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Title: Essays; Political, Economical, and Philosophical — Volume 1
Author: Rumford, Benjamin, Graf von
Language: English
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ESSAYS, political, economical and philosophical

by Benjamin Count of Rumford

Knight of the orders of the white eagle, and St. Atanislaus;
Chamberlain, Privy Counsellor of State, and Lieutenant-General
in the Service of his Most Serene Highness the Elector Palatine,
Reigning Duke of Bavaria; Colonel of his Regiment of Artillery,
and Commander in Chief of the General Staff of his Army; F.R.S.
Acad. R Hiber. Berol. Elec. Boicoe. Palat. et Amer. Soc.



 VOL. I.


Contents

Dedication

First Essay
An account of an Establishment for the Poor at Munich

Second Essay
On the Fundamental Principles on which General Establishments for
the Relief of the Poor may be formed in all Countries.

Third Essay
Of Food and Particularly of Feeding the Poor.

Fourth Essay
Of Chimney Fire-places with proposals for improving them to save
Fuel; to render dwelling-houses more Comfortable and Salubrious,
and effectually to prevent Chimnies from Smoking.

Fifth Essay
A Short Account of several public institutions lately formed in
Bavaria. together with the Appendix to the First Volume.



Dedication

To his most serene highness THE ELECTOR PALATINE reigning duke
of bavaria. etc. etc. etc.

SIR,

In requesting permission to dedicate to you most Serene
Electoral Highness these Essays, I had several important
objects in view: I was desirous of showing to the world that I
had not presumed to publish an account of public measures and
institutions, planned and executed in your Electorial
Highness's dominions,--by your orders,--and under your
immediate authority and protection, without your leave and
approbation.  I was also desirous of availing myself of the
illustrious name of a Sovereign eminently distinguished by his
munificence in promoting useful knowledge, and by his solicitude
for the happiness and prosperity of his subjects, to recommend
the important objects I have undertaken to investigate, to the
attention of the Great,--the Wise,--and the Benevolent.
And lastly, I was anxious to have an opportunity of testifying,
in a public manner, my gratitude to your most Serene Electoral
Highness for all your kindness to me; and more especially for
the distinguished honour you have done me by selecting and
employing me as an instrument in your hands of doing good.

I have the honour to be, with the most profound respect,
and with unalterable attachment,

SIR,
Your Most Serene ELECTORIAL HIGHNESS's

Devoted Servant,

RUMFORD.

London,

July, 1st, 1796.



CONTENTS of ESSAY I.

an ACCOUNT of an ESTABLISHMENT FOR THE POOR AT MUNICH

together with

A Detail of various Public Measures, connected with that
Institution, which have been adopted and carried into effect for
putting an End to Mendicity, and introducing Order, and useful
Industry, among the more Indigent of the Inhabitants of Bavaria.

Introduction

CHAPTER. I.
 Of the prevalence of mendicity in Bavaria at the time when the
   measures for putting an end to it were adopted.

CHAPTER. II.
 Various preparations made for putting an end to mendicity in bavaria.
 Cantonment of the cavalry in the country towns and villages.
 Formation of the committee placed at the head of the institution
   for the poor at Munich.
 The funds of that institution.

CHAPTER. III.
 Preparations made for giving employment to the poor.
 Difficulties attending that undertaking.
 The measures adopted completely successful.
 The poor reclaimed to habits of useful industry.
 Description of the house of industry at Munich.

CHAPTER. IV.
 An account of the taking up of the beggars at Munich.
 The inhabitants are called upon for their assistance.
 General subscription for the relief and support of the poor.
 All other public and private collections for the poor abolished.

CHAPTER. V.
 The different kinds of employment given to the beggars upon their
   being assembled in the house of industry.
 Their great awkwardness at first.
 Their docility, and their progress in useful industry.
 The manner in which they were treated.
 The manner in which they were fed.
 The Precautions used to prevent Abuses in the Public Kitchen from
   which they were fed.

CHAPTER. VI.
 Apology for the want of method in treating the subject under
   consideration.
 Of the various means used for encouraging industry among the poor.
 Of the internal arrangement and government of the house of industry.
 Why called the military work-house.
 Of the manner in which the business is carried on there.
 Of the various means used for preventing frauds in carrying on the
   business in the different manufactures.
 Of the flourishing state of those manufactures.

CHAPTER. VII.
 A further account of the poor who were brought together in the
   house of industry:--and of the interesting change which was
   produced in their manners and dispositions.
 Various proofs that the means used for making them industrious,
   comfortable, and happy, were successful.

CHAPTER. VIII.
 Of the means used for the relief of those poor persons who were
   not beggars.
 Of the large sums of money distributed to the poor in alms.
 Of the means used for rendering those who received alms industrious.
 Of the general utility of the house of industry to the poor,
   and the distressed of all denominations.
 Of public kitchens for feeding the poor, united with establishments
   for giving them employment; and of the great advantages which
   would be derived from forming them in every parish.
 Of the manner in which the poor of Munich are lodged.

CHAPTER. IX.
 Of the means used for extending the influence of the institution
   for the poor at Munich, to other parts of Bavaria.
 Of the progress which some of the improvements introduced at Munich
   are making in other countries.


INTRODUCTION.

[ IMAGE ] view of the Military Workhouse at Munich

  Situation of the Author in the Service of His Most Serene
  Highness the ELECTOR PALATINE, Reigning Duke of BAVARIA.
  Reasons which induced him to undertake to form an Establishment
  for the Relief of the Poor.

Among the vicissitudes of a life chequered by a great variety of
incidents, and in which I have been called upon to act in many
interesting scenes, I have had an opportunity of employing my
attention upon a subject of great importance; a subject
intimately and inseparably connected with the happiness and
well-being of all civil societies; and which, from its nature,
cannot fail to interest every benevolent mind;--it is the
providing for the wants of the Poor, and the securing their
happiness and comfort by the introduction of order and industry
among them.

The subject, though it is so highly interesting to mankind, has
not yet been investigated with that success that could have been
wished.  This fact is apparent, not only from the prevalence of
indolence, misery, and beggary, in almost all the countries of
Europe; but also from the great variety of opinion among those
who have taken the matter into serious consideration, and have
proposed methods for remedying those evils; so generally, and so
justly complained of.

What I have to offer upon the this subject being not merely
speculative opinion, but the genuine result of actual experiments;
of experiments made upon a very large scale, and under circumstances
which render them peculiarly interesting; I cannot help flattering
myself that my readers will find both amusement, and useful
information, from the perusal of the following sheets.

As it may perhaps appear extraordinary that a military man should
undertake a work so foreign to his profession, as that of forming
and executing a plan for providing for the Poor, I have thought
it not improper to preface the narrative of my operations, by a
short account of the motives which induced me to engage in this
undertaking. And in order to throw still more light upon the
whole transaction, I shall begin with a few words of myself,
of my situation in the country in which I reside, and of the
different objects which were had in view in the various public
measures in which I have been concerned.  This information is
necessary in order to form a clear idea of the circumstances
under which the operations in question were undertaken, and the
different public measures which were adopted at the same time.

Having in the year 1784, with His Majesty's gracious permission,
engaged myself in the service of His Most Serene Highness the
Elector Palatine, Reigning Duke of Bavaria, I have since been
employed by His Electoral Highness in various public services,
and particularly in arranging his military affairs, and introducing
a new system of order, discipline, and economy among his troops.

In the execution of this commission, ever mindful of that great and
important truth, that no political arrangement can be really good,
except in so far as it contributes to the general good of society,
I have endeavoured in all my operations to unite the interest of
the soldier with the interest of civil society, and to render the
military force, even in time of peace, subservient to the PUBLIC GOOD.

To facilitate and promote these important objects, to establish a
respectable standing military force, which should do the least
possible harm to the population, morals, manufactures, and
agriculture of the country, it was necessary to make soldiers
citizens, and citizens soldiers.  To this end the situation of
the soldier was made as easy, comfortable, and eligible as
possible; his pay was increased, he was comfortably, and even
elegantly clothed, and he was allowed every kind of liberty not
inconsistent with good order and due subordination; his military
exercises were simplified, his instruction rendered short and
easy, and all obsolete and useless customs and usages were
banished from the service.  Great attention was paid to the
external appearance of the buildings; and nothing was left
undone, that could tend to make the men comfortable in their
dwellings.  Schools were established in all the regiments,
for arithmetic; and into these schools, not only the soldiers
and their children, but also the children of the neighbouring
citizens and peasants, were admitted gratis, and even school-books,
paper[1], pens, and ink, were furnished for them, at the expense
of the Sovereign.

Besides these schools of instruction, others, called schools of
industry, were established in the regiments, where the soldiers
and their children were taught various kinds of work, and from
whence they were supplied with raw materials, to work for their
own emolument.

As nothing is so certain fatal to morals, and particularly to the
morals of the lower class of mankind, as habitual idleness, every
possible measure was adopted, that could be devised, to introduce
a spirit of industry among the troops.  Every encouragement was
given to the soldiers to employ their leisure time, when they
were off duty, in working for their own emolument; and among
other encouragements, the most efficacious of all, that of
allowing them full liberty to dispose of the money acquired by
their labour in any way they should think proper, without being
obliged to give any account of it to any body.  They were even
furnished with working dresses, (a canvas frock and trousers,)
gratis, at their enlisting, and were afterwards permitted to
retain their old uniforms for the same purpose; and care was
taken, in all cases where they were employed, that they should be
well paid.

They commonly received from sixteen to eighteen creutzers[2] a-day
for their labour; and with this they had the advantage of being
clothed and lodged, and, in many cases, of receiving their full pay
of five creutzers, and a pound and a half (1 lb. 13 1/2; oz.
Avoirdupois) of bread per day from the Sovereign.  When they did
their duty in their regiments, by mounting guard regularly
according to their tour (which commonly was every fourth day,)
and only worked those days they happened to be off guard, in that
case, they received their full pay; but when they were excused
from regimental duty, and permitted to work every day for their
own emolument, their pay (at five creutzers per day,) was
stopped, but they were still permitted to receive their bread,
and to lodge in the barracks.

In all public works, such as making and repairing highways,
--draining marshes,--repairing the banks of rivers, etc.
soldiers were employed as labourers; and in all such cases,
the greatest care was taken to provide for their comfortable
subsistence, and even for their amusement.  Good lodgings were
prepared for them, and good and wholesome food, at a reasonable
price; and the greatest care was taken of them when they happened
to fall sick.

Frequently, when considerable numbers of them were at work
together, a band of music was ordered to play to them while at
work; and on holidays they were permitted, and even encouraged,
to make merry, with dancing and other innocent sports and
amusements.

To preserve good order and harmony among those who were detached
upon these working parties, a certain proportion of officers and
non-commissioned officers were always sent with them, and those
commonly served as overseers of the works, and as such were paid.

Besides this permission to work for hire in the garrison towns,
and upon detached working parties, which was readily granted to
all those who desired it, or at least to as many as could
possibly be spared from the necessary service of the garrison;
every facility and encouragement was given to the soldier who was
a native of the country, and who had a family of friends to go
to, or private concerns to take care of, to go home on furlough,
and to remain absent from his regiment from one annual exercise
to the other, that is to say, ten months and a half each year.
This arrangement was very advantageous to the agriculture and
manufactures, and even to the population of the country,
(for the soldiers were allowed to marry,) and served not a little
to the establishment of harmony and a friendly intercourse
between the soldiers and the peasantry, and to facilitate
recruiting.

Another measure which tended much to render the situation of the
soldier pleasant and agreeable, and to facilitate the recruiting
service, was the rendering the garrisons of the regiments permanent.
This measure might not be advisable in a despotic, or odious
government; for where the authority of the Sovereign must be
supported by the terror of arms, all habits of social intercourse
and friendship between the soldiers and the subjects must be
dangerous; but in all well-regulated governments, such friendly
intercourse is attended with many advantages.

A peasant would more readily consent to his son's engaging
himself to serve as a soldier in a regiment permanently stationed
in his neighbourhood, than in one at a great distance, or whose
destination was uncertain; and when the station of a regiment is
permanent, and it receives its recruits from the district of
country immediately surrounding its head-quarters, the men who go
home on furlough have but a short journey to make, and are easily
assembled in case of any emergency; and it was the more necessary
to give every facility to the soldiers to go home on furlough in
Bavaria, as labourers are so very scarce in that country that the
husbandman would not be able without them to cultivate his ground.

The habits of industry and of order which the soldier acquired
when in garrison, rendered him so much the more useful as a
labourer when on furlough; but not contented with merely
furnishing labours for the assistance of the husbandman, I was
desirous of making use of the army, as a means of introducing
useful improvements into the country.

Though agriculture is carried to the highest perfection in some
parts of the Elector's dominions, yet in others, and particularly
in Bavaria, it is still much behind-hand.  Very few of the new
improvements in that art, such as the introduction of new and
useful plants--the cultivation of clover and of turnips--the
regular succession of crops, etc.  have yet found their way into
general practice in that country; and even the potatoe, that most
useful of all the products of the ground, is scarcely known there.

It was principally with a view to introduce the culture of
potatoes in that country that the military gardens were formed.
These gardens (of which there is one in every garrison belonging
to the Elector's dominion, Dusseldorf and Amberg only
excepted[3]) are pieces of ground, in, or adjoining to the
garrison towns, which are regularly laid out, and exclusively
appropriated to the use of the non-commissioned officers and
private soldiers belonging to the regiments in garrison.
The ground is regularly divided into districts of regiments,
battalions, companies, and corporalities (corporalschafts,)
of which last divisions there are four to each company; and the
quantity of ground allotted to each corporality is such that each
man belonging to it, whether non-commissioned officer or private,
has a bed 365 square feet in superficies.

This piece of ground remains his sole property as long as he
continues to serve in the regiment, and he is at full liberty to
cultivate it in any way, and to dispose of the produce of it in
any manner he may think proper.  He must however cultivate it,
and plant it, and keep it neat and free from weeds; otherwise,
if he should be idle, and neglect it, it would be taken from him
and given to one of his more industrious comrades.

The divisions of these military gardens are marked by broader and
smaller alleys, covered with gravel, and neatly kept; and in
order that every one who chooses it, may be a spectator of this
interesting scene of industry, all the principal alleys, which
are made large for that purpose, are always open as a public
walk.  The effect which this establishment has already produced
in the short time (little more than five years) since it was
begun, is very striking, and much greater and more important than
I could have expected.

The soldiers, from being the most indolent of mortals, and from
having very little knowledge of gardening, or of the produce of a
garden, for use, are now becoming industrious and skilful
cultivators, and they are grown so fond of vegetables,
particularly of potatoes, which they raise in great quantities,
that these useful and wholesome productions now constitutes a
very essential part of their daily food.  And these improvements
are also spreading very fast among the farmers and peasants,
throughout the whole country.  There is hardly a soldier that
goes on furlough, or that returns home at the expiration of his
time of service, that does not carry with him a few potatoes for
planting, and a little collection of garden-seeds; and I have no
doubt but in a very few years we shall see potatoes as much
cultivated in Bavaria as in other countries; and that the use of
vegetables for food will be generally introduced among the common
people.  I have already had the satisfaction to see little
gardens here and there making their appearance, in different
parts of the country, and I hope that very soon no farmer's house
will be found without one.

To assist the soldiers in the cultivation of their gardens,
they are furnished with garden utensils gratis; they are likewise
furnished from time to time with a certain quantity of manure,
and with an assortment of garden-feeds; but they do not rely
solely upon these supplies; those who are industrious collect
materials in their barracks, and in the streets, for making
manure, and even sometimes purchase it, and they raise in their
own gardens most of the garden-seeds they stand in need of.
To enable them to avail themselves of their gardens as early in
the spring as possible, in supplying their tables with green
vegetables, each company is furnished with a hot-bed for raising
early plants.

To attach the soldiers more strongly to these their little
possessions, by increasing their comfort and convenience in the
cultivation and enjoyment of them, a number of little summer-houses,
or rather huts, one to each company, have been erected for the
purpose of shelter, where they can retire when it rains, or when
they are fatigued.

All the officers of the regiments, from the highest to the lowest,
are ordered to give the men every assistance in the cultivation
of these their gardens; but they are forbidden, upon pain of the
severest punishment, to appropriate to themselves any part of the
produce of them, or even to receive any part of it in presents.


CHAPTER. I.

 Of the prevalence of mendicity in Bavaria at the time when the
   measures for putting an end to it were adopted.

Among the various measures that occurred to me by which the
military establishment of the country might be made subservient
to the public good in time of peace, none appeared to be of so
much importance as that of employing the army in clearing the
country of beggers, thieves and other vagabonds; and in watching
over the public tranquillity.

But in order to clear the country of beggers, (the number of whom
in Bavaria had become quite intolerable,) it was necessary to
adopt general and efficacious measures for maintaining and
supporting the Poor.  Laws were not wanting to oblige each
community in the country to provide for its own Poor; but these
laws had been so long neglected, and beggary had become so
general, that extraordinary measures, and the most indefatigable
exertions, were necessary to put a stop to this evil.  The number
of itinerant beggars, of both sexes, and all ages, as well
foreigners as natives, who strolled about the country in all
directions.  levying contributions from the industrious
inhabitants, stealing and robbing, and leading a life of
indolence, and the most shameless debauchery, was quite
incredible; and so numerous were the swarms of beggars in all the
great towns, and particularly in the capital, so great their
impudence, and so persevering their importunity, that it was
almost impossible to cross the streets without being attacked,
and absolutely forced to satisfy their clamorous demands.
And these beggars were in general by no means such as from age
or bodily infirmities were unable by their labour to earn their
livelihood; but they were for the most part, stout, strong,
healthy,  sturdy beggars, who, lost to every sense of shame,
had embraced the profession from choice, not necessity; and who,
not unfrequently, added insolence and threats to their importunity,
and extorted that from fear, which they could not procure by
their arts of dissimulation.

These beggars not only infested all the streets, public walks,
and public places, but they even made a practice of going into
private houses, where they never failed to steal whatever fell in
their way, if they found the doors open, and nobody at home; and
the churches were so full of them that it was quite a nuisance,
and a public scandal during the performance of divine service.
People at their devotions were continually interrupted by them,
and were frequently obliged to satisfy their demands in order to
be permitted to finish their prayers in peace and quite.

In short, these detestable vermin swarmed every where, and not
only their impudence and clamorous importunity were without any
bounds, but they had recourse to the most diabolical arts,
and most horrid crimes, in the prosecution of their infamous trade.
Young children were stolen from their parents by these wretches,
and their eyes put out, or their tender limbs broken and distorted,
in order, by exposing them thus maimed, to excite the pity and
commiseration of the public; and every species of artifice was
made use of to agitate the sensibility, and to extort the
contributions of the humane and charitable.

Some of these monsters were so void of all feeling as to expose
even their own children, naked, and almost starved, in the streets,
in order that, by their cries and unaffected expressions of
distress, they might move those who passed by to pity and relieve
them; and in order to make them act their part more naturally,
they were unmercifully beaten when they came home, by their
inhuman parents, if they did not bring with them a certain sum,
which they were ordered to collect.

I have frequently seen a poor child of five or six years of age,
late at night, in the most inclement season, sitting down almost
naked at the corner of a street, and crying most bitterly; if he
were asked what was the matter with him, he would answer, "I am
cold and hungry, and afraid to go home; my mother told me to
bring home twelve creutzers, and I have only been able to beg
five.  My mother will certainly beat me if I don't carry home
twelve creutzers."  Who could refuse so small a sum to relieve
so much unaffected distress?--But what horrid arts are these,
to work upon the feelings of the public, and levy involuntary
contributions for the support of idleness and debauchery!

But the evils arising from the prevalence of mendicity did not
stop here.  The public, worn out and vanquished by the numbers
and persevering importunity of the beggars; and frequently
disappointed in their hopes of being relieved from their
depredations, by the failure of the numberless schemes that were
formed and set on foot for that purpose, began at last to
consider the case as quite desperate; and to submit patiently to
an evil for which they saw no remedy.  The consequences of this
submission are easy to be conceived; the beggars, encouraged by
their success, were  attached still more strongly to their
infamous profession; and others, allured by their indolent lives,
encouraged by their successful frauds, and emboldened by their
impunity, joined them.  The habit of submission on the part of
the public, gave them a sort of right to pursue their
depredations;-- their growing numbers and their success gave a
kind of eclat to their profession; and the habit of begging
became so general, that it ceased to be considered as infamous;
and was by degrees in a manner interwoven with the internal
regulations of society.  Herdsmen and shepherds, who attended
their flocks by the road-side, were known to derive considerable
advantage from the contributions which their situation enabled
them to levy from passengers; and I have been assured, that the
wages they received from their employers were often regulated
accordingly.  The children in every country village, and those
even of the best farmers, made a constant practice of begging from
all strangers who passed; and one hardly ever met a person on
foot upon the road, particularly a woman, who did not hold out
her hand and ask for charity.

In the great towns, besides the children of the poorer sort,
who almost all made a custom of begging, the professional beggars
formed a distinct class, or cast, among the inhabitants; and in
general a very numerous one.  There was even a kind of political
connection between the members  of this formidable body;
and certain general maxims were adopted, and regulations observed,
in the warfare they carried on against the public. Each beggar had
his particular beat, or district, in the possession of which it
was not thought lawful to disturb him; and certain rules were
observed in disposing of the districts in case of vacancies by
deaths or resignations, promotions or removals. A battle, it is
true, frequently decided the contest between the candidates; but
when the possession was once obtained, whether by force of arms,
or by any other means, the right was ever after considered as
indisputable.  Alliances by marriage were by no means uncommon in
this community; and, strange as it may appear, means were found
to procure legal permission from the civil magistrates for the
celebration of these nuptials! The children were of course
trained up in the profession of their parents; and having the
advantage of an early education, were commonly great proficients
in their trade.

As there is no very essential difference between depriving a
person of his property by stealth, and extorting it from him
against his will, by dint of clamorous importunity, or under
false pretence of feigned distress and misfortune; so the
transition from begging to stealing is not only easy,
but perfectly natural.  That total insensibility to shame,
and all those other qualifications which are necessary in the
profession of a beggar, are likewise essential to form an
accomplished thief; and both these professions derive very
considerable advantages from their union.  A beggar who goes
about from house to house to ask for alms, has many opportunities
to steal, which another would not so easily find; and his
profession as a beggar gives him a great facility in disposing of
what he steals; for he can always say it was given him in
charity. No wonder then that thieving and robbing should be
prevalent where beggars are numerous.

That this was the case in Bavaria will not be doubted by those
who are informed that in the four years immediately succeeding
the introduction of the measures adopted for putting an end to
mendicity, and clearing the country of beggars, thieves, robbers,
etc. above TEN THOUSAND of these vagabonds, foreigners and
natives, were actually arrested and delivered over to the civil
magistrates; and that in taking up the beggars in Munich, and
providing for those who stood in need of public assistance,
no less than 2600 of the one description and the other, were
entered upon the lists in one week; though the whole number of
the inhabitants of the city of Munich probably does not amount
to more than 60,000, even including the suburbs.

These facts are so very extraordinary, that were they not
notorious, I should hardly have ventured to mention them,
for fear of being suspected of exaggeration; but they are perfectly
known in the country, by every body; having been published by
authority in the news-papers at the time, with all their various
details and specifications, for the information of the public.

What has been said, will, I fancy, be thought quite sufficient to
show the necessity of applying a remedy to the evils described;
and of introducing order and a spirit of industry among the lower
classes of the people.  I shall therefore proceed, without any
farther preface, to give an account of the measures which were
adopted and carried into execution for that purpose.


CHAPTER. II.

 Various preparations made for putting an end to mendicity in bavaria.
 Cantonment of the cavalry in the country towns and villages.
 Formation of the committee placed at the head of the institution
   for the poor at Munich.
 The funds of that institution.

As soon as it was determined to undertake this great and
difficult work, and the plan of operations was finally settled,
various preparations were made for its execution.

The first preliminary step taken, was to canton four regiments of
cavalry in Bavaria and the adjoining provinces, in such a manner
that not only every considerable town was furnished with a
detachment, but most of the large villages were occupied;
and in every part of the country small parties of threes, fours,
and fives, were so stationed; at the distance of one, two, and
three leagues from each other; that they could easily perform
their daily patroles from one station to another in the course of
the day, without ever being obliged to stop at a peasant's house,
or even at an inn, or ever to demand forage for their horses,
or victuals for themselves, or lodgings, from any person whatever.
This arrangement of quarters prevented all disputes between the
military and the people of the country.  The head-quarters of
each regiment, where the commanding officer of the regiment
resided, was established in a central situation with respect to
the extent of country occupied by the regiment;--each squadron
had its commanding officer in the centre of its district,--
and the subalterns and non-commissioned officers were so distributed
in the different cantonments, that the privates were continually
under the inspection of their superiors, who had orders to keep a
watchful eye over them;--to visit them in their quarters very
often;--and to preserve the strictest order and discipline among
them.

To command these troops, a general officer was named, who,
after visiting every cantonment in the whole country, took up his
residence at Munich.

Printed instructions were given to the officer, or non-commissioned
officer, who commanded a detached post, or patrole;--regular
monthly returns were ordered to be made to the commanding
officers of the regiment, by the officers commanding squadrons;--
to the commanding general, by the officers commanding regiments;--
and by the commanding general, to the council of war, and to the
Sovereign.

To prevent disputes between the military and the civil authorities,
and, as far as possible, to remove all grounds of jealousy and
ill-will between them; as also to preserve peace and harmony
between the soldiery and the inhabitants, these troops were
strictly ordered and enjoined to behave on all occasions to
magistrates and other persons in civil authority with the utmost
respect and deference;--to conduct themselves towards the
peasants and other inhabitants in the most peaceable and friendly
manner;-- to retire to their quarters very early in the evening;--
and above all, cautiously to avoid disputes and quarrels with the
people of the country.  They were also ordered to be very
diligent and alert in making their daily patroles from one
station to another;-- to apprehend all thieves and other
vagabonds that infested the country, and deliver them over to the
civil magistrates;-- to apprehend deserters, and conduct them
from station to station to their regiments;--to conduct all
prisoners from one part of the country to another;--to assist the
civil magistrate in the execution of the laws, and in preserving
peace and order in the country, in all cases where they should be
legally called upon for that purpose;--to perform the duty of
messengers in carrying government dispatches and orders, civil as
well as military, in cases of emergency;-- and to bring accounts
to the capital, by express, of every extraordinary event of
importance that happens in the country;--to guard the frontiers,
and assist the officers of the revenue in preventing
smuggling;--to have a watchful eye over all soldiers on furlough
in the country, and when guilty of excesses, to apprehend them
and transport them to their regiments;--to assist the inhabitants
in case of fire, and particularly to guard their effects, and
prevent their being lost of stolen, in the confusion which
commonly takes place on those occasions;--to pursue and apprehend
all thieves, robbers, murderers, and other malefactors;--and in
general, to lend their assistance on all occasions where they
could be useful in maintaining peace, order, and tranquillity in
the country.

As the Sovereign had an undoubted right to quarter his troops
upon the inhabitants when they were employed for the police and
defence of the country, they were on this occasion called upon to
provide quarters for the men distributed in these cantonments;
but in order to make this burden as light as possible to the
inhabitants, they were only called upon to provide quarters for
the non-commissioned officers and privates; and instead of being
obliged to take THESE into their houses, and to furnish them with
victuals and lodgings, as had formerly been the practice, (and
which was certainly a great hardship,) a small house or barrack
for the men, with stabling adjoining to it for the horses, was
built, or proper lodgings were hired by the civil magistrate, in
each of these military stations, and the expense was levied upon
the inhabitants at large. The forage for the horses was provided
by the regiments, or by contractors employed for that purpose;
and the men, being furnished with a certain allowance of fire-wood,
and the necessary articles of kitchen furniture, were made to
provide for their own subsistence, by purchasing their provisions
at the markets, and cooking their victuals in their own quarters.

The officers provided their own lodgings and stabling, being
allowed a certain sum for that purpose in addition to their
ordinary pay.

The whole of the additional expence to the military chest,
for the establishment and support of these cantonments, amounted to
a mere trifle; and the burden upon the people, which attended the
furnishing of quarters for the non-commissioned officers and
privates, was very inconsiderable, and bore no proportion to the
advantages derived from the protection and security to their
persons and properties afforded by these troops[4].

Not only this cantonment of the cavalry was carried into
execution as a preliminary measure to the taking up of the
beggars in the capital, but many other preparatives were also
made for that undertaking.

As considerable sums were necessary for the support of such of the
poor as, from age or other bodily infirmities, were unable by their
industry to provide for their own subsistence; and as there were
no public funds any way adequate to such an expence, which could
be applied to this use, the success of the measure depended entirely
upon the voluntary subscriptions of the inhabitants; and in order
to induce these to subscribe liberally, it was necessary to
secure their approbation of the plan, and their confidence in
those who were chosen to carry it into execution.  And as the
number of beggars was so great in Munich, and their importunity
so very troublesome, there could have been no doubt but any
sensible plan for remedying this evil would have been gladly
received by the public; but they had been so often disappointed
by fruitless attempts from time to time made for that purpose,
that they began to think the enterprize quite impossible, and to
consider every proposal for providing for the poor, and preventing
mendicity, as a mere job.

Aware of this, I took my measures accordingly. To convince the
public that the scheme was feasible, I determined first, by a
great exertion, to carry it into complete execution, and THEN to
ask them to support it.  And to secure their confidence in those
employed in the management of it, persons of the highest rank,
and most respected character were chosen to superintend and
direct the affairs of the institution; and every measure was
taken that could be devised to prevent abuses.

Two principle objects were to be attended to, in making these
arrangements; the first was to furnish suitable employment to
such of the poor as were able to work; and the second, to provide
the necessary assistance for those who, from age, sickness, or
other bodily infirmities, were unable by their industry to
provide for themselves.  A general system of police was likewise
necessary among this class of miserable beings; as well as
measures for reclaiming them, and making them useful subjects.
The police of the poor, as also the distribution of alms, and all
the economical details of the institution, were put under the
direction of a committee, composed of the president of the
council of war,--the president of the council of supreme
regency,--the president of the ecclesiastical council,--and the
president of the chamber of finances; and to assist them in this
work, each of the above-mentioned presidents was accompanied by
one counsellor of his respective department, at his own choice;
who was present at all the meetings of the committee, and who
performed the more laborious parts of the business. This committee,
which was called The Armen Instituts Deputation, had convenient
apartments fitted up for its meetings; a secretary, clerk,
and accountant, were appointed to it; and the ordinary guards of
the police were put under its immediate direction.

Neither the presidents nor the counsellors belonging to this
committee received any pay or emolument whatever for this service,
but took upon themselves this trouble merely from motives of
humanity, and a generous desire to promote the public good;
and even the secretary, and other inferior officers employed in
this business, received their pay immediately from the Treasury;
or from some other department; and not from the funds destined
for the relief of the poor: and in order most effectually remove
all suspicion with respect to the management of this business,
and the faithful application of the money destined for the poor,
instead of appointing a Treasurer to the committee, a public
banker of the town, a most respectable citizen[5], was named to
receive and pay all monies belonging to the institution, upon the
written orders of the committee; and exact and detailed accounts
of all monies received and expended were ordered to be printed
every three months, and distributed gratis among the inhabitants.

In order that every citizen might have it in his power to assure
himself that the accounts were exact, and that the sums expended
were bona fide given to the poor in alms, the money was publicly
distributed every Saturday in the town-hall, in the presence of a
number of deputies chosen from among the citizens themselves; and
an alphabetical list of the poor who received alms;--in which was
mentioned the weekly sum each person received;--and the place of
his or her abode, was hung up in the hall for public inspection.

But this was not all.  In order to fix the confidence of the public
upon the most firm and immoveable basis, and to engage their good
will and cheerful assistance in support of the measures adopted,
the citizens were invited to take an active and honourable part
in the execution of the plan, and in the direction of its most
interesting details.

The town of Munich, which contains about 60,000 inhabitants,
had been formerly divided into four quarters.  Each of these was
now subdivided into four districts, making in all sixteen
districts; and all the dwelling-houses, from the palace of the
sovereign to the meanest hovel, were regularly numbered,
and inscribed in printed lists provided for that purpose.
For the inspection of the poor in each district, a respectable
citizen was chosen, who was called the commissary of the
district, (abtheilungs commissaire,) and for his assistance,
a priest; a physician; a surgeon; and an apothecary; all of whom,
including the commissary, undertook this service without fee or
reward, from mere motives of humanity and true patriotism.
The apothecary was simply reimbursed the original cost of the
medicines he furnished.

To give more weight and dignity to the office of commissary of a
district, one of these commissaries, in rotation, was called to
assist at the meetings of the supreme committee; and all
applications for alms were submitted to the commissaries for
their opinion; or, more properly, all such  applications went
through them to the committee. They were likewise particularly
charged with the inspection and police of the poor in their
several districts.

When a person already upon the poor list, or any other, in distress,
stood in need of assistance, he applied to the commissary of his
district, who, after visiting him, and enquiring into such the
circumstances of his case, afforded him such immediate assistance
as was absolutely necessary; or otherwise, if the case was such
as to admit of the delay, he recommended him to the attention of
the committee, and waited for their orders.  If the poor person
was sick, or wounded, he was carried to some hospital; or the
physician, or surgeon of the district was sent for, and a nurse
provided to take care of him in his lodgings, If he grew worse,
and appeared to draw near his end, the priest was sent for, to
afford him such spiritual assistance as he might require; and if
he died, he was decently buried.  After his death, the commissary
assisted at the inventory which was taken of his effects, a copy
of which inventory was delivered over to the committee.  These
effects were afterwards sold;--and after deducting the amount of
the different sums received in alms from the institution by the
deceased during his lifetime, and the amount of the expenses of
his illness and funeral, the remainder, if any, was delivered
over to his lawful heirs; but when these effects were insufficient
for those purposes; or when no effects were to be found,
the surplus in the one case, and the whole of these expences in
the other, was borne by the funds of the institution.

These funds were derived from the following sources, viz.

First, from stated monthly allowances, from the sovereign out of
his private purse,--from the states,--and from the treasury,
or chamber of finances.

Secondly, and principally, from the voluntary subscription of the
inhabitants.

Thirdly, from legacies left to the institution, and

Fourthly, from several small revenues arising from certain tolls,
fines, etc.  which were appropriated to that use[6].

Several other, and some of them very considerable public funds,
originally designed by their founders for the relief of the poor,
might have been taken and appropriated to this purpose; but, as
some of these foundations had been misapplied, and others nearly
ruined by bad management, it would have been a very disagreeable
task to wrest them out of the hands of those who had the
administration of them; and I therefore judged it most prudent
not to meddle with them, avoiding, by that means, a great deal of
opposition to the execution of my plan.


CHAPTER. III.

 Preparations made for giving employment to the poor.
 Difficulties attending that undertaking.
 The measures adopted completely successful.
 The poor reclaimed to habits of useful industry.
 Description of the house of industry at Munich.

But before I proceed to give a more particular account of the
funds of this institution, and of the application of them, it
will be necessary to mention the preparations which where made
for furnishing employment to the poor, and the means which were
used for reclaiming them from their vicious habits, and rendering
them industrious and useful subjects.  And this was certainly the
most difficult, as well as the most curious and interesting part
of the undertaking.  To trust raw materials in the hands of
common beggars, certainly required great caution and management;
--but to produce so total and radical a change  in the morals,
manners, and customs of this debauched and abandoned race, as was
necessary to render them orderly and useful members of society,
will naturally be considered as an arduous, if not impossible,
enterprize.  In this I succeeded; --for the proof of this fact I
appeal to the flourishing state of the different manufactories in
which these poor people are now employed,--to their orderly and
peaceable demeanour--to their cheerfulness--to their industry,--
to the desire to excel, which manifests itself among them upon
all occasions,--and to the very air of their countenances.
Strangers, who go to see this institution, (and there are very
few who pass through Munich who do not take that trouble,) cannot
sufficiently express their surprise at the air of happiness and
contentment which reigns throughout every part of this extensive
establishment, and can hardly be persuaded, that among those they
see so cheerfully engaged in that interesting scene of industry,
by far the greater part were, five years ago, the most miserable
and most worthless of beings,--common beggars in the streets.

An account of the means employed in bringing about this change
cannot fail to be interesting to every benevolent mind; and this
is what has encouraged me to lay these details before the public.

By far the greater number of the poor people to be taken care of
were not only common beggars, but had been up from their very
infancy in that profession; and were so attached to their
indolent and dissolute way of living, as to prefer it to all
other situations.  They were not only unacquainted with all kinds
of work, but had the most insuperable aversion to honest labour;
and had been so long familiarized with every crime, that they had
become perfectly callous to all sense of shame and remorse.

With persons of this description, it is easy to be conceived that
precepts;--admonitions;--and punishments, would be of little or
no avail.  But where precepts fail, HABITS may sometimes be
successful.

To make vicious and abandoned people happy, it has generally been
supposed necessary, FIRST to make them virtuous.  But why not
reverse this order?  Why not make them first HAPPY, and then
virtuous?  If happiness and virtue be INSEPARABLE the end will be
as certainly obtained by the one method as by the other; and it
is most undoubtedly much easier to contribute to the happiness
and comfort of persons in a state of poverty and misery, than,
by admonitions and punishments, to reform their morals.

Deeply struck with the importance of this truth, all my measures
were taken accordingly.  Every thing was done that could be
devised to make the poor people I had to deal with comfortable
and happy in their new situation; and my hopes, that a habit of
enjoying the real comforts and conveniences which were provided
for them, would in time, soften their hearts;--open their
eyes;--and render them grateful and docile, were not
disappointed.

The pleasure I have had in the success of this experiment is much
easier to be conceived than described.  Would God that my success
might encourage others to follow my example!  If it were generally
known how little trouble, and how little expence, are required to
do much good, the heart-felt satisfaction which arises from
relieving the wants, and promoting the happiness of our
fellow-creatures, is so great, that I am persuaded, acts of the
most essential charity would be much more frequent, and the mass
of misery among mankind would consequently be much lessened.

Having taken my resolution to make the COMFORT of the poor
people, who were to be provided for, the primary object of my
attention, I considered what circumstance in life, after the
necessaries, food and raiment, contributes most to comfort,
and I found it to be CLEANLINESS.  And so very extensive is the
influence of cleanliness, that it reaches even to the brute
creation.

With what care and attention do the feathered race wash
themselves and put their plumage in order; and how perfectly
neat, clean and elegant do they ever appear! Among the beasts of
the field we find that those which are the most cleanly are
generally the most gay and cheerful; or are distinguished by a
certain air of tranquillity and contentment; and singing birds
are always remarkable for the neatness of their plumage.  And so
great is the effect of cleanliness upon man, that it extends even
to his moral character.  Virtue never dwelt long with filth and
nastiness; nor do I believe there ever was a person SCRUPULOUSLY
ATTENTIVE TO CLEANLINESS who was a consummate villain[7].

Order and disorder--peace and war--health and sickness, cannot
exist together; but COMFORT and CONTENTMENT the inseparable
companions of HAPPINESS and VIRTUE, can only arise from order,
peace, and health.

Brute animals are evidently taught cleanliness by instinct; and
can there be a stronger proof of its being essentially necessary
to their well-being and happiness?--But if cleanliness is
necessary to the happiness of brutes, how much more so must it be
to the happiness of the human race?

The good effects of cleanliness, or rather the bad effects of
filth and nastiness, may, I think, be very satisfactorily
accounted for.  Our bodies are continually at war with whatever
offends them, and every thing offends them that adheres to them,
and irritates them,--and through by long habit we may be so
accustomed to support a physical ill, as to become almost
insensible to it, yet it never leaves the mind perfectly at peace.
There always remains a certain uneasiness, and discontent;--
an indecision, and an aversion from all serious application,
which shows evidently that the mind is not at rest.

Those who from being afflicted with long and painful disease,
suddenly acquire health, are best able to judge of the force of
this reasoning.  It is by the delightful sensation they feel,
at being relieved from pain and uneasiness, that they learn to
know the full extent of their former misery; and the human heart
is never so effectually softened, and so well prepared and disposed
to receive virtuous impressions, as upon such occasions.

It was with a view to bring the minds of the poor and unfortunate
people I had to deal with to this state, that I took so much
pains to make them comfortable in their new situation.  The state
in which they had been used to live was certainly most wretched
and deplorable; but they had been so long accustomed to it, that
they were grown insensible to their own misery.  It was therefore
necessary, in order to awaken their attention, to make the contrast
between their former situation, and that which was prepared for
them, as striking as possible.  To this end, every thing was done
that could be devised to make them REALLY COMFORTABLE.

Most of them had been used to living in the most miserable
hovels, in the midst of vermin, and every kind of filthiness; or
to sleep in the streets, and under the hedges, half naked, and
exposed to all the inclemencies of the seasons. A large and
commodious building, fitted up in the neatest and most
comfortable manner, was now provided for their reception.
In this agreeable retreat they found spacious and elegant
apartments, kept with the most scrupulous neatness; well warmed
in winter; well lighted; a good warm dinner every day, gratis;
cooked and served up with all possible attention to order and
cleanliness;-- materials and utensils for those who required
instruction;--the most generous pay, IN MONEY, for all the labour
performed; and the kindest usage from every person, from the
highest  to the lowest, belonging to the establishment. Here,
in this asylum for the indigent and unfortunate,  no ill usage;--
no harsh language, is permitted. During five years that the
establishment has existed, not a blow has been given to any one;
not even to a child by his instructor.

As the rules and regulations for the preservation of order are
few, and easy to be observed, the instances of their being
transgressed are rare; and as all the labour performed, is paid
for by the piece; and not by the day; and is well paid; and as
those who gain the most by their work in the course of the week,
receive proportional rewards on the Saturday evening; these are
most effectual encouragements to industry.

But before I proceed to give an account of the internal economy
of this establishment, it will be necessary to describe the
building which was appropriated to this use; and the other local
circumstances, necessary to be known, in order to have a clear
idea of the subject.

This building, which is very extensive, is pleasantly situated in
the Au, one of the suburbs of the city of Munich.  It had
formerly been a manufactory, but for many years had been deserted
and falling to ruins.  It was now completely repaired, and in
part rebuilt.  A large kitchen, with a large eating-room
adjoining it, and a commodious bake-house, were added to the
buildings; and such other mechanics as were constantly wanted in
the manufactory for making and repairing the machinery were
established, and furnished with tools.  Large halls were fitted
up for spinners of hemp;--for spinners of flax;--for spinners of
cotton;--for spinners of wool;--and for spinners of worsted; and
adjoining to each hall a small room was fitted up for a clerk or
inspector of the hall, (spin-schreiber).  This room, which was at
the same time a store-room, and counting-house, and a large
window opening into the hall, from whence the spinners were
supplied with raw materials;--where they delivered their yarn
when spun;--and from whence they received an order upon the
cashier, signed by the clerk, for the amount of their labour.

Halls were likewise fitted up for weavers of woollens;--
for weavers of serges and shalloons;--for linen weavers;--
for weavers of cotton goods, and for stocking weavers;--
cloth shearers;--dryers;--sadlers;--wool-combers;--knitters;--
sempstresses, etc. Magazines were fitted up as well for finished
manufactures, as for raw materials, and rooms for counting-houses,
--store-rooms for the kitchen and bake-house,--and dwelling-rooms
for the inspectors and other officers who were lodged in the house.

A very spacious hall, 110 feet long, 37 feet wide, and 22 feet
high, with many windows on both sides, was fitted up as a
drying-room; and in this hall tenters were placed for stretching
out and drying eight pieces of cloth at once.  The hall was so
contrived as to serve for the dyer and for the clothier at the
same time.

A fulling-mill was established upon a stream of water which runs
by one side of the court round  which the building is erected;
and adjoining to the  fulling-mill, is the dyers-shop; and the
wash-house.

This whole edifice, which is very extensive, was fitted up,
as has already been observed, in the neatest manner possible.
In doing this, even the external appearance of the building was
attended to.  It was handsomely painted; without, as well as
within; and pains were taken to give it an air of ELEGANCE, as
well as of neatness and cleanliness.  A large court in the middle
of the building was levelled, and covered with gravel; and the
approach to it from every side was made easy and commodious.
Over the principal door, or rather gate, which fronts the street,
is an inscription, denoting the use to which the building is
appropriated; and the passage leading into the court, there is
written in large letters of gold upon a black ground--
"NO ALMS WILL BE RECEIVED HERE."

Upon coming into the court you see inscriptions over all the
doors upon the ground floor, leading to the different parts of
the building.  These inscriptions, which are all in letters of
gold upon a black ground, denote the particular uses to which the
different apartments are destined.

This building having been got ready, and a sufficient number of
spinning-wheels, looms, and other utensils made use of in the
most common manufactures being provided; together with a
sufficient stock of raw materials, I proceeded to carry my plan
into execution in the manner which will be related in the
following Chapter.


CHAPTER. IV.

 An account of the taking up of the beggars at Munich.
 The inhabitants are called upon for their assistance.
 General subscription for the relief and support of the poor.
 All other public and private collections for the poor abolished.

New-Year's-Day having, from time immemorial, been considered in
Bavaria as a day peculiarly set apart for giving alms; and the
beggars never failing to be all out upon that occasion; I chose
that moment as being the most favourable for beginning my
operations.  Early in the morning of the first of January 1790,
the officers and non-commissioned officers of the three regiments
of infantry in garrison, were stationed in the different streets,
where they were directed to wait for further orders.

Having, in the mean time, assembled, at my lodgings, the
field-officers, and all the chief magistrates of the town, I made
them acquainted with my intention to proceed that very morning to
the execution of a plan I had formed for taking up the beggars,
and providing for the poor; and asked their immediate assistance.

To show the public that it was not my wish to carry this measure
into execution by military force alone, (which might have
rendered the measure odious,) but that I was disposed to show all
becoming deference to the civil authority, I begged the
magistrates to accompany me, and the field-officers of the
garrison, in the execution of the first and most difficult part
of the undertaking, that of arresting the beggars.  This they
most readily consented to, and we immediately sallied out into
the street, myself accompanied by the chief magistrate of the
town, and each of the field-officers by an inferior magistrate.

We were hardly got into the street when we were accosted by a
beggar, who asked us for alms. I went up to him, and laying my
hand gently upon his shoulder, told him, that from thenceforwards
begging would not be permitted in Munich;--that if he really
stood in need of assistance, (which would immediately be enquired
into,) the necessary assistance should certainly be given him,
but that begging was forbidden; and if he was detected in it
again he would be severely punished.  I then delivered him over
to an orderly serjeant who was following me, with directions to
conduct him to the Town-hall, and deliver him into the hands of
those he should find there to receive him; and then turning to
the officers and magistrates who accompanied me, I begged they
would take notice, that I had myself, WITH MY OWN HANDS, arrested
the first beggar we had met; and I requested them not only to
follow my example themselves, by arresting all the beggars they
should meet with, but that they would also endeavour to persuade
others, and particularly the officers, non-commissioned officers,
and soldiers of the garrison, that it was by no means derogatory
to their character as soldiers, or in anywise disgraceful to them,
to assist in so USEFUL and LAUDABLE an undertaking.
These gentlemen having cheerfully and unanimously promised to do
their utmost to second me in this business, dispersed into the
different parts of the town, and with the assistance of the
military, which they found every where waiting for orders,
the town was so thoroughly cleared of beggars IN LESS THAN AN HOUR,
that not one was to be found in the streets.

Those who were arrested were conducted to the Town-hall,
where their names were inscribed in printed lists provided for
that purpose, and they were then dismissed to their own lodgings,
with directions to repair the next day to the newly erected
"Military Work-house" in the Au; where they would find
comfortable warm rooms;--a good warm dinner every day; and work
for all those who were in a condition to labour.  They were
likewise told that a commission should immediately be appointed
to enquire into their circumstances, and to grant them such
regular weekly allowances of money, in alms, as they should stand
in need of; which was accordingly done.

Orders were then issued to all the military guards in the
different parts of the town, to send out patroles frequently into
the streets in their neighbourhood, to arrest all the beggars
they should meet with, and a reward was offered for each beggar
they should arrest and deliver over to the civil magistrate.
The guard of the police was likewise directed to be vigilant;
and the inhabitants at large, of all ranks and denominations,
were earnestly called upon to assist in completing a work of so
much public utility, and which had been so happily begun[8].
In an address to the public, which was printed and distributed
gratis among the inhabitants, the fatal consequences arising
from the prevalence of mendicity were described in the most
lively and affecting colours,--and the manner pointed out in
which they could most effectually assist in putting an end to
an evil equally disgraceful and prejudicial to society.

As this address, (which was written with great sprit, by a man
well known in the literary world, Professor Babo,) gives a very
striking and a very just picture of the character, manners, and
customs, of the hords of idle and dissolute vagabonds which
infested Munich at the time the measure in question was adopted,
and of the various artifices they made use of in carrying on
their depredations; I have thought it might not be improper to
annex it, at full length, in the Appendix, No. I.

This address, which was presented to all the heads of families in
the city, and to many by myself, having gone round to the doors of
most of the principal citizens for that purpose, was accompanied
by printed lists, in which the inhabitants were requested to set
down their names;--places of abode;--and the sums they chose to
contribute monthly, for the support of the establishment. These
lists, (translations of which are also inserted in the Appendix,
No. II.) were delivered to the heads of families, with duplicates,
to the end that one copy being sent in to the committee,
the other might remain with the master of the family.

These subscriptions being PERFECTLY VOLUNTARY, might be augmented
or diminished at pleasure. When any person chose to alter his
subscription, he sent to the public office for two blank
subscription lists, and filling them up anew, with such
alterations as he thought proper to make, he took up his old list
at the office, and deposited the new one in its stead.

The subscription lists being all collected, they were sorted,
and regularly entered according to the numbers of the houses
of the subscribers, in sixteen general lists[9], answering to
the sixteen subdivisions or districts of the city; and a copy of
the general list of each district was given to the commissary
of the district.

These copies, which were properly authenticated, served for the
direction of the commissary in collecting the subscriptions in
his district, which was done regularly the last Sunday morning of
every month.

The amount of the collection was immediately delivered by the
commissary into the hands of the banker of the institution,
for which he received two receipts from the banker; one of which
he transmitted to the committee, with his report of the collection,
which he was directed to send in as soon as the collection was
made.

As there were some persons who, from modesty, or other motives,
did not choose to have it known publicly how much they gave in
alms to the poor, and on that account were not willing to have
put down to their names upon the list of the subscribers, the
whole sum they were desirous of appropriating to that purpose;
to accommodate matters to the peculiar delicacy of their feelings,
the following arrangement was made, and carried into execution
with great success.

Those who were desirous of contributing privately to the relief
of the poor, were notified by an advertisement published in the
news-papers, that they might send to the banker of the
institution any sums for that purpose they might think proper,
under any feigned name, or under any motto or other device;
and that not only a receipt would be given to the bearer, for the
amount, without and questions being asked him, but, for greater
security, a public acknowledgement of the receipt of the sum
would be published by the banker, with a mention of the feigned
name of device under which it came, IN THE NEXT MUNICH GAZETTE.

To accommodate those who might be disposed to give trifling sums
occasionally, for the relief of the poor, and who did not choose
to go, or to send to the banker, fixed poor-boxes were placed in
all the churches, and most of the inns; coffee-houses; and other
places of public resort; but nobody was ever called upon to put
any thing into these boxes, nor was any poor's-box carried round,
or any private collection or alms-gathering permitted to be made
upon any occasion, or under any pretence whatever.

When the inhabitants had subscribed liberally to the support of
the institution, it was but just to secure them from all further
importunity in behalf of the poor.  This was promised, and it was
most effectually done; though not without some difficulty,
and a very considerable expence to the establishment.

The poor students in the Latin German schools;--the sisters of
the religious order of charity;--the directors of the hospital of
lepers;--and some other public establishments, had been so long
in the habit of making collections, by going round among the
inhabitants from house to house at stated periods, asking alms,
that they had acquired a sort of right to levy those periodical
contributions, of which it was not thought prudent to dispossess
them without giving them an equivalent.  And in order that this
equivalent might not appear to be taken from the sums subscribed
by the inhabitants for the support of the poor, it was paid out
of the monthly allowance which the institution received from the
chamber of finances, or public treasury of the state.

Besides these periodical collections, there were others, still
more troublesome to the inhabitants, from which it was necessary
to free them; and some of these last were even sanctioned by
legal authority.  It is the custom in Germany for apprentices in
most of the mechanical trades, as soon as they have finished
their apprenticeships with their masters, to travel, during three
or four years, in the neighbouring countries and provinces, to
perfect themselves in their professions by working as journeymen
wherever they can find employment.  When one of those itinerant
journeymen-tradesmen comes into a town, and cannot find employment
in it, he is considered AS HAVING A RIGHT to beg the assistance
of the inhabitants, and particularly of those of the trade he
professes, to enable him to go to the next town; and this
assistance it was not thought just to refuse.  This custom was
not only very troublesome to the inhabitants, but gave rife to
innumerable abuses. Great numbers of idle vagabonds were
continually strolling about the country under the name of
travelling journeymen-tradesmen; and though any person, who
presented himself as such in any strange place was obliged to
produce (for his legitimation) a certificate from his last
master, in whose service he had been employed, yet such
certificates were so easily counterfeited, or obtained by fraud,
that little reliance could be placed in them.

To remedy all these evils, the following arrangement was made:
those travelling journeymen-tradesmen who arrive at Munich, and
do not find employment, are obliged to quit the town immediately,
or to repair to the military work-house, where they are either
furnished with work, or a small sum is given them to enable them
to pursue their journey farther.

Another arrangement by which the inhabitants have been relieved
from much importunity, and by which a stop has been put to many
abuses, is the new regulation respecting those who suffer by
fire; such sufferers commonly obtain from government special
permission to make collections of charitable donations among the
inhabitants in certain districts, during a limited time.  Instead
of the permission to make collections in the city of Munich,
the sufferers now receive certain sums from the funds of the
institution for the poor. By this arrangement, not only the
inhabitants are relieved from the importunity which always
attends public collections of alms, but the sufferers save a
great deal of time, which they formerly spent in going about from
house to house; and the sale of these permissions to undertakers,
and many other abuses, but too frequent before this arrangement
took place, are now prevented.

The detailed account published in the Appendix, No. III. of the
receipts and expenditures of the institution during five years,
will show the amount of the expense incurred in relieving the
inhabitants from the various periodical and other collections
before mentioned.

But not to lose sight too long of the most interesting object of
this establishment, we must follow the people who were arrested
in the streets, to the asylum which was prepared for them, but
which no doubt appeared to them at first a most odious prison.


CHAPTER. V.

 The different kinds of employment given to the beggars upon their
   being assembled in the house of industry.
 Their great awkwardness at first.
 Their docility, and their progress in useful industry.
 The manner in which they were treated.
 The manner in which they were fed.
 The Precautions used to prevent Abuses in the Public Kitchen from
   which they were fed.

As by far the greater part of these poor creatures were totally
unacquainted with every kind of useful labour, it was necessary
to give them such work, at first, as was very easy to be
performed, and in which the raw materials were of little value;
and then, by degrees, as they became more adroit, to employ them
in manufacturing more valuable articles.

As hemp is a very cheap commodity, and as the spinning of hemp is
easily learned, particularly when it is designed for very coarse
and ordinary manufactures, 15,000 pounds of that article were
purchased in the palatinate, and transported to Munich;
and several hundred spinning wheels, proper for spinning it,
were provided; and several good spinners, as instructors,
were engaged, and in readiness, when this house of industry was
opened for the reception of the poor.

Flax and wool were likewise provided, and some few good spinners
of those articles were engaged as instructors; but by far the
greater number of the poor began with spinning of hemp; and so
great was their awkwardness at first, that they absolutely ruined
almost all the raw materials that were put into their hands.
By an exact calculation of profit and loss, it was found that the
manufactory actually lost more than 3000 florins upon the
articles of hemp and flax, during the first three months; but we
were not discouraged by these unfavourable beginnings; they were
indeed easy to be foreseen, considering the sort of people we had
to deal with, and how necessary it was to pay them at a very high
rate for the little work they were able to perform, in order to
persevere with cheerfulness in acquiring more skill and address
in their labour. If the establishment was supported at some
little expence in the beginning, it afterwards richly repaid
these advances, as will be seen in the sequel of this account.

As the clothing of the army was the market upon which I
principally depended, in disposing of the manufactures which
should be made in the house, the woollen manufactory was an
object most necessary to be attended to, and from which I
expected to derive most advantage to the establishment; but still
it was necessary to begin with the manufacture of hemp and flax,
not only because those articles are less valuable than wool,
and the loss arising from their being spoiled by the awkwardness
of beginners is of less consequence, but also for another reason,
which appears to me to be of so much more importance as to require
a particular explanation.

It was hinted above that it was found necessary, in order to
encourage beginners in these industrious pursuits, to pay them at
a very high rate for the little work they were able to perform;
but every body knows that no manufacture can possibly subsist
long, where exorbitant prices are paid for labour; and it is easy
to conceive what discontent and disgust would be occasioned among
the workmen upon lowering the prices which had for a length of
time been given for labour, By employing the poor people in
question at first in the manufactures of hemp and flax,
manufactures which were not intended to be carried on to any
extent, it was easy afterwards, when they had acquired a certain
degree of address in their work, to take them from these
manufactures, and put them to spinning of wool, worsted, or
cotton; care having been taken to fix the price of labour in
these last-mentioned manufactures at a reasonable rate.

The dropping the manufacture of any particular article altogether,
or pursuing it less extensively, could produce no bad effect upon
the general establishment; but the lowering of the price of labour,
in any instance, could not fail to produce many.

It is necessary, in an undertaking like this, cautiously to avoid
every thing that could produce discouragement and discontent
among those upon whose industry alone success must depend.

It is easy to conceive that so great a number of unfortunate
beings, of all ages and sexes, taken as it were out of their very
element, and placed in a situation so perfectly new to them,
could not fail to be productive of very interesting situations.
Would to God I were able to do justice to this subject! but no
language can describe the affecting scenes to which I was a
witness upon this occasion.

The exquisite delight which a sensible mind must feel, upon
seeing many hundreds of wretched being awaking from a state of
misery and inactivity, as from a dream; and applying themselves
with cheerfulness to the employments of useful industry;--upon
seeing the first dawn of placid content break upon a countenance
covered with habitual gloom, and furrowed and distorted by misery;--
this is easier to be conceived than described.

During the first three or four days that these poor people were
assembled, it was not possible entirely to prevent confusion:
there was nothing like mutinous resistance among them; but their
situation was so new to them, and they were so very awkward in it,
that it was difficult to bring them into any tolerable order.
At length, however, by distributing them in the different halls,
and assigning to each his particular place, (the places being all
distinguished by numbers,) they were brought into such order as
to enable the inspectors, and instructors, to begin their
operations.

Those who understood any kind of work, were placed in the
apartments where the work they understood was carried on; and the
others, being classed according to their sexes, and as much as
possible according to their ages, were placed under the immediate
care of the different instructors. By much the larger number were
put to spinning of hemp;--others, and particularly the young
children from four to seven years of age, were taught to knit,
and to sew; and the most awkward among the men, and particularly
the old, the lame, and the infirm, were put to the carding of wool.
Old women, whose sight was too weak to spin, or whose hands
trembled with palsy, were made to spool yarn for the weavers;
and young children, who were too weak to labour, were placed upon
seats erected for that purpose round the rooms where other
children worked.

As it was winter, fires were kept in every part of the building,
from morning till night; and all the rooms were lighted up till
nine o'clock in the evening.  Every room and every stair-case was
neatly swept and cleaned twice a day; one early in the morning,
before the people were assembled, and once while they were at
dinner.--Care was taken, by placing ventilators, and occasionally
opening the windows, to keep the air of the rooms perfectly
sweet, and free from all disagreeable smells; and the rooms
themselves were not only neatly white-washed and fitted up, and
arranged in every respect with elegance, but care was taken to
clean the windows very often;--to clean the courtyard every day;--
and even to clear away the rubbish from the street in front of
the building, to a considerable distance on every side.

Those who frequented this establishment were expected to arrive
at the fixed hour in the morning, which hour varied according to
the season of the year; if they came too late, they were gently
reprimanded; and if they persisted in being tardy, without being
able to give a sufficient excuse for not coming sooner, they were
punished by being deprived of their dinner, which otherwise they
received every day gratis.

At the hour of dinner, a large bell was rung in the court, when
those at work in the different parts of the building repaired to
the dining-hall; where they found a wholesome and nourishing
repast; consisting of about A POUND AND A QUARTER, Avoirdupois
weight, of a very rich soup of peas and barley, mixed with
cuttings of fine white bread; and a piece of excellent rye bread,
weighing SEVERN OUNCES; which last they commonly put in their
pockets, and carried home for their supper.  Children were allowed
the same portion as grown persons; and a mother, who had one or
more young children, was allowed a portion for each of them.

Those who, from sickness, or other bodily infirmities, were not
able to come to the work-house;--as also those who, on account of
young children they had to nurse, or sick persons to take care
of, found it more convenient to work at their own lodgings,
(and of these there were many,) were not on that account deprived
of their dinners.  Upon representing their cases to the committee,
tickets were granted them, upon which they were authorized to
receive from the public kitchen, daily, the number of portions
specified in the ticket; and these they might send for by a child,
or by any other person they thought proper to employ; it was
necessary, however that the ticket should always be produced,
otherwise the portions were not delivered.  This precaution was
necessary, to prevent abuses on the part of the poor.

Many other precautions were taken to prevent frauds on the part
of those employed in the kitchen, and in the various other
offices and departments concerned in feeding the poor.

The bread-corn, peas, barley, etc.  were purchased in the public
market in large quantities, and at times when those articles were
to be had at reasonable prices, and were laid up in store-rooms
provided for that purpose, under the care of the store-keeper of
the Military Work-house.

The baker received his flour by weight from the store-keeper,
and in return delivered a certain fixed quantity of bread.
Each loaf, when well baked, and afterwards dried, during four days,
in a bread-room through which the air had a free passage, weighed
two pounds ten ounces Avoirdupois. Such a loaf was divided into
six portions; and large baskets filled with these pieces being
placed in the passage leading to the dining-hall, the portions
were delivered out to the poor as they passed to go into the hall,
each person who passed giving a medal of tin to the person who
gave him the bread, in return for each portion received.
These medals, which were given out to the poor each day in the
halls where they worked, by the steward, or by the inspectors of
the hall, served to prevent frauds in the distribution of the
bread; the person who distributed it being obliged to produce
them as vouchers of the quantity given out each day.

Those who had received these portions of bread, held them up in
their hands upon their coming into the dining-hall, as a sign
that they had a right to seat themselves at the tables; and as
many portions of bread as they produced, so many portions of soup
they were entitled to receive; and those portions which they did
not eat they were allowed to carry away; so that the delivery of
bread was a check upon the delivery of soup, and VICE VERSA.

The kitchen was fitted up with all possible attention, as well to
conveniences, as to the economy of fuel.  This will readily be
believed by those who are informed, that the whole work of the
kitchen is performed, with great ease, by three cook-maids; and
that the daily expence for fire-wood amounts to no more than
twelve creutzers, or FOUR-PENCE HALFPENNY sterling, when dinner
is provided for 1000 people.  The number of persons who are fed
DAILY from this kitchen is, at a medium, in summer, about
ONE THOUSAND, (rather more than less,) and in winter, about 1200.
Frequently, however, there have been more than 1500 at table.
As a particular account of this kitchen, with drawings; together
with an account of a number of new and very interesting
experiments relative to the economy of fuel, will be annexed to
this work, I shall add nothing more now upon the subject; except
it be the certificate, which may be seen in the Appendix, No. IV;
which I have thought prudent to publish, in order to prevent
my being suspected of exaggeration in displaying the advantages
of my economical arrangements.

The assertion, that a warm dinner may be cooked for 1000 persons,
at the trifling expence of four-pence halfpenny for fuel; and
that, too, where the cord, five feet eight inches and nine-tenths
long, five feet eight inches and nine-tenths high, and five feet
three inches and two-tenths wide, English measure, of pine-wood,
of the most indifferent quality, costs above seven shillings;
and where the cord of hard wood, such as beech and oak, of equal
dimensions, costs more than twice that sum, may appear incredible;
yet I will venture to assert, and I hereby pledge myself with the
public to prove, that in the kitchen of the Military Academy at
Munich, and especially in a kitchen lately built under my
direction at Verona, in the Hospital of la Pieta, I have carried
the economy of fuel still further.

To prevent frauds in the kitchen of the institution for the poor
at Munich, the ingredients are delivered each day by the
store-keeper, to the chief cook; and a person of confidence, not
belonging to the kitchen, attends at the proper hour to see that
they are actually used.  Some one of the inspectors, or other
chief officer of the establishment, also attends at the hour of
dinner, to see that the victuals furnished to the poor are good;
well dressed; and properly served up.

As the dining-hall is not large enough to accommodate all the
poor at once, they dine in companies of as many as can be seated
together, (about 150); those who work in the house being served
first, and then those who come from the town.

Though most of those who work in their own lodgings send for
their dinners, yet there are many others, and particularly such
as from great age or other bodily infirmities are not able to
work, who come from the town every day to the public hall to
dine; and as these are frequently obliged to wait some time at
the door, before they can be admitted into the dining-hall;--that
is to say, till all the poor who work in the house have finished
their dinners;--for their more comfortable accommodation, a large
room, provided with a stove for heating it in winter, has been
constructed, adjoining to the building of the institution, but
not within the court, where these poor people assemble, and are
sheltered from the inclemency of the weather while they wait for
admittance into the dining-hall.

To preserve order and decorum at these public dinners, and to
prevent crowding and jostling at the door of the dining-hall,
the steward, or some other officer of the house of some authority,
is always present in the hall during dinner; and two privates of
the police guards, who know most of the poor personally, take post
at the door of the hall, one on each side of it; and between them
the poor are obliged to pass singly into the hall.

As soon as a company have taken places at the table, (the soup
being always served out and placed upon the tables before they
are admitted,) upon a signal given by the officer who presides at
the dinner, they all repeat a short prayer. Perhaps I ought to
ask pardon for mentioning so old-fashioned a custom; but I own I
am old-fashioned enough myself to like such things.

As an account in detail will be given in another place, of the
expence of feeding these poor people, I shall only observe here,
that this expense was considerably lessened by the voluntary
donations of bread, and offal meat, which were made by the bakers
and butchers of the town and suburbs. The beggars, not satisfied
with the money which they extorted from all ranks of people by
their unceasing importunity, had contrived to lay certain classes
of the inhabitants under regular periodical contributions of
certain commodities; and especially eatables; which they
collected in kind.  Of this nature were the contributions which
were levied by them upon the bakers, butchers, keepers of
eating-houses, ale-house keepers, brewers, etc. all of whom were
obliged, at stated periods;--once a-week at least;--or oftener;--
to deliver to such of the beggars as presented themselves at the
hour appointed, very considerable quantities of bread, meat,
soup, and other eatables; and to such a length were these
shameful impositions carried, that a considerable traffic was
actually carried on with the articles so collected, between the
beggars, and a number of petty shop-keepers, or hucksters, who
purchased them of the beggars, and made a business of selling
them by retail to the indigent and industrious inhabitants.
And though these abuses were well known to the public, yet this
custom had so long existed, and so formidable were the beggars
became to the inhabitants, that it was no means safe, or advisable,
to refuse their demands.

Upon the town being cleared of beggars, these impositions ceased
of course; and the worthy citizens, who were relieved from this
burthen, felt so sensibly the service that was rendered them,
that, to show their gratitude, and their desire to assist in
supporting so useful an establishment, they voluntarily offered,
in addition to their monthly subscriptions in money, to
contribute every day a certain quantity of bread, meat, soup, etc.
towards feeding the poor in the Military Work-house.  And these
articles were collected every day by the servants of the
establishment; who went round the town with small carts, neatly
fitted up, and elegantly painted, and drawn by single small
horses, neatly harnessed.

As in these, as well as in all other collections of public
charity, it was necessary to arrange matters so that the public
might safely place the most perfect confidence in those who were
charged with these details; the collections were made in a manner
in which it was EVIDENTLY IMPOSSIBLE for those employed in making
them to defraud the poor of any part of that which their
charitable and more opulent fellow-citizens designed for their
relief.--And to this circumstance principally it may, I believe,
be attributed, that these donations have for such a length of
time (more than five years,) continued to be so considerable.

In the collection of the soup, and the offal meat at the butchers'
shops, as those articles were not very valuable and not easily
concealed or disposed of, no particular precautions were necessary,
other than sending round PUBLICLY and at a CERTAIN HOUR the carts
destined for those purposes.  Upon that for collecting the soup,
which was upon four wheels, was a large cask neatly painted with
an inscription on each side in large letters, "for the "Poor."
That for the meat held a large tub with a cover, painted with the
same colours, and marked on both sides with the same inscription.

Beside this tub, other smaller tubs, painted in like manner,
and bearing the same inscription, "for the Poor," were provided
and hung up in conspicuous situations in all the butchers' shops in
the town.  In doing this, two objects were had in view, first the
convenience of the butchers; that in cutting up their meat they
might have a convenient place to lay by that which they should
destine for the poor till it should be called for; and secondly,
to give an opportunity to those who bought meat in their shops to
throw in any odd scraps, or bones, they might receive, and which
they might not think worth the trouble of carrying home.

These odd pieces are more frequently to be met with in the lots
which are sold in the butchers' shops in Munich than in almost
any other town; for the price of meat is fixed by authority, the
butchers have a right to sell the whole carcase, the bad pieces
with the good, so that with each good lot there is what in this
country is called the zugewicht, that is to say, an indifferent
scrap of offal meat, or piece of bone, to make up the weight;--
and these refuse pieces were very often thrown into the poor's
tub; and after being properly cleaned and boiled, served to make
their soup much more savoury and nourishing.

In the collection of the daily donations of bread, as that
article is more valuable, and more easily concealed and disposed
of, more precautions were used to prevent frauds on the parts of
the servants who were sent round to make the collection.

The cart which was employed for this purpose was furnished with a
large wooden chest, firmly nailed down upon it, and provided with
a good lock and key; and this chest, which was neatly painted,
and embellished with a inscription, was so contrived, by means of
an opening in the top of a large vertical wooden tube fixed in
its lid, and made in the form of a mouse-trap, that when it was
locked, (as it always was when it was sent round for the
donations of bread,) a loaf of bread, or any thing of that size,
could be put into it; but nothing could be taken out of it by the
same opening.  Upon the return of the cart, the bread-chest was
opened by the steward, who keeps the key of it; and its contents,
after being entered in a register kept for that purpose, were
delivered over to the care of the store-keeper.

The bread collected was commonly such as not having been sold in
time, had become too old, hard, and stale for the market;
but which, being cut fine, a handful of it put into a basin of
good pease-soup, was a great addition to it.

The amount of these charitable donations in kind, may be seen in
the transactions of the original returns, which are annexed in
the Appendix, No. III.

The collections of soup were not long continued, it being found
to be in general of much too inferior a quality to be mixed with
the soup made in the kitchen of the poor-house; but the
collections of bread, and of meat, continue to this time, and are
still very productive.

But the greatest resource in feeding the poor, is one which I am
but just beginning to avail myself of,--the use of potatoes[10].
Of this subject, however, I shall treat more largely hereafter.

The above-mentioned precautions used in making collections in kind,
may perhaps appear trifling, and superfluous; they were
nevertheless very  necessary.  It was also found necessary to
change all the poor's-boxes in the churches, to prevent their
being robbed; for though in those which were first put up, the
openings were not only small, but ended in a curved tube, so that
it appeared almost impossible to get any of the money out of the
box by the same opening by which it was put into it; yet means
were found, by introducing into the opening thin pieces of
elastic wood, covered with bird-lime, to rob the boxes.  This was
prevented in the new boxes, by causing the money to descend
through a sort of bag, with a hold in the bottom of it, or rather
a flexible tube, made of chain-work, with iron wire, suspended in
the middle of the box.


CHAPTER. VI.

 Apology for the want of method in treating the subject under
   consideration.
 Of the various means used for encouraging industry among the poor.
 Of the internal arrangement and government of the house of industry.
 Why called the military work-house.
 Of the manner in which the business is carried on there.
 Of the various means used for preventing frauds in carrying on the
   business in the different manufactures.
 Of the flourishing state of those manufactures.

Though all the different parts of a well arranged establishment
go on together, and harmonize, like the parts of a piece of music
in full score, yet, in describing  such an establishment, it is
impossible to write like the musician, in score, and to make all
the parts of the narrative advance together. Various movements,
which exist together, and which have the most intimate connection
and dependence upon each other, must nevertheless be described
separately; and the greatest care and attention, and frequently
no small share of address, are necessary in the management of
such descriptions, to render the details intelligible; and to
give the whole its full effect of order;--dependence;--
connection;--and harmony.  And in no case can these difficulties
be greater, than in descriptions like those in which I am now
engaged; where the number of the objects, and of the details, is
so great, that it is difficult to determine which should be
attended to first; and how far it may safely be pursued, without
danger of the others being too far removed from their proper
places;--or excluded;-- or forgotten.

The various measures adopted, and precautions taken, in arresting
the beggars,--in collecting and distributing alms,--in establishing
order and police among them,--in feeding and clothing the poor,--
and in establishing various manufactures for giving them
employment, are all subjects which deserve, and require, the most
particular explanation; yet those are not only operations which
were begun at the same time; and carried on together; but they
are so dependent upon each other, that it is almost impossible to
have a complete idea of the one, without being acquainted with
the others; or of treating of the one, without mentioning the
others at the same time.--This, therefore, must be my excuse,
if I am taxed with want of method, or of perspicuity in the
descriptions; and this being premised, I shall proceed to give an
account of the various objects and operations which yet remain to
be described.

I have already observed how necessary it was to encourage,
by every possible means, a spirit of industry and emulation among
those, who, from leading a life of indolence and debauchery, were
to be made useful members of society; and I have mentioned some
of the measures which were adopted for that purpose.  It remains
for me to pursue this interesting subject, and to treat it,
in all its details, with that care and attention which its
importance so justly demands.

Though a very generous price was paid for labour, in the different
manufactures in which the poor were employed, yet, that alone was
not enough to interest them sufficiently in the occupations in
which they were engaged.  To excite their activity, and inspire
them with a true spirit of persevering industry, it was necessary
to fire them with emulation;--to awaken in them a dormant passion,
whose influence they had never felt;--the love of honest fame;--
and ardent desire to excel;--the love of glory;--or by what other
more humble or pompous name this passion, the most noble, and
most beneficent that warms the human heart, can be distinguished.

To excite emulation;--praise;--distinctions;--rewards are
necessary; and these were all employed. Those who distinguished
themselves by their application,--by their industry,--by their
address,--were publicly praised and encouraged;--brought forward,
and placed in the most conspicuous situations;--pointed out to
strangers who visited the establishment; and particularly named
and proposed as models for others to copy.  A particular dress,
a sort of uniform for the establishment, which, though very
economical, as may be seen by the details which will be given of
it in another place, was nevertheless elegant, was provided; and
this dress, as it was given out gratis, and only bestowed upon
those who particularly distinguished themselves, was soon looked
upon as an honourable mark of approved merit; and served very
powerfully to excite emulation among the competitors, I doubt
whether vanity, in any instance, ever surveyed itself with more
self-gratification, than did some of these poor people when they
first put on their new dress.

How necessary is it to be acquainted with the secret springs of
action in the human heart, to direct even the lowest and most
unfeeling class of mankind!--The machine is intrinsically the same
in all situations;--the great secret is, FIRST TO PUT IT IN TUNE,
before an attempt is made to play upon it.  The jarring sounds of
former vibrations must first be stilled, otherwise no harmony can
be produced; but when the instrument is in order, the notes
CANNOT FAIL to answer to the touch of a skilful master.

Though every thing was done that could be devised to impress the
minds of all those, old and young, who frequented this establishment,
with such sentiments as were necessary in order to their becoming
good and useful members of society; (and in these attempts I was
certainly successful, much  beyond my most sanguine expectations;)
yet my hopes were chiefly placed on the rising generation.

The children, therefore, of the poor, were objects of my peculiar
care and attention.  To induce their parents to send them to the
establishment, even before they were old enough to do any kind of
work, when they attended at the regular hours, they not only
received their dinner gratis, but each of them was paid THREE
CREUTZERS a day for doing nothing, but merely being present where
others worked.

I have already mentioned that these children, who were too young
to work, were placed upon seats built round the halls where other
children worked.  This was done in order to inspire them with a
desire to do that, which other children, apparently more favoured,
--more caressed,--and more praised than themselves, were permitted
to do; and of which they were obliged to be idle spectators;
and this had the desired effect.

As nothing is so tedious to a child as being obliged to sit still
in the same place for a considerable time, and as the work which
the other more favoured children were engaged in, was light and easy,
and appeared rather amusing than otherwise, being the spinning of
hemp and flax, with small light wheels, turned with the foot,
these children, who were obliged to be spectators of this busy
and entertaining scene, became so uneasy in their situations,
and so jealous of those who were permitted to be more active,
that they frequently solicited with the greatest importunity to
be permitted to work, and often cried most heartily if this favour
was not instantly granted them.

How sweet these tears were to me, can easily be imagined!

The joy they showed upon being permitted to descend from their
benches, and mix with the working children below, was equal to
the solicitude with which  they had demanded that favour.

They were at first merely furnished with a wheel, which they
turned for several days with the foot, without being permitted to
attempt any thing further. As soon as they were become dexterous
in the simple operation, and habit had made it so easy and
familiar to them that the foot could continue its motion
mechanically, without the assistance of the head;--till they
could go on with their work, even though their attention was
employed upon something else;--till they could answer questions,
and converse freely with those about them upon indifferent
subjects, without interrupting or embarrassing the regular motion
of the wheel, then,--and not till then,--they were furnished with
hemp or flax, and were taught to spin.

When they had arrived at a certain degree of dexterity in
spinning hemp and flax, they were put to spinning of wool;
and this was always represented to them, and considered by them,
as an honorable promotion.  Upon this occasion they commonly
received some public reward, a new shirt,--a pair of shoes,--
or perhaps the uniform of the establishment, as an encouragement
to them to persevere in their industrious habits.

As constant application to any occupation for too great a length
of time is apt to produce disgust, and in children might even be
detrimental to health, beside the hour of dinner, an hour of
relaxation from work, (from eight o'clock till nine,) in the
forenoon, and another hour, (from three o'clock till four,) in
the afternoon, were allowed them, and these two hours were spent
in a school; which,  for want of room elsewhere in the house, was
kept in the dining-hall, where they were taught reading, writing,
and arithmetic, by a school-master engaged and paid for that
purpose[11]. Into this school other persons who worked in the
house, of a more advanced age, were admitted, if they requested it;
but few grown persons seemed desirous of availing themselves of
this permission. As to the children, they had no choice in the
matter; those who belonged to the establishment were obliged to
attend the school regularly every day, morning and evening.  The
school books, paper, pens, and ink, were furnished at the expence
of the establishment.

To distinguish those among the grown persons that worked in the
house, who showed the greatest dexterity and industry in the
different manufactures in which they were employed, the best
workman were separated from the others, and formed distinct
classes, and were even assigned separate rooms and apartments.
This separation was productive of many advantages; for, beside
the spirit of emulation which it excited, and kept alive, in
every part of the establishment, if afforded an opportunity of
carrying on the different manufactures in a very advantageous
manner.  The most dexterous among the wool-spinners, for instance,
were naturally employed upon the finest wool, such as was used in
the fabrication of the finest and most valuable goods; and it was
very necessary that these spinners should be separated from the
others, who worked upon coarser materials; otherwise, in the
manipulations of the wool, as particles of it are unavoidably
dispersed about in all directions when it is spun, the coarser
particles thus mixing with the fine would greatly injure the
manufacture.  It was likewise necessary, for a similar reason,
to separate the spinners who were employed in spinning wool of
different colours. But as these, and many other like precautions
are well known to all manufacturers, it is not necessary that I
should insist upon them any farther in this place; nor indeed is
it necessary that I should enter into all the details of any of
the manufactures carried on in the establishment I am describing.
It will be quite sufficient, if I merely enumerate them,
and others, who were employed in carrying them on.

In treating this subject it will however be necessary to go back
a little, and give a more particular account of the internal
governments of this establishment; and first of all I must observe,
that the government of the Military Work-house, as it is called,
is quite distinct from the government of the institution for the
poor; the Work-house being merely a manufactory, like any other
manufactory, supported upon its own private capital; which capital
has no connection whatever with any fund destined for the poor.
It is under the sole direction of its own particular governors
and overseers, and is carried on at the sole risk of the owner.
The institution for the poor, on the other hand, is merely an
institution of charity, joined to a general direction of the police,
as far as it relates to paupers.  The committee, or deputation,
as it is called, which is at the head of this institution, has
the sole direction of all funds destined for the relief of the
poor in Munich, and the distribution of alms.  This deputation
has likewise the direction of the kitchen, and bake-house, which
are established in the Military Work-house; and of the details
relative to the feeding of the poor; for it is from the funds
destined for the relief of the poor that these expences are
defrayed: the deputation is also in connection with the Military
Work-house relative to the clothing of the poor, and the
distribution of rewards to those of them who particularly
distinguished themselves by their good behaviour and their
industry, but this is merely a mercantile correspondence.
The deputation has no right to interfere in any way whatever in
the internal management of this establishment, considered as a
manufactory.  In this respect it is to all intents and purposes a
perfectly distinct and independent establishment.
But notwithstanding this, the two establishments are so dependent
on each other in many respects, that neither of them could well
subsist alone.

The Military Work-house being principally designed as a
manufactory for clothing the army, its capital, which at first
consisted in about 150,000 florins, but which has since increased
to above 250,000 florins, was advanced by the military chest,
and hence it is, that it was called the Military Work-house,
and put under the direction of the council of war.

For the internal management of the establishment, a special
commission was named, consisting of, one counsellor of war,
of the department of military economy, or of the clothing of the
army,--one captain, which last is inspector of the house, and has
apartments in it, where he lodges; --and the store-keeper of the
magazine of military clothing.

These commissioners, who have the magazine of military clothing
at the same time under their direction, have, under my immediate
superintendence, the sole government and direction of this
establishment;--of all the inferior officers;--servants;--
manufacturers;--and workmen, belonging to it; and of all mercantile
operations;--contracts;-- purchases;--sales;, etc.  And it is
with these commissioners that the regiments correspond, in order
to be furnished with clothing, and other necessaries; and into
their hands they pay the amount of the different articles
received.

The cash belonging to this establishment is placed in a chest
furnished with three separate locks, of one of which each of the
commissioners are jointly, and severally, answerable for the
contents of the chest.

These commissioners hold their sessions regularly twice a week,
or oftener if circumstances require it, in a room in the Military
Work-house destined for that purpose, where the correspondence,
and all accounts and documents belonging to the establishment,
and other records, are kept; and where the secretary of the
commission constantly attends.

When very large contracts are made for the purchase of raw
materials, particularly when they are made with foreigners,
the conditions are first  submitted by the commissioners to the
council of war for their approbation; but in all concerns of less
moment, and particularly in all the current business of the
establishment;--in the ordinary purchases,--sales,--and other
mercantile transactions; the commissioners act by their own
immediate authority: but all the transactions of the
commissioners BEING ENTERED REGULARLY IN THEIR JOURNALS, and the
most particular account of all sales, and purchases, and other
receipts and expenditures being kept; and inventories being taken
every year, of all raw materials;--manufactures upon hand;--and
other effects, belonging to the establishment; and an annual
account of profit and loss, regularly made out; all peculation,
and other abuses, are most effectually prevented.

The steward, or store-keeper of raw materials, as he is called,
has the care of all raw materials, and of all finished
manufactures destined for private sale. The former are kept in
magazines, or store-rooms, of which he alone has the keys,--
the latter are kept in rooms set apart as a store,--or shop,--
where they are exposed for public inspection, and sale.
To prevent abuses in the sales of these manufactures, their prices,
which are determined upon a calculation of what they cost, and a
certain per cent. added for the profits of the house, are marked
upon the goods, and are never altered; and a regular account is
kept of all, even of the most inconsiderable articles sold,
in which not only the commodity, with its quality, quantity,
an price, is specified; but the name of the purchaser, and the day
of the month when the purchase was made, are mentioned.

All articles of clothing destined for the army which are made up
in the house; as well as all goods in the piece, destined for
military clothing, are lodged in the Military Magazine; which is
situated at some distance from the Military Work-house; and is
under the care and inspection of the Military store-keeper.

From this Military Magazine, which may be considered as an
appendix to the Military Work-house, and is in fact under the
same direction, the regiments are supplied with every article of
their clothing.  But in order that the army accounts may be more
simple, and more easily checked, and that the total annual
expence of each regiment may be more readily ascertained, the
regiments pay, at certain fixed prices, for all the articles they
receive from the Military Magazine, and charge such expenditures
in the annual account which they send in to the War Office.

The order observed with regard to the delivery of the raw
materials by the store-keeper or steward of the Military
Work-house to those employed in manufacturing them, is as
follows:

In the manufactures of wool, for instance, he delivers to the
master-clothier a certain quantity, commonly 100 pounds, of wool,
of a certain quality and description; taken from a certain
division, or bin, in the Magazine; bearing a certain number;
in order to its being sorted.  And as a register is kept of the
wool that is put into these bins from time to time, and as the
lots of wool are always kept separate, it is perfectly easy at
any time to determine when,--and where,--and from whom, the wool
delivered to the sorted was purchased; and what was paid for it;
and consequently, to trace the wool from the stock where it was
grown, to the cloth into which it was formed; and even to the
person who wore it.  And similar arrangements are adopted with
regard to all other raw materials used in the various
manufactures.

The advantages arising from this arrangement are too obvious to
require being particularly mentioned. It not only prevents
numberless abuses on the part of those employed in the various
manufactures, but affords a ready method of detecting any frauds
on the part of those from whom the raw materials are purchased.

The wool received by the master-clothier is by him delivered to
the wool-sorters to be sorted. To prevent frauds on the part of
the wool-sorters, not only all the wool-sorters work in the same
room, under the immediate inspection of the master wool-sorter,
but a certain quantity of each lot of wool being sorted in the
presence of some one of the public officers belonging to the
house, it is seen by the experiment how much per cent. is lost
by separation of dirt and filth in sorting; and the quantity of
sorted wool of the different qualities, which the sorter is
obliged to deliver for each HUNDRED POUNDS weight of wool
received from the magazine, is from hence determined.

The great secret of the woollen manufactory is in the sorting of
the wool, and if this is not particularly attended to; that is to
say, if the different kinds of wool of various qualities which
each fleece naturally contains, are not carefully separated;
and if each kind of wool is not employed for that purpose,
and FOR THAT ALONE, for which it is best calculated, no woollen
manufactory can possibly subsist with advantages.

Each fleece is commonly separated into five or six different
parcels of wool, of different qualities, by the sorters in the
Military Work-house; and of these parcels, some are employed for
warp;-- others for wool;--others for combing;--and that which is
very coarse and indifferent, for coarse mittens for the
peasants;--for the lists of broad cloths, etc.

The wool, when sorted, is delivered back by the master-clothier
to the steward, who now places it in the sorted-wool magazines,
where it is kept in separate bins, according to its different
qualities and destinations, till it is delivered out to be
manufactured.  As these bins are all numbered, and as the quality
and destination of the wool which is lodged in each bin is always
the same, it is sufficient in describing the wool afterwards as
it passes through the hands of the different manufacturers,
merely to mention ITS NUMBER; that is to say, the number of the
bin the sorted-wool magazine from whence it was taken.

As a more particular account of these various manipulations,
and the means used to prevent frauds, may not only be interesting
to all who are curious in these matters, but may also be of real
use to such as may engage in similar undertakings, I shall take
the liberty to enlarge a little upon this subject.

From the magazine of sorted wool, the master-clothier receives
this sorted wool again, in order to its being wolfed,--greased,
--carded;--and spun, under his inspection, and then delivered
into the store-room of woollen yarn.  As woollen yarn he receives
it again, and delivers it to the cloth-weaver. --The cloth-weaver
returns it in cloth to the steward.--The steward delivers it to
the fuller;--the fuller to the cloth-shearer;--the cloth-shearer
to the cloth-presser;--and the cloth-presser to the steward;--
and by this last it is delivered into the Military Magazine,
if destined for the army; if not, it is placed in the shop for sale.
The master-clothier is answerable for all the sorted wool he
receives, till he delivers it to the clerk of the wool-spinners;
and all his accounts are settled with the steward once a week.--
The clerk of the spinners is answerable for the carded and combed
wool he receives from the master-clothier, till it is delivered
in yarn in the store-room; and his accounts are likewise settled
with the master-clothier, and with the clerk of the store-room,
(who is called the clerk of the control,) once a week.
The spinners wages are paid by the clerk of the control, upon the
spin-ticket, signed by the clerk of the spinners; in which ticket,
the quantity, and quality of the yarn spun being specified,
together with the name of the spinner, the weekly delivery of
yarn by the clerk of the spinners into the store-room, must
answer to the spin-tickets received and paid by the clerk of the
control.  More effectually to prevent frauds, each delivery of
yarn to the clerk of the spinners is bound up in a separate
bundle, to which is attached an abstract of the spin-ticket,
in which abstract is specified, the name of the spinner;--the date
of the delivery;--the number of the spin-ticket;--and the
quantity and quality of the yarn.  This arrangement not only
facilitates the settlement of the weekly account between the
clerk of the spinners and the clerk of the control, when the
former makes his weekly delivery of yarn into the store-room,
but renders it easy also to  detect any frauds committed by the
spinners.

The wages of the spinners are regulated by the fineness of the
yarn; that is, by the number of skains, or rather knots, which
they spin from the pound of wool.  Each knot is composed of 100
threads, and each thread, or turn of the reel, is two Bavarian
yards in length; and to prevent frauds in reeling, clock-reels,
proved and sealed, are furnished by the establishment to all the
spinners. It is possible, however, notwithstanding this
precaution, for the spinners to commit frauds, by binding up
knots containing a smaller number of threads than 100.--It is
true they have little temptation to do so, for as their wages are
in fact paid by the WEIGHT of the yarn delivered, and the number
of knots serving merely to determine the price BY THE POUND which
they have a right to receive, and advantages they can derive from
frauds committed in reeling are very trifling indeed.
But trifling as they are, such frauds would no doubt sometimes be
committed, were it not known that it is absolutely IMPOSSIBLE for
them to escape detection.

Not only the clerk of the spinners examines the yarn when he
receives it, and counts the threads in any of the knots which
appear to be too small, but the name of the spinner, with a note
of the quantity of knots, accompanies the yarn into the store-room,
as was before observed, and from thence to the spooler, by whom
it is wound off; any frauds committed in reeling cannot fail to
be brought home to the spinner.

The bundles of carded wool delivered to the spinners, though they
are called pounds, are not exact pounds.  They contain each as
much more  than a pound, as is necessary, allowing for wastage in
spinning, in order that the yarn when spun may weigh a pound.
If the yarn is found to be wanting in weight, a proportional
deduction is made from the wages of the spinner; which deduction,
to prevent frauds, amounts to a trifle more than the value of the
yarn which is wanting.

Frauds in weaving are prevented by delivering the yarn to the
weavers by weight, and receiving the cloth by weight from the loom.
In the other operations of the manufactures, such as fulling,
shearing, pressing, etc. no frauds are to be apprehended.

Similar precautions are taken to prevent frauds in the linen;--
cotton;--and other manufactures carried on in the house; and so
effectual are the means adopted, that during more than five years
since the establishment was instituted, no one fraud of the least
consequence has been discovered; the evident impossibility of
escaping detection in those practices, having prevented the
attempt.

Through the above-mentioned details may be sufficient to give
some idea of the general order which reigns in every part of this
extensive establishment; yet, as success in an undertaking of
this kind depends essentially on carrying on the business in all
its various branches in the most methodical manner, and rendering
one operation a check upon the other, as well as in making the
persons employed absolutely responsible for all frauds and
neglects committed in their various departments, I shall either
add in the Appendix, or publish separately, a full account of the
internal details of the various trades and manufactures carried
on in the Military Work-house, and copies of all the different
tickets,--returns,--tables,--accounts, etc. made use of in
carrying on the business of this establishment.

Though these accounts will render this work more voluminous than
I could have wished, yet, as such details can hardly fail to be
very useful to those, who, either upon a larger, or smaller
scale, may engage in similar undertakings, I have determined to
publish them.

To show that the regulations observed in carrying on the various
trades and manufactures in the Military Work-house are good,
it will, I flatter myself, be quite sufficient to refer to the
flourishing state of the establishment;--to its growing
reputation;--to its extensive connections, which reach even to
foreign countries;--to the punctuality with which all its
engagements are fulfilled;-- to its unimpeached credit;--and to
its growing wealth.

Notwithstanding all the disadvantages under which it laboured in
its infant state, the net profits arising from it during the six
years it has existed, amount to above 100,000 florins; after the
expences of every kind,--salaries,--wages,--repairs, etc. have
been deducted; in consequence of the  augmentation of the amount
of the orders received and executed the last year, did not fall
much short of HALF A MILLION of florins.

It may be proper to observe, that, not the whole army of the
Elector, but only the fifteen Bavarian regiments, are furnished
with clothing from the Military Work-house at Munich.  The troops
of the Palatinate, and those of the Duchies of Juliers and Bergen,
receive their clothing from a similar establishment at Manheim.

The Military Work-house at Manheim was indeed erected several
months before that at Munich; but as it is not immediately
connected with any institution for the poor,--as the poor are not
fed in it,--and as it was my first attempt, or coup d'essai,--
it is, in many respects, inferior in its internal arrangements
to that at Munich.  I have therefore chosen this last for the
subject of my descriptions; and would propose it as a model for
imitation, in preference to the other.

As both these establishments owe their existence to myself,
and as they both remain under my immediate superintendence,
it may very naturally be asked, why that at Manheim has not been
put upon the same footing with that at Munich?--My answer to
this question would be, that a variety of circumstances, too
foreign to my present subject to be explained here, prevented the
establishment of the Military Work-house at Manheim being carried
to that perfection which I could have wished[12].

But it is time that I should return to the poor of Munich;
for whose comfort and happiness I laboured with so much pleasure,
and whose history will ever remain by far the most interesting part
of this publication.


CHAPTER. VII.

 A further account of the poor who were brought together in the
   house of industry:--and of the interesting change which was
   produced in their manners and dispositions.
 Various proofs that the means used for making them industrious,
   comfortable, and happy, were successful.

The awkwardness of these poor creatures, when they were first
taken from the streets as beggars, and put to work, may easily
conceived; but the facility with which they acquired address in
the various manufactures in which they were employed, was very
remarkable, and much exceeded my expectation.  But what was quite
surprising, and at the same time interesting in the highest
degree, was the apparent and rapid change which was produced in
their manners,--in their general behaviour,--and even in the very
air of their countenances, upon being a little accustomed to
their new situations.  The kind usage they met with, and the
comforts they enjoyed, seemed to have softened their hearts, and
awakened in them sentiments as new and surprising to themselves,
as they were interesting to those about them.

The melancholy gloom of misery, and air of uneasiness and
embarrassment, disappeared by little and little from their
countenances, and were succeeded by a timid dawn of cheerfulness,
rendered most exquisitely interesting by a certain mixture of
silent gratitude, which no language can describe.

In the infancy of this establishment, when these poor creatures
were first brought together, I used very frequently to visit
them,--to speak kindly to them,--and to encourage them;--and I
seldom passed through the halls where they were at work, without
being a witness to the most moving scenes.

Objects, formerly the most miserable and wretched, whom I had
seen for years as beggars in the streets;-young women,--perhaps
the unhappy victims of seduction, who, having lost their
reputation, and being turned adrift in the world, without a
friend and without a home, were reduced to the necessity of
begging, to sustain a miserable existence, now recognized me as
their benefactor; and, with tears dropping fast from their
cheeks, continued their work in the most expressive silence.

If they were asked, what the matter was with them? their answer
was, ("nichts") "nothing;" accompanied by a look of affectionate
regard and gratitude, so exquisitely touching as frequently to
draw tears from the most insensible of the bystanders.

It was not possible to be mistaken with respect to the real state
of the minds of these poor people; every thing about them showed
that they were deeply affected with the kindness shown them;--
and that their hearts were really softened, appeared, not only
from their unaffected expressions of gratitude, but also from the
effusions of their  affectionate regard for those who were dear
to them. In short, never did I witness such affecting scenes as
passed between some of these poor people and their children.

It was mentioned above that the children were separated from the
grown persons.  This was the case at first; but as soon as order
was thoroughly established in every part of the house, and the
poor people had acquired a certain degree of address in their
work, and evidently took pleasure in it, as many of those who had
children expressed an earnest desire to have them near them,
permission was granted for that purpose; and the spinning halls,
by degrees, were filled with the most interesting little groups
of industrious families, who vied with each other in diligence
and address; and who displayed a scene, at once the most busy,
and the most cheerful, that can be imagined.

An industrious family is ever a pleasing object; but there was
something peculiarly interesting and affecting in the groups of
these poor people. Whether it was, that those who saw them
compared their present situation with the state of misery and
wretchedness from which they had been taken; --or whether it was
the joy and exultation which were expressed in the countenances
of the poor parents in contemplating their children all busily
employed about them;--or the air of self-satisfaction which these
little urchins put on, at the consciousness of their own dexterity,
while they pursued their work with redoubled diligence upon being
observed, that rendered the scene so singularly interesting,--
I know not; but certain it is, that few strangers who visited the
establishment, came out of these halls without being much affected.

Many humane and well-disposed persons are often withheld from
giving alms, on account of the bad character of beggars in general;
but this circumstance, though it ought undoubtedly to be taken
into consideration in determining the mode of administering our
charitable assistance, should certainly not prevent our
interesting ourselves in the fate of these unhappy beings.
On the contrary, it ought to be an additional incitement to us
to relieve them;--for nothing is more certain, than that their
crimes are very often the EFFECTS, not the CAUSES of their
misery; and when this is the case, by removing the cause, the
effects will cease.

Nothing is more extraordinary and unaccountable, than the
inconsistency of mankind in every thing; even in the practice of
that divine virtue benevolence; and most of our mistakes arise
more from indolence and from inattention, than from any thing else.
The busy part of mankind are too intent upon their own private
pursuits; and those who have leisure, are too averse from giving
themselves trouble, to investigate a subject but too generally
considered as tiresome and uninteresting. But if it be true, that
we are really happy only in proportion as we ought to be so;--
that is, in proportion as we are instrumental in promoting the
happiness of others; no study surely can be so interesting,
as that which teaches us how most  effectually to contribute to
the well-being of our fellow-creatures.

If LOVE be blind, SELF-LOVE is certainly very short-sighted;
and without the assistance of reason and reflection, is but a
bad guide in the pursuit of happiness.

Those who take pleasure in depreciating all the social virtues
have represented pity as a mere selfish passion; and there are
some circumstances which appear to justify this opinion.
It is certain that the misfortunes of others affect us, not in
proportion to their greatness, but in proportion to their
nearness to ourselves; or to the chances that they may reach us
in our turns.  A rich man is infinitely more affected at the
misfortune of his neighbour, who, by the failure of a banker with
whom he had trusted the greater part of his fortune;--by an
unlucky run at play,--or by other losses, is reduced to a state
of affluence, to the necessity of laying down his carriage;--
leaving the town;--and retiring into the country upon a few
hundreds a-year;--than by the total ruin of the industrious
tradesman over the way, who is dragged to prison, and his
numerous family of young and helpless children left to starve.

But however selfish pity may be, BENEVOLENCE certainly springs
from a more noble origin.  It is a good-natured,--generous
sentiment, which does not require being put to the torture in
order to be stimulated to action.  And it is this sentiment,
not pity, or compassion, which I would wish to excite.

Pity is always attended with pain; and if our sufferings at being
witnesses of the distresses of others, sometimes force us to
relieve them, we can neither have much merit, nor any lasting
satisfaction, from such involuntary acts of charity; but the
enjoyments which result from acts of genuine benevolence are as
lasting as they are exquisitely delightful; and the more they
contribute to that inward peace of mind and self-approbation,
which alone constitute real happiness.  This is the "soul's calm
sun-shine, and the heart-felt joy," which is virtue's prize.

To induce mankind to engage in any enterprise, it is necessary,
first, to show that success will be attended with real advantage;
and secondly, that is may be obtained without much difficulty.
The rewards attendant upon acts of benevolence have so often been
described and celebrated, in every country and in every language,
that it would be presumption in me to suppose I could add any
thing new upon a subject already discussed by the greatest
masters of rhetoric, and embellished with all the irresistible
charms of eloquence; but as EXAMPLE OF SUCCESS are sometimes more
efficacious in stimulating mankind to action, than the most
splendid reasonings and admonitions, it is upon my SUCCESS in the
enterprise of which I have undertaken to give an account, that my
hopes of engaging others to follow such an example are chiefly
founded; and hence it is, that I so often return to that part of
my subject, and insist with so much perseverance upon the
pleasure which this success afforded me.  I am aware that I
expose myself to being suspected of ostentation, particularly by
those who are not able to enter fully into my situation and
feelings; but neither this, nor any other consideration, shall
prevent me from treating the subject in such a manner as may
appear best adapted to render my labours of public utility.

Why should I not mention even the marks of affectionate regard
and respect which I received from the poor people for those
happiness I interested myself, and the testimonies of the public
esteem with which I was honored?--Will it be reckoned vanity,
if I mention the concern which the Poor of Munich expressed in so
affecting a manner when I was dangerously ill?--that they went
publicly in a body in procession to the cathedral church, where
they had divine service performed, and put up public prayers for
my recovery?--that four years afterwards, on hearing that I was
again dangerously ill at Naples.  they, of their own accord, set
apart an hour each evening, after they had finished their work in
the Military Work-house, to pray for me?

Will it be thought improper to mention the affecting reception I
met with from them, at my first visit to the Military Work-house
upon my return to Munich last summer, after an absence of fifteen
months; a scene which drew tears from all who were present?--and
must I refute myself the satisfaction of describing the fete I
gave them in return, in the English Garden, at which 1800 poor
people of all ages, and above 30,000 of the inhabitants of
Munich, assisted? and all this pleasure I must forego, merely
that I may not be thought vain and ostentatious?--Be it so
then;-- but I would just beg leave to call the reader's attention
to my feelings upon the occasion; and then let him ask himself,
if any earthly reward can possibly be supposed greater;--any
enjoyments more complete, than those I received.  Let him figure
to himself, if he can, my situation, sick in bed, worn out by
intense application, and dying, as every body thought, a martyr
in the cause to which I had devoted myself;--let him imagine,
I say, my feelings, upon hearing the confused noise of the prayers
of a multitude of people, who were passing by in the streets,
upon being told, that it was the Poor of Munich, many hundreds in
number, who were going in procession to the church to put up
public prayers for me:--public prayers for me!--for a private
person!--a stranger!--a protestant!--I believe it is the first
instance of the kind that ever happened;--and I dare venture to
affirm that no proof could well be stronger than this, that the
measures adopted for making these poor people happy, were really
successful;--and let it be remembered, that this fact is what I
am most anxious to make appear, IN THE CLEAREST AND MOST
SATISFACTORY MANNER.


CHAPTER. VIII.

 Of the means used for the relief of those poor persons who were
   not beggars.
 Of the large sums of money distributed to the poor in alms.
 Of the means used for rendering those who received alms industrious.
 Of the general utility of the house of industry to the poor,
   and the distressed of all denominations.
 Of public kitchens for feeding the poor, united with establishments
   for giving them employment; and of the great advantages which
   would be derived from forming them in every parish.
 Of the manner in which the poor of Munich are lodged.

In giving an account of the Poor of Munich.  I have hitherto
confined myself chiefly to one class of them,--the beggars; but I
shall now proceed to mention briefly the measures which were
adopted to relieve others, who never were beggars, from those
distresses and difficulties in which poverty and the inability to
provide the necessaries of life had involved them.

An establishment for the Poor should not only provide for the
relief and support of those who are most forward and clamorous in
calling out for assistance;--humanity and justice require that
peculiar attention should be paid to those who are bashful and
silent.--To those, who, in addition to all the distresses arising
from poverty and want, feel, that is still more insupportable to
their unfortunate and hopeless situation.

All those who stood in need of assistance were invited and
encouraged to make known their wants to the committee placed at
the head of the institution; and in no case was the necessary
assistance refused.--That this relief was generously bestowed,
will not be doubted by those who are informed that the sums
distributed in alms, IN READY MONEY to the Poor of Munich in FIVE
YEARS, exclusive of the expences incurred in feeding and clothing
them, amounted to above TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND FLORINS[13].

But the sums of money distributed among the Poor in alms was not
the only, and perhaps not the most important assistance that was
given them.--THEY WERE TAUGHT AND ENCOURAGED TO BE INDUSTRIOUS;
and they probably derived more essential advantages from the
fruits of their industry, than from all the charitable donations
they received.

All who were able to earn any thing by their labour, were
furnished with work, and effectual measures taken to excite them
to be industrious.--In fixing the amount of the sums in money,
which they receive weekly upon stated days, care was always taken
to find out how much the person applying for relief was in a
condition to earn, and only just so much was granted, as,
when added to these earnings, would be sufficient to provide the
necessaries of life, or such of them as were not otherwise
furnished by the institution. --But even this precaution would
not alone have been sufficient to have obliged those who were
disposed to be idle, to become industrious; for, with the
assistance of the small allowances which were granted, they might
have found means, by stealing, or other fraudulent practices,
to have subsisted without working, and the sums allowed them would
have only served as an encouragement to idleness.--This evil,
which is always much to be apprehended in establishments for the
Poor, and which is always most fatal in its consequences,
is effectually prevented at Munich by the following simple
arrangement:--A long and narrow slip of paper, upon which is
printed, between parallel lines, in two or more columns, all the
weeks in the year, or rather the month, and the day of the month,
when each week begins, is, in the beginning of every year, given
to each poor perform entitled to receive alms; and the name of
the person,--with the number his name bears in the general list
of the Poor;--the weekly sum granted to him,--and the sum he is
able to earn weekly by labour, are entered in writing at the head
of this list of the weeks.--This paper, which must always be
produced by the poor person as often as he applies for his weekly
allowance of alms, serves to show whether he has, or has not
fulfilled the conditions upon which the allowance was granted him;--
that is to say, whether he has been industrious, and has earned
by his labour, and received, the sum he ought to earn weekly.--
This fact is ascertained in the following manner: when the poor
person frequents the house of industry regularly, or when he
works at home, and delivers regularly at the end of every week,
the produce of the labour he is expected to perform; when he has
thus fulfilled the conditions imposed on him, the column, or
rather parallel, in his paper, (which may be called his
certificate of industry,) answering to the week in question,
is marked with a stamp, kept for that purpose at the Military
Work-house; or, if he should be prevented by illness, or any
other accident, from fulfilling those conditions, in that case,
instead of the stamp, the week must be marked by the signature of
the commissary of the district to which the poor person belongs.--
But, if the certificate be not marked, either by the stamp of the
house of industry, or by the signature of the commissary of the
district, the allowance for the week in question is not issued.

It is easy to be imagined how effectually this arrangement must
operate as a check to idleness.-- But, not satisfied with
discouraging and punishing idleness, we have endeavoured, by all
the means in our power, and more especially by rewards and
honorable distinctions of every kind, to encourage extraordinary
exertions of industry.  Such of the Poor who earn more in the
week than the sum imposed on them, are rewarded by extraordinary
presents, in money, or in some useful and valuable article of
clothing; or they are particularly remembered at the next public
distribution of money, which is made twice a year to the Poor,
to assist them in paying their house-rent: and so far is this from
being made a pretext for diminishing their weekly allowance of
alms, that it is rather considered as a reason for augmenting them.

There are great numbers of persons, of various descriptions,
in all places, and particularly in great towns, who, though they
find means just to support life, and have too much feeling ever
to submit to the disgrace of becoming a burthen upon the public,
are yet very unhappy, and consequently objects highly deserving
of the commiseration and friendly aid of the humane and generous.--
it is hardly possible to imagine a situation more truly deplorable
than that of a person born to better prospects, reduced by
unmerited misfortunes to poverty, and doomed to pass his whole
life in one continued and hopeless struggle with want, shame,
and despair.

Any relief which it is possible to afford to distress that
appears under this respectable and most interesting form,
ought surely never to be withheld.--But the greatest care and
precaution are necessary in giving assistance to those who have
been rendered irritable and suspicious by misfortunes, and who
have too much honest pride not to feel themselves degraded by
accepting an obligation they never can hope to repay.

The establishment of the house of industry at Munich has been a
means of affording very essential relief to many distressed
families, and single persons in indigent circumstances, who,
otherwise, most probably never would have received any assistance.
--Many persons of distinguished birth, and particularly widows
and unmarried ladies with very small fortunes, frequently send
privately to this house for raw materials,--flax or wool,
-- which they spin, and return in yarn,--linen for soldiers
shirts, which they make up, etc. and receive in money, (commonly
through the hands of a maid-servant, who is employed as a
messenger upon these occasions,) the amount of the wages at the
ordinary price paid by the manufactory, for the labour performed.

Many a common soldier in the Elector's service wears shirts made
up privately by the delicate hands of persons who were never seen
publicly to be employed in such coarse work;--and many a
comfortable meal has been made in the town of Munich, in private,
by persons accustomed to more sumptuous fare, upon the soup
destined for the Poor, and furnished gratis from the public kitchen
of the house of industry.  Many others who stand in need of
assistance, will, in time, I hope, get the better of their pride,
and avail  themselves of these advantages.

To render this establishment for the Poor at Munich perfect,
something is still wanting.--The house of industry is too remote
from the center of the town, and many of the Poor live at such a
distance from it, that much time is lost in going and returning.
--It is situated, it is true, nearly in the center of the
district in which most of the Poor inhabit, but still there are
many who do not derive all the advantages from it they otherwise
would do were it adjacent to their dwellings.  The only way to
remedy this imperfection would be, to establish several smaller
public kitchens in different parts of the town, with two or three
rooms adjoining to each, where the Poor might work.--They might
then either fetch the raw materials from the principal house of
industry, or be furnished with them by the persons who superintend
those subordinate kitchens; and who might serve at the same time
as stewards and inspectors of the working rooms, under the
direction and control of the officers who are placed at the head
of the general  establishment.  This arrangement is in
contemplation, and will be put in execution as soon as convenient
houses can be procured and fitted up for the purpose.

In large cities, these public kitchens, and rooms adjoining to
them for working, should be established in every parish; and,
it is scarcely to be conceived how much this arrangement would
contribute to the comfort and contentment of the Poor, and to the
improvement of their morals.  These working rooms might be fitted
up with neatness; and even with elegance; and made perfectly
warm, clean, and comfortable, at a very small expence;
and, if nothing were done to disgust the Poor, either by treating
them harshly, or using FORCE to oblige them to frequent these
establishments, they would soon avail themselves of the
advantages held out to them; and the tranquillity they would
enjoy in these peaceful retreats, would, by degrees, calm the
agitation of their minds,--remove their suspicions,--and render
them happy,--grateful, and docile.

Though it might not be possible to provide any other lodgings for
them than the miserable barracks they now occupy, yet, as they
might spend the whole of the day, from morning till late at
night, in these public rooms, and have no occasion to return to
their homes till bed-time, they would not experience much
inconvenience from the badness of the accommodation at their own
dwellings.

Should any be attached with sickness, they might be sent to some
hospital, or rooms be provided for them, as well as for the old
and infirm, adjacent to the public working rooms.  Certain hours
might also be set apart for instructing the children, daily, in
reading and writing, in the dining-hall, or in some other room
convenient for that purpose.

The expence of forming such an establishment in every parish
would not be great, in the first outset, and the advantages
derived from it would very soon repay that expence, with interest.
--The Poor might be fed from a public kitchen for LESS THAN HALF
what it would cost them to feed themselves;--they would turn
their industry to better account, by working in a public
establishment, and under proper direction, than by working at
home;--a spirit of emulation would be excited among them,
and they would pass their time more agreeably and cheerfully.--
They would be entirely relieved from the heavy expense of fuel for
cooking; and, in a great measure, from that for heating their
dwellings; and, being seldom at home in the day-time, would want
little more than a place to sleep in; so that the expence of
lodging might be greatly diminished.--It is evident, that all
these saving together would operate very powerfully to lessen the
public expence for the maintenance of the Poor; and, were proper
measures adopted, and pursued with care and perseverance, I am
persuaded the expence would at last be reduced to little or
nothing.

With regard to the lodgings for the Poor, I am clearly of opinion
that it is in general best, particularly in great towns, that
these should be left for themselves to provide.  This they
certainly would like better than being crowded together,
and confined like prisoners in poor-houses and hospitals;
and I really think the difference in the expence would be
inconsiderable; and though they might be less comfortably
accommodated, yet the inconvenience would be amply compensated
BY THE CHARMS WHICH LIBERTY DISPENSES.

In Munich, almost all the Poor provide their own lodgings;
and twice a year have certain allowances in money, to assist them
in paying their rent.--Many among them who are single, have indeed,
no lodgings they can call their own.  They go to certain
public-houses to sleep, where they are furnished with what is
called a bed, in a garret, for one creutzer, (equal to about
one-third of a penny,) a-night; and for two creutzers a-night
they get a place in a tolerably good bed in a decent room in a
public-house of more repute.

There are, however, among the Poor, many who are infirm, and not
able to shift for themselves in the public-houses, and have not
families, or near relations, to take care of them. For these,
a particular arrangement has lately been made at Munich.  Such of
them as have friends or acquaintances in town with whom they can
lodge, are permitted to do so; but if they cannot find out
lodgings themselves, they have the option, either to be placed in
some private family to be taken care of, or go to a home which
has lately been purchased and fitted up as an hospital for
lodging them[14].

This house is situated in a fine airy situation, on a small
eminence upon the banks of the Isar, and overlooks the whole of
the town;--the plain in which it is situated;--and the river.--
It is neatly built, and has a spacious garden belonging to it.
There are seventeen good rooms in the house; in which it is
supposed about eighty persons may be lodged. These will all be
fed from one kitchen; and such of them who are very infirm, will
have others less infirm placed in the same room with them, to
assist them, and wait upon them.--The cultivation of the garden
will be their amusement, and the produce of it their property.
--They will be furnished with work suitable to their strength;
and for all the labour they perform, will be paid in money, which
will be left at their own disposal.--They will be furnished with
food, medicine, and clothing, gratis; and to those who are not
able to earn any thing by labour, a small sum of money will be
given weekly, to enable them to purchase tobacco, snuff, or any
other article of humble luxury to which they may have been
accustomed.

I could have wished that this asylum had been nearer to the house
of industry.  It is indeed not very far from it, perhaps not more
than 400 yards; but still that is too far.--Had it been under the
same roof, or adjoining to it, those who are lodged in it might
have been fed from the public kitchen of the general establishment,
and have been under the immediate inspection of the principal
officers of the house of industry.  It would likewise have
rendered the establishment very interesting to those who visit
it; which is an object of more real importance than can well be
imagined by those who have not had occasion to know how much the
approbation and applause of the public facilitate difficult
enterprizes.

The means of uniting the rational amusement of society, with the
furtherance of schemes calculated for the promotion of public
good, is a subject highly deserving the attention of all who are
engaged in public affairs.


CHAPTER. IX.

 Of the means used for extending the influence of the institution
   for the poor at Munich, to other parts of Bavaria.
 Of the progress which some of the improvements introduced at Munich
   are making in other countries.

Though the institution of which I have undertaken to give an account,
was confined to the city of Munich and its suburbs, yet measures
were taken to extend its influence to all parts of the country.
The attempt to put an end to mendicity in the capital, and to
give employment to the Poor, having been completely successful,
this event was formally announced to the public, in the news-papers;
and other towns were called upon to follow the example.  Not only
a narrative in detail, was given of all the different measures
pursued in this important undertaking, but every kind of
information and assistance was afforded on the part of the
institution at Munich, to all who might be disposed to engage in
forming similar establishments in other parts of the country.

Copies of all the different lists, returns, certificates, etc.
used in the management of the Poor, were given gratis to all,
strangers as well as inhabitants of the country, who applied for
them; and no information relative to the establishment, or to any
of its details, was ever refused.  The house of industry was open
every day from morning till night to all visitors; and persons
were appointed to accompany strangers in their tour through the
different apartments, and to give the fullest information
relative to the details, and even to all the secrets of the
various manufactures carried on; and printed copies of the
different tables, tickets, checks, etc. made use of in carrying
on the current business of the house, were furnished to every one
who asked for them; together with an account of the manner in
which these were used, and of the other measures adopted to
prevent frauds and peculation in the various branches of this
extensive establishment.

As few manufactures in Bavaria are carried on to any extent;
the more indigent of the inhabitants are, in general, so totally
unacquainted with every kind of work in which the Poor could be
most usefully employed, that that circumstance alone is a great
obstacle to the general introduction throughout the country of
the measures adopted in Munich for employing the Poor.  To remove
this difficulty, the different towns and communities who are
desirous of forming establishments for giving employment to the
Poor, are invited to send persons properly qualified to the house
of industry at Munich, where they may be taught, gratis, spinning,
in its various branches; knitting; sewing, etc. in order to
qualify them to become instructors to the Poor on their return home.
And even instructors already formed, and possessing all the
requisite qualifications for such an office, are offered to be
furnished by the house of industry in Munich to such communities
as shall apply for them.

Another difficulty, apparently not less weighty than that just
mentioned, but which is more easily and more effectually removed,
is the embarrassment many of the smaller communities are likely
to be under in procuring raw materials, and in selling to
advantage the goods manufactured, or, (as is commonly the case,)
IN PART ONLY MANUFACTURED, by the Poor.  The yarn, for instance,
which is spun by them in a country-town or village, far removed
from any manufacture of cloth, may lie on hand a long time before
it can be sold to advantage.  To remedy this, the house of
industry at Munich is ordered to furnish raw materials to such
communities as shall apply for them, and receive in return the
goods manufactured, at the full prices paid for the same articles
in Munich.  Not only these measures, and many others of a similar
nature, are taken, to facilitate the introduction of industry
among the Poor throughout the country; but every encouragement is
held out to induce individuals to exert themselves in this
laudable undertaking.  Those communities which are the first to
follow the example of the capital, are honourably mentioned in
the news-papers; and such individuals as distinguished themselves
by their zeal and activity upon those occasions, are praised and
rewarded.

A worthy curate, (Mr. Lechner,) preacher in one of the churches
in Munich, who, of his own accord, had taken upon himself to
defend the measures adopted with regard to the Poor, and to
recommend them in the most earnest manner from the pulpit,
was sent for by the Elector, into his closet, and thanked for
his exertions.

This transaction being immediately made known, (an account of it
having been published in the news-papers,) tended not a little to
engage the clergy in all parts of the country to exert themselves
in support of the institution.

It is not my intention to insinuate that the clergy in Bavaria
stood in need of any such motive to stimulate them to action in a
cause so important to the happiness and well-being of mankind,
and consequently so nearly connected with the sacred duties of
their office;--on the contrary, I should be wanting in candour,
as well as gratitude, were I not to embrace this opportunity of
expressing publicity, the obligations I feel myself under to them
for their support and assistance.

The number of excellent sermons which have been preached,
in order to recommend the measures adopted by the government for
making provision for the Poor, show how much this useful and
respectable body of men have had it at heart to contribute to the
success of this important measure; and their readiness to
co-operate with me, (a Protestant,) upon all occasions where
their assistance has been asked, not only does honour to the
liberality of their sentiments, but calls for my personal
acknowledgments, and particular thanks.

I shall conclude this Essay with an account of the progress which
some of the improvements introduced at Munich are now making in
other countries.  During my late journey in Italy for the
recovery of my health, I visited Verona; and becoming acquainted
with the principal directors of two large and noble hospitals,
la Pieta, and la Misericorde, in that city, the former containing
about 350, and the latter near 500 Poor, I had frequent occasions
to converse with them upon the subject of those establishments,
and to give them an account of the arrangements that had been
made in Munich.  I likewise took the liberty of proposing some
improvements, and particularly in regard to the arrangements for
feeding these Poor; and in the management of the fires employed
for cooking.  Fire-wood, the only fuel used in that country,
is extremely scarce and dear, and made a very heavy article in
the expences of those institutions.

Though this scarcity of fuel, which had prevailed for ages in
that part of Italy, had rendered it necessary to pay attention to
the economy of fuel, and had occasioned some improvements to be
made in the management of heat; yet I found, upon examining the
kitchens of these two hospitals, and comparing the quantities of
fuel consumed with the quantities of victuals cooked, that
SEVERN-EIGHTHS of the fire-wood they were then consuming might be
saved[15].  Having communicated the result of those enquiries to
the directors of these two hospitals, and offered my service to
alter the kitchens, and arrange them upon the principles of that
in the house of industry at Munich, (which I described to them,)
they accepted my offer, and the kitchens were rebuilt under my
immediate  direction; and have both succeeded, even beyond my
most sanguine expectations.  That of the hospital of la Pieta is
the most complete kitchen I have ever built; and I would
recommend it as a model, in preference to any I have ever seen.
I shall give a more particular description of it, with plans and
estimates, in my Essay on the Management of Heat.

During the time I was employed in building the new kitchen in the
hospital of la Pieta, I had an opportunity of making myself
acquainted with all the details of the clothing of the Poor
belonging to that establishment; and I found that very great
savings might be made in that article of expence.  I made a
proposal to the directors of that hospital, to furnish them with
clothing for their Poor, ready made up, from the house of
industry at Munich; and upon my return to Munich I sent them
TWELVE complete suits of clothing of different sizes as a sample,
and accompanied them with an estimate of the prices at which we
could afford to deliver them at Verona.

The success of this little adventure has been very flattering,
and has opened a very interesting channel for commerce, and for
the encouragement of industry in Bavaria.  This sample of
clothing being approved, and, with all the expences of carriage
added, being found to be near TWENTY PER CENT. cheaper than that
formerly used, orders have been received from Italy by the house
of industry at Munich, to a considerable amount, for clothing
the Poor.  In the beginning of September last, a few days before
I left Munich to come to England, I had the pleasure to assist in
packing up and sending off, over the Alps, by the Tyrol, SIX
HUNDRED articles of clothing of different kinds for the Poor of
Verona; and hope soon to see the Poor of Bavaria growing rich,
by manufacturing clothing for the Poor of Italy.

END OF THE FIRST ESSAY.


Footnotes to Essay I.

[1]
This paper, as it could afterwards be made use of for making
cartridges, in fact cost nothing.

[2]
A creutzer is 11/33 of an English penny.

[3]
Particular local reasons, which it is not necessary here to
explain, have hitherto prevented the establishment of military
gardens in these two garrison towns.

[4]
The whole amount of this burden was not more than 30,000 florins,
or about 2721L. sterling a year.

[5]
Mons.  Dallarmi.

[6]
The annual amount of these various receipts may be seen in the
accounts published in the Appendix.

[7]
Almost all the great law-givers, and founders of religions, from
the remotest antiquity, seem to have been aware of the influence
of cleanliness upon the moral character of man; and have strongly
inculcated it.  In many cases it has been interwoven with the
most solemn rites of public and private worship, and is so still
in many countries.  The idea that the soul is defiled and
depraved by every thing UNCLEAN, or which defies the body, has
certainly prevailed in all  ages; and has been particularly
attended to by those great benefactors of mankind, who, by the
introduction of PEACE and ORDER in society, have laboured
successfully to promote the happiness of their fellow-creatures.
Order and disorder--peace and war--health and sickness, cannot
exist together; but COMFORT and CONTENTMENT, and the inseparable
companions of HAPPINESS and VIRTUE, can only arise from order,
peace, and health.

[8]
Upon this occasion I must not forget to mention a curious
circumstance, which contributed very much towards clearing the
town effectually of beggars.  It being found that some of the
most hardened of these vagabonds were attempting to return to
their old practices, and that they found means to escape the
patroles, by keeping a sharp look-out, and avoiding them, to hold
them more effectually in check, the patroles sent out upon this
service were ordered to go without arms.  In consequence of this
arrangement, the beggars being no longer able to distinguish who
were in search of them, and who were not, saw a patrole in every
soldier they met with in the streets, (and of these there were
great numbers, Munich being a garrison town,) and from
thenceforward they were kept in awe.

[9]
Upon a new division of the town, when the suburbs were included,
the number of subdivisions (abtheilungs) were augmented to twenty
three.

[10]
This was written in the summer of the year 1795.

[11]
As these children were not shut up and confined like prisoners
in the house of industry, but all lodged in the town, with their
parents or friends, they had many opportunities to recreate
themselves, and take exercise in the open air; not only on
holidays, of which there are a very large number indeed kept in
Bavaria; but also on working-days, in coming and going to and
from the house of industry.  Had not this been the case,
a reasonable time would certainly have been allowed them for play
and recreation.  The cadets belonging to the Military Academy at
Munich are allowed no less than THREE HOURS a day for exercise
and relaxation, viz ONE HOUR immediately after dinner, which is
devoted to music, and TWO HOURS, later  in the afternoon,
for walking in the country, or playing in the open fields near
the town.

[12]
Since the publication of the first edition of the Essay,
the Author has received an account of the total destruction of the
Military  Work-house at Manheim.  It was set on fire, and burnt
to the ground, during the last siege of that city by the Austrian
troops.

[13]
Above 18,000 pounds sterling.

[14]
The committee, at the head of the establishment, has been enabled
to make this purchase, by legacies made to the institution.
These legacies have been numerous, and are increasing every day;
which clearly shows, that the measures adopted with regard to the
Poor have met with the approbation of the public.

[15]
I found upon examining the famous kitchen of the great hospital
at Florence, that the waste of fuel there is still greater.


CONTENTS of ESSAY II.

of the FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES on which GENERAL ESTABLISHMENTS for
the RELIEF of the POOR may be formed in all Countries.

CHAPTER. I.
 General View of the Subject.
 Deplorable State of those who are reduced to Poverty.
 No Body of Laws can be so framed as to provide effectually for
   their Wants.
 Only adequate Relief that can be afforded them must be derived
   from the voluntary Assistance of the Humane and Benevolent,
 How that Assistance is to be secured.
 Objections to the Expense of taking care of the Poor answered.
 Of the Means of introducing a Scheme for the Relief of the Poor.

CHAPTER. II.
 Of the Extent of an Establishment for the Poor.
 Of the Division of a Town or City into Districts.
 Of the Manner of carrying on the Business of a public
   Establishment for the Poor.
 Of the Necessity of numbering all the Houses in a Town where an
   Establishment for the Poor is formed.

CHAPTER. III.
 General Direction of the Affairs of an Institution for the Poor
   attended with no great Trouble.
 Of the best Method of carrying on the current Business, and of
   the great Use of printed Forms, or Blanks.
 Of the necessary Qualifications of those who are placed at the
   Head of an Establishment for the Relief of the Poor.
 Great Importance of this Subject.
 Cruelty and Impolicy of putting the Poor into the Hands of
   Persons they cannot respect and love.
 The Persons pointed out who are more immediately called upon to
   come forward with Schemes for the Relief of the Poor, and to
   give their active Assistance in carrying them into Effect.

CHAPTER. IV.
 Of the Necessity of effectual Measures for introducing a Spirit
   of Industry among the Poor in forming an Establishment for
   their Relief and Support.
 Of the Means which may be used for that Purpose; and for setting
   on foot a Scheme for forming an Establishment for feeding the
   Poor.

CHAPTER. V.
 Of the Means which may be used by Individuals in affluent
   Circumstances for the Relief of the Poor in their Neighbourhood.


ESSAY II.

CHAPTER. I.

 General View of the Subject.
 Deplorable State of those who are reduced to Poverty.
 No Body of Laws can be so framed as to provide efficaciously for
   their Wants.
 Only adequate Relief that can be afforded them must be derived
   from the voluntary Assistance of the Humane and Benevolent.
 How that Assistance is to be secured.
 Objections to the Expence of taking care of the Poor answered
 Of the Means of introducing a Scheme for the Relief of the Poor.

Though the fundamental principles upon which the Establishment
for the Poor at Munich is founded, are such as I can venture to
recommend; and notwithstanding the fullest information relative
to every part of that Establishment may, I believe, be collected
from the account of it which is given in the foregoing Essay;
yet, as this information is so dispersed in different parts of
the work, and so blended with a variety of other particulars,
that the reader would find some difficulty in bringing the whole
into one view, and arranging it systematically in a complete
whole; I shall endeavour briefly to resume the subject, and give
the result of all my enquiries relative to it, in a more concise,
methodical, and useful form: and as from the experience, I have
had in providing for the wants of the Poor, and reclaiming the
indolent and vicious to habits of useful industry, I may venture
to consider myself authorised to speak with some degree of
confidence upon the subject; instead of merely recapitulating
what has been said of the Establishment for the Poor at Munich,
(which would be at best but a tiresome repetition,) I shall now
allow myself a greater range in these investigations, and shall
give my opinions without restraint which may come under
consideration.  And though the system I shall propose, is founded
upon the successful experiments made at Munich, as may be seen by
comparing it with the details of that Establishment; yet, as a
difference in the local circumstances under which an operation is
performed, must necessarily require certain modifications of the
plan, I shall endeavour to take due notice of every modification
which may appear to me to be necessary[1].

Before I enter upon those details, it may be proper to take a
more extensive survey of the subject, and investigate the general
and fundamental Principles on which an Establishment for the
Relief of the Poor, in every country, ought to be founded.
At the same time I shall consider the difficulties which are
generally understood to be inseparable from such an undertaking,
and endeavour to show that they are by no means insurmountable.

That degree of poverty which involves in it the inability to
procure the necessaries of life without the charitable assistance
of the Public, is, doubtless, the heaviest of all misfortunes;
as it not only brings along with it the greatest physical evils,
pain,--and disease, but is attended by the most mortifying
humiliation, and hopeless despondency.  It is, moreover,
an incurable evil; and is rather irritated than alleviated by the
remedies commonly applied to remove it.  The only alleviation,
of which it is capable, must be derived from the kind and soothing
attentions of the truly benevolent. This is the only balm which
can sooth the anguish of a wounded heart, or allay the agitations
of a mind irritated by disappointment, and rendered ferocious by
despair.

And hence it evidently appears that no body of laws, however
wisely framed, can, in any country, effectually provide for the
relief of the Poor, without the voluntary assistance of individuals;
for though taxes may be levied by authority of the laws for the
support of the Poor, yet, those kind attentions which are so
necessary in the management of the Poor, as well to reclaim the
vicious, as to comfort and encourage the despondent--those
demonstrations of concern which are always so great a consolation
to persons in distress--cannot be COMMANDED BY FORCE.  On the
contrary, every attempt to use FORCE in such cases, seldom fails
to produce consequences directly contrary to those intended[2].

But if the only effectual relief for the distress of the Poor,
and the sovereign remedy for the numerous evils to society which
arise from the  prevalence of mendicity, indolence, poverty,
and misery, among the lower classes of society, must be derived
from the charitable and voluntary exertions of individuals;--
as the assistance of the Public cannot be expected, unless the
most unlimited confidence can be placed, not only in the wisdom
of the measures proposed, but also, and MORE ESPECIALLY, in the
UPRIGHTNESS, ZEAL, and PERFECT DISINTERESTEDNESS of the persons
appointed to carry them into execution; it is evident that the
first object to be attended to, in forming a plan of providing
for the Poor, is to make such arrangements as will COMMAND THE
CONFIDENCE OF THE PUBLIC, and fix it upon the most solid and
durable foundation.

This can most certainly, and most effectually be done;
first by engaging persons of high rank and
  the most respectable character to place themselves
  at the head of the Establishment:
secondly, by joining, in the general administration of the
  affairs of the Establishment, a certain number of persons chosen
  from the middling class of society; reputable tradesmen, in easy
  circumstances;--heads of families;--and others of known integrity
  and of humane dispositions[3]:
thirdly, by engaging all those who are employed in the
  administration of the affairs of the Poor, to serve without fee
  or reward:
fourthly, by publishing, at stated periods, such particular and
  authentic accounts of all receipts and expenditures, that no
  doubt can possibly be entertained by the Public respecting the
  proper application of the monies destined for the relief of the
  Poor:
fifthly, by publishing an alphabetical list of all who receive
  alms; in which list should be inserted, not only the name of
  the person, his age; condition; and place of abode; but also
  the amount of the weekly assistance granted to him; in order
  that those who entertain any doubts respecting the manner in
  which the Poor are provided for, may have the opportunity of
  visiting them at their habitations, and making enquiry into
  their real situations:
and lastly, the confidence of the Public, and the
  continuance of their support, will most effectually be secured
  by a prompt and successful execution of the plan adopted.

There is scarcely a greater plague that can infest society, than
swarms of beggars; and the inconveniencies to individuals arising
from them are so generally, and so severely felt, that relief
from so great an evil cannot fail to produce a powerful and
lasting effect upon the minds of the Public, and to engage all
ranks to unite in the support of measures as conducive to the
comfort of individuals, as they are essential to the national
honor and reputation. And even in countries where the Poor do not
make a practice of begging, the knowledge of their sufferings
must be painful to every benevolent mind; and there is no person,
I would hope, so callous to the feelings of humanity, as not to
rejoice most sincerely when effectual relief is afforded.

The greatest difficulty attending the introduction of any measure
founded upon the voluntary support of the Public, for maintaining
the Poor, and putting an end to mendicity, is an opinion
generally entertained, that a very heavy expence would be
indispensably necessary to carry into execution such an
undertaking.  But this difficulty may be speedily removed by
showing, (which may easily be done,) that the execution of a
well-arranged plan for providing for the Poor, and giving useful
employment to the idle and indolent, so far from being expensive,
must, in the end, be attended with a very considerable saving,
not only to the Public collectively, but also to individuals.

Those who now extort their subsistence by begging and stealing,
are, in fact, already maintained by the Public.  But this is not
all; they are maintained in a manner the most expensive and
troublesome, to themselves and the Public, that can be conceived;
and this may be said of all the Poor in general.

A poor person, who lives in poverty and misery, and merely from
hand to mouth, has not the power of availing himself of any of
those economical arrangements, in procuring the necessaries of life,
which other, in more affluent circumstances, may employ;
and which may be employed with peculiar advantage in a public
Establishment.--Added to this, the greater part of the Poor,
as well those who make a profession of begging, as other who do not,
might be usefully employed in various kinds of labour;
and supposing them, one with another, to be capable of earning
ONLY HALF as much as is necessary to their subsistence,
this would reduce the present expence to the Public for their
maintenance at least one half; and this half might be reduced
still much lower, by a proper attention to order and economy in
providing for their subsistence.

Were the inhabitants of a large town where mendicity is prevalent,
to subscribe only half the sums annually, which are extorted from
them by beggars, I am confident it would be quite sufficient,
with a proper arrangement, for the comfortable support of the
Poor of all denominations.

Not only those who were formerly common street-beggars, but all
others, without exception, who receive alms, in the city of
Munich and its suburbs, amounting at this time to more than 1800
persons, are supported almost entirely by voluntary subscriptions
from the inhabitants; and I have been assured by numbers of the
most opulent and respectable citizens, that the sums annually
extorted from them formerly by beggars alone, exclusive of
private charities, amounted to more than three times the sums now
given by them to the support of the new institution.  I insist the
more upon this point, as I know that the great expence which has
been supposed to be indispensably necessary to carry into
execution any scheme for effectually providing for the Poor,
and putting an end to mendicity, has deterred many well-disposed
persons from engaging in so useful an enterprise.  I have only to
add my most earnest wishes, that what I have said and done,
may remove every doubt, and re-animate the zeal of the Public,
in a cause in which the dearest interests of humanity are so
nearly concerned.

In almost every public undertaking, which is to be carried into
effect by the united voluntary exertions of individuals, without
the interference of government, there is a degree of awkwardness
in bringing forward the business, which it is difficult to avoid,
and which is frequently not a little embarrassing.  This will
doubtless be felt by those who engage in forming and executing
schemes for providing for the Poor by private subscription;
they should not, however, suffer themselves to be discouraged by
a difficulty which may so easily be surmounted.

In the introduction of every scheme for forming an Establishment
for the Poor, whether it be proposed to defray the expense by
voluntary subscriptions, or by a tax levied for the purpose,
it will be proper for the authors or promoters of the measure to
address the Public upon the subject; to inform them of the nature
of the measures proposed;-- of their tendency to promote the
public welfare, and to point out the various ways in which
individuals may give their assistance to render the scheme
successful.

There are few cities in Europe, I believe, in which the state of
the Poor would justify such an address as that which was
published at Munich upon taking up the beggars in that town;
but something of the kind; with such alterations as local
circumstances may require, I am persuaded, would in most cases
produce good effects.  With regard to the assistance that might
be be given by individuals to carry into effect a scheme for
providing for the Poor, though measures for that purpose may,
and ought to be so taken, that the Public would have little or
no trouble in their execution, yet there are many things which
individuals must be  instructed cautiously to avoid; otherwise
the  enterprise will be extremely difficult, it not impracticable;
and, above all things, they must be warned against giving alms to
beggars.

Though nothing would be more unjust and tyrannical, than to
prevent the generous and humane from contributing to the relief of
the Poor and necessitous, yet, as giving alms to beggars tends so
directly and so powerfully to encourage idleness and immorality,
to discourage the industrious Poor, and perpetuate mendicity,
with all its attendant evils, too much pains cannot be taken to
guard the Public against a practice so fatal in its consequences
to society.

All who are desirous of contributing to the relief of the Poor,
should be invited to send their charitable donations to be
distributed by those who, being at the head of a public
Institution established for taking care of the Poor, must be
supposed best acquainted with their wants.  Or, if individuals
should prefer distributing their own charities, they ought at
least to take the trouble to enquire after fit objects; and to
apply their donations in such a manner as not to counteract the
measures of a public and useful Establishment.

But, before I enter farther into these details, it will be
necessary to determine the proper extent and limits of an
Establishment for the Poor; and show how a town or city ought to
be divided in districts, in order to facilitate the purposes of
such an institution.


CHAPTER.  II.
 Of the Extent of an Establishment for the Poor.
 Of the Division of a Town or City into Districts.
 Of the Manner of carrying on the Business of a public
   Establishment for the Poor.
 Of the Necessity of numbering all the Houses in a Town where an
   Establishment for the Poor is formed.

However large a city may be, in which an Establishment for the
Poor is to be formed, I am clearly of opinion, that there should
be but ONE ESTABLISHMENT;--with ONE committee for the general
management of all its affairs;--and ONE treasurer. This unity
appears essentially necessary, not only  because, when all the
parts tend to one common centre, and act in union to the same
end, under one direction, they are less liable to be impeded in
their operations, or disordered by collision;--but also on
account of THE VERY UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH, as well as of
misery and poverty, in the different districts of the same town.
Some parishes in great cities have comparatively few Poor,
while others, perhaps less opulent, are overburthened with them;
and there seems to be no good reason why a house-keeper in any town
should be called upon to pay more or less for the support of the
Poor, because he happens to live on one side of a street or the
other.  Added to this, there are  certain districts in most great
towns where poverty and misery seem to have fixed their
head-quarters, and where it would be IMPOSSIBLE for the
inhabitants to support the expence of maintaining their Poor.
Where that is the case, as measures for preventing mendicity in
every town must be general, in order to their being successful,
the enterprise, FROM THAT CIRCUMSTANCE ALONE, would be rendered
impracticable, were the assistance of the more opulent districts
to be refused.

There is a district, for instance, belonging to Munich, (the Au,)
a very large parish, which may be called the St. Giles's of that
city, where the alms annually received are TWENTY TIMES as much
as the whole district contributes to the funds of the public
Institution for the Poor.--The inhabitants of the other parishes,
however, have never considered it a hardship to them, that the
Poor of the Au should be admitted to share the public bounty, in
common with the Poor of the other parishes.

Every town must be divided, according to its extent, into a
greater or less number of districts, or subdivisions; and each of
these must have a committee of inspection, or rather a commissary,
with assistants, who must be entrusted with the superintendance
and management of all affairs relative to the relief and support
of the Poor within its limits.

In very large cities, as the details of a general Establishment
for the Poor would be very numerous and extensive, it would
probably facilitate the management of the affairs of the
Establishment, if, beside the smallest subdivisions or districts,
there could be formed other larger divisions, composed of a
certain number of districts, and put under the direction of
particular committees.

The most natural, and perhaps the most convenient method of
dividing a large city or town, for the purpose of introducing a
general Establishment for the Poor, would be, to form of the
parishes the primary divisions; and to divide each parish into so
many subdivisions, or districts, as that each district may
consist of from 3000 to 4000 inhabitants.  Though the immediate
inspection and general superintendance of the affairs of each
parish were to be left to its own particular committee, yet the
supreme committee at the head of the general Institution should
not only exercise a controlling power over the parochial
committees, but these last should not be empowered to levy money
upon the parishioners, by setting on foot voluntary subscriptions,
or otherwise; or to dispose of any sums belonging to the general
Institution, except in cases of urgent necessity;--nor should
they be permitted to introduce any new arrangements with respect
to the management of the Poor, without the approbation and
consent of the supreme committee: the most perfect uniformity in
the mode of treating the Poor, and transacting all public
business relative to the Institution, being indispensably
necessary to secure success to the undertaking, and fix the
Establishment upon a firm and durable foundation.

For the same reasons, all monies collected in the parishes should
not be received and disposed of by their particular committees,
but ought to be paid into the public treasury of the Institution,
and carried to the general account of receipts;--and, in like
manner, the sums necessary for the support of the Poor in each
parish should be furnished from the general treasury, on the
orders of the supreme committee.

With regard to the applications of individuals in distress for
assistance, all such applications ought to be made through the
commissary of the district to the parochial committee;--and where
the necessity is not urgent, and particularly where permanent
assistance is required, the demand should be referred by the
parochial committee to the supreme committee, for their decision.
In cases of urgent necessity, the parochial committees, and even
the commissaries of districts, should be authorized to administer
relief, ex officio, and without delay; for which purpose they
should be furnished with certain sums in advance, to be afterwards
accounted for by them.

That the supreme committee may be exactly informed of the real
state of those in distress who apply for relief, every petition,
forwarded by a parochial committee, or by a commissary of a
district, where there are no parochial committees, should be
accompanied with an exact and detailed account of the
circumstances of the petitioner, signed by the commissary of the
district to which he belongs, together with the amount of the
weekly sum, or other relief, which such commissary may deem
necessary for the support of the petitioner.

To save the commissaries of districts the trouble of writing the
descriptions of the Poor who apply for assistance, printed forms,
similar to that which may been seen in the Appendix, No. V. may
be furnished to them;--and other printed forms, of a like nature,
may be introduced with great advantage in many other cafes in the
management of the Poor.

With regard to the manner in which the supreme and parochial
committees should be formed;-- however they may be composed,
it will be indispensably requisite, for the preservation of order
and harmony in all the different parts of the Establishment,
that one member at least of each parochial committee be present,
and have a seat, and voice, as a member of the supreme committee.
And, that all the members of each parochial committee may be
equally well informed with regard to the general affairs of the
Establishment, it may perhaps be proper that those members
attended the meetings of the supreme committee in rotation.

For similar reasons it may be proper to invite the commissaries
of districts to be present in rotation at the meetings of the
committees of their respective parishes, where there are
parochial committees established, or otherwise, at the  meetings
of the supreme committee[4].

It is, however, only in very large cities that I would recommend
the forming parochial committees. In all towns where the
inhabitants do not amount to more than 100,000 souls, I am
clearly of opinion that it would be best merely to divide the
town into districts, without regard to the limits of parishes;
and to direct all the affairs of the institution by one simple
committee.  This mode was adopted at Munich, and found to be easy
in practice, and successful; and it is not without some degree of
diffidence, I own, that I have ventured to propose a deviation
from a plan, which has not yet been justified by experience.

But however a town may be divided into districts, it will be
absolutely necessary that ALL the houses be regularly numbered,
and an accurate list made out of all the persons who inhabit
them. The propriety of this measure is too apparent to require
any particular explanation.  It is one of the very first steps
that ought to be taken in carrying into execution any plan for
forming an Establishment for the Poor; it being as necessary to
know the names and places of abode of those, who, by voluntary
subscription, or otherwise, assist in relieving the Poor, as to
be acquainted with the dwellings of the objects themselves; and
this measure is as indispensable necessary when an institution
for the Poor is formed in a small country-town or village, as
when it is formed in the largest capital.

In many cases, it is probable, the established laws of the country
in which an institution for the Poor may be formed, and certain
usages, the influence of which may perhaps be still more powerful
than the laws, may render modifications necessary, which it is
utterly impossible for me to foresee; still the great fundamental
principles upon which every sensible plan for such an
Establishment must be founded, appear to me to be certain and
immutable; and when rightly understood, there can be no great
difficulty in accommodating the plan to all those particular
circumstances under which it may be carried into execution,
without making any essential alteration.


CHAPTER. III.

 General Direction of the Affairs of an Institution for
   the Poor attended with no great Trouble.
 Of the best Method of carrying on the current Business,
   and the great Use of printed Forms, or Blanks.
 Of the necessary qualifications of those who are placed at the
   Head of an Establishment for the Relief of the Poor.
 Great Importance of this Subject.
 Cruelty and Impolicy of putting the Poor into the Hands of
   Persons they cannot respect and love.
 The Persons pointed out who are more immediately called upon to
   come forward with Schemes for the Relief of the Poor, and to
   give their active Assistance in carrying them into Effect.

Whatever the number of districts into which a city is divided,
may be, or the number of committees employed in the management of
a public Establishment for the relief of the Poor, it is
indispensably necessary that all individuals who are employed in
the undertaking be persons of known integrity;--for courage is
not more necessary in the character of a general, than unshaken
integrity in the character of a governor of a public charity.
I insist the more upon this point as the whole scheme is founded
upon the voluntary assistance of individuals, and therefore to
ensure its success the most unlimited confidence of the public
must be reposed in those who are to carry it into execution;
besides, I may add, that the manner in which the funds of the
various public Establishments for the relief of the Poor already
instituted have been commonly been administered in most countries,
does not tend to render superfluous the precautions I propose for
securing the confidence of the public.

The preceding observations respecting the  importance of
employing none but persons of known integrity at the head of an
institution for the relief of the Poor, relates chiefly to the
necessity of encouraging people in affluent circumstances, and
the public at large, to unite in the support of such an
Establishment.--There is also another reason, perhaps equally
important, which renders it expedient to employ persons of the
most respectable character in the details of an institution of
public charity,--the good effects such a choice must have upon
the minds and morals of the Poor.

Persons who are reduced to indigent circumstances, and become
objects of public charity, come under the direction of those who
are appointed to take care of them with minds weakened by adversity,
and soured by disappointment; and finding themselves separated
from the rest of mankind, and cut off from all hope of seeing
better days, they naturally grow peevish, and discontented,
suspicious of those set over them, and of one another; and the
kindest treatment, and most careful attention to every
circumstance that can render their situation supportable,
are therefore required, to prevent their being very unhappy.
And nothing surely can contribute more powerfully to soothe the
minds of persons in such unfortunate and hopeless circumstances,
than to find themselves under the care and protection of persons
of gentle manners;--humane dispositions;--and known probity and
integrity; such as even THEY,--with all their  suspicions about
them, may venture to love and respect,

Whoever has taken the pains to investigate the nature of the
human mind, and examine attentively those circumstances upon
which human happiness depends, must know how necessary it is to
happiness, that the mind should have some object upon which to
place its more tender affections--something to love,--to cherish,
--to esteem,--to respect,--and to venerate; and these resources
are never so necessary as in the hour of adversity and
discouragement, where no ray of hope is left to cheer the
prospect, and stimulate to fresh exertion.

The lot of the Poor, particularly of those who, from easy
circumstances and a reputable station in society, are reduced by
misfortunes, or oppression, to become a burthen on the Public,
is truly deplorable, after all that can be done for them:--
and were we seriously to consider their situation, I am sure we
should think that we could never do too much to alleviate their
sufferings, and soothe the anguish of wounds which can never be
healed.

For the common misfortunes of life, HOPE is a  sovereign remedy.
But what remedy can be applied to evils, which involve even the
loss of hope itself? and what can those have to hope, who are
separated and cut off from society, and for ever excluded from
all share in the affairs of men?  To them, honours;--distinctions;
--praise;--and even property itself;--all those objects of
laudable ambition which so powerfully excite the activity of man
in civil society, and contribute so essentially to happiness,
by filling the mind with pleasing prospects of future enjoyments,
are but empty names; or rather, they are subjects of
never-ceasing regret and discontent.

That gloom must indeed be dreadful, which overspreads the mind,
when HOPE, that bright luminary of the soul, which enlightens and
cheers it, and excites and calls forth into action all its best
faculties, has disappeared!

There are many, it is true, who, from their indolence or
extravagance, or other vicious habits, fall into poverty and
distress, and become a burthen on the public, who are so vile and
degenerate as not to feel the wretchedness of their situation.
But these are miserable objects, which the truly benevolent will
regard with an eye of peculiar compassion;--they must be very
unhappy, for they are very vicious; and nothing should be
omitted, that can tend to reclaim them;--but nothing will tend so
powerfully to reform them, as kind usage from the hands of
persons they must learn to love and to respect at the same time.

If I am too prolix upon this head, I am sorry for it.  It is a
strong conviction of the great importance of the subject, which
carries me away, and makes me, perhaps, tiresome, where I would
wish most to avoid it.  The care of the Poor, however, I must
consider as a matter of very serious importance. It appears to me
to be one of the most sacred duties imposed upon men in a state
of civil society;--one of those duties imposed immediately  by
the hand of God himself, and of which the neglect never goes
unpunished.

What I have said respecting the necessary qualifications of those
employed in taking care of the Poor, I hope will not deter
well-disposed persons, who are willing to assist in so useful an
undertaking, from coming forward with propositions for the
institution of public Establishments for that purpose; or from
offering themselves candidates for employments in the management
of such Establishments.  The qualifications pointed out, integrity,
and a gentle and humane disposition,--honesty, and a good heart;--
are such as any one may boldly lay claim to, without fear of
being taxed with vanity or ostentation.--And if individuals in
private stations, on any occasion are called upon to lay aside
their bashfulness and modest dissidence, and come forward into
public view, it must surely be, when by their exertions they can
essentially contribute to promote measures which are calculated
to increase the happiness and prosperity of society.

It is a vulgar saying, that, what is everybody's business, is
nobody's business; and it is very certain that many schemes,
evidently intended for the public good, have been neglected,
merely because nobody could be prevailed on to stand forward and
be the first to adopt them.  This doubtless has been the case in
regard to many judicious and well arranged proposals for
providing for the Poor; and will probably be so again.  I shall
endeavour, however, to show, that though in undertakings in which
the general welfare of society is concerned, persons of all ranks
and conditions are called upon to give them their support, yet,
in the INTRODUCTION of such measures as are here recommended,--
a scheme of providing for the Poor,--there are many who, by their
rank and peculiar situations, are clearly pointed out as the most
proper to take up the business at its commencement, and bring it
forward to maturity; as well as to take an active part in the
direction and management of such an institution after it has been
established: and it appears to me, that the nature and the end of
the  undertaking evidently point out the persons who are more
particularly called upon to set an example on such an occasion.

If the care of the Poor be an object of great national importance,
--if it be inseparably connected with the peace and tranquillity
of society, and with the glory and prosperity of the state;--
if the advantages which individuals share in the public welfare
are in proportion to the capital they have at stake in this great
national fund--that is to say, in proportion to their rank,
property, and connexions, or general influence;--as it is just
that every one should contribute in proportion to the advantages
he receives; it is evident who ought to be the first to come
forward upon such an occasion.

But it is not merely on account of the superior interest they
have in the public welfare, that persons of high rank and great
property, and such as occupy places of importance in the
government, are bound to support measures calculated to relieve
the distresses of the Poor;--there is still another circumstance
which renders it indispensably necessary that they should take an
active part in such measures, and that is, the influence which
their example must have upon others.

It is impossible to prevent the bulk of mankind from being swayed
by the example of those to whom they are taught to look up as
their superiors; it behoves, therefore, all who enjoy such high
privileges, to employ all the influence which their rank and
fortune give them, to promote the public good.  And this may
justly be considered as a duty of a peculiar kind;--a PERSONAL
service attached to the station they hold in society, and which
cannot be commuted.

But if the obligations which persons of rank and property are
under, to support measures  designed for the relief of the Poor,
are so binding, how much more so must they be upon those who have
taken upon themselves the sacred office of public teachers of
virtue and morality;--the Ministers of a most holy religion;--
a religion whose first precepts inculcate charity and universal
benevolence, and whose great object is, unquestionably,
the peace, order, and happiness of society.

If there be any whose peculiar province it is to seek for objects
in distress and want, and administer to them relief;--if there be
any who are bound by the indispensable duties of their profession
to encourage by every means in their power, and more especially
by EXAMPLE, the general practice of charity; it is, doubtless,
the Ministers of the gospel. And such is their influence in
society, arising from the nature of their office, that their
example is a matter of VERY SERIOUS IMPORTANCE.

Little persuasion, I should hope, would be necessary to induce
the clergy, in any country, to give their cordial and active
assistance in relieving the distresses of the Poor, and providing
for their comfort and happiness, by introducing order and useful
industry among them.

Another class of men, who from the station they hold in society,
and their knowledge of the laws of the country, may be highly
useful in carrying into effect such an undertaking, are the civil
magistrates; and, however a committee for the government and
direction of an Establishment for the Poor may in other respects
be composed, I am clearly of opinion, that the Chief Magistrate
of the town, or city, where such an Establishment is formed,
ought always to be one of its members.  The Clergyman of the
place who is highest in rank or dignity ought, likewise, to be
another; and if he be a Bishop, or Archbishop, his assistance is
the more indispensable.

But as persons who hold offices of great trust and importance in
the church, as well as under the civil government, may be so much
engaged in the duties of their stations, as not to have
sufficient leisure to attend to other matters; it may be
necessary, when such distinguished persons lend their assistance
in the management of an Establishment for the relief of the Poor,
that each of them be permitted to bring with them a person of his
own choice into the committee, to assist him in the business.
The Bishop, for instance, may bring his chaplain;--the Magistrate,
his clerk;--the Nobleman, or private gentleman, his son,
or friend, etc.  But in small towns, of two or three parishes,
and particularly in country-towns and villages, which do not
consist of more than one or two parishes, as the details in the
management of the affairs of the Poor in such communities cannot
be extensive, the members of the committee may manage the
business without assistants. And indeed in all cases, even in
great cities, when a general Establishment for the Poor is formed
upon a good plan, the details of the executive and more laborious
parts of the management of it will be so divided among the
commissaries of the districts, that the members of the  supreme
committee will have little more to do than just hold the reins,
and direct the movement of the machine. Care must however be
taken to preserve the most perfect uniformity in the motions of
all its parts, otherwise confusion must ensue; hence the
necessity of directing the whole from one center.

As the inspection of the Poor;--the care of them when they are
sick;--the distribution of the sums granted in alms for their
support;--the furnishing them with clothes;--and the collection
of the voluntary subscriptions of the inhabitants,--will be
performed by the commissaries of the districts, and their
assistants;--and as all the details relative to giving employment
to the Poor, and feeding them, may be managed by particular
subordinate committees, appointed for those purposes, the current
business of the supreme committee will amount to little more than
the exercise of a general superintendance.

This committee, it is true, must determine upon all demands from
the Poor who apply for assistance; but as every such demand will
be accompanied with the most particular account of the
circumstances of the petitioner, and the nature and amount of
assistance necessary to his relief, certified by the commissary
of the district in which the petitioner resides,--and also by
the parochial committee, where such are established,--the matter
will be so prepared and digested, that the members of the supreme
committee will have very little trouble to decide on the merits
of the case, and the assistance to be granted.

This assistance will consist--in a certain sum to be given WEEKLY
in alms to the petitioner, by the commissary of the district, out
of the funds of the Institution;--in an allowance of bread
only;--in a present of certain articles of clothing, which will
be specified;--or, perhaps, merely in an order for being
furnished with wood, clothing, or fuel, from the public kitchens
or magazines of the Establishment, AT THE PRIME COST of those
articles, AS AN ASSISTANCE to the petitioner, and to prevent the
NECESSITY OF HIS BECOMING A BURTHEN ON THE  PUBLIC.

The manner last mentioned of assisting the Poor,--that of
furnishing them with the necessaries of life at lower prices than
those at which they are sold in the public markets, is a matter
of such importance, that I shall take occasion to treat of it
more fully hereafter.

With respect to the petitions presented to the committee;--
whatever be the assistance demanded, the petition received ought
to be accompanied by a duplicate; to the end that, the decision
of the  committee being entered upon the duplicate, as well as
upon the original, and the duplicate sent back to the commissary
of the district, the business may be finished with the least
trouble possible; and even without the necessary of any more
formal order relative to the matter being given by the committee.

I have already mentioned the great utility of PRINTED FORMS,
for petitions, returns, etc. in carrying on the business of an
Establishment for the Poor, and I would again most earnestly
recommend the general use of them.  Those who have not had
experience in such matters, can have no idea how much they
contribute to preserve order, and facilitate and expedite
business.  To the general introduction of them in the management
of the affairs of the Institution for the Poor at Munich, I
attribute, more than to any thing else, the perfect order which
has continued to reign throughout every part of that extensive
Establishment, from its first existence to the present moment.

In carrying on the business of that Establishment, printed forms
or blanks are used, not only for petitions;--returns;--lists of
the Poor;-- descriptions of the Poor;--lists of the inhabitants;
--lists of subscribers to the support of the Poor;--orders upon
the banker or treasurer of the Institution;--but also for the
reports of the monthly collections made by the commissaries of
districts;--the accounts sent in by the commissaries, of the
extraordinary expences incurred in affording assistance to those
who stand in need of immediate relief;--the banker's receipts;
--and even the books in which are kept the accounts of the
receipts and expenditures of the Establishment.

In regard to the proper forms for these blanks; as they must
depend, in a great measure, upon  local circumstances, no general
directions can be given, other than, in all cases, the shortest
forms that can be drawn up, consistent with perspicuity, are
recommended; and that the subject-matter of each particular or
single return, may be so disposed as to be easily transferred to
such general tables, or general accounts, as the nature of the
return and other circumstances may require.  Care should likewise
be taken to make them of such a form, SHAPE and dimension, that
they may be  regularly folded up, and docketed, in order to their
being preserved among the public records of the Institution.


CHAPTER. IV.

 Of the Necessity of effectual Measures for introducing a Spirit
   of Industry among the Poor in forming an Establishment for
   their Relief and Support.
 Of the Means which may be used for that Purpose; and for setting
   on foot a Scheme for forming an Establishment for feeding the
   Poor.

An object of the very first importance in forming an Establishment
for the relief and support of the Poor, is to take effectual
measures for introducing a spirit of industry among them; for it
is most certain, that all sums of money, or other assistance,
given to the Poor in alms, which do not tend to make them
industrious, never can fail to have a contrary tendency, and to
operate as an encouragement to idleness and immorality.

And as the merit of an action is to be determined by the good it
produces, the charity of a nation ought not to be estimated by
the millions which are paid in Poor's taxes, but by the pains
which are taken to see that the sums raised are properly applied.

As the providing useful employment for the Poor, and rendering
them industrious, is, and ever has been, a great DESIDERATUM in
political economy, it may be proper to enlarge a little here,
upon that interesting subject.

The great mistake committed in most of the attempts which have
been made to introduce a spirit of industry, where habits of
idleness have prevailed, has been the too frequent and improper
use of coercive measures, by which the persons to be reclaimed
have commonly been offended and thoroughly disgusted at the very
out-set.--Force will not do it.--Address, not force, must be used
on those occasions.

The children in the house of industry at Munich, who, being
placed upon elevated seats round the halls where other children
worked, were made to be idle spectators of that amusing scene,
cried most bitterly when their request to be permitted to descend
from their places, and mix in that busy crowd, was refused;--but
they would, most probably, have cried still more, had they been
taken abruptly from their play and FORCED to work.

"Men are but children of a larger growth;"-- and those who
undertake to direct them, ought ever to bear in mind that
important truth.

That impatience of control, and jealousy and obstinate
perseverance in maintaining the rights of personal liberty and
independence, which so strongly mark the human character in all
the stages of life, must be managed with great caution and
address, by those who are desirous of doing good;--or, indeed,
of doing any thing effectually with mankind.

It has often been said, that the Poor are vicious and profligate,
and that THEREFORE nothing but force will answer to make them
obedient, and keep them in order;--but, I should say, that
BECAUSE the Poor are vicious and profligate, it is so much the
more necessary to avoid the appearance of force in the management
of them, to prevent their becoming rebellious and incorrigible.

Those who are employed to take up and tame the wild horses
belonging to the Elector Palatine, which are bred in the forest
near Dusseldorf, never use force in reclaiming that noble animal,
and  making him docile and obedient.  They begin with making a
great circuit, in order to approach him; and rather decoy than
force him into the situation in which they wish to bring him, and
ever afterwards treat him with the greatest kindness; it having
been found by experience, that ill-usage seldom fails to make him
"a man-hater," untameable, and incorrigibly vicious.--It may,
perhaps, be thought fanciful and trifling, but the fact really
is, that an attention to the means used by these people to gain
the confidence of those animals, and teach them to like their
keepers, their stables, and their mangers, suggested to me many
ideas which I afterwards put in execution with great success, in
reclaiming those abandoned and ferocious animals in human shape,
which I undertook to tame and render gentle and docile.

It is however necessary in every attempt to introduce a spirit of
order and industry among the idle and profligate, not merely to
avoid all harsh and offensive treatment, which, as has already
been observed, could only serve to irritate them and render them
still more vicious and obstinate, but it is also indispensably
necessary to do every thing that can be devised to encourage and
reward every symptom of reformation.

It will likewise be necessary sometimes to punish the obstinate;
but recourse should never be had to punishments till GOOD USAGE
has first been fairly tried and found to be ineffectual.
The delinquent must be made to see that he has deserved the
punishment, and when it is inflicted, care should be taken to
make him feel it.  But in order that the punishment may have the
effects intended, and not serve to irritate the person punished,
and excite personal hatred and revenge, instead of disposing the
mind to serious reflection, it must be administered in the most
solemn and most DISPASSIONATE manner; and it must be continued no
longer than till the FIRST DAWN of reformation appears.

How much prudence and caution are necessary in dispensing rewards
and punishments;--and yet--how little attention is in general
paid to those important transactions!

REWARDS and PUNISHMENTS are the only means by which mankind can
be controlled and directed; and yet, how often do we see them
dispensed in the most careless--most imprudent--and most improper
manner!--how often are they confounded!--how often misapplied!--
and how often do we see them made the instruments of gratifying
the most sordid private passions!

To the improper use of them may be attributed all the disorders
of civil society.--To the improper or careless use of them may,
most unquestionably, be attributed the prevalence of poverty,
misery, and mendicity in most countries, and particularly in
Great Britain, where the healthfulness and mildness of the
climate--the fertility of the soil--the abundance of fuel--the
numerous and flourishing manufactures--the extensive commerce--
and the millions of acres of waste lands which still remain to be
cultivated, furnish the means of giving useful employment to all
its inhabitants, and even to a much more numerous population.

But if instead of encouraging the laudable exertions of useful
industry, and assisting and relieving the unfortunate and the
infirm--(the only real objects of charity,)--the means designed
for those purposes are so misapplied as to operate as rewards to
idleness and immorality, the greater the sums are which are
levied on the rich for the relief of the poor, the more numerous
will that class become, and the greater will be their profligacy,
their insolence, and their shameless and clamorous importunity.

There is, it cannot be denied, in man, a natural propensity to
sloth and indolence; and though habits of industry,--like all
habits,--may render those exertions easy and pleasant which at
first are painful and irksome, yet no person, in any situation,
ever chose labour merely for its own sake.  It is always the
apprehension of some greater evil,--or the hope of some enjoyment,
by which mankind are compelled or allured, when they take to
industrious pursuits.

In the rude state of savage nature the wants of men are few,
and these may all be easily supplied without the commission of
any crime; consequently industry, under such circumstances,
is not necessary, nor can indolence be justly considered as a vice;
but in a state of civil society, where population is great,
and the means of subsistence not to be had without labour,
or without defrauding others of the fruits of their industry,
idleness becomes a crime of the most fatal tendency,
and consequently of the most heinous nature; and every means
should be used to discountenance, punish, and prevent it.

And we see that Providence, ever attentive to provide remedies
for the disorders which the  progress of society occasions in the
world, has provided for idleness--as soon as the condition of
society renders it a vice, but not before--a punishment every way
suited to its nature, and calculated to prevent its prevalency
and pernicious consequences:--This is WANT,--and a most
efficacious remedy it is for the evil,--when the WISDOM OF MAN
does not interfere to counteract it, and prevent its salutary
effects.

But reserving the father investigation of this part of my subject
--that respecting the means to be used for encouraging industry--
to some future opportunity, I shall now endeavour to show, in a
few words, how, under the most unfavourable circumstances,
an arrangement for putting an end to mendicity, and introducing
a spirit of industry among the Poor, might be introduced and
carried into execution.

If I am obliged to take a great circuit, in order to arrive at my
object, it must be remembered, that where a vast weight is to be
raised by human means, a variety of machinery must necessarily be
provided; and that it is only by bringing all the different
powers employed to act together to the same end, that the purpose
in view can be attained.  It will likewise be remembered, that as
no mechanical power can be made to act without a force be applied
to it sufficient to overcome the resistance, not only of the vis
inertia, but also of friction, so no moral agent can be brought
to act to any given end without sufficient motives; that is to
say, without such motives as THE PERSON WHO IS TO ACT may deem
sufficient, not only to decide his opinion, but also to OVERCOME
HIS INDOLENCE.

The object proposed,--the relief of the Poor, and the providing
for their future comfort and happiness, by introducing among them
a spirit of order and industry, is such as cannot fail to meet
with the approbation of every well-disposed person.--But I will
suppose, that a bare conviction of the  UTILITY of the measure is
not sufficient alone to overcome the indolence of the Public, and
induce them to engage ACTIVELY in the undertaking;--yet as people
are at all times, and in all situations, ready enough to do what
they FEEL to be their interest, if, in bringing forward a scheme
of public utility, the proper means be used to render it so
interesting as to awaken the CURIOSITY, and fix the attention of
the Public, no doubts can be entertained of the possibility of
carrying it into effect.

In arranging such a plan, and laying it before  the Public,
no small degree of knowledge of mankind, and particularly of the
various means of acting on them, which are peculiarly adapted to
the different stages of civilization, or rather of the political
refinement and corruption of society, would, in most cases,
be indispensably necessary; but with that knowledge, and a good
share of zeal, address, prudence, and perseverance, there are few
schemes, in which an honest man would wish to be concerned, that
might not be carried into execution in any country.

In such a city as London, where there is great wealth;--public
spirit;--enterprize;--and zeal for improvement; little more,
I flatter myself, would be necessary to engage all ranks to unite
in carrying into effect such a scheme, than to show its public
utility; and, above all, to prove that there IS NO JOB at the
bottom of it.

It would, however, be advisable, in submitting to the Public,
Proposals for forming such an Establishment, to show that those
who are invited to assist in carrying it into execution, would
not only derive from it much pleasure and satisfaction, but also
many real advantages; for too much pains can never be taken to
interest the Public individually, and directly, in the success of
measures tending to promote the general good of society.

The following Proposals, which I will suppose to be made by some
person of known and respectable character, who has courage enough
to engage  in so arduous an undertaking, will show my ideas upon
this subject in the clearest manner.--Whether they are well
founded, must be left to the reader to determine.--As to myself,
I am so much persuaded that the scheme here proposed, by way of
example, and merely for illustration, might be executed, that,
had I time for the undertaking, (which I have not,) I should not
hesitate to engage in it.

  PROPOSALS for forming by private subscription, an ESTABLISHMENT
  for feeding the Poor, and giving them useful Employment;

And also for furnishing Food at a cheap Rate to others who may
stand in need of such Assistance.  Connected with an INSTITUTION
for introducing, and bringing forward into general Use, new
Inventions and Improvements, particularly such as relate to the
Management of Heat and the saving of Fuel; and to various other
mechanical Contrivances by which DOMESTIC COMFORT and ECONOMY may
be promoted.
 Submitted to the Public,
                               By A.  B.

The Author of these Proposals declares solemnly, in the face of
the whole world, that he has no interested view whatever in
making these Proposals; but is actuated merely and simply by a
desire to do good, and promote the happiness and prosperity of
society, and the honour and reputation of his country.--That he
never will demand, accept, or receive any pay or other recompence
or reward of any kind whatever from any person or persons,
for his services or trouble, in carrying into execution the proposed
scheme, or any part thereof, or for anything he may do or perform
in future relating to it, or to any of its details or concerns.

And, moreover, that he never will avail himself of any
opportunities that may offer in the execution of the plan
proposed, for deriving profit, emolument, or advantage of any
kind, either for himself, his friends, or connections;--but that,
on the contrary, he will take upon himself to be personally
responsible to the Public, and more immediately to the
Subscribers to this Undertaking, that NO PERSON shall FIND MEANS
to make a job of the proposed Establishment, or of any of the
details of its execution, or of its management, as long as the
Author of these Proposals remains charged with its direction.

With respect to the particular objects and extent of the proposed
Establishment, these may be seen by the account which is given of
them at the head of these Proposals; and as to their utility,
there can be no doubts.  They certainly must tend very powerfully
to promote the comfort, happiness, and prosperity of society,
and will do honour to the nation, as well as to those individuals
who may contribute to carry them into execution.

With the regard to the possibility of carrying into effect the
proposed scheme;--the facility with which this may be done, will
be evident when the method of doing it, which will now be pointed
out, is duly considered.

As soon as a sum shall be subscribed sufficient for the purposes
intended, the Author of these Proposals will, by letters, request
a meeting of the TWENTY-FIVE persons who shall stand highest on
the list of subscribers, for the purpose of examining the
subscription-lists, and of appointing, by ballot, a committee,
composed of five persons, skilled in the details of building,
and in accounts, to collect the subscriptions, and to superintend
the execution of the plan.--This committee, which will be chosen
from among the subscribers at large, will be authorised and
directed, to examine all the works that will be necessary in
forming the Establishment, and see that they are properly
performed, and at reasonable prices;--to examine and approve of
all contracts for work, or for materials;--to examine and check
all accounts of expenditures of every kind, in the execution of
the plan;--and to give orders for all payments.

The general arrangement of the Establishment, and of all its
details, will be left to the Author of these Proposals; who will
be responsible for their success.--He engages, however, in the
prosecution of this business, to adhere faithfully to the plan
here proposed, and never to depart from it on any pretence
whatever.

With regard to the choice of a spot for erecting this Establishment,
a place will be chosen within the limits of the town, and in a
convenient and central a situation as possible, where ground
enough for the purpose is to be had at a reasonable price[5].
--The agreement for the purchase, or hire of this ground, and of
the buildings, if there be any on it, will, like all other
bargains and contracts, be submitted to the committee for their
approbation and ratification.

The order in which it is proposed to carry into execution the
different parts of the scheme is as follows:--First, to establish
a public kitchen for furnishing Food to such poor persons as
shall be recommended by the subscribers for such assistance.

This Food will be of four different sorts, namely,
No. I. A nourishing soup composed of barley--pease--potatoes,
and bread; seasoned with salt, pepper, and fine herbs.--The
portion of this soup, one pint and a quarter, weighing about
twenty ounces, will cost ONE PENNY.

No. II. A rich pease-soup, well seasoned;--with fried bread;--
the portion (twenty ounces) at TWO PENCE.

No. III. A rich and nourishing soup, or barley, pease, and
potatoes, properly seasoned;--with fried bread; and two ounces of
boiled bacon, cut fine and put into it.--The portion (20 ounces)
at FOUR PENCE.

No. IV. A good soup; with boiled meat and potatoes or cabbages,
or other vegetables; with 1/4 lb.  of good rye bread, the portion
at SIX PENCE.

Adjoining to the kitchen, four spacious eating-rooms will be
fitted up, in each of which one only of the four different kinds
of Food prepared in the kitchen will be served.

Near the eating-rooms, other rooms will be neatly fitted up,
and kept constantly clean, and well warmed; and well lighted in
the evening; in which the Poor who frequent the Establishment
will be permitted to remain during the day, and till a certain
hour at night.--They will be allowed and even ENCOURAGED to bring
their work with them to these rooms; and by degrees they will be
furnished with utensils, and raw materials for working for their
own emolument, by the Establishment.  Praises and rewards will be
bestowed on those who most distinguish themselves by their
industry, and by their peaceable and orderly behaviour.

In the fitting up of the kitchen, care will be taken to introduce
every useful invention and improvement, by which fuel may be
saved, and the various processes of cookery facilitated, and
rendered less expensive; and the whole mechanical arrangement
will be made as complete and perfect as possible, in order that
it may serve as a model for imitation; and care will be likewise
be taken in fitting up the dining-halls, and other rooms
belonging to the Establishment, to introduce the most approved
fire-places,--stoves,--flews, and other mechanical contrivances
for heating rooms and passages;--as also in lighting up the house
to make use of a variety of the best, most economical, and most
beautiful lamps; and in short, to collect together such an
assemblage of useful and elegant inventions, in every part of the
Establishment, as to render it not only an object of public
curiosity, but also of the most essential and extensive utility.

And although it will not be possible to make the Establishment
sufficiently extensive to accommodate all the Poor of so large a
city, yet it may easily be made large enough to afford a
comfortable asylum to a great number of distressed objects; and
the interesting and affecting scene it will afford to spectators,
can hardly fail to attract the curiosity of the Public; and there
is great reason to hope that the success of the experiment,
and the evident tendency of the measures adopted to promote the
comfort, happiness, and prosperity of society, will induce many
to exert themselves in forming similar Establishments in other
places.--It is even probable that the success which will attend
this first essay, (for successful it must, and will be, as care
will be taken to limit its extent to the means furnished for
carrying it into execution,) will encourage others, who do not
put down their names upon the lists of the subscribers at first,
to follow with subscription for the purpose of augmenting the
Establishment, and rendering it more extensively useful.

Should this be the case, it is possible that in a short time
subordinate public kitchens, with rooms adjoining them for the
accommodation of the industrious Poor, may be established in
all the parishes;--and when this is done, only one short step
more will be necessary in order to complete in the management
of the Poor.  Poor rates may then be entirely abolished,
and VOLUNTARY SUBSCRIPTIONS, which certainly need never amount to
one half what the Poor rates now are, may be substituted in the
room of them, and one general establishment may be formed for the
relief and support of the Poor in this capital.

It will however be remembered that it is by no means the
intention of the Author of these Proposals that those who
contribute to the object immediately in view, the forming A MODEL
for an Establishment for feeding and giving employment to the Poor,
should be troubled with any future solicitations on that score;
very far from it, measures will be so taken, by limiting the
extent of the undertaking to the amount of the sums subscribed,
and by arranging matters so that the Establishment.  once formed,
shall be able to support itself, that no farther assistance from
the subscribers will be necessary.--If any of them should, of
their accord, follow up their subscription by other donations,
these additional sums will be thankfully received, and faithfully
applied, to the general or particular purposes for which they may
be designed; but the subscribers may depend upon never being
troubled with any future SOLICITATIONS on any pretence whatever,
on account of the present undertaking.

A secondary object in forming this Establishment, and which will
be attended to as soon as the measures for feeding the Poor,
and giving them employment, are carried into execution, is the
forming of a grand repository of all kinds of USEFUL MECHANICAL
INVENTIONS, and particularly of such as relate to the furnishing
of houses, and are calculated to promote domestic comfort and
economy.

Such a repository will not only be highly interesting,
considered as an object of public curiosity, but it will be
really useful, and will doubtless contribute very powerfully to
the introduction of many essential improvements.

To render this part of the Establishment still more complete,
rooms will be set apart for receiving, and exposing to public
view, all such new and useful inventions as shall, from time to
time, be made, in this, or in any other country, and sent to the
institution; and a written account, containing the name of the
inventor,--the place where the article may be bought,--and the
price of it, will be attached to each article, for the
information of those who may be desirous of knowing any of these
particulars.

If the amount of the subscriptions should be sufficient to defray
the additional expence which such an arrangement would require,
models will be prepared, upon a reduced scale, for showing the
improvements which may be made in the construction of the
coppers, or boilers, used by brewers, and distillers, as also of
their fire-places; with a view both to the economy of the fuel,
and to convenience.

Complete kitchens will likewise be constructed, of the full size,
with all their utensils, as models for private families.--
And that these kitchens may not be useless, eating rooms may be
fitted up adjoining to them, and cooks engaged to furnish to
gentlemen, subscribers, or others, to whom subscribers may
delegate that right, good dinners, at the prime cost of the
victuals, and the expense of cooking, which together certainly
would not exceed ONE SHILLING A HEAD.

The public kitchen from whence the Poor will be fed will be so
constructed as to serve as a model for hospitals, and for other
great Establishments of similar nature.

The expense of feeding the Poor will be provided for by selling
the portions of Food delivered from the public kitchen at such a
price, that those expenses shall be just covered, and no more:--
so that the Establishment, when once completed, will be made to
support itself.

Tickets for Food (which may be considered as drafts upon the
public kitchen, payable at sight) will be furnished to all
persons who apply for them, in as far as it shall be possible to
supply the demands; but care will be taken to provide, first,
for the Poor who frequent  regularly the working rooms belonging
to the Establishment; and secondly, to pay attention to the
recommendations of subscribers, by furnishing Food immediately,
or with the least possible delay, to those who come with
subscribers' tickets.

As soon as the Establishment shall be completed, every subscriber
will be furnished gratis with tickets for Food, to the amount of
ten per cent.  of his subscription; the value of the tickets
being reckoned at what the portions of Food really cost, which
will be delivered to those who produce the tickets at the public
kitchen.--At the end of six months, tickets to the amount of ten
per cent. more, and so on, at the end of every six succeeding
months, tickets to the amount of ten per cent. of the sum
subscribed will be delivered to each subscriber till he shall
actually have received in tickets for Food, or drafts upon the
public kitchen, to the full amount of ONE HALF of his original
subscription.--And as the price at which this Food will be
charged, will be at the most moderate computation, at least FIFTY
PER CENT.  cheaper than it would cost any where else, the
subscribers will in fact receive in these tickets the full value
of the sums they will have subscribed; so that in the end, the
whole advance will be repaid, and a most interesting, and most
useful public institution will be  completely established WITHOUT
ANY EXPENSE TO ANYBODY--And the Author of these Proposals will
think himself most amply repaid for any  trouble he may have in
the execution of this scheme, by the heartfelt satisfaction he
will enjoy in the reflection of having been instrumental in doing
essential service to mankind.

It is hardly necessary to add, that although the subscribers will
receive in return for their subscriptions the full value of them,
in tickets, or orders upon the public kitchen, for Food, yet the
property of the Whole Establishment, with all its appurtenances,
will nevertheless  remain vested solely and entirely in the
subscribers, and their lawful heirs; and that they will have
power to dispose of it in any way they may think proper, as also
to give orders and directions for its future management.
                   (Signed)
                                  "A. B."
London, 1st January
1796.

These Proposals, which should be printed, and distributed gratis,
in great abundance, should be accompanied with subscription-lists
which should be printed on fine writing-paper; and to save
trouble to the subscribers, might be of a peculiar form.--Upon
the top of a half-sheet of folio writing-paper might be printed,
the following Head of Title, and the remainder of that side of
the half-sheet, below this Head, might be formed into different
columns, thus:

                   SUBSCRIPTIONS,

For carrying into execution the scheme for forming an
Establishment for feeding the Poor from a Public KITCHEN,
and giving them useful employment, etc. proposed by A. B.
and particularly described in the printed paper, dated London,
1st January 1796, which accompanies this Subscription List.

N.B. No part of the money subscribed will be called for, unless
it be found that the amount of the subscriptions will be quite
sufficient to carry the scheme proposed into complete execution
without troubling the subscribers a second time for further
assistance.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Subscribers Names.  I  Place of Abode.  I  Sums subscribed.
-----------------------------------------------------------
                    I                   I    pound.  s.   d.
                    I                   I
                    I                   I
                    I                   I
                    I                   I
                    I                   I
                    I                   I

that this list is authentic, and that the persons mentioned in it
have agreed to subscribe the sums placed against their names, is
attested by [          ]. The person who is so good as to take
charge of this list, is requested to authenticate it by signing
the above certificate, and then to seal it up and send it
according to the printed address on the back of it.

The address upon the back of the subscription lists, (which may
be that of the author of the Proposal, or of any other person he
may appoint to receive these lists,) should be printed in such a
manner that, when the list is folded up in the form of a letter,
the address may be in its proper place. This will save trouble to
those who take charge of these lists; and too much pains cannot
be taken to give as little trouble as possible to persons who are
solicited to contribute IN MONEY  towards carrying into execution
schemes of public utility.

As a public Establishment like that here proposed would be highly
interesting, even were it to be considered in no other light than
merely as an object of curiosity, there is no doubt but it would
be much frequented; and it is possible that this concourse of
people might be so great as to render it necessary to make some
regulations in regard to admittance: but, whatever measures might
be adopted with respect to others, SUBSCRIBERS ought certainly to
have free admittance at all times to every part of the
Establishment,--They should even have a right individually to
examine all the details of its administration, and to require
from those employed as overseers, or managers, any information or
explanation they might want.--They ought likewise to be at
liberty to take drawings, or to have them taken by others,
(at their expense,) for themselves or for their friends,
of the kitchen, stoves, grates, furniture, etc. and in general of
every part of the machinery belonging to the Establishment.

In forming the Establishment, and providing the various machinery,
care should be taken to employ the most ingenious and most
respectable tradesmen; and if the name of the maker, and the
place of his abode were to be engraved or written on each
article, this, no doubt, would tend to excite emulation among the
artizans, and induce them to furnish goods of the best quality,
and at as low a price as possible.--It is even possible, that in
a great and opulent city like London, and where public spirit and
zeal for improvement pervade all ranks of society, many
respectable tradesmen in easy circumstances might be found,
who would have real pleasure in furnishing gratis such of the
articles wanted as are in their line of business: and the
advantages which might, with proper management, be derived from
this source, would most probably be very considerable.

With regard to the management of the Poor who might be collected
together for the purpose of being fed and furnished with
employment, in a Public Establishment like that here recommended,
I cannot do better than refer my reader to the account already
published (in my First Essay) of the manner in which the Poor at
Munich were treated in the house of industry established in that
city, and the means that were used to render them comfortable,
HAPPY, and industrious.

As soon as the scheme here recommended is carried into execution,
and measures are effectually taken for feeding the Poor at a
cheap rate, and giving them useful employment, no farther
difficulties will then remain, at least none certainly that are
insurmountable, to prevent the introduction of a general plan for
providing for all the Poor, founded upon the principles explained
and recommended in the preceding Chapters of this Essay.


CHAPTER. V.

 Of the Means which may be used by Individuals in affluent
   Circumstances for the Relief of the Poor in their Neighbourhood.

As nothing tends more powerfully to encourage idleness and
immorality among the Poor, and consequently to perpetuate all the
evils to society which arise from the prevalence of poverty and
mendicity, than injudicious distributions of alms; individuals
must be very cautious in bestowing their private charities,
and in forming schemes for giving assistance to the distressed;
otherwise they will most certainly do more harm than good.--
The evil tendency of giving alms indiscriminately to beggars is
universally acknowledged; but it is not, I believe, so generally
known how much harm is done by what are called the PRIVATE CHARITIES
of individuals.--Far be it from me to wish to discourage private
charities; I am only anxious that they should be better applied.

Without taking up time in analyzing the different motives by
which persons of various character are induced to give alms to
the Poor, or of showing the consequences of their injudicious or
careless donations; which would be an unprofitable as well as a
disagreeable investigation; I shall briefly point out what appear
to me to be the most effectual means which individuals in
affluent circumstances can employ for the assistance of the Poor
in their neighbourhood.

The most certain and efficacious relief that can be given to the
Poor is that which would be afforded them by forming a general
Establishment for giving them useful employment, and furnishing
them with the necessaries of life at a cheap rate; in short,
forming a Public Establishment similar in all respects to that
already recommended, and making it as extensive as circumstances
will permit.

An experiment might first be made in a single village, or in a
single parish; a small house, or two or three rooms only,
might be fitted up for the reception of the Poor, and
particularly of the children of the Poor; and to prevent the bad
impressions which are sometimes made by names which have been
become odious, instead of calling it a  Work-house, it might be
called "A School of Industry," or, perhaps, Asylum would be a
better name for it.--One of these rooms should be fitted up as a
kitchen for cooking for the Poor; and a middle-aged women of
respectable character, and above all of a gentle and humane
disposition, should be placed at the head of this Establishment,
and lodged in the house.--As she should serve at the same time as
chief cook, and as steward of the institution, it would be
necessary that she should be able to write and keep accounts; and
in cases where the business of superintending the various details
of the Establishment would be too extensive to be performed by
one person, one or more assistants may be given her.

In large Establishments it might, perhaps, be best to place a
married couple, rather advanced in life, and without children,
at the head of the institution; but, whoever are employed in that
situation, care should be taken that they should be persons of
irreproachable character, and such as the Poor can have no reason
to suspect of partiality.

As nothing would tend more effectually to ruin an Establishment
of this kind, and prevent the good intended to be produced by it,
than the personal dislikes of the Poor to those put over them,
and more especially such dislikes as are founded on their
suspicions of their partiality, the greatest caution in the
choice of these persons will always be necessary: and in general
it will be best not to take them from among the Poor, or at least
not from among those of the neighbourhood, nor such as have
relations, acquaintances, or other connexions among them.

Another point to be attended to in the choice of a person to be
placed at the head of such an Establishment, (and it is a point
of more importance than can well be imagined by those who have
not considered the matter with some attention)-- is the looks or
EXTERNAL APPEARANCE of the person destined for this employment.

All those who have studied human nature, or have taken notice of
what passes in themselves when they approach for the first time a
person who has any thing very strongly marked in his countenance,
will feel how very important it is that a person placed at the
head of an asylum for the reception of the Poor and the
unfortunate should have an open, pleasing countenance, such as
inspires confidence and conciliates affection and esteem.

Those who are in distress, are apt to be fearful and apprehensive,
and nothing would be so likely to intimidate and discourage them
as the forbidding aspect of a stern and austere countenance in
the person they were taught to look up to for assistance and
protection.

The external appearance of those who are destined to command
others is always a matter of real importance, but it is
peculiarly so when those to be commanded and directed are objects
of pity and commiseration.

Where there are several gentlemen who live in the neighbourhood
of the same town or village where an Establishment, or Asylum,
(as I would wish it might be called,) for the Poor is to be
formed, they should all unite to form ONE ESTABLISHMENT, instead
of each forming a separate one; and it will likewise be very
useful in all cases to invite all ranks of people resident within
the limits of the district in which an Establishment is formed,
except those who are actually in need of assistance themselves,
to contribute to carry into execution such a public undertaking;
for though the sums the more indigent and necessitous of the
inhabitants may be able to spare may be trifling, yet their being
invited to take part in so laudable an undertaking will be
flattering to them, and the sums they contribute, however small
they may be, will give them a sort of property in the
Establishment, and will effectually engage their good wishes at
least, (which are of more importance in such cases than is
generally imagined,) for its success.

How far the relief which the Poor would receive from the
execution of a scheme like that here proposed ought to preclude
them from a participation of other public charities, (in the
distribution of the sums levied upon the inhabitants in Poor's
taxes, for instance, where such exist,) must be determined in
each particular case according to the existing circumstances.
It will, however, always be indispensably necessary where the same
poor person receives charitable assistance from two or more
separate institutions, or from two or more private individuals,
at the same time, for each to know exactly the amount of what the
others give, otherwise too much or too little may be given,
and both tend to discourage INDUSTRY, the only source of effectual
relief to the distresses and the misery of the Poor.--And hence
may again be seen the great importance of what I have so often
insisted on, the rendering of measures for the relief of the Poor
as general as possible.

To illustrate in the clearest manner, and in as few words as
possible, the plan I would recommend for forming an Establishment
for the Poor on a small scale--such as any individual even of
moderate property, might easily execute; I will suppose that a
gentleman, resident in the country upon his own estate, has come
to a resolution to form such an Establishment in a village near
his house, and will endeavour briefly to point out the various
steps he would probably find it necessary to take in the
execution of this benevolent and most useful undertaking.

He would begin by calling together at his house the clergyman of
the parish, overseers of the Poor, and other parish officers, to
acquaint them with his intentions, and ask their assistance and
friendly co-operation in the prosecution of the plan; the details
of which he would communicate to them as far as he should think
it prudent and necessary at the first outset to entrust them
indiscriminately with that information.--The characters of the
persons, and the private interest they might have to promote or
oppose the measures intended to be pursued, would decide upon the
degree of confidence which ought to be given them.

At this meeting, measures should be taken for forming the most
complete and most accurate lists of all the Poor resident within
the limits proposed to be given to the Establishment, with a
detailed account of every circumstance, relative to their
situation, and their wants.--Much time and trouble will be saved
in making out these lists, by using printed forms or blanks
similar to those made use of at Munich; and these printed forms
will likewise contribute very essentially to preserve order and
to facilitate business, in the management of a private as well as
of a public charity;--as also to prevent the effects of
misrepresentation and partiality on the part of those who must
necessarily be employed in these details.

Convenient forms or models for these blanks will be given in the
Appendix to this volume.

At this meeting, measures may be taken for numbering all the
houses in the village or district, and for setting on foot
private subscriptions among the inhabitants for carrying the
proposed scheme into execution.

Those who are invited to subscribed should be made acquainted,
by a printed address accompanying the subscription lists, with the
nature, extent, and tendency of the measures adopted; and should
be assured that, as soon as the undertaking shall be completed,
the Poor will not only be relieved, and their situation made more
comfortable, but  mendicity will be effectually prevented, and at
the same time the Poor's rates, or the expense to the public for
the support of the Poor, very considerably lessened.

These assurances, which will be the strongest inducements that
can be used to prevail on the inhabitants of all descriptions to
enter warmly into the scheme, and assist with alacrity in
carrying it into execution, should be expressed in the strongest
terms; and all persons of every denomination, young and old, and
of both sexes, (paupers only excepted,) should be invited to put
down their names in the subscription lists, and this even,
HOWEVER SMALL THE SUMS MAY BE WHICH THEY ARE ABLE TO CONTRIBUTE.
--Although the sums which day-labourers, servants, and other in
indigent circumstances may be able to contribute, may be very
trifling, yet there is one important reason why they ought always
to be engaged to put down their names upon the lists as subscribers,
and that is the goods effects which their taking an active part
in the undertaking will probably produce ON THEMSELVES.--Nothing
tends more to mend the heart, and awaken in the mind a regard for
character, than acts of charity and benevolence; and any person
who has once felt that honest pride and satisfaction which result
from a consciousness of having been instrumental in doing good by
relieving the wants of the Poor, will be rendered doubly careful
to avoid the humiliation of becoming himself an object of public
charity.

It was a consideration of these salutary effects, which may
always be expected to be produced upon the minds of those who
take an active and VOLUNTARY part in the measures adopted for the
relief of the Poor, that made me prefer voluntary subscriptions,
to taxes, in raising the sums necessary for the support of the
Poor, and all the experience I have had in these matters has
tended to confirm me in the opinion I have always had of their
superior utility,--Not only day-labourers and domestic servants,
but their young children, and all the children of the nobility
and other inhabitants of Munich, and even the non-commissioned
officers and private soldiers of the regiments in garrison in
that city, were invited to contribute to the support of the
institution for the Poor; and there are very few indeed of any
age or condition (paupers only excepted) whose names are not to
be found on the lists of subscribers.

The subscriptions at Munich are by families, as has elsewhere
been observed; and this method I would recommend in the case
under consideration, and in all others.--The head of the family
takes the trouble to collect all the sums subscribed upon his
family list, and to pay them into the hands of those who
(on the part of the institution) are sent round on the first Sunday
morning of every month to receive them; but the names of all the
individuals who compose the family are entered on the list at
full length, with the sum each contributes.

Two lists of the same tenor must be made out for each family;
one of which must be kept by the head of the family for his
information and direction, and the other sent in to those who
have the general direction of the Establishment.

These subscription-lists should be printed; and they should be
carried round and left with the heads of families, either by the
person himself who undertakes to form the Establishment,
(which will always be best,) or at least by his steward, or some
other person of some consequence belonging to his household.
--Forms or models for these lists may be seen in the Appendix.

When these lists are returned, the person who has undertaken to
form the Establishment will see what pecuniary assistance he is
to expect; and he will either arrange his plan, or determine the
sum he may think proper to contribute himself, according to that
amount.--He will likewise consider how far it will be possible
and ADVISABLE to connect his scheme with any Establishment for
the relief of the Poor already existing; or to act in concert
with those in whose hands the management of the Poor is vested by
the laws.--These circumstances are all important; and the manner
of proceeding in carrying the proposed scheme into execution
must, in a great measure, be determined by them.  Nothing,
however, can prevent the undertaking from being finally
successful, provided the means used for making it so are adopted
with caution, and pursued with perseverance.

However adverse those may be to the scheme who, were they well
disposed, could most effectually contribute to its success--yet
no opposition which can be given to it by INTERESTED PERSONS,--
such as find means to derive profit to themselves in the
administration of the affairs of the Poor;--no opposition, I say,
from such persons, (and none surely but these can ever be
desirous of opposing it,) can prevent the success of a measure so
evidently calculated to increase the comforts and enjoyments of
the Poor, and to promote the general good of society.

If the overseers of the Poor, and other parish officers, and a
large majority of the principal inhabitants, could be made to
enter warmly into the scheme, it might, and certainly would,
in many cases, be possible, even without any new laws or acts of
parliament being necessary to authorize the undertaking,
to substitute the arrangements  proposed in the place of the old
method of providing for the Poor;--abolishing entirely, or in so
far as it should be found necessary,--the old system, and
carrying the scheme proposed into execution as a GENERAL MEASURE.

In all cases where this can be effected, it ought certainly to be
preferred to any private or less general institution; and
individuals, who, by their exertions, are instrumental in
bringing about so useful a change, will render a very essential
service to society:--But even in cases where it would not be
possible to carry the scheme proposed into execution in its
fullest extent, much good may be done by individuals in affluent
circumstances to the Poor, by forming PRIVATE ESTABLISHMENTS for
feeding them and giving them employment.

Much relief may likewise be afforded them by laying in a large
stock of fuel, purchased when it is cheap, and retailing it out
to them in small quantities, in times of scarcity, at the prime
cost.

It is hardly to be believed how much the Poor of Munich have been
benefited by the Establishment of the Wood-magazine, from whence
they are furnished in winter, during the severe frosts,
with fire-wood at the price it costs when purchased in summer,
in large quantities, and at the cheapest rate. And this arrangement
may easily be adopted in all countries, and by private individuals
as well as by communities.  Stores may likewise be laid in of
potatoes, peas, beans, and other articles of food, to be
distributed to the Poor in like manner, in small quantities,
and at low prices; which will be a great relief to them in times
of scarcity.  It will hardly be necessary for me to observe,
that in administering this kind of relief to the Poor it will
often be necessary to take precautions to prevent abuses.

Another way in which private individuals may greatly assist the
Poor, is, by showing them how they may make themselves more
comfortable in their dwellings. Nothing is more perfectly
miserable and comfortless than the domestic arrangement of poor
families in general; they seem to have no idea whatever of order
or economy in any thing; and every thing about them is dreary,
sad, and neglected, in the extreme.  A little attention to order
and arrangement would contribute greatly to their comfort and
conveniences, and also to economy.  They ought in particular to
be shown how to keep their habitations warm in winter, and to
economise fuel, as well in heating their rooms, as in cooking,
washing, etc.

It is not to be believed what the waste of fuel really is, in the
various processes in which it is employed in the economy of human
life; and in no case is this waste greater than in the domestic
management of the Poor.  Their fire-places are in general
constructed upon the most wretched principles; and the fuel they
consume in them, instead of heating their rooms, not unfrequently
renders them really colder, and more uncomfortable, by causing
strong currents of cold air to flow in from all the doors and
windows to the chimney.  This imperfection of their fire-places
may be effectually remedied;--these currents of cold air
prevented,--above half their fuel saved,--and their dwellings
made infinitely more comfortable, merely by diminishing their
fire-places, and the throats of their chimnies just above the
mantle-piece; which may be done as a very every trifling expence,
with a few bricks, or stones, and a little mortar, by the most
ordinary bricklayer. And with regard to the expence of fuel for
cooking, so simple a contrivance as an earthen pot, broad at top,
for receiving a stew-pan, or kettle, and narrow at bottom, with
holes through its sides near the bottom, for letting in air under
a small circular iron grate, and other small holes near the top
for letting out the smoke, may be introduced with great advantage.
By making use of this little portable furnace, (which is equally
well adapted to burn wood, or coals.)--one eighth part of the
fuel will be sufficient for cooking, which would be required were
the kettle to be boiled over an open fire.--To strengthen this
portable furnace, it may be hooped with iron hoops, or bound
round with strong iron wire:--but I forget that I am anticipating
the subject of a future Essay.

Much good may also be done to the Poor by teaching them how to
prepare various kinds of cheap and wholesome food, and to render
them savoury and palatable.--The art of cookery, notwithstanding
its infinite importance to mankind, has hitherto been little
studied; and among the more indigent classes of society, where it
is most necessary to cultivate it, it seems to have been most
neglected.--No present that could be made to a poor family could
be of more essential service to them than a thin, light stew-pan,
with its cover, made of wrought, or cast iron, and fitted to a
portable furnace, or close fire-place, constructed to save fuel;
with two or three approved receipts for making nourishing and
savoury soups and broths at a small expence.

Such a present might alone be sufficient to relieve a poor family
from all their distresses, and make them permanently comfortable;
for the expences of a poor family for food might, I am persuaded,
in most cases be diminished ONE HALF by a proper attention to
cookery, and to the economy of fuel; and the change in the
circumstances of such a family, which would be produced by
reducing their expenses for food to one half what it was before,
is easier to be conceived than described.

It would hardly fail to re-animate the courage of the most
desponding;--to cheer their drooping spirits, and stimulate them
to fresh exertions in the pursuits of useful industry.

As the only effectual means of putting an end to the sufferings
of the Poor is the introduction of a spirit of industry among
them, individuals should never lose sight of that great and
important object, in all the measures they may adopt to relieve
them.--But in endeavouring to make the Poor industrious,
the utmost caution will be necessary to prevent their being
disgusted.--Their minds are commonly in a state of great
irritation, the natural consequences of their sufferings, and of
their hopeless situation; and their suspicions of every body
about them, and particularly of those who are set over them,
are so deeply rooted that it is sometimes extremely difficult to
sooth and calm the agitation of their minds, and gain their
confidence. --This can be soonest and most effectually done by
kind and gentle usage; and I am clearly of opinion that no other
means should ever be used, except it be with such hardened and
incorrigible wretches as are not to be reclaimed by any means;
but of these, I believe, there are very few indeed.--I have never
yet found one, in all the course of my experience in taking care
of the Poor.

We have sometimes been obliged to threaten the most idle and
profligate with the house of correction; but these threats,
added to the fear of being banished from the House of Industry,
which has always been held up and considered as the greatest
punishment, have commonly been sufficient for keeping the unruly
in order.

If the force of example is irresistible in debauching men's minds,
and leading them into profligate and vicious courses, it is not
less so in reclaiming them, and rendering them orderly, docile,
and  industrious; and hence the infinite importance of collecting
the Poor together in Public Establishments, where every thing
about them is animated by unaffected cheerfulness, and by that
pleasing gaiety, and air of content and satisfaction,
which always enliven the busy scenes of useful industry.

I do not believe it would be possible for any person to be idle
in the House of Industry at Munich.  I never saw any one idle;
often as I have passed through the working-rooms; nor did I ever
see any one to whom the employments of industry seemed to be
painful or irksome.

Those who are collected together in the public rooms destined for
the reception and accommodation of the Poor in the day-time, will
not need to be forced, nor even urged to work;--if there are in
the room several persons who are busily employed in the cheerful
occupations of industry, and if implements and materials for
working are at hand, all the others present will not fail to be
soon drawn into the vortex, and joining with alacrity in the
active scene, their dislike to labour will be forgotten, and they
will become by habit truly and permanently industrious.

Such is the irresistible power of example!--Those who know how
to manage this mighty engine and have opportunities of employing
it with effect, may produce the most miraculous changes, in the
manners, disposition, and character, even of whole nations.

In furnishing raw materials to the Poor to work, it will be
necessary to use many precautions to prevent frauds and abuses,
not only on the part of the Poor, who are often but too much
disposed to cheat and deceive whenever they find opportunities,
but also on the part of those employed in the details of this
business:--but the fullest  information having already been given
in my First Essay, of all the various precautions it had been
found necessary to take for the purposes in question in the House
of Industry at Munich, it is not necessary for me to enlarge upon
the subject in this place, or to repeat what has already been
said upon it elsewhere.

With regard to the manner in which good and wholesome food for
feeding the Poor may be prepared in a public kitchen, at a cheap
rate, I must refer my reader to my Essay on Food; where he will
find all the information on that subject which he can require.
--In my Essay on Clothing, he will see how good and comfortable
clothing  may be furnished to the Poor at a very moderate
expence; and in that on the Management of Heat, he will find
particular directions for the Poor for saving fuel.

I cannot finish this Essay, without taking notice of a difficulty
which frequently occur in giving employment to the Poor, that of
disposing to advantage of the produce of their labour:--This is
in all cases a very important object; and too much attention
cannot be paid to it.--A spirit of industry cannot be kept up by
making it advantageous to individuals to be industrious; but
where the wages which the labourer has a right to expect are
refused, it will not be possible to prevent his being discouraged
and disgusted.--He may perhaps be forced for a certain time to
work for small wages, to prevent starving, if he has not the
resource of throwing himself upon the parish, which he most
probably would prefer doing, should it be in his option; but he
will infallibly conceive such a thorough dislike to labour,
that he will become idle and vicious, and a permanent and heavy
burden on the public.

If "a labourer is worthy of his hire," he is peculiarly so,
where that labourer is a poor person, who, with all his
exertions, can barely procure the first necessaries of life;
and whose hard lot renders him an object of pity and compassion.

The deplorable situation of a poor family, struggling with
poverty and want,--deprived of all the comforts and conveniences
of life--deprived even of hope; and suffering at the same time
from hunger, disease, and mortifying and cruel disappointment, is
seldom considered with that attention which it deserves, by those
who have never felt these distresses, and who are not in danger
of being exposed to them.  My reader must pardon me, if I
frequently recall his attention to these scenes of misery and
wretchedness.  He must be made acquainted with the real
situation of the Poor--with the extent and magnitude of their
misfortunes and sufferings, before it can be expected that he
should enter warmly into measures calculated for their relief.
In forming Establishments, public or private, for giving employment
to the Poor, it will always be indispensably necessary to make
such arrangements as will secure to them a fair price for all the
labour they perform.  They should not be OVER-PAID, for that
would be opening a door for abuse;--but they ought to be
generously paid for their work; and, above all, they ought never
to be allowed to be idle for the want of employment.  The kind of
employment it may be proper to give them will depend much on
local circumstances.  It will depend on the habits of the Poor;--
the kinds of work they are acquainted with;--and the facility
with which the articles they can manufacture may be disposed of
at a good price.

In very extensive Establishments, there will be little difficulty
in finding useful employment for the Poor; for where the number
of persons to be employed is very great, a great variety of
different manufactures may be carried on with advantage, and all
the articles manufactured, or prepared to be employed in the
manufactures, may be turned to a good account.

In a small Establishment, circumscribed and confined to the
limits of a single village or parish, it might perhaps be
difficult to find a good market for the yarn spun by the Poor;
but in a general Establishment, extending over a whole country,
or large city, as the quantity of yarn spun by all the Poor
within the extensive limits of the institution will be sufficient
to employ constantly a number of weavers of different kinds of
cloth and stuff, the market for all the various kinds of yarn the
Poor may spin will always be certain.  The same reasoning will
hold with regard to various other articles used in great
manufactories, upon which the Poor might be very usefully
employed; and hence the great advantage of making Establishments
for giving employment to the Poor as extensive as possible.
It is what I have often insisted on, and what I  cannot too strongly
recommend to all those who engage in forming such Establishments.

Although I certainly should not propose to BRING TOGETHER, under
one roof, all the Poor of a whole kingdom, as, by the inscription
over the entrance into a vast hospital began, but not finished,
at Naples, it would appear was once the intention of the
government in that country; yet I am clearly of opinion that an
institution for GIVING EMPLOYMENT TO THE POOR can hardly be too
extensive.

But to return to the subject to which this Chapter was more
particularly appropriated, the relief that may be afforded by
private individuals to the Poor in their neighbourhood; in case it
should not be possible to get over all the difficulties that may
be in the way to prevent the forming of a general Establishment
for the benefit of the Poor, individuals must content themselves
with making such private arrangements for that purpose as they
may be able, WITH SUCH ASSISTANCE AS THEY CAN COMMAND, to carry
into execution.

The most simple, and least expensive measure that can be adopted
for the assistance of the Poor will be that of furnishing them
with raw materials for working.  Flax, hemp, or wool, for instance,
for spinning; and paying them in money, at the market price, for
the yarn spun.  This yarn may afterwards be sent to weavers to be
manufactured into cloth, or may be sent to some good market and
sold.  The details of these mercantile transactions will be
neither complicated nor troublesome, and might easily be managed
by a steward of house-keeper; particularly if the printed tickets,
and tables, I have so often had occasion to recommend, are used.

The flax, hemp, or wool, as soon as it is purchased, should be
weighed out into bundles of one or two pounds each, and lodged in
a store-room; and when one of these bundles is delivered out to a
poor person to be spun, it should be accompanied with a printed
spin-ticket, and entered in a table to be kept for that purpose;
and when it is returned spun, an abstract of the spin-ticket
itself, should be bound up with the bundle of yarn, in order that
any frauds committed by the spinner, in reeling, or in any other
way, which may be discovered upon winding off the yarn, may be
brought home to the person who committed them.  When it is known
that such effectual precautions to detect frauds are used, no
farther attempts will be made to defraud; and a most important
point indeed will be gained, and one which will most powerfully
tend to mend the morals of the Poor, and restore peace to their
minds.  When, by rendering it evidently impossible for them to
escape detection, they are brought to give up all thoughts of
cheating and deceiving; they will then be capable of application,
and of enjoying real happiness, and, with open and placid
countenances, will look every one full in the face who accosts
them: but as long as they are under the influence of temptation
--as long as their minds are degraded by conscious guilt,
and continually agitated by schemes of prosecuting their
fraudulent practices, they are as incapable of enjoying peace or
contentment, as they are of being useful members of society.

Hence the extreme cruelty of an ill-judged  appearance of
confidence, or careless neglect of precautions, in regard to
those employed in places of trust, who may be exposed to
temptations to defraud.

That prayer, which cannot be enough admired, or too often
repeated, "LEAD US NOT INTO TEMPTATION," was certainly dictated
by infinite wisdom and goodness; and it should ever be borne in
mind by those who are placed in stations of power and authority,
and whose measures must necessarily have much influence on the
happiness or misery of great numbers of people.

Honest men may be found in all countries; but I am sorry to say,
that the result of all my experience and observation has tended
invariably to prove, (what has often been remarked,) that it is
extremely difficult to KEEP THOSE HONEST who are exposed to
continual and great temptations.

There is, however, one most effectual way, not only of keeping
those honest who are so already, but also of making those honest
who are not so; and that is, by taking such precautions as will
render it EVIDENTLY impossible for those who commit frauds to
escape detection and punishment: and these precautions are never
impossible, and seldom difficult; and with a little address, they
may always be so taken as to be in nowise offensive to those who
are the objects of them.

It is evident that the maxims and measures here recommended are
not applicable merely to the Poor, but also, and more especially,
to those who may be employed in the details of relieving them.

But to return once more to the subject more immediately under
consideration.--If individuals should extend their liberality so
far as to establish public kitchens for feeding the Poor,
(which is a measure I cannot too often, or too forcibly recommend,)
it would be a great pity not to go one easy step further, and fit
up a few rooms adjoining to the kitchen, where the Poor may be
permitted to assemble to work for their own emoluments, and where
schools for instructing the children of the Poor in working, and
in reading and writing, may be established.  Neither the fitting
up, or warming and lighting of these rooms, will be attended with
any considerable expense; while the advantages which will be
derived from such an Establishment for encouraging industry, and
contributing to the comfort of the Poor, will be most important;
and from their peculiar nature, and tendency, will be most highly
interesting to every benevolent mind.

END OF ESSAY TWO.


Footnotes for Essay II.

[1]
This English Reader is desired to bear in mind, that the Author
of this Essay, though an Englishman, is resident in Germany;
and that his connections with that country render it necessary for
him to pay particular attention to its circumstances, in treating
a subject which he is desirous of rendering generally useful.
These is still another reason, which renders it necessary for him
to have continually in view, in the Treatise, the situation of
the Poor upon the Continent, and that it is an engagement which
he has laid himself under to write upon that subject.

[2]
The only step which, in my opinion, it would be either,
necessary, or prudent, for the legislature to take in any country
where an Establishment for the Poor is to be formed, is to
RECOMMEND to the Public a good plan for such an Establishment,
and repeal, or alter all such of the existing laws as might
render the introduction of it difficult or impossible.

[3]
This is an object of the utmost importance, and the success of
the undertaking will depend in a great measure on the attention
that is paid to it.

[4]
This measure has been followed by the most salutary effects at
Munich.  The commissaries of districts flattered by this
distinction have exerted themselves with uncommon zeal and
assiduity in the discharge of the important duties of their
office.  And very important indeed is the office of a commissary
of a district in the Establishment for the Poor at Munich.

[5]
It will be best, if it be possible, to mention and describe the
place, in the Proposals.


CONTENTS of ESSAY III.

of FOOD and particularly of FEEDING the POOR

Introduction.

CHAPTER. I.
 Great importance of the subject under consideration.
 Probability that water acts a much more important part in
   nutrition than has hitherto been generally imagined.
 Surprisingly small quantity of solid food necessary,
   when properly prepared, for all the purposes of nutrition.
 Great importance of the art of cookery.
 Barley remarkably nutritive when properly prepared.
 The importance of culinary processes for preparing food shown
   from the known utility of a practice common in some parts of
   Germany of cooking for cattle.
 Difficulty of introducing a charge of cookery into common use.
 Means that may be employed for that purpose.

CHAPTER. II.
 Of the pleasure of eating, and of the means that may be
   employed for increasing it.

CHAPTER. III.
 Of the different kinds of food furnished to the poor in the
   house of industry at Munich, with an account of the cost of them.
 Of the Expense of providing the same kinds of food in Great
   Britain, as well at the present high prices of provisions,
   as at the ordinary prices of them.
 Of the various improvements of which these different kinds of
   cheap food are capable.

CHAPTER. IV.
 Of the small expense at which the Bavarian soldiers are fed.
 Details of their housekeeping, founded on actual experiment.
 An account of the fuel expended by them in cooking.

CHAPTER. V.
 Of the great importance of making soldiers eat together in
   regular messes.
 The influence of such economical arrangements extends even to
   the moral character of those who are the objects of them.
 Of the expence of feeding soldiers in messes.
 Of the surprising smallness of the expence of feeding the poor
   at Munich.
 Specific proposals respecting the feeding of the poor in Great
   Britain, with calculations of the expense, at the present
   prices of provisions.

CHAPTER. VI.
 Of INDIAN CORN.
 It affords the cheapest and most nourishing food known.
 Proofs that it is more nourishing than rice.
 Different ways of preparing or cooking it.
 Computation of the expense of feeding a person with it,
   founded on experiment.
 Approved Receipt for making an INDIAN PUDDING.

CHAPTER. VII.
 Receipts for preparing various Kinds of cheap Food.
 Of MACCARONI.
 Of POTATOES.
   Approved receipts for boiling potatoes.
   Of potatoe puddings.
   Of potatoe dumplings.
   Of boiled potatoes with a sauce.
   Of potatoe salad.
 Of BARLEY
   Is much more nutritious than wheat.
   Barley meal, a good substitute for pearl barley, for making
     soups.
   General directions for preparing cheap soups.
   Receipt for the cheapest soup that can be made.
 Of SAMP
   Method of preparing it
   Is an excellent Substitute for Bread.
 Of brown Soup.
 Of RYE BREAD.


ESSAY III.

INTRODUCTION.

It is a common saying, that necessity is the mother of
invention; and nothing is more strictly or more generally true.
It may even be shown, that most of the successive improvements
in the affairs of men in a state of civil society, of which we
have any authentic records, have been made under the pressure
of necessity; and it is no small consolation, in times of
general alarm, to reflect upon the probability that, upon such
occasions, useful discoveries will result from the united
exertions of those who, either from motives of fear, or
sentiments of benevolence, labour to avert the impending evil.

The alarm in this country at the present period[1], on account
of the high price of corn, and the danger of a scarcity, has
turned the attention of the Public to a very important subject,
THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION;--a subject so
curious in itself, and so highly interesting to mankind, that
it seems truly astonishing it should have been so long neglected:--
but in the manner in which it is now taken up, both by the
House of Commons, and the Board of Agriculture, there is great
reason to hope that it will receive a thorough scientific
examination; and if this should be the case, I will venture to
predict, that the important discoveries, and improvements,
which must result from these enquiries, will render the alarms
which gave rise to them for ever famous in the annals of civil
society.


CHAPTER. I.

 Great importance of the subject under consideration.
 Probability that water acts a much more important part in
   nutrition than has hitherto been generally imagined.
 Surprisingly small quantity of solid food necessary,
   when properly prepared, for all the purposes of nutrition.
 Great importance of the art of cookery.
 Barley remarkably nutritive when properly prepared.
 The importance of culinary processes for preparing food shown
   from the known utility of a practice common in some parts of
   Germany of cooking for cattle.
 Difficulty of introducing a charge of cookery into common use.
 Means that may be employed for that purpose.

There is, perhaps, no operation of Nature, which falls under
the cognizance of our senses, more surprising, or more curious,
than the nourishment and growth of plants, and animals; and
there is certainly no subject of investigation more interesting
to mankind.--As providing subsistence is, and ever must be, an
object of the first concern in all countries, any discovery or
improvement by which the procuring of good and wholesome food
can be facilitated, must contribute very powerfully to increase
the comforts, and promote the happiness of society.

That our knowledge in regard to the science of nutrition is
still very imperfect, is certain; but, I think there is reason
to believe, that we are upon the eve of some very important
discoveries relative to that mysterious operation.

Since it has been known that Water is not a simple element,
but a COMPOUND, and capable of being decomposed, much light has
been thrown upon many operations of nature which formerly were
wrapped up in obscurity.  In vegetation, for instance, it has
been rendered extremely probable, that water acts a much more
important part than was formerly assigned to it by philosophers.
--That it serves not merely as the VEHICLE of nourishment,
but constitutes at least one part, and probably an essential part,
of the FOOD of plants.--That it is decomposed by them, and
contributes MATERIALLY to their growth;--and that manures serve
rather to prepare the water for decomposition, than to form of
themselves--substantially, and directly--the nourishment of
the vegetables.

Now, a very clear analogy may be traced, between the vegetation
and growth of plants, and the digestion and nourishment of animals;
and as water is indispensably necessary in both processes, and as
in one of them, (vegetation,) it appears evidently to serve as
FOOD;--why should we not suppose it may serve as food in the
other?--There is, in my opinion, abundant reason to suspect that
this is really the case; and I shall now briefly state the
grounds upon which this opinion is founded.-- Having been engaged
for a considerable length of time in providing Food for the Poor
at Munich, I was naturally led, as well by curiosity as motives
of economy, to make a great variety of experiments upon that
subject; and I had not proceeded far in my operations, before I
began to perceive that they were very important;--even much more
so than I had imagined.

The difference in the apparent goodness, of the palatableness,
and apparent nutritiousness of the same kinds of Food, when
prepared of cooked in different ways, struck me very forcibly;
and I constantly found that the richness or QUALITY of a soup
depended more upon a proper choice of the ingredients, and a
proper management of the fire in the combination of those
ingredients, than upon the quantity of solid nutritious matter
employed;--much more upon the art and skill of the cook, than
upon the amount of the sums laid out in the market.

I found likewise, that the nutritious of a soup, or its power of
satisfying hunger, and affording nourishment, appeared always to
be in proportion to its apparent richness or palatableness.

But what surprised me not a little, was the discovery of the very
small quantity of SOLID FOOD, which, when properly prepared, will
suffice to satisfy hunger, and support life and health; and the
very trifling expence at which the stoutest, and most laborious
man may, in any country, be fed.

After an experiment of more than five years in feeding the Poor
at Munich during which time every experiment was made that could
be devised, not only with regard to the choice of the articles
used as Food, but also in respect to their different combinations
and proportions; and to the various ways in which they could be
prepared or cooked; it was found that the CHEAPEST, most SAVOURY,
and most NOURISHING Food that could be provided, was a soup
composed of PEARL BARLEY, PEASE, POTATOES, CUTTINGS OF FINE
WHEATEN BREAD, vinegar--salt and water in certain proportions.

The method of preparing this soup is as follows;  The water and
the pearl barley are first put together into the boiler and made
to boil; the pease are then added, and the boiling is continued
over a gentle fire about two hours;--the potatoes are then added,
(having been previously peeled with a knife, or having been
boiled, in order to their being more easily deprived of their
skins,) and the boiling is continued for about one hour more,
during which time the contents of the boiler are frequently
stirred about with a large wooden spoon, or ladle, in order to
destroy the texture of the potatoes, and to reduce the soup to
one uniform mass.--When this is done, the vinegar and the salt
are added; and last of all, at the moment it is to be served up,
the cuttings of bread.

The soup should never be suffered to boil, or even to stand long
before it is served up after the cuttings of bread are put into it.
It will, indeed, for reasons which will hereafter be explained,
be best never to put the cuttings of bread into the boiler at
all, but, (as is always done at Munich,) to put them into the
tubs in which the soup is carried from the kitchen into the
dining-hall; pouring the soup hot from the boiler upon them;
and stirring the whole well together with the iron ladles used
for measuring out the soup to the Poor in the hall.

It is of more importance than can well be imagined, that this
bread which is mixed with the soup should not be boiled.
It is likewise of use that it should be cut as fine or thin as
possible; and if it be dry and hard, it will be so much the
better.

The bread we use at Munich is what is called semel bread, being
small loaves, weighing from two to three ounces; and as we
receive this bread in donations from the bakers, it is commonly
dry and hard, being that which, not being sold in time, remains
on hand, and becomes stale and unsaleable; and we have found by
experience, that this hard and stale bread answers for our
purpose much better than any other, for it renders mastication
necessary; and mastication seems very powerfully to assist in
promoting digestion: it likewise PROLONGS THE DURATION OF THE
ENJOYMENT OF EATING, a matter of very great importance indeed,
and which has not hitherto been sufficiently attended to.

The quantity of this soup furnished to each person, at each meal,
or one portion of it, (the cuttings of bread included,) is just
ONE BAVARIAN POUND in weight; and as the Bavarian pound is to the
pound Avoirdupois as 1,123842 to 1, --it is equal to about
nineteen ounces and nine-tenths Avoirdupois.  Now, to those who
know that a full pint of soup weighs no more than about sixteen
ounces Avoirdupois, it will not, perhaps, at the first view,
appear very extraordinary that a portion weighing near twenty
ounces, and consequently making near ONE PINT AND A QUARTER of
this rich, strong, savoury soup, should be found sufficient to
satisfy the hunger of a grown person; but when the matter is
examined narrowly, and properly analyzed, and it is found that
the whole quantity of SOLID FOOD which enters into the
composition of one of these portions of soup, does not amount to
quite SIX OUNCES, it will then appear to be almost impossible
that this allowance should be sufficient.

That it is quite sufficient, however, to make a good meal for a
strong healthy person, has been abundantly proved by long
experience.  I have even found that a soup composed of nearly the
same ingredients, except the potatoes, but in different
proportions, was sufficiently nutritive, and very palatable, in
which only about FOUR OUNCES AND THREE QUARTERS of solid Food
entered into the composition of a portion weighing twenty ounces.

But this will not appear incredible to those who know, that one
single spoonful of salope, weighing less than one quarter of an
ounce, put into a pint of boiling water, forms the thickest and
most nourishing soup that can be taken; and that the quantity of
solid matter which enters into the composition of another very
nutritive Food, hartshorn jelly, is not much more considerable.

The barley in my soup, seems to act much the same part as the
salope in this famous restorative; and no substitute that I could
ever find for it, among all the variety of corn and pulse of the
growth of Europe, ever produced half the effect; that is to say,
half the nourishment at the same expence.  Barley may therefore
be considered as the rice of Great Britain.

It requires, it is true, a great deal of boiling; but when it is
properly managed, it thickens a vast quantity of water; and, as I
suppose, PREPARES IT FOR DECOMPOSITION.  It also gives the soup
into which it enters as an ingredient, a degree of richness which
nothing else can give.  It has little or no taste in itself, but
when mixed with other ingredients which are savoury, it renders
them peculiarly grateful to the palate[2].

It is a maxim, as ancient, I believe, as the time of Hippocrates,
that "whatever pleases the palate nourishes;" and I have often
had reason to think it perfectly just.  Could it be clearly
ascertained and demonstrated, it would tend to place COOKERY in a
much more respectable situation among the arts than it now holds.

That the manner in which Food is prepared is a matter of real
importance; and that the water used in that process acts a much
more important part than has hitherto been generally imagined, is,
I think, quite evident; for, it seems to me to be impossible,
upon any other suppositions, to account for the appearances.
If the very small quantity of solid Food which enters into the
composition of a portion of some very nutritive soup were to be
prepared differently, and taken under some other form, that of
bread, for instance; so far from being sufficient to satisfy
hunger, and afford a comfortable and nutritive meal, a person
would absolutely starve upon such a slender allowance; and no
great relief would be derived from drinking CRUDE water to fill
up the void in the stomach.

But it is not merely from an observation of the apparent effects
of cookery upon those articles which are used as Food for man,
that we are led to discover the importance of these culinary
processes. Their utility is proved in a manner equally conclusive
and satisfactory, by the efforts which have been produced by
employing the same process in preparing Food for brute animals.

It is well known, that boiling the potatoes with which hogs are
fed, renders them much more nutritive; and since the introduction
of the new system of feeding horned cattle, that of keeping them
confined in the stables all the year round, (a method which is
now coming fast into common use in many parts of Germany,) great
improvements have been made in the art of providing nourishment
for those animals; and particularly by preparing their Food, by
operations similar to those of cookery; and to these improvements
it is most probably owing, that stall feeding has, in that
country, been so universally successful.

It has long been a practice in Germany for those who fatten
bullocks for the butcher, or feed milch-cows, to give them
frequently what is called a drank or drink; which is a kind of
pottage, prepared differently in different parts of the country,
and in the different seasons, according to the greater facility
with which one or other of the articles occasionally employed in
the composition of it may be procured; and according to the
particular fancies of individuals.  Many feeders make a great
secret of the composition of their drinks, and some have, to my
knowledge, carried their refinement so far as actually to mix
brandy in them, in small quantities; and pretend to have found
their advantage in adding this costly ingredient.

The articles most commonly used are, bran, oatmeal, brewers grains,
mashed potatoes, mashed turnips, rye meal, and barley meal,
with a large proportion of water; sometimes two or three or more
of these articles are united in forming a drink; and of whatever
ingredients the drink is composed, a large proportion of salt is
always added to it.

There is, perhaps, nothing new in this method of feeding cattle
with liquid mixtures, but the manner in which these drinks are
now prepared in Germany is, I believe, quite new; and shows what
I wish to prove, that COOKING RENDERS FOOD REALLY MORE NUTRITIVE.

These drinks were formerly given cold, but it was afterwards
discovered that they were more nourishing when given warm; and of
late their preparation is, in many places, become a very regular
culinary process.  Kitchens have been built, and large boilers
provided and fitted up, merely for cooking for the cattle in the
stables; and I have been assured by many very intelligent farmers,
who have adopted this new mode of feeding, (and have also found
by my own experience,) that it is very advantageous indeed;
that the drinks are evidently rendered much more nourishing and
wholesome by being boiled; and that the expence of fuel, and the
trouble attending this process, are amply compensated by the
advantages derived from the improvement of the Food.  We even
find it advantageous to continue the boiling a considerable time,
two or three hours, for instance; as the Food goes on to be still
farther improved, the longer the boiling is continued[3].

These facts seem evidently to show, that there is some very
important secret with regard to nutrition, which has not been yet
properly investigated; and it seems to me to be more probable,
that the numbers of inhabitants who may be supported in any
country, upon its internal produce, depends almost as much upon
the state of THE ART OF COOKERY, as upon that of agriculture.
--The Chinese, perhaps, understand both these arts better than
any other nation.--Savages understand neither of them.

But, if cookery be of so much importance, it certainly deserves
to be studied with the greatest care; and it ought particularly
to be attended to in times of general alarm on account of a
scarcity of provisions; for the relief which may in such cases be
derived from it, is immediate and effectual, while all other
resources are distant and uncertain.

I am aware of the difficulties which always attend the
introduction of measures calculated to produce and remarkable
change in the customs and habits of mankind; and there is perhaps
no change more difficult to effect, than that which would be
necessary in order to make any considerable saving in the
consumption of those articles commonly used as Food; but still,
I am of opinion, that such a change might, with proper management,
be brought about.

There was a time, no doubt, when an aversion to potatoes was as
general, and as strong, in Great Britain, and even in Ireland,
as it is now in some parts of Bavaria; but this prejudice has
been got over; and I am persuaded, that any national prejudice,
however deeply rooted, may be overcome, provided proper means be
used for that purpose, and time allowed for their operation.

But notwithstanding the difficulty of introducing a general use
of soups throughout the country, or of any other kind of Food,
however palatable, cheap, and nourishing, to which people have
not been accustomed, yet these improvements might certainly be
made, with great facility, in all public hospitals and work-houses,
where the Poor are fed at the public expense; and the saving of
provisions, (not to mention the diminution of expence,) which
might be derived from this improvement, would be very important
at all times, and more especially in times of general scarcity.

Another measure, still more important, and which might, I am
persuaded, be easily carried into execution, is the establishment
of public kitchens in all towns, and large villages, throughout
the kingdom, whence, not only the Poor might be fed gratis, but
also all the industrious inhabitants of the neighbourhood might
be furnished with Food at so cheap a rate, as to be a very great
relief to them at all times; and in times of general scarcity,
this arrangement would alone be sufficient to prevent those
public and private calamities, which never fail to accompany that
most dreadful of all visitations, a famine.

The saving of Food that would result from feeding a large
proportion of the inhabitants of any country from public
kitchens, would be immense, and that saving would tend,
immediately, and most powerfully, to render provisions more
plentiful and cheap,--diminish the general alarm on account of
the danger of a scarcity, and prevent the hoarding up of
provisions by individuals, which is often alone sufficient,
without any thing else, to bring on a famine, even where there is
no real scarcity: for it is not merely the FEARS of individuals
which operate in these cases, and induce them to lay in a larger
store of provisions than they otherwise would do; and which
naturally increases the scarcity of provisions in the market,
and raises their prices; but there are persons who are so lost to
all the feelings of humanity, as often to speculate upon the
distress of the Public, and all THEIR operations effectually tend
to increase the scarcity in the markets, and augment the general
alarm.

But without enlarging farther in this place upon these public
kitchens, and the numerous and important advantages which may in
all countries be derived from them, I shall return to the
interesting subjects which I have undertaken to investigate;--
the science of nutrition, and the art of providing wholesome and
palatable Food at a small expence.


CHAPTER. II.

 Of the Pleasure of Eating, and of the Means that may be
   employed for increasing it.

What has already been said upon this subject will, I flatter
myself, be thought sufficient to show that, FOR ALL THE PURPOSES
OF NOURISHMENT, a much smaller quantity of solid Food will
suffice than has hitherto been thought necessary; but there is
another circumstance to be taken into the account, and that is,
the PLEASURE OF EATING;--an enjoyment of which no person will
consent to be deprived.

The pleasure enjoyed in eating depends first upon the
agreeableness of the taste of the Food; and secondly, upon its
power to affect the palate. Now there are many substances
extremely cheap, by which very agreeable tastes may be given to
Food; particularly when the basis or nutritive substance of the
Food is tasteless; and the effect of any kind of palatable solid
Food, (of meat, for instance,) upon the organs of taste, may be
increased, almost indefinitely, by reducing the size of the
particles of such Food, and causing it to act upon the palate by
a larger surface.  And if means be used to prevent its being
swallowed too soon, which may be easily done by mixing with it
some hard and tasteless substance, such as crumbs of bread
rendered hard by toasting, or any thing else of that kind,
by which a long mastrication is rendered necessary, the enjoyment
of eating may be greatly increased and prolonged.

The idea of occupying a person a great while, and affording him
much pleasure at the same time, in eating a small quantity of
Food, may, perhaps, appear ridiculous to some; but those who
consider the matter attentively, will perceive that it is very
important.  It is, perhaps, as much so as any thing that can
employ the attention of the philosopher.

The enjoyments which fall to the lot of the bulk of mankind are
not so numerous as to render an attempt to increase them superfluous.
And even in regard to those who have it in their power to gratify
their appetites to the utmost extent of their wishes, it is
surely rendering them a very importance service to show them how
they may increase their pleasures without destroying their health.

If a glutton can be made to gormandize two hours upon two ounces
of meat, it is certainly much better for him, than to give
himself an indigestion by eating two pounds in the same time.

I was led to meditate upon this subject by mere accident.  I had
long been at a loss to understand how the Bavarian soldiers,
who are uncommonly stout, strong, and healthy men, and who, in
common with all other Germans, are remarkably fond of eating,
could contrive to live upon the very small sums they expended for
Food; but a more careful examination of the economy of their
tables cleared up the point, and let me into a secret which
awakened all my curiosity.  These soldiers, instead of being
starved upon their scanty allowance, as might have been suspected,
I found actually living in a most comfortable and even luxurious
manner.  I found that they had contrived not only to render their
Food savoury and nourishing, but, what appeared to me still more
extraordinary, had found the means of increasing its action upon
the organs of taste so as actually to augment, and even prolong
to a most surprising degree, the enjoyment of eating.

This accidental discovery made a deep impression upon my mind,
and gave a new turn to all my ideas on the subject of Food.--
It opened to me a new and very interesting field for investigation
and experimenting inquiry, of which I had never before had a
distinct view; and thenceforward my diligence in making
experiments, and in collecting information relative to the manner
in which Food is prepared in different countries, was redoubled.

In the following Chapter may be seen the general results of all
my experiments and inquiries relative to this subject.--A desire
to render this account as concise and short as possible has
induced me to omit much interesting speculation which the subject
naturally suggested; but the ingenuity of the reader will supply
this defect, and enable him to discover the objects particularly
aimed at in the experiments, even where they are not mentioned,
and to compare the results of practice with the assumed theory.


CHAPTER. III.

 Of the different kinds of food furnished to the poor in the
   house of industry at Munich, with an account of the cost of them.
 Of the Expense of providing the same kinds of food in Great
   Britain, as well at the present high prices of provisions,
   as at the ordinary prices of them.
 Of the various improvements of which these different kinds of
   cheap food are capable.

Before the introduction of potatoes as Food in the House of
Industry at Munich, (which was not done till last August,)
the Poor were fed with a soup composed in the following manner:

SOUP No I.
                                        Weight       Cost in
   Ingredients                          Avoirdupois  sterling money.
                                         lb. oz.      L. s.  d.
4 viertls[4] of pearl barley, equal
to about 20 1/3 gallons  ...  ...  ...   141  2       0  11  7 1/2
4 viertls of peas   ...  ...  ...  ...   131  4       0   7  3 1/4
Cuttings of fine wheaten bread     ...    69 10       0  10  2 1/4
Salt ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...    19 13       0   1  2 1/2
24 maass, very weak beer--vinegar,
or rather small beer turned sour, about
24 quarts ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...    46 13       0   1  5 1/2
Water, about 560 quarts  ...  ...  ...  1077  0
                                        --------      -------------
                                        1485 10       1  11  8 13/22


                                      Brought over    1  11  8 13/22
Fuel, 88lb. of dry pine wood, the Bavarian
clafter, (weighing 3961 lb. avoirdupois,)
at 8s. 2 1/4d. sterling[5]  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...   0  0  2 1/4
Wages of three cook-maids, at twenty florins
(37s. 7 1/2d.) a year, makes daily  ...  ...  ...     0  0  3 2/3
Daily expence for feeding the three cook-maids,
at ten creutzers (3 2/3 pence sterling) each,
according to an agreement made with them  ...  ...    0  0 11
Daily wages of two men servants, employed in
going to market--collecting donations of bread,
etc. helping in the kitchen, and assisting in
serving out the soup to the Poor    ...  ...  ...     0  1  7 1/4
Repairs of the kitchen, and of the kitchen
furniture, about 90 florins (8L. 3s. 7d. sterling)
a year, makes daily  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     0  0  5 1/2
                                                     -------------
Total daily expense, when dinner is provided for
1200 persons    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     1 15  2 1/4

This sum (1L. 15s. 2 1/4d.) divided by 1200, the number of
portions of soup furnished, gives for each portion a mere trifle
more than ONE THIRD OF A PENNY, or exactly 422/1200 of a penny;
the weight of each portion being about 20 ounces.

But, moderate as these expenses are, which have attended the
feeding of the Poor of Munich, they have lately been reduced
still farther by introducing the use of potatoes.--These most
valuable vegetables were hardly known in Bavaria till very
lately; and so strong was the aversion of the public, and
particularly of the Poor, against them, at the time when we began
to make use of them in the public kitchen of the House of
Industry in Munich, that we were absolutely obliged, at first,
to introduce them by stealth.--A private room in a retired corner
was fitted up as a kitchen for cooking them; and it was necessary
to disguise them, by boiling them down entirely, and destroying
their form and texture, to prevent their being detected:--but the
Poor soon found that their soup was improved in its qualities;
and they testified their approbation of the change that had been
made in it so generally and loudly, that it was at last thought
to be no longer necessary to conceal from them the secret of its
composition, and they are now grown so fond of potatoes that they
would not easily be satisfied without them.

The employing of potatoes as an ingredient in the soup has
enabled us to make a considerable saving in the other more costly
materials, as may be seen by comparing the following receipt with
that already given.

SOUP, No II.

Ingredients.                     Weight            Cost in
                                 Avoirdupois.      sterling money.
                                    lb. oz.        L.  s.  d.
2 viertls of pearl barley ...  ...  70   9         0   5   9 13/22
2 viertls of peas    ...  ...  ...  65  10         0   3   7 5/8
8 viertls of potatoes     ...  ... 230   4         0   1   9 9/11
Cuttings of bread    ...  ...  ...  69  10         0  10   2 4/11
Salt  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  19  13         0   1   2 1/2
Vinegar    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  46  13         0   1   5 1/2
Water ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ... 982  15
                                  ---------
                    Total weight  1485  10
Expenses for fuel, servants, repairs,
etc. as before   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ... 0   3   5 5/12
                                                  --------------
Total daily expence, when dinner is provided for
1200 persons    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1   7   6 2/3

This sum (1L. 7s. 6 2/3.) divided by 1200, the number of portions
of soup, gives for each portion ONE FARTHING very nearly; or
accurately, 1 1/40 farthing.

The quantity of each of the ingredients contained in one portion
of soup is as follows:

                      In avoirdupois weight.
Ingredients.        Soup, No I.     Soup, No II.

Of pearl barley     1 1058/1200     0 1129/1200
Of peas  ...  ...   1  960/1200     0 1050/1200
Of potatoes   ...    ------         3   84/1200
Of bread ...  ...   0 1114/1200     0 1114/1200
                    -----------   --------------
      Total solids  4  772/1200     5  977/1200
Of salt  ...  ...   0  316/1200     0  316/1200
Of weak vinegar     0  748/1200     0  748/1200
Of water ...  ...  14  432/1200    13  127/1200
                    -----------   --------------
             Total 19  968/1200    19  968/1200

The expence of preparing these soups will vary with the prices of
the articles of which they are composed; but as the quantities of
the ingredients, determined by weight, are here given, it will be
easy to ascertain exactly what they will cost in any case whatever.

Suppose, for instance, it were required to determine how much
1200 portions of the Soup, No. I. would cost in London at this
present moment, (the 12th of November 1795,) when all kinds of
provisions are uncommonly dear.  I see by a printed report of the
Board of Agriculture, of the day before yesterday (November 10),
that the prices of the articles necessary for preparing these
soups were as follows:

Barley, per bushel weighing 46lb. at 5s. 6d. which gives for each
pound about 1 1/2d; but prepared as pearl barley, it will cost
at least two pence per pound[6].

Boiling peas per bushel, weighing 61 1/4lb. (at 10s.) which gives
for each pound nearly 1 1/2d.

Potatoes, per bushel, weighing 58 1/2lb. at 2s. 6d. which gives
nearly one halfpenny for each pound.

And I find that a quartern loaf of wheaten bread, weighing 4lb.
5oz. costs now in London 1s. 0 1/4d.;--this bread must therefore
be reckoned at 11 25/69 farthings per pound.

Salt costs 1 1/2. per pound; and vinegar (which is probably six
times as strong as that stuff called vinegar which is used in the
kitchen of the House of Industry at Munich) costs 1s. 8d. per
gallon.

This being premised, the computations may be made as follows:

Expence of preparing in London, in the month of November 1795,
1200 portions of the Soup, No I.

lb  oz                    s  d                L.  s.  d.
141  2  pearl barley, at  0  2        per lb.  1  12  6
131  4  peas, at          0  1 1/2    ------   0  16  4
 69 10  wheaten bread, at 0 11 25/99  ------   0  16  6
 19 13  salt, at          0  1 1/2    ------   0   2  5 1/2
Vinegar, one gallon, at   1  8        ------   0   1  8
Expences for fuel, servants, kitchen
furniture, etc. reckoning three times
as much as those articles of expence amount
to daily at Munich  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...   0  10  4 1/4
                                             -------------
                                    Total     3   9  9 1/4

Which sum (3L. 9s. 9 1/4d.) divided by 1200, the number of
portions of soup, gives 2 951/1200 farthings, or nearly 2 3/4
farthings for each portion.

For the Soup, No II.  it will be,
lb. oz.                   s.  d.             L. s.  d.
 70  9 pearl barley, at  0  2       ------   0  11  9
 65 10 peas, at          0  1 1/2   ------   0   8  2
230  4 potatoes, at      0  0 1/2   ------   0  13  9
 69 10 bread, at         0 11 25/65 ------   0  16  6
 19 13 salt, at          0  1 1/2   ------   0   2  5 1/2
Vinegar, one gallon                 ------   0   1  8
Expenses for fuel, servants, etc.   ------   0  10  4 1/4
                                            -------------
                                  Total      3   4  7 3/4

This sum (3L. 4s. 7 3/4d.) divided by 1200, the number of
portions, gives for each 2 1/2 farthings very nearly.

This soup comes much higher here in London, than it would do in
most other parts of Great Britain, on account of the very high
price of potatoes in this city; but in most parts of the kingdom,
and certainly in every part of Ireland, it may be furnished,
even at this present moment, notwithstanding the uncommonly high
prices of provisions, at less than ONE HALFPENNY the portion of
20 ounces.

Though the object most attended to in composing these soups was
to render them wholesome and nourishing, yet they are very far
from being unpalatable.--The basis of the soups, which is water
prepared and thickened by barley, is well calculated to receive,
and to convey to the palate in an agreeable manner, every thing
that is savoury in the other ingredients; and the dry bread
rendering mastication necessary, prolongs the action of the Food
upon the organs of taste, and by that means increases and
PROLONGS the enjoyment of eating.

But though these soups are very good and nourishing, yet they
certainly are capable of a variety of improvements.--The most
obvious means of improving them is to mix with them a small
quantity of salted meat, boiled, and cut into very small pieces,
(the smaller the better,) and to fry the bread that is put into
them in butter, or in the fat of salted pork or bacon.

The bread, by being fried, is not only rendered much harder, but
being impregnated with a fat or oily substance it remains hard
after it is put into the soup, the water not being able to
penetrate it and soften it.

All good cooks put fried bread, cut into small square pieces, in
peas-soup; but I much doubt whether they are aware of the very
great importance of that practice, or that they have any just
idea of the MANNER in which the bread improves the soup.

The best kind of meat for mixing with these soups is salted pork,
or bacon, or smoked beef.

Whatever meat is used, it ought to be boiled either in clear water
or in the soup; and after it is boiled, it ought to be cut into
very small pieces, as small perhaps, as barley-corns.--The bread
may be cut in pieces of the size of large peas, or in thin slices;
and after it is fried, it may be mixed with the meat and put into
the soup-dishes, and the soup poured on them when it is served out.

Another method of improving this soup is to mix it with small
dumplins, or meat-balls, made of bread, flour, and smoked beef,
ham, or any other kind of salted meat, or of liver cut into small
pieces, or rather MINCED, as it is called.--These dumplins may
be boiled either in the soup or in clear water, and put into the
soup when it is served out.

As the meat in these compositions is designed rather to please
the palate than for any thing else, the soup being sufficiently
nourishing without it, it is or much importance that it be
reduced to very small pieces, in order that it be brought into
contract with the organs of taste by a large surface; and that it
be mixed with some hard substance, (fried bread, for instance,
crumbs, or hard dumplins,) which will necessarily prolong the
time employed in mastication.

When this is done, and where the meat employed has much flavour,
a very small quantity of it will be found sufficient to answer
the purpose required.

ONE OUNCE of bacon, or of smoked beef, and ONE OUNCE of fried
bread, added to EIGHTEEN OUNCES of the Soup No. I. would afford
an excellent meal, in which the taste of animal food would
decidedly predominate.

Dried salt fish, or smoked fish, boiled and then minced, and made
into dumplins with mashed potatoes, bread, and flour, and boiled
again, would be very good, eaten with either of the Soup No. I.
or No. II.

These soups may likewise be improved, by mixing with them various
kinds of cheap roots and green vegetables, as turnips, carrots,
parsnips, celery, cabbages, sour-crout, etc. as also by seasoning
them with fine herbs and black pepper.--Onions and leeks may
likewise be used with great advantage, as they not only serve to
render the Food in which they enter as ingredients peculiarly
savoury, but are really very wholesome.

With regard to the barley made use of in preparing these soups,
though I always have used pearl barley, or rolled barley(as it is
called in Germany), yet I have no doubt but common barley-meal
would answer nearly as well; particularly if care were taken to
boil it gently for a sufficient length of time over a slow fire
before the peas are added[7].

Till the last year, we used to cook the barley-soup and the
peas-soup separate, and not to mix them till the moment when they
were poured into the tubs upon the cut bread, in order to be
carried into the dining-hall; but I do not know that any
advantages were derived from that practice; the soup being,
to all appearances, quite as good since the barley and the peas
have been cooked together as before.

As soon as the soup is done, and the boilers are emptied, they
are immediately refilled with water, and the barley for the soup
for the next day is put into it, and left to steep over night;
and at six o'clock the next morning the fires are lighted under
the boilers[8].

The peas, however, are never suffered to remain in the water
over-night, as we have found, by repeated trials, that they never
boil soft if the water in which they are boiled is not boiling
hot when they are put into it.--Whether this is peculiar to the
peas which grow in Bavaria, I know not.

When I began to feed the Poor of Munich, there was also a
quantity of meat boiled in their soup; but as the quantity was
small, and the quality of it but very indifferent, I never
thought it contributed much to rendering the victuals more
nourishing: but as soon as means were found for rendering the
soup palatable without meat, the quantity of it used was
gradually diminished, and it was at length entirely omitted.
I never heard that the Poor complained of the want of it;
and much doubt whether they took notice of it.

The management of the fire in cooking is, in all cases, a matter
of great importance; but in no case is it so necessary to be
attended to as in preparing the cheap and nutritive soups here
recommended.--Not only the palatableness, but even the strength
or richness of the soup, seems to depend very much upon the
management of the heat employed in cooking it.

From the beginning of the process to the end of it, the boiling
should be as gentle as possible;--and if it were possible to
keep the soup always JUST BOILING HOT, without actually boiling,
it would be so much the better.

Causing any thing to boil violently in any culinary process is
very ill judged; for it not only does not expedite, even in the
smallest degree, the process of cooking, but it occasions a most
enormous waste of fuel; and by driving away with the steam many
of the more volatile and more savoury particles of the ingredients,
renders the victuals less good and less palatable. --To those who
are acquainted with the experimental philosophy of heat, and who
know that water once brought to be BOILING HOT, however gently it
may boil in fact, CANNOT BE MADE ANY HOTTER, however large and
intense the fire under it may be made, and who know that it is by
the HEAT--that is to say, THE DEGREE or intensify of it, and the
TIME of its being continued, and not by the bubbling up or
BOILING, (as it is called) of the water that culinary operations
are performed--this will be evident, and those who know that more
than FIVE TIMES as much heat is required to SEND OFF IN STEAM any
given quantity of water ALREADY BOILING HOT as would be necessary
to heat the same quantity of ICE-COLD water TO THE BOILING POINT
--will see the enormous waste of heat, and consequently of fuel,
which, in all cases must result from violent boiling in culinary
processes.

To prevent the soup from burning to the boiler, the bottom of the
boiler should be made DOUBLE; the false bottom, (which may be
very thin) being fixed on the inside of the boiler, the two
sheets of copper being every where in contact with each other;
but they ought not to be attached to each other with solder,
except only at the edge of the false bottom where it is joined to
the sides of the boiler.--The false bottom should have a rim
about an inch and a half wide, projecting upwards, by which it
should be riveted to the sides of the boiler; but only few
rivets, or nails, should be used for fixing the two bottoms
together below, and those used should be very small; otherwise
where large nails are employed at the bottom of the boiler, where
the fire is most intense, the soup will be apt to BURN TO; at
least on the heads of those large nails.

The two sheets of metal may be made to touch each other every
where, by hammering them together after the false bottom is fixed
in its place; and they may be tacked together by a few small
rivets placed here and there, at considerable distances from
each other; and after this is done, the boiler may be tinned.

In tinning the boiler, if proper care be taken, the edge of the
false bottom may be soldered by the tin to the sides of the
boiler, and this will prevent the water, or other liquids put
into the boiler, from getting between the two bottoms.

In this manner double bottoms may be made to sauce-pans and
kettles of all kinds used in cooking; and this contrivance will,
in all cases, most effectually prevent what is called by the
cooks burning to[9].

The heat is so much obstructed in its passage through the thin
sheet of air, which, notwithstanding all the care that is taken
to bring the two bottoms into actual contact, will still remain
between them, the second has time to give its heat as fast as it
receives it, to the fluid in the boiler; and consequently never
acquires a degree of heat sufficient for burning any thing that
may be upon it.

Perhaps it would be best to double copper sauce-pans and small
kettles throughout; and as this may and ought to be done with a
very thin sheet of metal, it could not cost much, even if this
lining were to be made of silver.

But I must not enlarge here upon a subject I shall have occasion
to treat more fully in another place.--To return, therefore,
to the subject more immediately under consideration, Food.


CHAPTER. IV.

 Of the small expense at which the Bavarian soldiers are fed.
 Details of their housekeeping, founded on actual experiment.
 An account of the fuel expended by them in cooking.

It has often been matter of surprise to many, and even to those
who are most conversant in military affairs, that soldiers can
find means to live upon the very small allowances granted them
for their subsistence; and I have often wondered that nobody has
undertaken to investigate that matter, and to explain a mystery
at the same time curious and interesting, in a high degree.

The pay of a private soldier is in all countries very small,
much less than the wages of a day-labourer; and in some countries
it is so mere a pittance, that it is quite astonishing how it can
be made to support life.

The pay of a private foot-soldier in the service of His Most
Serene Highness the Elector Palatine, (and it is the same for a
private grenadier in the regiment of guards,) is FIVE CREUTZERS
a-day, and no more.--Formerly the pay of a private foot-soldier
was only four creutzers and a half a-day, but lately, upon the
introduction of the new military arrangements in the country, his
pay has been raised to five creutzers;--and with this he receives
one pound thirteen ounces and a half, Avoirdupois weight, of
rye-bread, which, at the medium price of grain in Bavaria and the
Palatinate, costs something less than three creutzers, or just
about ONE PENNY sterling.

The pay which the soldier receives in money,-- (five creutzers
a-day,) equal to one penny three farthings sterling, added to his
daily allowance of bread, valued at one penny, make TWO PENCE
THREE FARTHINGS a-day, for the sum total of his allowance.

That it is possible, in any country, to procure Food sufficient
to support life with so small a sum, will doubtless appear
extraordinary to an English reader;--but what would be his
surprise upon seeing a whole army, composed of the finest,
stoutest, and strongest men in the world, who are fed upon that
allowance, and whose countenances show the most evident marks of
ruddy health, and perfect contentment?

I have already observed, how much I was struck with the domestic
economy of the Bavarian soldiers.  I think the subject much too
interesting, not to be laid before the Public, even in all its
details; and as I think it will be more satisfactory to hear from
their own mouths an account of the manner in which these soldiers
live, I shall transcribe the reports of two sensible
non-commissioned officers, whom I employed to give me the
information I wanted.

These non-commissioned officers, who belong to two different
regiments of grenadiers in garrison at Munich, were recommended
to me by their colonels as being very steady, careful men,
are each at the head of a mess consisting of twelve soldiers,
themselves reckoned in the number.  The following accounts,
which they gave me of their housekeeping, and of the expenses of
their tables, were all the genuine results of actual experiments
made at my particular desire, and at my cost.

I do not believe that useful information was ever purchased
cheaper than upon this occasion; and I fancy my reader will be
of the same opinion when he has perused the following reports,
which are literally translated from the original German.

"In obedience to the orders of Lieut. General Count Rumford, the
following experiments were made by Serjeant Wickenhof's mess, in
the first company of the first (or Elector's own) regiment of
grenadiers, at Munich, on the 10th and 11th of June 1795.

June 10th, 1795.
BILL OF FARE
Boiled beef, with soup and bread dumplins.
Details of the expence, etc.
For the boiled beef and the soup.

        lb. loths.                         Creutzers.
        2    0     beef[10]  ...  ...  ...    16
        0    1     sweet herbs ...  ...  ...   1
        0    0 1/2 pepper ...  ...  ...  ...   0 1/2
        0    6     salt   ...  ...  ...  ...   0 1/2
        1   14 1/2 ammunition bread, cut fine  2 7/8
        9   20     water  ...  ...  ...  ...   0
       -------                               ------
Total  13   10                          Cost  20 7/8

All these articles were put together into an earthen pot, and
boiled two hours and a quarter. The meat was then taken out of
the soup and weighed, and found to weigh 1 lb. 30 loths; which,
divided into twelve equal portions, gave FIVE LOTHS for the
weight of each.

The soup, with the bread, etc. weighed 9 lb. 30 1/2 loths; which,
divided into twelve equal portions, gave for each 26 7/12 loths.

The cost of the meat and soup together, 20 7/8 creutzers, divided
by twelve, gives 1 3/4 creutzers, very nearly, for the cost of
each portion.

For the bread dumplins.

      lb. loths.                   Creutzers.
       1   13   of fine semel bread     10
       1    0   of fine flour   ...      4 1/2
       0    6   salt  ...  ...  ...      0 1/2
       3    0   of water   ...  ...      0
      --------                          ------
Total  5   19                      Cost 15

This mass was made into dumplins, and these dumplins were boiled
half an hour in clear water. Upon taking them out of the water,
they were found to weigh 5 lb. 24 loths; and dividing them into
twelve equal portions, each portion weighed 15 1/3 loths; and the
cost of the whole (15 creutzers), divided by twelve, gives 1 1/4
creutzers for the cost of each portion.

The meat, soup, and dumplins were served all at once in the same
dish, and were all eaten together; and with this meal, (which was
their dinner, and was eat at twelve o'clock,) each person
belonging to the mess was furnished with a piece of rye-bread,
weighing ten loths, and which cost 5/16 of a creutzer.
--Each person was likewise furnished with a piece of this bread,
weighing ten loths, for his breakfast;--another piece, of equal
weight, in the afternoon at four o'clock; and another in the
evening.

Analysis of this Day's Fare.

Each person received in the                      Amount of cost in
course of the day                                Bavarian money.

  In solids.                   In fluids.
                  lb. loths.   lb. loths.          Creutzers.
  Boiled beef      0  5  ...  ...  ...  .......  1 1/6
In the soup.
  Rye-bread        0  3 7/8               ]
  Sweet herbs      0  0 1/12              ]
  Salt   ...  ...  0  0 1/24              ]....  0 7/16
  Pepper ...  ...  0  0 1/24              ]
  Water  ...  ...              0  23 1/2  ]
                  ----------   ---------  ]
           Total   0  4 2/24   0  23 1/2  ]

In dumplins.
  Wheaten-bread    0  3 3/4               ]
  Ditto flour      0  2 2/3               ]
  Salt   ...  ...  0  0 1/24              ]....  1 1/4
  Water  ...  ...              0  7 1/12  ]
                  ----------   ---------  ]
           Total   0  6 11/24  0  7 7/12  ]

Dry bread.
  For breakfast    0 10                   ]
  At dinner        0 10                   ]
  In the afternoon 0 10                   ]....   2 1/2
  At supper        0 10                   ]
                  ------                  ]
           Total   1  8                   ]
                  ------       ----------
   General total   2 24 13/24  0  31 1/2  which cost 5 17/48

The ammunition bread is reckoned in this estimate at two
creutzers the Bavarian pound, which is about what it costs at a
medium; and as the daily allowance of the soldiers is 1 1/2
Bavarian pounds of the bread, this reckoned in money amounts to
three creutzers a-day; and this added to his pay at five
creutzers a-day, makes eight creutzers a-day, which is the whole
of his allowance from the sovereign for his subsistence.

But it appears from the foregoing account, that he expends for
Food no more than 5 17/48 creutzers a-day, there is therefore a
surplus amounting to 2 31/48 creutzers a-day, or very near
ONE-THIRD OF HIS WHOLE ALLOWANCE, which remains; and which he can
dispose of just as he thinks proper.

This surplus is commonly employed in purchasing beer, brandy,
tobacco, etc.  Beer in Bavaria costs two creutzers a pint,
brandy, or rather malt-spirits, from fifteen to eighteen
creutzers; and tobacco is very cheap.

To enable the English reader to form, without the trouble of
computation, a complete and satisfactory idea of the manner in
which these Bavarian soldiers are fed, I have added the following
Analysis of their fare; in which the quantity of each article is
expressed in Avoirdupois weight, and its cost in English money.

Analysis.

Each person belonging to the mess
received in the course of the day,            Cost in English
June 11th, 1795.                               money.

                             lb. oz.          s. d.
Dry ammunition bread          1  8 76/100     0  0 10/11
Ammunition bread cooked
  in the soup  ...  ...  ...  0  2 4/10       0  0 23/264
Fine wheaten (semel)
  bread in the dumplins  ...  0  2 3/10       0  0 10/33
                              ----------
                Total bread   1 13 46/100

Fine flour in the dumplins    0  1 65/100     0  0 18/33
Boiled beef    ...  ...  ...  0  3 1/10       0  0 72/198
In seasoning; fine herbs,
  salt and pepper   ...  ...  0  0 13/100     0  0 2/33
                              -----------
                Total solids  2  2 34/100

Water prepared by cooking.
In the soup    ...  ...  ...  0 14 52/209
In the dumplins     ...  ...  0  4 32/100
                              -----------
        Total prepared water  1  2 84/100
                              -----------
     Total solids and fluids  3  5 18/100

Total expense for each person 5 17/48 creutzers, equal to TWO PENCE
sterling, very nearly.

But as the Bavarian soldiers have not the same fare every day,
the expences of their tables cannot be ascertained from one
single experiment.  I shall therefore return to Serjeant
Wickenhof's report.

11th of June 1795.
Bill of Fare.
Bread, dumplins, and soup.
Details of expenses, etc.

             For the dumplins.
lb. loths.                        Creutzers.
 2  13     wheaten bread  ...  ...   14
 0  16     butter    ...  ...  ...    9
 1   0     fine flour     ...  ...    4 1/2
 0  11     eggs ...  ...  ...  ...    3
 0   6     salt ...  ...  ...  ...    0 1/2
 0   0 1/2 pepper    ...  ...  ...    0 1/2
 3  16     water     ...  ...  ...   ...
-------                              -------
 7  30 1/2                      Cost 31 1/2 creutzers.

This made into dumplins;--the dumplins, after being boiled, were
found to weigh eight pounds eight loths, which, divided among
twelve persons, gave for each twenty-two loths.--And the cost of
the whole (31 1/2 creutzers), divided by 12, gives 2 15/24
creutzers for each portion.

               For the soup.
lb. loths.                         Creutzers.
 1  14 1/2 ammunition bread    ...    2 7/8
 0   6     salt ...  ...  ...  ...     0 1/2
 0   1     sweet herbs    ...  ...     1
12   0     water     ...  ...  ...    ...
-------                              -------
13  21 1/2                         Cost  4 3/8 creutzers.

This soup, when cooked, weighed 11 lb, 26 loths; which, divided
among the twelve persons belonging to the mess, gave for each 31
1/2 loths; and the cost (4 3/8 creutzers), divided by twelve,
gives nearly THREE-NINTHS of a creutzer for each portion.

For bread.

Four pieces of ammunition bread, weighing each ten loths, for
each person,--namely, one piece for breakfast--one at dinner--one
in the afternoon,--and one at supper; in all, 40 loths, or one
pound and a quarter, costs two creutzers and a half.

Details of expenses, etc. for each person.

    lb. loths.                      Creutzers
For  1   8     dry bread  ...  ...  2 1/2
For  0  22     bread dumplins  ...  2 15/24
For  0  31 1/2 bread soup ...  ...  0 3/8
     ---------                      -----
     2  30 1/2     of Food    Cost  5 1/2 creutzers.

The same details expressed in Avoirdupois weight, and English
money:

For each person
  lb. oz.                            Pence
   1   8 76/100 dry ammunition bread  0 10/11
   0  13 6/10   bread dumplins  ...   0 693/792
   1   3 1/2    bread soup ...  ...   0 36/264
   ------------                       ---------
   3   9 86/100   of Food      Cost   2 pence.


June 20th, 1795.
Serjeant Kein's mess, second regiment of grenadiers.

Bill of Fare.

Boiled beef--bread soup--and liver dumplins.
Details of expenses, etc.
For the boiled beef and soup.

 lb. loths.                    Creutzers.
  2   0     beef ...  ...  ...   15
  0   6 1/2 salt ...  ...  ...    0 1/2
  0   0 1/2 pepper    ...  ...    0 1/2
  0   2     sweet herbs    ...    0 1/2
  2  24     ammunition bread      3 1/4
 17   0     water...  ...  ...
 ----------                      -------
 22   1                    Cost  19 1/2 creutzers.

These ingredients were all boiled together two hours and five
minutes; after which the beef was taken out of the soup and
weighed, and was found to weigh 1 lb. 22 loths; the soup weighed
15 lb.; and these divided equally among the twelve persons
belonging to the mess, gave for each portion, 4 1/2 loths of
beef, and 1 lb. 8 loths of soup; and the cost of the whole (19
3/4 creutzers), divided by 18, gives 1 31/48 creutzers for the
cost of each portion.

Details of expenses, etc. for the liver dumplins.

     lb. loths.                             Creutzers.
      2   28    of fine semel bread           15
      1    0    of beef liver  ...  ...  ...   5
      0   18    of fine flour  ...  ...  ...   2 1/2
      0    6    of salt   ...  ...  ...  ...   0 1/2
      2   24    of water  ...  ...  ...  ...  ---
     --------                                --------
Total 7   12                          Cost    23 creutzers.

These ingredients being made into dumplins, the dumplins after
being properly boiled were found to weigh 8 lb.--This gave for
each  portion 21 1/3 loths; and the amount of the cost
(23 creutzers), divided by 12, the number of the portions,
gives for each 1 11/12 creutzers.

The quantity of dry ammunition bread  furnished to each person
was 1 lb. 8 loths; and this, at two creutzers a pound, amounts to
2 1/2 creutzers.

          Recapitulation.

For each person
  lb. loths.                           Creutzers.
   0   4 1/2 of boiled beef, and ]  ...  1 31/48
   1   8     of bread soup       ]
   0  21 1/4 of liver dumplins ...  ...  1 11/12
   1   8     of dry bread ...  ...  ...  2 1/2
  ----------                            ---------
   3   9 5/6 of Food              Cost   6 3/48 creutzers.

In Avoirdupois weight, and English money, it
is,--for each person:

  lb. oz.
   0  2.78 of boiled beef, and ]  ...  0 948/1584
   1  8.91 of bread soup       ]
   0 13.19 of liver dumplins ...  ...  0 276/306
   1  8.76 of dry bread ...  ...  ...  0 10/11
   -------                             -----------
   4  1.54 of Food               Cost  2 1/5 pence.

June 21st, 1795.
Bill of Fare.
Boiled beef, and bread soup, with bread dumplins.
Details of expenses, etc. for the boiled beef and bread soup.
The same as yesterday,
For the dumplins.

 lb. loths.                          Creutzers.
  2    30   semel bread  ...  ...  ...  15 1/2
  0    18   fine flour   ...  ...  ...   3
  0     6   salt    ...  ...  ...  ...   0 1/2
  3     0   water   ...  ...  ...  ...
  -------                               -------
  6    22                          Cost 19 creutzers.

These dumplins being boiled, were found to weigh 7 lb. which gave
for each person 18 2/3 loths; and each portion cost 1 7/12
creutzers.

Dry ammunition bread furnished to each person 1 lb. 8 loths,
which cost 2 1/2 creutzers.

            Recapitulation.

Each person belonging to the mess received this day:

 lb. loths.                          Creutzers.
  0   4 1/2 of boiled beef, and ]  ...  1 31/48
  1   8     of bread soup       ]
  0  18 2/3 of bread dumplins ...  ...  1 7/12
  1   8     of dry bread ...  ...  ...  2 1/2
  ---------                             -------
  3   7 1/6 of Food               Cost  5 35/42 creutzers

In Avoirdupois weight, and English money, it is,

 lb. oz.
  0  2.78 of boiled beef, and ]  ...  0 948/1584
  1  8.76 of bread soup       ]
  0 11.54 of bread dumplins ...  ...  0 228/396
  1  8.76 of dry bread ...  ...  ...  0 10/11
  -------                             ----------
  4  0    of Food               Cost  2 1/12 pence.

June 22d, 1795.
Bill of Fare.
Bread soup and meat dumplins.
Details of expenses, etc.

 lb. loths.
  2   0   of beef  ...  ...  ...  15
  2  30   of semel bread     ...  15 1/2
  0  18   of fine flour ...  ...   3
  0   1   of pepper     ...  ...   1
  0  12   of salt  ...  ...  ...   1
  0   2   of sweet herbs     ...   0 1/2
  2  24   of ammunition bread      3 1/4
  2  16   of water to the dumplins
                                  ------
                            Cost  39 1/4 creutzers.

The meat being cut fine, or minced, was mixed with the semel or
wheaten bread; and these with the flour, and a due proportion of
salt, were made into dumplins, and boiled in the soup.--These
dumplins when boiled, weighed 10 lb. which, divided into 12 equal
portions, gave 20 2/3 loths for each.

The soup weighed 15 lb. which gave 1 lb. 8 loths for each portion.
--Of dry ammunition bread, each person received 1 lb. 8 loths,
which cost 2 1/2 creutzers.

Recapitulation.

Each person received this day

 lb. loths.                               Creutzers
  0  20 2/3 of meat dumplins, and ] ...  3 13/48
  1   8     of bread soup         ]
  1   8     of ammunition bread          2  1/2
  ---------                              -------
  3   4 2/3 of Food                 Cost 5 37/48 creutzers.

In Avoirdupois weight, and English money, it is,

 lb. oz.                                  Pence.
  0  12.77 of meat dumplins, and ]  ...  1 300/1584
  1   8.76 of bread soup         ]
  1   8.76 of ammunition bread ...  ...  0  10/11
  --------                               ----------
  3  14.29 of Food                 Cost  2   1/10 pence.

The results of all these experiments, (and of many more which I
could add,) show that the Bavarian soldier can live,--and the
fact is that he actually does live,--upon a little more than
TWO THIRDS of his allowance.--Of the five creutzers a-day which
he receives in money, he seldom puts more than two creutzers and
a half, and never more than three creutzers into the mess;
so that at least TWO-FIFTHS of his pay remains, after he has
defrayed all the expenses of his subsistence; and as he is
furnished with every article of his clothing by the sovereign,
and no stoppage is ever permitted to be made of any part of his
pay, on any pretence whatever, THERE IS NO SOLDIER IN EUROPE
WHOSE SITUATION IS MORE COMFORTABLE.

Though the ammunition bread with which he is furnished is rather
coarse and brown, being made of rye-meal, with only a small
quantity of the coarser part of the bran separated from it, yet
it is not only wholesome, but very nourishing; and for making
soup it is even more palatable than wheaten bread.  Most of the
soldiers, however, in the Elector's service, and particularly
those belonging to the Bavarian regiments, make a practice of
selling a great part of their allowance of ammunition bread, and
with the money they get for it, buy the best wheaten bread that
is to be had; and many of them never taste brown bread but in
their soup.

The ammunition bread is delivered to the soldiers every fourth
day, in loaves, each loaf being equal to two rations; and it is
a rule generally established in the messes, for each soldier to
furnish one loaf for the use of the mess every twelfth day,
so that he has five-sixths of his allowance of bread, which remains
at his disposal.

The foregoing account of the manner in which the Bavarian
soldiers are fed, will, I think, show most clearly the great
importance of making soldiers live together in messes.--It may
likewise furnish some useful hints to those who may be engaged
in feeding the Poor, or in providing Food for ships's companies,
or other bodies of men who are fed in common.

With regard to the expense of fuel in these experiments,
as the victuals were cooked in earthen pots, over an open fire,
the consumption of fire-wood was very great.

On the 10th of June, when 9 lb. 30 1/2 loths of soup, 1 lb. 28
loths of meat, and 5 lb. 24 loths of bread dumplins, in all 17 lb.
18 1/2 of Food were prepared, and the process of cooking,
from the time the fire was lighted till the victuals were done,
lasted two hours and forty-five minutes, and twenty-nine pounds,
Bavarian weight, of fire-wood were consumed.

On the 11th of June, when 11 lb. 26 loths of bread soup, and 8 lb.
8 loths of bread dumplins, in all 20 lb. 2 loths of Food were
prepared, the process of cooking lasted one hour and thirty
minutes;--and seventeen pounds of wood were consumed.

On the 20th of June, in Serjeant Kein's mess, 15 lb. of soup;
1 lb. 22 loths of meat, and 8 lb. of liver dumplins, in all 24 lb.
22 loths of Food were prepared, and through the process of
cooking lasted two hours and forty-five minutes, only 27 1/2 lb.
of fire-wood were consumed.

On the 21st of June, the same quantity of soup and meat, and 7 lb.
of bread dumplins, in all 23 lb. 22 loths of Food were prepared
in two hours and thirty minutes, with the consumption of 18 1/2 lb.
of wood.

On the 22nd of June, 15 lb. of soup, and 10 lb. of meat dumplins,
in all 25 lb. of Food, were cooked in two hours and forty-five
minutes, and the wood consumed was 18 lb. 10 loths.

The following table will show, in a striking and satisfactory
manner, the expense of fuel in these experiments:

Date of the   Time employed  Quantity   Quantity    Quantity
Experiments.  in cooking.    of Food    of Wood     of Wood to
                             prepared.  consumed.   1 lb. of Food.

June 1795.    Hours. min.    lb. loths.    lb.
   10th         2    45      17  18 1/2    29
   11th         1    30      20   2        17
   20th         2    45      24  22        17 1/2
   21st         2    30      23  22        18 1/2
   22d          2    45      25   0        18 1/4
               --------     -----------   -------
     Sums   5  12    15     111   0 1/2   100 1/4
               --------     -----------   -------
    Means       2    23      22   0 1/5    20 1/20   10/11 lb.

The mean quantity of Food prepared daily in five days being 22 lb.
very nearly, and the mean quantity of fire-wood consumed being 20
1/20 lb.; this gives 10/11 lb. of wood for each pound of Food.

But it has been found by actual experiment, made with the utmost
care, in the new kitchen of the House of Industry at Munich, and
often repeated, that 600 lb. of Food, (of the Soup No. I. given
to the Poor,) may be cooked with the consumption of only 44 lb.
of pine-wood. And hence it appears how very great the waste of
fuel must be in all culinary processes, as they are commonly
performed; for though the time taken up in cooking the soup for
the Poor is, at a medium, more than FOUR HOURS AND A HALF,
while that employed by the soldiers in their cooking is less than
TWO HOURS AND A HALF; yet the quantity of fuel consumed by the
latter is near THIRTEEN TIMES greater than that employed in the
public kitchen of the House of Industry.

But I must not here anticipate here a matter which is to be the
subject of a separate Essay; and which, from its great importance,
certainly deserves to be carefully and thoroughly investigated.


CHAPTER. V.

 Of the great importance of making soldiers eat together in
   regular messes.
 The influence of such economical arrangements extends even to
   the moral character of those who are the objects of them.
 Of the expence of feeding soldiers in messes.
 Of the surprising smallness of the expence of feeding the poor
   at Munich.
 Specific proposals respecting the feeding of the poor in Great
   Britain, with calculations of the expense, at the present
   prices of provisions.

All those who have been conversant in military affairs must have
had frequent opportunities of observing the striking difference
there is, even in the appearance of the men, between regiments in
which messes are established, and Food is regularly provided
under the care and inspection of the Officers; and others, in
which the soldiers are left individually to shift for themselves.
And the difference which may be observed between soldiers who
live in messes, and are regularly fed, and others who are not,
is not confined merely to their external appearance:
the influence of these causes extends much farther, and even the
MORAL CHARACTER of the man is affected by them.

Peace of mind, which is as essential to contentment and happiness
as it is to virtue, depends much upon order and regularity in
the common affairs of life; and in no case are order and method
more necessary to happiness, (and consequently to virtue,) than
in that, where the preservation of health is connected with the
satisfying of hunger; an appetite whose cravings are sometimes as
inordinate as they are insatiable.

Peace of mind depends likewise much upon economy, or the means
used for preventing pecuniary embarrassments; and the savings to
soldiers in providing Food, which arise from housekeeping in
messes of ten or twelve persons who live together, is very great
indeed.

But great as these savings now are, I think they might be made
still more considerable; and I shall give my reasons for this
opinion.

Though the Bavarian soldiers live at a very small expense, little
more than TWO-PENCE sterling a-day, yet when I compare this sum,
small as it is, with the expense of feeding the Poor in the
House of Industry at Munich, which does not amount to more than
TWO FARTHINGS a-day, even including the cost of the piece of dry
rye-bread, weighing seven ounces Avoirdupois[11], which is given
them in their hands, at dinner, but which they seldom eat at dinner,
but commonly carry home in their pockets for their suppers;--when
I compare, I say, this small sum, with the daily expence of the
soldiers for their subsistence, I find reason to conclude, either
that the soldiers might be fed cheaper, or that the Poor must be
absolutely starved upon their allowance. That the latter is not
the case, the healthy countenances of the Poor, and the air of
placid contentment which always accompanies them, as well in the
dining-hall as in their working-rooms, affords at the same time
the most interesting and most satisfactory proof possible.

Were they to go home in the course of the day, it might be
suspected that they got something at home to eat, in addition to
what they receive from the public kitchen of the Establishment;--
but this they seldom or ever do; and they come to the house so
early in the morning, and leave it so late at night, that it does
not seem probable that they could find time to cook any thing at
their own lodgings.

Some of them, I known, make a constant practice of giving
themselves a treat of a pint of beer at night, after they have
finished their work; but I do not believe they have any thing
else for their suppers, except it be the bread which they carry
home from the House of Industry.

I must confess, however, very fairly, that it always appeared to
me quite surprising, and that it is still a mystery which I do
not clearly understand, how it is possible for these poor people
to be so comfortably fed upon the small allowances which they
receive.--The facts, however, are not only certain, but they are
notorious.  Many persons of the most respectable characters in
this country, (Great Britain,) as well as upon the Continent, who
have visited the House of Industry at Munich, can bear witness to
their authenticity; and they are surely not the less interesting
for being extraordinary.

It must however be remembered, that what formerly cost TWO FARTHINGS
in Bavaria, at the mean price of provisions in that country,
costs THREE farthings at this present moment; and would probably
cost SIX in London, and in most other parts of Great Britain: but
still, it will doubtless appear almost incredible, that a
comfortable and nourishing meal, sufficient for satisfying the
hunger of a strong man, may be furnished in London, and at this
very moment, when provisions of all kinds are so remarkably dear,
at LESS THAN THREE FARTHINGS. The fact, however, is most certain,
and may easily be demonstrated by making the experiment.

Supposing that it should be necessary, in feeding the Poor in
this country, to furnish them with three meals a-day, even that
might be done at a very small expence, were the system of feeding
them adopted which is here proposed.  The amount of that expence
would be as follows:

                                                 Pence.   Farths.
For breakfast, 20 ounces of the Soup No, II.
  composed of pearl barley, peas, potatoes,
  and fine wheaten bread (See page 210.)           0      2 1/2
For dinner, 20 ounces of the same Soup, and
  7 ounces of rye-bread  ...  ...  ...  ...        1      2
For supper, 20 ounces of the same Soup  ...        0      2 1/2
                                                   ------------
In all 4 lb. 3 oz. of Food[12], which would cost   2      3

Should it be thought necessary to give a little meat at dinner,
this may best be done by mixing it, cut fine, or minced, in bread
dumplins; or when bacon, or any kind of salted or smoked meat is
given, to cut it fine and mix it with the bread which is eaten in
the soup.  If the bread be fried, the Food will be much improved;
but this will be attended with some additional expence.
--Rye-bread is as good, if not better, for frying, than bread
made of wheat flour; and it is commonly not half so dear.--
Perhaps rye-bread fried might be furnished almost as cheap as
wheaten bread not fried; and if this could be done, it would
certainly be a very great improvement.

There is another way by which these cheap soups may be made
exceedingly palatable and savoury;--which is by mixing with them
a very small quantity of red herrings, minced very fine or
pounded in a mortar.--There is no kind of cheap Food, I believe,
that has so much taste as red herrings, or that communicates its
flavour with so much liberality to other eatables; and to most
palates it is remarkably agreeable.

Cheese may likewise be made use of for giving an agreeable relish
to these soups; and a very small quantity of it will be
sufficient for that purpose, provided it has a strong taste,
and is properly applied.--It should be grated to a powder with a
grater, and a small quantity of this powder thrown over the soup,
AFTER IT IS DISHED OUT.--This is frequently done at the sumptuous
tables of the rich, and is thought a great delicacy; while the
Poor, who have so few enjoyments, have not been taught to avail
themselves of this, which is so much within their reach.

Those whole avocations call them to visit distant countries,
and those whose fortune enables them to travel for their
amusement or improvement, have many opportunities of acquiring
useful information; and in consequence of this intercourse with
strangers, many improvements, and more REFINEMENTS, have been
introduced into this country; but the most important advantages
that MIGHT be derived from an intimate knowledge of the manners
and customs of differing nations,--the introduction of
improvements tending to facilitate the means of subsistence, and
to increase the comforts and conveniences of the most necessitous
and most numerous classes of society,--have been, alas! little
attended to.  Our extensive commerce enables us to procure, and
we do actually import most of the valuable commodities which are
the produce either of the foil of the ocean, or of the industry
of man in all the various regions of the habitable globe;--but
the result of the EXPERIENCE OF AGES respecting the use that can
be made of those commodities has seldom been thought worth
importing! I never see maccaroni in England, or polenta in
Germany, upon the tables of the rich, without lamenting that
cheap and wholesome luxuries should be monopolized by those who
stand least in need of them; while the Poor, who, one would
think, ought to be considered as having almost an EXCLUSIVE right
to them, (as they were both invented by the Poor of a
neighbouring nation,) are kept in perfect ignorance of them.

But these two kinds of Food are so palatable, wholesome,
and nourishing, and may be provided so easily, and at so very
cheap a rate in all countries, and particularly in Great Britain,
that I think I cannot do better than to devote a few pages to the
examination of them;--and I shall begin with Polenta, or Indian
corn, as it is called in this country.


CHAPTER. VI.

 Of INDIAN CORN.
 It affords the cheapest and most nourishing food known.
 Proofs that it is more nourishing than rice.
 Different ways of preparing or cooking it.
 Computation of the expense of feeding a person with it,
   founded on experiment.
 Approved Receipt for making an INDIAN PUDDING.

I cannot help increasing the length of this Essay much beyond the
bounds I originally assigned to it, in order to have an
opportunity of recommending a kind of Food which I believe to be
beyond comparison the most nourishing, cheapest, and most
wholesome that can be procured for feeding the Poor.--This is
Indian Corn, a most valuable production; and which grows in
almost all climates; and though it does not succeed remarkably
well in Great Britain, and in some parts of Germany, yet it may
easily be had in great abundance, from other countries;
and commonly at a very low rate.

The common people in the northern parts of Italy live almost
entirely upon it; and throughout the whole Continent of America
it makes a principal article of Food.--In Italy it is called
Polenta, where it is prepared or cooked in a variety of ways,
and forms the basis of a number of very nourishing dishes.--
The most common way however of using it in that country is to
grind it into meal, and with water to make it into a thick kind
of pudding, like what in this country is called a hasty-pudding,
which is eaten with various kinds of sauce, and sometimes without
any sauce.

In the northern parts of North America, the common household
bread throughout the country is composed of one part of Indian
meal and one part of rye meal; and I much doubt whether a more
wholesome, or more nourishing kind of bread can be made.

Rice is universally allowed to be very nourishing,--much more so
even than wheat; but there is a circumstance well known to all
those who are acquainted with the details of feeding the negro
slaves in the southern states of North America, and in the West
Indies, that would seem to prove, in a very decisive and
satisfactory manner, that INDIAN CORN IS EVEN MORE NOURISHING
THAN RICE.--In those countries, where rice and Indian Corn are
both produced in the greatest abundance, the negroes have
frequently had their option between these two kinds of Food; and
have invariably preferred the latter.--The reasons they give for
this preference they express in strong, though not in very
delicate terms.--They say that "Rice turns to water in their
bellies, and runs off;"--but "Indian Corn stays with them, and
makes strong to work."

This account of the preference which negroes give to Indian Corn
for Food, and of their reasons for this preference, was
communicated to me by two gentlemen of most respectable
character, well known in England, and now resident in London, who
were formerly planters; one in Georgia, and the other in Jamaica.

The nutritive quantity which Indian Corn possessed, in a most
eminent degree, when employed for fattening hogs and poultry,
and for giving strength to working oxen, has long been universally
known and acknowledged in every part of North America; and nobody
in that country thinks of employing any other grain for those
purposes.

All these facts prove to a demonstration that India Corn
possesses very extraordinary nutritive powers; and it is well
known that there is no species of grain that can be had so cheap,
or in so great abundance;--it is therefore well worthy the
attention of those who are engaged in providing cheap and
wholesome Food for the Poor,--or in taking measures for warding
off the evils which commonly attend a general scarcity of
provisions, to consider in time, how this useful article of Food
may be procured in large quantities, and how the introduction of
it into common use can be most easily be effected.

In regard to the manner of using Indian Corn, there are a vast
variety of different ways in which it may be prepared, or cooked,
in order to its being used as Food.--One simple and obvious way
of using it, is to mix it with wheat, rye, or barley meal, in
making bread; but when it is used for making bread, and
particularly when it is mixed with wheat flour, it will greatly
improve the quality of the bread if the Indian meal, (the coarser
part of the bran being first separated from it by sifting,) be
previously mixed with water, and boiled for a considerable length
of time,--two or three hours for instance, over a slow fire,
before the other meal or flour is added to it.--This boiling,
which, if the proper quantity of water is employed, will bring
the mass to the consistency of a thin pudding, will effectually
remove a certain disagreeable RAW TASTE in the Indian Corn, which
simple baking will not entirely take away; and the wheat flour
being mixed with this pudding after it has been taken from the
fire and cooked, and the whole well kneaded together, may be made
to rise, and be formed into loaves, and baked into bread, with
the same facility that bread is made of wheat flour alone, or of
any mixtures of different kinds of meal.

When the Indian meal is previously prepared by boiling, in the
manner here described, a most excellent, and very palatable kind
of bread, not inferior to wheaten bread, may be made of equal
parts of this meal and of common wheat flour.

But the most simple, and I believe the best, and most economical
way of employing Indian Corn as Food, is to make it into
puddings.--There is, as I have already observed, a certain
rawness in the taste of it, which nothing but long boiling can
remove; but when that disagreeable taste is removed, it becomes
extremely palatable; and that it is remarkably wholesome, has
been proved by so much experience that no doubts can possibly be
entertained of that fact.

The culture of it required more labour than most other kinds of
grain; but, on the other hand, the produce is very abundant,
and it is always much cheaper than either wheat or rye.--
The price of it in the Carolinas, and in Georgia, has often been
as low as eighteen pence, and sometimes as one shilling sterling
per bushel;--but the Indian Corn which is grown in those southern
states is much inferior, both in weight and in its qualities, to
that which is the produce of colder climates.--Indian Corn of the
growth of Canada, and the New England states, which is generally
thought to be worth twenty per cent. more per bushel than that
which is grown in the southern states, may commonly be bought for
two and sixpence, or three shillings a bushel.

It is now three shillings and sixpence a bushel at Boston; but
the prices of provisions of all kinds have been much raised of
late in all parts of America, owing to the uncommonly high prices
which are paid for them in the European markets since the
commencement of the present war.

Indian Corn and rye are very nearly of the same weight, but the
former gives rather more flour, when ground and sifted, than the
latter.--I find by a report of the Board of Agriculture, of the
10th of November 1795, that three bushels of Indian Corn weighed
1 cwt. 1 qr. 18 lb. (or 53 lb. each bushel), and gave 1 cwt. 20 lb.
of flour and 26 lb. of bran; while three bushels of rye, weighing
1 cwt. 1 qr. 22 lb. (or 54 lb. the bushel), gave only 1 cwt. 17 lb.
of flour and 28 lb. of bran.-- But I much suspect that the Indian
Corn used in these experiments was not of the best quality[13].

I saw some of it, and it appeared to me to be of that kind which
is commonly grown in the southern states of North America.--
Indian Corn of the growth of colder climates is, probably, at
least as heavy as wheat, which weights at a medium about 58 lb.
per bushel, and I imagine it will give nearly as much flour[14].

In regard to the most advantageous method of using Indian Corn as
Food, I would strongly recommend, particularly when it is
employed for feeding the Poor, a dish made of it that is in the
highest estimation throughout America, and which is really very
good, and very nourishing.  This is called hasty-pudding; and it
is made in the following manner: A quantity of water,
proportioned to the quantity of hasty-pudding intended to be
made, is put over the fire in an open iron pot, or kettle,
and a proper quantity of salt for seasoning the pudding being
previously dissolved in the water, Indian meal is stirred into
it, by little and little, with a wooded spoon with a long handle,
while the water goes on to be heated and made to boil;-- great
care being taken to put in the meal by very small quantities,
and by sifting it slowly through the fingers of the left hand,
and stirring the water about very briskly at the same time with
the wooden spoon, with the right hand, to mix the meal with the
water in such a manner as to prevent lumps being formed.--
The meal should be added so slowly, that, when the water is
brought to boil, the mass should not be thicker than water-gruel,
and half an hour more, at least, should be employed to add the
additional quantity of meal necessary for bringing the pudding to
be of the proper consistency; during which time it should be
stirred about continually, and kept constantly boiling.--
The method of determining when the pudding has acquired the
proper consistency is this;--the wooden spoon used for stirring
it being placed upright in the middle of the kettle, if it falls
down, more meal must be added; but if the pudding is sufficiently
thick and adhesive to support it in a vertical position, it is
declared to be PROOF; and no more meal is added.--If the boiling,
instead of being continued only half an hour, be prolonged to
three quarters of an hour, or an hour, the pudding will be
considerably improved by this prolongation.

This hasty-pudding, when done, may be eaten in various ways.--
It may be put, while hot, by spoonfuls into a bowl of milk,
and eaten with the milk with a spoon, in lieu of bread; and used
in this way it is remarkably palatable.--It may likewise be
eaten, while hot, with a sauce composed of butter and brown
sugar, or butter and molasses, with or without a few drops of
vinegar; and however people who have not been accustomed to this
American cookery may be prejudiced against it, they will find
upon trial that it makes a most excellent dish, and one which
never fails to be much liked by those who are accustomed to it.
--The universal fondness of Americans for it proves that it must
have some merit;--for in a country which produces all the
delicacies of the table in the greatest abundance, it is not to
be supposed that a whole nation should have a taste so depraved
as to give a decided preference to any particular species of Food
which has not something to recommend it.

The manner in which hasty-pudding is eaten with butter and sugar,
or butter and molasses, in America, is as follows: The hasty-pudding
being spread out equally upon a plate, while hot, an excavation
is made in the middle of it, with a spoon, into which excavation
a piece of butter, as large as a nutmeg, is put; and upon it,
a spoonful of brown sugar, or more commonly of molasses.--
The butter being soon melted by the heat of the pudding, mixes
with the sugar, or molasses, and forms a sauce, which, being
confined in the excavation made for it, occupies the middle of
the plate.--The pudding is then eaten with a spoon, each spoonful
of it being dipt into the sauce before it is carried to the mouth;
care being had in taking it up, to begin on the outside, or near
the brim of the plate, and to approach the center by regular
advances, in order not to demolish too soon the excavation which
forms the reservoir for the sauce.

If I am prolix in these descriptions, my reader must excuse me;
for persuaded as I am that the action of Food upon the palate,
and consequently the pleasure of eating, depends very much indeed
upon the MANNER in which the Food is applied to the organs of
taste, I have thought it necessary to mention, and even to
illustrate in the clearest manner, every circumstance which
appeared to me to have influence in producing those important
effects.

In the case in question, as it is the sauce alone which gives
taste and palatableness to the Food, and consequently is the
cause of the pleasure enjoyed in eating it, the importance of
applying, or using it, in such a manner as to produce the
greatest and most durable effect possible on the organs of taste,
is quite evident; and in the manner of eating this Food which has
here been described and recommended, the small quantity of sauce
used, (and the quantity must be small, as it is the expensive
article,) is certainly applied to the palate more immediately;--
by a greater surface;--and in a state of greater condensation;--
and consequently acts upon it more powerfully;--and continues to
act upon it for a greater length of time, than it could well be
made to do when used in any other way.--Were it more intimately
mixed with the pudding, for instance, instead of being merely
applied to its external surface, its action would certainly be
much less powerful; and were it poured over the pudding, or was
proper care not taken to keep it confined in the little
excavation or reservoir made in the midst of the pudding to
contain it, much of it would attach itself and adhere to the
surface of the plate, and be lost.

Hasty-pudding has this in particular to recommend it;--and which
renders it singularly useful as Food for poor families,--that
when more of it is made at once than is immediately wanted,
what remains may be preserved good for several days, and a number
of very palatable dishes may be made of it.--It may be cut in
thin slice, and toasted before the fire, or on a gridiron, and
eaten instead of bread, either in milk, or in any kind of soup or
pottage; or with any other kind of Food with which bread is
commonly eaten; or it may be eaten cold, without any preparation,
with a warm sauce made of butter, molasses, or sugar, and a
little vinegar.--In this last-mentioned way of eating it,
it is quite as palatable, and I believe more wholesome, than when
eaten warm; that is to say, when it is first made.--It may
likewise be put cold, without any preparation, into hot milk;
and this mixture is by no means unpalatable, particularly if it
be suffered to remain in the milk till it is warmed throughout,
or if it be boiled in the milk for a few moments.

A favourite dish in America, and a very good one, is made of cold
boiled cabbage chopped fine, with a small quantity of cold boiled
beef, and slices of cold hasty-pudding, all fried together in
butter or hog's lard.

Though hasty-puddings are commonly made of Indian meal, yet it is
by no means uncommon to make them of equal parts of Indian,
and of rye meal;--and they are sometimes made of rye meal alone;
or of rye meal and wheat flour mixed.

To give a satisfactory idea of the expence of preparing
hasty-puddings in this country, (England,) and of feeding the
Poor with them, I made the following experiment:--About 2 pints
of water, which weighed just 2 lb. Avoirdupois, were put over
the fire in a saucepan of a proper size, and 58 grains in weight
or 1/120 of a pound of salt being added, the water was made to
boil.--During the time that is was heating, small quantities of
Indian meal were stirred into it, and care was taken, by moving
the water briskly about, with a wooden spoon, to prevent the meal
from being formed into lumps; and as often as any lumps were
observed, they were carefully broken with the spoon;--the boiling
was then continued half an hour, and during this time the pudding
was continually stirred about with the wooden spoon, and so much
more meal was added as was found necessary to bring the pudding
to be of the proper consistency.

This being done, it was taken from the fire and weighed, and was
found to weigh just 1 lb. 11 1/2 oz.--Upon weighing the meal
which remained, (the quantity first provided having been exactly
determined by weight in the beginning of the experiment,) it was
found that just HALF A POUND of meal had been used.

From the result of this experiment it appears, that for each
pound of Indian meal employed in making hasty-pudding, we may
reckon 3 lb. 9 oz. of the pudding.--And expence of providing this
kind of Food, or the cost of it by the pound, at the present high
price of grain in this country, may be seen by the following
computation:

                                                  L. s. d.
Half a pound of Indian meal, (the quantity)  ]
  used in the foregoing experiment,) at 2d   ]
  a pound or 7s. 6d. a bushel for the corn,  ]... 0  0  1
  (the price stated in the report of the     ]
  Board of Agriculture of the 10th of        ]
  November 1795, so often referred to,) costs]

58 grains or 1/120 of a pound of salt, at    ]
2d. per pound                                ]... 0  0  0 1/60
                                                  ------------
                                         Total,   0  0  1 1/60

Now, as the quantity of pudding prepared with these ingredients
was 1 lb. 11 1/2 oz. and the cost of the ingredients amounted to
ONE PENNY AND ONE SIXTIETH OF A PENNY, this gives for the cost of
one pound of hasty-pudding 71/120 of a penny, or 2 1/3 farthings,
very nearly.--It must however be remembered that the Indian Corn
is here reckoned at a very exorbitant price indeed[15].

But before it can be determined what the expence will be of
feeding the Poor with this kind of Food, it will be necessary to
ascertain how much of it will be required to give a comfortable
meal to one person; and how much the expence will be of providing
the sauce for that quantity of pudding.--To determine these two
points with some degree of precision, I made the following
experiment:-- Having taken my breakfast, consisting of two dishes
of coffee, with cream, and a dry toast, at my usual hour of
breakfasting, (nine o'clock in the morning,) and having fasted
from that time till five o'clock in the afternoon, I then dined
upon my hasty-pudding, with the American sauce already described,
and I found, after my appetite for Food was perfectly satisfied,
and I felt that I had made a comfortable dinner, that I had eaten
just 1 lb. 1 1/2 oz. of the pudding; and the ingredients,
of which the sauce which was eaten with it was composed, were half
an ounce of butter; three quarters of an ounce of molasses;
and 21 grains or 1/342 of a pint of vinegar.

The cost of this dinner may be seen by the following
computation:

             For the Pudding
                                            Farthings.
 1 lb. 1 1/2 oz. of hasty-pudding, at
 2 1/3 farthings a pound ...  ...  ...  ...   2 1/2
                                              ------
             For the Sauce

 Half an ounce of butter, at 10d. per pound   1 1/4
 Three quarters of an ounce of molasses,
 at 6d. per pound ...  ...  ...  ...          1
 1/352 of a pint of vinegar, at 2s 8d.
 the gallon    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...   0 1/16
                                              ------
                        Total for the Sauce,  2 5/16 farthings.

 Sum total of expences for this dinner,
 for the pudding and its sauce...  ...  ...   4 13/16 farthings.
 Or something less than one penny farthing.

I believe it would not be easy to provide a dinner in London, at
this time, when provisions of all kinds are so dear, equally
grateful to the palate and satisfying to the cravings of hunger,
at a smaller expence.--And that this meal was sufficient for all
the purposes of nourishment appears from hence, that though I
took my usual exercise, and did not sup after it, I neither felt
any particular faintness, nor any unusual degree of appetite for
my breakfast next morning.

I have been the more particular in my account of this experiment,
to show in what manner experiments of this kind ought, in my
opinion, to be conducted;--and also to induce others to engage in
these most useful investigations.

It will not escape the observation of the reader, that small as
the expence was of providing this dinner, yet very near one-half
of that sum was laid out in purchasing the ingredients for the
sauce.--But it is probable that a considerable part of that
expence might be saved.--In Italy, polenta, which is nothing more
than hasty-pudding made with Indian meal and water, is very
frequently, and I believe commonly eaten without any sauce, and
when on holidays or other extraordinary occasions they indulge
themselves by adding a sauce to it, this sauce is far from
expensive.--It is commonly nothing more than a very small
quantity of butter spread over the flat surface of the hot
polenta which is spread out thin in a large platter; with a
little Parmezan or other strong cheese, reduced to a coarse
powder by grating it with a grater, strewed over it.

Perhaps this Italian sauce might be more agreeable to an English
palate than that commonly used in America.  It would certainly be
less expensive, as much less butter would be required, and as
cheese in this country is plenty and cheap. But whatever may be
the sauce used with Food prepared of Indian Corn, I cannot too
strongly recommend the use of that grain.

While I was employed in making my experiment upon hasty-pudding,
I learnt from my servant, (a Bavarian,) who assisted me, a fact
which gave me great pleasure, as it served to confirm me in the
opinion I have long entertained of the great merit of Indian
Corn.--He assured me that polenta is much esteemed by the
peasantry in Bavaria, and that it makes a very considerable
article of their Food; that it comes from Italy through the
Tyrol; and that it is commonly sold in Bavaria AT THE SAME PRICE
AS WHEAT FLOUR!  Can there be stronger proofs of its merit?

The negroes in America prefer it to rice; and the Bavarian
peasants to wheat.--Why then should not the inhabitants of this
island like it?  It will not, I hope, be pretended, that it is in
this favoured soil alone that prejudices take such deep root that
they are never to be eradicated, or that there is any thing
peculiar in the construction of the palate of an Englishman.

The objection that may be made to Indian Corn,--that it does not
thrive well in this country,--is of no weight.  The same
objection might, with equal reason, be made to rice, and twenty
other articles of Food now in common use.

It has ever been considered, by those versed in the science of
political economy, as an object of the first importance to keep
down the prices of provisions, particularly in manufacturing and
commercial countries;--and if there be a country on earth where
this ought to be done, it is surely Great Britain:--and there is
certainly no country which has the means of doing it so much in
its power.

But the progress of national improvements must be very slow,
however favorable other circumstances may be, where those
citizens, who, by their rank and situation in society, are
destined to direct the public opinion, AFFECT to consider the
national prejudices as unconquerable[16].--But to return to the
subject immediately under consideration.

Though hasty-pudding is, I believe, the cheapest Food that can be
prepared with Indian Corn, yet several other very cheap dishes
may be made of it, which in general are considered as being more
palatable, and which, most probably, would be preferred in this
country; and among these, what in America is called a plain
Indian pudding certainly holds the first place, and can hardly
fail to be much liked by those, who will be persuaded to try
it.--It is not only cheap and wholesome, but a great delicacy;
and it is principally on account of these puddings that the
Americans, who reside in this country, import annually for their
own consumption Indian Corn from the Continent of America.

In order to be able to give the most particular and satisfactory
information respecting the manner of preparing these Indian
puddings, I caused one of them to be made here, (in London,)
under my immediate direction, by a person born and brought up in
North America, and who understands perfectly the American art of
cookery in all its branches[17].  This pudding, which was allowed
by competent judges who tasted it to be as good as they had ever
eaten, was composed and prepared in the following manner:

Approved Receipt for making a plain Indian Pudding.

Three pounds of Indian meal (from which the bran had been
separated by sifting it in a common hair sieve) were put into a
large bowl, and five pints of boiling water were put to it,
and the whole well stirred together; three quarters of a pound of
molasses and one ounce of salt were then added to it, and these
being well mixed, by stirring them with the other ingredients,
the pudding was poured into a fit bag; and the bag being tied up,
(an empty space being left in the bag tying it, equal to about
one-sixth of its contents, for giving room for the pudding to
swell,) this pudding was put into a kettle of boiling water,
and was boiled six hours without intermission; the loss of the
water in the kettle by evaporation during this time being
frequently replaced with boiling water from another kettle.

The pudding upon being taken out of the bag weighed ten pounds
and one ounce; and it was found to be perfectly done, not having
the smallest remains of that raw taste so disagreeable to all
palates, and particularly to those who are not used to it, which
always predominates in dishes prepared of Indian meal when they
are not sufficiently cooked.

As this raw taste is the only well-founded objection that can be
made to this most useful grain, and is, I am persuaded, the only
cause which makes it disliked by those who are not accustomed to it,
I would advise those who may attempt to introduce it into common
use, where it is not known, to begin with Indian (bag) puddings,
such as I have here been describing; and that this is a very
cheap kind of Food will be evident from the following
computation:

Expense of preparing the Indian Pudding above mentioned.

                                  Pence.      Pence.
 3 lb. of Indian meal at ...  ...  1 1/2  ...  4 1/2
3/4 lb. of molasses at   ...  ...  6      ...  4 1/2
 1 oz. of salt at 2d. per lb. ...  ...    ...  0 1/8
                                               ------
                  Total for the ingredients,   9 1/8

As this pudding weighed 10 1/16 lbs. and the ingredients cost
nine pence and half a farthing, this gives three farthings and a
half for each pound of pudding.

It will be observed, that in this computation I have reckoned the
Indian meal at no more than 1 1/2d per pound, whereas in the
calculation which was given to determine the expense of preparing
hasty-pudding it was taken at two pence a pound.  I have here
reckoned it at 1 1/2d. a pound, because I am persuaded it might
be had here in London for that price, and even for less.--That
which has lately been imported from Boston has not cost so much;
and were it not for the present universal scarcity of provisions
in Europe, which has naturally raised the price of grain in North
America, I have no doubt but Indian meal might be had in this
country for less than one penny farthing per pound.

In composing the Indian pudding above mentioned, the molasses is
charged at 6d. the pound, but that price is very exorbitant.
A gallon of molasses weighing about 10 lb. commonly costs in the
West Indies from 7d. to 9d. sterling; and allowing sufficiently
for the expenses of freight, insurance, and a fair profit for the
merchant, it certainly ought not to cost in London more than 1s. 8d.
the gallon[18]; and this would bring it to 2d. per pound.

If we take the prices of Indian meal and molasses as they are
here ascertained, and compute the expense of the ingredients for
the pudding before mentioned, it will be as follows:--

                                  Pence.       Pence.
 3 lb. of Indian meal at  ...  ...  1 1/4  ...  3 3/4
3/4 lb. of molasses at    ...  ...  2      ...  1 1/2
 1 oz. of salt at 2d. per lb. ...  ...     ...  0 1/8
                                               ------
                    Total for the ingredients,  5 3/8

Now as the pudding weighed 10 1/16 lbs. this gives two farthings,
very nearly, for each pound of pudding; which is certainly very
cheap indeed, particularly when the excellent qualities of the
Food are considered.

This pudding, which ought to come out of the bag sufficiently
hard to retain its form, and even to be cut into slices, is so
rich and palatable, that it may very well be eaten without any
sauce; but those who can afford it commonly eat it with butter.
A slice of the pudding, about half an inch, or three quarters of
an inch in thickness, being laid hot upon a plate, an excavation
is made in the middle of it, with the point of the knife, into
which a small piece of butter, as large perhaps as a nutmeg,
is put, and where it soon melts.  To expedite the melting of
the butter, the small piece of pudding which is cut out of the
middle of the slice to form the excavation for receiving the
butter, is frequently laid over the butter for a few moments,
and is taken away (and eaten) as soon as the butter is melted.
If the butter is not salt enough, a little salt is put into it
after it is melted.  The pudding is to be eaten with a knife and
fork, beginning at the circumference of the slice, and
approaching regularly towards the center, each piece of pudding
being taken up with the fork, and dipped into the butter, or
dipped into it IN PART ONLY, as is commonly the case, before it
is carried to the mouth.

To those who are accustomed to view objects upon a great scale,
and who are too much employed in directing what ought to be done,
to descend to those humble investigations which are necessary to
show HOW it is to be effected, these details will doubtless
appear trifling and ridiculous; but as my mind is strongly
impressed with the importance of giving the most minute and
circumstantial information respecting the MANNER OF PERFORMING
any operation, however simple it may be, to which people have not
been accustomed, I must beg the indulgence of those who may not
feel themselves particularly interested in these descriptions.

In regard to the amount of the expence for sauce for a plain
Indian (bag) pudding, I have found that when butter is used for
that purpose, (and no other sauce ought ever to be used with it,)
half an ounce of butter will suffice for one pound of the pudding.
--It is very possible to contrive matters so as to use much
more;--perhaps twice, or three times as much;--but if the
directions relative to the MANNER of eating this Food, which have
already been given, are strictly followed, the allowance of
butter here determined will be quite sufficient for the purpose
for which it is designed; that is to say, for giving an agreeable
relish to the pudding.--Those who are particularly fond of butter
may use three quarters of an ounce of it with a pound of the
pudding; but I am certain, that to use an ounce would be to waste
it to no purpose whatever.

If now we reckon Irish, or other firkin butter, (which, as it is
salted, is the best that can be used,) at eight pence the pound,
the sauce for one pound of pudding, namely, half an ounce of
butter, will cost just one farthing; and this, added to the cost
of the pudding, two farthings the pound, gives three farthing for
the cost by the pound of this kind of food, with its sauce; and,
as this food is not only very rich and nutritive, but satisfying
at the same time in a very remarkable degree, it appears how well
calculated it is for feeding the Poor.

It should be remembered, that the molasses used as an ingredient
in these Indian puddings, does not serve merely to give taste to
them;--it acts a still more important part;--it gives what, in
the language of the kitchen, is called lightness.--It is a
substitute for eggs, and nothing but eggs can serve as a
substitute for it, except it be treacle; which, in fact, is a
kind of molasses; or perhaps coarse brown sugar, which has nearly
the same properties.-- It prevents the pudding from being heavy,
and clammy; and without communicating to it any disagreeable
sweet taste, or any thing of that flavour peculiar to molasses,
gives it a richness uncommonly pleasing to the palate.  And to
this we may add, that it is nutritive in a very extraordinary
degree.--This is a fact well known in all countries where sugar
is made.

How far the laws and regulations of trade existing in this
country might render it difficult to procure molasses from those
places where it may be had at the cheapest rate, I know
not;--nor can I tell how far the free importation of it might be
detrimental to our public finances;--I cannot, however, help
thinking, that it is so great an object to this country to keep
down the prices of provisions, or rather to check the alarming
celerity with which they are rising, that means ought to be found
to facilitate the importation, and introduction into common use,
of an article of Food of such extensive utility.  It might serve
to correct in some measure, the baleful influence of another
article of foreign produce, (tea,) which is doing infinite harm
in this island.

A point of great importance in preparing an Indian pudding, is to
boil it PROPERLY and SUFFICIENTLY. The water must be actually
boiling when the pudding is put into it; and it never must be
suffered to cease boiling for a moment, till it is done; and if
the pudding is not boiled full six hours, it will not be
sufficiently cooked.--Its hardness, when done, will depend on the
space left in the bag its expansion.  The consistency of the
pudding ought to be such, that it can be taken out of the bag
without falling to pieces;--but it is always better, on many
accounts, to make it too hard than too soft.  The form of the
pudding may be that of a cylinder; of rather of a truncated cone,
the largest end being towards the mouth of the bag, in order
that it may be got out of the bag with greater facility; or it
may be made of a globular form, by tying it up in a napkin.--But
whatever is the form of the pudding, the bag, or napkin in which
it is to be boiled, must be wet in boiling water before the
pudding, (which is quite liquid before it is boiled,) is poured
into it; otherwise it will be apt to run through the cloth.

Though this pudding is so good, perfectly plain, when made
according to the directions here given, that I do not thing it
capable of any real improvement; yet there are various additions
that may be made to it, and that frequently are made to it, which
may perhaps be thought by some to render it more palatable, or
otherwise to improve it. Suet may, for instance, be added, and
there is no suet pudding whatever superior to it; and as no sauce
is necessary with a suet pudding, the expence for the suet will
be nearly balanced by the saving of butter.  To a pudding of the
size of that just described, in the composition of which three
pounds of Indian meal were used, one pound of suet will be
sufficient; and this, in general, will not cost more than from
five pence to six pence, even in London;--and the butter for
sauce to a plain pudding of the same size would cost nearly as
much.  The suet pudding will indeed be rather the cheapest of the
two, for the pound of suet will add a pound in weight to the
pudding;--whereas the butter will only add five ounces.

As the pudding, made plain, weighing 10 1/16 lb. cost 5 3/8 pence,
the same pudding, with the addition of one pound of suet, would
weigh 11 1/16 lb. and would cost 11 1/8 pence,--reckoning the
suet at six pence the pound.--Hence it appears that Indian suet
pudding may be made in London for about one penny a pound.
Wheaten bread, which is by no means so palatable, and certainly
not half so nutritive, now costs something more than three pence
the pound: and to this may be added, that dry bread can hardly be
eaten alone; but of suet pudding a very comfortable meal may be
made without any thing else.

A pudding in great repute in all parts of North America, is what
is called an apple pudding. This is an Indian pudding, sometimes
with, and sometimes without suet, with dried cuttings of sweet
apples mixed with it; and when eaten with butter, it is most
delicious Food.  These apples, which are pared as soon as they
are gathered from the tree, and being cut into small pieces, are
freed from their cores, and thoroughly dried in the sun, may be
kept good for several years.  The proportions of the ingredients
used in making these apple puddings are various; but, in general,
about one pound of dried apples is mixed with three pounds of
meal,--three quarters of a pound of molasses,--half an ounce of
salt, and five pints of boiling water.

In America, various kinds of berries, found wild in the woods,
such as huckle-berries, belberries, whortle-berries, etc. are
gathered and dried, and afterwards used as ingredients in Indian
puddings: and dried cherries and plums may be made use of in the
same manner.

All these Indian puddings have this advantage in common, that
they are very good WARMED UP.--They will all keep good several
days; and when cut into thin slices and toasted, are an excellent
substitute for bread.

It will doubtless be remarked, that in computing the expence of
providing these different kinds of puddings, I have taken no
notice of the expence which will be necessary for fuel to cook
them.--This is an article which ought undoubtedly to be taken
into the account.  The reason of my not doing it here is this:--
Having, in the course of my Experiments on Heat, found means to
perform all the common operations of cookery with a surprisingly
small expence of fuel, I find that the expence in question, when
the proper arrangements are made for saving fuel, will be very
trifling.  And farther, as I mean soon to publish my Treatise on
the Management of Heat, in which I shall give the most ample
directions relative to the mechanical arrangements of kitchen
fire-places, and the best forms for all kinds of kitchen utensils,
I was desirous not to anticipate a subject which will more
naturally find its place in another Essay.--In the mean time I
would observe, for the satisfaction of those who may have doubts
respecting the smallness of the expence necessary for fuel in
cooking for the Poor, that the result of many experiments,
of which I shall hereafter publish a particular account, has proved
in the most satisfactory manner, that when Food is prepared in
large quantities, and cooked in kitchens properly arranged, the
expense for fuel ought never to amount to more than two per cent.
of the cost of the Food, even where victuals of the cheapest kind
are provided, such as is commonly used in feeding the Poor.
In the Public Kitchen of the House of Industry at Munich the
expence for fuel is less than one per cent. of the cost of the
Food, as may be seen in the computation, page 206, Chapter III.
of this Essay: and it ought not to be greater in many parts of
Great Britain.

With regard to the price at which Indian Corn can be imported
into this country from North America in time of peace, the
following information, which I procured through the medium of a
friend, from Captain Scott, a most worthy man, who has been
constantly employed above thirty years as master of a ship in the
trade between London and Boston in the State of Massachusetts,
will doubtless be considered as authentic[19].

The following are the questions which were put to him,--with his
answers to them:

Q.  What is the freight, per ton, of merchandise from Boston in
North America to London in time of peace?----A.  Forty shillings
(sterling).

Q.  What is the freight, per barrel, of Indian Corn?----A.  Five
shillings.

Q.  How much per cent. is paid for insurance from Boston to
London in time of peace?---- A.  Two per cent.

Q.  What is the medium price of Indian Corn, per bushel,
in New England?----A.  Two shillings and sixpence.

Q.  What is the price of it at this time?----A. Three shillings
and sixpence.

Q.  How many bushels of Indian Corn are reckoned to a barrel?
----A.  Four

From this account it appears that Indian Corn might, in time of
peace, be imported into this country and sold here for less than
four shillings the bushel;--and that it ought not to cost at this
moment much more than five shillings a bushel.

If it be imported in casks, (which is certainly the best way of
packing it,) as the freight of a barrel containing four bushels
is five shillings, this gives 1s. 3d. a bushel for freight; and
if we add one penny a bushel for insurance, this will make the
amount of freight and insurance 1s. 4d. which, added to the prime
cost of the Corn in America, (2s. 6d. per bushel in the time of
peace, and 3s. 6d. at this time,) will bring it to 3s. 10d. per
bushel in time of peace, and 4s. 10d at this present moment.

A bushel of Indian Corn of the growth of New England was found to
weigh 61 lb.; but we will suppose it to weigh at a medium only 60
lb. per bushel; and we will also suppose that to each bushel of
Corn when ground there is 9 lb. of bran, which is surely a very
large allowance, and 1 lb. of waste in grinding and sifting;--
this will leave 50 lb. of flour for each bushel of the Corn;
and as it will cost, in time of peace, only 3s. 10d. or 46 pence,
this gives for each pound of flour 46/50 of a penny, or 3 3/4
farthings very nearly.

If the price of the Indian Corn per bushel be taken at 4s. 10d.
what it ought to cost at this time in London, without any bounty
on importation being brought into the account,--the price of the
flour will be 4s. 10d equal to 58 pence for 50 lb. in weight,
or 1 1/6 penny the pound, which is less than one third of the
present price of wheat flour.  Rice, which is certainly not more
nourishing than Indian Corn, costs 4 1/2 pence the pound.

If 1/13 of the value of Indian Corn be added to defray the
expence of grinding it, the price of the flour will not even then
be greater in London than one penny the pound in time of peace,
and about one penny farthing at the present high price of that
grain in North America.  Hence it appears, that in stating the
mean price in London of the flour of Indian Corn at one penny
farthing, I have rather rated it too high than too low.

With regard to the expense of importing it, there may be,
and doubtless there are frequently other expences besides those
of freight and insurance; but, on the other hand, a very
considerable part of the expences attending the importation of it
may be reimbursed by the profits arising from the sale of the
barrels in which it is imported, as I have been informed by a
person who imports it every year, and always avails himself of
that advantage.

One circumstance much in favour of the introduction of Indian
Corn into common use in this country is the facility with which
it may be had in any quantity.  It grows in all quarters of the
globe, and almost in every climate; and in hot countries two or
three crops of it may be raised from the same ground in the
course of a year.--It succeeds equally well in the cold regions
of Canada;--in the temperate climes of the United States of
America;--and in the burning heats of the tropics; and it might
be had from Africa and Asia as well as from America. And were it
even true,--what I never can be persuaded to believe,--that it
would be impossible to introduce it as an article of Food in this
country, it might at least be used as fodder for cattle, whose
aversion to it, I will venture to say, would not be found to be
UNCONQUERABLE.

Oats now cost near two pence the pound in this country.
Indian Corn, which would cost but a little more than half as much,
would certainly be much more nourishing, even for horses, as well
as for horned cattle;--and as for hogs and poultry, they ought
never to be fed with any other grain. Those who have tasted the
pork and the poultry fatted on Indian Corn will readily give
their assent to this opinion.


CHAPTER. VII.

 Receipts for preparing various Kinds of cheap Food.
 Of MACCARONI.
 Of POTATOES.
   Approved receipts for boiling potatoes.
   Of potatoe puddings.
   Of potatoe dumplings.
   Of boiled potatoes with a sauce.
   Of potatoe salad.
 Of BARLEY
   Is much more nutritious than wheat.
   Barley meal, a good substitute for pearl barley, for making
     soups.
   General directions for preparing cheap soups.
   Receipt for the cheapest soup that can be made.
 Of SAMP
   Method of preparing it
   Is an excellent Substitute for Bread.
 Of brown Soup.
 Of RYE BREAD.

When I began writing the foregoing Chapter of this Essay, I had
hopes of being able to procure satisfactory information
respecting the manner in which the maccaroni eaten by the Poor in
Italy, and particularly in the kingdom of Naples, is prepared;--
but though I have taken much pains in making these inquiries, my
success in them has not been such as I could have wished:--
The process, I have often been told, is very simple; and from
the very low price at which maccaroni is sold, ready cooked, to
the Lazzaroni in the streets of Naples, it cannot be expensive.
--There is a better kind of maccaroni which is prepared and sold
by the nuns in some of the convents in Italy, which is much dearer;
but this sort would in any country be too expensive to be used as
Food for the Poor.--It is however not dearer than many kinds of
Food used by the Poor in this country; and as it is very
palatable and wholesome, and may be used in a variety of ways,
a receipt for preparing it may perhaps not be unacceptable to
many of my readers.

A Receipt for making that Kind of Maccaroni called in Italy
TAGLIATI.

Take any number of fresh-laid eggs and break them into a bowl or
tray, beat them up with a spoon, but not to a froth,--add of the
finest wheat flour as much as is necessary to form a dough of the
consistence of paste.--Work this paste well with a rolling-pin;--
roll it out into very thin leaves;--lay ten or twelve of these
leaves one upon the other, and with a sharp knife cut them into
very fine threads.--These threads (which, if the mass is of a
proper consistency, will not adhere to each other) are to be laid
on a clean board, or on paper, and dried in the air.

This maccaroni, (or cut paste as it is called in Germany, where
it is in great repute,) may be eaten in various ways; but the
most common way of using it is to eat it with milk instead of
bread, and with chicken broth, and other broths and soups,
with which it is boiled.  With proper care it may be kept good
for many months. It is sometimes fried in butter, and in this way
of cooking it, it forms a most excellent dish indeed; inferior,
I believe, to no dish of flour that can be made.  It is not,
however, a very cheap dish, as eggs and butter are both expensive
articles in most countries.

An inferiour kind of cut paste is sometimes prepared by the Poor
in Germany, which is made simply of water and wheat flour,
and this has more resemblance to common maccaroni than that just
described; and might, in many cases, be used instead of it.  I do
not think, however, that it can be kept long without spoiling;
whereas maccaroni, as is well known, may be kept good for a great
length of time.--Though I have not been able to get any
satisfactory information relative to the process of making
maccaroni, yet I have made some experiments to ascertain the
expense of cooking it, and of the cost of the cheese necessary
for giving it a relish.

Half a pound of maccaroni, which was purchased at an Italian shop
in London, and which cost ten pence[20], was boiled till it was
sufficiently done, namely, about one hour and an half, when,
being taken out of the boiling water and weighed, it was found to
weigh thirty-one ounces and an half, or one pound fifteen ounces
and an half.  The quantity of cheese employed to give a relish to
this dish of boiled maccaroni, (and which was grated over it
after it was put into the dish,) was one ounce, and cost two
farthings.

Maccaroni is considered as very cheap Food in those countries
where it is prepared in the greatest perfection, and where it is
in common use among the lower classes of society; and as wheat,
of which grain it is always made, is a staple commodity in this
country, it would certainly be worth while to take some trouble
to introduce the manufacture of it, particularly as it is already
become an article of luxury upon the tables of the rich, and as
great quantities of it are annually imported and sold here at a
most exorbitant price[21]:--But maccaroni is by no means the
cheapest Food that can be provided for feeding the Poor, in this
island;--nor do I believe it is so in any country.--Polenta,
or Indian Corn, of which so much has already been said,--
and Potatoes, of which too much cannot be said,--are both much
better adapted, in all respects, for that purpose.--Maccaroni
would however, I am persuaded, could it be prepared in this
country, be much less expensive than many kinds of Food now
commonly used by our Poor; and consequently might be of
considerable use to them.

With regard to Potatoes they are now so generally known and
their usefulness is so universally acknowledged, that it would be
a waste of time to attempt to recommend them.--I shall therefore
content myself with merely giving receipts for a few cheap dishes
in which they are employed as a principal ingredient.

Though there is no article used as Food of which a greater
variety of well-tasted and wholesome dishes may be prepared than
of potatoes, yet it seems to be the unanimous opinion of those
who are most acquainted with these useful vegetables, that the
best way of cooking them is to boil them simply, and with their
skins on, in water.--But the manner of boiling them is by no
means a matter of indifference.--This process is better
understood in Ireland, where by much the greater part of the
inhabitants live almost entirely on this Food, than any where else.

This is what might have been expected;--but those who have never
considered with attention the extreme slowness of the progress of
national improvements, WHERE NOBODY TAKES PAINS TO ACCELERATE
THEM, will doubtless be surprised when they are told that in most
parts of England, though the use of potatoes all over the country
has for so many years been general, yet, to this hour, few,
comparatively, who eat them, know how to dress them properly.--
The inhabitants of those countries which lie on the sea-coast
opposite to Ireland have adopted the Irish method of boiling
potatoes; but it is more than probable that a century at least
would have been required for those improvements to have made
their way through the island, had not the present alarms on
account of a scarcity of grain roused the public, and fixed their
attention upon a subject too long neglected in this enlightened
country.

The introduction of improvements tending to increase the comforts
and innocent enjoyments of that numerous and useful class of
mankind who earn their bread by the sweat of their brow, is an
object not more interesting to a benevolent mind than it is
important in the eyes of an enlightened statesman.

There are, without doubt, GREAT MEN who will smile at seeing
these observations connected with a subject so humble and obscure
as the boiling of potatoes, but GOOD MEN will feel that the
subject is not unworthy of their attention.

The following directions for boiling potatoes, which I have
copied from a late Report of the Board of Agriculture, I can
recommend from my own experience:

   On the boiling of Potatoes so as to be eat as Bread.

There is nothing that would tend more to promote the consumption
of potatoes than to have the proper mode of preparing them as
Food generally known.--In London, this is little attended to;
whereas in Lancashire and Ireland the boiling of potatoes is
brought to very great perfection indeed.  When prepared in the
following manner, if the quality of the root is good, they may be
eat as bread, a practice not unusual in Ireland.--The potatoes
should be, as much as possible, of the same size, and the large
and small ones boiled separately.--They must be washed clean,
and, without paring or scraping, put in a pot with cold water,
not sufficient to cover them, as they will produce themselves,
before they boil, a considerable quantity of fluid.--They do not
admit being put into a vessel of boiling water like greens.--
If the potatoes are tolerably large, it will be necessary,
as soon as they begin to boil, to throw in some cold water,
and occasionally to repeat it, till the potatoes are boiled to
the heart, (which will take from half an hour to an hour and a
quarter, according to their size,) they will otherwise crack,
and burst to pieces on the outside, whilst the inside will be
nearly in a crude state, and consequently very unpalatable and
unwholesome.--During the boiling, throwing in a little salt
occasionally is found a great improvement, and it is certain that
the slower they are cooked the better.--When boiled, pour off the
water, and evaporate the moisture, by replacing the vessel in
which the potatoes were boiled once more over the fire.
--This makes them remarkably dry and mealy.--They should be
brought to the table with the skins on, and eat with a little
salt, as bread.--Nothing but experience can satisfy any one how
superior the potatoe is, thus prepared, if the sort is good and
meally.-- Some prefer roasting potatoes; but the mode above
detailed, extracted partly from the interesting paper of Samuel
Hayes, Esquire, of Avondale, in Ireland, (Report on the Culture
of Potatoes, P. 103.), and partly from the Lancashire reprinted
Report (p.63.), and other communications to the Board, is at
least equal, if not superior.--Some have tried boiling potatoes
in steam, thinking by that process that they must imbibe less
water.--But immersion in water causes the discharge of a certain
substance, which the steam alone is incapable of doing, and by
retaining which, the flavour of the root is injured, and they
afterwards become dry by being put over the fire a second time
without water.--With a little butter, or milk, of fish, they make
an excellent mess.

These directions are so clear, that it is hardly possible to
mistake them; and those who follow them exactly will find their
potatoes surprisingly improved, and will be convinced that the
manner of boiling them is a matter of much greater importance
than has hitherto been imagined.

Were this method of boiling potatoes generally known in countries
where these vegetables are only beginning to make their way into
common use,-- as in Bavaria, for instance,--I have no doubt but
it would contribute more than any thing else to their speedy
introduction.

The following account of an experiment, lately made in one of the
parishes of this metropolis (London), was communicated to me by a
friend, who has permitted me to publish it.--It will serve to
show,--what I am most anxious to make appear,-- that the
prejudices of the Poor in regard to their Food ARE NOT
UNCONQUERABLE
                           February 25th, 1796.

The parish officers of Saint Olaves, Southwark, desirous of
contributing their aid towards lessening the consumption of
wheat, resolved on the following succedaneum for their customary
suet puddings, which they give to their Poor for dinner one day
in the week; which was ordered as follows:

                                   L. s. d.
 200 lb. potatoes boiled, and
     skinned and mashed  ...  ...  0  8  0
 2 gallons of milk  ...  ...  ...  0  2  4
 12 lb. of suet, at 4 1/2     ...  0  4  6
 1 peck of flour    ...  ...  ...  0  4  0
 Baking   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  0  1  8
                                  ---------
                         Expense   1  0  6
                                  ---------
Their ordinary suet pudding had been made thus:

 2 bushels of flour  ...  ...  ...  1 12  0
 12 lb. suet    ...  ...  ...  ...  0  4  6
 Baking   ...   ...  ...  ...  ...  0  1  8
                                  ---------
                         Expense    1 18  2
Cost of the ingredients for the
potatoes suet pudding    ...   ...  1  0  6
                                  ---------
                       Difference   0 17  8
                                  ---------

This was the dinner provided for 200 persons, who gave a decided
perference to the cheapest of these preparations, and with it to
be continued.

The following baked potatoe-puddings were prepared in the hotel
where I lodge, and were tasted by a number of persons, who found
them in general very palatable.

Baked Potatoe-puddings.

No. I.

      12 ounces of potatoes, boiled, skinned, and mashed;
       1 ounce of suet;
       1 ounce (or 1/16 of a pint) of milk, and
       1 ounce of Gloucester cheese.
      --
Total 15 ounces,--mixed with as much boiling water as was necessary
to bring it to a due consistence, and then baked in an earthen pan.

No. II.

 12 ounces of mashed potatoes as before;
  1 ounces of milk, and
  1 ounce of suet, with a sufficient quantity of salt.--Mixed up
    with boiling water, and baked in a pan.

No. III.

 12 ounces of mashed potatoes;
  1 ounce of suet;
  1 ounce of red herrings pounded fine in a mortar.--Mixed--baked,
    etc. as before.


No. IV.

 12 ounces of mashed potatoes;
  1 ounce of suet, and
  1 ounce of hung beef grated fine with a grater.--Mixed and baked
    as before.

These puddings when baked weighed from 11 to 12 ounces each.--
They were all liked by those who tasted them, but No I and No 3
seemed to meet with the most general approbation.

         Receipt for a very cheap Potatoe-dumplin.

Take any quantity of potatoes, half boiled;--skin or pare them,
and grate them to a coarse powder with a grater;--mix them up
with a very small quantity of flour, 1/16, for instance, of the
weight of the potatoes, or even less;--add a seasoning of salt,
pepper, and sweet herbs;--mix up the whole with boiling water to
a proper consistency, and form the mass into dumplins of the size
of a large apple.-- Roll the dumplins, when formed, in flour, to
prevent the water from penetrating them, and put them into
boiling water, and boil them till they rise to the surface of the
water, and swim, when they will be found to be sufficiently done.

These dumplins may be made very savoury by mixing with them a
small quantity of grated hung beef, or of pounded red herring.

Fried bread may likewise be mixed with them, and this without any
other addition, except a seasoning of salt, forms an excellent
dish.

Upon the same principles upon which these dumplins are prepared
large boiled bag-puddings may be made; and for feeding the Poor
in a public establishment, where great numbers are to be fed,
puddings, as these is less trouble in preparing them, are always
to be preferred to dumplins.

It would swell this Essay, (which has already exceeded the limits
assigned to it,) to the size of a large volume, were I to give
receipts for all the good dishes that may be prepared with
potatoes.--There is however one method of preparing potatoes
much in use in many parts of Germany, which appears to me to
deserve being particularly mentioned and recommended;--it is as
follows:

         A Receipt for preparing boiled Potatoes with a Sauce.

The potatoes being properly boiled, and skinned, are cut into
slices, and put into a dish, and a sauce, similar to that
commonly used with a fricaseed chicken, is poured over them.

This makes an excellent and a very wholesome dish, but more
calculated, it is true, for the tables of the opulent than for
the Poor.--Good sauces might however be composed for this dish
which would not be expensive.--Common milk-porridge, made rather
thicker than usual, with wheat flour, and well salted, would not
be a bad sauce for it.

         Potatoe Salad.

A dish in high repute in some parts of Germany, and which
deserves to be particularly recommended, is a salad of potatoes.
The potatoes being properly boiled and skinned, are cut into thin
slices, and the same sauce which is commonly used for salads of
lettuce is poured over them; some mix anchovies with this sauce,
which gives it a very agreeable relish, and with potatoes it is
remarkably palatable.

Boiled potatoes cut in slices and fried in butter, or in lard,
and seasoned with salt and pepper, is likewise a very palatable
and wholesome dish.

         Of Barley.

I have more than once mentioned the extraordinary nutritive
powers of this grain, and the use of it in feeding the Poor
cannot be too strongly recommended.--It is now beginning to be
much used in this country, mixed with wheat flour, for making
bread; but is not, I am persuaded, in bread, but in soups,
that Barley can be employed to the greatest advantage.--It is
astonishing how much water a small quantity of Barley-meal will
thicken, and change to the consistency of a jelly; and, if my
suspicions with regard to the part which water acts in nutrition
are founded, this will enable us to account, not only for the
nutritive quality of Barley, but also for the same quality in a
still higher degree which sago and salope are known to possess.--
Sago and Salope thicken, and change to the consistency of a
jelly, (and as I suppose, prepare for decomposition,) a greater
quantity of water than Barley, and both sago and salope are known
to be nutritious in a very extraordinary degree.

Barley will thicken and change to a jelly much more water than
any other grain with which we are acquainted, rice even not
excepted;--and I have found reason to conclude from the result of
innumerable experiments, which in the course of several years
have been made under my direction in the public kitchen of the
House of Industry at Munich, that for making soups, Barley is by
far the best grain that can be employed.

Were I called upon to give an opinion in regard to the
comparative nutritiousness of Barley-meal and wheat flour,
WHEN USED IN SOUPS I should not hesitate to say that I think the
former at least three or four times as nutritious as the latter.

Scotch broth is known to be one of the most nourishing dishes in
common use; and there is no doubt but it owes its extraordinary
nutritive quality to the Scotch (or Pearl) Barley, which is
always used in preparing it.--If the Barley be omitted, the broth
will be found to be poor and washy, and will afford little
nourishment;--but any of the other ingredients may be retrenched;--
even the meat;-- without impairing very sensibly the nutritive
quality of the Food.--Its flavour and palatableness may be impaired
by such retrenchments; but if the water be well thickened with
the Barley, the Food will still be very nourishing.

In preparing the soup used in feeding the Poor in the House of
Industry at Munich, Pearl Barley has hitherto been used; but I
have found, by some experiments I have lately made in London,
that Pearl Barley is by no means necessary, as common Barley-meal
will answer, to all intents and purposes, just as well.--In one
respect it answers better, for it does not require half so much
boiling.

In comparing cheap soups for feeding the Poor, the following
short and plain directions will be found to be useful:

         General Directions for preparing cheap Soup.

First, Each portion of Soup should consist of one pint and a
quarter, which, if the Soup be rich, will afford a good meal to a
grown person.--Such a portion will in general weigh about one
pound and a quarter, or twenty ounces Avoirdupois.

Secondly, The basis of each portion of Soup should consist of one
ounce and a quarter of Barley-meal, boiled with ONE PINT AND A
QUARTER OF WATER till the whole be reduced to the uniform
consistency of a thick jelly.--All other additions to the Soup do
little else than to serve to make it more palatable; or by
rendering a long mastication necessary, to increase and prolong
the pleasure of eating;--both these objects are however of very
great importance, and too much attention cannot be paid to them;
but both of them may, with proper management, be attained without
much expence.

Were I asked to give a Receipt for the cheapest Food which
(in my opinion) it would be possible to provide in this country,
it would be the following:

         Receipt for a very cheap Soup.

Take of water eight gallons, and mixing with it 5 lb. of Barley-meal,
boil it to the consistency of a thick jelly.--Season it with
salt, pepper, vinegar, sweet herbs, and four red herrings,
pounded in a mortar.--Instead of bread, add to it 5 lb. of Indian
Corn made into Samp, and stirring it together with a ladle, serve
it up immediately in portions of 20 ounces.

Samp, which is here recommended, is a dish said to have been
invented by the savages of North America, who have no Corn-mills.
--It is Indian Corn deprived of its external coat by soaking it
ten or twelve hours in a lixivium of water and wood-ashes.--
This coat, or husk, being separated from the kernel, rises to the
surface of the water, while the grain, which is specifically
heavier than water, remains at the bottom of the vessel; which
grain, thus deprived of its hard coat of armour, is boiled, or
rather simmered for a great length of time, two days for instance,
in a kettle of water placed near the fire.--When sufficiently
cooked, the kernels will be found to be swelled to a great size
and burst open, and this Food, which is uncommonly sweet and
nourishing, may be used in a great variety of ways; but the best
way of using it is to mix it with milk, and with soups, and broths,
as a substitute for bread.  It is even better than bread for
these purposes, for besides being quite as palatable as the very
best bread, as it is less liable than bread to grow too soft when
mixed with these liquids, without being disagreeably hard, it
requires more mastication, and consequently tends more to increase
and prolong the pleasure of eating.

The Soup which may be prepared with the quantities of ingredients
mentioned in the foregoing Receipt will be sufficient for 64
portions, and the cost of these ingredients will be as follows:

                                                     Pence.
 For 5 lb. of Barley-meal, at 1 1/2 pence, the ]
 Barley being reckoned at the present          ]
 very high price of it in this country, viz    ]...  7 1/2
 5s. 6d. per bushel                            ]
 5 lb. of Indian Corn, at 1 1/4 pence the pound ...  6 1/4
 4 red herrings   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  3
 Vinegar...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1
 Salt   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1
 Pepper and sweet herbs     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  2
                                                    -------
                                            Total   20 3/4
                                                    -------

This sum, (20 3/4 pence,) divided by 64, the number of portions
of Soup, gives something less than ONE THIRD OF A PENNY for the
cost of each portion.--But at the medium price of Barley in Great
Britain, and of Indian Corn as it may be afforded here, I am
persuaded that this Soup may be provided at one farthing the
portion of 20 ounces.

There is another kind of Soup in great repute among the poor
people, and indeed among the opulent farmers, in Germany, which
would not come much higher.--This is what is called burnt Soup,
or as I should rather call it, brown Soup, and it is prepared in
the following manner:

         Receipt for making BROWN SOUP.

Take a small piece of butter and put it over the fire in a clean
frying-pan made of iron (not copper, for that metal used for this
purpose would be poisonous);-- put to it a few spoonfuls of wheat
or rye meal;--stir the whole about briskly with a broad wooden
spoon, or rather knife, with a broad and thin edge, till the
butter has disappeared, and the meal is uniformly of a deep brown
colour; great care being taken, by stirring it continually, to
prevent the meal from being burned to the pan.

A very small quantity of this roasted meal, (perhaps half an
ounce in weight would be sufficient,) being put into a sauce-pan
and boiled with a pint and a quarter of water, forms a portion of
Soup, which, when seasoned with salt, pepper, and vinegar, and
eaten with bread cut fine, and mixed with it at the moment when
it is served up, makes a kind of Food by no means unpalatable;
and which is said to be very wholesome.

As this Soup may be prepared in a very short time, an instant
being sufficient for boiling it; and as the ingredients for
making it are very cheap, and may be easily transported,
this Food is much used in Bavaria by our wood-cutters, who go
into the mountains far from any habitations to fell wood.--
Their provisions for a week, (the time they commonly remain in
the mountains,) consist of a large loaf of rye bread (which,
as it does not so soon grow dry and stale as wheaten bread,
is always preferred to it); a linen bag containing a small
quantity of roasted meal;--another small bag of salt;--and a
small wooden box containing some pounded black pepper;--with a
small frying-pan of hammered iron, about ten or eleven inches in
diameter, which serves them both as an utensil for cooking, and
as a dish for containing the victuals when cooked.--They
sometimes, but not often, take with them a small bottle of
vinegar;--but black-pepper is an ingredient in brown Soup which
is never omitted.--Two table-spoonfuls of roasted meal is quite
enough to make a good portion of Soup for one person; and the
quantity of butter necessary to be used in roasting this quantity
of meal is very small, and will cost very little.--One ounce of
butter would be sufficient for roasting eight ounces of meal; and
if half an ounce of roasted meal is sufficient for making one
portion of Soup, the butter will not amount to more than 1/10 of
an ounce; and, at eight pence the pound, will cost only 1/32 of a
penny, or 1/8 of a farthing.--The cost of the meal for a portion
of this Soup is not much more considerable.  If it be rye meal,
(which is said to be quite as good for roasting as the finest
wheat flour,) it will not cost, in this country, even now when
grain is so dear, more than 1 1/2d. per pound;-- 1/2 an ounce,
therefore, the quantity required for one portion of the Soup,
would cost only 6/32 of a farthing;--and the meal and butter
together no more than (1/8 + 6/32) = 10/32, or something less
than 1/3 of a farthing.--If to this sum we add the cost of the
ingredients used to season the Soup, namely, for salt, pepper and
vinegar, allowing for them as much as the amount of the cost of
the butter and the meal, or 1/3 of a farthing, this will give 2/3
of a farthing for the cost of the ingredients used in preparing
one portion of this Soup; but as the bread which is eaten with it
is an expensive article, this Food will not, upon the whole,
be cheaper than the Soup just mentioned; and it is certainly
neither so nourishing nor so wholesome.

Brown Soup might, however, on certain occasions, be found to be
useful.  As it is so soon cooked, and as the ingredients for
making it are so easily prepared, preserved, and transported from
place to place; it might be useful to travellers, and to soldiers
on a march.  And though it can hardly be supposed to be of itself
very nourishing, yet it is possible it may render the bread eaten
with it not only more nutritive, but also more wholesome;-- and
it certainly renders it more savoury and palatable.--It is the
common breakfast of the peasants in Bavaria; and it is infinitely
preferable, in all respects, to that most pernicious wash, TEA,
with which the lower classes of the inhabitants of this island
drench their stomachs, and ruin their constitutions.

When tea is mixed with a sufficient quantity of sugar and good
cream;--when it is taken with a large quantity of bread and
butter, or with toast and boiled eggs;--and above all,--WHEN IT
IS NOT DRANK TOO HOT, it is certainly less unwholesome; but a
simple infusion of this drug, drank boiling hot, as the Poor
usually take it, is certainly a poison which, though it is
sometimes slow in its operation, never fails to produce very
fatal effects, even in the strongest constitution, where the free
use of it is continued for a considerable length of time.

         Of Rye Bread

The prejudice in this island against bread made of Rye, is the
more extraordinary, as in many parts of the country no other kind
of bread is used; and as the general use of it in many parts of
Europe, for ages, has proved it to be perfectly wholesome.--
In those countries where it is in common use, many persons
prefer it to bread made of the best wheat flour; and though
wheaten bread is commonly preferred to it, yet I am persuaded
that the general dislike of it, where it is not much in use, is
more owing to its being BADLY PREPARED, or not well baked, than
to any thing else.

As an account of some experiments upon baking Rye Bread, which
were made under my immediate care and inspection in the
bake-house of the House of Industry at Munich, may perhaps be of
use to those who wish to known how good Rye Bread may be prepared;
as also to such as are desirous of ascertaining, by similar
experiments, what, in any given case, the profits of a baker
really are; I shall publish an account in detail of these
experiments, in the Appendix to this volume.

I cannot conclude this Essay, without once more recommending,
in the most earnest manner, to the attention of the Public,
and more especially to the attention of all those who are engaged
in public affairs,--the subject which has here been attempted to
be investigated.  It is certainly of very great importance,
in whatever light it is considered; and it is particularly so at
the present moment: for however statesmen may differ in opinion
with respect to the danger or expediency of making any alterations
in the constitution, or established forms of government, in times
of popular commotion, no doubts can be entertained with respect
to the policy of diminishing, as much as possible, at all times,
--and more especially in times like the present,--the misery of
the lower classes of the people.

END OF THE THIRD ESSAY.

Footnotes for Essay III.

[1]
November 1795.

[2]
The preparation of water is, in many cases, an object of more
importance than is generally imagined; particularly when it is
made use of as a vehicle for conveying agreeable tastes.
In making punch, for instance, if the water used be previously
boiled two or three hours with a handful of rice, the punch made
from it will be incomparably better, than is to say, more full
and luscious upon the palate, than when the water is not prepared.

[3]
I cannot dismiss this subject, the feeding of cattle, without
just mentioning another practice common among our best farmers in
Bavaria, which, I think, deserves to be known.  They chop the
green clover with which they feed their cattle, and mix with it a
considerable quantity of chopped straw.  They pretend that this
rich succulent grass is of so clammy a nature, that unless it be
mixed with chopped straw, hay, or some other dry fodder, cattle
which are fed with it do not ruminate sufficiently.  The usual
proportion of the clover to the straw, is as two to one.

[4]
A viertl is the twelfth part of a schafl, and the Bavarian schafl
is equal to 6 31/300 Winchester bushels.

[5]
The quantity of fuel here mentioned, though it certainly is
almost incredibly small, was nevertheless determined from the
results of actual experiments.  A particular account of these
experiments will be given in my Essay on the Management of Heat
and the Economy of Fuel.

[6]
One Bavarian schafl (equal to 6 31/100 Winchester bushels) of
barley, weighing at a medium 250 Bavarian pounds, upon being
pearled, or rolled (as it is called in Germany), is reduced to
half a schafl, which weighs 171 Bavarian pounds.  The 79lb. which
it loses in the operation is the perquisite of the miller, and is
all he receives for his trouble.

[7]
Since the First Edition of this Essay was published the experiment
with barley-meal has been tried, and the meal has been found to
answer quite as well as pearl barley, if not better, for making
these soups.  Among others, Thomas Bernard, Esq. Treasurer of
the Founding Hospital, a gentleman of most respectable character,
and well known for his philanthropy and active zeal in relieving
the distresses of the Poor, has given it a very complete and fair
trial; and he found, what is very remarkable, though not difficult
to be accounted for--that the barley-meal, WITH ALL THE BRAN IN IT,
answered better, that is to say, made the soup richer, and thicker,
than when the fine flour of barley, without the bran, was used.

[8]
By some experiments lately made it has been found that the soup
will be much improved if a small fire is made under the boiler,
just sufficient to make its contents boil up once, when the
barley and water are put into it, and then closing up immediately
the ash-hole register, and the damper in the chimney,
and throwing a thick blanket, or a warm covering over the cover
of the boiler, the whole be kept hot till the next morning.
This heat so long continued, acts very powerfully on the barley,
and causes it to thicken the water in a very surprising manner.
Perhaps the oat-meal used for making water gruel might be
improved in its effects by the same means.  The experiment is
certainly worth trying.

[9]
This invention of double bottoms might be used with great success
by distillers, to prevent their liquor, when it is thick, from
burning to the bottoms of their stills.  But there is another
hint, which I have long wished to give distillers, from which,
I am persuaded, they might derive very essential advantages.--It is
to recommend to them to make up warm clothing of thick blanketing
for covering up their still-heads, and defending them from the
cold air of the atmosphere; and for covering in the same manner
all that part of the copper or boiler which rises above the
brick-work in which it is fixed. The great quantity of heat is
constantly given off to the cold air of the atmosphere in contact
with it by this naked copper, not only occasions a very great
loss of heat, and of fuel, but tends likewise very much to
EMBARRASS and to PROLONG the process of distillation; for all
the heat communicated by the naked still-head to the atmosphere
is taken from the spirituous vapour which rises from the liquor
in the still; and as this vapour cannot fail to be condensed into
spirits whenever and WHEREVER it loses ANY PART of its heat,--
as the spirits generated in the still-head in consequence of this
communication of heat to the atmosphere do not find their way
into the worm, but trickle down and mix again with the liquor in
the still,--the bad effects of leaving the still-head exposed
naked to the cold air is quite evident.  The remedy for this evil
is as cheap and as effectual, as it is simple and obvious.

[10]
The Bavarian pound (equal to 1.238, or near one pound and a
quarter Avoirdupois,) is divided into 32 loths.

[11]
For each 100 lb. Bavarian weight, (equal to 123.84 lb.
Avoirdupois,) of rye-meal, which the baker receives from the
magazine, he is obliged to deliver sixty-four loaves of bread,
each loaf weighing 2 lb. 5 1/2 loths; equal to 2 lb. 10 oz.
Avoirdupois;--and as each loaf is divided into six portions,
this gives seven ounces Avoirdupois for each portion.  Hence it
appears that 100 lb. of rye-meal give 149 lb. of bread; for
sixty-four loaves, at 2 lb. 5 1/2 loths each, weigh 149 lb.
--When this bread is reckoned at two creutzers a Bavarian pound,
(which is about what it costs at a medium,) one portion costs
just 10/16 of a creutzer, or 120/528 of a penny sterling, which
is something less than one farthing.

[12]
This allowance is evidently much too large; but I was willing to
show what the expence of feed the Poor would be at THE HIGHEST
CALCULATION. I have estimated the 7 ounces of rye-bread,
mentioned above, at what it ought to cost when rye is 7s. 6d. the
bushel, its present price in London.

[13]
Farther inquiries which have since been made, have proved that
these suspicions were not without foundation.

[14]
Since writing the above, I have had an opportunity of ascertaining,
in the most decisive and satisfactory manner, the facts relative
to the weight of Indian Corn of the growth of the northern states
of America.  A friend of mine, an American gentleman, resident in
London, (George Erving, Esq. of Great George street, Hanover-square,)
who, in common with the rest of his countrymen, still retains a
liking for Indian Corn, and imports it regularly every year from
America, has just received a fresh supply of it, by one of the
last ships which has arrived from Boston in New England; and at
my desire he weighed a bushel of it, and found it to weigh 61 lb.:
It cost him at Boston three shillings and sixpence sterling the
bushel.

[15]
The price of Indian meal as it here estimated,--(2d. a pound,)
--is at least twice as much as it would cost in Great Britain in
common years, if care was taken to import it at the cheapest rate.

[16]
Those who dislike trouble, and feel themselves called upon by
duty and honor to take an active part in undertakings for the
public good, are extremely apt to endeavour to excuse,--to
themselves as well as to the world,--their inactivity and
supineness, by representing the undertaking in question as being
so very difficult as to make all hope of success quite chimerical
and ridiculous.

[17]
The Housekeeper of my friend and countryman, Sir William Pepperel,
Bart. of Upper Seymour Street, Portman Square.

[18]
Molasses imported from the French West India Islands into the
American States is commonly sold there from 12d. to 14d.
the gallon.

[19]
This gentleman, who is as remarkable for his good fortune at sea,
as he is respectable on account of his private character and
professional knowledge, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean the almost
incredible number of ONE HUNDRED AND TEN TIMES! and without
meeting with the smallest accident.  He is now on the seas in his
way to North America; and this voyage, which is his HUNDRED AND
ELEVENTH, he intends should be his last.  May he arrive
safe,--and may he long enjoy in peace and quite the well-earned
fruits of his laborious life! Who can reflect on the innumerable
storms he must have experienced, and perils he has escaped,
without feeling much interested in his preservation and
happiness?

[20]
This maccaroni would not probably have cost one quarter of that
sum at Naples.--Common maccaroni is frequently sold there as low
as fourteen grains, equal to five pence halfpenny sterling the
rottolo, weighing twenty-eight ounces and three quarters
Avoirdupois, which is three pence sterling the pound Avoirdupois.
An inferiour kind of maccaroni, such as is commonly sold at
Naples to the Poor, costs not more than two pence sterling the
pound Avoirdupois.

[21]
If maccaroni could be made in this country as cheap as it is made
in Naples, that is to say, so as to be afforded for three pence
sterling the pound Avoirdupois, for the best sort, (and I do not
see why it should not,) as half a pound of dry maccaroni weighs
when boiled very nearly two pounds, each pound of boiled
maccaroni would cost only three farthings, and the cheese
necessary for giving it a relish one farthing more, making
together one penny; which is certainly a very moderate price for
such good and wholesome Food.


CONTENTS of ESSAY IV.

of CHIMNEY FIRE-PLACES, with PROPOSALS for improving them to save
FUEL; to render dwelling-houses more COMFORTABLE and SALUBRIOUS,
and effectually to prevent CHIMNIES from SMOKING.

ADVERTISEMENT

CHAPTER. I.
 Fire-places for burning coals, or wood, in an open chimney,
   are capable of great improvement.
 Smoking chimnies may in all cases be completely cured.
 The immoderate size of the throats of chimnies the principal
   cause of all their imperfections.
 Philosophical investigation of the subject.
 Remedies proposed for all the defects that have been discovered
   in chimnies and their open fire-places.
 These remedies applicable to chimnies destined for burning
   wood, or turf, as well as those constructed for burning coals.

CHAPTER. II.
 Practical directions designed for the use of workmen, showing
   how they are to proceed in making the alterations necessary to
   improve chimney fire-places, and effectually to cure smoking
   chimnies.

CHAPTER. III.
 Of the cause of the ascent of smoke.
 Illustration of the subject by familiar comparisons and
   experiments.
 Of chimnies which affect and cause each other to smoke.
 Of chimnies which smoke from want of air.
 Of the eddies of wind which sometimes blow down chimnies,
   and cause them to smoke.
 Explanation of the figures.


ESSAY IV.

ADVERTISEMENT

The Author thinks it his duty to explain the reasons which have
induced him to change the order in which the publication of his
Essays has been announced to the Public.--Being suddenly called
upon to send to Edinburgh a person acquainted with the method of
altering Chimney Fire-places, which has lately been carried into
execution in a number of houses in London, in order to introduce
these improvements in Scotland, he did not think it prudent to
send any person on so important an errand without more ample
instruction than could well be given verbally; and being obliged
to write on the subject, he thought it best to investigate the
matter thoroughly, and to publish such particular directions
respecting the improvements in question as may be sufficient to
enable all those, who may be desirous of adopting them, to make,
or direct the necessary alterations in their Fire-places without
any further assistance.

The following Letter, which the Author received from Sir John
Sinclair, Baronet, Member of Parliament, and President of the
Board of Agriculture, will explain this matter more fully:

You will hear with pleasure that your mode of altering Chimnies,
so as to prevent their smoking, to save fuel, and to augment
heat, has answered not only with me, but with many of my friends
who have tried it; and that the Lord Provest and Magistrates of
Edinburgh have voted a sum of money to defray the expences of a
bricklayer, who is to be sent there for the purpose of
establishing the same plan in that city.  I hope that you will
have the goodness to expedite your paper upon the management of
Heat, that the knowledge of so useful an art may be as rapidly
and as extensively diffused as possible.--With my best wishes for
your success in the various important pursuits in which you are
now engaged, believe me, with great truth and regard,
          Your faithful and obedient servant
                            John Sinclair
Whitehall, London,
9th February 1796.


CHAPTER. I.

 Fire-places for burning coals, or wood, in an open chimney,
   are capable of great improvement.
 Smoking chimnies may in all cases be completely cured.
 The immoderate size of the throats of chimnies the principal
   cause of all their imperfections.
 Philosophical investigation of the subject.
 Remedies proposed for all the defects that have been discovered
   in chimnies and their open fire-places.
 These remedies applicable to chimnies destined for burning
   wood, or turf, as well as those constructed for burning coals.

The plague of a smoking Chimney is proverbial; but there are many
other very great defects in open Fire-places, as they are now
commonly constructed in this country, and indeed throughout
Europe, which, being less obvious, are seldom attended to;
and there are some of them very fatal in their consequences to
health; and, I am persuaded, cost the lives of thousands every
year in this island.

Those cold and chilling draughts of air on one side of the body,
while the other side is scorched by a Chimney Fire, which every
one who reads this must often have felt, cannot but be highly
detrimental to health; and in weak and delicate constitutions
must often produce the most fatal effects.--I have not a doubt in
my own mind that thousands die in this country every year of
consumptions occasioned solely by this cause.--By a cause which
might be so easily removed!--by a cause whose removal would tend
to promote comfort and convenience in so many ways.

Strongly impressed as my mind is with the importance of this
subject, it is not possible for me to remain silent.--The subject
is too nearly connected with many of the most essential
enjoyments of life not to be highly interesting to all those who
feel pleasure in promoting, or in contemplating the comfort and
happiness of mankind.--And without suffering myself to be
deterred, either by the fear of being thought to give the subject
a degree of importance to which it is not entitled, or by the
apprehension of being tiresome to my readers by the prolixity of
my descriptions,--I shall proceed to investigate the subject in
all its parts and details with the utmost care and attention.
--And first with regard to smoking Chimnies:

There are various causes by which Chimnies may be prevented from
carrying smoke; but there are none that may not easily be
discovered and completely removed.--This will doubtless be
considered as a bold assertion; but I trust I shall be able to
make it appear in a manner perfectly satisfactory to my readers
that I have not ventured to give this opinion but upon good and
sufficient grounds.

Those who will take the trouble to consider the nature and
properties of elastic fluids,--of air,--smoke,--and vapour,--
and to examine the laws of their motions, and the necessary
consequences of their being rarified by heat, will perceive that
it would be as much a miracle if smoke should not rise in a
Chimney, (all hindrances to its ascent being removed,) as that
water should refuse to run in a syphon, or to descend in a river.

The whole mystery, therefore, of curing smoking Chimnies is
comprised in this simple direction.  --FIND OUT AND REMOVE THOSE
LOCAL HINDRANCES WHICH FORCIBLY PREVENT THE SMOKE FROM FOLLOWING
ITS NATURAL TENDENCY TO GO UP THE CHIMNEY; or rather, to speak
more accurately, which prevents its being forced up the Chimney
by the pressure of the heavier air of the room.

Although the causes, by which the ascent of smoke in a Chimney
MAY BE obstructed, are various, yet that cause which will most
commonly, and I may say almost universally be found to operate,
is one which it is always very easy to discover, and as easy to
remove,--the bad construction of the Chimney IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD
OF THE FIRE-PLACE.

In the course all my experience and practice in curing smoking
Chimnies,--and I certainly have not had less than five hundred
under my hands, and among them many which were thought to be
quite incurable,--I have never been obliged, except in one
single instance, to have recourse to any other method of cure
than merely reducing the Fire-place and the throat of the
Chimney, or that part of it which lies immediately above the
Fire-place, to a proper form, and just dimensions.

That my principles for constructing Fire-places are equally
applicable to those which are designed for burning coal, as to
those in which wood is burnt, has lately been abundantly proved
by experiments made here in London; for of above an hundred and
fifty Fire-places which have been altered in this city, under my
direction, within these last two months, there is not one which
has not answered perfectly well[1].--And by several experiments
which have been made with great care, and with the assistance of
thermometers, it has been demonstrated, that the saving of fuel,
arising from these improvements of Fire-places, amounts in all
cases to more than HALF, and in many cases to more than TWO THIRDS
of the quantity formerly consumed.--Now as the alterations in
Fire-places which are necessary may be made at a very trifling
expence, as any kind of grate or stove may be made use of, and as
no iron work, but merely a few bricks and some mortar, or a few
small pieces of fire-stone, are required; the improvement in
question is very important, when considered merely with a view
to economy; but it should be remembered, that not only a great
saving is made of fuel by the alterations proposed, but that
rooms are made much more comfortable, and more salubrious;--
that they may be more equally warmed, and more easily kept at any
required temperature;--that all draughts of cold air from the
doors and windows towards the Fire-place, which are so fatal to
delicate constitutions, will be completely prevented;--that in
consequence of the air being equally warm all over the room, or
in all parts of it, it may be entirely changed with the greatest
facility, and the room completely ventilated, when this air is
become unfit for respiration, and this merely by throwing open
for a moment a door opening into some passage from whence fresh
air may be had, and the upper part of a window; or by opening the
upper part of on window and the lower part of another, and as the
operation of ventilating the room, even when it is done in the
most complete manner, will never require the door and window to
be open more than one minute; in this short time the walls of the
room will not be sensibly cooled, and the fresh air which comes
into the room will, in a very few minutes, be so completely
warmed by these walls that the temperature of the room, though
the air in it be perfectly changed, will be brought to be very
nearly the same as it was before the ventilation.

Those who are acquainted with the principles of pneumatics,
and know why the warm air in a room rushes out at an opening made
for it at the top of a window when colder air from without is
permitted to enter by the door, or by any other opening situated
lower than the first, will see, that it would be quite impossible
to ventilate a room in the complete and expeditious manner here
described, where the air in a room is partially warmed, or hardly
warmed at all, and where the walls of the room, remote from the
fire, are constantly cold; which must always be the case where,
in consequence of a strong current up the Chimney, streams of
cold air are continually coming in through all the crevices of
the doors and windows, and flowing into the Fire-place.

But although rooms, furnished with Fire-places constructed upon
the principles here recommended, may be easily and most
effectually ventilated, (and this is certainly a circumstance in
favour of the proposed improvements,) yet such total ventilations
will very seldom, if ever, be necessary.--As long as ANY FIRE is
kept up in the room, there is so considerable a current of air up
the Chimney, notwithstanding all the reduction that can be made
in the size of its throat, that the continual change of air in
the room which this current occasions will, generally, be found
to be quite sufficient for keeping the air in the room sweet and
wholesome; and indeed in rooms in which there is no open Fire-place,
and consequently no current of air from the room setting up the
Chimney, which is the case in Germany, and all the northern parts
of Europe, where rooms are heated by stoves, whose Fire-places
opening without are not supplied with the air necessary for the
combustion of the fuel from the room;--and although in most of
the rooms abroad, which are so heated, the windows and doors are
double, and both are closed in the most exact manner possible,
by slips of paper pasted over the crevices, or by slips of list or
furr; yet when these rooms are tolerably large, and when they are
not very much crowded by company, nor filled with a great many
burning lamps or candles, the air in them is seldom so much
injured as to become oppressive or unwholesome; and those who
inhabit them show by their ruddy countenances, as well as by
every other sign of perfect health, that they suffer no
inconvenience whatever from their closeness.--There is frequently,
it is true, an oppressiveness in the air of a room heated by a
German stove, of which those who are not much accustomed to
living in those rooms seldom fail to complain, and indeed with
much reason; but this oppressiveness does not arise from the air
of the room being injured by the respiration and perspiration of
those who inhabit it;--it arises from a very different cause;--
from a fault in the construction of German stoves in general,
but which may be easily and most completely remedied, as I shall
show more fully in another place.  In the mean time, I would just
observe here with regard to these stoves, that as they are often
made of iron, and as this metal is a very good conductor of heat,
some part of the stove in contact with the air of the room
becomes so hot as to calcine or rather to ROAST the dust which
lights upon it; which never can fail to produce a very
disagreeable effect on the air of the room.  And even when the
stove is constructed of pantiles or pottery-ware, if any part of
it in contact with the air of the room is suffered to become very
hot, which seldom fails to be the case in German stoves
constructed on the common principles, nearly the same effects
will be found to be produced on the air as when the stove is made
of iron, as I have very frequently had occasion to observe.

Though a room be closed in the most perfect manner possible, yet,
as the quantity of air injured and rendered unfit for further use
by the respiration of two or three persons in a few hours is very
small, compared to the immense volume of air which a room of a
moderate size contains; and as a large quantity of fresh air
always enters the room, and an equal quantity of the warm air of
the room is driven out of it every time the door is opened, there
is much less danger of the air of a room becoming unwholesome for
the want of ventilation than has been generally imagined;
particularly in cold weather, when all the different causes which
conspire to change the air of warmed rooms act with increased
power and effect.

Those who have any doubts respecting the very great change of air
or ventilation which takes place each time the door of a warm room
is opened in cold weather, need only set the door of such a room
wide open for a moment, and hold two lighted candles in the
door-way, one near the top of the door, and the other near the
bottom of it; the violence with which the flame of that above
will be driven outwards, and that below inwards, by the two
strong currents of air which, passing in opposite directions,
rush in and out of the room at the same time, will be convinced
that the change of air which actually takes place must be very
considerable indeed; and these currents will be stronger,
and consequently the change of air greater, in proportion as the
difference is greater between the temperature of the air within
the room and of that without.  I have been more particular upon
this subject,--the ventilation of warmed rooms which are
constantly inhabited,--as I know that people in general in this
country have great apprehensions of the bad consequences to
health of living rooms in which there is not a continual influx
of cold air from without.  I am as much an advocate for a FREE
CIRCULATION of air as any body, and always sleep in a bed without
curtains on that account; but I am much inclined to think, that
the currents of cold air which never fail to be produced in rooms
heated by Fire-places constructed upon the common principle,--
those partial heats on one side of the body, and the cold blasts
on the other, so often felt in houses in this country, are
infinitely more detrimental to health than the supposed closeness
of the air in a room warmed more equally, and by a smaller fire.

All these advantages, attending the introduction of the
improvements in Fire-places here recommended, are certainly
important, and I do not know that they are counterbalanced by any
one disadvantage whatsoever.  The only complaints that I had ever
heard made against them was, that they made the rooms TOO warm;
but the remedy to this evil is so perfectly simple and obvious,
that I should be almost afraid to mention it, less it might be
considered as an insult to the understanding of the persons to
whom such information should be given; for nothing surely can be
conceived more perfectly ridiculous than the embarrassment of a
person on account of the too great heat of his room, when it is
in his power to diminish AT PLEASURE the fire by which it is
warmed; and yet, strange as it may appear, this has sometimes
happened!

Before I proceed to give directions for the construction of
Fire-places, it will be proper to examine more carefully the
Fire-places now in common use;--to point out their faults;--
and to establish the principles upon which Fire-places ought to
be constructed.

The great fault of all the open Fire-places, or Chimnies, for
burning wood or coals in an open fire, now in common use, is,
that they are much too large; or rather it is THE THROAT OF THE
CHIMNEY or the lower part of its open canal, in the neighbourhood
of the mantle, and immediately over the fire, which is too large.
This opening has hitherto been left larger than otherwise it
probably would have been made, in order to give a passage to the
Chimney-sweeper; but I shall show hereafter how a passage for the
Chimney-sweeper may be contrived without leaving the throat of
the Chimney of such enormous dimensions as to swallow up and
devour all the warm air of the room, instead of merely giving a
passage to the smoke and heated vapour which rise from the fire,
for which last purpose alone it ought to be destined.

Were it my intention to treat my subject in a formal scientific
manner, it would be doubtless be proper, and even necessary, to
begin by explaining in the fullest manner, and upon the
principles founded on the laws of nature, relative to the motions
of elastic fluids, as far as they have been discovered and
demonstrated, the causes of the ascent of smoke, and also to
explain and illustrate upon the same principles, and even to
measure, or estimate by calculations, the precise effects of all
those mechanical aids which may be proposed for assisting it in
its ascent, or rather for removing those obstacles which hinder
its motion upwards;--but as it is my wish rather to write an
useful practical treatise, than a learned dissertation, being
more desirous to contribute in diffusing useful knowledge, by
which the comforts and enjoyments of mankind may be increased,
than to acquire the reputation of a philosopher among learned
men, I shall endeavour to write in such a manner as to be easily
understood BY THOSE WHO ARE MOST LIKELY TO PROFIT BY THE
INFORMATION I HAVE TO COMMUNICATE, and consequently most likely
to assist in bringing into general use the improvements I
recommend.  This being premised, I shall proceed, without any
further preface or introduction, to the investigation of the
subject I have undertaken to treat.

As the immoderate size of the throats of Chimnies is the great
fault of their construction, it is this fault which ought always
to be first attended to in every attempt which is made to improve
them; for however perfect the construction of a Fire-place may be
in other respects, if the opening left for the passage of the smoke
is larger than is necessary for that purpose, nothing can prevent
the warm air of the room from escaping through it; and whenever
this happens, there is not only an unnecessary loss of heat,
but the warm air which leaves the room to go up the Chimney being
replaced by cold air from without, the draughts of cold air,
so often mentioned, cannot fail to be produced in the room, to the
great annoyance of those who inhabit it.  But although both these
evils may be effectually remedied by reducing the throat of the
Chimney to a proper size, yet in doing this several precautions
will be necessary. And first of all, the throat of the Chimney
should be in its proper place; that is to say, in that place in
which it ought to be, in order that the ascent of the smoke may
be most facilitated; for every means which can be employed for
facilitating the ascent of the smoke in the Chimney must naturally
tend to prevent the Chimney from smoking: now as the smoke and
hot vapour which rise from a fire naturally tend UPWARDS, the
proper place for the throat of the Chimney is evidently
perpendicularly OVER THE FIRE.

But there is another circumstance to be attended to in
determining the proper place for the throat of a Chimney,
and that is, to ascertain its distance from the fire, or HOW FAR
above the burning fuel it ought to be placed.  In determining
this point, there are many things to be considered, and several
advantages and disadvantages to be weighed and balanced.

As the smoke and vapour which ascend from burning fuel rise in
consequence of their being rarefied by heat, and made lighter
than the air of the surrounding atmosphere; and as the degree of
their rarefaction, and consequently their tendency to rise, is in
proportion to the intensity of their heat; and further, as they
are hotter near the fire than at a greater distance from it,
it is clear that the nearer the throat of a Chimney is to the fire,
the stronger will be, what is commonly called, its DRAUGHT,
and the less danger there will be of its smoking.  But on the
other hand, when the draught of a Chimney is very strong, and
particularly when this strong draught is occasioned by the throat
of the Chimney being very near the fire, it may so happen that
the draught of air into the fire may become so strong, as to
cause the fuel to be consumed too rapidly.  There are likewise
several other inconveniences which would attend the placing of
the throat of a Chimney VERY NEAR the burning fuel.
In introducing the improvements proposed, in Chimnies already built,
there can be no question in regard to the height of the throat of
the Chimney, for its place will be determined by the height of
the mantle.  It can hardly be made lower than the mantle; and it
ought always to be brought down as nearly upon the level with the
bottom of it as possible.  If the Chimney is apt to smoke,
it will sometimes be necessary either to lower the mantle or to
diminish the height of the opening of the Fire-place, by throwing
over a flat arch, or putting in a straight piece of stone from
one side of it to the other, or, which will be still more simple
and easy in practice, building a wall of bricks, supported by a
flat bar of iron, immediately under the mantle.

Nothing is so effectual to prevent Chimnies from smoking as
diminishing the opening of the Fire-place in the manner here
described, and lowering and diminishing the throat of the Chimney;
and I have always found, except in the single instance already
mentioned, that a perfect cure may be effected by THESE MEANS
ALONE, even in the most desperate cases. It is true, that when
the construction of the Chimney is very bad indeed, or its
situation very unfavourable to the ascent of the smoke, and
especially when both these disadvantages exist at the same time,
it may sometimes be necessary to diminish the opening of the
Fire-place, and particularly to lower it, and also to lower the
throat of the Chimney, more than might be wished: but still I
think this can produce no inconveniences to be compared with that
greatest of all plagues, a smoking Chimney.

The position of the throat of a Chimney being determined, the
next points to be ascertained are its size and form, and the
manner in which it ought to be connected with the Fire-place
below, and with the open canal of the Chimney above.

But as these investigations are intimately connected with those
which relate to the form proper to be given to the Fire-place
itself, we must consider them all together.

That these inquiries may be pursued with due method, and that the
conclusions drawn from them may be clear and satisfactory,
it will be necessary to consider, first, what the objects are
which ought principally to be had in view in the construction of
a Fire-place; and secondly, to see how these objects can best be
attained.

Now the design of a Chimney Fire being simply to warm a room,
it is necessary, first of all, to contrive matters so that the
room shall be actually warmed; secondly, that it be warmed with
the smallest expence of fuel possible; and, thirdly, that in
warming it, the air of the room be preserved perfectly pure,
and fit for respiration, and free from smoke and all disagreeable
smells.

In order to take measures with certainty for warming a room by
means of an open Chimney Fire, it will be necessary to consider
HOW, or in WHAT MANNER, such a Fire communicates heat to a room.
This question may perhaps, at the first view of it, appear to be
superfluous and trifling, but a more careful examination of the
matter will show it to be highly deserving of the most attentive
investigation.

To determine in what manner a room is heated by an open Chimney
Fire, it will be necessary first of all to find out, UNDER WHAT
FORM the heat generated in the combustion of the fuel exists,
and then to see how it is communicated to those bodies which are
heated by it.

In regard to the first of these subjects of inquiry, it is quite
certain that the heat which is generated in the combustion of the
fuel exists under TWO perfectly distinct and very different forms.
One part of it is COMBINED with the smoke, vapour, and heated air
which rise from the burning fuel, and goes off with them into the
upper regions of the atmosphere; while the other part, which
appears to be UNCOMBINED, or, as some ingenious philosophers have
supposed, combined only with light, is sent off from the fire in
rays in all possible directions.

With respect to the second subject of inquiry; namely, how this
heat, existing under these two different forms, is communicated
to other bodies; it is highly probable that the combined heat can
only be communicated to other bodies by ACTUAL CONTACT with the
body with which it is combined; and with regard to the rays which
are sent off by burning fuel, it is certain that THEY communicate
or generate heat only WHEN and WHERE they are stopped or
absorbed.  In passing through air, which is transparent, they
certainly do not communicate any heat to it; and it seems highly
probable that they do not communicate heat to solid bodies by
which they are reflected.

In these respects they seem to bear a great resemblance to the
solar rays.  But in order not to distract the attention of my
reader, or carry him too far away from the subject more
immediately under consideration, I must not enter too deeply into
these inquiries respecting the nature and properties of what has
been called RADIANT HEAT.  It is certainly a most curious subject
of philosophical investigation, but more time would be required
to do it justice than we now have to spare.  We must therefore
content ourselves with such a partial examination of it as will
be sufficient for our present purpose.

A question which naturally presents itself here is.
What proportion does the radiant heat bear to the combined
heat?--Though that point has not yet been determined with any
considerable degree of precision, it is, however, quite certain,
that the quantity of heat which goes off combined with the smoke,
vapour, and heated air is much more considerable, perhaps three
of four times greater at least, than that which is sent off from
the fire in rays.--And yet, small as the quantity is of this
radiant heat, it is the only part of the heat generated in the
combustion of fuel burnt in an open Fire-place which is ever
employed, or which can ever be employed, in heating a room.

The whole of the combined heat escapes by the Chimney, and is
totally lost; and, indeed, no part of it could ever be brought
into a room from an open Fire-place, without bringing along with
it the smoke with which it is combined; which, of course, would
render it impossible for the room to be inhabited.  There is,
however, one method by which combining heat, and even that which
arises from an open Fire-place, may be made to assist in warming
a room; and that is by making it pass through something analogous
to a German stove, placed in the Chimney above the fire.--But of
this contrivance I shall take occasion to treat more fully
hereafter; in the mean time I shall continue to investigate the
properties of open Chimney Fire-places, constructed upon the most
simple principles, such as are now in common use; and shall
endeavour to point out and explain all those improvements of
which THEY appear to me to be capable.  When fuel is burnt in
Fire-places upon this simple construction, where the smoke
escapes immediately by the open canal of the Chimney, it is quite
evident that all the combined heat must of necessity be lost; and
as it is the radiant heat alone which can be employed in heating
a room, it becomes an object of much importance to determine how
the greatest quantity of it may be generated in the combustion of
the fuel, and how the greatest proportion possible of that
generated may be brought into the room.

Now the quantity of radiant heat generated in the combustion of a
given quantity of any kind of fuel depends very much upon the
management of the fire, or upon the manner in which the fuel is
consumed.  When the fire burns bright, much radiant heat will be
sent off from it; but when it is SMOTHERED UP, very little will
be generated; and indeed very little combined heat, that can be
employed to any useful purpose: most of the heat produced will be
immediately EXPENDED in giving elasticity to a thick dense vapour
or smoke which will be seen rising from the fire; -- and the
combustion being very incomplete, a great part of the inflammable
matter of the fuel being merely rarefied and driven up the
Chimney without being inflamed, the fuel will be wasted to little
purpose.  And hence it appears of how much importance it is,
whether it be considered with a view to economy, or to
cleanliness, comfort, and elegance, to pay due attention to the
management of a Chimney Fire.

Nothing can be more perfectly void of common sense, and wasteful
and slovenly at the same time, than the manner in which Chimney
Fires, and particularly where coals are burned, are commonly
managed by servants.  They throw on a load of coals at once,
through which the flame is hours in making its way; and
frequently it is not without much trouble that the fire is
prevented from going quite out.  During this time no heat is
communicated to the room; and what is still worse, the throat of
the Chimney being occupied merely by a heavy dense vapour,
not possessed of any considerable degree of heat, and consequently
not having much elasticity, the warm air of the room finds less
difficulty in forcing its way up the Chimney and escaping,
than when the fire burns bright;--and it happens not unfrequently,
especially in Chimneys and Fire-places ill constructed, that this
current of warm air from the room which presses into the Chimney,
crossing upon the current of heavy smoke which rises slowly from
the fire, obstructs it in its ascent, and beats it back into the
room; hence it is that Chimnies so often smoke when too large a
quantity of fresh coals is put upon the fire.  So many coals
should never be put on the fire at once as to prevent the free
passage of the flame between them.  In short, a fire should never
be smothered; and when proper attention is paid to the quantity
of coals put on, there will be very little use for the poker;
and this circumstance will contribute very much to cleanliness,
and to the preservation of furniture.

Those who have feeling enough to be made miserable by any thing
careless, slovenly, and wasteful which happens under their
eyes,--who know what comfort is, and consequence are worthy of
the enjoyments of a CLEAN HEARTH and a CHEERFUL FIRE, should
really either take the trouble themselves to manage their fires,
(which, indeed, would rather be an amusement to them than a
trouble,) or they should instruct their servants to manage them
better.

But to return to the subject more immediately under consideration.
As we have seen what is necessary to the production or generation
of radiant heat, it remains to determine how the greatest
proportion of that generated and sent off from the fire in all
directions may be made to enter the room, and assist in warming
it.  How as the rays which are thrown off from burning fuel have
this property in common with light, that they generate heat only
WHEN and WHERE they are stopped or absorbed, and also in being
capable of being reflected WITHOUT GENERATING at the surfaces of
various bodies, the knowledge of these properties will enable us
to take measures, with the utmost certainty, for producing the
effect required,--that is to say, for bringing as much radiant
heat as possible into the room.

This must be done, first, by causing as many as possible of the
rays, as they are sent off from the fire in straight lines,
to come DIRECTLY into the room; which can only be effected by
bringing the fire as far forward as possible, and leaving the
opening of the Fire-place as wide and as high as can be done
without inconveniences; and secondly, by making the sides and
back of the Fire-place of such form, and constructing them of
such materials, as to cause the direct rays from the fire,
which strike against them, to be sent into the room BY REFLECTION
in the greatest abundance.

Now it will be found, upon examination, that the best form for
the vertical sides of a Fire-place, or the COVINGS, (as they are
called,) is that of an upright plane, making an angle with the
plane of the back of the Fire-place, of about 135 degrees.--
According to the present construction of Chimnies this angle is
90 degrees, or forms a right angle; but as in this case the two
sides or covings of the Fire-place (AC, BD, Fig. 1.) are
parallel to each other, it is evident that they are very ill
contrived for throwing into the room by reflection the rays from
the fire which fall on them.

To have a clear and perfect idea of the alterations I propose in
the forms of Fire-places, the reader need only observe, that,
whereas the backs of Fire-places, as they are now commonly
constructed, are as wide as the opening of the Fire-place in
front, and the sides of it are of course perpendicular to it, and
parallel to each other,--in the Fire-places I recommend, the back
(i k, Fig. 3) is only about one-third of the width of the opening
of the Fire-place in front (a,b), and consequently that the two
sides of covings of the Fire-place (a i and b k), instead of
being perpendicular to the back, are inclined to it at an angle
of about 135 degrees; and in consequence of this position,
instead of being parallel to each other, each of them presents an
oblique front towards the opening of the Chimney, by means of
which the rays which they reflect are thrown into the room.
A bare inspection of the annexed drawings (Fig. 1. and Fig. 3.)
will render this matter perfectly clear and intelligible.

In regard to the materials which it will be most advantageous to
employ in the construction of Fire-places, so much light has,
I flatter myself, already been thrown on the subject we are
investigating, and the principles adopted have been established
on such clear and obvious facts, that no great difficulty will
attend the determination of that point.--As the object in view is
to bring radiant heat into the room, it is clear that that
material is best for the construction of a Fire-place which
reflects the most, or which ABSORBS THE LEAST of it; for that
heat which is ABSORBED cannot be REFLECTED--Now as bodies which
absorb radiant heat are necessarily heated in consequence of that
absorption, to discover which of the various materials that can
be employed for constructing Fire-places are best adapted for
that purpose, we have only to find out by an experiment, very
easy to be made, what bodies acquire LEAST HEAT when exposed to
the direct rays of a clear fire;--for those which are least
heated, evidently absorb the least, and consequently reflect the
most radiant heat.  And hence it appears that iron, and, in
general, metals of all kinds, which are well known to GROW VERY
HOT when exposed to the rays projected by burning fuel, are to be
reckoned among the VERY WORST materials that it is possible to
employ in the construction of Fire-places.

The best materials I have hitherto been able to discover are
fire-stone, and common bricks and mortar.  Both these materials
are, fortunately, very cheap; and as to their comparative merits,
I hardly know to which of them the preference ought to be given.

When bricks are used they should be covered with a thin coating
of plaster, which, when it is become perfectly dry, should be
white-washed.  The fire-stone should likewise be white washed,
when that is used; and every part of the Fire-place, which is not
exposed to being soiled and made black by the smoke, should be
kept as white and clean as possible.  As WHITE reflects more
heat, as well as more light than any other colour, it ought
always to be preferred for the inside of a Chimney Fire-place,
and BLACK, which reflects neither light nor heat should be most
avoided.

I am well aware how much the opinion I have have ventured to
give, respecting the unfitness of iron and other metals to be
employed in the construction of open Fire-places, differs from
the opinion generally received upon that subject;--and I even
know that the very reason which, according to my ideas of the
matter, renders them totally unfit for the purpose, is commonly
assigned for making use of them, namely, that they soon grow very
hot.  But I would beg leave to ask what advantage is derived from
heating them?

I have shown the disadvantage of it, namely, that the quantity of
radiant heat thrown into the room is diminished;--and it is easy
to show that almost the whole of that absorbed by the metal is
ultimately carried up the Chimney by the air, which, coming into
contact with this hot metal, is heated and rarefied by it,
and forcing its way upwards, goes off with the smoke; and as no
current of air ever sets from any part of the opening of a
Fire-place into the room, it is impossible to conceive how the
heat existing in the metal composing any part of the apparatus of
the Fire-place, and situated within its cavity, can come, or be
brought into the room.

This difficulty may be in part removed, by supposing, what
indeed seems to be true in a certain degree, that the heated
metal sends off rays, the heat it acquires from the fire, even
when it is not heated red hot; but still, as it never can be
admitted that the heat, absorbed by the metal and afterwards
thrown off by it in rays, is INCREASED by this operation, nothing
can be gained by it; and as much must necessary be lost in
consequence of the great quantity of heat communicated by the hot
metal to the air in contact with it, which, as has already been
shown, always makes its way up the Chimney, and flies off into
the atmosphere, the loss of heat attending the use of it is too
evident to require being farther insisted on.

There is, however, in Chimney Fire-places destined for burning
coals, one essential part, the grate, which cannot well be made
of any thing else but iron; but there is no necessity whatever
for that immense quantity of iron which surrounds grates as they
are now commonly constructed and fitted up, and which not only
renders them very expensive, but injures very essentially the
Fire-place.  If it should be necessary to diminish the opening of
a large Chimney in order to prevent its smoking, it is much more
simple, economical, and better in all respects, to do this with
marble, fire-stone, or even with bricks and mortar, than to make
use of iron, which, as has already been shown, is the very worst
material that can possibly be employed for that purpose; and as
to registers, they not only are quite unnecessary, where the
throat of a Chimney is properly constructed, and of proper
dimensions, but in that case would do much harm.  If they act at
all, it must be by opposing their flat surfaces to the current of
rising smoke in a manner which cannot fail to embarrass and
impede its motion.  But we have shown that the passage of the
smoke through the throat of a Chimney ought to be facilitated as
much as possible, in order that it may be enabled to pass by a
small aperture.

Register-stoves have often been found to be of use, but it is
because the great fault of all Fire-places constructed upon the
common principles being the enormous dimensions of the throat of
the Chimney, this fault has been in some measure corrected by
them; but I will venture to affirm, that there never was a
Fire-place so corrected that would not have been much more
improved, and with infinitely less expence, by the alterations
here recommended, and which will be more particularly explained
in the next Chapter.


CHAPTER. II.

 Practical directions designed for the use of workmen, showing
   how they are to proceed in making the alterations necessary to
   improve chimney fire-places, and effectually to cure smoking
   chimnies.

All Chimney Fire-places, without exception, whether they are
designed for burning wood or coals, and even those which do not
smoke, as well as those which do, may be greatly improved by
making the alterations in them here recommended; for it is by no
means MERELY to prevent Chimnies from smoking that these
improvements are recommended, but it is also to make them better
in all other respects as Fire-places; and when the alterations
proposed are properly executed, which may be very easily be done
with the assistance of the following plain and simple
directions, the Chimnies will never fail to answer, I will
venture to say, even beyond expectation.  The room will be heated
much more equally and more pleasantly with LESS THAN HALF THE
FUEL used before, the fire will be more cheerful and more
agreeable; and the general appearance of the Fire-place more neat
and elegant, and the Chimney WILL NEVER SMOKE.

The advantages which are derived from mechanical inventions and
contrivances are, I know, frequently accompanied by disadvantages
which it is not always possible to avoid; but in the case in
question, I can say with truth, that I know of no disadvantage
whatever that attends the Fire-places constructed upon the
principles here recommended. --But to proceed in giving
directions for the construction of these Fire-places.

That what I have to offer on this subject may be the more easily
understood, it will be proper to begin by explaining the precise
meaning of all those technical words and expressions which I may
find it necessary or convenient to use.

By the THROAT of a Chimney, I mean the lower extremity of its
canal, where it unites with the upper part of its open Fire-place.
--This throat is commonly found about a foot above the level of
the lower part of the mantle, and it is sometimes contracted to a
smaller size than the rest of the canal of the Chimney,
and sometimes not.

Fig. 5. shows the section of a Chimney on the common
construction, in which d e is the throat.

Fig. 6. shows the section of the same Chimney altered and
improved, in which d i is the reduced throat.

The BREAST of a Chimney, is that part of it which is immediately
behind the mantle.--It is the wall which forms the entrance from
below into the throat of the Chimney in front, or towards the
room.--It is opposite to the upper extremity of the back of the
open Fire-place, and parallel to it; in short it may said to be
the back part of the mantle itself.--In the figures 5 and 6,
it is marked by the letter d.  The WIDTH of the throat of Chimney
(d e fig. 5, and d i fig. 6,) is taken from the breast of the
Chimney to the back, and its LENGTH is taken at right angles to
its width, or in a line parallel to the mantle (a fig. 5. and 6.).

Before I proceed to give particular directions respecting the
exact forms and dimensions of the different parts of a Fire-place,
it may be useful to make such general an practical observations
upon the subject as can be clearly understood without the
assistance of drawings; for the more complete the knowledge of
any subject is which can be acquired without drawings, the more
easy will it be to understand the drawings when it becomes
necessary to have recourse to them.

The bringing forward of the Fire into the room, or rather
bringing it nearer to the front of the opening of the
Fire-place;--and the diminishing of the throat of the Chimney,
being two objects principally had in view in the alterations in
Fire-places here recommended, it is evident that both these may
be attained merely by bringing forward the back of the Chimney.
--The only question therefore is, how far it should be brought
forward?--The answer is short, and easy to be understood;--bring
it forward as far as possible, without diminishing too much the
passage which must be left for the smoke.  Now as this passage,
which, in its narrowest part, I have called the THROAT OF THE
CHIMNEY, ought, for reasons which are fully explained in the
foregoing Chapter, to be immediately, or perpendicularly over the
Fire, it is evident that the back of the Chimney must always be
built perfectly upright.--To determine therefore the place for
the new back, or how far precisely it ought to be brought
forward, nothing more is necessary than to ascertain how wide
the throat of the Chimney ought to be left, or what space must be
left, between the top of the breast of the Chimney, where the
upright canal of the Chimney begins, and the new back of the
Fire-place carried up perpendicularly to that height.

In the course of my numerous experiments upon Chimnies, I have
taken much pains to determine the width proper to be given to
this passage, and I have found, that, when the back of the
Fire-place is of a proper width, the best width for the throat of
a Chimney, when the Chimney and the Fire-place are at the usual
form and size, is FOUR INCHES.--Three inches might sometimes
answer, especially where the Fire-place is very small, and the
Chimney good, and well situated: but as it is always of much
importance to prevent those accidental puffs of smoke which are
sometimes thrown into rooms by the carelessness of servants in
putting on suddenly too many coals at once upon the fire, and as
I found these accidents sometimes happened when the throats of
Chimneys were made very narrow, I found that, upon the whole, all
circumstances being well considered, and advantages and
disadvantages compared and balanced, FOUR INCHES is the best
width that can be given to the throat of a chimney; and this,
whether the Fire-place be destined to burn wood, coals, turf,
or any other fuel commonly used for heating rooms by an open fire.

In Fire-places destined for heating very large halls, and where
very great fires are kept up, the throat of the Chimney may,
if it should be thought necessary, be made four inches and an half,
or five inches wide;--but I have frequently made Fire-places for
halls which have answered perfectly well where the throats of
the Chimnies have not been wider than four inches.

It may perhaps appear extraordinary, upon the first view of the
matter, that Fire-places of such different sizes should all
require the throat of the Chimney to be of the same width; but
when it is considered that the CAPACITY of the throat of a
Chimney does not depend on its width alone, but on its width and
LENGTH taken together; and that in large Fire-places, the width
of the back, and consequently the length of the throat of the
Chimney, is greater than in those which are smaller, this
difficulty vanishes.

And this leads us to consider another important point respecting
open Fire-places, and that is, the width which it will, in each
case, be proper to give to the back.--In Fire-places as they are
now commonly constructed, the back is of equal width with the
opening of the Fire-place in front;--but this construction is
faulty on two accounts.--First, in a Fire-place, so constructed,
the sides of the Fire-place, or COVINGS, as they are called, are
parallel to each other, and consequently ill-contrived to throw
out into the room the heat they receive from the fire in the form
of rays;--and secondly, the large open corners which are formed
by making the back as wide as the opening of the Fire-place in
front occasion eddies of wind, which frequently disturb the fire,
and embarrass the smoke in its ascent in such a manner as often
to bring it into the room.--Both these defects may be entirely
remedied by diminishing the width of the back of the Fire-place.
--The width which, in most cases, it will be best to give it,
is ONE THIRD of the width of the opening of the Fire-place in
front.--But it is not absolutely necessary to conform rigorously
to this decision, nor will it always be possible.--It will
frequently happen that the back of a Chimney must be made wider
than, according to the rule here given, it ought to be.--This
may be, either to accommodate the Fire-place to a stove, which
being already on hand, must, to avoid the expense of purchasing a
new one, be employed; or for other reasons;--and any small
deviation from the general rule will be attended with no
considerable inconvenience.--It will always be best, however,
to conform to it as far as circumstances will allow.

Where a Chimney is designed for warming a room of a middling size,
and where the thickness of the wall of the Chimney in front,
measured from the front of the mantle to the breast of the
Chimney, is nine inches, I should set off four inches more for
the width of the throat of the Chimney, which, supposing the back
of the Chimney to be built upright, as it always ought to be,
will give thirteen inches for the depth of the Fire-place,
measured upon the hearth, from the opening of the Fire-place in
front, to the back.--In this case thirteen inches would be a good
size for the width of the back; and three times thirteen inches,
or thirty-nine inches, for the width of the opening of the
Fire-place in front; and the angle made by the back of the
Fire-place and the sides of it, or covings, would be just 135
degrees, which is the best position they can have for throwing
heat into the room.

But I will suppose that in altering such a Chimney it is found
necessary, in order to accommodate the Fire-place to a grate or
stove already on hand, to make the Fire-place sixteen inches
wide. -- In that case, I should merely increase the width of the
back, to the dimensions required, without altering the depth of
the Chimney, or increasing the width of the opening of the
Chimney in front. --The covings, it is true, would be somewhat
reduced in their width, by this alteration; and their position
with respect to the plane of the back of the Chimney would be a
little changed; but these alterations would produce no bad
effects of any considerable consequence, and would be much less
likely to injure the Fire-place, than an attempt to bring the
proportions of its parts nearer to the standard, by increasing
the depth of the Chimney, and the width of its opening in
front;--or than an attempt to preserve that particular obliquity
of the covings which is recommended as the best, (135 degrees,)
by increasing the width of the opening of the Fire-place, without
increasing its depth.

In order to illustrate this subject more fully, we will suppose
one case more.--We will suppose that in the Chimney which is to
be altered, the width of the Fire-place in front is either wider
or narrower than it ought to be, in order that the different
parts of the Fire-place, after it is altered, may be of the
proper dimensions.  In this case, I should determine the depth of
the Fire-place, and the width of the back of it, without any
regard to the width of the opening of the Fire-place in front;
and when this is done, if the opening of Fire-place should be
only two or three inches too wide, that is to say, only two or
three inches wider than is necessary in order that the covings
may be brought into their proper position with respect to the
back, I should not alter the width of this opening, but should
accommodate the covings to this width, by increasing their
breadth, and increasing the angle they make with the back of the
Fire-place; but if the opening of the Fire-place should be more
than three inches too wide; --I should reduce it to the proper
width by slips of stone, or by bricks and mortar.

When the width of the opening of the Fire-place, in front, is
very great, compared with the depth of the Fire-place, and with
the width of the back, the covings in that case being very wide,
and consequently very oblique, and the Fire-place very shallow,
any sudden motion of the air in front of the Fire-place, (that
motion, for instance, which would be occasioned by the clothes
of a woman passing hastily before the fire, and very near it,)
would be apt to cause eddies in the air, WITHIN THE OPENING OF
THE FIRE-PLACE, by which puffs of smoke might easily be brought
into the room. Should the opening of the Chimney be too narrow,
which however will very seldom be found to be the case, it will,
in general, be advisable to let it remain as it is, and to
accommodate the covings to it, rather to attempt to increase its
width, which would be attended with a good deal of trouble, and
probably a considerable expence.

From all that has been said it is evident, that the points of the
greatest importance, and which ought most particularly to be
attended to, in altering Fire-places upon the principles here
recommended, are, the bringing forward the back to its proper
place, and making it of a proper width.--But it is time that I
should mention another matter upon which it is probable that my
reader is already impatient to receive information.--Provision
must be made for the passage of the Chimney-sweeper up the
Chimney.--This may easily be done in the following manner:--
In building up the new back of the Fire-place; when this wall,
(which need never be more than the width of a single brick in
thickness,) is brought up so high that there remains no more than
about ten or eleven inches between what is then the top of it,
and the inside of the mantle, or lower extremity of the breast of
the Chimney, an opening, or door-way, eleven or twelve inches
wide, must be begun in the middle of the back, and continued
quite to the top of it, which, according to the height to which
it will commonly be necessary to carry up the back, will make the
opening about twelve or fourteen inches high; which will be quite
sufficient to allow the Chimney-sweeper to pass.  When the
Fire-place is finished, this door-way is to be closed by a few
bricks, by a tile, or a fit piece of stone, placed in it, dry,
or without mortar, and confined in its place by means of a rabbet
made for that purpose in the brick-work.--As often as the Chimney
is swept, the Chimney-sweeper takes down this temporary wall,
which is very easily done, and when he has finished his work, he
puts it again into its place.--The annexed drawing (No. 6.) will
give a clear idea of this contrivance; and the experience I have
had of it has proved that it answers perfectly well the purpose
for which it is designed.

I observed above, that the new back, which it will always be
found necessary to build in order to bring the fire sufficiently
forward, in altering a Chimney constructed on the common
principles, need never be thicker than the width of a common
brick.--I may say the same of the thickness necessary to be given
to the new sides, or covings, of the Chimney; or if the new back
and covings are constructed of stone, one inch and three
quarters, or two inches in thickness will be sufficient.--Care
should be taken in building up these new walls to unite the back
to the covings in a solid manner.

Whether the new back and covings are constructed of stone,
or built of bricks, the space between them, and the old back and
covings of the Chimney ought to be filled up, to give greater
solidity to the structure.--This may be done with loose rubbish,
or pieces of broken bricks, or stones provided the work be
strengthened by a few layers or courses of bricks laid in mortar;
but it will be indispensably necessary to finish the work, where
these new walls end, that is to say, at the top of the throat of
the Chimney, where it ends abruptly in the open canal of the
Chimney by a horizontal course of bricks well secured with mortar.
--This course of bricks will be upon a level with the top of the
door-way left for the Chimney-sweeper.

From these descriptions it is clear that where the throat of the
Chimney has an end, that is to say, where it enters into the
lower part of the open canal of the Chimney, THERE the three
walls which form the two covings and the back of the Fire-place
all end abruptly.--It is of much importance that they should end
in this manner; for were they to be sloped outward and raised in
such a manner as to swell out the upper extremity of the throat
of the Chimney in the form of a trumpet, and increase it by
degrees to the size of the canal of the Chimney, this manner of
uniting the lower extremity of the canal of the Chimney with the
throat would tend to assist the winds which may attempt to blow
down the Chimney, in forcing their way through the throat, and
throwing the smoke backward into the room; but when the throat of
the Chimney ends abruptly, and the ends of the new walls form a
flat horizontal surface, it will be much more difficult for any
wind from above, to find, and force its way through the narrow
passage of the throat of the Chimney.

As the two walls which form the new covings of the Chimney are
not parallel to each other; but inclined, presenting an oblique
surface towards the front of the Chimney, and as they are built
perfectly upright and quite flat, from the hearth to the top of
the throat, where they end, it is evident that an horizontal
section of the throat will not be an oblong square; but its
deviation from that form is a matter of no consequence; and no
attempts should ever be made, by twisting the covings above,
where they approach the breast of the Chimney, to bring it to
that form.--All twists, bends, prominences, excavations,
and other irregularities of form, in the covings of a Chimney,
never fail to produce eddies in the current of air which is
continually passing into, and through an open Fire-place in which
a fire is burning;--and all such eddies disturb, either the fire,
or the ascending currents of smoke, or both; and not unfrequently
cause the smoke to be thrown back into the room.--Hence it appears,
that the covings of Chimneys should never be made circular, or in
the form of any other curve; but always quite flat.

For the same reason, that is to say, to prevent eddies,
the breast of the Chimney, which forms that side of the throat
that is in front, or nearest to the room, should be nearly
cleaned off, and its surface made quite regular and smooth.

This may easily be done by covering it with a coat of plaster,
which may be made thicker or thinner in different parts as may be
necessary in order to bring the breast of the Chimney to be of
the proper form.

With regard to the form of the breast of a Chimney, this is a
matter of very great importance, and which ought always to be
particularly attended to.--The worst form it can have is that of
a vertical plane, or upright flat;--and next to this the worst
form is an inclined plane.--Both these forms cause the current
of warm air from the room, which will, in spite of every
precaution, sometimes find its way into the Chimney, to cross
upon the current of smoke, which rises from the fire, in a manner
most likely to embarrass it in its ascent, and drive it back.
--The inclined plane which is formed by a flat register placed in
the throat of a Chimney produces the same effects; and this is
one reason, among many others, which have induced me to
disapprove of register stoves.

The current of air, which, passing under the mantle, gets into
the Chimney, should be made GRADUALLY TO BEND ITS COURSE UPWARDS,
by which means it will be QUIETLY with the ascending current of
smoke, and will be less likely to check it, or force it back into
the room.--Now this may be effected with the greatest ease and
certainty, merely by ROUNDING OFF the breast of the Chimney or
back part of the mantle, instead of leaving it flat, or full of
holes and corners; and this of course ought always to be done.

I have hitherto given no precise directions in regard to the
height to which the new back and covings ought to be carried:--
This will depend not only on the height of the mantle, but also,
and more especially, on the height of the breast of the Chimney,
or of that part of the Chimney where the breast ends and the
upright canal begins.--The back and covings must rise a few
inches, five or six for instance, higher than this part,
otherwise the throat of the Chimney will not be properly
formed:--but I know of no advantages that would be gained by
carrying them up still higher.

I mentioned above, that the space between the walls which form
the new back and covings, and the old back and sides of the
Fire-place, should be filled up:--but this must not be understood
to apply to the space between the wall of dry bricks, or the tile
which closes the passage for the Chimney-sweeper, and the old
back of the Chimney; for that space must be left void, otherwise,
though this tile (which at most will not be more than two inches
in thickness,) were taken away, there would not be any room
sufficient for him to pass.


In forming this door-way, the best method of proceeding is to
place the tile or flat piece of stone destined for closing it, in
its proper place; and to build round it, or rather by the sides
of it; taking care not to bring any mortar near it, in order that
it may be easily removed when the door-way is finished.--With
regard to the rabbet which should be made in the door-way to
receive it and fix it more firmly in its place, this may either
be formed at the same time when the door-way is built, or it may
be made after it is finished, by attaching to its bottom and
sides, with strong mortar, pieces of thin roof tiles.  Such as
are about half an inch in thickness will be best for this use;
if they are thicker, they will diminish too much the opening of
the door-way, and will likewise be more liable to be torn away by
the Chimney-sweeper in passing up and down the Chimney.

It will hardly be necessary for me to add, that the tile, or flat
stone, or wall of dry bricks, which is used for closing up the
door-way, must be of sufficient height to reach quite up to a
level with the top of the walls which form the new back and
covings of the Chimnies.

I ought, perhaps, to apologize for having been so very particular
in these description and explanations, but it must be remembered
that this chapter is written principally for the information of
those who, having had few opportunities of employing their
attention in abstruse philosophical researches, are not
sufficiently practised in these intricate investigations, to
seize, with facility, new ideas;--and consequently, that I have
frequently been obliged TO LABOUR to make myself understood.

I have only to express my wishes that my reader may not be more
FATIGUED with this labour than I have been;--for we shall them
most certainly be satisfied with each other.--But to return once
more to the charge.

There is one important circumstance respecting Chimney Fire-places,
destined for burning coals, which still remains to be farther
examined;--and that is the Grate.

Although there are few grates that may not be used in Chimneys
constructed or altered upon the principles here recommended,
yet they are not, by any means, all equally well adapted for that
purpose.--Those whose construction is the most simple, and which
of course are the cheapest, are beyond comparison the best,
ON ALL ACCOUNTS.--Nothing being wanted in these Chimnies but merely
a grate for containing the coals, and in which they will burn
with a clear fire;--and all additional apparatus being, not only
useless, but very pernicious, all complicated and expensive
grates should be laid aside, and such as more simple substituted
in the room of them.--And in the choice of a grate, as in every
thing else, BEAUTY and ELEGANCE may easily be united with the
MOST PERFECT SIMPLICITY.--Indeed they are incompatible with every
thing else.

In placing the grate, the thing principally to be attended to is,
to make the back of it coincide with the back of the Fire-place;--
but as many of the grates now in common use will be found to be
too large, when the Fire-places are altered and improved, it
will be necessary to diminish their capacities by filling them up
at the back and the sides with pieces of fire-stone.  When this
is done, it is the front of the flat piece of fire-stone which is
made to form a new back to the grate, which must be made to
coincide with, and make part of the back, of the Fire-place.--
But in diminishing the capacities of grates with pieces of
fire-stone, care must be taken not to make them TOO NARROW.

The proper width for grates destined for rooms of a middling size
will be from six to eight inches, and their length may be
diminished more or less, according as the room is heated with
more or less difficulty, or as the weather is more or less severe.
--But where the width of a grate is not more than five inches,
it will be very difficult to prevent the fire from going out.

It goes out for the same reason that a live coal from the grate
that falls upon the hearth soon ceases to be red hot;--it is
cooled by the surrounding cold air of the atmosphere.--
The knowledge of the cause which produces this effect is important,
as it indicates the means which may be used for preventing it.
--But of this subject I shall treat more fully hereafter.

It frequently happens that the iron backs of grates are not
vertical, or upright, but inclined backwards.--When these grates
are so much too wide as to render it necessary to fill them up
behind with fire-stone, the inclination of the back will be of
little consequence; for by making the piece of stone with which
the width of the grate is to be diminished in the form of a
wedge, or thicker above than below, the front of this stone,
which in effect will become the back of the grate, may be made
perfectly vertical; and the iron back of the grate being hid in
the solid work of the back of the Fire-place, will produce no
effect whatever; but if the grate be already so narrow as not to
admit of any diminution of its width, in that case it will be
best to take away the iron back of the grate entirely, and fixing
the grate firmly in the brick-work, cause the back of the
Fire-place to serve as a back to the grate.--This I have very
frequently done, and have always found it to answer perfectly
well.

Where it is necessary that the fire in a grate should be very
small, it will be best, in reducing the grate with fire-stone,
to bring its cavity, destined for containing the fuel, to the form
of one half of a hollow hemisphere; the two semicircular openings
being one above, to receive the coals, and the other in front,
or towards the bars of the grate; for when the coals are burnt in
such a confined space, and surrounded on all sides, except in the
front and above, by fire-stone, (a substance peculiarly well
adapted for confining heat,) the heat of the fire will be
concentrated, and the cold air of the atmosphere being kept at a
distance, a much smaller quantity of coals will burn, than could
possibly be made to burn in a grate where they would be more
exposed to be cooled by the surrounding air, or to have their
heat carried off by being in contact with iron, or with any other
substance through which heat passes with greater facility than
through fire-stone.

Being persuaded that if the improvements in Chimney Fire-places
here recommended should be generally adopted, (which I cannot
help flattering myself will be the case,) that it will become
necessary to reduce, very considerably, the sizes of grates,
I was desirous of showing how this may, with the greatest safety
and facility, be done.

Where grates, which are designed for rooms of a middling size,
are longer than 14 or 15 inches, it will always be best, not
merely to diminish their lengths, by filling them up at their two
ends with fire-stone, but, forming the back of the Chimney of a
proper width, without paying any regard to the length of the
grate, to carry the covings through the two ends of the grate in
such a manner as to conceal them, or at least to conceal the back
corners of them in the walls of the covings.

I cannot help flattering myself that the directions here given in
regard to the alterations which it may be necessary to make in
Fire-places, in order to introduce the improvements proposed,
will be found to be so perfectly plain and intelligible that no
one who reads them will be at any loss respecting the manner in
which the work is to be performed; -- but as order and arrangement
tend much to facilitate all mechanical operations, I shall here
give a few short directions respecting the manner of LAYING OUT
THE WORK, which may be found useful, and particularly to
gentlemen who may undertake to be their own architects, in
ordering and directing the alterations to be made for the
improvement of their Fire-places.

          Directions for laying out the Work.

If there be a grate in the Chimney which is to be altered,
it will always be best to take it away; and when this is done,
the rubbish must be removed, and the hearth swept perfectly clean.

Suppose the annexed figure No. 1. to represent the ground plan of
such a Fire-place; A B being the opening of it in front, A C and
B D the two sides or covings, and C D the back.

Figure 2. shows the elevation of this Fire-place.

First draw a strait line, with chalk, or with a lead pencil,
upon the hearth, from one jamb to the other,--even with the front
of the jambs.  The dotted line A B, figure 3, may represent this
line.

From the middle C of this line, (A B) another line c d, is to be
drawn perpendicular to it, across the hearth, to the middle d, of
the back of the Chimney.

A person must now stand upright in the Chimney, with his back to
the back of the Chimney, and hold a plumb-line to the middle of
the upper part of the breast of the Chimney (d, fig. 5,) or
where the canal of the Chimney begins to rise perpendicularly;--
taking care to place the line above in such a manner that the
plumb may fall on the line c d, draw on the hearth from the
middle of the opening of the Chimney in front to the middle of
the back, and an assistant must mark the precise place e, on that
line where the plumb falls.

This being done, and the person in the Chimney having quitted his
station, four inches are to be set off the line c d, from e,
towards d; and the point f, where these four inches end,
(which must be marked with chalk, or with a pencil,) will show
how far the new back is to be brought forward.

Through f, draw the line g h, parallel to the line A B, and this
line g h will show the direction of the new back, or the ground
line upon which it is to be built.

The line c f will show the depth of the new Fire-place; and if it
should happen that c f is equal to about ONE-THIRD of the line A B;
and if the grate can be accommodated to the Fire-place instead
of its being necessary to accommodate the Fire-place to the
grate, in that case, half the length of the line c f, is to be
set off from f on the line g f h, on one side to k, and on the
other to i, and the line i k will show the ground line of the
fore part of the back of the Chimney.

In all cases where the width of the opening of the Fire-place in
front (A B) happens to be not greater, or not more than two or
three inches greater than THREE TIMES the width of the new back
of the Chimney (i k), this opening may be left, and lines drawn
from i to A, and from k to B, will show the width and position of
the front of the new covings;--but when the opening of the
Fire-place in front is still wider, it must be reduced; which is
to be done in the following manner:

From c, the middle of the line A B, c a and c b, must be set off
equal to the width of the back (i k), added to half its width
(f i), and lines drawn from i to a, and from k to b, will show the
ground plan of the fronts of the new covings.

When this is done, nothing more will be necessary than to build
up the back and covings; and if the Fire-place is designed for
burning coals, to fix the grate in its proper place, according to
the directions already given.--When the width of the Fire-place
is reduced, the edges of the covings a A and b B are to make a
finish with the front of the jambs.--And in general it will be
best, not only for the sake of the appearance of the Chimney,
but for other reasons also, to lower the height of the opening of
the Fire-place, whenever its width in front is diminished.

Fig. 4. shows a front view of the Chimney after it has been
altered according to the directions here given.--By comparing it
with fig. 2. (which shows a front view of the same Chimney before
it was altered), the manner in which the opening of the
Fire-place in front is diminished may be seen.--In fig. 4. the
under part of the door-way by which the Chimney-sweeper gets up
the Chimney is represented by white dotted lines.  The door-way
is represented closed.

I shall finish this chapter with some general observations
relative to the subject under consideration; with directions how
to proceed where such local circumstances exist as render
modifications of the general plan indispensably necessary.

Whether a Chimney be designed for burning wood upon the hearth,
or wood, or coals in a grate, the form of the Fire-place is in my
opinion, most perfect when THE WIDTH OF THE BACK is equal to the
DEPTH OF THE FIRE-PLACE, and the opening of the Fire-place in
front equal to THREE TIMES the width of the back, or, which is
the same thing, to THREE TIMES THE DEPTH OF THE FIRE-PLACE.

But if the Chimney be designed for burning wood upon the hearth,
upon hand irons, or dogs, as they are called, it will sometimes
be necessary to accommodate the width of the back to the length
of the wood; and when this is the case, the covings must be
accommodated to the width of the back, and the opening of the
Chimney in front.

When the wall of the Chimney in front, measured from the upper
part of the breast of the Chimney to the front of the mantle, is
very thin, it may happen, and especially in Chimnies designed for
burning wood upon the hearth, or upon dogs, that the depth of the
Chimney, determined according to the directions here given, may
be too small.

Thus, for example, supposing the wall of the Chimney in front,
from the upper part of the breast of the Chimney to the front of
the mantle, to be only four inches, (which is sometimes the case,
particularly in rooms situated near the top of a house,) in this
case, if we take four inches for the width of the throat, this
will give eight inches only for the depth of the Fire-place,
which would be too little, even were coals to be burnt instead of
wood.--In this case I should increase the depth of the Fire-place
at the hearth to 12 or 13 inches, and should build the back
perpendicular to the height of the top of the burning fuel,
(whether it be wood burnt upon the hearth, or coals in a grate,)
and then, sloping the back by a gentle inclination forward, bring
it to its proper place, that is to say, PERPENDICULARLY UNDER THE
BACK OF THE THROAT OF THE CHIMNEY. This slope, (which will bring
the back forward four or five inches, or just as much as the
depth of the Fire-place is encreased,) though it ought not to be
too abrupt, yet it ought to be quite finished at the height of
eight or ten inches above the fire, otherwise it may perhaps
cause the Chimney to smoke; but when it is very near the fire,
the heat of the fire will enable the current of rising smoke to
overcome the obstacle which this slope will oppose to its ascent,
which it could not do so easily were the slope situated at a
greater distance from the burning fuel[2].

Fig. 7, 8, and 9, show a plan, elevation, and section of a
Fire-place constructed or altered upon this principal.--The wall
of the Chimney in front at a, fig. 9, being only four inches
thick, four inches more added to it for the width of the throat
would have left the depth of the Fire-place measured upon the
hearth b c only eight inches, which would have been too
little;--a niche c and e, was therefore made in the new back of
the Fire-place for receiving the grate, which niche was six
inches deep in the center of it, below 13 inches wide, (or equal
in width to the grate,) and 23 inches high; finishing above with
a semicirular arch, which, in its highest part, rose seven inches
above the upper part of the grate.--The door-way for the
Chimney-sweeper, which begins just above the top of the niche,
may be seen distinctly in both the figures 8 and 9.--The space
marked g, fig. 9, behind this door-way, may either be filled with
loose bricks, or may be left void.--The manner in which the piece
of stone f, fig. 9, which is put under the mantle of the Chimney
to reduce the height of the opening of the Fire-place, is rounded
off on the inside in order to give a fair run to the column of
smoke in its ascent through the throat of the Chimney, is clearly
expressed in this figure.

The plan fig. 7, and elevation fig. 8, show how much the width of
the opening of the Fire-place in front is diminished, and how the
covings in the new Fire-place are formed.

A perfect idea of the form and dimension of the Fire-place in its
original state, as also after its alteration, may be had by
careful inspection of these figures.

I have added the drawing fig. 10, merely to show how a fault,
which I have found workmen in general whom I have employed in
altering Fire-places are very apt to commit, is to be avoided.
--In Chimneys like that represented in this figure, where the
jambs A and B project far into the room, and where the front edge
of the marble slab, o which forms the coving, does not come so
far forward as the front of the jambs, the workmen in
constructing the new covings are very apt to place them,--not in
the line c A, which they ought to do,--but in the line c o, which
is a great fault.--The covings of a Chimney should never range
BEHIND the front of the jambs, however those jambs may project
into the room;--but it is not absolutely necessary that the
covings should MAKE A FINISH with the internal front corners of
the jambs, or that they should be continues from the back c,
quite to the front of the jambs at A.--They may finish in front
at a and b, and small corners A, o, a, may be left for placing
the shovels, tongs, etc.

Were the new coving to range with the front edge of the old
coving o, the obliquity of the new coving would commonly be too
great;--or the angle d c o would exceed 135 degrees, WHICH IT
NEVER SHOULD DO,--or at least never by more than a very few
degrees.

No inconvenience of any importance will arise from making the
obliquity of the covings LESS than what is here recommended;
but many cannot fail to be produced by making it much greater;--
and as I know from experience that workmen are very apt to do this,
I have thought it necessary to warn them particularly against it.

Fig. 11. shows how the width and obliquity of the covings of a
Chimney are to be accommodated to the width of the back, and to
the opening in front and depth of the Fire-place, where the width
of the opening of the Fire-place is less than three times the
width of the new back. As all those who may be employed in
altering Chimneys may not, perhaps, known how to set off an angle
of any certain numbers of degrees,--or may not have at hand the
instruments necessary for doing it,--I shall here show how an
instrument may be made which will be found to be very useful in
laying out the work for the bricklayers.

Upon a board about 18 inches wide and four feet long, or upon the
floor or a table, draw three equal squares A, B, C, fig. 12. of
about 12 or 14 inches each side, placed in a strait line, and
touching each other.--From the back corner c of the center square
B, draw a diagonal line across the square A, to its outward front
corner f, and the adjoining angle formed by the lines d c and c f
will be equal to 135 degrees,--the angle which the plane of the
back of a Chimney Fire-place ought to make with the plane of its
covings.--And a bevel m, n, being made to this angle with thin
slips of hard wood, this little instrument will be found to be
very useful in marking out on the hearth, with chalk, the plans
of the walls which are to form the covings of Fire-places.

As Chimneys which are apt to smoke will require the covings to be
placed less obliquely in respect to the back than others which
have not that defect, it would be convenient to be provided with
several bevels;--three or four, for instance, forming different
angles.--That already described, which may be called No. 1. will
measure the obliquity of the covings when the Fire-place can be
made of the most perfect form:--another No. 2. may be made to a
smaller angle, d c e,--and another No. 3. for Chimnies which are
very apt to smoke at the still smaller angle d c i.--Or a bevel
may be so contrived, by means of a joint, and an arch, properly
graduated, as to serve for all the different degrees of obliquity
which it may ever be necessary to give to the covings of
Fire-places.

Another point of much importance, and particularly in Chimneys
which are apt to smoke, is to form the throat of the Chimney
properly, by carrying up the back and covings to a proper
height.  This, workmen are apt to neglect to do, probably on
account of the difficulty they find in working where the opening
of the canal of the Chimney is so much reduced.--But it is
absolutely necessary that these walls should be carried up five
or six inches at least above the upper part of the breast of the
Chimney, or to that point where the wall which forms the front of
the throat begins to rise perpendicularly. --If the workman has
intelligence enough to avail himself of the opening which is
formed in the back of the Fire-place to give a passage to the
Chimney-sweeper, he will find little difficulty in finishing his
work in a proper manner.

In placing the plumb-line against the breast of the Chimney, in
order to ascertain how far the new back is to be brought
forward, great care must be taken to place it at the very top of
the breast, where the canal of the Chimney BEGINS TO RISE
PERPENDICULARLY; otherwise, when the plumb-line is placed too
low, or against the slope of the breast, when the new back comes
to be raised to its proper height, the throat of the Chimney will
found to be too narrow.

Sometimes, and indeed very often the top of the breast of a
Chimney lies very high, or far above the fire (see the figures 13
and 14, where d shows the top of the breast of the Chimney);
when this is the case it must be brought lower, otherwise the
Chimney will be very apt to smoke.--So much has been said in the
First Chapter of this Essay of the advantages to be derived from
bringing the throat of a Chimney near to the burning fuel, that I
do not think it necessary to enlarge on them in this place,--
taking it for granted that the utility and necessity of that
arrangement have already been made sufficiently evident;--
but a few directions for workmen, to show them how the breast
(and consequently the throat) of a Chimney can most readily be
lowered, may not be superfluous.

Where the too great height of the breast of a Chimney is owing to
the great height of the mantle, (see fig. 13,) or, which is the
same thing, of the opening of the Fire-place in front, which will
commonly be found to be the case; the only remedy for the evil
will be to bring down the mantle lower;--or rather, to make the
opening of the Fire-place in front lower, by throwing across the
top of this opening, from one jamb to the other, and immediately
under the mantle, a very flat arch;--a wall of bricks and mortar,
supported on straight bars of iron;--or a piece of stone
(h, fig. 13).--When this is done, the slope of the old throat of
the Chimney, or of the back side of the mantle, is to be filled
up with plaster, so as to form one continued flat, vertical,
or upright plane surface with the lower part of the wall of the
canal of the Chimney, and a new breast is to be formed lower
down, care being taken to round it off properly, and make it
finish at the lower surface of the new wall built under the
mantle;--which wall forms in fact a new mantle.

The annexed drawing fig. 13, which represents the section of a
Chimney in which the breast has been lowered according to the
method here described, will show these various alterations in a
clear and satisfactory manner.  In this figure, as well as in
most of the others in this Essay, the old walls are distinguished
from the new ones by the manner in which they are shaded;--
the old walls being shaded by diagonal lines, and the new ones by
vertical lines.  The additions, which are formed of plaster,
are shaded by dots instead of lines.

Where the too great height of the breast of a Chimney is
occasioned, not by the height of the mantle, but by the too great
width of the breast, in that case, (which however will seldom be
found to occur,) this defect may be remedied by covering the
lower part of the breast with a thick coating of plaster,
supported, if necessary, by nails or studs, driven into the wall
which forms the breast, and properly rounded off at the lower
part of the mantle.--See fig. 14.


CHAPTER. III.

 Of the cause of the ascent of smoke.
 Illustration of the subject by familiar comparisons and
   experiments.
 Of chimnies which affect and cause each other to smoke.
 Of chimnies which smoke from want of air.
 Of the eddies of wind which sometimes blow down chimnies,
   and cause them to smoke.
 Explanation of the figures.

Though it was my wish to avoid all abstruse philosophical
investigations in this Essay, yet I feel that it is necessary to
say a few words upon a subject generally considered as difficult
to be explained, which is too intimately connected with the
matter under consideration to be passed over in silence.--
A knowledge of the cause of the ascent of Smoke being indispensably
necessary to those who engage in the improvement of Fire-places,
or who are desirous of forming just ideas relative to the
operations of fire, and the management of heat, I shall devote a
few pages to the investigation of that curious and interesting
subject.--And as many of those who may derive advantage from
these inquiries are not much accustomed to philosophical
disquisitions, and would not readily comprehend either the
language or the diagrams commonly used by scientific writers to
explain the phaenomena in question, I shall take pains to express
myself in the most familiar manner, and to use such comparisons
for illustration as may easily be understood.

If small leaden bullets, or large goose shot, be mixed with peas,
and the whole well shaken in a bushel, the shot will separate
from the peas, and will take its place at the bottom of the
bushel; forcing by its greater weight the peas which are lighter,
to move upwards, contrary to their natural tendency, and take
their places above.

If water and linseed oil, which is lighter than water, be mixed
in a vessel by shaking them together, upon suffering this mixture
to remain quite, the water will descend and occupy the bottom of
the vessel, and the oil, being forced out of its place by the
greater pressure downwards of the heavier liquid, will be obliged
to rise and swim on the surface of the water.

If a bottle containing linseed oil be plunged in water with its
mouth upwards, and open, the oil will ascent out of the bottle,
and passing upwards through the mass of water, in a continued
stream, will spread itself over its surface.

In like manner when two fluids of any kind, of different densities,
come into contact, or are mixed with each other, that which is
the lightest will be forced upwards by that which is the
heaviest.

And as heat rarefies all bodies, fluids as well as solids, air as
well as water, or mercury,--it follows that two portions of the
same fluid, at different temperatures, being brought into contact
with each other, that portion which is the hottest being more
rarefied or specifically LIGHTER than that which is colder, must
be forced upwards by this last.--And this is what always happens
in fact.

When hot water and cold water are mixed, the hottest part of the
mixture will be found to be at the surface above;--and when cold
air is admitted into a warmed room, it will always be found to
take its place at the bottom of the room, the warmer air being in
part expelled, and in part forced upwards to the top of the room.

Both air and water being transparent and colourless fluids,
their internal motions are not easily discovered by the sight,
and when these motions are very slow, they make no impression
whatever on any of our senses, consequently they cannot be
detected by us without the aid of some mechanical contrivance:--
But where we have reason to think that those motions exist,
means should be sought, and may often be found, for rendering
them perceptible.

If a bottle containing hot water tinged with log-wood, or any
other colouring drug, be immersed, with its mouth open,
and upwards, into a deep glass jar filled with cold water,
the ascent of the hot water from the bottle through the mass of
cold water will be perfectly visible through the glass.--
Now nothing can be more evident than that both of these fluids are
forced, or PUSHED, and not DRAWN upwards.--Smoke is frequently
said to be drawn up the Chimney;--and that a Chimney draws well,
or ill;--but these are careless expressions, and lead to very
erroneous ideas respecting the cause of the ascent of Smoke;
and consequently tend to prevent the progress of improvements in
the management of fires.--The experiment just mentioned with the
coloured water is very striking and beautiful, and it is well
calculated to give a just idea of the cause of the ascent of
Smoke.  The cold water in the jar, which, in consequence of its
superior weight or density, forces the heated and rarefied water
in the bottle to give place to it, and to move upwards out of
its way, may represent the cold air of the atmosphere, while the
rising column of coloured water will represent the column of
Smoke which ascends from a fire.

If Smoke required a Chimney to DRAW it upwards, how happens it
that Smoke rises from a fire which is made in the open air,
where there is no Chimney?

If a tube, open at both ends, and of such a length that its upper
end be below the surface of the cold water in the jar, be held
vertically over the mouth of the bottle which contains the hot
coloured water, the hot water will rise up through it, just a
smoke rises in a Chimney.

If the tube be previously heated before it is plunged into the
cold water, the ascent of the hot coloured water will be
facilitated and accelerated, in like manner as Smoke is known to
rise with greater facility in a Chimney which is hot, than in one
in which no fire has been made for a long time.--But in neither
of these cases can it, with any propriety, be said, that the hot
water is DRAWN up the tube.--The hotter the water in the bottle
is, and the colder that in the jar, the greater will be the
velocity with which the hot water will be forced up through the
tube; and the same holds of the ascent of hot Smoke in a
Chimney.--When the fire is intense, and the weather very cold,
the ascent of the Smoke is very rapid; and under such
circumstances Chimneys seldom smoke.

As the cold water of the jar immediately  surrounding the bottle
which contains the hot water, will be heated by the bottle while
the other parts of the water in the jar will remain cold, this
water so heated, becoming specifically lighter than that which
surrounds it, will be forced upwards; and if it finds its way
into the tube will rise up through it with the coloured hot
water.--The warmed air of a room heated by an open Chimney
Fire-place has always a tendency to rise, (if I may use that
inaccurate expression,) and finding its way into the Chimney
frequently goes off with the Smoke.

What has been said, will, I flatter myself, be sufficient to
explain and illustrate, in a clear and satisfactory manner,
the cause of the ascent of Smoke; and just ideas upon that subject
are absolutely necessary in order to judge, with certainty,
of the merit of any scheme proposed for the improvement of
Fire-places; or to take effectual measures, in all cases,
for curing smoking Chimnies.--For though the perpetual changes
and alterations which are produced by accident, whim, and caprice,
do sometimes lead to useful discoveries, yet the progress of
improvement under such guidance must be exceedingly slow,
fluctuating, and uncertain.

As to the causes of the smoking of Chimnies, they are very
numerous, and various; but as a general idea of them may be
acquired from what has already been said upon that subject in
various parts of this Essay, and as they may, in all cases,
(a very few only excepted,) be completely remedied by making the
alterations in Fire-places here pointed out; I do not think it
necessary to enumerate them all in this place, or to enter into
those long details and investigations which would be required to
show the precise manner in which each of them operates, either
alone, or in conjunction with others.

There is however one cause of smoking Chimnies which I think it
is necessary to mention more particularly.--In modern built
houses, where the doors and windows are generally made to close
with such accuracy that no crevice is left for the passage of the
air from without, the Chimnies in rooms adjoining to each other,
or connected by close passages, are frequently found to affect
each other, and this is easy to be accounted for.--When there is
a fire burning in one of the Chimnies, as the air necessary to
supply the current up the Chimney where the fire burns cannot be
had in sufficient quantities from without, through the very small
crevices of the doors and windows, the air in the room becomes
rarefied, not by heat, but by subtraction of that portion of air
which is employed in keeping up the fire, or supporting the
combustion of the fuel, and in consequence of this rarefaction,
its elasticity is diminished, and being at last overcome by the
pressure of the external air of the atmosphere, this external air
rushes into the room by the only passage left for it, namely, by
the open Chimney of the neighbouring room:--And the flow of air
into the Fire-place, and up the Chimney where the fire is burning
being constant, this expence of air is supplied by a continued
current down the other Chimney.

If an attempt be made to light fires in both Chimnies at the same
time, it will be found to be very difficult to get the fires to
burn, and the rooms will both be filled with Smoke.

One of the fires,--that which is made in the Chimney where the
construction of the Fire-place is best adapted to facilitate the
ascent of the Smoke,--or if both Fire-places are on the same
construction,--that which has the wind most favourable, or in
which the fire happens to be soonest kindled,--will overcome the
other, and cause its Smoke to be beat back into the room by the
cold air which descends through the Chimney.--The most obvious
remedy in this case is to provide for the supply of fresh air
necessary for keeping up the fires by opening a passage for the
external air into the room by a shorter road than down one of the
Chimnies; and when this is done, both Chimnies will be found to
be effectually cured.

But Chimnies so circumstanced may very frequently be prevented
from smoking even without opening any new passage for the
external air, merely by diminishing the draught, (as it is
called,) up the Chimnies; which can best be done by altering
both Fire-places upon the principles recommended and fully
explained in the foregoing Chapters of this Essay.

Should the doors and windows of a room be closed with so much
nicety as to leave no crevices by which a supply of air can enter
sufficient for maintaining the fire, AFTER THE CURRENT OF AIR UP
THE CHIMNEY HAS BEEN DIMINISHED AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE BY
DIMINISHING THE THROAT OF THE FIRE-PLACE; in that case there
would be no other way of preventing the Chimney from smoking but
by opening a passage for the admission of fresh air from
without;--but this, I believe, will very seldom be found to be
the case.

A case more frequently to be met with is where currents of air
set down Chimnies in consequence of a diminution and rarefaction
of the air in a room, occasioned by the doors of the room opening
into passages or courts where the air is rarefied by the action
of some particular winds.  In such cases the evil may be
remedied, either by causing the doors in question to close more
accurately,--or, (which will be still more effectual,) by giving
a supply of air to the passage or court which wants it, by some
other way.

Where the top of a Chimney is commanded by high buildings, by
clifts, or by high grounds, it will frequently happen, in windy
weather, that the eddies formed in the atmosphere by these
obstacles will blow down the Chimney, and beat down the smoke
into the room.--This it is true will be much less likely to
happen when the throat of the Chimney is contracted and properly
formed than when it is left quite open, and the Fire-place badly
constructed; but as it is POSSIBLE that a Chimney may be so
much exposed to these eddies in very high winds as to be made to
smoke sometimes when the wind blows with violence from a certain
quarter, it is necessary to show how the effects of those eddies
may be prevented.

Various mechanical contrivances have been imagined for
preventing the wind from blowing down Chimnies, and many of them
have been found to be useful;--there are, however, many of these
inventions, which, though they prevent the wind from blowing down
the Chimney, are so ill-contrived on other accounts as to
obstruct the ascent of the Smoke, and do more harm than good.

Of this description are all those Chimney-pots with flat
horizontal plates or roofs placed upon supporters just above the
opening of the pot;--and most of the caps which turn with the
wind are not much better.--One of the most simple contrivances
that can be made use of, and which in most cases will be found to
answer the purpose intended as well or better than more
complicated machinery, is to cover the top of the Chimney with a
hollow truncated pyramid or cone, the diameter of which above, or
opening for the passage of the Smoke, is about 10 or 11 inches.
--This pyramid, or cone, (for either will answer,)--should be of
earthen ware, or of cast iron;--its perpendicular height may be
equal to the diameter of its opening above, and the diameter of
its opening below equal to three times its height.--It should be
placed upon the top of the Chimney, and it may be contrived so as
to make a handsome finish to the brick-work.--Where several
flews come out near each other, or in the same stack of Chimnies,
the form of a pyramid will be better than that of a cone for
these covers.

The intention of this contrivance is, that the winds and eddies
which strike against the oblique surface of these covers may be
reflected upwards instead of blowing down the Chimney.--
The invention is by no means new, but it has not hitherto been
often put in practice.--As often as I have seen it tried it has
been found to be of use; I cannot say, however, that I was ever
obliged to have recourse to it, or to any similar contrivance;
and if I forbear to enlarge upon the subject of these inventions,
it is because I am persuaded that when Chimnies are properly
constructed IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE FIRE-PLACE little more
will be necessary to be done at the top of the Chimney than to
leave it open.

I cannot conclude this Essay without again recommending, in the
strongest manner, a careful attention to the management of fires
in open Chimnies; for not only the quantity of heat produced on
the combustion of fuel depends much on the manner in which the
fire is managed, but even of the heat actually generated a very
small part only will be saved, or usefully employed, when the
fire is made in a careless and slovenly manner.

In lighting a coal fire more wood should be employed than is
commonly used, and fewer coals; and as soon as the fire burns
bright, and the coals are well lighted, and NOT BEFORE, more
coals should be added to increase the fire to its proper
size[3].

The enormous waste of fuel in London may be estimated by the vast
dark cloud which continually hangs over this great metropolis,
and frequently overshadows the whole country, far and wide;
for this dense cloud is certainly composed almost entirely of
UNCONSUMED COAL, which having stolen wings from the innumerable
fires of this great city has escaped by the Chimnies, and
continues to sail about in the air, till having lost the heat
which gave it volatility, it falls in a dry shower of extremely
fine black dust to the ground, obscuring the atmosphere in its
descent, and frequently changing the brightest day into more than
Egyptian darkness.

I never view from a distance, as I come into town, this black
cloud which hangs over London, without wishing to be able to
compute the immense number of chaldrons of coals of which it is
composed; for could this be ascertained, I am persuaded so
striking a fact would awaken the curiosity, and excite the
astonishment of all ranks of the inhabitants; and PERHAPS turn
their minds to an object of economy to which they have hitherto
paid little attention.

          Conclusion.

Though the saving of fuel which will result from the improvements
in the forms of CHIMNEY FIRE-PLACES here recommended will be very
considerable, yet I hope to be able to show in a future Essay,
that still greater savings may be made, and more important
advantages derived from the introduction of improvements I shall
propose in KITCHEN FIRE-PLACES.

I hope likewise to be able to show in an Essay on COTTAGE FIRE-PLACES,
which I am now preparing for publication, that THREE QUARTERS,
at least, of the fuel which cottagers now consume in cooking their
victuals, and in warming their dwellings, may with great ease,
and without any expensive apparatus, be saved.

END OF THE FOURTH ESSAY.


          EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 1.
The plan of a Fire-place on the common construction.
A B, the opening of the Fire-place in front.
C D, the back of the Fire-place.
A C and B D, the covings.
See page 341.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 2.
This figure shows the elevation, or front view of a Fire-place on
the common construction. See page 341.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 3.
This Figure shows how the Fire-place represented by the Fig. 1,
is to be altered in order to its being improved.

A B is the opening in front,--C D, the back, and A C and B D,
the covings of the Fire-place in its original state.

a b, its opening in front,--i k, its back,--and a i and b k, its
covings after it has been altered, e is a point upon the hearth
upon which a plum suspended from the middle of the upper part of
the breast of the Chimney falls.  The situation for the new back
is ascertained by taking the line e f equal to four inches.
The new back and covings are represented as being built of
bricks;--and the space between these and the old back and covings
as being filled up with rubbish.  See page 342.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 4.
This Figure represents the elevation or front view of the
Fire-place Fig. 3. after it has been altered.  The lower part of
the door-way left for the Chimney-sweeper is shown in this Figure
by white dotted lines.  See page 344.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 5.
This Figure shows the section of a Chimney Fire-place and of a
part of the canal of the Chimney, on the common construction.

a b is the opening in front; b c, the depth of the Fire-place at
the hearth; d, the breast of the Chimney.

d e, the throat of the Chimney, and d f, g e, a part of the open
canal of the Chimney.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 6.
Shows a section of the same Chimney after it has been altered.

k l is the new back of the Fire-place; l i, the tile or stone
which closes the door-way for the Chimney-sweeper; d i,
the throat of the Chimney, narrow to four inches; a, the mantle,
and h, the new wall made under the mantle to diminish the height
of the opening of the Fire-place in front.

N.B. These two Figures are sections of the same Chimney which is
represented in each of the four preceding Figures.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 7.

This Figure represents the ground plan of a Chimney Fire-place in
which the grate is placed in a niche, and in which the original
width A B of the Fire-place is considerably diminished.

a b is the opening of the Fire-place in front after it has been
altered, and d is the back of the niche in which the grate is
placed. See page 347.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 8.
Shows a front view of the same Fire-place after it has been
altered; where may be seen the grate, and the door-way for the
Chimney-sweeper. See page 347.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 9.
Shows a section of the same Fire-place, c d e being a section of
the niche, g the door-way for the Chimney-sweeper, closed by a
piece of the fire-stone, and f the new wall under the mantle by
which the height of the opening of the Fire-place in front is
diminished. See page 347.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 10.
This Figure shows how the covings are to be placed when the front
of the covings (a and b) do not come so far forward as the front
of the opening of the Fire-place, or the jambs (A and B).
See page 348.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 11.
This Figure shows how the width and obliquity of the covings are
to be accommodated to the width of the back of a Fire-place, in
cases where it is necessary to make the back very wide.
See page 349.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 12.
This Figure shows how an instrument called a bevel (m n), useful
in laying out the work, in altering Chimney Fire-places, may be
constructed. See page 349.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 13.
This shows how, when the breast of a Chimney (d) is too high,
it may be brought down by means of a wall (h) placed under the
mantle, and a coating of plaster, which in this Figure is
represented by the part marked by dots. See page 351.

[ IMAGE ]

Fig. 14.
This shows how the breast of a Chimney may be brought down merely
by a coating of plaster. See page 351.


Footnotes for essay IV.

[1]
Eves and Sutton, bricklayers, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, have
alone altered above 90 Chimnies.--The experiment was first made
in London at Lord Palmerston's house in Hanover-square;--then two
Chimnies were altered in the house of Sir John Sinclair, Baronet,
President of the Board of Agriculture; one in the room in which
the Board meets, and the other in the Secretary's room; which
last being much frequented by persons from all parts of Great
Britain, it was hoped that circumstances would tend much to
expedite the introduction of these improvements in various parts
of the kingdom.  Several Chimnies were altered in the house of
Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet, K. B. President of the Royal Society.
Afterwards a number were altered in Devonshire-house;--in the
house of Earl Besborough, in Cavendish-square, and at his seat at
Roehampton;--at Holywell-house, near St. Alban's, the seat of the
Countess Dowager Spencer:--at Melbourne-house;--at Lady Templeton's
in Portland-place; --at Mrs Montagu's in Portman-square;--
at Lord Sudley's, in Dover-street:--at the Marquis of Salisbury's
seat at Hatfield, and at his house in town;--at Lord Palmerston's
seat at Broadlands, near Southampton, and at several gentlemen's
houses in that neighbourhood;--and a great many others; but it
would be tiresome to enumerate them all; and even these are
mentioned merely for the satisfaction of those who may wish to
make inquiries respecting the success of the experiments.

[2]
Having been obliged to carry backward the Fire-place in the
manner here described, in order to accommodate it to a Chimney
whose walls in front were remarkably thin,--I was surprised to
find upon lighting the fire that it appeared to give out more
heat into the room than any Fire-place I had ever constructed.--
This effect was quite unexpected; but the cause of it was too
obvious not to be immediately discovered.--The flame rising from
the fire broke against the part of the back which sloped forward
over the fire, and this part of the back being soon very much
heated, and in consequence of its being very hot, (and when the
fire burnt bright it was frequently quite red hot,) it threw off
into the room a great deal of radiant heat.--It is not possible
that this oblique surface (the slope of the back of the Fire-place)
could have been heated red-hot MERELY by the radiant heat
projected by the burning fuel, for other parts of the Fire-place
nearer the fire, and better situated for receiving radiant heat,
were never found to be so much heated;--and hence it appears that
the combined heat in the current of smoke and hot vapour which
rises from an open fire MAY BE, at least IN PART, stopped in its
passage up the Chimney, changing into radiant heat, and
afterwards thrown into the room.--This opens up a new and very
interesting field for experiment, and bids fair to lead to
important improvements in the construction of Fire-places.--I
have of late been much engaged in these investigations, and am
now actually employed daily in making a variety of experiments
with grates and Fire-places, upon different constructions, in the
room I inhabit in the Royal Hotel in Pall Mall;--and Mr. Hopkins
of Greek-street Soho, Ironmonger to his Majesty, and Mrs. Hempel,
at her Pottery at Chelsea, are both at work in their different
lines of business, under my direction, in the construction of
Fire-places upon a principle entirely new, and which, I flatter
myself, will be found to be not only elegant and convenient,
but very economical.--But as I mean soon to publish a particular
account of these Fire-places,--with drawings and ample directions
for constructing them, I shall not enlarge farther on the subject
in this place.--It may however not be amiss just to mention here,
that these new-invented Fire-places not being fixed to the walls
of the Chimney, but merely set down upon the hearth, may be used
in any open Chimney: and that Chimnies altered or constructed on
the principles here recommended are particularly well adapted for
receiving them.

The Public in general, and more particularly those Tradesmen and
Manufacturers whom it may concern, are requested to observe, that
as the Author does not intent to take out himself, or to suffer
others to take out, any patent for any invention of his which may
be of public utility, all persons are at full liberty to imitate
them, and vend them, for their own emolument, when and where,
and in any way they may think proper; and those who may wish for
any further information respecting any of those inventions or
improvements will receive (gratis) all the information they can
require by applying to the Author, who will take pleasure in
giving them every assistance in his power.

[3]
Kindling balls composed of equal parts of coal,--charcoal,
--and clay, the two former reduced to a fine powder, well mixed
and kneaded together with the clay moistened with water, and then
formed into balls of the size of hens eggs, and thoroughly dried,
might be used with great advantage instead of wood for kindling
fires.  These kindling balls may be made so inflammable as to
take fire in an instant and with the smallest spark, by dipping
them in a strong solution of nitre and then drying them again,
and they would neither be expensive nor liable to be spoiled by
long keeping.  Perhaps a quantity of pure charcoal reduced to a
very fine powder and mixed with the solution of nitre in which
they are dipped would render them still more inflammable.

I have often wondered that no attempts should have been made to
improve the fires which are made in the open Chimnies of elegant
apartments, by preparing the fuel; for nothing surely was ever
more dirty, inelegant, and disgusting than a common coal fire.

Fire balls of the size of goose eggs, composed of coal and
charcoal in powder, mixed up with a due proportion of wet clay,
and well dried, would make a much more cleanly, and in all
respects a pleasanter fire than can be made with crude coals;
and I believe would not be more expensive fuel.  In Flanders and
in several parts of Germany, and particular in the Dutchies of
Juliers and Bergen, where coals are used as fuel, the coals are
always prepared before they are used, by pounding them to a
powder, and mixing them up with an equal weight of clay,
and sufficient quantity of water to form the whole into a mass
which is kneaded together and formed into cakes; which cakes are
afterwards well dried and kept in a dry place for use.
And it has been found by long experience that the expense
attending this preparation is amply repaid by the improvement of
the fuel.  The coals, thus mixed with the clay, not only burn
longer, but give much more heat than when they are burnt in their
crude state.

It will doubtless appear extraordinary to those who have not
considered the subject with some attention, that the quantity of
heat produced in the combustion of any quantity of coals should
be increased by mixing the coals with clay, which is certainly an
incombustible body;--but the phenomenon may, I think, be explained
in a satisfactory manner.

The heat generated in the combustion of any small particle of
coal existing under two distinct forms, namely, in that which is
COMBINED with the flame and smoke which rise from the fire, and
which if means are not found to stop it, goes off immediately by
the Chimney and is lost,--and the RADIANT HEAT which is sent off
from the fire, in all directions in right lines:--I think it
reasonable to conclude, that the particles of clay which are
surrounded on all sides by the flame arrest a part at least of
the combined heat, and prevent its escape; and this combined
heat, so arrested, heating the clay red hot, is retained in it,
and being changed by this operation to radiant heat, is
afterwards emitted, and may be directed, and employed to useful
purposes.

In composing fire balls, I think it probable that a certain
proportion of chaff--of straw cut very fine, or even saw dust,
might be employed with great advantage.  I wish those who have
leisure would turn their thoughts to this subject, for I am
persuaded that very important improvements would result from a
thorough investigation of it.


CONTENTS of ESSAY V.

A SHORT ACCOUNT of SEVERAL PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS
Lately formed in Bavaria.
together with the
APPENDIX to the FIRST VOLUME.

Account I
 A Short Account of the military academy at munich

Account II
 An account of the means used to improve the bread of horses,
   and horned cattle, in Bavaria and the Palatinate.

Account III
 An account of the measures adopted for putting an end to usury at
   Munich.

Account IV
 An account of a scheme for employing the soldiery in Bavaria in
   repairing the highways and public roads.

APPENDIX

No. I
 Address and petition to all inhabitants and citizens of Munich,
   in the name of the real poor and distressed.

No. II
 Subscription lists distributed among the inhabitants of Munich,
  in the month of January 1790, when the establishment for the
  relief of the poor in that city was formed.

No. III
 An account of the receipts and expenditures of the institution
   for the poor at Munich during five years.

No. IV
 Certificate relative to the expence of fuel in the public kitchen
   of the military workhouse at Munich.

No. V
 Printed form for the descriptions of the poor.

No. VI
 Printed form for spin-tickets, such as are used at the military
   workhouse at Munich.

No. VII
 An Account of experiments made at the bakehouse of the military
   workhouse at Munich, November the 4th and 5th, 1794.

No. VIII
 Account of the persons in the house of industry in Dublin the
   30th of April 1796, and of the details of the manner and expence
   of feeding them.

No. IX
 An account of an experiment made (under the direction of the
   author,) in the kitchen of the house of industry at Dublin,
   in cooking for the poor.


ESSAY V.

A short Account of the MILITARY ACADEMY at MUNICH.

Though it is certain that too much learning is rather
disadvantageous than otherwise to the lower classes of the
people;--that the introduction of a spirit of philosophical
investigation,--literary amusement,--and metaphysical speculation
among those who are destined by fortune to gain their livelihood
by the sweat of their brow, rather tends to make them
discontented and unhappy, than to contribute any thing to their
real comfort and enjoyments; yet there appears, now and then,
a native genius in the most humble stations, which it would be
a pity not to be able to call forth into activity.  It was
principally with a view to bring forward such extraordinary
talents, and to employ them usefully in the public service,
that the Military Academy at Munich was instituted. This Academy,
which consists of 180 eleves or pupils, is divided into three
classes.  The first class, which is designed for the education of
orphans and other children of the poorer class of Military
Officers, and those employed in the Civil Departments of the
State, consists of thirty pupils, who are received gratis,
from the age of eleven to thirteen years, and who remain in the
Academy for years.  The second class, which is designed to assist
the poorer nobility, and less opulent among the merchants,
citizens, and servants of government, in giving their sons a good
general education, consists of sixty pupils, who are received
from the age of eleven to fifteen years, and who pay to the
Academy twelve florins a month; for which sum they are fed,
clothed, and instructed.  The third class, consisting of ninety
pupils, from the age of fifteen to twenty years, who are all
admitted gratis, is designed to bring forward such youths among
the lower classes of the people as show evident signs of UNCOMMON
TALENTS and genius, joined to a sound constitution of body, and a
good moral character.

All Commanding Officers of regiments, and Public Officers in
Civil departments, and all Civil Magistrates, are authorised and
INVITED to recommend subjects for this class of the Academy,
and they are not confined in their choice to any particular ranks
of society, but they are allowed to recommend persons of the lowest
extraction, and most obscure origin.  Private soldiers, and the
children of soldiers, and even the children of the meanest
mechanics and day-labourers, are admissible, provided they
possess the necessary requisites; namely, VERY EXTRAORDINARY
NATURAL GENIUS, a healthy constitution, and a good character;
but if the subject recommended should be found wanting in any of
these requisite qualifications, he would not only be refused
admittance into the Academy, but the person who recommended him
would be very severely reprimanded.

The greatest severity is necessary upon these occasions, otherwise
it would be impossible to prevent abuses.  An establishment,
designed for the encouragement of genius, and for calling forth
into public utility talents which would otherwise remain buried
and lost in obscurity, would soon become a job for providing for
relations and dependants.

One circumstance, relative to the internal arrangement of this
Academy, may, perhaps, be though not unworthy of being
particularly mentioned, and that is the very moderate expence at
which the institution is maintained.  By a calculation, founded
upon the experience of four years, I find that the whole Academy,
consisting of 180 pupils, with professors and masters of every
kind, servants, clothing, board, lodging, fire-wood, light,
repairs, and every other article, house-rent alone excepted,
amounts to no more than 28,000 florins a-year, which is no more
than 155 florins, or about fourteen pounds sterling a-year for
each pupil; a small sum indeed, considering the manner in which
they are kept, and the education they receive.

Though this Academy is called a Military Academy, it is by no
means confined to the education of those who are destined for the
army; but it is rather an establishment of general education,
where the youth are instructed in every science, and taught every
bodily exercise, and personal accomplishment, which constitute a
liberal education; and which fits them equally for the station of
a private gentleman,--for the study of any of the learned
professions,--or for any employment, civil or military, under the
government.

As this institution is principally designed as a nursery for
genius,--as a gymnasium for the  formation of men,--for the
formation of REAL MEN, possessed of strength and character, as
well as talents and accomplishments, and capable of rendering
essential service to the state; at all public examinations of the
pupils, the heads of all the pupil departments are invited to be
present, in order to witness the progress of the pupils, and to
mark those who discover talents peculiarly useful in any
particular departments or public employment.

How far the influence of this establishment may extend, time must
discover.  It has existed only six years; but even in that short
period, we have had several instances of very uncommon talents
having been called forth into public view, from the most obscure
situations.  I only wish that the institution may be allowed to
subsist.

  An Account of the Means used to improve the BREED of HORSE,
  and HORNED CATTLE, in BAVARIA and the PALATINATE.

Through many parts of the Elector's dominions are well adapted
for the breeding of fine horses, and great numbers of horses are
actually bred[1]; yet no great attention had for many years been
paid to the improvement of the breed; and most of the horses of
distinction, such as were used by the nobility as saddle-horses
and coach-horses, were imported from Holstein and Mecklenburg.

Being engaged in the arrangement of a new military system for the
country, it occurred to me that, in providing horses for the use
of the army, and particularly for the train of artillery, such
measures might be adopted as would tend much to improve the breed
of horses throughout the country; and my proposals meeting with
the approbation of his Most Serene Electoral Highness, the plan
was carried into execution in the following manner:

A number of fine mares were purchased with money take from the
military chest, and being marked with an M (the initial of

Militaria), in a circle, upon the left hip, with a hot iron,
they were given to such of the peasants, owning or leasing farms
proper for breeding good horses, as applied for them.
The conditions upon which these brood mares were given away were
as follows:

They were, in the first place, given away gratis, and the person
who received one of these mares is allowed to consider her as his
own property, and use her in any kind of work he thinks proper;
he is, however, obliged not only to keep her, and not to sell her,
or give her away, but he is also under obligations to keep her as
a brood mare, and to have her regularly covered every season,
by a stallion pointed out to him by the commissioners, who are put
at the head of this establishment.  If she dies, he must replace
her with another brood mare, which must be approved by the
commissioners, and then marked.--If one of these mares should be
found not to bring good colts, or to have any blemish, or
essential fault or imperfection, she may be changed for another.

The stallions which are provided for these mares, and which are
under the care of the commissioners, are provided gratis;
and the foals are the sole  property of those who keep the mares,
and they may sell them, or dispose of them, when and where,
and in any way they may think proper, in the same manner as they
dispose of any other foal, brought by any other mare.

In case the army should be obliged to take the field, AND IN NO
OTHER CASE WHATEVER, those who are in possession of these mares
are obliged either to return them, or to furnish, for the use of
the army, another horse fit for the service of the artillery.

The advantages of this arrangement to the army are obvious.
In the case of an emergency, horses are always at hand, and these
horses being bought in time of peace cost much less than it would
be necessary to pay for them, were they to be purchased in a
hurry upon the breaking out of a war, upon which occasions they
are always dear, and sometimes not to be had for money.

It may perhaps be objected, that the money being laid out so long
before the horses are wanted, the loss of the interest of the
purchase-money ought to be taken into account; but as large sums
of money must always be kept in readiness in the  military chest,
to enable the army to take the field suddenly, in case it should
be necessary; and as a part of this money must be employed in the
purchase of horses; it may as well be laid out beforehand, as to
lie dead in the military chest till the horses are actually
wanted; consequently the  objection is not founded.

I wish I could say, that this measure had been completely
successful; but I am obliged to own, that it has not answered my
expectations.  Six hundred mares only were at first ordered to be
purchased and distributed; but I had hopes of seeing that number
augmented soon to as many thousands; and I had even flattered
myself with an idea of the possibility of placing in this manner
among the peasants, and consequently having constantly in
readiness, without any expence, a sufficient  number of horses
for the whole army; for the cavalry as well as for the artillery
and baggage; and I had formed a plan for collecting together and
exercising, every year, such of these horses as were destined for
the service of the cavalry, and for permitting their riders to go
on furlough with their horses: in short, my views went to the
forming of an  arrangement, very economical, and in many respects
similar to that of the ancient feudal military system; but the
obstinacy of the peasantry prevented these measures being carried
into execution.  Very few of them could be prevailed upon to
accept of these horses; and in proportion as the terms upon which
they were offered to them were apparently advantageous, their
suspicions were increased, and they never would be persuaded that
there was not some trick at the bottom of the scheme to
over-reach them.

It is possible that their suspicions were not a little increased
by the malicious insinuations of persons, who, from motives too
obvious to require any  explanation, took great pains at that
time to render abortive every public undertaking in which I was
engaged.  But be that as it may, the fact is, I could never find
means to remove these suspicions entirely, and I met with so much
difficulty in carrying the measure into execution, that I was
induced at last to abandon it, or rather to postpone its
execution to a more favourable moment.  Some few mares (two or
three hundred) were placed in  different parts of the country;
and some very fine colts have been produced from them, during the
six years that have elapsed since this institution was formed;
but these slow advances do not satisfy the ardour of my zeal for
improvement; and if means are not found to accelerate them,
Bavaria, with all her natural advantages for breeding fine
horses, must be obliged, for many years to come, to continue to
import horses from foreign countries.

My attempts to improve the breed of horned cattle, though
infinitely more confined, have been proportionally much more
successful.  Upon forming the public garden at Munich, as the
extent of the grounds is very considerable, the garden being
above six English miles in circumference, and the soil being
remarkably good, I had an opportunity of making, within the
garden, a very fine and a very valuable farm; and this farm being
stocked with about thirty of the finest cows that could be
procured from Switzerland, Flanders, Tyrol, and other places upon
the Continent famous for a good breed of horned cattle; and this
flock being  refreshed annually with new importations of cows as
well as bulls, all the cows which are produced, are distributed
in the country, being sold to any person of the country who
applies for them, AND WITH PROMISE TO REAR THEM, at the same low
prices at which the most ordinary calves of the common breed of
the country are sold to the butchers.

Though this establishment has existed only about six years, it is
quite surprising what a change it has produced in the country.
As there is a great resort to Munich from all parts of the country,
it being the capital, and the residence of the Sovereign, the new
English garden (as it is called), which begins upon the ramparts
of the town, and  extends near two English miles in length, and
is always kept open, is much frequented, and there are few who go
into the garden without paying a visit to the cows, which are
always at home.  Their stables, which are concealed in a thick
wood behind a public coffee-house or tavern in the middle of the
garden, are elegantly fitted up and kept with great care; and the
cows, which are not only large, and remarkably beautiful, but are
always kept perfectly clean, and in the highest condition, are an
object of public curiosity.  Those who are not particularly
interested in the improvement of cattle, go to  see them as
beautiful and extraordinary animals; but farmers and connoisseurs
go to EXAMINE them,--to compare them with each other,--and with
the common breed of the country, and to get  information with
respect to the manner of feeding them, and the profits derived
from them; and so rapidly has the flame of improvement spread
throughout every part of Bavaria from this small spark, that I
have no doubt but in a very few years the breed of horned cattle
will be quite changed.

Not satisfied with the scanty supply furnished from the farm in
the English garden, several of the nobility, and some of the most
wealthy and enterprising of the farmers, are sending to Switzerland,
and other distant countries famous for fine cattle, for cows and
bulls; and the good effects of these exertions are already
visible in many parts of the country.

How very easy would it be by similar means to introduce a spirit
of improvement in any country! and where sovereigns do not make
public gardens to bring together a concourse of people,
individuals might do it by private subscription, or at least they
might unite together and rent a large farm in the neighbourhood
of the capital, for the purpose of making useful experiments.
If such a farm were well managed, the produce of it would be more
than sufficient to pay all the expenses attending it; and if the
grounds and fields were laid out with taste--if good roads for
carriages and for those who ride on horseback were made round it,
and between all the fields--if the stables were elegantly fitted
up--filled with beautiful cattle, kept perfectly clean and neat;
and if a handsome inn were erected near the buildings of the
farm, where those who visited it might be furnished with
refreshment, it would soon become a place of public resort and
improvements in agriculture would become A FASHIONABLE AMUSEMENT;
the ladies even would take pleasure in viewing from their
carriages the busy and most interesting scenes of rural industry,
and it would no longer be thought vulgar to understand the
mysteries of Ceres.

Why should not Parliament purchase, or rent such a farm in the
neighbourhood of London, and put it under the direction of the
Board of Agriculture?  The expence would be but a mere trifle,
if any thing, and the institution would not only be useful,
but extremely interesting; and it would be an  inexhaustible
source of rational and innocent  amusement, as well as of
improvement to vast numbers of the most respectable inhabitants
of this great metropolis.

In former times, statesmen considered the amusement of the public
as an object of considerable importance, and pains were taken to
render the public amusements useful in forming the national
character.

  An Account of the Measures adopted for putting an End to USURY
  at MUNICH.

Another measure, more limited in its operations than those before
mentioned, but which notwithstanding was productive of much good,
was adopted, in which a part of the treasure which was lying dead
in the military chest was usefully  employed for the relief of a
considerable number of individuals, employed in subordinate
stations under the government, who stood in great need of
assistance.

A practice productive of much harm to the public service, as well
as to individuals, had prevailed  for many years in Bavaria in
almost all the public departments of the state, that of
appointing a great number of supernumerary clerks, secretaries,
counsellors, etc. who, serving without pay, or with only small
allowances, were obliged, in order to subsist till such time as
they should come into the receipt of the regulated salaries
annexed to their offices, to contract debts to a considerable
amount; and as many of them had no other security to give for the
sums borrowed, than their promise to repay them when it should be
in their power, no money-lender who contented himself with legal
interest for his money would trust them; and of course they were
obliged to have recourse to Jews and other usurers, who did not
afford them the temporary assistance they required, but upon the
most exorbitant and ruinous conditions; so that these unfortunate
people, instead of finding themselves at their ease upon coming
into possession of the emoluments of their offices, were
frequently so embarrassed in their circumstances as to be obliged
to mortgage their salaries for many months to come, to raise
money to satisfy their clamorous creditors; and from this
circumstance, and from the general prevalence of luxury and
dissipation among all ranks of society, the anticipation of
salaries had become so prevalent, and the conditions upon which
money was advanced upon such security was so exorbitant, that
this alarming evil called for the most serious attention of the
government.

The interest commonly paid for money, advanced upon receipts for
salaries, was 5 PER CENT. PER MONTH, or three creutzers, for the
florin; and there were instances of even much larger interest
being given.

The severest laws had been made to prevent these abuses,
but means were constantly found to evade them; and, instead of
putting an end to the evil, they frequently served rather to
increase it.

It occurred to me, that as any tradesman may be ruined by another
who can afford to undersell him, so it might be possible to ruin
the usurers, by setting up the business in opposition to them,
and furnishing money to borrowers upon more reasonable terms.
In order to make this experiment, a caise of advance (Vorschuss
Cassa), containing 30,000 florins, was established at the
military pay-office, where any person in the actual receipt of a
salary or pension under government, in any department of the
state, civil or military, might receive in advance, upon his
personal application, his salary or pension for one or for two
months upon a deduction of interest at the rate of 5 PER CENT.
PER ANNUM, or one twelfth part of the interest commonly extorted
by the Jews and other usurers upon those occasions.

The great number of persons who have availed themselves of the
advantages held out to them by this establishment, and who still
continue to avail themselves of them, shows how effectually the
establishment has been to remedy the evil it was designed to
eradicate.

The number of persons who apply to this chest for assistance each
month, is at a medium from 300 to 400, and the sums actually in
advance, amount in general to above 20,000 florins.

As no money is advanced from this chest but upon government
securities that is to say, upon receipts for salaries,
and pensions, there is no risque attending the operation;
and as the interest arising  from the money advanced, is more
than sufficient to defray the expence of carrying on the
business, there is no loss whatever attending it.

  An Account of a SCHEME for employing the SOLDIERY in BAVARIA
  in repairing the Highways and Public Roads.

I had formed a plan, which, if it had been executed, would have
rendered the military posts or patroles of cavalry established in
all parts of the Elector's dominions much more interesting,
and more useful[2]. I wished to have employed the soldiery
exclusively in the repairs of all the highways in the  country,
and to have united this undertaking with the establishment of
permanent military stations, on all the high roads, for the
preservation of order and public tranquillity.

It is a great hardship upon the inhabitants in any country to be
obliged to leave their own domestic affairs, and turn out with
their cattle and servants, when called upon, to work upon the
public roads; but this was peculiarly grievous in Bavaria, where
labourers are so scarce that the farmers are  frequently obliged
to leave a great part of their grounds uncultivated for want of
hands.

My plan was to measure all the public roads from the capital cities
in the Elector's dominions to the frontiers, and all cross country
roads; placing mile-stones regularly numbered upon each road,
at regular distances of one hour, or half a German mile from each
other;--to divide each road into as many stations as it
contained mile-stones; each station extending from one mile-stone
to another; and to erect in the middle of each station, by the
road-side, a small house, with stabling for three or four horses,
and with a small garden adjoining to it;--to place in each of
these houses, a small detachment of cavalry of three or four men,
--a soldier on furlough, employed to take care of the road and
keep it in repair within the limits of the station;--an invalid
soldier to take care of the house, and to receive orders and
messages in the  absence of the others,--to take care of the
garden, to provide provisions, and cook for the family.

If any of the soldiers should happen to be married, his wife
might have been allowed to lodge in the house, upon condition of
her assisting the invalid soldier in this service; or a pensioned
soldier's widow might have been employed for the same purpose.

To preserve order and discipline in these establishments, it was
proposed to employ active and  intelligent non-commissioned
officers as overseers of the highways, and to place these under
the orders of superior officers appointed to preside over more
extensive districts.

It was proposed likewise to plant rows of useful trees by the
road-side from one station to another throughout the whole
country, and it was calculated that after a certain number of
years the produce of those trees would have been nearly
sufficient to  defray all the expences of repairing the roads.

Such an arrangement, with the striking appearance of order and
regularity that would accompany it, could not have failed to
interest every person of feeling who saw it; and I am persuaded
that such a scheme might be carried into execution with great
advantage in most countries where standing armies are kept up in
time of peace.  The reasons why this plan was not executed in
Bavaria at the time it was proposed are too long, and too foreign
to my present purpose to be here related.  Perhaps a time may
come when they will cease to exist.


APPENDIX.  No I.

  ADDRESS and PETITION to all the Inhabitants and Citizens of
  MUNICH, in the Name of the real Poor and Distressed.

(Translated from the German).

Too long have the public honour and safety, morality and religion,
called aloud for the extirpation of an evil, which, though habit
has rendered it familiar to us, always appears in all its horrid
and disgusting shapes; and whose dangerous effects show
themselves every where, and are  increasing every day.

Too long already have the virtuous citizens of this metropolis
seen with concern the growing numbers of the Beggars, their
impudence, and their open and shameless debaucheries; yet
idleness and mendicity (those pests of society) have been so
feebly counteracted, that, instead of being checked and
suppressed, they have triumphed over those weak attempts to
restrain them and acquiring fresh vigour and activity from
success, have spread their baleful influence far and wide.

What well-affected citizen can be indifferent to the shame that
devolves upon himself and upon his country, when whole swarms of
dissolute rabble, covered with filthy rags, parade the streets,
and by tales of real or of fictitious distress--by clamorous
importunity, insolence, and rudeness, extort involuntary
contributions from every traveller?  When no retreat is to be found,
no retirement where  poverty, misery, and impudent hypocrisy, in
all their disgusting and hideous forms, do not continually
intrude; when no one is permitted to enjoy a peaceful moment,
free from their importunity, either in the churches or in public
places, at the tombs of the dead, or at the places of amusement?
What avail the marks of affluence and prosperity which appear in
the dress and equipage of individuals, in the elegance of their
dwellings, and in the magnificence and splendid ornaments of our
churches, while the voice of woe is heard in every corner,
proceeding from the lips of hoary age worn out with labour; from
strong and healthy men capable of labour; from young infants and
their shameless and abandoned parents?  What  reputable citizen
would not blush, if among the inmates of his house should be
found a miserable wretch, who by tales of real or fictitious
distress should attempt to extort charitable donations from his
friends and visitors?  What opinion would he expect would be
formed of his understanding--of his heart--of his circumstances?
What then must the foreigner and traveller think, who, after
having seen no vestige of Beggary in the neighbouring countries,
should, upon his arrival at Munich, find himself suddenly
surrounded by a swarm of groaning winching wretches, besieging
and following his carriage?

THE PUBLIC HONOUR calls aloud to have a stop put to this
disgraceful evil.

THE PUBLIC SAFETY also demands it.  The dreadful consequences
are obvious, which must ensue when great numbers of healthy
individuals, and whole families, live in idleness, without any
settled abode, concluding every day with schemes for defrauding
the public of their subsistence for the next: where the children
belonging to this numerous society are made use of to impose on
the credulity of the benevolent, and where they are regularly
trained, from their earliest infancy, in all those infamous
practices, which are carried on systematically, and to such an
alarming extent among us.

Great numbers of these children grow up to die under the hands of
the executioner.  The only  instruction they receive from their
parents is how to cheat and deceive; and daily practice in lying
and stealing from their very infancy, renders them  uncommonly
expert in their infamous trade.  The records of the courts of
justice show in innumerable instances, that early habits of
Idleness and Beggary are a preparation for the gallows; and among
the numerous thefts that are daily committed in this capital,
there are very few that are not committed by persons who get into
the houses under the pretext of asking for charity.

What person is ignorant of these facts? and who can demand
further proofs of the necessity of a solid and durable
institution, for the relief and support of the Poor?

The reader would be seized with horror, were we to unveil all the
secret abominations of these abandoned wretches.  They laugh
alike at the laws of God and of man.  No crime is too horrible
and shocking for them, nothing in heaven or on the earth too holy
not to be profaned by them without scruple, and employed with
consummate hyprocrisy to their wicked purposes[3].

Whence is it that this evil proceeds? not from the inability of
this great capital to provide for its Poor; for no city in the
world, of equal extent and population, has so many hospitals for
the sick and infirm, and other institutions of public charity.
Neither is it owing to the hard-heartedness of the inhabitants;
for a more feeling and charitable  people cannot be found.
Even the uncommonly great and increasing numbers of the Beggars
show the kindness and liberality of the inhabitants; for these
vagabonds naturally collect together in the greatest numbers,
where their trade can be carried on to the greatest advantage.

THE INJUDICIOUS DISPENSATION OF ALMS is the real and only source
of this evil.

In every community there are certainly to be found a greater or
less number of poor and distressed persons, who have just claims
on the public charity.  This is also the case at Munich;
and nature dictates to us the duty of administering relief to
suffering humanity, and more especially to our poor and distressed
fellow-citizens; and our Holy Religion promises eternal rewards
to him who  supports and relieves the poor and needy, and
threatens everlasting damnation to him who sends them away
without relief.

The Holy Fathers teach, that when there are no other means left
for the relief and support of the Poor, the superfluous ornaments
of the churches may be disposed of, and even the sacred vessels
melted down and sold for that purpose.

But what shall we think, when we see those very persons,
who profess to live after the rules and precepts laid down in
the word of God, act diametrically contrary to them?

Such, doubtless, is the fatal conduct of those who are induced by
mistaken compassion to lavish their alms upon Beggars, and
obstruct the relief of the really indigent.--Alms that frustrate
a good and useful institution cannot be meritorious, or
acceptable to God: and no maxim is less founded in truth, than
that the merit of the giver is undiminished by the unworthiness
of the object.-- The truly distressed are too bashful to mix with
the herd of common Beggars; necessity, it is true, will sometimes
conquer their timidity, and compel them publicity to solicit
charity; but their modest appeal is unheard or unnoticed, whilst
a dissolute vagabond, who exhibits an hypocritical picture of
distress,--a drunken wretch, who pretends to have a numerous
family and to be persecuted by misfortune,--or an impudent
unfeeling women, who excites pity by the tears and cries of a
poor child whom she has hired perhaps for the purpose, and
tortured into suffering, steps daringly forward to intercept the
alms of the charitable; and the well-intentioned gift which
should relieve the indigent is the prize of impudence and
imposition, and the support of vice and idleness.--What then
is left for the modest object of real  distress, but to retire
dispirited and hide himself in the obscurity of his cottage,
there to languish in misery, whilst the bolder Beggar consumes
the ill-bestowed gift in mirth and riot? And, yet, the charitable
donor flatters himself that he has performed an exemplary duty!

We earnestly entreat every citizen and inhabitant of this
capital, each in his respective station, no longer to countenance
mendicity by such a misapplication of their well-meant charity;
contributing thus to augment the fatal consequences of the evil
itself, as well as to impede the relief of the real necessitous.

We are firmly persuaded, that by pointing out to our
fellow-citizens a method by which they may  exercise their
benevolence towards the indigent and distressed in a meritorious
manner, we shall gratify their pious zeal and humanity, and at
the same time essentially promote the honour and safety of the
state, and the interests of sound morality and religion.

And this is the sole object of the Military Workhouse, which has
been instituted by the command of his Electoral Highness, where,
from this time forward, all who are able to work may find
employment and wages, and will be cloathed and fed.--THERE will
be the really indigent find a secure asylum, and those
unfortunate persons who are a prey to sickness and infirmity,
or are worn out with age, will be effectually relieved.--

We beg you not to listen to the false representations which may,
perhaps, be made to calumniate this institution, by putting it on
a level with former imperfect establishments.--Why should not an
institution prosper at Munich, which has already been successful
in other places, particularly at Manheim, where above 800 persons
are daily employed in the Military Workhouse, and heap
benedictions on its benevolent founder?--Have the inhabitants of
this town less good sense, less humanity, or less zeal for the
good of mankind?  No--it would be an insult on the patriotism of
our fellow-citizens, were we to doubt of their readiness to
concur in our undertaking.

The only efficacious way of promoting an institution so
intimately connected with the safety, honor,  and welfare of the
state, and with the interests of religion and morality, is a
general resolution of the inhabitants to establish a voluntary
monthly contribution, and strictly prohibit the abominable and
degrading practice of street-begging; the unlimited exercise of
which, notwithstanding its fatal and disgraceful consequences,
is perhaps more glaringly indulged in Munich than in any other
city in Germany.

In vain will the institution be opposed by the prejudices,
or the meanness and malice of persons who are themselves used to
mendicity, or to  exercise an insolent dominion over Beggars.

It will subsist in spite of all their efforts; and we have the
fullest confidence that the generous  and well-disposed
inhabitants of this city will be  sensible how injurious the
habits of encouraging  public mendicity are, when an opportunity
is offered them of contributing to an institution where the
really indigent are sure to find assistance, and where the
benevolent Christian is certain that his neighbours and
fellow-citizens are benefited by his charitable donations.

The simplest and most effectual way of ascertaining the extent of
such contribution is to form a list of all the citizens and
inhabitants of the town, with the name of the street, and number
of the house they inhabit.  This register may be called an Alms
Book.  It will be presented to each inhabitant, that he may put
down the sum which he means  voluntarily to subscribe every month
towards the support of the Poor.  The smallest donation will be
gratefully received, and the objects who are relieved by them
will pray for them to the Almighty Rewarder of all good actions.

As this charitable contribution is to be absolutely voluntary,
every one, whatever be his rank or  property, will subscribe as
he pleases, a greater or a less sum, or none at all.  The names
of the benefactors and their donations will be printed and
published quarterly, that every one may know and acknowledge the
zealous friends of humanity, by whose assistance an evil of such
magnitude, so long and so universally complained of, will be
finally rooted out.

We request that the public will not oppose so sure and effectual
a mode of granting relief to the Poor, but rather give their
generous support to an undertaking, which cannot but be
productive of much good, and acceptable in the sight of Heaven.

To convince every one of the faithful application of these
contributions, an exact detail both of the receipt and
expenditure of the institution will be printed and laid before
the public every three months; and every subscriber will be
allowed to inspect and examine the original accounts whenever he
shall think proper.

It must be obvious to every one, even to persons of the most
suspicious dispositions, that this  institution is perfectly
disinterested, and owes its origin entirely to pure benevolence,
and an active zeal for the public good, when it is known that a
Committee appointed by his Electoral Highness, under the
direction of the Presidents of the Council of War, the Supreme
Regency, and the Ecclesiastical Council, will have the sole
administration and direction of the affairs of the institution,
and that the monthly collections of alms will be made by
creditable persons properly authorised; and that no salary,
or emoluments of any kind, will be levied on the funds of the
institution, either for  salaries for the collectors, or any
other persons  employed in the service of the institution,
as will clearly appear by the printed quarterly accounts.  By such
precautions, we trust, we shall obviate all possible suspicions,
and inspire every unprejudiced person with a firm confidence in
this useful institution.

Henceforward, then, the infamous practice of begging in the
streets will no longer tolerated in Munich, and the public are
from this moment exonerated from a burden which is not less
troublesome to individuals than it is disgraceful to the country.
Who can doubt the co-operation of every individual for the
accomplishment of so laudable an undertaking?  We trust that no
one will encourage idleness, by an injudicious and pernicious
profusion of alms given to Beggars; and by promoting the most
unbridled licentiousness, make himself a participator in the
dangerous consequences of mendicity, and share the guilt of all
those crimes and offences which endanger the welfare of the
state, injure the cause of religion, and insult the distress of
the really indigent.

No longer will these vagabonds impose on good-nature and
benevolence, by false pretences, by ill-founded complaints of the
inefficacy of the provision for the Poor, or by any other
artifices; nor can they escape the strict and constant vigilance
with which they will in future be watched; when every person they
meet will direct them to the House of Industry, instead of giving
them money.

It is this regulation alone which can effectuate our purpose,
a regulation enforced in the days of primitive Christianity,
and sanctioned by Religion  itself; the charitable gifts of the
wealthier Christians being in those days all deposited in a
common  treasury, for the benefit of their poorer and distressed
Brethren, and not squandered away in the encouragement of
dissolute idleness.

We therefore entreat and beseech the public in general, in the
name of suffering humanity, and of that Almighty Being who cannot
but regard so laudable an enterprise with an eye of favour,
to give every possible support to our design.  And we trust that
the clergy of every denomination, but especially the public
preachers, will exert their  splendid abilities to animate their
congregations to  co-operate with us in this great and important
undertaking.


APPENDIX No II.

SUBSCRIPTION LISTS distributed among the  Inhabitants of MUNICH,
in the Month of JANUARY 1790, when the Establishment for the
Relief of the Poor in that City was formed.

Translated from the Original German.

             VOLUNTARY  SUBSCRIPTIONS
                      for
           The Relief and Support of
     The Industrious, Sick, and Helpless POOR,
                      and
      For the total Extirpation of VAGRANTS
              and STREET-BEGGARS,
             In the City of MUNICH.

                    REMARKS.

These voluntary subscriptions will be collected monthly, namely,
on the last Sunday morning of every month, under the direction of
the Committee of Governors of the Institution for the Poor;
consisting of the President of the Council of War,--the President
of the Council of the Regency,--and the President of the
Ecclesiastical Council[4]; and the amount of these collections
will always be regularly noted down in books kept for that
purpose; and at the end of every three months a particular
detailed account of the application of these sums will be
printed, and given gratis to the subscribers and to the public.

No part of these voluntary contributions will ever be taken, or
appropriated to the payment of salaries, gratuities, or rewards
to any of those persons who may be employed in carrying on the
business of the institution; but the whole amount of the sums
collected will be faithfully applied to the relief and support of
the Poor, and to that charitable purpose alone, as the accounts
of the expenditures of the institution, which will be published
from time to time, will clearly show and demonstrate.--All the
persons necessary to be employed in the affairs of this
establishment, will either be selected from among such as already
are in the receipt of salaries, sufficient for their comfortable
maintenance from other funds; or they will be such persons, in
easy circumstances, as may offer themselves voluntarily for
these services, from motives of humanity, and a disinterested
wish to be instrumental in doing good.

As the preparations which have been made, and are making for the
support of the Poor, leave no doubt, but that adequate relief
will be afforded to them in future, they will no longer have any
pretext for begging; and all persons are most earnestly requested
to abstain henceforward from giving alms to Beggars.  Instead of
giving money to such persons as they may find begging in the
street, they are requested to direct them to the House of
Industry, where they will, without fail, receive such assistance
and support as they may stand in need of and deserve.

Those persons whose names are already inserted in other lists,
as subscribers to this institution, are, nevertheless, requested
to enter their names upon these family-sheets; for though their
names may stand on several lists, their contributions will be
called for upon one of them only, and that one will be the
family-sheet.

Those persons of either sex, who have no families, but occupy
houses or lodging of their own, are, notwithstanding their being
without families,  requested to put down the amount of the monthly
contributions they are willing to give to this institution upon
a family-sheet, and to insert their names in the list as
"head of the family."

Under the column destined for the names of "relations and
friends, living in the house," may be included strangers,
lodgers, boarders, etc.

The column for "domestics" may, in like manner, serve,
particularly in the houses of the nobility, and other
distinguished persons, for stewards, tutors, governesses, etc.

Each head of a family will receive two of these family-sheets,
namely, one with these Remarks, which he will keep for his
information,--the other, printed on a half-sheet of paper,
and without remarks, which he will please to return to the public
office of the institution.

In case of a change in the family, or if one or other of the
members of it should think proper to increase or to lessen their
contribution, this alteration is to be marked upon the half-sheet,
which is kept by the head of the family; and this sheet so
altered is to be sent to the public office of the institution,
to the end that these alterations may be made in the general
lists of the subscribers; or new printed forms being procured
from the public office, and filled up, these new lists may be
exchanged against the old ones.

For the accommodation of those who may at any time wish to
contribute privately to the support of the institution any sums
in addition to their ordinary monthly donations, the banker of
the institution, Mr. Dallarmi, will receive such sums destined
for that purpose, as may be sent to him privately under any
feigned name, motto, or device; and for the security of the
donors, accounts of all the sums so received, with an account of
the feigned name, motto, or device, under which each of them was
sent to the banker, will be regularly published in the Munich
Gazette.

The first collection will be made on the last Sunday of the
present month, and the following  collections on the last Monday
of every succeeding month; and each head of a family is
respectfully requested to cause the contributions of his family,
and of the inhabitants of his house, to be collected at the end
of every month, by a domestic or a servant, and to keep the same
in readiness against the time of the collection.

All persons of both sexes, and of every age and condition,
(Paupers only excepted,) are earnestly requested to have their
names inserted in these lists or family-sheets; and they may rest
assured, that any sum, even the most trifling, will be received
with thankfulness, and applied with care to the great object of
the institution--the relief and  encouragement of the Poor and
the Distressed.

And finally, as it cannot fail to contribute very much to improve
the human heart, if young persons at an early period of life are
accustomed to acts of benevolence,--it is recommended to parents,
to cause all their children to put down their names as
subscribers to this undertaking, and this, even though the
donations they may be able to spare may be the most trifling,
or even if the parents should be obliged to lessen their own
contributions in order to enable their children to become
subscribers.

The foregoing Remarks were printed on the two first pages of a
sheet, 13 inches by 18 inches, of strong writing-paper.
The following Subscription List was printed on the third page of
the same sheet,--and also on a separate half-sheet of the same
kind of paper.


Voluntary Contributions for the Support of the Poor at Munich.

                 F A M I L Y--S H E E T.
                 ======================

Number of the House     District     Street      Floor.
Head of the Family        } Monthly Contributions.
His Character, or         }   Florins.     Creutzers.

Other Persons belonging to the Family.
------------------------------------------------------------------
: Wife, Children, Re- :Monthly  :Domestics, Journey-   :Monthly  :
: lations and Friends :Contribu-:man, Menial Servants, :Contribu-:
: of both Sexes living: tions.  :etc of both Sexes, the: tions.  :
: with the Family. The:         :Christian and Sirname :         :
: Christian Name and  :         :of each Individual.   :         :
: Sirname of each Per-:----:----:                      :----:----:
: son.                : Fl.: Kr.:                      : Fl.: Kr.:
:---------------------:----:----:----------------------:----:----:
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    :                      :    :    :
:                     :    :    : (At the lower corner :    :    :
:                     :    :    : of this half-sheet   :    :    :
:                     :    :    : was printed in small :    :    :
:                     :    :    : type): "This half-   :    :    :
:                     :    :    : "sheet is to be sent :    :    :
:                     :    :    : "into the Public     :    :    :
:                     :    :    : "Office of the       :    :    :
:                     :    :    : "Institution."       :    :    :
------------------------------------------------------------------

APPENDIX III.

[ Etext editor's note...the following table has had to be split
  into two parts, with the additional references A) B) etc
  through to UK) to link them together.  Originally the entire
  table was printed in landscape format, with totals carried
  forward, brought over, which have been removed. ]

An Account of the RECEIPTS and EXPENDITURES of the INSTITUTION
for the POOR at MUNICH during Five Years.

                          R E C E I P T S.
   -------------------------------------------------------------------
   :          :                                           : Total in :
   :  1790.   :  1791.   :  1792.   :  1793.   :  1794.   : 5 Years. :
   :----------:----------:----------:----------:----------:----------:
   : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
A) :  36,640  :  38,024  :  35,847  :  34,424  :  33,880  :  178.815 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
B) :  15,400  :  15,400  :  16,800  :  16,800  :  16,800  :   81,200 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
C) :     970  :   1,043  :     800  :     800  :     802  :    4,415 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
D) :     179  :     388  :     388  :     411  :     390  :    1,756 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
E) :  ------  :     168  :     392  :     229  :     234  :    1,023 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
F) :  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :   3,216  :   2,773  :    5,989 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
G) :     318  :     177  :     187  :     610  :     229  :    1,521 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
H) :      99  :     153  :      69  :     168  :     176  :      665 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
I) :   3,642  :     691  :      825 :     723  :     423  :    6,304 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
J) :   2,674  :   1,472  :    3,528 :   1,820  :  12,179  :   21,673 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
K) :      48  :     128  :       48 :      48  :  ------  :      272 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
L) :   3,300  :   4,600  :    1,500 :  ------  :  ------  :    9,400 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
M) :     824  :   3,433  :      910 :   1,752  :     346  :    7,265 :
   :==========:==========:==========:==========:==========:==========:
   :  64,094  :  65,677  :   61,294 :  61,001  :  70,232  :  320,298 :


                        E X P E N D I T U R E S.
   -------------------------------------------------------------------
   :          :                                           : Total in :
   :  1790.   :  1791.   :  1792.   :  1793.   :  1794.   : 5 Years. :
   :----------:----------:----------:----------:----------:----------:
   : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
N) :  42,080  :  46,410  :  43,055  :  41,933  :  43,189  :  216,667 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
O) :  11,800  :   9,900  :  10,300  :   9,600  :   9,400  :   51,000 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
P) :   1,011  :   1,040  :     800  :     861  :     805  :    4,517 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
Q) :     450  :     403  :     350  :   1,150  :   1,500  :    3,853 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
R) :     217  :     254  :     272  :     336  :     290  :    1,396 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
S) :     256  :     183  :     219  :     210  :     226  :    1,094 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TA):     890  :     564  :     418  :     425  :     594  :    2,891 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TB):     160  :     187  :      34  :      35  :      94  :      510 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TC):     960  :     960  :     960  :     960  :     960  :    4,800 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TD):      84  :      72  :      72  :      72  :      72  :      372 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TE):     100  :     360  :     288  :     540  :     300  :    1,588 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TF):     220  :     240  :     240  :     240  :     240  :    1,180 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TG):     480  :     480  :     480  :     480  :     480  :    2,400 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
TH):     440  :     480  :     480  :     480  :     480  :    2,360 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UA):     318  :     318  :     159  :  ------  :  ------  :      795 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UB):  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :     183  :     200  :      383 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UC):   1,672  :   1,824  :     912  :  ------  :  ------  :    4,408 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UD):     369  :     199  :     189  :     250  :     361  :    1,368 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UE):     506  :     333  :     150  :     227  :     301  :    1,517 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UF):      22  :       6  :  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :       28 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UG):      55  :      60  :      60  :      50  :      75  :      300 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UH):     831  :     300  :  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :    1,131 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UI):  ------  :  ------  :      40  :      40  :      40  :      120 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UJ):  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :  ------  :   1,200  :    1,200 :
   :          :          :          :          :          :          :
UK):     172  :     234  :     261  :     645  :     433  :    1,745 :
   :==========:==========:==========:==========:==========:==========:
   :  63,093  :  64,807  :  59,739  :  58,717  :  61,240  :  307,596 :
   -------------------------------------------------------------------


                          R E C E I P T S.

A) From monthly voluntary donations of the inhabitants
   including 100 Florins given monthly by his Most Serene
   Highness the Elector out of his private purse; 50 florins
   monthly by the Electress Dowager of Bavaria, and 50 florins
   monthly by the States of Bavaria,

B) From the Public Treasury a stated monthly allowance, intended
   principally to defray the expense of the police of the city,

C) From voluntary donations, particularly destined by the donors
   to assist the Poor in paying their house-rent,

D) From voluntary and unsolicited donations from the foreign
   merchants and traders assembled at Munich at the two annual fairs,

E) From the courts of justice, being fines for certain petty offences,

F) From the magistrates of the city; being the amount of sums received
   from musicians for licence to play in the public houses,

G) From the poor's boxes in the different churches,

H) From the poor's boxes at inns and taverns,

I) From private contributions sent to the banker of the Institution,
   under feigned names, devices, etc.

J) From legacies,

K) From interest of money due to the Institution,

L) From cash received in advance,

M) From sundries,


                        E X P E N D I T U R E S.

 N) Given to the Poor in alms, in ready money,

 O) Expended in feeding the Poor at the Public Kitchen of the Military
    Workhouse, and in premiums for the encouragement of industry,

 P) Given to the Poor to assist them in paying their house-rent,

 Q) Paid for medicines administered to the Poor at their own lodgings,

 R) Expended in burials,

 S) Given with poor children when bound apprentices,

Given as an indemnification for the loss of the right formerly
enjoyed of  making collections of alms among the inhabitants:

------- TA) To persons who have suffered by fires,
------- TB) To travelling journeymen tradesmen,
------- TC) To the sisters of the religious order of charity,
------- TD) To the nuns of the English convent,
------- TE) To the hospital for lepers on the Gasteig,
------- TF) To the hospital at Schwabing,
------- TG) To the poor scholars of the German school,
------- TH) To the poor scholars of the Latin school,

UA) Paid to the clerks of office of police

UB) Paid to the accountant of the Institution,

UC) Paid to the guards of the police[5],

UD) Paid to writers employed occasionally as clerks,

UE) Paid to printers and bookbinders,

UF) Paid to the soldiers of the garrison for arresting Beggars,

UG) Gratuities to the schoolmaster at Charles's Gate,

UH) Paid various sums due from the Institution,

UI) Paid interest of monies due,

UJ) Money advanced for purchasing grain,

UK) Sundries,


APPENDIX, No IV.

  Certificate relative to the EXPENCE of FUEL in the Public
  Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at MUNICH

We whose Names are underwritten certify, that we have been
present frequently when  experiments have been made to
determine the expence of Fuel in cooking for the Poor in the
Public Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at Munich; and that
when the ordinary dinner has been  prepared for ONE THOUSAND
persons, the expense for Fuel has not amounted to quite twelve
creutzers (less than 4 1/2d. sterling).

  Baron de Thibout,              Heerdan,
      Colonel.                 Councillor of War.

Munich,
1st September 1795.


APPENDIX, No V.

Printed Form for the DESCRIPTIONS of the POOR.

Description of the poor Person, No

Name

Described Munich, the     th of        179

            ====================================

Age    Years.       Stature      Feet     Inches

       Bodily Structure             Hair

Eye               Complexion

Bodily Defects

Other particular Marks

State of Health

Place of Nativity

Lives here since

Came here from                In what Manner

Profession                  Religion

Quality                 Family

Supports himself, at present, by

Lives at present      Quarter,     District,      Street,

House,    No     Floor,

Can     be considered as a Pauper belonging to
this City, and ought therefore to be

Is capable of doing the following Work:

Could be trained to the following Occupations:

                                                       :fl.:kr.:
Could gain by this Work per Week----                   :   :   :
Wants for his weekly Support--------                   :   :   :
Receives at present per Week from his own }            :   :   :
 Means, get by way of Pension, Alms,             }     :   :   :
 and ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..      }     :   :   :
Wants, therefore, a weekly Allowance of Alms of        :   :   :
                                                       :   :   :
                                                       ---------


                                                      :fl.:kr.:
                   { Income of his own --  --         :   :   :
                   { Earned by working --  --         :   :   :
                   { Salary    --  --  --  --         :   :   :
Enjoyed heretofore { Pension   --  --  --  --         :   :   :
per Week           {       { From the Court           :   :   :
                   { Alms, { From the City --         :   :   :
                   {       { From private Persons     :   :   :
                   { Got by begging    --  --         :   :   :
                                                      :   :   :
                                                      :---:---:
                                               Total  :   :   :
                                                      :   :   :
                                                      ---------


                                                       :fl.:kr.:
                                                       :   :   :
Pays House-rent --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --     :   :   :
                                                       :   :   :
Has      Bed    of his own, the Value of which         :   :   :
is about--  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --     :   :   :
                                                       :   :   :
Possesses other Utensils necessary for House-          :   :   :
keeping, worth about--  --  --  --  --  --  --  --     :   :   :
                                                       :   :   :
Is provided with the following Working Tools:   --     :   :   :
                                                       :   :   :
                                                       ---------


Can     work at Home

Could    be employed in the Military Workhouse

Is      provided with Raiment, and wants

Articles of Apparel

Life and Conduct, according to the Information received

Is given to             and

Is known to have committed        Crimes
and has         appeared before the Magistrates

How long he lives in his present Habitation
      Year       Month      Weeks

Name and Residence of his present Landlord

Where he lived before, and how long



                    Other Remarks.

Has been settled here

Received a Licence to marry, from

Possessed or received, when married
                            Value about     fl.   kr.

Was reduced to Poverty by

Is poor and in want, since

Could not extricate himself from his Difficulties, because

N.B.  This Form is printed on a Half-sheet of strong
Writing Paper, folded together so as to make two Leaves in
Quarto; each Leaf being 8 Inches high, and 6 1/2 Inches wide.

APPENDIX, No VI.

Printed Form for SPIN-TICKETS, such as are used at the Military
Workhouse at Munich.

  Munich Military Workhouse,
  179   the           No
             received
    lb.  of
  Delivered back     skains    knots
  of           weighing     lb.      oz.
  Is entitled to receive per     xrs.
  Total,
  Attest.  this           179


This printed Form is filled up as follows:

  Munich Military Workhouse,
  1795  the 1st Sept.  No  134.
  Mary Smith received
  1 lb.  of Flax, No 3,
  Delivered back  2  skains  3 knots
  of Thread,   weighing  1 lb.  --- oz.
  Is entitled to receive per lb.   xrs.  10.
  Total, ten creutzers.
  Attest.  this  4th Sept.   1795

                          Will Wildmann.


An improved Form for a Spin-Ticket, with its Abstract; which
Abstract is to be cut off from the Ticket, and fastened to the
Bundle of Yarn or Thread.

----------------------------------------------------------------
:          Spin-Ticket.                ::   Abstract of        :
: Munich House of Industry.            ::   Spin-Ticket.       :
: 1795 the 10th Sept.  No 230.         ::   Munich House       :
: Mary Smith received                  ::        of            :
: 1 lb. of wool, No 14.                ::     Industry,        :
: Delivered back 2 skains 4 knots      :: 1795, the 10th Sept. :
: of  yarn,  weighing 1  lb.--oz.      ::      No 230.         :
: Wages per lb. for spinning 12 xrs.   :: 2 skains  4 knots    :
: Is entitled to receive  twelve  xrs. :: of woollen yarn,     :
: Attest. this 14th of Sept. 1795.     :: Spinner, Mary Smith. :
:                      J. Schmidt.     :: Attest.  J. Schmidt. :
:                                      ::                      :
----------------------------------------------------------------

In order that the original entry of the Spin-Tickets in the
general tables, kept by the clerks of the Spinners, may more
readily be found, all the Tickets for the same material, (flax,
for instance,) issued by the same clerk, during the course of
each month, must be regularly numbered.


APPENDIX, No VII.

  An Account of EXPERIMENTS made at the BAKE-HOUSE of the
  MILITARY WORKHOUSE at MUNICH, November the 4th and 5th, 1794.

In baking RYE BREAD

The oven, which is of an oval form, is 12 feet deep, measured
from the mouth to the end; 11 feet 10 inches wide, and 1 foot
11 inches high, in the middle.

November 4th, at 10 o'clock in the morning, 1736 lbs.[6] of
rye meal were taken out of the store room, and sent to the
bakehouse, where it was worked and baked into bread, at six
different times, in the following manner:--

FIRST BATCH

At 45 minutes after 10 o'clock, the meal was mixed for the
first time, for which purpose 16 quarts (Bavarian measure) of
lukewarm water, weighing 28 lbs. 28 loths, were used.

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, the little leaven (as it is called)
was made, for which purpose 24 quarts, or 43 lbs. 10 loths of
water were used; and at half an hour after 7 o'clock, the great
leaven was made with 40 quarts, or 72 lbs. 6 loths, of water.
At 11 o'clock this mass was prepared for kneading, by the
addition of 40 quarts, or 72 lbs. 6 loths, more of water.

At 15 minutes after 10 o'clock at night, the kneading of the
dough was commenced; 2 1/2 lbs. of salt being first mixed with
the mass.  The dough having been suffered to rise till a
quarter before 2 o'clock, it was kneaded a second time,
and then made, in half an hour's time, into 191 loaves, each of
them weighing 2 lbs. 16 loths.  These loaves having been
suffered to rise half an hour, they were put into the oven
10 minutes before 3 o'clock, and in an hour after taken out again,
when 25 loaves being immediately weighed, were found to weight
55 lbs. 15 loths.  Each loaf, therefore, when baked, weighed 2 lbs.
5 1/2 loths; and as it weighed 2 lbs. 16 loths when it was
put into the oven, it lost 10 1/2 loths in being baked.

The whole quantity of water used in this experiment, in making
the leaven and the dough, was 216 lbs. 18 loths.--The quantity
of meal used was about 310 lbs.

First Heating of the Oven

This was begun 35 minutes after four o'clock, with 220 1/2 lbs.
of pine-wood, which was in full flame 15 minutes after five
o'clock.--At 8 minutes after 8 o'clock, 51 lbs. more of wood
were added;--12 minutes after 11 o'clock, 32 lbs. more were put
into the oven;--51 lbs. at one o'clock, and 12 lbs. more at
30 minutes after 2 o'clock; so that 366 lbs. 16 loths of wood
were used for the first heating.

SECOND BATCH.

At 20 minutes after 11 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven
was mixed with the meal, and 44 quarts, or 79 lbs. 25 loths,
of water added to it. At 10 minutes after 3 o'clock, the meal
was prepared for kneading, by adding to it 52 quarts, or 93 lbs.
27 loths, of water.

At 30 minutes after 5 o'clock, the kneading of the dough was
begun; 2 1/2 lbs. of salt having been previously added.
At 15 minutes after 6 o'clock, the dough was kneaded a second
time, and formed into 186 loaves, which were put into the oven
at 15 minutes after 7 o'clock, and taken out again 9 minutes
after 8 o'clock, when 25 loaves being immediately weighed,
were found to weigh 55 lbs. 4 loths.--Water used in making the
second dough, 173 lbs. 8 loths.

Second Heating of the Oven

This was begun 20 minutes after 4 o'clock in the morning, with
54 1/2 lbs. of wood; 20 lbs. were added 10 minutes after 5 o'clock,
and 60 lbs. more 6 minutes after 6 o'clock; so that the second
heating of the oven required 134 lbs. 16 loths of wood.

THIRD BATCH

At 20 minutes after 3 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven
was mixed with the meal, and 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths,
of water were put to it.

At 6 minutes after 8 o'clock, this mass was prepared for
kneading, by adding to it 48 quarts, or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of
water.--At 30 minutes after 9 o'clock, this dough was mixed
with 2 1/2 lbs. of salt; and at 30 minutes after 10 o'clock,
it was made into 189 loaves, which, after having been suffered
to rise for half an hour were put into the oven 10 minutes after
11 o'clock, and taken out again at 12 o'clock.

Fifty loaves of bread, which were weighed immediately upon
their being taken out of the oven, were found to weigh 110 lbs.
30 loths; which gives 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths for the weight of
each loaf.  The water used in making this batch of bread was
173 lbs. 8 loths.

Third Heating of the Oven.

This was begun 30 minutes after 8 o'clock, with 50 lbs.  of
wood; and 50 lbs. more being added 30 minutes after 9 o'clock,
the whole quantity used was 100 lbs.

FOURTH BATCH.

At a quarter before 8 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven
was mixed with the meal, and 48 quarts, or 86 lbs.  20 loths,
of water being added, at 30 minutes past 11 o'clock, this mass
was prepared for kneading, by adding to it 52 quarts, or 93 lbs.
27 loths, of water.

Four minutes after 1 o'clock, 2 1/2 lbs. of salt were added.
The dough being kneaded at 15 minutes after two o'clock, 188
loaves of bread were made, which were put into the oven 5
minutes before 3 o'clock, and taken out again at the end of one
hour, when 25 of them were weighed, and found to weigh, one
with the other, 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths.

The water used in making this batch of bread was 180 lbs. 15 loths.

Fourth Heating of the Oven.

This was begun 15 minutes after 12 o'clock, with 40 lbs. of wood,
and 50 lbs.  more being added at 30 minutes after 1 o'clock,
the total quantity used was 90 lbs.

FIFTH BATCH.

At 1/4 before 12 o'clock, the proper quantity of leaven was
mixed with the meal, and 52 quarts, or 93 lbs. 27 loths,
of water put into it.--This mass was prepared for kneading at
15 minutes after 4 o'clock, by the addition of 48 quarts,
or 86 lbs. 20 loths, of water.  The kneading of the dough was
begun at 5 o'clock, and at 30 minutes after 5 it was made into
loaves, 2 1/2 lbs. of salt having been previously added.
186 loaves being made out of this dough, they were put into the
oven at 10 minutes before 7 o'clock, and taken out again at the
end of one hour, when 25 loaves were weighed, and found to
weigh 55 lbs. 18 loths.--The quantity of water used in making
the dough for this batch of bread was 180 lbs. 15 loths.

Fifth Heating of the Oven

The oven was begun to be heated the fifth time at 15 minutes
after four o'clock, with 40 lbs. of wood, and 40 lbs. more
were added at 6 o'clock; so that in this heating no more than
80 lbs. of wood were consumed.

SIXTH BATCH.

The meal was mixed with leaven at 30 minutes after 3 o'clock;
for which purpose 32 quarts, or 57 lbs. 24 loths, of water
were used at 15 minutes after 7 o'clock.  This mass was
prepared for kneading, by the addition of 44 quarts, or 79 lbs.
13 loths, of water, and a proportion of salt; at 19 minutes
after 9 o'clock the dough was kneaded the first, and at 1/4
before 10 the second time; and in the course of half an hour
160 loaves were made out of it, which were put into the oven at
10 minutes before 11 o'clock, and taken out again at 8 minutes
before 12 o'clock at midnight.

The water used in making the dough for this batch of bread was
137 lbs. 5 loths.

Sixth Heating of the Oven.

At 1/4 after 8 o'clock, the sixth and last fire was made with
40 lbs. of wood; to which, at 15 minutes before 10 o'clock at
night, 34 1/2 lbs. more were added; so that in the last
heating 74 1/2 lbs. of wood only were consumed.

GENERAL RESULTS of these EXPERIMENTS.

The ingredients employed in making the bread in these six
experiments were as follows: viz.

                          lbs.   loths.
    Of rye meal, --  -- 1736    0
    Of water,--  --  -- 1061    5
    Of salt, --  --  --   15    0
                         -----------
                  In all, 2812  5 in weight.

Of this mass 1102 loaves of bread were formed, each of which,
before it was baked, weighed 2 1/2 lbs.; consequently, these
1102 loaves, before they were put into the oven, weighed 2755
lbs.: but the ingredients used in making them weighed 2812 lbs.
5 loths.  Hence it appears, that the loss of weight in these
six experiments, in preparing the leaven,--from evaporation,
before the bread was put into the oven,--from waste,
etc.--amounted to no less than 57 lbs. 5 loths.

In subsequent experiments, where less water was used, this loss
appeared to be less by more than one half.

In these experiments 1061 lbs. 5 loths of water were used to
1736 lbs. of meal, which gives 61 lbs. 4 3/4 loths of water to
100 lbs. of meal.  But subsequent experiments showed 56 lbs.
of water to be quite sufficient for 100 lbs. of the meal.

These 1102 loaves, when baked, weighed at a medium 2 lbs. 5 1/2
loths each; consequently, taken  together, they weighed 2393 lbs.
13 loths: and as they weighed 2755 lbs. when they were
put into the oven, they must have lost 361 lbs. 19 loths in
being baked, which gives 10 1/2 loths, equal to 21/160 or
nearly 1/8 of its original weight before it was baked, for the
diminution of the weight of each loaf.

According to the standing regulations of the baking business
carried on in the bakehouse of the Military Workhouse at Munich,
for each 100 lbs. of rye meal which the baker receives from the
store-keeper, he is obliged to deliver 139 lbs. of  well-baked
bread; namely, 64 loaves, each weighing 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths.
And as in the before-mentioned six experiments, 1736 lbs. of
meal were used, it is evident that 1111 loaves, instead of 1102
loaves, ought to have been produced; for 100 lbs. of meal are
to 64 loaves as 1736 lbs, to 1111 loaves.  Hence it appears
that 9 loaves less were produced in these experiments than
ought to have been produced.

There were reasons to suspect that this was so contrived by the
baker, with a design to get the number of loaves he was obliged
to deliver for each 100 lbs. of meal lessened;--but in this
attempt he did not succeed.

Quantity of Fuel consumed in these Experiments.

                                       Dry pine-wood.
                                       lbs.   loths.
In heating the oven first time, --  -- 366    16
                    second time,--  -- 134    16
                    third time, --  -- 100     0
                    fourth time,--  --  90     0
                    fifth time, --  --  80     0
                    sixth time, --  --  74    16
                                        ------------
                               Total,  845    16
Employed in keeping up a small fire
near the mouth of the oven while the
bread was putting into it,  --  --  --  34    16

Total consumption of wood in the six
experiments,--  --  --  --  --  --  -- 880 lbs.

The results of these experiments show, in a striking manner,
how important it is to the saving of fuel in baking bread,
to keep the oven continually going, without ever letting it cool:
for in the first experiment when the oven was cold, when it was
begun to be heated, the quantity of wood required to heat it
was 366 1/2 lbs.; but in the sixth experiment, after the oven
had been well warmed in the preceding experiments, the quantity
of fuel required was only 74 1/2 lbs.

As in these experiments 2393 lbs.  13 loths of bread were baked
with the heat generated in the combustion of 880 lbs. of wood,
this gives to each pound of bread 11 1/3 loths, or 34/96 of a
pound, of wood.

In the fifth experiment, or batch, 186 loaves weighing (at 2 lbs.
5 1/2 loths each) 304 lbs. were baked, and only 80 lbs. of wood
consumed, which gives but a trifle more than 1/4 of a pound of
wood to each pound of bread; or 1 pound of wood to 4 pounds of
bread.

As each loaf weighed 2 lbs.  16 loths when it was put into the
oven, and only 2 lbs. 5 1/2 loths when it came out of it, the
loss of weight each loaf sustained in being baked was 10 1/2
loths, as has already been observed.  Now this loss of weight
could only arise from the evaporation of the superabundant
water existing in the dough; and as it is known how much heat,
and consequently HOW MUCH FUEL is required to reduce any given
quantity of water, at any given temperature, to steam, it is
possible, from these data, to determine how much fuel would be
required to bake any given quantity of bread, upon the
supposition that NO PART OF THE HEAT GENERATED IN THE
COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL WAS LOST, either in heating the
apparatus, or in any other way; but that the whole of it was
employed in baking the bread, and in that process alone.
And though these computations will not show how the heat which
is lost might be saved, yet, as they ascertain what the amount
of this loss really is in any given case, they enable us to
determine, with a considerable degree of precision, not only
the relative merit of different arrangements for economizing
fuel in the process of baking, but they show also, at the sane
time, the precise distance of each from that point of
perfection, where any farther improvements would be impossible:
And on that account, these computations are certainly
interesting.

In computing how much heat is NECESSARY to bake any given
quantity of bread, it will tend much to simplify the
investigation, if we consider the loaf as being first heated to
the temperature of boiling water, and then baked in consequence
of its redundant water being sent off from it in steam.

But as the dough is composed of two different substances, viz.
rye meal and water, and as these substances have been found by
experiment to contain different quantities of absolute heat;
or, in other words, to require different quantities of heat, to
heat equal quantities or weights of them to any given temperature,
or any given number of degrees, it will be necessary to
determine how much of each of the ingredients is employed in
forming any given quantity of dough.

Now, in the foregoing experiments, as 1102 loaves of bread were
formed of 1736 lbs. of rye meal, it appears, that there must
have been 1.47 lb. of the meal in each loaf; and as these
loaves weighed 2 1/2 lbs. each when they were put into the oven,
each of them must, in a state of dough, have been composed of
1.47 lb. of rye meal, and 1.03 lb. of water.

Supposing these loaves to have been at the temperature of 55
degrees of Fahrenheit's Thermometer when they were put into the
oven, the heat necessary to heat one of them to the temperature
of 212 degrees, or the point of boiling water, may be thus
computed.

By an experiment, of which I intend hereafter to give an
account to the Public, I found, that 20 lbs. of ice-cold water
might be made to boil, with the heat generated in the
combustion of 1 lb. of dry pine-wood, such as was used in
baking the bread in the six experiments before mentioned.
Now, if 20 lbs. of water may be heated 180 degrees,
(namely from 32 to 212 degrees,) by the heat generated in the
combustion of 1 lb. of wood, 1.03 lb. of water may be heated
157 degrees, (from 55 degrees, or temperate, to 212 degrees,)
with 0.4436 of a pound of the wood.

Suppose now that rye meal contained the same quantity of
absolute heat as water,--as the quantity of meal in each loaf,
was 1.47 lb., it appears, that this quantity would have
required, (upon the above supposition,) to heat it from the
temperature of 55 degrees, to that of 212 degrees; a quantity
of heat equal to that which would be generated in the
combustion of 0.06405 of a pound of the wood in question.

But it appears, by the result of experiments  published by
Dr. Crawford, that the quantities of heat required to heat any
number of degrees, the same given quantity (in weight) of water
and of wheat, (and it is presumed, that the specific or
absolute heat of rye cannot be very different from that of wheat,)
are to each other, as 2.9 to 1,--water requiring more heat to
it, than the grain in that proportion: Consequently, the
quantity of wood required to heat from 55 to 212 degrees, the
1.47 lb. of rye meal which entered into the composition of
each loaf, instead of being .06405 of a pound, as above
determined, upon the false supposition that the specific heat
of water and that of rye were the same, would, in fact, amount
to no more than 0.02899; for 2.9 (the specific heat of water)
is to 1 (the specific heat of rye), as 0.06405 is to 0.02899.

Hence it appears, that the wood required as fuel to heat (from
the temperature of 55 degrees to that of 212 degrees) a loaf of
rye bread (in the state of dough), weighing 2 1/2 lbs., would
be as follows, namely:

                                           Of pine-wood,
To heat 1.03 lb. of water, which
enters into the composition of the dough, ..  0.04436

To heat the rye meal, 1.47 lb in weight,  ..  0.02899
                                             --------
                                     Total,   0.07335 lb.

To complete the computation of the quantity of fuel necessary
in the process of baking bread, it remains to determine, how
much heat is required, to send off in steam, from one of the
loaves in question (after it has been heated to the temperature
of 212 degrees), the 10 1/2 loths, equal to 21/64 of a pound of
water, which each loaf is known to lose in being baked.

Now it appears, from the result of Mr. Watt's ingenious
experiments on the quantity of latent heat in steam, that the
quantity of heat necessary to change any given quantity of
water ALREADY BOILING HOT to steam, is about five times and a
half greater than would be sufficient to heat the same quantity
of water, from the temperature of freezing, to that of boiling
water.

But we have just observed, that 20 lbs. of ice-cold water may be
heated to the boiling point, with the heat generated in the
combustion of 1 lb. of  pine-wood; it appears therefore that 20 lbs.
of boiling water would require 5 1/2 times as much, or 5 1/2 lbs.
of wood to reduce it to steam.

And if 20 lbs. of boiling water require 5 1/2 lbs. of wood,
21/64 of a pound of water boiling hot will require 0.09023 of a
pound of wood to reduce it to steam.

If now, to this quantity of fuel,--  --  0.09023 lb.
we add that necessary for heating the
loaf to the temperature of boiling
water, as above determined,  --  --  --  0.07335 lb.
                                         --------
this gives the total quantity of fuel
necessary for baking one of these loaves
of bread,--  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  0.16353 lb.

Now as these loaves, when baked into bread, weighed 2 lbs. 5
1/2 loths = 2 11/64 lbs. each and required, in being baked,
the consumption of 0.16353 of a pound of wood, this gives for
the expence of fuel in baking bread 0.07532 of a pound of
pine-wood to each pound of rye bread; which is about 13 1/4
lbs. of bread to each pound of wood.

But we have seen, from the results of the before-mentioned
experiments, that when the bread was baked under circumstances
the most favourable to the economy of fuel, no less than 80 lbs.
of pine-wood were employed in heating the oven to bake 304 lbs.
of bread, which gives less than 4 lbs. of bread to each pound
of wood; consequently, TWO THIRDS at least of the heat
generated in the combustion of the fuel must, in that case,
have been lost; and in all the other experiments the loss of
heat appears to have been still much greater.

A considerable loss of heat in baking will always be inevitable;
but it seems probable, that this loss might, with proper
attention to the construction of the oven, and to the
management of the fire, be reduced at least to one half the
quantity generated from the fuel in its combustion.  In the
manner in which the baking business is now generally carried
on, much more than three quarters of the heat  generated,
or which might be generated from the fuel consumed, is lost.


APPENDIX, No VIII.

The following Account of the Persons in the House of Industry
in Dublin, the 30th of April 1796, and of the Details of the
Manner and Expence of feeding them, was given to the Author,
by order of the Governors of that Institution.

Average of the Description of Poor for the Week ending
30th of April 1796.
                            Males.   Females.   Total.
Employed --  --  --  --       74      352      426
Infirm and Incurable --      172      585      757
Idiots   --  --  --  --       16       13       29
Blind--  --  --  --  --        5       10       16
                            -----    -----   ------
                             267      960     1227
   In the Infirmary.
Sick Patients, Servants, etc. 88      200  }
                                           }-- 343
Lunaticks--  --  --  --       15       40  }
                                             ------
                                      Total   1570

  Employed at actual labour  322 Persons.
  Ditto at menial offices    104 ditto
                            -----
                      Total  426

Amongst the 1570 Persons above mentioned, are 282 Children and
447 compelled Persons.

Of the Children, 205 are taught to spell, read, and write.


                   Saturday, April 30, 1796.

                 1227 Persons fed at Breakfast.

 120  Servants in New-House,
        a 8 oz.  bread ------ 60  } lbs.  loaves lb.      value.
 336  Incurables, Children, etc.  } 186   is 41 1 1/2    L.  1 14
        a 6 ditto --------126 }
 771  Workers, etc.  got Stirabout.
-----
1227

  Weight of meal for Stirabout 4 cwt.  costs L.  3 1 8

 120  Servants in New-House               }
       get 1 quart butter-milk    Gal.  P.}
       each                        30  0  } 167 gallons of
1084  Workers, Incurables, etc.           }    butter-milk
       1 pint ditto               135  4  }    value 1 L.
  23  Sucklers get no butter-milk         }
-----   Allowed for waste -- --     1  4  }
1227

                            Brought down,         L.  5 15  8
                                         s.  d.
Fuel to cook the Stirabout, 3 bush. cost 2  3     }
                                                  } 0  3  0 1/2
Salt for ditto, 1 qr. 3 lb  cost--  --   0  9 1/2 }
                                                   -------------
                       The Breakfast cost       L.  5 18  8 1/2

  Quantity of water, 5 barrels 6 gallons.


1227 Persons fed at Dinner.--BREAD and MEAL POTTAGE.
 120 Servants a 9 oz. --  68    }
      bread                     } lbs.     loaves.   lb.      value.
1107 Workers, Incurables,       } 621 1/2 is 138  0 1/2   L. 5 10 4
     etc.  8 oz.  ditto--553 1/2}
Weight of meal for the pottage, 1 cwt. 3 qrs.--  --  --   0 13  5
Pepper for ditto, half a pound   --  --  --  --  --  --   0  1  1
Ginger for ditto, 1 pound    --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  1  3
Salt for ditto, 21 pound --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  0  7
Fuel for ditto, 3 bushels 2 pecks--  --  --  --  --  --   0  2  7 1/2
                                                         -------------
                                      Dinner cost     L.  6  9  3 1/2


SUPPER.

For 165 Sickly Women on 6 oz, bread.   62 } lbs. loaves lb.   value.
    251 Children, 3 oz. do.            47 } 109  is  24  1   0 19 11

N.B. The expenses of Food for the Hospital, in which there are
343 persons, is not included in the above account.


Sunday, May 1, 1796.
1220 Persons fed at Breakfast.


 120  Servants, a 8 oz. bread.
 330  Incurables, Children, etc. 6 oz. do.
 770  Workers, etc. get Stirabout.
-----
1220  Persons.

The same quantity of provisions delivered this day
for Breakfast as on Saturday, and cost the same: viz.
5L. 18s. 8 1/2d.


1220 Persons fed at Dinner.--BREAD, BEEF and BROTH.
                                                           Cost
 120  Servants, a 9 oz. bread,   68 } lbs.  loaves  lbs.   L.  s.  d.
1100  Workers, Incurables, etc.     } 618  is 137  1 1/2   5   9   6
       8 do.--  --  --  --  --  550 }
-----
1220  Persons.
                               Cwt.  qrs.  lbs.
    Weight of raw beef,          4    2   10
    Allowed for bone,            1    0    0
                               -------------
                                5    2   10         --    7  19   3
    Meal for the broth,         1    2    0         --    1   3   1 1/2
    Waste bread for do.         1    0    0         --    0   0   0
    Salt for do.                0    0   24         --    0   0   8
    Pepper for do.              0    0    0 1/2     --    0   1   1
    Fuel, 4 bushels 2 pecks,                        --    0   3   4 1/2
                                                        ---------------
                                           Total     L.  14  17   0

SUPPER.

The same number of women and children as yesterday, and the
Supper cost the same: viz. 19s. 11d.

Wednesday, May 4, 1796.

1216 Persons fed at Breakfast.

 120  Servants in New-House, a 8 oz. bread
 334  Incurables, Children, etc. a 6 oz. do.
 762  Workers, etc. get Stirabout.
-----
1216  Persons.

The same quantity of provisions, etc. delivered this day
for Breakfast as for Saturday, and cost the same: viz.
8L 18s. 8 1/2d.

1216 Persons fed at Dinner.--CALECANNON and BEER.

                                                 Cost.
Weight of raw potatoes   Cwt. qrs. lbs.         L.  s.  d.
  for Calecannon,--  --   19   0    0      --   3   6   6
An allowance for waste,    1   0    0
                         -------------
            Weight used,  18   0    0      --
Raw greens for ditto,--    8   0    0      --   1   6   0
Butter for ditto,--  --    1   0    0      --   3  12   0
Pepper for ditto,--  --    0   0    0 1/2  --   0   1   1
Ginger for ditto,--  --    0   0    1      --   0   1   3
Onions for ditto,--  --    0   0   14      --   0   2   0
Salt for ditto,  --  --    0   0   24      --   0   0   8
Fuel, 4 bushels 2 pecks,                   --   0   3   4
  Time of boiling about four hours.

1193 Persons get 1           }
     pint of beer  Galls. p. }       Barrs.
     each, making   149   1  }Galls.      Galls.
  23 On the breast           } 151 is  3  31    2   5   3
---- get no beer.            }
1216                         }
     Allowed for             }
       waste,  --     1   7  }

Bread to Incurables and Children on the
breast, 43 loaves,--  --  --  --  --  --  --     1  15   4
                                               -----------
                                Total      L.   12  13   5

                        SUPPER.

The same number of Women and Children as on
Saturday, and cost the same: viz.  19s 11d.

N.B. All these accounts are in avoirdupois weight,
and Irish money.


APPENDIX, No IX.

  An Account of an EXPERIMENT made (under the Direction of the
  AUTHOR) in the Kitchen of the HOUSE of INDUSTRY at DUBLIN,
  in COOKING  for the POOR.

May the 6th, 1796, a dinner was provided for 927 persons of
Calecannon, a kind of food in great repute in Ireland, composed
of Potatoes, boiled and mashed, mixed with about one-fifth of
their weight of boiled Greens, cut fine with sharp shovels, and
seasoned with butter, onions, salt, pepper, and ginger. The
ingredients were boiled in a very large iron boiler, of a
circular, or rather hemispherical form, capable of containing
near 400 gallons, and remarkably thick and heavy.  273 gallons
of pump water were put into this boiler; and the following
Table will show, in a satisfactory manner, the progress and the
result of the experiment:


                       Heat      Contents of the Boiler
          Fuel laid    of the
 Time.      on Coals.    Liquid                     Quantity
        Pecks  Weight            Ingredients.     Gall.    lbs.
 7h 48m   4   106 lb.     55    Water to boil      273
 8h 15m   1    26 1/2           the Greens
    40m   1    26 1/2           and Potatoes
 9h  0m   1    26 1/2
    15m   2    53        80
    30m   1    26 1/2    90
    45m   2    53       110
10h  0m   1    26 1/2   150
    20m                 212    The Greens
                               were now put        295  1/2
                               in.
     2m                 180
    30m   1    26 1/2   190
    45m                 212
11h                            the Greens
                               taken out and      1615
                               Potatoes put
                               in.
11h 10m   2    53       180
    20m   1    26 1/2   200
    30m                 212
    45m                        Potatoes done.


GENERAL RESULTS of the EXPERIMENT.

The fuel used was Whitehaven coal: the  quantity 17 pecks,
weighing 450 1/2 lbs.

The potatoes being mashed, (without peeling them,) and the
greens chopped fine with a sharp shovel, they were mixed
together, and 98 lbs  of butter, 14 lbs. of onions boiled and
chopped fine, 40 lbs. of salt, 1 lb. of black pepper in powder,
and 1/2 lb. of ginger, being added, and the whole well mixed
together, this food was served out in portions of 1 quart, or
about 2 lbs. each, in wooden noggins, holding each 1 quart when
full.

Each of these portions of Calecannon (as this food is called in
Ireland) served one person for  dinner and supper; and each
portion cost about 2 1/14 pence, Irish money, or it cost
something less than ONE PENNY sterling per pound.

Twelve pence sterling, make thirteen pence Irish.

The expence (reckoned in Irish money) of preparing this food,
was as follows: viz.
                                               L.  s.  d.
Potatoes, 19 cwt. at 3s. 6d. per cwt.  --  --   3  6  6
(N.B.  They weighed no more than 1615 lbs.
 when picked and washed.)
Greens, 26 flaskets, at 10d. each, --  --  --   1  1 10
Butter, 98 lbs. at 72s. per cwt.   --  --  --   3  3  0
Onions, 14 lbs. at 2s. per stone,  --  --  --   0  2  0
Ginger, 1/2 lbs.   --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  1  3
Salt, 40 lbs.  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  1  1
Pepper, 1 lb.  --  --  --  --  --  --  --  --   0  1  1
                                              ---------
                                           L.   7 16  9

Expence for fuel, 17 pecks of coal,
at 1L. 3s. 3d. per ton,     --  --  -- --  --   0  3  2 1/2
                                              -------------
                                     Total L.   7 19 11 1/2

With this kind of food there is no allowance of bread, nor is
any necessary.

It would be hardly possible to invent a more nourishing or more
palatable kind of food, than Calecannon, as it is made in Ireland;
but the expence of it might be considerably diminished, by
using less butter in preparing it.

Salted herrings (which do not in general cost much more than a
penny the pound) might be used with great advantage to give it
a relish, particularly when a small proportion of butter is used.

In this experiment, 273 gallons of water, weighing about 2224 lbs.
avoirdupois, and being at the temperature of 55 degrees,
was made to boil, (in two hours and 32 minutes,) with the
combustion of 346 1/2 lbs. of coal; which gives rather less
than 6 1/2 lbs. of water, to each pound of coal consumed;
the water being heated 157 degrees, or from 55 to 212 degrees.

According to my experiments, 20 lbs. of water may be heated
180 degrees, (namely from 32 degrees the freezing point,
to 212 degrees the temperature of boiling water,) with the
heat generated in the combustion of 1 lb. of pine-wood;
consequently, the same  quantity of wood (1 lb.) would heat
23 lb. of water 157 degrees, or from 55 to 212 degrees.

But M. Lavoisier has shown us by his experiments, that the
quantity of heat generated in the combustion of any given
weight of coal, is greater than that generated in the combustion
of the same weight of dry wood, in the proportion of 1089 to 600;
consequently, 1 lb. of coal ought to make 40 3/4 lbs. of water,
at the temperature 55 degrees, boil.

But in the foregoing experiment, 1 lb. of coal was consumed in
making 6 1/2 lbs. of water boil;  consequently, more than 5/6
of the heat generated, or which might with proper management
have been generated in the combustion of the coal, was lost,
owing to the bad construction of the boiler and of the
fire-place.

Had the construction of the boiler and of the fire-place been
as perfect as they were in my experiments, a quantity of fuel
would have been sufficient, smaller than that actually used, in
the proportion of 6 1/2 to 40 3/4, or instead of 450 1/2 lbs.
of coal, 71 3/4 lbs. would have done the business; and,
instead of costing 3s. 2 1/2d., they would have cost less than
6 1/4 Irish money, or 5 3/4d. sterling, which is only about
1/3 per cent. of the cost of the ingredients used in preparing
the food, for the expence of fuel for cooking it.

These computations may serve to show, that I did not exaggerate,
when I gave it as my opinion, (in my Essay on Food,) that the
expence for the fuel necessary to be employed in cooking ought
never to exceed, even in this country, TWO PER CENT. of the
value of the ingredients of which the food is composed; that is
to say, when kitchen fire-places are well constructed.

Had the ingredients used in this experiment, viz.

              2234  lbs. of water
              1615  lbs. of potatoes,
                98  lbs. of butter,
                14  lbs. of onions,
                40  lbs. of salt,
                 1  lb. of pepper, and
                 0 1/2  lb. of ginger,
             ------
making in all 3992 1/2 lbs., been made into a soup, instead of
being made into Calecannon, this, at 1 1/4 lb. (equal to one
pint and a quarter), the portion would have served to feed 3210
persons.

But if I can show, that in Ireland, where all the coals they
burn are imported from England, a good and sufficient meal of
victuals for 3210 persons may be provided with the expence of
only 5 3/4d. for the fuel necessary to cook it; I trust that
the account I ventured to publish in my first Essay, of the
expence for fuel in the kitchen of the Military Workhouse at
Munich, namely, that it did not amount to so much as 4 1/2d.
a day, when 1000 persons were fed, will no longer appear quite
so incredible, as it certainly must appear to those who are not
aware of the enormous waste which is made of fuel in the
various processes in which it is employed.

I shall think myself very fortunate, if what I have done in the
prosecution of these my favourite studies, should induce
ingenious men to turn their attention to the investigation of a
science, hitherto much neglected, and where every new
improvement must tend directly and powerfully to increase the
comforts and enjoyments of mankind.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

Footnotes for Essay V.

[1]
The number of horses in Bavaria alone amount to above 160,000

[2]
A particular account of these military posts is given in the
Second Chapter of the First Essay.

[3]
Suffice it to mention one among numberless facts, which might
be brought to prove these assertions: The Beggars of our
capital carry on an increasing and very lucrative trade, with
confessional and communion testimonials, which they sell to
people who daringly transgress the holy ecclesiastical laws,
by neglecting to confess and receive the holy sacrament of the
Lord's Supper at Easter.  Some of these impious wretches
receive the sacrament, at least twice in a day, in order not to
lose their customers; if the demands for communion testimonials
are great, or come late.----Ye priests and preachers of the
gospel, can you still forbear raising your voices against Beggars?

[4]
To these the President of the Chamber of Finances has since been added.

[5]
Since the year 1792 the Elector, to relieve the Institution
from that  burden, has ordered the police guards to be paid out
of the Public  Treasury of the Chamber of Finances.

[6]
The Bavarian pound which was used in these experiments,
and which is divided into 32 loths, is to the pound Avoirdupois
as 12,384 is to 10,000,--or nearly as 5 to 4.

This the end of Volume 1 of Count Rumford's Essays

***Etext editors notes follow...
Some modernizations of old spellings have been applied, these are:

show for shew
showed for shewed
showing for shewing
shown for shewn
increased for encreased;
economical for oeconomical
crowded for crouded
control for controul

Appendix III contains a table that originally appeared landscape
across a number of pages.

I have split this into two, so it will fit comfortable across a
normal display screen.  I have however added letters to match the
two parts together.  Also as the concept of pages does not apply,
the various 'Carried forward' and 'Brought over totals' have been
omitted.


***End of Etext editor's notes.





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