for the truth of the general proposition, he may use
the past tense, giving it the form of an indirect quotation; as, He said
that iron _was_ the most valuable of metals. The tense of the dependent
verb is sometimes attracted into that of the principal verb; as, I _knew_
where the place _was_.

17. I had never known before how short life really was.
18. We then fell into a discussion whether there is any beauty independent
    of utility. The General maintained that there was not; Dr. Johnson
    maintained that there was.
19. I have already told you that I was a gentleman.
20. Our fathers held that all men were created equal.

+Caution+.--Use _will_ and _would_ to imply that the subject names the one
whose will controls the action; use _shall_ and _should_ to imply that the
one named by the subject is under the control of external influence.

+Remark+.--The original meaning of _shall_ (to _owe_, to _be obliged_) and
_will_ (to _determine_) gives us the real key to their proper use.

The only case in which some trace of the original meaning of these
auxiliaries cannot be found is the one in which the subject of _will_ names
something incapable of volition; as, The _wind will blow_. Even this may be
a kind of personification.

+Examples+.--I _shall go_; You _will go_; He _will go_. These are the
proper forms to express mere futurity, but even here we can trace the
original meaning of _shall_ and _will_. In the first person the speaker
avoids egotism by referring to the act as an obligation or duty rather than
as something under the control of his own will. In the second and third
persons it is more courteous to refer to the will of others than to their

I _will go_. Here the action is under the control of the speaker's will. He
either promises or determines to go.

You _shall go_; He _shall go_. Here the speaker either promises the going
or determines to compel these persons to go; in either case the one who
goes is under some external influence.

_Shall_ I _go?_ Here the speaker puts himself under the control of some
external influence--the will of another.

_Will_ I _go?_--_i. e_., Is it my will to go?--is not used except to repeat
another's question. It would be absurd for one to ask what his own will is.

_Shall_ you _go_? Ans. I _shall_. _Will_ you _go_? Ans. I _will_. _Shall_
he _go?_ Ans. He _shall_. _Will_ he _go?_ Ans. He _will_. The same
auxiliary is used in the question that is used in the answer.

No difficulty _shall hinder_ me. The difficulty that might do the hindering
is not to be left to itself, but is to be kept under the control of the

He says that he _shall go_; He says that he _will go_. Change the indirect
quotations introduced by _that_ to direct quotations, and the application
of the Caution will be apparent.

You _will see_ that my horse is at the door by nine o'clock. This is only
an apparent exception to the rule. A superior may courteously avoid the
appearance of compulsion, and refer to his subordinate's willingness to

They knew that I _should be_ there, and that he _would be_ there. The same
principles apply to _should_ and _would_ that apply to _shall_ and _will_.
In this example the events are future as to past time; making them future
as to present time, we have, They know that I _shall be_ there, and that he
_will be_ there.

My friend said that he _should_ not _set_ out to-morrow. Change the
indirect to a direct quotation, and the force of _should_ will be seen.

+Direction+.--_Assign a reason for the use of shall or will in each of the
following sentences_:--

1. Hear me, for I will speak.
2. If you will call, I shall be happy to accompany you.
3. Shall you be at liberty to-day?
4. I shall never see him again.
5. I will never see him again.
6. I said that he should be rewarded.
7. Thou shalt surely die.
8. Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again.
9. Though I should die, yet will I not deny thee.
10. Though I should receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine hand, yet
    would I not put forth my hand against the king's son.

+Direction+.--_Fill each of the following blanks with shall, will, should,
or would, and give the reasons for your choice_:--

1. He knew who ---- betray him.
2. I ---- be fatigued if I had walked so far.
3. You did better than I ---- have done.
4. If he ---- come by noon, ---- you be ready?
5. They do me wrong, and I ---- not endure it.
6. I ---- be greatly obliged if you ---- do me the favor.
7. If I ---- say so, I ---- be guilty of falsehood.
8. You ---- be disappointed if you ---- see it.
9. ---- he be allowed to go on?
10. ---- you be unhappy, if I do not come?

+Direction+.--_Correct the following errors, and give your reasons_:--

1. Where will I leave you?
2. Will I be in time?
3. It was requested that no person would leave his seat.
4. They requested that the appointment would be given to a man who should
   be known to his party.
5. When will we get through this tedious controversy?
6. I think we will have rain.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Caution+.--A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

+Remarks+.--Practically, this rule applies to but few forms. +Are+ and
+were+ are the only plural forms retained by the English verb. In the
common style, most verbs have one person form, made by adding +s+ or +es+
(_has_, in the present perfect tense, is a contraction of the indicative
present--_ha_(_ve_)_s_). The verb _be_ has +am+ (first person) and +is+
(third person).

In the solemn style, the second person singular takes the ending +est+,
+st+, or +t+, and, in the indicative present, the third person singular
adds +eth+. (See Lessons 134 and 135.)

_Need_ and _dare_, when followed by an infinitive without _to_, are
generally used instead of _needs_ and _dares_; as, He _need_ not do it; He
_dare_ not do it.

+Caution+.--A collective noun requires a verb in the plural when the
individuals in the collection are thought of; but, when the collection as a
whole is thought of, the verb should be singular.

  l. The _multitude were_ of one mind.
  2. The _multitude was_ too large to number.
  3. A _number were_ inclined to turn back,
  4. The _number_ present _was_ not ascertained.

+Caution+.--When a verb has two or more subjects connected by _and_, it
must agree with them in the plural.

+Exceptions+.--l. When the connected subjects are different names of the
same thing, or when they name several things taken as one whole, the verb
must be singular; as, My old _friend and schoolmate is_ in town. _Bread and
milk is_ excellent food.

2. When the connected subjects are preceded by _each, every, many a_, or
_no_, they are taken separately, and the verb agrees with the nearest; as,
_Every man, woman, and child was_ lost.

3. When the subjects are emphatically distinguished, the verb agrees with
the first and is understood with the second; as, _Time, and patience also,
is_ needed. (The same is true of subjects connected by _as well as_; as,
_Time, as well as patience, is_ needed.)

4. When one of the subjects is affirmative and the other negative, the verb
agrees with the affirmative; as, _Books, and not pleasure_, occupy his

5. When several subjects follow the verb, each subject may be emphasized by
making the verb agree with that which stands nearest; as, Thine _is_ the
_kingdom and_ the _power_ _and_ the _glory_.

+Remark+.--When one of two or more subjects connected by _and_ is of the
first person, the verb is in the first person; when one of the subjects is
of the second person, and none of the first, the verb is in the second
person. _I, you, and he_ = _we_; _you and he_ = _you_. We say, _Mary and I
shall_ (not _will_) be busy to-morrow.

+Caution+.--When two or more subjects are connected by _or_ or _nor_, the
verb agrees in person and number with the nearest; as, Neither _poverty nor
wealth was_ desired; Neither _he nor they were_ satisfied.

When the subjects require different forms of the verb, it is generally
better to express the verb with each subject or to recast the sentence.

+Remarks+.--When a singular and a plural subject are used, the plural
subject is generally placed next to the verb.

In using pronouns of different persons, it is generally more polite for the
speaker to mention the one addressed first, and himself last, except when
he confesses a fault.

+Caution+.--A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number, gender, and
person; as, _Thou who writest_; _He who writes_; _They who write_, etc.

The three special Cautions given above for the agreement of the verb will
also aid in determining the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent.

+Remarks+.--The pronoun and the verb of an adjective clause relating to the
indefinite subject _it_ take, by attraction, the person and number of the
complement when this complement immediately precedes the adjective clause;
as, It is I _that am_ in the wrong; It is thou _that liftest_ me up; It is
the dews and showers _that make_ the grass grow.

The pronoun _you_, even when singular, requires a plural verb.

+Direction+.--_Justify the use of the following italicized verbs and

1. _Books is_ a noun.
2. The good _are_ great.
3. The committee _were_ unable to agree, and _they_ asked to be discharged.
4. The House _has_ decided not to allow _its_ members the privilege.
5. Three times four _is_ twelve. [Footnote: "Three times four _is_ twelve"
   and "Three times four _are_ twelve" are both used, and both are
   defended. The question is (see Caution for collective nouns), Is the
   number four thought of as a whole, or are the individual units composing
   it thought of? The expression = Four taken three times is twelve.
   _Times_ is a noun used adverbially.]
6. Five dollars _is_ not too much.
7. Twice as much _is_ too much.
8. Two hours _is_ a long time to wait.
9. To relieve the wretched _was_ his pride.
10. To profess and to possess _are_ two different things.
11. Talking and eloquence _are_ not the same.
12. The tongs _are_ not in _their_ place.
13. Every one _is_ accountable for _his_ own acts.
14. Every book and every paper _was_ found in _its_ place.
15. Not a loud voice, but strong proofs _bring_ conviction.
16. This orator and statesman _has_ gone to _his_ rest.
17. Young's "Night Thoughts" _is his_ most celebrated poetical work.
18. Flesh and blood _hath_ not revealed it.
19. The hue and cry of the country _pursues_ him.
20. The second and the third Epistle of John _contain_ each a single
21. _Man is_ masculine because _it_ denotes a male.
22. Therein _consists_ the force and use and nature of language.
23. Neither wealth nor wisdom _is_ the chief thing.
24. Either you or I _am_ right.
25. Neither you nor he _is_ to blame.
26. John, and his sister also, _is_ going.
27. The lowest mechanic, as well as the richest citizen, _is_ here
    protected in _his_ right.
28. There _are_ one or two reasons. [Footnote: When two adjectives
    differing in number are connected without a repetition of the noun, the
    tendency is to make the verb agree with the noun expressed.]
29. Nine o'clock and forty-five minutes _is_ fifteen minutes of ten.
30. Mexican figures, or picture-writing, _represent_ things, not words.
    [Footnote: The verb here agrees with _figures_, as _picture-writing_ is
    logically explanatory of _figures_.]
31. Many a kind word and many a kind act _has_ been put to his credit.

+Direction+.--_Correct the following errors, and give your reasons_:--

1. _Victuals_ are always plural.
2. Plutarch's "Parallel Lives" are his great work.
3. What sounds have each of the vowels?
4. "No, no," says I.
5. "We agree," says they.
6. Where was you?
7. Every one of these are good in their place.
8. Neither of them have recited their lesson.
9. There comes the boys.
10. Each of these expressions denote action.
11. One of you are mistaken.
12. There is several reasons for this.
13. The assembly was divided in its opinion.
14. The public is invited to attend.
15. The committee were full when this point was decided.
16. The nation are prosperous.
17. Money, as well as men, were needed.
18. Now, boys, I want every one of you to decide for themselves.
19. Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven.
20. She fell to laughing like one out of their right mind.
21. Five years' interest are due.
22. Three quarters of the men was discharged.
23. Nine-tenths of every man's happiness depend upon this.
24. No time, no money, no labor, were spared.
25. One or the other have erred in their statement.
26. Why are dust and ashes proud?
27. Either the master or his servants is to blame.
28. Neither the servants nor their master are to blame.
29. Our welfare and security consists in unity.
30. The mind, and not the body, sin.
31. He don't like it.
32. Many a heart and home have been desolated by drink.


TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions to the teacher, page 255*.

+Scheme for the Verb.+

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

    To assert action, being, or state.--Predicate (4, 11)
    To assume action, being, or state.
      Participles (37)
      Infinitives (40)
      Regular (92).
      Irregular (92, 132, 133).
       (Redundant and Defective)
      Transitive (92).
      Intransitive (92).
      Active (129, 130).
      Passive (129, 130).
      Indicative (131, 134-137).
      Potential (131, 134-137).
      Subjunctive (131, 134-137, 140).
      Imperative (131, 134-137).
      Present.        |
      Past.           |
      Future.         + 131, 134-138,
      Present Perfect.| 140, 141.
      Past Perfect.   |
      Future Perfect. |
      Singular. + 131, 134, 135.
      Plural.   |
      First.  |
      Second. + 131, 134, 135.
      Third.  |
    Present.      |
    Past.         + 131, 134, 136.
    Past Perfect. |
    Present.        |
    Present Perfect.| 131, 134, 135.

+Questions on the Verb+.

1. Define the verb and its classes.--Lessons 92, 132.

2. Define the modifications of the verb.--Lessons 129, 131.

3. Define the several voices, modes, and tenses.--Lessons 129, 131.

4. Define the participle and its classes.--Lesson 131.

5. Define the infinitive.--Lesson 131.

6. Give a synopsis of a regular and of an irregular verb in all the
   different forms.--Lessons 134, 135, 136, 137.

7. Analyze the different mode and tense forms, and give the functions of
   the different tenses.--Lesson 138.

8. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the mode
   and tense forms, and of the person and number forms.--Lessons 140, 141,

       *       *       *       *       *



_Lesson_ 112.--What are Modifications? Have English words many inflections?
Have they lost any? What is Number? Define the singular and the plural
number. How is the plural of nouns regularly formed? In what ways may the
plural be formed irregularly? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 113.--Give the plural of some nouns adopted from other languages.
How do compounds form the plural? Illustrate the several ways. How do
letters, figures, etc. form the plural? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 114.--Give examples of nouns having each two plurals differing in
meaning. Some which have the same form in both numbers. Some which have no
plural. Some which are always plural. What is said of the number of
collective nouns?

_Lesson_ 116.--In what four ways may the number of nouns be determined?

_Lesson_ 117.--What is Gender? Define the different genders. What is the
difference between sex and gender? The gender of English nouns follows
what? Have English nouns a neuter form? Have all English nouns a masculine
and a feminine form? In what three ways may the masculine of nouns be
distinguished from the feminine? Illustrate. Give the three gender forms of
the pronoun.

_Lesson_ 118.--How is gender in grammar important? When is the pronoun of
the masculine gender used? When is the neuter pronoun _it_ used? By the aid
of what pronouns are inanimate things personified? In personification, when
is the masculine pronoun used, and when is the feminine? Illustrate. What
is the Caution relating to gender?

_Lesson_ 119.--What is Person? Is the person of nouns marked by form?
Define the three persons. When is a noun in the first person? In the second
person? What classes of words have distinctive person forms? Why is person
regarded in grammar? What is Case? Define the three cases. What is the case
of a noun used independently? Of an explanatory modifier? Of an objective
complement? Of a noun or pronoun used as attribute complement? Illustrate
all these.

_Lesson_ 121.--What is Parsing? Illustrate the parsing of nouns.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Lesson_ 122.--How many case forms have nouns, and what are they? How is
the possessive of nouns in the singular formed? Of nouns in the plural?
Illustrate. What is the possessive sign? To which word of compound names or
of groups of words treated as such is the sign added? Illustrate. Instead
of the possessive form, what may be used? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 123.--In what case alone can mistakes in the construction of nouns
occur? Illustrate the Cautions relating to possessive forms.

_Lesson_ 124.--What is Declension? Decline _girl_ and _tooth_. Decline the
several personal pronouns, the relative and the interrogative. What
adjective pronouns are declined wholly or in part? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 125.--What words in the language have each three different case
forms? What are the nominative, and what the objective, forms of the

_Lesson_ 127.--What one modification have adjectives? What is Comparison?
Define the three degrees. How are adjectives regularly compared? What are
the Rules for Spelling? Illustrate them. How are adjectives of more than
one syllable generally compared? How are degrees of diminution expressed?
Can all adjectives be compared? Illustrate. How are some adverbs compared?
Illustrate the irregular comparison of adjectives and adverbs.

_Lesson_ 128.--To how many things does the comparative degree refer? What
does it imply? Explain the office of the superlative. What word usually
follows the comparative, and what the superlative? Give the Cautions
relating to the use of comparatives and superlatives, and illustrate them

_Lesson_ 129.--What is Voice? Of what class of verbs is it a modification?
Name and define the two voices. When is the one voice used, and when the
other? Into what may the passive form be resolved? Illustrate. What may be
mistaken for a verb in the passive voice? Illustrate.

_Lesson_ 130.--In changing a verb from the active to the passive, what does
the object complement become? How may an intransitive verb sometimes be
made transitive? Illustrate.

       *       *       *       *       *



_Lesson_ 131.--What is Mode? Define the four modes. What is Tense? Define
the six tenses. Define the infinitive. Define the participle. Define the
classes of participles. What are the number and person of a verb?

_Lesson_ 132.--What is Conjugation? Synopsis? What are auxiliary verbs?
Name them. What are the principal parts of a verb? What are redundant and
what are defective verbs?

_Lesson_ 134.--How many inflectional forms may irregular verbs have? How
many have regular verbs? What is said of the subjunctive mode? Of _to_ with
the infinitive? How is a verb conjugated in the emphatic form?

_Lesson_ 136.--How is a verb conjugated in the progressive form? How is a
transitive verb conjugated in the passive voice? Give an example of a verb
in the progressive form with a passive meaning. What does the progressive
form denote? Can all verbs be conjugated in this form? Why? Give all the
participles of the verbs _choose_, _break_, _drive_, _read_, _lift_.

_Lesson_ 137.--How may a verb be conjugated interrogatively? Negatively?
Illustrate. How may a question with negation be expressed in the indicative
and potential modes?

_Lesson_ 138.--Into what may the compound, or periphrastic, forms of the
verb be resolved? Illustrate fully. What is said of the participle in _have
written_, _had written_, etc.? Give and illustrate the several uses of the
six tenses.

_Lesson_ 140.--Show how the general Caution for the use of the verb is
frequently violated. When does a conditional or a concessive clause require
the verb to be in the indicative? Illustrate. When is the subjunctive used?
Illustrate the many uses of the subjunctive.

_Lesson_ 141.--Give and illustrate the general Caution relating to mode and
tense forms. Give and illustrate the Caution in regard to _will_ and
_would_, _shall_ and _should_.

_Lesson_ 142.--Give and illustrate the Cautions relating to the agreement
of verbs and pronouns. Illustrate the exceptions and the Remarks.

       *       *       *       *       *


+Suggestions for the Study of the following Selections.+

+TO THE TEACHER+.--The pupil has now reached a point where he can afford to
drop the diagram--its mission for him is fulfilled. For him to continue its
use with these "Additional Examples," unless it be to outline the relations
of clauses or illustrate peculiar constructions, is needless; he will
merely be repeating that with which he is already familiar.

These extracts are not given for full analysis or parsing. This, also, the
pupil would find profitless, and for the same reason. One gains nothing in
doing what he already does well enough--progress is not made in climbing
the wheel of a treadmill. But the pupil may here review what has been
taught him of the uses of adjective pronouns, of the relatives in
restrictive and in unrestrictive clauses, of certain idioms, of double
negatives, of the split infinitive, of the subjunctive mode, of the
distinctions in meaning between allied verbs, as _lie_ and _lay_, of
certain prepositions, of punctuation, etc. He should study the general
character of each sentence, its divisions and subdivisions, the relations
of the independent and the dependent parts, and their connection, order,
etc. He should note the +periodic structure+ of some of these sentences--of
(4) or (19), for instance--the meaning of which remains in suspense till
near or at the close. He should note in contrast the +loose structure+ of
others--for example, the last sentence in (20)--a sentence that has several
points at any one of which a complete thought has been expressed, but the
part of the sentence following does not, by itself, make complete sense.
Let him try to see which structure is the more natural, and which is the
more forcible, and why; and what style gains by a judicious blending of the

Especially should the pupil look at the thought in these prose extracts and
at the manner in which it is expressed. This will lead him to take a step
or two over into the field of literature. If the attempt is made, one
condition seems imperative--the pupil should thoroughly understand what the
author says. We know no better way to secure this than to exact of him a
careful reproduction in his own words of the author's thought. This will
reveal to him the differences between his work and the original; and bring
into relief the peculiarity of each author's style--the stateliness of De
Quincey's, for instance, the vividness of Webster's, the oratorical
character of Macaulay's, the ruggedness of Carlyle's, the poetical beauty
of Emerson's, the humor of Irving's, and the brilliancy of Holmes's--the
last lines from whom are purposely stilted, as we learn from the context.

The pupil may see how ellipses and transpositions and imagery abound in
poetry, and how, in the use of these particulars, poets differ from each
other. He may note that poems are not pitched in the same key--that the
extracts from Wordsworth and Goldsmith and Cowper, for example, deal with
common facts and in a homely way, that the one from Lowell is in a higher
key, while that from Shelley is all imagination, and is crowded with
audacious imagery, all exquisite except in the first line, where the moon,
converted by metaphor into a maiden, has that said of her that is
inconsistent with her in her new character.

1. It is thought by some people that all those stars which you see
   glittering so restlessly on a keen, frosty night in a high latitude, and
   which seem to have been sown broadcast with as much carelessness as
   grain lies on a threshing-floor, here showing vast zaarahs of desert
   blue sky, there again lying close, and to some eyes presenting

      "The beauteous semblance of a flock at rest,"

   are, in fact, gathered into zones or _strata_; that our own wicked
   little earth, with the whole of our peculiar solar system, is a part of
   such a zone; and that all this perfect geometry of the heavens, these
   _radii_ in the mighty wheel, would become apparent, if we, the
   spectators, could but survey it from the true center; which center may
   be far too distant for any vision of man, naked or armed, to reach.--_De

2. On this question of principle, while actual suffering was yet afar off,
   they [our fathers] raised their flag against a power to which, for
   purposes of foreign conquest and subjugation, Rome, in the height of her
   glory, is not to be compared--a power which has dotted over the surface
   of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts; whose
   morning drum-beat, following the sun and keeping company with the hours,
   circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial
   airs of England.--_Webster_.

3. In some far-away and yet undreamt-of hour, I can even imagine that
   England may cast all thoughts of possessive wealth back to the barbaric
   nations among whom they first arose; and that, while the sands of the
   Indus and adamant of Golconda may yet stiffen the housings of the
   charger and flash from the turban of the slave, she, as a Christian
   mother, may at last attain to the virtues and the treasures of a Heathen
   one, and be able to lead forth her Sons, saying, "These are my

4. And, when those who have rivaled her [Athens's] greatness shall have
   shared her fate; when civilization and knowledge shall have fixed their
   abode in distant continents; when the scepter shall have passed away
   from England; when, perhaps, travelers from distant regions shall in
   vain labor to decipher on some moldering pedestal the name of our
   proudest chief, shall hear savage hymns chanted to some misshapen idol
   over the ruined dome of our proudest temple, and shall see a single
   naked fisherman wash his nets in the river of the ten thousand
   masts,--her influence and her glory will still survive, fresh in eternal
   youth, exempt from mutability and decay, immortal as the intellectual
   principle from which they derived their origin, and over which they
   exercise their control.--_Macaulay_.

5. To him who in the love of Nature holds
   Communion with her visible forms, she speaks
   A various language;  for his gayer hours
   She has a voice of gladness and a smile
   And eloquence of beauty, and she glides
   Into his darker musings with a mild
   And healing sympathy, that steals away
   Their sharpness ere he is aware. When thoughts
   Of the last, bitter hour come like a blight
   Over thy spirit, and sad images
   Of the stern agony and shroud and pall
   And breathless darkness and the narrow house
   Make thee to shudder and grow sick at heart,--
   Go forth under the open sky, and list
   To Nature's teachings, while from all around--
   Earth and her waters and the depths of air--
   Comes a still voice.--_Bryant_.

6. Pleasant it was, when woods were green,
     And winds were soft and low,
   To lie amid some sylvan scene,
   Where, the long drooping boughs between,
   Shadows dark and sunlight sheen
     Alternate come and go;
   Or where the denser grove receives
     No sunlight from above,
   But the dark foliage interweaves
   In one unbroken roof of leaves,
   Underneath whose sloping eaves
     The shadows hardly move.--_Longfellow_.

7. I like the lad who, when his father thought
   To clip his morning nap by hackneyed praise
   Of vagrant worm by early songster caught,
   Cried, "Served him right! 'tis not at all surprising;
   The worm was punished, sir, for early rising."--_Saxe_.

8. There were communities, scarce known by name
   In these degenerate days, but once far-famed,
   Where liberty and justice, hand in hand,
   Ordered the common weal; where great men grew
   Up to their natural eminence, and none
   Saving the wise, just, eloquent, were great;
   Where power was of God's gift to whom he gave
   Supremacy of merit--the sole means
   And broad highway to power, that ever then
   Was meritoriously administered,
   Whilst all its instruments, from first to last,
   The tools of state for service high or low,
   Were chosen for their aptness to those ends
   Which virtue meditates.--_Henry Taylor_.

9. Stranger, these gloomy boughs
   Had charms for him; and here he loved to sit,
   His only visitant a straggling sheep,
   The stone-chat, or the glancing sand-piper;
   And on these barren rocks, with fern and heath
   And juniper and thistle sprinkled o'er,
   Fixing his downcast eye, he many an hour
   A morbid pleasure nourished, tracing here
   An emblem of his own unfruitful life;
   And, lifting up his head, he then would gaze
   On the more distant scene,--how lovely 't is
   Thou seest,--and he would gaze till it became
   Far lovelier, and his heart could not sustain
   The beauty, still more beauteous.--_Wordsworth_.

10. But, when the next sun brake from underground,
    Then, those two brethren slowly with bent brows
    Accompanying, the sad chariot-bier
    Past like a shadow thro' the field, that shone
    Full-summer, to that stream whereon the barge,
    Pall'd all its length in blackest samite, lay.
    There sat the life-long creature of the house,
    Loyal, the dumb old servitor, on deck,
    Winking his eyes, and twisted all his face.
    So those two brethren from the chariot took
    And on the black decks laid her in her bed,
    Set in her hand a lily, o'er her hung
    The silken case with braided blazonings,
    And kiss'd her quiet brows, and, saying to her,
    "Sister, farewell forever," and again,
    "Farewell, sweet sister," parted all in tears.--_Tennyson_

11. Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
    Is the immediate jewel of their souls.
    Who steals my purse steals trash; 't is something, nothing;
    'T was mine, 't is his, and has been slave to thousands;
    But he that filches from me my good name
    Robs me of that which not enriches him,
    And makes me poor indeed.--_Shakespeare_.

12. When I consider how my light is spent
    Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide,
    And that one talent, which is death to hide,
    Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent
    To serve therewith my Maker, and present
    My true account, lest he, returning, chide,--
    "Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?"
    I fondly ask: but Patience, to prevent
    That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need
    Either man's work or his own gifts; who best
    Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best: his state
    Is kingly; thousands at his bidding speed,
    And post o'er land and ocean without rest;
    They also serve who only stand and wait."
          --_Milton_.--_Sonnet on his Blindness_.

13. Ah! on Thanksgiving Day, when from East and from West,
    From North and from South come the pilgrim and guest;
    When the gray-haired New-Englander sees round his board
    The old broken links of affection restored;
    When the care-wearied man seeks his mother once more,
    And the worn matron smiles where the girl smiled before,--
    What moistens the lip, and what brightens the eye?
    What calls back the past like the rich pumpkin-pie?

14. That orbed maiden with white fire laden,
      Whom mortals call the moon,
    Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor,
      By the midnight breezes strewn;
    And wherever the beat of her unseen feet,
      Which only the angels hear,
    May have broken the woof of my tent's thin roof,
      The stars peep behind her and peer;
    And I laugh to see them whirl and flee
      Like a swarm of golden bees,
    When I widen the rent in my wind-built tent,
      Till the calm rivers, lakes, and seas,
    Like strips of the sky fallen through me on high,
      Are each paved with the moon and these.
          --_Shelley.--The Cloud_.

15. Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening's close,
    Up yonder hill the village murmur rose.
    There, as I passed with careless steps and slow,
    The mingling notes came softened from below;
    The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung,
    The sober herd that lowed to meet their young,
    The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool,
    The playful children just let loose from school,
    The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind,
    And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind,--
    These all in sweet confusion sought the shade,
    And filled each pause the nightingale had made.

16. To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell,
    To slowly trace the forest's shady scene,
    Where things that own not man's dominion dwell,
    And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been;
    To climb the trackless mountain all unseen,
    With the wild flock that never needs a fold;
    Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean;--
    This is not solitude; 't is but to hold
    Converse with nature's charms, and view her stores unrolled.

17. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang,
    And through the dark arch a charger sprang,
    Bearing Sir Launfal, the maiden knight,
    In his gilded mail, that flamed so bright
    It seemed the dark castle had gathered all
    Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall
    In his siege of three hundred summers long,
    And, binding them all in one blazing sheaf,
    Had cast them forth; so, young and strong
    And lightsome as a locust leaf,
    Sir Launfal flashed forth in his maiden mail
    To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail.--_Lowell_.

18. Be it a weakness, it deserves some praise,--
    We love the play-place of our early days;
    The scene is touching, and the heart is stone
    That feels not at the sight, and feels at none.
    The wall on which we tried our graving skill,
    The very name we carved subsisting still;
    The bench on which we sat while deep employed,
    Tho' mangled, hacked, and hewed, not yet destroyed;
    The little ones, unbuttoned, glowing hot,
    Playing our games, and on the very spot,
    As happy as we once, to kneel and draw
    The chalky ring and knuckle down at taw,
    To pitch the ball into the grounded hat,
    Or drive it devious with a dexterous pat;--
    The pleasing spectacle at once excites
    Such recollection of our own delights
    That, viewing it, we seem almost t' obtain
    Our innocent, sweet, simple years again.--_Cowper_.

19. Considering our present advanced state of culture, and how the torch of
    science has now been brandished and borne about, with more or less
    effect, for five thousand years and upwards; how, in these times
    especially, not only the torch still burns, and perhaps more fiercely
    than ever, but innumerable rush-lights and sulphur-matches, kindled
    thereat, are also glancing in every direction, so that not the smallest
    cranny or doghole in nature or art can remain unilluminated,--it might
    strike the reflective mind with some surprise that hitherto little or
    nothing of a fundamental character, whether in the way of philosophy or
    history, has been written on the subject of Clothes.--_Carlyle_.

20. When we see one word of a frail man on the throne of France tearing a
    hundred thousand sons from their homes, breaking asunder the sacred
    ties of domestic life, sentencing myriads of the young to make murder
    their calling and rapacity their means of support, and extorting from
    nations their treasures to extend this ruinous sway, we are ready to
    ask ourselves, Is not this a dream? and, when the sad reality comes
    home to us, we blush for a race which can stoop to such an abject lot.
    At length, indeed, we see the tyrant humbled, stripped of power, but
    stripped by those who, in the main, are not unwilling to play the
    despot on a narrower scale, and to break down the spirit of nations
    under the same iron sway.--_Channing_.

21. There are days which occur in this climate, at almost any season of the
    year, wherein the world reaches its perfection; when the air, the
    heavenly bodies, and the earth make a harmony, as if Nature would
    indulge her offspring; when, in these bleak upper sides of the planet,
    nothing is to desire that we have heard of the happiest latitudes, and
    we bask in the shining hours of Florida and Cuba; when everything that
    has life gives sign of satisfaction, and the cattle that lie on the
    ground seem to have great and tranquil thoughts.---_Emerson_.

22. Did you never, in walking in the fields, come across a large flat
    stone, which had lain, nobody knows how long, just where you found it,
    with the grass forming a little hedge, as it were, all round it, close
    to its edges; and have you not, in obedience to a kind of feeling that
    told you it had been lying there long enough, insinuated your stick or
    your foot or your fingers under its edge, and turned it over as a
    housewife turns a cake, when she says to herself, "It's done brown
    enough by this time"? But no sooner is the stone turned and the
    wholesome light of day let upon this compressed and blinded community
    of creeping things than all of them which enjoy the luxury of legs--and
    some of them have a good many--rush round wildly, butting each other
    and everything in their way, and end in a general stampede for
    underground retreats from the region poisoned by sunshine. Next year
    you will find the grass growing tall and green where the stone lay; the
    ground-bird builds her nest where the beetle had his hole; the
    dandelion and the buttercup are growing there, and the broad fans of
    insect-angels open and shut over their golden disks, as the rhythmic
    waves of blissful consciousness pulsate through their glorified

23. There is a different and sterner path;--I know not whether there be any
    now qualified to tread it; I am not sure that even one has ever
    followed it implicitly, in view of the certain meagerness of its
    temporal rewards, and the haste wherewith any fame acquired in a sphere
    so thoroughly ephemeral as the Editor's must be shrouded by the dark
    waters of oblivion. This path demands an ear ever open to the plaints
    of the wronged and the suffering, though they can never repay advocacy,
    and those who mainly support newspapers will be annoyed and often
    exposed by it; a heart as sensitive to oppression and degradation in
    the next street as if they were practiced in Brazil or Japan; a pen as
    ready to expose and reprove the crimes whereby wealth is amassed and
    luxury enjoyed in our own country at this hour as if they had been
    committed only by Turks or pagans in Asia some centuries

24. To sweeten the beverage, a lump of sugar was laid beside each cup, and
    the company alternately nibbled and sipped with great decorum, until an
    improvement was introduced by a shrewd and economical old lady, which
    was to suspend a large lump directly over the tea-table, by a string
    from the ceiling, so that it could be swung from mouth to mouth--an
    ingenious expedient, which is still kept up by some families in Albany,
    but which prevails without exception in Communipaw, Bergen, Platbush,
    and all our uncontaminated Dutch villages.--_Irving_.

       *       *       *       *       *





+Capital Letters+.--The first word of (1) a sentence, (2) a line of poetry,
(3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question
introduced into a sentence, and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered
or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter. Begin with a capital
letter (5) proper names (including all names of the Deity), and words
derived from them, (6) names of things vividly personified, and (7) most
abbreviations. Write in capital letters (8) the words I and 0, and (9)
numbers in the Roman notation. [Footnote: Small letters are often used in
referring to sections, chapters, etc.]

+Period+.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative
sentence, (2) an abbreviation, (3) a number written in the Roman notation,
and (4) Arabic figures used to enumerate.

+Interrogation Point+.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause
should be followed by an interrogation point.

+Exclamation Point+.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the
exclamation point.

+Comma+.--Set off by the comma (1) an explanatory modifier which does not
restrict the modified term or combine closely with it; (2) a participle
used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless
restrictive; (3) the adjective clause when not restrictive; (4) the adverb
clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies; (5) a
phrase out of its usual order or not closely connected with the word it
modifies; (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so; (7) a direct
quotation introduced into a sentence, unless formally introduced; (8) a
noun clause used as an attribute complement; and (9) a term connected to
another by _or_ and having the same meaning. Separate by the comma (10)
connected words and phrases, unless all the conjunctions are expressed;
(11) co-ordinate clauses when short and closely connected; and (12) the
parts of a compound predicate, and other phrases, when long or differently
modified. Use the comma (13) to denote an omission of words; (14) after
_as_, _namely_, etc., introducing illustrations; and (15) when it is needed
to prevent ambiguity.

+Direction+.--_Give the Rule for each capital letter and each mark of
punctuation in these sentences, except the colon, the semicolon, and the
quotation marks_:--

1. Francis II., Charles IX., and Henry III., three sons of Catherine de
   Medici and Henry II., sat upon the French throne.
2. The pupil asked, "When shall I use _O_, and when shall I use _oh?_"
3. Purity of style forbids us to use: 1. Foreign words; 2. Obsolete words;
   3. Low words, or slang.
4. It is easy, Mistress Dial, for you, who have always, as everybody knows,
   set yourself up above me, to accuse me of laziness.
5. He rushed into the field, and, foremost fighting, fell.
6. The Holy Land was, indeed, among the early conquests of the Saracens,
   Caliph Omar having, in 637 A. D., taken Jerusalem.
7. He who teaches, often learns himself.
8. San Salvador, Oct. 12, 1492.
9. Some letters are superfluous; as, _c_ and _q_.
10. No sleep till morn, when Youth and Pleasure meet To chase the glowing
    hours with flying feet!

Direction.--_Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation
in these sentences, and give your reasons:_--

1. and lo from the assembled crowd
   there rose a shout prolonged and loud
   that to the ocean seemed to say
   take her o bridegroom old and gray
2. a large rough mantle of sheepskin fastened around the loins by a girdle
   or belt of hide was the only covering of that strange solitary man
   elijah the tishbite
3. The result however of the three years' reign or tyranny of jas ii was
   that wm of orange came over from holland and without shedding a drop of
   blood became a d 1688 wm in of england
4. _o_ has three sounds: 1. that in _not_; 2. that in _note_; 3. that in
5. lowell asks and what is so rare as a day in June
6. spring is a fickle mistress but summer is more staid
7. if i may judge by his gorgeous colors and the exquisite sweetness and
   variety of his music autumn is i should say the poet of the family
8. new york apr 30 1789
9. some letters stand each for many sounds; as _a_ and _o_

       *       *       *       *       *




+Semicolon+.--Co-ordinate clauses, (1) when slightly connected, or (2) when
themselves divided by the comma, must be separated by the semicolon. Use
the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common
dependence on something which precedes or follows; and (4) before _as_, _to
wit_, _namely_, _i_. _e_., and _that is_, when they introduce examples or

+Direction+.--_Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation
(except the colon) in these sentences_:--

1. It may cost treasure, and it may cost blood; but it will stand, and it
   will richly compensate for both.
2. Some words are delightful to the ear; as, _Ontario_, _golden_, _oriole_.
3. The shouts of revelry had died away; the roar of the lion had ceased;
   the last loiterer had retired from the banquet; and the lights in the
   palace of the victor were extinguished.
4. Send it to the public halls; proclaim it there; let them hear it who
   heard the first roar of the enemy's cannon; let them see it who saw
   their brothers and their sons fall on the field of Bunker Hill: and the
   very walls will cry out in its support.

+Direction+.---_Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in
these sentences, and give your reasons_:--

1. all parts of a plant reduce to three namely root stem and leaf
2. when the world is dark with tempests when thunder rolls and lightning
   flies thou lookest in thy beauty from the clouds and laughest at the
3. the oaks of the mountains fall the mountains themselves decay with years
   the ocean shrinks and grows again the moon herself is lost in heaven
4. kennedy taking from her a handkerchief edged with gold pinned it over
   her eyes the executioners holding her by the arms led her to the block
   and the queen kneeling down said repeatedly with a firm voice into thy
   hands o lord i commend my spirit

+Colon+.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these
parts are themselves divided by the semicolon, and (2) before a quotation
or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced.

+Direction+.--_Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in
these sentences_:--

1. You may swell every expense, and strain every effort, still more
   extravagantly; accumulate every assistance you can beg and borrow;
   traffic and barter with every little, pitiful German prince that sells
   and sends his subjects to the shambles of a foreign country: your
   efforts are forever vain and impotent.

2. This is a precept of Socrates: "Know thyself."

+Direction+.--_Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in
these sentences, and give your reasons_:--

1. the advice given ran thus take care of the minutes and the hours will
   take care of themselves
2. we may abound in meetings and movements enthusiastic gatherings in the
   field and forest may kindle all minds with a common sentiment but it is
   all in vain if men do not retire from the tumult to the silent culture
   of every right disposition

+Direction+.---_Write sentences illustrating the several uses of the
semicolon, the colon, and the comma_.

       *       *       *       *       *




+Dash+.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures,
and (2) of such words as _as_, _namely_, or _that is_, introducing
illustrations or equivalent expressions. Use the dash (3) where the
sentence breaks off abruptly, and the same thought is resumed after a
slight suspension, or another takes its place; and (4) before a word or
phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. The dash may be used (5) instead
of marks of parenthesis, and may (6) follow other marks, adding to their

+Direction+.--_Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in
these sentences:--_

1. The most noted kings of Israel were the first three--Saul; David, and
2. When Mrs. B---- heard of her son's disgrace, she fainted away.
3. And--"This to me?" he said.
4. Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage--what are they?
5. I do not rise to supplicate you to be merciful toward the nation to
   which I belong,--toward a nation which, though subject to England, yet
   is distinct from it.
6. We know the uses--and sweet they are--of adversity.
7. His place business is 225--229 High street.

+Direction+.---_Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in
these sentences, and give your reasons_:--

1. the human species is composed of two distinct races those who borrow and
   those who lend
2. this bill this infamous bill the way it has been received by the house
   the manner in which its opponents have been treated the personalities to
   which they have been subjected all these things dissipate my doubts
3. the account of a _____'s shame fills pp 1 19
4. lord marmion turned well was his need and dashed the rowels in his steed

+Marks of Parenthesis+.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to inclose what
has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence.

+Apostrophe+.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters, (2)
in the pluralizing of letters, figures, and characters, and (3) to
distinguish the possessive from other cases.

+Hyphen+.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) to join the parts of compound words, and
(2) between syllables when a word is divided.

+Quotation Marks+.--Use quotation marks to inclose a copied word or
passage. If the quotation contains a quotation, the latter is inclosed
within single marks. (See Lesson 74.)

+Brackets+.--Use brackets [ ] to inclose what, in quoting another's words,
you insert by way of explanation or correction.

+Direction+.--_Justify the marks of punctuation used in these sentences_:--

1. Luke says, Acts xxi. 15, "We took up our carriages [luggage], and went
   up to Jerusalem."
2. The last sentence of the composition was, "I close in the words of
   Patrick Henry, 'Give me liberty, or give me death.'"
3. _Red-hot_ is a compound adjective.
4. _Telegraph_ is divided thus: _tel_-_e_-_graph_.
5. The profound learning of Sir William Jones (he was master of
   twenty-eight languages) was the wonder of his contemporaries.
6. By means of the apostrophe you know that _love_ in _mother's love_ is a
   noun, and that i's isn't a verb.

+Direction+.---_Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in
these sentences, and give your reasons_:--

1. next to a conscience void of offense without which by the bye life isnt
   worth the living is the enjoyment of the social feelings
2. man the life boat
3. don't neglect in writing to dot your _is_ cross your _ts_ and make your
   7_s_ unlike your 9_s_ and don't in speaking omit the _hs_ from such
   words as _which_ _when_ and _why_ or insert _rs_ in _law_ _saw_ and
4. the scriptures tell us take no thought anxiety for the morrow
5. The speaker said american oratory rose to its high water mark in that
   great speech ending liberty and union now and forever one and

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Give the reason for each capital letter and each mark of
punctuation in these sentences_:--

1. A bigot's mind is like the pupil of the eye; the more light you pour
   upon it, the more it contracts.
2. This is the motto of the University of Oxford: "The Lord is my light."
3. The only fault ever found with him is, that he sometimes fights ahead of
   his orders.
4. The land flowing with "milk and honey" (see Numbers xiv. 8) was a long,
   narrow strip, lying along the eastern edge, or coast, of the
   Mediterranean, and consisted of three divisions; namely, 1. On the
   north, Galilee; 2. On the south, Judea; 3, In the middle, Samaria.
5. "What a lesson," Trench well says,  "the word 'diligence' contains!"
6. An honest man, my neighbor,--there he stands--
   Was struck--struck like a dog, by one who wore
   The badge of Ursini.
7. Thou, too, sail on, 0 Ship of State;
   Sail on, 0 Union, strong and great.
8. O'Connell asks, "The clause which does away with trial by jury--what,
   in the name of H----n, is it, if it is not the establishment of a
   revolutionary tribunal?"
9. There are only three departments of the mind--the intellect, the
   feelings, and the will.
10. This--trial!
11. American nationality has made the desert to bud and blossom as the
    rose; it has quickened to life the giant brood of useful arts; it has
    whitened lake and ocean with the sails of a daring, new, and lawful
    trade; it has extended to exiles, flying as clouds, the asylum of our
    better liberty.
12. As I saw him [Weoster, the day before his great reply to Col. Hayne of
    South Carolina] in the evening, (if I may borrow an illustration from
    his favorite amusement) he was as unconcerned and as free of spirit as
    some here present have seen him while floating in his fishing-boat
    along a hazy shore, gently rocking on the tranquil tide, dropping his
    line here and there, with the varying fortune of the sport. The next
    morning he was like some mighty admiral, dark and terrible, casting the
    long shadow of his frowning tiers far over the sea, that seemed to sink
    beneath him; his broad pendant [pennant] streaming at the main, the
    stars and the stripes at the fore, the mizzen, and the peak; and
    bearing down like a tempest upon his antagonist, with all his canvas
    strained to the wind, and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides.
13. The "beatitudes" are found in Matt. v. 3--11.

TO THE TEACHER.--If further work in punctuation is needed, require the
pupils to justify the punctuation of the sentences beginning page 314.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Style+ is the manner in which one expresses himself. Styles differ as men
differ. But there are some cardinal qualities that all good style must

I. +Perspicuity.+--Perspicuity is opposed to obscurity of all kinds; it
means clearness of expression. It demands that the thought in the sentence
shall be plainly seen through the words of the sentence. Perspicuity is an
indispensable quality of style; if the thought is not understood, or it is
misunderstood, its expression might better have been left unattempted.
Perspicuity depends mainly upon these few things:--

1. +One's Clear Understanding of What One Attempts to Say.+--You cannot
express to others more than you thoroughly know, or make your thought
clearer to them than it is to yourself.

2. +The Unity of the Sentence.+--Many thoughts, or thoughts having no
natural and close connection with each other, should not be crowded into
one sentence.

3. +The Use of the Right Words.+--Use such words as convey your
thought--each word expressing exactly your idea, no more, no less, no
other. Use words in the senses recognized by the best authority. Do not
omit words when they are needed, and do not use a superfluity of them. Be
cautious in the use of _he_, _she_, _it_, and _they_. Use simple
words--words which those who are addressed can readily understand. Avoid
what are called bookish, inkhorn, terms; shun words that have passed out of
use, and those that have no footing in the language--foreign words, words
newly coined, and slang.

4. +A Happy Arrangement.+--The relations of single words to each other, of
phrases to the words they modify, and of clauses to one another should be
obvious at a glance. The sentence should not need rearrangement in order to
disclose the meaning. Sentences should stand in the paragraph so that the
beginning of each shall tally exactly in thought with the sentence that
precedes; and the ending of each, with the sentence that follows. Every
paragraph should be a unit in thought, distinct from other paragraphs,
holding to them the relation that its own sentences hold to one another,
the relation that the several parts of each sentence hold to one another.

II. +Energy+.--By energy we mean force, vigor, of expression. In ordinary
discourse, it is not often sought, and in no discourse is it constantly
sought. We use energy when we wish to convince the intellect, arouse the
feelings, and capture the will--lead one to do something. When energetic,
we select words and images for strength and not for beauty; choose
specific, and not general, terms; prefer the concrete to the abstract; use
few words and crowd these with meaning; place subordinate clauses before
the independent; and put the strongest word in the clause, the strongest
clause in the sentence, the strongest sentence in the paragraph, and the
strongest paragraph in the discourse, last. Energetic thought seeks variety
of expression, is usually charged with intense feeling, and requires
impassioned delivery.

III. +Imagery--Figures of Speech+.--Things stand in many relations to each
other. Some +things are (1) like each other+ in some particular; other
+things are (2) unlike each other+ in some particular; and still other
+things stand to each other (3)+ in some +other+ noteworthy +relation than+
that of +likeness+ or +unlikeness+. Things long seen and associated by us
in any of these relations come at last readily to suggest each other.
+Figures of Speech+ are those expressions in which, departing from our
ordinary manner in speaking of things, we assert or assume any of these
notable relations. The first and great service of imagery is to the
thought--it makes the thought clearer and stronger. Imagery adds beauty to
style--a diamond brooch may adorn as well as do duty to the dress.

A +Simile+, or +Comparison+, is a figure of speech in which we point out or
assert a likeness between things otherwise unlike; as, The gloom of
despondency _hung like a cloud_ over the land.

A +Metaphor+ is a figure of speech in which, assuming the likeness between
two things, we bring over and apply to one of them the term that denotes
the other; as, A stately _squadron of snowy_ geese were _riding_ in an
adjoining pond.

A +Personification+ is a figure of speech in which things are raised to a
plane of being above their own--to or toward that of persons. It +raises+
(1) +mere things to+ the plane of +animals+; as, The _sea licks_ your feet,
its huge _flanks purr_ pleasantly for you. It raises (2) +mere animals to+
the plane of +persons+; as, So _talked_ the spirited, sly _Snake_. It
+raises+ (3) +mere things to+ the plane of +persons+; as, _Earth_ fills her
_lap_ with pleasures of _her_ own.

An +Antithesis+ is a figure of speech in which things mutually opposed in
some particular are set over against each other; as, The _mountains give_
their lost children _berries_ and _water_; the _sea mocks_ their _thirst_
and _lets_ them _die_.

A +Metonymy+ is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected
to another by a relation other than likeness or unlikeness is brought over
and applied to that other. The most important of these relations are (1)
that of the +sign+ to the +thing signified+; (2) that of +cause+ to
+effect+; (3) that of +instrument+ to the +user+ of it; (4) that of
+container+ to the +thing contained+; (5) that of +material+ to the +thing
made out of it+; (6) that of +contiguity+; (7) that of the +abstract+ to
the +concrete+; and (8) that of +part+ to the +whole+ or of +whole+ to the

This last relation has been thought so important that the metonymy based
upon it has received a distinct name--+Synecdoche+.

+IV. Variety+.--Variety is a quality of style opposed to monotonous
uniformity. Nothing in discourse pleases us more than light and shade. In
discourse properly varied, the same word does not appear with offensive
frequency; long words alternate with short; the usual order now and then
yields to the transposed; the verb in the assertive form frequently gives
way to the participle and the infinitive, which assume; figures of speech
sparkle here and there in a setting of plain language; the full method of
statement is followed by the contracted; impassioned language is succeeded
by the unemotional; long sentences stand side by side with short, and loose
sentences with periods; declarative sentences are relieved by interrogative
and exclamatory, and simple sentences by compound and complex; clauses have
no rigidly fixed position; and sentences heavy with meaning and moving
slowly are elbow to elbow with the light and tripping. In a word, no one
form or method or matter is continued so long as to weary, and the reader
is kept fresh and interested throughout. Variety is restful to the reader
or hearer and therefore adds greatly to the clearness and to the force of
what is addressed to him.

TO THE TEACHER.--Question the pupils upon every point taken up in this
Lesson and require them to give illustrations where it is possible for them
to do so.

       *       *       *       *       *



+General Direction+.--_In all your work in Composition attend carefully to
the punctuation_.

+Direction+.--_Point out the faults, and recast these sentences, making
them clear_:--

[Footnote: These four sentences and others in these Lessons, given just as
we found them, have been culled from school compositions.]

1. He was locked in and so he sat still till the guard came and let him
out, as soon as he stepped out on the ground, he saw the dead and dying
laying about everywhere.
2. They used to ring a large bell at six o'clock
in the morning for us to get up, then we had half an hour to dress in,
after which we would go to Chapel exercises, then breakfast, school would
commence at nine o'clock and closed at four in the afternoon allowing an
hour for dinner from one until two then we would resume our studies until
four in the afternoon.
3. Jewelry was worn in the time of King Pharaoh
which is many thousand years before Christ in the time when the Israelites
left they borrowed all the jewels of the Egyptians which were made of gold
and silver.
4. When it is made of gold they can not of pure gold but has to
be mixed with some other metal which is generally copper which turns it a
reddish hue in some countries they use silver which gives it a whitish hue
but in the United States and England they use both silver and copper but
the English coins are the finest.

+Direction+.--_Point out the faults, and recast these sentences, making
them clear_:--

(If any one of the sentences has several meanings, give these.)

1. James's son, Charles I., before the breath was out of his body was
   proclaimed king in his stead.
2. He told the coachman that he would be the death of him, if he did not
   take care what he was about, and mind what he said.
3. Richelieu said to the king that Mazarin would carry out his policy.
4. He was overjoyed to see him, and he sent for one of his workmen, and
   told him to consider himself at his service.
5. Blake answered the Spanish priest that if he had sent in a complaint, he
   would have punished the sailors severely; but he took it ill that he set
   the Spaniards on to punish them.

+Direction+.--_So place these subordinate clauses that they will remove the
obscurity, and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged_:--

1. The moon cast a pale light on the graves that were scattered around, as
   it peered above the horizon.
2. A large number of seats were occupied by pupils that had no backs.
3. Crusoe was surprised at seeing five canoes on the shore in which there
   were savages.
4. This tendency will be headed off by approximations which will be made
   from time to time of the written word to the spoken.
5. People had to travel on horseback and in wagons, which was a very slow
   way, if they traveled at all.
6. How can brethren partake of their Father's blessing that curse each
7. Two men will be tried for crimes in this town which are punishable with
   death, if a full court should attend.

Direction.--_Each of these sentences may have two meanings, supply the two
ellipses in each sentence, and remove the ambiguity:_--

1. Let us trust no strength less than thine.
2. Study had more attraction for him than his friend.
3. He did not like the new teacher so well as his playmates.
4. He aimed at nothing less than the crown.
5. Lovest thou me more than these?

       *       *       *       *       *



Direction.--_So place these italicized phrases that they will remove the
obscurity, and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:_--

1. These designs any man who is a Briton _in any situation_ ought to
2. The chief priests, mocking, said among themselves _with the scribes_,
   "He saved," etc.
3. Hay is given to horses _as well as corn_ to distend the stomach.
4. Boston has forty first class grammar-schools, _exclusive of Dorchester_.
5. He rode to town, and drove twelve cows _on horseback_.
6. He could not face an enraged father _in spite of his effrontery_.
7. Two owls sat upon a tree which grew near an old wall _out of a heap of
8. I spent most _on the river and in the river_ of the time I stayed there.
9. He wanted to go to sea, although it was contrary to the wishes of his
   parents, _at the age of eighteen_.
10. I have a wife and six children, and I have never seen _one of them._

+Direction.+--_So place the italicized words and phrases in each sentence
that they will help to convey what you think is the author's thought, and
then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:_--

1. In Paris, every lady _in full dress_ rides.
2. I saw my friend when I was in Boston _walking down Tremont street_.
3. The Prince of Wales was forbidden to become king _or any other man_.
4. What is his coming or going _to you_?
5. We do those things _frequently_ which we repent of afterwards.
6. I rushed out leaving the wretch with his tale half told,
   _horror-stricken at his crime_.
7. Exclamation points are scattered up and down the page by compositors
   _without any mercy._
8. I want to make a present to one who is fond of chickens _for a Christmas

+Direction.+--_Make these sentences clear by using simpler words and

1. _A devastating conflagration raged_.
2. He _conducted_ her to the _altar of Hymen_.
3. A donkey has an _abnormal elongation of auricular appendages_.
4. Are you _excavating a subterranean canal?_
5. He had no _capillary substance_ on the _summit_ of his head.
6. He made a sad _faux pas_.
7. A network is anything _reticulated or decussated, with interstices at
   equal distances between the intersections_.
8. Diligence is the _sine qua non_ of success.
9. She has _donned the habiliments of woe_.
10. The _deceased_ was to-day _deposited in his last resting-place_.
11. The _inmates proceeded to the sanctuary_.
12. I have _partaken of my morning repast_.
13. He _took the initiative in inaugurating the ceremony_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Expand these brief expressions into sentences full of long
words, and note the loss of energy_:--

1. To your tents, 0 Israel!
2. Up, boys, and at them!
3. Indeed!
4. Bah!
5. Don't give up the ship!
6. Murder will out.
7. Oh!
8. Silence there!
9. Hurrah!
10. Death or free speech!
11. Rascal!
12. No matter.
13. Least said, soonest mended.
14. Death to the tyrant!
15. I'll none of it.
16. Help, ho!
17. Shame on you!
18. First come, first served.

+Direction+.--_Condense each of these italicized expressions into one or
two words, and note the gain_:--

1. He _shuffled off this mortal coil_ yesterday.
2. The author surpassed all _those who were living at the same time with
3. To say that revelation is _a thing which there is no need of_ is to talk
4. He _departed this life_.
5. Some say that ever _'gainst that season comes wherein our Saviour's
   birth is celebrated_ this _bird of dawning_ singeth all night long.

+Direction+.--_Change these specific words to general terms, and note the
loss in energy_:---

1. Don't _fire_ till _you see the whites of their eyes_.
2. _Break down_ the _dikes_, give Holland back to _ocean_.
3. _Three hundred men_ held the hosts of _Xerxes_ at bay.
4. I _sat_ at her _cradle_, I _followed_ her _hearse_.
5. Their _daggers_ have _stabbed_ Caesar.
6. When I'm _mad_, I _weigh a ton_.
7. _Burn_ Moscow, _starve back_ the _invaders_.
8. There's no use in _crying over spilt milk_.
9. In proportion as men delight in _battles_ and _bull-fights_ will they
   punish by _hanging, burning_, and the _rack_.

+Direction+.--_Change these general terms to specific words, and note the
gain in energy_:--

1. Anne Boleyn was _executed_.
2. It were better for him that a _heavy weight were fastened to him_ and
   that he were _submerged_ in _the waste of waters_.
3. _The capital of the chosen people_ was _destroyed_ by _a Roman general_.
4. Consider the _flowers_ how they _increase in size_.
5. Caesar was _slain_ by _the conspirators_.
6. The _cities of the plain_ were _annihilated_.

+Direction+.--_Arrange these words, phrases, and clauses in the order of
their strength, placing the strongest last, and note the gain in energy_:--

1. The nations of the earth repelled, surrounded, pursued, and resisted
2. He was no longer consul nor citizen nor general nor even an emperor, but
   a prisoner and an exile.
3. I shall die an American; I live an American; I was born an American.
4. All that I am, all that I hope to be, and all that I have in this life,
   I am now ready here to stake upon it.
5. I shall defend it without this House, in all places, and within this
   House; at all times, in time of peace and in time of war.
6. We must fight if we wish to be free, if we mean to preserve inviolate
   our rights, if we do not mean to abandon the struggle.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Name the figures of speech, and then recast a few sentences,
using plain language, and note the loss of beauty and force_:--

1. Lend me your _ears_.
2. Please address the _chair_.
3. The robin knows when your grapes have _cooked_ long enough in the sun.
4. A day will come when _bullets_ and _bombs_ shall be replaced by
5. _Genius creates; taste appreciates what is created_.
6. Caesar were no _lion_ were not Romans _hinds_.
7. The soul of Jonathan was _knit_ to that of David.
8. _Traffic_ has _lain down_ to rest.
9. Borrowing _dulls_ _the edge_ of husbandry.
10. He will bring down my _gray hairs_ with sorrow to the grave.
11. Have you _read Froude_ or _Freeman?_
12. The _pen_ is mightier than the _sword_.
13. If I can _catch him once upon the hip_, I will _feed fat_ the ancient
    grudge I bear him.
14. The destinies of mankind were _trembling in the balance_, while _death
    fell_ in showers.
15. The _threaded steel_ flies swiftly.
16. O Cassius, you are _yoked with a lamb_ that _carries anger as the flint
    bears fire_.
17. I called the _New World_ into existence to redress the balance of the
18. Nations shall _beat their swords into plowshares_, and _their spears
    into pruning-hooks_.
19. The _Morn_ in _russet mantle clad walks o'er the dew_ of yon high
    eastern hill.
20. _Homer_, like the _Nile_, pours out his riches with a _sudden overflow;
    Virgil_, like a _river in its banks_, with a _constant stream_.
21. The air _bites_ shrewdly.
22. He doth _bestride_ the narrow world _like a Colossus_.
23. My _heart_ is in the coffin there with Caesar.
24. All _hands_ to the pumps!
25. The _gray-eyed Morn smiles_ on the _frowning Night_.
26. The good is often buried with men's _bones_.
27. Beware of the _bottle_.
28. All nations respect our _flag_.
29. The _marble_ speaks.
30. I have no _spur to prick the sides_ of my intent.
31. I _am as constant as the northern star_.
32. Then _burst_ his mighty _heart_.
33. The ice is covered with _health_ and _beauty_ on skates.
34. Lentulus returned with _victorious eagles_.
35. _Death_ hath _sucked_ the honey of thy breath.
36. Our _chains are forged_.
37. I have _bought golden_ opinions.
38. The _hearth blazed_ high.
39. His words _fell softer than snows on the brine_.
40. _Night's candles are burnt out_, and _jocund Day stands tiptoe_ on the
    misty mountain top.

+Direction+.--_In the first four sentences, use similes; in the second
four, metaphors; in the third four, personifications; in the last eight,

1. He _flew with the swiftness of an arrow_.
2. In battle some men _are brave_, others _are cowardly_.
3. His head is as full of plans _as it can hold_.
4. I heard a _loud_ noise.
5. Boston is the _place where_ American liberty _began_.
6. Our dispositions should grow _mild_ as we _grow old_.
7. _The stars can no longer be seen_.
8. In battle some men are _brave_, others are _cowardly_.
9. The cock tears up the ground for his family of _hens_ and _chickens_.
10. The waves _were still_.
11. The oak stretches out _its_ strong _branches_.
12. The flowers are the sweet and pretty _growths_ of the earth and sun.
13. English _vessels_ plow the seas of the two _hemispheres_.
14. Have you read _Lamb's Essays_?
15. The _water_ is boiling.
16. We have prostrated ourselves before the _king_.
17. _Wretched people_ shiver in _their_ lair of straw.
18. The _soldier_ is giving way to the _husbandman_.
19. _Swords_ flashed, and _bullets_ fell.
20. His banner led the _spearmen_ no more.

+Remark+.--If what is begun as a metaphor is not completed as begun, but is
completed by a part of another metaphor or by plain language, we have what,
is called a _mixed metaphor_. It requires great care to avoid this very
common error.

+Direction+.--_Correct these errors_:--

1. The _devouring_ fire _uprooted_ the stubble.
2. The _brittle_ thread of life may be _cut_ asunder.
3. All the _ripe fruit_ of three-score years was _blighted_ in a day.
4. _Unravel_ the _obscurities_ of this _knotty_ question.
5. We must apply the _axe_ to the _fountain_ of this evil.
6. The man _stalks_ into court like a _motionless_ statue, with the _cloak_
   of hypocrisy in his _mouth_.
7. The thin _mantle_ of snow _dissolved_.
8. I smell a _rat_, I see him _brewing_ in the air, but I shall yet _nip
   him in the bud_.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Remark+.--You learned in Lessons 52, 53, 54 that the usual order may give
way to the transposed; in 55, 56, that one kind of simple sentence may be
changed to another; in 57, that simple sentences may be contracted; in 61,
that adjectives may be expanded into clauses; in 67, that an adverb clause
may stand before, between the parts of, and after, the independent clause;
in 68, that an adverb clause may be contracted to a participle, a
participle phrase, an absolute phrase, a prepositional phrase, that it may
be contracted by the omission of words, and may be changed to an adjective
clause or phrase; in 73, that a noun clause as subject may stand last, and
as object complement may stand first, that it may be made prominent, and
may be contracted; in 74, that direct quotations and questions may be
changed to indirect, and indirect to direct; in 77, that compound sentences
may be formed out of simple sentences, may be contracted to simple
sentences, and may be changed to complex sentences; in 79, that
participles, absolute phrases, and infinitives may be expanded into
different kinds of clauses; and, in 130, that a verb may change its voice.

+Direction+.--_Illustrate all these changes_.

+Direction+.--_Recast these sentences, avoiding offensive repetitions of
the same word or the same sounds_:--

1. We have to have money to have a horse.
2. We sailed across a bay and sailed up a creek and sailed back and sailed
   in all about fourteen miles.
3. It is then put into stacks, or it is put into barns either to use it to
   feed it to the stock or to sell it.
4. This day we undertake to render an account to the widows and orphans
   whom our decision will make; to the wretches that will be roasted at the
5. The news of the battle of Bunker Hill, fought on the 17th of June in the
   year of our Lord 1775, roused the patriotism of the people to a high
   pitch of enthusiasm.

+Direction+.---_Using other words wholly or in part, see in how many ways
you can express the thoughts contained in these sentences_:--

1. In the profusion and recklessness of her lies, Elizabeth had no peer in
2. Henry IV. said that James I. was the wisest fool in Christendom.
3. Cowper's letters are charming because they are simple and natural.
4. George IV., though he was pronounced the first gentleman in Europe, was,
   nevertheless, a snob.

       *       *       *       *       *



+The Paragraph+.--The clauses of complex sentences are so closely united in
meaning that frequently they are not to be separated from each other even
by the comma. The clauses of compound sentences are less closely united--a
comma, a semicolon, or a colon is needed to divide them.

Between sentences there exists a wider separation in meaning, marked by a
period or other terminal point. But even sentences may be connected, the
bond which unites them being their common relation to the thought which
jointly they develop. Sentences thus related are grouped together and form,
as you have already learned, what we call a Paragraph, marked by beginning
the first word a little to the right of the marginal line.

+Direction+.--_Notice the facts which this paragraph contains, and the
relation to each other of the clauses and the sentences expressing these

After a breeze of some sixty hours from the north and northwest, the wind
died away about four o'clock yesterday afternoon. The calm continued till
about nine in the evening. The mercury in the barometer fell, in the
meantime, at an extraordinary rate; and the captain predicted that we
should encounter a gale from the southeast. The gale came on about eleven
o'clock; not violent at first, but increasing every moment.

1. A breeze from the north and northwest.
2. The wind died away.
3. A calm.
4. Barometer fell.
5. The captain predicted a gale.
6. It came on.
7. It increased in violence.

+Direction+.--Give and number the facts contained in the paragraph below:--

I awoke with a confused recollection of a good deal of rolling and thumping
in the night, occasioned by the dashing of the waves against the ship.
Hurrying on my clothes, I found such of the passengers as could stand, at
the doors of the hurricane-house, holding on, and looking out in the utmost
consternation. It was still quite dark. Four of the sails were already in
ribbons: the winds whistling through the cordage; the rain dashing
furiously and in torrents; the noise and spray scarcely less than I found
them under the great sheet at Niagara.

+Direction+.---_Weave the facts below into a paragraph, supplying all you
need to make the narrative smooth_:--

Rip's beard was grizzled. Fowling-piece rusty. Dress uncouth. Women and
children at his heels. Attracted attention. Was eyed from head to foot. Was
asked on which side he voted. Whether he was Federal or Democrat. Rip was
dazed by the question. Stared in stupidity.

+Direction+.---_Weave the facts below into two paragraphs, supplying what
you need, and tell what each paragraph is about_:--

In place of the old tree there was a pole. This was tall and naked. A flag
was fluttering from it. The flag had on it the stars and stripes. This was
strange to Rip. But Rip saw something he remembered. The tavern sign. He
recognized on it the face of King George. Still the picture was changed.
The red coat gone. One of blue and buff in its place. A sword, and not a
scepter, in the hand. Wore a cocked hat. Underneath was painted--"General

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.---_Weave the facts below into three paragraphs, and write on
the margin what each is about_:--

The Nile rises in great lakes. Runs north. Sources two thousand miles from
Alexandria. Receives two branches only. Runs through an alluvial valley.
Course through the valley is 1,500 miles. Plows into the Mediterranean. Two
principal channels. Minor outlets. Nile overflows its banks. Overflow
caused by rains at the sources. The melting of the mountain snows. Begins
at the end of June. Rises four inches daily. Rises till the close of
September. Subsides. Whole valley an inland sea. Only villages above the
surface. The valley very fertile. The deposit. The fertile strip is from
five to one hundred and fifty miles wide. Renowned for fruitfulness. Egypt
long the granary of the world. Three crops from December to June.
Productions--grain, cotton, and indigo.

Direction.---_Weave these facts into four paragraphs, writing the margin of
each the main thought_:--

The robin is thought by some to be migratory. But he stays with us all
winter. Cheerful. Noisy. Poor soloist. A spice of vulgarity in him. Dash of
prose in his song. Appetite extraordinary. Eats his own weight in a short
time. Taste for fruit. Eats with a relishing gulp, like Dr. Johnson's. Fond
of cherries. Earliest mess of peas. Mulberries. Lion's share of the
raspberries. Angleworms his delight. A few years ago I had a grapevine. A
foreigner. Shy of bearing. This summer bore a score of bunches. They
secreted sugar from the sunbeams. One morning, went to pick them. The
robins beforehand with me. Bustled out from the leaves. Made shrill,
unhandsome remarks about me. Had sacked the vine. Remnant of a single
bunch. How it looked at the bottom of my basket! A humming-bird's egg in an
eagle's nest. Laughed. Robins joined in the merriment.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Weave these facts into four paragraphs_:--

Note that the several paragraphs form a composition, or +Theme+, the
general subject of which is WOUTER VAN TWILLER (according to Diedrich

I. +Who he was+.--Van Twiller was a Dutchman. Born at Rotterdam. Descended
from burgomasters. In 1629 appointed governor of Nieuw Nederlandts. Arrived
in June at New Amsterdam--New York city.

II. +Person+.--Was five feet six inches high, six feet five in
circumference. Head spherical, and too large for any neck. Nature set it on
the back-bone. Body capacious. Legs short and sturdy. A beer-barrel on
skids. Face a vast, unfurrowed expanse. No lines of thought. Two small,
gray eyes. Cheeks had taken toll of all that had entered his mouth. Mottled
and streaked with dusky red.

III. +Habits+.--Regular. Four meals daily, each an hour long. Smoked and
doubted eight hours. Slept twelve. As self-contained as an oyster. Rarely
spoke save in monosyllables. But never said a foolish thing. Never laughed.
Perplexed by a joke. Conceived everything on a grand scale. When a question
was asked, would put on a mysterious look. Shake his head. Smoke in
silence. Observe, at length, he had doubts. Presided at the council, in
state. Swayed a Turkish pipe instead of a scepter. Known to sit with eyes
closed two hours. Internal commotion shown by guttural sounds. Noises of
contending doubts, admirers said.

IV. +Exploits.+--Settled a dispute about accounts thus: sent for the
parties; each produced his account-book; Van T. weighed the books; counted
the leaves; equally heavy; equally thick; made each give the other a
receipt; and the constable pay the costs. Demanded why Van Rensselaer
seized Bear's Island. Battled with doubts regarding the Yankees. Smoked and
breathed his last together.

+Direction.+---_Weave these facts into four paragraphs, write on the margin
the special topic of each, and over the whole what you think it the general
subject of the theme:--_

The prophets of Baal accept Elijah's challenge. They dress a bullock. Call
on Baal. Are mocked by Elijah. Leap upon the altar. Cut themselves. Blood.
Cry till the time of the evening sacrifice. No answer by fire. Elijah
commands the people to come near. Repairs an old altar with twelve stones,
one for each tribe. Digs a trench. Sacrifices. Pours water three times upon
it. Prays. Fire falls, consumes flesh, wood, stones, dust, licks up water.
People see it. Fall on their faces. Cry out twice, "The Lord, he is the
God." Take the prophets to the brook Kishon, where they are slain. Elijah
ascends Mount Carrael. Bows in prayer. "Go up now, look toward the sea."
Servant reports, "There is nothing." "Go again seven times." "Behold there
ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a man's hand." Orders Ahab to
prepare his chariot. Girding up his loins, he runs before Ahab to Jezreel.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction.+--_Weave these facts into as many paragraphs as you think there
should be, using the variety of expression insisted on in Lesson 150, and
write on the margin of each paragraph the special topic, and over the whole
the general subject of the theme:--_

Fort Ticonderoga on a peninsula. Formed by the outlet of Lake George and by
Lake Champlain. Fronts south; water on three sides. Separated by Lake
Champlain from Mount Independence, and by the outlet, from Mount Defiance.
Fort one hundred feet above the water. May 7, 1775, two hundred and seventy
men meet at Castleton, Vermont. All but forty-six, Green Mountain boys.
Meet to plan and execute an attack upon Fort T. Allen and Arnold there.
Each claims the command. Question left to the officers. Allen chosen. On
evening of the 9th, they reach the lake. Difficulty in crossing. Send for a
scow. Seize a boat at anchor. Search, and find small row boats. Only
eighty-three able to cross. Day is dawning when these reach the shore. Not
prudent to wait. Allen orders all who will follow him to poise their
firelocks. Every man responds. Nathan Beman, a lad, guides them to the
fort. Sentinel snaps his gun at A. Misses fire. Sentinel retreats. They
follow. Rush upon the parade ground. Form. Loud cheer. A. climbs the
stairs. Orders La Place, it is said, in the name of the great Jehovah and
the Continental Congress, to surrender. Capture forty-eight men. One
hundred and twenty cannon. Used next winter at the siege of Boston. Several
swords and howitzers, small arms, and ammunition.

+Direction+.--_These facts are thrown together promiscuously. Classify them
as they seem to you to be related. Determine the number of paragraphs and
their order, and then do as directed above_:--

Joseph was Jacob's favorite. Wore fine garments. One day was sent to
inquire after the other sons. They were at a distance, tending the flocks.
Joseph used to dream. They saw him coming. Plotted to kill him. In one
dream his brothers' sheaves bowed to his. In another the sun, moon, and
stars bowed to him. Plotted to throw his body into a pit. Agreed to report
to their father that some beast had devoured Joseph. Joseph foolishly told
these to his brothers. Hated him because of the dreams and their father's
partiality. While the brothers were eating, Ishmaelites approached. They
sat down to eat. Were going down into Egypt. Camels loaded with spices. At
the intercession of Reuben they did not kill Joseph. Threw him alive into a
pit. Ishmaelites took him down into Egypt. Sold him to Potiphar. Judah
advised that he be raised from the pit. Jacob recognized the coat. Refused
comfort. Rent his clothes and put on sackcloth. They took his coat. Killed
a kid and dipped the coat in its blood. Brought it to Jacob. "This have we
found; know now whether it be thy son's coat or no."

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Classify these promiscuous facts, determine carefully the
number and the order of the paragraphs, and then do as directed above_:--

Trafalgar a Spanish promontory. Near the Straits of Gibraltar. Off
Trafalgar, fleets of Spain and France, October 21, 1805. Nelson in command
of the English fleet. The combined fleets in close line of battle.
Collingwood second in command. Had more and larger cannon than the English.
English fleet twenty-seven sail of the line and four frigates. Thirty-three
sail of the line and seven frigates. He signaled those memorable words:
"England expects every man to do his duty." Enemy had four thousand troops.
Signal received with a shout. They bore down. The best riflemen in the
enemy's boats. C. steered for the center. C. in the _Royal Sovereign_ led
the lee line of thirteen ships. A raking fire opened upon the _Victory_. N.
in the _Victory_ led the weather line. C. engaged the _Santa Anna_.
Delighted at being the first in the fire. At 1.15 N. shot through the
shoulder and back. At 12 the _Victory_ opened fire. N.'s secretary the
first to fall. Fifty fell before a shot was returned. "They have done for
me at last, Hardy," said N. They bore him below. At 2.25 ten of the enemy
had struck. The wound was mortal. At 4 fifteen had struck. The victory that
cost the British 1,587 men won. These were his last words. At 4.30 he
expired. "How goes the day with us?" he asked Hardy. "I hope none of our
ships have struck." N.'s death was more than a public calamity. "I am a
dead man, Hardy," he said. Englishmen turned pale at the news. Most
triumphant death that of a martyr. He shook hands with Hardy. "Kiss me,
Hardy." They mourned as for a dear friend. Kissed him on the cheek. Most
awful death that of the martyr patriot. The loss seemed a personal one.
Knelt down again and kissed his forehead. His articulation difficult. Heard
to say, "Thank God, I have done my duty." Seemed as if they had not known
how deeply they loved him. Most splendid death that of the hero in the hour
of victory. Has left a name which is our pride. An example which is our
shield and strength. Buried him in St. Paul's. Thus the spirits of the
great and the wise live after them.

TO THE TEACHER--Continue this work as long as it is needed. Take any book,
and read to the class items of facts. Require them to use the imagination
and whatever graces of style are at their command, in weaving these facts

       *       *       *       *       *



+Analysis of the Subject+.--A Theme is made up of groups of sentences
called Paragraphs. The sentences of each paragraph are related to each
other, because they jointly develop a single point, or thought. And the
paragraphs are related to each other, because these points which they
develop are divisions of the one general subject of the Theme.

After the subject has been chosen, and before writing upon it, it must be
resolved into the main thoughts which compose it. Upon the thoroughness of
this analysis and the natural arrangement of the thoughts thus derived,
depends largely the worth of the theme. These points form, when arranged,
the +Framework+ of the theme.

Suppose you had taken _The Armada_ as your subject. Perhaps you could say
under these heads all you wish:
1. _What the Armada was_.
2. _When and by whom equipped_.
3. _Its purpose_.
4. _Its sail over the Bay of Biscay and entrance into the English Channel_.
5. _The attack upon it by Admiral Howard and his great Captains--Drake and
6. _Its dispersion and partial destruction by the storm_.
7. _The return to Spain of the surviving ships and men_.
8. _The consequences to England and to Spain_.

Perhaps the 1st point could include the 2d and the 3d. Be careful not to
split your general subject up into very many parts. See, too, that no point
is repeated, that no point foreign to the subject is introduced, and that
all the points together exhaust the subject as nearly as may be. Look to
the arrangement of the points. There is a natural order; (6) could not
precede (5); nor (5), (4); nor (4), (1).

TO THE TEACHER.--Question the pupils carefully upon every point taken up in
this Lesson.

+Direction+.--_Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these

1. The Arrest of Major Andre.
2. A Winter in the Arctic Region.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these

1. Battle of Plattsburg.
2. A Day's Nutting.
3. What Does a Proper Care for One's Health Demand?

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these

1. A Visit to the Moon.
2. Reasons why one Should Not Smoke,
3. What Does a Proper Observance of Sunday Require of One?

       *       *       *       *       *



+Direction+.--_Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these

1. The Gulf Stream.
2. A Descent into a Whirlpool.
3. What are Books Good for?

       *       *       *       *       *



+I. Choose a Subject+.--Choose your subject long before you are to write.
Avoid a full, round term like _Patriotism_ or _Duty_; take a fragment of
it; as, _How can a Boy be Patriotic?_ or _Duties which we Schoolmates owe
Each Other_. The subject should be on your level, should be interesting and
suggestive to you, and should instantly start in your mind many trains of

+II. Accumulate the Material+.--Begin to think about your subject. Turn it
over in your mind in leisure moments, and, as thoughts flash upon you, jot
them down in your blank-book. If any of these seem broad enough for the
main points, or heads, indicate this. Talk with no one on the subject, and
read nothing on it, till you have thought yourself empty; and even then you
should note down what the conversation or reading suggests, rather than
what you have heard or read.

+III. Construct a Framework+.--Before writing hunt through your material
for the main points, or heads. See to what general truths or thoughts these
jottings and those jottings point. Perhaps this or that thought, as it
stands, includes enough to serve as a head. Be sure, at any rate, that by
brooding over your material, and by further thinking upon the subject, you
get at all the general thoughts into which, as it seems to you, the subject
should be analyzed. Study these points carefully. See that no two overlap
each other, that no one appears twice, that no one has been raised to the
dignity of a head which should stand under some head, and that no one is
irrelevant. Study now to find the natural order in which these points
should stand. Let no point, to the clear understanding of which some other
point is necessary, precede that other. If developing all the points would
make your theme too long, study to see what points you can omit without
abrupt break or essential loss.

+IV. Write+.--Give your whole attention to your work as you write, and
other thoughts will occur to you, and better ways of putting the thoughts
already noted down. In expanding the main points into paragraphs, be sure
that everything falls under its appropriate head. Cast out irrelevant
matter. Do not strain after effect or strive to seem wiser than you are.
Use familiar words, and place these, your phrases, and your clauses, where
they will make your thought the clearest. As occasion calls, change from
the usual order to the transposed, and let sentences, simple, complex, and
compound, long and short, stand shoulder to shoulder in the paragraph.
Express yourself easily--only now and then putting your thought forcibly
and with feeling. Let a fresh image here and there relieve the uniformity
of plain language. One sentence should follow another without abrupt break;
and, if continuative of it, adversative to it, or an inference from it, and
the hearer needs to be advised of this, let it swing into position on the
hinge of a fitting connective. Of course, your sentences must pass rigid
muster in syntax; and you must look sharply to the spelling, to the use of
capital letters, and to punctuation.

+V. Attend to the Mechanical Execution+.--Keep your pages clean, and let
your handwriting be clear. On the left of the page leave a margin of an
inch for corrections. Do not write on the fourth page; if you exceed three
pages, use another sheet. When the writing is done, double the lower half
of the sheet over the upper, and fold through the middle; then bring the
top down to the middle and fold again. Bring the right-hand end toward you,
and across the top write your name and the date. This superscription will
be at the top of the fourth page, at the right-hand corner, and at right
angles to the ruled lines.

TO THE TEACHER.--Question the pupils closely upon every point in this

Additional Subjects for Themes.

1. Apples and Nuts.
2. A Pleasant Evening.
3. My Walk to School.
4. Pluck.
5. School Friendships.
6. When my Ship Comes In.
7. Ancient and Modern Warfare.
8. The View from my Window.
9. Homes without Hands.
10. I Can.
11. My Friend Jack.
12. John Chinaman.
13. Irish Characters.
14. Robin Hood.
15. A Visit to Olympus.
16. Monday Morning.
17. My Native Town.
18. Over the Sea.
19. Up in a Balloon.
20. Queer People.
21. Our Minister.
22. A Plea for Puss.
23. Castles in Spain.
24. Young America.
25. Black Diamonds.
26. Mosquitoes.
27. A Day in the Woods.
28. A Boy's Trials.
29. The Yankee.
30. Robinson Crusoe.
31. Street Arabs.
32. Legerdemain.
33. Our Neighborhood.
34. Examinations.
35. Theatre-going.
36. Donkeys.
37. The Southern Negro.
38. A Rainy Saturday.
39. The Early Bird Catches the Worm.
40. Spring Sports
41. How Horatius Kept the Bridge.
42. Jack Frost
43. My First Sea Voyage.
44. Monkeys.
45. Grandmothers.
46. The Boy of the Story Book.
47. Famous Streets.
48. Pigeons.
49. Jack and Gill.
50. Make Haste Slowly.
51. Commerce.
52. The Ship of the Desert.
53. Winter Sports.
54. A Visit to Neptune.
55. Whiskers.
56. Gypsies.
57. Cities of the Dead.
58. Street Cries.
59. The World Owes me A Living.
60. Politeness.
61. Cleanliness Akin to Godliness.
62. Fighting Windmills.
63. Along the Docks.
64. Maple Sugar.
65. Umbrellas.
66. A Girl's Trials.
67. A Spider's Web.
68. The Story of Ruth.
69. Clouds.
70. A Country Store.
71. Timepieces.
72. Bulls and Bears.
73. Bore.
74. Our Sunday School.
75. The Making of Beer.
76. Autumn's Colors.
77. The Watched Pot Never Boils.
78. The Mission of Birds.
79. Parasites.
80. Well-begun is Half-done.
81. The Tides.
82. The Schoolmaster in "The Deserted Village."
83. A Day on a Trout Stream.
84. A Stitch in Time Saves Nine.
85. Of What Use are Flowers?
86. A Descent in a Diving Bell.

       *       *       *       *       *



Letters need special treatment. In writing a letter there are five things
to consider--The Heading, The Introduction, The Body of the Letter, The
Conclusion, and The Superscription.


+Parts+.--The Heading consists of the name of the +Place+ at which the
letter is written, and the +Date+. If you write from a city, give the
door-number, the name of the street, the name of the city, and the name of
the state. If you are at a Hotel or a School or any other well-known
Institution, its name may take the place of the door-number and the name of
the street; as may also the number of your post-office box. If you write
from a village or other country place, give your post-office address, the
name of the county, and that of the state.

The Date consists of the month, the day of the month, and the year.

+How Written+.--Begin the Heading about an inch and a half from the top of
the page--on the first ruled line of commercial note. If the letter
occupies but a few lines of a single page, you may begin the Heading lower
down. Begin the first line of the Heading a little to the left of the
middle of the page. If it occupies more than one line, the second line
should begin farther to the right than the first, and the third farther to
the right than the second.

The door-number, the day of month, and the year are written in figures; the
rest, in words. Bach important word begins with a capital letter, each item
is set off by the comma, and the whole closes with a period.

+Direction+.--_Study what has teen said, and write the following
headings according to these models:_--

1.  Ripton, Addison Co., Vt.,
July 10, 1895.

2.  250 Broadway, N. T.,
June 6, 1890.

3. Saco, Me., Feb. 25, 1887.

4. Polytechnic Institute,
Brooklyn, N. Y.,
May 3, 1888.

1. ann arbor 5 July 1820 michigan
2. champlain co clinton n y jan 14 1800
3. p o box 2678 1860 oct 19 chicago
4. philadelphia 670 1858 chestnut st 16 apr
5. saint nicholas new york 1 hotel nov 1855


+Parts+.--The Introduction consists of the +Address+--the Name, the Title,
and the Place of Business or Residence of the one addressed--and the
+Salutation+. Titles of respect and courtesy should appear in the Address.
Prefix _Mr._ to a man's name, _Messrs._ to the names of several gentlemen;
_Master_ to the name of a young lad; _Miss_ to that of an unmarried lady;
_Mrs._ to that of a married lady; _Misses_ to the names of several young
ladies; and _Mesdames_ to those of several married or elderly ladies.
Prefix _Dr._ to the name of a physician (but never _Mr. Dr._), or write
_M.D._ after it. Prefix _Rev._ to the name of a clergyman, or _Rev. Mr._ if
you do not know his Christian name; _Rev. Dr._ if he is a Doctor of
Divinity, or write _Rev._ before the name and _D.D._ after it. Prefix _His
Excellency_ to the name of the President, [Footnote: The preferred form of
addressing the President is, _To the President, Executive Mansion,
Washington, D. C._; the Salutation is simply, _Mr. President._ ] and to
that of a Governor or of an Ambassador; _Hon._ to the name of a Cabinet
Officer, a Member of Congress, a State Senator, a Law Judge, or a Mayor. If
two literary or professional titles are added to a name, let them stand in
the order in which they were conferred--this is the order of a few common
ones: _A.M., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D._ Guard against an excessive use of titles--
the higher implies the lower.

Salutations vary with the station of the one addressed, or the writer's
degree of intimacy with him. Strangers may be addressed as _Sir, Dear Sir,
Rev. Sir, General, Madam_, etc.; acquaintances as _Dear Sir, Dear Madam_,
etc.; friends as _My dear Sir, My dear Madam, My dear Jones_, etc.; and
near relatives and other dear friends as _My dear Wife, My dear Boy,
Dearest Ellen_, etc.

+How Written+.--The Address may follow the Heading, beginning on the next
line, and standing on the left side of the page; or it may stand in
corresponding position after the Body of the Letter and the Conclusion. If
the letter is of an official character or is written to an intimate friend,
the Address may appropriately be placed at the bottom of the letter; but in
ordinary business letters, it should be placed at the top and as directed
above. Never omit it from the letter except when the letter is written in
the third person. There should be a narrow margin on the left side of the
page, and the Address should begin on the marginal line. If the Address
occupies more than one line, the initial words of these lines should slope
to the right.

Begin the Salutation on the marginal line or a little to the right of it
when the Address occupies three lines; on the marginal line or farther to
the right or to the left than the second line of the Address when this
occupies two lines; a little to the right of the marginal line when the
Address occupies one line; on the marginal line when the Address stands

Every important word in the Address should begin with a capital letter. All
the items of it should be set off by the comma; and, as it is an
abbreviated sentence, it should close with a period. Every important word
in the Salutation should begin with a capital letter, and the whole should
be followed by a comma, or by a comma and a dash.

+Direction+.--Write these introductions according to the models:--
1. Prof. March, Easton, Pa.
          My dear Sir,

2. Messrs. Smith & Jones,
            771 Broadway,
                   New York City.

3. My dear Mother,
                   When, etc.

4. Messrs. Vallette & Co.,
                Middlebury, Vt.
       Dear Sirs,

1. mr george platt burlington iowa sir
2. mass Cambridge prof James r lowell my dear friend
3. messrs ivison blakeman taylor & co gentlemen new york
4. rev brown dr the arlington Washington dear friend d c
5. col John smith dear colonel n y auburn

       *       *       *       *       *




+The Beginning+.--Begin the Body of the Letter at the end of the
Salutation, and on the same line if the Introduction is long--in which case
the comma after the Salutation should be followed by a dash,--on the line
below if the Introduction is short.

+Style+.--Be perspicuous. Paragraph and punctuate as in other kinds of
writing. Avoid blots, erasures, interlineations, cross lines, and all other
offenses against epistolary propriety. The letter "bespeaks the man."
Letters of friendship should be colloquial, chatty, and familiar. Whatever
is interesting to you will be interesting to your friends, however trivial
it may seem to a stranger.

Business letters should be brief, and the sentences short, concise, and to
the point. Repeat nothing, and omit nothing needful.

Official letters and formal notes should be more stately and ceremonious.
In formal notes the third person is generally used instead of the first and
the second; there is no Introduction, no Conclusion, no Signature, only the
name of the Place and the Date at the bottom, on the left side of the page,

_Mr. & Mrs. A. request the pleasure of Mr. B.'s company at a social
gathering, on Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th, at eight o'clock.

32 Fifth Ave., Nov. 5_.

_Mr. B. accepts_ [Footnote: Or regrets that a previous engagement (or
illness, or an unfortunate event) prevents the acceptance of ----; or
regrets that on account of ---- he is unable to accept ----.] _with
pleasure Mr. & Mrs. A.'s kind invitation for Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th._

_Wednesday morning, Nov. 9th_.


+Parts+.--The Conclusion consists of the +Complimentary Close+ and the
+Signature+. The forms of the Complimentary Close are many, and are
determined by the relations of the writer to the one addressed. In letters
of friendship you may use, _Your sincere, friend; Yours affectionately;
Your loving son_ or _daughter_, etc. In business letters you may use,
_Yours; Yours truly; Truly yours; Yours respectfully; Very respectfully
yours_, etc. In official letters you should be more deferential. Use, _I
have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient servant; Very respectfully, your
most obedient servant_; etc., etc.

The Signature consists of your Christian name and your surname. In
addressing a stranger write your Christian name in full. A lady addressing
a stranger should prefix to her signature her title, _Mrs._ or _Miss_
(placing it within marks of parenthesis), unless in the letter she has
indicated which of these titles her correspondent is to use in reply.

+How Written+.--The Conclusion should begin near the middle of the first
line below the Body of the Letter, and, if occupying two or more lines,
should slope to the right like the Heading and the Address. Begin each line
of it with a capital letter, and punctuate as in other writing, following
the whole with a period. The Signature should be very plain.

+Direction+.--_Write two formal notes--one inviting a friend to a social
party, and one declining the invitation._

+Direction+.--_Write the Conclusion of a letter of friendship, of a letter
of business, and of an official letter, carefully observing all that has
been said above._

+Direction+.--_Write a letter of two or three lines to your father or your
mother, and another to your minister, talcing care to give properly the
Heading in its two parts, the Introduction in its two parts, and the
Conclusion in its two parts. Let the Address in the letter to your father
or your mother stand at the bottom._

       *       *       *       *       *




+Parts+.--The Superscription is what is written on the outside of the
envelope. It is the same as the Address, consisting of the Name, the Title,
and the full Directions of the one addressed.

+How Written+.--The Superscription should begin just below the middle of
the envelope and near the left edge--the envelope lying with its closed
side toward you--and should occupy three or four lines. These lines should
slope to the right as in the Heading and the Address, the spaces between
the lines should be the same, and the last line should end near the lower
right-hand corner. On the first line the Name and the Title should stand.
If the one addressed is in a city, the door-number and name of the street
should be on the second line, the name of the city on the third, and the
name of the state on the fourth. If he is in the country, the name of the
post-office should be on the second line, the name of the county on the
third, the name of the state on the fourth. The number of the post office
box may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street, or,
to avoid crowding, the number of the box or the name of the county may
stand at the lower left-hand corner. The titles following the name should
be separated from it and from each other by the comma, and every line
should end with a comma except the last, which should be followed by a
period. [Footnote: Some omit punctuation after the parts of the
Superscription. ] The lines should be straight, and every part of the
Superscription should be legible. Place the stamp at the upper right-hand

+Direction+.--_Write six Superscriptions to real or imaginary friends
or acquaintances in different cities, carefully observing all that has
been said above._

+Direction+.--_Write two snort letters--one to a friend at the Astor
House, New York, and one to a stranger in the country._

[Illustration: Envelope with stamp in upper-right corner.  Addressed to

  Master H. Buckman,

[Cursive Text:

            Ithaca, N. Y, June 15, '96.
    My dear Friend,

        You tell me that you
    begin the study of English Literature
    next term. Let me assume the
    relation of an older brother, and tender
    you a word of counsel.

        Study literature, primarily, for
    the thoughts it contains. Attend
    to these thoughts until you understand
    them and see their connection
    one with another. Accept only such
    as seem to you just and true, and
    accept these at their proper value.

        Notice carefully the words each
    author uses, see how he arranges
    them, whether he puts his thought
    clearly, what imagery he employs,
    what allusions he makes, what
    acquaintance with men, with books,
    and with nature he shows, and in
    what spirit he writes.

        Your study of the author should
    put you in possession of his thought
    and his style, and should introduce
    you to the man himself.

        Pardon me these words of unsought
    advice, and believe me.

        Your true friend,
              John Schuyler.

    Master H. Buckman,
        Andover, Mass.]


We here append a Summary of the so-called Rules of Syntax, with references
to the Lessons which treat of Construction.

I. A noun or pronoun used as subject or as attribute complement of a
predicate verb, or used independently, is in the nominative case.

II. The attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the
same case (Nom. or Obj.) as the word to which it relates.

III. A noun or pronoun used as possessive modifier is in the possessive

IV. A noun or pronoun used as object complement, as objective complement,
as the principal word in a prepositional phrase, or used adverbially
[Footnote: See Lesson 35.] is in the objective case.

V. A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as
the word explained.

+For Cautions, Principles, and Examples respecting the cases of nouns and
pronouns, see Lessons 119, 122, 123, 123. For Cautions and Examples to
guide in the use of the different pronouns, see Lessons 86, 87.+

VI. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender.

+For Cautions, Principles, and Examples, see Lessons 118,142.+

VII. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

+For Cautions, Examples, and Exceptions, see Lesson 142.+

VIII. A participle assumes the action or being, and is used like an
adjective or a noun.

+For Uses of the Participle, see Lessons 37, 38, 39.+

IX. An infinitive is generally introduced by _to_, and with it forms a
phrase used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

+For Uses of the Infinitive, see Lessons 40, 41, 42.+

X. Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.

+For Cautions and Examples respecting the use of adjectives and of
comparative and superlative forms, see Lessons 90, 91, 128.+

XI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.

+For Cautions and Examples, see Lesson 93.+

XII. A preposition introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in
sense, of its principal word to the word modified.

+For Cautions, see Lessons 98, 99.+

XIII. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses.

+For Cautions and Examples, see Lessons 100, 107.+

XIV. Interjections are used independently.


+Remarks+.--The scheme of conjugation presented below is from English
text-books. In some of these books the forms introduced by _should_ are
classed, not as Future, but as Secondary Past Tense forms of the

If we substitute this scheme of conjugation for the simpler one given in
the preceding pages, we still fail to get a classification in which every
form corresponds in use to its name. The following examples will

He _returns_ to-morrow. (Present = Future.)

When I _have performed_ this, I will come to you. (Present Perfect = Future

If any member _absents_ himself, he shall pay a fine. (Indicative =

You _shall_ go. (Indicative = Imperative.)

After memorizing all the terms and forms belonging to the conjugation here
outlined, the student will find that he has gained little to aid him in the
use of language. For instance, in this synopsis of the Subjunctive are
found nineteen forms. As there are three persons in the singular and three
in the plural, we have one hundred and fourteen subjunctive forms! How
confusing all this must be to the student, who, in his use of the
subjunctive, needs to distinguish only such as these: If he _be_, If he
_were_, If he _teach_! Beyond these, the subjunctive manner of assertion is
discovered from the structure of the sentence or the relation of clauses,
not from the conjugation of the verb.

Those English authors and their American copyists who eliminate the
Potential Mode from their scheme of conjugation tell us that the so-called
potential auxiliaries are either independent verbs in the indicative or are
subjunctive auxiliaries. With the meager instruction given by any one or by
all of these authors, the student will find it exceedingly difficult to
determine when these auxiliaries are true subjunctives. To illustrate:--

1. _May_ you be happy.
2. I learn that I _may_ be able to teach.
3. He _might_ have done it if he had liked.
4. If he _should_ try, he _would_ succeed.
5. I _would_ not tell you if I _could_.
6. I _could_ not do this if I were to try.

The forms italicized above are said to be subjunctive auxiliaries; those
below are said to be independent verbs in the indicative.

7. He _may_ be there.
8. He _might_ ask you to go.
9. You _should_ not have done that.
10. He _would_ not come when called.
11. I _could_ do this at one time.

We are told that _can_ and _must_ are always independent verbs in the
indicative, and that _may, might, could, would_, and _should_ are either
subjunctive auxiliaries or independent verbs parsed in the indicative,
separately from the infinitives with which they seem to combine. But in
parsing these words as separate verbs the student is left in doubt as to
whether they are transitive or intransitive, and as to the office of the
infinitives that follow.

_Shall_ (to owe) and _will_ (to determine) are, in their original meaning,
transitive. _May, can_, and _must_ denote power (hence potential); and, as
the infinitive with which they combine names the act on which this power is
exercised, some philologists regard them as originally transitive. Among
these is our distinguished critic, Prof. Francis A. March. _May_ denotes
power from without coming from a removal of all hindrance,--hence
permission or possibility. _Can_ denotes power from within,--hence ability.
_Must_ denotes power from without coming from circumstances or the nature
of things,--hence necessity or obligation. _Should, would, might_, and
_could_ are past forms of _shall, will, may_, and _can_.

The auxiliaries take different shades of meaning. In some constructions the
meaning is fainter or less emphatic than in others. To say just how little
of its common or original meaning _may, can, must, shall_, or _will_ must
have to be an auxiliary, and how much to be a "notional," or independent,
verb would be extremely venturesome For instance, _could_ in (6) above
expresses power or ability to do, as does _could_ in (11), yet we are told
that the former _could_ is a mere auxiliary, while the latter is an
independent verb. _May_ in (1) denotes a desired removal of all hindrance;
_may_ in (7) denotes a possible removal of hindrance. It is hard to see why
the former _may_ is necessarily a mere auxiliary, and the latter a
"notional," or independent, verb. These are some of the difficulties--not
to say inconsistencies--met by the student who is taught that there is no
Potential Mode.

In a scholarly work revised by Skeat, Wrightson, speaking of _I may, can,
shall, or will love_, says, "These auxiliary verbs had at some time such a
clear and definite meaning that it would have been tolerably easy to
determine the case function discharged by the infinitive; but these verbs,
after passing through various shades of meaning, have at last become little
more than conventional symbols, so that it would be worse than useless to
attempt to analyze these periphrastic tenses
of our moods."


Active Voice.


Present Indefinite............He teaches.
Present Imperfect.............He is teaching.
Present Perfect...............He has taught.
Present Perfect Continuous....He has been teaching.

Past Indefinite...............He taught.
Past Imperfect................He was teaching.
Past Perfect..................He had taught.
Past Perfect Continuous.......He had been teaching.

Future Indefinite.............He will teach.
Future Imperfect..............He will be teaching.
Future Perfect................He will have taught.
Future Perfect Continuous.....He will have been teaching.


Present Indefinite............(If) he teach.
Present Imperfect.............(If) he be teaching.
Present Perfect...............(If) he have taught.
Present Perfect Continuous....(If) he have been teaching.

Past Indefinite...............(If) he taught.
Past Imperfect................(If) he were teaching.
Past Perfect..................(If) he had taught.
Past Perfect Continuous.......(If) he had been teaching.

Future Indefinite.............(If) he should teach.
Future Imperfect..............(If) he should be teaching.
Future Perfect................(If) he should have taught.
Future Perfect Continuous.....(If) he should have been teaching.


Present.......................Teach [thou].


Present Indefinite............(To) teach.
Present Imperfect.............(To) be teaching.
Present Perfect...............(To) have taught.
Present Perfect Continuous....(To) have been teaching.


Perfect.......................Having taught.
Perfect Continuous............Having been teaching.

Passive Voice.


Present Indefinite............He is taught.
Present Imperfect.............He is being taught.
Present Perfect...............He has been taught.

Past Indefinite...............He was taught.
Past Imperfect................He was being taught.
Past Perfect..................He had been taught.

Future Indefinite.............He will be taught.
Future Imperfect..............------------------------
Future Perfect................He will have been taught.


Present Indefinite............(If) he be taught.
Present Imperfect.............------------------------
Present Perfect...............(If) he have been taught.

Past Indefinite...............(If) he were taught.
Past Imperfect................(If) he were being taught.
Past Perfect..................(If) he had been taught.

Future Indefinite.............(If) he should be taught.
Future Imperfect..............------------------------
Future Perfect................(If) he should have been taught.


Present.......................Be [thou] taught.


Present Indefinite............(To) be taught.
Present Perfect...............(To) have been taught.


Imperfect.....................Being taught.
Compound Perfect..............Having been taught.


_A_, or _an_, uses of
_A_ and _the_ uses of distinguished
_A_ (day) _or two_, or _one or two_ (days)
  common ones
  how made and written
  of names of states
+Absolute Phrases+
  definition of
  diagram of
  expansion of
+Adjective+ an, definition of
  apt ones to be used
    definitive (numeral)
    adjectives not compared
    adjectives irregularly compared
    form preferred
    in _er_ and _est_
    with adverb
  descriptive, used as nouns
  errors in use of
  having number forms
  needless ones avoided
  not always limiting
  not used for adverbs
  proper order of
  scheme for general review
  used as abstract nouns
+Adjective Clauses+
  connectives of
  definition of
  = adjectives
  = explanatory modifiers
  = independent clauses
  = infinitive phrases
  = participle phrases
  = possessives
  modifying omitted words
  position of
  restrictive and unrestrictive
  unrestrictive, punctuation
+Adjective Complement+
  distinguished from adverb modifier
+Adjective Modifiers+
  analysis of
  nouns as
+Adverb+ an definition of
  apt ones to be used
  classes of
  comparison of
  errors in use of
  expressing negation
  irregular comparison of
  not used for adjectives
  not used needlessly
  position of
  scheme for general review
  sometimes like adjective attributes
    independently (note)
    interrogatively (note)
    with connective force (note)
+Adverb Clause+, definition of
+Adverb Clauses+
    cause, real
    degree (result)
    by omitting words
    to absolute phrases
    to participles and participle phrases
    to prepositional phrases
  = adjective clauses and phrases (note)
  = adverbs
  = independent clauses (note)
  position of
  punctuation of
+Adverbial Modifiers+
  analysis of
  nouns as
  parsing of
+Adversative Connectives+, list
+Adversative+, meaning of (note)
_A few, a little_, vs. _few_ and _little_
  of parts of a metaphor
  of pronoun with its antecedent
  of verb with the subject
+Allusion+ (note)
  definition of
  perfect one what
  the English imperfect how
+Alternative+, meaning of (note)
+Alternative Connectives+, list
+Ambiguity+ of pronouns, how avoided
  examples for, additional
  of a sentence
  of subjects of themes
+Antecedent+, a clause, phrase, or word (note)
+Antithesis+ (note)
_Any body_ (or _one_) _else's_ (note)
+Apostrophe+ the
+Argumentative Style+
  errors in use of
  repeated when
  uses of _a_, or _an_, and _the_
  introductory conjunction
  relative pronoun (note)
  with clauses of degree, manner, and time
  with variety of clauses
_As ... as_, construction of
_As it were_, construction of
+Assumed Subject+, what
+Attribute Complement+
  definition of
  diagram of
+Auxiliary Verbs+

  conjugation of
  derivation of (note)
_Beside_ and _besides_ distinguished (note)
_Best of the two_
_Between_ with three or more (note)
+Brackets+, use of
  adversative conjunction
  a preposition
  various uses of
  with or without _that_
  with _what_ incorrect for _but that_ or _but_
+Capital Letters+
  in abbreviations
  in beginning sentences
  in class names
  in compound names
  in names of the Deity
  in proper names
  in titles
  rule for _I_ and _O_
  summary of rules for
  of attribute complement
  of explanatory modifier
  of noun or pronoun independent
  of noun or pronoun used adverbially
  of objective complement
  definitions of
  in Anglo-Saxon and in Latin
+Case Forms+
  errors in use of
  five pronouns have three
  nouns have two
  only eight nominative
  only seven objective
+Cause+, adverbs of
+Cause Clauses+, divisible
  necessity of
  not governed by logical relation
  complex and compound
  +independent+ (the thought)
    in alternation
    in contrast
    in same line
+Collective Nouns+
  form of verb with
  of what number
+Comma+, rules for
  adjectives without it
  cautions to guide in
  definition of
  degree used with two
  degrees of, defined...257. 268
  double, origin of
  double, to be shunned
  errors in use of
  forms of
  when adverb used
  which form preferred
  is what
  the modified is what
+Complex Sentences+
  treatment of
+Compound Attribute Complement+
+Compound Object Complement+
+Compound Personal Pronouns+
+Compound Predicate+, defined
+Compound Relative Pronouns+
+Compound Sentence+
  changed to complex
  treatment of
+Compound Subject+, defined
+Condition Clauses without conjunction+
  definition of
  forms of
  more elaborate form
+Conjunction a, definition of+
+Conjunctions+ (cont.)
  co-ordinate connect sentences and paragraphs
  scheme for review
+Conjunctive Adverbs+
  are what
  offices of
  apt ones to be chosen
  errors in use of
  in correlation
    of adjective clauses
    of adverb clauses
    of noun clauses
+Consonants+, classes of
+Contraction+ of +Sentences+
+Co-ordinate Conjunctions+
+Copulative+, meaning of
+Copula+, what
+Correlatives+, errors in use of

_D_ of the _ed_ of verbs in past tense
_D_ of the _ed_ of past participles
_Dare_, without _s_ form
+Dash+ the
+Declarative Sentence+, defined
  of interrogative pronouns
  of nouns
  of personal pronouns
  of relative pronouns
+Degree+, adverbs of
+Descriptive Style+
+Diminution+, degrees of
  a, what
  may be omitted
_Do,_ idiomatic use of

_Each other_
  construction of
  with two or more
_Ed_ of past tense and participle
_Either_ and _neither_, pronouns and conjunctions, with two or more
_Either_ may be used for _each_
+Elocution+, object of
  exercises in
  secured how
+English Grammar+, definition of
+Epigrams+ are what
+Evidence+ distinguished from +Cause+
+Exclamatory Sentences+
  definition of
  order of words in
  of absolute phrases
  of infinitive phrases
  of participles
  of sentences
+Explanatory Modifier+
  definition of
  punctuation of

+Figures of Speech+
  basis of
  illustrations of
  names of
  uses of
_First two_, etc.
+Force+ (see +Energy+)
_For to_

  distinguished from sex
  of names of animals
  of what importance
  of pronouns, errors in
  used in personification
+Gender Forms+
+Genders+, the three defined

_Had better, rather, sooner_
_Hand in hand_, construction of
_Have written_, history of
_He_ or _one_ after the indefinite _one_
+Humor+, in style
+Hyphen+, use of

+Idea+ distinguished from object
  for even if, although
  for whether
  omission of
  variety of uses
+Imagery+, discussion of
+Imperative Sentence+
  definition of
  order of words in
_In_ and _Into_ distinguished
_In case that_, construction of
+Independent Clauses+
  definition of
  joined without conjunction
+Independent Expressions+, punctuated
+Indirect+, or +Dative+, Object
+Inference+, expressed by an independent clause
+Infinitive+ (the),
  and assumed subject after _for_
  definition of
  double nature of
  old dative of
  use of present perfect after past indicative
  why called infinitive
+Infinitive Phrase+
  after a preposition
  as adjective
  as adjective modifier
  as adverb modifier
  as attribute complement
  as explanatory modifier
  as object complement
  as objective complement
  as subject
  cleft or split
  does not with the noun form a clause
  expansion into clauses
_In order that_, construction of
+Interrogation Point+, use of
+Interrogative Pronouns+
+Interrogative Sentences+
  definition of
  order of words in
+Intransitive Verbs+, definition
+Introductory Words+
+Invitations+, form of
+Irregular Verbs+
  definition of
  inflections of
  list of
  persistence of
  for a clause
  idiomatic use of
  use for animals and children
_It is me_, _him_, etc.
_Just as_, construction of
  definition of
  made up of words
_Last two_, etc.
_Lay_ and _lie_
_Less_, the final _s_ of, and _lesser_
  equaling that not
  various uses of
  with noun clause
+Letters+, the alphabet
  body of
  conclusion of
  heading of
  illustration of
  introduction  of
  parts of
  superscription of
+Loose Sentence+
_Many a_, explanation of
+Manner+, adverbs of
+Masculine Gender+ distinguished
+Masculine Pronoun+, use of
  definition of
  exercises in use of
  definition of
  exercises in use of
_Mine, thine, of mine_, etc
+Mode+ is what
  definitions of
  imperative, no 2d and 3d persons
  indicative, uses of
  potential omitted
+Modifications+, definition
+Modified Complement+
  different rank
  explanatory, punctuation
_Myself_, explanatory

+N+, Saxon _ne_, the negative particle
+Narrative Style+
+Natural Language+
_Need_, without _s_ form
+Negation+ by adverbs
+Negatives+, double
_No_ and _yes_, sentence-words
_No body_ (or _one_) _else's_
+Nominative Forms+, eight
+Noun+ a, definition of
  as adjective modifiers
  as adverb modifiers
  cases of
  classes of
  common and proper
  gender of
  number, kinds of
  person of
  roots of
  scheme for general review
+Noun Clauses+
  as attribute complement
  as explanatory modifier
  as object complement
  as principal term of prepositional phrase
  as subject
  connectives of
  contraction of
  definition of
  position of
  punctuation of
+Noun Modifier+
  explanatory (appositive)
  explanatory of a sentence
  definition of
  kinds of
  of noun agreeing with adjective
  of nouns determined
  of verbs shows what

_0_ and _oh_ distinguished
+Object+ and +Object Complement+ distinguished
+Object+, indirect
+Object+, indirect, made subject
+Object Complement+
  becoming subject
  definition of
  retained after verb in passive
+Objective Forms+, seven
+Objective Complement+
  an infinitive phrase
  a participle
  becoming an attribute complement
  definition of
  extended beyond its factitive sense
  in place of possessive sign
  not always indicating possession
_Of mine_, etc
_On condition that_
_One another_
  syntax of
  with two or more
  position of
  syntax of
+Order+ (words and phrases)
_Other_, misuse of
+Paragraph+ (the)
  composition of
  definition of
  topics and subtopics of
  unity of
+Paragraphing+, exercises in
+Parallel Construction+
+Parenthesis+, marks of
+Parenthetical Classes+, punctuation
  definition of
  first step in
  models for written
  as adjective modifiers
  as attribute complements
  as mere adjectives
  as mere nouns
  as objective complements
  as prepositions
  as principal word in a phrase
  definition of
  expansion of
  forms of
  in independent phrases
  misuse of
  modified by _a_ and _the_
  modified by a possessive
  nounal, called _gerunds, infinitives, verbal nouns_
  place of
  punctuation of
  used in slurring
+Passive Voice+, idiomatic constructions
+Period+, use of
+Periodic Sentence+
  of a noun or pronoun
  of a verb
  why regarded in the grammar
+Personification+, the figure
+Persons+, the three defined
  definition of
  exercises in
  adjective and adverb
  as prepositions
  complex and compound
  definition of
  interchange with clauses
  interchange with words
  position of
  punctuation of
  used independently
+Place+, adverbs of
+Plural Number+
  ending, origin
  foreign forms of
  formed irregularly
  formed regularly
  form same as singular
  forms treated as singular
  no form for
  of compound words
  of letters, figures, etc.
  of proper names
  some originally singular
  some words always
  two forms with different meaning
  without singular of like meaning
+Possessive Ending+
  added to explanatory word
  ambiguity avoided by
  attached to the adjective
  confined to what
  error respecting
  errors in use of
  _of_ for
  of compound names
  origin of
  when omitted
  when pronounced _es_
  adjective defined
  a verb or contains one
  definition of
  noun defined
  of two or more words
+Preposition+ a, defined
  becoming adverbs
  ending a sentence
  ending in _ing_
  errors in use of
  list of
  two before a noun
  where sometimes found
  with verb before a noun
+Pronoun+ a, defined
  Nom. and Obj. forms
  declension of
  denote relations
  errors in use of
  need of
  scheme for review
  vagueness of
+Pronouns (Adjective)+
  _a_ (day) _or two_
  _all, both_, and _whole_ before _of_
  _any body_ (or _one_) _else's_, etc.
  declension of
  definition of
  _each other_, with two or more
  _either, neither_, with two or more
  _either_ for _each_
  _first two, last three_, etc.,
  _he_, etc. after indefinite _one_
  _none in both numbers_
  _ones_, plural
  _other_ and _than_, words between
  _other two_, when one of three is taken
  partial list of
  _such_ or _so_ with adjectives
+Pronouns (Interrogative)+
+Pronouns (Personal)+
  avoided when
  consistent use of
  _its_, history of
  misuse of _them_ for _those_
  _my_ and _mine_, etc.
  order of
  _ours, yours_, etc., double possessives
+Pronouns (Personal)+ (cont.)
  use of compound
  used needlessly
  _we_ hardly plural of _I_
  _we_ instead of _I_
  _ye_ has given way to _you_
+Pronouns (Relative)+
  agreement of
  discriminated in use
  omitted when
  same with same antecedent
  _that_ in restrictive clauses
  _that_ instead of _who_ and _which_
  _what_ misused for _that_
  _who_ and _which_ restrictive and unrestrictive
  with omitted antecedents
+Pun+, a
+Punctuation Marks+
  exercises in
  summary of rules for
+Qualities of Style+
+Question+, direct and indirect
+Quotation Marks+, use of
  capitalization of
  definition of
  punctuation of

+Regular Verbs+
  inflections of
+Relative Clauses+, position
+Result+, clauses of
+Review Questions+
+Review+ of +Sentence+, scheme for

+Semicolon+, rules for
+Sentence+ (the)
+Sentences+ (classed)
_Set_ and _sit_
_Shall_ and _will_
_Should_ and _would_
+Simile+, definition and exercises in
+Simple Sentences+
  definition of
  treatment of
_Since_, various uses of
+Singular Number+
_So ... as_, construction of
_Some body_ (or _one_) _else's_
+Sounds+ and +Letters+
  figures of
  mechanism of
+Spelling+, rules for
  definition of
  qualities of
  assumed, what
  assumed, changed to prevent ambiguity
  determined how
+Subject+ (_cont_.), modified, or logical
+Subjunctive Mode+
  definition of
  uses of
+Subordinate Conjunctions+
+Subordinate Connectives+
+Synopsis+ is what
+Syntax+, rules for

  future, how used
  future perfect, how used
  past, how used
  past perfect, how used
  present, how used
  present perfect, how used
  emphatic form of
  errors in use of
  conjunctive adverb
  errors in use of
  followed by adjective
  replaced by _but_, etc.
  use after comparatives
  with _me_ after it
_Than whom_
_That_ and _this_, adjectives, plurals
_That_ and _this_ (Adj. Pro.)
_That_ (Conj.)
  with cause clause
  with noun clause
  with purpose clause
_That_, Conj. Adv., degree clause
_That_ (Rel. Pr.)
  distinguished from _who_ and _which_
  for _who_ and _which_
  generally restrictive
  preposition follows
_The_, uses of
_The ... the_
  construction of
  explanation of
  framework of
  how to write them
  subjects for
_The one, the other_
+Thought+, how expressed
_Three times_ four _is_ twelve
_To_ with infinitive
  construction of
  expressing relation
  extension of
  no part of
  not expressed
  position of
  without relation
+Transitive Verbs+
  definition of
  conjugated passively

+Unity+ of paragraphs
_Unless_ (= _if not_)

  how secured
  illustrations of want of
+Verb+ a, defined
+Verb+ _Be_
  an auxiliary
  conjugation of
  derivation of
+Verbs+ (classes)
  a modern passive progressive form
  analysis of compound tense forms
  as nouns
  changing their voice
  conjugated in progressive form
  conjugated interrogatively
  conjugated negatively
  conjugation of
+Verbs+ (_cont._)
  forms not asserting
  improper forms used
  indicative and potential with subjunctive meaning
  inflections of
     definition of
     made transitive
     definition of
     list of
     persistence of
     principal parts of
  mode, defined
  model for written parsing
  number forms
  number of defined
  passive form compound
  periphrastic forms resolved,
  person forms
  person of
  potential auxiliaries
  principal parts
    definition of
  scheme for gen. review
  Strong (or Old), Weak (or New)
  subjunctive form fading
  the _e_ and the _d_ of past tense,
  the _e_ and the _d_ of past participle
    definition of
    conjugated passively
+Verbs+ (agreement of)
  errors in
  with and in what
  with collective noun
  with subjects connected by _and_
  with subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_
  with subjects emphatically distinguished
  with subjects naming same thing
  with subjects one affirmative and one negative
  with subjects following
  with subjects preceded by _each_, _every_, etc.
  with subjects varying in person
+Vocal Consonants+
+Voice+, the voices defined
+Voices+ changed
  equal to _that_ or _whom_
  in origin
  misuse for _that_
  various uses of
  without antecedent

  conjunctive adverb
  connecting various clauses
  in adjective clauses
  interrogative adverb
  conjunctive adverb
  connecting various clauses
  in adjective clauses
  interrogative adverb
  with more than two
_Whether or no_
  an adjective
  an interrogative pronoun
  a relative pronoun
  clause as antecedent
  composition of
_Which_ and _Who_
  in restrictive clauses
  in unrestrictive clauses
  _that_ used for
_While_, connecting various clauses
_Will_ and _would_
  great number of in Eng.
  spoken words what
  transposed order of
  use of determining the class of
  usual order of
  written words what
+Words+ and +Phrases+ (_cont_.)
  connected, each making good sense with context
  independent nearly
  in pairs, punctuation
  made prominent
  modifying sentences
_Worth_, a verb

_Yes_ and _No_
_You_, verb form with

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