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´╗┐Title: The Great Doctrines of the Bible
Author: Evans, William
Language: English
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THE GREAT DOCTRINES OF THE BIBLE

By REV. WILLIAM EVANS, Ph.D., D.D.



DEDICATED TO MY WIFE



CONTENTS



THE DOCTRINE OF GOD

THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST

THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

THE DOCTRINE OF MAN

THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION

Repentance--Faith--Regeneration--Justification--Adoption--
Sanctification--Prayer

THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH

THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES

THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS

THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN

THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS

The Second Coming of Christ--The Resurrection--The Judgment--The
Destiny of the Wicked--The Reward of the Righteous



FOREWORD.



The demand for this book has come from the students in the class
room who have listened to these lectures on the Great Doctrines
of the Bible, and have desired and requested that they be put into
permanent form for the purpose of further study and reference. This
volume is prepared, therefore, primarily, but not exclusively, for
the student, and with his needs in mind.

The doctrines herein treated are dealt with from the standpoint of
Biblical rather than Dogmatic theology. This is evident from the
plan which is followed in the work, namely, to gather together all
the Scripture passages dealing with the subject under consideration,
and from them choose a required number that may be called representative;
then seek to understand the meaning of these references by the study
of the text itself as well as its context and parallel passages;
and finally, from the selected proof-texts, formulate the doctrinal
teaching, and place such results under appropriate headings.

The doctrines of God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit are more
fully dealt with than the doctrines which follow. This is especially
true of the doctrine of God. The reason for this is to set forth
the method pursued in these studies, and to give a pattern for the
study of the doctrines to follow.

It is intended that the doctrines of this book should be studied
side by side with the open Bible. It is for this reason that many
of the Scripture references are indicated by chapter and verse
only. There must be constant reference to the Scriptures themselves.

This volume is in such form as to be of great service in the
instruction given in Bible classes. There is probably no greater
need in the Christian church today than that its membership should
be made acquainted with the fundamental facts and doctrines of
the Christian faith. The Christian layman, therefore, who desires
a deeper knowledge of the doctrines of the Christian faith may find
all the help he needs in this book. It is hoped that while it is
prepared for the student, it is nevertheless not too deep for the
average layman.

The special indebtedness of the writer is hereby expressed to the
following works: "What the Bible Teaches," by R. A. Torrey, D. D.
To this work the writer owes much with regard to the method and
plan of this book. "Systematic Theology," by A. H. Strong, D. D.,
has provided some rich expositions of the sacred text. "Christian
Doctrine," by Dr. F. L. Patton, has been found very helpful,
especially in connection with the subject of the "Proofs for the
Existence of God." Further recognition of indebtedness is also
due to the following: "The Problem of the Old Testament," and "The
Christian View of God and the World," by Dr. James Orr; "Studies
in Christian Doctrine," by George Knapp; "Jesus and the Gospel,"
and "The Death of Christ," by Prof. James Denny; "The Person and
Work of Jesus," by Nathan E. Wood, D. D.

There are doubtless others to whom credit is due of whom the author
is not at this time conscious, for, after all, we are "part of all
that we have seen, and met, and read." To those unknown authors,
therefore, our indebtedness is hereby acknowledged.

_Chicago._ WILLIAM EVANS.



THE DOCTRINE OF GOD



I. THE EXISTENCE OF GOD: (Vs. Atheism).

   1. ASSUMED BY THE SCRIPTURES.
   2. PROOFS OF THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.
      a) Universal belief in the Existence of God.
      b) Cosmological:--Argument from Cause.
      c) Teleological:--Argument from Design.
      d) Ontological:--Argument from Being.
      e) Anthropological:--Moral Argument.
      f) Argument from Congruity.
      g) Argument from Scripture.

II. THE NATURE OF GOD: (Vs. Agnosticism)

   1. THE SPIRITUALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Materialism).
   2. THE PERSONALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Pantheism).
   3. THE UNITY OF GOD: (Vs. Polytheism).
   4. THE TRINITY: (Vs. Unitarianism).

III. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD.

   1. THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES:
      a) Omniscience.
      b) Omnipotence.
      c) Omnipresence.
      d) Eternity.

   2. THE MORAL ATTRIBUTES:
      a) Holiness.
      b) Righteousness.
      c) Faithfulness.
      d) Mercy and Loving-kindness.
      e) Love.



I. HIS EXISTENCE.

1. TAKEN FOR GRANTED BY THE SCRIPTURE WRITERS:

It does not seem to have occurred to any of the writers of either
the Old or the New Testaments to attempt to prove or to argue for
the existence of God. Everywhere and at all times it is a fact
taken for granted. "A God capable of proof would be no God at all"
(Jacobi). He is the self-existent One (Exod. 3:14) and the Source
of all life (John 5:26).

The sublime opening of the Scriptures announces the fact of God and
His existence: "In the beginning God" (Gen. 1:1). Nor is the rise
or dawn of the idea of God in the mind of man depicted. Psa. 14:1:
"The fool hath said in his heart. There is no God," indicates not
a disbelief in the existence, but rather in the active interest
of God in the affairs of men--He seemed to hide Himself from the
affairs of men (See Job 22:12-14).

The Scriptures further recognize that men not only know of the
existence of God, but have also a certain circle of ideas as to
who and what He is (Rom. 1:18-19).

No one but a "fool" will deny the fact of God. "What! no God? A
watch, and no key for it? A watch with a main-spring broken, and
no jeweler to fix it? A watch, and no repair shop? A time-card and
a train, and nobody to run it? A star lit, and nobody to pour oil
in to keep the wick burning? A garden, and no gardener? Flowers,
and no florist? Conditions, and no conditioner?" He that sitteth
in the heavens shall laugh at such absurd atheism.

2. THE ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD.

[Footnote: A fuller and complete presentation of these arguments
for the Existence of God may be found in the works of Dr. Augustus
H. Strong and Dr. Francis L. Patten, to whom the author is here
indebted.]

These arguments may not prove conclusively that God is, but they
do show that in order to the existence of any knowledge, thought,
reason, conscience in man, we must assume that God is (Strong).
It is said of the beautiful, "It may be shown, but not proved." So
we say of the existence of God. These arguments are probable, not
demonstrative. For this reason they supplement each other, and
constitute a series of evidences which is cumulative in its nature.
Though taken singly, none of them can be considered absolutely
decisive, they together furnish a corroboration of our primitive
conviction of God's existence, which is of great practical value,
and is in itself sufficient to bind the moral actions of men. A
bundle of rods may not be broken even though each one separately
may; the strength of the bundle is the strength of the whole. If in
practical affairs we were to hesitate to act until we have absolute
and demonstrable certainty, we should never begin to move at all.

Instead of doubting everything that can be doubted, let us rather
doubt nothing until we are compelled to doubt.

Dr. Orr, of Glasgow, says: What we mean by the proof of God's
existence is simply that there are necessary acts of thought by
which we rise from the finite to the infinite, from the caused to
the uncaused, from the contingent to the necessary, from the reason
involved in the structure of the universe to a universal and eternal
reason, which is the ground of all, from morality in conscience
to a moral Lawgiver and Judge. In this connection the theoretical
proofs constitute an inseparable unity--'constitute together,'
as Dr. Stirling declares, "but the undulations of a single wave,
which wave is but a natural rise and ascent to God, on the part of
man's own thought, with man's own experience and consciousness as
the object before him."

Religion was not produced by proofs of God's existence, and will not
be destroyed by its insufficiency to some minds. Religion existed
before argument; in fact, it is the preciousness of religion that
leads to the seeking for all possible confirmations of the reality
of God.

a) Universality of Belief in the Existence of God.

(1) The fact stated and proven:

Man everywhere believes in the existence of a supreme Being or
Beings to whom he is morally responsible and to whom propitiation
needs to be made.

Such belief may be crudely, even grotesquely stated and manifested,
but the reality of the fact is no more invalidated by such crudeness
than the existence of a father is invalidated by the crude attempts
of a child to draw a picture of its father.

It has been claimed by some that there are or were tribes in
inland Africa that possessed no idea or conception of God. Moffat,
Livingstone's father-in-law, made such a claim, but Livingstone,
after a thorough study of the customs and languages of such tribes,
conclusively showed that Moffat was wrong.

Nor should the existence of such few tribes, even if granted, violate
the fact we are here considering, any more than the existence of
some few men who are blind, lame, deaf, and dumb would make untrue
the statement and fact that man is a seeing, hearing, speaking,
and walking creature. The fact that some nations do not have the
multiplication table does no violence to arithmetic.

Concerning so-called atheists in Christian lands: it may be
questioned if there are really any such beings. Hume, known as a
famous sceptic, is reported to have said to Ferguson, as together they
looked up into the starry sky: "Adam, there is a God." Voltaire,
the atheist, prayed to God in a thunderstorm. Ingersoll, when
charged with being an atheist, indignantly refuted the charge,
saying: "I am not an atheist; I do not say that there is no God;
I am an agnostic; I do not know that there is a God." "I thank God
that I am an atheist," were the opening words of an argument to
disprove the existence of God. A new convert to atheism was once
heard to say to a coterie of unbelievers: "I have gotten rid of
the idea of a supreme Being, and I thank God for it."

(2) Whence comes this universal belief in the existence of God?

aa) _Not from outside sources_, such as reason, tradition, or
even the Scriptures.

_Not from reason or argument_, for many who believe in God
have not given any time to reasoning and arguing the question; some,
indeed, intellectually, could not. Others who have great powers
of intellect, and who have reasoned and argued on the subject are
professed disbelievers in God. Belief in God is not the result of
logical arguments, else the Bible would have given us proofs.

_Nor did this universal belief come from tradition_, for
"Tradition," says Dr. Patton, "can perpetuate only what has been
originated."

_Nor can it be said that this belief came from the Scriptures
even_, for, as has been well said, unless a man had a knowledge
of the God from whom the Scriptures came, the Revelation itself
could have no authority for him. The very idea of Scripture as a
Revelation, presupposes belief in a God who can make it.--_Newman
Smith_. Revelation must assume the existence of God.

bb) _This universal belief comes from within man._

All the evidence points to the conclusive fact that this universal
faith in the existence of God is innate in man, and comes from
rational intuition.

(3) The weight and force of this argument.

The fact that all men everywhere believe in the existence of a
supreme Being or beings to whom they are morally responsible, is a
strong argument in favor of its truth. So universal an effect must
have a cause as universal, otherwise we have an effect without any
assignable cause. Certain is it that this argument makes the burden
of proof to rest upon those who deny the existence of God.

b) The Argument from Cause: Cosmological.

When we see a thing we naturally ask for the cause of that thing.
We see this world in which we live, and ask how it came to be. Is
it self-originating, or is the cause of its being outside of itself?
Is its cause finite or infinite?

That it could not come into being of itself seems obvious; no more
than nails, brick, mortar, wood, paints, colors, form into a house
or building of themselves; no more than the type composing a book
came into order of itself. When Liebig was asked if he believed
that the grass and flowers which he saw around him grew by mere
chemical forces, he replied: "No; no more than I could believe that
the books on botany describing them could grow by mere chemical
forces." No theory of an "eternal series" can account for this
created universe. No matter how long a chain you may have, you
must have a staple somewhere from which it depends. An endless
perpendicular chain is an impossibility. "Every house is builded
by some man," says the Bible; so this world in which we live was
built by a designing mind of infinite power and wisdom.

So is it when we consider man. Man exists; but he owes his existence
to some cause. Is this cause within or without himself, finite or
infinite? Trace our origin back, if you will, to our first parent,
Adam; then you must ask, How did he come into being? The doctrine
of the eternity of man cannot be supported. Fossil remains extend
back but 6,000 years. Man is an effect; he has not always existed.
Geology proves this. That the first Cause must have been an intelligent
Being is proven by the fact that we are intelligent beings ourselves.

c) The Argument from Design: Teleological.

A watch proves not only a maker, an artificer, but also a designer;
a watch is made for a purpose. This is evident in its structure.
A thoughtful, designing mind was back of the watch. So is it with
the world in which we live. These "ends" in nature are not to he
attributed to "natural results," or "natural selection," results
which are produced without intelligence, nor are they "the survival
of the fittest," instances in which "accident and fortuity have
done the work of mind." No, they are the results of a superintending
and originating intelligence and will.

d) The Argument from Being: Ontological.

Man has an idea of an infinite and perfect Being. From whence this
idea? From finite and imperfect beings like ourselves? Certainly
not. Therefore this idea argues for the existence of an infinite
and perfect Being: such a Being must exist, as a person, and not
a mere thought.

e) The Moral Argument; Anthropological.

Man has an intellectual and a moral nature, hence his Creator must
be an intellectual and moral Being, a Judge, and Lawgiver. Man has
an emotional nature; only a Being of goodness, power, love, wisdom
and holiness could satisfy such a nature, and these things denote
the existence of a personal God.

Conscience in man says: "Thou shalt," and "Thou shalt not," "I
ought," and "I ought not." These mandates are not self-imposed. They
imply the existence of a Moral Governor to whom we are responsible.
Conscience,--there it is in the breast of man, an ideal Moses
thundering from an invisible Sinai the Law of a holy Judge. Said
Cardinal Newman: "Were it not for the voice speaking so clearly in
my conscience and my heart, I should be an atheist, or a pantheist,
when I looked into the world." Some things are wrong, others
right: love is right, hatred is wrong. Nor is a thing right because
it pleases, or wrong because it displeases. Where did we get this
standard of right and wrong? Morality is obligatory, not optional.
Who made is obligatory? Who has a right to command my life? We must
believe that there is a God, or believe that the very root of our
nature is a lie.

f) The Argument from Congruity.

If we have a key which fits all the wards of the lock, we know that
it is the right key. If we have a theory which fits all the facts
in the case, we know then that we have the right theory. "Belief
in a self-existent, personal God is in harmony with all the facts
of our mental and moral nature, as well as with all the phenomena
of the natural world. If God exists, a universal belief in his
existence is natural enough; the irresistible impulse to ask for
a first cause is accounted for; or religious nature has an object;
the uniformity of natural law finds an adequate explanation, and
human history is vindlcated from the charge of being a vast imposture.
Atheism leaves all these matters without an explanation, and makes,
not history alone, but our moral and intellectual nature itself,
an imposture and a lie."--_Patton_.

g) The Argument from Scripture.

A great deal of our knowledge rests upon the testimony of others.
Now the Bible is competent testimony. If the testimony of travelers
is enough to satisfy us as to the habits, customs, and manners of
the peoples of the countries they visit, and which we have never
seen, why is not the Bible, if it is authentic history, be enough
to satisfy us with its evidence as to the existence of God?

Some facts need more evidence than others, we know. This is true
of the fact of the existence of God. But the Bible history is
sufficient to satisfy every reasonable demand. The history of the
Jews, prophecy, is not explainable minus God. If we cannot believe
in the existence of God on the testimony of the Bible we might
as well burn our books of history. A man cannot deny the truth of
the testimony of the Bible unless he says plainly: "No amount of
testimony will convince me of the supernatural."

Scripture does not attempt to prove the existence of God; it asserts,
assumes, and declares that the knowledge of God is universal, Rom.
1:19-21, 28, 33; 2:15. It asserts that God has wrought this great
truth in the very warp and woof of every man's being, so that
nowhere is He without this witness. The preacher may, therefore,
safely follow the example of the Scripture in assuming that there
is a God. Indeed he must unhesitatingly and explicitly assert it as
the Scripture does, believing that "His eternal power and divinity"
are things that are clearly seen and perceived through the evidences
of His handiwork which abound on every hand.

II. THE NATURE OF GOD: (Vs. Agnosticism).

1. THE SPIRITUALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Materialism). "GOD IS SPIRIT."

a) Statement of the Fact, John 4:24: "God is Spirit."

Meaning: The Samaritan woman's question, "Where is God to be found?"
etc. On Mt. Zion or Gerizim? Christ's answer: God is not to be
confined to any one place (cf. Acts 7:48; 17:25, 1 Kings 8:27). God
must be worshipped _in spirit_ as distinguished from place,
form, or other sensual limitations (4:21); and _in truth_
as distinguished from false conceptions resulting from imperfect
knowledge (4:22).

b) Light on "God is Spirit," from other Scriptures.

Luke 24:39: "A spirit hath not flesh and bones," i. e., has not
body, or parts like human beings; incorporeal; not subject to human
limitations.

Col. 1:15: "The image of the invisible God."

1 Tim. 1:17 (R. V.): "Now unto the King incorruptible, invisible."

These passages teach that God has nothing of a material or bodily
nature. Sight sees only objects of the material world, but God is
not of the nature of the material world, hence He cannot be seen
with the material eye--at least not now.

c) Light Derived from Cautions Against Representing God by Graven
Images:

Deut. 4:15-23; Isa. 40:25; Exod. 20:4. Study these passages carefully
and note that the reason why images were forbidden was because no
one had ever seen God, and consequently could not picture how He
looked, and, further, there was nothing on the earth that could
resemble Him.

d) Definition of "God is Spirit" in the Light of All This:

God is invisible, incorporeal, without parts, without body,
without passions, and therefore free from all limitations; He is
apprehended not by the senses, but by the soul; hence God is above
sensuous perceptions. 1 Cor. 2:6-16 intimates that without the
teaching of God's Spirit we cannot know God. He is not a material
Being. "LaPlace swept the heavens with his telescope, but could
not find anywhere a God. He might just as well have swept a kitchen
with his broom." Since God is not a material Being, He cannot be
apprehended by physical means.

e) Questions and Problems with Reference to the Statement that "God
is Spirit."

(1) 'What is meant by statement that man was made "in the image of
God"?

Col 3:10; Eph. 4:24 declare that this "image" consists in "righteousness,
knowledge, and holiness of truth." By that is meant that the image
of God in man consisted in intellectual and moral likeness rather
than physical resemblance. Some think that 1 Thess. 5:23 indicates
that the "trinity of man"--body, soul, and spirit--constitutes that
image and likeness.

(2) What is meant by the anthropomorphic expressions used of God?

For example: God is said to have hands, feet, arms, eyes, ears He
sees, feels, hears, walks, etc. Such expressions are to be understood
only in the sense of being human expressions used in order to bring
the infinite within the comprehension of the finite. How otherwise
could we understand God saving by means of human expressions, in
figures that we all can understand!

(3) How are such passages as Exod. 24:10 and 33:18-23 in which it is
distinctly stated that men saw the God of Israel, to be reconciled
with such passages as John 1:18; "No man hath seen God at any time,"
and Exod. 33:20: "There shall no man see me and live"?

Answer:

_aa) Spirit can be manifested in visible form:_

John 1:32: "I saw tho Spirit descending from heaven like a dove
(or in the form of a dove)." So throughout the ages the invisible
God has manifested Himself in visible form. (See Judges 6:34: The
Spirit of the Lord clothed Himself with Gideon.)

_bb) On this truth is based the doctrine of "The Angel of the
Lord"_

in the Old Testament: Gen 16:7, 10, 13. Note here how the Angel of
the Lord is identified with Jehovah Himself, cf. vv. 10, 13. Also
Gen. 22:12--"The angel of the Lord.... not withheld from _me_."
In 18:1-16, one of the three angels clearly and definitely identifies
himself with Jehovah. Compare chapter 19, where it is seen that
only two of the angels have come to Sodom; the other has remained
behind. "Who was this one, this remaining angel? Gen.18:17, 20
answers the question; v. 22 reads: "And Abraham stood yet before
the Lord. In Exod. 13:21 it is _Jehovah_, while in 14:19 it
is the Angel that went before Israel. Thus was the way prepared for
the incarnation, for the Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament is
undoubtedly the second person of the Trinity. This seems evident
from Judges 13:18 compared with Isa. 9:6, in both of which passages,
clearly referring to Christ, the name "Wonderful" occurs. Also the
omission of the definite article "the" from before the expression
"the Angel of the Lord," and the substitution of "an" points to
the same truth. This change is made in the Revised Version.

cc) _What was it then that the elders of Israel saw when it is
said they saw the "God of Israel"?_

Certainly it was not God in His real essence, God as He is in
Himself, for no man can have that vision and live. John 1:18 is
clear on that point: "No man hath seen God at any time." The emphasis
in this verse is on the word "God," and may read, "GOD no one has
seen at any time." In 5:37 Jesus says: "Ye have neither heard his
voice at any time, nor seen his shape." From This it seems clear
that the "seeing" here, the which has been the privilege of no man,
refers to the essence rather than to the person of God, if such
a distinction can really be made. This is apparent also from the
omission of the definite article before God, as well as from the
position of God in the sentence. None but the Son has really seen
God as God, as He really is. What, then, did these men see?

Evidently an _appearance_ of God in some form to their outward
senses; perhaps the form of a man, seeing mention is made of his
"feet." The vision may have been too bright for human eyes to gaze
upon fully, but it was _a_ vision of God. Yet it was only a
manifestation of God, for, although Moses was conversing with God,
he yet said: "If I have found grace in thy sight, show me thy face."
Moses had been granted exceeding great and precious privileges in
that he had been admitted into close communion with God, more so
than any other member of the human race. But still unsatisfied he
longed for more; so in v. 18 he asks to see the unveiled glory of
God, that very thing which no man in the flesh can ever see and
live; but, no, this cannot be. By referring to Exod. 33:18-23 we
find God's answer: "Thou canst not see my face.... thou shalt see
my back parts, but my face shall not be seen." (Num. 12:8 throws
light upon the subject, if compared with Exod. 33:11.)

"The secret remained unseen; the longing unsatisfied; and the
nearest approach to the beatific vision reached by him with whom
God spake face to face, as friend with friend, was to be hidden in
the cleft of the rock, to be made aware of an awful shadow, and to
hear the voice of the unseen."

2. THE PERSONALITY OF GOD: (Vs. Pantheism).

Pantheism maintains that this universe in its ever changing conditions
is but the manifestation of the one ever changing universal substance
which is God; thus all, everything is God, and God is everything;
God is all, all is God. Thus God is identified with nature and not
held to be independent of and separate from it. God is, therefore,
a necessary but an unconscious force working in the world.

The Bearing of the Personality of God on the Idea of Religion.

True religion may be defined as the communion between two persons:
God and man. religion is a personal relationship between God in
heaven, and man on the earth. If God were not a person there could
be no communion; if both God and man were one there could be no
communion, and, consequently, no religion. An independent personal
relationship on both sides is absolutely necessary to communion.
Man can have no communion with an influence, a force, an impersonal
something; nor can an influence have any moving or affection towards
man. It is absolutely necessary to the true definition of religion
that both God and man be persons. God is person, not force or
influence.

a) Definition of Personality.

Personality exists where there is intelligence, mind, will,
reason, individuality, self-consciousness, and self-determination.
There must be not mere consciousness--for the beast has that--but
_self_-consciousness. Nor is personality determination--for the
beast has this, too, even though this determination be the result
of influences from without--but _self_-determination, the power
by which man from an act of his own free will determines his acts
from within.

Neither corporeity nor substance, as we understand these words,
are necessarily, if at all, involved in personality. There may be
true personality without either or both of these.

b) Scripture Teaching on the Personality of God.

(In this connection it will Be well to refer to the Ontological
Argument for the Existence of God, for which see p. 17.)

(1) Exod 3:14;--"I AM THAT I AM."

This name is wonderfully significant. Its central idea is that of
existence and personality. The words signify "I AM, I WAS, I SHALL
BE," so suggestively corresponding with the New Testament statement
concerning God: "Who wast, and art, and art to come."

All the names given to God in the Scripture denote personality.
Here are some of them:

Jehovah--Jireh: The Lord will provide (Gen. 22:13, 14).

Jehovah-Rapha: The Lord that healeth (Exod. 15:26).

Jehovah-Nissi: The Lord our Banner (Exod. 17:8-15).

Jehovah-Shalom: The Lord our Peace (Judges 6:24).

Jehovah-Ra-ah: The Lord my Shepherd (Psa. 23:1).

Jehovah-Tsidkenu: The Lord our Righteousness (Jer. 23:6).

Jehovah-Shammah: The Lord is present (Ezek. 48:35).

Moreover, the personal pronouns ascribed to God prove personality:
John 17:3, et al. "To know thee"--we cannot know an influence in
the sense in which the word know is here used. _Statement:_
All through the Scriptures names and personal pronouns are ascribed
to God which undeniably prove that God is a Person.

(2) A sharp distinction is drawn in the Scriptures between the gods
of heathen and the Lord God of Israel (See Jer. 10:10-16).

Note the context: vv. 3-9: Idols are things, not persons; they
cannot walk, speak, do good or evil. God is wiser than the men who
made these idols; if the idol-makers are persons, much more is God.

See the sharp contrast drawn between dead idols and the living,
personal, true and only God: Acts 14:15; 1 Thess. 1:9; Psa. 94:9,
10.

_Statement:_ God is to be clearly distinguished from things
which have no life; he is a living Person.

(3) Attributes of personality are ascribed to God in the Scriptures.

God repents (Gen. 6:6}; grieves {Gen 6:6}; is angry {1 Kings 11:9);
is jealous (Deut. 6:15); loves (Rev. 3:19); hates (Prov. 6:16).

_Statement_: God possesses the attributes of personality, and
therefore is a Person.

(4) The relation which God bears to the Universe and to Men, as set
forth in the Scriptures, can be explained only on the basis that
God is a Person.

Deism maintains that God, while the Creator of the world, yet sustains
no further relations to it. He made it just as the clock-maker makes
a self-winding clock: makes it and then leaves it to run itself
without any interference on His part. Such teaching as this finds
no sanction in the Bible. What are God's relations to the universe
and to men?

_aa) He is the Creator of the Universe and Man._

Gen. 1:1, 26; John. 1:1-3. These verses contain vital truths. The
universe did not exist from eternity, nor was it made from existing
matter. It did not proceed as an emanation from the infinite, but
was summoned into being by the decree of God. Science, by disclosing
to us the marvellous power and accuracy of natural law, compels
us to believe in a superintending intelligence who is infinite.
Tyndall said: "I have noticed that it is not during the hours of my
clearness and vigor that the doctrine of material atheism commends
itself to my mind."

(In this connection the Arguments from Cause and Design, pp. 16
and 17, may be properly considered.)

_Statement_: The Creation of the Universe and Man proves the
Personality of the Creator--God.

_bb) God sustains certain relations to the Universe and Man which
He has made._

Heb 1:3--"Uphold all things." Col. 1:15-17--"By him all things hold
together." Psa. 104:27-30--All creatures wait upon Him for "their
meat in due season." Psa. 75:6, 7--"Promotion" among men, the
putting down of one man and the setting up of another, is from the
hand of God.

What do we learn from these scriptures regarding the relation of
God to this universe, to man, and to all God's creatures?

_First_. That all things are held together by Him; if not, this
old world would go to pieces quickly. The uniformity and accuracy
of natural law compels us to believe in a personal God who
intelligently guides and governs the universe. Disbelief in this
fact would mean utter confusion. Not blind chance, but a personal
God is at the helm.

_Second._ That the physical supplies for all God's creatures
are in His hand: He feeds them all. What God gives we gather. If
He withholds provision we die.

_Third._ That God has His hand in history, guiding and shaping
the affairs of nations. Victor Hugo said: "Waterloo was God."

_Fourth._ Consider with what detail God's care is described:
The sparrows, the lilies, the hairs of the head, the tears of His
children, etc. See how these facts are clearly portrayed in the
following scriptures: Matt. 6:28-30; 10:29, 30; Gen. 39:21, with
50:20; Dan. 1:9; Job 1:12.

_Statement:_ The personality of God is shown by His active,
interest and participation all things, even the smallest things,
in the universe, the experience of man, and in the life of all His
creatures.

THE UNITY OF GOD: (Vs. Polytheism).

There are three monotheistic religions in the world: Judaism,
Christianity, and Mahommedanism. The second is a development of
the first; the third is an outgrowth of both.

The doctrine of the Unity of God is held in contradistinction
to _Polytheism_, which is belief in a multiplicity of gods;
_Tri-theism_, which teaches that there are three Gods--that
is, that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are, specifically,
three distinct Gods; and to _Dualism_, which teaches that
there are two independent divine beings or eternal principles, the
one good, and the other evil, as set forth especially in Gnostic
systems, such as Parseeism.

a) The Scriptures Assert the Unity of God.

Deut. 6:4--"Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord"; or, "The
Lord our God, the Lord is one." Isa. 44:6-8--"First.... last....
beside me there is no God." Isa. 45:5--"There is none else,
there is no God beside me." 1 Tim. 2:5 "There is one God." 1 Cor.
8:4--"There is none other God but one."

That God is one, that there is no other, that He has no equal is
the forceful testimony of above fifty passages in the Scriptures.
The fundamental duty of life, namely, the devotion of the entire
being to the Lord, is based upon the Unity of God: "The Lord....is
one .... therefore thou shalt love the Lord thy God with _all_
thy heart," etc.

No other truth of the Scripture, particularly of the Old Testament,
receives more prominence than that of the Unity of God. This
truth is clearly pronounced also in the material universe; it is
the introduction and conclusion of all scientific researches. Any
other representation contradicts both creation and revelation. Its
denial is a proper object for the ridicule of every thinking man,
and of the disbelief of every orthodox Christian. Let this, then,
be our first and necessary conclusion--that Deity, whether creating,
inspiring, or otherwise manifesting itself, is one God; one, and
no more.--_Cerdo._

A multiplication of Gods is a contradiction; there can be but one
God. There can be but one absolutely perfect, supreme, and almighty
Being. Such a Being cannot be multiplied, nor pluralized. There
can be but one ultimate, but one all-inclusive, but one God.

Monotheism, then, not Tri-theism, is the doctrine set forth in the
Scriptures. "If the thought that wishes to be orthodox had less
tendency to become tri-theistic, the thought that claims to be free
would be less Unitarian."--_Moberly._

b) The Nature of the Divine Unity.

The doctrine of the Unity of God does not exclude the idea of
a plurality of persons in the Godhead. Not that there are three
persons in each person of the Godhead, if we use in both cases
the term _person_ in one and the same sense. We believe,
therefore, that there are three persons in the Godhead, but one
God. Anti-trinitarians represent the evangelical church as believing
in three Gods, but this is not true; it believes in one God, but
three persons in the Godhead.

(1) The Scriptural use of the word "One."

Gen. 2:24--"And they two (husband and wife) shall be one flesh."
Gen. 11:6--"The people is one." I Cor. 3:6-8--"He that planteth
and he that watereth are one." 12:13--"All baptized into one body."
John 17:22, 23--"That they may be one, even as we are one ... that
they may be made perfect in one."

The word "one" in these scriptures is used in a collective sense;
the unity here spoken of is a compound one, like unto that used in
such expressions as "a cluster of grapes," or "all the people rose
as one man." The unity of the Godhead is not simple but compound.
The Hebrew word for "one" (yacheed) in the absolute sense, and which
is used in such expressions as "the only one," is _never_ used
to express the unity of the Godhead. On the contrary, the Hebrew
word "echad," meaning "one" in the sense of a compound unity,
as seen in the above quoted scriptures, is the one used always to
describe the divine unity.

(2) The Divine Name "God" is a plural word; plural pronouns are
used of God.

The Hebrew word for God (Elohim) is used most frequently in the
plural form. God often uses plural pronouns in speaking of Himself,
e. g., Gen. 1:26--"Let _us_ make man." Isa. 6:8-"Who will go for
_us_?" Gen. 3:22--Behold, man is become as "one of _us_."

Some would say that the "us" in Gen. 1:26--"Let us make man," refers
to God's consultation with the angels with whom He takes counsel
before He does anything of importance; but Isa. 40:14--"But of
whom took he counsel," shows that such is not the case; and Gen.
1:27 contradicts this idea, for it repeats the statement "in the
image of God," not in the image of angels; also that "GOD created
man in HIS OWN image, in the image of God (not angels) created he
him." The "us" of Gen. 1:26, therefore, is properly understood of
plural majesty, as indicating the dignity and majesty of the speaker.
The proper translation of this verse should be not "let us make,"
but "we will make," indicating the language of resolve rather than
that of consultation.

4. THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY: (Vs. Unitarianism).

The doctrine of the Trinity is, in its last analysis, a deep mystery
that cannot be fathomed by the finite mind. That it is taught
in the Scripture, however, there can be no reasonable doubt. It
is a doctrine to be believed even though it cannot be thoroughly
understood.

a) The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Old Testament.

This doctrine is not so much declared as intimated in the Old
Testament. The burden of the Old Testament message seems to be the
unity of God. Yet the doctrine of the Trinity is clearly intimated
in a four-fold way:

First: In the plural names of the Deity; e. g., Elohim.

Second: Personal pronouns used of the Deity. Gen. 1:26; 11:7;
Isa.6:8.

Third: The Theophanies, especially the "Angel of the Lord." Gen.16
and 18.

Fourth: The work of the Holy Spirit. Gen. 1:2; Judges 6:34.

b) The Doctrine of the Trinity in the New Testament.

The doctrine of the Trinity is clearly taught in the New Testament;
it is not merely intimated, as in the Old Testament, but explicitly
declared. This is evident from the following:

First: The baptism of Christ: Matt 3:16, 17. Here the Father speaks
from heaven; the Son is being baptized in the Jordan; and the Spirit
descends in the form of a dove.

Second: In the Baptismal Formula: Matt. 28:19--"Baptizing them in
the name (sing.) of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost." Third: The Apostolic Benediction: 2 Cor. 13:14--"The grace
of our Lord Jesus Christ....love of God.....communion of the Holy
Ghost."

Fourth: Christ Himself teaches it in John 14:16--"_I_ will
pray the _Father_... He will give you another _Comforter_."

Fifth: The New Testaffignt sets forth:

A Father who is God, Rom. 1:7.
A son who is God, Heb. 1:8.
A Holy Spirit who is God, Acts 5:3, 4.

The whole is summed up in the words of Boardman: The Father is all
the fulness of the Godhead invisible, John 1:18; the Son is all
the fulness of Godhead manifested, John 1:4-18; the Spirit is all
the fulness of the Godhead acting immediately upon the creature,
1 Cor. 2:9, 10.

III. THE ATTRIBUTES OF GOD:

It is difficult to clearly distinguish between the attributes and
the nature of God. It is maintained by some that such a division
ought not to be made; that these qualities of God which we call
attributes are in reality part of His nature and essence. Whether
this be exactly so or not, our purpose in speaking of the attributes
of God is for convenience in the study of the doctrine of God.

It has been customary to divide the attributes of God into two classes:
the Natural, and the Moral. The Natural attributes are Omniscience,
Omnipotence, Omnipresence, Eternity; the Moral attributes: Holiness,
Righteousness, Faithfulness, Mercy and Loving-kindness, and Love.

1. THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES:

a) The Omniscience of God.

God Is a Spirit, and as such has knowledge. He is a perfect Spirit,
and as such has perfect knowledge. By Omniscience is meant that
God knows all things and is absolutely perfect in knowledge.

(1) Scriptures setting forth the fact of God's Omniscience.

_In general:_ Job 11:7, 8--"Canst thou by searching find
out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?" Job's
friends professed to have discovered the reason for his affliction,
for, forsooth, had they not found out the secrets of the divine
wisdom unto perfection. No, such is beyond their human, finite ken.
Isa. 40:28--"There is no searching of his understanding." Jacob's
captive condition might lead him to lose trust and faith in God.
But Jacob has not seen all God's plans--no man has. Job, 37:16--"The
wondrous works of him which is perfect in knowledge." Could Job
explain the wonders of the natural phenomena around him? Much less
the purposes and judgments of God. Psa. 147:5--"His understanding
is infinite." Of His understanding there is no number, no computation.
Israel is not lost sight of. He who can number and name and call
the stars is able also to call each of them by name even out of
their captivity. His knowledge is not to be measured by ours. 1 John
3:20--"God knoweth all things." Our hearts may pass over certain
things, and fail to see some things that should be confessed. God,
however, sees all things. Rom. 11:33--"How unsearchable are his
judgments and his ways past finding out." The mysterious purposes
and decrees of God touching man and his salvation are beyond all
human comprehension.

_In detail, and by way of illustration:_

_aa) His knowledge is absolutely comprehensive:_

Prov. 15:3--"The eyes of the Lord are in every place, keeping
watch upon the evil and the good." How could He reward and punish
otherwise? Not one single thing occurring in any place escapes His
knowledge. 5:21--"For the ways of man are before the eyes of the
Lord, and he pondereth all his goings." We may have habits hidden
from our fellow creatures, but not from God.

_ bb) God has a perfect knowledge of all that is in nature:_

Psa. 147:4--"He telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them
all by their names." Man cannot (Gen. 15:5). How, then, can Israel
say, "My way is hid from the Lord?" Cf. Isa. 40:26, 27. Matt.
10:29--"One ... sparrow shall not fall to the ground without your
Father." Much less would one of His children who perchance might
be killed for His name's sake, fall without His knowledge.

_cc) God has a perfect knowledge of all that transpires in human
experience:_

Prov. 5:21--"For the ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord,
and he pondereth all his goings." All a man's doings are weighed
by God. How this should affect his conduct! Psa. 139:2, 3--"Thou
knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my
thought afar off. Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and
art acquainted with all my ways." Before our thoughts are fully
developed, our unspoken sentences, the rising feeling in our hearts,
our activity, our resting, all that we do from day to day is known
and sifted by God. v. 4--"There is not a word in my tongue, but
lo, O Lord, thou knowest it altogether." Not only thoughts and
purposes, but words spoken, idle, good, or bad. Exod. 3:7--"I
have seen the affliction....heard the cry: know the sorrows of my
people which are in Egypt." The tears and grief which they dared
not show to their taskmasters, God saw and noted. Did God know
of their trouble in Egypt? It seemed to them as though He did not.
But He did. Matt. 10:29, 30--"But the very hairs of your head are
all numbered." What minute knowledge is this! Exod 3:19--"And I am
sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty
hand." Here is intimate knowledge as to what a single individual
will do. Isa. 48:18--"O that thou hadst harkened to my commandments!
then had thy peace have been as a river," etc. God knows what our
lives would have been if only we had acted and decided differently.

_dd) God has a perfect knowledge of all that transpires in human
history._

With what precision are national changes and destinies foretold
and depicted in Dan. 2 and 8! Acts 15:18--"Known unto God are all
his works from the beginning of the world (ages)." In the context
surrounding this verse are clearly set forth the religious changes
that were to characterize the generations to come, the which have
been so far literally, though not fully, fulfilled.

_ee) God knows--from, all eternity to all eternity what will take
place._

The ominiscience of God is abduced as the proof that He alone is
God, especially as contrasted with the gods (idols) of the heathen:
Isa. 48:5-8--"I have even from the beinning declared it unto thee;
before it came to pass I showed it thee.....I have showed thee
new things from this time, even hidden things," etc. 46:9, 10--"I
am God....declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient
times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall
stand, and I will do all my pleasure." Here God is announcing to
His prophets things that are to occur in the future which it is
impossible for the human understanding to know or reach. There is
no past, present, future with God. Everything is one great living
present. We are like a man standing by a river in a low place, and
who, consequently, can see that part of the river only that passes
by him; but he who is aloof in the air may see the whole course of
the river, how it rises, and how it runs. Thus is it with God.

(2) Certain problems in connection with the doctrine of the Omniscienc
of God.

How the divine intelligence can comprehend so vast and multitudinous
and exhaustless a number of things must forever surpass our
comprehension. "O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and
knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments, and his
ways past finding out!" (Rom. 11:33). "There is no searching of
his understanding; it is beyond human computation." We must expect,
therefore, to stand amazed in the presence of such matchless wisdom,
and find problems in connection therewith which must for the time,
at least, remain unsolved.

Again, we must not confound the foreknowledge of God with
His foreordination. The two things are, in a sense, distinct. The
fact that God foreknows a thing makes that thing certain but not
necessary. His foreordination is based upon His foreknowledge.
Pharaoh was responsible for the hardening of his heart even though
that hardening process was foreknown and foretold by God. The
actions of men are considered certain but not necessary by reason
of the divine foreknowledge.

b) The Omnipotence of God.

The Omnipotence of God is that attribute by which He can bring to
pass everything which He wills. God's power admits of no bounds
or limitations. God's declaration of His intention is the pledge
of the thing intended being carried out. "Hath he said, and shall
he not do it?"

(1) Scriptural declarations of the fact; In general:

Job 42:2.(R. V.)--"I know that thou canst do everything (all things),
and that no purpose of thine can be restrained." The mighty review
of all God's works as it passes before Job (context) brings forth
this confession: "There is no resisting thy might, and there is no
purpose thou canst not carry out." Gen. 18:14--"Is anything too
hard for the Lord?" What had ceased to be possible by natural means
comes to pass by supernatural means.

(2) Scriptural declaration of the fact; In detail:

_aa) In the world of nature:_

Gen. 1:1-3--"God created the heaven and the earth. And God said,
Let there be light, and there was light." Thus "he spake and it was
done. He commanded and it stood fast." He does not need even to give
His hand to the work; His word is sufficient. Psa. 107:25-29--"He
raiseth the stormy wind ... he maketh the storm calm." "Even the
winds and the sea obey him." God's slightest word, once uttered, is
a standing law to which all nature must absolutely conform. Nahum
1:5, 6--"The mountains quake at him ... the hills melt ... the
earth is burned at his presence ... the rocks are thrown down by
him." If such is His power how shall Assyria withstand it? This is
God's comforting message to Israel. Everything in the sky, in sea,
on earth is absolutely subject to His control.

_bb) In the experience of mankind:_

How wonderfully this is illustrated in the experience of Nebuchadnezzar,
Dan. 4; and in the conversion of Saul, Acts 9; as well as in the
case of Pharaoh, Exod. 4:11. James 4:12-15--" ... For that ye ought
to say, If the Lord will, we shall live and do this or that." All
human actions, whether present or future, are dependent upon the
will and power of God. These things are in God's, not in man's,
power. See also the parable of the Rich Fool, Luke 12:16-21.

_cc) The heavenly inhabitants are subject to His will and word:_

Dan. 4:35 (R. V.)--"He doeth according to his will in the army of
heaven." Heb. 1:14--"Are they (angels) not all ministering spirits,
sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation?"
It has been said that angels are beings created by the power of
God for some specific act of service, and that after that act of
service is rendered they pass out of existence.

_dd) Even Satan is under the control of God_

Satan has no power over any of God's children saving as God permits
him to have. This fact is clearly established in the case of Job
(1:12 and 2:6). and Peter (Luke 22:31,32), in which we are told
that Satan had petitioned God that he might sift the self-righteous
patriarch and the impulsive apostle. Finally Satan is to be forever
bound with a great chain (Rev. 20:2). God can set a bar to the
malignity of Satan just as he can set a bar to the waves of the
sea.

c) The Omnipresence of God.

By the Omnipresence of God is meant that God is everywhere
present. This attribute is closely connected with the omniscience
and omnipotence of God, for if God is everywhere present He is
everywhere active and possesses full knowledge of all that transpires
in every place.

This does not mean that God is everywhere present in a bodily sense,
nor even in the same sense; for there is a sense in which He may
be in heaven, His dwelling place, in which He cannot be said to be
elsewhere. We must guard against the pantheistic idea which claims
that God _is_ everything, while maintaining the Scriptural
doctrine that He is everywhere present in all things. Pantheism
emphasizes the omnipresent activity of God, but denies His
personality. Those holding the doctrine of pantheism make loud
claims to philosophic ability and high intellectual training, but
is it not remarkable that it is in connection with this very phase
of the doctrine of God that the Apostle Paul says "they became
fools"? (Rom. 1.) God is everywhere and in every place; His center
is everywhere; His circumference nowhere. But this presence is a
spiritual and not a material presence; yet it is a real presence.

(1) Scriptural statement of the fact.

Jer. 23:23, 24-"Am I a God at hand, saith the Lord, and not a God
afar off? Can any hide himself in secret places that I shall not
see him? saith the Lord. Do not I fill heaven and earth? saith
the Lord." Did the false prophets think that they could hide their
secret crimes from God? Or that He could not pursue them into
foreign countries? Or that He knew what was transpiring in heaven
only and not upon the earth, and even in its most distant corners?
It was false for them to thus delude themselves--their sins would
be detected and punished (Psa. 10:1-14).

Psa. 139:7-12--"Whither shall I go from thy Spirit, or whither shall
I flee from thy presence," etc. How wondrously the attributes of
God are grouped in this psalm. In vv. 1-6 the psalmist speaks of
the omniscience of God: God knows him through and through. In vv.
13-19 it is the omnipotence of God which overwhelms the psalmist.
The omnipresence of God is set forth in vv. 7-12. The psalmist
realizes that he is never out of the sight of God any more than
he is outside of the range of His knowledge and power. God is in
heaven; "Hell is naked before Him"; souls in the intermediate state
are fully known to Him (cf. Job 26:2; Jonah 2:2); the darkness is
as the light to Him. Job 22:12-14--"Is not God in the height of
heaven? . . . . Can he judge through the dark cloud? Thick clouds
are a covering to him that he seeth not," etc. All agreed that God
displayed His presence in the heaven, but Job had inferred from this
that God could not know and did not take notice of such actions of
men as were hidden behind the intervening clouds. Not that Job
was atheistic; no, but probably denied to God the attribute of
omnipresence and omniscience. Acts 17:24-28--"For in him we live,
and move, and have our being." Without His upholding hand we must
perish; God is our nearest environment. From these and many other
scriptures we are clearly taught that God is everywhere present
and acting; there is no place where God is not.

This does not mean that God is everywhere present in the same sense.
For we are told that He is in heaven, His dwelling-place (1 Kings
8:30); that Christ is at His right hand in heaven (Eph. 1:20);
that God's throne is in heaven (Rev. 21:2; Isa. 66:1).

We may summarize the doctrine of the Trinity thus: God the Father
is specially manifested in heaven; God the Son has been specially
manifested on the earth; God the Spirit is manifested everywhere.

Just as the soul is present in every part of the body so God is
present in every part of the world.

(2) Some practical inferences from this doctrine.

First, _of Comfort:_ The nearness of God to the believer.
"Speak to Him then for He listens. And spirit with spirit can meet;
Closer is He than breathing, And nearer than hands or feet."

"God is never so far off, As even to be near; He is within. Our
spirit is the home He holds most dear. To think of Him as by our
side is almost as untrue, As to remove His shrine beyond those
skies of starry blue."--_Faber._ The omnipresence is not only
a detective truth--it is protective also. After dwelling on this
great and awful attribute in Psalm 139, the psalmist, in vv. 17,
18, exclaims: "How precious are thy thoughts to me..... When I
awake I am still with thee." By this is meant that God stands by
our side to help, and as One who loves and understands us (Matt.
28:20).

Second, _of Warning:_ "As in the Roman empire the whole world
was one great prison to a malefactor, and in his flight to the most
distant lands the emperor could track him, so under the government
of God no sinner can escape the eye of the judge." Thus the
omnipresence of God is detective as well as protective. "Thou God
seest me," should serve as warning to keep us from sin.

d) The Eternity and Immutability of God.

The word _eternal_ is used in two senses in the Bible:
figuratively, as denoting existence which may have a beginning,
but will have no end, e. g., angels, the human soul; literally,
denoting an existence which has neither beginning nor ending,
like that of God. Time has past, present, future; eternity has
not. Eternity is infinite duration without any beginning, end, or
limit--an ever abiding present. We can conceive of it only as duration
indefinitely extended from the present moment in two directions--as
to the past and as to the future. "One of the deaf and dumb pupils
in the institution of Paris, being desired to express his idea
of the eternity of the Deity, replied: 'It is duration, without
beginning or end; existence, without bounds or dimension; present,
without past or future. His eternity is youth, without infancy or
old age; life, without birth or death; today, without yesterday or
tomorrow.'"

By the Immutability of God is meant that God's nature is absolute|y
unchangeable. It is not possible that He should possess one attribute
at one time that He does not possess at another. Nor can there be
any change in the Deity for better or for worse. God remains forever
the same. He is without beginning and without end; the self-existent
"I am"; He remains forever the same, and unchangeable.

(1) Scriptural statement of the fact: The Eternity of God

Hab. 1:12--"Art thou not from everlasting, O Lord my God, mine Holy
One?" Chaldea had threatened to annihilate Israel. The prophet
cannot believe it possible, for has not God _eternal_ purposes
for Israel? Is He not holy? How, then, can evil triumph? Psa.
90:2--"Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst
formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting,
thou art God." Short and transitory is the life of man; with God
it is otherwise. The perishable nature of man is here compared with
the imperishable nature of God. Psa. 102:24-27--"I said, O my God,
take me not away in the midst of my days: thy years are throughout
all generations. Of old thou hast laid the foundations of the earth:
and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but
thou shalt endure; yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment;
as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed.
But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end." With
the perishable nature of the whole material creation the psalmist
contrasts the imperishable nature of God. Exod. 3:14--"And God
said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM." The past, present and future lies
in these words for the name of Jehovah. Rev. 1:8--"I am Alpha and
Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and
which was, and which is to come, the Almighty."

(2) Scriptural statement of the Immutability of God:

Mal 3:6--"1 am the Lord, I change not." Man's hope lies in that
fact, as the context here shows Man had changed in his life and
purpose toward God, and if God, like man, had changed, man would
have been destroyed. James 1:17--"The Father of lights, with whom is
no variableness, neither shadow of turning." There is no change--in
the sense of the degree or intensity of light such as is manifested
in the heavenly bodies. Such lights are constantly varying
and changing; not so with God. There is no inherent, indwelling,
possible change in God. 1 Sam. 15:29.--"And also the Strength of
Israel will not lie nor repent: for he is not a man, that he should
repent." From these scriptures we assert that God, in His nature
and character, is absolutely without change.

Does God Repent?

What, then, shall we say with regard to such scriptures as Jonah
3:10 and Gen. 6:6--"And God repented of the evil, that he said he
would do unto them." "And it repented the Lord that he had made
man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart." In reply we may
say that God does not change, but threatens that men may change.
"The repentent attitude in God does not involve any real change in
the character and purposes of God. He ever hates the sin and ever
pities and loves the sinner; that is so both before and after
the sinner's repentance. Divine repentance is therefore the same
principle acting differently in altered circumstances. If the
prospect of punishment answers the same purpose as that intended
by the punishment itself, then there is no inconsistency in
its remission, for punishment is not an end, it is only a means
to goodness, to the reign of the law of righteousness." When God
appears to be displeased with anything, or orders it differently
from what we expected, we say, after the manner of men, that
He repents. God's attitude towards the Ninevites had not changed,
but they had changed; and because they had changed from sin unto
righteousness, God's attitude towards them and His intended dealings
with them as sinners must of necessity change, while, of course,
God's character had in no wise changed with respect to these
people, although His dealings with them had. So that we may say
that God's _character_ never changes, but His _dealings_
with men change as they change from ungodliness to godliness and
from disobedience unto obedience. "God's immutability is not that
of the stone, that has no internal experience, but rather that of
the column of mercury that rises and falls with every change in
the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere. When a man bicycling
against the wind turns about and goes with the wind instead of going
against it, the wind seems to change, although it is blowing just
as it was before." --_Strong_.

2. THE MORAL ATTRIBUTES.

a) The Holiness of God.

If there is any difference in importance in the attributes of God,
that of His Holiness seems to occupy the first place. It is, to
say the least, the one attribute which God would have His people
remember Him by more than any other. In the visions of Himself
which God granted men in the Scriptures the thing that stood out
most prominent was the divine holiness. This is clearly seen by
referring to the visions of Moses, Job, and Isaiah. Some thirty
times does the Prophet Isaiah speak of Jehovah as "the Holy One,"
thus indicating what feature of those beatific visions had most
impressed him.

The holiness of God is the message of the entire Old Testament.
To the prophets God was the absolutely Holy One; the One with eyes
too pure to behold evil; the One swift to punish iniquity. In taking
a photograph, the part of the body which we desire most to see is
not the hands or feet, but the face. So is it with our vision of
God. He desires us to see not His hand and finger, denoting His
power and skill, nor even His throne as indicating His majesty.
It is His holiness by which He desires to be remembered as that is
the attribute which most glorifies Him. Let us bear this fact in
mind as we study this attribute of the divine nature. It is just
this vision of God that we need today when the tendency to deny
the reality or the awfulness of sin is so prevalent. Our view of
the necessity of the atonement will depend very largely upon our
view of the holiness of God. Light views of God and His holiness
will produce light views of sin and the atonement.

(1) Scriptural statements setting forth the fact of God's Holiness.

Isa. 57:15--"Thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth
eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place."
Psa. 99:9--"Exalt the Lord our God, and worship at his holy hill:
for the Lord our God is holy." Hab. 1:13--"Thou art of purer eyes
than to behold evil, and canst not look on iniquity." 1 Pet. 1:15,
16 --"But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in
all manner of conversation. Because it is written, Be ye holy: for
I am holy." God's personal name is holy. John 17:11--"Holy Father,
keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me." Christ
here contemplates the Father as the Holy One, as the source and
agent of that which He desires for His disciples, namely, holiness
of heart and life, being kept from the evil of this world.

Is it not remarkable that this attribute of holiness is ascribed
to each of the three persons of the Trinity: God the Father, is
the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 41:14); God the Son is the Holy One
(Acts 3:14); God the Spirit is called the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30).

(2) The Scriptural meaning of Holiness as applied to God.

Job 34:10--"Be it far from God, that he should do wickedness; and
from the Almighty that he should commit iniquity." An evil God,
one that could commit evil would be a contradiction in terms,
an impossible, inconceivable idea. Job seemed to doubt that the
principle on which the universe was conducted was one of absolute
equity. He must know that God is free from all evil-doing. However
hidden the meaning of His dealings, He is always just. God never
did, never will do wrong to any of His creatures; He will never
punish wrongly. Men may, yea, often do; God never does. Lev.
11:43-45--"Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping
thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with
them, that ye should be defiled thereby. For I am the Lord your
God; ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy;
for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner
of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.... Ye shall therefore
be holy, for I am holy." This means that God is absolutely clean
and pure and free from all defilement.

The construction of the Tabernacle, with its holy and most holy
place into which the high priest alone entered once a year; the Ten
Commandments, with their moral categories; the laws of clean and
unclean animals and things--all these speak to us in unmistakable
terms as to what is meant by holiness as applied to God.

Two things, by way of definition, may be inferred from these
Scriptures: first, negatively, that God is entirely apart from
all that is evil and from all that defiles both in Himself and in
relation to all His creatures; second and positively, by the holiness
of God is meant the consummate holiness, perfection, purity, and
absolute sanctity of His nature. There is absolutely nothing unholy
in Him. So the Apostle John declares: "God is light, and in him
is no darkness at all."

(3) The manifestation of God's Holiness.

Prov. 15:9, 26--"The way of the wicked is an abomination unto the
Lord. The thoughts of the wicked are an abomination unto the Lord."
God hates sin, and is its uncompromising foe. Sin is a vile and
detestable thing to God. Isa. 59:1, 2--"Behold, the Lord's hand
is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that
it cannot hear. But your iniquities have separated between you and
your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will
not hear." Israel's sin had raised a partition wall. The infinite
distance between the sinner and God is because of sin. The sinner
and God are at opposite poles of the moral universe. This in answer
to Israel's charge of God's inability. From these two scriptures
it is clear that God's holiness manifests itself in the hatred of
sin and the separation of the sinner from himself.

Herein lies the need of the atonement, whereby this awful distance
is bridged over. This is the lesson taught by the construction of
the Tabernacle as to the division into the holy place and the most
holy place.

Prov. 15:9--"But he loveth him that followeth after righteousness."
John 3:16--"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only
begotten Son," etc. Here God's holiness is seen in that He loves
righteousness in the life of His children to such a degree that He
gave His only begotten Son to secure it. The Cross shows how much
God loves holiness. The Cross stands for God's holiness before even
His love. For Christ died not merely for our sins, but in order
that He might provide us with that righteousness of life which
God loves. "He died that we might be forgiven; he died to make us
good." Do we love holiness to the extent of sacrificing for it?

For other manifestations see under Righteousness and Justice of
God.

(4) Practical deductions from the doctrine of God's Holiness.

First, we should approach God with "reverence and godly fear"
(Heb. 12:28). In the story of Moses' approach to the burning bush,
the smiting of the men at Bethshemesh, the boundary set about Mt.
Sinai, we are taught to feel our own unworthiness. There is too
much hilarity in our approach unto God. Eccl. 5:1-3 inculcates
great care in our address to God.

Second, we shall have right views of sin when we get right views
of God's holiness. Isaiah, the holiest man in all Israel, was cast
down at the sight of his own sin after he had seen the vision of
God's holiness. The same thing is true of Job (40:3-4; 42:4-5).
We confess sin in such easy and familiar terms that it has almost
lost its terror for us.

Third, that approach to a holy God must be through the merits
of Christ, and on the ground of a righteousness which is Christ's
and which naturally we do not possess. Herein lies the need of the
atonement.

b) The Righteousness and Justice of God.

In a certain sense these attributes are but the manifestation of
God's holiness. It is holiness as manifested in dealing with the
sons of men. Holiness has to do more particularly with the character
of God in itself, while in Righteousness and Justice that character
is expressed in the dealings of God with men. Three things may be
said in the consideration of the Righteousness and Justice of God:
first, there is the imposing of righteousness laws and demands,
which may he called legislative holiness, and may he known as the
Righteousness of God; second, there is the executing of the penalties
attached to those laws, which may be called judicial holiness; third,
there is the sense in which the attributes of the Righteousness
and Justice of God may be regarded as the actual carrying out of
the holy nature of God in the government of the world. So that in
the Righteousness of God we have His love of holiness, and in the
Justice of God, His hatred of sin.

Again Righteousness, as here used, has reference to the very nature
of God as He is in Himself--that attribute which leads God always
to do right. Justice, as an attribute of God, is devoid of all
passion or caprice; it is vindicative not vindictive. And so the
Righteousness and Justice of the God of Israel was made to stand
out prominently as contrasted with the caprice of the heathen gods.

(1) Scriptural statement of the fact.

Psalm 116:5--"Gracious is the Lord, and righteous; yea, our God is
merciful." The context here shows that it is because of this fact
that God listens to men, and because having promised to hear He is
bound to keep His promises. Ezra 9:15--"0 Lord God of Israel, thou
art righteous." Here the Righteousness of Jehovah is acknowledged
in the punishment of Israel's sins. Thou art just, and thou hast
brought us into the state in which we are today. Psa. 145:17--"The
Lord is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works." This
is evident in the rewards He gives to the upright, in lifting up
the lowly, and in abundantly blessing the good, pure, and true.
Jer. 12:1--"Righteous art thou, O Lord, when I plead with thee."
That is to say, "If I were to bring a charge against Thee I should
not be able to convict Thee of injustice, even though I be painfully
exercised over the mysteries of Thy providence."

These scriptures clearly set forth not only the fact that God is
righteous and just, but also define these attributes. Here we are
told that God, in His government of the world, does always that
which is suitable, straight, and right.

(2) How the Righteousness and Justice of God is revealed.

In two ways: first, in punishing the wicked: retributive justice,
second, in rewarding the righteous: remunerative justice.

_aa) In the punishment of the wicked._

Psa. 11:4-7--"The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord's throne is
in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.
The Lord trieth the righteous; but the wicked and him that loveth
violence his soul hateth. Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire
and brimstone and an horrible tempest. This shall be the portion
of their cup." This is David's reply to his timid advisers. Saul
may reign upon the earth and do wickedly, but God reigns from heaven
and will do right. He sees who does right and who does wrong. And
there is that in His nature which recoils from the evil that He
sees, and will lead Him ultimately to punish it. There is such a
thing as the wrath of God. It is here described. Whatever awful
thing the description in this verse may mean for the wicked, God
grant that we may never know. In Exod. 9:23-27 we have the account
of the plague of hail, following which are these words: "And Pharaoh
sent...for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned
this time: the Lord is righteous, and I and my people are wicked."
Pharaoh here acknowledges the perfect justice of God in punishing
him for his sin and rebellion. He knew that he had deserved it
all, even though cavillers today say there was injustice with God
in His treatment of Pharaoh. Pharaoh himself certainly did not
think so. Dan. 9:12-14 and Rev. 16:5, 6 bring out the same thought.
How careful sinners ought to be not to fall into the hands of the
righteous Judge! No sinner at last will be able to say, "I did not
deserve this punishment."

_bb) In forgiving the sins of the penitent._

1 John 1:9 (R. V.)--"If we confess our sins, he is faithful
and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all
unrighteousness." Ordinarily, the forgiveness of sin is associated
with the mercy, love, and compassion of God, and not with His
righteousness and justice. This verse assures us that if we confess
our sins, the righteousness and justice of God is our guarantee for
forgiveness--God cannot but forgive and cleanse us from all sin.

_cc) In keeping His word and promise to His children._

Neh. 9:7, 8--"Thou art the Lord the God, who didst choose Abram...and
madest a covenant with him to give the land of the Canaanites...to
his seed, and hast performed thy words; for thou art righteous."
We need to recall the tremendous obstacles which stood in the way
of the fulfillment of this promise, and yet we should remember the
eleventh chapter of Hebrews. When God gives His word, and makes
a promise, naught in heaven, on earth, or in hell can make that
promise void. His righteousness is the guarantee of its fulfillment.

_dd) In showing Himself to be the vindicator of His people from
all their enemies._

Psa. 129:1-4--"Many a time have they afflicted me...yet they have
not prevailed against me. The Lord is righteous: he hath cut asunder
the cords of the wicked." Sooner or later, God's people will triumph
gloriously as David triumphed over Saul. Even in this life God
will give us rest from our enemies; and there shall assuredly come
a day when we shall be "where the wicked cease from troubling, and
the weary are at rest."

_ee) In the rewarding of the righteous._

Heb. 6:10--"For God is not unrighteous to forget your work and labor
of love, which ye have showed towards his name, in that ye have
ministered unto the saints, and do minister." Those who had shown
their faith by their works would not now be allowed to lose that
faith. The very idea of divine justice implies that the use of this
grace, thus evidenced, will be rewarded, not only by continuance
in grace, but their final perseverance and reward. 2 Tim.
4:8--"Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness,
which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give me at that day:
and not to me only, but unto all them that love hiss appearing."
The righteous Judge will not allow the faithful believer to go
unrewarded. He is not like the unrighteous judges of Rome and the
Athenian games. Here we are not always rewarded, but some time we
shall receive full reward for all the good that we have done. The
righteousness of God is the guarantee of all this.

c) The Mercy and Loving-kindness of God.

By these attributes is meant, in general, the kindness, goodness,
and compassion of God, the love of God in its relation to both
the obedient and the disobedient sons of men. The dew drops on the
thistle as well as on the rose.

More specifically: Mercy is usually exercised in connection with
guilt; it is that attribute of God which leads Him to seek the
welfare, both temporal and spiritual, of sinners, even though at
the cost of great sacrifice on His part. "But God, who is rich in
mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us...God commendeth
his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ
died for us." (Eph. 2:4; Rom. 5:8.)

Loving-kindness is that attribute of God which leads Him to bestow
upon His obedient children His constant and choice blessing. "He
that spared not his own Son, but freely delivered him up for us
all, how shall he not with him freely give us all things?" (Rom.
8:32.)

(I) Scriptural statement of the fact.

Psa. 103:8--"The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger,
and plenteous in mercy." For, instead of inflicting pain, poverty,
death--which are the wages of sin--God has spared our lives, given
us health, increased our blessings and comforts, and given us the
life of the ages. Deut. 4:31--"(For the Lord thy God is a merciful
God); he will not forsake thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget
the covenant of thy fathers." God is ready to accept the penitence
of Israel, even now, if only it be sincere. Israel will return and
find God only because He is merciful and does not let go of her.
It is His mercy that forbids his permanently forsaking His people.
Psa. 86:15--"But thou, O Lord, art a God full of compassion, and
gracious, long-suffering, and plenteous in mercy and truth." It
was because God had so declared Himself to be of this nature that
David felt justified in feeling that God would not utterly forsake
him in his time of great stress and need. The most striking
illustration of the Mercy and Loving-kindness of God is set forth
in the parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32). Here we have
not only the welcome awaiting the wanderer, but also the longing
for his return on the part of the anxious and loving father.

(1) How the Mercy and Loving-kindness of God are manifested.

In general: We must not forget that God is absolutely sovereign in
the bestowal of His blessings--"Therefore hath he mercy on whom he
will have mercy" (Rom. 9:18). We should also remember that God
wills to have mercy on all His creatures--"For thou, Lord, art good,
and ready to forgive, and plenteous in mercy to all them that call
upon thee" (Psa. 86:5).

_aa) Mercy--towards sinners in particular._

Luke 6:36--"Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is
merciful." Matt. 5:45--"That ye may be the children, of your Father
which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and
the good, and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust." Here even
the impenitent and hard-hearted are the recipients of God's mercy;
all sinners, even the impenitent are included in the sweep of His
mercy.

Isa. 55:7--"Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man
his thoughts, and let him return unto the Lord: and he will have
mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon."
God's mercy is a holy mercy; it will by no means protect sin, but
anxiously awaits to pardon it. God's mercy is a city of refuge for
the penitent, but by no means a sanctuary for the presumptuous. See
Prov. 28:13, and Psa. 51:1. God's mercy is here seen in pardoning
the sin of those who do truly repent. We speak about "trusting in
the mercy of the Lord." Let us forsake sin and then trust in the
mercy of the Lord and we shall find pardon.

2 Pet. 3:9--"The Lord...is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing
that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance."
Neh. 9:31--"Nevertheless for thy great mercies' sake thou didst not
utterly consume them; for thou art a gracious and merciful God."
Here is mercy manifested in forbearance with sinners. If God should
have dealt with them in justice they would have been cut off long
before. Think of the evil, the impurity, the sin that God must see.
How it must disgust Him. Then remember that He could crush it all
in a moment. Yet He does not. He pleads; He sacrifices to show His
love for sinners. Surely it is because of the Lord's mercies that
we are not consumed, and because His compassions fail not. Yet,
beware lest we abuse this goodness, for our God is also a consuming
fire. "Behold, the goodness and the severity of God." The Mercy
of God is here shown in His loving forbearance with sinners.

_bb) Loving-kindness towards the saints, in particular._

Psa. 32:10--"But he that trusteth in the Lord, mercy shall compass
him about." The very act of trust on the part of the believer moves
the heart of God to protect him just as in the case of a parent
and his child. The moment I throw myself on God I am enveloped in
His mercy--mercy is my environment, like a fiery wall it surrounds
me, without a break through which an evil can creep. Besistance
surrounds us with "sorrow"; but trust surrounds us with "mercy."
In the center of that circle of mercy sits and rests the trusting
soul.

Phil. 2:27--"For indeed he was sick nigh unto death; but God had
mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, lest I should
have sorrow upon sorrow." Here God's loving-kindness is seen in
healing up His sick children. Yet remember that "He hath mercy on
whom He will have mercy." Not every sick child of God is raised.
Psa. 6:4--"Have mercy upon me, O Lord, for I am weak: O Lord, heal
me...Deliver my soul for thy mercies' sake (v. 4)." The psalmist
asks God to illustrate His mercy in restoring to him his spiritual
health. From these scriptures we see that the mercy of God is
revealed in healing His children of bodily and spiritual sickness.

Psa. 21:7--"For the king trusteth in the Lord, and through the
mercy of the most High he shall not be moved." David feels that,
because he trusts in the mercy of the Lord, his throne, whatever
may dash against it, is perfectly secure. Is not this true also
of the believer's eternal security? More to the mercy of God than
to the perseverance of the saints is to be attributed the eternal
security of the believer. "He will hold me fast."

d) The Love of God.

Christianity is really the only religion that sets forth the Supreme
Being as Love. The gods of the heathen are angry, hateful beings,
and are in constant need of appeasing.

(1) Scriptural statements of the fact.

1 John 4:8-16--"God is love." "God is light"; "God is Spirit";
"God is love." Spirit and Light are expressions of God's essential
nature. Love is the expression of his personality corresponding to
His nature. It is the nature of God to love. He dwells always in
the atmosphere of love. Just how to define or describe the love
of God may be difficult if not impossible. It appears from certain
scriptures (1 John 3:16; John 3:16) that the love of God is of such
a nature that it betokens a constant interest in the physical and
spiritual welfare of His creatures as to lead Him to make sacrifices
beyond human conception to reveal that love.

(2) The objects of God's Love.

_aa) Jesus Christ, God's only-begotten Son, is the special object
of His Love._

Matt. 3:17--"This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
Also Matt. 17:5; Luke 20:13. Jesus Christ shares the love of the
Father in a unique sense, just as He is His Son in a unique sense.
He is especially "My chosen." "The One in whom my soul delighteth,"
"My beloved Son,"--literally: the Son of mine, the beloved. And we
can readily understand how that He who did the will of God perfectly
should thus become the special object of the Father's love. Of
course, if the love of God is eternal, as is the nature of God,
which must be the case, then, that love must have had an eternal
object to love. So Christ, in addressing the Father, says: "Thou
lovedst me before the foundation of the world."

_bb) Believers in His Son, Jesus Christ, are special objects of
God's Love._

John 16:27--"For the Father himself loveth you, because ye have
loved me, and have believed that I came out from God." 14:21-23--"He
that loveth me shall be loved of my Father. ...If a man love me...my
Father will love him." 17:23--"And hast loved them, as thou hast
loved me." Do we really believe these words? We are not on the
outskirts of God's love, but in its very midst. There stands Christ
right in the very midst of that circle of the Father's love; then
He draws us to that spot, and, as it were, disappears, leaving us
standing there bathed in the same loving-kindness of the Father in
which He Himself had basked.

_cc) God loves the world of sinners and ungodly men._

John 3:16--"For God so loved the world" was a startling truth to
Nicodemus in his narrow exclusivism. God loved not the Jew only,
but also the Gentile; not a part of the world of men, but every
man in it, irrespective of his moral character. For "God commendeth
his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ
died for us" (Rom. 5:8). This is wonderful when we begin to realize
what a world in sin is. The love of God is broader than the measure
of man's mind. God desires the salvation of all men (1 Tim. 2:4).

(3) How the Love of God reveals Itself.

_aa) In making infinite sacrifice for the salvation of men._

1 John 4:9, 10--"In this was manifested the love of God towards us,
because that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that
we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God,
but that God loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for
our sins." Love is more than compassion; it hides not itself as
compassion may do, but displays itself actively in behalf of its
object. The Cross of Calvary is the highest expression of the love
of God for sinful man. He gave not only a Son, but His only Son,
His well-beloved.

_bb) In bestowing full and complete pardon on the penitent._

Isa. 38:17--"Thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the pit
of corruption: for thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back."
Literally, "Thou hast loved my soul back from the pit of destruction."
God had taken the bitterness out of his life and given him the
gracious forgiveness of his sins, by putting them far away from
Him. Eph. 2:4, 5--"But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great
love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath
quickened us together with Christ," etc. Verses 1-3 of this chapter
show the race rushing headlong to inevitable ruin. "But" reverses
the picture; when all help for man fails, then God steps in, and
by His mercy, which springs from "His great love," redeems fallen
man, and gives him not only pardon, but a position in His heavenly
kingdom by the side of Jesus Christ. All this was "for," or, perhaps
better, "in order to satisfy His great love." Love led Him to do
it.

_cc) In remembering His children in all the varying circumstances
of life._

Isa. 63:9--"In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel
of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed
them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old." Here
is retrospection on the part of the prophet. He thinks of all the
oppressions of Israel, and recalls how God's interests have been
bound up with theirs. He was not their adversary; He was their
sympathetic, loving friend. He suffered with them. Isa. 49:15,
16--"Can a woman forget her sucking child? Yea, they may forget,
yet will I not forget thee. Behold, I have graven thee on the palms
of my hands; thy walls are continually before me." It was the custom
those days to trace upon the palms of the hands the outlines of any
object of affection; hence a man engraved the name of his god. So
God could not act without being reminded of Israel. God is always
mindful of His own. Saul of Tarsus learned this truth on the way
to Damascus.



THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST.

A. THE PERSON OF CHRIST.

   I. THE HUMANITY OF JESUS CHRIST.
      1. HE HAD A HUMAN PARENTAGE.
      2. HE GREW AS OTHER HUMAN BEINGS DO.
      3. HE HAD THE APPEARANCE OF A MAN.
      4. HE WAS POSSESSED OF A BODY, SOUL, AND SPIRIT.
      5. HE WAS SUBJECT TO THE SINLESS INFIRMITIES OF HUMANITY.
      6. HUMAN NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.

   II. THE DEITY OF JESUS CHRIST.

      1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.
      2. DIVINE WORSHIP IS ASCRIBED TO HIM.
      3. DIVINE QUALITIES AND PROPERTIES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.
      4. DIVINE OFFICES ARE ASCRIBED TO HIM.
      5. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.
      6. CHRIST'S NAME IS COUPLED WITH THAT OF THE FATHER.
      7. THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS CHRISTAS MANIFESTED:
         a) In His Visit to the Temple.
         b) In His Baptism.
         c) In His Temptation.
         d) In the Calling of the Twelve and the Seventy.
         e) In the Sermon on the Mount.

B. THE WORK OF CHRIST.

   1. HIS DEATH.
   2. HIS RESURRECTION.
   3. HIS ASCENSION AND EXALTATION.



THE DOCTRINE OF JESUS CHRIST.

A. THE PERSON OF CHRIST.

The close kinship of Christ with Christianity is one of the
distinctive features of the Christian religion. If you take away
the name of Buddha from Buddhism and remove the personal revealer
entirely from his system; if you take away the personality of
Mahomet from Mahommedanism, or the personality of Zoroaster from
the religion of the Parsees, the entire doctrine of these religions
would still be left intact. Their practical value, such as it is,
would not be imperilled or lessened. But take away from Christianity
the name and person of Jesus Christ and what have you left? Nothing!
The whole substance and strength of the Christian faith centres in
Jesus Christ. Without Him there is absolutely nothing.--_Sinclair
Patterson._

From beginning to end, in all its various phases and aspects and
elements, the Christian faith and life is determined by the person and
the work of Jesus Christ. It owes its life and character at every
point to Him. Its convictions are convictions about Him. Its hopes
are hopes which He has inspired and which it is for Him to fulfill.
Its ideals are born of His teaching and His life. Its strength is
the strength of His spirit.--_James Denney._

I. THE HUMANITY OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. THE SCRIPTURES DISTINCTLY TEACH THAT HE HAD A HUMAN PARENTAGE:
THAT HE WAS BORN OF A WOMAN--THE VIRGIN MARY.

Matt. 1:18--"Mary ... was found with child of the Holy Ghost."
2-11--"The young child with Mary his mother." 12:47 --"Behold, thy
mother and thy brethren." 13:55--"Is not his mother called Mary?"
John 1:14--"The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." 2:1--"The
mother of Jesus was there." Acts 13:23--"Of this man's seed hath God
... raised ... ..Jesus." Rom.1:3--"Of the seed of David according
to the flesh." Gal. 4:4--"Made of a woman."

In thus being born of a woman Jesus Christ submitted to the conditions
of a human life and a human body; became humanity's son by a human
birth. Of the "seed of the woman," of the "seed of Abraham," and
of line and lineage of David, Jesus Christ is undeniably human.

We must not lose sight of the fact that there was something
supernatural surrounding the birth of the Christ. Matt. 1:18--"On
this wise," and Luke 1:35--"The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee,
and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore also
that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the
Son of God." "On this wise" indicates that this birth was different
from those recorded before it. Luke 1:35 is explicit about the
matter. To assail the virgin birth is to assail the Virgin's life.
He was of "the seed of the woman," not of the man. (See Luke 1:34--"How
shall this be, seeing I know not a man?") No laws of heredity are
sufficient to account for His generation. By a creative act God
broke through the chain of human generation and brought into the
world a supernatural being.

The narrative of the virgin birth need not stagger us. The abundance
of historical evidence in its favor should lead to its acceptance.
All the manuscripts in all the ancient versions contain the record
of it. All the traditions of the early church recognize it. Mention
of it is made in the earliest of all the creeds: the Apostles'
Creed. If the doctrine of the virgin birth is rejected it must be
on purely subjective grounds. If one denies the possibility of
the supernatural in the experience of human life, it is, of course,
easy for him to deny this doctrine. To one who believes that
Jesus was human only it would seem comparatively easy to deny the
supernatural birth on purely subjective grounds. The preconceptions
of thinkers to a great degree determine their views. It would
seem that such a wonderful life as that lived by Christ, having as
it did such a wonderful finish in the resurrection and ascension,
might, indeed should, have a wonderful and extraordinary entrance
into the world. The fact that the virgin birth is attested by the
Scriptures, by tradition, by creeds, and that it is in perfect
harmony with all the other facts of that wonderful life should
be sufficient attestation of its truth. [Footnote: _"The Virgin
Birth,"_ by James Orr, D.D., deals fully and most ably with this
subject.]

It has been thought strange that if, as is claimed, the virgin
birth is so essential to the right understanding of the Christian
religion, that Mark, John, and Paul should say nothing about it.
But does such silence really exist? John says "the Word became
flesh"; while Paul speaks of "God manifest in the flesh." Says L.
F. Anderson: "This argument from silence is sufficiently met by
the considerations that Mark passes over thirty years of our Lord's
life in silence; that John presupposes the narratives of Matthew
and Luke; that Paul does not deal with the story of Jesus' life.
The facts were known at first only to Mary and Joseph; their very
nature involved reticence until Jesus was demonstrated to be the
Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead; meantime
the natural development of Jesus and His refusal to set up an
earthly kingdom have made the miraculous events of thirty years
ago seem to Mary like a wonderful dream; so only gradually the
marvelous tale of the mother of the Lord found its way into the
Gospel tradition and the creeds of the church, and into the innermost
hearts of the Christians of all countries."

2. HE GREW IN WISDOM AND STATURE AS OTHER HUMAN BEINGS DO. HE WAS
SUBJECT TO THE ORDINARY LAWS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN BODY AND SOUL.

Luke 2:40, 52, 46--"And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit,
filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him. And Jesus
increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man.
And....they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the
doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions."

Just to what extent His sinless nature influenced His growth we may
not be able to say. It seems clear, however, from the Scriptures,
that we are to attribute Jesus' growth and advancement to the
training He received in a godly home; to the instruction given at
the synagogue and the temple; from His own personal study of the
Scriptures, and from His fellowship and communion with His Father.
Both the human and divine element entered into His training and
development, which were as real in the experience of Jesus as in
that of any other human being. We are told that "Jesus grew, and
increased in wisdom and stature." He "increased," i.e., He kept
advancing; He "grew," and the reflective form of the verb would
seem to indicate that His growth was due to His own efforts. From
all this it seems clear that Jesus received His training along the
lines of ordinary human progress--instruction, study, thought.

Nor should the fact that Christ possessed divine attributes, such
as omniscience and omnipotence, militate against a perfectly human
development. Could He not have possessed them and yet not have
used them? Self-emptying is not self-extinction. Is it incredible
to think that, although possessing these divine attributes, He
should have held them in subjection in order that the Holy Spirit
might have His part to play in that truly human, and yet divine,
life?

3. HE HAD THE APPEARANCE OF A MAN.

John 4:9--"How is it that thou, being a Jew." Luke 24:13--The two
disciples on the way to Emmaus took Him to be an ordinary man. John
20:15--"She, supposing him to be the gardener." 21:4, 5--"Jesus
stood on the shore; but the disciples knew not that it was Jesus."

The woman of Samaria evidently recognized Jesus as a Jaw by His
features or speech. To her He was just an ordinary Jew, at least
to begin with. There is no Biblical warrant for surrounding the
head of Christ with a halo, as the artists do. His pure life no
doubt gave Him a distinguished look, just as good character similarly
distinguishes men today. Of course we know nothing definite as to
the appearance of Jesus, for no picture or photograph of Him do we
possess. The apostles draw attention only to the tone of His voice
(Mark 7:34; 15:34). After the resurrection and ascension Jesus
seems still to have retained the form of a man (Acts 7:56; 1 Tim.
2:5).

4. HE WAS POSSESSED OF A HUMAN PHYSICAL NATURE: BODY, SOUL AND
SPIRIT.

John 1:14--"And the Word was made flesh." Heb. 2:14--"For asmuch
then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also
himself likewise took part of the same." Matt. 26:12--"She hath
poured this ointment on my body." v. 38--"My soul is exceeding
sorrowful." Luke 23:46--"Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit."
24:39--"Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle
me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me
have."

By his incarnation Christ came into possession of a real human
nature; He came not only unto His own, but came unto them in the
likeness of their own flesh. Of course we must distinguish between
a human nature and a carnal nature. A carnal nature is really not
an integral part of man as God made him in the beginning. Christ's
human nature was truly human, yet sinless: "Yet without sin" (Heb.
4:15).

5. HE WAS SUBJECT TO THE SINLESS INFIRMITIES OF HUMAN NATURE.

Matt. 4:2--"He was afterward an hungred." John 19:28--"Jesus....saith,
I thirst." 4:6--"Jesus....being wearied with his journey." Matt.
8:24--"But he was asleep." John 19:30--"He bowed his head, and gave
up the ghost." He mourns over Jerusalem (Matt. 23:37); weeps over
His dead friend Lazarus, (John 11:35); craves for human sympathy in
the garden (Matt. 26:36,40); tempted in all points like as we are
(Heb. 4:15). There is not a note in the great organ of our humanity
which, when touched, does not find a sympathetic vibration in the
mighty range and scope of our Lord's being, saving, of course, the
jarring discord of sin. But sin is not a necessary and integral
part of unfallen human nature. We speak of natural depravity, but,
in reality, depravity is _un_natural. God made Adam upright
and perfect; sin is an accident; it is not necessary to a true
human being.

6. HUMAN NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM BY HIMSELF AND OTHERS.

Luke 19:10--"Son of Man." Matt. 1:21--"Thou shalt call his name
Jesus." Acts 2:22--"Jesus of Nazareth." 1 Tim. 2:5--"The man Christ
Jesus."

No less than eighty times in the Gospels does Jesus call himself
the Son of Man. Even when acquiescing in the title Son of God as
addressed to Himself He sometimes immediately after substitutes
the title Son of Man (John 1:49-51; Matt 26:63,64).

While we recognize the fact that there is something official in
the title Son of Man, something connected with His relation to the
Kingdom of God, it is nevertheless true that in using this title
He assuredly identifies Himself with the sons of men. While He is
rightly called _THE_ Son of Man, because, by His sinless nature
and life He is unique among the sons of men, He is nevertheless
_A_ Son of Man in that He is bone of our bone and flesh of
our flesh.

II. THE DEITY OF JESUS CHEIST.

1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO HIM.

a) He is Called God.

John 1:1--"The Word was God." Heb. 1:8--"But unto the Son he saith,
Thy throne, O God, is for ever." John 1:18--"The only begotten Son
(or better "only begotten God")." Absolute deity is here ascribed to
Christ. 20:28-"My Lord and my God." Not an expression of amazement,
but a confession of faith. This confession accepted by Christ, hence
equivalent to the acceptance of deity, and an assertion of it on
Christ's part. Rom. 9:5--"God blessed forever." Tit. 2:13--"The
great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ." 1 John,5:20--"His Son
Jesus Christ. This is the true God." In all these passages Christ
is called God.

It may be argued that while Christ is here called God, yet that
does not argue for nor prove His deity, for human judges are also
called "gods" in John 10:35--"If he called them gods unto whom the
word of God came." True, but it is then used in a secondary and
relative sense, and not in the absolute sense as when used of the
Son.

b) He is Called the Son of God.

The references containing this title are numerous. Among others
see Matt. 16:16, 17; 8:29; 14:33; Mark 1:1; 14:61; Luke 1:35; 4:41.
While it may be true that in the synoptic Gospels Jesus may not be
said to have claimed this title for Himself, yet He unhesitatingly
accepted it when used of Him and addressed to Him by others. Further,
it seems clear from the charges made against Him that He did claim
such an honor for Himself. Matt. 27:40, 43--"For he said, I am
the Son of God." Mark 14:61, 62 --"Art thou the Christ, the Son of
the Blessed" (Luke 22:70--"Art thou then the Son of God? And Jesus
said, I am." In John's Gospel, however, Jesus plainly calls Himself
"the Son of God" (5:25; 10:36 11:4). Indeed, John's Gospel begins
with Christ as God: "The Word was God," and ends with the same
thought: "My Lord and my God" (20:28). (Chapter 21 is an epilogue.)

Dr. James Orr says, in speaking of the title Son of God as ascribed
to Christ: "This title is one to which there can be no finite
comparison or analogy. The oneness with God which it designates is
not such reflex influence of the divine thought and character such
as man and angels may attain, but identity of essence constituting
him not God-like alone, but God. Others may be children of God in
a moral sense; but by this right of elemental nature, none but He;
He is herein, the _only_ Son; so little separate, so close to
the inner divine life which He expresses, that He is in the bosom
of the Father. This language denotes two natures homogeneous,
entirely one, and both so essential to the Godhead that neither
can be omitted from any truth you speak of it."

If when He called Himself "the Son of God" He did not mean more
than that He was _a_ son of God, why then did the high priest
accuse Him of blasphemy when He claimed this title (Matt. 26:
61-63)? Does not Mark 12:6--"Having yet therefore one son, his
well-beloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will
reverence my son," indicate a special sonship? The sonship of
Christ is human and historical, it is true; but it is more: it is
transcendent, unique, solitary. That something unique and solitary
lay in this title seems clear from John 5:18--"The Jews sought the
more to kill Him....because he....said....also that God was His
Father, making Himself equal with God."

The use of the word "only begotten" also indicates the uniqueness
of this sonship. For use of the word see Luke 7:12--"The only son of
his mother." 9:38--"For he is mine only child." This word is used
of Christ by John in 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9, and distinguishes
between Christ as the only Son, and the "many....children of God"
(John 1:12, 13). In one sense Christ has no brethren: He stands
absolutely alone. This contrast is clearly emphasized in John 1:14,
18--"only begotten Son," and 1:12 (R. V.)--"many....children." He
is the Son from eternity: they "become" sons in time. He is one;
they are many. He is Son by nature; they are sons by adoption and
grace. He is Son of the same essence with the Father; they are of
different substance from the Father.

c) He is Called The Lord.

Acte 4:33; 16:31; Luke 2:11; Acts 9:17; Matt. 22:43-45. It is true
that this term is used of men, e.g., Acts 16:30--"Sirs (Lords),
what must I do to be saved?" John 12:21--"Sir (Lord), we would
see Jesus." It is not used, however, in this unique sense, as the
connection will clearly show. In our Lord's day, the title "Lord"
as used of Christ was applicable only to the Deity, to God. "The
Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors would allow the name to be applied
to them only when they permitted themselves to be deified. The
archaeological discoveries at Oxyrhyncus put this fact beyond a
doubt. So when the New Testament writers speak of Jesus as Lord,
there can be no question as to what they mean." --_Wood._

d) Other Divine Names are Ascribed to Him:

"The first and the last" (Rev. 1:17). This title used of Jehovah
in Isa. 41:4; 44:6; 48:12. "The Alpha and Omega" (Rev. 22:13, 16);
cf. 1:8 where it is used of God.

2. DIVINE WORSHIP IS ASCRIBED TO JESUS CHRIST.

The Scriptures recognize worship as being due to God, to Deity
alone: Matt. 4:10--"Worship the Lord thy God, and him only." Rev.
22:8, 9--"I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel...Then
saith he unto me, See thou do it not:.... worship God." John was
not allowed even to worship God at the feet of the angel. Acts
14:14, 15; 10:25, 26--Cornelius fell down at the feet of Peter, and
worshipped him. "But Peter took him up, saying, Stand up; I myself
also am a man." See what an awful fate was meted out to Herod
because he dared to accept worship that belonged to God only (Acts
12:20-25). Yet Jesus Christ unhesitatingly accepted such worsnip,
indeed, called for it (John 4:10). See John 20:28; Matt. 14:33;
Luke 24:52; 5:8.

The homage given to Christ in these scriptures would be nothing
short of sacrilegious idolatry if Christ were not God. There seemed
to be not the slightest reluctance on the part of Christ in the
acceptance of such worship. Therefore either Christ was God or He
was an imposter. But His whole life refutes the idea of imposture.
It was He who said, "Worship God only"; and He had no right to take
the place of God if He were not God.

God himself commands all men to render worship to the Son, even as
they do to Him. John 5:23, 24--"That all men should honor the Son,
even as they honor the Father." Even the angels are commanded to
render worship to the Son. Heb. 1:6--"And let all the angels of
God worship him." Phil. 2:10--"That at the name of Jesus every knee
should bow."

It was the practice of the apostles and the early church to render
worship to Christ: 2 Cor. 12:8-10--"I besought the Lord." Acts
7:59--"And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord
Jesus, receive my spirit." 1 Cor. 1:2--"Them that...call upon the
name of Jesus Christ our Lord."

The Christians of all ages have not been satisfied with admiring
Christ, they have adored and worshipped Him. They have approached
His person in the attitude of self-sacrifice and worship as in the
presence of and to a God.

Robert Browning quoted, in a letter to a lady in her last illness,
the words of Charles Lamb, when in a gay fancy with some friends
as to how he and they would feel if the greatest of the dead were
to appear suddenly in flesh and blood once more--on the first
suggestion, and "if Christ entered this room?" changed his tone
at once, and stuttered out as his manner was when moved: "You see
--if Shakespeare entered, we should all rise; if Christ appeared,
we must kneel."

3. HE POSSESSES THE QUALITIES AND PROPERTIES OF DEITY.

a) Pre-Existence.

John 1:1--"In the beginning"; cf. Gen 1:1 John 8:58--"Before Abraham
was, I am." That is to say: "Abraham's existence presupposes mine,
not mine his. He was dependent upon me, not I upon him for existence.
Abraham came into being at a certain point of time, but I am."
Here is simple being without beginning or end. See also John 17:5;
Phil. 2:6; Col. 1:16, 17.

b) Self-Existence and Life-Giving Power:

John 5:21, 26--"For as the Father raiseth up the dead and quickeneth
them, even so the Son quickeneth whom he will." "For as the Father
hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in
himself." 1:4--"In him was life." See also 14:6; Heb. 7:16; John
17:3-5; 10:17, 18. These scriptures teach that all life--physical,
moral, spiritual, eternal--has its source in Christ.

c) Immutability:

Heb. 13:8--"Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and today, and for
ever." See also 1:12. All nature, which like a garment He throws
around Him is subject to change and decay; Jesus Christ is the
same always, He never changes. Human teachers, such as are spoken
of in the context, may change, but He, the Christ, never.

d) All the Fulness of the Godhead Dwelt in Him:

Col. 2:9--Not merely the divine perfections and attributes of Deity,
but _(theotes)_ the very essence and nature of the Godhead.
He was not merely God-like; He was God.

4. DIVINE OFFICES ABE ASCRIBED TO HIM.

a) He is the Creator:

John 1:3--"All things were made by Him." In the creation He was the
acting power and personal instrument. Creation is the revelation
of His mind and might. Heb. 1:10 shows the dignity of the Creator
as contrasted with the creature. Col. 1:16 contradicts the Gnostic
theory of emanations, and shows Christ to be the creator of all
created things and beings. Rev. 3:14--"The beginning of the creation
of God," means "beginning" in the active sense, _the origin,_
that by which a thing begins to be. Col. 1:15--"first-born," not
made; compare with Col. 1:17, where the "for" of v. 16 shows Him
to be not included in the "created things," but the origin of and
superior to them all. He is the Creator of the universe (v. 16),
just as He is the Head of the church (v. 18).

b) He is the Upholder of All Things:

Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3. The universe is neither self-sustaining nor
is it forsaken by God (Deism). Christ's power causes all things
to hold together. The pulses of universal life are regulated and
controlled by the throbbings of the mighty heart of Christ.

c) He Has the Right to Forgive Sins.

Mark 2:5-10. Luke 7:48--"And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven."
Certain it is that the Pharisees recognized that Christ was here
assuming a divine prerogative. No mere man had any right to forgive
sins. God alone could do that. Hence the Pharisees' charge of
blasphemy. This is no declaration of forgiveness, based upon the
knowledge of the man's penitence. Christ does not merely _declare_
sins forgiven. He _actually_ forgives them. Further, Jesus, in
the parable of the Two Debtors (Luke 7), declares that sins were
committed against Himself (cf. Psa. 51:4--"Against thee, thee only,
have I sinned").

d) The Raising of the Bodies of Men is Ascribed to Him:

John 6:39, 40, 54; 11:25. Five times it is here declared by Jesus
that it is His prerogative to raise the dead. It is true that others
raised the dead, but under what different conditions? They worked
by a delegated power (Acts 9:34); but Christ, by His own power (John
10:17, 18). Note the agony of Elisha and others, as compared with
the calmness of Christ. None of these claimed to raise the dead by
his own power, nor to have any such power in the general resurrection
of all men. Christ did make such claims.

e) He is to be the Judge of All Men;

John 5:22--"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all
judgment unto the Son." 2 Tim. 4:1; Acts 17:31; Matt. 25:31-46.
The Man of the Cross is to be the Man of the throne. The issues of
the judgment are all in His hand.

5. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES ARE POSSESSED BY HIM.

a) Omnipotence.

Matt 28:18--"All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth."
Rev. 1:8; John 17:2; Eph. I:20-22. Here is power over three realms:
First, all power on earth: over disease (Luke 4:38-41); death (John
11); nature, water into wine (John 2); tempest (Matt. 8). Second,
all power in hell: over demons (Luke 4:35, 36, 41); evil angels
(Eph. 6). Third, all power in heaven: (Eph. 1:20-22). Finally,
power over all things: (Heb. 2:8; 1:3; Matt. 28:18).

b) Omniscience.

John 16:30--"Now are we sure that thou knowest all things." 2:24;
Matt. 24; 25; Col. 2:3. Illustrations: John 4:16-19; Mark 2:8;
John 1:48. "Our Lord always leaves the impression that He knew all
things in detail, both past and future, and that this knowledge
comes from His original perception of the events. He does not learn
them by acquisition. He simply knows them by immediate perception.
Such utterances as Matt. 24 and Luke 21 carry in them a subtle
difference from the utterances of the prophets. The latter spoke as
men who were quite remote in point of time from their declaration
of unfolding events. Jesus spoke as one who is present in the midst
of the events which He depicts. He does not refer to events in
the past as if He were quoting from the historic narrative in the
Old Testament. The only instance which casts doubt upon this view
is Mark 13:32. The parallel passage in Matthew omits, in many
ancient versions, the words; "Neither the Son." The saying in Mark
is capable of an interpretation which does not contradict this
view of His omniscience. This is an omniscience nevertheless,
which in its manifestation to men is under something of human
limitation."--_Wood._

This limitation of knowledge is no argument against the infallibility
of those things which Jesus did teach: for example, the Mosaic
authorship of the Pentateuch. That argument, says Liddon, involves
a confusion between limitation of knowledge and liability to error;
whereas, plainly enough, a limitation of knowledge is one thing,
and fallibility is another. St. Paul says, "We know in part," and
"We see through a glass darkly." Yet Paul is so certain of the
truth of that which he teaches, as to exclaim, "But though we, or
an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that
which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed." Paul clearly
believed in his own infallibility as a teacher of religious truth,
and the church of Christ has ever since regarded his epistles as
part of an infallible literature. But it is equally clear that Paul
believed his knowledge of truth to be limited. Infallibility does
not imply omniscience, any more than limited knowledge implies error.
If a human teacher were to decline to speak upon a given subject,
by saying that he did not know enough about it, this would not be
a reason for disbelieving him when he proceeded to speak confidently
upon a totally different subject, thereby at least implying that
he did not know enough to warrant his speaking. On the contrary,
his silence in the one case would be a reason for trusting his
statements in the other. The argument which is under consideration
in the text would have been really sound, if our Saviour had fixed
the date of the day of judgment and the event had shown him to be
mistaken. Why stumble over the limitation of this attribute and
not over the others? Did He not hunger and thirst, for example? As
God He is omnipresent, yet as man He is present only in one place.
As God He is omnipotent; yet, on one occasion at least, He could
do no mighty works because of the unbelief of men.

c) Omnipresence.

Matt. 18:20--"For where two or three are gathered together in my
name, there am I in the midst of them." He is with every missionary
(Matt. 28:20). He is prayed to by Christians in every place (1 Cor.
1:2). Prayer would be a mockery if we were not assured that Christ
is everywhere present to hear. He fills all things, every place
(Eph. 1:23). But such an all pervading presence is true only of
Deity.

6. HIS NAME IS COUPLED WITH THAT OF GOD THE FATHER.

The manner in which the name of Jesus Christ is coupled with that
of God the Father clearly implies equality of the Son with the
Father. Compare the following:

a) The Apostolic Benediction.

2 Cor. 13:14. Here the Son equally with the Father is the bestower
of grace.

b) The Baptismal Formula.

Matt. 28:19; Acts 2:38. "In the name," not the names (plural).
How would it sound to say, "In the name of the Father" _and of
Moses?_ Would it not seem sacrilegious? Can we imagine the effect
of such words on the apostles?

c) Other Passages.

John 14:23--"We will come: the Father and I." 17:3--"And this is
life eternal that they might know thee, the only true God, _and
Jesus Christ."_ The content of saving faith includes belief in
Jesus Christ equally with the Father. 10:30--"I and my Father are
one." "One" is neuter, not masculine, meaning that Jesus and the
Father constitute one power by which the salvation of man is secured.
2 Thess. 2:16, 17--"Now our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God,
even our Father...comfort your hearts." These two names, with a
verb in the singular, intimate the oneness of the Father with the
Son.

7. THE SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS OF JESUS REGARDING HIS OWN PERSON AND
WORK.

It will be interesting to search the Gospel records to ascertain
what was in the mind of Jesus concerning Himself--His relation to
the Father in particular. What bearing has the testimony of Jesus
upon the question of His deity? Is the present Christian consciousness
borne out by the Gospel narratives? Is Jesus Christ a man of a
much higher type of faith than ours, yet one with whom we believe
in God? Or is He, equally with God, the object of our faith? Do we
believe _with Him_, or _on_ Him? Is there any indication
in the words ascribed to Jesus, as recorded in the Gospels,
of a consciousness on His part of His unique relation to God the
Father? Is it Jesus Himself who is responsible for the Christian's
consciousness concerning His deity, or is the Church reading into
the Gospel accounts something that is not really there? Let us see.

a) As Set Forth in the Narrative of His Visit to the Temple.

Luke 2:41-52. This is a single flower out of the wonderfully enclosed
garden of the first thirty years of our Lord's life. The emphatic
words, for our purpose, are "thy father," and "my Father." These are
the first recorded words of Jesus. Is there not here an indication
of the consciousness on the part of Jesus of a unique relationship
with His heavenly Father? Mary, not Joseph, asked the question, so
contrary to Jewish custom. She said: "Thy father"; Jesus replied
in substance: "Did you say _my_ father has been seeking me?"
It is remarkable to note that Christ omits the word "father" when
referring to His parents, cf. Matt. 12:48; Mark 3:33, 34. "_My_
Father!" No other human lips had ever uttered these words. Men said,
and He taught them to say, "_Our_ Father." It is not too much
to say that in this incident Christ sees, rising before Him, the
great truth that God, and not Joseph, is His Father, and that it
is in His true Father's house that He now stands.

b) As Revealed at His Baptism:

Matt. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-ll; Luke 3:21. Here are some things
to remember in connection with Christ's baptism: First, Jesus was
well acquainted with the relation of John and his ministry to the
Old Testament prophecy, as well as of John's own announcement
that he was the Messiah's fore-runner, and that he (John) was not
worthy to untie the latchet of Christ's shoes. Second, to come
then to John, and to submit to baptism at his hands, would indicate
that Jesus conceded the truth of all that John had said. This
is emphasized when we remember Jesus' eulogy of John (Matt. 11).
Thirdly, There is the descent of the Spirit, and the heavenly voice;
what meaning did these things have to Jesus? If Christ's sermon
in the synagogue at Nazareth is of any help here, we must believe
that at His baptism, so much more than at the age of twelve, He was
conscious that in thus being anointed He was associating Himself in
some peculiar way with the prophecy of Isaiah, chapters 42 and 61:
"Behold my Servant... I have put my Spirit upon Him." All, therefore,
that must have been wrapped up in the thought of the "Servant of
the Lord" in the Old Testament would assuredly be quickened in his
consciousness that day when the Spirit descended upon Him. See also
Luke 4:16-17; Acts 10: 38; Matt. 12:28.

But what did the heavenly voice signify to Christ? "This is my
beloved Son" takes us back to the second Psalm where this person
is addressed as the ideal King of Israel. The last clause--"in whom
I am well pleased"--refers to Isaiah 42, and portrays the servant
who is anointed and empowered by the endowment of God's Spirit. We
must admit that the mind of Jesus was steeped in the prophecies of
the Old Testament, and that He knew to whom these passages referred.
The ordinary Jew knew that much. Is it too much to say that on that
baptismal day Jesus was keenly conscious that these Old Testament
predictions were fulfilled in Him? We think not.

c) As Set Forth in the Record of the Temptation.

Matt. 4:1-11; Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1-13. That Jesus entered
into the temptation in the wilderness with the consciousness of
the revelation He received, and of which He was conscious at the
baptism, seems clear from the narratives. Certain it is that Satan
based his temptations upon Christ's consciousness of His unique
relation to God as His Son. Throughout the whole of the temptation
Satan regards Christ as being in a unique sense the Son of God, the
ideal King, through whom the kingdom of God is to be established
upon the earth. Indeed, so clearly is the kingship of Jesus recognized
in the temptation narrative that the whole question agitated there
is as to how that kingdom may be established in the world. It must
be admitted that a careful reading of the narratives forces us
to the conclusion that throughout all the temptation Christ was
conscious of His position with reference to the founding of God's
kingdom in the world.

d) As Set Forth in the Calling of the Twelve and the Seventy.

The record of this event is found in Matt. 10; Mark 3:13-19; 6:7-13;
Luke 9:1-6; 10:1-14. This important event in the life of our Lord
had an important bearing upon His self-consciousness as to His
person and work. Let us note some of the details:

_First_, as to the number, twelve. Is there no suggestion
here with reference to the New Jerusalem when the Messiah shall sit
upon the throne surrounded by the twelve apostles seated on their
thrones? Is not Jesus here conscious of Himself as being the centre
of the scene thus described in the Apocalypse?

_Second_, He gave them power. Is not Jesus here repeating what
had been done for Him at His baptism: conveying super-human power?
Who can give this power that is strong enough to make even demons
obey? No one less than God surely.

_Third_, note that the message which He committed to the twelve
concerned matters of life and death. Not to receive that message
would be equivalent to the rejection of the Father.

_Fourth_, all this is to be done in _His_ name, and for
_His_ name's sake. Fidelity to Jesus is that on which the final
destiny of men depends. Everything rises or falls in its relation
to Him. Could such words be uttered and there be no consciousness
on the part of the speaker of a unique relationship to the Father
and the things of eternity? Know you of anything bolder than this?

_Fifth_, He calls upon men to sacrifice their tenderest affections
for Him. He is to be chosen before even father and mother (Matt.
10:34-39).

e) As Revealed in the Sermon on the Mount.

Matt. 5-7; Luke 6:20-49. Two references will be sufficient here.
Who is this that dares to set Himself up as superior to Moses and
the law of Moses, by saying, "But _I_ say unto you"? Then,
again, listen to Christ as He proclaims Himself to be the judge
of all men at the last day (Matt. 7:21). Could Jesus say all this
without having any consciousness of His unique relationship to all
these things? Assuredly not.

B. THE WORK OF JESUS CHRIST.

The Death of Jesus Christ.

I. ITS IMPORTANCE.

1. IT HAS A SUPREME PLACE IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

Christianity is a religion of atonement distinctively. The elimination
of the doctrine of the death of Christ from the religion that bears
His name would mean the surrender of its uniqueness and claim to
be the only true religion, the supreme and final revelation from
God to the sons of men. It is its redemption feature that distinguishes
Christianity from any and all other religions. If you surrender this
distinctive Christian doctrine from its creed, then this supreme
religion is brought down to the level of many other prevailing
religious systems. Christianity is not merely a system of ethics;
it is the history of redemption through Jesus Christ, the personal
Redeemer.

2. ITS VITAL RELATION TO JESUS CHRIST.

The atonement is so closely related to Jesus Christ, so allied to
His work, as set forth in the Scriptures, that it is absolutely
inseparable from it. Christ was not primarily a religious teacher,
a philanthropist, an ethical example; He was all these, yea, and much
more--He was first and foremost the world's Saviour and Redeemer.
Other great men have been valued for their lives; He, above all,
for His death, around which God and man are reconciled. The Cross
is the magnet which sends the electric current through the telegraph
between earth and heaven, and makes both Testaments thrill,
through the ages of the past and future, with living, harmonious,
and saving truth. Other men have said: "If I could only live, I
would establish and perpetuate an empire." The Christ of Galilee
said: "My death shall do it." Let us understand that the power
of Christianity lies, not in hazy indefiniteness, not in shadowy
forms, not so much even in definite truths and doctrines, but in
_the_ truth, and in _the_ doctrine of Christ crucified
and risen from the dead. Unless Christianity be more tnan ethical,
it is not, nor can it really be ethical at all. It is redemptive,
dynamic through that redemption, and ethical withal.

3. ITS RELATION TO THE INCARNATION.

It is not putting the matter too strongly when we say that the
incarnation was for the purpose of the atonement. At least this
seems to be the testimony of the Scriptures. Jesus Christ partook
of flesh and blood in order that He might die (Heb. 2:14). "He was
manifested to take away our sins" (1 John 3:5). Christ came into
this world to give His life a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28). The
very purpose of the entire coming of Christ into the word, in all
its varying aspects, was that, by assuming a nature like unto our
own, He might offer up His life as a sacrifice for the sins of men.
The faith of the atonement presupposes the faith of the incarnation.
So close have been the relation of these two fundamental doctrines
that their relation is one of the great questions which have
divided men in their opinions in the matter: which is primary and
which secondary; which is to be regarded as the most necessary to
man's salvation, as the primary and the highest fact in the history
of God's dealings with man. The atonement naturally arises out of
the incarnation so that the Son of God could not appear in our nature
without undertaking such a work as the word atonement denotes. The
incarnation is a pledge and anticipation of the work of atonement.
The incarnation is most certainly the declaration of a purpose
on the part of God to save the world. But how was the world to be
saved if not through the atonement?

4. ITS PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.

It was the claim of Jesus, in His conversation with the two
disciples on the way to Emmaus, that Moses, and all the prophets,
indeed, all the Scriptures, dealt with the subject of His death
(Luke 24:27, 44). That the death of Christ was the one great subject
into which the Old Testament prophets searched deeply is clear from
1 Pet. 1:11, 12. The atonement is the scarlet cord running through
every page in the entire Bible. Cut the Bible anywhere, and it
bleeds; it is red with redemption truth. It is said that one out
of every forty-four verses in the New Testament deals with this
theme, and that the death of Christ is mentioned in all one hundred
and seventy-five times. When you add to these figures the typical
and symbolical teaching of the Old Testament some idea is gained as
to the important place which this doctrine occupies in the sacred
Scriptures.

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEME OF THE GOSPEL.

Paul says: "I delivered unto you first of all (i.e., first in
order; the first plank in the Gospel platform; the truth of primary
importance) . . . that Christ died for our sins" (1 Cor. 15:1-3).
There can be no Gospel story, message or preaching without the
story of the death of Christ as the Redeemer of men.

6. THE ONE GRAND THEME IN HEAVEN.

Moses and Elias, the heavenly visitors to this earth, conversed
about it (Luke 9:30, 31), even though Peter was ashamed of the same
truth (Matt. 16:21-25). The theme of the song of the redeemed in
heaven is that of Christ's death (Rev. 5:8-12).

II. THE SCRIPTURAL DEFINITION OF THE DEATH OF CHRIST.

The Scriptures set forth the death of Jesus Christ in a four-fold
way:

1. AS A RANSOM. Matt. 20:28; 1 Pet. l;18; 1 Tim. 2:6; Gal. 3:13.

The meaning of a ransom is clearly set forth in Lev. 25:47-49: To
deliver a thing or person by paying a price; to buy back a person
or thing by paying the price for which it is held in captivity. So
sin is like a slave market in which sinners are "sold under sin"
(Rom. 7:14); souls are under sentence of death (Ezek. 18:4). Christ,
by His death, buys sinners out of the market, thereby indicating
complete deliverance from the service of sin. He looses the bonds,
sets the prisoners free, by paying a price--that price being His
own precious blood.

To whom this ransom is paid is a debatable question: whether to
Satan for his captives, or to eternal and necessary holiness, to
the divine law, to the claims of God who is by His nature the holy
Lawgiver. The latter, referring to God and His holiness, is probably
preferable.

Christ redeemed us from the curse of a broken law by Himself being
made a curse for us. His death was the ransom price paid for our
deliverance.

2. A PROPITIATION. Rom. 3:25; 1 John 2:2; Heb. 2:17 (R. V.).

Christ is the propitiation for our sins; He is set forth by God to
be a propitiation through His blood.

Propitiation means mercy-seat, or covering. The mercy-seat covering
the ark of the covenant was called propitiation (Exod. 25:22;
Heb. 9:5.) It is that by which God covers, overlooks, and pardons
the penitent and believing sinner because of Christ's death.
Propitiation furnishes a ground on the basis of which God could
set forth His righteousness, and yet pardon sinful men, Rom. 3:25,
26; Heb. 9:15. Christ Himself is the propitiatory sacrifice, 1
John 2:2. The death of Jesus Christ is set forth as the ground on
which a righteous God can pardon a guilty and sinful race without
in any way compromising His righteousness.

3. AS A RECONCILIATION. Rom. 5:10; 2 Cor. 5:18, 19; Eph. 2:16; Col.
1:20.

We are reconciled to God by the death of His Son, by His Cross, and
by the blood of His Cross--that is the message of these scriptures.

Reconciliation has two sides; active and passive. In the _active_
sense we may look upon Christ's death as removing the enmity
existing between God and man, and which had hitherto been a barrier
to fellowship (see the above quoted texts). This state of existing
enmity is set forth in such scriptures as Rom. 8:7--"Because the
carnal mind is enmity against God." Also Eph. 2:15; Jas. 4:4. In
the _passive_ sense of the word it may indicate the change of
attitude on the part of man toward God, this change being wrought
in the heart of man by a vision of the Cross of Christ; a change
from enmity to friendship thus taking place, cf. 2 Cor. 5:20. It
is probably better to state the case thus: God is propitiated, and
the sinner is reconciled (2 Cor. 5:18-20).

4. AS A SUBSTITUTION. Isa. 53:6; 1 Pet. 2:24, 3:18; 2 Cor. 5:21.

The story of the passover lamb (Exod. 12), with 1 Cor. 5:7,
illustrates the meaning of substitution as here used: one life given
in the stead of another. "The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity
of us all." God made Christ, who knew no sin, to be sin for us.
Christ Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree--this is
substitution. Christ died in our place, bore our sins, paid the
penalty due our sins; and all this, not by force, but willingly
(John 10:17, 18). The idea of substitution is well illustrated by
the nature of the preposition used in connection with this phase
of Christ's death: In Matt. 80-28 Christ is said to give His life
a ransom _for_ all (also 1 Tim. 2:6). That this preposition means
_instead of_ is clear from its use in Matt. 2:22--"Archelaus
did reign in the room (or in the stead) of his father, Herod." Also
in Luke 11:11--"Will he _for_ a fish give him a serpent?" (See
Heb. 12:2, 16.) Substitution, then, as used here means this: That
something happened to Christ, and because it happened to Christ,
it need not happen to us. Christ died for our sins; we need not
die for them if we accept His sacrifice. For further illustrations,
see Gen. 22:13; God providing a ram instead of Isaac; also Barabbas
freed and Christ bearing his cross and taking his place.


    Upon a life I did not live;
       Upon a death I did not die;
    Upon another's death, another's life,
       I risk my soul eternally.


III. UNSCRIPTURAL VIEWS OF CHRIST'S DEATH.

There are certain so called _modern_ views of the atonement
which it may be well to examine briefly, if only to show how
unscriptural they are. That the modern mind fails to see in the
doctrine of the atonement what the orthodox faith has held for
centuries to be the truth of God regarding this fundamental Christian
doctrine, there is certainly no doubt. To some minds today the death
of Jesus Christ was but the death of a martyr, counted in the same
category as the death of John Huss or Savonarola. Or perchance
Christ's death was an exhibition to a sinful world of God's wondrous
love. Or it may be that Christ, in His suffering of death, remains
forever the sublime example of adherence to principles of righteousness
and truth, even to the point of death. Or, again, Calvary may be an
episode in God's government of the world. God, being holy, deemed
it necessary to show to the world His hatred of sin, and so His
wrath fell on Christ. The modern mind does not consider Christ's
death as in any sense vicarious, or substitutionary. Indeed,
it fails to see the justice as well as the need or possibility of
one man, and He so innocent, suffering for the sins of the whole
race--past, present and future. Every man must bear the penalty of
his own sin, so we are told; from that there is no escape, unless,
and it is fervently hoped and confidently expected, that God, whose
wondrous love surpasses all human conception, should, as He doubtless
will, overlook the eternal consequences of man's sin because of
the great love wherewith He loves the race. The love of God is
the hope of the race's redemption.

What shall the Christian church say to these things, and what
shall be her reply? To the Word of God must the church resort
for her weapons in this warfare. If the so called modern mind and
its doctrinal views agree with the Scriptures, then the Christian
church may allow herself to be influenced by the spirit of the age.
But if the modern mind and the Scriptures do not agree in their
results, then the church of Christ must part company with the modern
mind. Here are some of the modern theories of the atonement:

1. THE ACCIDENT THEORY.

Briefly stated, this is the theory: The Cross was something unforeseen
in the life of Christ. Calvary was not in the plan of God for His
Son. Christ's death was an accident, as unforeseen and unexpected
as the death of any other martyr was unforeseen and unexpected.

To this we reply: Jesus was conscious all the time of His forthcoming
death. He foretold it again and again. He was always conscious
of the plots against His life. This truth is corroborated by the
following scriptures: Matt. 16-21; Mark 9:30-32; Matt. 20:17-19;
Luke 18:31-34; Matt, 20:28; 26:2, 6, 24, 39-42; Luke 22:19, 20.
Further, in John 10:17, 18 we have words which distinctly contradict
this false theory: "Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay
down my life, that I might take it again. No man taketh it from
me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and
I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of
my Father."

In addition to this we may make mention of the many, many references
and prophecies of the Old Testament to the fact of Christ's death.
Then there is Christ's own testimony to the fact of His death being
predicted and foretold by the prophets (Luke 24:26, 27, 44). See
also Isa. 53; Psa. 22; 69.

2. THE MARTYR THEORY.

It is as follows: Christ's death was similar in kind to that of
John Huss, or Polycarp, or any other noble man who has given up
his life as a sacrifice for a principle and for truth.

To this we reply: Then Christ should have so declared Himself.
Paul should have said so. That word was used for other Christian
deaths, why not for Christ's? Then there is no mystery about the
atonement, and the wonder is that Paul should have said anything
about the mystery. Further, if Christ died as a martyr He might, at
least, have had the same comforting presence of God afforded other
martyrs in the hour of their death. Why should He be God-forsaken
in that crucial hour? Is it right that God should make the holiest
man in all the ages the greatest sufferer, if that man were but
a martyr? When you recall the shrinking of Gethsemane, could you
really--and we say it reverently--call Jesus as brave a man facing
death as many another martyr has been? Why should Christ's soul
be filled with anguish (Luke 22:39-46), while Paul the Apostle was
exultant with joy (Phil. 1:23)? Stephen died a martyr's death,
but Paul never preached forgiveness through the death of Stephen.
Such a view of Christ's death may beget martyrs, but it can never
save sinners.

3. THE MORAL EXAMPLE THEORY.

Christ's death has an influence upon mankind for moral improvement.
The example of His suffering ought to soften human hearts, and help
a man to reform, repent, and better his condition. So God grants
pardon and forgiveness on simple repentance and reformation. In the
same way a drunkard might call a man his saviour by whose influence
he was induced to become sober and industrious. But did the sight
of His suffering move the Jews to repentance? Does it move men today?
Such a view of Christ's death does not deal with the question with
which it is always connected, viz., the question of sin.

4. THE GOVERNMENTAL THEORY.

This means that the benevolence of God requires that He should make
an example of suffering in Christ in order to exhibit to man that
sin is displeasing in His sight. God's government of the world
necessitates that He show His wrath against sin.

True, but we reply: Why do we need an incarnation for the manifestation
of that purpose? Why not make a guilty, and not an absolutely
innocent and guileless man such an example of God's displeasure
upon sin? Were there not men enough in existence? Why create a
new being for such a purpose?

5. THE LOVE OF GOD THEOEY.

He died to show men how much God loved them. Men ever after would
know the feeling of the heart of God toward them.

True, the death of Christ did show the great love of God for fallen
man. But men did not need such a sacrifice to know that God loved
them. They knew that before Christ came. The Old Testament is full
of the love of God. Read Psalm 103. The Scriptures which speak
of God's love as being manifested in the gift of His Son, tell us
also of another reason why He gave His Son: "That whosoever believeth
in him should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16);
"Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and
sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins" (1 John 4:10).

We believe that Christ's Cross reveals the love of God, and that
throughout all these ages men have been bowed in penitence as they
have caught a vision of the One who hung thereon. But if you were
to question the multitudes that have believed in God because of
the Cross, you would find that what moved them to repentance was
not merely, if at all, certainly not primarily, that the Cross
revealed the love of God in a supreme way, but the fact that there
at that Cross God had dealt with the great and awful fact of sin,
that the Cross had forever removed it.

"I examine all these views, beautiful as some of them are, appealing
to the pride of man, but which leave out all thought of vicarious
atonement, and say, 'But what shall be done with my sin? Who shall
put it away? Where is its sacrifice? If without shedding of blood
there is no remission of sin, where is the shed blood?' These
views are neat, measurable, occasionally pathetic, and frequently
beautiful, but they do not include the agony of the whole occasion
and situation. They are aspect theories, partial conceptions. They
do not take in the whole temple from its foundation to its roof.
No man must set up his judgment against that of another man in a
dogmatic way, but he may, yea, he must, allow his heart to speak
through his judgment; and in view of this liberty, I venture to
say that all these theories of the atonement are as nothing, most
certainly shallow and incomplete to me . . . . As I speak now,
at this very moment, I feel that the Christ on the Cross is doing
something for me, that His death is my life, His atonement my pardon,
His crucifixion the satisfaction for my sin, that from Calvary,
that place of a skull, my flowers of peace and joy blossom forth,
and that in the Cross of Christ I glory."--_Joseph Parker._

IV. THE NECESSITY OF CHRIST'S DEATH.

The necessity of the atonement lay in a twofold fact: The holiness
of God, and the sinfulness of man. The doctrine of the atonement
is a related subject, and it cannot be properly understood unless
it is viewed as such. It is related to certain conditions existing
between God and man--a condition and relation which has been affected
by sin. It is necessary, therefore, to know this relation and how
it has been affected by sin. This relation between God and man
is a personal one. No other construction can legitimately be put
upon the passages setting forth this relationship. "_Thou_ has
searched _me_, and known _me_." "_I_ am continually
with _Thee_." It is, moreover, an ethical relationship, and
that which is ethical is at the same time personal and universal,
that is to say, that God's dealings with mankind are expressed
in a moral constitution of universal and eternal validity. These
relationships are disordered by sin. No matter how sin came to be
here we are morally conscious, by the testimony of a bad conscience,
that we are guilty, and that our sin is not merely a matter of
personal guilt but a violation of a universal moral law.

1. THE HOLINESS OF GOD.

We should carefully note the emphasis laid upon the doctrine of
God's holiness in the Old Testament (see under Attributes of God,
p. 37). The Levitical law, the laws of clean and unclean, the
tabernacle and the temple with its outer court, its holy and most
holy place, the priestly order and the high priest, the bounds
set around Mt. Sinai, things and persons that might not be touched
without causing defilement, sacred times and seasons, these, and
much more, speak in unmistakable terms of the holiness of God.
We are thus taught that if sinful man is to approach unto God, it
must be through the blood of atonement. The holiness of God demands
that before the sinner can approach unto and have communion with
Him, some means of propitiation must be provided. This means of
approach is set forth in the shed blood.

2. THE SIN OF MAN.

Light and erroneous views of the atonement come from light and
erroneous views of sin. If sin is regarded as merely an offence
against man, a weakness of human nature, a mere disease, rather than
as rebellion, transgression, and enmity against God, and therefore
something condemning and punishable, we shall not, of course,
see any necessity for the atonement. We must see sin as the Bible
depicts it, as something which brings wrath, condemnation, and eternal
ruin in its train. We must see it as guilt that needs expiation.
We must see sin as God sees it before we can denounce it as God
denounces it. We confess sin today in such light and easy terms
that it has almost lost its terror.

In view of these two thoughts, the holiness of God and the sinfulness
of man, the question naturally arises: How is the mercy of God to
be manifested so that His holiness will not be compromised by His
assuming a merciful attitude towards sinful men in the granting of
forgiveness, pardon, justification? The answer is: The only way in
which this can be done is by means of the atonement.

3. THE FULFILLMENT OF THE SCRIPTURES.

We may add this third thought to the two already mentioned. There
is a sense in which the atonement was necessary in order to the
fulfillment of the predictions of the Old Testament--predictions
inseparable from the person and work of the Messiah. If Jesus
Christ were the true Messiah, then these predictions regarding His
sufferings and death must be fulfilled in Him (Luke 24:25-27, 44;
Isa. 53; Psa. 22; 69).

V. THE EXTENT OF CHRIST'S DEATH.

Was the death of Jesus Christ for all mankind--for every human
being in the world, or for man actually and ultimately regenerate
only--the chosen Church? Was it for all mankind, irrespective of
their relation to Jesus Christ, or must we limit the actual benefits
of the atonement to those who are spiritually united to Christ by
faith? That the death of Christ is intended to benefit all mankind
seems clear from the following scriptures: Isa. 53:6; 1 Tim. 2:6;
1 John 2:2, cf. 2 Cor. 5:19; Rom. 14:15; 1 Cor. 8:11. The scriptures,
which to some seem to limit the effects of the atonement, are John
10:15, cf. vv 26, 29; Eph. 5:25-27.

Certain it is that the doctrine of the atonement is presented in
the Scriptures as competent to procure and secure salvation for
all. Indeed, not only competent but efficacious to do this very
thing. It might seem that there is an apparent contradiction in
the above-named scriptures. The atonement, in its actual issue,
should realize and actualize the eternal purpose of God, the which
is set forth as a desire that all men should be saved and come
to a saving knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus Christ. This
is testified to be the general and universal invitation of the
Scriptures to partake of the blessings of Christ's death. Thus the
offer of the Gospel to all is not a pretence but a reality on the
part of God. The divine willingness that all men should share the
benefits of the atonement is all-inclusive, and really means what
is offered. Yet on the other hand, we can not overlook the fact
that, from another point of view the effects of the atonement--shall
we say the _purpose_ of the atonement?--seems to be limited
to the sphere of the the true Church, so that only those who
are really united to Christ by faith actually share in the merits
of the atonement. Let us put it this way: "The atonement is
_sufficient_ for all; it is _efficient_ for those who
believe in Christ." The atonement itself, so far as it lays the basis
for the redemptive dealing of God with all men, is _unlimited_;
the _application_ of the atonement is limited to those who actually
believe in Christ. He is the Saviour of all men _potentially_
(1 Tim. 1:15); of believers alone _effectually_ (1 Tim. 4:10).
The atonement is limited only by men's unbelief.

1. FOR THE WHOLE WORLD.

The Scriptures set forth this fact in the following statements:
"And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only,
but also for the sins of the whole world" (1 John 2:2). Christ's
death was the ground on which God, who is absolutely holy, could
deal with the whole race of men in mercy, and pardon their sins.

John 1:29--"Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of
the world." Not the sin of a few individuals, or of an elect race,
like Israel, but the sin of the whole world. This was a striking
truth to reveal to a Jew.

1 Tim. 2:6--"Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in
due time." It is for this reason, as the context of this passage
shows, that we may pray for all men. If all men were not capable
of being saved, how then could we pray to that end?

2. FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL MAN.

This is but a detailed statement of the fact that He died for the
whole world. Not a single individual man, woman, or child is excluded
from the blessings offered in the atonement.

Heb. 2:9--"But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the
angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor;
that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man."
Leo the Great (461) affirmed that "So precious is the shedding of
Christ's blood for the unjust, that if the whole universe of captives
would believe in the Redeemer, no chain of the devil could hold
them." General Booth once said: "Friends, Jesus shed His precious
blood to pay the price of salvation, and bought from God enough
salvation to go around."

3. FOR THE SINFUL, UNJUST, AND UNGODLY.

Sinners of all sorts, degrees, and conditions may have a share in
the redemptive work of Christ. Greece invited only the cultured,
Rome sought only the strong, Judea bid for the religious only.
Jesus Christ bids all those that are weary and heavy-hearted and
over-burdened to come to Him (Matt. 11:28).

Rom. 5:6-10--"Christ died for the ungodly...While we were yet sinners,
Christ died for us...When we were enemies, we were reconciled to
God by the death of His Son." 1 Pet. 3:18--"For Christ also hath
once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust." Christ died for
_sinners_--those in open opposition to God; for the
_unjust_--those who openly violate God's laws; for the
_ungodly_--those who violently and brazenly refuse to pay their
dues of prayer, worship, and service to God; for _enemies_
--those who are constantly fighting God and His cause. For all of
these Christ died.

1 Tim. 1:15--"Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of
whom I am chief." Paul was a _blasphemer_, a _persecutor_,
_injurious_ (v. 13), a _murderer_ (Acts 22 and 26), yet
God saved him; he was included in the atonement. Note also that
it is in this very connection that the apostle declares that the
reason God saved him was in order that his salvation might be a
pattern, or an encouragement to other great sinners, that God could
and would save them, if they desired Him to do so.

4. FOR THE CHURCH.

There is a peculiar sense in which it may be said that Christ's
death is for the Church, His body, the company of those who believe
in Him. There is a sense in which it is perfectly true that Christ's
death avails only for those who believe in Him; so in that sense
it can be said that He died for the Church more particularly. He is
"the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe" (1 Tim.
4:10). Herein lies the truth that is contained in the theory of a
limited atonement.

Eph. 5:25-27--"Christ also loved the church, and gave himself
for it." Not for any one particular denomination; not for any one
organization within any four walls; but for all those whom He calls
to Himself and who follow Him here.

Gal. 2:20--"The Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."
Here the individual member of the Church, the body of Christ, is
specifically mentioned as being included in the efficacy of the
atonement. When Luther first realized this particular phase of the
atonement, he was found sobbing beneath a crucifix, and moaning:
"Mein Gott, Mein Gott, Fur Mich! Fur Mich!"

1 Cor. 8:11--"And through thy knowledge shall the weak brother
perish, for whom Christ died?" Also Rom. 14:15. Note the connection
in which this truth is taught. If Christ was willing to die for the
weak brother--whom we, perchance, sneer at for his conscientious
scruples--we ought to be willing to deny ourselves of some habit
for his sake.

How all-inclusive, all-comprehensive, far-reaching is the death of
Christ in its effects! Not a few, but many shall be saved. He gave
his life a ransom for _many_. God's purposes in the atonement
shall not be frustrated. Christ shall see of the travail of His
soul, and shall be satisfied. Many shall come from the north, the
south, the east and the west and sit down in the kingdom. In that
great day it will be seen (Rev. 7:9-15).

VI. THE EFFECTS OF CHRIST'S DEATH.

1. IN RELATION TO THE PHYSICAL OR MATERIAL UNIVERSE.

Just as the material universe was in some mysterious manner affected
by the fall of man (Rom. 8:19-23, R. V.), so also is it affected
by the death of Jesus Christ, which is intended to neutralize the
effect of sin upon the creation. There is a cosmical effect in the
atonement. The Christ of Paid is larger than the second Adam--the
Head of a new humanity; He is also the center of a universe which
revolves around Him, and is in some mysterious way reconciled by
His death. Just how this takes place we may not be able definitely
to explain.

Col. 1:20--"And, having made peace through the blood of his cross,
by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether
they be things in earth, or things in heaven." Some day there shall
be a new heaven and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness (2
Pet. 3:13). See also Heb. 9:23, 24; Isa. 11 and 35.

2. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD OF MEN.

a) The Enmity Existing Between God and Man is Removed:

Rom. 5:10; Col. 1:20-22. For explanation, see under Scriptural
Definition of the Atonement ((II.3, p. 72). The ground of enmity
between God and man--whether in the active or passive sense of
_reconciliation_--is removed by Christ's death. The world of
mankind is, through the atonement, reconciled to God.

b) A Propitiation for the World's Sin Has Been Provided:

1 John 2:2; 4:10. See under Propitiation (II. 2, p. 71). The
propitiation reaches as far as does the sin.

c) Satan's Power Over the Race Has Been Neutralized:

John 12:31, 32--"Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the
prince of this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the
earth, will draw all men unto me." Also John 16:9, 10; Col. 2:10.
The lifting up of Christ on the Cross meant the casting down of
Satan. Satan no longer holds undisputed sway over the sons of men.
The power of darkness has been broken. Man need no longer be the
slave of sin and Satan.

d) The Question of the World's Sin is Settled:

It need no longer stand as a barrier between God and man. Strictly
speaking, it is not now so much of a _sin_ question as it is
a _Son_ question; not, What shall be done with my sin? but,
What shall I do with Jesus, which is called Christ? The sins of
the Old Testament saints, which during all the centuries had been
held, as it were, in abeyance, were put away at the Cross (Rom.
3:25, 26). Sins present and future were also dealt with at the
Cross. By the sacrifice of Himself, Christ forever put away sin
(Heb. 9:26).

e) The Claims of a Broken Law Have Been Met, and the Curse Resting
upon Man Because of a Broken Law Removed.

Col. 2:14--"Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was
against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way,
nailing it to his cross." Thus every claim of the holy law of God,
which sinful man had violated, had been met.

Gal. 3:13--"Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law,
being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one
that hangeth on a tree." (See v. 10 for the description of the
curse.) The wages of sin, and the curse of sin, is death. Christ
by His death on the Cross, paid that debt, and removed that curse.

f) Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Access to God,
an Inheritance, and the Removal of All Fear of Death--All This is
Included in the Effect of the Death of Christ in the Behalf of
the Believer.

Rom. 5:9; Gal. 4:3-5; Heb. 10:10; 10:19, 20; 9:15; 2:14, 15. How
comforting, how strengthening, how inspiring are these wonderful
aspects of the effects of the death of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus
Christ!

3. THE EFFECT OF CHRIST'S DEATH ON SATAN.

See under c) above. The devil must submit to the victory of Christ.
The dominion of Satan, so far as the believer in Christ is concerned,
is now at an end: his dominion over the disobedient sons of men,
too, will soon be at an end. Christ's death was the pronouncement
of Satan's doom; it was the loss of his power over men. The power
of the devil, while not yet absolutely destroyed, has been neutralized
(Heb. 2:14). The evil principalities and powers, and Satan himself,
did their worst at the Cross, but there they received their deathblow
(Col. 2:14, 15).

THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.

I. ITS IMPORTANT PLACE IN THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION.

1. IT HOLDS A UNIQUE PLACE IN CHRISTIANITY.

Christianity is the only religion that bases its claim to acceptance
upon the resurrection of its founder. For any other religion to
base its claim on such a doctrine would be to court failure. Test
all other religions by this claim and see.

2. IT IS FUNDAMENTAL TO CHRISTIANITY.

In that wonderful chapter on the resurrection (1 Cor. 15) Paul
makes Christianity answer with its life for the literal truth of
the resurrection of Jesus Christ. That the body of the founder of
the Christian religion did not lie in the grave after the third day
is fundamental to the existence of the religion of Christ: "And
if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith
is also vain" (v. 14). "If Christ be not raised . . . ye are yet
in your sins" (v. 17). "Then they also which are fallen asleep in
Christ are perished" (v.18). Remove the resurrection from Paul's
Gospel, and his message is gone. The resurrection of Jesus Christ
is not an appendage to Paul's Gospel; it is a constitutive part of
it.

The importance of this doctrine is very evident from the prominent
part it played in the preaching of the Apostles: Peter--Acts 2:24,
32; 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:40; 1 Peter 1:21, 23. Paul--Acts 13:30,
34; 17:31; 1 Cor. 15; Phil. 3:21. It was belief in such preaching
that led to the establishment of the Christian church. Belief in
the resurrection of Christ was the faith of the early church (Acts
4:33). The testimony to this great fact of Christian faith was borne
in the midst of the fiercest opposition. Nor was it controverted,
although the grave was well known and could have been pointed out.
It was in this fact that Christianity acquired a firm basis for
its historical development. There was not only an "Easter Message,"
there was also an "Easter Faith."

Our Lord's honor was, in a sense, staked upon the fact of His
resurrection. So important did He regard it that He remained forty
days upon the earth after His resurrection, giving many infallible
proofs of the great fact. He appealed to it again and again as
evidence of the truth of His claims: Matt. 12:39, 40; John 2:20-22.

Both the friends and the enemies of Christianity admit that the
resurrection of Jesus Christ is vital to the religion that bears His
name. The Christian confidently appeals to it as an incontrovertible
fact; the sceptic denies it altogether as a historical reality.
"If the resurrection really took place," says an assailant of it,
"then Christianity must be admitted to be what it claims to be--a
direct revelation from God." "If Christ be not risen," says the
Apostle Paul, "then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also
vain." The one tries all he can to do away with the proofs submitted
for the accepted fact; the other plainly says that if the resurrection
cannot be believed, then Christianity is nothing but a sham. If
the resurrection of Christ can be successfully denied, if it can be
proven to be absolutely untrue, then the whole fabric of the Gospel
falls to pieces, the whole structure of the Christian religion is
shaken at its foundation, and the very arch of Christianity crumbles
into dust. Then it has wrought only imaginary changes, deluded its
most faithful adherents, deceived and disappointed the hopes of
its most devoted disciples, and the finest moral achievements that
adorn the pages of the history of the Christian church have been
based upon a falsehood.

Nor must we ignore the prominent place the resurrection of Jesus
Christ occupies in the Scriptures. More than one hundred times is
it spoken of in the New Testament alone.

II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. JESUS CHRIST ACTUALLY DIED.

Some who disbelieve in the resurrection of Christ assert that Jesus
merely swooned, and that pitying hands took Him down from the cross,
thinking that He had died. The cool air of the tomb in which He was
placed revived Him, so that He came forth from the tomb as though
He had really risen from the dead. The disciples believed that He
had really died and risen again.

This theory is false for the following reasons:

Jesus Christ appeared to the disciples after the third day, not as
a weak, suffering, half-dead man, but as a conquering, triumphant
victor over death and the grave. He never could have made the
impression upon the disciples that He did, if He had presented the
picture of a sick, half-dead man.

From John 19:33-37 we learn that when the soldiers pierced the side
of Christ, _there came forth blood and water_. Physiologists
and physicists agree that such a condition of the vital organs,
including the heart itself, precludes the idea of a mere swoon,
and proves conclusively that death had taken place.

Joseph of Arimathaea asked permission to bury the body of Jesus
because he knew that Jesus had been pronounced dead (Matt. 27:57,
58).

When the news was brought to Pilate that Christ had died, it is
said that "Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling
unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while
dead. And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to
Joseph" (Mark 15:44, 45).

The women brought spices to anoint a dead body, not a half-dead
Christ (Mark 16:1).

The soldiers pronounced Him dead: "But when they came to Jesus, and
saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs" (John 19:33).

Jesus Christ Himself, He who is the Truth, testifies to the fact
that He had really died: Rev. 1:18--"I am he that liveth, and was
dead."

2. THE FACT THAT CHRIST'S BODY WAS ACTUALLY RAISED FROM THE DEAD.

The resurrection of Christ is not a spiritual resurrection, nor
were his appearances to the disciples spiritual manifestations.
He appeared to His disciples in a bodily form. The body that was
laid in Joseph's tomb came forth on that first Easter morn twenty
centuries ago.

Some maintain that it is not vital to belief in the resurrection
of Christ that we insist on a literal resurrection of the body
of Jesus; all that we need to insist on is that Christ was ever
afterwards known to be the victor over death, and that He had the
power of an endless life. So it comes to pass that we have what is
called an "Easter Message," as contrasted with an "Easter Faith"
which believes in the literal resurrection of Jesus Christ from the
dead. "Faith has by no means to do with the knowledge of the form
in which Jesus lives, but only with the conviction that He is
the living Lord."--_Harnack_ in _What is Christianity?_
According to this theory, belief in Christ's resurrection means
nothing more than belief in the survival of the soul of Jesus--that
somehow or other Jesus was alive, and lived with God, while His
body yet saw corruption in the grave.

We reply: This cannot be, for all the facts in the Gospel narratives
contradict such a theory. Let us examine these narratives.

a) We are Confronted by the Fact of an Empty Tomb.

Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:6; Luke 24:3, 12; John 20:1, 2. The fact that
the tomb was empty is testified to by competent witnesses --both
friends and enemies: by the women, the disciples, the angels, and
the Roman guards. How shall we account for the absence of the body
of Jesus from the tomb? That it had not been stolen by outside parties
is evident from the testimony of the soldiers who were bribed to
tell that story (Matt. 28:11-15). Such a guard never would have
allowed such a thing to take place. Their lives would have been
thereby jeopardized. And if they were asleep (v. 13), how could
they know what took place? Their testimony under such circumstances
would be useless.

The condition in which the linen cloths were found lying by those
who entered the tomb precludes the possibility of the body being
stolen. Had such been the case the cloths would have been taken
with the body, and not left in perfect order, thereby showing that
the body had gone out of them. Burglars do not leave things in such
perfect order. There is no order in haste.

Then again, we have the testimony of angels to the fact that Jesus
had really risen as foretold (Matt. 28:6; Mark 16:6). The testimony
of angels is surely trustworthy (Heb. 2:2).

b) There are Other Resurrections Mentioned in the Gospel Records
which were Undoubtedly Bodily Resurrections.

Matt. 9:18-26; Luke 7:11-18; John 11:1-44. These incidents throw
light upon the resurrection of Jesus. Why did the officers say
that they were afraid "that his disciples should come by night and
steal him away" if they did not refer to the _body_ of Jesus?
They surely could not steal His soul.

c) Those Who Saw Him After the Resurrection Recognized Him as Having
the Same Body as He Had Before, Even to the Wound Prints.

John 20:27; Luke 24:37-39. It is true that there were occasions on
which He was not recognizable by the disciples, but such occasions
were the result of the eyes of the disciples being holden in order
that they might not know him. There was divine intervention on
these occasions. Does Christ still retain the prints of the nails?
Is He still the Lamb as though it had been slain? (Rev. 5 and 6).

d) There Can Be No Doubt of the Fact that the Apostle Paul Believed
in the Bodily Resurrection of Christ.

The Corinthians, to whom the apostle wrote that wonderful treatise
on the resurrection (1 Cor. 15), were not spending their time denying
a _spiritual_ resurrection; nor was the apostle spending his
time trying to produce convincing arguments for a _spiritual_
resurrection. (See also Rom. 8:11.)

e) It is Clear also from Christ's Own Testimony Before and After
the Resurrection.

Matt. 17:23; Luke 24:39; Rev. 1:18. No other construction can
legitimately be put upon these words than that Christ here refers
to the resurrection of His body.

f) The Apostolic Testimony Corroborates this Fact.

Acts 2:24-32; 1 Pet. 1:3, 21; 3:21. Peter was at the tomb; he it
was who stepped inside and saw the linen cloths lying. His testimony
ought to be beyond question as to the fact at issue.

g) The Record of the Appearances of Christ Prove a Literal, Physical
Resurrection.

Matt. 28:9, 10; John 20:14-18, cf. Mark 16:9; Luke 24:13-32; John
21, etc. All these appearances bear witness to the fact that it was
not an incorporeal spirit or phantom, but a real, bodily Christ that
they saw. He could be seen, touched, handled; He was recognizable;
He ate and drank in their presence.

h) Lastly, Many Passages in the Scriptures Would Be Unintelligible
Except on the Ground of a Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Christ from
the Grave.

Rom. 8:11, 23; Eph. 1:19, 20; Phil. 3:20, 21; 1 Thess. 4:13-17.

3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY OF CHRIST.

a) It was a Real Body; not a Ghost, nor a Phantom.

That the resurrection body of Jesus was not a phantom, but a body
composed of "flesh and bones" is evident from Luke 24:36-43. It
could be "touched" (John 20:20), and bore the marks of His passion
(John 20:24-29). The likeness to His earthly body was not wholly
parted with. [NOTE: Does this throw any light on the matter
of recognition in heaven? Has Jesus Christ still this body in the
glory? Shall we know Him by the prints?]

b) Yet the Body of Jesus was more than a mere Natural Body.

It bore marks and possessed attributes which proclaimed a relation
to the celestial or supra-terrestrial sphere. For example: It could
pass through barred doors (John 20:19), thus transcending physical
limitations. It was not recognizable at times (Luke 24: 13-16;
John 20:14, 15; 21:4, 12; Mark 16:12). This fact may be accounted
for in two ways: First, supernaturally--their eyes were holden;
Second, that in that risen life the spiritual controls the material
rather than as here, the material the spiritual; so that the spirit
could change the outward form of the body at will and at any given
time. [Yet, note how Jesus had power to make Himself known by little
acts, such as the breaking of the bread, and the tone of His voice.
Do we carry these little characteristics into the other life? Shall
we know our loved ones by these things?] Then again, Jesus was able
to vanish out of sight of His friends (Luke 24:31; John 20:19, 26;
Luke 24:51; Acts 1:9). And so He could be in different places at
very short intervals of time.

Can we explain these facts? No, not fully. Yet we must not be so
material as to totally disbelieve them. "Daily, indeed, are men
being forced to recognize that the world holds more mysteries than
they formerly imagined it to do. Probably physicists are not so
sure of the impenetrability of matter, or even of the conservation
of energy, as they once were; and newer speculations on the etheric
basis of matter, and on the relation of the seen to the unseen
universe (or universes) with forces and laws largely unknown, open
up vistas of possibility which may hold in them the key to phenomena
even as extraordinary as those in question."--_James Orr_.

c) Christ's Resurrection Body was Immortal.

Not only is it true that Christ's body has not seen death since His
resurrection, but it cannot die again. Rom. 6:9, 10; Rev. 1:18, cf.
Luke 20:36. [The lesson for us from this: Christ is the first-fruits
(1 Cor. 15:20).]

III. THE CREDIBILITY OF THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST.

Credibility refers to the acceptance of a fact in a manner that
deserves belief; it is belief based upon good authority, reliable
facts, and competent witnesses. Credulity is belief in a thing without
respect to the strength or weakness, reliability or unreliability of
the authority, facts, or witnesses; it is a believing too readily,
and with no reason for the faith or hope. The resurrection of
Christ is a fact proven by competent evidence, and deserving of
intelligent acceptance and belief. It is a doctrine buttressed by
"many infallible proofs."

The lines of proof for the credibility of Christ's resurrection
which may be followed in harmony with our purpose are as follows:

1. THE ARGUMENT FROM CAUSE AND EFFECT.

Certain things, conditions, institutions exist in our midst today;
they are effects of causes, or a cause; what is that cause? Among
these we may mention--

a) The Empty Tomb.

That was an effect; what was its cause? How did that grave become
empty? (See under II. a), p. 87). The fact of an empty tomb must be
accounted for. How do we account for it? Renan, the French sceptic,
wittingly said, and yet how truly: "You Christians live on the
fragrance of an empty tomb."

b) The Lord's Day.

The Lord's Day is not the original Sabbath. Who dared change it?
For what reason, and on what ground was it changed? Ponder the
tenacity with which the Jews held on to their Sabbath given in
Eden, and buttressed amid the thunders of Sinai. Recall how Jews
would sooner die than fight on the Sabbath day (cf. Titus' invasion
of Jerusalem on the Sabbath). The Jews never celebrated the birthdays
of great men; they celebrated events, like the Passover. Yet, in
the New Testament times we find Jews changing their time-honored
seventh day to the first day of the week, and, contrary to all
precedent, calling that day after a man--the Lord's Day. Here is an
effect, a tremendous effect; what was its cause? We cannot have
an effect without a cause. The resurrection of our Lord was the
cause for this great change in the day of worship.

c) The Christian Church.

We know what a grand and noble institution the Christian church
is. What would this world be without it? Its hymns, worship,
philanthropy, ministrations of mercy are all known to us. Where did
this institution come from? It is an effect, a glorious effect; what
is its cause? When the risen Christ appeared unto the discouraged
disciples and revived their faith and hope, they went forth, under
the all-conquering faith in a risen and ascended Lord, and preached
the story of His life, death, resurrection, ascension, and coming
again. Men believed these teachings; gathered themselves together
to study the Scriptures, to pray, to worship Christ, and to extend
His kingdom among men. This is how the church came into existence.
Its cause was the resurrection of Christ.

d) The New Testament.

If Jesus Christ had remained buried in the grave, the story of His
life and death would have remained buried with Him. The New Testament
is an effect of Christ's resurrection. It was the resurrection
that put heart into the disciples to go forth and tell its story.
Sceptics would have us believe that the resurrection of Christ
was an afterthought of the disciples to give the story of Christ's
life a thrilling climax, a decorative incident which satisfies
the dramatic feeling in man, a brilliant picture at the end of an
heroic life. We reply: There would have been no beautiful story
to put a climax to if there had been no resurrection of the Christ
of the story. The resurrection does not grow out of the beautiful
story of His life, but the beautiful story of Christ's life grew
out of the fact of the resurrection. The New Testament is the book
of the resurrection.

2. THE ARGUMENT FROM TESTIMONY.

a) As to the Number of the Witnesses.

The resurrection of Christ as a historical fact is verified by a
sufficient number of witnesses: over five hundred (1 Cor. 15:3-9).
In our courts, one witness is enough to establish murder; two,
high treason; three, the execution of a will; seven, an oral will.
Seven is the greatest number required under our law. Christ's
resurrection had five hundred and fourteen. Is not this a sufficient
number?

b) As to the Character of the Witnesses.

The value of the testimony of a witness depends much upon his
character; if that is impeached, then the testimony is discounted.
Scrutinize carefully the character of the men who bore witness to
the fact of Christ's resurrection. Impeach them if you can. They
are unassailable on ethical grounds. "No honorable opponent of the
Gospel has ever denied this fact. Their moral greatness awakened
an Augustine, a Francis of Assisi, and a Luther. They have been the
unrivalled pattern of all mature and moral manhood for nearly two
thousand years." In law much is made of the question of _motive_.
What motive could the apostles have had in perpetrating the story
of Christ's resurrection upon people? Every one of them (except
one) died a martyr's death for his loyalty to the story of Christ's
resurrection. What had they to gain by fraud? Would they have
sacrificed their lives for what they themselves believed to be an
imposture?

Nor are we to slight the testimony to Christ's resurrection that
comes to us from sources other than that of the inspired writers
of the New Testament. Ignatius, a Christian, and a contemporary of
Christ, a martyr for his faith in Christ, in his _Letter to the
Philadelphians_, says: "Christ truly suffered, as He also truly
raised up Himself. I _know_ that after the resurrection He was
in the flesh, and I believe Him to be so still. And when He came
to those who were with Peter, He said to them, 'Take, handle me,
and see that I am not an incorporeal phantom!'" Tertullian, in
his _Apolegeticus_, says: "The fame of our Lord's remarkable
resurrection and ascension being now spread abroad, Pontius Pilate,
according to an ancient custom of communicating novel occurrences
to the emperor, that nothing might escape him, transmitted to
Tiberius, Emperor of Rome, an account of the resurrection of our
Lord from the dead...Tiberius referred the whole matter to the
Senate, who, being unacquainted with the facts, rejected it." The
integrity of this passage is unquestioned by even the most sceptical
critics.

Alleged Discrepancies.

[Footnote: The following extract from Dr. Orr's book, _The
Resurrection of Jesus_, will throw some light on the matter
of differences in testimony, while maintaining the credibility of
the fact itself. "An instructive example is furnished in a recent
issue of the _Bibliotheca Sacra_. A class in history was studying
the French Revolution, and the pupils were asked to look the matter
up, and report next day by what vote Louis XVI was condemned. Nearly
half the class reported that the vote was unanimous. A considerable
number protested that he was condemned by a majority of one. A few
gave the majority as 145 in a vote of 721. How utterly irreconcilable
these reports seemed! Yet for each the authority of reputable
historians could be given. In fact, all were true, and the full
truth was a combination of all three. On the first vote as to the
king's guilt there was no contrary voice. Some tell only of this.
The vote on the penalty was given individually, with reasons, and
a majority of 145 declared for the death penalty, at once or after
peace was made with Austria, or after confirmation by the people.
The votes for immediate death were only 361 as against 360. History
abounds with similar illustrations. As an example of another kind,
reference may be made to Rev. R. J. Campbell's volume of _Sermons
Addressed to Individuals_, where, on pp. 145-6 and pp. 181-2,
the same story of a Brighton man is told with affecting dramatic
details. The story is no doubt true in substance; but for
'discrepancies'--let the reader compare them, and never speak more
(or Mr. Campbell either) of the Gospels!"]

The seeming differences in the testimony of the witnesses to the
resurrection may be largely, if not altogether reconciled by a
correct knowledge of the manner and order of the _appearances_
of Christ after His resurrection.

The following order of appearances may help in the understanding
of the testimony to the resurrection:

1. The women at the grave see the vision of angels.

2. The women separate at the grave to make known the news --Mary
Magdalene going to tell Peter and John, who doubtless lived close
by (for it seems that they reached the grave in a single run). The
other women go to tell the other disciples who, probably, were at
Bethany.

3. Peter and John, hearing the news, run to the grave, leaving
Mary. They then return home.

4. Mary follows; lingers at the grave; gets vision of the Master,
and command to go tell the disciples.

5. The other women see Christ on the way.

6. Christ appears to the two on the way to Emmaus.

7. To Simon Peter.

8. To the ten apostles, and other friends.

9. To the apostles at Tiberias.

10. To the apostles and multitude on the mount.

11. To the disciples and friends at the ascension.

12. To James (1 Cor. 15:7).

13. To Paul (1 Cor. 15:8).

IV. THE RESULTS OF THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. AS TO JESUS CHRIST HIMSELF.

Rom. 1:4--"And declared to be the Son of God with power, according
to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead." To
"declare" means to mark off, to define, to set apart (Acts 10:42;
Heb. 4:7). NOTE: Christ was not _made_ the Son of God by the
resurrection, but _declared_ such. Had Christ remained in the
grave as other men had done, there would then have been no reasonable
ground to impose faith in Him. The empty tomb testifies to the
deity of Christ.

Matt. 18:38-42; John 2:13-22. In these scriptures Jesus Christ bases
His authority for His teaching and the truth of all His claims on
His resurrection from the dead. (Cf. under I. 2, in this chapter,
p. 84.) See also Matt. 28:6--"Risen, as he said."

2. AS TO THE BELIEVER IN JESUS CHRIST.

a) Assures Him of His Acceptance with God.

Rom. 4:25--"Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised
again for our justification." So long as Christ lay in the grave
there was no assurance that His redemptive work had been acceptable
to God. The fact that God raised Jesus from the dead was evidence
that the Father was satisfied with the sacrifice Christ had made
for the sins of men. "Of righteousness, because I go unto my Father"
(John 16:10). Believing sinners may now rest satisfied that in Him
they are justified. This thought is illustrated by the picture of
the Jews waiting outside the temple for the coming out of the high
priest (Luke 1:21), thereby indicating that their sacrifice had
been accepted.

b) Assures of Him an Interceding High Priest in the Heavens.

Rom. 8:34--"Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea
rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God,
who also maketh intercession for us." Also Heb. 7:25. Salvation
was not completed at the Cross; there is still need of daily
forgiveness, and so of the continual presenting of the shed blood
before the mercy-seat. The accusations of Satan still need to be
answered (Zec. 3:1-5; Job 1 and 2; Heb. 7:25). We need a Moses,
not only to deliver us from bondage, but also to plead for us and
intercede for us because of our sins committed in the wilderness
journey. Herein is our assurance of forgiveness of sins committed
after conversion--that our great High Priest is always heard (John
11:42), and that He prays constantly for us that our faith fail
not (Luke 22:32). Our temporary falls shall not condemn us, for
our Priest intercedes for us.

c) Assures Him of All Needed Power for Life and Service.

Eph. 1:19-22--"The exceeding greatness of his power . . . which
he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set
him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all
principality, and power, and might, . . . and gave him to be the
head over all things to the church." Also Phil. 3:10. There are
two standards in the Bible by which God's power is gauged: In the
Old Testament, when God would have His people know the extent of His
power, it is according to the power by which He brought Israel out
of Egypt (Micah 7:15); in the New Testament, the unit of measurement
of God's power is "According to the working of his mighty power,
which he wrought in Christ . . . when he raised him from the
dead." The connection of Phil. 3:10 gives the believer the promise
and assurance not only of present power and victory, but also of
future glorification. If we desire to know what God is able to do
for and through us we are invited to look at the resurrection of
Jesus Christ.

d) The Assurance of His Own Resurrection and Immortality.

1 Thess. 4:14--"For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again,
even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him."

2 Cor. 4:14--"Knowing that he which raised up the Lord Jesus shall
raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present us with you." John
14:19--"Because I live, ye shall live also."

3. AS TO THE WORLD.

a) The Certainty of a Resurrection.

1 Cor. 15:22--"As in Adam all die; even so in Christ shall all
be made alive." Paul is here discussing a _bodily,_ and not
a _spiritual_, resurrection (see under II. 2 d), p. 88). As
in Adam all men die physically, so in Christ all men are raised
physically. The resurrection of Jesus Christ guarantees the
resurrection of all men (see under Resurrection, p. 245).

b) The Certainty of a Judgment Day.

Acts 17:31--"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will
judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained;
whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised
him from the dead." The resurrection of Christ is God's unfailing
testimony to the fact of a coming day of judgment for the world.
The one is as sure as the other.

The Ascension and Exaltation of Jesus Christ.

I. THE MEANING OF THESE TERMS.

When we speak of the _Ascension_ of Christ we refer to that
event in the life of our risen Lord in which He departed visibly
from His disciples into heaven. This event is recorded in Acts
1:9-11--"This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven,"
etc.

By the _Exaltation_ of Jesus Christ we mean that act of God
by which the risen and ascended Christ is given the place of power
at the right hand of God. Phil. 2:9--"Wherefore God also hath highly
exalted him and given him a name which is above every name." Eph.
1:20, 21--"Which he (God) wrought in Christ, when he raised him
from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly
places, far above all principality and power." See also Heb. 1:3.

II. THE SCRIPTURAL DATA FOR THE DOCTRINE.

Foregleams of this truth were granted to the prophets of the Old
Testament times, Psa. 110:1; 68:18. They saw Christ in prophetic
vision not only as the meek and lowly One, but as the ascended and
glorified Lord.

Our Lord Himself, on many occasions, foretold His ascension and
exaltation. These events were constantly before His mind's eye:
Luke 9:51; John 6:62; 20:17.

The New Testament writers record the event: Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51;
John 3:13; Acts 1:9-11; Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 10:12.

Stephen, in his dying moments, was granted a vision of the exalted
Christ. He saw the "Son of Man standing on the right hand of God"
(Acts 7:55, 36).

The apostles taught and preached these great truths: Peter, Acts
2:33, 34; 5:31; 1 Peter 3:22. Paul: Eph. 4:8-10; Heb. 4:14; 1 Tim.
3:16.

III. THE NECESSITY OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.

The nature of the resurrection body of our Lord necessitated
His ascension and exaltation. Such a body could not be subject to
ordinary laws; it could not permanently abide here.

Christ's unique personality also required such an exit from the
world. Should not the exit of Christ from this world be as unique
as His entrance into it? Then, again, consider the sinlessness of
His life. If a miraculous exit was granted to men like Elijah and
Enoch, who were sinful men, why should we marvel if such was granted
to Christ? Indeed it seems perfectly natural, and quite in keeping
with His whole life that just such an event as the ascension and
exaltation should form a fitting finish to such a wonderful career.

The ascension and exaltation were necessary to complete the redemptive
work of Christ. His work was not finished when He arose from the
dead. He had not yet presented the blood of the atonement in the
presence of the Father; nor had He yet been given His place at the
right hand of the Father as the bestower of all spiritual gifts,
and especially the gift of the Holy Spirit.

The apostles were thus able to furnish to an unbelieving and
inquisitive world a satisfactory account of the disappearance of
the body of Christ which had been placed in the tomb, and which
they claimed to have seen after the resurrection. "Where is your
Christ?" the scoffing world might ask. "We saw Him ascend up into
the heaven, and He is now at the Father's right hand," the apostles
could reply.

It was further necessary in order that Christ might become an ideal
object of worship for the whole human race. We should not forget
that Christ's earthly ministry was a purely local one: He could be
but in one place at a time. Those who worshipped at His feet in
Jerusalem could not, at the same time, worship Him in any other
place. This was the lesson, doubtless, that the Master desired to
teach Mary when she would fain hold on to Him, and when He said,
"Touch me not." Mary must worship now by faith, not by sight.

IV. THE NATURE OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. IT WAS A BODILY AND VISIBLE ASCENSION.

Acts 1:9-11; Luke 24:51. It was the same Christ they had known in
life, only glorified, who had tarried with them now for the space
of forty days, who had delivered unto them certain commandments,
and whose hands were even then outstretched in blessing that they
saw slowly vanishing from their view up into the heavens. It was
a body of flesh and bones, not flesh and blood. So will be our
translation (1 Cor. 15:51, 52).

2. HE PASSED UP THROUGH THE HEAVENS.

Heb. 4:14 (R. V.); Eph. 4:10; Heb. 7:26. Whatever and how many
created heavens there may be between the earth and the dwelling
place of God, we may not know, but we are here told that Christ
passed through them all, and up to the highest heaven, indeed was
made higher than the heavens. This means that He overcame all those
evil principalities and powers that inhabit these heavenlies (Eph.
6) and who doubtless tried their best to keep Him from passing
through the heavens to present His finished work before the Father.
Just as the high priest passed through the vail into the holy place,
so Christ passed through the heavens into the presence of God.

3. HE TOOK HIS PLACE AT THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER.

He was exalted to the right hand of God. Eph. 1:20--"Set him at his
own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality
and power." Col. 3:1--"Christ sitteth on the right hand of God."
This place was not taken by Christ without conflict with these
evil principalities and powers. But "He made a show of them openly,
triumphing over them in it" (Col. 2:15). See also Acts 5:31.

What is meant by "the right hand of God"? Is it a definite place,
or is it simply a figure of speech denoting a place of authority
and power? Why can not both things be included? God has His dwelling
place in heaven, and it is not incredible to believe that from the
throne there Christ exercises His divine prerogatives. Stephen
saw Christ standing at the right hand of God in heaven.

The "right hand of God" assuredly indicates the place of the
accuser whom Christ casts out (Zec. 3:1; Rev. 12:10); the place of
intercession which Christ now occupies (Rom. 8:34); the place of
acceptance where the Intercessor now sits (Psa. 110:1); the place
of highest power and richest blessing (Gen. 48:13-19); the place of
power (Psa. 110:5). All these powers and prerogatives are Christ's
by reason of His finished work of redemption.

V. THE PURPOSE OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. HE HAS ENTERED HEAVEN AS A FORERUNNER.

Heb. 6:20--"Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus."
The forerunner is one who enters into a place where the rest are
to follow; one who is sent before to make observations; a scout, a
spy. The Levitical high priest was not a forerunner; no one could
follow him. But where Christ goes His people may go also.

2. HE HAS GONE TO PREPARE A PLACE FOR HIS PEOPLE.

Heb. 9:21-24; John 14:2. He is there making all necessary preparations
for the coming of His bride, the Church. In some way it seems that
the heavenly sanctuary had been defiled by sin. It was necessary,
therefore, that Christ purge it with His blood. What a home that
will be if He prepares it!

3. HE IS NOW APPEARING BEFORE GOD IN OUR BEHALF.

Heb. 9:24--"To appear in the presence of God for us." He is there
to act as High Priest in our behalf; to present the blood of
atonement. "Before the throne my Surety stands." And yet not so
much before the throne as on the throne. He is the Kingly Priest.
With authority He asks, and His petitions are granted.

4. HE HAS TAKEN HIS PLACE AT THE FATHER'S RIGHT HAND THAT HE MAY
FILL ALL THINGS, AWAITING THE DAY WHEN HE SHALL HAVE UNIVERSAL
DOMINION.

Eph. 4:10. He fills all things with His presence, with His work,
with Himself. He is not a local Christ any longer (cf. Jer. 23:24).

Heb. 10:12, 13; Acts 3:20, 21--"He shall send Jesus Christ . . .
. whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of
all things." Having won His victory, Christ is now waiting for
all the spoils to be gathered. He is expecting, not doubting, but
assuredly waiting; already His feet are upon the neck of the enemy.
The Apocalypse pictures Christ entering upon the actual possession
of His kingdom.

VI. THE RESULTS OF THE ASCENSION AND EXALTATION OF JESUS CHRIST.

1. IT ASSURES US OF A FREE AND CONFIDENT ACCESS INTO THE PRESENCE
OF GOD.

Heb. 4:14-16 (R. V.)--"Having then a great high priest, who hath
passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast
our confession. . . . . Let us therefore draw near with boldness
unto the throne of grace." Our great High Priest is before the
throne to present petitions, secure pardons for His people, and
to communicate blessings in answer to their faith and prayers. We
may have a free and fearless confidence in our approach to God.

2. AN ASSURED HOPE OF IMMORTALITY.

2 Cor. 5:1-8 describes the longing of the Christian to be clothed
with a body after he has been called upon to lay aside this earthly
tabernacle. He has no desire for a bodiless existence. The ascension
and exaltation of Christ assures the believer that as Christ, so
he also will take his place in heaven with a body like unto Christ's
own glorious body.

3. IT GIVES THE BELIEVER CONFIDENCE IN GOD'S PROVIDENCE TO BELIEVE
THAT ALL THINGS ARE WORKING TOGETHER FOR HIS GOOD

Seeing that Christ, the believer's Head, is exalted far above all
things in heaven and earth, it is possible for the believer to be
master of circumstances, and superior to all his environment (Eph.
1:22; cf. Col. 1:15-18).

4. CHRIST HAS BEEN MADE HEAD OVER ALL THINGS FOR THE CHURCH.

That is to say, that everything is subject to Christ, and that for
the Church's sake. Eph. 1:22 (R. V.)--"And he put all things in
subjection under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things
to the church." Christ is the fullness of the Father for the Church
(Col. 1:19; 2:9, 10). Christ bestows the Holy Spirit upon the
Church (Acts 2:33-36; John 7:37-39). He receives for, and bestows
upon the Church spiritual gifts (Eph. 4:8-12).



THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

I. THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   1. PERSONAL NAMES GIVEN TO THE SPIRIT.
   2. PERSONAL PRONOUNS USED OF THE SPIRIT.
   3. THE SPIRIT ASSOCIATED WITH THE FATHER AND THE SON.
   4. THE SPIRIT POSSESSES PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS.
   5. PERSONAL ACTS ARE ASCRIBED TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.
   6. THE SPIRIT IS SUBJECT TO PERSONAL TREATMENT.

II. THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO THE SPIRIT.
   2. DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.
   3. DIVINE WORKS.
   4. NAME OF THE SPIRIT ASSOCIATED WITH NAMES OF THE DEITY.
   5. COMPARISON OF OLD TESTAMENT PASSAGES WITH SOME IN THE NEW
      TESTAMENT.

III. THE NAMES OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   1. THE HOLY SPIRIT.
   2. THE SPIRIT OF GRACE.
   3. THE SPIRIT OF BURNING.
   4. THE SPIRIT OF TRUTH.
   5. THE SPIRIT OF LIFE.
   6. THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE.
   7. THE SPIRIT OF PROMISE.
   8. THE SPIRIT OF GLORY.
   9. THE SPIRIT OF GOD AND OF CHRIST.

IV. THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   1. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD.
      a) The Universe.
      b) The World of Mankind.
   2. IN RELATION TO THE BELIEVER.
   3. IN RELATION TO THE SCRIPTURES.
   4. IN RELATION TO JESUS CHRIST.

V. OFFENCES AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT.

   1. BY THE SINNER.
      a) Resisting.
      b) Insulting.
      c) Blaspheming.
   2. BY THE BELIEVER.
      a) Grieving.
      b) Lying to.
      c) Quenching.



THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

We are living in the Age of the Spirit. The Old Testament period
may be called the Age of the Father; the period covered by the
Gospels, the Age of the Son; from Pentecost until the second advent
of Christ, the Age of the Spirit.

All matters pertaining to the doctrine of the Holy Spirit should,
therefore, be of special interest to us who live in this age
of special privilege. Yet how ignorant is the average Christian
concerning matters pertaining to the Spirit. The Christian church
today needs to heed Paul's exhortation: "Now concerning spiritual
gifts (or, perhaps better, "matters pertaining to the Spirit"),
I would not have you ignorant." May it not be that the reason why
the sin against the Holy Spirit is so grievous is because it is a
sin committed in the light and with the knowledge of the clearest
and fullest revelation of the Godhead. We cannot, therefore, afford
to remain in ignorance of this all-important doctrine.

I. THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

It seems strange that it should be necessary to discuss this phase
of the subject at all. Indeed, in the light of the last discourse
of the Master (John 14-16), it seems superfluous, if not really
insulting. During all the ages of the Christian era, however, it
has been necessary to emphasize this phase of the doctrine of the
Spirit (cf. Arianism, Socinianism, Unitarianism).

1. WHY IS THE PERSONALITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT QUESTIONED?

a) Because, as Contrasted with the Other Persons of the Godhead,
the Spirit Seems Impersonal.

The visible creation makes the personality of God the Father
somewhat easy to conceive; the incarnation makes it almost, if not
altogether, impossible to disbelieve in the personality of Jesus
Christ; but the acts and workings of the Holy Spirit are so secret
and mystical, so much is said of His influence, graces, power and
gifts, that we are prone to think of Him as an influence, a power,
a manifestation or influence of the Divine nature, an agent rather
than a Person.

b) Because of the Names Given to the Holy Spirit.

He is called _breath, wind, power._ The symbols used in
speaking of the Spirit are _oil, fire, water,_ etc. See John
3:5-8; Acts 2:1-4; John 20:22; 1 John 2:20. It is not strange that
in view of all this some students of the Scriptures may have been
led to believe, erroneously of course, that the Holy Spirit is an
impersonal influence emanating from God the Father.

c) Because the Holy Spirit is not usually Associated with the Father
and the Son in the Greetings and Salutation of the New Testament.

For illustration, see 1 Thess. 3:11--"Now God himself and our Father,
and our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you." Yet we must
remember, in this connection, that the Apostolic Benediction in 2
Cor. 13:14 does associate the three persons of the Trinity, thereby
asserting their personality equally.

d) Because the Word or Name "Spirit" is Neuter.

It is true that the same Greek word is translated _wind_ and
_Spirit;_ also that the Authorized Version uses the neuter
pronoun "itself," when speaking of the Holy Spirit (Rom. 8:16, 26).
As we shall see later, the Revised Version substitutes "himself"
for "itself."

The importance of the personality of the Spirit, and of our being
assured of this fact is forcibly set forth by Dr. R. A. Torrey:
"If the Holy Spirit is a Divine Person and we know it not, we are
robbing a Divine Being of the love and adoration which are His due.
It is of the highest practical importance whether the Holy Spirit
is a power that we, in our ignorance and weakness, are somehow to
get hold of and use, or whether the Holy Spirit is a personal Being
. . . . who is to get hold of us and use us. It is of the highest
experimental importance. . . . . Many can testify to the blessing
that came into their lives when they came to know the Holy Spirit,
not merely as a gracious influence . . . . but as an ever-present,
loving friend and helper."

2. METHOD OF PROOF.

It is difficult to define _personality_ when used of the
Divine Being. God cannot be measured by human standards. God was
not made in the image of man, but man in the image of God. God is
not a deified man; man is rather a limited God ("a little . . ..
less than God." Heb. 2:7, R. V.). Only God has a perfect personality.
When, however, one possesses the attributes, properties and qualities
of personality, then personality may be unquestionably predicated
of such a being. Does the Holy Spirit possess such properties? Let
us see.

a) Names that Imply Personality are Given to the Spirit.

_The Comforter:_ John 14:16; 16:7. "Comforter" means one who
is called to your side--as a client calls a lawyer. That this name
cannot be used of any abstract, impersonal influence is clear from
the fact that in 1 John 2:1 the same word is used of Christ. (See
Rom. 8:26). Again in John 14:16 the Holy Spirit, as the Paraclete,
is to take the place of a person--Christ Himself, and to personally
guide the disciples just as Jesus had been doing. No one but a
person can take the place of a person; certainly no mere influence
could take the place of Jesus Christ, the greatest personality
that ever lived. Again, Christ, in speaking of the Spirit as the
Comforter, uses the masculine definite article, and thus, by His
choice of gender, teaches the personality of the Holy Spirit. There
can be no parity between a person and an influence.

b) Personal Pronouns are Used of the Holy Spirit.

John 16:7, 8, 13-15: Twelve times in these verses the Greek masculine
pronoun _ekeinos_ (that one, He) is used of the Spirit. This
same word is used of Christ in 1 John 2:6; 3:3, 5, 7, 16. This is
especially remarkable because the Greek word for spirit (_pneuma_)
is neuter, and so should have a neuter pronoun; yet, contrary
to ordinary usage, a masculine pronoun is here used. This is
not a pictorial personification, but a plain, definite, clear-cut
statement asserting the personality of the Holy Spirit. Note also
that where, in the Authorized Version, the neuter pronoun is used,
the same is corrected in the Revised Version: not "itself," but
"Himself" (Rom. 8:16,26).

c) The Holy Spirit is Identified with the Father and the Son--and,
indeed, with Christians--in Such a Way as to Indicate Personality.

The Baptismal Formula. Matt. 28:19. Suppose we should read,
"Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of
_the wind or breath_." Would that sound right? If the first
two names are personal, is not the third? Note also: "In the name"
(singular), not names (plural), implying that all three are Persons
equally,

The Apostolic Benediction. 2 Cor. 13:14. The same argument may be
used as that in connection with the Baptismal Formula, just cited.

Identification with Christians. Acts 15:28. "For it seemeth good
to the Holy Ghost, and to us." Shall we say, "It seemeth good to
_the wind_ and to us"? It would be absurd. 10:38--"How God
anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power."
Shall we read, "Anointed .. with _power_ and power?" Rom.
15:13--"That ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy
Ghost." Shall we read, "That ye may abound in hope, through the
power of the _power_"? See also Luke 4:14. Would not these
passages rebel against such tautological and meaningless usage?
Most assuredly.

d) Personal Characteristics are Ascribed to the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit is represented as searching the deepest and
profoundest truths of God, and possessing knowledge of His counsels
sufficiently to understand His purposes (1 Cor. 2:10, 11). Could
a mere influence do this? See also Isa. 11:3; I Pet. 1:11.

Spiritual gifts are distributed to believers according to the
_will_ of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12). Here is wisdom, prudence and
discretion, all of which are distinguishing marks of personality.
The Spirit not only bestows spiritual gifts, but bestows them
discreetly, according as He thinks best. See John 3:8 also.

The Spirit is said to have a _mind_, and that implies thought,
purpose, determination: Rom. 8:27, cf. v. 7. Mind is an attribute
of personality.

e) Personal Acts are Ascribed to the Holy Spirit.

The Spirit _speaks_: Rev. 2:7 (cf. Matt. 17:5--"Hear ye him.")
It is the Spirit who speaks through the apostles (10:20). Speech
is an attribute of personality.

The Spirit _maketh intercession:_ Rom. 8:26 (R. V.), cf. Heb.
7:25; I John 2:1, 2, where Christ is said to "make intercession."

Acts 13:2; 16:6, 7; 20:28. In these passages the Holy Spirit is
seen _calling_ missionaries, _overseeing_ the church,
and _commanding_ the life and practice of the apostles and
the whole church. Such acts indicate personality.

f) The Holy Spirit is Susceptible to Personal Treatment.

He may be _grieved_ (Eph. 4:30); _insulted_ (Heb. 10.29);
_lied to_ (Acts 5:3); blasphemed and sinned against (Matt.
12:31, 32). Indeed, the sin against the Holy Spirit is a much more
grievous matter than the sin against the Son of Man. Can such be
said of an influence? Can it be said even of any of the sons of
men?

II. THE DEITY OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

By the Deity of the Holy Spirit is meant that the Holy Spirit is God.
This fact is clearly set forth in the Scriptures, in a five-fold
way:

1. DIVINE NAMES ARE GIVEN TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.

In Acts 5:4, the Spirit is called _God_. And this in opposition
to man, to whom, alone, Ananias thought he was talking. Can any
statement allege deity more clearly? In 2 Cor. 3:18--"We .... are
transformed into the same image from glory to glory, even as from
the Lord the Spirit" (R. V.). Here the Spirit is called the _Lord_.
For the meaning of "Lord" see under the Deity of Christ, p. 60.

2. THE HOLY SPIRIT POSSESSES DIVINE ATTRIBUTES.

He is _eternal_ in his nature (Heb. 9:14, R. V.); _omnipresent_
(Psa. 139:7-10); _omnipotent_ (Luke 1:35); _omniscient_
(1 Cor. 2:10, 11). For the meaning of these attributes, see under
the Doctrine of God and Jesus Christ, pp. 28 and 63.

3. DIVINE WORKS ARE ASCRIBED TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.

_Creation_ (Gen. 1:2; Psa. 104:30, R. V.); Job 33:4--"The Spirit
of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me
life." _Regeneration_ (John 3:5-8); _Resurrection_ (Rom.
8:11).

4. THE NAME OF THE HOLY SPIRIT IS ASSOCIATED WITH THAT OF THE
FATHER, AND OF THE SON.

See under Personality of the Spirit, p. 107. The same arguments
which there prove the Personality of the Spirit may be used here to
prove the Deity of the Spirit. It would be just as absurd to say,
"Baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of
_Moses_"--thus putting Moses on an equality with the Father
and the Son--as it would be to say, "Baptizing them in the name of
the Father, and of the Son, and of the _wind_"--thus making
the wind as personal as the Father and the Son. The Spirit is
on an equality with the Father and the Son in the distribution of
spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 12:4-6).

5. PASSAGES WHICH IN THE OLD TESTAMENT REFER TO GOD ARE IN THE
NEW TESTAMENT MADE TO REFER TO THE HOLY SPIRIT.

Compare Isa. 6:8-10 with Acts 28:25-27; and Exod. 16:7 with Heb.
3:7-9.

III. THE NAMES OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

Just as the Father and the Son have certain names ascribed to them,
setting forth their nature and work, so also does the Holy Spirit
have names which indicate His character and work.

1. THE HOLY SPIRIT.

Luke 11:13--"How much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy
Spirit to them that ask Him?" Rom. 1:4--"The Spirit of holiness."
In these passages it is the moral character of the Spirit that
is set forth. Note the contrast: "Ye, being evil," and "the Holy
Spirit." The Spirit is _holy_ in Himself and produces holiness
in others.

2. THE SPIRIT OF GRACE.

Heb. 10:29--"And hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace." As
the executive of the Godhead, the Spirit confers grace. To resist
the Spirit, therefore, is to shut off all hope of salvation. To
resist His appeal is to insult the Godhead. That is why the punishment
mentioned here is so awful.

3. THE SPIRIT OF BURNING.

Matt. 3:11, 12--"He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with
fire." Isa. 4:4--"When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of
the daughters of Zion.... by the spirit of judgment and the spirit
of burning." This cleansing is done by the blast of the Spirit's
burning. Here is the searching, illuminating, refining, dross-consuming
character of the Spirit. He burns up the dross in our lives when
He enters and takes possession.

4. THE SPIRIT OF TRUTH.

John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13; I John 5:6. As God is Love, so the Spirit
is Truth. He possesses, reveals, confers, leads into, testifies to,
and defends the truth. Thus He is opposed to the "spirit of error"
(1 John 4:6).

5. THE SPIRIT OF LIFE.

Rom. 8:2--"For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath
made me free from the law of sin and death." That which had been
the actuating principle of life, namely, the flesh, is now deposed,
and its controlling place taken by the Spirit. The Spirit is thus
the dynamic of the believer's experience that leads him into a life
of liberty and power.

6. THE SPIRIT OF WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE.

That the references in Isa. 11:2; 61:1, 2 are to be understood
as referring to the Spirit that abode upon the Messiah, is clear
from Luke 4:18 where "Spirit" is capitalized. Christ's wisdom and
knowledge resulted, in one aspect of the case, from His being filled
with the Spirit. "Wisdom and understanding" refer to intellectual
and moral apprehension; "Counsel and might," the power to scheme,
originate, and carry out; "Knowledge and the fear of the Lord,"
acquaintance with the true will of God, and the determination
to carry it out at all costs. These graces are the result of the
Spirit's operations on the heart.

7. THE SPIRIT OF PROMISE.

Eph. 1:13--"Ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise." The
Spirit is the fulfillment of Christ's promise to send the Comforter,
and so He is the promised Spirit. The Spirit also confirms and seals
the believer, and thus assures him that all the promises made to
him shall be completely fulfilled.

8. THE SPIRIT OF GLORY.

1 Pet. 4:14--"The spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you."
What is glory? Glory as used in the Scripture means character.
The Holy Spirit is the One who produces godlike character in the
believer (cf. 2 Cor. 3:18).

9. THE SPIRIT OF GOD, AND OF CHRIST.

1 Cor. 3:16--"The Spirit of God dwelleth in you." Rom. 8:9--"Now
if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." The
fact that the Spirit is sent from the Father and the Son, that He
represents them, and is their executive, seems to be the thought
conveyed here.

10. THE COMFORTER (p. 109).

IV. THE WORK OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.

The Work of the Spirit may be summed up under the following headings:
His work in the universe; in humanity as a whole; in the believer;
with reference to the Scriptures; and, finally, with reference to
Jesus Christ.

1. IN RELATION TO THE WORLD.

a) With Regard to the Universe.

There is a sense in which the creation of the universe may be
ascribed to God's Spirit. Indeed Psa. 33:6--"By the word of the
Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath
(Spirit) of his mouth," attributes the work of creation to the
Trinity, the Lord, the Word of the Lord, and the Spirit of the Lord.
The creation of man is attributed to the Spirit. Job 33:4--"The
Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath
given me life." It would be proper, doubtless, to say that the
Father created all things through the agency of the Word and the
Spirit. In the Genesis account of creation (1:3) the Spirit is seen
actively engaged in the work of creation.

Not only is it true that the Spirit's agency is seen in the act of
creation, but His power is seen also in the preservation of nature.
Isa. 40:7--"The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, because the
spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it." A staggering declaration.

THE DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

The Spirit comes in the fierce east wind with its keen, biting
blast of death. He comes also in the summer zephyr, which brings
life and beauty.

b) With Regard to Humanity as a Whole.

John 16:8-11--"And when He is come, he will reprove the world of
sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment; of sin, because they
believe not on me; of righteousness, because I go unto my Father
and ye see me no more; of judgment, because the prince of this
world is judged." Here are three great facts of which the Spirit
bears witness to the world: the sin of unbelief in Christ; the
fact that Christ was righteous and absolutely true in all that He
claimed to be; the fact that the power of Satan has been broken. Of
sin: the sin in which all other sins are embraced; of righteousness:
the righteousness in which all other righteousness is manifested and
fulfilled; of judgment: the judgment in which all other judgments
are decided and grounded. Of sin, belonging to man; of righteousness,
belonging to Christ; of judgment, belonging to Satan.

John 15:26--"The Spirit of truth ... shall testify of me." Acts
5:32--"And we are his witnesses of these things; and so is also the
Holy Ghost." It is the work of the Holy Spirit to constantly bear
witness of Christ and His finished work to the world of sinful and
sinning men. This He does largely, although hardly exclusively,
through the testimony of believers to the saving power and work
of Christ: "Ye also shall bear witness" (John 15:27).

2. THE WORK OF THE SPIRIT IN RELATION TO THE BELIEVER.

a) He Regenerates the Believer.

John 3:3-5--"Born of ... the Spirit." Tit. 3:5--"The... renewing
of the Holy Ghost." Sonship, and membership in the kingdom of God,
come only through the regenerating of the Holy Spirit. "It is the
Spirit that quickeneth." Just as Jesus was begotten of the Holy Ghost,
so must every child of God who is to be an heir to the kingdom.

b) The Spirit Indwells the Believer.

1 Cor. 6:19--"Your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is
in you." Also 3:16; Rom. 8:9. Every believer, no matter how weak
and imperfect he may be, or how immature his Christian experience,
still has the indwelling of the Spirit. Acts 19:2 does not contradict
this statement. Evidently some miraculous outpouring of the Spirit
is intended there, the which followed the prayer and laying on of
the hands of the apostles. "Now if any man have not the Spirit of
Christ, he is none of his." "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord,
but by the Holy Ghost" (Rom. 8:9; 1 Cor. 12:3).

c) The Spirit Seals the Believer with Assurance of Salvation.

Eph. 1:13, 14--"In whom also after that ye believed, ye were
sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise; which is the earnest of
our inheritance." Also 4:30--"Sealed unto the day of redemption."
This sealing stands for two things: ownership and likeness (2 Tim.
2:19-21). The Holy Spirit is "the Spirit of adoption" which God
puts into our hearts, by which we know that we are His children.
The Spirit bears witness to this great truth (Gal. 4:6; Rom. 8:14,
16). This sealing has to do with the heart and the conscience--satisfying
both as to the settlement of the sin and sonship question.

d) The Holy Spirit Infills the Believer.

Acts 2:4--"And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost." Eph.
5:18--"Be filled with the Spirit." The filling differs somewhat from
the indwelling. We may speak of the baptism of the Spirit as that
initial act of the Spirit by which, at the moment of our regeneration,
we are baptized by the Spirit into the body of Christ; the Spirit
then comes and takes up His dwelling within the believer. The
filling with the Spirit, however, is not confined to one experience,
or to any one point of time exclusively; it may be repeated times
without number. There is one baptism, but many infillings with the
Spirit. The experience of the apostles in the Acts bears witness to
the fact that they were repeatedly filled with the Spirit. Whenever
a new emergency arose they sought a fresh infilling with the Spirit
(cf. Acts 2:4 with 4:31 showing that the apostles who were filled
on the day of Pentecost were again filled a few days after).

There is a difference between possessing the Spirit, and being
filled with the Spirit. All Christians have the first; not all have
the second, although all may have. Eph. 4:30 speaks of believers
as being "sealed," whereas 5:18 commands those same believers to
"be filled (to be being filled again and again) with the Spirit."

Both the baptism and the infilling may take place at once. There
need be no long wilderness experience in the life of the believer.
It is the will of God that we should be filled (or, if you prefer
the expression, "be baptized") with the Spirit at the moment of
conversion, and remain filled all the time. Whenever we are called
upon for any special service, or for any new emergency, we should
seek a fresh infilling of the Spirit, either for life or service,
as the case may be.

The Holy Spirit seeks--so we learn from the story of the Acts--for
men who are not merely possessed by but also filled with the Spirit,
for service (6:3, 5; 9:17; 11:24). Possession touches assurance;
infilling, service.

e) The Holy Spirit Empowers the Believer for Life and Service.

Rom. 8:2--"For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath
made me free from the law of sin and death" (also vv. 9-11). There
are two natures in the believer: the flesh and the Spirit (Gal.
5:17). But while the believer is still in the flesh, he does not
live after the flesh (Rom. 8:12, 13). The Holy Spirit enables the
believer to get constant and continual victory over sin. A single
act of sin a believer may commit; to live in a state of sin is
impossible for him, for the Spirit which is within him gives him
victory, so that sin does not _reign_ over him. If sinless
perfection is not a Scriptural doctrine, sinful imperfection is
certainly less Scriptural. The eighth chapter of Romans exhibits
a victorious life for the believer; a life so different from that
depicted in the seventh chapter. And the difference lies in the
fact that the Holy Spirit is hardly, if at all, mentioned in the
seventh chapter, while in the eighth He is mentioned over twelve
times. The Spirit in the heart is the secret of victory over sin.

Then note how the Holy Spirit produces the blessed fruit of the
Christian life (Gal. 5:22, 23). What a beautiful cluster of graces!
How different from the awful catalogue of the works of the flesh
(vv. 19-21). Look at this cluster of fruit. There are three groups:
the first, in relation to God--love, joy, peace; the second, in
relation to our fellowman--longsuffering, gentleness, goodness;
the third, for our individual Christian life--faith, meekness,
self-control.

f) The Holy Spirit is the Guide of the Believer's Life.

He guides him as to the details of his daily life, Rom. 8:14; Gal.
5:16, 25-"Walk in the Spirit." There is no detail of the believer's
life that may not be under the control and direction of the Spirit.
"The steps (and, as one has well said,'the stops') of a good man
are ordered by the Lord."

The Holy Spirit guides the believer as to the field in which
he should labor. How definitely this truth is taught in the Acts
8:27-29; 16:6, 7; 13:2-4. What a prominent part the Spirit played
in selecting the fields of labor for the apostles! Every step in
the missionary activity of the early church seemed to be under the
direct guidance of the Spirit.

g) The Holy Spirit Anoints the Believer.

This anointing stands for three things:

First, for _knowledge and teaching_. 1 John 2:27--"But the
anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye
need not that any man teach you; but as the same anointing teacheth
you of all things, and is truth . . . ye shall abide in him." Also
2:20. It is not enough to learn the truth from human teachers, we
must listen to the teaching of the Spirit. 1 Cor. 2:9-14 teaches
us that there are some great truths that are spiritually discerned;
they cannot be understood saving by the Spirit-filled man, for they
are "spiritually discerned." See also John 14:26; 16:13.

Second, for _service_. How dependent Christ was upon the Holy
Spirit for power in which to perform the duties of life is clear
from such passages as Luke 4:18--"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he hath anointed me to preach," etc. Also Acts 10:38--"How
God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power:
who went about doing good." Ezekiel teaches a lesson by his vivid
picture of the activity of God portrayed in the wheels within wheels.
The moving power within those wheels was the Spirit of God. So in
all our activity for God we must have the Spirit of power.

Third, for _consecration_. Three classes of persons in the Old
Testament were anointed: the prophet, the priest, and the king.
The result of anointing was consecration--"Thy vows are upon
me, O God"; knowledge of God and His will--"Ye know all things";
influence--fragrance from the ointment. Just as the incense at
Mecca clings to the pilgrim when he passes through the streets, so
it is with him who has the anointing of the Spirit. All his garments
smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia. He has about him the sweet
odor and scent of the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the Valley.

3. THE RELATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT TO THE SCRIPTURES.

a) He is the Author of the Scriptures.

Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. 2
Pet. 1:20, 21. The Scriptures came by the inbreathing of God, 2
Tim. 3:16. "Hear what the Spirit saith to the churches," Eev. 2
and 3. It was the Spirit who was to guide the apostles into all
the truth, and show them things to come (John 16:13).

b) The Spirit is also the Interpreter of the Scriptures.

1 Cor. 2:9-14. He is "the Spirit of wisdom and revelation," Eph.
1:17. "He shall receive of mine and show it unto you," John 16:14,
15. (See under the Inspiration of the Bible, p. 194.)

4. THE RELATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT TO JESUS CHRIST.

How dependent Jesus Christ was, in His state of humiliation, on the
Holy Spirit! If He needed to depend solely upon the Spirit can we
afford to do less?

a) He was Conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Spirit, Luke
1:35.

b) He was led by the Spirit, Matt. 4:1.

c) He was Anointed by the Spirit for Service, Acts 10:38.

d) He was Crucified in the Power of the Spirit, Heb. 9:14.

e) He was Raised by the Power of the Spirit, Rom. 1:4; 8:11.

f) He gave Commandment to His Disciples and Church Through the
Spirit, Acts 1:2.

g) He is the Bestower of the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:33.

V. OFFENCES AGAINST THE HOLY SPIRIT.

Scarcely any phase of the doctrine of the Spirit is more solemn
than this. It behooves us all, believer and unbeliever alike, to
be careful as to how we treat the Holy Spirit. Sinning against the
Spirit is fraught with terrific consequences.

For convenience sake we are classifying the offences against the
Spirit under two general divisions, namely, those committed by the
unbeliever, and those committed by the believer. Not that there is
absolutely no overlapping in either case. For, doubtless, in the
very nature of the case there must be. This thought will be kept
in mind in the study of the offences against the Spirit.

1. OFFENCES COMMITTED BY THE UNBELIEVER.

a) Resisting the Holy Ghost.

Acts 7:51-"Ye do always resist the Holy Ghost." Here the picture is
that of the Holy Spirit attacking the citadel of the soul of man,
who violently resists the gracious attempts of the Spirit to win
him. In spite of the plainest arguments, and the most incontestable
facts this man wilfully rejects the evidence and refuses to
accept the Christ so convincingly presented. Thus is the Holy Ghost
resisted. (See Acts 6:10.) That this is a true picture of resistance
to the Holy Spirit is clearly seen from Stephen's recital of the
facts in Acts 7:51-57.

b) Insulting, or Doing Despite unto the Holy Spirit.

Heb. 10:29 (cf. Luke 18:32). It is the work of the Spirit to present
the atoning work of Christ to the sinner as the ground of his
pardon. When the sinner refuses to believe or accept the testimony
of the Spirit, he thereby insults the Spirit by esteeming the whole
work of Christ as a deception and a lie, or accounts the death of
Christ as the death of an ordinary or common man, and not as God's
provision for the sinner.

c) Blaspheming the Holy Spirit.

Matt. 12:31,32. This seems to be the most grievous sin of all,
for the Master asserts that there is no forgiveness for this sin.
Sins against the Son of Man may be forgiven because it was easily
possible, by reason of His humble birth, lowly parentage, etc., to
question the claims He put forth to deity. But when, after Pentecost,
the Holy Spirit came, and presented to every man's conscience
evidence sufficient to prove the truth of these claims, the man who
then refused to yield to Christ's claims was guilty of resisting,
insulting, and that amounts to blaspheming the testimony of the
whole Godhead, of which the Spirit is the executive.

2. OFFENCES COMMITTED BY THE BELIEVER.

a) Grieving the Spirit.

Eph. 4:30, 31; Isa. 63:10 (R. V.). To grieve means to make sad or
sorrowful. It is the word used to describe the experience of Christ
in Gethsemane; and so the sorrow of Gethsemane may be endured by
the Holy Spirit. The Spirit is the most sensitive person of the
Godhead. He is called the "Mother--heart" of God. The context
of this passage (v.31) tells us how the Spirit may be grieved: by
"foolish talking and jesting." Whenever the believer allows any of
the things mentioned in this verse (and those stated also in Gal.
5:17-19) to find place in his heart and expression in his words
and life; when these things abide in his heart and actively manifest
themselves, then the Spirit is sad and grieved. Indeed to refuse
any part of our moral nature to the full sway of the Spirit is to
grieve Him. If we continue to grieve the Spirit, then the grief
turns into vexation (Isa. 63:10).

b) Lying to the Holy Spirit.

Acts 5:3, 4. The sin of lying to the Spirit is very prominent when
consecration is most popular. We stand up and say, "I surrender
all" when in our hearts we know that we have not surrendered
_all_. Yet, like Ananias, we like to have others believe that
we have consecrated our all. We do not wish to be one whit behind
others in our profession. Bead carefully in this connection the
story of Achan (Joshua 7), and that of Gehazi (2 Kings 5:20-27).

c) Quenching the Spirit.

1 Thess. 5:19-"Quench not the Spirit." The thought of quenching
the Spirit seems to be used in connection with fire: "Smoking flax
shall he not quench" (Matt. 12:20); "Quench the fiery darts" (Eph.
6:16). It is therefore related more to the thought of service than
to that of life. The context of 1 Thess. 5:19 shows this. The
manifestation of the Spirit in prophesying was not to be quenched.
The Holy Spirit is seen as coming down upon this gathered assembly
for praise, prayer, and testimony. This manifestation of the Spirit
must not be quenched. Thus we may quench the Spirit not only in
our hearts, but also in the hearts of others. How? By disloyalty
to the voice and call of the Spirit; by disobedience to His voice
whether it be to testify, praise, to do any bit of service for God,
or to refuse to go where He sends us to labor--the foreign field,
for example. Let us be careful also lest in criticizing the manifestation
of the Spirit in the testimony of some believer, or the sermon of
some preacher, we be found guilty of quenching the Spirit. Let us
see to it that the gift of the Holy Ghost for service be not lost
by any unfaithfulness, or by the cultivation of a critical spirit
on our part, so that the fire in our hearts dies out and nothing
but ashes remain--ashes, a sign that fire was once there, but has
been extinguished.

From what has been said the following may be summarily stated:

_Resisting_ has to do with the regenerating work of the Spirit;

_Grieving_ has to do with the indwelling Holy Spirit;

_Quenching_ has to do with the enduement of the Spirit for
service.



THE DOCTRINE OF MAN

I. THE CREATION AND ORIGINAL CONDITION OF MAN.

   1. IMAGE AND LIKENESS OF GOD.
   2. PHYSICAL--MENTAL--MORAL--SPIRITUAL.

II. THE FALL OF MAN.

   1. THE SCRIPTURAL ACCOUNT.
   2. VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS.
   3. THE NATURE OF THE FALL.
   4. THE RESULTS OF THE FALL.

      a) On Adam, and Eve.
      b) On the Race.
         (1) Various Theories.
         (2) Scriptural Declarations.



THE DOCTRINE OF MAN.

I. THE CREATION AND ORIGINAL CONDITION OF MAN.

1. MAN MADE IN THE IMAGE AND LIKENESS OF GOD.

Gen. 1:26--"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our
likeness." 9:6--"For in the image of God made he man." What is
meant by the terms _image_ and _likeness_? _Image_
means the shadow or outline of a figure, while _likeness_
denotes the resemblance of that shadow to the figure. The two
words, however, are practically synonymous. That man was made in
the image and likeness of God is fundamental in all God's dealings
with man (1 Cor. 11:7; Eph. 4:21-24; Col. 3:10; James 3:9). We
may express the language as follows: Let us make man in our image
to be our likeness.

a) The Image of God Does Not Denote Physical Likeness.

God is Spirit; He does not have parts and passions as a man.
(See under Doctrine of God; The Spirituality of God, pp. 19, 20).
Consequently Mormon and Swedenborgian views of God as a great
human are wrong. Deut. 4:15 contradicts such a physical view of
God (see p. 19, b, c). Some would infer from Psa. 17:15--"I shall
be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness," that in some remote
way, a physical likeness is suggested. The R. V., however, changes
somewhat the sense of this verse, and reads: "I shall be satisfied,
when I awake, with _beholding_ thy form." See also Num. 12:8,
R. V. It is fair to believe, however, that erectness of posture,
intelligence of countenance, and a quick, glancing eye characterized
the first man. We should also remember that the manifestations in
the Old Testament, and the incarnation must throw some light upon
this subject (see p. 20).

b) Nor Are the Expressions "Image" and "Likeness" Exhausted When
We Say That They Consisted in Man's Dominion Over Nature, and the
Creation of God in General.

Indeed the supremacy conferred upon man presupposed those spiritual
endowments, and was justified by his fitness, through them, to
exercise it.

c) Positively, We Learn from Certain Scriptures in What This Image
and Likeness Consisted.

Eph. 4:23, 24--"And be renewed in the spirit of your mind; and that
ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness
and true holiness (B. V., holiness of truth)." Col. 3:10--"And have
put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image
of him that created him." It is clear from these passages that the
image of God consists in knowledge, righteousness, and holiness;
moral, not physical likeness.

d) The Original Man Was Endowed with Intellectual Faculties.

He had sufficient intelligence to give names to the animals as
they were presented before him (Gen. 2:19, 20). Adam had not only
the power of speech, but the power of reasoning and thought in
connection with speech. He could attach words to ideas. This is not
the picture, as evolution would have us believe, of an infantile
savage slowly groping his way towards articulate speech by imitation
of the sounds of animals.

e) The Original Man Possessed Moral and Spiritual Faculties.

Consider the moral test in Genesis 3. Adam had power to resist or
to yield to moral evil. Sin was a volitional thing. Christ, the
second Adam, endured a similar test (Matt. 4).

From all this it is evident that man's original state was not one
of savagery. Indeed there is abundant evidence to show that man
has been degraded from a very much higher stage. Both the Bible
and science agree in making man the crowning work of God, and that
there will be no higher order of beings here on the earth than man.
We must not forget that while man, from one side of his nature,
is linked to the animal creation, he is yet supra-natural--a being
of a higher order and more splendid nature; he is in the image
and likeness of God. Man has developed not _from_ the ape,
but _away from_ it. He never was anything but potential man.
"No single instance has yet been adduced of the transformation of
one animal species into another, either by natural or artificial
selection; much less has it been demonstrated that the body of the
brute has ever been developed into that of the man. The links that
should bind man to the monkey have not been found. Not a single
one can be shown. None have been found that stood nearer the monkey
than the man of today."--_Agassiz_.

II. THE FALL OF MAN.

The doctrine of the Fall of Man is not peculiar to Christianity;
all religions contain an account of it, and recognize the great
and awful fact. Had there been no such account as that found in
Genesis 3, there would still have remained the problem of the fall
and sin.

Yet, the doctrine of the fall has a relation to Christianity that
it does not have to other religions, or religious systems. The moral
character of God as seen in the Christian religion far surpasses the
delineation of the Supreme Being set forth in any other religion,
and thus heightens and intensifies its idea of sin. It is when men
consider the very high character of God as set forth in Christianity,
and then look at the doctrine of sin, that they find it hard to
reconcile the fact that God, being the moral Being He is, should
ever allow sin to come into the world. To some minds these two
things seem incompatible.

1. THE SCRIPTURAL ACCOUNT OF THE FALL OF MAN.

The third chapter of Genesis gives the fullest account of this
awful tragedy in the experience of mankind. Other scriptures: Rom.
5:12-19; I Tim. 2:14; Gen. 6:5; 8:31; Psa. 14; Rom. 3:10-23.

The purpose of the Genesis narrative is not to give an account
of the manner in which sin came into the _world,_ but how it
found its advent into the _human race_. Sin was already in
the world, as the existence of Satan and the chaotic condition of
things in the beginning, strikingly testify.

The reasonableness of the narrative of the fall is seen in view of
the condition of man after he had sinned with his condition when
he left the hand of the Creator. Compare Gen. 1:26 with 6:5, and
Psa. 14. If the fall of man were not narrated in Genesis we should
have to postulate some such event to account for the present
condition in which we find man. In no part of the Scripture, save
in the creation account as found in the first two chapters of
Genesis, does man appear perfect and upright. His attitude is that
of rebellion against God, of deepening and awful corruption.

2. VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF THE NARRATIVE OF THE FALL OF MAN.

Some look upon the whole narrative as being an _allegory_.
Adam is the rational part of man; Eve, the sensual; the serpent,
external excitements to evil. But the simplicity and artlessness
of the narrative militates against this view.

Others, again, designate the narrative as being a _myth_. It
is regarded as a truth invested in poetic form; something made up
from the folklore of the times. But why should these few verses be
snatched out of the chapter in which they are found and be called
mythical, while the remaining verses are indisputably literal?

Then there is the _literal interpretation_, which takes the
account as it reads, in its perfectly natural sense, just as in the
case of the other parts of the same chapter. There is no intimation
in the account itself that it is not to be regarded as literal
history. It certainly is part of a historical book. The geographical
locations in connection with the story are historic. The curse upon
the man, upon the woman, and upon the ground are certainly literal.
It is a fact that death is in the world as the wages of sin.
Unquestionably Christ, and the other Scripture writers regard the
event as historical and literal: of. Matt. 19:4; Mark 10:6; 2 Cor.
11:3; I Tim. 2:13-15; I Cor. 15:56.

3. THE NATURE OF THE FALL.

It must be kept in mind that Adam and Eve were free moral agents.
That while they were sinless beings, it was yet possible for them
to sin, just as it was possible for them not to sin. A careful
reading of the narrative leads to the following remarks:

The sin of our first parents was purely volitional; it was an act
of their own determination. Their sin was, like all other sin, a
voluntary act of the will.

It came from an outside source, that is to say, it was instigated
from without. There was no sin in the nature of the first human pair.
Consequently there must have been an ungodly principle already in
the world. Probably the fall of Satan and the evil angels had taken
place already.

The essence of the first sin lay in the denial of the divine will;
an elevation of the will of man over the will of God.

It was a deliberate transgressing of a divinely marked boundary;
an overstepping of the divine limits.

In its last analysis, the first sin was, what each and every sin
committed since has been, a positive disbelief in the word of the
living God. A belief of Satan rather than a belief in God.

It is helpful to note that the same lines of temptation that were
presented to our first parents, were presented to Christ in the
wilderness (Matt. 4:1-11), and to men ever since then (1 John
2:15-17). Satan's program is short and shallow after all.

4. THE RESULTS OF THE FALL.

a) On Our First Parents--Adam and Eve.

The results of sin in the experience of our first parents were as
follows:

The ground was cursed, so that henceforth it would not yield good
alone (Gen. 3:17).

Sorrow and pain to the woman in child-bearing, and subjection of
woman to the man (Gen. 3:16).

Exhausting physical labor in order to subsist (Gen. 3:19).

Physical and spiritual death (Gen. 3:19; 3:3; 5:5; Rom. 5:12).

Of course, with all this came also a fear of God, a shame because
of sin, a hiding from God's presence, and finally, an expulsion
from the garden (Gen. 3:8-11, 32-24).

b) On the Race--Various Theories.

There are three general views held with regard to the effect of
Adam's sin upon the race. Before looking at the strictly Scriptural
view in detail, let us briefly state these three theories:

That Adam's sin affected himself only; that every human being born
into the world is as free from sin as Adam was. The only effect the
first sin had upon the race was that of a bad example. According to
this theory man is well morally and spiritually. This view of the
case is false because the Scriptures recognize all men as guilty and
as possessing a sinful nature; because man, as soon as he attains
the age of responsibility commits sinful acts, and there is no exception
to this rule; because righteousness is impossible without the help
of God, otherwise redemption would be by works of righteousness
which we have done, and this the Scripture contradicts. According
to this view man is perfectly well. (The Pelagian theory.)

That while Adam's sin, as guilt, is not imputed to man, he is yet
destitute of original righteousness, and, without divine help,
is utterly unable to attain it. God, however, bestows upon each
individual, at the dawn of consciousness, a special gift of His
Spirit, which is sufficient to enable man to be righteous, if he
will allow his will to _co-operate_ with God's Spirit. According
to this view man is only half sick, or half well. This view also
is false because the Scriptures clearly state that man is utterly
unable to do a single thing to save himself. (The Semi-Pelagian
theory.)

That because of the unity of the race in Adam, and the organic unity
of mankind, Adam's sin is therefore imputed to his posterity. The
nature which man now possesses is like to the corrupted nature
of Adam. Man is totally unable to do anything to save himself.
According to this theory man is not only not well, nor half well,
but totally dead. ( The Augustinian theory.)

SCRIPTURAL TEACHING.

(1) All men, without respect of condition or class, are sinners
before God.

Rom. 3:9, 10, 22, 23; Psa. 14; Isa. 53:6. There may be a difference
in the degree, but not in the fact of sin. All men, Jew and Gentile,
have missed the mark, and failed to attain to God's standard. There
is none righteous, no, not one.

(2) This universal sinful condition is vitally connected with the
sin of Adam.

Rom. 5:12--"Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world,
and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all
have sinned." "For the judgment was by one to condemnation" (5:16).
"For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners" (5:19).
All men were in Adam when he sinned; fallen he, fallen they. Herein
lies the truth of the organic unity of the race. "In Adam all die."
Two questions are raised here: How can man be held responsible for
a depraved nature?--this touches the matter of _original sin_;
and How can God justly impute Adam's sin to us?--this deals with
the question of the _imputation of sin_.

(3) The whole world rests under condemnation, wrath, and curse.

Rom. 3:19--"That every mouth may be stopped, and all the world
may become guilty before God." Gal. 3:10; Eph. 2:3. The law of
God demands a perfect obedience; but no son of man can yield such
obedience; hence the curse of a broken law rests upon those breaking
it. The wrath of God abides on all not vitally united by faith to
Jesus Christ (John 3:36).

(4) Unregenerate men are regarded as children of the devil, and
not sous of God.

1 John 3:8-10; John 8:44--"Ye are of your father the devil." 1 John
5:19--"And we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth
in wickedness (in the wicked one, R. V.)."

(5) The whole race of men are in helpless captivity to sin and
Satan.

Rom. 7, chapter entire; John 8:31-36; Eph. 2:3.

(6) The entire nature of man, mentally, morally, spiritually,
physically, is sadly affected by sin.

The _understanding_ is darkened (Eph. 4:18; 1 Cor. 2:14); the
_heart_ is deceitful and wicked (Jer. 17:9, 10); the _mind
and conscience_ are defiled (Gen. 6:5; Titus 1:15); the
_flesh and spirit_ are defiled (2 Cor. 7:5); the _will_
is enfeebled (Rom. 7:18); and we are utterly destitute of any Godlike
qualities which meet the requirements of God's holiness (Rom. 7:18).

What does all this mean? A. H. Strong, in his _Systematic
Theology_, explains the matter somewhat as follows: It does not
mean the entire absence of conscience (John 8:9); nor of all moral
qualities (Mark 10:21); nor that men are prone to every kind of
sin (for some sins exclude others). It does mean, however, that
man is totally destitute of love to God which is the all absorbing
commandment of the law (John 5:42); that the natural man has
an aversion to God (Rom. 8:7); that all that is stated under (6)
above is true of man; that man is in possession of a nature that
is constantly on the downgrade, and from the dominion of which he
is totally unable to free himself (Rom. 7:18, 23).

[Illustration with caption: Handwritten notations of Rev. William
Evans, Ph.D. D.D.]



THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION

A. REPENTANCE.
B. FAITH.
C. REGENERATION.
D. JUSTIFICATION.
E. ADOPTION.
F. SANCTIFICATION.
G. PRAYER.



THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION.

A. REPENTANCE.
   I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.
   II. THE NATURE OF REPENTANCE.
       1. AS TOUCHING THE INTELLECT.
       2. AFFECTING THE EMOTIONS.
       3. WILL.
          a) Confess Sin.
          b) Forsake Sin.
          c) Turn to God.
   III. HOW REPENTANCE IS PRODUCED.
       1. DIVINE SIDE.
       2. HUMAN SIDE.
       3. QUESTION OF MEANS.
   IV. RESULTS OF REPENTANCE.
       1. GODWARD.
       2. MANWARD.

A. REPENTANCE.

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.

The prominence given to the doctrine of Repentance in the Scriptures
can hardly be overestimated. John the Baptist began his public
ministry, as did Jesus also, with the call to repentance upon his
lips (Matt. 3:1, 2; 4:17).

When Jesus sent forth the twelve and the seventy messengers to
proclaim the good news of the kingdom of heaven, He commanded them
to preach repentance (Luke 24:47; Mark 6:12).

Foremost in the preaching of the apostles was the doctrine of
repentance; Peter, (Acts 2:38); Paul, (Acts 20:21).

The burden of the heart of God, and His one command to all men
everywhere, is that they should repent (2 Pet. 3:9; Acts 17:30).

Indeed, failure on the part of man to heed God's call to repentance
means that he shall utterly perish (Luke 13:3).

Does the doctrine of repentance find such a prominent place in
the preaching and teaching of today? Has the need for repentance
diminished? Has God lessened or changed the terms of admission into
His kingdom?

II. THE NATURE OF REPENTANCE.

There is a three-fold idea involved in true repentance:

1. AS TOUCHING THE INTELLECT.

Matt. 21:29--"He answered and said: I will not; but afterward
he repented, and went". The word here used for "repent" means
to change one's mind, thought, purpose, views regarding a matter;
it is to have another mind about a thing. So we may speak of it
as a revolution touching our attitude and views towards sin and
righteousness. This change is well illustrated in the action of
the Prodigal Son, and of the Publican in the well-known story of
the Pharisee and the Publican (Luke 15 and 18). Thus, when Peter,
on the day of Pentecost, called upon the Jews to repent (Acts
2:14-40), he virtually called upon them to change their minds and
their views regarding Christ. They had considered Christ to be a
mere man, a blasphemer, an impostor. The events of the few preceding
days had proven to them that He was none other than the righteous
Son of God, their Saviour and the Saviour of the world. The result
of their repentance or change of mind would be that they would
receive Jesus Christ as their long promised Messiah.

2. AS TOUCHING THE EMOTIONS.

2 Cor. 7:9--"Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that
ye sorrowed to repentance; for ye were made sorry after a godly
manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing." The context
(vv. 7-11) shows what a large part the feelings played in true Gospel
repentance. See also Luke 10:13; cf. Gen. 6:6. The Greek word for
repentance in this connection means "to be a care to one afterwards,"
to cause one great concern. The Hebrew equivalent is even stronger,
and means to pant, to sigh, to moan. So the publican "beat upon
his breast," indicating sorrow of heart. Just how much emotion is
necessary to true repentance no one can definitely say. But that a
certain amount of heart movement, even though it be not accompanied
with a flood of tears, or even a single tear, accompanies all true
repentance is evident from the use of this word. See also Psa.
38:18.

3. AS TOUCHING THE WILL AND DISPOSITION.

One of the Hebrew words for repent means "to turn." The prodigal
said, "I will arise.... and he arose" (Luke 15:18, 20). He not
only thought upon his ways, and felt sorry because of them, but he
turned his steps in the direction of home. So that in a very real
sense repentance is a crisis with a changed experience in view.
Repentance is not only a heart broken _for_ sin, but _from_
sin also. We must forsake what we would have God remit. In the
writings of Paul repentance is more of an experience than a single
act. The part of the will and disposition in repentance is shown:

a) In the Confession of Sin to God.

Psa. 38:18--"For I will declare mine iniquity: I will be sorry
for my sin." The publican beat upon his breast, and said, "God be
merciful to me a sinner" (Luke 18:13). The prodigal said, "I have
sinned against heaven" (Luke 15:21).

There must be confession to man also in so far as man has been
wronged in and by our sin (Matt. 5:23, 24; James 5:16).

b) In the Forsaking of Sin.

Isa. 55:7--"Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous
man his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord." Prov. 28:13;
Matt. 3:8, 10.

c) In Turning Unto God.

It is not enough to turn away from sin; we must turn unto God; 1
Thess. 1:9; Acts 26:18.

III. HOW REPENTANCE IS PRODUCED.

1. IT IS A DIVINE GIFT.

Acts 11:18--"Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance
unto life." 2 Tim. 2:25--"If God peradventure will give them repentance
to the acknowledging of the truth." Acts 5:30, 31. Repentance is
not something which one can originate within himself, or can pump
up within himself as one would pump water out of a well. It is a
divine gift. How then is man responsible for not having it? We are
called upon to repent in order that we may feel our own inability
to do so, and consequently be thrown upon God and petition Him to
perform this work of grace in our hearts.

2. YET THIS DIVINE GIFT IS BROUGHT ABOUT THROUGH THE USE OF MEANS.

Acts 2:37, 38, 41. The very Gospel which calls for repentance
produces it. How well this is illustrated in the experience of the
people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:5-10)! When they heard the preaching
of the word of God by Jonah they believed the message and turned
unto God. Not any message, but the Gospel is the instrument that
God uses to bring about this desired end. Furthermore, this message
must be preached in the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Thess. 1:5-10).

Rom. 2:4--"Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and
forbearance and long-suffering; not knowing that the goodness of
God leadeth thee to repentance?" Also 2 Pet. 3:9. Prosperity too
often leads away from God, but it is the divine intention that it
should lead to God. Revivals come mostly in times of panic.

Rev. 3:19; Heb. 12:6, 10, 11. The chastisements of God are sometimes
for the purpose of bringing His wandering children back to repentance.

2 Tim. 2:24, 25. God oftentimes uses the loving, Christian reproof
of a brother to be the means of bringing us back to God.

IV. THE RESULTS OF REPENTANCE.

1. ALL HEAVEN IS MADE GLAD.

Luke 15:7, 10. Joy in heaven, and in the presence of the angels
of God. Makes glad the heart of God, and sets the bells of heaven
ringing. Who are those "in the presence of the angels of God"? Do
the departed loved ones know anything about it?

2. IT BRINGS PARDON AND FORGIVENESS OF SIN.

Isa. 55:7; Acts 3:19. Outside of repentance the prophets and apostles
know of no way of securing pardon. No sacrifices, nor religious
ceremonies can secure it. Not that repentance merits forgiveness,
but it is a condition of it. Repentance qualifies a man for a
pardon, but it does not entitle him to it.

3. THE HOLY SPIRIT IS POURED OUT UPON THE PENITENT.

Acts 2:38--"Repent... and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy
Ghost." Impenitence keeps back the full incoming of the Spirit into
the heart.

B. FAITH.

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.

II. THE DEFINITION OF FAITH.

1. IN GENERAL:

a) Knowledge.

b) Assent.

c) Appropriation.

2. IN PARTICULAR:

a) Towards God.

b) Towards Christ.

c) In Prayer.

d) In the Word of God.

3. RELATION OF FAITH TO WORKS.

III. THE SOURCE OF FAITH.

1. THE DIVINE SIDE.

2. THE HUMAN SIDE.

3. MEANS USED.

IV. SOME RESULTS OF FAITH.

1. SAVED.

2. JOY AND PEACE.

3. DO GREAT WORKS.

B. FAITH.

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE.

Faith is fundamental in Christian creed and conduct. It was the
one thing which above all others Christ recognized as the paramount
virtue. The Syrophoenician woman (Matt. 15) had perseverance; the
centurion (Matt. 8), humility; the blind man (Mark 10), earnestness.
But what Christ saw and rewarded in each of these cases was faith.
Faith is the foundation of Peter's spiritual temple (2 Pet. 1:5-7);
and first in Paul's trinity of graces (1 Cor. 13:13). In faith
all the other graces find their source.

II. THE DEFINITION OF FAITH.

Faith is used in the Scriptures in a general and in a particular
sense.

1. ITS GENERAL MEANING:

a) Knowledge.

Psa. 9:10--"And they that know thy name will put their trust in
thee." Rom. 10:17--"So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by
the word of God." Faith is not believing a thing without evidence;
on the contrary faith rests upon the best of evidence, namely,
the Word of God. An act of faith denotes a manifestation of the
intelligence: "How shall they believe in him of whom they have not
heard?" Faith is no blind act of the soul; it is not a leap in the
dark. Such a thing as believing with the heart without the head
is out of the question. A man may believe with his head without
believing with his heart; but he cannot believe with his heart
without believing with his head too. The heart, in the Scriptures,
means the whole man--intellect, sensibilities, and will. "As a man
_thinketh_ in his heart." "Why _reason_ ye these things
in your hearts?"

b) Assent.

Mark 12:32--"And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast
said the truth." So was it with the faith which Christ demanded in
His miracles: "Believe ye that I am able to do this?" "Yea, Lord."
There must not only be the knowledge that Jesus is able to save, and
that He is the Saviour of the world; there must be also an assent
of the heart to all these claims. Those who, _receiving_ Christ
to be all that He claimed to be, _believed_ in Him, became
thereby sons of God (John 1:12).

c) Appropriation.

John 1:12; 2:24. There must be an appropriation of the things
which we know and assent to concerning the Christ and His work.
Intelligent perception is not faith. A man may know Christ as
divine, and yet aside from that reject him as Saviour. Knowledge
affirms the reality of these things but neither accepts nor rejects
them. Nor is assent faith. There is an assent of the mind which
does not convey a surrender of the heart and affections.

Faith is the consent of the will to the assent of the understanding.
Faith always has in it the idea of action--movement towards its
object. It is the soul leaping forth to embrace and appropriate the
Christ in whom it believes. It first says: "My Lord and my God,"
and then falls down and worships.

A distinction between believing about Christ and on Christ is made
in John 8:30, 31, R. V.--"Many believed _on_ him.... Jesus
therefore said to those Jews that had believed _him_."

S. THE MEANING OF FAITH IN PARTICULAR:

a) When Used in Connection with the Name of God.

Heb. 11:6--"But without faith it is impossible to please him;
for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is
a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." Also Acts 27:22-25;
Rom. 4:19-21 with Gen. 15:4-6. There can be no dealings with the
invisible God unless there is absolute faith in His existence. We
must believe in His reality, even though He is unseen. But we must
believe even more than the fact of His existence; namely, that He
is a rewarder, that He will assuredly honor with definite blessing
those who approach unto Him in prayer. Importunity will, of course,
be needed (Luke 11:5-10).

There must be confidence in the Word of God also. Faith believes all
that God says as being absolutely true, even though circumstances
seem to be against its fulfillment.

b) When Used in Connection with the Person and Work of Christ.

Recall the three elements in faith, and apply them here.

First, there must be a _knowledge_ of the claims of Christ as
to His person and mission in the world: As to His person--that He
is deity, John 9:35-38; 10:30; Phil. 2:6-ll. As to His work--Matt.
20:28; 26:26-28; Luke 24:27, 44.

Second, there must be an _assent_ to all these claims, John
16:30; 20:28; Matt. 16:16; John 6:68, 69.

Third, there must be a personal _appropriation_ of Christ as
being all that He claims to be, John 1:12, 8:21, 24; 5:24. There
must be surrender to a person, and not mere faith in a creed. Faith
in a doctrine must lead to faith in a person, and that person Jesus
Christ, if salvation is to be the result of such belief. So Martha
was led to substitute faith in a doctrine for faith in a person
(John 11:25).

It is such faith--consisting of knowledge, assent, and appropriation
--that saves. This is believing with the heart (Rom. 10:9,10).

c) When Used in Connection with Prayer.

Three passages may be used to set forth this relationship: 1 John
5:14, 15; James 1:5-7, Mark 11:24. There must be no hesitation
which balances between belief and unbelief, and inclines toward
the latter--tossed one moment upon the shore of faith and hope,
the next tossed back again into the abyss of unbelief. To "doubt"
means to reason whether or no the thing concerning which you are
making request can be done (Acts 10:20; Rom. 4:20). Such a man
only conjectures; he does not really believe. Real faith thanks God
for the thing asked for, if that thing is in accord with the will
of God, even before it receives it (Mark 11:24). Note the slight:
"that man."

We must recognize the fact that knowledge, assent, and appropriation
exist here also. We must understand the promises on which we base
our prayer; we must believe that they are worth their full face
value; and then step out upon them, thereby giving substance to that
which, at the moment may be unseen, and, perchance, nonexistent,
so far as our knowledge and vision are concerned, but which to
faith is a splendid reality.

d) When Used in Connection with the Word and Promise of God.

First, we should know whether the particular promise in question is
intended for us in particular. There is a difference in a promise
being written _for_ us and _to_ us. There are dispensational
aspects to many of the promises in the Bible, therefore we must
rightly divide, apportion, and appropriate the Word of God (cf. I
Cor. 10:32).

Second, when once we are persuaded that a promise is _for_
us, we must believe that God means all He says in that promise;
we must assent to all its truth; we must not diminish nor discount
it. God will not, cannot lie (Titus 1:2).

Third, we must appropriate and act upon the promises. Herein lies
the difference between belief and faith. Belief is mental; faith
adds the volitional; we may have belief without the will, but not
faith. Belief is a realm of thought; faith is a sphere of action.
Belief lives in the study; faith comes out into the market-places
and the streets. Faith substantiates belief--gives substance, life,
reality, and activity to it (Heb. 11:1). Faith puts belief into
active service, and connects possibilities with actualities. Faith
is acting upon what you believe; it is appropriation. Faith counts
every promise valid, and gilt-edged (Heb. 11:11); no trial can
shake it (11:35); it is so absolute that it survives the loss of
its own pledge even (11:17). For illustration, see I Kings 18:41-43.

3. THE RELATION OF FAITH TO WORKS.

There is no merit in faith alone. It is not mere faith that saves,
but faith in Christ. Faith in any other saviour but Christ will
not save. Faith in any other gospel than that of the New Testament
will not save (Gal. 1:8, 9).

There is no contradiction between Paul and James touching the
matter of faith and works (cf. James 2:14-26; Rom. 4:1-12). Paul
is looking at the matter from the Godward side, and asserts that we
are justified, in the sight of God, _meritoriously_, without
absolutely any works on our part. James considers the matter from
the manward side, and asserts that we are justified, in the sight
of man, _evidentially_, by works, and not by faith alone
(2:24). In James it is not the _ground_ of justification, as
in Paul, but the _demonstration_. See under Justification,
II. 4, p. 159.

III. THE SOURCE OF FAITH.

There are two sides to this phase of the subject--a divine and a
human side.

1. IT IS THE WORK OF THE TRIUNE GOD. _God the Father_: Rom.
12:3; I Cor. 12. This is true of faith both in its beginning (Phil.
1:29) and its development (1 Cor. 12). Faith, then, is a gift of
His grace.

_God the Son_: Heb. 12:2--"Looking unto Jesus the author and
finisher of our faith." (Illustration, Matt. 14:30, 31--Peter taking
his eyes off Christ.) I Cor. 12; Luke 17:5.

_God the Spirit_: Gal. 5:22; I Cor. 12:9. The Holy Spirit is
the executive of the Godhead.

Why then, if faith is the work of the Godhead, are we responsible
for not having it? God wills to work faith in all His creatures,
and will do so if they do not resist His Holy Spirit. We are
responsible, therefore, not so much for the lack of faith, but for
resisting the Spirit who will create faith in our hearts if we will
permit Him to do so.

2. THERE IS ALSO A HUMAN SIDE TO FAITH.

Rom. 10:17--"So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by
the word of God." (cf. the context, vv. 9-21.) Acts 4:4--"Howbeit
many of them which heard the word believed." In this instance the
_spoken_ word, the Gospel, is referred to; in other cases the
written Word, the Scriptures, are referred to as being instrumental
in producing faith. See also Gal. 3:2-5. It was a looking unto the
promises of God that brought such faith into the heart of Abraham
(Rom. 4:19).

Prayer also is an instrument in the development of faith. Luke is
called the _human_ Gospel because it makes so much of prayer,
especially in connection with faith: 22:32--"But I have prayed for
thee that thy faith fail not." 17:5--"And the apostles said unto
the Lord, Increase our faith." See also Mark 9:24; Matt. 17:19-21.

Our faith grows by the use of the faith we already have. Luke 17:5,
6; Matt. 25:39.

IV. SOME RESULTS OF FAITH.

1. WE ARE SAVED BY FAITH.

We, of course, recall that the saving power of faith resides not
in itself, but in the Almighty Saviour on whom it rests; so that,
properly speaking, it is not so much faith, as it is faith in Christ
that saves.

The whole of our salvation--past, present, and future, is dependent
upon faith. Our acceptance of Christ (John 1:12); our justification
(Rom. 5:1); our adoption (Gal. 3:26); our sanctification (Acts
26:18); our keeping (1 Pet. 1:5), indeed our whole salvation from
start to finish is dependent upon faith.

2. REST, PEACE, ASSURANCE, JOY.

Isa. 26:3; Phil. 4:6; Rom. 5:1; Heb. 4:1-3; John 14:1; 1 Pet. 1:8.
Fact, faith, feeling--this is God's order. Satan would reverse
this order and put feeling before faith, and thus confuse the child
of God. We should march in accord with God's order: Fact leads,
Faith with its eye on Fact, following, and Feeling with the eye on
Faith bringing up the rear. All goes well as long as this order is
observed. But the moment Faith turns his back on Fact, and looks
at Feeling, the procession wabbles. Steam is of main importance,
not for sounding the whistle, but for moving the wheels; and if
there is a lack of steam we shall not remedy it by attempting by
our own effort to move the piston or blow the whistle, but by more
water in the boiler, and more fire under it. Feed Faith with Facts,
not with Feeling.--_A. T. Pierson_.

3. DO EXPLOITS THROUGH FAITH.

Heb. 11:32-34; Matt. 21:21; John 14:12. Note the wonderful things
done by the men of faith as recorded in the eleventh chapter of
Hebrews. Read vv. 32-40. Jesus attributes a kind of omnipotence to
faith. The disciple, by faith, will be able to do greater things
than his Master. Here is a mighty Niagara of power for the believer.
The great question for the Christian to answer is not "What can I
do?" but "How much can I believe?" for "all things are possible to
him that believeth."


C. REGENERATION, OR THE NEW BIRTH.

I. ITS NATURE.
   1. NOT BAPTISM.
   2. NOT REFORMATION.
   3. A SPIRITUAL QUICKENING.
   4. AN IMPARTATION OF A DIVINE NATURE.
   5. A NEW AND DIVINE IMPULSE.

II. ITS NECESSITY.
   1. UNIVERSAL.
   2. THE SINFUL CONDITION OF MAN DEMANDS IT.
   3. THE HOLINESS OF GOD DEMANDS IT.

III. THE MEANS.
   1. THE DIVINE SIDE.
   2. THE HUMAN SIDE.
   3. THE MEANS USED.

C. REGENERATION, OR THE NEW BIRTH.


It is of the utmost importance that we have a clear understanding
of this vital doctrine. By Regeneration we are admitted into
the kingdom of God. There is no other way of becoming a Christian
but by being born from above. This doctrine, then, is the door of
entrance into Christian discipleship. He who does not enter here,
does not enter at all.

I. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION.

Too often do we find other things substituted by man for God's
appointed means of entrance into the kingdom of heaven. It will be
well for us then to look, first of all, at some of these substitutes.

1. REGENERATION IS NOT BAPTISM.

It is claimed that John 3:5--"Except a man be born of water and of
the Spirit," and Titus 3:5--"The washing of regeneration," teach
that regeneration may occur in connection with baptism. These
passages, however, are to be understood in a figurative sense,
as meaning the cleansing power of the Word of God. See also
Eph. 5:26--"With the washing of water by (or in) the word"; John
15:3--"Clean through the word." That the Word of God is an agent
in regeneration is clear from James 1:18, and 1 Pet. 1:23.

If baptism and regeneration were identical, why should the Apostle
Paul seem to make so little of that rite (1 Cor. 4:15, and compare
with it 1 Cor. 1:14)? In the first passage Paul asserts that he had
_begotten_ them through the Gospel; and in 1:14 he declares
that he _baptized none of them_ save Crispus and Gaius. Could
he thus speak of baptism if it had been the means through which
they had been begotten again? Simon Magus was baptized (Acts 8),
but was he saved? Cornelius (Acts 11) was saved even before he was
baptized.

2. REFORMATION IS NOT REGENERATION.

Regeneration is not a natural forward step in man's development;
it is a supernatural act of God; it is a spiritual crisis. It is
not evolution, but involution--the communication of a new life. It
is a revolution--a change of direction resulting from that life.
Herein lies the danger in psychology, and in the statistics regarding
the number of conversions during the period of adolescence. The
danger lies in the tendency to make regeneration a natural phenomenon,
an advanced step in the development of a human life, instead of
regarding it as a crisis. Such a psychological view of regeneration
denies man's sin, his need of Christ, the necessity of an atonement,
and the regenerating work of the Holy Spirit.

3. REGENERATION IS A SPIRITUAL QUICKENING, A NEW BIRTH.

Regeneration is the impartation of a new and divine life; a new
creation; the production of a new thing. It is Gen. 1:26 over again.
It is not the old nature altered, reformed, or re-invigorated, but
a new birth from above. This is the teaching of such passages as
John 3:3-7; 5:21; Eph. 2:1, 10; 2 Cor. 5:17.

By nature man is dead in sin (Eph. 2:1); the new birth imparts to
him new life--the life of God, so that henceforth he is as those
that are alive from the dead; he has passed out of death into life
(John 5:24).

4. IT IS THE IMPARTATION OF A NEW NATURE--GOD'S NATURE.

In regeneration we are made partakers of the divine nature (2
Pet. 1:4). We have put on the new man, which after God is created
in holiness and righteousness (Eph. 4:11; Col. 3:10). Christ now
lives in the believer (Gal. 2:20). God's seed now abides in him
(1 John 3:9). So that henceforth the believer is possessed of two
natures (Gal. 5:17).

5. A NEW AND DIVINE IMPULSE IS GIVEN TO THE BELIEVER.

Thus regeneration is a crisis with a view to a process. A new
governing power comes into the regenerate man's life by which he
is enabled to become holy in experience: "Old things are passed
away; behold all things are become new" (2 Cor. 5:17). See also
Acts 16:14, and Ezek. 36:25-27, 1 John 3:6-9.

II. THE IMPERATIVE NECESSITY OF THE NEW BIRTH.

1. THE NECESSITY IS UNIVERSAL.

The need is as far reaching as sin and the human race: "Except
a man (lit. anybody) be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of
God" (John 3:3, cf. v. 5). No age, sex, position, condition exempts
anyone from this necessity. Not to be born again is to be lost.
There is no substitute for the new birth: "Neither circumcision
availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature" (Gal.
6:15). The absolute necessity is clearly stated by our Lord: whatever
is born of the flesh, must be born again of the Spirit (John 3:3-7).

2. THE SINFUL CONDITION OF MAN DEMANDS IT.

John 3:6--"That which is born of the flesh is flesh"--and it
can never, by any human process, become anything else. "Can the
Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may ye
also do good that are accustomed to do evil" (Jer. 13:23). "They
that are in the flesh cannot please God" (Rom. 8:8); in our "flesh
dwelleth no good thing" (Rom. 7:18). The mind is darkened so that
we cannot apprehend spiritual truth; we need a renewing of the mind
(Rom. 12:2). The heart is deceitful, and does not welcome God; we
need to be pure in heart to see God. There is no thought of God
before the eyes of the natural man; we need a change in nature
that we may be counted among those "who thought upon His name."
No education or culture can bring about such a needed change. God
alone can do it.

3. THE HOLINESS OF GOD DEMANDS IT.

If without holiness no man shall see the Lord (Heb. 12:14); and
if holiness is not to be attained by any natural development or
self-effort, then the regeneration of our nature is absolutely
necessary. This change, which enables us to be holy, takes place
when we are born again.

Man is conscious that he does not have this holiness by nature; he
is conscious, too, that he must have it in order to appear before
God (Ezra 9:15). The Scriptures corroborate this consciousness in
man, and, still further, state the necessity of such a righteousness
with which to appear before God. In the new birth alone is the
beginning of such a life to be found. To live the life of God we
must have the nature of God.

III. THE MEANS OF REGENERATION.

1. REGENERATION IS A DIVINE WORK.

We are "born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of
the will of man, _but of God"_ (John 1:13). It was of His own
will he begat us (Jas. 1:18): Our regeneration is a creative act
on the part of God, not a reforming process on the part of man. It
is not brought about by natural descent, for all we get from that
is "flesh." It is not by natural choice, for the human will is
impotent. Nor is it by self-effort, or any human generative principle.
Nor is it by the blood of any ceremonial sacrifices. It is not by
pedigree or natural generation. It is altogether and absolutely
the work of God. Practically speaking, we have no more to do with
our second birth, than we had to do with our first birth.

The Holy Spirit is the Divine Agent in our regeneration. For this
reason it is called the "renewing of the Holy Ghost" (Tit. 3:5).
We are "born of the Spirit" (John 3:5).

2. AND YET THERE IS A HUMAN SIDE TO THE WORK.

John 1:12 and 13 bring together these two thoughts--the divine and
the human in regeneration: Those who _received_ Him (i. e.,
Christ)....were born _of God._ The two great problems connected
with regeneration are the efficiency of God and the activity of
man.

a) Man Is Regenerated by Means of the Acceptance of the Message of
the Gospel.

God begat us by "the word of truth" (James 1:18). We are "born
again," says Peter (1 Ep. 1:23), "of incorruptible seed, by the
word of God." We are "begotten through the gospel" (1 Cor. 4:15).
These scriptures teach us that regeneration takes place in the
heart of man when he reads or hears the Word of God, or the Gospel
message, or both, and, because of the Spirit working in the Word as
well as in the heart of man, the man opens his heart and receives
that message as the Word of life to his soul. The truth is illuminated,
as is also the mind, by the Spirit; the man yields to the truth,
and is born again. Of course, even here, we must remember that it
is the Lord who must open our hearts just as He opened the heart
of Lydia (Acts 16:14). But the Word must be believed and received
by man. 1 Pet. 1:25.

b) Man Is Regenerated by the Personal Acceptance of Jesus Christ.

This is the clear teaching of John 1:12, 13 and Gal. 3:26. We become
"children of God by faith in Jesus Christ." When a man, believing
in the claims of Jesus Christ receives Him to be all that He claimed
to be--that man is born again.

Man therefore is not wholly passive at the time of his regeneration.
He is passive only as to the change of his ruling disposition.
With regard to the exercise of this disposition he is active. A
dead man cannot assist in his own resurrection, it is true; but he
may, and can, like Lazarus, obey Christ's command, and "Come forth!"

Psa. 90:16, 17 illustrates both the divine and human part: "Let
_thy_ work appear unto thy servants," and then "the work of
_our_ hands establish thou it." God's work appears first, then
man's. So Phil. 2:12,13.


D. JUSTIFICATION.

I. ITS MEANING.

1. RELATIVELY.
2. SCRIPTURALLY.
3. PARDON--RIGHTEOUSNESS.

II. ITS METHOD.

1. NOT BY LAW.
2. BY GOD'S FREE GRACE.
3. THE BLOOD OF CHRIST.
4. FAITH.

D. JUSTIFICATION.

I. THE MEANING OF JUSTIFICATION.

1. RELATIVELY.


It is a change in a man's relation or standing before God. It has
to do with relations that have been disturbed by sin, and these
relations are personal. It is a change from guilt and condemnation
to acquittal and acceptance. Regeneration has to do with the change
of the believer's nature; Justification, with the change of his
standing before God. Regeneration is subjective; Justification
is objective. The former has to do with man's state; the latter,
with his standing.

2. ACCORDING TO THE LANGUAGE AND USAGE OF THE SCRIPTURES.

According to Deut. 25:1 it means to declare, or to cause to appear
innocent or righteous; Rom. 4:2-8: to reckon righteous; Psa. 32:2:
not to impute iniquity. One thing at least is clear from these
verses, and that is, that to justify does not mean to _make_
one righteous. Neither the Hebrew nor Greek words will bear such
meaning. To justify means to set forth as righteous; to declare
righteous in a legal sense; to put a person in a right relation.
It does not deal, at least not directly, with character or conduct;
it is a question of relationship. Of course both character and
conduct will be conditioned and controlled by this relationship.
No real righteousness on the part of the person justified is to be
asserted, but that person is declared to be righteous and is treated
as such. Strictly speaking then, Justification is the judicial act
of God whereby those who put faith in Christ are declared righteous
in His eyes, and free from guilt and punishment.

3. JUSTIFICATION CONSISTS OF TWO ELEMENTS.

a) The Forgiveness of Sin, and the Removal of Its Guilt and
Punishment.

It is difficult for us to understand God's feeling towards sin.
To us forgiveness seems easy, largely because we are indifferent
towards sin. But to a holy God it is different. Even men sometimes
find it hard to forgive when wronged. Nevertheless God gladly
forgives.

Micah 7:18,19--"Who is a God like unto thee, that pardoneth iniquity,
and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his heritage? he
retaineth not his anger forever, because he delighteth in mercy .
. . . he will subdue our iniquities; and thou wilt cast all their
sins into the depths of the sea." See also Psa. 130:4. What a
wondrous forgiveness!

Forgiveness may be considered as the cessation of the moral anger
and resentment of God against sin; or as a release from the guilt
of sin which oppresses the conscience; or, again, as a remission
of the punishment of sin, which is eternal death.

In Justification, then, all our sins are forgiven, and the guilt
and punishment thereof removed (Acts 13:38, 39; Rom. 8:1). God sees
the believer as without sin and guilt in Christ (Num. 23:21; Rom.
8:33, 34).

b) The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness, and Restoration to
God's Favor.

The forgiven sinner is not like the discharged prisoner who has
served out his term and is discharged from further punishment, but
with no rights of citizenship. No, justification means much more
than acquittal. The repentant sinner receives back in his pardon,
the full rights of citizenship. The Society of Friends called
themselves Friends, not because they were friends one to another
but because, being justified, they counted themselves friends of
God as was Abraham (2 Chron. 20:7, James 2:23). There is also the
imputation of the righteousness of Jesus Christ to the sinner. His
righteousness is "unto all and upon all them that believe" (Rom.
3:22). See Rom. 5:17-21; 1 Cor. 1:30. For illustration, see Philemon
18.

II. THE METHOD OF JUSTIFICATION.

1. NEGATIVELY: NOT BY WORKS OF THE LAW.

Rom. 3:20--"Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh
be justified in his sight; for by the law is the knowledge of
sin." "Therefore" implies that a judicial trial has taken place
and a judgment pronounced. At the bar of God no man can be counted
righteous in His sight because of his obedience to law. The burden
of the Epistle to the Romans is to set forth this great truth. As
a means of establishing right relations with God the law is totally
insufficient. There is no salvation _by_ character. What men
need is salvation _from_ character.

The reason why the law cannot justify is here stated: "For by the
law is the knowledge of sin." The law can open the sinner's eyes
to his sin, but it cannot remove it. Indeed, it was never intended
to remove it, but to intensify it. The law simply defines sin, and
makes it sinful, yea, exceedingly sinful, but it does not emancipate
from it. Gal. 3:10 gives us a further reason why justification
cannot take place by obedience to the law. The law demands perfect
and continual obedience: "Cursed is every one that continueth not
in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them."
No man can render a perfect and perpetual obedience, therefore
justification by obedience to the law is impossible. The only thing
the law can do is to stop the mouth of every man, and declare him
guilty before God (Rom. 3:19, 20).

Gal. 2:16, and 3:10, Rom. 3:28, are very explicit in their denial
of justification by law. It is a question of Moses or Christ, works
or faith, law or promise, doing or believing, wages or a free gift.

2. POSITIVELY: BY GOD'S PEEE GRACE--THE ORIGIN OR SOURCE OF
JUSTIFICATION.

Rom. 3:24--"Being justified freely by his grace through the
redemption that is in Christ Jesus." "Freely" denotes that it is
granted without anything done on our part to merit or deserve it.
From the contents of the epistle up to this point it must be clearly
evident that if men, sinful and sinning, are to be justified at
all, it must be "by his free grace."

3. BY THE BLOOD OF JESUS CHRIST--THE GROUND OF JUSTIFICATION.

Rom. 3:24--"Being justified . . . . through the redemption that
is in Christ Jesus." 5:9--"Much more then, being now justified by
his blood." 2 Cor. 5:21 (R. V.)--"Him who knew no sin he made to
be sin on our behalf; that we might become the righteousness of
God in him." The bloodshedding of Christ is here connected with
justification. It is impossible to get rid of this double idea from
this passage. The sacrifices of the Old Testament were more than a
meaningless butchery--"Without shedding of blood is no remission"
of sin (Heb. 9:22). The great sacrifice of the New Testament,
the death of Jesus Christ, was something more than the death of a
martyr--men are "justified by his blood" (Rom. 5:9).

4. BY BELIEVING IN JESUS CHRIST--THE CONDITION OF JUSTIFICATION.

Gal. 2:16--"Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the
law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ," or as the Revised Version
margin has it: "But only through faith in Jesus Christ." Rom.
3:26--"To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness; that he
might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus."
"Him that believeth in Jesus" is contrasted with "as many as are
of the works of the law" (Gal. 3:10). When Paul in Romans 4:5 says:
"Now to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth
the ungodly," he gives the death-blow to Jewish righteousness.
"His faith is counted for righteousness;" that pictures the man
who, despairing of all dependence upon his works, casts himself
unreservedly upon the mercy of God, as set forth in Jesus Christ,
for his justification. Thus it come to pass that "all that believe
are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified
by the law of Moses" (Acts 13:39). The best of men need to be saved
by faith in Jesus Christ, and the worst need only that. As there
is no difference in the need, neither is there in the method of
its application. On this common ground all saved sinners meet, and
will stand forever. The first step, then, in justification is to
despair of works; the second, to believe on him that justifieth
the ungodly.

We are not to slight good works, for they have their place, but
they follow, not precede justification. The workingman is not the
justified man, but the justified man is the workingman. Works are
not meritorious, but they meet with their reward in the life of
the justified. The tree _shows_ its life by its fruits, but
it was alive before the fruit or even the leaves appeared. (See
under Faith, II. 3, p. 148, for further suggestions regarding the
relation between faith and works.)

Summing up we may say that men are justified _judicially_ by
God. (Rom. 8:33); _meritoriously_ by Christ, (Isa. 53:11);
_mediately_ by _faith_, (Rom. 5:1); _evidentially_
by works, (James 2:14, 18-24).


THE DOCTRINES OF SALVATION

E. ADOPTION.

I. THE MEANING OF ADOPTION.

   1. ETYMOLOGICALLY.
   2. SCRIPTURALLY.

II. THE TIME OF ADOPTION.

   1. ETERNAL.
   2. WHEN ONE BELIEVES.
   3. COMPLETE AT RESURRECTION.

III. THE BLESSINGS OF ADOPTION.

   1. FILIAL.
   2. EXPERIMENTAL.

IV. SOME EVIDENCES OF SONSHIP.

   1. GUIDANCE.
   2. CONFIDENCE.
   3. ACCESS.
   4. LOVE FOR THE BRETHREN.
   5. OBEDIENCE.

E. ADOPTION.


Regeneration begins the new life in the soul; justification deals
with the new attitude of God towards that soul, or perhaps better, of
that soul towards God; adoption admits man into the family of God
with filial joy. Regeneration has to do with our change in nature;
justification, with our change in standing; sanctification, with
our change in character; adoption, with our change in position. In
regeneration the believer becomes a child of God (John 1:12,13);
in adoption, the believer, already a child, receives a place as
an adult son; thus the child becomes a son, the minor becomes an
adult (Gal. 4:1-7).

I. THE MEANING OF ADOPTION.

Adoption means _ the placing of a son_. It is a legal metaphor
as regeneration is a physical one. It is a Roman word, for adoption
was hardly, if at all, known among the Jews. It means the taking
by one man of the son of another to be his son, so that that son
has the same position and all the advantages of a son by birth.
The word is Pauline, not Johannine. The word is never once used
of Christ. It is used of the believer when the question of rights,
privileges, and heirship are involved. It is peculiarly a Pauline
word (Gal. 4:5; Rom. 8:15, 23; 9:4; Eph. 1:5). John uses the word
"children," not "sons," because he is always speaking of sonship
from the standpoint of nature, growth, and likeness (cf. 1 John
3:1, R. V.).

Exodus 2:10 and Heb. 11:24, furnish two splendid illustrations of
the Scriptural sense and use of adoption.

II. THE TIME WHEN ADOPTION TAKES PLACE.

1. IN A CERTAIN SENSE IT IS ETERNAL IN ITS NATURE.

Eph. 1:4, 5--Before the foundation of the world we were predestinated
unto the adoption of children. We need to distinguish between the
foreordaining to adoption, and the actual act of adoption which
took place when we believed in Christ. Just as the incarnation was
foreordained, and yet took place in time; and just as the Lamb was
slain from before the foundation of the word, and yet actually only
on Calvary. Why then mention this eternal aspect of adoption? To
exclude works and to show that our salvation had its origin solely
in the grace of God (Rom. 9:11; 11:5, 6). Just as if we should
adopt a child it would be a wholly gracious act on our part.

2. IT TAKES PLACE THE MOMENT ONE BELIEVES IN JESUS CHRIST.

1 John 3:2--"Beloved, now are we the sons of God." Gal. 3:26--"For
ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus." See also
John 1:12. Sonship is now the present possession of the believer.
Strange as it may be, inconceivable as it may seem, it is nevertheless
true. The world may not think so (v. 1), but God says so, and the
Christian believing it, exclaims, "I'm the child of a King." Formerly
we were slaves; now we are sons.

3. OUR SONSHIP WILL BE COMPLETED AT THE RESURRECTION AND COMING
AGAIN OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST.

Rom. 8:23--"Waiting for the adoption, to-wit, the redemption, of
the body." Here in this world we are _incognito_; we are not
recognized as sons of God. But some day we shall throw off this
disguise (2 Cor. 5:10). It doth not appear, it hath not yet appeared
what we shall be; the revelation of the sons of God is reserved
for a future day. See also I John 3:1-3.

III. THE BLESSINGS OF ADOPTION.

The blessings of adoption are too numerous to mention save in the
briefest way. Some of them are as follows:

Objects of God's peculiar love (John 17:23), and His fatherly care
(Luke 12:27-33).

We have the family name (1 John 3:1; Eph. 3:14, 15), the family
likeness (Rom. 8:29); family love (John 13:35; 1 John 3:14); a
filial spirit (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6); a family service (John 14:23,
24; 15:8).

We receive fatherly chastisement (Heb. 12:5-11); fatherly comfort
(Isa. 66:13; 2 Cor. 1:4), and an inheritance (1 Pet. 1:3-5; Rom.
8:17).

IV. SOME EVIDENCES OF SONSHIP.

Those who are adopted into God's family are: Led by the Spirit
(Rom. 8:4; Gal. 5:18). Have a childlike confidence in God (Gal.
4:5, 6). Have liberty of access (Eph. 3:12). Have love for the
brethren (1 John 2:9-11; 5:1). Are obedient (1 John 5:1-3).


F. SANCTIFICATION.

I. ITS MEANING.

   1. NEGATIVELY--SEPARATION FROM EVIL.
   2. POSITIVELY--DEDICATION UNTO GOD.
   3. USED OF THE DIVINE NATURE.

II. WHEN IT TAKES PLACE.

   1. INSTANT.
   2. PROGRESSIVE.
   3. COMPLETE.

III. THE MEANS.

   1. DIVINE.
   2. HUMAN.
   3. MEANS USED.


F. SANCTIFICATION.

If Regeneration has to do with our nature, Justification with our
standing, and Adoption with our position, then Sanctification has
to do with our character and conduct. In Justification we are declared
righteous in order that, in Sanctification, we may become righteous.
Justification is what God does for us, while Sanctification is what
God does in us. Justification puts us into a right relationship with
God, while Sanctification exhibits the fruit of that relationship--a
life separated from a sinful world and dedicated unto God.

I. THE MEANING OF SANCTIFICATION.

Two thoughts are prominent in this definition: separation from
evil, and dedication unto God and His service.

1. SEPARATION FROM EVIL.

2 Chron. 29:5, 15-18--"Sanctify now yourselves, and sanctify the
house of the Lord God . . . . and carry forth the filthiness out
of the holy places. . . . And the priests went into the inner part
of the house of the Lord, to cleanse it, and brought out all the
uncleanness. . . .Then they went in to Hezekiah the king, and said,
We have cleansed all the house of the Lord." 1 Thess. 4:3--"For
this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should
abstain from fornication." See also Heb. 9:3; Exod. 19:20-22; Lev.
11:44.

It is evident from these scriptures that sanctification has to do
with the turning away from all that is sinful and that is defiling
to both soul and body.

2. SEPARATION OR DEDICATION UNTO GOD.

In this sense whatever is set apart from a profane to a sacred use,
whatever is devoted exclusively to the service of God, is sanctified.
So it follows that a man may "sanctify his house to be holy unto
the Lord," or he may "sanctify unto the Lord some part of a field
of his possession" (Lev. 27:14, 16). So also the first-born of all
the children were sanctified unto the Lord (Num. 8:17). Even the
Son of God Himself, in so far as He was set apart by the Father and
sent into the world to do God's will, was sanctified (John 10:36).
Whenever a thing or person is separated from the common relations
of life in order to be devoted to the sacred, such is said to be
sanctified.

3. IT IS USED OF GOD.

Whenever the sacred writers desire to show that the Lord is
absolutely removed from all that is sinful and unholy, and that He
is absolutely holy in Himself they speak of Him as being sanctified:
"When I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes" (Ezek. 36:23).

II. THE TIME OF SANCTIFICATION.

Sanctification may be viewed as past, present, and future; or
instantaneous, progressive, and complete.

1. INSTANTANEOUS SANCTIFICATION.

1 Cor. 6:11--"And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye
are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus,
and by the Spirit of our God." Heb. 10:10, 14--"By the which will
we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ
once for all. . . . For by one offering he hath perfected forever
them that are sanctified." By the death of Jesus Christ the
sanctification of the believer takes place at once. The very moment
a man believes in Christ he is sanctified, that is, in this first
sense: he is separated from sin and separated unto God. For this
reason all through the New Testament believers are called saints
(1 Cor. 1:2, R. V.; Rom. 1:7, R. V.). If a man is not a saint he
is not a Christian; if he is a Christian he is a saint. In some
quarters people are canonized after they are dead; the New Testament
canonizes believers while they are alive. Note how that in 1 Cor.
6:11 "sanctified" is put before "justified." The believer grows
_in_ sanctification rather than _into_ sanctification out
of something else. By a simple act of faith in Christ the believer
is at once put into a state of sanctification. Every Christian is
a sanctified man. The same act that ushers him into the state of
justification admits him at once into the state of sanctification,
in which he is to grow until he reaches the fulness of the measure
of the stature of Christ.

2. PROGRESSIVE SANCTIFICATION.

Justification differs from Sanctification thus: the former is an
instantaneous act with no progression; while the latter is a crisis
with a view to a process--an act, which is instantaneous and which
at the same time carries with it the idea of growth unto completion.

2 Pet. 3:18--"But grow in (the) grace, and in the knowledge of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." 2 Cor. 3:18--We "are transformed
into the same image from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the
Spirit." The tense is interesting here: We are being transformed
from one degree of character, or glory, to another. It is because
sanctification is progressive, a growth, that we are exhorted
to "increase and abound" (1 Thess. 3:12), and to "abound more and
more" (4:1, 10) in the graces of the Christian life. The fact that
there is always danger of contracting defilement by contact with a
sinful world, and that there is, in the life of the true Christian,
an ever increasing sense of duty and an ever-deepening consciousness
of sin, necessitates a continual growth and development in the
graces and virtues of the believer's life. There is such a thing
as "perfecting holiness" (2 Cor. 7:1). God's gift to the church of
pastors and teachers is for the purpose of the perfecting of the
saints in the likeness of Christ _until_, at last, they attain
unto the fulness of the divine standard, even Jesus Christ (Eph.
4:11-15). Holiness is not a mushroom growth; it is not the thing
of an hour; it grows as the coral reef grows: little by little,
degree by degree. See also Phil. 3:10-15.

3. COMPLETE AND FINAL SANCTIFICATION.

1 Thess. 5:23, R. V.--"And the God of peace himself sanctify you
wholly; and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved entire,
without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." "Wholly"
means complete in every part, perfect in every respect, whether
it refers to the Church as a whole, or to the individual believer.
Some day the believer is to be complete in all departments of
Christian character--no Christian grace missing. Complete in the
"spirit" which links him with heaven; in the "body" which links him
with earth; in the "soul" as being that on which heaven and earth
play. Maturity in each separate element of Christian character:
body, soul, and spirit.

This blessing of entire and complete sanctification is to take
place when Christ comes: 1 Thess. 3:13--"To the end that he may
establish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even
our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his
saints." It is when we shall see Him that we shall be like Him (1
John 3:2). How explicitly Paul puts the matter in Phil. 3:12-14,
R. V. --"Not that I have already obtained, or am already made
perfect: but I press on, if so be that I may lay hold of that for
which also I was laid hold on by Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count
not myself yet to have laid hold: but one thing I do, forgetting
the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things
which are before, I press on toward the goal unto the prize of the
high calling of God in Christ Jesus."

III. THE MEANS OF SANCTIFICATION.

How are men sanctified? What means are used, and what agencies
employed to make men holy and conform them into the likeness of
Christ? The agencies and means are both divine and human: both God
and man contributing and co-operating towards this desired end.

1. FROM THE DIVINE SIDE: IT IS THE WORK OF THE TRIUNE GOD.

a) God the Father.

1 Thess. 5:23, 24, R. V.--"And the God of peace himself sanctify
you wholly. . . . Faithful is he that calleth you, who will also
do it." God's work is here contrasted with human efforts to achieve
the preceding injunctions. Just as in Hebrews 12:2, and Philippians
1:6, the Beginner of faith is also the Finisher; so is it
here; consequently the end and aim of every exhortation is but to
strengthen faith in God who is able to accomplish these things for
us. Of course there is a sense in which the believer is responsible
for his progress in the Christian life (Phil. 3:12, 13), yet it
is nevertheless true that, after all, it is the divine grace which
works all in him (Phil. 2:12, 13). We cannot purify ourselves,
but we can yield to God and then the purity will come. The "God of
peace," He who reconciles us--is the One who sanctifies us. It is
as if the apostle said: "God, by His mighty power will do for you
what I, by my admonitions, and you by your own efforts, cannot
do." See also John 17:17--"Sanctify them through thy truth." Christ
addresses God as the One who is to sanctify the disciples.

b) Jesus Christ the Son.

Heb. 10:10, R. V.--"By which will we have been sanctified through
the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all." The death
of Jesus Christ separates the believer from sin and the world, and
sets him apart as redeemed and dedicated to the service of God.
This same truth, namely, the sanctification of the church as based
on the sacrificial death of Christ, is set forth in Eph. 5:25,
27--"Christ loved the church, and gave himself up for it; that he
might sanctify it." Christ is "made unto us . . . sanctification"
(1 Cor. 1:30). See also Heb. 13:12, R. V.

c) The Holy Spirit Sanctifies.

1 Pet. 1:2--"Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the
Father, through sanctification of the Spirit." 2 Thess. 2:13--".
. . . Because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation
through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth." The
Holy Spirit seals, attests, and confirms the work of grace in the
soul by producing the fruits of righteousness therein. It is the
Spirit of life in Christ Jesus who gives us freedom from the law
of sin and death (Rom. 8:2). He is called the _Holy_ Spirit,
not only because He is absolutely holy Himself, but also because
he produces that quality of soul-character in the believer. The
Spirit is the executive of the God-head for this very purpose. It is
the Spirit's work to war against the lusts of the flesh and enable
us to bring forth fruit unto holiness (Gal. 5:17-22). How wonderfully
this truth is set forth in the contrast between the seventh and
eighth chapters of Romans. Note the unsuccessful struggle of the
former, and the victory of the latter. Note also that there is no
mention of the Holy Spirit in the seventh, while He is mentioned
about sixteen times in the eighth chapter. Herein lies the secret
of failure and victory, sin and holiness.

2. FROM THE HUMAN SIDE.

a) Faith in the Redemptive Work of Jesus Christ.

1 Cor. 1:30, R. V.--"But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who was
made unto us wisdom from God, and righteousness, and sanctification,
and redemption." Christ is indeed all these things to us, but, in
reality, He becomes such only as we appropriate Him for ourselves.
Only as the believer, daily, yea, even momentarily, takes by faith
the holiness of Jesus, His faith, His patience, His love, His
grace, to be his own for the need of that very moment, can Christ,
who by His death was made unto him sanctification in the instantaneous
sense, become unto him sanctification in the progressive
sense--producing in the believer His own life moment by moment.
Herein lies the secret of a holy life--the momentarily appropriation
of Jesus Christ in all the riches of His grace for every need as
it arises. The degree of our sanctification is the proportion of
our appropriation of Christ. See also Acts 26:18.

b) The Study of the Scriptures and Obedience Thereto.

John 17:17--"Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth."
Eph. 5:26--"That he might sanctify and cleanse it (i.e., the Church)
with the washing of water by the word." John 15:3--"Now ye are clean
through the word which I have spoken unto you." Our sanctification
is limited by our limitation in the knowledge of and our lack of
obedience to the Word of God. How does the Word of God sanctify? By
revealing sin; by awakening conscience; by revealing the character
of Christ; by showing the example of Christ; by offering the
influences and powers of the Holy Spirit, and by setting forth
spiritual motives and ideals. There is no power like that of the
Word of God for detaching a man from the world, the flesh and the
devil.

c) Various Other Agencies.

Heb. 12:14, R. V.--"Follow after . . . the sanctification without
which no man shall see the Lord." To "follow after" means to
pursue, to persecute, as Saul of Tarsus pursued and followed the
early Christians. One cannot become a saint in his sleep. Holiness
must be the object of his pursuit. The lazy man will not be the
holy man.

Heb. 12:10, 11: God chastens us "for our profit, that we might be
partakers of his holiness." Chastisement ofttimes is intended to
"produce the peaceable fruit of righteousness."

Rom. 6:19-32; 2 Cor. 6:17, 7:1. Sanctification is brought about
in the life of the believer by his separating himself deliberately
from all that is unclean and unholy, and by presenting, continually
and constantly, the members of his body as holy instruments unto God
for the accomplishment of His holy purposes. Thus by these single
acts of surrender unto holiness, sanctification soon becomes the
habit of the life.


G. PRAYER.

I. ITS IMPORTANCE.

II. ITS NATURE.

   1. AS SEEN IN ITS HISTORIC DEVELOPMENT.
   2. SCRIPTURAL TERMS.

III. ITS POSSIBILITY.

   1. THE REVELATION OF GOD.
   2. THE WORK OF THE SON.
   3. THE ASSISTANCE OF THE SPIRIT.
   4. THE PROMISES.
   5. CHRISTIAN TESTIMONY.

IV. ITS OBJECTS.

   1. GOD THE FATHER.
   2. CHRIST THE SON.
   3. THE HOLY SPIRIT.

V. ITS METHOD.

   1. POSTURE.
   2. TIME AND PLACE.

VI. HINDEANCES AND HELPS.

   1. HINDRANCES.
   2. HELPS--ESSENTIALS.

G. PRAYER.

I. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER.


Even a cursory perusal of the Scriptures will reveal the large and
important place which the doctrine of Prayer finds therein. The
Christian life cannot be sustained without it; it is the Christian's
vital breath. Its importance is seen when we recall:

That the neglect of prayer is grievous to the Lord (Isa. 43:21, 22;
64:6, 7, R. V.). That many evils in life are to be attributed
to the lack of prayer (Zeph. 1:4-6; Dan. 9:13, 14, cf. Hosea 7:13,
14; 8:13, 14).

That it is a sin to neglect prayer (1 Sam. 12:23).

That to continue in prayer is a positive command (Col. 4:2, R. V.;
1 Thess. 5:17; we are commanded to take leisure or a vacation for
prayer: 1 Cor. 7:5).

That it is God's appointed method of obtaining what He has to bestow
(Dan. 9:3; Matt. 7:7-11; 9:24-29; Luke 11:13).

That the lack of the necessary blessings in life comes from failure
to pray (James 4:2).

That the apostles regarded prayer as the most important employment
that could engage their time or attention (Acts 6:4; Rom. 1:9;
Col. 1:9).

II. THE NATURE OF PRAYER.

It is interesting to trace the development of prayer in the
Scriptures.

In the life of the patriarch Abraham prayer seems to have taken the
form of a dialogue--God and man drawing near and talking to each
other (Gen. 18; 19); developing into intercession (Gen. 17:18;
18:23, 32), and then into personal prayer (Gen. 15:2; 24:12); Jacob,
(Gen. 28:20; 32:9-12, 24; Hosea 12:4). The patriarchal blessings
are called prayers (Gen 49:1; Deut. 33:11).

During the period of the Law. Not very much prominence is given
to formal prayer during this period. Deut. 26:1-15 seems to be the
only one definitely recorded. Prayer had not yet found a stated
place in the ritual of the law. It seems to have been more of a
personal than a formal matter, and so while the Law may not afford
much material, yet the life of the lawgiver, Moses, abounds with
prayer (Exod. 5:22; 32:11; Num. 11:11-15).

Under Joshua (7:6-9; 10:14), and the judges (c. 6) we are told that
the children of Israel "cried unto the Lord."

Under Samuel prayer seems to have assumed the nature of intercession
(1 Sam. 7:5, 12; 8:16-18); personal (1 Sam. 15:11, 35; 16:1).
In Jeremiah (15:1) Moses and Samuel are represented as offering
intercessory prayer for Israel.

David seems to regard himself as a prophet and priest, and prays
without an intercessor (2 Sam. 7:18-29).

The prophets seem to have been intercessors, e.g., Elijah (1 Kings
18). Yet personal prayers are found among the prophets (Jer. 20--both
personal and intercessory; 33:3; 42:4; Amos 7).

In the Psalms prayer takes the form of a pouring out of the heart
(42:4; 62:8; 100:2, title). The psalmist does not seem to go before
God with fixed and orderly petitions so much as simply to pour
out his feelings and desires, whether sweet or bitter, troubled
or peaceful. Consequently the prayers of the psalmist consist of
varying moods: complaint, supplication, confession, despondency,
praise.

True prayer consists of such elements as adoration, praise, petition,
pleading, thanksgiving, intercession, communion, waiting. The closet
into which the believer enters to pray is not only an oratory --a
place of prayer, it is an observatory--a place of vision. Prayer
is not "A venture and a voice of mine; but a vision and a voice
divine." Isa. 63:7; 64:12, illustrates all essential forms of
address in prayer.

III. THE POSSIBILITY OF PRAYER.

This possibility consists in five things:

1. THE REVELATION OF GOD WHICH CHRIST HAS BROUGHT TO US.

John 1:18--"No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten
Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him."
Matt. 11:27--". . . . Neither knoweth any man the Father, save the
Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him."

Christ reveals God as a _personal_ God, as a Being who sees,
feels, knows, understands, and acts. Belief in the personality of
God is absolutely necessary to true prayer (Heb. 11:6).

Christ reveals God as a _sovereign_ God (Matt. 19:26)--"With
God all things are possible." God is sovereign over all laws; He
can make them subservient to His will, and use them in answering
the prayers of His children. He is not bound by any so-called
unchangeable laws.

Christ revealed God as a _Father_ (Luke 11:13). In every
instance in the life of Christ whenever He addresses God in prayer
it is always as Father. The fact of the fatherhood of God makes
prayer possible. It would be unnatural for a father not to commune
with his child.

2. THE SACRIFICIAL WORK OF JESUS CHRIST.

Heb. 10:19-22, R. V.--"Having therefore, brethren, boldness to
enter into the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by the way which
he dedicated for us, a new and living way, through the veil, that
is to say, his flesh; and having a great priest over the house of
God; let us draw near with a true heart in fulness of faith." It
is because of the death of Christ, which removed the barrier that
stood between God and us so that He could not consistently hear and
answer our prayers, that He can now hear and answer the petitions
of His children.

3. THE INSPIRATION OF THE HOLY GHOST.

Rom. 8:26--"Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for
we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit
himself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be
uttered." See also Jude 20. The thought is this: Even though we
are assured that there is a personal God to hear us, and although
we have the confidence that the barrier of sin which stood between
us and God has been removed, so that we now desire to pray, we often
are hindered because we either do not know what to say or what to
ask for. We may ask too ardently for wrong things, or too languidly
for the things we most need. And so we are afraid to pray. The
assurance that this verse gives us is that the Holy Spirit will pray
within us, and will indict the petition, helping us in our prayer
life.

4. THE MANY PROMISES OF THE BIBLE.

We are told that there are over 33,000 of them. Each promise is "yea
and amen in Jesus Christ"; He is the guarantee and the guarantor
of them all. They are not given to mock but to encourage us: "Hath
he said and shall he not do it? Hath he spoken and shall he not
make it good?" See John 14:13; 15:7; 1 John 5:14, 15; Luke 11:9,
etc.

5. THE UNIVERSAL CHRISTIAN TESTIMONY.

Christians, by the millions, the world over, can and do testify to
the fact that God both hears and answers prayer. The credibility,
character, and intelligence of the vast number of witnesses make
their testimony indisputable and incontrovertible.

IV. THE OBJECTS OF PRAYER--TO WHOM TO PRAY.

1. TO GOD.

Neh 4:9; Acts 12:5--"Prayer was made without ceasing of the church
unto God for him": God is holy--hence there must be no impurity
in the life of the one praying; righteous, hence no crookedness;
truthful, hence no lying or hypocrisy; powerful, hence we may have
confidence; transcendent, hence reverence in our approach.

2. TO CHRIST.

Acts 7:59--"Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." 2 Cor. 12:8, 9; 2 Tim.
2:22.

3. THE HOLY SPIRIT.

Rom. 8:15, 16 sets forth the relation of the Holy Spirit and prayer,
as do also Zech. 12:10; Eph. 6:18; Jude 20. The Holy Spirit is God
(Acts 5:3, 4; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14), hence is to be worshipped
(Matt. 4:10; Rev. 22:9).

The normal mode of prayer is prayer in the Spirit, on the ground
of the merits of the Son, to the Father: In the Spirit, through
the Son, to the Father.

V. THE METHOD OR MANNER OF PRAYER.

1. WITH REGARD TO THE POSTURE OF THE BODY.

The soul may be in prayer no matter what is the attitude of the
body. The Scriptures sanction no special bodily posture. Christ
stood and prayed (John 17:1), knelt (Luke 22:41), He also fell on
his face on the ground (Matt. 26:39); Solomon knelt (1 Kings 8:54);
Elijah prayed with his elbows on his knees and his face buried in
his hands; David prayed lying on his bed (Psa. 63:6); Peter prayed
on the water (Matt. 14:30); the dying thief, on the cross (Luke
23:42).

2. TIME AND PLACE.

Time: _Stated times_ (Dan. 6:10; Psa. 55:16, 17; Acts 3:1;
2:46; 10:9, 30). _Special occasions:_ Choosing the twelve (Luke
6:12, 13). Before the cross (Luke 22:39-46). After great successes
(John 6:15, cf. Mark 6:46-48). _Early in the morning_ (Mark
1:35). _All night_ (Luke 6:12). _Times of special trouble_
(Psa. 81:7, cf. Exod. 2:23; 3:7; 14:10, 24). _At meals_ (Matt.
14:19; Acts 27:35; 1 Tim. 4:4, 5).

Place of Prayer: Inner chamber (Matt. 6:6); amid nature (Matt.
14:23; Mark 1:35). In the church (John 17:1; Psa. 95:6). Before
the unsaved (Acts 16:25; 27:35). In all places (1 Tim. 2:8, R.
V.).

VI. HINDRANCES AND HELPS TO PRAYER.

1. HINDRANCES.

Indulged known sin (Psa. 66:18; Isa. 59:1, 2). Wilful disobedience
to known commandments (Prov. 28:9). Selfishness (James 4:3).
Unforgiving spirit (Matt. 5:22, 23; 6:12). Lack of faith (Heb.
11:6; James 1:6). Idols in the heart (Ezek. 8:5-18; 14:1-3).

2. HELPS--ESSENTIALS TO PREVAILING PRAYER.

Sincerity (Psa. 145:18; Matt. 6:5). Simplicity (Matt. 6:7, cf.
26:44). Earnestness (James 5:17; Acts 12:5; Luke 22:44). Persistence
(Luke 18:1-8; Col. 4:2; Rom. 12:12, R. V.). Faith (Matt. 21:22;
James 1:6). Unison with others (Matt. 18:19, 20). Definiteness
(Psa. 27:4; Matt. 18:19). Effort (Exod. 14:15). In the name of
Jesus (John 16:23; 14:13, 14). With fasting (Acts 13:2, 3; 14:23).



THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH

I. DEFINITION; DISTINCTIONS.

   1. OLD TESTAMENT.
   2. NEW TESTAMENT.
   3. THE CHURCH; CHRISTENDOM; KINGDOM.

II. THE FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH.

   1. IN PROPHECY AND PROMISE.
   2. HISTORICALLY FOUNDED.

III. MEMBERSHIP IN THE CHURCH.

Conditions of Entrance; Characteristics.

   1. REPENTANCE AND BAPTISM.
   2. FAITH IN THE DEITY OF JESUS CHRIST.
   3. REGENERATION.
   4. PUBLIC CONFESSION OF CHRIST--BAPTISM.
   5. ADHERENCE TO THE APOSTLES' DOCTRINE.
   6. CHARACTERISTICS.

IV. FIGURES UNDER WHICH THE CHURCH
IS PRESENTED.

   1. THE BODY OF CHRIST.
   2. THE TEMPLE OF GOD.
   3. THE BRIDE OF CHRIST.

V. THE ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH.

   1. BAPTISM.
   2. THE LORD'S SUPPER.

VI. THE VOCATION OF THE CHURCH.

   1. TO WORSHIP GOD.
   2. TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD.
   3. PERFECT EACH MEMBER.
   4. TO WITNESS.
   5. FUTURE GLORY.



THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH.

There is great danger of losing sight of the Church in the endeavor
to emphasize the idea of the Kingdom of Heaven or Christendom. We
are prone to think it a small thing to speak of the Church; the
Kingdom and Christendom seem so large in comparison. We are tempted
to distinguish and contrast Churchism, as it is sometimes called,
and Christianity, to the disparagement of the former. It is well
to remember that Jesus Christ positively identifies Himself with
the Church (Acts 9) and not with Christendom; He gave up His life
that He might found the Church (Eph. 5:25). The Apostle Paul sacrificed
himself in his endeavors to build up the Church, not Christendom.
He speaks of his greatest sin as consisting in persecuting the
Church of God (1 Cor. 15:9). The supreme business of God in this
age is the gathering of the Church. Some day it will be complete
(Eph. 4:12), and then the age will have served its purpose.

I. DEFINITIONS; DISTINCTIONS.

1. OLD TESTAMENT USE OF THE WORD.

Lev. 4:13--"And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through
ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly . .
. ." The Hebrew word for _assembly_ means to _call_ or
_assemble,_ and is used not only for the act of calling itself,
but also for the assembly of the called ones. In this sense Israel
is called a "church," an assembly, because called out from among
the other nations to be a holy people (Acts 7:38, "the church in
the wilderness"). There is always a religious aspect associated
with this particular call.

2. THE NEW TESTAMENT USE OF THE WORD.

It is from the New Testament primarily, if not really exclusively,
that the real meaning and idea of the Church is derived. The Christian
Church is a New Testament institution, beginning with Pentecost,
and ending, probably, with the rapture. Two words are of special
importance in this connection:

a) Ecclesia, from Two Greek Words Meaning "To Call Out From."

This word is used in all about 111 times in the New Testament. It
is used in a secular sense in Acts 19:39--"It shall be determined
in a lawful assembly"; of Israel in the wilderness (Acts 7:38),
and of the assembly of believers in Christ (Matt. 16:18; 18:17; 1
Cor. 1:2; Eph. 5:25-27). In keeping with this idea the saints are
said to be the "called-out" ones (Rom. 8:30; 1 Cor. 1:2; cf. 2 Cor.
6:17).

b) "Kuriakon"--That Which Belongs to the Lord.

So we have "the supper of the Lord" (1 Cor. 11:20); the "day of
the Lord" (Rev. 1:10). See also Luke 22:25 and Rom. 14:8, 9, as
illustrating that over which the Lord has dominion and authority.

To sum up then: The Church is composed of the body of believers who
have been called out from the world, and who are under the dominion
and authority of Jesus Christ.

c) The Growth of the Church Idea in the New Testament.

At first there was but one Church at Jerusalem. The meetings may
have been held in different houses, yet there was but one Church
with one roster: so we read of the total membership consisting
at one time of 120 (Acts 1:15), again of 3,000 (2:41), and still
again of 5,000 (4:4), to which there were daily additions (2:47).
The apostles were at the head of the Church (2:41-47). See Acts,
cc. 1 and 2, for a fuller account of the first Church.

The second stage in the growth of the Church was its spread throughout
Judea and Samaria, as recorded in Acts 8.

Antioch, in Syria, then became the head of the Gentile Church (Acts
13:1), as Jerusalem was the head of the Jewish Church (Acts 15);
Paul representing the Church at Antioch, and Peter and James at
Jerusalem. The assembly at Antioch was called "the church" just as
truly as was the assembly at Jerusalem (11:22; 13:1).

Because of the missionary activities of the apostles, especially
Paul, churches sprang up in different cities, especially in Asia
Minor, e.g., Corinth, Galatia, Ephesus, and Philippi.

In view of all this the term "church" came to be used of the Church
_universal,_ that is, the complete body of Christ as existing
in every place (1 Cor. 15:9; Gal. 1:2, 13; Matt. 16:18); of
_local_ churches in any one place (Col. 4:16; Phil. 4:15; 1
Cor. 1:2, etc.); of _single meetings,_ even where two or three
met together (Matt. 18:19; Col. 4:15; Phil. 1:2; Rom. 16:5).

It is evident, then, from what has here been said, that by the term
"church" is included all that is meant from the Church Universal
to the meeting of the church in the house. Wherever God's people
meet in the name of Christ to worship, there you have the Church.

3. DISTINCTIONS:

a) The Church and the Kingdom.

The Church (which is the mystery) and the Kingdom in mystery are
now contemporary. The Kingdom will be fully manifested at the
coming of Christ. The Church is within the Kingdom; probably the
regenerate are "the children of the kingdom." The Kingdom is comprised
of both good and bad (Matt. 13); the Church, of real saints only.
The Jews rejected the Kingdom under Christ and the apostles. That
Kingdom, now rejected, will be set up again when the Messiah comes.
This conception will help us to understand the parables of Matthew
13, as well as the Sermon on the Mount. The tares are sown not in
the Church, but in the field, which is the world. The Church may
be looked upon as part of the Kingdom of God, just as Illinois is
part of the United States. The Kingdom is present, in a sense,
just as the King is present in the hearts of his own people. There
is a difference between the Church and Christendom, just as there
is a difference between possessing and professing Christians.
Baptized Christendom is one thing, and the Church of Christ is
another.

b) The Church Visible and Invisible: Actual and Ideal.

The Church _Visible_ is composed of all those whose names are
enrolled upon its roster; _Invisible,_ of those whose names
are written in the Lamb's book of life; _Actual,_ people
imperfect, yet aiming after perfection, alive here on the earth;
_Ideal,_ departed saints who are now triumphant in heaven (Heb.
12:23). There is a Church in heaven just as there is one upon the
earth; indeed, it is but a part of the one Church; called the Church
_militant_ while upon the earth, and the Church _triumphant_
in heaven.

c) The Church Local and Universal.

By the first is meant the Church in any particular place, such
as "the church at Corinth"; by the latter, the Church as found in
every place (1 Cor. 1:2).

II. THE FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH.

1. FORETOLD BY CHRIST.

Matt. 16:16-18--". . . . On this rock I will build my church." Here
is the Church in prophecy and promise; the first mention of the
Church in the New Testament. Note the distinction here recognized
between the "Kingdom" and the "Church."

The Church is to be founded on Peter's confession of Jesus Christ
as the Son of the living God. No supremacy is here given to Peter,
as a comparison of these verses with John 20:19-23, and Matt.
18:18--in which the same privilege of the binding and loosing is
given to the whole Church and to all the apostles--will show.

In Matthew 18:15-20 our Lord recognizes the fact of the Church, and
also that it has the divine seal and sanction in the exercising of
the power of the keys.

2. HISTORICALLY FOUNDED BY THE APOSTLES.

Acts 1-2:47. The promise and prophecy of Matt. 16:16-18 is here
fulfilled. Here is the account of the first Christian Church in
its glorious beginning, and as it actually existed in Jerusalem.
When a man became regenerate by believing in Jesus Christ he was
thereby constituted a member of the Church. There was no question
as to whether he ought to join himself to the Church or not; that
was a fact taken for granted. So we read that the Lord was adding
to the Church daily such as were being saved. The Church was already
a concrete institution to which every believer in Christ united
himself.

"The Apostles' doctrine" formed the standard of faith--a fulfillment
of Christ's prophecy and promise in Matthew 16:16-18: "On this rock
I will build my church," etc.

The Church had _stated places of meeting:_ the upper room (Acts
1:13), the temple (5:12), the homes of members (2:46, 12:12), and
the synagogue; _stated times of_ meeting: daily (2:46), each
Lord's Day (20:7), the _regular hours_ of prayer (3:1; 10:9);
_a regular church roll:_ 120 (1:15), 3,000 (2:41), 5,000 (4:4);
_daily additions_ (2:47).

That there were definitely, regularly organized churches is clear
from the fact that the Apostle Paul addressed many of his epistles
to churches in different localities. The letters to the Corinthians
(e.g., 1 Ep. 12-14) show that the churches had already recognized
certain forms of service and liturgy; those to Timothy and Titus
presume a regularly organized congregation of believers. That there
is a Church in the world is clear from 1 Cor. 5:9-13. The Christian
Church is as much an entity as the Gentile, or the Jew (1 Cor.
10:32). The existence of church officers proves the existence of
the Church in an organized form: bishops and deacons (Phil. 1:1),
elders (Acts 20:17), the presbytery (1 Tim. 4:14). Church letters
were granted to members (Acts 18:27).

III. MEMBERSHIP IN THE CHURCH--ITS CONDITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS.

1. REPENTANCE AND BAPTISM REQUIRED OF ALL ITS MEMBERS.

Acts 2:38-41--"Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized
every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of
sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Then they
that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there
were added unto them about three thousand souls."

2. FAITH IN THE LORD JESUS CHRIST AS THE DIVINE REDEEMER.

Matt. 16:16-18; Acts 2:38, 39. Peter's entire sermon in Acts 2
illustrates this fact.

3. SAVED-REGENERATED.

Acts 2:47--". . . . And the Lord added to the church such as should
be saved." Cf. John 3:3, 5. It was essential that the members of
the early Church should be "added unto the Lord" before they were
added to the Church (5:14; 11:24).

4. BAPTISM IN THE NAME OF THE TRIUNE GOD AS AN OPEN CONFESSION OF
CHRIST.

Matt. 28:19--"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost." Acts 2:38-41; 10:47, 48; 22:16: cf. Rom. 10:9, 10.

5. ADHERENCE TO THE APOSTOLIC DOCTRINE.

Acts 2:42--"And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine
and fellowship." Cf. "On this rock I will build my church" (Matt.
16:16-18); also Eph. 2:20.

6. CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBERSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH.

The members were known as believers (Acts 4:32); brethren (11:29;
12:17; Rom. 1:13--the absolute equality of all believers, cf. Matt.
23:8-10); Christians (Acts 11:26; 26:28); saints (9:13; 1 Cor. 1:2;
Rev. 13:7); elect (Mark 13:27; Rom. 8:33; Eph. 1:4).

IV. FIGURES UNDER WHICH THE CHURCH IS SET FORTH IN THE SCRIPTURES.

1. THE BODY, OF WHICH CHRIST IS THE HEAD.

Two ideas are contained in this symbol:

a) The Relation of the Church to Christ, Who Is Its Head.

Eph. 1:22, 23; Col. 1:18; 2:19. The Church is an organism, not
an organization. There is a vital relation between Christ and the
Church, both partaking of the same life, just as there is between
the physical head and the body. We cannot join the Church as we
would a lodge or any mere human organization. We must be partakers
by faith of Christ's life before we can become members of Christ's
Church, in the true sense. As the Head of the Church Christ is
its Guardian and Director (Eph. 5:23, 24); the Source of its life,
filling it with His fulness (Eph. 1:23); the Centre of its Unity
and the Cause of its growth (Eph. 4:15; Col. 2:19).

b) The Relation of the Members One to Another.

1 Cor. 12:12-27; Rom. 12:4, 5; Eph. 4:1-4, 15,16.

2. A TEMPLE, A BUILDING, A HABITATION, A DWELLING-PLACE FOR GOD'S
SPIRIT.

Eph. 2:20, 21; 1 Cor. 3:9-17; 1 Tim. 3:15; 1 Pet. 2:4-8; Rev. 21:3;
1 Cor. 6:19. Of this building Christ is the cornerstone, and the
prophets and apostles the foundation. In 1 Cor. 3 Christ is the chief
cornerstone and the apostles the builders; the whole building is
held in place by Christ.

3. THE BRIDE OF CHRIST.

2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:25-27; Rev. 19:7; 22:17. Christ is the
Bridegroom (John 3:29). This is a great mystery (Eph. 5:32). The
Bride becomes the wife of the Lamb (Rev. 21:2).

V. THE ORDINANCES OF THE CHURCH.

1. BAPTISM.

Matt. 28:19, 20; Mark 16:16; Acts 2:38, 41; 8:36-40; 10:47, 48.

2. THE LORD'S SUPPER.

Acts 2:42, 46; 20:7--"And upon the first day of the week, when the
disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them,
ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until
midnight." 1 Cor. 11:20-34.

VI. THE VOCATION OF THE CHURCH.

1. TO WORSHIP GOD AND TO GLORIFY HIM ON THE EARTH:

Eph. 1:4-6--"According as he hath chosen us in him before the
foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame
before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of
children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure
of his will. To the praise of the glory of his grace wherein he
hath made us accepted in the beloved."

2. TO EVANGELIZE THE WORLD WITH THE GOSPEL:

Matt. 28:19, 20--"Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing
them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost." Acts 2; 5:42; 6:5-8; Eph. 3:8; Acts 15:7.

3. TO DEVELOP EACH INDIVIDUAL CHRISTIAN UNTIL HE ATTAINS UNTO THE
FULNESS OF THE STATURE OF CHRIST:

Eph. 4:11-15. Hence the gift of pastors, teachers, etc. Herein
lies the value of church attendance--it promotes growth; failure
to attend leads to apostasy (Heb. 10:25-28), cf. 1 Thess. 5:11; 1
Cor. 12.

4. A CONSTANT WITNESS FOR CHRIST AND HIS WORD:

Acts 1:8--"But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is
come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem,
and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of
the earth." 8:1, 4.

5. THE FUTURE GLORY OF THE CHURCH:

Eph. 3:10, 21; Eev. 7:9-17.



THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES.

I. NAMES AND TITLES.

   1. THE BIBLE.
   2. THE TESTAMENTS.
   3. THE SCRIPTURES.
   4. THE WORD OF GOD.

II. INSPIRATION.

   1. DEFINITION.
   2. DISTINCTIONS.
      a) Revelation.
      b) Illumination.
      c) Reporting.
   3. VIEWS:
      a) Natural Inspiration.
      b) Christian Illumination.
      c) Dynamic Theory.
      d) Concept Theory.
      e) Verbal Inspiration.
      f) Partial Inspiration.
      g) Plenary Inspiration.
   4. THE CLAIMS OF THE SCRIPTURES THEMSELVES:
      a) The Old Testament.
      b) The New Testament.
   5. THE CHARACTER (OR DEGREES) OF INSPIRATION.
      a) Actual Words of God Himself.
      b) Actual Words Communicated by God to Men.
      e) Individual Freedom in Choice of Words--To What Extent?



THE DOCTRINE OF THE SCRIPTURES.

I. THE BIBLE--ITS NAMES AND TITLES.

1. "THE BIBLE."

Our English word _Bible_ comes from the Greek words _biblos_
(Matt. 1:1) and _biblion_ (diminutive form) (Luke 4:17), which
mean _"book."_ Ancient books were written upon the biblus or
papyrus reed, and from this custom came the Greek name _biblos,_
which finally came to be applied to the sacred books. See Mark
12:26; Luke 3:4; 20:42; Acts 1:20; 7:42.

The Bible is not merely _a_ book, however. It is THE BOOK--the
Book that from the importance of its subjects, the wideness of its
range, the majesty of its Author, stands as high above all other
books as the heaven is high above the earth.

2. "THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS."

See Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6, 14; Heb. 9:15; 12:24.

The word _Testament_ means _Covenant,_ and is the term
by which God was pleased to designate the relation that existed
between Himself and His people. The term _Covenant_ was first
of all applied to the relation itself, and afterward to the books
which contained the record of that relation.

By the end of the second century we find the "Old Covenant" and the
"New Covenant" as the established names of the Jewish and Christian
Scriptures; and Origen, in the beginning of the third century, mentioned
"the divine Scriptures, the so-called Old and New Covenants."

The Old Testament deals with the record of the calling and history
of the Jewish nation, and as such it is the Old Covenant. The New
Testament deals with the history and application of the redemption
wrought by the Lord Jesus Christ, and as such it is the New Covenant.

3. "THE SCRIPTURE," AND "THE SCRIPTURES."

The Bible is also called "The Scripture" (Mark 12:10; 15:28; Luke
4:21; John 2:22; 7:38; 10:35; Rom. 4:3; Gal. 4:30; 2 Pet. 1:20), and
"The Scriptures" (Matt. 22:29; Mark 12:24; Luke 24:27; John 5:39;
Acts 17:11; Rom. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:15; 2 Pet. 3:16). These terms mean
that the Scriptures are "Holy Writings." By the early Christians
the most common designation for the whole Bible was "The Scriptures."

4. "THE WORD OF GOD."

Of all the names given to the Bible, "The Word of God" (Mark 7:13;
Rom. 10:17; 2 Cor. 2:17; Heb. 4:12; 1 Thess. 2:13) is doubtless
the most significant, impressive, and complete. It is sufficient
to justify the faith of the weakest Christian. It gathers up all
that the most earnest search can unfold. It teaches us to regard the
Bible as the utterance of divine wisdom and love--as God speaking
to man.

II. THE INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE.

1. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM "INSPIRATION."

This question is best answered by Scripture itself. It defines its
own terms. Let us turn, then, "to the Law and to the Testimony."

In 2 Tim. 3:16--"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God."

The word "inspired" means literally "God-breathed." It is composed
of two Greek words--_theos=God;_ and _pnein=to breathe._
The term "given by inspiration" signifies, then, that the writings
of the Old Testament, of which Paul is here speaking, are the result
of a certain influence exerted by God upon their authors.

The meaning of the word "breathed," as here used, is brought
out very forcibly by the comparison of two other words translated
in the same way. The one is the Greek word _psuchein=to breathe
gently,_ while in 2 Tim. 3:16 the term denotes a forcible
respiration. The other is the Hebrew word _ah-ayrh=to breathe
unconsciously,_ while 2 Tim. 3:16 denotes a conscious breathing.

Inspiration, then, as defined by Paul in this passage, is the
_strong, conscious inbreathing of God into men, qualifying them
to give utterance to truth. It is God speaking through men, and the
Old Testament is therefore just as much the Word of God as though
God spake every single word of it with His own lips._ The
Scriptures are the result of divine inbreathing, just as human
speech is uttered by the breathing through a man's mouth.

2 Pet. 1:21--"For not by the will of man was prophecy brought at
any time, but being borne by the Holy Spirit, the holy men of God
spoke." (This is a literal rendering, and brings out the sense more
clearly.)

The participle "moved" may be translated "when moved," so this
passage teaches that holy men of God wrote the Scripture _when_
moved to do so by the Holy Spirit.

Further, the participle is passive, and denotes "to be moved upon."
This distinctly teaches that the Scripture was not written by mere
men, or at their suggestion, but by men _moved upon_, prompted,
yea indeed, driven by the promptings of the Holy Spirit.

This declaration of Peter may be said to intimate that the Holy Ghost
was especially and miraculously present with and in the writers of
the Scriptures, revealing to them truths which they did not know
before, and guiding them alike in their record of these truths,
and of the transactions of which they were eye and ear witnesses,
so that they were enabled to present them with substantial accuracy
to the minds of others.

The statements of the Scriptures regarding Inspiration may be summed
up as follows: Holy men of God, qualified by the infusion of the
breath of God, wrote in obedience to the divine command, and were
kept from all error, whether they revealed truths previously unknown
or recorded truths already familiar. In this sense, "all Scripture
is given by inspiration of God," the Bible is indeed and in truth
the very Word of God, and the books of the Bible are of divine
origin and authority.

2. THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN INSPIRATION, REVELATION, ILLUMINATION,
AND VERBATIM REPORTING.

a) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Revelation.

It is of the greatest importance, in considering the theme of
Inspiration, to distinguish it clearly from Revelation.

The most cursory perusal of the Scriptures reveals the fact that
they consist of two different kinds of records: first, records of
truth directly revealed and imparted to the mind of the writer by
God, and which he could have learned in no other manner (such, for
example, as the story of Creation); and second, records of events
that occurred within the writer's own observation, and of sayings
that fell upon his own ears (such as Moses' account of the Exodus,
Paul's account of his interview with Peter at Antioch). In the one
case, the writer records things that had not been revealed to man
before; in the other case, he records facts which were as well
known to others as to himself.

Now, Revelation is that act of God by which He directly communicates
truth not known before to the human mind. Revelation discovers new
truth, while Inspiration superintends the communicating of that
truth.

All that is in the Bible has not been "directly revealed" to man.
It contains history, and the language of men, even of wicked men.
But there is absolutely no part of the Bible record that is not
inspired. The history recorded in the Bible is true. The sacred
writers were so directed and influenced by the Spirit that they
were preserved, in writing, from every error of fact and doctrine.
The history remains history. Things not sanctioned by God, recorded
in the Bible, are to be shunned (2 Tim. 3:16). Nevertheless, all
these things were written under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
This is Inspiration.

This distinction should be definitely and clearly understood, for
many of the most plausible arguments against the full inspiration
of the Scriptures have arisen from the fact that this has been
either unrecognized or ignored.

Though all Scripture is inspired, it does not stamp with divine
authority every sentiment which it reports as uttered by the men of
whom it speaks, nor does it mark with divine approval every action
which it relates as performed by those with whose biographies
it deals. In the book of Job, for example, Inspiration gives with
equal accuracy the language of Jehovah, the words of Satan, and the
speeches of Job and his three friends; but it does not therefore
place them all on the same level of authority. Each speaker is
responsible for his own utterances. Neither Satan, Job, nor his
three friends spoke by inspiration of God. They gave utterance to
their own opinions; and all that Inspiration vouches for is that
no one of them is misrepresented, but that each one spoke the
sentiments that are attributed to him in Scripture. So, again,
the fact that David's cruelty to the Ammonites is recorded in the
book of Kings does not imply that God approved it any more than
He approved the king's double crime of murder and adultery, which
"displeased Him." The inspiration of the Book vouches only for the
accuracy of the record.

b) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Illumination.

Spiritual Illumination refers to the influence of the Holy Ghost,
common to all Christians. No statement of a truth about God or
spiritual things can be understood by a man unless the Holy Spirit
takes it and reveals it to him. It is only the spiritual man who
can understand spiritual things. "The natural man receiveth not
the things of the Spirit" (1 Cor. 2:14). No learning of the schools
can lead him to know God. Flesh and blood cannot reveal God to men
(Matt. 16:17).

There is a vast difference between "a divine revelation of the
mind of God" and "a divine action on the mind of man." The former
is Revelation; the latter is Spiritual Illumination.

Those who hold to the illumination theory to account for the origin
of the Bible revelation claim that there is in every man an intuitive
faculty that grasps the supernatural, that lays hold of God and
spiritual things; and that whatever insight into the nature and
being of God is given man, is produced by the divine Spirit playing
upon this spiritual faculty in man, illuminating and irradiating
it, so that it sees the perfection of God and is enabled to penetrate
into His will.

According to this view, the Bible is the result of the meditations
of godly men whose minds were acted upon by God. Any revelation
of divinity of which man is the recipient, comes in this manner.
Subjective illumination God has carried on since the world began,
and is still carrying on by a great variety of methods. The Scriptures
are not in any way the oracles of God, nor do they come to us
as direct, logical utterances of the divine mind. The patriarchs,
prophets and apostles of old so deeply meditated on God and the
things of God that their spiritual faculties were enlarged and
illuminated to such a degree that they conceived of these visions
of God, His nature, His will, etc., as recorded in the Scriptures.

Now, it is true, doubtless, that a man may be granted a very deep
insight into the nature and being of God by spiritual meditation.
That a fire does burn in the Bible, we do not deny. Throughout
all ages of the Jewish and Christian churches men have lit their
spiritual torches at this fire, and in their light they have seen
Him who is invisible. This fire still burns, and to-day the devout
student may catch its flame if, with uncovered head, with shoeless
feet, and with humble spirit, he stands before the bush that ever
burns and yet is never consumed. But this working of the truth of
God on the mind of man is not God's revelation of His mind to man
which the Bible professes to be. The Bible must of necessity be not
merely a repository or receptacle of spiritual influences fitted
to act upon the mind; it must be--it is--God making Himself known
to men. It is God speaking to man through men.

In contradistinction to the illumination theory we have instances
in the Bible in which God made revelations of Himself, His truth,
and His will to men who were by no means at the time meditating
upon God. See e.g.:

John 11:49-52--"And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high
priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor
consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for
the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake
he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied
that Jesus should die for that nation; and not for that nation
only, but that also He should gather together in one the children
of God that were scattered abroad." See also Num. 22:34, 35.

c) The Distinction Between Inspiration and Verbatim Reporting.

Inspiration is not necessarily Verbatim Reporting.

It is not absolutely necessary to make such a claim to prove the
inspiration of the Scriptures. Verbatim Reporting is, in a sense,
a mere mechanical operation. It would have robbed the writers of
their individuality, and made them mere machines. But no; the Holy
Spirit used the memories, the intuitions, the judgments, and indeed
the idiosyncrasies of the writers, so that while each recorded
that part of the event or discourse which (as we may express it)
adhered to himself, he was enabled to give it with substantial
accuracy.

3. VARIOUS THEORIES OF INSPIRATION.

It will be in order here to note briefly various theories of
inspiration; for it must be known that all students do not agree
as to the degree of inspiration that characterized the writers
of the Scripture. When a man says, "I believe in the inspiration
of the Bible," it will be quite in place in these days to ask him
what he means by inspiration. Following are some of the views of
inspiration held at the present day.

a) Natural Inspiration.

This theory identifies inspiration with genius of a high order. It
denies that there is anything supernatural, mysterious, or peculiar
in the mode of the Spirit's operation in and upon the Scripture
writers. It claims that they were no more inspired than were Milton,
Shakespeare, Mahomet, or Confucius.

Such a theory we absolutely reject. For if such be the character
of the inspiration possessed by the Scripture writers, there is
nothing to assure us that they were not liable to make the same
errors, to teach the same false views of life, to give expression
to the same uncertainties concerning the past, the present, and
the future as did these shining lights of mere human genius.

When David said, "The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and His word
was in my tongue," he meant something more than the prayer which
forms the gem of _Paradise Lost._ When Isaiah and his brethren
said, "Thus saith the Lord," they claimed something higher than
that they were speaking under the stirrings of poetic rapture. When
Paul said to the Corinthians, "Which things also we speak, not in
the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost
teacheth (1 Cor. 2:13)," he used the language to which you will
find no parallel in the literature of mere human genius. And no
man of candor or intelligence can pass from the writings even of
the unapproachable Shakespeare into the perusal of the Bible without
feeling that the difference between the two is not one simply
of degree, but of kind; he has not merely ascended to a loftier
outlook in the same human dwelling, but he has gone into a new
region altogether. There is a certain "unknown quality" in this
Book which clearly distinguishes it from all others; and if we may
take its own explanation of the matter, that unknown quality is
its divine inspiration.

b) Universal Christian Inspiration, or Illumination.

According to this theory, the inspiration of the Bible writers was
the same as has characterized Christians of every age; the ordinary
Christian of to-day is inspired as much as was the Apostle Paul.

If this be the true view, there seems to be no plausible reason why
a new Bible should not be possible to-day. And yet no individual,
however extreme his claims to inspiration may be, has even ventured
such a task.

c) Mechanical, or Dynamic Inspiration. (See Verbatim Eeporting,
page 198.)

This theory ignores the human instrumentality in the writing of
the Scriptures altogether, and claims that the writers were passive
instruments mere machines, just as insensible to what they were
accomplishing as is the string of the harp or lyre to the play of
the musician.

How, then, do we account for the differences in style of the
various writers, the preservation of their individualities, their
idiosyncrasies?

It seems evident that Scripture cannot be made to harmonize with
the application of this theory.

d) Concept, or Thought Inspiration.

This theory claims that only the concepts, or thoughts, of men were
given by inspiration. It will be examined more fully later. Concept
Inspiration is opposed by

e) Verbal Inspiration.

Here it is claimed that the very words of Scripture were given
by the Holy Spirit; that the writers were not left absolutely to
themselves in the choice of words they should use. (See page 204.)

f) Partial Inspiration.

The favorite way of expressing this theory is, "The Bible
_contains_ the Word of God."

This statement implies that it contains much that is not the Word
of God, that is, that is not inspired. A serious question at once
arises: Who is to decide what is and what is not inspired? Who
is to be the judge of so vital a question? What part is inspired,
and what part is not? Who can tell?

Such a theory leaves man in awful and fatal uncertainty.

g) Plenary, or Full, Inspiration.

This is the opposite of Partial Inspiration. It holds all Scripture
to be equally inspired, as stated on page 200. It bases its claim
on 2 Tim. 3:16.

The Revised Version translation of 2 Tim. 3:16 is erroneous. The
reader might infer from it that there is some Scripture that is
not inspired.

If Paul had said, "All Scripture that is divinely inspired is also
profitable, etc.," he would virtually have said, "There is _some_
Scripture, _some_ part of the Bible, that is _not profitable,
etc.,_ and therefore is not inspired." This is what the spirit
of rationalism wants, namely, to make human reason the test and
judge and measure of what is inspired and what is not. One man says
such and such a verse is not profitable to him, another says such
and such a verse is not profitable to him; a third says such and
such is not profitable to him. The result is that no Bible is left.

Is it possible that anyone need be told the flat and sapless tautology
that all divinely-inspired Scripture is _also_ profitable?
Paul dealt in no such meaningless phrases. The word translated
_also_ does not mean _also_ here. It means _and._
Its position in the sentence shows this.

Again, the Revised rendering is shown to be openly false because
the revisers refused to render the same Greek construction elsewhere
in the same way, which convicts them of error.

In Hebrew 4:13 we read: "All things are naked and laid open before
the eyes of Him with whom we have to do." The form and construction
of this verse is identical with that of 2 Tim. 3:16. Were we,
however, to translate this passage as the revisers translated the
passage in Timothy, it would read: "All naked things are also open
to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do." All naked things are
also open things! All uncovered things are also exposed things!
There is no _also_ in the case.

Again, 1 Tim. 4:4: "Every creature of God is good and nothing is
to be rejected." According to the principles the revisers adopted
in rendering 2 Tim. 3:16, this passage would read: "Every good
creature of God is also nothing to be rejected."

The Greek language has no such meaningless syntax. The place of
the verb _is,_--which must be supplied,--is directly before
the word "inspired," and not after it.

The great rationalistic scholar, DeWette, confessed candidly that
the rendering the revisers here adopted cannot be defended. In his
German version of the text, he gave the sense thus: "Every sacred
writing, i.e., of the canonical Scriptures, is inspired of God
and is useful for doctrine, etc." Bishops Moberly and Wordsworth,
Archbishop Trench, and others of the Revision committee, disclaimed
any responsibility for the rendering. Dean Burgon pronounced it "the
most astonishing as well as calamitous literary blunder of the age."
It was condemned by Dr. Tregelles, the only man ever pensioned by
the British government for scholarship.

In accordance with this weight of testimony, therefore, we hold
to the rendering of the Authorized Version, and claim that all
Scripture is equally and fully inspired of God.

4. THE CLAIMS OF THE SCRIPTURES TO INSPIRATION.

That the writers of the Scriptures claimed to write under the
direct influence of the Spirit of God there can be no doubt. The
_quality_ or _degree_ of their insspiration may be called
into question, but surely not the _fact_ of it. Let us examine
the testimony of the writers themselves.

a) The Claims of Old Testament Writers to Inspiration. (We use
the word Inspiration here as including Revelation.)

Compare and examine the following passages:

Exod. 4:10-15--"And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not
eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy
servant; but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. And the
Lord said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the
dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the Lord?
Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what
thou shalt say. And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the
hand of him whom thou wilt send. And the anger of the Lord was
kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy
brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh
forth to meet thee; and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his
heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth,
and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach
you what ye shall do."

Deut. 4:2--"Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you,
neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the
commandments of the Lord your God which I command you."

Jer. 1:7-9--"But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child:
for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I
command thee thou shalt speak. Be not afraid of their faces; for
I am with thee to deliver thee, saith the Lord. Then the Lord put
forth his hand, and touched my mouth. And the Lord said unto me,
Behold, I have put my words in thy mouth." Also Ezek. 3:4; Micah
3:8.

These are but a few of the many passages in which the inspiration
of the writers is affirmed and claimed.

Note further that the words "God said" occur ten times in the first
chapter of Genesis. It is claimed that such expressions as "The
Lord said," "The Lord spake," "The word of the Lord came," are
found 3,808 times in the Old Testament. These writers, claiming to
be the revealers of the will of God, almost always commenced their
messages with the words, "Thus saith the Lord." That they were not
deceived in their claims is evident from the minuteness and detail
as to names, times and places which characterized their messages,
and from the literal fulfillment of these oracles of God.

b) The Claims of the New Testament Writers to Inspiration.

It is worthy of note here to observe that inspiration is claimed
by New Testament writers for Old Testament writers as well as for
themselves. Read and compare the following passages:

2 Pet. 1:20, 21--"Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the
Scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came
not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as
they were moved by the Holy Ghost."

1 Pet. 1:10, 11--"Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and
searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come
unto you: searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of
Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand
the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow."

Acts 1:16--"Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been
fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before
concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus." Acts
28:25--"And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed,
after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by
Esaias the prophet unto our fathers."

1 Cor. 2:13--"Which things also we speak, not in the words which
man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing
spiritual things with spiritual."

1 Cor. 14:37--"If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual,
let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the
commandments of the Lord."

1 Thess. 2:13--"For this cause also thank we God without ceasing,
because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us,
ye received it not as the word of men, but, as it is in truth, the
word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe."

2 Peter 3:1, 2--"This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto
you; in both which I stir up your pure minds by way of remembrance:
that ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by
the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of
the Lord and Saviour."

Matt. 10:20--"For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your
Father which speaketh in you."

Mark 13:11--"But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take
no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate;
but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye, for
it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost."

See also Luke 12:12; 21:14, 15; Acts 2:4.

It is evident from these and many other passages of Scripture that
the writers of both the Old and New Testaments were conscious of
having received revelations from God, and considered themselves
inspired of God to write the Scriptures. They felt while writing
that they were giving expression to the infallible truth of God, and
were conscious that the Holy Spirit was moving them to the work.

5. WHAT IS THE NATUEE OF THE INSPIRATION THAT CHARACTERIZED THE
WRITERS OF THE SCRIPTURES, AND IN WHAT DEGREE WERE THEY UNDER ITS
INFLUENCE?

Much has been said and written in answer to this question. Were
the _thoughts_ or _concepts_ alone inspired, or were the
_words_ also inspired? Were the words dictated by the Holy
Spirit, or were the writers left to choose their own words? These
are the knotty questions current today regarding the Inspiration
of the Bible. We may say with certainty that

a) At least Some of the Words of Scripture are the Identical Words
Written or Spoken by God Himself.

Note Exodus 38:16--"The writing was the writing of God"; Exodus
31:18--"Written with the finger of God." Compare also Deuteronomy
10:2, 4; 9:10; Exodus 24:12. See also 1 Chronicles 28:19 (R. V.)--"All
this, said David, have I been made to understand in writing from
the hand of Jehovah"; Daniel 5:5--There "came forth the finger of
a man's hand and wrote."

In the New Testament God is heard speaking both at the baptism and
the transfiguration of Jesus, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in
whom I am well pleased; hear ye him."

It is clearly evident from these passages that some part of the
inspired record claims to be a record of the exact words of God.

b) It is Also very Definitely Stated in Scripture that God Put
into the Mouths of Certain Men the Very Words They Should Speak,
and Told Them What They Should Write.

Exod. 4:10-15--"And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not
eloquent, neither heretofore, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy
servant: but I am slow of speech, and of a slow tongue. And the
Lord said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the
dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the Lord?
Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what
thou shalt say. And he said, O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the
hand of him whom thou wilt send. And the anger of the Lord was
kindled against Moses, and he said, Is not Aaron the Levite thy
brother? I know that he can speak well. And also, behold, he cometh
forth to meet thee: and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his
heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth:
and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach
you what ye shall do."

Exod. 34:27--"And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thou these words:
for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with
thee and with Israel." Num. 17:2, 3--"Speak unto the children of
Israel, and take of every one of them a rod according to the house
of their fathers, of all their princes according to the house of
their fathers, twelve rods: write thou every man's name upon his
rod. And thou shalt write Aaron's name upon the rod of Levi: for
one rod shall be for the head of the house of their fathers."

Isa. 8:1, 11, 12--"Moreover the Lord said unto me, Take thee a great
roll, and write in it with a man's pen concerning Maher-shalal-hash-baz.
For the Lord spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed
me that I should not walk in the way of this people, saying, Say
ye not, A confederacy, to all them to whom this people shall say,
A confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid."

Jer. 1:7--"But the Lord said unto me, Say not, I am a child:
for thou shalt go to all that I shall send thee, and whatsoever I
command thee thou shalt speak."

Jer. 7:27--"Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them;
but they will not hearken to thee; thou shalt also call unto them;
but they will not answer thee."

Jer. 13:12--"Therefore thou shall speak unto them this word: This
saith the Lord God of Israel, Every bottle shall be filled with
wine: and they shall say unto thee, Do we not certainly know that
every bottle shall be filled with wine?"

Jer. 30:1, 3--"The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying.
Thus speaketh the Lord God of Israel, saying, Write thee all the
words that I have spoken unto thee in a book."

Jer. 36: 1, 2, 4, 11, 27-32--"And it came to pass in the fourth
year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, that this word
came unto Jeremiah from the Lord, saying, Take thee a roll of a
book, and write therein all the words that I have spoken unto thee
against Israel, and against Judah, and against all the nations,
from the day I spake unto thee, from the days of Josiah, even unto
this day. Then Jeremiah called Baruch the son of Neriah; and Baruch
wrote from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the Lord, which
he had spoken unto him, upon a roll of a book. When Michaiah the
son of Gemariah, the son of Shaphan, had heard out of the book
all the words of the Lord. . . . Then the word of the Lord came to
Jeremiah, after that the king had burned the roll, and the words
which Baruch wrote at the mouth of Jeremiah, saying, Take thee
again another roll, and write in it all the former words that were
in the first roll, which Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath burned.
And thou shalt say to Jehoiakim king of Judah, Thou saith the Lord;
Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein,
saying, The king of Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this
land, and shall cause to cease from thence man and beast? Therefore
thus saith the Lord of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none
to sit upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast
out in the day to the heat, and in the night to the frost. And I
will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity;
and I will bring upon them, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
and upon the men of Judah, all the evil that I have pronounced
against them; but they hearkened not. Then took Jeremiah another
roll, and give it to Baruch the scribe, the son of Neriah, who
wrote therein from the mouth of Jeremiah all the words of the book
which Jehoiakim king of Judah had burned in the fire; and there
were added besides unto them many like words." Also Ezek. 2:7;
3:10, 11; 24:2; 37:16; Hab. 2:2; Zech. 7:8-12.

1 Cor. 14:37--"If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual,
let him acknowledge that the things that I write unto you are the
commandments of the Lord."

Rev. 2:1, 8, 12, 18--"Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write;
These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right
hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candle-sticks
. . . . And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These
things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive
. . . . And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These
things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges . . . .
And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things
saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire,
and his feet are like fine brass." Also 3:1; 7:14.

Rev. 10:4--"And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices,
I was about to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying unto
me, Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and
write them not."

To sum up these two arguments, then, let us say, regarding the
nature of the inspiration of the sacred writings, that part of them
claim to be the very words and writings of God Himself, spoken by
His own mouth, or written by His own hand: that another part claim
to be the record of words spoken to certain men who wrote them
down just as they were spoken. And yet if this is all that is
involved in inspiration, shall we not be robbed of a very beautiful
and helpful fact, namely, that the Holy Spirit saw fit to preserve
the characteristics of the writers? Do not the works of James,
the faith of Paul, and the love of John appeal to us in their own
peculiar way? This leads to the statement that

c) In a Certain Sense, and in Respect to Some Parts of the Scripture,
the Authors Were (Humanly Speaking) Left to Choose Their Own Words
in Relating Divine Truth.

This was by no means true of all the sacred writings. There are
instances recorded of men who spoke without knowing what they were
saying; and of men and animals speaking without knowledge of the
substance of their message:

John 11:49-52--"And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high
priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, nor
consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for
the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake
he not of himself; but being high priest that year, he prophesied
that Jesus should die for that nation; and not for that nation
only, but that also he should gather together in one the children
of God that were scattered abroad."

Num. 22:28-30--"And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she
said unto Balaam, What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten
me these three times? And Balaam said unto the ass, Because thou
has mocked me: I would there were a sword in mine hand, for now
would I kill thee. And the ass said unto Balaam, Am not I thine
ass, upon which thou hast ridden ever since I was thine unto this
day? was I ever wont to do so unto thee? And he said, Nay."

Dan. 12:8, 9--"And I heard, but I understood not: then said I,
0 my Lord, what shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go
thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the
time of the end."

And yet the gift of inspiration admitted of personal, diligent,
and faithful research into the facts recorded--Luke 1:1-4.

This fact allowed the expression of the same thought in different
words, such differences (by no means discrepancies) between
the accounts of inspired men as would be likely to arise from the
different standpoint of each. Examples: Matt. 26:26, 27--"And as
they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it,
and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body.
And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
Drink ye all of it."

Luke 22:19, 20--"And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it,
and gave unto them, saying, this is my body which is given for you;
this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper,
saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed
for you."

1 Cor. 11:24, 25--"And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and
said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you; this do
in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup,
when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my
blood; this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me."

Matt. 3:17--"And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved
Son, in whom I am well pleased."

Mark 1:11--"And there came a voice from heaven, saying, Thou art
my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

Luke 3:22--"And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a
dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art
my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased."

The Spirit employed the attention, the investigation, the memory,
the fancy, the logic, in a word, all the faculties of the writer,
and wrought through them. He guided the writer to choose what
narrative and materials, speeches of others, imperial decrees,
genealogies, official letters, state papers or historical matters
he might find necessary for the recording of the divine message of
salvation. He wrought in, with, and through their spirits, so as to
preserve their individuality to others. He used the men themselves,
and spoke through their individualities. "The gold was His; the
mould was theirs."

DID INSPIRATION AFFECT THE WORDS USED?

If the question be asked whether or not inspiration affected the
words, it must be answered in the affirmative. It is hardly possible
that inspiration could insure the correct transmission of thought
without in some way affecting the words. Yet it affected the words
not directly and immediately by dictating them in the ears of the
writers, but mediately, through working on their minds and producing
there such vivid and clear ideas of thoughts and facts that the
writers could find words fitted to their purpose.

We must conclude, therefore, that while from the divine side the
Holy Spirit gave through men clearly and faithfully that which
He wished to communicate, from the human side that communication
came forth in language such as men themselves would naturally have
chosen.

This may seem to some to be an impossibility, and they would allege
that if the words were affected by inspiration at all, there must
have been dictation. But the must is a _non sequitur._ It
is admitted that God works His purposes in the world through the
ordinary actions of men, while yet no violence is done to their
freedom. It is admitted, also, that God, through the gracious
operations of His Holy Spirit, works in the hearts of His people
so as to develop in each of them the new man, while yet the
individuality of each is preserved; and the type of piety is just
as distinct in each Christian as the style is in each of the sacred
writers. These cases are so nearly parallel as to suggest that all
denials of the possibility of inspiration without the destruction
of the individual characteristics are as unphilosophical as they
are unwarranted.

We may therefore safely say that in a very real sense the words
as well as the thoughts have been given, whether mediately or
immediately, under the influence of the divine Spirit. We claim
that the Bible is in deed and in truth the very Word of God; that
it is the Word of God in the language of men; truly divine, and at
the same time truly human; that it is the revelation of God to His
creatures; that infallible guidance was given to those who wrote
it, so as to preserve them from error in the statement of facts;
that what the writers of the Scriptures say or write under this
guidance is as truly said and written by God as if their instrumentality
were not used at all; that the ideas expressed therein are the
very ideas the Holy Ghost intended to convey; that God is in the
fullest sense responsible for every word. This is what the Bible
claims for itself.



THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS.

I. THEIR EXISTENCE.

   1. THE TEACHING OF JESUS.
   2. THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES.

II. THEIR NATURE.

   1. CREATED BEINGS.
   2. SPIRITUAL BEINGS.
   3. GREAT POWER AND MIGHT.
   4. VARIOUS GRADES.
   5. THE NUMBER OF ANGELS.

III. THE FALL OF ANGELS.

   1. TIME AND CAUSE.
   2. THE WORK OF FALLEN ANGELS.
   3. THE JUDGMENT OF FALLEN ANGELS.

IV. THE WORK OF ANGELS.

   1. THEIR HEAVENLY MINISTRY.
   2. THEIR EARTHLY MINISTRY.
      a) In Relation to the Believer.
      b) In Relation to Christ's Second Coming.



THE DOCTRINE OF ANGELS.

We are not to think that man is the highest form of created being.
As the distance between man and the lower forms of life is filled
with beings of various grades, so it is possible that between man
and God there exist creatures of higher than human intelligence
and power. Indeed, the existence of lesser deities in all heathen
mythologies presumes the existence of a higher order of beings
between God and man, superior to man and inferior to God. This
possibility is turned into certainty by the express and explicit
teaching of the Scriptures. It would be sad indeed if we should allow
ourselves to be such victims of sense perception and so materialistic
that we should refuse to believe in an order of spiritual beings
simply because they were beyond our sight and touch. We should
not thus shut ourselves out of a larger life. A so-called liberal
faith may express unbelief in such beings. Does not such a faith
(?) label itself narrow rather than liberal by such a refusal of
faith? Does not a liberal faith mean a faith that believes _much,_
not little--as much, not as little, as possible?

I. THEIR EXISTENCE.

1. THE TEACHING OF JESUS.

Matt. 18:10--"For I say unto you, That in heaven their angels
do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven." Mark
13:32--"But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the
angels which are in heaven." 8:38; Matt. 13:41; 26:53.

These are a sufficient number of passages, though they are by no
means all, to prove that Jesus believed in the existence of angels.
Jesus is not here speaking in any accommodative sense. Nor is He
simply expressing a superstitious belief existing among the Jews
at that time. This was not the habit of Jesus. He did not fail to
correct popular opinion and tradition when it was wrong, e.g., His
rebuke of the false ceremonialism of the Pharisees, and the unbelief
of the Sadducees in the resurrection. See also the Sermon on the
Mount (Matt. 5:20-37).

2. THE TEACHING OF PAUL, AND OTHER APOSTLES.

2 Thess. 1:7--"And to you who are troubled, rest with us, when the
Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels,"
Col. 2:18--"Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary
humility and worshipping of angels." Is not one of the principal
reasons for the writing of the Epistle to the Colossians to correct
the gnostic theory of the worshipping of angels? See also Eph.
1:21, Col. 1:16. John believed in an angelic order of beings: John
1:51; Rev. 12:7; 22:9. Peter: 1 Pet. 3:22; 2 Pet. 2:11. See also
Jude 9; Luke 22:43; Mark 8:38; Heb. 12:22. These and numerous other
references in the Scriptures compel the candid student of the Word
to believe in the existence of angels.

II. THE NATUEE OF ANGELS.

1. THEY ABE CREATED BEINGS.

Col. 1:16--"For by him were all things created, that are in heaven,
and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be
thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things
were created by him, and for him." Angels are not the spirits of
the departed, nor are they glorified human beings (Heb. 12:22, 23).
Neh. 9:6--"Thou, even thou, art Lord alone; thou hast made heaven,
the heaven of heavens, with all their host."

2. THEY ARE SPIRITUAL BEINGS.

Heb. 1:14--"Are they not all ministering spirits?" Psa. 104:4--"Who
maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming fire." It is
thought by some that God creates angels for a certain purpose, and
when that purpose is accomplished they pass out of existence. But
that there are many, many angels in existence all the time is clear
from the teaching of the Scriptures.

Although the angels are "spirits," they nevertheless oft-times have
appeared to men in visible, and even human form (Gen. 19; Judges
2:1; 6:11-22; Matt. 1:20; Luke 1:26; John 20:12). There seems to
be no sex among the angels, although wherever the word "angel" is
used in the Scriptures it is always in the masculine form.

3. THEY ARE BEINGS OF GREAT MIGHT AND POWER.

2 Pet, 2:11--"Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might
(than man)." Psa. 103:20--"Angels that excel in strength." One angel
was able to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, and other guilty cities;
one angel smote the first-born, and rolled away the great stone
from the mouth of the tomb. One angel had power to lay hold of that
old dragon, the devil (Rev. 20:2, 10); one angel smote a hundred
and fourscore and five thousand Assyrians (Isa. 37:36). Their power
is delegated; they are the angels of _His_ might (2 Thess.
1:7), the ministers through whom God's might is manifested. They
are mighty, but not almighty.

4. THERE ARE VARIOUS RANKS AND ORDERS OF ANGELS.

We read of Michael, the archangel (Jude 9; 1 Thess. 4:16); angels,
authorities, and powers--which are supposedly ranks and orders of
angels (1 Pet. 3:22; Col. 1:16). In the Apocryphal books we find
a hierarchy with seven archangels, including Michael, Gabriel,
Raphael, Uriel. The fact that but one archangel is mentioned in
the Scriptures proves that its doctrine of angels was not derived,
as some supposed, from Babylonian and Persian sources, for there
we find seven archangels instead of one.

5. THE NUMBER OF ANGELS.

Heb. 12:22, R. V.--"Innumerable hosts of angels." Cf. 2 Kings 6:17;
Matt. 26:53; Job 25:3.

III. THE FALL OF ANGELS.

Originally all angels were created good. The Scriptures speak of
a fall of angels--"the angels that sinned."

2 Pet. 2:4--"For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast
them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to
be reserved unto judgment." Jude 6--"And the angels which kept not
their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved
in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great
day."

1. THE TIME OF THE FALL OF ANGELS.

Some maintain that it took place before the creation recorded
in Genesis 1:2--between verses one and two; that it was this fall
which made the original creation (Gen. 1:1) "waste and void." This
view can neither be proven nor refuted, nevertheless the great
and awful fact of a fall of angels remains. (See under Doctrine of
Satan, p. 225, for fall of angels in connection with the fall of
Satan.)

2. THE CAUSE OF THE FALL OF ANGELS.

Peter does not specify the sin. Jude says they "kept not their first
estate, but left their own habitation." This, taken in connection
with Deut. 32:8, which seems to indicate that certain territories
or boundaries were appointed unto the angels, and Gen. 6:1-4,
which speaks of the "sons of God" (which some suppose to refer to
angels, which, however, is questionable), might seem to imply that
the sin of the angels consisted in leaving their own abode and coming
down to cohabit with the "daughters of men." Thus their sin would
be that of lust. To some expositors the context in Jude would
seem to warrant such a conclusion, inasmuch as reference is made
to the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah. But this can hardly be true,
for a close study of the text in Genesis 6 shows that by "the sons
of God" are meant the Sethites. This would seem to be the true
interpretation; if so, then the sin recorded in Genesis 6 would
be (1) natural and not monstrous; (2) Scriptural, and not mythical
(cf. Num. 25; Judges 3:6; Rev. 2:14, 20-22 contains sins of a similar
description); (3) accords with the designations subsequently given
to the followers of God (Luke 3:38; Rom. 8:14; Gal. 3:26); (4) has
a historical basis in the fact that Seth was regarded by his mother
as a (the) son of from God, (5) in the circumstance that already
the Sethites had begun to call themselves by the name of Jehovah
(Gen. 4:26); (6), finally, it is sufficient as a hypothesis, and
is therefore entitled to the preference (after Lange).

There are still others who say that the sin of the angels was pride
and disobedience. It seems quite certain that these were the sins
that caused Satan's downfall (Ezek. 28). If this be the true view
then we are to understand the words, "estate" or "principality" as
indicating that instead of being satisfied with the dignity once
for all assigned to them under the Son of God, they aspired higher.

3. THE WORK OF FALLEN ANGELS.

They oppose God's purposes (Dan. 10:10-14); afflict God's people
(Luke 13:16; Matt. 17:15, 16); execute Satan's purposes (Matt.
25:41; 12:26, 27); hinder the spiritual life of God's people (Eph.
6:12); try to deceive God's people (1 Sam. 28:7-20).

4. THE JUDGMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS.

Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4; Matt. 25:41, show that there is no hope of
their redemption. Their final doom will be in the eternal fire.
According to 1 Cor. 6:3 it would seem as though the saints were to
have some part in the judgment of fallen angels.

IV. THE WORK OF ANGELS.

1. THEIR HEAVENLY MINISTRY.

Isa. 6; Rev. 5:11, 12; 8:3, 4--priestly service and worship.

2. THEIR EARTHLY MINISTRY.

To the angels has been committed the administration of the affairs
material to sense, e.g., showing Hagar a fountain; appearing before
Joshua with a drawn sword; releasing the chains from Peter, and
opening the prison doors; feeding, strengthening, and defending
the children of God. To the Holy Spirit more particularly has been
committed the task of imparting the truth concerning spiritual
matters.

In general: Angels have a relation to the earth somewhat as follows:
They are related to winds, fires, storms, pestilence (Psa. 103:20;
104:4; 1 Chron. 21:15, 16, 27). The nation of Israel has a special
relationship to angels in the sense of angelic guardianship (Dan.
12:1; Ezek. 9:1; Dan. 11:1).

In particular: Angels have a special ministry with reference to
the church of Jesus Christ--the body of believers. They are the
saints' "ministering servants" (Heb. 1:14)--they do service for
God's people. Illustrations: To Abraham (Gen. 19); to Gideon (Judg.
6); to Mary (Luke 1); to the shepherds (Luke 2); to Peter (Acts
12); to Paul (Acts 27).

a) They Guide the Believer.

They guide the worker to the sinner (Acts 8:26), and the sinner
to the worker (Acts 10:3). Note: The angel guides, but the Spirit
instructs (8:29). Are angels interested in conversions? (Luke 15:10).
How they watch our dealing with the unsaved!

b) They Cheer and Strengthen God's People.

1 Kings 19:5-8; Matt. 4:11; Luke 22:43; cf. Acts 27:4-35; 5:19.

c) They Defend, Protect, and Deliver God's Servants.

Dan. 6:22; Acts 5:19; 2 Kings 6:18; Gen. 19:11; Acts 12:8-ll; 27:23,
24.

d) They Are Eyewitnesses of the Church and the Believer.

1 Tim. 5:21--in matters of preaching, the service of the church,
and soul-saving, the angels look on--a solemn and appalling thought.
1 Cor. 4:9--the good angels are spectators while the church engages
in fierce battle with the hosts of sin. This is an incentive to
endurance. 1 Cor. 11:10--"Because of the angels." Is there intimated
here a lack of modesty on the part of the women so shocking to
the angels, who veil their faces in the presence of God when they
worship.

e) They Guard the Elect Dead.

Luke 16:22; Matt. 24:31. Just as they guarded Christ's tomb, and
as Michael guarded Moses' tomb (Jude 9).

f) They Accompany Christ at His Second Coming.

Separating the righteous from the wicked (Matt. 25:31, 32; 2 Thess.
1:7, 8). Executing God's wrath upon the wicked (Matt. 13:39-42, R.
V. How this is done, no human pen can describe. The most fearful
imagery of the Bible is connected with the judgment work of angels
(cf. Revelation; fire, hail, blood, plague of locusts, poison of
scorpions, etc.)--whether actual or symbolic, it is awful.



THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN.

I. HIS EXISTENCE AND PERSONALITY.

   1. EXISTENCE.
   2. PERSONALITY.

II. HIS PLACE AND POWER.

   1. A MIGHTY ANGEL.
   2. PRINCE OF POWER OF THE AIR.
   3. GOD OF THIS WORLD.
   4. HEAD OF KINGDOM OF DARKNESS.
   5. SOVEREIGN OVER DEATH.

III. HIS CHARACTER.

   1. ADVERSARY.
   2. DIABOLOS.
   3. WICKED ONE.
   4. TEMPTER.

IV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS SATAN.

   1. LIMITED POWER OF SATAN.
   2. RESIST HIM.

V. HIS DESTINY.

   1. A CONQUERED ENEMY.
   2. UNDER ETERNAL CURSE.

VI. DEMONS.



THE DOCTRINE OF SATAN.

Throughout the Scriptures Satan is set forth as the greatest enemy
of God and man. Too long has Satan been a subject of ridicule
instead of fear. Seeing the Scriptures teach the existence of a
personality of evil, man should seek to know all he can about such
a being. Much of the ridicule attached to the doctrine of Satan
comes from the fact that men have read their fancies and theories
into the Scriptures; they have read Milton's _Paradise Lost_
but have neglected the Book of Job; they have considered the
experiences of Luther instead of the Epistles of Peter and Jude.
To avoid skepticism on the one hand, and ridicule on the other
we must resort to the Scriptures to formulate our views of this
doctrine.

I. THE EXISTENCE AND PERSONALITY OF SATAN.

1. HIS EXISTENCE.

To science the existence of Satan is an open question; it neither
can deny nor affirm it. Satan's existence and personality can be
denied therefore only on purely _a priori_ grounds. The Bible,
however, is very clear and positive in its teaching regarding the
existence of a personality of evil called the devil. It is popular
in some circles today to spell devil with the "d" left off, thus
denying his real existence.

Matt. 13:19, 39--"Then cometh the wicked one . . . . The enemy
that sowed them is the devil." John 13:2--"The devil having now
put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray
him." See also Acts 5:3; 2 Cor. 11:3, 14; 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6.

How Satan came to be is not quite as clear a fact as that he
exists. In all probability he was once a good angel. It is claimed
by scholarly and reliable interpreters that his fall is portrayed
in Ezekiel 28:12-19; cf. Isa 14:12-14. That he was once in the truth
but fell from it is evident from John 8:44. His fall (Luke 10:18)
was probably in connection with the fall of angels as set forth
in such passages as 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6. Pride (?) was one of the
causes (1 Tim. 3:6; Ezek. 28:15, 17). This fact may account for
the expression "Satan and his angels" (Matt. 25:41). Paul doubtless
refers to the fact that Satan was once an angel of light (2 Cor.
11:14). Whenever Satan is represented under the form of a serpent,
we are to understand such expressions as describing him after his
fall. There is certainly no ground for presenting the evil one as
having horns, tail, and hoofs. This is only to bring into ridicule
what is an exceedingly serious fact. A careful consideration of
all the scriptures here given will assure the student that Satan
is not a figment of the imagination, but a real being.

2. HIS PERSONALITY.

John 8:44--"Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your
father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode
not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh
a lie, he speaketh of his own; for he is a liar, and the father
of it." 1 John 3:8--"He that committeth sin is of the devil; for
the devil sinneth from the beginning." Satan is here set forth as
a murderer, a liar, a sinner--all elements of personality. He had
the "power over death" (Heb. 2:14), and is the "prince of this
world" (John 14:30).

The narrative of Satan in Job. (cc. 1, 2) strongly emphasizes his
personality. He is as much a person as the "sons of God," Job,
and even God himself. Zech. 3:1, 2; 1 Chron. 21:1; Psa. 109:6 also
emphasize the fact of Satan's personality. Throughout all these
Scriptures the masculine personal pronoun is used of Satan, and
attributes and qualities of personality are ascribed to him. Unless
we veto the testimony of the Scriptures we must admit that Satan
is a real person. How can any one read the story of the temptation
of Christ (Matt. 4:1-11) and fail to realize both parties in the
wilderness conflict were persons--Christ, a person; Satan, a person?

Such offices as those ascribed to Satan in the Scriptures require
an officer; such a work manifests a worker; such power implies
an agent; such thought proves a thinker; such designs are from a
personality.

Our temptations may be said to come from three sources: the world,
the flesh, and the devil. But there are temptations which we feel
sure come from neither the world nor the flesh, e.g., those which
come to us in our moments of deepest devotion and quiet; we can
account for them only by attributing them to the devil himself.
"That old serpent, the devil, has spoken with fatal eloquence to
every one of us no doubt; and I do not need a dissertation from
the naturalist on the construction of a serpent's mouth to prove
it. Object to the figure if you will, but the grim, damning fact
remains." --_Joseph Parker._

There can scarcely be any doubt as to the fact that Christ taught
the existence of a personality of evil. There can be but three
explanations as to the meaning of His teaching; first, that He
accommodated His language to a gross superstition, knowing it to be
such--if this be true then what becomes of His sincerity; second,
that He shared the superstition not knowing it to be such--then
what becomes of His omniscience, of His reliability as a Teacher
from God? third, that the doctrine is not a superstition, but
actual truth--this position completely vindicates Christ as to His
sincerity, omniscience and infallibility as the Teacher sent from
God.

II. THE PLACE AND POWER OF SATAN.

1. A MIGHTY ANGEL.

He was such, and probably is yet. Jude 8, 9--They "speak evil
of dignities. Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the
devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against
him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee." Daniel
10 shows that Satan has power to oppose one of the chief angels (vv.
12, 13 in particular). In Luke 11:21 Christ calls Satan "a strong
man armed." He is "the prince of this world" (John 14:30).

2. PRINCE OF THE POWER OF THE AIR.

Eph. 2:2--"The prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now
worketh in the children of disobedience." Cf. 6:11, 12. He is also
prince of the demons or fallen angels, Matt. 12:24; 9:34; Luke
11:14-18. There is doubtless an allusion here to the fact that the
world of evil spirits is organized, and that Satan is at its head.
3. THE GOD OF THIS WORLD.

2 Cor. 4:4--"In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds
of them which believe not." He is "the prince of this world" (John
12:31; 14:30; 16:11; cf. Eph. 2:1, 2; 1 John 5:19). Satan is not
only the object of the world's worship, but also the moving spirit
of its godless activities.

4. HE HEADS A KINGDOM WHICH IS HOSTILE TO THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND
OF CHRIST.

Acts 26:18--"To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to
light, and from the power of Satan unto God." Col. 1:13--"Who hath
delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us
into the kingdom of his dear Son." The kingdom of light is headed
by a person--Jesus Christ; the kingdom of darkness, by a person--Satan.
The one is a person equally with the other.

5. HAS SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE REALM OF DEATH.

Heb. 2:14--"That . . . . he might destroy him that had the power
of death, that is, the devil." It would seem as if the souls of
the unregenerate dead are (or were) to some extent under Satan's
dominion.

III. THE CHARACTER OF SATAN.

"We may judge of the nature and character of the evil one by the
names and titles ascribed to him."

1. THE ADVERSARY, OR SATAN.

Zech. 3:1--"And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before
the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist
him." (See vv. 1-5.) 1 Pet. 5:8--"Your adversary the devil." Luke
10:18. See for use of the word: Num. 22:22. By adversary is meant
one who takes a stand against another. Satan is the adversary of
both God and man.

2. THE DEVIL, DIABOLOS.

Matt. 13:39--"The enemy . . . . is the devil." John 8:44--"Ye are
of your father the devil." This name is ascribed to Satan 33 times
at least in the New Testament, and indicates an accuser or slanderer
(Rev. 12:9). He slanders God to man (Gen. 3:1-7), and man to God
(Job 1:9; 2-4).

3. THE WICKED ONE.

Matt. 13:19--"Then cometh the wicked one." Matt. 6:13 (R. V.); 1
John 5:19 (R. V.). This title suggests that Satan is not only wicked
himself, but is also the source of all wickedness in the world.

4. THE TEMPTER.

Matt. 4:3--"And when the tempter came to him." See Gen. 3:1-6.
None escape his temptations. He is continually soliciting men to
sin.

In this connection we may speak of the cunning and malignity of
Satan (Gen. 3:1). Satan transforms himself into an angel of light
(2 Cor. 11:14). This phase of his work is well illustrated in the
temptation of Christ (Matt. 4:1-11), and the temptation of Eve (Gen.
3). He fain would help Christ's faith, stimulate His confidence
in the divine power, and furnish an incentive to worship. The
Scriptures speak of the "wiles" or subtle methods of the devil (Eph.
6:11, 12). The "old serpent" is more dangerous than the "roaring
lion."

Satan's subtlety is seen in tempting men in their weak moments
(Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 22:40-46); after great successes (John 6:15,
cf. vv. 1-14); by suggesting the use of right things in a wrong way
(Matt. 4:1-11); in deluding his followers by signs and wonders (2
Thess. 2:9, 10).

IV. OUR ATTITUDE TOWARDS SATAN.

1. SO FAR AS THE BELIEVER IS CONCERNED HIS POWER IS LIMITED.

Job 1:9-12; 2:4-6. Satan had to ask leave of God to try Job. John
12:31; 16:11. Satan hath been already judged, i.e., his power and
dominion over believers was broken at the cross, by reason of Christ's
victory there. He had to ask permission to enter even swine (Matt.
8:30-32). Satan is mighty, but not almighty.

2. HE IS TO BE RESISTED.

1 Pet. 5:8, 9--"Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the
devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour;
whom resist steadfast in the faith." James 4:7--"Resist the devil,
and he will flee from you." This resistance is best accomplished
by submitting to God (Rom. 6:17-33; James 4:7), and by putting on
the whole armor of God (Eph. 6:10-20).

V. THE DESTINY OF SATAN.

1. HE IS A CONQUERED ENEMY.

That is, so far as the believer is concerned; John 12:31; 16:9,10;
1 John 3:8; Col. 2:15.

2. HE IS UNDER A PERPETUAL CURSE.

Gen. 3:14, cf. Isa. 65:25. There is no removal of the curse from
Satan.

3. HE IS FINALLY TO BE CAST ALIVE INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE, THERE TO
BE TORMENTED FOR EVER AND EVER.

Matt. 25:41; Rev. 20:10--"And the devil that deceived them was
cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the
false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever
and ever."

VI. DEMONS.

(See under "Fallen Angels," p. 217.)



THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS.

A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.
B. THE RESURRECTION.
C. THE JUDGMENT.
D. THE DESTINY OF THE WICKED.
E. THE REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.



THE DOCTRINE OF THE LAST THINGS.

Under this caption are treated such doctrines as the Second Coming
of Christ, the Resurrection of both the righteous and wicked, the
Judgments, Final Awards, and Eternal Destiny.


   A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHEIST.

I. ITS IMPORTANCE.
   1. PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.
   2. THE CHRISTIAN HOPE.
   3. THE CHRISTIAN INCENTIVE.
   4. THE CHRISTIAN COMFORT.

II. ITS NATURE.

   1. PERSONAL AND VISIBLE COMING TO THE EARTH.
   2. DIFFERENT VIEWS.
   3. DISTINCTIONS.

III. ITS PURPOSE.
 WITH REFERENCE TO--
   1. THE CHURCH.
   2. THE UNREGENERATE.
   3. THE JEWS.
   4. THE ENEMIES OF GOD.
   5. THE MILLENNIUM.

IV. ITS DATE.

   1. DAY AND HOUR UNKNOWN.
   2. RECOGNIZING THE "SIGNS."
   3. IMMINENT.


A. THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.

I. ITS IMPORTANCE.

1. ITS PROMINENCE IN THE SCRIPTURES.

It is claimed that one out of every thirty verses in the Bible
mentions this doctrine; to every one mention of the first coming
the second coming is mentioned eight times; 318 references to it
are made in 216 chapters; whole books (1 and 2 Thess., e.g.) and
chapters (Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 31, e.g.) are devoted to it.

It is the theme of the Old Testament prophets. Of course, they
sometimes merge the two comings so that it is not at first sight
apparent, yet the doctrine is there. (1 Pet. 1:11).

Jesus Christ bore constant testimony to His coming again (John
14:3; Matt. 24 and 25; Mark 13; Luke 21; John 21:22).

The angels, who bore such faithful testimony to Christ's first
advent, bear testimony to His second coming (Acts 1:11; cf. Heb.
2:2, for the faithfulness of their testimony).

The apostles faithfully proclaimed this truth (Acts 3:19, 20; 1
Thess. 4:16, 17; Heb. 9:28; 1 John 2:28; Jude 14, 15).

2. THE CHURCH OF CHRIST IS BIDDEN TO LOOK FORWARD TO CHRIST'S
SECOND COMING AS ITS GREAT HOPE.

Titus 2:13--"Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing
of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ." 2 Pet. 3:12. The
one great event, that which supersedes all others, towards which
the Church is to look, and for which she is to ardently long, is
the second coming of Christ.

G3. IT IS SET FORTH AS THE DOCTRINE WHICH WILL PROVE TO BE THE
GREATEST INCENTIVE TO CONSISTENT LIVING.

Matt. 24:44-46; Luke 21:34-36--"And take heed to yourselves,
lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and
drunkenness, and cares of this life, and so that day come upon you
unawares. . . . Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may
be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to
pass, and to stand before the Son of man." 1 John 2:28; 3:3. The
test which the church should apply to all questions of practice:
Would I like to have Christ find me doing this when He comes?

4. IT IS A DOCTRINE OF THE GREATEST COMFORT TO THE BELIEVER.

1 Thess. 4:14-18. After stating that our loved ones who had fallen
asleep in Christ should again meet with us at the coming of our
Lord, the apostle says, "Wherefore comfort one another with these
words."

Why then should such a comforting and helpful doctrine as this be
spoken against? Many reasons may be suggested: the unreadiness of
the church; preconceived views (2 Pet. 3:4); extravagant predictions
as to time; lack of knowledge of the Scriptures. May not the guilt
on our part for rejecting the second coming of Christ be as great
if not greater than that of the Jews for rejecting His first coming?

II. WHAT IS MEANT BY THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.

1. A PERSONAL AND VISIBLE COMING.

Acts 1:11--"Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven?
This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so
come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." 1 Thess.
4:16, 17--"For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven." Rev.
1:7. From these scriptures we learn that by the second coming of
Christ is meant the bodily, personal, and visible coming of our
Lord Jesus Christ to this earth with His saints to reign.

2. ERRONEOUS VIEWS CONCERNING THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST.

a) That the Second Coming Means Christ's Coming at Death.

This cannot be the meaning, because--

Death is not attended by the events narrated in 1 Thessalonians 4:16,
17. Indeed the second coming is here set forth as the opposite of
death for "the dead in Christ shall rise" from the dead when Christ
comes again. According to John 14:3, Christ comes for us, and
not we go to Him: "I will come again, and receive you unto myself."

John 21:21-23--"Peter seeing him (John) saith to Jesus, Lord, and
what shall this man do? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he
tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou me. Then went
this saying abroad among the brethren, that that disciple should
not die; yet Jesus said not unto him, He shall not die; but, if I
will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?"

1 Corinthians 15:50-57 declares that at the second coming of Christ
we overcome, not succumb to, death. See John 8:51; Matt. 16:28.

The foolishness of such interpretation is seen if we substitute the
word "death" for the second coming of Christ in such places where
this coming is mentioned, e.g., Phil. 3:20; Matt. 16:28--"Verily
I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste
of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom."

b) That the Second Coming Means the Coming of the Holy Spirit.

There is no doubt but that the coming of the Holy Spirit is a coming
(John 14:21-23), but it is by no means _the_ second coming,
and for the following reasons:

Many of the testimonies and promises of the second coming were
given _after_ Pentecost, e.g., Phil. 3:21; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 Thess.
4:16, 17; 1 Cor. 15:51, 52.

Christ does not receive us unto Himself, but comes to us, at
Pentecost. In the second coming He takes us, not comes to us.

The events of 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 17 did not occur on the day of
Pentecost, nor do they occur when the believer receives the Holy
Spirit.

c) That the Second Coming refers to the Destruction of Jerusalem.

Reply: The events of 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 17 did not take place
then.

John 21:21-23, and Rev. 22:20 were written _after_ the
destruction of Jerusalem.

From all that has been said then, it seems clear that the second
coming of Christ is an event still in the future.

3. THE NEED OF RECOGNIZING THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN CHRIST'S COMING
FOR HIS SAINTS AND WITH HIS SAINTS.

There is a distinction between the _presence_ and the
_appearing_ of Christ: the former referring to His coming
_for,_ and the latter _with_ His saints. We should
remember, further, that the second coming covers a period of time,
and is not the event of a single moment. Even the first coming
covered over thirty years, and included the events of Christ's
birth, circumcision, baptism, ministry, crucifixion, resurrection,
etc. The second coming will also include a number of events such as
the rapture, the great tribulation, the millenium, the resurrection,
the judgments, etc.

III. THE PURPOSE OF THE SECOND COMING.

1. SO FAR AS IT CONCERNS THE CHURCH.

1 Thess. 4:13-17; 1 Cor. 15:50-52; Phil. 3:20, 21, R. V.; 1 John
3:2. When Christ comes again He will first raise the righteous
dead, and change the righteous living; simultaneously they shall
be caught up to meet the Lord in the air to be with Him for ever.

Eph. 5:23, 32; 2 Cor. 11:2; Rev. 19:6-9; Matt. 25:1-10. The Church,
the Bride of Christ, will then be married to her Lord.

Matt. 25:19; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 Pet. 5:4; 1 Cor. 3:12-15; 2 Cor. 5:10.
Believers will be rewarded for their faithfulness in service at His
coming. (See under The Final Beward of the Righteous, page 266.)

2. SO FAR AS IT CONCERNS THE UNCONVERTED NATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS.

Matt. 24:30; Rev. 1:7; Matt. 25:31, 32; Rev. 20:11, 12; Isa.
26:21; 2 Thess. 1:7-9. A distinction must be recognized between
the judgment of the Living Nations, and that of the Great White
Throne. These are not the same, for no resurrection accompanies
the judgment of the Living Nations, as in the case of the throne
judgment. Further, one thousand years elapse between these two
judgments (Rev. 20:7-11). Again, one is at the beginning of the
Millennium, and the other at its close.

3. WITH REFERENCE TO THE JEWS.

The Jews will be restored to their own land (Isa. 11:11; 60) in an
unconverted state; will rebuild the temple, and restore worship
(Ezek. 40-48); will make a covenant with Antichrist for one week
(seven years), in the midst of which they will break the covenant
(Dan. 9:27; 2 Thess. 2); they will then pass through the great
tribulation (Matt. 24:21, 22, 29; Rev. 3:10; 7:14); are converted
(as a nation) at the coming of Christ (Zech. 12:10; Rev. 1:7);
become great missionaries (Zech. 8:13-23); never more to be removed
from the land (Amos 9:15; Ezek. 34:28).

4. WITH REGARD TO ANTICHRIST, AND THE ENEMIES OF GOD'S PEOPLE.

2 Thess. 1:7-9; Rev. 19:20; 20:10. These shall be destroyed by the
brightness of His coming; will be cast finally into the bottomless
pit.

5. TO SET UP THE MILLENNIAL REIGN ON THE EARTH.

The Millennium means the thousand years reign of Christ upon the
earth (Rev. 20:1-4). Some think that it is the continuation of the
_Kingdom Age_ broken off by the unbelief of the Jews at the
time of the Apostles.

The Millennium begins with the coming of Christ with His saints;
with the revelation of Christ after the great tribulation (Matt.
24:29, 30); at the close of the seventieth week of Daniel. For
illustration, see Rev. 19:11-14; Dan. 7:21, 22; Zech. 14:3-9.

Then comes the destruction of Antichrist, the binding of Satan,
and the destruction of the enemies of God's people (Rev. 19:20;
20:1-3, 10).

The Judgment of the Living Nations (Matt. 25).

The conversion and missionary activity of the Jews (Zech. 8:13-23;
cf. Acts 15:14-17). Then, we may have a converted world, but not
now, nor in this age; Israel, not the Church, then concerned.

The nature of the Millennium:

It is a Theocracy: Jesus Christ Himself is the King (Jer. 23:5; Luke
1:30-33). The Apostles will, doubtless, reign with Christ over the
Jews (Isa. 66; Matt. 19:28); the Church, over the Gentile nations
(Luke 19:11-19; Heb. 2:6, 7).

The capitol city will be Jerusalem (Isa. 2:1-4). Pilgrimages will
be made to the Holy City (Zech. 14:16). The reign of Christ will
be one of righteousness and equity (Isa. 11:4; Psa. 98:9).

A renovated earth (Rom. 8:19-31; Isa. 65:17; c. 35).

The events closing the Millennium are apostasy and rebellion (Rev.
20:7-9); the destruction of Satan (Rev. 20:10); the Great White
Throne judgment (Rev. 20:11-15); a new heaven and a new earth (Rev.
21 and 22).

IV. THE TIME OF CHRIST'S SECOND COMING.

We need to carefully distinguish between Christ's coming _for_
His saints--sometime called the "rapture" or "parousia"; and His
coming _with_ His saints--the "revelation" or "epiphany."

In considering the matter of the "signs" of Christ's coming we
need to pay particular attention to and distinguish between those
signs which have been characteristic of and peculiar to many
generations, and have, consequently, been repeated; and those which
are to characterize specifically the near approach of the coming
of Christ. Christians are not altogether in the dark concerning
these facts: Luke 21:29-33--"So likewise ye, when ye see these
things come to pass, know ye that the kingdom of God is nigh at
hand" (v. 36). Also 1 Thess. 5:1-8--"But ye, brethren, are not in
darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief" (v. 4).

1. NO ONE KNOWS THE DAY NOR THE HOUR.

Matt. 24:36-42--"But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not
the angels of heaven, but my Father only" (v. 36). Mark 13:32, cf.
Acts 1:7.

The Scriptures tell us enough regarding the time of Christ's coming
to satisfy our faith, but not our curiosity. These statements of
the Master should be sufficient to silence that fanaticism which
is so anxious to tell us the exact year, month, and even the day
when Christ will come. This day is hidden in the counsels of God.
Jesus Himself, by a voluntary unwillingness to know, while in His
state of humiliation, showed no curiosity to peer into the chronology
of this event. We should not nor ought we to want to know more
than Christ did on this point. Can it be that "that day" was not
yet fixed in the counsels of the Father, and that its date depended,
somewhat at least, upon the faithfulness of the Church in the
evangelization of the world? We know not certainly. The Revelation
which Jesus gave to John would seem to teach that "that day,"
which was at one time hidden from Christ, is now, in His state of
exaltation, known to Him.

2. YET, WE MUST NOT FOEGET THAT WHILE WE MAY NOT KNOW THE EXACT
DAY OR HOUR OF CHRIST'S COMING, WE MAY KNOW WHEN IT IS NEAR AT
HAND. (Matt. 24:36-42; 1 Thess. 5:1-5.)

There are certain "signs" which indicate its nearness:

General apostasy and departure from the faith (1 Tim. 4:1; 2 Tim.
3:1-5; Luke 18:8).

A time of great heaping up of wealth (James 5:1-9).

A time of great missionary activity (Matt. 24:14). Consider the
missionary activity of the last century. Is it not marvellous? Is
it a "sign" of His coming?

The modern history of the Jews throws much light on the question of
the nearness of Christ's coming. The following facts are interesting
in this connection: The large number of Jews returning to Palestine;
the waning of the power of the Turkish government, which has held
Palestine with an iron hand and has excluded the Jew; the plans
already before the nations to give the Holy Land to the Jews
by consent of the powers; the early and latter rain in Palestine;
railroads, electric lights, etc., now in the land long desolate--the
fig-tree is budding, and the hour of the coming is at hand.

It should not be forgotten in this connection that many of the signs
mentioned refer primarily to the coming of Christ _with_ His
saints. But if that stage of the coming be near then surely the
first stage of it must be. Other signs have reference to the first
stage in the one great event of His coming, which is known as the
"rapture" or Christ's coming _for_ His saints.

3. IT SEEMS CLEAR FROM THE TEACHING OF THE SCRIPTURES THAT THERE
IS NOTHING TO PREVENT THE COMING OF CHRIST FOR HIS SAINTS AT ANY
MOMENT.

By this is meant that there is nothing, so far as we can sea from
the teaching of the Scriptures and the signs of the times, to hinder
the introduction of the Day of the Lord, or the Second Coming of
Christ looked upon as a great whole--a series of events, by Christ's
coming to take His own people unto Himself. In other words, there
is nothing to hinder the "rapture" or "parousia"--the "epiphany,"
"manifestation," or "revelation" is something for a later day.

Some objections are offered to this view, the which it will be well
to examine and answer even though briefly.

First, That the Gospel has not been preached into all the world
(Matt. 24:14), therefore the coming of Christ is not imminent.

Reply: We must understand the emphatic words of the text: By "end"
is meant the end of the age; but the rapture, or Christ's coming
_for_ His saints, of which we are here speaking as being imminent,
is not the end of the age. By "world" is meant the inhabited earth;
by "Gospel," good news; by "witness," not conversion but testimony.
Even if these events are to precede the "rapture," have they not
all been fulfilled? See Acts 2:5; 8:4; Rom. 10:18; Col. 1:6, 23,
for the answer, which is certainly in the affirmative. We must
give the same meaning to the word "world" in Romans and Colossians
that we do to Matt. 24:14. Further, is the Church the _only_
witness? See Rev. 14:6. If the rapture is not the end of the age,
and if an angel can proclaim the Gospel, why cannot part of the
work of witnessing be carried on after the rapture?

Second, Peter, James, and John were told that they should not taste
of death until they had seen the coming of Christ's kingdom (Matt.
16:28; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27).

Reply: True, but was not this fulfilled when they saw Christ on the
Transfiguration Mount? Peter, who was there, in his second epistle
(1:16-18) distinctly says it was thus fulfilled.

Third, The disciples were told that they shall not have gone over
all the cities of Israel until the Son of Man be come (Matt. 10:23).

Reply: Mark 6:30, Luke 9:10 shows that they did not finish all the
cities, nor is there evidence anywhere that they ever did, for Israel
rejected the message of the kingdom. May it not be that under the
restoration of the Jews and the preaching of the "two witnesses"
(Rev. 11) this shall be accomplished?

Fourth, Christ said "This generation shall not pass, till all these
things be fulfilled." See Matt. 24:34; Luke 21:32; Mark 13:30.
Reply: What is meant by a "generation"? Some would say "forty years,"
consequently the Master referred to the destruction of Jerusalem,
which event was the second coming of Christ. But this is not
necessarily the case. The word "generation" may refer to the Jewish
_race;_ cf. the use of the same Greek word in Matt. 11:16;
16:4; Mark 8:38; Luke 7:31; 16:8; 17:25; Phil. 2:15; Psa. 22:30;
24:6. And in this connection consider carefully the wonderful
preservation of the Jewish race. Other nations have passed away,
having lost their identity; the Jew remains--that generation (race)
has not yet passed away, nor will it "till all these things be
fulfilled." [FOOTNOTE: _Jesus is Coming,_ by W.E.B., is heartily
recommended as an exceedingly helpful book on this subject. The
author is indebted thereto.]

B. THE RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD.

Under this caption is included the resurrection of both the righteous
and the wicked, although, as will be seen later, they do not occur
at the same time.


I. THIS DOCTRINE CLEARLY TAUGHT IN THE SCRIPTURES.

   1. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.
   2. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION.

   1. LITERAL RESURRECTION OF THE BODIES OF ALL MEN.
   2. RESURRECTION OF THE BODY NECESSARY TO COMPLETE SALVATION.
   3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY.
      a) In General.
      b) The Body of the Believer.
      c) The Body of the Unbeliever.

III. THE TIME OF THE RESURRECTION.

   1. OF THE RIGHTEOUS.
   2. OF THE WICKED.


I. THE DOCTRINE OF A RESURRECTION CLEARLY TAUGHT IN THE SCRIPTURES.

1. IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

It is set forth in various ways:

_In Word:_ Job 19:25-27--"For I know that my redeemer liveth,
and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: and though
after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see
God: whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and
not another; though my reins be consumed within me." Also Psa.
16:9; 17:15; Dan. 12:1-3.

_In Figure:_ Gen. 22:5 with Heb. 11:19--"Accounting that God
was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he
received him in a figure."

_In Prophecy:_ Isa. 26:19--"Thy dead men shall live, together
with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell
in the dust." The words "men" and "together with" may be omitted--"Thy
dead (ones) shall live." These words are Jehovah's answer to Israel's
wail as recorded in vv. 17, 18. Even if they refer to resurrection
of Israel as a nation, they yet teach a bodily resurrection. See
also Hosea 13:14.

_In Reality:_ 1 Kings 17 (Elijah); 2 Kings 4:32-35 (Elisha
and the Shunamite's son); 13:21 (Resurrection through contact with
the dead bones of Elisha).

The Old Testament therefore distinctly teaches the resurrection of
the body. Mark 9:10, which might seem to indicate that the apostles
did not know of a bodily resurrection, is accounted for by their
unwillingness to believe in a crucified Christ.

2. IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

_In Word:_ Note the teaching of Jesus in John 5:28, 29; c. 6
entire, note especially vv. 39, 40, 44, 54; Luke 14:13, 14; 20:35,
36. The teaching of the apostles: Paul, Acts, 24:15; 1 Cor. 15; 1
Thess. 4:14-16; Phil. 3:11; John, Rev. 20:4-6; 13.

_In Reality:_ The resurrection of saints (Matt. 27:52,
53); of Lazarus (John 11); of Jesus Christ (Matt. 28). Our Lord's
resurrection assured them of what till then had been a hope
imperfectly supported by Scriptural warrant, and contested by the
Sadducees. It enlarged that hope (1 Pet. 1:3), and brought the
doctrine of the resurrection to the front (1 Cor. 15).

II. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION.

1. A LITERAL RESURRECTION OF THE BODIES OF ALL MEN--A UNIVERSAL
RESURRECTION.

John 5:28--"Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the
which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall
come forth." 1 Cor. 15:22--"For as in Adam all die, even so in
Christ shall all be made alive." The apostle is speaking of physical
death in Adam, and physical resurrection in Christ.

Revelation 20:12, and 2 Corinthians 5:10 both show the necessity
of the raising of the body in order that judgment may take place
according to things done in the body. See also Job's hope (19:25-27);
David's hope (Psa. 16:9).

An objection is sometimes made to the effect that we literalize
these scriptures which are intended to be metaphorical and spiritual.
To this we reply: While the exact phrase, "resurrection of the
body," does not occur in the Bible, yet these scriptures clearly
teach a physical rather than a spiritual resurrection. Indeed John
5:25-29 draws a sharp contrast between a spiritual (v. 25) and a
literal (v. 28) resurrection. See also Phil. 3:21; 1 Thess. 4:13-17.
2 Tim. 2:18--"Who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the
resurrection is passed already," indicates that the early church
believed in a literal resurrection. Surely there is no reference
here to a spiritual resurrection such as we read of in Ephesians
5:14. Acts 24:15 speaks of a resurrection of the just and the
unjust--this cannot refer to a spiritual resurrection surely. If
the resurrection were spiritual then in the future state every
man would have two spirits--the spirit he has here, and the spirit
he would receive at the resurrection. The term "spiritual body"
describes, not so much the body itself, as its nature. The "spiritual
body" is body, not spirit, hence should not be considered as defining
body. By the term "spiritual body" is meant the body spiritualized.
So there is a natural body--a body adapted and designed for the
use of the soul; and there is a spiritual body--a body adapted for
the use of the spirit in the resurrection day.

2. THE REDEMPTION OF THE BODY IS INCLUDED IN OUR COMPLETE REDEMPTION.

Rom. 8:11-23--"And not only they, but ourselves also, which have
the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within
ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of
our body" (v. 23). See also 1 Cor. 6:13-20. In John 6:39 and Job
19:25-27 we are taught that the dust into which our bodies have
decayed will be quickened, which indicates a physical resurrection.

This conception of the value of the body is doubtless what leads
to the Christian's care for his dead loved ones and their graves.
The believer's present body, which is called "the body of his
humiliation" (Phil. 3:21) is not yet fitted for entrance into the
kingdom (1 Cor. 15:50). Paul's hope is not for a deliverence from
the body, but the redemption of it (2 Cor. 5:4).

3. THE NATURE OF THE RESURRECTION BODY.

a) In General.

Because the Scripture teaches a literal resurrection of the body
it is not necessary to insist on the literal resurrection of the
identical body--hair, tooth, and nail--that was laid under the
ground. The idea that at the resurrection we are to see hands flying
across the sea to join the body, etc., finds no corroboration in
the Scriptures. Such an idea is not necessary in order to be true
to the Bible teaching. Mere human analogy ought to teach us this
(1 Cor. 15:36, 37)--"thou sowest not that body which shall be."
The identity is preserved--that is all that we need to insist upon.
What that identity tie is we may not yet know. After all it is not
so much a question of material identity as of glorified individuality.
The growth of the seed shows that there may be personal identity
under a complete change of physical conditions.

Four things may be said about the resurrection body: first, it
is not necessarily identical with that which descended into the
grave; second, it will have some organic connection with that which
descended into the grave; third, it will be a body which God, in
His sovereignty, will bestow; fourth, it will be a body which will
be a vast improvement over the old one.

b) The Body of the Believer.

Phil. 3:21 (R. V.)--"Who shall fashion anew the body of our
humiliation, that it may be conformed to the body of his glory,
according to the working whereby he is able even to subject all
things unto himself." See also 1 John 3:2; 1 Cor. 15:49.

What was the nature and likeness of Christ's resurrection body
which our resurrection body is to resemble? It was a real body
(Luke 24:39); recognizable (Luke 24:31; John 20:16); powerful (John
20:19).

Summing up these passages, we may say that the resurrection body
of the believer will be like the glorified body of Christ.

Characteristics of the believer's resurrection body as set forth
in 1 Cor. 15: It is not flesh and blood (vv. 50, 51; cf. Heb.
2:14; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; Luke 24:39)--"flesh and bones," so not pure
spirit; a real body.

It is incorruptible (v. 43)--no decay, sickness, pain.

It is glorious (v. 43), cf. the Transfiguration (Matt. 17); Rev.
1:13-17. It has been said that Adam and Eve, in their unfallen
state, possessed a glorious body. The face of Stephen was glorious
in his death (Acts 6:15). 2 Cor. 3:18.

It is powerful (v. 43)--not tired, or weak; no lassitude; cf. now
"spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak"; not so then.

It is a spiritual body (v. 44). Here the soul is the life of the
body; there the spirit will be the life of the body.

It is heavenly (v. 47-49).

c) The Resurrection Body of the Unbeliever.

The Scriptures are strangely silent on this subject. It is worthy
of note that in the genealogies of Genesis 5 no age is attached
to the names of those who were not in the chosen line. Is there
a purpose here to ignore the wicked? In the story of the Rich Man
and Lazarus no name is given to the godless rich man; why?

III. THE TIME OF THE RESURRECTION.

1. THE RESURRECTION OF THE RIGHTEOUS.

John 6:39, 40, 44--"The last day." This does not mean a day of
twenty-four hours, but a period of time. It will be safe, usually,
to limit the word "day" to a period of twenty-four hours only where
numeral, ordinal, or cardinal occurs in connection therewith, like
"fourth day," etc. When the "day of grace," "day of judgment,"
"this thy day," etc., are mentioned, they refer to periods of time
either long or short, as the case may be.

1 Cor. 15:23--"But every man in his own order: Christ the
firstfruits; afterwards they that are Christ's at his coming." 1
Thess. 4:14-17. In both these passages the resurrection of the
believer is connected with the coming of Christ. This event ushers
in the last day; it is treated as a separate and distinct thing.

2. THE RESURRECTION OF THE WICKED.

As there is a difference in the issue (John 5:28, 29; Dan. 12:2,
cf. literal Hebrew rendering below) so there is as to time between
the resurrection of the righteous and that of the wicked. Phil.
3:11--"If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of
(lit. out of) the dead." It was no incentive to Paul simply to be
assured that he would be raised from the dead; for he knew that
all men would be thus raised. What Paul was striving for was to be
counted worthy of that first resurrection--of the righteous from
among the wicked. The resurrection "out from among" the dead is the
resurrection unto life and glory; the resurrection "of" the dead
is to shame and contempt everlasting.

1 Cor. 15:21-24. Note the expressions used, and their meaning:
"Then," meaning the next in order, the Greek denoting sequence, not
simultaneousness--each in his own cohort, battalion, brigade (cf.
Mark 4:28--"First the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn
in the ear"). Nineteen hundred years have already elapsed between
"Christ the firstfruits" and "they that are Christ's." How many years
will elapse between the resurrection of "they that are Christ's"
and that of the wicked ("the end") we may not be able to definitely
state, but certainly long enough for Christ to have "put all enemies
under his feet" (v. 25). Three groups or ranks are here mentioned:
"Christ," "they that are Christ's," "the end" (the resurrection of
the wicked). (Cf. vv. 5, 6, 7--"Seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
after that . . . after that . . . then . . . and last of all he
was seen of me also.") First Christ, afterwards (later than) "they
that are Christ's" then (positively meaning afterwards, a new era
which takes place after an interval) "cometh the end."

Dan. 12:2--"And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth
shall awake, some (lit. those who awake at this time) to everlasting
life, and some (lit. those who do not awake at this time) to shame
and everlasting contempt." Some of the most eminent Hebrew scholars
translate this passage as follows: "And (at that time) many (of thy
people) shall awake (or be separated) out from among the sleepers
in the earth dust. These (who awake) shall be unto life eternal,
but those (who do not awake at that time) shall be unto contempt
and shame everlasting." It seems clear from this passage that all
do not awake at one (this) time, but only as many as are written
in the book (12:1).

Eevelation 20:4-6 shows that at least a thousand years--whatever
period of time may be thereby designated--elapses between the
resurrection of the righteous and the wicked.

John 5:28, 29; Dan. 12:2; Rev. 20:12 all show that the resurrection
of the wicked is always connected with the judgment, and that takes
place at the close and not at the beginning of the Day of the Lord.

Whatever difficulties may present themselves in connection with the
resurrection, whatever obstacles of a miraculous or supernatural
nature may present themselves in connection therewith are to be
met by remembering the truth enunciated by Christ in connection
with this very subject: Matt. 22:29--"Ye do err, not knowing the
scriptures, nor the power of God." (Cf. v. 23.--"The same day came
to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection,"
etc., and the following verses for the setting of v. 39.)

C. THE JUDGMENT.

I. THE FACT OF THE JUDGMENT.

   1. AS TAUGHT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.
   2. AS TAUGHT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
   3. THE TESTIMONY OF CONSCIENCE.
   4. THE TESTIMONY OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION.

II. THE JUDGE--CHRIST.

III. THE NATURE OF THE JUDGMENT.

   1. JUDGMENT AT THE CROSS.
   2. THE DAILY JUDGMENT.
   3. FUTURE JUDGMENT.
      a) Of the Saints.
      b) Of the Living Nations.
      c) Of the Great White Throne.
      d) Of the Fallen Angels.
      e) Of Israel.

C. THE JUDGMENT.

I. THE FACT OF THE JUDGMENT.

1. DISTINCTLY TAUGHT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

Psa. 96:13--"For he cometh, for he cometh to judge the earth: he
shall judge the world with righteousness, and the people with his
truth." While this passage refers more particularly to the rewarding
of the righteous, yet the idea of judgment is here. Both reward
and punishment are involved in the idea of judgment.

2. THE NEW TESTAMENT.

Acts 17:31--"Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will
judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained;
whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath
raised him from the dead." Heb. 9:27. Just as it is "appointed unto
men once to die" so it is appointed unto men to appear before the
judgment. There is no more escape from the one than from the other.
It is part of the burden of both the Old and New Testament message
that a day of judgment is appointed for the world. God's kingdom
shall extend universally; but a judgment in which the wicked are
judged and the righteous rewarded is necessary and in order that
the kingdom of everlasting righteousness may be established upon
the earth.

3. THE CONSCIENCE OF ALL MANKIND CORROBORATES THE TEACHING OF THE
SCRIPTURES WITH REGARD TO THE CERTAINTY OF A COMING JUDGMENT.

This is true of both the individual and universal conscience.
The discoveries of tablets as well as the history of all peoples
establish this fact. This is enforced by Eccl. 11:9; 12:14--a
book which is in a very real sense a book of worldly philosophy,
narrating, as it does, the experiences and observations of a man
who judged all things from the view-point of "under the sun," i.e.,
without special reference to any revelation from above.

4. THE RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST IS A SURE AND CERTAIN PROOF
WHICH GOD HAS GIVEN TO MEN OF A COMING JUDGMENT.

Acts 17:31 (quoted above). Here is "assurance" in the sense of
proof or ground of evidence. The context is suggestive: God had
long borne with the sins of men, and in a sense, overlooked them.
Therefore men have thought that God would continue to do so. But no,
this shall not be; there is a day of judgment coming, the evidence
of which lies in the fact of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

II. THE JUDGE--CHRIST.

John 5:22, 23, 27; 2 Tim. 4:1; 2 Cor. 5:10; Acts 10:42; 17:31.
The Man of the Cross is the Man of the Throne. Note the expression
"Because he is the Son of Man." That indicates His fitness to
judge: He can sympathize. But He is equal with the Father. This
too indicates His competency to judge, for it implies omniscience.
The texts which speak of God as judging the world are to be understood
as referring to God the Son. No appeal can be made from the Son to
the Father.

III. THE NATURE OF THE JUDGMENT.

The erroneous idea that there is to be one great general judgment
which is to take place at the end of the world, when all mankind
shall stand before the great white throne, is to be guarded against.
The judgments of the Bible differ as to time, place, subjects, and
results.

1. THERE IS A JUDGMENT THAT IS ALREADY PAST--THE JUDGMENT AT THE
CROSS.

John 5:24; 12:31; 2 Cor. 5:21; Gal. 3:13; 1 Pet. 3:24. At this judgment
bar Satan was judged and his power over the believer broken. Here
also the sins of the believer were judged and put away.

2. THERE IS A PRESENT JUDGMENT WHICH IS TAKING PLACE DAILY IN THE
LIFE OF THE BELIEVER.

1 Cor. 11:31, 32; 5:5; 1 Tim. 1:20; cf., for illustration, 2 Sam.
7:14, 15; 12:13,14. This continual judgment must be going on in
the life of the believer or there will be judgment from God because
of the consequent failure to grow in grace. There must be constant
and continual judging of sin as it comes up in the believer's life
(1 John 1:5-7).

3. THERE IS A FUTURE JUDGMENT.

a) Of the Saints.

1 Cor. 3:8-16; 2 Cor. 5:10; 1 Cor. 4:5. This is to be a judgment
with reference to the works, not the salvation, of the believer.
It is called "the judgment seat of Christ." That the saints are
here referred to is clear from 2 Cor. 5:1, 5, 7, 9; also 1 Cor. 4:5
which says that those who are judged "shall have praise of God."
This is not true of the wicked. This is a judgment, not for destiny,
but for adjustment, for reward or loss according to our works, for
position in the kingdom; every man according as his work shall be.

b) Of the Living Nations.

Matt. 25:31-46. This judgment will take place at the coming of
Christ with His saints. Note three things in this chaper: first,
the marriage supper of the Lamb (w. 1-13); second, the judgment of
the saints (vv. 14-30); third, the judgment of the living nations
(vv. 31-46). This is not a general judgment of good and bad, for
there are three classes here. "My brethren" can hardly refer to
the saints, for then it would be "inasmuch as ye have done it unto
yourselves, ye have done it unto me." Nor is the Church in this
judgment, for she is already translated and rewarded as we have
seen. The Church no more belongs to the nations than does Israel.
The nations are those who deal with Israel through the great
tribulation. The "brethren" are probably the Jewish remnant who
have turned to Christ during the great tribulation and whom the
Antichrist has severely persecuted as also have many of the wicked
nations, like Russia today. This is a judgment of nations that are
living; there is no mention of the dead.

c) Of the Great White Throne.

Rev. 20:11-15. It is called the final judgment and takes place
at the close of the millennium, after the judgment of the living
nations (Matt. 25). It is a judgment of "the dead"; no mention is
made of the living in connection therewith.

Note the difference between the judgments of the Living Nation and
of the Great White Throne: the former at the beginning, the latter
at the close of the millennium; one deals with the living, the other
with the dead; one deals with conduct towards "the brethren," the
other with general sins recorded in the books.

d) Of Israel.

Ezek. 20:33-44; Psa. 50:16-22. Takes place probably at the end of
the great tribulation.

e) Of the Fallen Angels.

Jude 6; 2 Pet. 2:4. Believers are associated with Christ in this
judgment (1 Cor. 6:3).

D. THE FINAL DESTINY OF THE WICKED.

I. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.


   1. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FUTURE OF THE RIGHTEOUS AND WICKED.
   2. DIFFICULTY OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.
   3. DISPARITY IN NUMBER OF THE SAVED AND LOST.
   4. PROPHECY VS. HISTORY.


II. THE WICKED DIE IN THEIR SINS.

III. THE WICKED ARE NOT ANNIHILATED.

IV. THE WICKED ARE RAISED FROM THE DEAD FOR JUDGMENT.

V. THE PUNISHMENT DESCRIBED.


   1. DEATH.
   2. ETERNAL.
   3. PUNISHMENT.
   4. FIRE.
   5. DARKNESS.


D. THE FINAL DESTINY OF THE WICKED.

"Every view of the world has its eschatology. It cannot help raising
the question of the whither, as well as of the what and the whence?
'0, my Lord,' said Daniel to the angel, 'what shall be the end of
these things?' (12:8). What is the end, the final destiny of the
individual? Does he perish at death, or does he enter into another
state of being; and under what conditions of happiness or woe does
he exist there? What is the end, the final aim of the great whole,
that far-off divine event towards which the whole creation moves?
It is vain to tell man not to ask these questions. He will ask
them, and must ask them. He will pore over every scrap of fact, or
trace of law, which seems to give an indication of an answer. He
will try from the experience of the past, and the knowledge of the
present, to deduce what the future shall be. He will peer as far
as he can into the unseen; and, where knowledge fails, will weave
from his hopes and trusts pictures and conjectures.

"The Christian view of the world also has its eschatology. The
Christian view, however, is positive, where that of science is
negative; ethical, where it is material; human, where it is cosmogonic;
ending in personal immortality, where this ends in extinction and
death. The eschatology of Christianity springs from its character
as a teleological religion--it seeks to grasp the unity of the
world through the conception of an end or aim."--_James Orr._

This is probably the hardest of all the doctrines of Christianity
to be received. If we ask the reason why, we receive various answers.
Some would tell us that this doctrine is unwelcome to many because
they feel themselves guilty, and their conscience tells them that
unless they repent and turn to God this awful doom awaits them.
Others believe that it is because the thought of future punishment
strikes terror to people's hearts, and therefore this doctrine is
repulsive to them. To others again, the thought of future anguish
seems utterly incompatable with the fatherly love of God. Yet it
is acknowledged to be a remarkable fact that both Jesus and John,
who more than any one else in the New Testament represent the
element of love in their lives and teaching, speak most of the
future anguish of the wicked.

That future punishment of the wicked holds a prominent place in
the teachings of the Scriptures there can be no reasonable doubt.
What is between the covers of the Bible is the preacher's message.
Yet great care must be exercised in the teaching or proclamation of
this doctrine. After all it is not the saying of hard things that
pierces the conscience of people; it is the voice of divine love
heard amid the thunder.

Yet there must be no consciousness of cowardice in proclaiming the
doctrine of future retribution, however awful its delineation may
be. Fear is a legitimate motive to which we may appeal, and while
it may be classed among the lower motives, it is nevertheless true
that it is the only motive that will effectively move some people
to action.

SOME RECOGNIZED FACTS.

There are certain preliminary facts which should be recognized in
the discussion of this subject:

1. That it shall be well with the righteous, and woe to the wicked
(Isa. 3:10, 11). That there is to be retribution for sin and a
reward for the righteous must be held to be beyond question, and
must be recognized as an unchangeable law. One cannot very well
meddle with that truth without serious danger. So long as a man
persistently, willingly and knowingly continues in his sin he must
suffer for it. That suffering the Bible calls eternal death.

2. We must recognize that much of the language of the Scripture
dealing with this condition is couched in figurative terms. But
the condition is none the less real because of that, for, generally
speaking, the reality is more severe than the figure in which it is
set forth. Yet we need caution here, and must distinguish between
the things that are stated in clear unmistakable language and those
that are set forth in words symbolic and figurative.

3. The disparity in the number of saved and lost. There is a danger
lest we should be unmindful of the problems connected with this
doctrine, such as that seeming fewness of the saved; the condition
of the heathen who have not had a chance to hear the Gospel; and
the difference in privilege and opportunity among those who live
in so-called Christian lands.

4. Prophecy vs. History. We must recognize that it is more difficult
to deal with facts which lie in the future than with those lying
in the past. Prophecy is always more difficult to deal with than
history. The past we may sketch in details, the future but in broad
outlines.

"Our treatment of themes that deal with the future must, in the
very nature of the case be very different than it would be were
we dealing with the things of the past. History and prophecy must
be handled differently. In dealing with the history of God's past
revelations--with the ages before the Advent, with the earthly
life and revelation of Jesus Christ, with the subsequent course
of God's providence in the Church--we are dealing with that which
has already been. It stands in concrete reality before us, and we
can reason from it as a thing known in its totality and its details.
But when the subject of revelation is that which is yet to be,
especially that which is yet to be under forms and conditions of
which we have no direct experience, the case is widely altered.
Here it is at most outlines that we can look for; and even these
outlines will be largely clothed in figure and symbol; the spiritual
kernel will seek material investiture to body itself forth; the
conditions of the future will require to be presented largely in
forms borrowed from known relations. The outstanding thoughts will
be sufficiently apparent, but the thoughts in which these thoughts
are cast will partake of metaphor and image."--_James Orr._

II. THE WICKED ARE SAID TO "DIE IN THEIR SINS."

John 8:21, 24--"Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and
ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye
cannot come. I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your
sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your
sins." Rom. 6:23--"For the wages of sin is death." See Rev. 20:14,
15; 21:8.

The "death" spoken of here does not mean cessation of existence any
more than eternal life means the beginning of existence. Eternal
life does not mean merely to live for ever, but to live in a state
of blessedness for ever. Eternal life deals not so much with quantity
as with quality of existence. Just so with eternal death. It is
a quality of existence, not cessation of being. Even in this life
death can co-exist with life: "But she that liveth in pleasure is
dead while she liveth" (1 Tim. 5:6); Eph. 2:1. What men call life
God calls death. There are two things which the believer gets: at
his regeneration, eternal life; at his resurrection, immortality;
but in both instances he already has life and existence. So it is
in the case of the wicked: the second death does not mean cessation
of existence, for he is dead already, now in this life (1 Tim.
5:6; Eph. 2:1; John 5:24, 25). Rev. 21:8 describes what "death,"
as here used, means: "But the fearful, and the unbelieving... shall
have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone:
which is the second death."

III. THE WICKED ARE NOT ANNIHILATED.

The texts most strongly urged as teaching the annihilation theory,
if rightly interpreted, will be seen to refer to removal from off
the earth, and not to future retribution. Here are the principal
passages:

Psa. 37:20--"But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of the
Lord shall be as the fat of lambs: they shall consume; into smoke
shall they consume away." This psalm is written for the encouragement
of Israel and against her enemies and their power on the earth. This
earthly power shall be utterly broken, and be of no more account
than the smoke of a burnt sacrifice. The great truth taught here
is that the earth is the inheritance of the saints, and that the
wicked shall have no part in it.

Obadiah 16--" . . . And they shall be as though they had not been."
These words are taken from the vision regarding Edom, and refer
to the destruction of the Edomites and their land, and not to the
future of the wicked in the next life.

In speaking of the "everlasting punishment" with which the wicked
will be visited, as recorded in 2 Thess. 1:9, the annihilationist
would say that reference is made to the "results or consequences"
of that punishment and not to the punishment itself. But the
Scriptures state that it is the "punishment" itself, and not the
consequences, that is everlasting.

No such interpretation as that put upon these passages by those holding
the annihilation theory can be maintained by sound exegesis. What
need is there of a resurrection if the wicked are to be annihilated
at death, or why should they be raised from the dead if only to
be at once extinguished for ever? Again, there is no such thing
as "unconscious" punishment. You cannot punish anything that is
unconscious. Can you punish a stone or a house? Punishment can
take place only where there is consciousness on the part of the
one suffering.

IV. THE WICKED ARE TO BE PUNISHED.

Rom. 2:8, 9--"But unto them that are contentious, and do not
obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,
tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil,
of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile." "Wrath" indicates the
settled mind of God towards the persistently wicked (John 3:36);
"indignation," the outbreak of that wrath at the day of judgment;
"tribulation," severe affliction (Matt. 13:21; 24:9; Rev. 7:14);
"anguish," torturing confinement in a strait place without relief,
as in a dungeon, or in stocks. God grant that we may never know
what these terms fully mean.

Matt. 25:41, 46--"Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand,
Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the
devil and his angels. And these shall go away into everlasting
punishment." 2 Thess. 1:7-9--"When the Lord Jesus shall be revealed
from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance
on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord
Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction
from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power."
See also Mark 9:43-50 which speaks of the wicked being cast into
"hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched: where their worm
dieth not, and the fire is not quenched."

There are certain important words in these scriptures which demand
our attention, and which we need to understand in order to get right
views of the doctrine we are now considering. They are as follows:

1. "ETERNAL."

We read of "eternal" or "everlasting" punishment, "everlasting"
fire. It is objected that the word "eternal" or "everlasting" does
not mean "forever." This may be true. But we are all willing to
admit that when this word qualifies the condition of the righteous
it means for ever, without end, e.g., the righteous shall go "into
life eternal." The same word, however, qualifies the punishment of
the wicked, e.g., "these shall go away into everlasting punishment."
Fairness demands that we make the joy of the righteous and the
punishment of the wicked--both qualified as they are by the same
Greek word--of the same duration. If there is an end to the reward
of the righteous, there is also to the penalty of the wicked. The
one lasts as long as the other. If "destruction" means annihilation,
then there is no need of the word "eternal" to qualify it. Further
the Scriptures present the punishment of the wicked not only as
"eternal" (or age-long) but as enduring "for ever and ever," or
"unto the ages of the ages" (Rev. 19:3; 20:10; 14:11, R. V.). Here
is a picture of ages tumbling upon ages in eternal succession.

2. "PUNISHMENT."

The meaning of this word will be found under the previous division
(III) dealing with the subject of Annihilation.

3. "FIRE."

This is one of the most constant images under which the torment
and misery of the wicked is represented. Fire is a symbol of the
divine judgment of wrath (Matt. 5:22). In Matthew 3:10 the godless
are represented as a tree hewn down and cast into the fire; in 3:12
the chaff (godless) is burned with unquenchable fire; in 13:42 the
wicked are said to be cast into a furnace of fire.

Is the "fire" spoken of here _literal_ fire? It is an accepted
law of language that a figure of speech is less intense than the
reality. If "fire" is merely a figurative expression, it must
stand for some great reality, and if the reality is more intense
than the figure, what an awful thing the punishment symbolized by
fire must be.

It is contended that fire must necessarily consume; that nothing
could continue to exist in fire. Is it not remarkable that the
Baptist uses the word "unquenchable"' (Greek, "asbestos") when
speaking of this fire? Is any light thrown on the question by the
incident of the three Hebrew children in the fiery furnace? Did
they consume, or did they withstand the fire? (Dan. 3:27). In the
parable of the Tares (Matt. 13:36-43) our Lord speaks of the tares
being burned up. When Christ retired to the house after delivering
the parable, his disciples asked Him to explain to them what He meant
by the figures of speech He used in the parable. This request He
granted. He explained the figurative language of the parable; every
figurative word in it except that of "fire." He said: "The field
is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but
the tares are the children of the wicked one; the enemy that sowed
them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the
reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and
burned in the fire, so shall it be at the end of this world. .
. . And they shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall
be wailing and gnashing of teeth." Why did not the Master explain
what he meant by the figurative word "fire"? He explained all the
other figurative words, why not this one? Did He forget? Or did
He intend that His disciples should have the impression that He
was speaking of literal fire? Here was His opportunity to explain
His use of words, for the disciples were asking for just that very
thing. Was there any significance in the fact that Jesus did not
explain the word "fire"? Whether we believe in literal fire or not,
we certainly ought to ask for a reason for the Master's failure to
literalize the figurative word "fire."

4. "DARKNESS."

This word is used to describe the condition of the lost: "Cast
into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth."
Seven times these terms are found together: Matt. 8:12; 13:42, 50;
22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Luke 13:28. The picture is that of a banquet
which was usually held at night. The wicked are thrust out from
the light, joy, and festivity into the darkness and gloom without,
as into the remote gloom and anguish of a dungeon in which are found
agony, wrath, and despair. Is this a description of hell --absence
of spiritual light; separation from the company of the saved;
lamentation; impotent rage?

E. THE FINAL REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.

I. THE BELIEVER NEVER DIES.

II. THE BELIEVER GOES TO BE WITH CHRIST.

III. THE BODY OF THE BELIEVER IS RAISED FROM THE DEAD.

IV. THE BELIEVER IS REWARDED.

V. THE NATURE OF THE BELIEVER'S REWARD.


   1. THE "CROWNS" OF SCRIPTURE.
   2. THE SEVEN "OVERCOMES" (REV. 2 AND 3).


VI. THE NEW CONDITION AND ABODE OF LIFE FOR THE SAINTS.


   1. NEW SPHERE OF LIFE.
   2. A NEW HOME.
   3. NEW CONDITIONS.


E. THE FINAL REWARD OF THE RIGHTEOUS.

If, says the Apostle Paul, in this present life we have a hope
resting on Christ, and nothing more, we are more to be pitied than
all the rest of the world (1 Cor. 15:19). The idea is that if this
hope in Christ which the believer has is a delusive hope, with
no prospect of fulfillment in the future, the Christian is indeed
in a sad state. He has chosen a life of self-denial; he will not
indulge in the pleasures of the world, and if there are no pleasures
in the darkness into which he is about to enter, then he has
miscalculated, he has chosen a life that shall end in self-obliteration.
If he has no home to go to, no God to welcome him, no King to say,
"Well done, exchange mortality for life," then he is indeed in a
pitiable plight. But such is not the case. The hope of the Christian
enters beyond the vail, into the very presence of God Himself, and
endures throughout all the eternities.

I. THE CHRISTIAN NEVER DIES.

1 John 8:51--"Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep
my saying, he shall never see death." 11:25, 26--"Jesus said unto
her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me,
though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and
believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?"

What Jesus means here is not that the believer shall not pass
through the experience that we call death, but that in reality it
is not death, at least, not in the sense in which it is death to
the unbeliever. Jesus has taken the sting out of death. How sharply
the contrast between death and the experience through which the
believer passes is presented in 1 Thess. 4:13, 14--"But I would
not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are
asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. For
if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also
which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him." Jesus "died"--He
tasted the awfulness of death; the believer in Him "falls asleep."
Cf. John 11:11--"Our friend Lazarus sleepeth." We have no ground
in these words for the modern doctrine of soul-sleeping. Christ
did not mean to say that the soul is unconscious between the time
of death and the resurrection. For, when the disciples did not
understand His _figurative_ language, He told them _plainly,_
"Lazarus is dead" (11:11-15). What Jesus meant was that death is
something like that which takes place when we go to sleep. What
takes place when we go to sleep? Surely the current of life does not
cease, but flows on, and when we awake we feel better and stronger
than before. There is a shutting out of all the scenes of the world
and time. Just so it is in the case of the believer's death. Three
ideas are contained in the word "sleep": continued existence,--for
the mind is active even though the body is still; repose--we lose
our hold on and forget the things of the world; wakening--we always
think of sleep as followed by awakening.

The word "see" in John 8:51 means that the believer shall not gaze
at death protractedly, steadily, exhaustively. Death is not the
objective of his gaze. The believer's outlook is that of life not
death. The death of the body is to be reckoned no more as death
than the life of the body is life (1 Tim. 5:6). The believer's back
is turned upon death; he faces and gazes upon life. The temporary
separation of the soul and body does not even interrupt, much less
impair, the eternal life given by Jesus.

II. THE BELIEVER GOES TO BE WITH CHRIST.

2 Cor. 5:6, R. V.--"Being therefore always of good courage, and
knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent
from the Lord." Phil. 1:23, R. V.--"But I am in a strait betwixt
the two, having the desire to depart and be with Christ; for it is
very far better."

The experience (death-sleep) through which the believer passes ushers
him at once into the presence of Christ. It takes him instantly
to be "at home" with the Lord. Surely there can be no hint of
unconsciousness or the sleeping of the soul in these words. It
would seem from Paul's words in 2 Corinthians 5:1-5 that some kind
of spiritual body is given to the believer during the period of
his waiting for the resurrection body. What Paul longs for is not
to be in a bodiless state, but to put on another body which shall
not be subject to death. "At home with the Lord"--that is what
"death" (?) means to the believer.

III. THE BODY OF THE BELIEVER IS RAISED FROM THE DEAD.

See under the Doctrine of the Resurrection for the full discussion
of the believer's resurrection body, its characteristics, etc.

IV. THE BELIEVER SHALL RECEIVE HIS FINAL REWARD IN THE FUTURE.

1 Matt. 25:20-23--"And so he that had received five talents came
and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto
me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents
more. His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful
servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make
thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.
He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou
deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other
talents beside them. His lord said unto him, Well done, good and
faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I
will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of
thy lord."

Luke 19:12-19.--"He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a
far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. And
he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said
unto them, Occupy till I come. But his citizens hated him, and sent
a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign
over us. And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having
received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called
unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how
much every man had gained by trading. Then came the first, saying,
Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds. And he said unto him,
Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very
little, have thou authority over ten cities. And the second came
saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds. And he said likewise
to him, Be thou also over five cities."

Matthew 24 exhorts us to watch and wait for Christ's coming;
chapter 25 shows us how we may obey this exhortation. Chapter 25
illustrates to us, in the parable of the Virgins (vv. 1-13) the
necessity of caring for the inward spiritual life; while the parable
of the Talents (vv. 14-30), emphasizes the necessity of activity
for Christ while awaiting His return.

While both parables deal with the matter of the rewarding of
the saints, they nevertheless present the subject from different
viewpoints. The parable of the Pounds was delivered before the entry
into Jerusalem; that of the Talents, three days after; the Pounds,
to the multitudes; the Talents, to the disciples. The Pounds was
given because the people thought that the kingdom would immediately
appear, hence the idea of a long journey. In the Pounds there is
opposition to Christ; in the Talents, none. In the Talents unequal
sums are multiplied in the same proportion; in the Pounds, equal
sums in differed proportions. The parable of the Pounds was uttered
to repress impatience; that of the Talents, to stimulate activity
until Christ should return.

The talents are distributed not capriciously but according to each
man's ability to handle them. He who had five talents was able to
use five, and was therefore held responsible for the use of this
number; so with the two, and the one. The question is not so much
"How many talents have I received," but "To what use am I putting
them?" The rewards for faithfulness are the same in each case--"Be
thou ruler over many cities." In the parable of the Pounds it is
different. All start out with the same number of pounds. As men
differ in their use of them, in their fidelity, zeal and labor,
so they differ in spiritual gains and rewards (ten cities, five
cities). The reward of the believer will be in proportion to the
faithfulness of his service for God with the use of the talents
with which God has endowed him. The rewards therefore will differ
according to the faithfulness or unfaithfulness of our service and
life.

Faith in Jesus Christ saves the believer, but his position in the
future life together with the measure of his reward will depend
upon his faithfulness in the use of the gifts with which he has
been endowed by God. Thus it comes to pass that a man may be saved
"yet so as by fire," i.e., saved because of his faith in Christ,
but minus his reward. See 1 Cor. 3:10-15--"In discharge of the
task which God graciously entrusted to me, I--like a competent
master-builder--have laid a foundation, and others are building
upon it. But let every one be careful how and what he builds. For
no one can lay any other foundation in addition to that which is
already laid, namely, Jesus Christ. And whether the building which
anyone is erecting on that foundation be of gold or silver or
costly stones, of timber or hay or straw--the true character of
each individual's work will become manifest. For the day of Christ
will disclose it, because that day is soon to come upon us clothed
in fire, and as for the quality of every one's work--the fire is
the thing which will test it. If any one's work--the building which
he has erected--stands the test, he will be rewarded. If any one's
work is burned up, he will suffer the loss of it; yet he will
himself be rescued, but only, as it were, by passing through the
fire." (Translation from _Weymouth's New Testament._) While
this passage has its primary reference, probably, to Christian
teachers and preachers, and touches the matter of doctrines that
are taught, it nevertheless has a fitting and true application to
the life and work of every believer.

V. THE NATURE OF THE BELIEVER'S REWARD.

1. HE SHALL RECEIVE A CROWN.

The Scriptures speak of a number of crowns: The Crown of _Life_
(James 1:12; Rev. 2:10, compare context which speaks of death); of
_Glory_ (1 Pet. 5:4; cf. John 17:22; Heb. 2:9); of
_Righteousness_ (2 Tim. 4:8), the full realization of the
imputed and inwrought righteousness of Christ; of _Rejoicing_
(1 Thess. 2:19), at the sight of converts that have been won by one's
ministry for Christ; of _Gold_ (Rev. 4:4); _Incorruptible_
(1 Cor. 9:25), as compared with the perishable crowns of the Greek
games; _Thy_ crown (Rev. 3:11), that which is laid up for you,
and which should not be lost by unfaithfulness; the summing up of
all the previous expressions--all are characteristic of "thy" crown.

2. THE SEVEN "OVERCOMES" IN REVELATION (cc. 2, 3.).

a) 2:7--"Eat of the Tree of Life, Which is in the Midst of the
Paradise of God."

The tree of life, which has been practically unmentioned since Genesis
3, where it was lost through sin, is here restored in accordance
with the restitution of all things in Christ. This figure expresses
participation in life eternal--the believer shall die no more.

b) 2:11--"Shall Not be Hurt of the Second Death."

He who is born but once--"of the flesh"--dies twice: physically,
and eternally. He (the believer) who is born twice--"of the flesh"
and "of the spirit"--dies but once; that is, he passes through only
that physical dissolution of soul and body which is called death.
The "second death" means, to say the least, utter exclusion from
the presence of God. To say that the believer shall not be hurt of
the second death is equivalent to saying that he shall eternally
behold the face of the Father which is in heaven.

c) 2:17--He shall Receive a "Stone with a New Name Written" Thereon;
To the Believer also will be Given to Eat of the "Hidden Manna."

This figure may mean that to the believer is given the white stone
of acquittal. In courts of justice in those days a black stone
was given to the condemned. Reference may here be made to the
white stone (diamond?) which was not among the stones in the high
priest's ephod, and thought by some to be the Urim and Thummim.
The partaking of the hidden manna may refer to the fact that they
who had resisted the eating of meat offered in sacrifice to idols
would, as a reward, be allowed to feast on the bread of God, the
divine food. The new name mentioned may stand for a new nature and
character which the believer will possess in that new country.

d) 2:26, 27--Authority Over the Nations.

There is doubtless a reference here to the reign of the saints
with the Lord Jesus Christ on the millenial earth. Those that have
suffered with Him shall also reign with Him.

e) 3:4, 5--He Shall Be "Arrayed in White Garments," and His Name
Shall in No Wise be Blotted Out of the Book of Life.

"White garments" undoubtedly refers to the righteousness of the
saints. In the Old Testament days to be blotted out of the book of
life meant to forfeit the privileges of the Theocracy--to be shut
out forever from God's favor. Here the certainty of the believer's
eternal security is assured. Christ will rejoice over him and gladly
confess that He knows him as one who belonged to Him and served
and confessed Him on the earth.

f) 3:12--The Believer Will Be a Pillar in the Temple of God; He
Shall Go Out No More; God Will Write Upon Him His Own New Name.

Philadelphia, the place in which was situated the church to whom
these words were written, was subject to earthquakes, and quite
frequently the massive pillars of the temple were shattered. It
shall not be so with the believer--he shall never be moved. He will
go in and out no more--no possibility of falling then. He will have
the name of God written upon him--no danger of anyone else making
claim to him. Then the believer's period of probation will have
passed away; he shall have a permanent and eternal place in the
kingdom of the Father.

g) 3:21, R. V.--"I Will Give to Him to Sit Down With Me in My
Throne."

Not "on" or "upon" but "in" my throne. Christ will exalt us with
Himself. James and John wanted to sit by Christ's side in the coming
kingdom. Here is something infinitely better--to sit with Him in
His throne.

VI. THE BELIEVER WILL ENTER INTO A NEW CONDITION AND ABODE OF LIFE.

1. A NEW SPHERE OF LIFE FOR THE SAINTS.

New Heavens and a new Earth: Paradise regained; new spiritual
environment; new physical conditions. Not surrounded by the
temptations and defects of this mortal life. "No more sea"--to the
Jew a symbol of unmixed peril, trouble, and restlessness.

2. A NEW HOME FOR THE SAINTS.

Rev. 21-22:5--A picture of the Holy City, the New Jerusalem, which
is to be the final and eternal abode of the people of God.

Within the New Heavens and on the New Earth is the Holy City.
Note some characteristics of the Holy City: Its _Name:_ New
Jerusalem--what music to the ear of the Jew, who for so long had
been without a city of his own! Its _Walls_ (21:17): high,
secure, safe against all assaults. Its _Gates_ (21:15, 21):
guarded by angels; names on gates; only saints enter. Its
_Foundations_ (v.14): the Apostles of the Lamb; lustrous
(18). Its _Citizens:_ of the nations that are saved (citizens'
characteristics 21:6, 7; 22:14, R. V.; contrast with 21:8, 27).
Its _Magnitude:_ 4800 stadia (the earthly Jerusalem being but
33 stadia). Its _Glory_ (11-23): what costliness!

3. NEW CONDITIONS OF LIFE FOR THE REDEEMED.

God's home is there (21:3); thus the believer has uninterrupted
communion with God. Some things that used to be have all passed
away: death, mourning, curse, tears, sorrow, night--all have gone.
New created things appear: the river of life, the tree of life,
new service, new relationships, new light (22:4).


    "AND AFTER THESE THINGS I HEARD A GREAT VOICE
    OF MUCH PEOPLE IN HEAVEN, SAYING, ALLELUIA;
    SALVATION, AND GLORY, AND HONOUR, AND POWER,
    UNTO THE LORD OUR GOD:

    "AND THE FOUR AND TWENTY ELDERS AND THE
      FOUR BEASTS FELL DOWN AND WORSHIPPED GOD THAT
    SAT ON THE THRONE, SAYING, AMEN; ALLELUIA.

    "AND A VOICE CAME OUT OF THE THRONE, SAYING,
    PRAISE OUR GOD, ALL YE HIS SERVANTS, AND YE THAT
    FEAR HIM, BOTH SMALL AND GREAT.

    "AND I HEARD AS IT WERE THE VOICE OF A GREAT
    MULTITUDE, AND AS THE VOICE OF MANY WATERS,
    AND AS THE VOICE OF MIGHTY THUNDERINGS, SAYING,
    ALLELUIA: FOR THE LORD GOD OMNIPOTENT REIGNETH.

    "LET US BE GLAD AND REJOICE, AND GIVE HONOUR
    TO HIM: FOR THE MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB IS COME,
    AND HIS WIFE HATH MADE HERSELF READY.

    "AND TO HER WAS GRANTED THAT SHE SHOULD BE
    ARRAYED IN FINE LINEN, CLEAN AND WHITE: FOR
    THE FINE LINEN IS THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF SAINTS."





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