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Title: The Dog
Author: Youatt, William
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Dog" ***

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[Illustration:  THE SOUTHERN HOUND.]

THE DOG,



BY WILLIAM YOUATT.



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS



[Illustration:  HEAD OF BLOODHOUND]



EDITED, WITH ADDITIONS,

BY E. J. LEWIS, M.D.

Member of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia; of the
Philadelphia Medical Society; of the Parisian Medical Society, &c. &c.


1852.

Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by

LEA AND BLANCHARD,

in the clerk's office of the District Court of the United States for the
Eastern District of Pennsylvania.



       *       *       *       *       *



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

THE SOUTHERN HOUND
HEAD OF BLOODHOUND
ANCIENT SCULPTURE OF GREYHOUNDS
THE THIBET DOG
THE DINGO, OR NEW HOLLAND DOG
THE HARE INDIAN DOG
THE DANISH, OR DALMATIAN DOG
THE GREYHOUND
THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND
BLENHEIMS AND COCKERS
THE WATER SPANIEL
THE POODLE
THE ALPINE SPANIEL, OR BERNARDINE DOG
THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG
THE ESQUIMAUX DOG
THE ENGLISH SHEEP DOG
THE SCOTCH SHEEP DOG
THE BEAGLE
THE HARRIER
THE FOX HOUND
PLAN OF GOODWOOD KENNEL
THE SETTER
THE POINTER
THE BULL-DOG
THE MASTIFF
THE SCOTCH TERRIER
SKELETON OF THE DOG
DOG'S HEAD CONFINED FOR AN OPERATION
DOG'S EYE PREPARED FOR AN OPERATION
TEETH OF THE DOG AT SEVEN DIFFERENT AGES



       *       *       *       *       *



PREFACE OF THE EDITOR.

The Editor, having been called upon by the American publishers of the
present volume to see it through the press, and add such matter as he
deemed likely to increase its value to the sportsman and the lover of
dogs in this country, the more readily consented to undertake the task,
as he had previously, during the intervals of leisure left by
professional avocations, paid much attention to the diseases, breeding,
rearing, and peculiarities of the canine race, with a view to the
preparation of a volume on the subject.

His design, however, being in a great measure superseded by the enlarged
and valuable treatise of Mr. Youatt, whose name is a full guarantee as
to the value of whatever he may give to the world, he found that not
much remained to be added. Such points, however, as he thought might be
improved, and such matter as appeared necessary to adapt the volume more
especially to the wants of this country, he has introduced in the course
of its pages. These additions, amounting to about sixty pages, will be
found between brackets, with the initial of the Editor appended. He
trusts they will not detract from the interest of the volume, while he
hopes that its usefulness may be thereby somewhat increased.

With this explanation of his connexion with the work, he leaves it in
the hope that it may prove of value to the sportsman from its immediate
relation to his stirring pursuits; to the general reader, from the large
amount of curious information collected in its pages, which is almost
inaccessible in any other form; and to the medical student, from the
light it sheds on the pathology and diseases of the dog, by which he
will be surprised to learn how many ills that animal shares in common
with the human race.

The editor will be satisfied with his agency in the publication of this
volume, if it should be productive of a more extended love for this
brave, devoted, and sagacious animal, and be the means of improving his
lot of faithful servitude. It is with these views that the editor has
occasionally turned from more immediate engagements to investigate his
character, and seek the means of ameliorating his condition.

PHILADELPHIA, October, 1846.



       *       *       *       *       *



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Chapter

I.    The Early History and Zoological Classification of the Dog

II.   The Varieties of the Dog.--First Division

III.  The Varieties of the Dog.--Second Division

IV.   The Varieties of the Dog.--Third Division

V.    The Good Qualities of the Dog;
      the Sense of Smell;
      Intelligence;
      Moral Qualities;
      Dog-carts;
      Cropping;
      Tailing;
      Breaking-in;
      Dog-pits;
      Dog-stealing

VI.   Description of the Skeleton.
      Diseases of the Nervous System: Fits;
                                      Turnside;
                                      Epilepsy;
                                      Chorea;
                                      Rheumatism and Palsy

VII.  Rabies

VIII. The Eye and its Diseases

IX.   The Ear and its Diseases

X.    Anatomy of the Nose and Mouth;
      and Diseases of the Nose and other parts of the Face.
      The Sense of Smell;
      the Tongue;
      the Lips;
      the Teeth;
      the Larynx;
      Bronchocele;
      Phlegmonous Tumour

XI.   Anatomy and Diseases of the Chest:
      the Diaphragm;
      the Pericardium;
      the Heart;
      Pleurisy;
      Pneumonia;
      Spasmodic Cough

XII.  Anatomy of the Gullet,
      Stomach, and Intestines:
      Tetanus;
      Enteritis;
      Peritonitis;
      Colic;
      Calculus in the Intestines;
      Intussusception;
      Diarrhoea;
      Dysentery;
      Costiveness;
      Dropsy;
      the Liver;
      Jaundice;
      the Spleen and Pancreas;
      Inflammation of the Kidney;
      Calculus;
      Inflammation of the Bladder;
      Rupture of the Bladder;
      Worms;
      Fistula in the Anus

XIII. Bleeding;
      Torsion;
      Castration;
      Parturition;
      and some Diseases Connected with the Organs of Generation

XIV.  The Distemper

XV.   Small-pox;
      Mange;
      Warts;
      Cancer;
      Fungus Hæmotodes;
      Sore Feet

XVI.  Fractures

XVII. Medicines used in the Treatment of the Diseases of the Dog

Appendix.  New Laws of Coursing

Index.



       *       *       *       *       *



THE DOG.


CHAPTER I.

THE EARLY HISTORY AND ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG.

The Dog, next to the human being, ranks highest in the scale of
intelligence, and was evidently designed to be the companion and the
friend of man. We exact the services of other animals, and, the task
being performed, we dismiss them to their accustomed food and rest; but
several of the varieties of the dog follow us to our home; they are
connected with many of our pleasures and wants, and guard our sleeping
hours.

The first animal of the domestication of which we have any account, was
the sheep. "Abel was a keeper of sheep." [1] It is difficult to believe
that any long time would pass before the dog--who now, in every country
of the world, is the companion of the shepherd, and the director or
guardian of the sheep--would be enlisted in the service of man.

From the earliest known history he was the protector of the habitation
of the human being. At the feet of the 'lares', those household deities
who were supposed to protect the abodes of men, the figure of a barking
dog was often placed. In every age, and almost in every part of the
globe, he has played a principal part in the labours, the dangers, and
the pleasures of the chase.

In process of time, man began to surround himself with many servants
from among the lower animals, but among them all he had only one
friend--the dog; one animal only whose service was voluntary, and who
was susceptible of disinterested affection and gratitude. In every
country, and in every time, there has existed between man and the dog a
connection different from that which is observed between him and any
other animal. The ox and the sheep submit to our control, but their
affections are principally, if not solely, confined to themselves. They
submit to us, but they can rarely be said to love, or even to recognise
us, except as connected with the supply of their wants.

The horse will share some of our pleasures. He enjoys the chase as much
as does his rider; and, when contending for victory on the course, he
feels the full influence of emulation. Remembering the pleasure he has
experienced with his master, or the daily supply of food from the hand
of the groom, he often exhibits evident tokens of recognition; but that
is founded on a selfish principle--he neighs that he may be fed, and his
affections are easily transferred.

The dog is the only animal that is capable of disinterested affection.
He is the only one that regards the human being as his companion, and
follows him as his friend; the only one that seems to possess a natural
desire to be useful to him, or from a spontaneous impulse attaches
himself to man. We take the bridle from the mouth of the horse, and turn
him free into the pasture, and he testifies his joy in his partially
recovered liberty. We exact from the dog the service that is required of
him, and he still follows us. He solicits to be continued as our
companion and our friend. Many an expressive action tells us how much he
is pleased and thankful. He shares in our abundance, and he is content
with the scantiest and most humble fare. He loves us while living, and
has been known to pine away on the grave of his master.

[It is stated that the favourite lap-dog of Mary, Queen of Scots, that
accompanied her to the scaffold, continued to caress the body after the
head was cut off, and refused to relinquish his post till forcibly
withdrawn, and afterwards died with grief in the course of a day or
two.

The following account is also an authentic instance of the inconsolable
grief displayed by a small cur-dog at the death of his master:--A poor
tailor in the parish of St. Olave, having died, was attended to the
grave by his dog, who had expressed every token of sorrow from the
instant of his master's death, and seemed unwilling to quit the corpse
even for a moment. After the funeral had dispersed, the faithful animal
took his station upon the grave, and was with great difficulty driven by
the sexton from the church ground; on the following day he was again
observed lying on the grave of his master, and was a second time
expelled from the premises. Notwithstanding the harsh treatment received
on several succeeding days by the hands of the sexton, this little
creature would persist in occupying this position, and overcame every
difficulty to gain access to the spot where all he held most dear was
deposited. The minister of the parish, learning the circumstances of the
case, ordered the dog to be carried to his house, where he was confined
and fed for several days, in hopes of weaning him by kind treatment to
forget his sorrow occasioned by the loss of his master. But all his
benevolent efforts were of no utility, as the dog availed himself of the
first opportunity to escape, and immediately repaired to his chosen spot
over the grave.

This worthy clergyman now allowed him to follow the bent of his own
inclinations; and, as a recompense for true friendship and unfeigned
sorrow, had a house built for him over this hallowed spot, and daily
supplied him with food and water for the space of two years, during
which time he never wandered from his post, but, as a faithful guardian,
kept his lonely watch day and night, till death at last put an end to
his sufferings, and laid him by the side of his long-expected
master.--L.]

As an animal of draught the dog is highly useful in some countries. What
would become of the inhabitants of the northern regions, if the dog were
not harnessed to the sledge, and the Laplander, and the Greenlander, and
the Kamtschatkan drawn, and not unfrequently at the rate of nearly a
hundred miles a day, over the snowy wastes? In Newfoundland, the timber,
one of the most important articles of commerce, is drawn to the
water-side by the docile but ill-used dog; and we need only to cross the
British Channel in order to see how useful, and, generally speaking, how
happy a beast of draught the dog can be.

[Large mongrel dogs are very extensively used on the Continent in
pulling small vehicles adapted to various purposes. In fact, most of the
carts and wagons that enter Paris, or are employed in the city, have one
of these animals attached to them by a short strap hanging from the
axle-tree. This arrangement answers the double purpose of keeping off
all intruders in the temporary absence of the master, and, by pushing
himself forward in his collar, materially assists the horse in
propelling a heavy load up-hill, or of carrying one speedily over a
plain surface. It is quite astonishing to see how well broken to this
work these dogs are, and at the same time to witness with what vigour
and perseverance they labour in pushing before them, in that way,
enormous weights.--L.]

Though, in our country, and to its great disgrace, this employment of
the dog has been accompanied by such wanton and shameful cruelty, that
the Legislature--somewhat hastily confounding the abuse of a thing with
its legitimate purpose--forbade the appearance of the dog-cart in the
metropolitan districts, and were inclined to extend this prohibition
through the whole kingdom, it is much to be desired that a kindlier and
better feeling may gradually prevail, and that this animal, humanely
treated, may return to the discharge of the services of which nature has
rendered him capable, and which prove the greatest source of happiness
to him while discharging them to the best of his power.

In another and very important particular,--as the preserver of human
life,--the history of the dog will be most interesting. The writer of
this work has seen a Newfoundland dog who, on five distinct occasions,
preserved the life of a human being; and it is said of the noble
quadruped whose remains constitute one of the most interesting specimens
in the museum of Berne, that forty persons were rescued by him from
impending destruction.

When this friend and servant of man dies, he does not or may not cease
to be useful; for in many countries, and to a far greater extent than is
generally imagined, his skin is useful for gloves, or leggings, or mats,
or hammercloths; and, while even the Romans occasionally fattened him
for the table, and esteemed his flesh a dainty, many thousands of people
in Asia, Africa, and America, now breed him expressly for food.

If the publication of the present work should throw some additional
light on the good qualities of this noble animal; if it should enable us
to derive more advantage from the services that he can render--to train
him more expeditiously and fully for the discharge of those services--to
protect him from the abuses to which he is exposed, and to mitigate or
remove some of the diseases which his connection with man has entailed
upon him; if any of these purposes be accomplished, we shall derive
considerable "useful knowledge" as well as pleasure from the perusal of
the present volume.

Some controversy has arisen with regard to the origin of the dog.
Professor Thomas Bell, to whom we are indebted for a truly valuable
history of the British quadrupeds, traces him to the wolf. He says, and
it is perfectly true, that the osteology of the wolf does not differ
materially from that of the dog more than that of the different kinds of
dogs differs; that the cranium is similar, and they agree in nearly all
the other essential points; that the dog and wolf will readily breed
with each other, and that their progeny, thus obtained, will again
mingle with the dog. [The relative length of the intestines is a strong
distinctive mark both as to the habits and species of animals; those of
a purely carnivorous nature are much shorter than others who resort
entirely to an herbaceous diet, or combine the two modes of sustenance
according to circumstances. The dog and wolf have the intestines of the
same length. (See Sir Everard Home on Comparative Anatomy.)--L.] There
is one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a decided difference
between the two animals; the eye of the dog of every country and species
has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil is oblique
in the wolf. Professor Bell gives an ingenious but not admissible reason
for this. He attributes the forward direction of the eyes in the dog to
the constant habit, "for many successive generations, of looking towards
their master, and obeying his voice:" but no habit of this kind could by
possibility produce any such effect. It should also be remembered that,
in every part of the globe in which the wolf is found this form of the
pupil, and a peculiar setting on of the curve of the tail, and a
singularity in the voice, cannot fail of being observed; to which may be
added, that the dog exists in every latitude and in every climate, while
the habitation of the wolf is confined to certain parts of the globe.

There is also a marked difference in the temper and habits of the two.
The dog is, generally speaking, easily manageable, but nothing will, in
the majority of cases, render the wolf moderately tractable. There are,
however, exceptions to this. The author remembers a bitch wolf at the
Zoological Gardens that would always come to the front bars of her den
to be caressed as soon as any one that she knew approached. She had
puppies while there, and she brought her little ones in her mouth to be
noticed by the spectators; so eager, indeed, was she that they should
share with her in the notice of her friends, that she killed them all in
succession against the bars of her den as she brought them forcibly
forward to be fondled.

M.F. Cuvier gives an account of a young wolf who followed his master
everywhere, and showed a degree of affection and submission scarcely
inferior to the domesticated dog. His master being unavoidably absent,
he was sent to the menagerie, where he pined for his loss, and would
scarcely take any food for a considerable time. At length, however, he
attached himself to his keepers, and appeared to have forgotten his
former associate. At the expiration of eighteen months his master
returned, and, the moment his voice was heard, the wolf recognised him,
and lavished on his old friend the most affectionate caresses. A second
separation followed, which lasted three years, and again the
long-remembered voice was recognised, and replied to with impatient
cries; after which, rushing on his master, he licked his face with every
mark of joy, menacing his keepers, towards whom he had just before been
exhibiting fondness. A third separation occurred, and he became gloomy
and melancholy. He suffered the caresses of none but his keepers, and
towards them he often manifested the original ferocity of his species.

These stories, however, go only a little way to prove that the dog and
the wolf have one common origin. [There are some naturalists that even
go so far as to state that the different varieties of dogs are sprung
from, or compounded of, various animals, as the hyaena, jackal, wolf,
and fox. The philosophic John Hunter commenced a series of experiments
upon this interesting subject, and was forced to acknowledge that "the
dog may be the wolf tamed, and the jackal may probably be the dog
returned to his wild state."

The ancient Cynegetical writers were not only acquainted with the cross
between the wolf and dog, but also boasted the possession of breeds of
animals, supposed to have been derived from a connection with the lion
and tiger. The Hyrcanian dog, although savage and powerful beast, was
rendered much more formidable in battle, or in conflict with other
animals, by his fabled cross with the tiger. In corroboration of this
singular, but not less fabulous belief, Pliny states that the
inhabitants of India take pleasure in having dog bitches lined by the
wild tigers, and to facilitate this union, they are in the habit of
tieing them when in heat out in the woods, so that the male tigers may
visit them. (See L. 8, c. xl.)

There is, however, but little doubt that the wolf and dog are varieties
of the same family, as they can he bred together, and their offspring
continuing the cross thus formed, will produce a race quite distinct
from the original. French writers do not hesitate at all upon this
point, but even assert that it is very difficult to take a she-wolf with
male dogs during the period of oestrum, parceque la veulent saillir et
covrir comme une chienne.

Baudrillart, in the "dictionaire des chasses," further remarks that the
mongrels produced by this connection are very viciously disposed and
inclined to bite.

The period of utero-gestation, and the particular mode of copulation in
the wolf, is the same as that of the canine family, which two
circumstances are certainly very strong presumptive evidences of the
similarity of the species. The dogs used by our northern Indians
resemble very much, in their general appearance, the wolves of that
region, and do not seem very far removed from that race of animals,
notwithstanding they have been in a state of captivity, or
domestication, beyond the traditionary chronicles of this rude people.

Another strong circumstance in favour of the common origin of these two
quadrupeds, is the existence in our own country of the Canis Latrans, or
prairie wolf, who whines and barks in a manner so similar to the smaller
varieties of dogs, that it is almost impossible to distinguish his notes
from those of the terrier.

Major Long remarks that "this animal which does not seem to be known to
naturalists, unless it should prove to be the Mexicanus, is most
probably the original of the domestic dog, so common in the villages of
the Indians of this region, some of the varieties of which still remain
much of the habit and manners of this species." (Vol. i, page 174.)

If further proof be necessary to establish the identity of the dog and
wolf, the circumstances related by Captain Parry in his first voyage of
discovery, ought to be sufficient to convince every mind that the wolf,
even in its wild state, will seek to form an alliance or connection with
one of our domestic dogs.

  "About this time it had been remarked that a white setter dog,
  belonging to Mr. Beverly, had left the Griper for several nights past
  at the same time, and had regularly returned after some hours absence.
  As the daylight increased we had frequent opportunities of seeing him
  in company with a she-wolf, with whom he kept up an almost daily
  intercourse for several weeks, till at length he returned no more to
  the ships; having either lost his way by rambling to too great a
  distance, or what is more likely, perhaps, been destroyed by the male
  wolves. Some time after a large dog of mine, which was also getting
  into the habit of occasionally remaining absent for some time,
  returned on board a good deal lacerated and covered with blood,
  having, no doubt, maintained a severe encounter with a male wolf, whom
  we traced to a considerable distance by the tracks on the snow. An old
  dog, of the Newfoundland breed, that we had on board the Hecla, was
  also in the habit of remaining out with the wolves for a day or two
  together, and we frequently watched them keeping company on the most
  friendly terms."
  (Page 136, 1st voyage.)

[In volume 1st, page 111, of the Menageries, it is stated that Mr.
Wombwell exhibited in October, 1828, two animals from a cross between
the wolf and the domestic dog, which had been bred in that country. They
were confined in the same den with a female setter, and were likely
again to multiply the species. Mr. Daniel remarks that Mr. Brook, famous
for his menagerie, turned a wolf to a Pomeranian bitch at heat; the
congress was immediate, and, as usual between the dog and bitch, ten
puppies were the produce. These animals strongly resembled their sire
both in appearance and disposition, and one of them being let loose at a
deer, instantly caught at the animal's throat and killed it. (See
Daniel's Rural Sports, vol. i, page 14.)--L.]

It may appear singular that in both the Old Testament and the New the
dog was spoken of almost with abhorrence. He ranked among the unclean
beasts. The traffic in him and the price of him were considered as an
abomination, and were forbidden to be offered in the sanctuary in the
discharge of any vow. [2]

One grand object in the institution of the Jewish ritual was to preserve
the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among
every other people. Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the
Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped. Figures
of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, [3] and they
were regarded as emblems of the Divine Being. Herodotus, speaking of the
sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the
people of every family in which a dog died, shaved themselves--their
expression of mourning--and he adds, that "this was a custom existing in
his own time." [4]

The cause of this attachment to and veneration for the dog is, however,
explained in a far more probable and pleasing way than many of the
fables of ancient mythology. The prosperity of Lower Egypt, and almost
the very subsistence of its inhabitants, depended on the annual
overflowing of the Nile; and they looked for it with the utmost anxiety.
Its approach was announced by the appearance of a certain star--SIRIUS.
As soon as that star was seen above the horizon, they hastened to remove
their flocks to the higher ground, and abandoned the lower pastures to
the fertilizing influence of the stream. They hailed it as their guard
and protector; and, associating with its apparent watchfulness the
well-known fidelity of the dog, they called it the "dog-star," and they
worshipped it. It was in far later periods and in other countries that
the appearance of the dog-star was regarded as the signal of
insufferable heat or prevalent disease.

One of the Egyptian deities--Anubis--is described as having the form and
body of a man, but with a dog's head. These were types of sagacity and
fidelity.

  ["Who knows not that infatuate Egypt finds
  Gods to adore in brutes of basest kinds?
  This at the crocodile's resentment quakes,
  While that adores the ibis, gorged with snakes!
  And where the radiant beam of morning rings
  On shattered Memnon's still harmonious strings;
  And Thebes to ruin all her gates resigns,
  Of huge baboon the golden image shines!
  To _mongrel curs_ infatuate cities bow,
  And cats and fishes share the frequent vow!"

  Juvenal, 'Sat. xv'.--Badham's Trans.--L.]

In Ethiopia, not only was great veneration paid to the dog, but the
inhabitants used to elect a dog as their king. He was kept in great
state, and surrounded by a numerous train of officers and guards. When
he fawned upon them, he was supposed to be pleased with their
proceedings: when he growled, he disapproved of the manner in which
their government was conducted. These indications of his will were
implicitly obeyed, or rather, perhaps, dictated.

[Among the many strange and wonderful things mentioned by Pliny as being
discovered in Africa, is a people called Ptoembati or Ptremphanae, whose
principal city is Aruspi, where they elect a dog for their king and obey
him most religiously, being governed entirely by the different motions
of his body, which they interpret according to certain signs. (See
Pliny, lib. vi, c. xxx.)--L.]

Even a thousand years after this period the dog was highly esteemed in
Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities; for, when
Pythagoras, after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece,
and at Croton, in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian
philosophers, that, at the death of the body, the soul entered into that
of different animals. He used, after the decease of any of his favourite
disciples, to cause a dog to be held to the mouth of the dying man, in
order to receive his departing spirit; saying, that there was no animal
that could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.

It was in order to present the Israelites from errors and follies like
these, and to prevent the possibility of this species of idolatry being
established, that the dog was afterward regarded with utter abhorrence
among the Jews. [5] This feeling prevailed during the continuance of the
Israelites in Palestine. Even in the New Testament the Apostle warns
those to whom he wrote to "beware of dogs and evil-workers;" [6] and it
is said in The Revelations that "without are dogs and sorcerers," &c.
[7] Dogs were, however, employed even by the Jews. Job says, "Now they
that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have
disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock." [8] Dogs were employed
either to guide the sheep or to protect them from wild beasts; and some
prowled about the streets at night, contending with each other for the
offal that was thrown away.

To a certain degree this dislike of the dog continues to the present
day; for, with few exceptions, the dog is seldom the chosen companion of
the Jew, or even the inmate of his house. Nor was it originally confined
to Palestine. Wherever a knowledge of the Jewish religion spread, or any
of its traditions were believed, there arose an abhorrence of the dog.
The Mohammedans have always regarded him as an unclean animal, that
should never be cherished in any human habitation--belonging to no
particular owner, but protecting the street [9] and the district rather
than the house of a master.

The Hindoos regard him likewise as unclean, and submit to various
purifications if they accidentally come in contact with him, believing
that every dog was animated by a wicked and malignant spirit, condemned
to do penance in that form for crimes committed in a previous state of
existence. If by chance a dog passed between a teacher and his pupil
during the period of instruction, it was supposed that the best lesson
would be completely poisoned, and it was deemed prudent to suspend the
tuition for at least a day and a night.  Even in Egypt, dogs are now as
much avoided as they were venerated. In every Mohammedan and Hindoo
country, the most scurrilous epithet bestowed on a European or a
Christian is--"a dog!" [10]

This accounts for the singular fact that in the whole of the Jewish
history there is not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Mention is
made of nets and snares, but the dog seems to have been never used in
the pursuit of game.

In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to
have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had
become the companion, the friend, and the defender of man and his home.
So late as the second century of the Christian era, the fair hunting of
the present day needed the eloquent defence of Arrian, who says that
"there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good
run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the
secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea, and the victorious naval
engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis." [11] The
first hint of the employment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals
is given by Oppian in his Cynegeticus, who attributes it to Pollux,
about 200 years after the promulgation of the Levitical law.

Of the precise species of dog that prevailed or was cultivated in Greece
at this early period, little can with certainty be affirmed. One
beautiful piece of sculpture has been preserved, and is now in the
possession of Lord Feversham at Duncombe Hall. It is said to represent
the favourite dog of Alcibiades, and to have been the production of
Myson, one of the most skillful artists of ancient times. It differs but
little from the Newfoundland dog of the present day. He is represented
as sitting on his haunches, and earnestly looking at his master. Any one
would vouch for the sagacity and fidelity of that animal.

The British Museum contains a group of greyhound puppies of more recent
date, from the ruins of the villa of Antoninus, near Rome. One is
fondling the other; and the attitude of both, and the characteristic
puppy-clumsiness of their limbs, which indicate, nevertheless, the
beautiful proportions that will soon be developed, are an admirable
specimen of ancient art.

[Illustration of ancient sculpture of greyhounds]

The Greeks, in the earlier periods of their history, depended too much
on their nets; and it was not until later times that they pursued their
prey with dogs, and then not with dogs that ran by sight, or succeeded
by their swiftness of foot, but by beagles very little superior to those
of modern days [12]. Of the stronger and more ferocious dogs there is,
however, occasional mention. The bull-dog of modern date does not excel
the one (possibly of nearly the same race) that was presented to
Alexander the Great, and that boldly seized a ferocious lion, or another
that would not quit his hold, although one leg and then another was cut
off.

It would be difficult and foreign to the object of this work fully to
trace the early history of the dog. Both in Greece and in Rome he was
highly estimated. Alexander built a city in honour of a dog; and the
Emperor Hadrian decreed the most solemn rites of sepulture to another on
account of his sagacity and fidelity.

The translator of Arrian imagines that the use of the 'pugnaces'
(fighting) and the 'sagaces' (intelligent)--the more ferocious dogs, and
those who artfully circumvented and caught their prey--was known in the
earlier periods of Greek and Roman history, but that the 'celeres', the
dogs of speed, the greyhounds of every kind, were peculiar to the
British islands, or to the western and northern continents of Europe,
the interior and the produce of which were in those days unknown to the
Greeks and Romans. By most authors who have inquired into the origin of
these varieties of the dog, the 'sagaces' have been generally assigned
to Greece--the 'pugnaces' to Asia--and the 'celeres' to the Celtic
nations.

[The vertragi, 'canes celeres', or dogs that hunted by sight alone, were
not known to the ancients previous to the time of the younger Xenophon,
who then describes them as novelties just introduced into Greece:

  "But the swift-footed Celtic hounds are called in the Celtic tongue
  [Greek: ouéztragoi]; not deriving their name from any particular
  nation, like the Cretan, Carian, or Spartan dogs, but, as some of the
  Cretans are named [Greek: diaponoi] from working hard, [Greek: itamai]
  from their keenness, and mongrels from their being compounded of both,
  so these Celts are named from their swiftness. In figure, the most
  high-bred are a prodigy of beauty; their eyes, their hair, their
  colour, and bodily shape throughout. Such brilliancy of gloss is there
  about the spottiness of the parti-coloured, and in those of uniform
  colour, such glistening over the sameness of tint, as to afford a most
  delightful spectacle to an amateur of coursing."

It is probable these dogs were carried, about this time, into the
southern parts of Europe by the various tribes of Celts who over-ran the
continent, and also occupied Ireland, Britain, and the other western
islands, and ultimately took possession of Gaul.--L.]

Of the aboriginal country of the latter there can be little doubt; but
the accounts that are given of the English mastiff at the invasion of
Britain by the Romans, and the early history of the English hound, which
was once peculiar to this country, and at the present day degenerates in
every other, would go far to prove that these breeds also are indigenous
to our island.

Oppian thus describes the hunting dog as he finds him in
Britain:

  "There is, besides, an excellent kind of scenting dogs, though small,
  yet worthy of estimation. They are fed by the fierce nation of painted
  Britons, who call them 'agasoei'. In size they resemble worthless
  greedy house-dogs that gape under tables. They are crooked, lean,
  coarse-haired, and heavy-eyed, but armed with powerful claws and
  deadly teeth. The 'agasoeus' is of good nose and most excellent in
  following scent [13]."

Among the savage dogs of ancient times were the Hyrcanian, said, on
account of their extreme ferocity, to have been crossed with the tiger
[14],--the Locrian, chiefly employed in hunting the boar,--the
Pannonian, used in war as well as in the chase, and by whom the first
charge on the enemy was always made,--and the Molossian, of Epirus,
likewise trained to war as well as to the honours of the amphitheatre
and the dangers of the chase. This last breed had one redeeming
quality--an inviolable attachment to their owners. This attachment was
reciprocal; for it is said that the Molossi used to weep over their
faithful quadruped companions slain in war.

[Of all the dogs of the ancients, those bred on the continent of Epirus
were the most esteemed, and more particularly those from a southern
district called Molossia, from which they received their name.

These animals are described as being of enormous size, great courage and
powerful make, and were considered worthy not only to encounter the
wolf, bear, and boar, but often overcame the panther, tiger, and lion,
both in the chase and amphitheatre. They also, being trained to war,
proved themselves most useful auxiliaries to this martial people.

The learned translator of Arrian states that

  "the fabled origin of this breed is consistent with its high repute;
  for, on the authority of Nicander, we are told by Julius Pollux, that
  the Epirote was descended from the brazen dog which Vulcan wrought for
  Jupiter, and animated with all the functions of canine life."

These were not the only dogs fashioned by the skilful hands of the
Olympic artist, as we find Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians, possessing
golden dogs also wrought at the celestial forge.

Pliny states that a dog of enormous magnitude was sent as a present by
the king of Albania to Alexander the Great when on his march to India;
and "that this monarch being delighted at the sight of so huge and fair
a dog, let loose unto him first bears, then wild boars, and lastly
fallow deer, all of which animals he took no notice of, but remained
perfectly unconcerned. This great warrior being a man of high spirit and
wonderful courage, was greatly displeased at the apparent cowardice and
want of energy in so powerful an animal, and ordered him to be slain.
This news was speedily carried to the king of Albania, who thereupon
sent unto him a second dog, stating that he should not make trial of his
courage with such insignificant animals, but rather with a lion or
elephant, and if he destroyed this one also, he need not expect to
obtain any other of this breed, as these two were all he possessed.

  Tanta: suis petiere ultra fera semina sylvis,
  Dat Venus accessus, et blando foedere jungit.
  Tunc et mansuetis tuto ferus erat adulter
  In stabulis, ultroque gravis succedere tigrim
  Ausa canis, majore tulit de sanguine foetum.

  'Gratii Falisci Cyneget.,' liv. 1. v. 160.

Alexander being much surprised, made immediate preparations for a trial,
and soon saw the lion prostrate, with his back broken, and his body torn
in pieces by the noble dog. Then he ordered an elephant to be produced;
and in no fight did he take more pleasure than in this. For the dog,
with his long, rough, shaggy hair, that covered his whole body, rushed
with open mouth, barking terribly, and thundering, as it were, upon the
elephant. Soon after he leaps and flies upon him, advancing and
retreating, now on one side, now on the other, maintaining an ingenious
combat; at one time assailing him with all vigour, at another shunning
him. So actively did he continue this artificial warfare, causing the
huge beast to turn around so frequently on every side to avoid his
attacks, that he ultimately came down with a crash that "made the earth
tremble with his fall". Book viii. chap. 40.

The Molossian dogs were at a later period much esteemed by the Romans as
watch dogs, not only of their dwellings, but also to guard their flocks
against the incursions of wild animals. Horace, in the following lines,
passes a just tribute to the worth of this animal, when referring to his
watchfulness, and the ardour with which he pursues those wild animals,
even 'per altas nives,' that threaten the flocks entrusted to his care.

  "Quid immerentes, hospites vexas canis,
    Ignarus adversum lupos?
  Quin huc inanes, si potes, vertis minas,
    Et me remorsurum petis?
  Nam, qualis aut Molossus, aut fulvus Lacon,
    Amica vis pastoribus,
  Agam per altas aure sublatâ nives,
    Quaecunpue praecedet fera."

  'Epode' vi.--L.]

Ælian relates that one of them, and his owner, so much distinguished
themselves at the battle of Marathon, that the effigy of the dog was
placed on the same tablet with that of his master.

Soon after Britain was discovered, the 'pugnaces' of Epirus were pitted
against those of our island, and, according to the testimony of Gratius,
completely beaten. A variety of this class, but as large and as
ferocious, was employed to guard the sheep and cattle, or to watch at
the door of the house, or to follow the owner on any excursion of
business or of pleasure. Gratius says of these dogs, that they have no
pretensions to the deceitful commendation of form; but, at the time of
need, when courage is required of them, most excellent mastiffs are not
to be preferred to them.

The account of the British 'pugnaces' of former times, and also of the
'sagaces' and 'celeres', will be best given when treating of their
present state and comparative value. In describing the different breeds
of dogs, some anecdotes will be related of their sagacity and fidelity;
a few previous remarks, however, may be admissible.

A young man lost his life by falling from one of the precipices of the
Helvellyn mountains. Three months afterwards his remains were discovered
at the bottom of a ravine, and his faithful dog, almost a skeleton,
still guarding them. Sir Walter Scott beautifully describes the scene:

  Dark-green was the spot, 'mid the brown mountain heather,
    Where the pilgrim of nature lay stretched in decay;
  Like the corpse of an outcast, abandoned to weather,
    Till the mountain winds wasted the tenantless clay;
    Nor yet quite deserted, though lonely extended,
    For, faithful in death, his mute favourite attended,
    The much loved remains of her master defended,
      And chased the hill-fox and the raven away.
    How long didst thou think that his silence was slumber?
      When the wind waved his garments, how oft didst thou start?
    How many long days and long weeks didst thou number
      Ere he faded before thee, the friend of thy heart?

Burchell, in his Travels in Africa, places the connexion between man and
the dog, and the good qualities of this animal, in an interesting point
of view. A pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a necessary part
of his caravan, occasionally to provide him with food, but oftener to
defend him from wild beasts or robbers.

  "While almost every other quadruped fears man as his most formidable
  enemy," says this interesting traveller, "there is one who regards him
  as his companion, and follows him as his friend. We must not mistake
  the nature of the case. It is not because we train him to our use, and
  have made choice of him in preference to other animals, but because
  this particular species of animal feels a natural desire to be useful
  to man, and, from spontaneous impulse, attaches himself to him. Were
  it not so, we should see in various countries an equal familiarity
  with other quadrupeds, according to their habits, and the taste or
  caprices of different nations; but, everywhere, it is the dog only
  that takes delight in associating with us, and in sharing our abode.
  It is he who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of
  danger. It is impossible for the naturalist not to feel a conviction
  that this friendship between creatures so different from each other
  must be the result of the laws of nature; nor can the humane and
  feeling mind avoid the belief that kindness to those animals, from
  which he derives continued and essential assistance, is part of the
  moral duty of man.

  "Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have been fast
  asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful
  animals watching by their side, and have learned to esteem them for
  their social inclination towards mankind. When, wandering over
  pathless deserts, oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct
  of my own men, I have turned to these as my only friends, and felt how
  much inferior to them was man when actuated only by selfish views."

Of the stanchness and incorruptible fidelity of the dog, and his
disregard of personal inconvenience and want, when employed in our
service, it is impossible to entertain a doubt. We have sometimes
thought that the attachment of the dog to its master was increased, or,
at least, the exhibition of it, by the penury of the owner. At all
events one fact is plain enough, that, while poverty drives away from us
many a companion of our happier hours, it was never known to diminish
the love of our quadruped friend.

The early history of the dog has been described, and the abomination in
which he was held by the Israelites. At no great distance of time,
however, we find him, almost in the neighbourhood of Palestine, in one
of the islands of the Ionian Sea, the companion and the friend of
princes, and deserving their regard. The reader will forgive a somewhat
abbreviated account of the last meeting of Ulysses and his dog.

Twenty years had passed since Argus, the favourite dog of Ulysses, had
been parted from his master. The monarch at length wended his way
homewards, and, disguised as a beggar, for his life would have been
sacrificed had he been known, stood at the entrance of his palace-door.
There he met with an old dependant, who had formerly served him with
fidelity and who was yet faithful to his memory; but age and hardship
and care, and the disguise which he now wore, had so altered the
wanderer that the good Eumaeus had not the most distant suspicion with
whom he was conversing; but:

  Near to the gates, conferring as they drew,
  Argus the dog his ancient master knew,
  And, not unconscious of the voice and tread
  Lifts to the sound his ears, and rears his head.
  He knew the lord, he knew, and strove to meet;
  In vain he strove to crawl and kiss his feet;
  Yet, all he could, his tail, his ears, his eyes
  Salute his master, and confess his joys. [15]

[Lord Byron, who had much experience and acquaintance with the canine
family, was rather sceptical as regards the memory of this animal,
having been, on one occasion, entirely forgotten by a favourite dog from
whom he was separated some considerable time, and in fact was most
savagely assailed by him, when on his return he attempted to caress him
as he was wont to do in former times.

This unkind reception at Newstead Abbey, on the part of his pampered
pet, may have given rise to the poet's feelings as embodied in the
following misanthropic lines:--

  "And now I'm in the world alone,
  Upon the wide, wide sea:
  But why should I for others groan,
  When none will sigh for me?
  Perchance my dog will whine in vain,
  Till fed by stranger hands;
  But long ere I come back again,
  He'd tear me where he stands."--L.]

In Daniel's Rural Sports, the account of a nobleman and his dog is
given. The nobleman had been absent two years on foreign service. On his
return this faithful creature was the first to recognise him, as he came
through the court-yard, and he flew to welcome his old master and
friend. He sprung upon him; his agitation and his joy knew not any
bounds; and at length, in the fulness of his transport, he fell at his
master's feet and expired.

[An interesting circumstance, strongly exhibiting canine fidelity and
attachment in a large mastiff, came under the Editor's own eye during
his childhood, and which, from its striking character, deserves to be
recorded on the page of history as another testimony to the high moral
worth of these useful animals.

A gentleman of Baltimore, with his family, lived during a portion of the
year a short distance in the country, and was in the habit of returning
to the city late in the fall to pass the winter. On his estate there was
a fine young mastiff, who though extremely cross to strangers, exhibited
at all times a great degree of tenderness and affection for the younger
branches of the family;--more particularly for the younger son, his most
constant companion, and who would often steal secretly away to share his
daily meal with this affectionate participator in his childish sports:
or, when fatigued with romping together, would retire to the well-kept
kennel, and recruit his limbs in a refreshing sleep, while reclining
upon the body of the faithful dog. If the little truant should now be
missed by those having him in charge, the most natural question to ask
was, "Where is Rolla?" knowing full well that wherever this honest brute
was, there might his young master be found also. On such occasions,
however, this trusty guardian would refuse all solicitations to abandon
his post, and express great dissatisfaction at any attempt to arouse or
carry off his young charge, whom he continued to watch over till he
awoke, refreshed from his slumber and eager again to resume their
frolics.

The period of returning to the city at last arrived, and the dog
exhibited marked signs of uneasiness, while the bustling preparations
for this end were going on, as if conscious of the separation that was
about to take place between his young master and himself, as also the
other children, who had been his constant companions for so many joyful
months.

Everything being completed, the childish group bid an affectionate adieu
to the downcast Rolla, whom they left standing on the hill-top, watching
the carriage as it disappeared in the wood. A few days after their
departure, and when this poor animal was forgotten in the new scenes
around them, a communication was received from the overseer of the farm,
in which he stated that the favourite dog appeared much grieved since
the family had left for the city, and was fearful that he might die if
he continued in the same condition. Little attention, however, was given
to these remarks, all imagining that the dog's melancholy was only the
result of temporary distress, owing to his secluded life, so different
from that which he had led when surrounded by the various members of a
large family. Little did any one suppose that this poor neglected brute
was suffering the acutest pangs of mental distress, even sufficient to
produce death.

Two weeks had now elapsed since the separation from Rolla, when another
message came from the overseer, stating that the dog would surely die
with grief, if not removed to the city, as he had refused all sustenance
for several days, and did nothing but wander about from place to place,
formerly frequented by the children, howling and moaning in the most
piteous manner.

Orders were now given, much to the children's delight, for the
conveyance of the favourite to the city; but, alas! this arrangement
came too late, as the poor creature sank from exhaustion, while in the
wagon on his way to join those beloved companions whose short absence
had broken his heart and grieved him even unto death.--L.]

We will not further pursue this part of our subject at present. We shall
have other opportunities of speaking of the disinterested and devoted
affection which this noble animal is capable of displaying when he
occupies his proper situation, and discharges those offices for which
nature designed him. It may, however, be added that this power of
tracing back the dog to the very earliest periods of history, and the
fact that he then seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and as
valuable as at the present day, strongly favour the opinion that he
descended from no inferior and comparatively worthless animal,--that he
was not the progeny of the wolf, the jackal, or the fox, but he was
originally created, somewhat as we now find him, the associate and the
friend of man.

If, within the first thousand years after the Deluge, we observe that
divine honours were paid to him, we can scarcely be brought to believe
his wolfish genealogy. The must savage animals are capable of affection
for those to whom they have been accustomed, and by whom they have been
well treated, and therefore we give full credit to several accounts of
this sort related of the wolf, the lion, and even the cat and the
reptile: but in no other animal--in no other, even in the genus
'Canis'--do we find the qualities of the domestic dog, or the slightest
approach to them.

  "To his master he flies with alacrity," says the eloquent Buffon, "and
  submissively lays at his feet all his courage, strength, and talent. A
  glance of the eye is sufficient; for he understands the smallest
  indications of his will. He has all the ardour of friendship, and
  fidelity and constancy in his affections, which man can have. Neither
  interest nor desire of revenge can corrupt him, and he has no fear but
  that of displeasing. He is all zeal and obedience. He speedily forgets
  ill-usage, or only recollects it to make returning attachment the
  stronger. He licks the hand which causes him pain, and subdues his
  anger by submission. The training of the dog seems to have been the
  first art invented by man, and the fruit of that art was the conquest
  and peaceable possession of the earth."

  "Man," says Burns, "is the God of the dog; he knows no other; and see
  how he worships him. With what reverence he crouches at his feet--with
  what reverence he looks up to him--with what delight he fawns upon
  him, and with what cheerful alacrity he obeys him!"

If any of the lower animals bear about them the impress of the Divine
hand, it is found in the dog: many others are plainly and decidedly more
or less connected with the welfare of the human being; but this
connexion and its effects are limited to a few points, or often to one
alone. The dog, different, yet the same, in every region, seems to be
formed expressly to administer to our comforts and to our pleasure. He
displays a versatility, and yet a perfect unity of power and character,
which mark him as our destined servant, and, still more, as our
companion and friend. Other animals may be brought to a certain degree
of familiarity, and may display much affection and gratitude. There was
scarcely an animal in the menagerie of the Zoological Society that did
not acknowledge the superintendent as his friend; but it was only a
casual intercourse, and might be dissolved by a word or look. At the
hour of feeding, the brute principle reigned supreme, and the companion
of other hours would be sacrificed if he dared to interfere; but the
connexion between man and the dog, no lapse of time, no change of
circumstances, no infliction of evil can dissolve. We must, therefore,
look far beyond the wolf for the prototype of the dog.

Cuvier eloquently states that the dog exhibits the most complete and the
most useful conquest that man has made. Each individual is entirely
devoted to his master, adopts his manners, distinguishes and defends his
property, and remains attached to him even unto death; and all this
springing not from mere necessity, or from constrain, but simply from
gratitude and true friendship. The swiftness, the strength, and the
highly developed power of smelling of the dog, have made him a powerful
ally of man against the other animals; and, perhaps, these qualities in
the dog were necessary to the establishment of society. It is the only
animal that has followed the human being all over the earth.

There is occasionally a friendship existing between dogs resembling that
which is found in the human being. The author pledges himself as to the
accuracy of the following little anecdote. Two dogs, the property of a
gentleman at Shrewsbury, had been companions for many years, until one
of them died of old age. The survivor immediately began to manifest an
extraordinary degree of restless anxiety, searching for his old
associate in all his former haunts, and refusing every kind of food. He
gradually wasted away, and, at the expiration of the tenth day, he died,
the victim of an attachment that would have done honour to man.

The Dog, belongs to the division of animals termed VERTEBRATED, (see
'The Horse', 2d edition, page 106), because it has a cranium or skull,
and a spine or range of VERTEBRAE proceeding from it. It ranks under the
'class' MAMMALIA, because it has teats, by which the female suckles her
young; the 'tribe' UNGUICULATA, because its extremities are armed with
nails; the 'order' DIGITIGRADES, because it walks principally on its
toes. The 'genus' CANIS has two tubercular teeth behind the large
carnivorous tooth in upper jaw; and the 'sub-genus familiaris', the DOG,
has the pupils of the eye circular, while those of the wolf are oblique,
and those of the fox upright and long.

There has been some dispute whether the various species of dogs are of
different origin, or sprung from one common source. When we consider the
change that climate and breeding effect in the same species of dog, and
contrast the rough Irish or Highland greyhound with the smoother one of
the southern parts of Britain, or the more delicate one of Greece, or
the diminutive but beautifully formed one of Italy, or the hairless one
of Africa or Brazil--or the small Blenheim spaniel with the magnificent
Newfoundland; if also we observe many of them varied by accident, and
that accidental variety diligently cultivated into a new species,
altogether different in form or use, we shall find no difficulty in
believing that they might be derived from one common origin.

One of the most striking proofs of the influence of climate on the form
and character of this animal, occurs in the bull-dog. When transported
to India he becomes, in a few years, greatly altered in form, loses all
his former courage and ferocity, and becomes a perfect coward.

It is probable that all dogs sprang from one common source, but climate,
food, and cross-breeding caused variations of form, which suggested
particular uses; and these being either designedly or accidentally
perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs thus arose, and they have become
numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization. Among the ruder,
or savage tribes, they possess but one form; but the ingenuity of man
has devised many inventions to increase his comforts: he has varied and
multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same
purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, and cattle, and dogs.

The parent stock it is now impossible to trace; but the wild dog,
wherever found on the continent of Asia, or Northern Europe, has nearly
the same character, and bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the
British fox-dog, while many of those from the Southern Ocean can
scarcely be distinguished from the English lurcher. There is, however,
no more difficulty in this respect with regard to the dog, than any
other of our domesticated animals. Climate, or chance, produced a change
in certain individuals, and the sagacity of man, or, perhaps, mere
chance, founded on these accidental varieties numerous breeds possessed
of certain distinct characteristic properties. The degeneracy of the
dog, also, in different countries, cannot for a moment be disputed.

The most natural arrangement of all the varieties of the dog is
according to the development of the frontal sinus and the cerebral
cavity, or, in other words, the power of scent, and the degree of
intelligence. This classification originated with M.F. Cuvier, and has
been adopted by most naturalists. He reckoned three divisions of the dog:

I. Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones
   of the skull widest at the base, and gradually approaching towards
   each other as they ascend, the condyls of the lower jaw being on the
   same line with the upper molar teeth. The _Greyhound_ and all its
   varieties belong to this class.

II. The head moderately elongated, and the parietals diverging from each
    other for a certain space as they rise upon the side of the head,
    enlarging the cerebral cavity and the frontal sinus. To this class
    belong our most valuable dogs,--the _Spaniel_, _Setter_, _Pointer_,
    _Hound_, and the _Sheep-dog_.

III. The muzzle more or less shortened, the frontal sinus enlarged, and
     the cranium elevated, and diminished in capacity. To this class
     belong some of the _Terriers_, and a great many dogs that might
     very well be spared.

This division of the different species of the dog is adopted here as
being the most simple, intelligible, and satisfactory.



[Footnote 1: Gen. iv. 2.]


[Footnote 2: Deut. xxiii. 18.]


[Footnote 3: In some of Belzoni's beautiful sketches of the frieze-work
of the old Egyptian temples, the dog appears, with his long ears and
broad muzzle, not unlike the old Talbot hound.]


[Footnote 4: Herodotus, lib. ii. c. 66.]


[Footnote 5: No dog was suffered to come within the precincts of the
Temple at Jerusalem.  [Greek: Ex_o kunes] was a prevalent expression
among the Jews.  Byrant's 'Mythology', vol. ii. p. 42.]


[Footnote 6: Phil. iii. 2.]


[Footnote 7: Rev. xxii. 15.]


[Footnote 8: Job xxx. 1. See also Isaiah lvi, 10, 11.]


[Footnote 9: Psalm lix. 6.]


[Footnote 10: Carpenter's 'Scripture Natural History', p.109. It is a
remarkable fact that from this faithful animal, the companion of man,
and the guardian of his person and property, should originate as many
terms of reproach as "dog," "cur," "hound," "puppy," "dog-cheap," "a
dog's trick," "dog sick," "dog-weary," "to lead the life of a dog," "to
use like a dog." All this probably originated in the East, where the dog
was held in abhorrence as the common scavenger of the streets.]


[Footnote 11: Arrian's 'Cynegeticus', cap 26.]


[Footnote 12: ''New Sporting Magazine, vol. xiv. p. 97.]


[Footnote 13: Oppian's 'Cynegeticus', lib. i. v. 468-480.]


[Footnote 14:

  ["At contrà faciles, magnique Lycaones armis.
  Sed non Hyrcanæ satis est vehementia genti."]]


[Footnote 15: Pope's 'Odyssey', xvii.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER II.


THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.

FIRST DIVISION.

  The head more or less elongated, the parietal bones widest at the base
  and gradually approaching to each other as they ascend, and the
  condyls of the lover jaw being on the same line with the upper molar
  teeth.


To this division belong the greater number of the

WILD DOGS.

The wild dog, as existing in considerable numbers or communities, seems
to be nearly extirpated in the southern parts of Europe; but there are
several cases on record, of dogs having assumed native independence. A
black greyhound bitch, belonging to a gentleman in Scarisbrick, in
Lancashire, though she had apparently been well broken in, and always
well used, ran away from the habitation of her master, and betook
herself to the woods. She killed a great number of hares and made free
with the sheep, and became an intolerable nuisance to the neighbourhood.
She was occasionally seen, and the depredations that were committed were
brought home to her. Many were the attempts made to entrap or destroy
her, but in vain: for more than six months she eluded the vigilance of
her pursuers. At length she was observed to creep into a hole in an old
barn. She was caught as she came out, and the barn being searched three
whelps were found, which, very foolishly, were destroyed.

The bitch evinced the utmost ferocity, and, although well secured,
attempted to seize every one who approached her. She was, however,
dragged home and treated with kindness. By degrees her ferocity abated.
In the course of two months, she became perfectly reconciled to her
original abode, and, a twelve-month afterwards (1822), she ran
successfully several courses. There was still a degree of wildness in
her appearance; but, although at perfect liberty, she seemed to be
altogether reconciled to a domestic life.

In 1784 a dog was left by a smuggling vessel on the coast of
Northumberland. He soon began to worry the sheep for his subsistence,
and did so much mischief that he caused very considerable alarm. He was
frequently pursued by hounds and greyhounds; but when the dogs came up
he lay upon his back as if supplicating for mercy, and in that position
they would never hurt him. He therefore lay quietly until the hunters
approached, when he made off without being followed by the hounds until
they were again excited to the pursuit. He one day led them 30 miles in
this way. It was more than three months before he was caught and was
then shot [1].

A dog with every character of the wild one has occasionally been seen in
some of the forests of Germany, and among the Pyrenean mountains; but he
has rarely been found gregarious there. In the country on the eastern
side of the Gulf of Venice wild dogs are more frequent. They increase in
the Austrian and Turkish dominions, and are found on almost every part
of the coast of the Black Sea, but even there they rarely gather in
flocks: they do not howl in concert, as the wolf; nor are they the
precursors of other and larger beasts, like the jackal. Most of these
dogs have the muzzle and head elongated, the ears erect, triangular, and
small, the body and neck large and muscular, and the tail short, but
with a brush of crisped hair. In many parts of Arabia the wild dog--or
'dakhun'--is occasionally found. In Persia, they are most decidedly
congregated together, and still more so in almost every part of India
[2].

Mr. Hodgson has favoured the Zoological Society with an account of


THE WILD DOG OF NEPAL,

the 'búánsú', and, finding it more or less prevailing through the whole
of Northern India, and even southward of the coast of Coromandel, he
thought that he had discovered the primitive race of the dog. This is a
point that can never be decided.

  "These dogs hunt their prey by night, as well as by day, in packs of
  from six to ten individuals, maintaining the chase more by the scent
  than by the eye, and generally succeeding by dint of strength and
  perseverance. While hunting, they bark like the hound, yet the bark is
  peculiar, and equally unlike that of the cultivated breeds of dogs,
  and the cries of the jackal and the fox."

Bishop Heber gives the following account of them.

  "They are larger and stronger than a fox, which in the circumstances
  of form and fur they much resemble. They hunt, however, in packs, give
  tongue like dogs, and possess an exquisite scent. They make of course
  tremendous havoc among the game in these hills; but that mischief they
  are said amply to repay by destroying wild beasts, and even tigers."
  [3]

Wild dogs are susceptible of certain social combinations. In Egypt,
Constantinople, and throughout the whole of the East, there are in every
village troops of wandering dogs who belong to no particular person.
Each troop has its own quarter of the place; and if any wander into a
quarter which does not belong to him, its inhabitants unite together and
chase him out. At the Cape of Good Hope there are many dogs
half-starved. On going from home the natives induce two or more of these
animals to accompany them, warn them of the approach of any ferocious
animal, and if any of the jackals approach the walls during the night,
they utter the most piercing cries, and at this signal every dog sallies
out, and, uniting together, put the jackals to speedy flight. [4]

The wild Nepal dogs caught when at an adult age make no approach towards
domestification; but a young one, which Mr. Hodgson obtained when it was
not more than a month old, became sensible to caresses, and manifested
as much intelligence as any sporting dog of the same age. [5]

Captain T. Williamson gives an interesting account of the ferocious
character of some of these wild dogs.

  "They have considerable resemblance to the jackal in form. They are
  remarkably savage, and frequently will approach none but their
  'doonahs' or keepers, not allowing their own masters to come near
  them. Some of them are very fleet; but they are not to be depended
  upon in coursing; for they are apt suddenly to give up the chase when
  it is a severe one, and, indeed, they will too often prefer a sheep or
  a goat to a hare. In hog-hunting they are more valuable. It seems to
  suit their temper, and they appear to enjoy the snapping and the
  snarling, incident to that species of sports."

He says that many persons affect to treat the idea of degeneration in
quadrupeds with ridicule; but all who have been any considerable time
resident in India must be satisfied that dogs of European breed become,
after every successive generation, more and more similar to the pariah,
or indigenous dog of that country. The hounds are the most rapid in
their decline, and, except in the form of their ears, they are very much
like many of the village curs. Greyhounds and pointers also rapidly
decline, although with occasional exceptions. Spaniels and terriers
deteriorate less, and spaniels of eight or nine generations, and without
a cross from Europe, are not only as good as, but far more beautiful
than, their ancestors. The climate is too severe for mastiffs, and they
do not possess sufficient stamina; but, crossed by the East Indian
greyhound, they are invaluable in hunting the hog [6].

Colonel Sykes, at one of the meetings of the Zoological Society,
produced a specimen of


THE WILD DOG OF DAKHUN

or Deccan, a part of India far to the south of Nepâl, and gave the
following description of this supposed primitive dog:

  "Its head is compressed and elongated, but its muzzle not very sharp.
  The eyes are oblique, the pupils round, and the 'irides' light-brown.
  The expression of the countenance is that of a coarse ill-natured
  Persian greyhound, without any resemblance to the jackal, the fox, or
  the wolf. The ears are long, erect, and somewhat rounded at the top.
  The limbs remarkably large and strong in relation to the bulk of the
  animal. The size is intermediate between the wolf and the jackal. The
  neck long, the body elongated, and the entire dog of a red-brown
  colour. None of the domesticated dogs of Dakhun are common in Europe,
  but those of Dakhun and Nepâl are very similar in all their
  characters. There is also a dog in Dakhun with hair so short as to
  make him appear naked. It is called the 'polugar' dog."


THE WILD DOG OF THE MAHRATTAS

possesses a similar conformation; and the fact is, that the East Indian
wild dog is essentially the same in every part of that immense extent of
country. There is no more reason, however, for concluding that it was
the primitive dog, than for conferring on the Indian cattle the same
honour among the ruminants. The truth of the matter is that we have no
guide what was the original breed in any country. The lapse of 4000
years would effect strange alterations in the breeds.  The common name
of this dog, in the track lying between South Bahar and the Mahratta
frontier towards Maghore, is


DHOLE,

the 'Chryseus Scylex' of Hamilton Smith.

Captain Williamson, in his Oriental Field Sports, gives the following
account of the Dholes:

  "They are to be found chiefly, or only, in the country from Midnapore
  to Chamu, and even there are not often to be met with. They are of the
  size of a small greyhound. Their countenance is enlivened by unusually
  brilliant eyes. Their body, which is slender and deep-chested, is
  thinly covered by a coat of hair of a reddish-brown or bay colour. The
  tail is dark towards its extremity. The limbs are light, compact, and
  strong, and equally calculated for speed and power. They resemble many
  of the common pariah dogs in form, but the singularity of their colour
  and marks at once demonstrates an evident distinction.

  "These dogs are said to be perfectly harmless if unmolested. They do
  not willingly approach persons; but, if they chance to meet any in
  their course, they do not show any particular anxiety to escape. They
  view the human race rather objects of curiosity, than either of
  apprehension or enmity. The natives who reside near the Ranochitty and
  Katcunsandy passes, in which vicinity the 'dholes' may frequently be
  seen, describe them as confining their attacks entirely to wild
  animals, and assert that they will not prey on sheep, goats, &c.; but
  others, in the country extending southward from Jelinah and
  Mechungunge, maintain that cattle are frequently lost by their
  depredations. I am inclined to believe that the 'dhole' is not
  particularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, and a
  meal is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighbouring village.

  "The peasants likewise state that the 'dhole' is eager in proportion
  to the size and powers of the animal he hunts, preferring the elk to
  every other kind of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It
  is probable that the 'dhole' is the principal check on the
  multiplication of the tiger; and, although incapable individually, or
  perhaps in small numbers, to effect the destruction of so large and
  ferocious an animal, may, from their custom of hunting in packs,
  easily overcome any smaller beast found in the wilds of India.

  "They run mute, except that they sometimes utter a whimpering kind of
  note, similar to that sometimes expressed by dogs when approaching
  their prey. This may be expressive of their own gratification, or
  anxiety, or may serve as a guide to other 'dholes' to join in the
  chase. The speed of the 'dhole' is so strongly marked in his form as
  to render it probable no animal in the catalogue of game could escape
  him for any distance. Many of the 'dholes' are destroyed in these
  contests; for the tiger, the elk, and the boar, and even many of the
  smaller classes of game are capable of making a most obstinate
  defence. Hence the breed of the 'dholes' is much circumscribed."


THE THIBET DOG.

Mr. Bennett, in his scientific and amusing description of the Zoological
Gardens, gave the best account we have of this noble dog, and our
portrait is a most faithful likeness of him. He is bred in the
table-land of the Himalaya mountains bordering on Thibet. The Bhoteas,
by whom many of them are carefully reared, come down to the low
countries at certain seasons of the year to sell their borax and musk.
The women remain at home, and they and the flocks are most sedulously
guarded by these dogs. They are the defenders of almost every
considerable mansion in Thibet. In an account of an embassy to the court
of the Teshoo Llama in Thibet, the author says, that he had to pass by a
row of wooden cages containing a number of large dogs, fierce, strong,
and noisy. They were natives of Thibet, and, whether savage by nature or
soured by confinement, they were so impetuously furious that it was
unsafe even to approach their dens. Every writer who describes these
dogs, speaks of their noble size, and their ferocity, and antipathy to
strangers.

It is said, however, that the Thibet dog rapidly degenerates when
removed from its native country, and certainly the specimens which have
reached the Zoological Gardens exhibited nothing of ferocity. The one
that was in that menagerie had a noble and commanding appearance; but he
never attempted to do any injury.

The colour of the Thibet dog is of a deep black, slightly clouded on the
sides, his feet alone and a spot over each eye being of a full tawny or
bright brown hue. He has the broad short truncated muzzle of the
mastiff, and the lips are still more deeply pendulous. There is also a
singular general looseness of the skin on every part of him.


THE PARIAH.

There are several varieties of this dog. There is a wild breed very
numerous in the jungles and in some of the lower ranges of the Himalaya
mountains. They usually hunt in packs, and it is not often that their
prey escapes them. They generally are very thin, and of a reddish-brown
colour, with sharp-pointed ears, deep chest, and tucked-up flanks. Many
persons hunt with these dogs singly, and they are very useful. They
bring the hog to bay, or indicate the course that he has taken, or
distract his attention when the sportsman is at hand.

There is also in every inhabited part of the country the poor desolate
pariah,--unowned by any one,--daring to enter into no house, but
wandering about, and picking up a living in any way that he can. He is,
however, of a superior race to the wild dog, and belongs to the second
class of the dog, although mentioned here in order that we may
altogether quit the dog of India. They are neglected by the Hindoos; but
the Mohammedans of India, and other strangers, consider it an act of
charity to throw out occasionally a morsel of food to them. They are
most of them mongrels; but the benevolent Bishop Heber does them no more
than justice when he says that he

  "was forcibly struck at finding the same dog-like and amiable
  qualities in these neglected animals as in their more fortunate
  brethren in Europe."

Colonel Sykes says of these outcasts that among the pariahs is
frequently found the turnspit-dog. There is also a small petted variety
of the pariah, usually of a white colour, and with long silky hair. This
animal is taught to carry flambeaux and lanterns.

According to Captain Williamson, in some of the ditches of the Carnatic
forts, alligators are purposely kept, and all the pariah dogs found in
the forts are thrown into the ditches as provision for these monsters.
Some persons who have kept tigers in cages have adopted the same means
of supply for their royal captives, putting the poor pariah through an
aperture made for the purpose in the cage; and they justify themselves
by asserting that they thus get rid of a troublesome breed of curs, most
of which are unappropriated, and which being numerous are very
troublesome to passengers, often wantonly biting them, and raising a
yelling noise at night, that sets all attempts to rest at defiance.

It did not always happen that the tiger killed the pariah put into his
cage.

  "I knew an instance," says Captain Williamson, "of one that was
  destined for the tiger's daily meal, standing on the defensive in a
  manner that completely astonished both the tiger and the spectator. He
  crept into a corner, and whenever the tiger approached seized him by
  the lip or the neck, making him roar most piteously. The tiger,
  however, impelled by hunger,--for all supply of food was purposely
  withheld,--would renew the attack. The result was ever the same. At
  length the tiger began to treat the dog with more deference, and not
  only allowed him to partake of the mess of rice and milk furnished
  daily for his subsistence, but even refrained from any attempt lo
  disturb him. The two animals at length became reconciled to each
  other, and a strong attachment was formed between them. The dog was
  then allowed ingress and egress through the aperture; and, considering
  the cage as his own, he left it and returned to it just as he thought
  proper. When the tiger died he moaned the loss of his companion for a
  considerable period."

A wild variety exists in Sumatra.  It is described by Cuvier as

  "possessing the countenance of a fox, the eyes oblique, the ears
  rounded and hairy, the muzzle of a foxy-brown colour, the tail bushy
  and pendulous, very lively, running with the head lifted high, and the
  ears straight."

This animal can scarcely be rendered tractable, and even when he is
apparently tamed can rarely be depended upon.

As we proceed through the Indian Archipelago, towards Australasia, we
skirt the coast of Java. Every Javanese of rank has large packs of dogs
with which he hunts the muntjak, the deer of that country. The dogs are
led in strings by the attendants until they scent the prey: they are
then unloosed, while the sportsmen follow, but not at the speed which
would distinguish the British sportsman. The animal is generally found
at bay. The male muntjak usually exhibits considerable courage, and
probably several of the dogs have been wounded by his tusks. As soon as
they come up every gun is discharged, and the animal almost immediately
drops. At other times the mounted sportsmen attack them with a spear or
sword. Generally, the muntjak does not go off like the stag in any
direct track, but takes a circular course, and soon returns to the spot
whence it was started. It perhaps makes several of these circles, and at
length entangles itself in a thicket, where it is secured.

These dogs are the indigenous breed of the island, the body lank, the
ears erect, ferocious in their disposition, and with very little
attachment to their masters. Such is the account given of them by Dr.
Horsfield.


THE DINGO, AUSTRALASIAN, OR NEW HOLLAND DOG.

The newly discovered southern continent was, and some of it still
continues to be, overrun by the native wild dogs. Dampier describes
them, at the close of the last century, as

  "beasts like the hungry wolves, lean like so many skeletons, and being
  nothing but skin and bone."

It was not until the publication of Governor Phillip's voyage to Botany
Bay, that any accurate description or figure of this dog could be
obtained. He approaches in appearance to the largest kind of shepherd's
dog. The head is elongated, the forehead flat, and the ears short and
erect, or with a slight direction forwards. The body is thickly covered
with hair of two kinds--the one woolly and gray, the other silky and of
a deep yellow or fawn colour. The limbs are muscular, and, were it not
for the suspicious yet ferocious glare of the eye, he might pass for a
handsome dog. The Australasian dog, according to M. Desmarest, resembles
in form and in the proportion of his limbs the common shepherd's dog. He
is very active and courageous, covered in some parts with thick hair
woolly and gray, in other parts becoming of a yellowish-red colour, and
under the belly having a whitish hue. When he is running, the head is
lifted more than usual in dogs, and the tail is carried horizontally. He
seldom barks. Mr. Bennett observes that

  "dogs in a state of nature never bark. They simply whine, howl, or
  growl. The explosive noise of the bark is only found among those that
  are domesticated."

Sonini speaks of the shepherds' dogs in the wilds of Egypt as not having
this faculty; and Columbus found the dogs which he had previously
carried to America, almost to have lost their propensity to bark.

He does, however, occasionally bark, and has the same kind of snarling
voice which the larger dogs generally have. The Australasian dogs that
have been brought to Europe have usually been of a savage and
untractable disposition.

There are several of the Australasian dogs in the gardens of the
Zoological Society of London. One of them has been an inmate of that
establishment nine years, others more than five years; but not an
individual has acquired the bark of the other dogs by which they are
surrounded. When a stranger makes his appearance, or when the hour of
feeding arrives, the howl of the Australasian is the first sound that is
heard, and it is louder than all the rest.

If some of them have thrown off a portion of their native ferocity,
others retain it undiminished. A bitch and two of her whelps, nearly
half grown--a male and female--had inhabited the same cage from the time
that the young ones were born. Some cause of quarrel occurred on a
certain night, and the two bitches fell upon the dog and perfectly
destroyed him. There was not a limb left whole. A stronger instance of
the innate ferocity of this breed could scarcely be given. Even in their
native country all attempts perfectly to domesticate them have failed;
for they never lose an opportunity to devour the poultry or attack the
sheep. Every domesticated dog coming within their reach was immediately
destroyed. One that was brought to England broke his chain--scoured the
surrounding country--and, before dawn, had destroyed several sheep; and
another attacked, and would have destroyed, an ass, if he had not been
prevented.

Mr. Oxley, Surveyor-General of New South Wales, however, gives an
interesting account of the mutual attachment between two of the native
and wild New Holland dingos.

  "About a week ago we killed a native dog, and threw his body on a
  small bush. On returning past the same spot to-day, we found the body
  removed three or four yards from the bush, and the female in a
  dying-state lying close beside it: she had apparently been there from
  the day the dog was killed. Being now so weakened and emaciated as to
  be unable to move on our approach, it was deemed a mercy to despatch
  her."

When Van Diemen Land began to be colonized by Europeans, the losses
sustained by the settlers by the ravages of the wild dogs were almost
incredible. The districts infested by these animals were principally
those appropriated to sheep, and there was scarcely a flock that did not
suffer. It was in vain to double the number of shepherds, to watch by
night and by day, or to have fires at every quarter of the fold; for
these animals would accomplish their object by stratagem or by force.
One colony lost no fewer than 1200 sheep and lambs in three months;
another colony lost 700.

The ravagers were either the native wild dogs of the island, or those
that had escaped from their owners. They seemed to have apportioned the
country into different districts, each troop having its allotted range.
At length the evil became so great that a general meeting of the
colonists was convened. The concluding sentences of the speech of
Lieutenant Hill forcibly express the extent of the evil.

  "The country is free from bush-rangers: we are no longer surrounded
  and threatened by the natives. We have only one enemy left in the
  field; but that enemy strikes at the very root of our welfare, and
  through him the stream of our prosperity is tainted at its very
  source."

The colonists were then few, but they cordially united in the endeavour
to extirpate this formidable enemy; and, although the wild dog is still
found in the interior of the island, he is comparatively seldom seen,
and his ravages have nearly ceased.


THE CANIS AUSTRALIS--KARÁRAHÉ, NEW ZEALAND DOG.

A tradition exists in New Zealand of this dog having been given to the
natives two or three centuries ago by a number of divinities who made
their descent on these shores, probably Juan Fernandez and his
companions. The sagacious animal has, however, dwindled down to the
lowest rank of his family, but ill usage has not altogether destroyed
his worth. In New Zealand he is the safeguard of every village. Should
the slightest alarm exist, he is the first to ascertain the cause of it,
and many families have saved themselves by flight, or have taken arms in
self-defence against the incursions of predatory bands. The New
Zealanders are therefore kind in their treatment of the dog, except that
they occasionally destroy him for his hide.

The name formerly given to the New Zealand dog was 'pero', which in
some measure substantiates the supposition of Juan Fernandez having
visited the country--'perro', in the Spanish language, being the
name of a dog.

We will now turn to the northern parts of America. The races of wild
dogs are there considerably limited, both in number and the districts
which they occupy.

In the elevated sandy country north of the source of the Missouri,
inhabited by the "Stone" and the "Black Foot" Indians, is a doubtful
species of dogs--wolves they used to be called--who hunt in large packs
and are exceedingly swift; whose bark is similar to that of the domestic
dog, but who burrow in the ground, and eagerly run to their holes, when
the gun of the hunter is heard.

[Our author evidently, in the above remarks, confounds the Louisiana
marmot, Arctomys Ludovicianus or Prairie dog, with the Canis Latrans of
Say, as he certainly would not make us believe that such harmless
animals as the marmot should associate themselves in packs to hunt the
deer or other quadrupeds; neither would he tell us that so different an
animal as the Canis Latrans could burrow in the ground and retreat to
their holes when surprised by the hunter. The Louisiana Marmot,
improperly called Prairie dog, is about sixteen inches long, and lives
in extended villages or excavations surmounted by mounds. These
communities often comprise several thousand inhabitants, whose sole food
consists in the scanty herbage surrounding the settlement, as they
seldom extend their excursions beyond a half-mile from their burrows for
fear of the wolves, and many other enemies.

The Canis Latrans, on the other hand, is quite a large and savage
animal, and frequently unites in bands to run down deer or buffalo
calves, but as for living under ground in burrows, it is quite out of
reason to suppose such a thing possible with this quadruped, who
secretes himself in the depths of the forest, and appears on the open
plain only when in pursuit of game.--L.] The habit of selecting large,
open, sandy plains, and burrowing there,  extends to the greater part of
the American wild dogs.

[We have been credibly informed by several gentlemen, familiar with the
country of Mexico, that there is a diminutive species of dog running
wild, and burrowing in the ground as rabbits, in the neighbourhood of
Santa Fe and Chihuahua. A gentleman who has seen these animals, states
that there is no doubt as to their identity, having met with them in a
state of domestication, when they exhibited all the actions and manners
of a French lap dog, such as come from Cuba or other West India Islands.

They are of every variety of hue, and resort to their burrows whenever
disturbed in their natural haunts. What they subsist on it is difficult
to say, as they are too harmless and insignificant to attack any other
animal beyond a mouse or a snail. They are represented as being very
difficult to tame, but when domesticated show no disposition to return
to their former mode of life. The lady of the Mexican Minister, when in
this city, had one of these dogs as a boudoir pet; it was lively and
barked quite fiercely. We have not been able to ascertain whether they
bark in their natural state. The breed of dog cultivated in China for
food alone, are fed entirely upon rice meal and other farinaceous
articles, having no relish whatever for flesh or other strong
aliment.--L.]

In some parts of North America whole troops of horses are guarded and
kept together by dogs. If any of the troop attempt to steal away, the
dog will immediately fly after the horse, head him, and bring him back
to his companions.

[To show the necessity of having dogs for this purpose, as well as to
guard the flocks of sheep, we need only mention that it is no uncommon
thing for a Mexican to own several thousand horses, besides an immense
number of cattle.

Mr. Kendall, in his Santa Fé expedition, states that the proprietress of
one hacienda, a widow, and comparatively poor when the wonderful wealth
of her ancestors is considered, now owns fifty thousand horses and
mules, beside herds of cattle and sheep, and that the pasture ground
extended for fifty miles on either side of the road.

One of the former owners of this immense estate, a short time previous
to the revolution, sent as a present to a Spanish colonel, just arrived
with his regiment of dragoons, a thousand white horses, nearly all of
the same age, and every one raised on this prolific hacienda.--L.]

The wild dogs abound in many parts of South America. In some of the
forests on the banks of the Oronoko they multiply to an annoying degree.
The Cayotte of Mexico, described by some as a wolf, and bearing no
slight resemblance to that animal, belongs to the South American wild
dogs, as do also the Aguara dogs of every kind. These wanderers of the
woods are, however, diminished in numbers in every part of that
continent, and are replaced by other kinds, many of which have been
imported from Europe and domesticated.

[There is no country in the world more cursed with worthless curs than
that of Mexico and the other southern republics; the cities and villages
actually swarm with these animals, and produce no little vexation to
travellers, who speak of their eternal yelping and barking in the most
indignant terms.

Mr. Kendall, on entering San Antonio, says,

  "From every house some half dozen Mexican curs would jump forth and
  greet us with a chorus of yelps and barks, and before we had fairly
  entered the town the canine hue and cry was general. Those who have
  for the first time entered a Mexican town or city must have been
  struck with the unusual number of dogs, and annoyed by their incessant
  barking; but the stranger soon learns that they spend all their
  courage in barks--they seldom bite."--L.]

Many of the Indian tribes have succeeded in reclaiming the dog of the
woods, and have made him a useful although not a perfectly attached
servant.

The dogs of the Falkland Islands, and the Indian North American dogs
generally, are brown or gray-coloured varieties of the wild dog; but as
they are nearly exterminated, will occupy little space. It has already
been stated that in Egypt and in Nubia we have the first records of the
dog. Many superstitious notions were connected with him, and divine
honours were paid to him. Those times are passed away, and he is
regarded with aversion by the Moslem of the present day. He is an
outcast. He obtains a scanty living by the offal which he gathers in the
towns, or he is become a perfect wild dog, and scours the country for
his prey. His modern name is the 'deab'. He is of considerable size,
with a round muzzle, large head, small erect ears, and long and hairy
tail, spotted with black, white, and yellow, and having a fierce wolfish
aspect. These dogs are not, however, numerous; but the mischief which
they do is often great, whether in pairs they burrow in the earth, or
associate with others and hunt in troops. [7]

In Nubia is a smaller dog of the same kind, which never burrows. It
lives on small animals and birds, and rarely enters any of the towns. A
similar dog, according to Colonel Hamilton Smith, inhabits the
neighbourhood of the Cape, and particularly the Karroo or Wilderness. It
is smaller than either of the others, and lives among bushes or under
prominent rocks. Others, although not identified with the jackal, yet
associating with him, inhabit the Uplands of Gambia and Senegal.

On the Gold Coast, the dog is used and prized as an article of food. He
is fattened and driven to market as the European drives his sheep and
hogs. The dog is even more valued than the sheep for human subsistence,
and is deemed the greatest luxury that can be placed even on the royal
table.

In Loango, or Lower Guinea, is a town from which the African wild dogs
derive their name--the 'dingo'. They hunt in large packs. They
fearlessly attack even the elephant, and generally destroy him. In the
neighbourhood of the Cape, the country is nearly cleared of wild beasts;
but in Cape Town there are a great number of lean and miserable dogs,
who howl about the streets at night, quitting their dens and
lurking-places, in quest of offal. No great while ago, the wolves and
hyaenas used to descend and dispute the spoil with the dogs, while the
town resounded with their hideous howlings all the night long.

This will be a proper place to refer to the numerous accounts that are
given both in ancient and modern times of the immolation of dogs, and of
their being used for food. They were sacrificed at certain periods by
the Greeks and Romans to almost all their deities, and particularly to
Mars, Pluto, and Pan, to Minerva, Proserpine, and Lucina, and also to
the moon, because the dog by his barking disturbed all charms and
spells, and frightened away all spectres and apparitions. The Greeks
immolated many dogs in honour of Hecate, because by their baying the
phantoms of the lower world were disturbed. A great number of dogs were
also destroyed in Samothrace in honour of the same goddess. Dogs were
periodically sacrificed in February, and also in April and in May; also
to the goddess Rubigo, who presided over the corn, and the Bona Dea,
whose mysterious rites were performed on Mount Aventine. The dog
Cerberus was supposed to be watching at the feet of Pluto, and a dog and
a youth were periodically sacrificed to that deity. The night when the
Capitol had nearly been destroyed was annually celebrated by the cruel
scourging of a dog in the principal public places, even to the death of
the animal.

[As on a certain occasion, the dogs who had the Capitol in custody, did
not bark and give warning when the Gauls attempted to scale the wails,
there is a custom annually observed at Rome, to transfix certain dogs to
forks, and thus crucified, hang them on an elder tree as examples of
justice. (Book 29, chap. IV. Pliny.)-L.]

Many of the Greek and Roman epicures were strangely fond of the flesh of
the dog, and those who ought to have known much better encouraged the
use of this food. Galen speaks of it in the strongest terms of praise.
Hippocrates says that the meat of old dogs is of a warm and dry quality,
giving strength to the eater. Ananias, the poet, speaks of dog's flesh
served up with that of the hare and fox. Virgil recommends that the
fatted dog should be served up with whey or butter; and Dioscorides, the
physician, says that they should be fed on the whey that remains after
the making of cheese.

[Independent of the many useful and interesting qualities that
necessarily endeared this animal to the ancients, he had yet stronger
claims upon them, in the prophylactic properties of different portions
of his body. Pliny, Hippocrates, Aristotle and others, speak of various
preparations made of his flesh, for the cure of many distempers. The
first-mentioned writer observes, that the ashes of burnt dogs, made into
a liniment, with oil, will make an excellent application to the
eye-brows, to turn them black. We doubt not that an analogous compound,
if proved to be really efficacious, might he introduced to the notice of
the belles of our own time, or meet with extensive sale for dyeing the
pagoties and mustachios of the modern dandy. This quaint philosopher
also recommends the same substance as a healing salve, for malignant
wounds, and the internal use of the same article as a preventive or cure
of hydrophobia and other distempers. (Book 28, chap, XI. and X.)--L.]

Before Christianity was established among the Danes, on every ninth year
at the winter solstice, a monstrous sacrifice of 99 dogs was effected.
In Sweden the sacrifice was still worse. On each of 9 successive days,
99 dogs were destroyed. This sacrifice of the dog, however, gave way to
one as numerous and as horrible. On every 9th year, 99 human victims
were immolated, and the sons of the reigning tyrant among the rest, in
order that the life of the monarch might be prolonged. [8]

On the other hand, the dog was frequently the executioner; and, from an
early period, whether in the course of war or the mock administration of
justice, thousands of poor wretches were torn to pieces by animals
trained to that horrible purpose.

Many of the Indians of North America, and almost of the present day, are
fond of the flesh of the dog.

Captain Carver, in his Travels in North America in 1766, 1767, and 1768,
describes the admission of an Indian into one of the horrible societies
of that country.

  "The dishes being brought near to me," says he, "I perceived that they
  consisted of dog's flesh, and I was informed that at all their grand
  feasts they never made use of any other food. The new candidate
  provides fat dogs for the festival, if they can be procured at any
  price. They ate the flesh; but the head and the tongue were left
  sticking on a pole with the front towards the east. When any noxious
  disease appeared among them, a dog was killed, the intestines were
  wound between two poles, and every man was compelled to pass between
  them."

The Nandowepia Indians also eat dog's flesh as an article of luxury, and
not from any want or scarcity of other animal food; for they have the
bear, buffalo, elk, deer, beaver, and racoon.

Professor Keating, in his interesting work on the expedition to Peter's
River, states that he and a party of American officers were regaled in a
large pavilion on buffalo meat, and 'tepsia', a vegetable boiled in
buffalo grease, and the flesh of three dogs kept for the occasion, and
without any salt. They partook of the flesh of the dogs with a mixture
of curiosity and reluctance, and found it to be remarkably fat, sweet,
and palatable, divested of any strong taste, and resembling the finest
Welsh mutton, but of a darker colour. So strongly rooted, however, are
the prejudices of education, that few of them could be induced to eat
much of it.

The feast being over, great care was taken to replace the bones in their
proper places in the dish, after which they were carefully washed and
buried, as a token of respect to the animals generally, and because
there was the belief among them that at some future time they would
return again to life. Well-fattened puppies are frequently sold; and an
invitation to a feast of dog's meat is the greatest distinction that can
be offered to a stranger by any of the Indian nations east of the Rocky
Mountains.

[Notwithstanding the Indians occasionally eat their dogs either through
necessity or when they wish to pay a marked tribute of respect to their
gods, or prepare a feast of friendship with strangers, they value them
very highly, and do not by any means consider their flesh superior to
that of the buffaloes or other animals of the chase. Mr. Catlin remarks,
that "the dog, amongst all Indian tribes, is more esteemed and more
valued than amongst any part of the civilized world: the Indian, who has
more time to devote to his company, and whose untutored mind more nearly
assimilates to that of his faithful domestic, keeps him closer company
and draws him nearer his heart: they hunt together and are equal sharers
in the chase--their bed is one; and on the rocks and on their coats of
arms they carve his image as the symbol of fidelity." (Vol. I., p. 230.)

On visiting the Sioux, they prepared for this gentleman as a token of
regard a dog feast, previous to partaking of which they addressed him in
a manner that plainly exhibits the veneration in which they held these
faithful animals, at the same time forcibly demonstrating the peculiar
circumstances under which they alone are willing to destroy them:

"My father, I hope you will have pity upon us; we are very poor. We
offer you to-day not the best we have got; for we have a plenty of good
buffalo hump and marrow; but we give you our hearts in this feast, we
have killed our faithful dogs to feed you, and the Great Spirit will
seal our friendship. I have no more to say." (Vol. I., p. 229.)--L.]

As a counterpart to much of this, the ancient Hyrcanians may be
mentioned, who lived near the Caspian Sea, and who deemed it one of the
strongest expressions of respect to leave the corpse of their deceased
friends to be torn and devoured by dogs. Every man was provided with a
certain number of these animals, as a living tomb for himself at some
future period, and these dogs were remarkable for their fierceness.

[Not only the Hyrcanians but most of the people dwelling on or near the
Caspian sea, preserved this race or a similarly formidable one, more
particularly to devour their dead; it being considered more propitiatory
to the Gods, and more flattering to the spirits of the deceased, to make
this disposition of the corpse, than consigning it to the gloomy grave
or funeral pile.

This custom is noticed by Theodoret as being pursued by the inhabitants
of those parts, and was not abolished till after their adherence to
Christianity.--L.]


DOMESTICATED DOGS OF THE FIRST DIVISION

Some of the readers of this work may possibly recollect three beautiful
dogs of this species in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London,
which afforded a perfect illustration of the elongated head of the dogs
belonging to Cuvier's first section. Mr. Bennett, the Secretary of the
Society, gave an interesting account of them in 1835, derived from the
observation of Sir John Franklin and Dr. Richardson.

The elongation and sharpness of the muzzle, and the small capacity of
the skull, first attract attention. The dog was doubtless fitted for its
situation, where its duty is to hunt by sight after the moose or
rein-deer, but would have been comparatively worthless if he was to be
guided by the scent. Its erect ears, widened at the base and pointed at
the top, gave it an appearance of vivacity and spirit. Its depth of
chest, and tucked-up flank, and muscular quarters, marked it as a dog of
speed, while its light frame, and the length of the toes, and wideness
of web between them, seem to depict the kind of surface over which it
was to bound. It is not designed to seize and to hold any animal of
considerable bulk; it bounds over the snow without sinking, if the
slightest crust is formed upon it, and eagerly overtakes and keeps at
bay the moose or the rein-deer until the hunters arrive. This animal
furnishes a beautiful illustration of adaptation for a particular
purpose.

The hair of these dogs is white, with patches of grayish-black and
brown. They are known only in the neighbourhood of the Mackenzie River
and of the Great Bear Lake in North America They appear to be
good-tempered and easily manageable, and soon become familiar even with
strangers. They are most valuable to the Indians, who live almost
entirely on the produce of the chase. In their native country they never
bark, but utter a whine and howl resembling that of the Esquimaux dog;
yet one of the three, who was born a few days after its parents arrived
at the gardens, while it whined and howled occasionally with its
parents, at other times uttered the perfect bark of its companions of
various breeds around it.

[It is the general belief among the Indians and others who are familiar
with this dog, that his origin is connected, in some way, with the
Arctic Fox, Canis Lagopus, as he so much resembles this animal in his
general appearance and habits.

This fox when taken is easily tamed, a few days of captivity being often
sufficient to render him quite docile, and ample opportunities have thus
been afforded for studying his peculiarities.

Although the cross between the wolf and dog may be considered
established beyond controversy, the testimony is not so very conclusive
as regards the fox. The most authentic instances on record are perhaps
those mentioned by Mr. Daniel, who states that Mr. Tattersall had a
terrier bitch, who bred by a fox, and the produce again had whelps by
dogs, also that the woodman of Mongewell manor had a bitch, the
offspring of a tame dog-fox, by a shepherd's cur, and she again had
puppies by a dog; he does not state, however, that he knew these facts
personally; but concludes from these two instances, that the fox species
may be fairly added to the other supposed original stocks of dogs.
(Daniel's Rural Sports, vol. 1. p. 15.)

Mr. Collinson also states, that it is certain that the Siberian dog not
only copulates with the wolf, but with the fox also. Notwithstanding
this assertion, he is not able to cite a single instance, but on the
other hand is forced to acknowledge, that he never met with any person
who had seen the coupling of these two animals. The peasants of that
country have a small dog, which, from their foxy appearance, they term
fox-dogs. Our Indian dogs, also, resemble somewhat the wolves and foxes,
the original inhabitants of this continent, while the canine family
throughout the east is strongly marked with the jackal, the wild
aborigines of that portion of the world.

These dogs, when fighting, do not shake their antagonists, like the
perfectly domesticated dog; their teeth are extremely sharp, and when
snarling, the skin is drawn from the mouth; their bite is more severe,
and they show but little disposition to attack the wolves, although
quite eager in the pursuit of all other game. The Indians had no dogs
previous to the coming of the whites, but depended in a great measure,
when hunting, upon the presence of the wolves, who, by their howlings,
indicated the position of the herds of buffalo or deer, knowing full
well that after the general carnage, they would come in for a full share
of the garbage of these animals.

Harlan, in his Fauna Americana, says,

  "we have very little doubt that the various species of domestic dogs
  are mere varieties of prolific hybrids, produced by the union of the
  wolf with the fox or jackal. A prolific hybrid of this kind once
  produced, the progeny would more readily unite with the congeners of
  either parent, and with each other, and in this manner give rise to
  the innumerable varieties which at the present day are found scattered
  over the face of the earth." (Page 77.)

It is somewhat strange, that no naturalist has, as yet, succeeded in
causing a union between the fox and dog, if the thing be possible. We
ourselves are cognizant of an instance, where every effort was made to
produce an offspring from such a connexion, but to no purpose, although
the terrier bitch was thrice in heat while confined with the fox, and
lived on the most amicable terms with him. We agree with Doct. Godman,
that if a litter has ever been generated by these two animals, they were
hybrids, as nothing to the contrary of an authentic character has been
brought forward, whereas it is well known that the fox always exhibits a
great antipathy and instinctive repugnance to such an union. It is also
reasonable to suppose that if prolific hybrids had at any time been
produced, the breed, from its singular character, would have been
propagated by the fortunate possessor, either from curiosity or utility.
The intestines of the fox are shorter than those of the dog or wolf--L.]


THE ALBANIAN DOG

can be traced to a very remote period of history. Some of the old
authors speak of it as the dog which in the times of ancient mythology
Diana presented to Procris. Pliny describes in enthusiastic terms the
combat of one of them with a lion, and afterwards with an elephant. A
dog very much resembling the ancient stories is yet found in Albania,
and most of the districts of Greece. He is almost as large as a mastiff,
with long and silky hair, the legs being shorter and stronger than those
of the greyhound. He is gentle and tractable with those whom he knows,
and when there is no point of duty at stake; but no bribe can seduce him
from his post when any trust is committed to him.

[This dog, it is very probable, was highly impregnated with molossian
blood, and like that animal, was trained both for war and the chase. It
is rather doubtful, whether the dogs presented to Alexander the Great by
the king of Albania, were those of his own country or some that he had
obtained from other parts. We are inclined to believe that they were
imported dogs, for Pliny distinctly states, that these two were all that
the generous monarch possessed, and if destroyed could not be replaced.
From this circumstance it is natural to suppose that, if these dogs had
been native Albanians, the king would have been able to supply any
reasonable quantity of them, and, therefore, not necessitated to send
this message to Alexander. On the other hand, if these dogs had been of
the pure molossian type, such as were raised in Epirus, it is probable
that their huge dimensions would not have surprised this monarch so
much, as it is reasonable to believe that Alexander would certainly have
seen, if not heard, of dogs so remarkable, belonging to a kingdom in
immediate contiguity with his own. We are, therefore, forced to look to
some other source, from whence came these proud dogs, who alone deigned
to contend with the lion and elephant, and must yield to Strabo, who
states that these animals were of the Indian breed.--L. 15.]


THE GREAT DANISH DOG, CALLED ALSO THE DALMATIAN OR SPOTTED DOG.

The difference between these two breeds consists principally in the
size, the Dalmatian being much smaller than the Danish. The body is
generally white, marked with numerous small round black or reddish-brown
spots. The Dalmatian is said to be used in his native country for the
chase, to be easily broken, and stanch to his work. He has never been
thus employed in England, but is chiefly distinguished by his fondness
for horses, and as being the frequent attendant on the carriages of the
wealthy. To that its office seems to be confined; for it rarely develops
sufficient sense or sagacity to be useful in any of the ordinary offices
of the dog.

[This dog is, perhaps, the tallest of the canine species in existence;
the smaller Dane, or "le braque de Bengal," of the French writers, is
perhaps a cross of this animal with the pointer or hound, or the
original dog degenerated by removal from his native soil. Although these
dogs generally display little or no intelligence, and are, in fact,
denounced by many writers as being incapable of acquiring sufficient
knowledge to make them in any way serviceable for hunting, still we are
led to believe that these latent qualities might be developed in this
breed as well as any other of his particular physical construction.

We had a little Dane in our possession, whom we instructed, with little
trouble, in a variety of tricks; although at first surly and stupid, he
soon exhibited great aptness and pleasure in repeating the various
lessons which we taught him. If he had been younger we might have given
him an opportunity of displaying himself in the field, as we are
confident, from his tractable disposition, that he might have been
tutored, with perseverance, even sufficiently well to stand upon game.
The dogs of Epirus were supposed to have been spotted like the
Dalmatian, if not of the same breed. These dogs may also be the "spotted
hounds" given by Pan to Diana.

Let the little Dane's intellectual abilities be what they may, long
habit and association have so intimately connected him with the stable
and its occupants that he seems no longer fit for any other purpose than
that of following in the wake of the carriages of the wealthy. This he
does with peculiar fondness and singular ingenuity; for, although
constantly by the side or at the heels of the horses, or under the
tongue of the vehicle, his sure retreat when attacked by other dogs, who
seem to have an antipathy for these pampered and fancy attendants on the
affluent, he seldom or never is trod upon, or otherwise injured.

The little Dane is often a good ratter; and a gentleman of this city
informs me that his dogs not only exhibit an attachment to horses in
general, but that one of them has a particular partiality for an old
carriage-horse, with whom he has been intimately associated for many
years, and always greets his return to the stable with every
demonstration of delight, by jumping up and kissing him, &c.--L.]


THE FRENCH MATIN.

('Canis laniarius'). There is considerable difficulty in describing this
variety. The French consider it as the progenitor of all the breeds of
dogs that resemble and yet cannot be perfectly classed with the
greyhound. It should rather be considered as a species in which are
included a variety of dogs,--the Albanian, the Danish, the Irish
greyhound, and almost the pure British greyhound. The head is elongated
and the forehead flat, the ears pendulous towards the tips, and the
colour of a yellowish fawn. This is the usual sheep-dog in France, in
which country he is also employed as a house-dog. He discharges his duty
most faithfully; and, notwithstanding his flat forehead, shows himself
to possess a very high degree of intelligence.

[The French matin we have seen of every variety of colour, being mostly
patched with brown, yellow, grey, black, or white. He is employed both
in France and Germany in hunting the boar and wolf; which savage animals
he fearlessly attacks with courage equal to any dog they possess.--L.]


THE GREYHOUND.

We find no mention of this dog in the early Grecian records. The
'pugnaces' and the 'sagaces' are mentioned; but the 'celeres'--the
swift-footed--are not spoken of as a peculiar breed. The Celtic nations,
the inhabitants of the northern continent of Europe and the Western
Islands, were then scarcely known, and the swift-footed dogs were
peculiar to those tribes. They were not, however, introduced into the
more southern parts of Europe until after the dissolution of the Roman
commonwealth.

The dog is, however, mentioned by Ovid; and his description of coursing
the hare is so accurate that we cannot refrain from inserting it.  We
select a translation of it from Golding.

                                          "I gat me to the knap
  Of this same hill, and there behelde of this strange course the hap,
  In which the beaste seemes one while caught, and ere a man would thinke
  Doth quickly give the grewnd [9] the slip, and from his biting shrinke;
  And, like a wilie fox, he runs not forth directly out,
  Nor makes a winlas over all the champion fields about,
  But, doubling and indenting, still avoydes his enemie's lips,
  An turning short, as swift about as spinning-wheele he wips,
  To disappoint the snatch. The grewnd, pursuing at an inch,
  Doth cote [10] him, never loosing. Continually he snatches
  In vaine, but nothing in his mouth, save only hair, he catches."

There is another sketch by the same poet:

  "As when th' impatient greyhound, slipped from far,
  Bounds o'er the glade to course the fearful hare,
  She in her speed does all her safety lay,
  And he with double speed pursues the prey;
  O'erruns her at the sitting turn, but licks
  His chaps in vain, yet blows upon the flix;
  She seeks the shelter, which the neighbouring covert gives,
  And, gaining it, she doubts if yet she lives." [11]

The English, Scotch, and Irish greyhounds were all of Celtic derivation,
And their cultivation and character correspond with the civilization of
the different Celtic tribes. The dogs that were exported from Britain to
Rome were probably of this kind. Mr. Blaine gives an account of the
progress of these dogs, which seems to be evidently founded on truth.

  "Scotland, a northern locality, has long been celebrated for its
  greyhounds, which are known to be large and wiry-coated. They are
  probably types of the early Celtic greyhounds, which, yielding to the
  influences of a colder climate than that they came from, became coated
  with a thick and wiry hair. In Ireland, as being milder in its
  climate, the frame expanded in bulk, and the coat, although not
  altogether, was yet less crisped and wiry. In both localities, there
  being at that time boars, wolves, and even bears, powerful dogs were
  required. In England these wild beasts were more early exterminated,
  and consequently the same kind of dog was not retained, but, on the
  contrary, was by culture made finer in coat, and of greater beauty in
  form."

[The canis leporarius, or greyhound of the present day, is quite an
inferior animal in point of size, when compared with his forefathers,
who alone were occupied in the chase of the boar, wolf, bear, deer, and
other animals both powerful and savage.

As these wild animals gradually disappeared under the hand of
civilization, these hardy dogs were less wanted; and thus, by slow
degrees, have degenerated into the less powerful, but more beautiful and
symmetrical proportions that we now see. This change, however, has
better adapted him for speed, and the coursing of such quadrupeds as
depend upon nimbleness and activity of motion, to secure their escape.

Owing, in some measure, to the climate, but more particularly to the
inactive life that they lead in this country, so much at variance with
that of England, we can lay claim to but few dogs that would be
considered above mediocrity among British sportsmen. We have seen
several of these dogs which, living in a state of idle luxury, have
degenerated considerably even in the third generation; and we cannot now
recall but one dog, in the possession of a young lady in Philadelphia,
that would at all come up to the English standard of perfection; and
this one is a descendant from a fine imported stock in the second
generation. The ancient Greeks were much devoted to coursing, but
previous to the time of Arrian, their hounds were not a sufficient
match, in point of speed, for the hare, and it was seldom that their
sports were attended with success in the actual capture of this fleet
animal by the dogs alone. If taken at all, it was generally by running
them down in a long chase, or driving them into nets, toils, and other
similar contrivances, as forcibly described in the following lines of
the ancient poet, when extolling the pleasures of a country life.

  "Aut trudit acres hinc et hinc multâ cane
    Apros in obstante plagas,
  Aut amite levi rara leiidit retia,
    Turdis edacibus dolos;
  Pavidumve leporem, et advenam laqueo gruem,
    Jucunda captat præmia."

  (Horace, 'Epode ii.', v. 31.)

Even after the introduction of the Celtic hound, who, as before stated,
was far inferior as regards speed to the present race, it was no easy
matter to take the hare, it being necessary to carry several couples of
dogs into the field, and let them slip at certain intervals in the
chase, so that the fresh dogs might, in this way, overtake the little
animal, already frightened and fatigued by previous exertion.

In reference to this mode of coursing, the younger Xenophon particularly
enjoins that to prevent confusion in the field, naturally arising from
the hunters letting their dogs loose at improper intervals, from
eagerness to see them run,

  "that a steward should be appointed over the sport, should match the
  dogs, and give orders to the field:--if the hare start on this side,
  you and you are to slip, and nobody else; but if on that side, you and
  you: and let strict attention be paid to the orders given."
  (Arrian, chap. xx.)

Alciphron, in his familiar epistles descriptive of the domestic manners
of the Greeks, gives a lively description of a course not very different
from those of the present day, as will be seen in the following extract:

  "In trying whether the young dogs were fit for the chase, I started a
  hare from a little bush; my sons loosed the dogs from the slips. They
  frightened her confoundedly, and were very near taking the game. The
  hare, in her flight, climbed a steep place, and found a retreat in
  some burrow. One of the more spirited of the dogs, pressing close upon
  her, gasping, and expecting to take her in his gripe, went down with
  her into the hole. In endeavouring to pull out the hare, he broke one
  of his fore-legs. I lifted up my good dog, with his lame leg, and
  found the hare half devoured: thus, when I hoped to get something, I
  encountered a serious loss."
  (Letter ix.)

We will close our remarks upon this subject by introducing a few
descriptive lines, selected from one of the very rare English authors
who have attempted a versification of this exciting sport.

  "Yet if for silvan sport thy bosom glow,
  Let thy fleet greyhound urge his flying foe.
  With what delight the rapid course I view!
  How does my eye the circling race pursue!
  He snaps deceitful air with empty jaws;
  The suttle hare darts swift beneath his paws;
  She flys, he stretches, now with nimble bound
  Eager he presses on, but overshoots his ground:
  Then tears with goary mouth the screaming prey."

  ('Gay's Poems', vol i.--'Rural Sports', v. 290),--L.]

Mr. Richardson, in his History of the Greyhound, gives a different
derivation of the name of this dog. He says that the 'greyhound' was of
Grecian origin--'cannis Græcus',--that 'Græcus' was not unfrequently
written 'Græius', and thence was derived the term 'greyhound'. This
derivation, however, is somewhat too far-fetched.

Mention occurs of the greyhound in a very early period of the British
history. He was an inmate of the Anglo-Saxon kennels in the time of
Elfric, king of Mercia. There are paintings of him that can be
satisfactorily traced to the ninth century. In the time of Canute he was
reckoned first in degree of rank among the canine species, and no one
under the degree of a gentleman, 'liberalis', or more properly, perhaps
a 'freeholder', was allowed by the forest laws to keep them. Even he
could not keep them within two miles of a royal forest, unless two of
the toes were cut off and for every mile that an uncut dog was found
within this distance a fine of a shilling was levied on the owner. The
nobleman was rarely seen abroad without his hawk upon his fist, and his
greyhound at his side.

Henry II was passionately fond of them. John spared no expense to
procure good horses and swift hounds, and appears frequently to have
received greyhounds in lieu of money on the issue or removal of grants.
For the renewal of a grant in the year 1203 he received five hundred
marks, ten horses, and ten leashes of greyhounds, and for another, in
1210, one swift running horse and six greyhounds.

The Isle of Dogs, now devoted to purposes of commerce, received its name
from its having been, at this period, the receptacle of the greyhounds
and spaniels of this monarch. It was selected on account of its
contiguity to Waltham and the other royal forests where coursing was a
frequent amusement. For the same purpose he often took up his abode at
Greenwich. [12]

Blount's Ancient Tenures abound with instances of the high repute in
which this dog has ever been held in Great Britain. The holders of land
in the manor of Setene in Kent were compelled, as the condition of their
tenure to Edward I and II, to lend their greyhounds, when this king went
into Gascony, "so long as a pair of shoes of 4d price would last."
Edward III was partial to greyhounds; for when he was engaged in war
with France he took with him sixty couples of them, besides other large
hunting dogs.

Charles I was as fond of the greyhound as his son Charles II was of the
spaniel. Sir Philip Warwick thus writes of that unfortunate monarch;

  "Methinks, because it shows his dislike of a common court vice, it is
  not unworthy the relating of him, that one evening, his dog scratching
  at his door, he commanded me to let in Gipsy; whereupon I took, the
  boldness to say, Sir, I perceive you love a greyhound better than you
  do a spaniel. Yes, says he, for they equally love their masters, and
  yet do not flatter them so much."

On most of the old tombs in the sculpture of which the dog is
introduced, the greyhound is represented lying at the feet of his
master; and an old Welsh proverb says that a gentleman may be known by
his hawk, his horse, and his greyhound.

The following poetical record of the fidelity, prowess, and ill-fate of
Gêlert, the favourite greyhound of Llewellyn Prince of Wales, and
son-in-law to King John, will he read with interest:

  The spearman heard the bugle sound
    And cheerly smiled the morn,
  And many a brach and many a hound
    Obeyed Llewellyn's horn.

  And still as blew a lowder blast,
    And gave a louder cheer,
  "Come, Gêlert! why art thou the last
    Llewellyn's horn to hear?"

  "Oh, where does faithful Gêlert roam?
    The flower of all his race!
  So true, so brave; a lamb at home,
    A lion in the chase?"

  'Twas only at Lewellyn's board
    The faithful Gêlert fed,
  He watched, he served, he cheered his lord,
    And sentinel'd his bed.

  In sooth he was a peerless hound,
    The gift of royal John;
  But now no Gêlert could be found,
    And all the chase rode on.

  And now as over rocks and dells
    The gallant chidings rise,
  All Snowdon's craggy chaos yells
    With many mingled cries.

  That day llewellyn little loved
    The chase of hart or hare;
  And scan and small the booty proved,
    For Gêlert was not there.

  Unpleased Llewellyn homeward hied,
    When near the portal seat
  His truant Gêlert he espied,
    Bounding his lord to greet.

  But when he gained the castle-door,
    Aghast the chieftan stood;
  The hound was smeared with gouts of gore--
    His lips and fangs ran blood.

  Llewellyn gazed with wild surprise:
    Unused such looks to meet,
  His favourite check'd his joyful guise
    And crouched and licked his feet.

  Onward in haste Llewellyn pass'd,
    And on went Gélert too;
  And still where'er his eyes he cast,
    Fresh blood-gouts shocked his view.

  O'erturned his infant's bed he found,
    The blood-stained covert rent;
  And all around the walls and ground,
    With recent blood besprent.

  He called his child--no voice replied--
    He searched with terror wild:
  Blood! blood! he found on every side,
    But nowhere found the child.

  'Hellhound! by thee my child's devoured!'
    The frantic father cried;
  And to the hilt his vengeful sword
    He plunged in Gélert's side.

  His suppliant, as to earth he fell,
    No pity could impart;
  But still his Gélert's dying yell
    Passed heavy o'er his heart.

  Aroused by Gélert's dying yell,
    Some slumberer wakened nigh:
  What words the parent's joy can tell
    To hear his infant cry!

  Concealed beneath a mangled heap
    His hurried search had missed,
  All glowing from his rosy sleep,
    His cherub boy he kissed.

  Nor scratch had he, nor harm, nor dread,
    But the same couch beneath,
  Lay a great wolf, all torn and dead,
    Tremendous still in death.

  Ah, what was then Llewellyn's pain!
    For now the truth was clear:
  The gallant hound the wolf had slain,
    To save Llewellyn's heir.

  Vain, vain was all Llewellyn's wo:
    "Best of thy kind, adieu!
  The frantic deed which laid thee low,
    This heart shall ever rue."

  And now a gallant tomb they raise,
    With costly sculpture decked;
  And marbles, storied with his praise,
    Poor Gélert's bones protect.

  Here never could the spearman pass,
  Or forester, unmoved;
  Here oft the tear-besprinkled grass
  Llewellyn's sorrow proved.

  And here he hung his horn and spear;
  And oft, as evening fell,
  In fancy's piercing sounds would hear
  Poor Gêlert's dying yell!

It will be evident, however, from the story of the noble hound whose
history is just related, that the greyhounds of the time were very
different from those which are used at the present day. There are no
Gêlerts now to combat successfully with the wolf, if these ferocious
animals were yet to be met with in our forests. The greyhound of this
early period must have resembled the Irish wolf-dog of the present day,
a larger, stronger, fiercer dog than we are accustomed to see.

The owner of Gêlert lived in the time of John, in the early part of the
thirteenth century; but, at the latter part of the fifteenth century,
the following singular description is given of the greyhound of that
period. It is extracted from a very curious work entitled "The Treatise
perteynynge to Hawkynge, Huntynge, &c., emprynted at Westmestre, by
Wynkyn de Werde, 1496."

  A greyhounde should be headed lyke a snake,
  And neckyd lyke a drake,
  Fotyd lyke a cat
  Tayled lyke a ratte,
  Syded like a teme
  And chyned like a bream.
  The fyrste yere he must lerne to fede,
  The seconde yere to feld him lede.
  The thyrde yere he is felow lyke.
  The fourth yere there is non syke.
  The fifth yere he is good ynough.
  The syxth yere he shall hold the plough,
  The seventh yere he will avaylle
  Grete bytches for assayle.
  But when he is come to the ninth yere
  Have him then to the tannere;
  For the best hounde that ever bytch had
  At the ninth yere is full bad.

As to the destiny of the poor animal in his ninth year, we differ from
the author; but it cannot be denied that few dogs retain their speed
beyond the eighth or ninth year.

There can scarcely be a better description of the greyhound of the
present day; but it would not do for the antagonist of the wolf. The
breed had probably begun to degenerate, and that process would seem to
have slowly progressed. Towards the close of the last century, Lord
Orford, a nobleman enthusiastically devoted to coursing, imagined, and
rightly, that the greyhound of his day was deficient in courage and
perseverance. He bethought himself how this could best be rectified, and
he adopted a plan which brought upon him much ridicule at the time, but
ultimately redounded to his credit. He selected a bull-dog, one of the
smooth rat-tailed species, and he crossed one of his greyhound bitches
with him. He kept the female whelps and crossed them with some of his
fleetest dogs, and the consequence was, that, after the sixth or seventh
generation, there was not a vestige left of the form of the bulldog; but
his courage and his indomitable perseverance remained, and, having once
started after his game, he did not relinquish chase until he fell
exhausted or perhaps died. This cross is now almost universally adopted.
It is one of the secrets in the breeding of the greyhound.

Of the stanchness of the well-bred greyhound, the following is a
satisfactory example.  A hare was started before a brace of greyhounds,
and ran by them for several miles. When they were found, both the dogs
and the hare lay dead within a few yards of each other. A labouring man
had seen them turn her several times; but it did not appear that either
of them had caught her, for there was no wound upon her.

A favourite bitch of this breed was Czarina, bred by Lord Orford, and
purchased at his decease by Colonel Thornton: she won every match for
which she started, and they were no fewer than forty-seven. Lord Orford
had matched her for a stake of considerable magnitude; but, before the
appointed day arrived, he became seriously ill and was confined to his
chamber. On the morning of the course he eluded the watchfulness of his
attendant, saddled his favourite piebald pony, and, at the moment of
starting, appeared on the course. No one had power to restrain him, and
all entreaties were in vain. He peremptorily insisted on the dogs being
started, and he would ride after them. His favourite bitch displayed her
superiority at every stroke; she won the stakes: but at the moment of
highest exultation he fell from his pony, and, pitching on his head,
almost immediately expired. With all his eccentricities, he was a kind,
benevolent, and honourable man.

In the thirteenth year of her age, and in defiance of the strange verses
just now quoted, Czarina began to breed, and two of her progeny, Claret
and young Czarina, challenged the whole kingdom and won their matches.
Major, and Snowball, without a white spot about him, inherited all the
excellence of their dam. The former was rather the fleeter of the two,
but the stanchness of Snowball nothing could exceed. A Scotch greyhound,
who had beaten every opponent in his own country, was at this time
brought to England, and challenged every dog in the kingdom. The
challenge was accepted by Snowball, who beat him in a two-mile course.
Snowball won the Mailton cup on four successive years, was never beaten,
and some of his blood is now to be traced in almost every good dog in
every part of the kingdom, at least in all those that are accustomed to
hunt in an open country. The last match run by Snowball was against Mr.
Plumber's celebrated greyhound Speed; and, so severely contested was it,
that Speed died soon afterwards. A son of the old dog, called Young
Snowball, who almost equalled his father, was sold for one hundred
guineas.

The speed of the greyhound has been said to be equal to that of the
fleetest horse. A singular circumstance, which occurred at Doncaster,
proved that it was not much inferior. A mare cantering over the
Doncaster course, her competitor having been withdrawn, was joined by a
greyhound bitch when she had proceeded about a mile. She seemed
determined to race with the mare, which the jockey humoured, and
gradually increased his pace, until at the distance they put themselves
at their full speed. The mare beat her antagonist only by a head. The
race-horse is, perhaps, generally superior to the greyhound on level
ground, but the greyhound would have the advantage in a hilly country.

Lord Rivers succeeded to Major Topham and Colonel Thornton, the owners
of Major and Snowball, as the leading man on the course. His kennels at
Strathfieldsaye were the pride of the neighbouring country. At first he
bore away almost every prize, but breeding too much in and in, and for
speed more than for stoutness, the reputation of his kennel considerably
declined before his death.

In 1797 a brace of greyhounds coursed a hare over the edge of a
chalk-pit at Offham, in Sussex. The hare and both the dogs were found
dead at the bottom of the pit.

On another occasion a hare was chased by a brace of greyhounds: she was
killed at the distance of seven miles from the place at which they
started. Both of the dogs were so exhausted, that every possible
assistance being given, they were with difficulty recovered.

The English greyhound hunts by sight alone; not because he is altogether
devoid of scent, but because he has been taught to depend upon his
speed, and that degree of speed which is utterly incompatible with the
searching out of the scent. It is like a pack of hounds, running breast
high, with the game in view. They are then running by sight, and not by
scent, almost doubling their usual pace, and sometimes, from an
unexpected turning of the fox or hare, thrown out for a little while.
The hound soon recovers the track by his exquisite sense of smell. The
English greyhound is never taught to scent his game, but, on the
contrary, is called off the moment he has lost sight of the hare, the
re-starting of which is left to the spaniel.

The English greyhound is distinguished by its peculiarly long and
attenuated head and face, terminating in a singular sharpness of the
nose, and length of the muzzle or month. There are two results from
this: the length of the mouth gives a longer grasp and secures the prey,
but, as the nasal cavities and the cavity of the skull are
proportionately diminished, there is not so much room for the expansion
of the membrane of the nose, there is less power of scent, and less
space for the development of the brain.

There is little want of extraordinary acute hearing, and the ears of the
greyhound are small compared with his bulk. Markham recommends the ears
to be close, sharp, and drooping, neither protruding by their bulk, nor
tiring by their weight.

The power of the eye is but of little consequence, for the game is
rarely distant from the dog, and therefore, easily seen.

The neck is an important portion of the frame. It should be long, in
order to correspond with the length of the legs, and thus enable the dog
to seize and lift the game, as he rapidly pursues his course, without
throwing any undue or dangerous weight on the fore extremities. In the
act of seizing the hare the short-necked dog may lose the centre of
gravity and fall.

The chest is a very important part of the greyhound, as well as of every
other animal of speed. It must be capacious: this capacity must be
obtained by depth rather than by width, in order that the shoulders may
not be thrown so far apart as to impede progression.

The form and situation of the shoulders are of material consequence; for
on them depends the extent of the action which the animal is capable of
exerting. The shoulders should be broad and deep, and obliquely placed.
They are so in the horse, and the action of the dog depends entirely on
this conformation.

The fore legs should be set on square at the shoulder: bulging out at
the elbow not only gives a clumsy appearance, but makes the dog slow.
The legs should have plenty of bone, and be straight, and well set on
the feet, and the toes neither turned out nor in. The fore arm, or that
portion of the leg which is between the elbow and the knee, should be
long, straight and muscular. These are circumstances that cannot be
dispensed with. The length of the fore arm, and the low placing of the
pastern, are of essential importance.

With regard to the form of the back and sides of the greyhound, Mr.
Thacker says, with much truth, that

  "It is the strength of the back which is brought into requisition, in
  particular, in running over hilly ground. Here may be said to rest the
  distinction between long and short backs, supposing both to be good
  and strong. The more lengthy the back, and proportionately strong, the
  more the greyhound is calculated to beat the shorter-backed dog on the
  flat; but on hilly ground one with a shorter back will have the
  advantage." [13]

The ribs should also be well arched. We would perhaps avoid him with
sides too decidedly outswelling, but still more would we avoid the
direct flat-sided dog.

Without really good haunches and muscular thighs, it has been well
remarked that the odds are against any dog, be his other points whatever
they may. It is by the propulsatory efforts of the muscles of the loins
and thighs that the race is won. The thighs should be large, and
muscularly indented; the hocks broad, and, like the knee, low placed.
These are very important points; for, as Mr. Blaine has properly
remarked, "on the extent of the angles formed between these several
portions of the hinder limbs, depends the extent of the space passed
over at each bound."

The colour of the greyhound varies exceedingly. Some are perfectly black
and glossy. In strength and endurance, the brindled dog, or the brown or
fawn-coloured one, is the best. The white greyhound, although a
beautiful animal and swift, is not, perhaps, quite so much to be
depended on.

The greyhound is said to be deficient in attachment to his master and in
general intelligence. There is some truth in the imputation; but, in
fact, the greyhound has, far less than even the hound, the opportunity
of forming individual attachments, and no other exercise of the mind is
required of him than to follow the game which starts up before him, and
to catch it if he can. If, however, he is closely watched he will be
found to have all the intellect that his situation requires. [14]

As to the individual attachment which the greyhound may form, he has not
always or often the opportunity to acquire or to exhibit it. The keeper
exercises over him a tyrannical power, and the owner seldom notices him
in the manner which excites affection, or scarcely recognition; but, as
a plea for the seeming want of fondness, which, compared with other
breeds, he exhibits, it will be sufficient to quote the testimony of the
younger Xenophon, who had made the greyhound his companion and his
friend.

  "I have myself bred up," says he, "a swift, hard-working, courageous,
  sound-footed dog. He is most gentle and kindly affectioned, and never
  before had I any such a dog for myself, or my friend, or my
  fellow-sportsman. When he is not actually engaged in coursing, he is
  never away from me. On his return he runs before me, often looking
  back to see whether I had turned out of the road, and as soon as he
  again catches sight of me, showing symptoms of joy, and once more
  trotting away before me. If a short time only has passed since he has
  seen me or my friend, he jumps up repeatedly by way of salutation, and
  barks with joy as a greeting to us. He has also many different tones
  of speech, and such as I never heard from any other dog. Now really I
  do not think that I ought to be ashamed to chronicle the name of this
  dog, or to let posterity know that Xenophon the Athenian had a
  greyhound, called Hormé, possessed of the greatest speed, and
  intelligence, and fidelity, and excellent in every point."

[The Greek sportsmen held their dogs in peculiar estimation; they were
not only their attendants in the field, but their constant companions in
their houses, were fed from their tables, and even shared their beds. It
is with some degree of pleasure that the patrons of this noble animal
will witness, in the following remarks, the tender solicitude with which
this people watched over their dogs.

  "There is nothing like a soft and warm bed for greyhounds, but it is
  best for them to sleep with men, as they become thereby affectionately
  attached, pleased with the contact of the human body, and as fond of
  their bed-fellow as of their feeder. If any ailing affect the dog the
  man will perceive it, and will relieve him in the night, when thirsty,
  or urged by any call of nature. He will also know how the dog has
  rested. For if he has passed a sleepless night, or groaned frequently
  in his sleep, or thrown up any of his food, it will not be safe to
  take him out coursing. All these things the dog's bed-fellow will be
  acquainted with."
  (Arrian, chap. ix. Trans.)

It was also not an unusual circumstance for the most polished Greeks,
when sending notes of invitation to their friends, requesting their
presence in celebration of some festive occasion, to extend the same
civilities to their favourite dogs, by desiring them to be brought
along, as will be seen by the following paragraph selected from a letter
of this kind addressed by one friend to another.

  "I am about to celebrate the birth-day of my son, and I invite you, my
  Pithacion, to the feast. But come not alone; bring with you your wife,
  children, and your brother. If you will bring also your bitch, who is
  a good guard, and by the loudness of her voice drives away the enemies
  of your flocks, she will not, I warrant, disdain to be partaker of our
  feast, &c."
  (Letter xviii., Alciphron's Epistles.)--L.]

The greyhound has within the last fifty years assumed a somewhat
different character from that which he once possessed. He is
distinguished by a beautiful symmetry of form, of which he once could
not boast, and he has even superior speed to that which he formerly
exhibited. He is no longer used to struggle with the deer, but he
contends with his fellow over a shorter and speedier course.

The rules for breeding and breaking-in of greyhounds are very simple.
The utmost attention should be paid to the qualities of the parents; for
it is as certain in these dogs as in the horse that all depends upon the
breeding. The bitch should be healthy and of good size; the dog
muscular, stanch, and speedy, and somewhat larger than the bitch. Both
should have arrived at their full vigour, and with none of their powers
beginning to fail. Those as much as possible should be selected whose
peculiar appearance bids fair to increase the good qualities and
diminish the bad ones on either side. The best blood and the best form
should be diligently sought. Breeding from young dogs on either side
should, generally speaking, be avoided. With regard to older dogs,
whether male or female, there may be less care. Many greyhounds, both
male and female, eight, nine, and ten years of age, have been the
progenitors of dogs possessing every stanch and good quality.

On no consideration, however, should the bitch be put to the dog before
she is two years old. Little can be done to regulate the period of
oestrum; but the most valuable breed will be almost invariably that
which is produced during the spring, because at that time there will
often be opportunity for that systematic exercise on which the growth
and powers of the dog so materially depend. A litter of puppies in the
beginning or even the middle of winter will often be scarcely worth the
trouble or expense of rearing.

The age of the greyhound is now taken from the first day in the year;
but the conditions of entry are fixed at different periods. It seems,
however, to be agreed that no dog or bitch can qualify for a puppy cup
after two years of ago.

One principle to be ever kept in mind is a warm and comfortable
situation, and a plentiful supply of nourishment for the mother and for
the puppies from the moment of their birth. The dog that is stinted in
his early growth will never do its owner credit. The bitch should be
abundantly supplied with milk, and the young ones with milk and bread,
and oatmeal, and small portions of flesh as soon as they are disposed to
eat it; great care, however, being taken that they are not over-gorged.
Regular and proper feeding, with occasional exercise, will constitute
the best preparation for the actual training. If a foster-mother be
required for the puppies, it should, if possible, be a greyhound; for it
is not at all impossible that the bad qualities of the nurse may to a
greater or less degree be communicated to the whelps. Bringing up by
hand is far preferable to the introduction of any foster-mother. A glass
or Indian-rubber bottle may be used for a little while, if not until the
weaning. Milk at first, and afterwards milk and sop alternately, may be
used.

There is a difference of opinion whether the whelp should be kept in the
kennel and subjected to its regular discipline, or placed at walk in
some farm-house. In consequence of the liberty he will enjoy at the
latter, his growth will probably be more rapid; but, running with the
farmers' dogs, and probably coursing many hares, he will acquire, to a
certain degree, a habit of wildness. It is useless to deny this; but, on
the other hand, nothing will contribute so much to the development of
every power as a state of almost unlimited freedom when the dogs are
young. The wildness that will be exhibited can soon be afterwards
restrained so far as is necessary, and the dog who has been permitted to
exert his powers when young will manifest his superiority in more
advanced age, and in nothing more than his dexterity at the turn.

When the training actually commences, it should be preceded by a couple
of doses of physic, with an interval of five or six days, and, probably,
a moderate bleeding between them; for, if the dog begins to work
overloaded with flesh and fat, he will suffer so severely from it that
possibly he will never afterwards prove a game dog. In the course of his
training he should be allowed every advantage and experience every
encouragement. His courses should be twice or thrice a-week, according
to their severity, and as often as it can be effected be should be
rewarded with some mark of kindness.

In the 'Sportsman' for April, 1840, is an interesting account of the
chase of the hare. It is said that, in general, a good greyhound will
reach a hare if she runs straight. He pursues her eagerly, and the
moment he is about to strike at her she turns short, and the dog, unable
to stop himself, is thrown from ten to twenty yards from her. These
jerking turns soon begin to tell upon a dog, and an old well-practised
hare will seldom fail to make her escape. When, however, pursued by a
couple of dogs, the hare has a more difficult game to play, as it
frequently happens that when she is turned by the leading dog she has
great difficulty in avoiding the stroke of the second.

It is highly interesting to witness the game of an old hare. She has
generally some brake or thicket in view, under the cover of which she
means to escape from her pursuers. On moving from her seat she makes
directly for the hiding-place, but, unable to reach it, has recourse to
turning, and, 'wrenched' by one or the other of her pursuers, she seems
every moment almost in the jaws of one of them, and yet in a most
dexterous manner she accomplishes her object. A greyhound, when he
perceives a hare about to enter a thicket, is sure to strike at her if
within any reasonable distance. The hare shortens her stride as she
approaches the thicket, and at the critical moment she makes so sudden,
dexterous, and effectual a spring, that the dogs are flung to a
considerable distance, and she has reached the cover and escaped.

The isle of Cyprus has for many years been celebrated for its breed of
the greyhound. On grand days, or when the governor is present, the sport
is conducted in a curious manner. When the hare is ready to become the
prey of its enemies, the governor rushes forwards, and, throwing before
the greyhounds a stick which he carries, they all instantaneously stop.
The hare now runs a little distance; but one of the swiftest greyhounds
is then let loose. He pursues the hare, and, having come up with it,
carries it back, and, springing on the neck of the governor's horse,
places it before him. The governor delivers it to one of his officers,
who sends it to the park, where he maintains many prisoners of the same
kind; for he will not destroy the animal that has contributed to his
amusement. [15]

The following, according to Mr. Blaine, an ardent courser in his youth,
is the best mode of feeding greyhounds at regular work:

  "The dogs had a full flesh meal every afternoon or evening, as more
  nutriment is derived from night-feeding than by day, and when sleeping
  than when waking. In the morning they were let out, and either
  followed the keeper about the paddock, or the groom in his horse
  exercise, and then had a trifling meat of mixed food, as a quieting
  portion, until the evening full meal. Such was our practice on the
  days when no coursing was contemplated, and, with the exception of
  lowering the quantity and quality of the evening meal, the same plan
  was pursued throughout the year. On the day previous to coursing, if
  we intended anything like an exhibition of our dogs before company
  engaged to meet us on the marshes, we gave a plentiful meal early the
  previous day, some exercise also in the afternoon, and a light supper
  at night, of meal with either broth or milk, with a man on horseback
  going a gentle trot of six or seven miles an hour." [16]

Mr. Thacker orders the greyhounds out on the fore part of every day;
but, instead of being loose and at liberty, they would be much better
two and two; then, when he meets with a proper field to loose them in,
to give them a good gallop. This will be a greater novelty than if they
had been loose on the road, and they will gallop with more eagerness.
Four days in a week will be enough for this exercise. On one day there
should he a gallop of one or two miles, or even a course for each brace
of dogs.

The young dog has usually an older and more experienced one to start
with him. That which is of most importance is, that his leader should be
a thoroughly stout and high-mettled dog. If he shrinks or shies at any
impediment, however formidable, the young one will be sure to imitate
him, and to become an uncertain dog, if not a rank coward. Early in
November is the time when these initiatory trials are to be made. It is
of consequence that the young one should witness a death as soon as
possible. Some imagine that two old dogs should accompany the young one
at its first commencement. After the death of the leveret, the young dog
must be coaxed and fondled, but never suffered to taste the blood.

In kennels in which the training is regularly conducted, the dog should
be brushed all over twice every day. Few things contribute so much to
health as general cleanliness, and friction applied to the skin. Warmth
is as necessary for greyhounds as for horses, and should not be
forgotten in cold weather. Body-clothing is a custom of considerable
antiquity, and should not be abandoned. The breeder of greyhounds for
the purpose of coursing must reckon upon incurring considerable expense;
but, if he loves the sport, ho will be amply remunerated by the speed
and stoutness of his dogs.

A question has arisen whether, on the morning of the coursing, any
stimulant should be given to the dog. The author of this work would
unhesitatingly approve of this practice. He has had abundant experience
of the good effect of it; but the stimulus must be that which, while it
produces the desired effect, leaves no exhaustion behind. [17]


THE SCOTCH GREYHOUND

has the same sharpness of muzzle, length of head, lightness of ear, and
depth of chest, as the English dog; but the general frame is stronger
and more muscular, the hind quarters more prominent, there is evident
increase of size and roughness of coat, and there is also some
diminution of speed. If it were not for these points, these dogs might
occasionally be taken for each other. In coursing the hare, no
north-country dog will stand against the lighter southern, although the
southern would be unequal to the labour often required from the
Highlander.

The Scotch greyhound is said--perhaps wrongly--to be oftenest used by
those who look more to the quantity of game than to the fairness and
openness of the sport, and in some parts of the country this dog is not
permitted to be entered for a sweepstakes, because, instead of depending
on his speed alone, as does the English greyhound, he has recourse to
occasional artifices in order to intercept the hare. In sporting
language he runs sly, and, therefore, is sometimes excluded.


THE HIGHLAND GREYHOUND, OR DEER-HOUND

is a larger, stronger, and fiercer dog, and may be readily distinguished
from the Lowland Scotch greyhound by its pendulous, and, generally,
darker ears, and by the length of hair which almost covers his face.
Many accounts have been given of the perfection of its scent, and it is
said to have followed a wounded deer during two successive days. He is
usually two inches taller than the Scotch greyhound. The head is carried
particularly high, and gives to the animal a noble appearance. His limbs
are exceedingly muscular, his back beautifully arched. The tail is long
and curved, but assumes the form of an almost straight line when he is
much excited. The only fault which these dogs have is their occasional
ill-temper, or even ferocity; but this does not extend to the owner and
his family.

It appears singular that the English greyhound exhibits so little power
of scent; but this is simply because he has never been taught to use it,
or has been cruelly corrected when he has attempted to exercise it.

Holinshed relates the mischief that followed the stealing of one of
these dogs:

  "Divers of the young Pictesh nobilitye repaired unto Craithlint, King
  of the Scots, for to hunt and make merie with him; but, when they
  should depart homewards, perceiving that the Scotish dogs did far
  excel theirs, both in fairnesse, swiftnesse, and hardinesse, and also
  in long standing up and holding out, they got diverse both dogs and
  bitches of the best kind for breed, to be given them by the Scotish
  Lords: and yet not so contented, they stole one belonging to the King
  from his keeper, being more esteemed of him than all the others which
  he had about him. The maister of the leash, being informed hereof
  pursued after them that had stolen the dog, thinking, indeed, to have
  taken him from them: but they not being to part with him fell at
  altercation, and at the end chanced to strike the maister of the leash
  through with their horse spears, so that he did die presently.
  Whereupon noise and crie being raised in the country by his servantes,
  divers of the Scots, as they were going home from hunting, returned,
  and falling upon the Picts to revenge the death of their fellow, there
  ensued a shrewed bickering betwixt them; so that of the Scots there
  died three score gentlemen, besides a great number of the commons, not
  one of them understanding what the matter meant. Of the Picts there
  were about 100 slaine."

Mr. H.D. Richardson describes a cross between the greyhound and British
bloodhound:

  "It is a tall muscular raw-boned dog, the ears far larger, and more
  pendulous, than those of the greyhound or deer-hound. The colour is
  generally black, or black and tan; his muzzle and the tips of the ears
  usually dark. He is exceedingly swift and fierce; can pull down a stag
  single-handed; runs chiefly by sight, but will also occasionally take
  up the scent. In point of scent, however, he is inferior to the true
  deer-hound.  This dog cannot take a turn readily, but often fails at
  the double." [18]


THE IRISH GREYHOUND.

This dog differs from the Scotch, in having shorter and finer hair, of a
pale fawn colour, and pendent ears. It is, compared with the Scotch dog,
gentle and harmless, perhaps indolent, until roused. It is a larger dog
than the Scottish dog, some of them being full four feet in length, and
proportionately muscular. On this account, and also on account of their
determined spirit when roused, they were carefully preserved by some
Irish gentlemen. They were formerly used in hunting the wolf when that
animal infested the forests of Ireland. Mr. Bell says that the last
person who kept the pure breed was Lord Altamont, who in 1780 "had eight
of them." [19]


THE GASEHOUND,

the 'agasaeus' of former times, was probably allied to, or connected
with, the Irish greyhound. It hunted entirely by sight, and, if its prey
was lost for a time, it could recover it by a singular distinguishing
faculty. Should the deer rejoin the herd, the dog would unerringly
select him again from all his companions:

  "Seest thou the gasehound how with glance severe
  From the close herd he marks the destined deer?" [20]

There is no dog possessed of this quality at present known in Europe;
but the translator of Arrian thinks that it might be produced between
the Irish greyhound and the bloodhound.


THE IRISH WOLF-DOG

This animal is nearly extinct, or only to be met with at the mansions of
one or two persons by whom he is kept more for show than use, the wild
animals which he seemed powerful enough to conquer having long
disappeared from the kingdom. The beauty of his appearance and the
antiquity of his race are his only claims, as he disdains the chase of
stag, fox, or hare, although he is ever ready to protect the person and
the property of his master. His size is various, some having attained
the height of four feet, and Dr. Goldsmith stales that he saw one as
large as a yearling calf. He is shaped like a greyhound, but stouter;
and the only dog which the writer from whom this account is taken ever
saw approaching to his graceful figure, combining beauty with strength,
is the large Spanish wolf-dog: concerning which he adds, that, showing
one of these Spanish dogs to some friends, he leaped through a window
into a cow-house, where a valuable calf was lying, and seizing the
terrified animal, killed it in an instant; some sheep having in the same
way disappeared, he was given away. The same writer says that his
grandfather had an Irish wolf-dog which saved his mother's life from a
wolf as she was paying a visit attended by this faithful follower. He
rushed on his foe just when he was about to make his spring, and after a
fierce struggle laid him dead at his mistress's feet. His name was Bran.
[21]


THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND

is principally distinguished by its dark-brown or iron-grey colour--its
short semi-erect ears--its thin lanky body--long but muscular legs--soft
thick hair, and the hair of its tail forming a spiral twist, or fan,
(thence called the fan-tailed dog,) and as he runs having a very
pleasing appearance. He hunts by scent as well as by sight, and,
therefore, small packs of this kind are sometimes kept, against which
the wolf, or even the bear, would stand little chance. He is principally
used for the chase of the deer or the wolf, but occasionally follows the
hare. The deer is the principal object of pursuit, and for this he is
far better adapted than to contend with the ferocious wolf. His
principal faults are want of activity and dexterity. He is met with in
most parts of Russia, where his breed is carefully preserved by the
nobility, with whom coursing is a favourite diversion.

Some dogs of this breed were not long ago introduced into Ireland.


THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND

The author is glad that he is enabled to present his readers with the
portrait of one now in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of
London. It is the dog whose image is occasionally sculptured on the
friezes of some of the ancient Grecian temples, and was doubtless a
faithful portrait of one of the dogs which Xenophon the Athenian valued,
and was the companion of the heroes of Greece in her ancient glory.

The principal difference between the Grecian and the English greyhound
is, that the former is not so large, the muzzle is not so pointed, and
the limbs are not so finely framed.


THE TURKISH GREYHOUND

is a small-sized hairless dog, or with only a few hairs on his tail. He
is never used in the field, and bred only as a spoiled pet, yet not
always spoiled, for anecdotes are related of his inviolable attachment
to his owner. One of them belonged to a Turkish Pacha who was destroyed
by the bowstring. He would not forsake the corpse, but laid himself down
by the body of his murdered master, and presently expired.


THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND

is a beautiful animal. He is more delicately framed than the English
breed; the ears are also more pendulous, and feathered almost as much as
those of a King Charles's spaniel. Notwithstanding, however, his
apparent slenderness and delicacy, he yields not in courage, and
scarcely in strength, to the British dog. There are few kennels in which
he is found in which he is not the master.

In his native country, he is not only used for hunting the hare, but the
antelope, the wild ass, and even the boar. The antelope is speedier than
the greyhound: therefore the hawk is given to him as an ally. The
antelope is no sooner started than the hawk is cast off, who, fluttering
before the head of the deer, and sometimes darting his talons into his
head, disconcerts him, and enables the greyhound speedily to overtake
and master him. The chase, however, in which the Persians chiefly
delight, and for which these greyhounds are mostly valued, is that of
the 'ghoo-khan', or wild ass. This animal inhabits the mountainous
districts of Persia. He is swift, ferocious, and of great endurance,
which, together with the nature of the ground, renders this sport
exceedingly dangerous. The hunter scarcely gives the animal a fair
chance, for relays of greyhounds are placed at various distances in the
surrounding country; so that, when those by which the animal is first
started are tired, there are others to continue the chase. Such,
however, is the speed and endurance of the ghoo-khan, that it is seldom
fairly run down by the greyhounds, its death being usually achieved by
the rifle of some horseman. The Persians evince great skill and courage
in this dangerous sport, galloping at full speed, rifle in hand, up and
down the most precipitous hills, and across ravines and mountain
streams, that might well daunt the boldest rider. [22]

The Persian greyhound, carried to Hindoostan, is not always to be
depended upon; but, it is said, is apt to console itself by hunting its
own master, or any one else, when the game proves too fleet or escapes
into the cover.


THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND

possesses all the symmetry of the English or Persian one, on a small
scale. So far as beauty can recommend it, and, generally speaking, good
nature, it is deservedly a favourite in the drawingroom; but, like the
large greyhound, it is inferior in intelligence. It has no strong
individual attachment, but changes it with singular facility. It is not,
however, seen to advantage in its petted and degraded state, but has
occasionally proved a not unsuccessful courser of the rabbit and the
hare, and exhibited no small share of speed and perseverance. In a
country, however, the greater part of which is infested with wolves, it
cannot be of much service, but exposed to unnecessary danger. It is bred
along the coasts of Italy, principally for the purpose of sale to
foreigners.

In order to acquire more perfect beauty of form, and more activity also,
the English greyhound has received one cross from the Italian, and with
decided advantage. The speed and the beauty have been evidently
increased, and the courage and stoutness have not been diminished.

It has been said that Frederick the Great of Prussia was very fond of a
small Italian greyhound, and used to carry it about with him under his
cloak. During the seven years' war, he was pursued by a party of
Austrian dragoons, and compelled to take shelter, with his favourite,
under the dry arch of a bridge. Had the little animal, that was
naturally ill-tempered and noisy, once barked, the monarch would have
been taken prisoner, and the fate of the campaign and of Prussia
decided; but it lay perfectly still, and clung close to its master, as
if conscious of their mutual danger. When it died, it was buried in the
gardens of the palace at Berlin, and a suitable inscription placed over
its grave.



[Footnote 1: 'Annals of Sporting', vol. vi. p. 99.]


[Footnote 2: The superstition of the Arabians and Turks with regard to
dogs is somewhat singular: neither have they much affection for these
animals, or suffer them to be in or near the camp, except to guard it in
the night.  They have, however, some charity for the females that have
whelps.  As for other dogs, they feed them well, and give them good
words, but never touch them nor go near them, because dogs are regarded
as unclean animals. They particularly drive them away in wet weather;
for, if one drop of water from a dog should fall on their raiment, their
devotion would be interrupted and useless.  They who are fond of hunting
make their religion subservient to their pleasure, and say that
greyhounds and setters are excepted from the general rule, because when
not running these dogs are tied up where nothing unclean can reach them,
and they are never suffered to eat any thing unclean.  Their opinion is
the same with regard to small dogs, which are kept with great care, and
no one willingly injures a dog, or, if he should injure purposely, or
destroy one of them, the law would punish him.  Chevalier Darvieux's
'Travels in Arabia Deserta', 1718, p. 155.]


[Footnote 3: 'Heber's Narrative', p. 500.]


[Footnote 4: 'Histoire du Chien', par Elzear Blaze, p. 54.]


[Footnote 5: 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society', Part I. 833.]


[Footnote 6: Williamson's 'Oriental Field Sports']


[Footnote 7: Poiret, in his 'Travels in Barbary' asserts that

  "the dog loses in the East a great part of those good qualities that
  make him the friend of man. He is no longer a faithful domesticated
  animal, faithfully attached to his master, and ever ready to defend
  him even at the expense of his own life.  He is cruel and
  blood-thirsty, his look is savage, and his appearance revolting;
  carrion, filth, anything is good enough for him if he can but appease
  his hunger.  They seldom bite one another, but they unite against a
  stranger who approaches the Arab tents, and would tear him to pieces
  if he did not seek his safety in flight."
  Vol. i. p. 353.

Denon, when in the city of Alexandria, in Egypt, says,

  "I have no longer recognised the dog, that friend of man, the attached
  and faithful companion--the lively and honest courtier.  He is here a
  gloomy egotist, and cut off from all human intercourse without being
  the less a slave. He does not know him whose house he protects, and
  devours his corpse without repugnance."
  Travels in Lower Egypt, p. 32.]


[Footnote 8: 'Histoire du Chien', p. 200. The Voyage of Dumont
d'Urville, vol. ii. p.474.]


[Footnote 9: Greyhound.]


[Footnote 10: Overcast, or overrun.]


[Footnote 11: Ovid, 'Metamorph.', lib. i. v. 353.]


[Footnote 12: A singular story is told of Richard II, and one of these
dogs. It is given in the language of Froissart.

  "A grayhounde called Mithe, who always wayted upon the kynge, and
  would knowe no man els. For when so ever the kynge did ryde, he that
  kept the grayhounde dyd lette him lose, and he wolde streyght runne to
  the kynge and faune uppon hym, and leape with his fore fete uppon the
  kynge's shoulders. And, as the kynge and the Erle of Derby talked
  togyder in the courte, the grayhounde who was wonte to leape uppon the
  kynge, left the kynge and came to the Erle of Derby, Duke of
  Lancastre; and made to him the same friendly continuance and chere as
  he was wonte to do to the kynge. The duke, who knewe not the
  grayhounde, demanded of the kynge what the grayhounde wolde do?
  'Cousin,' qoud the kynge, 'it is a greate goode token to you, and an
  evyl signe to me.' 'How knowe you that?' quod the duke. 'I knowe it
  well,' quod the kynge. 'The grayhounde acknowledgeth you here this
  daye as Kynge of England, as ye shall be, and I shal be deposed; the
  grayhounde hath this knowledge naturally: therefore take hyme to you,
  he wyll followe you and forsake me.' The duke understood well those
  words, and cheryshed the grayhounde, who would never after followe
  kynge Richarde, but followed the duke of Lancastre."]


[Footnote 13: 'Thacker on Sporting'.]


[Footnote 14: The writer of this work had a brace of greyhounds as
arrant thieves as ever lived. They would now and then steal into the
cooking-room belonging to the kennel, lift the lid from the boiler, and,
if any portion of the joint or piece of meat projected above the water,
suddenly seize it, and before there was time for them to feel much of
its heat, contrive to whirl it on the floor, and eat it at their leisure
as it got cold. In order to prevent this, the top of the boiler was
secured by an iron rod passing under its handle of the boiler on each
side; but not many days passed ere they discovered that they could gnaw
the cords asunder, and displace the rod, and fish out the meat as
before. Small chains were then substituted for the cords, and the meat
was cooked in safety for nearly a week, when they found that, by rearing
themselves on their hind legs, and applying their united strength
towards the top of the boiler they could lift it out of its bed and roll
it along the floor, and so get at the broth, although the meat was out
of their reach. The man who looked after them expressed himself heartily
glad when they were gone; for, he said, he was often afraid to go into
the kennel, and was sure they were devils, and not dogs.]


[Footnote 15: Scott's 'Sportsman's Repository', p. 97.]


[Footnote 16: Blaine's 'Encyclopedia of Sporting'.]


[Footnote 17: For a set of laws for Coursing Matches. see Appendix.]


[Footnote 18: 'Sportsman', vol. xi. p. 314]


[Footnote 19: Bell's 'British Quadrupeds', p. 241.]


[Footnote 20: Tickell's 'Miscellanies']


[Footnote 21: 'Sporting Mag.' 1837, p. 156.]


[Footnote 22:  'New Sports. Mag.' xiii. 124.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER III.

THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.


SECOND DIVISION.


  The head moderately elongated, the parietals not approaching from
  their insertion, but rather diverging, so as to enlarge the cerebral
  cavities and the frontal sinuses; consequently giving to these dogs
  greater power of scent and intelligence. They constitute the most
  pleasing and valuable division of the Dog.


The Spaniel is evidently the parent of the Newfoundland dog and the
setter; while the retriever, the poodle, the Bernardine, the Esquimaux,
the Siberian, and the Greenland dogs, the shepherd and drover's dog, and
every variety distinguished for intelligence and fidelity, have more or
less of his blood in them.


THE SPANIEL

is probably of Spanish origin, and thence his name. The ears are large
and pendent, the tail elevated, the fur of a different length in
different parts of the body, but longest about the ears, under the neck,
behind the thighs and on the tail, varying in colour, but most commonly
white with brown or black patches.

There are many varieties of the spaniel. The smallest of the 'land'
spaniels is


THE COCKER.

It is chiefly used in flushing woodcocks and pheasants in thickets and
copses into which the setter, and even the springer, can scarcely enter.

  "But, if the shady woods my cares employ,
  In quest of feathered game my spaniels beat,
  Puzzling the entangled copse, and from the brake
  Push forth the whirring pheasant."

The cocker is here very useful, although he is occasionally an
exceedingly impatient animal. He is apt to whimper and babble as soon as
he comes upon the scent of game, and often raises the bird before the
sportsman is within reach: but when he is sufficiently broken in not to
give tongue until the game rises, he is exceedingly valuable. There can
scarcely be a prettier object than this little creature, full of
activity, and bustling in every direction, with his tail erect; and, the
moment he scents the bird, expressing his delight by the quivering of
every limb, and the low eager whimpering which the best breaking cannot
always subdue.

Presently the bird springs, and then he shrieks out his ecstasy,
startling even the sportsman with his sharp, shrill, and strangely
expressive bark.

The most serious objection to the use of the cocker is the difficulty of
teaching him to distinguish his game, and confine himself within bounds;
for he will too often flush everything that comes within his reach. It
is often the practice to attach bells to his collar, that the sportsman
may know where he is; but there is an inconvenience connected with this,
that the noise of the bells will often disturb and spring the game
before the dog comes fairly upon it.

Patience and perseverance, with a due mixture of kindness and
correction, will, however, accomplish a great deal in the tuition of the
well-bred spaniel. He may at first hunt about after every bird that
presents itself, or chase the interdicted game; but, if he is
immediately called in and rated, or perhaps corrected, but not too
severely, he will learn his proper lesson, and will recognise the game,
to which alone his attention must be directed. The grand secret in
breaking in these dogs is mildness, mingled with perseverance, the
lessons being enforced, and practically illustrated by the example of an
old and steady dog.

These spaniels will sometimes vie with almost every other species of dog
in intelligence, and will not yield to one of them in fidelity. A
gentleman in Sussex had an old cocker, that was his constant companion,
both in the house and the field. If the morning was rainy, the dog was
perfectly quiet; if it was fine, he became restless, and, at the usual
time for his master to go out, he would take him by the flap of his
coat, and gently pull at it. If the door was opened, he ran immediately
to the keeper's lodge, which was at a considerable distance from the
house. This was a signal for the other dogs to be brought up, and then
he trotted back to announce their approach.

[This beautiful and interesting dog, so called from his peculiar
suitableness for woodcock shooting, is but little known among us except
as a boudoir companion for our ladies. He is, nevertheless, extensively
used in England by sportsmen for finding and flushing this bird, as also
the pheasant; and no doubt, if introduced into our country, would prove
equally, if not more serviceable, in putting up game concealed in the
thickets and marshy hollows of our uncleared grounds. Having extremely
fine scenting powers, they are also employed in greyhound coursing, to
give warning of the proximity of a hare, which they seldom fail to
accomplish.

This active little animal hunts with great spirit, and soon becomes
attached to the sport; in fact the only difficulty to be overcome in
breaking him, is the effort it requires to make him suppress his natural
ardour and withhold his exclamations of delight till the bird is
actually on the wing. The tutelage of the cocker intended for the field
should commence as early as possible, and is not, as many suppose,
attended with great difficulty. His first lessons should be confined to
the art of bringing and carrying, which he soon, in common with all the
other members of the spaniel tribe, learns. The next thing to be
inculcated is implicit obedience to our wishes; then, at the age of four
months or so, he may be carried to the field, where his natural fondness
for hunting will soon be developed by his chasing every bird within his
reach. When this impulse is fully exhibited, and the dog expresses
gratification in the amusement, he should be then instructed to give
chase, or not, at his master's pleasure. When this desirable end has
been accomplished, he may be introduced to the particular kinds of game
which it is proposed to hunt him on, and by slow degrees teach him to
confine his attentions to those varieties alone. It is absolutely
necessary that the dog be forced to hunt as near to the sportsman as
possible, otherwise the game will be flushed at such a distance that it
will be impossible to get at it. The cocker spaniel is much smaller than
the springer; his ears are long, pendulous, and silky; his body round
and compact; his legs short and tufted; his coat variable; his nose
black; tail bushy and feathered, and, when hunting, is kept in constant
motion.

Some are black and white, others liver colour and yellow; the latter
variety we have most usually seen in this country, and some of them have
been represented to us as well-broken and serviceable dogs.--L.]


THE KING CHARLES'S SPANIEL,

so called from the fondness of Charles II for it--who usually had some
of them following him, wherever he went--belongs likewise to the
cockers. Its form and character are well preserved in one of the
paintings of the unfortunate parent of that monarch and his family. The
ears deeply fringed and sweeping the ground, the rounder form of the
forehead, the larger and moister eye, the longer and silken coat, and
the clearness of the tan, and white and black colour, sufficiently
distinguish this variety. His beauty and diminutive size have consigned
him to the drawing-room or parlour.

Charles the First had a breed of spaniels, very small, with the hair
black and curly. The spaniel of the second Charles was of the black and
tan breed.

The King Charles's breed of the present day is materially altered for
the worse. The muzzle is almost as short, and the forehead as ugly and
prominent, as the veriest bull-dog. The eye is increased to double its
former size, and has an expression of stupidity with which the character
of the dog too accurately corresponds. Still there is the long ear, and
the silky coat, and the beautiful colour of the hair, and for these the
dealers do not scruple to ask twenty, thirty, and even fifty guineas.

[This breed of dog was cultivated with such jealous care by the late
Duke of Norfolk, that no solicitation or entreaty could induce this
nobleman to part with one of these favourites, except under certain
peculiar stipulations and injunctions, as detailed in the following
interview of Mr. Blain with the late Duchess of York. "On one occasion,
when we were accompanying Her Royal Highness to her menagerie, with
almost a kennel of canine favourites behind her, after drawing our
attention to a jet black pug pup she had just received from Germany, she
remarked that she was going to show me what she considered a present of
much greater rarity, which was a true King Charles's breed sent to her
by the Duke of Norfolk. 'But,' she observed, 'would you believe he could
be so ungallant as to write word that he must have a positive promise
not from myself, but from the Duke of York, that I should not breed from
it in the direct line?'" Notwithstanding these selfish restrictions on
the part of this noble patron of the spaniel, this breed of dog has
become quite common in England, and not a few have found their way to
this country.--L.]


THE SPRINGER

This dog is slower and steadier in its range than the cocker; but it is
a much safer dog for the shooter, and can better stand a hard day's
work. The largest and best breed of springers is said to be in Sussex,
and is much esteemed in the Wealds of that county.

From a cross with the terrier a black and tan variety was procured,
which was cultivated by the late Duke of Norfolk, and thence called the
Norfolk Spaniel. It is larger than the common springer, and stancher,
and stouter. It often forms a strong individual attachment, and is
unhappy and pines away when separated from its master. It is more
ill-tempered than the common springer, and, if not well broken in, is
often exceedingly obstinate.

[Mr. Skinner informs us that this breed, in its greatest purity, may be
found in the Carrollton family, as also in the possession of Mr.
Keyworth of Washington city.--L.]


THE BLACK AND TAN SPANIEL,

the cross of the terrier being nearly or quite got rid of, is often a
beautiful animal, and is much valued, although it is frequently
considered a somewhat stupid animal.  The cocker and the springer are
sometimes used as finders in coursing.


THE BLENHEIM SPANIEL,

a breed cultivated by one of the Dukes of Marlborough, belongs to this
division. From its beauty, and occasional gaiety, it is oftener an
inhabitant of the drawing-room than the field; but it occasionally
breaks out, and shows what nature designed it for. Some of these
carpeted pets acquit themselves nobly in the covert. There they ought
oftener to be; for they have not much individuality of attachment to
recommend them, and, like other spoiled animals, both quadruped and
biped, misbehave. The breed has degenerated of late, and is not always
to be had pure, even in the neighbourhood of Blenheim. This spaniel may
he distinguished by the length and silkiness of the coat, the deep
fringe about the ear, the arch and deep-feathering of the tail, the full
and moist eye, and the blackness of the palate.



THE WATER-SPANIEL.

Of this breed there are two varieties, a larger and smaller, both useful
according to the degree of range or the work required; the smaller,
however, being ordinarily preferable. Whatever be his general size,
strength and compactness of form are requisite. His head is long, his
face smooth, and his limbs, more developed than those of the springer,
should be muscular, his carcase round, and his hair long and closely
curled. Good breaking is more necessary here than even with the
land-spaniel, and, fortunately, it is more easily accomplished; for, the
water-spaniel, although a stouter, is a more docile animal than the land
one.

Docility and affection are stamped on his countenance, and he rivals
every other breed in his attachment to his master. His work is double;
first to find, when ordered so to do, and to back behind the sportsman
when the game will be more advantageously trodden up. In both he must be
taught to be perfectly obedient to the voice, that he may be kept within
range, and not unnecessarily disturb the birds. A more important part of
his duty, however, is to find and bring the game that has dropped. To
teach him to find is easy enough, for a young water-spaniel will as
readily take to the water as a pointer puppy will stop; but to bring his
game without tearing is a more difficult lesson, and the most difficult
of all is to make him suspend the pursuit of the wounded game while the
sportsman re-loads.

The water-spaniel was originally from Spain; but the pure breed has been
lost, and the present dog is probably descended from the large water-dog
and the English setter.

The water and land spaniels differ materially from each other. The
water-spaniel, although when at his work being all that his master can
desire, is, when unemployed, comparatively a slow and inactive dog; but
under this sobriety of demeanor is concealed a strength and fidelity of
attachment to which the more lively land-spaniel cannot always lay just
claim. The writer of this work once saved a young water-spaniel from the
persecution of a crowd of people who had driven it into a passage, and
were pelting it with stones. The animal had the character of being,
contrary to what his species usually are, exceedingly savage; and he
suffered himself to be taken up by me and carried from his foes with a
kind of sullenness; but when, being out of the reach of danger, he was
put down, he gazed on his deliverer, and then crouched at his feet.

From that moment he attached himself to his new master with an intensity
of affection scarcely conceivable--never expressed by any boisterous
caresses, but by endeavouring to be in some manner in contact with him;
resting his head upon his foot; lying upon some portion of his apparel,
his eye intently fixed upon him; endeavouring to understand every
expression of his countenance. He would follow one gentleman, and one
only, to the river-side, and behave gallantly and nobly there; but the
moment he was dismissed he would scamper home, gaze upon his master, and
lay himself down at his feet. In one of these excursions he was shot. He
crawled home, reached his master's feet, and expired in the act of
licking his hand.

Perhaps the author may be permitted to relate one story more of the
water-spaniel: he pledges himself for its perfect truth. The owner of
the dog is telling this tale.

  "I was once on the sea-coast, when a small, badly-formed, and leaky
  fishing-boat was cast on shore, on a fearful reef of rocks. Three men
  and a boy of ten years old constituted the crew. The men swam on
  shore, but they were so bruised against the rocks, that they could not
  render any assistance to the poor boy, and no person could be found to
  venture out in any way. I heard the noise and went to the spot with my
  dog. I spoke to him, and in he went, more like a seal than a dog, and
  after several fruitless attempts to mount the wreck he succeeded, and
  laid hold of the boy, who clung to the ropes, screaming in the most
  fearful way at being thus dragged into the water. The waves dashed
  frightfully on the rocks. In the anxiety and responsibility of the
  moment I thought that the dog had missed him, and I stripped off my
  clothes, resolved to render what assistance I could. I was just in the
  act of springing from the shore, having selected the moment when the
  receding waves gave me the best chance of rendering any assistance,
  when I saw old 'Bagsman,' for that was the name of my dog, with the
  struggling boy in his mouth, and the head uppermost. I rushed to the
  place where he must land, and the waves bore the boy and the dog into
  my arms.

  "Some time after that I was shooting wild-fowl. I and my dog had been
  working hard, and I left him behind me while I went to a neighbouring
  town to purchase gunpowder. A man, in a drunken frolic, had pushed off
  in a boat with a girl in it; the tide going out carried the boat
  quickly away, and the man becoming frightened, and unable to swim,
  jumped overboard. Bagsman, who was on the spot, hearing the splash,
  jumped in, swam out to the man, caught hold of him, and brought him
  twenty yards towards the shore, when the drunken fellow clasped the
  dog tight round the body, and they both went down together. The girl
  was saved by a boat going to her assistance. The body of the man was
  recovered about an hour afterwards, with that of the dog clasped tight
  in his arms, thus dragging him to the bottom. 'Poor Bagsman! thy worth
  deserves to be thus chronicled.'"


THE POODLE.

The particular cross from which this dog descended is unknown, but the
variety produced has been carefully preserved. It is, probably, of
continental origin, and is known by its thick curly hair concealing
almost every part of the face, and giving it the appearance of a short,
thick, unintelligent head. When, however, that hair is removed, there is
still the large head; but there is also the cerebral cavity more
capacious than in any other dog, and the frontal sinuses fully
developed, and exhibiting every indication of the intellectual class to
which it belongs.

It was originally a water-dog, as its long and curly hair, and its
propensities in its domesticated state, prove; but, from its peculiar
sagacity, it is capable of being trained to almost any useful purpose,
and its strong individual attachment renders it more the companion of
man than a mere sporting dog: indeed, its qualities as a sporting dog
are seldom recognised by its owner.

These dogs have far more courage than the water-spaniel, all the
sagacity of the Newfoundland, more general talent, if the expression may
be used, and more individual attachment than either of them, and without
the fawning of the one, or the submissiveness of the other. The poodle
seems conscious of his worth, and there is often a quiet dignity
accompanying his demonstrations of friendship.

This dog, however, possesses a very peculiar kind of intelligence. It
will almost perform the common offices of a servant: it will ring the
bell and open the door. Mr. Wilkie, of Ladythorn in Northumberland, had
a poodle which he had instructed to go through all the apparent agonies
of dying. He would fall on one side, stretch himself out, and move his
hind legs as if he were in great pain; he would next simulate the
convulsive throbs of departing life, and then stretch out his limbs and
thus seem as if he had expired. In this situation he would remain
motionless, until he had his master's command to rise.

The portrait of Sancho, a poodle, that was with difficulty forced from
the grave of his master, after the battle of Salamanca, is familiar to
many of our readers. Enticed from his post he could not be, nor was he
at length taken away until weakened by grief and starvation. He by
degrees attached himself to his new master, the Marquis of Worcester,
but not with the natural ardour of a poodle. He was attentive to every
command, and could perform many little domestic offices. Sometimes he
would exhibit considerable buoyancy of spirit; but there oftener seemed
to be about him the recollection of older and closer friendship.

Another poodle occupies an interesting place in the history of the
Peninsular war. He too belonged to a French officer, who was killed at
the battle of Castella. The French were compelled to retreat before they
could bury their dead, and the soldiers wished to carry with them their
regimental favourite; but he would not be forced from the corpse of his
master. Some soldiers afterwards traversing the field of battle, one of
them discovered the cross of the Legion of Honour on the breast of the
fallen officer, and stooped to take it away, when the dog flew savagely
at him, and would not quit his hold, until the bayonet of another
soldier laid him lifeless.

A veterinary surgeon, who, before any other animal than the horse was
acknowledged to be the legitimate object of medical care, did not
disdain to attend to the diseases of the dog, used to say that there
were two breeds which he never wished to see in his infirmary, namely,
the poodle and the Norfolk spaniel; for, although not always difficult
to manage, he could never attach them to him, but they annoyed him by
their pitiful and imploring gaze during the day, and their mournful
howling at night.

Custom has determined that the natural coat of this animal shall be
taken from him. It may be a relief to the poodle for a part of his coat
to be stripped off in hot weather, and the curly hair which is left on
his chest, contrasted with his smooth and well-rounded loins and
quarters, may make it look pretty enough; but it should he remembered
that he was not designed by nature to be thus exposed to the cold of
winter, and that there are no dogs so liable to rheumatism, and that
rheumatism degenerating into palsy, as the well-trimmed poodle.


THE BARBET

is a small poodle, the production of some unknown and disadvantageous
cross with the true poodle. It has all the sagacity of the poodle, and
will perform even more than his tricks. It is always in action; always
fidgety; generally incapable of much affection, but inheriting much
self-love and occasional ill temper; unmanageable by any one but its
owner; eaten up with red mange; and frequently a nuisance to its master
and a torment to every one else.

We must not, however, do it injustice; it is very intelligent, and truly
attached to its owner.

The barbet possesses more sagacity than most other dogs, but it is
sagacity of a particular kind, and frequently connected with various
amusing tricks. Mr. Jesse, in his Gleanings in Natural History, gives a
singular illustration of this. A friend of his had a barbet that was not
always under proper command. In order to keep him in better order, he
purchased a small whip, with which he corrected him once or twice during
a walk. On his return the whip was put on a table in the hall, but on
the next morning it was missing. It was soon afterwards found concealed
in an out-building, and again made use of in correcting the dog. Once
more it would have been lost, but, on watching the dog, who was
suspected of having stolen it, he was seen to take it from the hall
table in order to hide it once more.


THE MALTESE DOG

can be traced back to an early period. Strabo says that

  "there is a town in Sicily called Melita, whence are exported many
  beautiful dogs called 'Canes Melitæi'. They were the peculiar
  favourites of the women; but now (A.D. 25) there is less account made
  of these animals, which are not bigger than common ferrets or weasels,
  yet they are not small in understanding nor unstable in their love."

They are also found in Malta and in other islands of the Mediterranean,
and they maintain the same character of being devotedly affectionate to
their owners, while, it is added,--and they are not loved the less for
that,--they are ill-tempered to strangers.


THE LION DOG

is a diminutive likeness of the noble animal whose name it bears. Its
head, neck, shoulders, and fore-legs down to the very feet, are covered
with long, wavy, silky hairs. On the other parts of the dog it is so
short as scarcely to be grasped, except that on the tail there is a
small bush of hair. The origin of this breed is not known; it is,
perhaps, an intermediate one between the Maltese and the Turkish dog.


THE TURKISH DOG,

as it is improperly called, is a native of hot climates. The supposition
of Buffon is not an improbable one, that, being taken from some
temperate country to one considerable hotter, the European dog probably
acquired some cutaneous disease. This is no uncommon occurrence in
Guinea, the East Indies, and South America. Some of these animals
afterwards found their way into Europe, and, from their singularity,
care was taken to multiply the breed. Aldrovandus states that the first
two of them made their appearance in Europe in his time, but the breed
was not continued, on account, as it was supposed, of the climate being
too cold for them.

The few that are occasionally seen in England bear about them every mark
of a degenerated race. They have no activity, and they show little
intelligence or affection. One singular circumstance appertains to all
that the author of this work has had the opportunity of seeing,--their
teeth become very early diseased, and drop from the gums. That eminent
zoologist, Mr. Yarrell, examining, with the author of this work, one
that had died, certainly not more than five years old, found that it had
neither incisors nor canine teeth, and that the molars were reduced to
one on each side, the large tubercular tooth being the only one that was
remaining. At the scientific meeting of the Zoological Society, the same
gentleman stated, that he had examined the mouths of two individuals of
the same variety, then alive at the gardens, in both of which the teeth
were remarkably deficient. In neither of them were there any false
molars, and the incisors in both were deficient in number. Before the
age of four years the tongue is usually disgustingly hanging from the
mouths of these animals.


THE ALPINE SPANIEL, OR BERNARDINE DOG,

is a breed almost peculiar to the Alps, and to the district between
Switzerland and Savoy. The passes over these mountains are exceedingly
dangerous from their steepness and narrowness. A precipice of many
hundred feet is often found on one side, and perpendicular rocks on the
other, while the path is glazed with frozen snow or ice. In many places
the path is overhung with huge masses of frozen snow, which occasionally
loosen and fall, when the dreadful storms peculiar to these regions
suddenly come on, and form an insurmountable barrier, or sweep away or
bury the unfortunate traveller. Should he escape these dangers, the path
is now become trackless, and he wanders amid the dreary solitudes until
night overtakes him; and then, when he pauses from fatigue or
uncertainty with regard to the path he should pursue, his limbs are
speedily benumbed. Fatal slumbers, which he cannot shake off, steal upon
him, and he crouches under some ledge and sleeps, to wake no more. The
snow drifts on. It is almost continually falling, and he is soon
concealed from all human help.

On the top of Mount St. Bernard, and near one of the most dangerous of
these passes, is a convent, in which is preserved a breed of large dogs
trained to search for the benighted and frozen wanderer. Every night,
and particularly when the wind blows tempestuously, some of these dogs
are sent out. They traverse every path about the mountains, and their
scent is so exquisite that they can discover the traveller, although he
may lie many feet deep in the snow. Having found him, they set to work
and endeavour to scrape away the snow, uttering a deep bark that
reverberates from rock to rock, and tells those who are watching in the
convent that some poor wretch is in peril. Generally, a little flask of
spirits is tied round the neck of the animal, by drinking which the
benighted traveller may recruit his strength, until more effectual
rescue arrive. The monks hasten in the direction of the sound, and often
succeed in rekindling the vital spark before it is quite extinguished.
Very many travellers have been thus rescued from death by these
benevolent men and their intelligent and interesting quadruped servants.

One of these Bernardine dogs, named Barry, had a medal tied round his
neck as a badge of honourable distinction, for he had saved the lives of
forty persons. He at length died nobly in his vocation. A Piedmontese
courier arrived at St. Bernard on a very stormy day, labouring to make
his way to the little village of St. Pierre, in the valley beneath the
mountain, where his wife and children lived. It was in vain that the
monks attempted to check his resolution to reach his family. They at
last gave him two guides, each of whom was accompanied by a dog, one of
which was the remarkable creature whose service had been so valuable.
Descending from the convent, they were overwhelmed by two avalanches or
heaps of falling snow, and the same destruction awaited the family of
the poor courier, who were travelling up the mountain in the hope of
obtaining some news of the husband and father.

A beautiful engraving has been made of this noble dog. It represents him
as saving a child which he had found in the Glacier of Balsore, and
cherished, and warmed, and induced to climb on his shoulders, and thus
preserved from, otherwise, certain destruction.


THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG.

The Newfoundland is a spaniel of large size. He is a native of the
island of which he bears the name; but his history is disgraceful to the
owners of so valuable an animal. The employment of the lower classes of
the inhabitants of St. John, in Newfoundland, is divided between the
cutting of wood, and the drawing of it and other merchandise in the
winter, and fishing in the summer.

The carts used in the winter work are drawn by these dogs, who are
almost invariably urged and goaded on beyond their strength, fed only
with putrid salt-fish, and an inadequate quantity even of that. A great
many of them are worn out and die before the winter is over; and, when
the summer approaches, and the fishing season commences, many of them
are quite abandoned, and, uniting with their companions, prowl about
preying on the neighbouring flocks, or absolutely starving.

Mr. Macgregor, however, states that

  "in almost every other part of British America they are valuable and
  useful. They are remarkably docile and obedient to their masters,
  serviceable in all the fishing countries, and yoked in pairs to draw
  the winter's fuel home. They are faithful, good-natured, and ever
  friendly to man. They will defend their master and their master's
  property, and suffer no person to injure either the one or the other;
  and, however extreme may be the danger, they will not leave them for a
  minute. They seem only to want the faculty of speech, in order to make
  their good wishes and feelings understood, and they are capable of
  being trained for all the purposes for which every other variety of
  the canine species is used".[1]

That which most recommends the Newfoundland dog is his fearlessness of
water, and particularly as connected with the preservation of human
life. The writer of the present work knows one of these animals that has
preserved from drowning four human beings.

[This breed of dog, though much esteemed both in England and other
portions of the world, as well for his majestic appearance as for many
useful and winning traits of character, has but few sportsmen as patrons
with us. He is not only used in England as a water-dog for the pursuit
of wild fowl, but has been trained by many sportsmen to hunt on
partridges, woodcocks, and pheasants, and is represented by Captain
Hawker and others as surpassing all others of the canine race, in
finding wounded game of every description.

Mr. Blain remarks that,

  "as a retriever, the Newfoundland dog is easily brought to do almost
  anything that is required of him, and he is so tractable, likewise,
  that, with the least possible trouble, he may be safely taken among
  pointers to the field, with whose province he will not interfere, but
  will be overjoyed to be allowed to look up the wounded game, which he
  will do with a perseverance that no speed and no distance can slacken,
  nor any hedge-row baulk. In cover he is very useful; some, indeed,
  shoot woodcocks to a Newfoundland, and he never shines more than when
  he is returning with a woodcock, pheasant, or hare, in his mouth,
  which he yields up, or even puts into your hand unmutilated."

Notwithstanding the high commendations of these gentlemen, we cannot
look upon the Newfoundland in any other light than that of a dog, whose
powers of sagacity are destined for display in the water.

In contending with this element, either in the preservation of human
life, or in search of wounded fowl, he has no equal, and volumes might
be filled with accounts of his various daring achievements in this
particular branch, not only in England, but on the rivers of our own
country. Mr. Blain mentions two varieties of these dogs as being common
in England, the Labrador and St. John. The former is very large,
rough-haired, and carries his tail very high; the latter is smaller,
more docile, and sagacious in the extreme, and withal much more
manageable. We were not aware of these varieties, and more particularly
as regards the difference in docility and sagacity, but are convinced,
from subsequent observations, that such is the case even in our own
country, for we have often noticed a great dissimilarity in the size and
appearance of these dogs and attributed it to the effects of the climate
and cross breeding with inferior animals. We are indebted to Mr. Skinner
for bringing before the public a faithful and minute account of two of
these animals imported into this country by Mr. Law, of Baltimore, and
may be pardoned for giving again publicity to this gentleman's letter in
relation to these two sagacious brutes.


  BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, January 7th, 1845.

  "MY DEAR SIR:--In the fall of 1807 I was on board of the ship Canton,
  belonging to my uncle, the late Hugh Thompson, of Baltimore, when we
  fell in, at sea, near the termination of a very heavy equinoctial
  gale, with an English brig in a sinking condition, and took off the
  crew. The brig was loaded with codfish, and was bound to Poole, in
  England, from Newfoundland. I boarded her, in command of a boat from
  the Canton, which was sent to take off the English crew, the brig's
  own boats having been all swept away, and her crew in a state of
  intoxication. I found on board of her two Newfoundland pups, male and
  female, which I saved, and, subsequently, on our landing the English
  crew at Norfolk, our own destination being Baltimore, I purchased
  these two pups of the English captain for a guinea a-piece. Being
  bound again to sea, I gave the dog-pup, which was called Sailor, to
  Mr. John Mercer, of West River; and the slut-pup, which was called
  Canton, to Doctor James Stewart, of Sparrow's Point. The history which
  the English captain gave me of these pups was, that the owner of his
  brig was extensively engaged in the Newfoundland trade, and had
  directed his correspondent to select and send him a pair of pups of
  the most approved Newfoundland breed, but of different families, and
  that the pair I purchased of him were selected under this order. The
  dog was of a dingy red colour, and the slut black. They were not
  large; their hair was short, but very thick coated; they had dew
  claws. Both attained great reputation as water-dogs. They were most
  sagacious in everything, particularly so in all duties connected with
  duck-shooting. Governor Lloyd exchanged a Mexican ram for the dog at
  the time of the merino fever, when such rams were selling for many
  hundred dollars, and took him over to his estate on the eastern shore
  of Maryland, where his progeny were well known for many years after,
  and may still he known there, and on the western shore, as the Sailor
  breed. The slut remained at Sparrow's Point till her death, and her
  progeny were, and are still, well known through Patapsco Neck, on the
  Gunpowder, and up the bay, amongst the duck-shooters, as unsurpassed
  for their purposes. I have heard both Doctor Stewart and Mr. Mercer
  relate most extraordinary instances of the sagacity and performances
  of both dog and slut, and would refer you to their friends for such
  particulars as I am unable, at this distance of time, to recollect
  with sufficient accuracy to repeat.

  Yours, in haste,

  GEORGE LAW."

These dogs are represented as being of fine carriage, broad-chested,
compact figure, and in every respect built for strength and activity.

Their patience and endurance were very great when pursuing wounded ducks
through the floating ice, and when fatigued from extraordinary exertions
were known to rest themselves upon broken portions of ice till
sufficiently recovered again to commence the chase. We have seen some of
the descendants of these sagacious animals on the Chesapeake, engaged,
not only in bringing the ducks from the water when shot, but also toling
them into shore within range of the murderous batteries concealed behind
the blind.

This may not be an inappropriate place to speak of this wonderful mode
of decoying ducks, termed toling, so extensively practised upon the
Chesapeake bay and its tributaries, where the canvass-back and red-heads
resort in such numerous quantities every fall. A species of mongrel
water-dog, or often any common cur, is taught to run backwards and
forwards after stones, sticks, or other missiles thrown from one side to
the other. In his activity and industry in this simple branch of
education, within the comprehension of any dog, consists the almost
incredible art of toling the canvass-back.

With a dog of this character, the shooting party, consisting of several
persons all prepared with heavy double-barrelled duck-guns, ensconce
themselves at break of day behind some one of the numerous blinds
temporarily erected along the shore contiguous to the feeding-grounds of
these ducks. Everything being arranged, and the morning mists cleared
off, the ducks will be seen securely feeding on the shallows not less
than several hundreds of yards from the shore. The dog is now put in
motion by throwing stones from one side of the blind to the other. This
will soon be perceived by the ducks, who, stimulated by an extreme
degree of curiosity, and feeling anxious to inform themselves as to this
sudden and singular phenomenon, raise their heads high in the water and
commence swimming for the shore. The dog being kept in motion, the ducks
will not arrest their progress until within a few feet of the water's
edge, and oftentimes will stand on the shore staring, as it were, in
mute and silly astonishment at the playful motions of the dog.

If well trained the dog takes no notice whatever of the duck, but
continues his fascination until the quick report of the battery
announces to him that his services are now wanted in another quarter,
and he immediately rushes into the water to arrest the flight of the
maimed and wounded, who, struggling on every side, dye the water with
their rich blood.

The discovery of this mode of decoying ducks was quite an accident,
being attributed to a circumstance noticed by a sportsman, who,
concealed behind a blind patiently awaiting the near approach of the
canvass-back, observed that they suddenly lifted up their heads and
moved towards the shore. Wondering at this singular and unusual
procedure on the part of this wray bird, he naturally looked round to
discover the cause, and observed a young fox sporting upon the river
bank, and the ducks, all eagerness to gaze upon him, were steering their
course directly for the shore.

These ducks will not only be decoyed by the dog, but will often come in
by waving a fancy coloured handkerchief attached to the ramrod. We have
seen a dog fail to attract their attention till bound around the loins
with a white handkerchief, and then succeed perfectly well. The toling
season continues about three weeks from the first appearance of the
ducks, often a much shorter time, as these birds become more cautious,
and are no longer deceived in this way.

The canvass-back toles better than any other duck; in fact, it is
asserted by many sportsmen, that this particular variety alone can be
decoyed in this mode. There are always numbers of other ducks feeding
with the canvass-back, particularly the red-heads and black-necks, who
partake of the top of the grass that the canvas-back discards after
eating off the root, which is a kind of celery. These ducks, though they
come in with the canvass-back when toled, do not seem to take any notice
whatever of the dog, but continue to swim along, carelessly feeding, as
if entrusting themselves entirely to the guidance of the other ducks.

As far as we have been able to judge, we are inclined to this opinion
also, and do not recollect ever having succeeded in toling any other
species of duck, unaccompanied by the canvass-back, although we have
made the effort many times. These ducks are a very singular bird, and
although very cunning under ordinary circumstances, seem perfectly
bewildered upon this subject, as we were one of a party several years
since, who actually succeeded in decoying the same batch of ducks three
successive times in the course of an hour, and slaying at each fire a
large number, as we counted out over forty at the conclusion of the
sport.

Although the toling of ducks is so simple in its process, there are few
dogs that have sufficient industry and perseverance to arrive at any
degree of perfection in the art. The dog, if not possessed of some
sagacity and considerable training, is very apt to tire and stop running
when the ducks have got near to the shore, but too far to be reached by
the guns, which spoils all, as the birds are very apt to swim or fly off
if the motion of the animal is arrested for a few moments.--L.]

A native of Germany was travelling one evening on foot through Holland,
accompanied by a large dog. Walking on a high bank which formed one side
of a dyke, his foot slipped, and he was precipitated into the water;
and, being unable to swim, soon became senseless. When he recovered his
recollection, he found himself in a cottage on the contrary side of the
dyke, surrounded by peasants, who had been using the means for the
recovery of drowned persons. The account given by one of them was, that,
returning home from his labour, he observed at a considerable distance a
large dog in the water, swimming and dragging, and sometimes pushing
along something that he seemed to have great difficulty in supporting,
but which he at length succeeded in getting into a small creek on the
opposite side. When the animal had pulled what he had hitherto supported
as far out of the water as he was able, the peasant discovered that it
was the body of a man, whose face and hands the dog was industriously
licking. The peasant hastened to a bridge across the dyke, and, having
obtained assistance, the body was conveyed to a neighbouring house,
where proper means soon restored the drowned man to life. Two very
considerable bruises, with the marks of teeth, appeared, one on his
shoulder and the other on his poll; hence it was presumed that the
faithful beast had first seized his master by the shoulder, and swam
with him in this manner for some time, but that his sagacity had
prompted him to quit this hold, and to shift it to the nape of the neck,
by which he had been enabled to support the head out of water; and in
this way he had conveyed him nearly a quarter of a mile before he had
brought him to the creek, where the banks were low and accessible.

Dr. Beattie relates an instance of a gentleman attempting to cross the
river Dee, then frozen over, near Aberdeen. The ice gave way about the
middle of the river; but, having a gun in his hand, he supported himself
by placing it across the opening. His dog then ran to a neighbouring
village, where, with the most significant gestures, he pulled a man by
the coat, and prevailed on him to follow him. They arrived at the spot
just in time to save the drowning man's life.

Of the noble disposition of the Newfoundland dog, Dr. Abel, in one of
his lectures on Phrenology, relates a singular instance.

  "When this dog left his master's house, he was often assailed by a
  number of little noisy dogs in the street. He usually passed them with
  apparent unconcern, as if they were beneath his notice; but one little
  cur was particularly troublesome, and at length carried his impudence
  so far as to bite the Newfoundland dog in the leg. This was a degree
  of wanton insult beyond what he could patiently endure; and he
  instantly turned round, ran after the offender, and seized him by the
  skin of the back. In this way he carried him in his mouth to the quay,
  and, holding him some time over the water, at length dropped him into
  it. He did not, however, seem to design that the culprit should be
  punished capitally. He waited a little while, until the poor animal,
  who was unused to that element, was not only well ducked, but nearly
  sinking, and then plunged in, and brought him safe to land."

  "It would be difficult," says Dr. Hancock, in his Essay on Instinct,
  "to conceive any punishment more aptly contrived or more completely in
  character. Indeed, if it were fully analyzed, an ample commentary
  might be written in order to show what a variety of comparisons and
  motives and generous feelings entered into the composition of this
  act."

No one ever drew more legitimate consequence from certain existing
premises.

One other story should not be omitted of this noble breed of water-dogs.
A vessel was driven on the beach of Lydd, in Kent. The surf was rolling
furiously. Eight poor fellows were crying for help, but not a boat could
be got off to their assistance. At length a gentleman came on the beach
accompanied by his Newfoundland dog: he directed the attention of the
animal to the vessel, and put a short stick into his mouth. The
intelligent and courageous fellow at once understood his meaning, sprung
into the sea, and fought his way through the waves. He could not,
however, get close enough to the vessel to deliver that with which he
was charged; but the crew understood what was meant, and they made fast
a rope to another piece of wood, and threw it towards him. The noble
beast dropped his own piece of wood and immediately seized that which
had been cast to him, and then, with a degree of strength and
determination scarcely credible,--for he was again and again lost under
the waves,--he dragged it through the surge and delivered it to his
master. A line of communication was thus formed, and every man on board
was rescued.

There is, however, a more remarkable fact recorded in the Penny
Magazine.

  "During a heavy gale a ship had struck on a rock near the land. The
  only chance of escape for the shipwrecked was to get a rope ashore;
  for it was impossible for any boat to live in the sea as it was then
  running. There were two Newfoundland dogs and a bull-dog on board. One
  of the Newfoundland dogs was thrown overboard, with a rope thrown
  round him, and perished in the waves. The second shared a similar
  fate: but the bull-dog fought his way through that terrible sea, and,
  arriving safe onshore, rope and all, became the saviour of the crew."

Some of the true Newfoundland dogs have been brought to Europe and have
been used as retrievers. They are principally valuable for the fearless
manner in which they will penetrate the thickest cover. They are
comparatively small, but muscular, strong, and generally black. A larger
variety has been bred, and is now perfectly established. He is seldom
used as a sporting dog, or for draught, but is admired on account of his
stature and beauty, and the different colours with which he is often
marked. Perhaps he is not quite so good-natured and manageable as the
smaller variety, and yet it is not often that much fault can be found
with him on this account.

A noble animal of this kind was presented to the Zoological Society by
His Royal Highness Prince Albert. He is a great ornament to the gardens;
but he had been somewhat unmanageable, and had done some mischief before
he was sent thither.

A portion of Lord Byron's beautiful epitaph on the death of his
Newfoundland dog will properly close our account of this animal:

  "The poor dog! In life the firmest friend,
  The first to welcome, foremost to defend;
  Whose honest heart is still his master's own;
  Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone."

[Notwithstanding the many excellent qualities so conspicuous in this
noble breed of dog, he is said to possess one most ungenerous trait of
character, "a peculiar antipathy to sheep," and if not early trained to
endure their presence, will take every opportunity to destroy these
innocent animals.]


THE ESQUIMAUX DOG

is a beast of burden and of draught, usefully employed by the
inhabitants of the extreme parts of North America and the neighbouring
islands. When the Esquimaux Indian goes in pursuit of the seal, the
rein-deer, or the bear, his dogs carry the materials of his temporary
hut, and the few necessaries of his simple life; or, yoked to the
sledge, often draw him and his family full sixty miles a-day over the
frozen plains of these inhospitable regions. At other times they assist
in the chase, and run down and destroy the bear and the rein-deer on
land, and the seal on the coast.

These dogs are very early trained to the work which they are destined to
follow, and even at the tender age of four or five months are harnessed
together or in company with older animals, and are compelled, either by
persuasion or brutal chastisement, to draw heavy weights, and thus soon
become accustomed to the trammels of the rude gearing, and familiar with
the service that they afterwards perform with so much sagacity and
alacrity.

Capt. Lyon states that they are very similar in appearance to the
shepherd dog of England, but more muscular and broad chested, owing to
severe work; ears pointed, of a savage appearance; the finer dogs are
equal to the Newfoundland breed in point of height and general symmetry.

It is also somewhat curious to be informed that these dogs have no
particular season of oestrum, but bear young indiscriminately at all
times of the year, cold or warm, having very little or no effect upon
their reproductive powers, being often seen in heat during the month of
December when the thermometer was forty degrees below zero.

Their journeys are often without any certain object; but, if the dogs
scent the deer or the bear, they gallop away in that direction until
their prey is within reach of the driver, or they are enabled to assist
in destroying their foe. Captain Parry, in his Journal of a 'Second
Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage', gives an amusing
account of these expeditions.

  "A number of dogs, varying from six to twelve, are attached to each
  sledge by means of a single trace, but with no reins. An old and tried
  dog is placed as the leader, who, in their simple journeys, and when
  the chase is the object, steadily obeys the voice of the driver
  sitting in front of the sledge, with a whip long enough to reach the
  leader. This whip, however, is used as seldom as possible; for these
  dogs, although tractable, are ferocious, and will endure little
  correction. When the whip is applied with severity on one, he falls
  upon and worries his neighbour, and he, in his turn, attacks a third,
  and there is a scene of universal confusion, or the dogs double from
  side to side to avoid the whip, and the traces become entangled, and
  the safety of the sledge endangered. The carriage must then be
  stopped, each dog put into his proper place, and the traces
  re-adjusted. This frequently happens several times in the course of
  the day. The driver therefore depends principally on the docility of
  the leader, who, with admirable precision, quickens or slackens his
  pace, and starts off or stops, or turns to the right or left, at the
  summons of his master. When they are journeying homeward, or
  travelling to some spot to which the leader has been accustomed to go,
  he is generally suffered to pursue his own course; for, although every
  trace of the road is lost in the drifting snow, he scents it out, and
  follows it with undeviating accuracy. Even the leader, however, is not
  always under the control of his master. If the journey lies homeward,
  he will go his own pace, and that is usually at the top of his speed;
  or, if any game starts, or he scents it at a distance, no command of
  his driver will restrain him. Neither the dog nor his master is half
  civilized or subdued."

Each of these dogs will draw a weight of 120 lb. over the snow, at the
rate of seven or eight miles an hour.

[It is extraordinary to consider the powers and wonderful speed of these
animals, almost equalling that of many horses.

Captain Lyon informs us that three dogs drew a sledge weighing 100 lbs.
and himself, one mile in six minutes; his leader dog, which is generally
more powerful than the others, drew 196 lb. the same distance in eight
minutes; seven dogs ran one mile in four minutes and thirty seconds,
with a heavy sledge full of men attached to them; ten dogs ran one mile
in five minutes; nine dogs drew 1611 lb. the same distance in nine
minutes.--'Lyon's Journal', p. 243.--L.]

In summer, many of these dogs are used as beasts of burden, and each
carries from thirty to fifty pounds. They are then much better kept than
in the winter; for they have the remains of the whale and sea-calf,
which their masters disdain to eat. The majority, however, are sent
adrift in the summer, and they live on the produce of the chase or of
their constant thievery. The exactness with which, the summer being
past, each returns to his master, is an admirable proof of sagacity, and
frequently of attachment.

In some parts of Siberia, on the borders of the Oby, there are
established relays of dogs, like the post-horses in other countries.
Four of these are attached to a very light vehicle; but, when much haste
is required, or any very heavy goods are to be conveyed, more than
treble or quadruple that number are harnessed to the vehicle. M. de
Lesseps [2] gives an almost incredible account of this. He is speaking
of the voracity of these poor beasts, in the midst of the snowy desert,
with little or no food.

  "We had unharnessed our dogs, in order to bring them closer together,
  in the ordinary way; but, the moment they were brought up to the pole,
  they seized their harness, constructed of the thickest and toughest
  leather, and tore it to pieces, and devoured it. It was in vain that
  we attempted every means of restraint. A great number of them escaped
  into the wilds around, others wandered here and there, and seized
  everything that came within their reach, and which their teeth could
  destroy. Almost every minute some one of them fell exhausted, and
  immediately became the prey of the others. Every one that could get
  within reach struggled for his share. Every limb was disputed, and
  torn away by a troop of rivals, who attacked all within their reach.
  As soon as one fell by exhaustion or accident, he was seized by a
  dozen others, and destroyed in the space of a few minutes. In order to
  defend ourselves from this crowd of famished beasts, we were compelled
  to have recourse to our bludgeons and our swords. To this horrible
  scene of mutual destruction succeeded, on the following day, the sad
  appearance of those that surrounded the sledge, to which we had
  retreated for safety and for warmth. They were thin, and starved, and
  miserable; they could scarcely move; their plaintive and continual
  howlings seemed to claim our succour; but there was no possibility of
  relieving them in the slightest degree, except that some of them crept
  to the opening in our carriage through which the smoke escapes; and
  the more they felt the warmth closer they crept, and then, through
  mere feebleness, losing their equilibrium, they rolled into the fire
  before our eyes."

These dogs are not so high as the common pointer, but much larger and
stouter, although their thick hair, three or four inches long in the
winter, gives them an appearance of more stoutness than they possess.
Under this hair is a coating of fine close soft wool, which begins to
grow in the early part of winter, and drops off in the spring. Their
muzzles are sharp and generally black, and their ears erect.

The Greenland, and Siberian, and Kamtschatdale are varieties of the
Esquimaux or Arctic dogs, but enlarged in form, and better subdued. The
docility of some of these is equal to that of any European breed.

A person of the name of Chabert, who was afterwards better known by the
title of "Fire King," had a beautiful Siberian dog, who would draw him
in a light carriage 20 miles a day. He asked £200 for him, and sold him
for a considerable portion of that sum; for he was a most beautiful
animal of his kind, and as docile as he was beautiful. Between the sale
and the delivery, the dog fell and broke his leg. Chabert, to whom the
price agreed on was of immense consequence, was in despair. He took the
dog at night to a veterinary surgeon. He formally introduced them to
each other. He talked to the dog, pointed to his leg, limped around the
room, then requested the surgeon to apply some bandages around the leg,
and he seemed to walk sound and well. He patted the dog on the head, who
was looking alternately at him and the surgeon, desired the surgeon to
pat him, and to offer him his hand to lick, and then, holding up his
finger to the dog, and gently shaking his head, quitted the room and the
house. The dog immediately laid himself down, and submitted to a
reduction of the fracture, and the bandaging of the limb, without a
motion, except once or twice licking the hand of the operator. He was
quite submissive, and in a manner motionless, day after day, until, at
the expiration of a month, the limb was sound. Not a trace of the
fracture was to be detected, and the purchaser, who is now living, knew
nothing about it.

The employment of the Esquimaux dogs is nearly the same as those from
Newfoundland, and most valuable they are to the traveller who has to
find his way over the wild and trackless regions of the north. The
manner, however, in which they are generally treated seems ill
calculated to cause any strong or lasting attachment. During their
period of labour, they, like their brethren in Newfoundland, are fed
sparingly on putrid fish, and in summer they are turned loose to shift
for themselves until the return of the severe season renders it
necessary to their masters' interest that they should again be sought
for, and once more reduced to their state of toil and slavery.

They have been known for several successive days to travel more than 60
miles. They seldom miss their road, although they may be driven over one
untrodden snowy plain, where they are occasionally unable to reach any
place of shelter. When, however, night comes, they partake with their
master of the scanty fare which the sledge will afford, and, crowding
round, keep him warm and defend him from danger. If any of them fall
victims to the hardships to which they are exposed, their master or
their companions frequently feed on their remains, and their skins are
converted into warm and comfortable dresses.


THE LAPLAND DOG.

Captain Clarke thus describes the Lapland dog:

  "We had a valuable companion in a dog belonging to one of the boatmen.
  It was of the true Lapland breed, and in all respects similar to a
  wolf, excepting the tail, which was bushy and curled like those of the
  Pomeranian race. This dog, swimming after the boat, if his master
  merely waved his hand, would cross the lake as often as he pleased,
  carrying half his body and the whole of his head and tail out of the
  water. Wherever he landed, he scoured all the long grass by the side
  of the lake in search of wild-fowl, and came back to us, bringing
  wild-ducks in his mouth to the boat, and then, having delivered his
  prey to his master, he would instantly set off again in search of
  more." [3]

But we pass on to another and more valuable species of the dog:


THE SHEEP-DOG.

The origin of the sheep-dog is somewhat various; but the predominant
breed is that of the intelligent and docile spaniel. Although it is now
found in every civilized country in which the sheep is cultivated, ii is
not coeval with the domestication of that animal. When the pastures were
in a manner open to the first occupant, and every shepherd had a common
property in them, it was not so necessary to restrain the wandering of
the sheep, and the voice of the shepherd was usually sufficient to
collect and to guide them. He preceded the flock, and they "followed him
whithersoever he went." In process of time, however, man availed himself
of the sagacity of the dog to diminish his own labour and fatigue, and
this useful servitor became the guide and defender of the flock.

The sheep-dog possesses much of the same form and character in every
country. The muzzle is sharp, the ears are short and erect, and the
animal is covered, particularly about the neck, with thick and shaggy
hair. He has usually two dew claws on each of the hind legs; not,
however, as in the one claw of other dogs, having a jointed attachment
to the limb, but merely connected by the skin and some slight cellular
substance. These excrescences should be cut off when the dog is young.
The tail is slightly turned upwards and long, and almost as bushy as
that of a fox, even in that variety whose coat is almost smooth. He is
of a black colour or black prevails, mixed with gray or brown.

Professor Grognier gives the following account of this dog as he is
found in France:

  "The shepherd's dog, the least removed from the natural type of the
  dog, is of a middle size; his ears short and straight; the hair long,
  principally on the tail, and of a dark colour; the tail is carried
  horizontally or a little elevated. He is very indifferent to caresses.
  possessed of much intelligence and activity to discharge the duties
  for which he was designed. In one or other of its varieties it is
  found in every part of France. Sometimes there is but a single breed,
  in others there are several varieties. It lives and maintains its
  proper characteristics, while other races often degenerate. Everywhere
  it preserves its proper distinguishing type. It is the servant of man,
  while other breeds vary with a thousand circumstances.  It has one
  appropriate mission, and that it discharges in the most admirable way:
  there is evidently a kind and wise design in this."

This account of the French sheep-dog, or of the sheep-dog everywhere, is
as true as it is beautiful. One age succeeds to another, we pass from
one climate to another, and everything varies and changes, but the
shepherd's dog is what he ever was--the guardian of our flocks. There
are, however, two or more species of this dog; the one which Professor
Grognier has described, and which guards and guides the sheep in the
open and level country, where wolves seldom intrude; another crossed
with the mastiff, or little removed from that dog, used in the woody and
mountainous countries, their guard more than their guide. [4] In Great
Britain, where he has principally to guide and not to guard the flock,
he is comparatively a small dog. He is so in the northern and open parts
of the country, where activity is principally wanted; but, in the more
enclosed districts, and where strength is often needed to turn an
obstinate sheep, he is crossed with some larger dog, as the rough
terrier, or sometimes the pointer, or now and then the bull-dog: in
fact, almost any variety that has strength and stoutness may be
employed. Thus we obtain the larger sheep-dog and the drover's dog. The
sagacity, forbearance, and kindness of the sheep-dog are generally
retained, but from these crosses there is occasionally a degree of
ferocity from which the sheep often suffer.

In other countries, where the flock is exposed to the attack of the
wolf, the sheep-dog is larger than the British drover's dog, and not far
inferior in size to the mastiff. The strength and ferocity which qualify
him to combat with the wolf, would occasionally be injurious or fatal to
those who somewhat obstinately opposed his direction; therefore, in
Denmark and in Spain, the dog is rarely employed to drive the flock. It
is the office of the shepherd, to know every individual under his
charge, to, as in olden times, "call them all by their names," and have
always some docile and tamed wether who will take the lead, almost as
subservient to his voice as is the dog himself, and whom the flock will
immediately follow.

In whatever country the dog is used, partly or principally to protect
the flock from the ravages of the wolf, he is as gentle as a lamb,
except when opposed to his natural enemy; and it is only in England that
the guardian of the sheep occasionally injures and worries them, and
that many can be found bearing the mark of the tooth. This may he
somewhat excusable (although it is often carried to a barbarous extent)
in the drover's dog; but it will admit of no apology in the shepherd's
dog. It is the result of the idleness of the boy, or the mingled
brutality and idleness of the shepherd, who is attempting to make the
dog do his own work and that of his master too. We have admired the
Prussian sheep-dog in the discharge of his duty, and have seen him pick
out the marked sheep, or stop and turn the flock, as cleverly as any
Highland colley, but he never bit them. He is a shorter, stronger, and
more compact dog than ours. He pushes against them and forces them
along. If they rebel against this mild treatment, the shepherd is at
hand to enforce obedience; and the flock is as easily and perfectly
managed as any English or Highland one, and a great deal more so than
the majority that we have seen.

Mr. Trimmer, in his work on the Merinos, speaking of the Spanish flocks,
says:

  "There is no driving of the flock; that is a practice entirely
  unknown; but the shepherd, when he wishes to remove his sheep, calls
  to him a tame wether accustomed to feed from his hands. The favourite,
  however distant, obeys his call, and the rest follow. One or more of
  the dogs, with large collars armed with spikes, in order to protect
  them from the wolves, precede the flock, others skirt it on each side,
  and some bring up the rear. If a sheep be ill or lame, or lag behind
  unobserved by the shepherds, they stay with it and defend it until
  some one return in search of it. With us, dogs are too often used for
  other and worse purposes. In open, unenclosed districts, they are
  indispensable; but in others I wish them, I confess, either managed,
  or encouraged less. If a sheep commits a fault in the sight of an
  intemperate shepherd, or accidentally offends him, it is 'dogged'
  into obedience: the signal is given, the dog obeys the mandate, and
  the poor sheep flies round the field to escape from the fangs of him
  who should be his protector, until it becomes half dead with fright
  and exhaustion, while the trembling flock crowd together dreading the
  same fate, and the churl exults in this cowardly victory over a weak
  and defenceless animal." [5]

If the farmer will seriously calculate the number of ewes that have
yeaned before their time, and of the lambs that he has lost, and the
accidents that have occurred from the sheep pressing upon one another in
order to escape from the dog, and if he will also take into account the
continual disturbance of the sheep while grazing, by the approach of the
dog, and the consequent interference with the cropping and the digestion
of the food, he will attach more importance to the good temper of the
dog and of the shepherd than he has been accustomed to do. There would
be no injustice, or rather a great deal of propriety, in inflicting a
fine for every tooth-mark that could be detected. When the sheep,
instead of collecting round the dog, and placing themselves under his
protection on any sudden alarm, uniformly fly from him with terror, the
farmer may he assured there is something radically wrong in the
management of the flock.

Instinct and education combine to fit this dog for our service. The
pointer will act without any great degree of instruction, and the setter
will crouch; and most certainly the sheep-dog, and especially if he has
the example of an older and expert one, will, almost without the
teaching of the master, become everything that can be wished, obedient
to every order, even to the slightest motion of the hand. There is a
natural predisposition for the office he has to discharge, which it
requires little trouble or skill to develop and perfect.

It is no unpleasing employment to study the degree in which the several
breeds of dogs are not only highly intelligent, but fitted by nature for
the particular duty they have to perform. The pointer, the setter, the
hound, the greyhound, the terrier, the spaniel, and even the bull-dog,
were made, and almost perfected, by nature chiefly for one office alone,
although they maybe useful in many other ways. This is well illustrated
in the sheep-dog. If he be but with his master, he lies content,
indifferent to every surrounding object, seemingly half asleep and half
awake, rarely mingling with his kind, rarely courting, and generally
shrinking from, the notice of a stranger; but the moment duty calls, his
sleepy, listless eye, becomes brightened; he eagerly gazes on his
master, inquires and comprehends all he is to do, and, springing up,
gives himself to the discharge of his duty with a sagacity, and
fidelity, and devotion, too rarely equalled even by man himself.

Mr. James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, living in his early days among the
sheep and their quadruped attendants, and an accurate observer of
nature, as well an exquisite poet, gives some anecdotes of the colley,
(the Highland term for sheep-dog), with which the reader will not be
displeased.

  "My dog Sirrah," says he, in a letter to the Editor of 'Blackwood's
  Edinburgh Magazine', "was, beyond all comparison, the best dog I ever
  saw. He had a somewhat surly and unsocial temper, disdaining all
  flattery, and refusing to be caressed, but his attention to my
  commands and interest will never again be equalled by any of the
  canine race. When I first saw him, a drover was leading him with a
  rope. He was both lean and hungry, and far from being a beautiful
  animal; for he was almost black, and had a grim face, striped with
  dark brown. I thought I perceived a sort of sullen intelligence in his
  countenance, notwithstanding his dejected and forlorn appearance, and
  I bought him. He was scarcely a year old, and knew so little of
  herding that he had never turned a sheep in his life; but, as soon as
  he discovered that it was his duty to do so, and that it obliged me, I
  can never forget with what anxiety and eagerness he learned his
  different evolutions; and when I once made him understand a direction,
  he never forgot or mistook it."

  On one night, a large flock of lambs that were under the Ettrick
  Shepherd's care, frightened by something, scampered away in three
  different directions across the hills, in spite of all that he could
  do to keep them together. "Sirrah," said the shepherd, "they're a'
  awa!"

  It was too dark for the dog and his master to see each other at any
  considerable distance, but Sirrah understood him, and set off after
  the fugitives. The night passed on, and Hogg and his assistant
  traversed every neighbouring hill in anxious but fruitless search for
  the lambs; but he could hear nothing of them nor of the dog, and he
  was returning to his master with the doleful intelligence that he had
  lost all his lambs. "On our way home, however," says he, "we
  discovered a lot of lambs at the bottom of a deep ravine called the
  Flesh Cleuch, and the indefatigable Sirrah standing in front of them,
  looking round for some relief, but still true to his charge. We
  concluded that it was one of the divisions which Sirrah had been
  unable to manage, until he came to that commanding situation. But what
  was our astonishment when we discovered that not one lamb of the flock
  was missing! How he had got all the divisions collected in the dark,
  is beyond my comprehension. The charge was left entirely to himself
  from midnight until the rising sun; and, if all the shepherds in the
  forest had been there to have assisted him, they could not have
  effected it with greater promptitude. All that I can say is, that I
  never felt so grateful to any creature under the sun us I did to my
  honest Sirrah that morning."

A shepherd, in one of his excursions over the Grampian Hills to collect
his scattered flock, took with him (as is a frequent practice, to
initiate them in their future business) one of his children about four
years old. After traversing his pastures for a while, attended by his
dog, he was compelled to ascend a summit at some distance. As the ascent
was too great for the child, he left him at the bottom, with strict
injunctions not to move from the place. Scarcely, however, had he gained
the height, when one of the Scotch mists, of frequent occurrence,
suddenly came on, and almost changed the day to night. He returned to
seek his child, but was unable to find him, and concluded a long and
fruitless search by coming distracted to his cottage. His poor dog also
was missing in the general confusion. On the next morning by daylight he
renewed his search, but again he came back without his child. He found,
however, that during his absence his dog had been home, and, on
receiving his allowance of food, instantly departed. For four successive
days the shepherd continued his search with the same bad fortune, the
dog as readily coming for his meal and departing. Struck by this
singular circumstance, he determined to follow the dog, who departed as
usual with his piece of cake. The animal led the way to a cataract at
some distance from the spot where the child had been left. It was a
rugged and almost perpendicular descent which the dog took, and he
disappeared in a cave, the mouth of which was almost on a level with the
torrent. The shepherd with difficulty followed; but, on entering the
cavern, what were his emotions when he beheld the infant eating the cake
which the dog had just brought to him, while the faithful animal stood
by, eyeing his young charge with the utmost complacency! From the
situation in which the child was found, it appeared that he had wandered
to the brink of the precipice, and then either fallen or scrambled down,
the torrent preventing his re-ascent. The dog by means of his scent had
traced him to the spot, and afterwards prevented him from starving by
giving up a part, or, perhaps, the whole of his own daily allowance. He
appears never to have quitted the child night or day, except for food,
as he was seen running at full speed to and from the cottage. [6]

Mr. Hogg says, and very truly, that a single shepherd and his dog will
accomplish more in gathering a flock of sheep from a Highland farm than
twenty shepherds could do without dogs; in fact, that without this
docile animal, the pastoral life would be a mere blank. It would require
more hands to manage a flock of sheep, gather them from the hills, force
them into houses and folds, and drive them to markets, than the profits
of the whole flock would be capable of maintaining. Well may the
shepherd feel an interest in his dog; he it is indeed that earns the
family bread, of which he is himself content with the smallest morsel:
always grateful, and always ready to exert his utmost abilities in his
master's interests. Neither hunger, fatigue, nor the worst treatment
will drive him from his side, and he will follow him through every
hardship without murmur or repining. If one of them is obliged to change
masters, it is sometimes long before he will acknowledge the new owner,
or condescend to work for him with the willingness that he did for his
former lord; but, if he once acknowledges him, he continues attached to
him until death. [7]

We will add another story of the colley, and proceed. It illustrates the
memory of the dog. A shepherd was employed in bringing up some mountain
sheep from Westmoreland, and took with him a young sheep-dog who had
never made the journey before. From his assistant being ignorant of the
ground, he experienced great difficulty in having the flock stopped at
the various roads and lanes he passed in their way to the neighbourhood
of London.

In the next year the same shepherd, accompanied by the same dog, brought
up another flock for the gentlemen who had had the former one. On being
questioned how he had got on, he said much better than the year before,
as his dog now knew the road, and had kept the sheep from going up any
of the lanes or turnings that had given the shepherd so much trouble on
his former journey. The distance could not have been less than 400
miles. [8]

Buffon gives an eloquent and faithful account of the sheep-dog:

  "This animal, faithful to man, will always preserve a portion of his
  empire and a degree of superiority over other beings. He reigns at the
  head of his flock, and makes himself better understood than the voice
  of the shepherd. Safety, order, and discipline are the fruits of his
  vigilance and activity. They are a people submitted to his management,
  whom he conducts and protects, and against whom he never employs force
  but for the preservation of good order."

  "If we consider that this animal, notwithstanding his ugliness and his
  wild and melancholy look, is superior in instinct to all others; that
  he has a decided character in which education has comparatively little
  share; that he is the only animal born perfectly trained for the
  service of others; that, guided by natural powers alone, he applies
  himself to the care of our flocks, a duty which he executes with
  singular assiduity, vigilance, and fidelity; that he conducts them
  with an admirable intelligence which is a part and portion of himself;
  that his sagacity astonishes at the same time that it gives repose to
  his master, while it requires great time and trouble to instruct other
  dogs for the purposes to which they are destined: if we reflect on
  these facts we shall be confirmed in the opinion that the shepherd's
  dog is the true dog of nature, the stock and model of the whole
  species." [9]

[After reading the above history of this truly valuable dog, it is
almost superfluous for us to attempt to add anything more on this head;
however, we must pause for a few moments, to call the attention of our
agriculturists and others engaged in raising sheep, to the immense
advantages to be derived from the introduction of this sagacious animal
throughout our own country.

The increased vigour that is now given for the cultivation of sheep, to
supply the necessary demands of the numerous woollen factories springing
up in every quarter, renders the services of this faithful creature
absolutely indispensable, not only as a guardian of the flocks, but as a
mere expedient of economy.

Many portions of our country, now lying idle, particularly the
mountainous ranges, are peculiarly adapted for the grazing of sheep, and
we are destined not only to supply the world with cotton, but may hope
ere long to add to our national wealth the other equally valuable staple
commodity, that of wool.

In the care of sheep, each dog not only supplies the place of two or
three men, but, as is seen in the foregoing pages, renders such
assistance as cannot be obtained from any other source.

The shepherds of Mexico lead a life not unlike the patriarchs of old,
shifting about from day to day, watching their immense flocks, attended
only by a few dogs, who have the entire control of the sheep, keeping
them from straying away, and not only defending them from the
blood-thirsty wolf, but even attacking, if necessary, the skulking
savage.

These dogs of Mexico are represented as being much larger than the
English variety, and no doubt are the descendants of the Spanish
shepherd dog, so highly prized in protecting the Merino flocks from the
wolves that infest the mountainous parts of Spain, most frequented by
the herds during the summer season.

These dogs are the same breed as those engaged by the philanthropic
monks of St. Bernard in hunting up the benumbed traveller when sinking
from exhaustion, or already overwhelmed by the sudden rushing of an
avalanche into some one of the mountain passes.

The original Spanish shepherd dog is a very powerful animal, and even
those of Mexico, when armed with spiked collars, are a sufficient match
for the largest wolves. Mr. Kendall mentions having met on the grand
prairie with a flock of sheep numbering seventeen thousand, which
immense herd was guarded by a very few men, assisted by a large number
of noble dogs, which appeared gifted with the faculty of keeping them
together.

  "There was no running about, no barking or biting in their system of
  tactics; on the contrary, they were continually walking up and down,
  like faithful sentinels, on the outer side of the flock, and should
  any sheep chance to stray from his fellows, the dog on duty at that
  particular post would walk gently up, take him carefully by the ear,
  and lead him back to the fold. Not the least fear did the sheep
  manifest at the approach of these dogs, and there was no occasion for
  it."
  Vol. I. p. 268.

This account coincides with the remarks of Mr. Trinner upon this dog in
old Spain; and Mr. Skinner very justly remarks, that the Mexican
sheep-dog has not his equal in any part of the world, except, perhaps,
in his native country, and that the Scotch or English dog sinks into
insignificance when compared with him.

A flock of a thousand sheep in Spain requires the attendance of two men
and an equal number of dogs, who never for a moment quit their charge,
watching them without intermission day and night. The great inferiority
of the English dogs, may be attributed, perhaps, to their want of care
in training and bringing up, which is considered the most essential, and
actually the foundation of all their future usefulness with the
Mexicans. The pups when first born, are taken from the bitch, and put to
a sucking ewe, already deprived of her own lamb. For several days the
ewe is confined with the pups in the shepherd's hut, and either from
force, or an instinctive desire to be relieved of the contents of the
udder, she soon allows the little strangers to suck, and in the course
of a few days more, becomes quite reconciled to the change, and exhibits
a great degree of affection for her foster children, who, knowing no
other parentage, becomes thus early engrafted into the general
community, and returns their early kindness by every mark of affection
and fidelity hereafter; never being willing for a moment to quit their
society, but remains with them night and day, expressing a peculiar
attachment to this particular flock, and seeming able to distinguish
each member of it from all other intruders.

In the third volume of the 'American Agriculturist' will be found an
interesting article connected with this subject, and from which we might
extract much useful information, if our limits would allow of its
insertion in the present volume.

Mr. Skinner states, that in 1832 he had two of these dogs, a male and
female, both trained, but unfortunately lost the latter before obtaining
any pups from her; he also remarks, that they can be imported via Havana
and Santander, at an expense of not less than $70 or $80. We see no
reason why the same dogs might not be obtained at a much less cost by
the Santa Fé traders, who, no doubt, would be glad to bring them into
the country as companions de voyages, provided there was any demand for
them.--L.]


THE DROVER'S DOG

bears considerable resemblance to the sheep-dog, and has usually the
same prevailing black or brown colour. He possesses all the docility of
the sheep-dog, with more courage, and sometimes a degree of ferocity,
exercised without just cause upon his charge, while he is in his turn
cruelly used by a brutal master.

There is a valuable cross between the colley and the drover's dog in
Westmoreland, and a larger and stronger breed is cultivated in
Lincolnshire; indeed it is necessary there, where oxen as well as sheep
are usually consigned to the dog's care. A good drover's dog is worth a
considerable sum; but the breed is too frequently and injudiciously
crossed at the fancy of the owner. Some drovers' dogs are as much like
setters, lurchers, and hounds, as they are to the original breed.

Stories are told of the docility and sagacity of the drover's dog even
more surprising than any that are related of the sheep-dog. The Ettrick
Shepherd says, that a Mr. Steel, butcher in Peebles, had such implicit
dependence on the attention of his dog to his orders, that whenever he
put a lot of sheep before her, he took a pride in leaving them entirely
to her, and either remained to take a glass with the farmer of whom he
had made the purchase, or travelled another road to look after bargains
or business. At one time, however, he chanced to commit a drove to her
charge, at a place called Willenslee, without attending to her
condition, which he certainly ought to have done. This farm is about
five miles from Peebles, over wild hills, and there is no regularly
defined path to it. Whether Mr. Steel chose another road is uncertain;
but, on coming home late in the evening, he was surprised to hear that
his faithful animal had not made her appearance with her flock. He and
his son instantly prepared to set out by different paths in search of
her; but, on going into the street, there was she with the flock, and
not one of the sheep missing; she, however, was carrying a young pup in
her mouth. She had been taken in travail on those hills; and how the
poor beast had contrived to manage the sheep in her state of suffering
is beyond human calculation, for her road lay through sheep-pastures the
whole way. Her master's heart smote him when he saw what she had
suffered and effected; but she was nothing daunted; and, having
deposited her young one in a place of safety, she again set out at full
speed to the hills, and brought another and another little one, until
she had removed her whole litter one by one; the last, however, was
dead.

Mr. Blaine relates as extraordinary an instance of intelligence, but not
mingled, like the former, with natural affection. A butcher and
cattle-dealer, who resided about nine miles from Alston, in Cumberland,
bought a dog of a drover. The butcher was accustomed to purchase sheep
and kine in the vicinity, which, when fattened, he drove to Alston
market and sold. In these excursions he was frequently astonished at the
peculiar sagacity of his dog, and at the more than common readiness and
dexterity with which he managed the cattle; until at length he troubled
himself very little about the matter, but, riding carelessly along, used
to amuse himself with observing how adroitly the dog acquitted himself
of his charge. At length, so convinced was he of his sagacity, as well
as fidelity, that he laid a wager that he would intrust the dog with a
number of sheep and oxen, and let him drive them alone and unattended to
Alston market. It was stipulated that no one should be within sight or
hearing who had the least control over the dog, nor was any spectator to
interfere. This extraordinary animal, however, proceeded with his
business in the most steady and dexterous manner; and, although he had
frequently to drive his charge through other herds that were grazing, he
did not lose one; but, conducting them to the very yard to which he was
used to drive them when with his master, he significantly delivered them
up to the person appointed to receive them by barking at his door. When
the path which he travelled lay through grounds in which others were
grazing, he would run forward, stop his own drove, and then, chasing the
others away, collect his scattered charge, and proceed.


THE ITALIAN OR POMERANIAN WOLF-DOG.

The wolf-dog is no longer a native of Great Britain, because his
services are not required there, but he is useful in various parts of
the Continent, in the protection of the sheep from the attacks of the
wolf. A pair of these dogs was brought to the Zoological Society of
London in 1833, and there long remained, an ornament to the Gardens.
They appeared to possess a considerable degree of strength, but to be
too gentle to contend with so powerful and ferocious an animal as the
wolf. They were mostly covered with white or gray, or occasionally black
hair, short on the head, ears and feet, but long and silky on the body
and tail. The forehead is elevated, and the muzzle lengthened and
clothed with short hair. The attachment of this dog to his master and
the flock is very great, and he has not lost a particle of his sagacity,
but, where wolves are common, is still used as a sheep-dog.


THE CUR

is the sheep-dog crossed with the terrier. He has long and somewhat
deservedly obtained a very bad name, as a bully and a coward; and
certainly his habit of barking at everything that passes, and flying at
the heels of the horse, renders him often a very dangerous nuisance: he
is, however, in a manner necessary to the cottager; he is a faithful
defender of his humble dwelling; no bribe can seduce him from his duty;
and he is likewise a useful and an effectual guard over the clothes and
scanty provisions of the labourer, who may be working in some distant
part of the field. All day long he will lie upon his master's clothes
seemingly asleep, but giving immediate warning of the approach of a
supposed marauder.  He has a propensity, when at home, to fly at every
horse and every strange dog; and of young game of every kind there is
not a more ruthless destroyer than the village cur.

Mr. Hogg draws the following curious parallel between the sheep-dog and
the cur:

  "An exceedingly good sheep-dog attends to nothing but the particular
  branch of business to which he is bred. His whole capacity is exerted
  and exhausted in it; and he is of little avail in miscellaneous
  matters; whereas a very indifferent cur bred about the house, and
  accustomed to assist in everything will often put the more noble breed
  to disgrace in these little services. If some one calls out that the
  cows are in the corn or the hens in the garden, the house colley needs
  no other hint, but runs and turns them out. The shepherd's dog knows
  not what is astir, and, if he is called out in a hurry for such work,
  all that he will do is to run to the hill, or rear himself on his
  haunches to see that no sheep are running away. A well-bred sheep-dog,
  if coming hungry from the hills, and getting into a milk-house, would
  likely think of nothing else than filling his belly with the cream.
  Not so his initiated brother: he is bred at home to far higher
  principles of honour. I have known such lie night and day among from
  ten to twenty pails full of milk, and never once break the cream of
  one of them with the tip of his tongue, nor would he suffer cat, rat,
  or any other creature to touch it. While, therefore, the cur is a
  nuisance, he is very useful in his way, and we would further plead for
  him, that he possesses a great deal of the sagacity and all the
  fidelity of the choicest breed of dogs."

The dog who, according to the well-known and authentic story, watched
the remains of his master for two years in the churchyard of St.
Olave's, in Southwark, was a cur.

The following story is strictly authentic:

  "Not long ago a young man, an acquaintance of the coachman, was
  walking, as he had often done, in Lord Fife's stables at Banff. Taking
  an opportunity, when the servants were not regarding him, he put a
  bridle into his pocket. A Highland cur that was generally about the
  stables saw him, and immediately began to bark at him, and when he got
  to the stable-door would not let him pass, but bit him by the leg in
  order to prevent him. As the servants had never seen the dog act thus
  before, and the same young man had been often with them, they could
  not imagine what could be the reason of the dog's conduct. However,
  when they saw the end of a valuable bridle peeping out of the young
  man's pocket, they were able to account for it, and, on his giving it
  up, the dog left the stable-door, where he had stood, and allowed him
  to pass." [10]


THE LURCHER.

This dog was originally a cross between the greyhound and the shepherd's
dog, retaining all the speed and fondness for the chase belonging to the
one, and the superior intelligence and readiness for any kind of work
which the latter possessed. This breed has been crossed again with the
spaniel, combining the disposition to quest for game which distinguishes
the spaniel with the muteness and swiftness of the greyhound. Sometimes
the greyhound is crossed with the hound. Whatever be the cross, the
greyhound must predominate; but his form, although still to be traced,
has lost all its beauty.

The lurcher is a dog seldom found in the possession of the honourable
sportsman. The farmer may breed him for his general usefulness, for
driving his cattle, and guarding his premises, and occasionally coursing
the hare; but other dogs will answer the former purposes much better,
while the latter qualification may render him suspected by his landlord,
and sometimes be productive of serious injury. In a rabbit-warren this
dog is peculiarly destructive. His scent enables him to follow them
silently and swiftly. He darts unexpectedly upon them, and, being
trained to bring his prey to his master, one of these dogs will often in
one night supply the poacher with rabbits and other game worth more
money than he could earn by two days' hard labour.

Mr. H. Faull, of Helstone, in Cornwall, lost no fewer than fifteen fine
sheep, and some of them store sheep, killed by lurchers in January,
1824. [11]

We now proceed to the different species of dog belonging to the second
division of Cuvier, which are classed under the name of Hound; and,
first we take


THE BEAGLE.

The origin of this diminutive hound is somewhat obscure. There is
evidently much of the harrier and of the old southern, connected with a
considerable decrease of size and speed, the possession of an
exceedingly musical voice, and very great power of scent. Beagles are
rarely more than ten or twelve inches in height, and were generally so
nearly of the same size and power of speed, that it was commonly said
they might be covered with a sheet. This close running is, however,
considered as a mark of excellence in hounds of every kind.

There are many pleasurable recollections of the period when "the good
old English gentleman" used to keep his pack of beagles or little
harriers, slow but sure, occasionally carried to the field in a pair of
panniers on a horse's back; often an object of ridicule at an early
period of the chase, but rarely failing to accomplish their object ere
the day closed, "the puzzling pack unravelling wile by wile, maze within
maze." It was often the work of two or three hours to accomplish this;
but is was seldom, in spite of her speed, her shifts, and her doublings,
that the hare did not fall a victim to her pursuers.

The slowness of their pace gradually caused them to be almost totally
discontinued, until very lately, and especially in the royal park at
Windsor, they have been again introduced. Generally speaking, they have
all the strength and endurance which is necessary to ensure their
killing their game, and are much fleeter than their diminutive size
would indicate. Formerly, considerable fancy and even judgment used to
be exercised in the breeding of these dogs. They were curiously
distinguished by the names of "deep-flewed," or "shallow-flewed," in
proportion as they had the depending upper lip of the southern, or the
sharper muzzle and more contracted lip of the northern dogs. The
shallow-flewed were the swiftest, and the deep-flewed the stoutest and
the surest, and their music the most pleasant. The wire-haired beagle
was considered as the stouter and better dog.

The form of the head in beagles has been much misunderstood. They have,
or should have, large heads, decidedly round, and thick rather than
long; there will then be room for the expansion of the nasal membrane,
that of smell, and for the reverberation of the sound, so peculiarly
pleasant in this dog.

The beagle runs very low to the ground, and therefore has a stronger
impression of the scent than taller dogs. This is especially the case
when the scent is more than usually low.

Among the advocates for beagles, several years ago, was Colonel Hardy.
He used to send his dogs in panniers, and they had a little barn for
their kennel. The door was one night broken open, and every hound,
panniers and all, stolen. The thief was never discovered, not even
suspected.

The use of beagles was soon afterwards nearly abandoned by the
introduction of the harrier, and by his yielding in his turn to the
fox-hound; but the beagles of Colonel Thornton and Colonel Molyneux will
not be soon forgotten. [12]

There is, however, a practice which fair sportsmen will never resort
to--the use of a beagle to start a hare in order to be run down by a
brace of greyhounds, or perhaps by a lurcher. The hare is not fairly
matched in this way of proceeding.


THE HARRIER

occupies an intermediate station between the beagle and the fox-hound.
It is the fox-hound bred down to a diminished size, and suited to the
animal he is to pursue. He retains, or did for a while retain, the long
body, deep chest, large bones, somewhat heavy head, sweeping ears, and
mellow voice, which the sportsman of old so enthusiastically described,
with the certainty of killing, and the pleasing prolongation of the
chase. With this the farmer used to be content: it did not require
expensive cattle, was not attended with much hazard of neck, and did not
take him far from home.

Almost every country squire used in former days to keep his little pack
of harriers or beagles. He was mounted on his stout cob-horse, that
served him alike for the road and the chase; and his huntsman probably
had a still smaller and rougher beast, or sometimes ran afoot. He could
then follow the sport, almost without going off his own land, and the
farmer's boys, knowing the country and the usual doublings of the hare,
could see the greater part of the chase, and were almost able to keep up
with the hounds, so that they were rarely absent at the death: indeed,
they saw and enjoyed far more of it than the fox-hunter or the
stag-hunter now does, mounted on his fleetest horse.

The harrier was not more than 18 or 19 inches high. He was crossed with
the fox-hound if he was getting too diminutive, or with the beagle if he
was becoming too tall.

The principal objects the sportsman endeavoured to accomplish were to
preserve stoutness, scent, and musical voice, with speed to follow the
hare sufficiently close, yet not enough to run her down too quickly, or
without some of those perplexities, and faults, and uncertainties which
give the principal zest to the chase.

The character and speed of the hound much depend on the nature of the
country. The smaller harrier will best suit a deeply enclosed country;
but where there is little cover, and less doubling greater size and
fleetness are requisite. The harrier, nevertheless, let him be as tall
and as speedy as he may, should never he used for the fox; but every dog
should be strictly confined to his own game.

Mr. Beckford, in his 'Thoughts upon Hunting', gives an account,
unrivalled, of the chase of the hare and fox. Many sporting writers have
endeavoured to tread in his steps; but they have failed in giving that
graphic account of the pleasures of the field which Mr. Beckford's essay
contains.

He says that the sportsman should never have more than 20 couple in the
field, because it would he exceedingly difficult to get a greater number
to run together, and a pack of harriers cannot be complete if they do
not. A hound that runs too fast for the rest, or that lags behind them,
should be immediately discarded. His hounds were between the large
slow-hunting harrier and the fox-beagle. He endeavoured to get as much
bone and strength in as little compass as possible. He acknowledges that
this was a difficult undertaking; but he had, at last, the pleasure to
see them handsome, small, yet bony, running well together, and fast
enough, with all the alacrity that could be desired, and hunting the
coldest scent.

He anticipates the present improvement of the chase when he lays it down
as a rule never to be departed from, that hounds of every kind should be
kept to their own game. They should have one scent, and one style of
hunting. Harriers will run a fox in so different a style from the
pursuit of a hare, that they will not readily, and often will not at
all, return to their proper work. The difference in the scent, and the
eagerness of pursuit, and the noise that accompanies fox-hunting, all
contribute to spoil a harrier.

Mr. Beckford pleasingly expresses a sportsman's consideration for the
poor animal which he is hunting to death.

  "A hare," he says, "is a timorous little animal that we cannot help
  feeling some compassion for at the time that we are pursuing her
  destruction. We should give scope to all her little tricks, nor kill
  her foully nor overmatched. Instinct instructs her to make a good
  defence when not unfairly treated, and I will venture to say that, as
  far as her own safety is concerned, she has more cunning than the fox,
  and makes shifts to save her life far beyond all his artifice." [13]


THE FOX HOUND

is of a middle size, between the harrier and the stag-hound; it is the
old English hound, sufficiently crossed with the greyhound to give him
lightness and speed without impairing his scent; and he has now been
bred to a degree of speed sufficient to satisfy the man who holds his
neck at the least possible price, and with which few, except
thorough-bred horses, and not all of them, can live to the end of the
chase. The fox-hound is lighter, or as it is now called, more highly
bred, or he retains a greater portion of his original size and
heaviness, according to the nature of the country and the fancy of the
master of the pack: therefore it is difficult to give an accurate
description of the best variety of this dog; but there are guiding
points which can never be forgotten without serious injury.

He derives from the greyhound a head somewhat smaller and longer in
proportion to his size than either the stag-hound or the harrier. But
considerable caution is requisite here. The beauty of the head and face,
although usually accompanied by speed, must never be sacrificed to
stoutness and power of scent. The object of the sportsman is to
amalgamate them, or rather to possess them all in the greatest possible
degree. This will generally be brought to a great degree of perfection
if the sportsman regards the general excellence of the dog rather than
the perfection of any particular point. The ears should not,
comparatively speaking, be so large as those of the stag-hound or the
harrier; but the neck should be longer and lighter, the chest deep and
capacious, the fore legs straight as arrows, and the hind ones well bent
at the hock.

Some extraordinary accounts have been given of the speed of the
fox-hound. A match that was run over the Beacon Course at Newmarket is
the best illustration of his fleetness. The distance is 4 miles 1
furlong and 132 yards. The winning dog performed it in 8 minutes and a
few seconds; but of the sixty horses that started with the hounds, only
twelve were able to run in with them. Flying Childers had run the same
course in 7 minutes and 30 seconds.

  "The size, or, as we should rather say, the height of a fox-hound, is
  a point on which there has been much difference of opinion. Mr.
  Chule's pack was three inches below the standard of Mr. Villebois',
  and four inches below that of Mr. Warde's. The advocates of the former
  assert, that they get better across a deep and strongly fenced
  country, while the admirers of the latter insist on their being better
  climbers of hills and more active in cover. As to uniformity in size,
  it is by no means essential to the well-doing of hounds in the field,
  and has been disregarded by some of our best sportsmen: Mr. Meynell
  never drafted a good hound on account of his being over or under
  sized. The proper standard of height in fox-hounds is from 21 to 22
  inches for bitches, and from 23 to 24 for dog-hounds. Mr. Warde's
  bitches, the best of the kind that our country contained, were rather
  more than 23 inches. A few of his dogs were 25 inches high. The amount
  of hounds annually bred will depend upon the strength of the kennel.
  From sixty to eighty couples is the complement for a four days a-week
  pack, which will require the breeding of a hundred couples of puppies
  every year, allowing for accidents and distemper." [14]

Nimrod very properly observes, that

  "Mr. Beckford has omitted a point much thought of by the modern
  sportsmen, namely, 'the back-ribs', which should also be deep, as in a
  strong-bodied horse, of which we say, when so formed, that he has a
  good 'spur place;' a point highly esteemed in him. Nor is he
  sufficiently descriptive of the hinder legs of the hound; for there is
  a length of thigh discernible in first-rate hounds which, like the
  well-let-down hock of the horse, gives them much superiority of speed,
  and is also a great security against their laming themselves in
  leaping fences, which they are more apt to do when they become blown
  and consequently weak. The fore legs, 'straight as arrows,' is an
  admirable illustration of perfection in those parts by Beckford; for,
  as in a bow or bandy legged man, nothing is so disfiguring to a hound
  as having his elbows projecting, and which is likewise a great check
  to speed." [15]

Mr. Daniel gives a curious account of the prejudices of sportsmen on the
subject of colour. The white dogs were curious hunters, and had a
capital scent; the black, with some white spots, were obedient, good
hunters, and with good constitutions; the gray-coloured had no very
acute scent, but were obstinate, and indefatigable in their quest; the
yellow dogs were impatient and obstinate, and taught with difficulty.
[16]

The dog exhibits no criteria of age after the first two years. That
period having elapsed, the whiteness and evenness of the teeth soon pass
away, and the 'old' dog can scarcely be mistaken. Nimrod scarcely speaks
too positively when he says that an old hound cannot be mistaken, if
only looked in the face. At all events, few are found in a kennel after
the eighth year, and very few after the ninth.

Mr. Beckford advises the sportsman carefully to consider the size,
shape, colour, constitution, and natural disposition of the dog from
which he breeds, and also the fineness of the nose, the evident strength
of the limb, and the good temper and devotion to his master which he
displays. The faults or imperfections in one breed may be rectified in
another; and, if this is properly attended to, there is no reason why
improvements may not continually be made.

The separation of the sexes in the kennel and in the field is one of the
latest innovations in the hunting world, and generally considered to be
a good one. The eye is pleased to see a pack of hounds, nearly or quite
of a size. The character of the animal is more uniformly displayed when
confined to one sex. In consequence of the separation of the two, the
dogs are less inclined to quarrel; and the bitches are more at their
ease than when undergoing the importunate solicitations of the male. As
to their performances in the field, opinions vary, and each sex has its
advocates. The bitch, with a good fox before her, is decidedly more
off-hand at her work; but she is less patient, and sometimes overruns
the scent. Sir Bellingharn Graham has been frequently heard to say, that
if his kennels would have afforded it, he would never have taken a
dog-hound into the field. That in the canine race the female has more of
elegance and symmetry of form, consequently more of speed, than the
male, is evident to a common observer; but there is nothing to lead to
the conclusion that, in the natural endowments of the senses, any
superiority exists. [17]

The bitch should not be allowed to engage in any long and severe chase
after she has been lined. She should be kept as quiet as may be
practicable, and well but not too abundantly fed; each having a kennel
or place of retreat for herself. She should be carefully watched, and
especially when the ninth week approaches. The huntsman and the keeper
without any apparent or unnecessary intrusion, should be on the alert.

The time of pupping having arrived, as little noise or disturbance
should be made as possible; but a keeper should be always at hand in
case of abortion or difficult parturition. Should there be a probability
of either of these occurring, he should not be in a hurry; for, as much
should be left to nature as can, without evident danger, be done, and
the keeper should rarely intrude unless his assistance is indispensable.

The pupping being accomplished, the mother should be carefully attended
to. She should be liberally fed, and particularly should have her share
of animal food, and an increased quantity of milk.

The bitch should not have whelps until she has hunted two seasons; for,
before that time it will be scarcely possible to ascertain her
excellences or defects. If there are any considerable faults, she should
be immediately rejected.

When the time approaches for her to produce her puppies, she should be
allowed a certain degree of liberty, and should choose her couch and run
about a little more than usual; but, when the young ones are born, the
less they are handled the better. The constitution and appearance of the
mother will indicate how many should be kept. If two litters are born at
or about the same time, or within two or three days of each other, we
may interchange one or two of the whelps of each of them, and perhaps
increase the value of both.

When the whelps are able to crawl to a certain distance, it will be time
to mark them, according to their respective litters, some on the ear and
others on the lip. The dew-claws should be removed, and, usually, a
small tip from the tail. Their names also should be recorded.

The whelps will begin to lap very soon after they can look about them,
and should remain with the mother until they are fully able to take care
of themselves. They may then be prepared to go to quarters.

Two or three doses of physic should be given to the mother, with
intervals of four or five days between each: this will prepare her to
return to the kennel.

There is often considerable difficulty in disposing of the whelps until
they get old and stout enough to be brought into the kennel. They are
mostly sent to some of the neighbouring cottages, in order to be taken
care of; but they are often neglected and half starved there. In
consequence of this, distemper soon appears, and many of them are lost.

Whelps 'walked', or taken care of at butchers' houses, soon grow to a
considerable size; but they are apt to be heavy-shouldered and throaty,
and perhaps otherwise deformed. There is some doubt whether it might not
be better for the sportsman to take the management of them himself, and
to have a kennel built purposely for them. It may, perhaps, be feared
that the distemper will get among them: they would, however, be well
fed, and far more comfortable than they now are; and, as to the
distemper, it is a disease that they must have some time or other.

From twenty to thirty couples are quite as many as can be easily
managed; and the principal consideration is, whether they are steady,
and as nearly as possible equal of speed. When the packs are very large,
the hounds are seldom sufficiently hunted to be good. Few persons choose
to hunt every day, or, if they did, it is not likely that the weather
would permit them. The sportsman would, therefore, be compelled to take
an inconvenient number into the field, and too many must be left behind.
In the first place, too many hounds in the field would frequently spoil
the sport; and, on the other hand, the hounds that remained would get
out of wind, or become riotous, or both. Hounds, to be useful and good,
should be constantly hunted; but a great fault in many packs is their
having too many old dogs among them.

Young hounds, when first taken to the kennel, should be kept separate
from the rest of the pack, otherwise there will be frequent and
dangerous quarrels. When these do occur, the feeder hears, and
sometimes, but not so frequently as he ought, endeavours to discover the
cause of the disturbance, and visits the culprits with deserved
punishment; too often, however, he does not give himself time for this,
but rushes among them, and flogs every hound that he can get at, guilty
or not guilty. This is a shameful method of procedure. It is the cause
of much undeserved punishment: it spoils the temper of the dog, and
makes him careless and indifferent as long as he lives.

Mr. Beckford very properly remarks, that

  "Young hounds are, and must be awkward at first, and should be taken
  out, a few at a time, with couples not too loose. They are thus
  accustomed to the usual occurrences of the road, and this is most
  easily accomplished when a young and an old dog are coupled together."

A sheep-field is the next object, and the young hound, properly watched,
soon becomes reconciled, and goes quietly along with the companion of
the preceding day. A few days afterwards the dogs are uncoupled in the
field, and perhaps, at first, are not a little disposed to attack the
sheep; but the cry of "Ware sheep!" in a stern tone of voice, arrests
them, and often, without the aid of the whip; it being taken as a
principle that this instrument should be used as seldom as possible. If,
indeed, the dog is self-willed, the whip must be had recourse to, and
perhaps with some severity; for, if he is once suffered to taste the
blood of the sheep, it may be difficult to restrain him afterwards. A
nobleman was told that it was possible to break his dogs of the habit of
attacking his sheep, by introducing a large and fearless ram among them;
one was accordingly procured and turned into the kennel. The men with
their whips and voices, and the ram with his horns, soon threw the whole
kennel into confusion. The hounds and the ram were left together.
Meeting a friend soon afterwards, "Come," said he, "to the kennel, and
see what rare sport the ram is making among the hounds." His friend
asked whether he was not afraid that some of them might be spoiled.
"No," said he; "they deserve it, and let them suffer." They proceeded to
the kennel; all was quiet. The kennel-door was thrown open, and the
remains of the ram were found scattered about: the hounds, having filled
their bellies, had retired to rest.

The time of entering young hounds must vary in different countries. In a
corn country, it should not be until the wheat is carried; in grass
countries, somewhat sooner; and, in woodlands, as soon as we please.
Frequent hallooing may be of use with young hounds; it makes them more
eager; but, generally speaking, there is a time when it may be of use, a
time when it does harm, and a time when it is perfectly indifferent.

The following remarks of Mr. Beckford are worthy of their author:

  "Hounds at their first entering cannot be encouraged too much. When
  they begin to know what is right, it will be soon enough to chastise
  them for doing wrong, and, in such case, one rather severe beating
  will save a great deal of trouble. The voice should be used as well as
  the whip; and the smack of the whip will often be of as much avail as
  the lash to him who has felt it."

Flogging hounds in the kennel, the frequent practice of too many
huntsmen, should be held in utter abhorrence, and, if carried to a
considerable excess, is a disgrace to humanity. Generally speaking, none
but the sportsman can form an adequate conception of the perfect
obedience of the hound both in the kennel and the field. At
feeding-time, each dog, although hungry enough, will go through the gate
in the precise order in which he is called by the feeder; and, in a
well-broken pack, to chop at, or to follow a hare, or to give tongue on
a false scent, or even to break cover alone, although the fox is in
view, are faults that are rarely witnessed.

Let not this obedience, however, be purchased by the infliction of a
degree of cruelty that disgraces both the master and the menial. A young
fox-hound may, possibly, mistake the scent of a hare for that of a fox,
and give tongue. In too many hunts he will be unmercifully flogged for
this, and some have almost died under the lash. Mercy is a word totally
unknown to a great proportion of whippers-in, and even to many who call
themselves gentlemen. There can be no occasion or excuse for barbarity:
a little trouble, and moderate punishment, and the example of his
fellows, will gradually teach the wildest hound his duty.

That the huntsman, and not the hound, may occasionally be in fault, the
following anecdote will furnish sufficient proof. In drawing a strong
cover, a young bitch gave tongue very freely, while none of the other
hounds challenged. The whipper-in railed to no purpose; the huntsman
insisted that she was wrong, and the whip was applied with great
severity. In doing this, the lash accidentally struck one of her eyes
out of its socket.

Notwithstanding the dreadful pain that must have ensued, she again took
up the scent, and proved herself right; for the fox had stolen away, and
she had broken cover after him, unheeded and alone. After much delay and
cold hunting, the pack hit off the same scent.

At some distance a farmer informed the sportsmen, that they were a long
way behind the fox, for he had seen a single hound, very bloody about
the head, running breast-high, so that there was but little chance of
their getting up with her. The pack, from her coming to a check, did at
last overtake her.

The same bitch once more hit off the scent, and the fox was killed,
after a long and severe run. The eye of the poor animal, that had hung
pendent through the chase, was then taken off with a pair of scissors.


THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE SEASON.

During the beginning of autumn, the hounds should be daily exercised
when the weather will permit. They should often be called over in the
kennel to habituate them to their names, and walked out among the sheep
and deer, in order that they may he accustomed perfectly to disregard
them.

A few stout hounds being added to the young ones, some young foxes may
occasionally be turned out. If they hunt improper game, they must be
sternly checked. Implicit obedience is required until they have been
sufficiently taught as to the game which they are to pursue. No
obstinate deviation from it must ever be pardoned. The hounds should be,
as much as possible, taken out into the country which they are
afterwards to hunt, and some young foxes are probably turned out for
them to pursue. At length they are suffered to hunt their game in
thorough earnest, and to taste of its blood.

After this they are sent to more distant covers, and more old hounds are
added, and so they continue until they are taken into the pack, which
usually happens in September. The young hounds continue to be added, two
or three couple at a time, until all have hunted. They are then divided
into two packs, to be taken out alternate days. Properly speaking, the
sport cannot be said to begin until October, but the two preceding
months are important and busy ones. [18]

  "It would appear, then," says Nimrod, "that the breeding of a pack of
  fox-hounds, bordering on perfection, is a task of no ordinary
  difficulty. The best proof of it is to be found in the few sportsmen
  that have succeeded in it. Not only is every good quality obtained if
  possible, but every imperfection or fault is avoided. The highest
  virtue in a fox-hound is his being true to the line his game has gone,
  and a stout runner at the end of the chase. He must also be a patient
  hunter when there is a cold scent and the pack is at fault."

While there is no country in the world that can produce a breed of
horses to equal the English thorough-bred in his present improved state,
there are no dogs like the English fox-hound for speed, scent, and
continuance. It would seem as if there were something in the climate
favourable and necessary to the perfection of the hound. Packs of them
have been sent to other countries, neighbouring and remote; but they
have usually become more or less valueless.

As regards the employment of the voice and the horn when out with
hounds, too much caution cannot be used. A hound should never be cheered
unless we are perfectly convinced that he is right, nor rated unless we
are sure that he is wrong. When we are not sure of what is going on we
should sit still and be silent. A few moments will possibly put us in
possession of all that we wish to know. [19]

The horn should only be used on particular occasions, and a huntsman
should speak by his horn as much as by his voice. Particular notes
should mean certain things, and the hounds and the field should
understand the language. We have heard some persons blowing the horn all
the day long, and the hounds have become so careless as to render it of
no use. When a hound first speaks in cover to a fox, you may, if you
think it necessary, use 'one single' and prolonged note to get the pack
together. The same note will do at any time to call up a lost or
loitering hound; but, when the fox breaks cover, then let your horn be
marked in its notes: let it sound as if you said through it, "Gone away!
gone away! gone away! away! away! away!" dwelling with full emphasis on
the last syllable. Every hound will fly from the cover the moment he
hears this, and the sportsmen and the field will know that the fox is
away.

It is the perfection of the horse, and the perfection of the hound, and
the disregard of trifling expense, that has given to Englishmen a
partiality for field-sports, unequalled in any other country. Mr. Ware's
pack of fox-hounds cost 2000 guineas, and the late Lord Middleton gave
the same to Mr. Osbaldeston for ten couples of his hounds.


HUNTING-KENNELS.

It is time, however, to speak of the kennel, whether we regard the
sporting architecture of Mr.G. Tattersall, or the scientific inquiries
of Mr. Vyner, or a sketch of the noble buildings at Goodwood.

The lodging-rooms should be ceiled, but not plastered, with ventilators
above and a large airy window on either side. The floors should be laid
with flags or paved with bricks. Cement may be used instead of mortar,
and the kennels will then be found wholesome and dry. The doorways of
the lodging-houses will generally be four feet and a half wide, in the
clear. The posts are rounded, to prevent the hounds from being injured
when they rush out. The benches may be made of cast-iron or wood; those
composed of iron being most durable, but the hounds are more frequently
lamed in getting to them. The wooden benches must be bound with iron, or
the hounds will gnaw or destroy them. A question has arisen, whether the
benches should be placed round the kennel, or be in the centre of it,
allowing a free passage by the side. There is least danger of the latter
being affected by the damp. The walls should be wainscoted to the height
of three feet at least. This will tend very considerably to their
comfort.

The floors of all the courts should be arranged in nearly the same way;
the partition walls being closed at the bottom, but with some iron work
above. The doorways should also be so contrived, that the huntsman may
be able to enter whenever he pleases. The boiling-house should be at as
great a distance from the hunting-kennel as can be managed, continuing
to give warmth to the infirmary for distempered puppies, and at the same
time being out of the way of the other courts.

Mr. Vyner gives an interesting account of the young hounds' kennel:

  "This building," he says, "should be as far from the other
  lodging-rooms as the arrangements of the structure will allow. There
  is also an additional court, or grass-yard, an indispensable requisite
  in the puppies' kennel. The size must be regulated according to the
  waste land at the end of the building; but the longer it is, the
  better. At the farther end of the grass-court is a hospital for such
  young hounds as are distempered, so contrived as to be remote from the
  other kennels, and, at the same time, within an easy distance of the
  boiling-house, whence it is apparently approached by an outside door,
  through which the feeder can constantly pass to attend to the sick
  hounds without disturbing the healthy lots. Although this lodging room
  is warmed by the chimney of the boiling-house, it must be well
  ventilated by two windows, to which shutters must be attached;
  ventilation and good air being quite as necessary to the cure of
  distemper as warmth."


KENNEL LAMENESS.

We now proceed to a most important and ill-understood subject--the
nature and treatment of 'kennel lameness'. It is a subject that nearly
concerns the sportsman, and on which there are several and the most
contrary opinions.

This is a kind of lameness connected with, or attributable to, the
kennel. According to the early opinion of Mr. Asheton Smith, who is a
good authority, it was referable to some peculiarity in the breed or
management of the hounds; but, agreeably to a later opinion, it is
dependent on situation and subsoil, and may be aggravated or increased
by circumstances over which we have no control. Some kennels are in low
and damp situations, yet the hounds are free from all complaint: and
others, with the stanchest dogs and under the best management, are
continually sinking under kennel lameness.

Mr. R. T. Vyner was one of the first who scientifically treated on this
point, and taught us that 'clay is not by any means an objectionable
soil to build a kennel upon', although so many pseudo-sportsmen are
frightened by the very name of it.

He enters at once into his subject.

  "I am thoroughly convinced," says he, "from my own experience, and, I
  may add, my own suffering, that the disease of kennel lameness arises
  only from one cause, and that is an injudicious and unfortunate
  selection of the spot for building. The kennel is generally built on a
  sand-bed, or on a sandstone rock, while the healthiest grounds in
  England are on a stiff clay, and they are the healthiest because they
  are the least porous. Although this may be contrary to the opinion and
  prejudice of the majority of sportsmen, it is a fact that cannot be
  contradicted.

  "Through a light and friable soil, such as sand and sandstone, a
  vapour, more or less dense, is continually exhaling and causing a
  perpetual damp, which produces that fearful rheumatism which goes by
  the name of kennel lameness, while the kennels that are built on a
  clay soil, a soil of an impervious nature, are invariably healthy.

  "I could," he adds, "enumerate twenty kennels to prove the effect--the
  invariable effect--of the existence of the disease on the one part,
  and of the healthiness of the situation on the other. I turn
  particularly to her Majesty's kennel at Ascot, the arches of which
  were laid under the very foundation strain, and yet little at no
  amendment has ever taken place in the healthiness and comfort of the
  dogs. It is necessary to select a sound and healthy situation when
  about to erect a kennel, and that sound and healthy situation can be
  met with alone on a strong impervious clay soil. We must have no fluid
  oozing through the walls or the floor of the kennel, and producing
  damp and unhealthy vapours, such as we find in the sandbed."

With regard to this there can be no error.

Nimrod, in his excellent treatise on 'Kennel Lameness', asks, whether it
does not appear that this disease is on the increase. He asks,

  "How is it that neither Beckford nor Somerville says one word that
  clearly applies to the disease; and no one, however learned he might
  be in canine pathology, has been able clearly to define the disease,
  much less to discover a remedy for it?"

All that Mr. Blaine says on the matter amounts only to this:

  "The healthiness of the situation on which any kennel is to be built,
  is an important consideration. It is essential that it should be both
  dry and airy, and it should also be warm. A damp kennel produces
  rheumatism in dogs, which shows itself sometimes by weakness in the
  loins, but more frequently by lameness in the shoulders, known under
  the name of kennel lameness."

Mr. Blaine illustrates this by reference to his own experience.

  "There is no disease, with the exception of distemper and mange, to
  which dogs are so liable as to a rheumatic affection of some part of
  the body. It presents almost as many varieties in the dog as it does
  in man; and it has some peculiarities observable in the dog only.
  Rheumatism never exists in a dog without affecting the bowels. There
  will be inflammation or painful torpor through the whole of the
  intestinal canal. It is only in some peculiar districts that this
  occurs; it pervades certain kennels only; and but until lately there
  has been little or almost no explanation of the cause of the evil."
  [20]

Nimrod took a most important view of the matter, and to him the sporting
world is much indebted.

  "How is it," he asks, "that, in our younger days, we never heard of
  kennel lameness, or, indeed, of hounds being lame at all, unless from
  accident, or becoming shaken and infirm from not having been composed
  of that iron-bound material which the labours of a greyhound or a
  hound require? How is it, that, in our younger days, masters of hounds
  began the season with 50 or 60 couples, and, bating the casualties,
  left off at the end of it equally strong in their kennels, and able,
  perhaps, to make a valuable draft; whereas we now hear of one-half of
  the dogs in certain localities being disabled by disease, and some
  masters of hounds compelled to be stopped in their work until their
  kennels are replenished."

Washing hounds when they come home after work must be injurious to them,
although it has almost become the fashion of modern times. If they are
not washed at all, and we believe it to be unnecessary, yet the kennels
in which lameness has appeared should be strictly avoided. It should be
on the day following and not in the evening of a hunting-day that
washing should take place.

Mr. Hodgson told Nimrod, that the Quorn Pack never had a case of kennel
lameness until his late huntsman took to washing his hounds after
hunting, and then he often had four or five couples ill from this cause.
He deprecated even their access to water in the evening after hunting,
and we believe that he was quite right in  so doing.

The tongue of the dog, with the aid of clean straw, is his best and
safest instrument in cleansing his person; and, if he can be brought to
his kennel with tolerably clean feet, as Mr. Foljambe enables him to be
brought, he will never be long before he is comfortable in his bed,
after his belly is filled.

There is another mode, as a preventive of kennel lameness, which we have
the best authority for saying deserves particular attention, and that
is, the frequently turning hounds off their benches during the day, even
if it were to the extent of every two hours throughout the entire day.
We do not mean to deny the existence of a disease, which, being produced
in the kennel, is properly termed kennel lameness. Some kennels are, no
doubt, more unhealthy and prone to engender rheumatic affections than
others; but, by proper management, and avoiding as much as possible all
exciting causes, their effects may, at least, be very much lessened, if
not entirely obviated.


LORD FITZHARDINGE'S MANAGEMENT.

Lord Fitzhardinge's opinion of the situation of the kennel and the
management of the hounds, as given in the 'New Sporting Magazine', is
somewhat different from that which has been just given. The following is
the substance of it: [21]

He states that the kennel should be built on a dry and warm situation.
Of this there can be no doubt: the comfort and almost the existence of
the dog depend upon it. To this he adds that it must not be placed on a
gravelly or porous soil, over which vapours more or less dense are
frequently or continually travelling, and thus causing a destructive
exhalation over the whole of the building. There must be no fluid oozing
through the walls or the floor of the kennel, and producing damp and
unhealthy vapours. When we have not a deep supersoil of clay, one or two
layers of bricks or of stone may line the floor, and then, not even the
most subtile vapour can penetrate through the floor. A clean bed of
straw should be allowed every second day, or oftener when the weather is
wet. The lodging-houses should be ceiled, and there should be shutters
to the windows. A thatched roof is preferable to tiles, being warmer in
winter and cooler in summer.

Stoves in the kennels are not necessary: probably they are best avoided;
for, if dogs are accustomed to any considerable degree of artificial
heat, they are more easily chilled by a long exposure to cold. Their
teeth and the setting-up of their backs will confirm this.

Hounds, when they feel cold, naturally seek each other for warmth, and
they may be seen lying upon the straw and licking each other; and that
is by far the most wholesome way of procuring comfort and warmth.

On returning from hunting, their feet should be washed with some warm
fluid, and especially the eyes should be examined, and their food got
ready for them as soon as possible. The feeding in the morning should be
an hour, or an hour and a half, before they start for the field.

It is truly observed by the noble writer to whom we have referred, that
there is no part of an establishment of this kind that merits more
attention than the boiling and feeding house. The hounds cannot perform
their work well unless judiciously fed. Each hound requires particular
and constitutional care. No more than five of them should be let in to
feed together, and often not more than one or two. The feeder should
have each hound under his immediate observation, or they may get too
much or too little of the food.

Some hounds cannot run if they carry much flesh; others are all the
better for having plenty about them. The boilers should be of iron, two
in number,--one for meal and the smaller one for flesh. The large boiler
should render it necessary to be used not more than once in four days or
a week. The food should be stirred for two hours, then transferred to
flat coolers, until sufficiently gelatinous to be cut with a kind of
spade. By the admixture of some portion of soups it may be brought to
any thickness requisite. The flesh to be mixed with it should be cut
very small, that the greedy hounds may not be able to obtain more than
their share. Four bushels and a half of genuine old oatmeal should be
boiled with a hundred gallons of water. The flesh should he boiled every
second or third day. Too great a proportion of soup would render the
mixture of a heating nature.

Mr. Delmé Radcliffe very truly observes that the feeding of hounds, as
regards their condition, is one of the most essential proofs of a
huntsman's skill in the management of the kennel. To preserve that even
state of condition throughout the pack which is so desirable, he must be
well acquainted with the appetite of every hound; for some will feed
with a voracity scarcely credible, and others will require every kind of
enticement to induce them to feed.

Mr. Meynell found that the use of dry unboiled oatmeal succeeded better
than any other thing he had tried with delicate hounds. When once
induced to take it, they would eat it greedily, and it seemed to be far
more heartening than most kinds of aliment. Other hounds of delicate
constitution might be tempted with a little additional flesh, and with
the thickest and best of the trough, but they required to be watched,
and often to be coaxed to eat.

The dog possesses the power of struggling against want of food for an
almost incredible period. One of these animals, six years old, was
missing three-and-twenty days; at length some children wandering in a
distant wood thought that they frequently heard the baying of a dog. The
master was told of it, and at the bottom of an old quarry, sixty feet
deep, and the mouth of which he had almost closed by his vain attempts
to escape, the voice of the poor fellow was recognised. With much
difficulty he was extricated, and found in a state of emaciation; his
body cold as ice and his thirst inextinguishable, and he scarcely able
to move. They gave him at intervals small portions of bread soaked in
milk and water. Two days afterwards he was able to follow his master a
short distance.

This occurrence is mentioned by M. Pinguin as a proof that neither
hunger nor thirst could produce rabies. Messrs. Majendie and F. Cousins
have carried their observations to the extent of forty days--a
disgraceful period. [22]


MANAGEMENT OF THE PACK.

Sixty-five couple of hounds in full work will consume the carcases of
three horses in one week, or five in a fortnight. The annual consumption
of meal will be somewhat more than two tons per month.

In feeding, the light eaters should be let in first, and a little extra
flesh distributed on the surface of the food, in order to coax those
that are most shy. Some hounds cannot be kept to their work unless fed
two or three times a day; while others must not be allowed more than six
or seven laps, or they would get too much.

In summer an extra cow or two will be of advantage in the dairy; for the
milk, after it has been skimmed, may be used instead of flesh. There
must always be a little flesh in hand for the sick, for bitches with
their whelps, and for the entry of young hounds.[23]  About Christmas is
the time to arrange the breeding establishment. The number of puppies
produced is usually from five to eight or nine; but, in one strange
case, eighteen of them made their appearance. The constitution and other
appearances in the dam, will decide the number to be preserved. When the
whelps are sufficiently grown to run about, they should be placed in a
warm situation, with plenty of fresh grass, and a sufficient quantity of
clean, but not too stimulating, food. They should then be marked
according to their respective letters, that they may be always
recognised. When the time comes, the ears of the dog should be rounded;
the size of the ear and of the head guiding the rounding-iron.

This being passed, the master of the pack takes care that his treatment
shall be joyous and playful; encouragement is always with him the word.
The dog should be taught the nature of the fault before he is corrected:
no animal is more grateful for kindness than a hound; the peculiarities
of his temper will soon be learned, and when he begins to love his
master, he will mind, from his natural and acquired affection, a word or
a frown from him more than the blows of all the whips that were ever put
into the hands of the keepers.

The distemper having passed, and the young hounds being in good health,
they should be walked out every day, and taught to follow the horse,
with a keeper who is selected as a kind and quiet person, and will bear
their occasionally entangling themselves in their couples. They are then
taken to the public roads, and there exercised, and checked from riot,
but with as little severity as possible; a frequent and free use of the
whip never being allowed. No animals take their character from their
master so much as the hounds do from theirs. If he is wild, or noisy, or
nervous, so will his hounds be; if he is steady and quick, the pack will
be the same. The whip should never be applied but for some immediate and
decided fault. A rate given at an improper time does more harm than
good: it disgusts the honest hound, it shies and prevents from hunting
the timid one, and it is treated with contempt by those of another
character who may at some future time deserve it. It formerly was the
custom, and still is too much so, when a hound 'has hung on a hare', to
catch him when he comes up, and flog him. The consequence of this is,
that he takes good care the next time he indulges in a fault not to come
out of cover at all.

We will conclude this part of our subject by a short account of the
splendid kennel at Goodwood, for which we are indebted to Lord W.
Lennox, with the kind permission of the Duke of Richmond. It is
described as one of the most complete establishments of the kind in
England. The original establishment of this building, although a little
faulty, possesses considerable interest from its errors being corrected
by the third Duke of Richmond, a man who is acknowledged to have been
one of the most popular public characters of the day, and who in more
private life extended his patronage to all that was truly honourable. It
was to the Duke's support of native talent that we may trace the origin
of the present Royal Academy. In 1758, the Duke of Richmond displayed,
at his residence in Whitehall, a large collection of original plaster
casts, taken from the finest statues and busts of the ancient sculptors.
Every artist was freely admitted to this exhibition and, for the further
encouragement of talent, he bestowed two medals annually on such as had
exhibited the best models.

We have thus digressed in order to give a slight sketch of the nobleman
by whom this kennel was built, and we do not think that we can do better
than lay before our readers the original account of it.

Early in life the Duke built what was not then common, a tennis-court,
and what was more uncommon, a dog-kennel, which cost him above £6000.
The Duke was his own architect, assisted by, and under the guidance of,
Mr. Wyatt; he dug his own flints, burnt his own lime, and conducted the
wood-work in his own shops. The result of his labours was the noble
building of which a plan is here given.

The dog-kennel is a grand object when viewed from Goodwood. The front is
handsome, the ground well raised about it, and the general effect good;
the open court in the centre adds materially to the noble appearance of
the building.

The entrance to the kennel is delineated in the centre with a flight of
stairs leading above. The huntsman's rooms, four in number first present
themselves, and are marked in the plan before us by the letter C; each
of them is fifteen feet four inches, by fourteen feet six inches.

At each end of the side towards the court is one of the feeding-rooms,
twenty-nine feet by fourteen feet four inches, and nobly constructed
rooms they are; they are designated by the letters B. At the back of the
feeding-rooms, are one set of the lodging-rooms, from thirty-five feet
six inches, to fourteen feet four inches, and marked by the letters A,
and at either extremity is another lodging-room, thirty-two feet six
inches in length, and fourteen feet six inches in width: this is also
marked by the letter A.

Coming into the court we find the store-room twenty-four feet by
fourteen and a half, marked by the letter D, and the stable, of the same
dimensions, by the letter E.

At the top of the buildings are openings for the admission of cold air,
and stoves to warm the air when too cold. There are plentiful supplies
of water from tanks holding 10,000 gallons; so that there is no
inconvenience from the smell, and the whole can at any time be drained,
and not be rendered altogether useless.

Round the whole building is a pavement five feet wide; airy yards and
places for breeding, &c., making part of each wing. For the huntsman and
whipper-in there are sleeping-rooms, and a neat parlour or kitchen.

Soon after the kennel was erected, it would contain two packs
of hounds.


THE STAG-HOUND.

The largest of the English hounds that has been lately used, is devoted,
as his name implies, to the chase of the deer. He is taller than the
fox-hound, and with far more delicate scent, but he is not so speedy. He
answers better than any other to the description given of the old
English hound, so much valued when the country, less enclosed, and the
forests, numerous and extensive, were the harbours of the wild deer. The
deer-hound and the harrier were for many centuries the only
hunting-dogs. The fox-hound has been much more recently bred.

The most tyrannic and cruel laws were enforced for the preservation of
this species of game, and the life of the deer, except when sacrificed
in the chase, and by those who were privileged to join in it, was
guarded with even more strictness than the life of the human being.
When, however, the country became more generally cultivated, and the
stag was confined to enclosed parks, and was seldom sought in his lair,
but brought into the field, and turned out before the dogs, so much
interest was taken from the affair, that this species of hunting grew
out of fashion, and was confined to the neighbourhood of the scattered
forests that remained, and enjoyed only by royalty and a few noblemen,
of whose establishment a kennel of deer-hounds had, from time
immemorial, formed a part.

Since the death of George III, who was much attached to this sport,
stag-hunting has rapidly declined, and the principal pleasure seems now
to consist in the concourse of people brought together to an appointed
place and hour, to witness the turning out of the deer. There is still
maintained a royal establishment for the continuance of this noble
sport, but, unless better supported than it has of late years been, it
will gradually decline.

The stag-hounds are now a part of the regular Crown establishment. The
royal kennel is situated upon Ascot Heath, about six miles from Windsor.
At the distance of a mile from the kennel is Swinley Lodge, the official
residence of the Master of the Stag-hounds.

The stag-hound is a beautiful animal. He is distinguished from the
fox-hound by the apparent broadness and shortness of his head, his
longer cheek, his straighter hock, his wider thigh and deeper chest, and
better feathered and more beautifully arched tail. His appearance
indicates strength and stoutness, in which indeed he is unequalled, and
he has sufficient speed to render it difficult for the best horses long
to keep pace with him; while, as is necessary, when the distance between
the footmarks of the deer is considered, his scent is most exquisite. He
is far seldomer at fault than any other hound except the blood-hound,
and rarely fails of running down his game.

Of the stoutness of this dog, the following anecdotes will be a
sufficient illustration. A deer, in the spring of 1822, was turned out
before the Earl of Derby's hounds in Hayes Common. The chase was
continued nearly four hours without a check, when, being almost run
down, the animal took refuge in some outhouses near Speldhurst in Kent,
more than forty miles across the country, and having actually run more
than fifty miles. Nearly twenty horses died in the field, or in
consequence of the severity of the chase.

A stag was turned out at Wingfield Park, in Northumberland. The whole
pack, with the exception of two hounds, was, after a long run, thrown
out. The stag returned to his accustomed haunt, and, as his last effort,
leaped the wall of the park, and lay down and died. One of the hounds,
unable to clear the wall, fell and expired, and the other was found dead
at a little distance. They had run about forty miles.

  "When the stag first hears the cry of the hounds, he runs with the
  swiftness of the wind, and continues to run as long as any sound of
  his pursuers can be distinguished. That having ceased, he pauses and
  looks carefully around him; but before he can determine what course to
  pursue, the cry of the pack again forces itself upon his attention.
  Once more he darts away, and after a while again pauses. His strength
  perhaps begins to fail, and he has recourse to stratagem in order to
  escape. He practises the doubling and the crossing of the fox or the
  hare. This being useless, he attempts to escape by plunging into some
  lake or river that happens to lie in his way, and when, at last, every
  attempt to escape proves abortive, he boldly faces his pursuers, and
  attacks the first dog or man who approaches him." [24]


SOUTHERN HOUND.

There used to be in the south of Devon a pack or cry of the genuine old
English or southern hounds. There is some reason to believe that this
was the original stock of the island, or of this part of the island, and
that this hound was used by the ancient Britons in the chase of the
larger kinds of game with which the country formerly abounded. Its
distinguishing characters are its size and general heavy appearance; its
great length of body, deep chest, and ears remarkably large and
pendulous. The tones of its voice were peculiarly deep. It answered the
description of Shakspeare:

  "So flewed, so sanded; and their heads are hung
  With ears that sweep away the morning dew;
  Crook-knee'd, and dew-lapp'd, like Thessalian bulls;
  Slow in pursuit, but match'd in mouth like bells,
  Each under each."

It was the slowness of the breed which occasioned its disuse. Several of
them, however, remained not long ago at a village called Aveton Gifford,
in Devonshire, in the neighbourhood of which some of the most opulent of
the farmers used to keep two or three dogs each. When fox-hunting had
assumed somewhat of its modern form, the chase was followed by a slow
heavy hound, whose excellent olfactory organs enabled him to carry on
the scent a considerable time after the fox-hound passed, and also over
grassy fallows, and hard roads, and other places, where the modern
high-bred fox-hound would not be able to recognise it. Hence the chase
continued for double the duration which it does at present, and hence
may be seen the reason why the old English hunter, so celebrated in
former days and so great a favourite among sportsmen of the old school,
was enabled to perform those feats which were exultingly bruited in his
praise. The fact is, that the hounds and the horse were well matched. If
the latter possessed not the speed of the Meltonian hunter, the hounds
were equally slow and stanch.


THE BLOOD-HOUND.

This dog does not materially differ in appearance from the old
deer-hound of a larger size, trained to hunt the human being instead of
the quadruped. If once put on the track of a supposed robber, he would
unerringly follow him to his retreat, although at the distance of many a
mile. Such a breed was necessary when neither the private individual nor
the government had other means to detect the offender. Generally
speaking, however, the blood-hound of former days would not injure the
culprit that did not attempt to escape, but would lie down quietly and
give notice by a loud and peculiar howl what kind of prey he had found.
Some, however, of a savage disposition, or trained to unnatural
ferocity, would tear to pieces the hunted wretch, if timely rescue did
not arrive.

Hounds of every kind, both great and small, may be broken in to follow
any particular scent, and especially when they are feelingly convinced
that they are not to hunt any other. This is the case with the
blood-hound. He is destined to one particular object of pursuit, and a
total stranger with regard to every other.

In the border country between England and Scotland, and until the union
of the two kingdoms, these dogs were absolutely necessary for the
preservation of property, and the detection of robbery and murder. A tax
was levied on the inhabitants for the maintenance of a certain number of
blood-hounds. When, however, the civic government had sufficient power
to detect and punish crime, this dangerous breed of hounds fell into
disuse and was systematically discouraged. It, nevertheless, at the
present day, is often bred by the rangers in large forests or parks to
track the deer-stealer, but oftener to find the wounded deer.

The blood-hound is taller and better formed than the deer-hound. It has
large and deep ears, the forehead broad and the muzzle narrow. The
expression of the countenance is mild and pleasing, when the dog is not
excited; but, when he is following the robber, his ferocity becomes
truly alarming.

The Thrapstone Association lately trained a blood-hound for the
detection of sheepstealers. In order to prove the utility of this dog, a
person whom he had not seen was ordered to run as far and as fast as his
strength would permit. An hour afterwards the hound was brought out. He
was placed on the spot whence the man had started. He almost immediately
detected the scent and broke away, and, after a chase of an hour and a
half, found him concealed in a tree, fifteen miles distant.

Mr. John Lawrence says, that a servant, discharged by a sporting country
gentleman, broke into his stables by night, and cut off the ears and
tail of a favourite hunter. As soon as it was discovered, a blood-hound
was brought into the stable, who at once detected the scent of the
miscreant, and traced it more than twenty miles. He then stopped at a
door, whence no power could move him. Being at length admitted, he ran
to the top of the house, and, bursting open the door of a garret, found
the object that he sought in bed, and would have torn him to pieces, had
not the huntsman, who had followed him on a fleet horse, rushed up after
him.

Somerville thus describes the use to which he was generally put, in
pursuit of the robber:

  "Soon the sagacious brute, his curling tail
  Flourished in air, low bending, plies around
  His busy nose, the steaming vapour snuffs
  Inquisitive, nor leaves one turf untried,
  Till, conscious of the recent stains, his heart
  Beats quick. His snuffing nose, his active tail,
  Attest his joy. Then, with deep opening mouth,
  That makes the welkin tremble, he proclaims
  Th' audacious felon. Foot by foot he marks
  His winding way. Over the watery ford,
  Dry sandy heaths, and stony barren hills,
  Unerring he pursues, till at the cot
  Arrived, and seizing by his guilty throat
  The caitiff vile, redeems the captive prey."


THE SETTER

is evidently the large spaniel improved to his peculiar size and beauty,
and taught another way of marking his game, viz., by 'setting' or
crouching. If the form of the dog were not sufficiently satisfactory on
this point, we might have recourse to history for information on it. Mr.
Daniel, in his 'Rural Sports', has preserved a document, dated in the
year 1685, in which a yeoman binds himself for the sum of ten shillings,
fully and effectually to teach a spaniel to 'sit' partridges and
pheasants.

[As this old document may prove interesting to the curious, we take the
liberty of inserting it, knowing full well, that Mr. Daniel's work is
quite rare in this country, and copies of it are not easily obtained
even in England.

  Ribbesford, Oct. 7, 1685,

  "I, John Harris, of Willdon, in the parish of Hastlebury, in the
  county of Worcester, yeoman, for and in consideration of ten shillings
  of lawful English money this day received of Henry Herbert of
  Ribbesford, in the said county, Esqr., and of thirty shillings more of
  like money by him promised to be hereafter pay'd me, do hereby
  covenant and promise to and with the said Henry Herbert, his exôrs and
  admôrs, that I will, from the day of the date hereof, untill the first
  day of March next, well and sufficiently mayntayne and keepe a Spanile
  Bitch named Quand, this day delivered into my custody by the said
  Henry Herbert, and will, before the first day of March next, fully and
  effectually traine up and teach the said Bitch to sitt Partridges,
  Pheasants, and other game, as well and exactly as the best sitting
  Doggers usually sett the same. And the said bitch, so trayned and
  taught, shall and will delivere to the said Henry Herbert, or whom he
  shall appoint to receive her, att his house in Ribbesford aforesaid,
  on the first day of March next. And if at anytime after the said Bitch
  shall, for want of use or practice, or orwise, forgett to sett Game as
  aforesaid, I will, at my costes and charges, maynetayne her for a
  month, or longer, as often as need shall require, to trayne up and
  teach her to sett Game as aforesaid, and shall and will, fully and
  effectually, teach her to sett Game as well and exactly as is above
  mentyon'd.

  Witness my hand and seal the day and year first above written,

  John Harris, his X mark.

  Sealed and delivered in presence of

  H. Payne, his X mark."

  L.]

The first person, however, who systematically broke-in setting dogs is
supposed to have been Dudley Duke of Northumberland in 1335.

A singular dog-cause was tried in Westminster, in July, 1822. At a
previous trial it was determined that the mere possession of a dog,
generally used for destroying game, was sufficient proof of its being
actually so used. Mr. Justice Best, however, determined that a man might
be a breeder of such dogs without using them as game-dogs; and Mr.
Justice Bailey thought that if a game-dog was kept in a yard, chained up
by day, and let loose at night, and, being so trained as to guard the
preimises, he was to be considered as a yard-dog, and not as a game-dog.

The setter is used for the same purpose as the pointer, and there is
great difference of opinion with regard to their relative value as
sporting-dogs. Setters are not so numerous; and they are dearer, and
with great difficulty obtained pure. It was long the fashion to cross
and mix them with the pointer, by which no benefit was obtained, but the
beauty of the dog materially impaired; many Irish sportsmen, however,
were exceedingly careful to preserve the breed pure. Nothing of the
pointer can be traced in them, and they are useful and beautiful dogs,
altogether different in appearance from either the English or Scotch
setter. The Irish sportsmen are, perhaps, a little too much prejudiced
with regard to particular colours. Their dogs ate either very red, or
red and white, or lemon-coloured, or white, patched with deep chestnut;
and it was necessary for them to have a black nose, and a black roof to
the mouth. This peculiar dye is supposed to be as necessary to a good
and genuine Irish setter as is the palate of a Blenheim spaniel to the
purity of his breed. A true Irish setter will obtain a higher price than
either an English or Scotch one. Fifty guineas constituted no unusual
price for a brace of them, and even two hundred guineas have been given.
It is nevertheless, doubtful whether they do in reality so much exceed
the other breeds, and whether, although stout and hard-working dogs, and
with excellent scent, they are not somewhat too headstrong and unruly.

The setter is more active than the pointer. He has greater spirit and
strength. He will better stand continued hard work. He will generally
take the water when necessary, and, retaining the character of the
breed, is more companionable and attached. He loves his master for
himself, and not, like the pointer, merely for the pleasure he shares
with him. His somewhat inferior scent, however, makes him a little too
apt to run into his game, and he occasionally has a will of his own. He
requires good breaking, and plenty of work; but that breaking must be of
a peculiar character: it must not partake of the severity which too
often accompanies, and unnecessarily so, the tuition of the pointer. He
has more animal spirit than the pointer, but he has not so much patient
courage; and the chastisement, sometimes unnecessary and cruel, but
leaving the pointer perfect in his work, and eager for it too, would
make the setter disgusted with it, and leave him a mere 'blinker'. It is
difficult, however, always to decide the claim of superiority between
these dogs. He that has a good one of either breed may be content, but
the lineage of that dog must be pure. The setter, with much of the
pointer in him, loses something in activity and endurance; and the
pointer, crossed with the setter, may have a degree of wildness and
obstinacy, not a little annoying to his owner. The setter may be
preferable when the ground is hard and rough; for he does not soon
become foot-sore. He may even answer the purpose of a springer for
pheasants and woodcocks, and may be valuable in recovering a wounded
bird. His scent may frequently be superior to that of the pointer, and
sufficiently accurate to distinguish, better than the pointer, when the
game is sprung; but the steadiness and obedience of the pointer will
generally give him the preference, especially in a fair and tolerably
smooth country. At the beginning of a season, and until the weather is
hot, the pointer will have a decided advantage.

[We beg leave to finish this history of the setter by referring to our
essay on this dog, published in vol. xv, No. 47, of the "New York Spirit
of the Times", or as lately transferred to the pages of an interesting
and valuable sporting work, about being published by our esteemed
friend, Wm. A. Porter, and from which we now abstract our remarks upon


THE MERITS OF THE SETTER COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE POINTER.

It cannot for a moment be doubted that the setter has superior
advantages to the pointer, for hunting over our uncleared country,
although the pointer has many qualities that recommend him to the
sportsman, that the setter does not possess. In the first place, the
extreme hardiness and swiftness of foot, natural to the setter, enables
him to get over much more ground than the pointer, in the same space of
time. Their feet also, being more hard and firm, are not so liable to
become sore from contact with our frozen ground. The ball pads being
well protected by the spaniel toe-tufts, are less likely to be wounded
by the thorns and burs with which our woods are crowded during the
winter season. His natural enthusiasm for hunting, coupled with his
superior physical powers, enables him to stand much more work than the
pointer, and oftentimes he appears quite fresh upon a long continued
hunt, when the other will be found drooping and inattentive.

The long, thick fur of the setter, enables him to wend his way through
briary thickets without injury to himself, when a similar attempt on the
part of a pointer, would result in his ears, tail, and body being
lacerated and streaming with blood.

On the other hand, the pointer is superior to the setter in retaining
his acquired powers for hunting, and not being naturally enthusiastic in
pursuit of game, he is more easily broken and kept in proper subjection.

The setter frequently requires a partial rebreaking at the commencement
of each season, in his younger days, owing to the natural eagerness with
which he resumes the sport. The necessity of this, however, diminishes
with age, as the character and habits of the dog become more settled,
and then we may take them into the field, with a perfect assurance of
their behaving quite as well on the first hunt of the season, as the
stanchest pointer would.

The extreme caution, and mechanical powers of the pointer in the field,
is a barrier to his flushing the birds, as is often witnessed in the
precipitate running of the setter, who winds the game and frequently
overruns it in his great anxiety to come up with it. But this occasional
fault on the part of the setter, may be counterbalanced by the larger
quantity of game that he usually finds in a day's hunt, owing to his
enthusiasm and swiftness of foot. Setters require much more water while
hunting than the pointer, owing to their thick covering of fur,
encouraging a greater amount of insensible perspiration to fly off than
the thin and short dress of the pointer. Consequently they are better
calculated to hunt in the coldest seasons than early in our falls, which
are frequently quite dry and warm.

A striking instance of this fact came under our own immediate
observation this fall, when shooting in a range of country thinly
settled and uncommonly dry. The day being warm and the birds scarce, the
dogs suffered greatly from thirst, in so much that a very fine setter of
uncommon bottom, was forced to give up entirely, completely prostrated,
foaming at the mouth in the most alarming manner, breathing heavily, and
vomiting from time to time a thick frothy mucus.

His prostration of both muscular and nervous powers was so great, that
he could neither smell nor take the slightest notice of a bird, although
placed at his nose. He could barely manage to drag one leg after the
other, stopping to rest every few moments, and we were fearful that we
should be obliged to shoulder and carry him to a farm-house, a
considerable distance off. However, he succeeded, with much difficulty,
in reaching the well, where he greedily drank several pints of water
administered to him with caution.

He recovered almost immediately, gave me a look of thanks, and was off
to the fields in a few moments, where he soon found a fine covey of
birds.

The pointer, his associate in the day's work, and a much less hardy dog,
stood the hunt remarkably well, and seemed to suffer little or no
inconvenience from the want of water. The setter has natural claims upon
the sportsman and man generally, in his affectionate disposition and
attachment to his master, and the many winning manners he exhibits
towards those by whom he is caressed.

The pointer displays but little fondness for those by whom he is
surrounded, and hunts equally as well for a stranger as his master.--L.]

Of the difference between the old English setter and the setters of the
present day, we confess that we are ignorant, except that the first was
the pure spaniel improved, and the latter the spaniel crossed too
frequently with the pointer.

It must be acknowledged, that of companionableness, and disinterested
attachment and gratitude, the pointer knows comparatively little. If he
is a docile and obedient servant in the field, it is all we want. The
setter is unquestionably his superior in every amiable quality. Mr.
Blaine says, that a large setter, ill with the distemper, had been
nursed by a lady more than three weeks. At length he became so ill as to
be placed in a bed, where he remained a couple of days in a dying state.
After a short absence, the lady, re-entering the room, observed him to
fix his eyes attentively on her, and make an effort to crawl across the
bed towards her. This he accomplished, evidently for the sole purpose of
licking her hand, after which he immediately expired.

[Daniel Lambert celebrated for his enormous magnitude, weighing seven
hundred and thirty-nine pounds, had a very superior breed of sellers,
which were publicly sold, at the following prices; after his death,
which forcibly illustrates the immense value placed on this dog in
England; whereas, many American sportsmen considers it a great hardship
to be obliged to give thirty or forty dollars for a well-bred setter in
this country.

                                                       Guineas

Peg,       a black Setter Bitch..........................41
Punch,     a Setter Dog..................................26
Brush,     do  ..........................................17
Bob,       do............................................30
Bell,      do........................................... 32
Bounce,    do............................................22
Sam,       do............................................26
Charlotte, a Pointer Bitch...............................22
Lucy,      do............................................12
                                                      ------
                                                        218     --L.]


The pointer is evidently descended from the hound.

[We beg leave to make the following extracts from our essay on this
subject, published in No. 1, vol. xvi, of the "Spirit of the Times":

The origin of the pointer, like that of the setter, is involved in much
obscurity; he is of mixed blood, and no doubt largely indebted to both
hound and spaniel for his distinct existence.

Many sportsmen are under the erroneous idea that the pointer is
contemporary with, if not older than, the Setter. Such, however, is not
the case; and we are led to believe that the Pointer is of quite modern
origin; at all events, the production of a much later date than the
spaniel.

Strut, in his "Sports and Pastimes", chap. 1, sects. xv. and xvi.,
mentions a MS. in the Cotton Library, originally written by William
Twici, or Twety, Grand Huntsman to Edward II, who ascended the throne in
1307.

This manuscript contains the earliest treatise on hunting that the
English possess, and enumerates the various kinds of game and different
species of dogs then in existence, as also the modes of taking the
former and using the latter.

After describing, in the usual minute manner, the specific employment of
each  dog, he finishes by stating:

  "The spaniel was for use in hawking, hys crafte is for the perdrich or
  partridge, and the quail; and when taught to couch, he is very
  serviceable to the fowler, who takes these birds with nets."

No mention is made in this treatise of the pointer, and we naturally
infer that he did not exist, or he would have been noticed in connexion
with the spaniel, who, it appears, even at this early period, was taught
to 'couch' on and point out game to those employed in netting it.

In the early portion of the sixteenth century, we have another
enumeration of dogs, 'then' in use, in a book entitled--"A Jewel for
Gentrie;" which, besides the dogs already descanted upon by Twici, we
find added to the list,

  "bastards and mongrels, lemors, kenets, terrours, butchers' hounds,
  dung-hill dogs, trindel-tailed dogs, prychercard curs, and ladies'
  puppies."
  (Chap. 1st., Sec. XVI.--Strut.)

The pointer being the offspring of the fox-hound and spaniel, is
consequently sprung from the two ancient races known as 'Sagaces' and
'Pugnaces' or 'Bellicosi'. He certainly evinces a larger share of the
'Bellicosi' blood than the setter, being ever ready for fight when
assailed, while the latter generally exhibits a conciliatory disposition
under the most trying circumstances.--L.]

It is the fox-hound searching for game by the scent, but more perfectly
under the control of the sportsman, repressing his cry of joy when he
finds his game, and his momentary pause, and gathering himself up in
order to spring upon it artificially, converted into a steady and
deliberate point. There still remains a strong resemblance, in
countenance and in form, between the pointer and the fox-hound, except
that the muzzle is shorter, and the ears smaller, and partly pendulous.

Seventy or eighty years ago, the breed of pointers was nearly white, or
varied with liver-coloured spots; some, however, belonging to the Duke
of Kingston, were perfectly black. This peculiarity of colour was
supposed to be connected with exquisite perfection of scent. That is not
the case with the present black pointers, who are not superior to any
others.

Mr. Daniel relates an anecdote of one of his pointers. He had a dog that
would always go round close to the hedges of a field before he would
quarter his ground. He seemed to have observed that he most frequently
found his game in the course of this circuit. [25]

Mr. Johnson gives the following characteristic sketches of the different
breeds of pointer:


THE SPANISH POINTER,

originally a native of Spain, was once considered to be a valuable dog.
He stood higher on his legs, but was too large and heavy in his limbs,
and had widely spread, ugly feet, exposing him to frequent lameness. His
muzzle and head were large, corresponding with the acuteness of his
smell. His ears were large and pendent, and his body ill-formed. He was
naturally an ill-tempered dog, growling at the hand that would caress
him, even although it were his master's. He stood steadily to his birds;
but it was difficult to break him of chasing the hare. He was deficient
in speed. His redeeming quality was his excellent scent, unequalled in
any other kind of dog.

[To convince our readers of the value of this particular breed, we may
mention the very singular sale of Colonel Thornton's dog Dash, who was
purchased by Sir Richard Symons for one hundred and sixty pounds worth
of champagne and burgundy, a hogshead of of claret, and an elegant gun
and another pointer, with a stipulation that if any accident befell the
dog, he was to be returned to his former owner for fifty guineas. Dash
unfortunately broke his leg, and in accordance with the agreement of
sale was returned to the Colonel, who considered him a fortunate
acquisition as a stallion to breed from. (See Blain or Daniel).--L.]


THE PORTUGESE POINTER,

although with a slighter form than the Spanish one, is defective in the
feet, often crooked in the legs, and of a quarrelsome disposition. He
soon tires, and is much inclined to chase the hare. The tail is larger
than that of the spaniel, and fully fringed.


THE FRENCH POINTER

is distinguished by a furrow between his nostrils, which materially
interferes with the acuteness of smell. He is better formed and more
active than either the Spanish or Portugese dog, and capable of longer
continued exertion; but he is apt to be quarrelsome, and is too fond of
chasing the hare.

[We will close this account of the Pointer by transferring from the
pages of the "Spirit of the Times" our remarks upon this particular
breed.

The French variety, as described by English authors, is much smaller
than either of the above breeds; and although possessed of great beauty,
acute scent, and other qualifications that would render him valuable in
their eyes, still is considered much inferior, not being able to cope
with their dogs in hunting, owing to a want of physical power of
endurance.

Youatt states, that he is distinguished by a furrow in his nose, which
materially interferes with his acuteness of smell.

These accounts do not agree with the French writers, to whom, it is very
true, the English should not look for any particular information
respecting hunting or shooting. Nevertheless, all must admit that they
are quite as capable of describing their particular breeds of animals as
other nations; and, in fact, we might go farther, and say that they are
much more competent to the task than English writers, judging from their
extensive knowledge in comparative anatomy, and their long array of
celebrated writers on natural history--the Cuviers, Buffon, &c.

'Baudrillart', in his 'Dictionnaire des Chases', describes the French
Pointer as having endurance and great industry, and of their being used
oftentimes solely for 'la grande chasse'. In the atlas of plates
accompanying this interesting work, will be found two distinct and
extremely correct drawings of the English Pointer, and also an engraving
of the French variety, which latter, certainly, is represented as being
equally, if not more muscular and and hardy, than the English.

As for the furrow in the nose, as mentioned by Youatt, no reference is
made to it in connection with this species, and in the engraving the
nose is square. But in describing another variety, known in France as
coming from Spain, 'Baudrillart' states, that they are vulgarly called
"à deux nez, parceque ce chien a les narines separées par une gouttiere."

As for Mr. Youatt's declaration in reference to the furrow in the nose
"materially interfering with the acuteness of smell," I cannot
understand how, or on what principle of reasoning, this slight deviation
from nature should affect the properties of the olfactory apparatus.
That these furrow-nosed dogs are inferior to the English in scenting
powers, as stated by Mr. Youatt, we do not question; but that their
deficiency depends upon this furrow, remains to be proved.

This furrow in the nose is merely a deformity, and like many others in
various breeds of animals, was solely the result of accident in the
first place; and as we often see, even in the human species, the
deformities and infirmities of our ancestors entailed upon their
progeny, so has this 'cut in the nose' been so extensively inherited by
succeeding generations, that it has now become a distinctive mark of a
whole class of dogs.

The French Pointer, as known in this country, is a beautiful,
well-shaped, compact, square-nosed dog; not so long or high as the
English, but extremely well built, full-chested, large head, pendent
ears, projecting eyes, large feet, and thickish tail. His colour, seldom
white, but generally intermingled with small spots of brown or chocolate
over the body, and more particularly over the head and ears. Such a dog
is in the possession of the writer, who knows nothing of his ancestry;
but is convinced from those he saw in France, that they must have been
imported from that country.

The English Pointer will now claim more particularly our attention. It
is quite useless to go into a general description of an animal of whom
we have already said much, and with whom we are all familiar; but we
will endeavour to mention the most striking points of the species, which
marks can be referred to as guides in the purchase of a dog.

It is a difficult matter to put on paper, in a manner satisfactory
either to the reader or writer, the peculiarities of any animal, whereby
he may be judged pure or mixed. However, there are, generally, some few
points in each species, that can be selected as proofs of their
genuineness and ability to perform certain actions peculiar to the race.

But, after all, more reliance must be placed upon the good faith of the
seller, or the previous knowledge of the strain from which the purchaser
selects--and what is better than either, from actual observation in the
field; all of which precautions may, nevertheless, prove abortive, and
our dog be worthless.

As regards the size of the English Pointer, we may say, that he averages
in length about 3 feet from the tip of the muzzle to the base of the
tail, and from 22 to 26 inches high. His head not bulky nor too narrow,
the frontal sinuses largely developed.

The muzzle long and rather tapering, the nostrils large and well open,
the ear slightly erect, not over long, and the tip triangular; if too
pendent, large and rounded at the tip, there is too much of the hound
present. The eyes lively, but not too prominent; the neck rather long
and not over thick, the chest broad, the limbs large and muscular; the
paws strong, hard and wide. The body and loins thin, rather than bulky,
the hind quarters broad, and the limbs in the same proportion with the
fore members; the tail long and tapering.--L.]


THE RUSSIAN POINTER

is a rough, ill-tempered animal, with too much tendency to stupidity,
and often annoyed by vermin. He runs awkwardly, with his nose near the
ground, and frequently springs his game. He also has the cloven or
divided nose.


THE EARLY TRAINING OF THE DOG.

The education of these dogs should commence at an early period, whether
conducted by the breeder or the sportsman; and the first lesson--that on
which the value of the animal, and the pleasure of its owner, will much
depend--is a habit of subjection on the part of the dog, and kindness on
the part of the master. This is a 'sine quâ non'. The dog must recognise
in his owner a friend and a benefactor. This will soon establish in the
mind of the quadruped a feeling of gratitude, and a desire to please.
All this is natural to the dog, if he is encouraged by the master, and
then the process of breaking-in may commence in good earnest.

No long time probably passes ere the dog commits some little fault. He
is careless, or obstinate, or cross. The owner puts on a serious
countenance, he holds up his finger, or shakes his head, or produces the
whip, and threatens to use it. Perhaps the infliction of a blow, that
breaks no bones, occasionally follows. In the majority of cases nothing
more is required. The dog succumbs; he asks to be forgiven; or, if he
has been self-willed, he may be speedily corrected without any serious
punishment.

A writer, under the signature of "Soho," in The New Sporting Magazine
for 1833, gives an interesting account of the schooling of the pointer
or setter, thus commenced. A short abstract from it may not be
unacceptable:

  "The first lesson inculcated is that of passive obedience, and this
  enforced by the infliction of severity as little as the case will
  admit. We will suppose the dog to be a setter. He is taken into the
  garden or into a field, and a strong cord, about eighteen or twenty
  yards long, is tied to his collar. The sportsman calls the dog to him,
  looks earnestly at him, gently presses him to the ground, and several
  times, with a loud, but not an angry voice, says, 'Down!' or 'Down
  charge!' The dog knows not the meaning of this, and struggles to get
  up; but, as often as he struggles, the cry of 'Down charge!' is
  repeated, and the pressure is continued or increased.

  "This is repeated a longer or shorter time, until the dog, finding
  that no harm is meant, quietly submits. He is then permitted to rise;
  he is patted and caressed, and some food is given to him. The command
  to rise is also introduced by the terms 'Hie up!' A little afterwards
  the same process is repeated, and he struggles less, or perhaps ceases
  altogether to struggle.

  "The person whose circumstances permit him occasionally to shoot over
  his little demesne, may very readily educate his dog without having
  recourse to keepers or professional breakers, among whom he would
  often be subject to imposition. Generally speaking, no dog is half so
  well broken as the one whose owner has taken the trouble of training
  him. The first and grand thing is to obtain the attachment of the dog,
  by frequently feeding and caressing him, and giving him little hours
  of liberty under his own inspection; but, every now and then,
  inculcating a lesson of obedience, teaching him that every gambol must
  be under the control of his master; frequently checking him in the
  midst of his riot with the order of 'Down charge!' patting him when he
  is instantly obedient; and rating, or castigating him, but not too
  severely, when there is any reluctance to obey. 'Passive obedience
  is the first principle, and from which no deviation should be
  allowed.' [26]

  "Much kindness and gentleness are certainly requisite when breaking-in
  the puppy, whether it be a pointer or a setter. There is heedlessness
  in the young dog which is not readily got rid of until age has given
  him experience. He must not, however, be too severely corrected, or he
  may be spoiled for life. If considerable correction is sometimes
  necessary, it should be followed, at a little distance of time, by
  some kind usage. The memory of the suffering will remain; but the
  feeling of attachment to the master will also remain, or rather be
  increased. The temper of a young dog must be almost as carefully
  studied as that of a human being. Timidity may be encouraged, and
  eagerness may be restrained, but affection must be the tie that binds
  him to his master, and renders him subservient to his will.

  "The next portion of the lesson is more difficult to learn. He is no
  longer held by his master, but suffered to run over the field,
  seemingly at his pleasure, when, suddenly, comes the warning 'Down!'
  He perhaps pays no attention to it, but gambols along until seized by
  his master, forced on the ground, and the order of 'Down!' somewhat
  sternly uttered.

  "After a while he is suffered again to get up. He soon forgets what
  has occurred, and gallops away with as much glee as ever. Again the
  'Down!' is heard, and again little or no attention is paid to it. His
  master once more lays hold of him and forces him on the ground, and
  perhaps inflicts a slight blow or two, and this process continues
  until the dog finds that he must obey the command of 'Down charge!'

  "The owner will now probably walk from him a little way backward with
  his hand lifted up. If the dog makes the slightest motion, he must be
  sharply spoken to, and the order peremptorily enforced.

  "He must then be taught to 'back,' that is, to come behind his master
  when called. When he seems to understand all this, he is called by his
  master in a kindly tone, and patted and caressed. It is almost
  incredible how soon he will afterwards understand what he is ordered
  to do, and perform it.

  "It will be seen by this that no one should attempt to break-in a dog
  who is not possessed of patience and perseverance. The sportsman must
  not expect to see a great deal of improvement from the early lessons.
  The dog will often forget that which was inculcated upon him a few
  hours before; but perseverance and kindness will effect much: the
  first lessons over, the dog, beginning to perceive a little what is
  meant, will cheerfully and joyfully do his duty.

  "When there is much difficulty in teaching the dog his lesson, the
  fault lies as often with the master as with him; or they are,
  generally speaking, both in fault. Some dogs cannot be mastered but by
  means of frequent correction. The less the sportsman has to do with
  them the better. Others will not endure the least correction, but
  become either ferocious or sulky. They should be disposed of as soon
  as possible. The majority of dogs are exceedingly sagacious. They
  possess strong reasoning powers; they understand, by intuition, almost
  every want and wish of their master, and they deserve the kindest and
  best usage.

  "The scholar being thus prepared, should be taken into the field,
  either alone, or, what is considerably better, with a well-trained,
  steady dog. When the old dog makes a point, the master calls out,
  'Down!' or 'Soho!' and holds up his hand, and approaches steadily to
  the birds; and, if the young one runs in or prepares to do so, as
  probably he will at first, he again raises his hand and calls out,
  'Soho!' If the youngster pays no attention to this, the whip must be
  used, and in a short time he will be steady enough at the first
  intimation of game.

  "If he springs any birds without taking notice of them, he should be
  dragged to the spot from which they rose, and, 'Soho!' being cried,
  one or two sharp strokes with the whip should be inflicted. If he is
  too eager, he should be warned to 'take heed.' If he 'rakes' or runs
  with his nose near the ground, he should be admonished to 'hold up',
  and, if he still persists, the 'muzzle-peg' may be resorted to. Some
  persons fire over the dog for running at hares: but this is wrong;
  for, besides the danger of wounding or even killing the animal, he
  will for some time afterwards he frightened at the sound, or even at
  the very sight of a gun. The best plan to accustom dogs to the gun, is
  occasionally to fire one off when they are being fed.

  "Some persons let their dog fetch the dead birds. This is very wrong.
  Except the sportsman has a double-barrelled gun, the dog should not be
  suffered to move until the piece is again charged. The young one,
  until he is thoroughly broken of it, is too apt to run in whether the
  bird is killed or not, and which may create much mischief by
  disturbing the game.

  "Although excessive punishment should not be administered, yet no
  fault, however small, should pass without reproof: on the other hand,
  he should be rewarded, but not too lavishly, for every instance of
  good conduct.

  "When the dog is grown tolerably steady, and taught to come at the
  call, he should also learn to range and quarter his ground. Let some
  clear morning, and some place where the sportsman is likely to meet
  with game, be selected. Station him where the wind will blow in his
  face; wave your hand and cry, 'Heigh on, good dog!' Then let him go
  off to the right, about seventy or eighty yards. After this, call him
  in by another wave of the hand, and let him go the same distance to
  the left. Walk straight forward with your eye always upon him; then,
  let him continue to cross from right to left, calling him in at the
  limit of each range.

  "This is at first a somewhat difficult lesson, and requires careful
  teaching. The same ground is never to be twice passed over. The
  sportsman watches every motion, and the dog is never trusted out of
  sight, or allowed to break fence. When this lesson is tolerably
  learned, and on some good scenting morning early in the season, he may
  take the field, and perhaps find. Probably he will be too eager, and
  spring his game. Make him 'down' immediately, and take him to the
  place where the birds rose. Chide him with 'Steady!' 'How dare you!'
  Use no whip; but scold him well, and be assured that he will be more
  cautious. If possible, kill on the next chance. The moment the bird is
  down, he will probably rush in and seize it. He must be met with the
  same rebuff, 'Down charge!' If he does not obey, he deserves to have,
  and will have, a stroke with the whip. The gun being again charged,
  the bird is sought for, and the dog is suffered to see it and play
  with it for a minute before it is put into the bag.

  "He will now become thoroughly fond of the sport, and his fondness
  will increase with each bird that is killed. At every time, however,
  whether he kills or misses, the sportsman should make the dog 'Down
  charge.' and never allow him to rise until he has loaded.

  "If a hare should be wounded, there will, occasionally, be
  considerable difficulty in preventing him from chasing her. The best
  broken and steadiest dog cannot always be restrained from running
  hares. He must be checked with 'Ware chase,' and, if he does not
  attend, the sportsman must wait patiently. He will by-and-by come
  slinking along with his tail between his legs, conscious of his fault.
  It is one, however, that admits of no pardon. He must be secured, and,
  while the field echoes with the cry of 'Ware chase,' he must be
  punished to a certain but not too great extent. The castigation must
  be repeated as often as he offends; or, if there is much difficulty in
  breaking him of the habit, he must be got rid of."

The breaking-in or subjugation of pointers and setters is a very
important, and occasionally a difficult affair; the pleasure of the
sportsman, however, depends on it. The owner of any considerable
property will naturally look to his keeper to furnish him with dogs on
which he may depend, and he ought not to be disappointed; for those
which belong to other persons, or are brought at the beginning of the
season, whatever account the breaker or the keeper of them may give,
will too often be found deficient.


THE OTTER HOUND

used to be of a mingled breed, between the southern hound and the rough
terrier, and in size between the harrier and the fox-hound. The head
should be large and broad, the shoulders and quarters thick, and the
hair strong, wiry, and rough. They used to be kept in small packs, for
the express purpose of hunting the otter.

Two hundred and fifty years ago, otter-hunting was a favourite amusement
in several parts of Great Britain. Many of our streams then abounded
with this destructive animal; but, since the population are more
numerous, and many contrivances are adopted to ensnare and destroy
otters, few are now to be found.


THE TURNSPIT

This dog was once a valuable auxiliary in the kitchen, by turning the
spit before jacks were invented. It had a peculiar length of body, with
short crooked legs, the tail curled, its ears long and pendent, and the
head large in proportion to the body. It is still used in the kitchen on
various parts of the Continent. There are some curious stories of the
artfulness with which he often attempted to avoid the task imposed upon
him.

There is a variety of this dog; the crooked-legged turnspit.



[Footnote 1: 'Historical and Descriptive Sketches of British America',
by J. Macgregor]


[Footnote 2: 'Journal Historique du Voyage de M. de Lesseps', Paris,
1790. 2 vols.--tome 1.]


[Footnote 3: Clarke's 'Scandinavia', vol. i. p. 432.]


[Footnote 4: The migratory sheep, in some parts of the south of France
almost as numerous as in Spain, are attended by a GOAT, as a
guide; and the intelligence and apparent pride which he displays are
remarkable.]


[Footnote 5: 'Trimmer on the Merinos', p. 50. See also the Society's
work on Sheep.]


[Footnote 6: 'Annals of Sporting', vol. viii. p. 83.]


[Footnote 7:

  "The Ettrick Shepherd has probably spoken somewhat too
  enthusiastically of his dog; but accounts of the sagacity and almost
  superhuman fidelity of this dog crowd so rapidly upon us that we are
  compelled to admire and to love him."

'Hogg's Shepherd's Calendar', vol. ii. p. 308.]


[Footnote 8: 'Jesse's Gleanings', vol. i. p. 93].


[Footnote 9: 'Buffon's Natural History', vol. v. p. 314.]


[Footnote 10: 'Travels in Scotland', by the Rev. J. Hall, vol. ii. p.
395.]


[Footnote 11: 'Annals of Sporting', vol. v. p. 137.]


[Footnote 12: Mr Beckford at one time determined to try how he should
like the use of beagles, and, having heard of a small pack of them, he
sent his coachman, the person he could best spare, to fetch them. It was
a long journey, and, although he had some assistance, yet not being used
to hounds, he had some trouble in getting them along, especially as they
had not been out of the kennel for several weeks before. They were
consequently so riotous that they ran after everything they saw, sheep,
cur dogs, birds of all sorts, as well as hares and deer. However, he
lost but one hound; and, when Mr. Beckford asked him what he thought of
them, he said that they could not fail of being good hounds, for they
would hunt everything.]


[Footnote 13: 'Beckford on Hunting', p. 150.]


[Footnote 14: 'The Horse and the Hound', by Nimrod, p. 340.]


[Footnote 15: 'The Horse and the Hound', by Nimrod, p, 332.]


[Footnote 16: 'Daniel's Foxhound', p. 205.]


[Footnote 17: 'The Horse and the Hound', by Nimrod, p. 355.]


[Footnote 18: 'Beckford's Thoughts on Hunting', p. 95.]


[Footnote 19: Mr. Beckford gives the following excellent account of what
a huntsman should be:

  "A huntsman should be attached to the sport, and indefatigable, young,
  strong, active, bold, and enterprising in the pursuit of it. He should
  be sensible, good-tempered, sober, exact, and cleanly--a good groom
  and an excellent horseman. His voice should be strong and clear, with
  an eye so quick as to perceive which of his hounds carries the scent
  when all are running, and an ear so excellent as to distinguish the
  leading hounds when he does not see them. He should be quiet, patient,
  and without conceit. Such are the qualities which constitute
  perfection in a huntsman. He should not, however, be too fond of
  displaying them until called forth by necessity; it being a peculiar
  and distinguishing trait in his character to let his hounds alone
  while they thus hunt, and have genius to assist them when they
  cannot."

'Beckford on Hunting', Letter ix.]


[Footnote 20: 'Blaine on the Diseases of the Dog', p. 140.]


[Footnote 21: See 'Hints to Young Masters of Fox-Hounds'--'New Sport.
Mag.', vol. viii. p. 174-290.]


[Footnote 22: 'Traité de la Folie dex Animaux', tom. ii. 39.]


[Footnote 23: Mr. D. Radcliffe.]


[Footnote 24: The late Lord Oxford reduced four stags to so perfect a
degree of submission that, in his short excursions, he used to drive
them in a phaeton made for the purpose. He was one day exercising his
singular and beautiful steeds in the neighbourhood of Newmarket, when
their ears were saluted with the unwelcome cry of a pack of hounds,
which, crossing the road in their rear, had caught the scent, and
leaving their original object of pursuit, were now in rapid chase of the
frightened stags. In vain his grooms exerted themselves to the utmost,
the terrified animals bounded away with the swiftness of lightning, and
entered Newmarket at full speed. They made immediately for the Ram Inn,
to which his lordship was in the habit of driving, and, having
fortunately entered the yard without any accident, the stable-keepers
huddled his lordship, the phaeton, and the deer into a large barn, just
in time to save them from the hounds, who came into the yard in full cry
a few seconds afterwards.

('Annals of Sporting', vol. iii. 1833.)]


[Footnote 25: The author of the 'Field Book' says that he saw an
extremely small pointer, whose length, from the tip of the nose to the
point of the tail, was only two feet and half an inch, the length of the
head being six inches, and round the chest one foot and three inches. He
was an exquisite miniature of the English pointer, being in all respects
similar to him, except in his size. His colour was white, with dark
liver-coloured patches on each side of the head, extending half down the
neck. The ears, with some patches on the back, were also of the same
colour, and numerous small dark-brown spots appeared over his whole body
and legs.

This beautiful little animal had an exquisite sense of smell. Some of
the same breed, and being the property of the Earl of Lauderdale, were
broken-in and made excellent pointers, although, from their minute size,
it could not be expected that they would be able to do much work. When
intent upon any object, the dog assumed the same attitude as other
pointers, holding up one of his feet.

('The Field Book', p. 399.)]


[Footnote 26: Another writer in the same volume gives also an
interesting account of the management of the setter.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER IV.

THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.

THIRD DIVISION.


  'The muzzle more or less shortened, the frontal sinus enlarged, and
  the cranium elevated and diminished in capacity.'


At the head of this inferior or brutal division of dogs stands


THE BULL-DOG.

The round, thick head, turned-up nose, and thick and pendulous lips of
this dog are familiar to all, while his ferocity makes him in the
highest degree dangerous. In general he makes a silent although
ferocious attack, and the persisting powers of his teeth and jaws enable
him to keep his hold against any but the greatest efforts, so that the
utmost mischief is likely to ensue as well to the innocent visitor of
his domicile as the ferocious intruder. The bull-dog is scarcely capable
of any education, and is fitted for nothing but ferocity and combat.

The name of this dog is derived from his being too often employed, until
a few years ago, in baiting the bull. It was practised by the low and
dissolute in many parts of the country. Dogs were bred and trained for
the purpose; and, while many of them were injured or destroyed, the head
of the bull was lacerated in the most barbarous manner. Nothing can
exceed the fury with which the bull-dog rushed on his foe, and the
obstinacy with which he maintained his hold. He fastened upon the lip,
the muzzle, or the eye, and there he hung in spite of every effort of
the bull to free himself from his antagonist.

Bull-dogs are not so numerous as they were a few years ago; and every
kind-hearted person will rejoice to hear that bull-baiting is now put
down by legal authority in every part of the kingdom.


THE BULL TERRIER.

This dog is a cross between the bull-dog and the terrier, and is
generally superior, both in appearance and value, to either of its
progenitors. A second cross considerably lessens the underhanging of the
lower jaw, and a third entirely removes it, retaining the spirit and
determination of the animal. It forms a steadier friendship than either
of them, and the principal objection to it is its love of wanton
mischief, and the dangerous irascibility which it occasionally exhibits.

Sir Walter Scott, a warm friend of dogs, and whose veracity cannot be
impeached, gives an interesting account of a favourite one belonging to
him.

  "The cleverest dog I ever had was what is called a bull-dog terrier. I
  taught him to understand a great many words, insomuch that I am
  positive the communication between the canine species and ourselves
  might be greatly enlarged. Camp, the name of my dog, once bit the
  baker when bringing bread to the family. I beat him, and explained the
  enormity of the offence; after which, to the last moment of his life,
  he never heard the least allusion to the story without creeping into
  the darkest corner of the room. Towards the end of his life when he
  was unable to attend me while I was on horseback, he generally watched
  for my return, and, when the servant used to tell him, his master was
  coming down the hill, or through the moor, although he did not use any
  gesture to explain his meaning, Camp was never known to mistake him,
  but either went out at the front to go up the hill, or at the back to
  get down to the moor-side."


THE MASTIFF

The head considerably resembles that of the bull-dog, but with the ears
dependent. The upper lip falls over the lower jaw. The end of the tail
is turned up, and frequently the fifth toe of the hind feet is more or
less developed. The nostrils are separated one from another by a deep
furrow. He has a grave and somewhat sullen countenance, and his
deep-toned bark is often heard during the night. The mastiff is taller
than the bull-dog, but not so deep in the chest, and his head is large
compared with his general form.

It is probable that the mastiff is an original breed peculiar to the
British islands.

He seems to be fully aware of the impression which his large size makes
on every stranger; and, in the night especially, he watches the abode of
his master with the completest vigilance; in fact, nothing would tempt
him to betray the confidence which is reposed in him.

Captain Brown states that,

  "notwithstanding his commanding appearance and the strictness with
  which he guards the property of his master, he is possessed of the
  greatest mildness of conduct, and is as grateful for any favours
  bestowed upon him as is the most diminutive of the canine tribe. There
  is a remarkable and peculiar warmth in his attachments. He is aware of
  all the duties required of him, and he punctually discharges them. In
  the course of the night he several times examines every thing with
  which he is intrusted with the most scrupulous care, and, by repeated
  barkings, warns the household or the depredator that he is at the post
  of duty." [1]

The mastiff from Cuba requires some mention, and will call up some of
the most painful recollections in the history of the human race. He was
not a native of Cuba, but imported into the country.

The Spaniards had possessed themselves of several of the South American
islands. They found them peopled with Indians, and those of a sensual,
brutish, and barbarous class--continually making war with their
neighbours, indulging in an irreconcilable hatred of the Spaniards, and
determined to expel and destroy them. In self-defence, they were driven
to some means of averting the destruction with which they were
threatened. They procured some of these mastiffs, by whose assistance
they penetrated into every part of the country, and destroyed the
greater portion of the former inhabitants.

Las Casas, a Catholic priest, and whose life was employed in
endeavouring to mitigate the sufferings of the original inhabitants,
says that

  "it was resolved to march against the Indians, who had fled to the
  mountains, and they were chased like wild beasts, with the assistance
  of bloodhounds, who had been trained to a thirst for human blood, so
  that before I had left the island it had become almost entirely a
  desert."


THE ICELAND DOG.

The head is rounder than that of the northern dogs; the ears partly
erect and partly pendent; and the fur soft and long, especially behind
the fore legs and on the tail. It much resembles the Turkish dog removed
to a colder climate.

This dog is exceedingly useful to the Icelanders while travelling over
the snowy deserts of the north. By a kind of intuition he rarely fails
in choosing the shortest and the safest course. He also is more aware
than his master of the approach of the snow storms; and is a most
valuable ally against the attack of the Polar bear, who, drifted on
masses of ice from the neighbouring continent, often commits
depredations among the cattle, and even attacks human beings. When the
dog is first aware of the neighbourhood of the bear, he sets up a
fearful howl, and men and dogs hasten to hunt down and destroy the
depredator.

The travelling in Iceland is sometimes exceedingly dangerous at the
beginning of the winter. A thin layer of snow covers and conceals some
of the chasms with which that region abounds. Should the traveller fall
into one of them, the dog proves a most useful animal; for he runs
immediately across the snowy waste, and, by his howling, induces the
traveller's friends to hasten to his rescue.


THE TERRIER

The forehead is convex; the eye prominent; the muzzle pointed; the tail
thin and arched; the fur short; the ears of moderate size, half erect,
and usually of a deep-black colour, with a yellow spot over the eyes. It
is an exceedingly useful animal; but not so indispensable an
accompaniment to a pack of fox-hounds as it used to be accounted. Foxes
are not so often unearthed as they formerly were, yet many a day's sport
would be lost without the terrier. Some sportsmen used to have two
terriers accompanying in the pack, one being smaller than the other.
This was a very proper provision; a large terrier might be incapable of
penetrating into the earth, and a small one might permit the escape of
the prey. Many terriers have lost their lives by scratching up the earth
behind them, and thus depriving themselves of all means of retreat.

The coat of the terrier may be either smooth or rough; the smooth-haired
ones are more delicate in appearance, and are somewhat more exposed to
injury or accident; but in courage, sagacity, and strength, there is
very little difference if the dogs are equally well bred. The rough
terrier possibly obtained his shaggy coat from the cur, and the smooth
terrier may derive his from the hound.

The terrier is seldom of much service until he is twelve months old; and
then, incited by natural propensity, or the example of the older ones,
or urged on by the huntsman, he begins to discharge his supposed duty.

An old terrier is brought to the mouth of the earth in which a vixen
fox--a fox with her young ones--has taken up her abode, and is sent in
to worry and drive her out. Some young terriers are brought to the mouth
of the hover, to listen to the process that is going forward within, and
to be excited to the utmost extent of which they are capable. The vixen
is at length driven out, and caught at the mouth of the hole; and the
young ones are suffered to rush in, and worry or destroy their first
prey. They want no after-tuition to prepare them for the discharge of
their duty.

This may be pardoned. It is the most ready way of training the young dog
to his future business; but it is hoped that no reader of this work will
be guilty of the atrocities that are often practised. An old fox, or
badger, is caught, his under jaw is sawn off, and the lower teeth are
forcibly extracted, or broken. A hole is then dug in the earth, or a
barrel is placed large and deep enough to permit a terrier, or perhaps
two of them, to enter. Into this cavity the fox or badger is thrust, and
a terrier rushes after him, and drags him out again. The question to be
ascertained is, how many times in a given period the dog will draw this
poor tortured animal out of the barrel--an exhibition of cruelly which
no one should be able to lay to the charge of any human being. It is a
principle not to be departed from, that wanton and useless barbarity
should never be permitted. The government, to a certain extent, has
interfered, and a noble society has been established to limit, or, if
possible, to prevent the infliction of useless pain.

The terrier is, however, a valuable dog, in the house and the farm. The
stoat, the pole-cat, and the weazel, commit great depredations in the
fields, the barn, and granary; and to a certain extent, the terrier is
employed in chasing them; but it is not often that he has a fair chance
to attack them. He is more frequently used in combating the rat.

The mischief effected by rats is almost incredible. It has been said
that, in some cases, in the article of corn, these animals consume a
quantity of food equal in value to the rent of the farm. Here the dog is
usefully employed, and in his very element, especially if there is a
cross of the bull-dog about him.

There are some extraordinary accounts of the dexterity, as well as
courage, of the terrier in destroying rats. The feats of a dog called
"Billy" will he long remembered. He was matched to destroy one hundred
large rats in eight and a half minutes. The rats were brought into the
ring in bags, and, as soon as the number was complete, he was put over
the railing. In six minutes and thirty-five seconds they were all
destroyed. In another match he destroyed the same number in six minutes
and thirteen seconds. At length, when he was getting old, and had but
two teeth and one eye left, a wager was laid of thirty sovereigns, by
the owner of a Berkshire bitch, that she would kill fifty rats in less
time than Billy. The old dog killed his fifty in five minutes and six
seconds. The pit was then cleared, and the bitch let in. When she had
killed thirty rats, she was completely exhausted, fell into a fit, and
lay barking and yelping, utterly incapable of completing her task.

The speed of the terrier is very great. One has been known to run six
miles in thirty-two minutes. He needs to be a fleet dog if, with his
comparatively little bulk, he can keep up with the foxhound.

A small breed of 'wry-legged' terriers was once in repute, and, to a
certain degree, is retained for the purpose of hunting rabbits. It
probably originated in some rickety specimens, remarkable for the slow
development of their frame, except in the head, the belly, and the
joints, which enlarge at the expense of the other parts.


THE SCOTCH TERRIER

There is reason to believe that this dog is far older than the English
terrier. There are three varieties: first the common Scotch terrier,
twelve or thirteen inches high; his body muscular and compact--
considerable breadth across the loins--the legs shorter and stouter than
those of the English terriers. The head large in proportion to the size
of the body--the muzzle small and pointed--strong marks of intelligence
in the countenance--warm attachment to his master, and the evident
devotion of every power to the fulfilment of his wishes. The hair is
long and tough, and extending over the whole of the frame. In colour,
they are black or fawn: the white, yellow, or pied are always deficient
in purity of blood.

Another species has nearly the same conformation, but is covered with
longer, more curly, and stouter hair; the legs being apparently, but not
actually, shorter. This kind of dog prevails in the greater part of the
Western Islands of Scotland, and some of them, where the hair has
obtained its full development, are much admired.

Her Majesty had one from Islay, a faithful and affectionate creature,
yet with all the spirit and determination that belongs to his breed. The
writer of this account had occasion to operate on this poor fellow, who
had been bitten under somewhat suspicious circumstances. He submitted
without a cry or a struggle, and seemed to be perfectly aware that we
should not put him to pain without having some good purpose in view.

A third species of terrier is of a considerably larger bulk, and three
or four inches taller than either of the others. Its hair is shorter
than that of the other breeds, and is hard and wiry.



THE SHOCK-DOG

is traced by Buffon, but somewhat erroneously, to a mixture of the small
Danish dog and the pug. The head is round, the eyes large, but somewhat
concealed by its long and curly hair, the tail curved and bent forward.
The muzzle resembles that of the pug. It is of small size, and is used
in this country and on the Continent as a lap-dog. It is very properly
described by the author of "The Field Book" as a useless little animal,
seeming to possess no other quality than that of a faithful attachment
to his mistress.


THE ARTOIS DOG

with his short, flat muzzle, is a produce of the shock-dog and the pug.
He has nothing peculiar to recommend him.


THE ANDALUSIAN, OR ALICANT DOG,


has the short muzzle of the pug with the long hair of the spaniel.

THE EGYPTIAN AND BARBARY DOG,

according to Cuvier, has a very thick and round head, the ears erect at
the base, large and movable, and carried horizontally, the skin nearly
naked, and black or dark flesh-colour, with large patches of brown. A
sub-variety has a kind of mane behind the head, formed of long stiff
hairs.

Buffon imagines that the shepherd's dog--transported to different
climates, and acquiring different habits--was the ancestor of the
various species with which almost every country abounds; but whence they
originally came it is impossible to say. They vary in their size, their
colour, their attitude, their usual exterior, and their strangely
different interior construction. Transported into various climates, they
are necessarily submitted to the influence of heat and cold, and of food
more or less abundant and more or less suitable to their natural
organization; but the reason or the derivation of these differences of
structure it is not always easy to explain.



[Footnote 1: Brown's 'Biographical Sketches', p. 425.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER V.

THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG; THE SENSE OF SMELL; INTELLIGENCE; MORAL
QUALITIES; DOG-CARTS; CROPPING; TAILING; BREAKING-IN; DOG-PITS;
DOG-STEALING.


In our history of the different breeds of the dog we have seen enough to
induce us to admire and love him. His courage, his fidelity, and the
degree in which he often devotes every power that he possesses to our
service, are circumstances that we can never forget nor overlook. His
very foibles occasionally attach him to us. We may select a pointer for
the pureness of his blood and the perfection of his education. He
transgresses in the field. We call him to us; we scold him well;
perchance, we chastise him. He lies motionless and dumb at our feet. The
punishment being over, he gets up, and, by some significant gesture,
acknowledges his consciousness of deserving what he has suffered. The
writer operated on a pointer bitch for an enlarged cancerous tumour,
accompanied by much inflammation and pain in the surrounding parts. A
word or two of kindness and of caution were all that were necessary,
although, in order to prevent accidents, she had been bound securely.
The flesh quivered as the knife pursued its course--a moan or two
escaped her, but yet she did not struggle; and her first act, after all
was over, was to lick the operator's hand.

From the combination of various causes, the history of no animal is more
interesting than that of the dog. First, his intimate association with
man, not only as a valuable protector, but as a constant and faithful
companion throughout all the vicissitudes of life. Secondly, from his
natural endowments, not consisting in the exquisite delicacy of one
individual sense--not merely combining memory with reflection--but
possessing qualities of the mind that stagger us in the contemplation of
them, and which we can alone account for in the gradation existing in
that wonderful system which, by different links of one vast chain,
extends from the first to the last of all things, until it forms a
perfect whole on the wonderful confines of the spiritual and material
world.

We here quote the beautiful account of Sir Walter Scott and his dogs, as
described by Henry Hallam:

  "But looking towards the grassy mound
  Where calm the Douglass chieftains lie,
  Who, living, quiet never found,
  I straightway learnt a lesson high;

  For there an old man sat serene,
  And well I knew that thoughtful mien
  Of him whose early lyre had thrown
  O'er mouldering walls the magic of its tone.

  It was a comfort, too, to see
  Those dogs that from him ne'er would rove,
  And always eyed him reverently,
  With glances of depending love.
  They know not of the eminence
  Which marks him to my reasoning sense,
  They know but that he is a man,
  And still to them is kind, and glads them all he can

  And hence their quiet looks confiding;
  Hence grateful instincts seated deep
  By whose strong bond, were ill betiding,
  They'd lose their own, his life to keep.
  What joy to watch in lower creature
  Such dawning of a moral nature,
  And how (the rule all things obey)
  They look to a higher mind to be their law and stay!"

The subject of the intellectual and moral qualities of the inferior
animals is one highly interesting and somewhat misunderstood--urged
perhaps to a ridiculous extent by some persons, yet altogether neglected
by others who have no feeling for any but themselves.

Anatomists have compared the relative bulk of the brain in different
animals, and the result is not a little interesting. In man the weight
of the brain amounts on the average to 1-30th part of the body. In the
Newfoundland dog it does not amount to 1-60th part, or to 1-100th part
in the poodle and barbet, and not to more than 1-300th part in the
ferocious and stupid bull-dog.

When the brain is cut, it is found to be composed of two substances,
essentially different in construction and function--the cortical and the
medullary. The first is small in quantity, and principally concerned in
the food and reproduction of the animal, and the cineritious in a great
measure the register of the mind. Brute strength seems to be the
character of the former, and superior intelligence of the latter. There
is, comparing bulk with bulk, less of the medullary substance in the
horse than in the ox--and in the dog than in the horse--and they are
characterized as the sluggish ox, the intelligent horse, and the
intellectual and companionable dog.

From the medullary substance proceed certain cords or prolongations,
termed 'nerves', by which the animal is enabled to receive impressions
from surrounding objects and to connect himself with them, and also to
possess many pleasurable or painful sensations. One of them is spread
over the membrane of the nose, and gives the sense of smell; another
expands on the back of the eye, and the faculty of sight is gained; a
third goes to the internal structure of the ear and the animal is
conscious of sound. Other nerves, proceeding to different parts, give
the faculty of motion, while an equally important one bestows the power
of feeling. One division, springing from a prolongation of the brain,
and yet within the skull, wanders to different parts of the frame, for
important purposes connected with respiration or breathing. The act of
breathing is essential to life, and were it to cease, the animal would
die.

There are other nerves--the sympathetic--so called from their union and
sympathy with all the others, and identified with life itself. They
proceed from a small ganglion or enlargement in the upper part of the
neck, or from a collection of minute ganglia within the abdomen. They go
to the heart, and it beats; and to the stomach, and it digests. They
form a net-work round each vessel, and the frame is nourished and built
up. They are destitute of sensation, and they are perfectly beyond the
control of the will.

We have been accustomed, and properly, to regard the nervous system, or
that portion of it which is connected with animal life--that which
renders us conscious of surrounding objects and susceptible of pleasure
and of pain--as the source of intellectual power and moral feeling. It
is so with ourselves. All our knowledge is derived from our perception
of things around as. A certain impression is made on the outward fibres
of a sensitive nerve. That impression, in some mysterious way, is
conveyed to the brain; and there it is received--registered--stored--and
compared; there its connections are traced and its consequences
appreciated; and thence a variety of interesting impressions are
conveyed, and due use is made of them.


THE SENSE OF SMELL

Our subject--the intellectual and moral feelings of brutes, and the
mechanism on which they depend--may be divided into two parts, the
portion that receives and conveys, and that which stores up and compares
and uses the impression.

The portion that receives and conveys is far more developed in the brute
than in the human being. Whatever sense we take, we clearly perceive the
triumph of animal power.

The olfactory nerve in the horse, the dog, the ox, and the swine, is the
largest of all the cerebral nerves, and has much greater comparative
bulk in the quadruped than in the human being. The sense of smell,
bearing proportion to the nerve on which it depends, is yet more acute.
In man it is connected with pleasure--in the inferior animals with life.
The relative size of the nerve bears an invariable proportion to the
necessity of an acute sense of smell in the various animals--large in
the horse compared with the olfactory nerve in the human being--larger
in the ox, who is often sent into the fields to shift for
himself--larger still in the swine, whose food is buried under the soil,
or deeply immersed in the filth or refuse,--and still larger in the dog,
the acuteness of whose scent is so connected with our pleasure.

[The disposition to hunt by scent is not peculiar to the setter or
pointer, but in fact is common to all animals; developing itself in
different proportions according to their various physical constructions
and modes of life. The method of finding and pointing at game, now
peculiar to these dogs, and engendered in their progeny through
successive generations, is not the result of any special instinct, that
usually governs the actions of the brute creation--but rather the effect
of individual education and force of habit upon their several ancestors.
This habit of life, engrafted through progressive generations into these
breeds, has become a second nature, and so entirely the property of the
species, that all its members, with but little care on the part of man,
will perform these same actions in the same way, and will ever continue
to exhibit these propensities for hunting, provided opportunities be
offered for indulging them. Nevertheless, as these peculiar
predilections for "'setting or pointing'," as before said, are the
effect of education and habit, the artificial impulse would very soon be
entirely obliterated, if not encouraged in the young dogs of each
generation. This circumstance alone, proves to us the importance of
getting dogs from a well-known good strain, whose ancestors have been
remarkable for their exploits in the field. This necessary precaution
will insure a favourable issue to our troubles, and lessen materially
our labours. In fact young puppies have been frequently known to exhibit
this propensity the first time they have been taken to the field. Some
of these dogs have come under the notice of the writer, who at a few
months old exhibited all the peculiarities of their race; in fact were
"self-broke." These dogs were the progeny of a well-known imported
stock, in the possession of a gentleman who selected them in England.

Although other dogs, and other animals even, have been with great
difficulty and perseverance taught to find and point game, still these
two breeds seem especially adapted by nature, both in their physical and
intellectual construction, for the performance of this particular duty
to man.

The sense of smell is differently developed in different animals; the
olfactory nerve of the dog is larger than any other in the cerebrum,
which peculiarity will at once account for their wonderful powers of
scent.

'Swine', also, have these nerves largely developed; and necessarily so,
as both in a state of nature or half-civilization, the greater portion
of their food is buried under the earth or mingled with the filth and
mire of their sties, and would pass unheeded, if not for the acuteness
of their nasal organs.

In Daniels' "Rural Sports," will be found an interesting account of a
sow having been taught to find and point game of various kinds, and
often having been known to stand on partridges at a distance of forty
yards, which is more than can reasonably be expected of every first-rate
dog. She was not only broke to find and stand game, but hunted with the
dogs, and backed successfully when on a point. This extraordinary animal
evinced great aptness for learning, and afterwards great enthusiasm in
the sport; showing symptoms of pleasure at the sight of a gun, or when
called upon to accompany a party to the field. Her hunting was not
confined to any particular game, but stood equally well on partridges,
pheasants, snipes, rabbits, &c. (See Blaine, part vii, chap, iii, page
792.)

Most of animals instinctively employ the organ of scent to seek out
food, or avert personal danger, in preference to that of sight; but some
depend more upon the latter than the former, either from instinct or the
force of education.

For instance, the greyhound, though equally gifted with the sense of
smell, as that of sight, has been taught to depend upon the one organ to
the entire exclusion of the other, which is quite the reverse of the
setter and pointer; but the wonderful speed of these dogs renders it
quite unnecessary that he should employ the olfactory nerves, as no
animal, however swift, can hope to escape from him in a fair race, when
once near enough to be seen; though there are some that may elude his
grasp by a "'ruse de guerre'" when too hardly pressed. ('Extracted from
our essay in No. 1, vol. xvi, of the "Spirit of the Times.'")--L.]


INTELLIGENCE

We find little mention of insanity in the domesticated animals in any of
our modern authors, whether treating on agriculture, horsemanship, or
veterinary medicine, and yet there are some singular and very
interesting cases of aberration of intellect. The inferior animals are,
to a certain extent, endowed with the same faculties as ourselves. They
are even susceptible of the same moral qualities. Hatred, love, fear,
hope, joy, distress, courage, timidity, jealousy, and many varied
passions influence and agitate them, as they do the human being. The dog
is an illustration of this---the most susceptible to every
impression--approaching the nearest to man in his instincts, and in many
actions that surprise the philosopher, who justly appreciates it.

What eagerness to bite is often displayed by the dog when labouring
under enteritis, and especially by him who has imbibed the poison of
rabies! How singular is the less dangerous malady which induces the
horse and the dog to press unconsciously forward under the influence of
vertigo!--the eagerness with which, when labouring under phrenitis, he
strikes at everything with his foot, or rushes upon it to seize it with
his teeth! A kind of nostalgia is often recognised in that depression
which nothing can dissipate, and the invincible aversion to food, by
means of which many animals perish, who are prevented from returning to
the place where they once lived, and the localities to which they had
been accustomed.

These are circumstances proving that the dog is endowed with
intelligence and with affections like ours; and, if they do not equal
ours, they are of the same character.

With regard to the foundation of intellectual power, viz.: attention,
memory, association, and imagination, the difference between man and
animals is in degree, and not in kind. Thus stands the account,--with
the quadruped as well as the biped,--the impression is made on the mind;
attention fixes it there; memory recurs to it; imagination combines it,
rightly or erroneously, with many other impressions; judgment determines
the value of it, and the conclusions that are to be drawn from it, if
not with logical precision, yet with sufficient accuracy for every
practical purpose.

A bitch, naturally ill-tempered, and that would not suffer a stranger to
touch her, had scirrhous enlargement on one of her teats. As she lay in
the lap of her mistress, an attempt was repeatedly made to examine the
tumour, in spite of many desperate attempts on her part to bite. All at
once, however, something seemed to strike her mind. She whined, wagged
her tail, and sprung from the lap of her mistress to the ground. It was
to crouch at the feet of the surgeon, and to lay herself down and expose
the tumour to his inspection. She submitted to a somewhat painful
examination of it, and to a far more serious operation afterwards. Some
years passed away, and whenever she saw the operator, she testified her
joy and her gratitude in the most expressive and endearing manner.

A short time since, the following scene took place in a street adjoining
Hanover-square. It was an exhibition of a highly interesting character,
and worthy to be placed upon record. The editor of the Lancet having
heard that a French gentleman (M. Léonard), who had for some time been
engaged in instructing two dogs in various performances that required
the exercise, not merely of the natural instincts of the animal and the
power of imitation, but of a higher intellect, and a degree of
reflection and judgment far greater than is commonly developed in the
dog; was residing in London, obtained an introduction, and was
obligingly favoured by M. Leonard with permission to hold a
'conversazione' with his extraordinary pupils. He thus describes the
interview:

Two fine dogs, of the Spanish breed, were introduced by M. Leonard, with
the customary French politesse, the largest by the name of M. Philax,
the other as M. Brac (or spot); the former had been in training three,
the latter two, years. They were in vigorous health, and, having bowed
very gracefully, seated themselves on the hearth-rug side by side. M.
Léonard then gave a lively description of the means he had employed to
develop the cerebral system in these animals--how, from having been fond
of the chase, and ambitious of possessing the best-trained dogs, he had
employed the usual course of training--how the conviction had been
impressed on his mind, that by gentle usage, and steady perseverance in
inducing the animal to repeat again and again what was required, not
only would the dog be capable of performing that specific act, but that
part of the brain which was brought into activity by the mental effort
would become more largely developed, and hence a permanent increase of
mental power be obtained.

This reasoning is in accordance with the known laws of the physiology of
the nervous system, and is fraught with the most important results. We
may refer the reader interested in the subject to the masterly little
work of Dr. Verity, "Changes produced in the Nervous System by
Civilization."

After this introduction, M. Léonard spoke to his dogs in French, in his
usual tone, and ordered one of them to walk, the other to lie down, to
run, to gallop, halt, crouch, &c., which they performed as promptly and
correctly as the most docile children. Then he directed them to go
through the usual exercises of the 'manége', which they performed as
well as the best-trained ponies at Astley's.

He next placed six cards of different colours on the floor, and, sitting
with his back to the dogs, directed one to pick up the blue card, and
the other the white, &c., varying his orders rapidly, and speaking in
such a manner that it was impossible the dogs could have executed his
commands if they had not had a perfect knowledge of the words. For
instance, M. Léonard said, "Philax, take the red card and give it to
Brac; and, Brac, take the white card and give it to Philax;" the dags
instantly did this, and exchanged cards with each other. He then said,
"Philax, put your card on the green, and Brac, put yours on the blue;"
and this was instantly performed. Pieces of bread and meat were placed
on the floor, with figured cards, and a variety of directions were given
to the dogs, so as to put their intelligence and obedience to a severe
test. They brought the meat, bread, or cards, as commanded, but did not
attempt to eat or to touch unless ordered. Philax was then ordered to
bring a piece of meat and give it to Brac, and then Brac was told to
give it back to Philax, who was to return it to its place. Philax was
next told he might bring a piece of bread and eat it; but, before he had
time to swallow it, his master forbade him, and directed him to show
that he had not disobeyed, and the dog instantly protruded the crust
between his lips.

While many of these feats were being performed, M. Léonard snapped a
whip violently, to prove that the animals were so completely under
discipline, that they would not heed any interruption.

After many other performances, M. Léonard invited a gentleman to play a
game of dominos with one of them. The younger and slighter dog then
seated himself on a chair at the table, and the writer and M. Léonard
seated themselves opposite. Six dominos were placed on their edges in
the usual manner before the dog, and a like number before the writer.
The dog having a double number, took one up in his mouth, and put it in
the middle of the table; the writer placed a corresponding piece on one
side; the dog immediately played another correctly, and so on until all
the pieces were engaged. Other six dominos were then given to each, and
the writer intentionally placed a wrong number. The dog looked
surprised, stared very earnestly at the writer, growled, and finally
barked angrily. Finding that no notice was taken of his remonstrances,
he pushed away the wrong domino with his nose, and took up a suitable
one from his own pieces, and placed it in its stead. The writer then
played correctly; the dog followed, and won the game. Not the slightest
intimation could have been given by M. Léonard to the dog. This mode of
play must have been entirely the result of his own observation and
judgment. It should be added that the performances were strictly
private. The owner of the dogs was a gentleman of independent fortune,
and the instruction of his dogs had been taken up merely as a curious
and amusing investigation. [1]

Another strange attainment of the dog is the learning to speak. The
French Academicians mention one of these animals that could call in an
intelligible manner for tea, coffee, chocolate, &c. The account is given
by the celebrated Leibnitz, who communicated it to the Royal Academy of
France. This dog was of a middling size, and was the property of a
peasant in Saxony.

A little boy, a peasant's son, imagined that he perceived in the dog's
voice an indistinct resemblance to certain words, and therefore took it
into his head to teach him to speak. For this purpose he spared neither
time nor pains with his pupil, who was about three years old when his
learned education commenced, and in process of time he was able to
articulate no fewer than thirty distinct words. He was, however,
somewhat of a truant, and did not very willingly exert his talent, and
was rather pressed than otherwise into the service of literature. It was
necessary that the words should be pronounced to him each time, and then
he repeated them after his preceptor. Leibnitz attests that he heard the
animal talk in this way, and the French Academicians add, that unless
they had received the testimony of so celebrated a person they would
scarcely have dared to report the circumstance. It took place in Misnia,
in Saxony.


THE MORAL QUALITIES OF THE DOG.

We pass on to another division of our subject, 'the moral qualities of
the dog', strongly developed and beautifully displayed, and often
putting the biped to shame.

It is truly said of the dog that he possesses

                        "Many a good
  And useful quality, and virtue too,
  Attachment never to be weaned or changed
  By any change of fortune; proof alike
  Against unkindness, absence, and neglect;
  Fidelity, that neither bribe nor threat
  Can move or warp; and gratitude, for small
  And trivial favours, lasting as the life,
  And glistening even in the dying eye."

It may here be noticed that, among the inferior animals with large
nerves and more medullary substance, there are acuter senses; but man,
excelling them in the general bulk of his brain, and more particularly
in the cortical portion of it, has far superior powers of mind. These
are circumstances that deserve the deepest consideration. In their wild
state the brutes have no concern--no idea beyond their food and their
reproduction. In their domesticated state, they are doomed to be the
servants of man. Their power of mind is sufficient to qualify them for
this service: but were proportionate intellectual capacity added to
this--were they made conscious of their strength, and of the objects
that could be effected by it--they would burst their bonds, and man
would in his turn be the victim and the slave.

There is an important faculty, termed 'attention'. It is that which
distinguishes the promising pupil from him of whom no good hope could be
formed, and the scientific man from the superficial and ignorant one.
The power of keeping the mind steadily bent upon one purpose, is the
great secret of individual and moral improvement. We see the habit of
attention carried in the dog to a very considerable extent. The terrier
eagerly watching for vermin--the sporting dog standing staunch to his
point, however he may be annoyed by the blunders of his companion or the
unskilfulness of his master--the foxhound, insensible to a thousand
scents, and deaf to every other sound, while he anxiously and
perseveringly searches out the track of his prey--these are striking
illustrations of the power of attention.

Then, the impression having been received, and the mind having been
employed in its examination, it is treasured up in the storehouse of the
mind for future use.

This is the faculty of memory; and a most important one it is. Of the
'memory' of the 'dog', and the recollection of kindness received, there
are a thousand stories, from the return of Ulysses to the present day,
and we have seen enough of that faithful animal to believe most of them.
An officer was abroad with his regiment, during the American war. He had
a fine Newfoundland dog, his constant companion, whom he left with his
family. After the lapse of several years he returned. His dog met him at
the door, leaped upon his neck, licked his face, and died.

Of the accuracy and retentiveness of memory in the dog, as respects the
instruction he has received from his master, we have abundant proof in
the pointer and the hound, and it may perhaps be with some of them, as
with men, that the lesson must sometimes be repeated, and even impressed
on the memory in a way not altogether pleasant.

[We know an imported Irish setter, formerly in possession of a gentleman
of this city, who on many occasions, while hunting, displayed an
extraordinary instinct, even sufficiently remarkable to make us believe
that he possessed not only the most acute powers of observation, but
that he also enjoyed the faculty of "inductive reasoning," independent
of any mechanical training, many of his performances being entirely
voluntary, and the result of causes dependent upon accidental
circumstances alone: for instance, when lost from observation, he would
noiselessly withdraw from his point, hunt up his master, and induce him,
by peculiar signs, to follow him to the spot where he had previously
observed the birds.

In his old days, "Smoke" was much opposed to hunting with an indifferent
shot, and would leave the field perfectly disgusted, after a succession
of bad shooting; seeming to argue that he no longer sought after game
for amusement, but that he expected his efforts to be repaid by the
death of the birds.

This dog was of a morose and dignified disposition, surly with
strangers, and inclined to quarrel with any one who carried a stick or
whip in their hands; never forgetting an injury, and growling whenever
any person who had offended him made their appearance. He was also
particularly irritable and tenacious of his rights when hunting,
shunning all puppies or heedless dogs, and exhibiting a very irascible
disposition if superseded in a point by another dog; and on one occasion
attacked a young pointer in the field, who, in opposition to all his
growling and show of irony, would persist in crawling before him, when
on a point.--L]


DOG-CARTS.

These were, and still are, in the country, connected with many an act of
atrocious cruelty. We do not object to the dog as a beast of draught. He
is so in the northern regions, and he is as happy as any other animal in
those cold and inhospitable countries. He is so in Holland, and he is as
comfortable there as any other beast that wears the collar. He is not so
in Newfoundland: there he is shamefully treated. It is to the abuse of
the thing, the poor and half-starved condition of the animal, the
scandalous weight that he is made to draw, and the infamous usage to
which he is exposed, that we object. We would put him precisely on the
same footing with the horse, and then we should be able, perhaps, to
afford him, not all the protection we could wish, but nearly as much as
we have obtained for the horse. We would have every cart licensed, not
for the sake of adding to the revenue, but of getting at the owner; and
therefore the taxing need not be any great sum. We would have the cart
licensed for the carrying of goods only; or a separate license taken out
if it carried or drew a human being.

It is here that the cruelty principally exists. Before the dog-carts
were put down in the metropolis, we then saw a man and a woman in one of
these carts, drawn by a single dog, and going at full trot. Every
passenger execrated them, and the trot was increased to a gallop, in
order more speedily to escape the just reproaches that proceeded from
every mouth. We would have the name and address of the owner, and the
number of the cart, painted on some conspicuous part of the vehicle, and
in letters and figures as large as on the common carts. Every passenger
who witnessed any flagrant act of cruelty would then be enabled to take
the number of the cart, and summon the owner; and the police should have
the same power of interference which they have with regard to other
vehicles.

After a plan like this had been working a little while, the nuisance
would be materially abated; and, indeed, the consciousness of the ease
with which the offender might be summoned, would go far to get rid of it.


CROPPING.

This is an infliction of too much torture for the gratification of a
nonsensical fancy; and, after all, in the opinion of many, and of those,
too, who are fondest of dogs, the animal looks far better in his natural
state than when we have exercised all our cruel art upon him. Besides,
the effects of this absurd amputation do not cease with the healing of
the ear. The intense inflammation that we have set up, materially
injures the internal structure of this organ. Deafness is occasionally
produced by it in some dogs, and constantly in others. The frequent
deafness of the pug is solely attributable to the outrageous as well as
absurd rounding of his ears. The almost invariable deafness of the white
wire-haired terrier is to be traced to this cause.

[Among the many tastes and fancies that the Americans have inherited
from their ancestors, the English, may be enumerated the absurd practice
of fashioning the ears of different breeds of dogs to a certain standard
of beauty. Mr. Blain very justly remarks that it must be a false taste
which has taught us to prefer a curtailed organ to a perfect one,
without gaining any convenience by the operation. The dogs upon which
this species of barbecuing are more particularly practised in this
country, are the bull-dogs and terriers.

We imagine that many of our readers will be surprised when they learn
that this operation, although so simple in itself, and performed by
every reckless stable-boy, is attended with great suffering to the
puppy, and not unfrequently with total deafness. Severe inflammation,
extending to the interior of the ear, often follows this operation, more
especially when awkwardly performed, as is frequently the case, by the
aid of the miserable instruments within the reach of our hostlers; to
say nothing of the savage fashion of using the teeth for this purpose,
as is often done by ignorant fellows, who even take credit to themselves
for the clever style in which they perform this outlandish operation.
Mr. Blain states, that it is a barbarous custom to twist the ears off,
by swinging the dog around; and we are satisfied that every sensible
person will respond to this humane sentiment. We have never had the
misfortune to see this latter method put into practice, and trust that
such an operation is unknown among us, although, from the manner in
which this gentleman condemns it, we are led to suppose that this mode
is not uncommon in the old country.

As custom has sanctioned the cropping of dogs, in spite of all that can
be said upon the subject, it should be done in such a manner as to cause
the least possible pain to the animal. The fourth or fifth week is the
proper age for this operation; if done sooner, the flap is apt to sprout
and become deformed: if later, the cartilage has grown more thick and
sensitive. The imaginary beauty of a terrier crop consists in the foxy
appearance of the ears, which is easily produced by the clean cut of a
sharp, strong pair of scissors. The first cut should commence at the
posterior base of the ear, near to the head, and be carried to the
extremity of the flap, taking off about the eighth of an inch or more in
width. The second cut should extend from the base of the ear in front,
somewhat obliquely, to intersect the other cut within a few lines of the
point of the flap. These two cuts will shape the ear in such a style as
to please the most fastidious eye, and will require no further trimming.
The pieces taken from the first ear will answer as guides in cutting the
other. The mother should not be allowed to lick the ears of the puppies,
as is generally done, under the supposition that she assists in the
healing process, when, in fact, she irritates them, and occasions
increased inflammation. If the wounds are tardy at healing, or become
mangy, they may be bathed gently with a weak solution of alum.

We regret to find that Mr. Skinner, so well known to the sporting world
as the able extoller and defender of the rights of our canine friends,
should recommend the cropping of terriers. We are convinced that he
would change his feelings upon this subject, if he placed any confidence
in the opinions of Blain, Youatt, Scott, or Daniel, all of whom condemn
the practice as barbarous, and as often occasioning great suffering, and
even total deafness, throughout the progeny of successive generations,
as witnessed in the white wire-haired terrier and pug above mentioned.

Wo have had the good fortune to persuade some of our friends to desist
from thus mutilating their terrier pups, all of whom, consequently, grew
up with beautiful full ears and long tails, which were much admired; and
to the eyes of many, the dogs seemed more sprightly and knowing with
their long flaps, than when deprived of those natural appendages.--L.]


TAILING.

Then 'the tail' of the dog does not suit the fancy of the owner. It must
be shortened in some of these animals, and taken off altogether in
others. If the sharp, strong scissors, with a ligature, were used, the
operation, although still indefensible, would not be a very cruel one,
for the tail may be removed almost in a moment, and the wound soon
heals; but for the beastly gnawing off of the part, and the drawing out
of the tendons and nerves--these are the acts of a cannibal; and he who
orders or perpetrates a barbarity so nearly approaching to cannibalism,
deserves to be scouted from all society.

[As a matter of necessity, we cannot sanction the too frequent and cruel
practice of cutting or otherwise barbecuing different portions of the
bodies of our domestic animals, and more particularly the often absurd
fancy or cropping and sterning dogs. Nevertheless, we must admit the
propriety of, and, in fact, recommend, the taking off a small portion of
the pointer's tail, not to increase his beauty, but to save him some
after suffering. A long tail is frequently lacerated in close thickets,
and thus rendered sore and mangy: this is prevented by the operation, as
it becomes better protected by the body, as also more thickly covered by
the feather which generally forms over it.

When the pups are a month or six weeks old, this operation can be
performed with little pain to the animal, by means of sharp scissors or
a knife; but never allow any one to bite the tail off, as is often done
by some dirty and unfeeling stable-men. Although a long tail is
inconvenient, a too short one is more unsightly; care should therefore
be taken not to remove too much. The quantity should be regulated by the
size of the breed: for a medium breed, an inch is sufficient to be cut
off at this age. Some sportsmen in England, Mr. Blain also informs us,
draw out the lower tendons of the tail, which present themselves after
amputation, with a pair of forceps, with a view of causing the tail to
be carried higher, which adds to the style and appearance of the dog,
when in the field. This practice, we agree with Mr. Youatt, is
cannibal-like, and very painful; and, to say the least of it, of very
doubtful propriety, as it is but seldom we find a good breed of dog
carrying, while hunting, a slovenly tail.

If there should be any appearance of hemorrhage after this operation, a
small piece of tape or twine may be tied around the tail, which will
immediately arrest the bleeding. This ligature should not remain on
longer than a few hours, as the parts included in it will be apt to
slough and make a mangy ulcer, difficult to heal.--L.]


DEW-CLAWS

Next comes the depriving the dog of his 'dew-claws'--the supplementary
toes a little above the foot. They are supposed to interfere with
hunting by becoming entangled with the grass or underwood. This rarely
happens. The truth of the matter is, they are simply illustrations of
the uniformity of structure which prevails in all animals, so far as is
consistent with their destiny. The 'dew-claws' only make up the number
of toes in other animals. If they are attached, as they are in some
dogs, simply by a portion of skin, they may be removed without any very
great pain, yet the man of good feeling would not meddle with them. He
would not unnecessarily inflict any pain that he can avoid; and here, in
several of the breeds, the toe is united by an actual joint; and if they
are dissected because they are a little in the way, it is a barbarous
operation, and nothing can justify it.

[Notwithstanding our author's condemnation of this practice, there are
many sportsmen who think it very necessary to remove this supernumerary
toe, fearing that it may interfere with the dog while hunting, as above
stated.

Mr. Blain, both a practical sportsman and scientific gentleman, to whose
opinions we must at all times show a due regard, considers the removal
of these false appendages very necessary, stating that they often become
troublesome, not only in the field, but that they frequently turn in and
wound the flesh with their nails.

We have never seen any particular inconvenience arising from the
presence of these dew-claws, and are not in the habit of taking them
off; but, as the operation is a trifling one, and attended with little
or no pain, we are disposed to recommend its general adoption, as it
improves the appearance of the legs; and their presence may sometimes
prove inconvenient to the animal, as stated by Mr. Blain. These claws
most commonly have a ligamentous attachment only to the leg, which may
be divided, a few days after birth, by a pair of sharp scissors or a
knife; and if a bony union exists, it is generally of such a trifling
nature that it can be severed in the same way.--L.]

The cruelties that are perpetrated on puppies during the course of their
education or 'breaking-in', are sometimes infamous. Young dogs, like
young people, must be to a certain degree coerced; but these animals
receive from nature so great an aptitude for learning, and practising
that which we require of them, and their own pleasure is so much
connected with what they learn, that there is no occasion for one-tenth
part of the correction that is occasionally inflicted; and the frequent
consequence of the cruelty to which they are subjected, is cowardice or
ferocity during life.

Not many years ago, as the author was going over one of the commons in
the neighbourhood of the metropolis, now enclosed, he heard the loud
sounds of the lash and the screams of a dog. He hurried on, and found
two men, one holding a greyhound while another was unmercifully flogging
him. He had inflicted many lashes, and was continuing the correction.
The author indignantly interfered, and the dog was liberated, but with a
great deal of abuse from the men; and a gentleman galloping up, and who
was the owner of the dog, and a Middlesex magistrate to boot, seemed
disposed to support his people in no very measured terms On being
addressed, however, by name, and recognising the speaker, and his
attention being directed to the 'whaled' and even bloody state of
the dog, he offered the best excuse that he could.

We met again some months afterwards. "That hiding," said he, "that
offended you so much did Carlo good, for he has not been touched since."
"No," was the reply; "you were a little ashamed of your fellows, and
have altered your system, and find that your dogs do not want this
unmerciful negro-whipping."

Stories are told of the 'kennel-hare'--a hare kept on purpose, and which
is sometimes shown to the fox or stag-hounds. The moment that any of
them open, they are tied up to the whipping-post, and flogged, while the
keepers at every stroke call out "Ware hare!" A sheep has also been
shown to them, or still is, after which another unmerciful flogging is
administered, amidst cries of "Ware sheep!" If this is not sufficient,
some of the wool is dipped in train oil, and put into the dog's mouth,
which is sewed up for many hours in order to cure him of sheep-biting.
There was an almost similar punishment for killing poultry; and there
was the 'puzzle' and the 'check-collar', cruelly employed, for killing
other dogs.

There is a great deal of truth, and there may occasionally be some
exaggeration, in these accounts; but the sportsman who is indebted for
the pleasures of the field to the intelligence and exertions of his
horses and his dogs, is bound, by every principle that can influence an
honourable mind, to defend them from all wanton and useless cruelty.
There is a dog, and a faithful and valuable one, that powerfully demands
the assistance of the humane--the yard or watch-dog. He is not only for
the most part deprived of his liberty, but too often neglected and made
unnecessarily to suffer. How seldom do we see him in the enjoyment of a
good bed of straw, or, rather, how frequently is everything about his
kennel in a most filthy and disgusting state! The following hint not
only relates to him, but to every dog that is tied up out of doors.
"Their cribs or their kennels, as they are called, should be constructed
so as to turn, in order to prevent their inmates from being exposed to
the cutting blasts of winter. Where they have no other refuge, all
animals seek shelter from the weather by turning their backs to the
wind; but, as the dog thus confined cannot do so, his kennel should be
capable of turning, or at least should be placed so as not to face the
weather more than is necessary. The premises would be in quite as great
security, for the dog depends as much upon his ear and sense of smell as
upon his eye, and would equally detect a stranger's presence if he were
deprived of sight."

In the Zoological Gardens, an old blind dog used to be placed at the
door of the dissecting-house. Few had any business there, and every one
of them he, after a while, used to recognise and welcome full ton yards
off, by wagging his tail; at the same distance, he would begin to growl
at a stranger unless accompanied by a friend. From the author's long
habit of noticing him, he used to recognise his step before it would
seem possible for its sound to be heard. He followed him with his
sightless eyes in whatever direction he moved, and was not satisfied
until he had patted and fondled him.


DOG-PITS.

Of the demoniacal use of the dog in the 'fighting-pits', and the
atrocities that were committed there, I will not now speak. These places
were frequented by few others than the lowest of the low. Cruelties were
there inflicted that seemed to be a libel on human nature; and such was
the baneful influence of the scene, that it appeared to be scarcely
possible for any one to enter these pits without experiencing a greater
or less degree of moral degradation.

The public dog-pits have now been put down; but the system of
dog-fighting, with most of its attendant atrocities, still continues.
There are many more low public-houses than there used to be pits, that
have roomy places behind, and out of sight, where there are regular
meetings for this purpose. Those among the neighbours who cannot fail of
being annoyed and disgusted by the frequent uproar, might give a clue to
these dens of infamy; and the depriving of a few of the landlords of
their license would go a great way towards the effectual suppression of
the practice.

Would it be thought possible that certain of our young aristocracy keep
fighting-dogs at the repositories of various dealers in the outskirts of
the metropolis; and that these animals remain there, as it were, at
livery, the owners coming at their pleasure, and making and devising
what matches they think proper?

However disgraceful it may be, it is actually the fact. Here is a field
for "the suppression of cruelty!"


DOG-STEALING.

The practice of stealing dogs is both directly and indirectly connected
with a great deal of cruelty. There are more than twenty miscreants who
are well known to subsist by picking up dogs in the street. There are
generally two of them together with aprons rolled round their waists.
The dog is caught up at the corner of one of the streets, concealed in a
moment in the apron, and the thieves are far away before the owner
suspects the loss. These dogs, that have been used to every kind of
luxury, are crowded into dark and filthy cellars, where they become
infected by various diseases. The young ones have distemper, and the old
ones mange, and all become filled with vermin. There they remain until a
sufficient reward is offered for their recovery, or they are sent far
into the country, or shipped for France or some other foreign market.
Little or nothing is done by punishing the inferior rogues in this
traffic. The blow must be struck at those of a superior class. I will
not assert that every dog-dealer is in league with, and profits by, the
lower thieves; but it is true of a great many of them, and it is the
principal and most lucrative part of their trade. They are likewise
intimately connected with the dog-fights, and encourage them, for the
sake of their trade as dealers. An attempt should be made to bring the
matter home to these scoundrels. [2]

[Dog-stealing, we are more particularly informed by Col. Hawker, is
reduced to a perfect system in London, and carried on by a set of
fellows who, by their cunning and peculiar knack, are enabled to avoid
all detection in their nefarious traffic, and thus, by extortion of
rewards or sales of stolen dogs, reap a rich harvest for the whole
fraternity from the well-stored pockets of the numerous dog-fanciers of
the English capital.

The villains engaged in this business are known among themselves under
the too often abused sobriquet of "the Fancy," and assuming the garb of
different mechanics, prowl about the streets, oftentimes with the proper
tools in their hands, carelessly watching the movements of every dog
that passes by, ready to grab him up the first fitting opportunity. The
dog is then concealed till a suitable reward is offered for him, when,
through the intervention of a third person, a trusty agent of the
society, he is delivered over to his rightful owner, the actual rogue
never appearing in the whole transaction.

If no reward, or an insufficient one, is offered for the recovery of the
dog, he is either sent off to the country, or, perhaps, cautiously
exposed for sale in some distant quarter of the city, or perhaps killed
for his skin alone.

These gentry, however, prefer returning dogs to their owners for a
moderate compensation, as they thus know at what rate the animal is
valued, and cherish the hope of soon being able to steal him again, and
thus obtaining another reward.

There have been instances of a lady paying, in successive rewards, a sum
not less than fifteen guineas for a miserable little lap-dog not worth
as many shillings.

If anything is said about the law, or threats of prosecution held out in
the notice offering a reward for a "lost or stolen dog," the death of
the kidnapped animal is inevitable, as the "Fancy" prefer sacrificing an
occasional prize rather than run the risk of detection by some
enthusiastic or stubborn dog owner. These fellows, as well as thieves
generally, are said to have a method of quieting the fiercest watch-dogs
by throwing them a narcotic ball, which they call "puddening the
animal."

The following account, extracted from Hawker's work, will give the
American reader a 'perfect' insight into the maneuvering of these
sharpers.

  "In the month of May, 1830, Mr. Lang lost a favourite setter. He
  posted handbills offering two guineas reward; on hearing of which a
  man came and told him the reward was not enough, but that if he would
  make it four guineas he could find his dog, and the amount must be
  deposited in the hands of a landlord who would procure him a
  ticket-card. He should then be met to his appointment in some private
  field, where he would receive his dog on condition that no questions
  should be asked. Mr. Lang sent his shopman, about half-past ten at
  night, to White Conduit Fields to meet the parties, who, on receiving
  the ticket, delivered up the dog. But there was great hesitation in
  transacting this affair, in consequence of the dog having on a lock to
  a steel chain collar with Mr. Lang's name, and which, therefore,
  induced them to proceed with extreme caution, through fear, as they
  supposed, of detection for felony. The whole amount paid for
  recovering this setter was £4 17s., £2 10s. of which went to the men
  who had him. The rest was divided among others of the "Fancy". The
  same person who gave Mr. Lang the information, said that if ever he
  lost a dog, and applied to him, he could undertake to get him back
  again within thirty-six hours, provided he would make it worth his
  while to do so; because all dogs taken by the "Fancy" are brought to
  their office and regularly booked by the secretary."
  ('Hawker on Shooting', p. 592.)--L.]



[Footnote 1: Plutarch relates that, at the theatre of Marcellus, a dog
was exhibited before the emperor Vespasian, so well instructed as to
exercise in every kind of dance. He afterwards feigned illness in a most
singular manner, so as to strike the spectators with astonishment. He
first exhibited various symptoms of pain; he then fell down as if dead,
and, afterwards seeming to revive, as if waking from a profound sleep,
and then sported about and showed various demonstrations of joy.]


[Footnote 2: Mr. Bishop, of Bond-street, has assured the public, that he
is able to prove that money has recently been extorted from the owners
of dogs by dog-stealers and their confederates, to the amount of more
than a thousand pounds. Surely this calls for the decided interposition
of the legislature. A strange case of atrocity and cruelty was related
by a gentleman to Mr. Bishop.

  "A young dog of mine," says he, "was lost in London, and, being aware
  that if a noise was made about it, a great price would be asked for
  it, I gave out that I wanted to purchase one: I was shown my own dog.
  I seized it; but there were several scoundrels present who professed
  to belong to it, and threatened to kill the dog if I did not pay for
  it. I proceeded to describe it as my own, stating that it had 'bad
  back or double teeth'. Judge of my surprise when, after great
  difficulty, and the dog crying greatly, its mouth was opened, and all
  the back teeth had been taken out! I paid two pounds for it before
  they would let me take it away; but, in consequence of the injuries it
  had received, it died a few days afterward."]



       *       *       *       *       *



INTRODUCTION TO CANINE PATHOLOGY.

BY THE EDITOR.


PREDISPOSITION TO, AND CAUSES OF, DISEASES IN DOGS.--THE
CLAIMS OF DOGS UPON US.


  "Unnumbered accidents and various ills
  Attend thy pack, hang hovering o'er their heads,
  And point the way that leads to death's dark cave.
  Short is their span, few at the date arrive
  Of ancient Argus, in old Homer's song
  So highly honour'd."


The dog from early youth, in fact oftentimes at the very period of
birth, is exposed to many dangerous and troublesome affections, the
result of causes not less complex and multifarious than those that exert
an influence over the human organization. Many diseases are the
consequence of their domesticity and the hereditary defects of their
progenitors, others are dependent upon accidental circumstances, bad
treatment, and improper nourishment. Not a few, however, of their most
mortal maladies are the production of contagion, infection, and other
like causes, all exercising a general tendency to disease difficult to
define and impossible to avoid.

Although every species of dog is more or less subject to certain
diseases peculiar to their race, those breeds of most value and more
particularly subservient to the will of man are liable to a greater
number of ills and casualties than other dogs, for the reason that they
are more frequently exposed to unnatural fatigue, extremes of heat and
cold, as also to the various dangers dependent upon the chase of wild
animals. Those diseases resulting from specific causes, either natural
to the race or artificially produced by the animal itself in a state of
morbid derangement, are most frequent and fatal, as witnessed in
distemper, rabies, mange, &c. The intimate connexion existing between
the diseases of our canine friends and those of the human race, as also
the strong similarity in the action of many drugs over the two systems,
render the study of one branch almost synonymous with that of the other.

A little attention, therefore, on the part of the physician will render
him quite familiar with and competent to relieve the many sufferings of
these our most faithful and grateful of companions, and at the same time
create an interest in a study that cannot fail to be productive of
pleasure as well as information.

This subject, though claiming the attention of many skilful and
intelligent persons in England and other countries, has scarce been
thought of among us, and the mere mention of an infirmary or hospital
for the accommodation of invalid dogs, would involuntarily create a
smile of incredulity or contempt upon the face of most of our
countrymen. Notwithstanding this display of ignorance and positive want
of humane feeling for animal suffering, or a just appreciation of canine
worth, we must beg leave to inform these unbelievers that such
institutions are quite numerous in many large cities of the old world;
and they must also learn that these institutions are conducted by
gentlemen of science upon a system not less regular and useful in this
particular branch, than similar establishments appropriated for the
relief of suffering humanity.

To these hospitals hundreds of valuable sick dogs are annually sent,
where they receive every attention, and are often snatched from the very
jaws of death, or prevented, when attacked by rabies or other frightful
affections, from doing mischief or propagating infection. Medicines the
most potent are administered to these interesting patients with the
utmost care, either as assuagers of temporary pain, or as remedial
agents in the cure of disease. Operations the most complex are performed
with the greatest skill, and every attention is bestowed upon these
invalids in their different wards, and no trouble is considered too
great to save the life and secure the services of a valuable and
faithful dog.

As we have no such establishments in this country, and but a few persons
upon whom we can rely for assistance in case of need, it behooves every
lover of the dog to make himself familiar with, and the mode of treating
the most prominent affections of these companions of our sports, and at
the same time acquire a knowledge of the operations of certain medicines
upon the system in a state of health or disease, so that our trusty
followers may not be left to the tender mercies and physicking
propensities of ignorant stablemen, or the officious intermeddling of
the "pill-directing horse doctor."

The necessity of resorting to the assistance of either one or the other
of these worthies is equally unfortunate, as the former will most
generally kill the patient by slow degrees in forcibly and largely
administering the two modern specifics for all canine affections, viz.:
"soap pills and flowers of sulphur." While the latter, more bold but not
less ignorant than the former, and his practice is perhaps the
preferable of the two evils, will murder the dog out-right by the free
exhibition of calomel, nux vomica and other deleterious substances, of
the operation of which he has but little knowledge or conception. This
latter system, as before said, is the most preferable, as its adoption
secures for our favourite a speedy termination of his sufferings, and
also relieves our own minds from a state of suspense that illustrates
too forcibly the remark, "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick."


REMEDIAL MEANS FOR THE CURE OF DISEASES.

There are but few remedies useful for the cure of diseases in the human
race that might not he employed by a skilful practitioner in overcoming
the same or different ailments in the dog. There are, however, several
drugs that cannot be used in the same proportions for the one as for the
other, without danger of producing fatal consequences, as instanced in
calomel, a medicine so often abused by those who pretend to a knowledge
of its administration in the maladies of dogs.

This article, though given with impunity to mankind in doses varying
from five grains to twenty grains, as also oftentimes administered to
horses in quantities three or four times as great, without any
appreciable effect, will not unfrequently, in minute doses of three
grains to four grains, produce the most violent symptoms in the
strongest dogs. We have seen severe vomiting and purging occasioned by
these small doses, and we once salivated a large mastiff by the
administration of two blue pills. It is thus that both the regular
physician, and even the veterinary surgeon, unacquainted with this
remarkable peculiarity, will make fatal mistakes; and how much oftener
must such blunders take place when we intrust our canine friends to the
care of stable-boys, or a "routine horse-doctor!"

Nux vomica, another medicine much used, and most important in the
treatment of all nervous affections, is particularly noxious to dogs
even in small quantities; a dose sufficient for a human subject under
some circumstances, would almost inevitably destroy the animal under the
same or analogous conditions.

A drachm of the powdered nux vomica is sufficient to destroy the largest
and most powerful dog, while a few grains will sometimes produce death
in a few minutes if administered to smaller animals.

We prescribed forty grains in a roll of butter for a worthless cur a
short time since, which, as expected, produced great anxiety, difficulty
of respiration, severe vomiting, tremors, spasmodic twitchings of the
muscles, convulsions, and ultimate death in the course of half an hour.
This powerful drug acts by causing a spasmodic stricture of the muscles
engaged in respiration, as no signs of inflammation are observable in
the stomach and other organs after death.

Spirits of turpentine, another remedy both simple and innocent in its
operations upon the human economy, and so frequently prescribed for the
expulsion of worms from the bowels, is a dangerous medicine for a dog,
and will often in very small quantities prove fatal.

Aloes, a medicine more extensively used in canine pathology than any
other in the materia medica, is also very peculiar in its operations
upon these animals, they being able to bear immense doses of it, in fact
quite sufficient to produce death if given to a hearty man.

Thus we might continue to enumerate other drugs which we have
ascertained, from practical observation as well as the experiments of
other, to exercise a peculiar action on the vital functions of the whole
canine race, quite at variance with that common to both man and the
other domestic animals.

In combating with the diseases of animals, the veterinary surgeon has
more to contend with than the regular physician, and, in fact, should
possess a knowledge and habit of observation even superior to the
former; although the responsibility of his calling, in a moral sense, is
much inferior to that of the other, as the importance of animal
existence, under no circumstances, can be placed in comparison with that
of human life: still acuteness of observation alone can direct him to
the main cause of suffering in the brute creation, as the animal, though
groaning under the most severe pains, cannot by any word of explanation
point out to us the seat, the probable cause, or peculiar
characteristics of such pain. We see that our dog is ill, he refuses his
food, retires gloomily to his house, looks sullen, breathes heavy, is no
longer delighted at our call. We cannot question him as to his feelings,
or ask him to point out the particular region of his sufferings; we
watch his motions, study his actions, and rely for our diagnosis upon
general symptoms deduced from close observation.

Besides these external ocular evidences of morbid action, we have, as in
the human subject, guides to direct us in forming a just opinion as to
the nature of a dog's indisposition.

The state of the circulation is the first thing that should command our
particular attention.

The pulse of dogs in health varies from one hundred to one hundred and
twenty strokes per minute, according to the size and peculiar
temperament of the animal, being more frequent in the small breeds.

The standard of the setter, pointer, hound, &c., may be stated at one
hundred and five.

The action of the heart may be felt by placing the hand immediately over
that organ, or applying the fingers to several points in the body and
limbs where the large arteries are somewhat superficial, as on the
inside of the fore-knee and the thigh of the hind-leg.

If the pulse in a state of rest exceeds the average standard in
frequency, regularity, and softness, and a general feeling of uneasiness
be present, together with reddened eyes, warm nose, and coated tongue,
we know at once that there is an unnatural derangement of the vital
functions, and that fever in some form is present. The next question to
determine is, upon what does this fever depend? whether it be
idiopathic, arising from morbific causes difficult to define, or whether
it be sympathetic, with some organic affection yet to be discovered.

The appearance of the tongue in canine diseases will often materially
assist us in forming a correct diagnosis; this organ in simple fever
loses its rose-colour and becomes pale and coated, the gums and fæces
also participate in this change.

If, however, the tongue be much furred, with a bright inflammatory
appearance around the edges, with high arterial excitement, and disgust
of food, with general anxiety and craving for water in small but
frequent quantities, inflammation of the stomach or bowels may be
suspected. If, on the other hand, the tongue remains brown and streaked,
with less action of the pulse, variable appetite and diminution of pain,
derangement of the liver may be apprehended.

If, in connection with some or all of the above symptoms, the breathing
be laboured and painful, with a disposition to remain in the erect or
sitting position, with great anxiety and general distress, we must look
to the pulmonic viscera as the seat of the disease.

Thus, by examining each and every individual symptom of disease, the
intelligent sportsman will soon be able to arrive at the proximate cause
of all this unnatural state of things, and then he will be competent to
administer such remedies as may seem most likely to afford relief.
Without these precautions, however, he would often be groping in the
dark, and, consequently, not unfrequently, apply those remedies more
calculated to aggravate than cure the malady.



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER VI.


DESCRIPTION OF THE SKELETON.

DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:--FITS; TURNSIDE, OR GIDDINESS, EPILEPSY;
CHOREA; RHEUMATISM AND PALSY.

[As with all the illustrations in this text, the canine skeleton and
legend to the diagram are displayed fully in the html version.]


DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

FITS

24th Feb. 1814.--A pug was accustomed to howl frequently when his young
master played on the flute. If the higher notes were sounded, he would
leap on his master's lap, look in his face, and howl vehemently. To-day
the young man purposely blew the shrillest sound that he could. The dog,
after howling three or four times, began to run round the room, and over
the tables and chairs, barking incessantly. This he continued more than
an hour.

When I saw him all consciousness of surrounding objects was gone. He was
still running feebly, but barking might and main.

I dashed a basin of cold water in his face, and he dropped as if he had
been shot. He lay motionless nearly a minute, and then began to struggle
and to bark; another cup of water was dashed in his face, and he lay
quite motionless during two minutes or more. In the mean time I had got
a grain each of calomel and tartar emetic, which I put on his tongue,
and washed it down with a little water. He began to recover, and again
began to yelp, although much softer; but, in about a quarter of an hour,
sickness commenced, and he ceased his noise. He vomited three or four
times, and lay frightened and quiet. A physic-ball was given him in the
evening, and on the following morning.

On the next day the young man put open the door, and sat himself down,
and began to prepare the flute; the dog was out in a moment, and did not
return during a couple of hours. On the following day he made his escape
again, and so the matter went on; but before the expiration of the week,
his master might play the flute if he pleased.


TURNSIDE, OR GIDDINESS.

This is a singular disease prevalent among cattle, but only occasionally
seen in the dog. He becomes listless, dull, off his food, and scarcely
recognises any surrounding object. He has no fit, but he wanders about
the room fur several hours at a time, generally or almost invariably in
the same direction, and with his head on one side. At first he carefully
avoids the objects that are in his way; but by degrees his mental
faculties become impaired; his sense of vision is confused or lost, and
he blunders against everything: in fact, if uninterrupted, he would
continue his strange perambulation incessantly, until he was fairly worn
out and died in convulsions.

I used to consider the complaint to be uniformly fatal. I have resorted
to every remedial measure that the case could suggest. I have bled, and
physicked and setoned, and blistered, and used the moxa; but all without
avail, for not in a single case did I save my patient.

No opportunity of 'post-mortem' examination was lost. In some cases I
have found spicula projecting from the inner plate of the skull, and
pressing upon or even penetrating the dura mater. I know not why the dog
should be more subject to these irregularities of cranial surface than
any of our other patients; but decidedly he is so, and where they have
pressed upon the brain, there has been injection of the membranes, and
sometimes effusion between them.

In some cases I have found effusion without this external pressure, and,
in some cases, but comparatively few, there has not been any perceptible
lesion. Hydatids have been found in the different passages leading to
the cranium, but they have not penetrated.

I used to recommend that the dog should be destroyed; but I met with two
or three favourable cases, and, after that, I determined to try every
measure that could possibly be serviceable. I bled, and physicked, and
inserted setons, and tried to prevent the utter exhaustion of the
animal. When he was unable longer to perform his circumvolutions, and
found that he was foiled, he laid himself down, and by degrees resumed
his former habits. He was sadly impatient and noisy; but in a few cases
he was cured.

[We have seen but two or three cases of this disease in dogs, are led to
believe that it is quite uncommon with our domestic animals. One case in
a valuable setter came on suddenly, and without any apparent cause
(except perhaps over-feeding), and terminated fatally in the course of a
few days.--L.]


EPILEPSY

in the dog assumes a most fatal character. It is an accompaniment, or a
consequence, of almost every other disease. When the puppy is undergoing
the process of dentition, the irritation produced by the pressure of the
tooth, as it penetrates the gum, leads on to epilepsy. When he is going
through the stages of distemper, with a very little bad treatment, or in
spite of the best, fits occur. The degree of intestinal irritation which
is caused by worms, is marked by an attack of epilepsy. If the usual
exercise be neglected for a few days, and the dog is taken out, and
suffered to range as he likes, the accumulation of excitability is
expended in a fit.

The dog is, without doubt, the most intellectual animal. He is the
companion and the friend of man: he exhibits, and is debased by some of
his vices; but, to a greater degree than many will allow, he exhibits
all the intelligence and the virtues of the biped. In proportion to his
bulk, the weight of his brain far exceeds that of any other
quadruped--the very smallest animals alone being excepted, in whom there
must be a certain accumulation of medullary matter in order to give
origin to the nerves of every system, as numerous in the minutest as in
him of greatest bulk.

As it has been said of the human being that great power and exertion of
the mental faculties are sometimes connected with a tendency to
epilepsy, and, as violent emotions of joy or of grief have been known to
be followed by it, I can readily account for its occurrence in the young
dog, when frightened at the chiding of his master, or by the dread of a
punishment which he was conscious that he had deserved. Then, too, I can
understand that, when breaking loose from long confinement, he ranges in
all the exuberance of joy; and especially when he flushes almost his
first covey, and the game falls dead before him, his mental powers are
quite overcome, and he falls into an epileptic fit.

The treatment of epilepsy in the dog is simple, yet often misunderstood.
It is connected with distemper in its early stage. It is the produce of
inflammation of the mucous passages generally, which an emetic and a
purgative will probably, by their direct medicinal effect, relieve, and
free the digestive passages from some source of irritation, and by their
mechanical action unburthen the respiratory ones.

When it is symptomatic of a weak state of the constitution, or connected
with the after stages of distemper, the emeto-purgative must be
succeeded by an anodyne, or, at least, by that which will strengthen,
but not irritate the patient.

A seton is an admirable auxiliary in epilepsy connected with distemper;
it is a counter-irritant and a derivative, and its effects are a
salutary discharge, under the influence of which inflammation elsewhere
will gradually abate.

I should, however, be cautious of bleeding in distemper fits. I should
be fearful of it even in an early stage, because I well know that the
acute form of that general mucous inflammation soon passes over, and is
succeeded by a debility, from the depression of which I cannot always
rouse my patient. When the fits proceed from dentition, I lance the
jaws, and give an emetic, and follow it up with cooling purgative
medicine. When they are caused by irregular and excessive exercise, I
open the bowels and make my exercise more regular and equable. When they
arise from excitation, I expose my patient more cautiously to the
influence of those things which make so much impression on his little
but susceptible mind.

If the fit has resisted other means, bleeding should be resorted to. A
fit in other animals is generally connected with dangerous determination
of blood to the head, and bleeding is imperative. A fit in the dog may
be the consequence of sudden surprise and irritation. If I had the means
I should see whether I could not break the charm; whether I could not
get rid of the disturbance, by suddenly affecting the nervous system,
and the system generally, in another way. I would seize him by the nape
of the neck, and, with all my force, dash a little cold water in his
face. The shock of this has often dispersed the epileptic agency, as it
were by magic. I would give an emeto-purgative; a grain or a grain and a
half of calomel and the same quantity of tartar emetic: I would soothe
and coax the poor animal. Then,--and if I saw it at the beginning, I
would do it early,--if the fit was more dependent upon, or was beginning
to be connected with, determination of blood to the head, and not on any
temporary cause of excitation or irritation, I would bleed freely from
the jugular.

The following singular case of epilepsy is narrated by M.W. Leblanc:

A dog of small size, three years old, was very subject to those
epileptic fits that are so frequent among dogs. After a considerable
period, the fits would cease, and the animal recover the appearance of
perfect health; but the more he advanced in age the more frequent were
the fits, which is contrary to that which usually happens.

The last fit was a very strong one, and was followed by peculiar
symptoms. The animal became dispirited. The eyes lost their usual lively
appearance, and the eyelids were often closed. The dog was very drowsy,
and, during sleep, there were observed, from time to time, spasmodic
movements, principally of the head and chest. 'He always lay down on the
left side'. When he walked, he had a marked propensity to turn to the
left.

M. Leblanc employed purgatives, a seton to the back part of the neck,
and the application of the cautery to the left side of the forehead; but
nothing would stop the progress of the disease, and he died in the
course of two months after the last fit. The nearer he approached his
end the smaller were the circles that he took; and, in the latter part
of his existence, he did little more than turn as if he were on a pivot,
and, when the time arrived that he could walk no more, he used to lay
himself down on the right side.

On the 'post-mortem' examination, a remarkable thickness of the meninges
was found on almost the whole of the left lobe of the brain. The dura
mater, the two leaves of the arachnoid membrane, and the pia mater did
not constitute more than one membrane of the usual thickness, and
presented a somewhat yellow colouring. The cerebral substance of the
left lobe appeared to be a little firmer than that of the right lobe.
The fissures of the cerebral devolutions were much less deep than those
of the other side The red vessels which ran in the fissures were of
smaller size, and in some places could scarcely be discovered.

[Confinement, over-feeding, blows on the head or spine, drying up of old
ulcers, repelling of cutaneous affections, or, in fact, anything that is
liable to derange the general health of the animal, will produce
epileptic fits.

We formerly had a beagle hound of very active temperament, which we were
necessarily obliged to keep much confined while in the city; and to
restrain her from running too wildly when taken into the streets, we
were in the habit of coupling her with a greyhound of much milder
disposition. Not being willing to submit lamely to this unpleasant check
upon her liberty, she was ever making fruitless attempts to escape,
either by thrusting herself forwards, or obstinately pulling backwards.
These efforts resulted on several occasions in fits, produced by
congestion of the brain, owing to the pressure of the collar on the
neck, thereby interrupting the circulation, and inducing an influx of
blood to those parts. We were ultimately obliged to abandon this method
of restraint, which nearly proved fatal to our much-admired beagle: she
being suddenly seized with one of these fits on a hot summer's day in
one of our principal thoroughfares, the crowd of ignorant bystanders
concluded it to be a case of rabies, and nothing but my taking her up in
my arms, and carrying her from the scene of action, saved her from
falling a victim to their ignorance.

If the disease appears dependent upon plethora the result of confinement
and gross living, the animal must be reduced by bleeding and purging,
low diet, and exercise. If, however, the malady proceeds from weakness,
as is sometimes the case in bitches while suckling a large litter, it
will be necessary to relieve her of some of the pups, and supply her
with the most nutritious diet, as also administer tonic balls; the
following will answer.

[Symbol: Rx]:   Extract of Gentian, Quassia, ââ (each) grs. V, made into
two pills, and one or two given morning and evening;

or,

[Symbol: Rx]:   Powdered Columbo. Carbonate of Iron, ââ, grs. V, made
into two pills, and one given morning and evening, or more frequently if
desirable.


A seton placed in the poll will often prevent these attacks,
particularly when depending upon slight cerebral irritation,
accompanying distemper and mange. Blisters and frictions to the spine
are also serviceable.--L.]


CHOREA.

This is an irregular reception or distribution of nervous power--a
convulsive involuntary twitching of some muscle or set of muscles. It is
an occasional consequence of distemper that has been unusually severe or
imperfectly treated, and sometimes it is seen even after that disease
has existed in its mildest form.

[This nervous affection, more commonly known as St. Vitus' dance, is not
a rare disease, and we doubt not that examples of it have been seen by
most of our readers, more particularly in young dogs affected with
distemper.

This malady is characterized by sudden involuntary twitchings of the
different muscles of the body, the disease being sometimes confined to
one limb, sometimes to two, and frequently pervades the whole system,
giving the dog a distressing and painful appearance. These involuntary
motions, it is very true, are generally restricted during sleep,
although in old chronic cases of long standing they often continue in
full activity without any remission whatever. The disease is not
attended with fever, and all the functions generally remain for a
considerable time unimpaired.--L.]

It first appears in one leg or shoulder, and is long, or perhaps
entirely, confined to that limb. There is a singular spasmodic jerking
action of the limb. It looks like a series of pulsations, and averages
from forty to sixty in a minute. Oftener, perhaps, than otherwise, both
legs are similarly affected. When the animal is lying down, the legs are
convulsed in the way that I have described, and when he stands there is
a pulsating depressing or sinking of the head and neck. In some cases,
the muscles of the neck are the principal seat of the disease, or some
muscle of the face; the temporal muscle beating like an artery; the
masseter opening and closing the mouth, the muscles of the eyelid, and,
in a few cases, those of the eye itself being affected. These convulsive
movements generally, yet not uniformly, cease during sleep, but that
sleep is often very much disturbed. If the case is neglected, and the
dog is in a debilitated state, this spasmodic action steals over the
whole frame, and he lies extended with every limb in constant and
spasmodic action.

In the majority of cases, such an expenditure of nervous and muscular
power slowly destroys the strength of the animal, and he dies a mere
skeleton; or the disease assumes the character of epilepsy, or it quiets
down into true palsy.

In the most favourable cases, no curative means having been used, the
dog regains his flesh and general strength; but the chorea continues,
the spasmodic action, however, being much lessened. At other times, it
seems to have disappeared; but it is ready to return when the animal is
excited or attacked by other disease. In a variety of instances, there
is the irritable temper which accompanies chorea in the human being, and
most certainly when the disease has been extensive and confirmed.

Chorea, neglected or improperly treated, or too frequently pursuing its
natural course, degenerates into paralysis agitans. There is a tremulous
or violent motion of almost every limb. The spasms are not relaxed, but
are even increased during sleep, and when the animal awakes, he rises
with agitation and alarm. There is not a limb under the perfect control
of the will; there is not a moment's respite; the constitution soon
sinks, and the animal dies. No person should be induced to undertake the
cure of such a case: the owner should be persuaded to permit a speedy
termination to a life which no skill can render comfortable.

Chorea is oftenest observed in young dogs, and especially after
distemper; and it seems to depend on a certain degree of primary or
sympathetic inflammatory affection of the brain.

Chorea is often very plainly a consequence of debility: either the
distribution of nervous power is irregular, or the muscles have lost
their power of being readily acted upon, or have acquired a state of
morbid irritability. The latter is the most frequent state. Their action
is irregular and spasmodic, and it resembles the struggles of expiring
nature far more than the great and uniform action of health. It is not
the chorea that used to be described, in which there was an irresistible
impulse to excessive action, and which was best combated by complete
muscular exhaustion; but the foundation of this disease is palpable
debility.

[Rickets, bad feeding, cold and damp housing, worms in the alimentary
canal, mange, and other chronic affections, are all forerunners of this
malady.--L.]

In the treatment of chorea there must be no bleeding, no excessive
purgation, but aperients or alteratives, merely sufficient to keep the
fæces in a pultaceous state, so as to carry off any source of irritation
to the intestinal canal, and particularly some species of worms, too
frequent sources of irritation there. To these should be added
nutritious food, gentle exercise, tonic medicines, and general comforts.
Counter-irritants may be applied--such as blisters over the head, and
setons, extending from poll to poll--the application of turpentine, or
the tincture of cantharides; but all of these will frequently be of no
effect, and occasionally a rapid and fearful increase of irritability
will ensue: antispasmodics are in this case of no use, and narcotics are
altogether powerless. As for tonics, iron and gentian have been
serviceable to a certain extent, but they have never cured the
complaint. The nitrate of silver will be the sheet-anchor of the
practitioner, and if early used will seldom deceive him. It should be
combined with ginger, and given morning and night, in doses varying from
one-sixth to one-third of a grain, according to the size of the dog.

The condition and strength of the dog, and the season of the year, will
be our best guides. If the patient has not lost much flesh, and is not
losing it at the time that we have to do with him, and has few symptoms
of general debility, and spring or summer are approaching we may with
tolerable confidence predict a cure; but, if he has been rapidly losing
ground, and is doing so still, and staggers about and falls, there is no
medicine that will restore him.

5th October, 1840.--A pointer, eighteen months old, had had the
distemper, but not severely, and was apparently recovering when he
suddenly lost all voluntary power over his limbs. He was unable to get
up, and his legs were in constant, rapid, and violent motion. This
continued three days, during which he had refused all food, when, the
dog being in the country, my advice was asked. I ordered a strong emetic
to be given to him, and after that a dose of Epsom salts, the insertion
of a seton, and, in addition to this, our usual tonic was to be given
twice every day. His food to consist chiefly of good strong soup, which
was to be forced upon him in a sufficient quantity.

In two days he was able to get up and stagger about, although frequently
falling. His appetite returned. He continued to improve, and most
rapidly gained strength and especially flesh. A very peculiar,
high-lifting, clambering, and uncertain motion of the legs remained,
with an apparent defect of sight, for he ran against almost everything.

In six weeks the seton was removed, and the dog remained in the same
state until the 7th of December. The uncertain clambering motion was now
increasing, and likewise the defect of sight. He ran against almost
every person and every thing. The cornea was transparent, the iris
contracted, there was no opacity of the lens, or pink tint of the
retina, but a peculiar glassy appearance, as unconscious of everything
around it. An emetic was given, and, after that, an ounce of sulphate of
magnesia.

8th. He was dreadfully ill after taking the salts; perhaps they were not
genuine. For two days he panted sadly, refused his food, and vomited
that which was forced upon him. His muzzle was hot; he could scarcely
stand; he lost flesh very rapidly. An emetic was given immediately, and
a distemper-ball daily.

16th. He soon began rapidly to recover, until he was in nearly the same
state as before, except that the sight was apparently more deficient.
The sulphate of magnesia was given every fourth day, and another seton
inserted.

21st. He continued the medicine, and evidently improved, the sight
returning, and the spasms being considerably less. The distemper-ball
was continued.

4th January, 1841.--The spasms were better; but the vision did not
improve. In the afternoon he fell into a momentary fit. He almost
immediately rose again, and proceeded as if nothing had happened.  An
ounce of Epson salts was given, and then the tonic balls as before.

22d. The spasms were lessened, the clambering gait nearly ceased, but
the vision was not improved. The seton was removed, and only an
additional dose of salts given.

27th. The spasms suddenly and very considerably increased. The left side
appeared now to be particularly affected. The left leg before and behind
were most spasmed, the right scarcely at all so. The vision of the left
eye was quite gone. The dog had been taken to Mr. Alexander's, the
oculist, who attributed the affection of the eye and the general
spasmodic disease to some pressure on the brain, and recommended the
trial of copious and repeated bleeding.

28th. The dog was dull; the spasms appeared to have somewhat increased
and decidedly to affect the left side. Fever-balls were ordered to be
given.

29th. Considerable change took place. At three o'clock this morning I
was disturbed by a noise in the hospital. The poor fellow was in a
violent fit. Water was dashed in his face, and a strong emetic given;
but it was not until seven o'clock that the fit had ceased; he lay until
eleven o'clock, when the involuntary spasms were almost suspended. When
he was placed on his feet, he immediately fell; he then gradually
revived and staggered about. His master brought a physician to see him,
who adopted Mr. Alexander's idea and urged bleeding. Ten ounces of blood
were immediately taken; the dog refused to eat.

1st February.--The strength of the animal was not impaired, but the
spasms were more violent, and he lay or wandered about stupid and almost
unconscious. I subtracted eight ounces more of blood.

2d. The spasms were fully as violent, and no amendment in the vision.
Eight ounces more of blood were subtracted without benefit. A fever-ball
was ordered to be given.

3d. No amendment; but the bleeding having been carried to its full
extent, I again resorted to the tonic balls, which were given morning
and night. The dog was well fed and the seton replaced.

5th. A very considerable amendment is evident.

9th. The spasms rapidly subsided and almost disappeared. Vision was not
perfectly restored; but the dog evidently saw with his left eye. He was
taken away, and tonic balls sent with him and ordered to be continued.

6th March.--The dog had improved in strength and no spasmodic affection
remained; he likewise evidently saw with his left eye. The tonic-balls
had been discontinued for a week, and his master hoped that all would
turn out well, when suddenly, while at home, he was seized with a fit
that lasted ten minutes. A strong emetic was given, which brought up a
vast quantity of undigested food. A strong purging-ball was given to him
in the evening.

13th. The dog had lain slightly spasmed for two or three days, when they
all at once ceased, and the animal appeared as well as before. Suddenly
he was taken with another fit, and again a vast quantity of food was
vomited. These spasms remained two days, but on the 21st the fit
returned with the same discharge of food. Courses of purgatives were
then determined on. A strong dose of sulphate of magnesia was given
every third day. After four doses had been given, it was impossible to
force any more upon him. The syrup of buckthorn was tried, but the
fourth dose of that it was impossible to give. The dog was then sent
into the country; no fit occurred, but there were occasional spasms.

23d September.--He was brought back to town, and I saw him. During the
last month he had had many fits. His owner at length consented that the
actual cautery should be applied to his head. The searing-iron for
doctoring was used, and applied red-hot to the centre of the head. It
was exceedingly difficult so to confine the dog as to make the
application effectual, without destroying the skin.

Under the influence of the sudden violent pain, he wandered about for
more than two hours, and then the spasms returned with greater force
than usual. He refused all food.

We determined to try the cautery to its full extent. We chained him up
in the morning, and penetrated through the skin with the budding-iron.
The spasms were dreadfully violent, and he was scarcely able to walk or
to stand. This gradually subsided, and then he began to run round and
round, and that increased to an extraordinary velocity: he would then
lie for a while with every limb in action. The owner then yielded to all
our wishes, and he was destroyed with prussic acid. No morbid appearance
presented itself in the brain; but, on the inner plate of the right
parietal bone, near the sagittal suture, were two projections, one-sixth
of an inch in length, and armed with numerous minute spicula. There was
no peculiar inflammation or vascularity of any other part of the brain.

[We once cured a case quite accidentally, by throwing a pup into a cold
stream of water, and making him swim ashore; we do not recommend the
plan, although we should be willing to try it again with one of our own
dogs. The animal should be forced to swim till nearly exhausted, and
wrapped up in blankets on coming out of the water. The intense alarm
created in the pup, together with the violent struggle and coldness of
the water, all act as revulsives to the disease, which, if purely
nervous, may be overcome by these powerful agents.

If the dog be weak, and the stomach deranged, the following tonic balls
will answer a good purpose:


[Symbol: Rx]: Carbonate of Iron.

Ground Ginger, ââ, grs. X, made into two pills, one given morning and
evening, or more frequently according to the age or size of the
animal.--L.]


RHEUMATISM AND PALSY.

I do not know any animal so subject to 'rheumatism' as the dog, nor any
one in which, if it is early and properly treated, it is so manageable.

[We agree with our author, that the canine family are exceedingly liable
to inflammation of the fibrous and muscular structures of the body, and
there is no disease from which they suffer more, both in their youth and
old age, than rheumatism. No particular species of dogs are more subject
to its attacks than others, all being alike victims to its ravages. Mr.
Blaine remarks, that the bowels always sympathize with other parts of
the body suffering under this disease, and that inflammation will always
be found existing in the abdominal viscera, if rheumatism be present,
and the lower bowels will be attended with a painful torpor, which he
designates as rheumatic colic. We ourselves noticed, that old setters
particularly, when suffering from this disease, are frequently attacked
with an acute diarrhoea, or suffer from obstinate constipation attended
by griping pains, but did not know that this state of things was so
uniform an accompaniment to the other affection. There are two varieties
of rheumatism, the 'acute' and 'chronic', both of which are attended
with either general fever or local inflammation. The attacks usually
come on rather suddenly, the joints swell, the pulse becomes full and
tense, the parts tender, and the eyes blood-shot, the stomach deranged,
and the bowels costive. Severe lancinating pain runs through the
articulation, and along the course of the larger muscles, the tongue is
coated, the muzzle hot and dry, and the poor animal howls with agony.
The breathing becomes laboured, all food is rejected, and if you attempt
to move the sufferer he sends forth piteous cries of distress. 'The
causes' of this serious affection are very numerous; among the most
usual and active agents may be enumerated, exposure to atmospherical
vicissitudes, remaining wet and idle after coming from the water, damp
kennels, suppressed perspiration, metastasis of eruptive diseases,
luxurious living, laziness and over-feeding. These and many other causes
are all busy in the production of this disease. Duck dogs on the
Chesapeake, we have noticed as often suffering from this affection,
owing no doubt to the great exposure they are obliged to endure; but few
of them arrive at old age without being martyrs to the chronic form.
'Chronic rheumatism', generally the result of the other form of disease,
is most usually met with in old dogs: it is attended with little fever,
although the local inflammation and swelling is sometimes considerable.
The pain is often stationary in one shoulder or loin, at other times
shifts about suddenly to other portions of the body. The muscles are
tender and the joints stiff, the animal seems lame till he becomes
healed, and limber when all appearance of the disease vanishes. In old
cases the limbs become so much enlarged, and the joints so swollen, that
the dog is rendered perfectly useless, and consequently increases his
sufferings by idleness. 'This form of the disease is known as gout.'

Treatment of 'acute rheumatism'--bleeding largely is very important in
this affection, and if followed up with two or three purges of aloes,
gamboge, colocynth and calomel will arrest the progress of this disease.

Rx.   Extract of Colocynth 3           [Symbol: scruple] i.
      Calomel                           grs. x.
      Powdered Gamboge                  grs. ii.
      Socet. Aloes                      grs. x.

Made into four pills, two to be given at night, and the other the
following morning. If these medicines should not be handy, give a large
purging ball of aloes, to be followed by a full dose of salts. When the
inflammatory action is not sufficiently high to demand depletion, warm
bathing, friction and keeping the dog wrapped up in blankets before a
fire will generally afford relief. If the pain appear very severe, it
will be necessary to repeat the baths at short intervals: great
attention must be paid to the state of the bowels: if a diarrhoea
supervenes, it must not he checked too suddenly, by the use of
astringent medicines, but rather corrected by small doses of oil and
magnesia. If constipation attended with colic be the character of the
affection, small quantities of oil and turpentine in connexion with warm
enemata will be the proper remedies. If paralysis should occur, it will
be found very difficult to overcome, but must be treated, after the
reduction of inflammation, upon principles laid down under the head of
this latter affection. Blisters to the spine, setons, electricity,
acupuncturation, &c.

'Treatment of chronic rheumatism'--warm baths are useful, and warm
housing absolutely necessary, attention to diet, and an occasional purge
of blue mass and aloes, together with electricity, acupuncture,
rubefacient applications to the spine, &c.--L.]

A warm bath--perchance a bleeding--a dose or two of the castor-oil
mixture, and an embrocation composed of spirit of turpentine, hartshorn,
camphorated spirit, and laudanum, will usually remove it in two or three
days, unless it is complicated with muscular sprains, or other lesions,
such as the 'chest-founder' of kennels.

This chest-founder is a singular complaint, and often a pest in kennels
that are built in low situations, and where bad management prevails.
Where the huntsman or whippers-in are too often in a hurry to get home,
and turn their dogs into the kennel panting and hot; where the beds are
not far enough from the floor, or the building, if it should be in a
sufficiently elevated situation, has yet a northern aspect and is
unsheltered from the blast, chest-founder prevails; and I have known
half the pack affected by it after a severe run, the scent breast-high,
and the morning unusually cold. It even occasionally passes on into
palsy.

The veterinary surgeon will be sometimes consulted respecting this
provoking muscular affection. His advice will comprise--dryness,
attention to the bowels, attention to the exercise-ground, and perhaps,
occasionally, setons--not where the huntsman generally places them, on
the withers above, but on the brisket below, and defended from the teeth
of the dog by a roller of a very simple construction, passing round the
chest between the fore legs and over the front of the shoulders on
either side.

The pointer, somewhat too heavy before, and hardly worked, becomes what
is called chest-foundered. From his very make it is evident that, in
long-continued and considerable exertion, the subscapular muscles will
be liable to sprain and inflammation. There will be inflammation of the
fasciæ, induration, loss of power, loss of nervous influence and palsy.
Cattle, driven far and fast to the market, suffer from the same causes.

[By palsy, we mean a partial or complete loss of the powers of motion or
sensation in some portion of the muscular system: this affection is very
common to the canine race, and very few of them reach an advanced age
without having at some time in their life experienced an attack of this
malady.

The loins and hind legs suffer oftener than other parts, in fact we do
not recollect ever meeting with paralysis of the fore limbs alone.
Although the limbs become perfectly powerless, and are only dragged
after the animal by the combined efforts of the fore legs and back, it
is seldom that they lose their sensibility.--L.]

Palsy is frequent, as in the dog. However easy it may be to subdue a
rheumatic affection, in its early stage, by prompt attention, yet if it
is neglected, it very soon simulates, or becomes essentially connected
with, or converted into, palsy.

No animal presents a more striking illustration of the connexion between
intestinal irritation and palsy than the dog. He rarely or never has
enteritis, even in its mildest form, without some loss of power over the
hinder extremities. This may at first arise from the participation of
the lumbar muscles with the intestinal irritation; but, if the disease
of the bowels continues long, it will be evident enough that it is not
pain alone that produces the constrained and incomplete action of the
muscles of the hind extremities, but that there is an actual loss of
nervous power. A dog is often brought to the veterinary surgeon, with no
apparent disease about him except a staggering walk from weakness of the
hind limbs. He eats well and is cheerful, and his muzzle is moist and
cool; but his belly is tucked up, and there are two longitudinal cords,
running parallel to each other, which will scarcely yield to pressure.
The surgeon orders the castor-oil mixture twice or thrice daily, until
the bowels are well acted upon, and, as soon as that is accomplished,
the dog is as strong and as well as ever. Perhaps his hind limbs are
dragged behind him; a warm bath is ordered, he is dosed well with the
castor-oil mixture, and, if it is a recent case, the animal is well in a
few days. In more confirmed palsy, the charge, or plaster on the loins,
is added to the action of the aperient on the bowels. The process may be
somewhat slow, but it is seldom that the dog does not ultimately and
perfectly recover.

It is easy to explain this connexion, although we should have scarcely
supposed that it would have been so intimate, had not frequent
experience forced it on our observation. The rectum passes through the
pelvis. Whatever may be said of that intestine, considering its vertical
position in the human being, it is always charged with fæces in the
quadruped. It therefore shares more in the effect, whatever that may be,
which is produced by the retention of fæces in the intestinal canal, and
it shares also in the inflammatory affection of other parts of the
canal. Almost in contact with this viscus, or at least passing through
the pelvis, are the crural nerves from the lumbar vertebræ, the
obtusator running round the rim of the pelvis, the glutal nerve
occupying its back, and the sciatic hastening to escape from it. It is
not difficult to imagine that these, to a certain degree, will
sympathize with the healthy and also the morbid state of the rectum; and
that, when it is inert, or asleep, or diseased, they also may be
powerless too. Here is something like fact to establish a very important
theory, and which should be deeply considered by the sportsman and the
surgeon.

[Loss of the contractile power of the sphincters of the bladder and
rectum, sometimes attends this disease, and involuntary evacuations are
constantly taking place, or costiveness and retention are the
consequences.--L.]

Mr. Dupuy has given a valuable account of the knowledge we possess of
the diseases of the spinal marrow in our domestic quadrupeds.

He has proved:

1. That in our domestic animals the spinal marrow is scarcely ever
affected through the whole of its course.

2. That the dorsal and lumbar regions are the parts oftenest affected.

3. That inflammation of the spinal marrow of these regions always
produces palsy, more or less complete, of the abdominal members.

4. That, in some cases, this inflammation is limited to the inferior or
superior parts of the spinal marrow, and that there is loss only of
feeling or of motion.

5. That sometimes animals die of palsy without any organic lesion.

[Blows on the head, producing effusion on the brain, poisoning by lead,
inflammation of the spinal marrow, affections of the nerves, caries of
the spine, costiveness and affections of the bowels, are all productive
of palsy. If the disease proceeds from rheumatism, or other inflammatory
affections, independent of any organic lesion, the disease, if taken
early, is not difficult to overcome in the young subject. Warm baths,
bleeding, purging, and stimulating applications to the parts and along
the spine, will answer. Castor oil and turpentine is a good purge: where
the malady depends upon costiveness, purges of aloes should be
administered in connexion with warm enemata, stimulating frictions along
the spine, and hot baths. Croton oil dropped on the tongue will also be
of great benefit: if there should be effusion or compression from
fracture of the bones of the cranium, nothing but trephining will be of
any service, as we can hardly hope for the absorption of the matter, and
the removal of the spicula of bone can alone afford relief to the
patient. Paralysis arising from poisoning should be treated as described
under the head of mineral poisons. Chronic cases of paralysis arising
from want of tone of the nerves and spinal marrow, repeated blistering,
introduction of the seton along the spine, electricity, &c., have all
been tried with some success.

Strychnia, from its peculiar effects upon the animal economy, and its
almost exclusive direction to the nerves of motion, makes it a medicine
particularly applicable to the treatment of this disease. It may be
given in all stages of the malady, but is most serviceable after the
reduction of inflammatory action, and when we are convinced that the
disease depends upon want of tone in the motor muscles.

Great care should be had in its administration, as it is a powerful
poison in too large doses, to a large dog; commence with a quarter of a
grain in pill, three times daily, and gradually increase to a half grain
or more if the animal seems to bear it well. But it should be
discontinued immediately on the appearance of any constitutional
symptoms, such as spasmodic twitchings of the eyelids or muzzle.--L.]


PALSY--MANGE

11th February, 1835.--A Persian bitch, at the Zoological Gardens, who
was well yesterday, now staggers as she walks, and has nearly lost the
use of her hind legs. Gave a good dose of the castor-oil mixture.

18th. She is materially worse and drags her hind legs after her. I would
fain put on a charge, but the keeper does not like that her beautiful
coat should be spoiled, and wishes to try what gentle exercise will do.
She certainly, after she has been coaxed a great deal, will get on her
legs and stagger on fifty yards or more. Gave the castor-oil mixture
daily.

19th. She is a little stronger, and walks a little better. Continue the
mixture. Embrocate well with the rheumatic mixture--sp. tereb., sp.
camph., liq. ammon., et tinct. opii--and give gentle exercise.

2d March.--She does improve, although slowly; the charge is therefore
postponed. Continue treatment.

30th. She is considerably better. Continue the mixture, and use the
embrocation every second day.

10th April--She has mange in the bend of her arm, and on her chest. Use
the sulphur ointment and alterative balls, and omit the embrocation and
mixture. In less than a week she nearly recovered from her lameness, and
ran about almost as well as ever.

30th. She runs about very fairly, but the mange has assumed that
character of scurvy which I do not know how to grapple with. Continue
the alterative balls, and the ointment.

18th May.--The mange has disappeared, but the palsy is returning; she
staggers slightly, and droops behind. Give the castor-oil mixture and
use the embrocation.

14th June.--Mange quite gone, but palsy continues to a very considerable
degree. I want to use the plaster; but the keeper pleads for a little
delay. Continue the treatment.

1st July.--I have at length determined to have recourse to the charge. A
piece of thick sheep's leather was fitted lo her loins and haunches.
18th. She appears to be improving, but it is very slowly.

31st. Very little change. The plaster keeps on well: she has no power
over her hind limbs; but she eats and drinks as well as ever.

23d August.--No change. Give her half a grain of strychnia, morning and
night.

26th That singular secretion of milk, to which the bitch is subject nine
weeks after oestrum, is now appearing. Her mammæ are enlarged, and I
can squeeze a considerable quantity of milk out of the teats. Give an
aloetic pill, and continue the strychnia.

31st. The secretion of milk continues. There is slight enlargement and
some heat of the mammæ; but she feeds as well as ever. Increase the
dose of strychnia to three-quarters of a grain.

On the following day she was found dead. In making the usual
longitudinal incision through the integuments of the abdomen a
considerable quantity of milky fluid, mingled with blood, followed the
knife. There was very slight enlargement of the teats, but intense
inflammation of the whole of the mammary substance. The omentum, and
particularly the portion opposite to the external disease, was also
inflamed. Besides this there was not a vestige of disease.

This is an interesting case and deserves record. I fear that justice was
not done to the animal at the commencement of the paralytic affection.
In nineteen cases out of twenty in the dog, the constant but mild
stimulus of a charge over the lumbar and sacral regions removes the
deeper-seated inflammation of the spinal cord or its membranes, when the
palsy is confined to the hind extremities, and has not been sufficiently
long established to produce serious change of structure. The charge
should have been applied at first. The almost total disappearance of the
palsy during the cutaneous disease, which was attended with more than
usual inflammation of the integument, is an instructive illustration of
the power of counter-irritation, and of what might possibly have been
effected in the first case; for much time was lost before the
application of the charge, and when at length it was applied, it and the
strychnia were powerless.

I consider the following case as exceedingly valuable, at least with
reference to the power of strychnia in removing palsy:--

19th August, 1836.--A fine Alpine dog was suddenly attacked with a
strange nervous affection. He was continually staggering about and
falling. His head was forcibly bent backward and a little on one side,
almost to his shoulder. A pound of blood was abstracted, a seton
inserted from ear to ear, and eight grains of calomel administered.

21st. He has perfectly lost the use of every limb. He has also
amaurosis. perfect blindness, which had not appeared the day before. He
hears perfectly, and he eats, and with appetite, when the food is put
into his mouth. Gave him two large spoonfuls of the castor-oil mixture
daily; this consists of three parts of castor-oil, two of syrup of
buck-thorn, and one of syrup of white poppies.

23d. A little better; can lift his head and throw it upon his side, and
will still eat when fed. Continue the mixture, and give half a grain of
strychnia daily.

24th. Little change.

27th. No change, except that he is rapidly losing flesh. Continue the
treatment.

31th. The strychnia increased to three-fourths of a grain morning and
night. The castor-oil mixture continued in its full quantity.  He was
fed well, but there was a sunken, vacant expression of countenance.

2d September.--He can move his head a little, and has some slight motion
in his limbs.

4th. He can almost get up. He recognises me for the first time. His
appetite, which was never much impaired, has returned: this is to be
attributed to strychnia, or the seton, or the daily aperient mixture.
They have all, perhaps, been serviceable, but I attribute most to the
strychnia; for I have rarely, indeed, seen any dog recover from such an
attack. Continue the treatment.

6th. Fast recovering. Medicine as before.

14th. Improving, but not so fast as before. Still continue the
treatment.

28th. Going on slowly, but satisfactorily. Remove the seton, but
continue the other treatment.

13th October.--Quite well.



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER VII.

RABIES.

We are now arrived at one of the most important subjects in veterinary
pathology. In other cases the comfort and the existence of our quadruped
patients are alone or chiefly involved, but here the lives of our
employers, and our own too, are at stake, and may be easily, and too
often are, compromised. Here also, however other portions of the chain
may be overlooked or denied, we have the link which most of all connects
the veterinary surgeon with the practitioner of human medicine; or,
rather, here is the circumscribed but valued spot where the veterinary
surgeon has the vantage-ground.

In describing the nature, and cause and treatment of rabies, it will be
most natural to take the animal in which it oftenest appears, by which
it is most frequently propagated; the time at which the danger
commences, and the usual period before the death of the patient.

Some years ago a dog, naturally ferocious, bit a child at Lisson Grove.
The child, to all appearance previously well, died on the third day, and
an inquest was to be held on the body in the evening. The Coroner
ordered the dog to be sent to me for examination The animal was,
contrary to his usual habit, perfectly tractable. This will appear to be
of some importance hereafter. I examined him carefully. No suspicious
circumstance could be found about him. There was no appearance of
rabies. In the mean time the inquest took place, and the corpse of the
child was carefully examined. One medical gentleman thought that there
were some suspicious appearances about the stomach, and another believed
that there was congestion of the brain.

The owner of the dog begged that the animal might not be taken from him,
but might accompany him home. He took him home and destroyed him that no
experiments might be made.

With great difficulty we procured the carcass, and from some
inflammatory appearances about the tongue and the stomach, and the
presence of a small portion of indigestible matter in the stomach, we
were unanimously of opinion that the dog was rabid.

I do not mean to say that the child died hydrophobous, or that its death
was accelerated by the nascent disease existing in the dog. There was
probably some nervous affection that hastened the death of the infant,
and the dog bit the child at the very period when the malady first began
to develop itself. On the following day there were morbid lesions enough
to prove beyond doubt that he was rabid.

This case is introduced because I used afterwards to accompany every
examination of supposed or doubtful rabies with greater caution than I
probably had previously used.

It is occasionally very difficult to detect the existence of rabies in
its nascent state. In the year 1813, a child attempted to rob a dog of
its morning food, and the animal resisting the theft, the child was
slightly scratched by its teeth. No one dreamed of danger. Eight days
afterwards symptoms of rabies appeared in the dog, the malady ran its
course, and the animal died. A few days afterwards the child
sickened--undoubted characteristics of rabies were observed--they ran
their course and the infant was lost.

There are other cases--fortunately not numerous--in the records of human
surgery, resembling this. A person has been bitten by a dog, he has paid
little or no attention to it, and no application of the caustic has been
made. Some weeks, or even months, have passed, he has nearly or quite
forgotten the affair, when he becomes languid and feverish, and full of
fearful apprehensions, and this appearing perhaps during several days,
or more than a week. The empoisonment has then ceased to be a local
affair, the virus has entered into the circulation, and its impression
is made on the constitution generally. Fortunately the disposition to
bite rarely develops itself until the full establishment of the disease,
otherwise we might sometimes inquire whether it were not our duty to
exterminate the whole race of dogs.

The following case deserves to be recorded. On the 21st of October,
1813, a dog was brought to me for examination. He had vomited a
considerable quantity of coagulated blood. I happened to be particularly
busy at the moment, and not observing anything peculiar in his
countenance or manner, I ordered some astringent sedative medicine, and
said that I would see him again in the afternoon.

In the course of the afternoon he was again brought. The vomiting had
quite ceased. His mouth seemed to be swollen, and, on examining him, I
found that some of his incisor teeth, both in the upper and lower jaw,
had been torn out. This somewhat alarmed me; and, on inquiring of the
servant, I was told that he suspected that they had had thieves about
the house on the preceding night, for the dog had torn away the side of
his kennel in attempting to get at them. I scolded him for not having
told me of this in the morning; and then, talking of various things, in
order to prolong the time and to be able closely to watch my patient, I
saw, or thought I saw, but in a very slight degree, that the animal was
tracing the fancied path of some imaginary object. I was then truly
alarmed, and more especially since I had discovered that in the giving
of the physic in the morning the man's hand had been scratched; a youth
had suffered the dog to lick his sore finger, and the animal had also
been observed to lick the sore ear of an infant. He was a remarkably
affectionate dog, and was accustomed to this abominable and inexcusable
nonsense.

I insisted on detaining the dog, and gave the man a letter to the
surgeon, telling him all my fears. He promptly acted on the hint, and
before evening, the proper means were taken with regard to all three.

I watched this dog day after day. He would not eat, but he drank a great
deal more water than I liked. The surgeon was evidently beginning to
doubt whether I was not wrong, but he could not dispute the occasional
wandering of the eye, and the frequent spume upon the water. On the 26th
of October, however, the sixth day after his arrival, we both of us
heard the rabid howl burst from him: he did not, however, die until the
30th. I mention this as another instance of the great difficulty there
is to determine the real nature of the case in an early stage of the
disease.

M. Perquin relates an interesting case. A lady had a greyhound, nine
years old, that was accustomed to lie upon her bed at night, and cover
himself with the bed-clothes. She remarked, one morning, that he had
torn the covering of his bed, and, although he ate but little, drank
oftener, and in larger quantity, than he was accustomed to do. She led
him to a veterinary surgeon, who assured her that there was nothing
serious the matter. On the following day, he bit her fore-finger near
the nail, as she was giving him something to eat. She led him again to
the veterinary surgeon, who assured her that she needed not to be under
the least alarm, and as for the little wound on her finger, it was of no
consequence. On the following day, the 27th of December, the dog died.
He had not ceased to drink most abundantly to the very last.

On the 4th of February, as the lady was dining with her husband, she
found some difficulty in deglutition. She wished to take some wine, but
was unable to swallow it.

On the 5th, she consulted a surgeon. He wished her to swallow a little
soup in his presence. She attempted to do it, but could not accomplish
her object after many an effort. She then fell into a state of violent
agitation, with constriction of the pharynx, and the discharge of a
viscid fluid from the mouth.

On the 7th, she died, four days after the first attack of the disease,
and in a state of excessive loss of flesh.

There can be no doubt that both the dog and his mistress died rabid, the
former having communicated the disease to the latter; but there is no
satisfactory account of the manner in which the dog became diseased. [1]

Joseph Delmaire, of Looberghe, twenty-nine years old, was, on the 6th of
October, 1836, bitten in the hand by a dog that he met with in the
forest, and that was evidently rabid. On the following morning, he went
to a medical man of some repute in the country, who washed the wound,
and scarified it, and terminated the operation by tracing a bloody cross
on the forehead of the patient.

He returned home, but he was far from being satisfied. The image of the
dog that had attacked him was always before him, and his sleep was
troubled with the most frightful dreams. So passed four-and-twenty days,
when Delmaire, rising from his bed, felt the most dreadful trepidation;
he panted violently; it seemed as if an enormous weight oppressed his
chest, and from time to time there was profound sighing and sobbing. He
complained every moment that he was smothered. He attempted to drink,
but it was with great difficulty that a few drops of barley-water were
swallowed. His mouth was dry, his throat burning, his thirst excessive,
and all that he attempted to swallow was rejected with horror.

At nine o'clock at night he was largely bled. His respiration was more
free, but the dread of every fluid remained. After an hour's repose, he
started and felt the most fearful pain in every limb--his whole body was
agitated with violent convulsions. The former place of bleeding was
reopened, and a great quantity of blood escaped. The pulse became small
and accelerated. The countenance was dreadful--the eyes were starting
from their sockets--he continually sprung from his seat and uttered the
most fearful howling. A quantity of foam filled his mouth, and compelled
a continued expectoration. In his violent fits, the strength of six men
was not sufficient to keep him on his bed. In the midst of a sudden
recess of fury he would disengage himself from all that were attempting
to hold him, and dash himself on the floor; there, freed from all
control, he rolled about, beat himself, and tore everything that he
could reach. In the short intervals that separated these crises, he
regained possession of his reasoning powers: he begged his old father to
pardon him, he talked to him and to those around with the most intense
affection, and it was only when he felt that a new attack was at hand,
that he prayed them to leave him. At length his mental excitation began
to subside; his strength was worn out, and he suffered himself to be
placed on his bed. The horrible convulsions from time to time returned,
but the dread of liquors had ceased. He demanded something to drink.
They gave him a little white wine, but he was unable to swallow it; it
was returned through his nostrils. The poor fellow then endeavoured to
sleep; but it was soon perceived that he had ceased to live.

The early symptoms of rabies in the dog are occasionally very obscure.
In the greater number of cases, these are sullenness, fidgetiness, and
continual shifting of posture. Where I have had opportunity, I have
generally found these circumstances in regular succession. For several
consecutive hours perhaps he retreats to his basket or his bed. He shows
no disposition to bite, and he answers the call upon him laggardly. He
is curled up and his face is buried between his paws and his breast. At
length he begins to be fidgety. He searches out new resting-places; but
he very soon changes them for others. He takes again to his own bed; but
he is continually shifting his posture. He begins to gaze strangely
about him as he lies on his bed. His countenance is clouded and
suspicious. He comes to one and another of the family and he fixes on
them a steadfast gaze as if he would read their very thoughts. "I feel
strangely ill," he seems to say: "have you anything to do with it? or
you? or you?" Has not a dog mind enough for this? If we have observed a
rabid dog at the commencement of the disease, we have seen this to the
very life.

There is a species of dog--the small French poodle--the essence of whose
character and constitution is fidgetiness or perpetual motion.

If this dog has been bitten, and rabies is about to establish itself, he
is the most irritative restless being that can be conceived of; starting
convulsively at the slightest sound; disposing of his bed in every
direction, seeking out one retreat after another in order to rest his
wearied frame, but quiet only for a moment in any one, and the motion of
his limbs frequently stimulating chorea and even epilepsy.

A peculiar delirium is an early symptom, and one that will never
deceive. A young man had been bitten by one of his dogs; I was requested
to meet a medical gentleman on the subject: I was a little behind my
time; as I entered the room I found the dog eagerly devouring a pan of
sopped bread. "There is no madness here," said the gentleman. He had
scarcely spoken, when in a moment the dog quitted the sop, and, with a
furious bark sprung against the wall as if he would seize some imaginary
object that he fancied was there. "Did you see that?" was my reply.
"What do you think of it?" "I see nothing in it," was his retort: "the
dog heard some noise on the other side of the wall." At my serious
urging, however, he consented to excise the part. I procured a poor
worthless cur, and got him bitten by this dog, and carried the disease
from this dog to the third victim: they all became rabid one after the
other, and there my experiment ended. The serious matter under
consideration, perhaps, justified me in going so far as I did.

This kind of delirium is of frequent occurrence in the human patient.
The account given by Dr. Bardsley of one of his patients is very
appropriate to on profit purpose:

  "I observed that he frequently fixed his eyes with horror and affright
  on some ideal object, and then, with a sudden and violent emotion,
  buried his head beneath the bed-clothes. The next time I saw him
  repeat this action, I was induced to inquire into the cause of his
  terror. He asked whether I had not heard howlings and scratchings. On
  being answered in the negative, he suddenly threw himself on his
  knees, extending his arms in a defensive posture, and forcibly threw
  back his head and body. The muscles of the face were agitated by
  various spasmodic contractions; his eye-balls glazed, and seemed ready
  to start from their sockets; and, at the moment, when crying out in an
  agonizing tone, 'Do you not see that black dog?' his countenance and
  attitude exhibited the most dreadful picture of complicated horror,
  distress, and rage that words can describe or imagination paint."

I have again and again seen the rabid dog start up after a momentary
quietude, with unmingled ferocity depicted on his countenance, and
plunge with a savage howl to the end of his chain. At other times he
would stop and watch the nails in the partition of the stable in which
he was confined, and fancying them to move he would dart at them, and
occasionally sadly bruise and injure himself from being no longer able
to measure the distance of the object. In one of his sudden fits of
violence a rabid dog strangled the Cardinal Crescence, the Legate of the
Pope, at the Council of Trent in 1532.

M. Magendie has often injected into the veins of an hydrophobous dog as
much as five grains of opium without producing any effect; while a
single grain given to the healthy dog would suffice to send him almost
to sleep.

One of Mr. Babington's patients thought that there was a cloud of flies
about him. "Why do you not kill those flies!" he would cry; and then he
would strike at them with his hand, and shrink under the bed-clothes, in
the most dreadful fear.

There is also in the human being a peculiarity in this delirium which
seems to distinguish it from every other kind of mental aberration.

  "The patient," in Mr. Lawrence's language, "is pursued by a thousand
  phantoms that intrude themselves upon his mind; he holds conversation
  with imaginary persons; he fancies himself surrounded with
  difficulties, and in the greatest distress. These thoughts seem to
  pass through his mind with wonderful rapidity, and to keep him in a
  state of the greatest distress, unless he is quickly spoken to or
  addressed by his name, and, then, in a moment the charm is broken;
  every phantom of imagination disappears, and at once he begins to talk
  as calmly and as connectedly as in perfect health."

So it is with the dog, whether he is watching the motes that are
floating in the air, or the insects that are annoying him on the walls,
or the foes that he fancies are threatening him on every side--one word
recalls him in a moment. Dispersed by the magic influence of his
master's voice, every object of terror disappears, and he crawls towards
him with the same peculiar expression of attachment that used to
characterize him.

Then comes a moment's pause--a moment of actual vacuity--the eye slowly
closes, the head droops, and he seems as if his fore feet were giving
way, and he would fall: but he springs up again, every object of terror
once more surrounds him--he gazes wildly around--he snaps--he barks, and
he rushes to the extent of his chain, prepared to meet his imaginary
foe.

The expression of the countenance of the dog undergoes a considerable
change, principally dependent on the previous disposition of the animal.
If he was naturally of an affectionate disposition, there will be an
anxious, inquiring countenance, eloquent, beyond the power of resisting
its influence. It is made up of strange suppositions as to the nature of
the depression of mind under which he labours, mingled with some passing
doubts, and they are but passing, as to the concern which the master has
in the affair; but, most of all, there is an affectionate and confiding
appeal for relief. At the same time we observe some strange fancy,
evidently passing through his mind, unalloyed, however, by the slightest
portion of ferocity.

In the countenance of the naturally savage brute, or him that has been
trained to be savage, there is indeed a fearful change; sometimes the
conjunctiva is highly injected; at other times it is scarcely affected,
hut the eyes have an unusually bright and dazzling appearance. They are
like two balls of fire, and there is a peculiar transparency of the
hyaloid membrane, or injection of that of the retina.

A very early symptom of rabies in the dog, is an extreme degree of
restlessness. Frequently, he is almost invariably wandering about,
shifting from corner to corner, or continually rising up and lying down,
changing his posture in every possible way, disposing of his bed with
his paws, shaking it with his mouth, bringing it to a heap, on which he
carefully lays his chest, or rather the pit of his stomach, and then
rising up and bundling every portion of it out of the kennel. If he is
put into a closed basket, he will not be still for an instant, but turn
round and round without ceasing. If he is at liberty, he will seem to
imagine that something is lost, and he will eagerly search round the
room, and particularly every corner of it, with strange violence and
indecision.

In a very great portion of cases of hydrophobia in the human being,
there is, as a precursory symptom, uneasiness, pain, or itching of the
bitten part. A red line may also be traced up the limb, in the direction
of the lymphatics. In a few cases the wound opens afresh.

The poison is now beginning fatally to act on the tissue, on which it
had previously lain harmless. When the conversation has turned on this
subject, long after the bitten part has been excised, pain has darted
along the limb. I have been bitten much oftener than I liked, by dogs
decidedly rabid, but, proper means being taken, I have escaped; and yet
often, when I have been over-fatigued, or a little out of temper, some
of the old sores have itched and throbbed, and actually become red and
swollen.

The dog appears to suffer a great deal of pain in the ear in common
canker. He will be almost incessantly scratching it, crying piteously
while thus employed. The ear is, oftener than any other part, bitten by
the rabid dog, and, when a wound in the ear, inflicted by a rabid dog,
begins to become painful, the agony appears to be of the intensest kind.
The dog rubs his ear against every projecting body, he scratches it
might and main, and tumbles over and over while he is thus employed.

The young practitioner should be on his guard there. Is this dreadful
itching a thing of yesterday, or, has the dog been subject to canker,
increasing for a considerable period. Canker both internal and external
is a disease of slow growth, and must have been long neglected before it
will torment the patient in the manner that I have described. The
question as to the length of time that an animal has thus suffered will
usually be a sufficient guide.

The mode in which he expresses his torture will serve as another
direction. He will often scratch violently enough when he has canker,
but he will not roll over and over like a football except he is rabid.
If there is very considerable inflammation of the lining membrane of the
ear, and engorgement and ulceration of it, this is the effect of canker;
but if there is only a slight redness of the membrane, or no redness at
all, and yet the dog is incessantly and violently scratching himself, it
is too likely that rabies is at hand.

In the early stage of rabies, the attachment of the dog towards his
owner seems to be rapidly increased, and the expression of that feeling.
He is employed, almost without ceasing, licking the hands, or face, or
any part he can get at. Females, and men too, are occasionally apt to
permit the dog, when in health, to indulge this filthy and very
dangerous habit with regard to them. The virus, generated under the
influence of rabies, is occasionally deposited on a wounded or abraded
surface, and in process of time produces a similar disease in the person
that has been so inoculated by it. Therefore it is that the surgeon so
anxiously inquires of the person that has been bitten, and of all those
to whom the dog has had access, "Has he been accustomed to lick you?
have you any sore places about you that can by possibility have been
licked by him?" If there are, the person is in fully as much danger as
if he had been bitten, and it is quite as necessary to destroy the part
with which the virus may have come in contact. A lady once lost her life
by suffering her dog to lick a pimple on her chin.

There is a beautiful species of dog, often the inhabitant of the
gentleman's stable--the Dalmatian or coach dog. He has, perhaps, less
affection for the human species than any other dog, except the greyhound
and the bull-dog; he has less sagacity than most others, and certainly
less courage. He is attached to the stable; he is the friend of the
horse; they live under the same roof; they share the same bed; and, when
the horse is summoned to his work, the dog accompanies every step. They
are certainly beautiful dogs, and it is pleasing to see the thousand
expressions of friendship between them and the horse; but, in their
continual excursions through the streets, they are exposed to some
danger, and particularly to that of being bitten by rabid dogs. It is a
fearful business when this takes place. The coachman probably did not
see the affray; no suspicion has been excited. The horse rubs his muzzle
to the dog, and the dog licks the face of the horse, and in a great
number of cases the disease is communicated from the one to the other.
The dog in process of time dies, the horse does not long survive, and,
frequently too, the coachman shares their fate. I have known at least
twenty horses destroyed in this way.

A depraved appetite is a frequent attendant on rabies in the dog. He
refuses his usual food; he frequently turns from it with an evident
expression of disgust; at other times, he seizes it with greater or less
avidity, and then drops it, sometimes from disgust, at other times
because he is unable to complete the mastication of it. This palsy of
the organs of mastication, and dropping of the food, after it has been
partly chewed, is a symptom on which implicit confidence may be placed.

Some dogs vomit once or twice in the early period of the disease: when
this happens, they never return to the natural food of the dog, but are
eager for everything that is filthy and horrible. The natural appetite
generally fails entirely, and to it succeeds a strangely depraved one.
The dog usually occupies himself with gathering every little bit of
thread, and it is curious to observe with what eagerness and method he
sets to work, and how completely he effects his object. He then attacks
every kind of dirt and filth, horse-dung, his own dung, and human
excrement. Some breeds of spaniels are very filthy feeders without its
being connected with disease, but the rabid dog eagerly selects the
excrement of the horse, and his own. Some considerable care, however,
must be exercised here. At the period of dentition, and likewise at the
commencement of the sexual affection, the stomach of the dog, and
particularly that of the bitch, sympathises with, or shares in, the
irritability of the gums, and of the constitution generally, and there
is a considerably perverted appetite. The dog also feels the same
propensity that influences the child, that of taking hard substances
into the mouth, and seemingly trying to masticate them. Their pressure
on the gums facilitates the passage of the new teeth. A young dog will,
therefore, be observed gathering up hard substances, and, if he should
chance to die, a not inconsiderable collection of them is sometimes
found in the stomach. They are, however, of a peculiar character; they
consist of small pieces of bone, slick, and coal.

The contents of the stomach of the rabid dog, are often, or generally,
of a most filthy description. Some hair or straw is usually found, but
the greater part is composed of horse-dung, or of his own dung, and it
may be received as a certainly, that if he is found deliberately
devouring it, he is rabid.

Some very important conclusions may be drawn from the appearance and
character of the urine. The dog, and at particular times when he is more
than usually salacious, may, and does diligently search the urining
places; he may even, at those periods, be seen to lick the spot which
another has just wetted; but, if a peculiar eagerness accompanies this
strange employment, if, in the parlour, which is rarely disgraced by
this evacuation, every corner is perseveringly examined, and licked with
unwearied and unceasing industry, that dog cannot be too carefully
watched, there is great danger about him; he may, without any other
symptom, be pronounced to be decidedly rabid. I never knew a single
mistake about this.

Much has been said of the profuse discharge of saliva from the mouth of
the rabid dog. It is an undoubted fact that, in this disease, all the
glands concerned in the secretion of saliva, become increased in bulk
and vascularity. The sublingual glands wear an evident character of
inflammation; but it never equals the increased discharge that
accompanies epilepsy, or nausea. The frothy spume at the corners of the
mouth, is not for a moment to be compared with that which is evident
enough in both of these affections. It is a symptom of short duration,
and seldom lasts longer than twelve hours. The stories that are told of
the mad dog covered with froth, are altogether fabulous. The dog
recovering from, or attacked by a fit, may be seen in this state; but
not the rabid dog. Fits are often mistaken for rabies, and hence the
delusion.

The increased secretion of saliva soon passes away. It lessens in
quantity; it becomes thicker, viscid, adhesive, and glutinous. It clings
to the corners of the mouth, and probably more annoyingly so to the
membrane of the fauces. The human being is sadly distressed by it, he
forces it out with the greatest violence, or utters the falsely supposed
bark of a dog, in his attempts to force it from his mouth. This symptom
occurs in the human being, when the disease is fully established, or at
a late period of it. The dog furiously attempts to detach it with his
paws.

It is an early symptom in the dog, and it can scarcely be mistaken in
him. When he is fighting with his paws at the corners of his mouth, let
no one suppose that a bone is sticking between the poor fellow's teeth;
nor should any useless and dangerous effort be made to relieve him. If
all this uneasiness arose from a bone in the mouth, the mouth would
continue permanently open instead of closing when the animal for a
moment discontinues his efforts. If after a while he loses his balance
and tumbles over, there can be no longer any mistake. It is the saliva
becoming more and more glutinous, irritating the fauces and threatening
suffocation.

To this naturally and rapidly succeeds an insatiable thirst. The dog
that still has full power over the muscles of his jaws continues lo lap.
He knows not when to cease, while the poor fellow labouring under the
dumb madness, presently to be described, and whose jaw and tongue are
paralysed, plunges his muzzle into the water-dish to his very eyes, in
order that he may get one drop of water into the back part of his mouth
to moisten and to cool his dry and parched fauces. Hence, instead of
this disease being always characterised by the dread of water in the
dog, it is marked by a thirst often perfectly unquenchable. Twenty years
ago, this assertion would have been peremptorily denied. Even at the
present day we occasionally meet with those who ought to know better,
and who will not believe that the dog which fairly, or perhaps eagerly,
drinks, can be rabid.

January 22d, 1815.--A Newfoundland dog belonging to a gentleman in
Piccadilly was supposed to have swallowed a penny-piece on the 20th. On
the evening of that day he was dull, refused his food, and would not
follow his master.

21st. He became restless and pouting, and continually shifting his
position. He would not eat nor would he drink water, but followed his
mistress into her bed-room, which he had never done before, and eagerly
lapped the urine from her chamber-pot. He was afterwards seen lapping
his own urine. His restlessness and panting increased, He would neither
eat nor drink, and made two or three attempts to vomit.

22d. He was brought to me this evening. His eyes were wild, the
conjunctiva considerably inflamed, and he panted quickly and violently.
There was a considerable flow of saliva from the corners of his mouth.
He was extremely restless and did not remain in one position half a
minute. There was an occasional convulsive nodding motion of the head.
The eyes were wandering, and evidently following some imaginary object;
but he was quickly recalled from his delirium by my voice or that of his
master. In a few moments, however, he was wandering again. He had
previously been under my care, and immediately recognised me and offered
me his paw. His bark was changed and had a slight mixture of the howl,
and there was a husky choking noise in the throat.

I immediately declared that he was rabid, and with some reluctance on
the part of his master, he was left with me.

23d, 8 A. M. The breathing was less quick and laborious. The spasm of
the head was no longer visible. The flow of saliva had stopped and there
was less delirium. The jaw began to be dependent: the rattling, choking
noise in his throat louder. He carried straw about in his mouth. He
picked up some pieces of old leather that lay within his reach and
carefully concealed them under his bed. Two minutes afterwards he would
take them out again, and look at them, and once more hide them. He
frequently voided his urine in small quantities, but no longer lapped
it. A little dog was lowered into the den, but he took no notice of it.

10 P. M. Every symptom of fever returned with increased violence. He
panted very much, and did not remain in the same posture two seconds. He
was continually running to the end of his chain and attempting to bite.
He was eagerly and wildly watching some imaginary object. His voice was
hoarser--more of the howl mixing with it. The lips were distorted, and
the tongue very black. He was evidently getting weaker. After two or
three attempts to escape, he would sit down for a second, and then rise
and plunge to the end of his chain. He drank frequently, yet but little
at a time, and that without difficulty or spasm.

12 P. M. The thirst strangely increased. He had drunk or spilled full
three quarts of water. There was a peculiar eagerness in his manner. He
plunged his nose to the very bottom of his pan, and then snapped at the
bubbles which he raised. No spasm followed the drinking. He took two or
three pieces from my hand, but immediately dropped them from want of
power to hold them. Yet he was able for a moment suddenly to close his
jaws. When not drinking he was barking with a harsh sound, and
frequently started suddenly, watching, and catching at some imaginary
object.

24th, A. M. He was more furious, yet weaker. The thirst was insatiable.
He was otherwise diligently employed in shattering and tearing
everything within his reach. He died about three o'clock.

It is impossible to say what was the origin of this disease in him. It
is not connected with any degree or variation of temperature, or any
particular state of the atmosphere. It is certainly more frequent in the
summer or the beginning of autumn than in the winter or spring, because
it is a highly nervous and febrile disease, and the degree of fever, and
irritability, and ferocity, and consequent mischief are augmented by
increase of temperature. In the great majority of cases, the inoculation
can be distinctly proved. In very few can the possibility be denied. The
injury is inflicted in an instant. There is no contest, and before the
injured party can prepare to retaliate, the rabid dog is far away.

It can easily be believed that when a favourite dog has, but for a
moment, lagged behind, he may be bitten without the owner's knowledge or
suspicion. A spaniel belonging to a lady became rabid. The dog was her
companion in her grounds at her country residence, and it was rarely out
of her sight except for a few minutes in the morning, when the servant
took it out. She was not conscious of its having been bitten, and the
servant stoutly denied it. The animal died. A few weeks afterwards the
footman was taken ill. He was hydrophobous. In one of his intervals of
comparative quietude he confessed that, one morning, his charge had been
attacked and rolled over by another dog; that there was no appearance of
its having been bitten, but that it had been made sadly dirty, and he
had washed it before he suffered it again to go into the drawing-room.
The dog that attacked it must have been rabid, and some of his saliva
must have remained about the coat of the spaniel, by which the servant
was fatally inoculated.

Another case of this fearful disease must not be passed over. A dog that
had been docile and attached to his master and mistress, was missing one
morning, and came home in the evening almost covered with dirt. He slunk
to his basket, and would pay no attention to any one. His owners thought
it rather strange, and I was sent for in the morning. He was lying on
the lap of his mistress, but was frequently shifting his posture, and
every now and then he started, as if he heard some strange sound. I
immediately told them what was the matter, and besought them to place
him in another and secure room. He had been licking both their hands. I
was compelled to tell them at once what was the nature of the case, and
besought them to send at once for their surgeon. They were perfectly
angry at my nonsense, as they called it, and I took my leave, but went
immediately to their medical man, and told him what was the real state
of the case. He called, as it were accidentally, a little while
afterwards, and I was not far behind him. The surgeon did his duty, and
they escaped.

In May, 1820, I attended on a bitch at Pimlico. She had snapped at the
owner, bitten the man-servant and several dogs, was eagerly watching
imaginary objects, and had the peculiar rabid howl. I offered her water.
She started back with a strange expression of horror, and fell into
violent convulsions that lasted about a minute. This was repeated a
little while afterwards, and with the same result. She was destroyed.

The horrible spasms of the human being at the sight of, or the attempt
to swallow, fluids occur sufficiently often to prove the identity of the
disease in the biped and the quadruped; but not in one in fifty cases is
there, in the dog, the slightest reluctance to liquids, or difficulty in
swallowing them.

In almost every case in which the dog utters any sound during the
disease, there is a manifest change of voice. In the dog labouring under
ferocious madness, it is perfectly characteristic. There is no other
sound that it resembles. The animal is generally standing, or
occasionally sitting, when the singular sound is heard. The muzzle is
always elevated. The commencement is that of a perfect bark, ending
abruptly and very singularly, in a howl, a fifth, sixth, or eighth
higher than at the commencement. Dogs are often enough heard howling,
but in this case it is the perfect bark, and the perfect howl rapidly
succeeding to the bark.

Every sound uttered by the rabid dog is more or less changed. The
huntsman, who knows the voice of every dog in his pack, occasionally
hears a strange challenge. He immediately finds out that dog, and puts
him, as quickly as possible, under confinement. Two or three days may
pass over, and there is not another suspicious circumstance about the
animal; still he keeps him under quarantine, for long experience has
taught him to listen to that warning. At length the disease is manifest
in its most fearful form.

There is another partial change of voice, to which the ear of the
practitioner will, by degrees, become habituated, and which will
indicate a change in the state of the animal quite as dangerous as the
dismal howl; I mean when there is a hoarse inward bark, with a slight
but characteristic elevation of the tone. In other cases, after two or
three distinct barks, will come the peculiar one mingled with the howl.
Both of them will terminate fatally, and in both of them the rabid howl
cannot possibly be mistaken.

There is a singular brightness in the eye of the rabid dog, but it does
not last more than two or three days. It then becomes dull and wasted; a
cloudiness steals over the conjunctiva, which changes to a yellow tinge,
and then to a dark green, indicative of ulceration deeply seated within
the eye. In eight and forty hours from the first clouding of the eye, it
becomes one disorganised mass.

There is in the rabid dog a strange embarrassment of general
sensibility--a seemingly total loss of feeling.

Absence of pain in the bitten part is an almost invariable accompaniment
of rabies. I have known a dog set to work, and gnaw and tear the flesh
completely away from his legs and feet. At other times the penis is
perfectly demolished from the very base. Ellis in his "Shepherd's Sure
Guide," asserts, that, however severely a mad dog is beaten, a cry is
never forced from him. I am certain of the truth of this, for I have
again and again failed in extracting that cry. Ellis tells that at the
kennel at Goddesden, some of the grooms heated a poker red hot, and
holding it near the mad hound's mouth, he most greedily seized it, and
kept it until the mouth was most dreadfully burned.

In the great majority of cases of furious madness, and in almost every
case of dumb madness, there is evident affection of the lumbar portion
of the spinal cord. There is a staggering gait, not indicative of
general weakness, but referable to the hind quarters alone, and
indicating an affection of the lumbar motor nerve. In a few cases it
approaches more to a general paralytic affection.

In the very earliest period of rabies, the person accustomed to dogs
will detect the existence of the disease.

The animal follows the flight, as has been already stated, of various
imaginary objects. I have often watched the changing countenance of the
rabid dog when he has been lost to every surrounding object. I have seen
the brightening countenance and the wagging tail as some pleasing vision
has passed before him; but, oftener has the countenance indicated the
mingled dislike and fear with which the intruder was regarded. As soon
as the phantom came within the proper distance he darted on it with true
rabid violence.

A spaniel, seemingly at play, snapped, in the morning, at the feet of
several persons. In the evening he bit his master, his master's friend,
and another dog. The old habits of obedience and affection then
returned. His master, most strangely, did not suspect the truth, and
brought the animal to me to be examined. The animal was, as I had often
seen him, perfectly docile and eager to be caressed. At my suggestion,
or rather entreaty, he was left with me. On the following morning the
disease was plain enough, and on the following day he died. A
post-mortem examination took place, and proved that he was unequivocally
rabid.

A lady would nurse her dog, after I had declared it to be rabid, and
when he was dangerous to every one but herself, and even to her from the
saliva which he plentifully scattered about. At length he darted at
every one that entered the room, until a footman keeping the animal at
bay with the poker, the husband of the lady dragged her from the room.
The noise that the dog made was then terrific, and he almost gnawed his
way through the door. At midnight his violence nearly ceased, and the
door was partially opened. He was staggering and falling about, with
every limb violently agitated. At the entreaty of the lady, a servant
ventured in to make a kind of bed for him. The dog suddenly darted at
him, and dropped and died.

A terrier, ten years old, had been ill, and refused all food for three
days. On the fourth day he bit a cat of which he had been unusually
fond, and he likewise bit three dogs. I was requested to see him. I
found him loose in the kitchen, and at first refused to go in, but,
after observing him for a minute or two, I thought that I might venture.
He had a peculiarly wild and eager look, and turned sharply round at the
least noise. He often watched the flight of some imaginary object, and
pursued with the utmost fury every fly that he saw. He searchingly
sniffed about the room, and examined my legs with an eagerness that made
me absolutely tremble. His quarrel with the cat had been made up, and
when he was not otherwise employed he was eagerly licking her and her
kittens. In the excess or derangement of his fondness, he fairly rolled
them from one end of the kitchen to another. With difficulty I induced
his master to permit me to destroy him.

It is not every dog, that in the most aggravated state of the disease
shows a disposition to bite. The finest Newfoundland dog that I ever saw
became rabid. He had been bitten by a cur, and was supposed to have been
thoroughly examined in the country. No wound, however, was found: the
circumstance was almost forgotten, and he came up to the metropolis with
his master. He became dull, disinclined to play, and refused all food.
He was continually watching imaginary objects, but he did not snap at
them. There was no howl, nor any disposition to bite. He offered himself
to be caressed, and he was not satisfied except he was shaken by the
paw. On the second day I saw him. He watched every passing object with
peculiar anxiety, and followed with deep attention the motions of a
horse, his old acquaintance; but he made no effort to escape, nor
evinced any disposition to do mischief. I went to him, and patted and
coaxed him, and he told me as plainly as looks and actions, and a
somewhat deepened whine could express it, how much he was gratified. I
saw him on the third day. He was evidently dying. He could not crawl
even to the door of his temporary kennel; but he pushed forward his paw
a little way, and, as I shook it, I felt the tetanic muscular action
which accompanies the departure of life.

On the other hand there are rabid dogs whose ferocity knows no bounds.
If they are threatened with a stick, they fly at, and seize it, and
furiously shake it. They are incessantly employed in darting to the end
of their chain, and attempting to crush it with their teeth, and tearing
to pieces their kennel, or the wood work that is within their reach.
They are regardless of pain. The canine teeth, the incisor teeth are
torn away; yet, unwearied and insensible to suffering, they continue
their efforts to escape. A dog was chained near a kitchen fire. He was
incessant in his endeavours to escape, and, when he found that he could
not effect it, he seized, in his impotent rage, the burning coals as
they fell, and crushed them with his teeth.

If by chance a dog in this state effects his escape, he wanders over the
country bent on destruction. He attacks both the quadruped and the
biped. He seeks the village street, or the more crowded one of the town,
and he suffers no dog to escape him. The horse is his frequent prey, and
the human being is not always safe from his attack. A rabid dog running
down Park-lane, in 1825, bit no fewer than five horses, and fully as
many dogs. He was seen to steal treacherously upon some of his victims,
and inflict the fatal wound. Sometimes he seeks the more distant
pasturage. He gets among the sheep, and more than forty have been
fatally inoculated in one night. A rabid dog attacked a herd of cows,
and five-and-twenty of them fell victims. In July, 1813, a mad dog broke
into the menagerie of the Duchess of York, at Oatlands, and although the
palisades that divided the different compartments of the menagerie were
full six feet in height, and difficult, or apparently almost impossible
to climb, he was found asleep in one of them, and it was clearly
ascertained that he had bitten at least ten of the dogs.

At length the rabid dog becomes completely exhausted, and slowly reels
along the road with his tail depressed, seemingly half unconscious of
surrounding objects. His open mouth, and protruding and blackened
tongue, and rolling gait sufficiently characterise him. He creeps into
some sheltered place and then he sleeps twelve hours or more. It is
dangerous to disturb his slumbers, for his desire to do mischief
immediately returns, and the slightest touch, or attempt to caress him,
is repaid by a fatal wound. This should be a caution never to meddle
with a sleeping dog in a way-side house, and, indeed, never to disturb
him anywhere.

In an early period of the disease in some dogs, and in others when the
strength of the animal is nearly worn away, a peculiar paralysis of the
muscles of the tongue and jaws is seen. The mouth is partially open, and
the tongue protruding. In some cases the dog is able to close his mouth
by a sudden and violent effort, and is as ferocious and as dangerous as
one the muscles of whose face are unaffected. At other times the palsy
is complete, and the animal is unable to close his mouth or retract his
tongue. These latter cases, however, are rare.

A dog must not be immediately condemned because he has this open mouth
and fixed jaw. Bones constitute a frequent and a considerable portion of
the food of dogs. In the eagerness with which these bones are crushed,
spicula or large pieces of them become wedged between the molar teeth,
and form an inseparable obstacle to the closing of the teeth. The tongue
partially protrudes. There is a constant discharge of saliva from the
mouth, far greater than when the true paralysis exists. The dog is
continually fighting at the corners of his mouth, and the countenance is
expressive of intense anxiety, although not of the same irritable
character as in rabies.

I was once requested to meet a medical gentleman in consultation
respecting a supposed case of rabies. There was protrusion and
discoloration of the tongue, and fighting at the corners of the mouth,
and intense anxiety of countenance. He had been in this state for
four-and-twenty hours. This was a case in which I should possibly have
been deceived had it been the first dog that I had seen with dumb
madness. After having tested a little the ferocity or manageableness of
the animal, I passed my hand along the outside of the jaws, and felt a
bone wedged between two of the grinders. The forceps soon set all right
with him.

It is time to inquire more strictly into the post-mortem appearances of
rabies in the dog.

In dumb madness the unfailing accompaniment is, to a greater or less
degree, paralysis of the muscles of the lower jaw, and the tongue is
discoloured and swollen, and hanging from the mouth; more blood than
usual also is deposited in the anterior and inferior portion of it. Its
colour varies from a dark red to a dingy purple, or almost black. In
ferocious madness it is usually torn and bruised, or it is discoloured
by the dirt and filth with which it has been brought into contact, and,
not unfrequently, its anterior portion is coated with some disgusting
matter. The papillae, or small projections on the back of the tongue,
are elongated and widened, and their mucous covering evidently reddened.
The orifices of the glands of the tongue are frequently enlarged,
particularly as they run their course along the froenum of the tongue.

The fauces, situated at the posterior part of the mouth, generally
exhibit traces of inflammation. They appear in the majority of cases of
ferocious madness, and they are never deficient after dumb madness. They
are usually most intense either towards the palatine arch or the larynx.
Sometimes an inflammatory character is diffused through its whole
extent, but occasionally it is more or less intense towards one or both
of the terminations of the fauces, while the intermediate portion
retains nearly its healthy hue.

There is one circumstance of not unfrequent occurrence, which will at
once decide the case--the presence of indigestible matter, probably
small in quantity, in the back part of the mouth. This speaks volumes as
to the depraved appetite of the patient, and the loss of power in the
muscles of the pharynx.

Little will depend on the tonsils of the throat. They occasionally
enlarge to more than double their usual size; but this is more in quiet
than in ferocious madness. The insatiable thirst of the rabid dog is
perhaps connected with this condition of them.

The epiglottis should be very carefully observed. It is more or less
injected in every case of rabies. Numerous vessels increase in size and
multiply round its edge, and there is considerable injection and
thickening.

Inflammation of the edges of the glottis, and particularly of the
membrane which covers its margin, is often seen, and accounts for the
harsh guttural breathing which frequently accompanies dumb madness. The
inflammatory blush of the larynx, though often existing in a very slight
degree, deserves considerable attention.

The appearances in the trachea are very uncertain. There is occasionally
the greatest intensity of inflammation through the whole of it; at other
times there is not the slightest appearance of it. There is the same
uncertainty with regard to the bronchial tubes and the lungs; but there
is no characteristic symptom or lesion in the lungs.

Great stress has been laid on the appearance of the heart; but,
generally speaking, in nine cases out of ten, the heart of the rabid dog
will exhibit no other symptoms of disease than an increased yet variable
deepness of colour in the lining membrane of the ventricles. No
dependence can be placed on any of the appearances of the oesophagus;
and, when they are at the worst, the inflammation occupies only a
portion of that tube.

With regard to the interior of the stomach, if the dog has been dead
only a few hours the true inflammatory blush will remain. If
four-and-twenty hours have elapsed, the bright red colour will have
changed to a darker red, or a violet or a brownish hue. In a few hours
after this, a process of corrosion will generally commence, and the
mucous membrane will be softened and rendered thinner, and, to a certain
extent, eaten through. The examiner, however, must not attribute that to
disease which is the natural process of the cession of life.

Much attention should be paid to the appearance of the stomach and its
contents. If it contains a strange mingled mass of hair, and hay, and
straw, and horse-dung, and earth, or portions of the bed on which the
dog had lain, we should seldom err if we affirmed that he died rabid;
for it is only under the influence of the depraved appetite of rabies
that such substances are devoured. It is not the presence of every kind
of extraneous substance that will be satisfactory: pieces of coal, or
wood, or even the filthiest matter, will not justify us in pronouncing
the animal to be rabid; it is that peculiarly mingled mass of straw, and
hair, and filth of various kinds, that must indicate the existence of
rabies.

When there are no solid indigesta, but a fluid composed principally of
vitiated bile or extravasated blood, there will be a strong indication
of the presence of rabies. When, also, there are in the duodenum and
jejunum small portions of indigesta, the detection of the least quantity
will be decisive. The remainder has been ejected by vomit; and inquiry
should be made of the nature of the matter that has been discharged.

The inflammation of rabies is of a peculiar character in the stomach. It
is generally confined to the summits of the folds of the stomach, or it
is most intense there. On the summits of the rugae there are effusions
of bloody matter, or spots of ecchymosis, presenting an appearance
almost like crushed black currants. There may be only a few of them; but
they are indications of the evil that has been effected.

From appearances that present themselves in the intestines, the bladder,
the blood-vessels, or the brain, no conclusion can be drawn; they are
simply indications of inflammation.

We now rapidly, and for a little while, retrace our steps. What is the
cause of this fatal disease, that has so long occupied our attention? It
is the saliva of a rabid animal received into a wound, or on an abraded
surface. In horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and the human being, it is
caused by inoculation alone; but, according to some persons, it is
produced spontaneously in other animals.

I will suppose that a wound by a rabid dog is inflicted. The virus is
deposited on or near its surface, and there it remains for a certain
indefinite period of time. The wound generally heals up kindly; in fact,
it differs in no respect from a similar wound inflicted by the teeth of
an animal in perfect health. Weeks and months, in some cases, pass on,
and there is nothing to indicate danger, until a degree of itching in
the cicatrix of the wound is felt. From its long-continued presence as a
foreign body, it may have rendered the tissue, or nervous fibre
connected with it, irritable and susceptible of impression, or it may
have attracted and assimilated to itself certain elements, and rabies is
produced.

The virus does not appear to have the same effect on every animal. Of
four dogs bitten by, or inoculated from, one that is rabid, three,
perhaps, would display every symptom of the disease. Of four human
beings, not more than one would become rabid. John Hunter used to say
not more than one in twenty; but that is probably erroneous. Cattle
appear to have a greater chance of escape, and sheep a still greater
chance.

The time of incubation is different in different animals. With regard to
the human being, there are various strange and contradictory stories.
Some have asserted that it has appeared on the very day on which the
bite was inflicted, or within two or three days of that time. Dr.
Bardsley, on the other hand, relates a case in which twelve years
elapsed between the bite and the disease. If the virus may lurk so long
as this in the constitution, it is a most lamentable affair. According
to one account, more than thirty years intervened. The usual time
extends from three weeks to six or seven months.

In the dog I have never seen a case in which plain and palpable rabies
occurred in less than fourteen days after the bite. The average time I
should calculate at five or six weeks. In three months I should consider
the animal as tolerably safe. I am, however, relating my own experience,
and have known but two instances in which the period much exceeded three
months. In one of these five months elapsed, and the other did not
become affected until after the expiration of the seventh month.

The quality and the quantity of the virus may have something to do with
this, and so may the predisposition in the bitten animal to be affected
by the poison. If it is connected with oestrum, the bitch will probably
become a disgusting, as well as dangerous animal; if with parturition,
there is a strange perversion of maternal affection--she is incessantly
and violently licking her young, continually shifting them from place to
place; and, in less than four-and-twenty hours, they will be destroyed
by the reckless manner in which they are treated. In both cases the
development of the disease seems to wait on the completion of her time
of pregnancy. It appears in the space of two months after the bite, if
her parturition is near at hand, or it is delayed for double that time,
if the period of labour is so far distant.

The duration of the disease is different in different animals. In man it
has run its course in twenty-four hours, and rarely exceeds seventy-two.
In the horse from three to four days; in the sheep and ox from five to
seven; and in the dog from four to six.

Of the real nature of the rabid virus, we know but little. It has never
been analysed, and it would be a difficult process to analyse it. It is
not diffused by the air, nor communicated by the breath, nor even by
actual contact, if the skin is sound. It must be received into a wound.
It must come in contact with some tissue or nervous fibre, and lie
dormant there for a considerable, but uncertain period. The absorbents
remove everything around; whatever else is useless, or would he
injurious, is taken away, but this strange substance is unchanged. It
does not enter into the circulation, for there it would undergo some
modification and change, or would be rejected. It lies for a time
absolutely dormant, and far longer than any other known poison; but, at
length, the tissue on which it has lain begins to render it somewhat
sensible, and assimilates to itself certain elements. The cicatrix
begins to be painful, and inflammation spreads around. The absorbents
are called into more powerful action; they begin to attack the virus
itself, and a portion of it is taken up, and carried into the
circulation, and acquires the property of assimilating other secretions
to its own nature, or it is determined to one of the secretions only; it
alters the character of that secretion, envenoms it, and gives it the
power of propagating the disease.

Something like this is the history of many animal poisons. In variola
and the vaccine disease the poison is determined to the skin, in
glanders to the Schneiderian membrane, and in farcy to the superficial
absorbents. Each in its turn becomes the depot of the poison. So it is
with the salivary glands of the rabid animal; in them it is formed, or
to them it is determined, and from them, and them alone, it is
communicated to other animals.

Professor Dick, in his valuable Manual of Veterinary Science, states
some peculiar views, and those highly interesting, respecting the
disease of rabies. He holds it to be essentially an inflammatory
affection, attacking peculiarly the mucous membrane of the nose, and
extending thence through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bones to
the interior part of the brain, and so giving rise to a derangement of
the nervous system as a necessary consequence. This train of symptoms
constitutes mainly, if not wholly, the essence of an occasional epidemic
not unlike some forms of influenza or epizootic disease, and the bite of
a rabid animal is not always, to an animal so bitten, the exciting cause
of the disease, but merely an accidental concomitant in the prevailing
disorder. Also the disease hydrophobia, produced in man, is not always
the result of any poison introduced into his system, but merely the
melancholy, and often fatal result of panic fear, and of the disordered
slate of the imagination. Those who are acquainted with the effects of
sympathy, and imitation, and panic, in the production of nervous
disorders, will readily apprehend the meaning of the Professor.

Some of these diseases speedily run their course and exhaust themselves.
Cowpox and farcy, in many instances, have this character. Perhaps, to a
certain degree, this may be affirmed of all of them. I have seen cases,
which I could not mistake, in which the symptoms of rabies were one
after another developed. The dog was plainly and undeniably rabid, and I
had given him up as lost; but, after a certain period, the symptoms
began to be less distinct; they gradually disappeared, and the animal
returned to perfect health. This may have formed one ground of belief in
the power of certain medicines, and most assuredly it gives
encouragement to perseverance in the use of remedial measures.

It has then been proved, and I hope demonstratively, that rabies is
propagated by inoculation. It has also been established that although
every animal labouring under this disease is capable of communicating
it, yet, with very few exceptions, it can be traced to the bite of the
dog. It has still further been shown that the malady, generally appears
at some period between the third and seventh month from the time of
inoculation. At the expiration of the eighth month, the animal may be
considered to be safe; for there is only one acknowledged case on
record, in which the disease appeared in the dog after the seventh month
from the bite had passed.

Then it would appear that if a species of quarantine could be
established, and every dog confined separately for eight months, the
disease would be annihilated in our country, or could only reappear in
consequence of the importation of some infected animal. Such a course of
proceeding, however, could never be enforced either in the sporting
world or among the peasantry. Other measures, however, might be resorted
to in order to lessen the devastations of this malady; and that which
first presents itself to the mind as a powerful cause of rabies is the
number of useless and dangerous dogs that are kept in the country for
the most nefarious and, in the neighbourhood of considerable towns, the
most brutal purposes; without the slightest hesitation, I will affirm
that rabies is propagated, nineteen times out of twenty, by the cur and
the lurcher in the country, and the fighting-dog in towns.

A tax should be laid on every useless dog, and doubly or trebly heavier
than on the sporting-dog. No dog except the shepherd's should be exempt
from this tax, unless, perhaps, it is the truck-dog, and his owner
should be compelled to take out a license; to have his name in large
letters on his cart; and he should be heavily fined if the animal is
found loose in the streets, or if he is used for fighting.

The disease is rarely propagated by petted and house-dogs They are
little exposed to the danger of inoculation; yet, we pity, or almost
detest, the folly of those by whom their favourites are indulged, and
spoiled even more than their children.

We will now suppose that a person has had the misfortune to be bitten by
a rabid dog: what course is he to pursue? What preventive means are to
be adopted? Some persons, and of no mean standing in the medical world,
have recommended a ligature. The reply would be, that this ligature must
be worn during a very inconvenient and dangerous period of time. The
virus lies in the wound inert during many successive weeks and months.

Dr. Haygarth first suggested that a long-continued stream of warm water
should be poured upon the wound from the mouth of a kettle. He says that
the poison exists in a fluid form, and therefore we should suppose that
water would be its natural solvent. Dr. Massey adds to this, that if the
wound is small, it should be dilated, in order that the stream may
descend on the part on which the poison is deposited. We are far,
however, from being certain that this falling of water on the part, may
not by possibility force a portion of the virus farther into the
texture, or cause it to be entangled with other parts of the wound. [2]

There is a similar or stronger objection to the cupping-glass of Dr.
Barry. The virus, forced from the texture with which it lies in contact
by the rush of blood from the substance beneath, is too likely to
inoculate, or become entangled with, other parts of the wound.

There is great objection to suction of the wound; for, in addition to
this possible entanglement, the lips, or the mouth, may have been
abraded, and thus the danger considerably aggravated. There also remains
the undecided question as to the absorption of the virus through the
medium of a mucous surface.

Excision of the part is the mode of prevention usually adopted by the
human surgeon, and to a certain extent it is a judicious practice. If
the virus is not received into the circulation, but lies dormant in the
wound for a considerable time, the disease cannot supervene if the
inoculated part is destroyed.

This operation, however, demands greater skill and tact than is
generally supposed. It requires a determination fully to accomplish the
desired object; for every portion of the wound with which the tooth
could possibly have come into contact, must be removed. This is often
exceedingly difficult to accomplish, on account of the situation and
direction of the wound. The knife must not enter the wound, or it will
be likely to be itself empoisoned, and then the mischief and the danger
will be increased instead of removed. Dr. Massey was convinced of the
impropriety of this when he advised that,

  "should the knife by chance enter the wound that had been made by the
  dog's tooth, the operation should be recommenced with a clean knife,
  otherwise the sound parts will become inoculated."

If the incision is made freely and properly round the wound, and does
not penetrate into it, yet the blood will follow the knife, and a
portion of it will enter into the wound caused by the dog, and will come
in contact with the virus, and will probably be contaminated, and will
then overflow the original wound, and will be received into the new
incision, and will carry with it the seeds of disease and death:
therefore it is, that scarcely a year passes without some lamentable
instances of the failure of incisions. It has occurred in the practice
of the most eminent surgeons, and seems scarcely or not all to impeach
the skill of the operator.

Aware of this, there are very few human practitioners who do not use the
caustic after the knife. Every portion of the new wound is submitted to
its influence. They do not consider the patient to be safe without this
second operation. But has the question never occurred to them, that if
the caustic is necessary to give security to the operation by incision,
the knife might have been spared, and the caustic alone used?

The veterinary surgeon, when operating on the horse, or cattle, or the
dog, frequently has recourse to the actual cautery. I could, perhaps,
excuse this practice, although I would not adopt it, in superficial
wounds; but I do not know the instrument that could be safely used in
deeper ones. If it were sufficiently small to adapt itself to the
tortuous course of little wounds, it would be cooled and inert before it
could have destroyed the lower portions of them. If it were of
sufficient substance long to retain the heat, it would make a large and
fearful chasm, and probably interfere with the future usefulness of the
animal. The result of the cases in which the cautery has been used
proves that in too many instances it is an inefficient protection. The
rabid dog in Park Lane has already been mentioned. He bit several horses
before he could be destroyed. Caustic was applied to one of them, and
the hot iron to the others. The first was saved, almost all the others
were lost. A similar case occurred last spring; the caustic was an
efficacious preventive; the cautery was perfectly useless. What caustic
then should be applied? Certainly not that to which the surgeon usually
has recourse--a liquid one. Certainly not one that speedily deliquesces;
for they are both unmanageable, and, what is a more important
consideration, they may hold in solution, and not decompose the poison,
and thus inoculate the whole of the wound. The application which
promises to be successful, is that of the 'lunar caustic'. It is
perfectly manageable, and, being sharpened to a point, may be applied
with certainty to every recess and sinuosity of the wound.

Potash and nitric acid form a caustic which will destroy the substances
with which they come in contact, but the combination of this caustic and
the animal fibre will be a soft or semi-fluid mass. In this the virus is
suspended, and with this it lies or may be precipitated upon the living
fibre beneath. Then there is danger of re-inoculation; and it would seem
that this fatal process is often accomplished. The eschar formed by the
lunar caustic is dry, hard, and insoluble. If the whole of the wound has
been fairly exposed to its action, an insoluble compound of animal fibre
and the metallic salt is produced, in which the virus is wrapped up, and
from which it cannot be separated. In a short time the dead matter
sloughs away, and the virus is thrown off with it.

Previous to applying the caustic it will sometimes be necessary to
enlarge the wound, in order that every part may be fairly got at; and
the eschar having sloughed off, it will always be prudent to apply the
caustic a second time, but more slightly, in order to destroy any part
that may not have received the full influence of the first operation, or
that, by possibility, might have been inoculated during the operation.

Mr. Smerdon, in the Medical and Physical Journal, March 1820, thus
reasons:

  "All the morbid poisons that require to lie dormant a certain time
  before their effects are manifested, pass into the system through the
  medium of the absorbents," (we somewhat differ from Mr. Smerdon here,
  but his reasoning is equally applicable to the nervous system,) "and
  if the absorbents are excited, their action is increased. I am
  satisfied that even in a venereal sore the application of a caustic,
  instead of destroying the disease, causes its rapid extension. Then,"
  asks he, "if the virus on a small venereal sore is rendered more
  active by the caustic, is it not highly probable that the same law
  holds good with respect to the poison of rabies?"

The sooner the caustic is applied the better; but I should not hesitate
to have recourse to it even after the constitution has become affected.
It is related in the Medico-Chirurgical Annals of Altenburg (Sept.
1821), that two men were bitten by a rabid dog. One became hydrophobous
and died; the other had evident symptoms of hydrophobia a few days
afterwards. A surgeon excised the bitten part, and the disease
disappeared. After a period of six days the symptoms returned. The wound
was examined; considerable fungus was found sprouting from its bottom.
This was extirpated. The hydrophobia symptoms were again removed, and
the man did well. This is a most instructive case.

In the Journal Pratique de Médecine Vétérinaire, M. Damalix gives an
interesting account of the effect of a bite of a rabid dog on a horse.
On the 8th of July, 1828, a fowl-merchant, proceeding to the market of
Colmar, was attacked by a dog, who, after some fruitless efforts to get
into the cart, bit the horse on the left side of the face, and fled
precipitately. A veterinary surgeon was sent for, who applied the
cautery to the horse, gave him some populeum ointment, and bled him.
Everything appeared to go on well, and on the 16th the wounds were
healed.

On the 25th a great alteration took place. The horse was careless and
slow; he sometimes refused to go at all, and would not attend in the
least to the whip, which had never occurred before. In the evening the
wounds opened spontaneously, an ichorous and infectious pus run from
them; there was salivation and utter loss of appetite: strange fancies
seemed to possess him; he showed a desire to bite his master. The
veterinary surgeon might approach him with safety; but the moment his
owner or the children appeared, he darted at them, and would have torn
them in pieces. The disease now took on the appearance of acute
glanders; livid and fungous wounds broke out; the stable was saturated
with an infectious smell, the horse refused his food, or was unable to
eat. The mayor at last interfered, and the animal was destroyed. In the
Treatises on The Horse, Cattle, and Sheep, in former volumes, accounts
are fully given of this dreadful malady in these animals. It may not be
uninteresting to give a hasty sketch of it in some of the inferior
classes.

'Rabies in the Rabbit.'--I very much regret that I never instituted a
course of experiments on the production and treatment of rabies in this
animal. It would have been attended with little expense or danger, and
some important discoveries might have been made. Mr. Earle, in a case in
which he was much interested, inoculated two rabbits with the saliva of
a dog that had died rabid. They were punctured at the root of the ears.
One of the rabbits speedily became inflamed about the ears, and the ears
were paralysed in both rabbits. The head swelled very much, and
extensive inflammation took place around the part where the virus was
inserted. One of them died without exhibiting any of the usual symptoms
of the disease; the other, after a long convalescence, survived, and
eventually recovered the use of his ears. Mr. Earle very properly
doubted whether this was a case of rabies.

Dr. Capello describes, but in not so satisfactory a manner as could be
wished, a case of supposed rabies in one of these animals. A rabbit and
a dog lived together in a family. They were strange associates; but such
friendships are not unfrequent among animals. The dog became rabid, and
died. A man bitten by that dog became hydrophobous, and died. No one
dreamed of the rabbit being in danger, and he ran about the house as
usual; but, one day, he found his way to the chamber of the mistress of
the house, with a great deal of viscid saliva running from his mouth,
furiously attacked her, and left the marks of his violence on her leg.
He then ran into a neighbouring stable, and bit the hind-legs of a horse
several times. Finally, he retreated to a corner of the stable, and was
there found dead. Neither the lady nor the horse eventually suffered.

'Rabies in the Guinea-pig'.--A man suspected of being hydrophobous was
taken to the Middlesex Hospital. He was examined before several of the
medical students; one of whom, in order to make more sure of the affair,
inoculated a guinea-pig with the saliva taken from the man's mouth. The
guinea-pig had been usually very playful, and fond of being noticed;
but, on the eleventh day after this inoculation, he began to be dull and
sullen, retiring into his house, and hiding himself as much as he could
in a corner. On the following day he became out of temper, and even
ferocious in his way; he bit at everything that was presented to him,
gnawed his cage, and made the most determined efforts to escape. Once or
twice his violence induced convulsions of his whole frame; and they
might be produced at pleasure by dashing a little water at him. In the
course of the night following he died.

'Rabies in the Cat'.--Fortunately for us, this does not often occur; for
a mad cat is a truly ferocious animal. I have seen two cases, one of
them to my cost; yet, I am unable to give any satisfactory account of
the progress of the disease. The first stage seems to be one of
sullenness, and which would probably last to death; but from that
sullenness it is dangerous to rouse the animal. It probably would not,
except in the paroxysm of rage, attack any one; but during that paroxysm
it knows no fear, nor has its ferocity any bounds.

A cat, that had been the inhabitant of a nursery, and the playmate of
the children, had all at once become sullen and ill-tempered. It had
taken refuge in an upper room, and could not be coaxed from the corner
in which it had crouched. It was nearly dark when I went. I saw the
horrible glare of her eyes, but I could not see so much of her as I
wished, and I said that I would call again in the morning.

I found the patient, on the following day, precisely in the same
situation and the same attitude, crouched up in a corner, and ready to
spring. I was very much interested in the case; and as I wanted to study
the countenance of this demon, for she looked like one, I was foolishly,
inexcusably imprudent. I went on my hands and knees, and brought my face
nearly on a level with hers, and gazed on those glaring eyes, and that
horrible countenance, until I seemed to feel the deathly influence of a
spell stealing over me. I was not afraid, but every mental and bodily
power was in a manner suspended. My countenance, perhaps, alarmed her,
for she sprang on me, fastened herself on my face, and bit through both
my lips. She then darted down stairs, and, I believe, was never seen
again. I always have nitrate of silver in my pocket, even now I am never
without it; I washed myself, and applied the caustic with some severity
to the wound; and my medical adviser and valued friend, Mr. Millington,
punished me still more after I got home. My object was attained,
although at somewhat too much cost, for the expression of that brute's
countenance will never be forgotten.

The later symptoms of rabies in this animal, no one, perhaps, has had
the opportunity of observing: we witness only the sullenness and the
ferocity.

'Rabies in the Fowl'.--Dr. Ashburner and Mr. King inoculated a hen with
the saliva from a rabid cow. They made two incisions through the
integument, under the wings, and then well rubbed into these cuts the
foam taken from the cow's mouth. She was after this let loose among
other fowls in the poultry-yard. The incisions soon healed, and their
places could with difficulty be discovered. Ten weeks passed over, when
she was observed to refuse her food, and to run at the other fowls. She
had a strange wild appearance, and her eyes were blood-shot. Early on
the following morning her legs became contracted, so that she very soon
lost the power of standing upright. She remained sitting a long time,
with the legs rigid, refusing food and water, and appearing very
irritable when touched. She died in the evening, immediately after
drinking a large quantity of water which had been offered to her.

'Rabies in the Badger'.--Hufeland, in his valuable Journal of Practical
Medicine, relates a case of a rabid female badger attacking two boys.
She bit them both, but she fastened on the thigh of one of them, and was
destroyed in the act of sucking his blood. The poor fellow died
hydrophobous, but the other escaped. This fact, certainly, gives us no
idea of the general character of the disease in this animal; but it
speaks volumes as to its ferocity.

'Rabies in the Wolf'.--Rabies is ushered in by nearly the same symptoms,
and pursues the same course in the wolf us in the dog, with this
difference, which would be readily expected, that his ferocity and the
mischief which he accomplishes are much greater. The dog hunts out his
own species, and his fury is principally directed against them;
although, if he meets with a flock of sheep, or a herd of cattle, he
readily attacks them, and, perhaps, bites the greater part of them. The
dog, however, frequently turns out of his way to avoid the human being,
and seldom attacks him without provocation. The wolf, on the contrary,
although he commits fearful ravages among the sheep and cattle, searches
out the human being as his favorite prey. He conceals himself near the
entrance to the village, and steals upon and wounds every passenger that
he can get at. There are several accounts of more than twenty persons
having been bitten by one wolf; and there is a fearful history of
sixteen persons perishing from the bite of one of these animals. This is
in perfect agreement with the account which I have given of the
connexion between the previous temper and habits of the rabid dog, and
the mischief that he effects under the influence of this malady. The
wolf, as he wanders in the forest, regards the human being as his
persecutor and foe; and, in the paroxysm of rabid fury, he is most eager
to avenge himself on his natural enemy. Strange stories are told of the
arts to which he has recourse in order to accomplish his purpose. In the
great majority of cases he steals unawares upon his victim, and the
mischief is effected before the wood-cutter or the villager is conscious
of his danger.

The following observations and experiments respecting rabies, by Dr.
Hertwich, Professor at the Veterinary School at Berlin, are well worthy
of attention.

1. Out of fifty dogs that had been inoculated with virus taken from a
rabid animal of the same species, fourteen only were infected.

2. In the cases where inoculation had been practised without effect, no
reason could be assigned why the disease should not have taken place.
This consequently proves that the malady is similar to others of a
contagious nature, and that there must exist a predisposition in the
individual to receive the disease before it can occur. In one
experiment, a mastiff dog, aged four years, was inoculated without
exhibiting any symptoms of the malady, while seven others, who had been
inoculated at the same time and place, soon became rabid. Several of
these animals had been inoculated several times before any symptoms
showed themselves, while in others, on the contrary, once was
sufficient.

3. It appears that in a state of doubtful rabies, one or two accidental
or artificial inoculations are not sufficient to create a negative proof
of its existence.

4. This disease has never ben communicated to an individual from one
infected by means of the perspirable matter; this, therefore, is a proof
that the contagious part of the disease is not of a volatile nature.

5. It does not only exist in the saliva and the mucus of the mouth, but
likewise in the blood and the parenchyma of the salivary glands; but not
in the pulpy substance of the nerves.

6. The power of communicating infection is found to exist in all stages
of the confirmed disease, even twenty-four hours after the decease of
the rabid animal.

7. The morbid virus, when administered internally, appears to be
incapable of communicating this disease; inasmuch as of twenty dogs to
whom was given a certain quantity, not one exhibited the least symptom
of rabies.

8. The application of the saliva upon recent wounds appears to have been
as often succeeded by confirmed rabies as when the dog had been bitten
by a rabid animal.

9. It cannot now be doubled that the disease is produced by the wound
itself, as was supposed by M. Girard of Lyons, not by the fright of the
individual, according to the opinion of others, but only from the
absorption of the morbid virus from its surface.

10. Several experiments have proved to me the little reliance there is
to be placed on the opinions of Baden and Capello, who believe that, in
those dogs who become rabid after the bite of an animal previously
attacked with this disease, the contagious properties of the saliva is
not continued, but only exists in those primarily bitten.

11. During the period of incubation of the virus there are no morbid,
local, or general alterations of structure or function to be seen in the
infected animal; neither are there any vesicles to be perceived on the
inferior surface of the tongue, nor any previous symptoms which are
found in other contagious diseases.

12. This disease is generally at its height at the end of fifty days
after either artificial or accidental inoculation; and the author has
never known it to manifest itself at a later period.

13. It is quite an erroneous idea to suppose that dogs in a state of
health are enabled to distinguish, at first sight, a rabid animal,
inasmuch as they never refuse their food when mixed with the secretions
of those infected. [3]

The following singular trial respecting the death of a child by
hydrophobia is worth quoting:

'Jones v. Parry.'--The plaintiff is a labourer, who gets only fourteen
shillings a week to support himself and his family. The defendant is his
neighbour, and keeps a public-house. This was an action brought by the
plaintiff to recover damages against the defendant for the loss of his
son, who was bitten by the defendant's dog, and afterwards became
affected with rabies, of which disease he died.

It appeared in the evidence that the defendant's dog had, some time ago,
been bitten by another dog; in consequence of which this dog was tied in
the cellar, but the length of the rope which was allowed him enabled him
to go to a considerable distance. The plaintiff's child knew the dog,
having often played with him when he was at large. Some time ago the
child crossed the street, near to the place where the dog was fastened,
who rushed out of the place in which he was confined to where the child
stood, sprung upon him, and bit him sadly in the face, and afterwards
violently shook him. The child being thus wounded, a surgeon was sent
for, who, after having dressed him, and attended him for a certain time,
gave directions that he should be taken to the sea-side, and bathed in
the salt water.

This having been continued for some time, the child was brought home,
and, at the expiration of a month from the day on which he was bitten,
became evidently and strangely ill. The surgeon proved beyond all
shadow of doubt thai the child laboured under rabies; that he had the
never-failing symptoms of that dreadful affliction; and that a little
while before he expired, he even barked like a dog. The surgeon's charge
to the father for his attendance was'£1. 6s. 6d.', which, together with
the charge of the undertaker for the funeral of the child, amounted to
between six and seven pounds. Application was made to the defendant to
defray this expense, which at first he expressed a willingness to comply
with, but afterwards refused; upon which this action was brought.

After some time the defendant offered to pay the plaintiff the sum of
'£6. 3s. 6d.', and the expense of the funeral and the surgeon, provided
the plaintiff would bear the expenses of the lawsuit, which he was not
in a condition to do, as probably it would amount to more than that
money. On this account, therefore, the action was now brought into
court. There was no proof that the defendant knew or suspected his dog
to be mad, previously to his attacking the boy; but an animal known to
have been bitten by a mad dog, ought either to have been at once
destroyed, or so secured that it was impossible for him to do mischief.

Lord Kenyon observed to the jury, that this was one of those causes
which came home to the feelings of all, yet must not be carried farther
than justice demanded. A cause like this never, perhaps, before occurred
in a court of justice; but there had been many resembling it in point of
principle. If a dog, known to be ill-tempered and vicious, did any
person an injury without provocation, there could be no question that
the owner of the dog was answerable, in a court of justice, for the
injury inflicted. Here was a worse case. The dog by whom the child was
bitten had been attacked by another that was undeniably rabid. His
master was aware of this, and placed him in a state of partial
confinement--a confinement so lax, and so inefficient, that this poor
child had broken through it, and was bitten and died. What other people
would have done in such a situation he could not tell; but, if he were
asked what he would do, he answered, he certainly would kill the dog,
however much of a favourite he had been, because no atonement was within
the reach of his fortune to make to the injured party for such a
dreadful visitation of Providence as this. It was not enough for the
owner of such a dog to say, he took precaution to prevent mischief: he
ought to have made it impossible that mischief could happen; and,
therefore, as soon as there was any reasonable suspicion that the dog
was rabid, he ought to have destroyed him.

But, if the owner wished to save the animal, until he was satisfied of
the actual state of the case, he ought to have secured him, so that
every individual might be safe. Whether the defendant thought he had
done all that was necessary, his lordship did not know; but this he
knew, that the dog was not perfectly secured, otherwise this misfortune
could not have happened.

The care which the defendant took in this case was not enough, and,
therefore, he had no doubt that this action was maintainable. The jury
would judge what damages they ought to give. He would refer this to
their feelings. They could not avoid commiserating the distress of the
family of this poor man. He should, however, observe to the jury, that
they must not give vindictive damages; but still he did not think that
damages merely to the amount of '£6'. or '£7'., which was stated to be
the expense of the funeral, &c., would at all meet the justice of the
case. He was inclined to advise them to go beyond that, although he did
not plead vindictive damages. There would be costs to be defrayed by the
plaintiff, well known in the profession under the head of "extra costs,"
even although he had a verdict. If the verdict had been at his disposal,
he would have taken care that these costs should have been borne by the
party that had been the cause of the injury. That appeared to him to be
the justice of the case.

He trusted that none who heard him would doubt his sincerity, when he
said, he lamented the misfortune which had given birth to this action;
and, with that qualification of the case, he must say that he was not
sorry that this action had been brought. He thanked the plaintiff for
bringing it; for it might be of public benefit. It would teach a lesson
that would not soon be forgotten, "That a person, who knowingly keeps a
vicious, dangerous animal, should be considered to be answerable for all
the acts of that animal." There were instances in which very large
damages had been given to repair such injuries. He did not say that the
present case called for large damages; but, if other cases of the same
kind should be brought into court after this had been made public, he
hoped the jury would go beyond the ordinary limits, and give verdicts
which might operate 'in terrorem' on the offending parties.

Verdict for the plaintiff--damages £36. [4]

A child was bitten by a rabid dog at York, and became hydrophobous. All
possibility of relief having vanished, the parents, desirous of putting
an end to the agony of their child, or fearful of its doing mischief,
smothered it between two pillows. They were tried for murder, and found
guilty. They were afterwards pardoned; but the intention of the
prosecutor was that of deterring others from a similar practice, in a
like unfortunate situation [5].

In 1821, a physician, at Poissy, was sentenced to pay 8000 francs (£320)
to a poor widow whose husband died of hydrophobia, in consequence of a
bite from the physician's dog, he knowing that the dog had been bitten,
yet not confining him.

[Our author having written so extensively upon the subject of rabies, it
would seem superfluous in us to attempt to add anything more upon a
subject so ably and practically handled by one having so great
opportunities to make personal observations. However, to allay the
feelings of many of our dogkilling citizens, we will not hesitate to
assert that we do not place as much credence in the frequency of rabies
as is generally done; but, on the other hand, are strongly led to
believe that the accounts of this much-dreaded malady are greatly
exaggerated both in this country and in England.

That there may be a few cases of rabies in our country in the course of
a year, we do not doubt; but, at the same time, we are satisfied that
the affection in its genuine form is quite rare, and that the great hue
and cry made every season about mad dogs, is more the result of
ignorance and fright than of reality.

Our limits in this publication would not allow us sufficient space to
enlarge upon the many pathological questions naturally arising from a
minute examination of this subject, more particularly as our views are
somewhat at variance with the generally received opinion, and which, of
course, we would be forced to express with considerable diffidence,
owing to the impossibility of collecting such evidence as might seem
necessary to substantiate any peculiar doctrine.

That tetanus, hysteria, and other spasmodic affections have often been
mistaken for rabies, there is no doubt, and we can easily imagine the
mental effect produced upon an individual of a highly nervous
temperament, by the knowledge of his being bitten by an animal known to
be hydrophobic; and we can, without difficulty, reconcile with our best
judgment the belief 'that the workings of such an individual's
imagination, occasioned by the never-ceasing dread of the horrid malady
to which he is now exposed, might be sufficient to produce a train of
symptoms somewhat resembling the actual state of rabies.'

For the benefit of these nervous unfortunates, we might say to them,
that the statistics of this affection show a very considerable ratio in
favour of escape from inoculation when bitten, or of entire recovery
even after the development of the disease, and that there are many
other ills in the catalogue of medicine that they should take equal
pains to provide against as lyssa canina. We doubt not that the minds of
many will be relieved, when informed that John Hunter mentions an
instance, in which, out of twenty persons bitten by a rabid dog, only
one suffered from the malady; and that of fifty-nine dogs inoculated by
Professor Hertwick at the veterinary school of Berlin, only fourteen
were affected; and of eleven patients entrusted to the care of M. Blaise
of Cluny, seven recovered after exhibiting greater or less degrees of
spasmodic symptoms.

It may prove interesting to our readers, to insert in these pages an
account of the first two cases of rabies known in Philadelphia, and as
related to us by a venerable and much-esteemed citizen, who is well
known in the scientific world as a gentleman of deep research, and we
agree with him in opinion, that this much-dreaded disease is most
frequently the result of like causes, or rather that like symptoms often
induce the belief of the presence of this malady, when, in fact, no such
disease does exist.

Towards the close of the last century, there lived a tailor in Front
street, near Market, in the midst of the most respectable people of that
period; among the number was our esteemed friend Mr. Hembel, as also
Judge Tilghman. This tailor possessed an ill-tempered little spaniel,
who, lounging about the street-door, attacked every one that passed by,
snapping and snarling in the most worrisome manner, more particularly at
every little urchin that invaded his "right of pavement," and not
unfrequently biting them or tearing their clothes from their back. The
owner of the dog was appealed to on many occasions by the neighbours,
begging that the quarrelsome brute should either be disposed of or kept
within doors. To all these solicitations and warnings the little tailor
paid no heed, but continued stitching his breeches and cribbing his
customers' goods, while the ugly little spaniel, without interruption,
amused himself by snapping at and biting the heels of the passers-by.

The nuisance at last became insufferable, and Judge Tilghman applied to
Mr. Hembel to assist him in getting rid of this troublesome brute; the
latter gentleman advised the administration of a small quantity of
strychnia, concealed in a portion of meat, which proposition was agreed
upon and immediately carried into execution. A short time after the
administering of this dose the spaniel sickened, and retired from his
post to the kitchen, which was in the basement, and where an Irish
domestic was engaged in washing; the dog appeared uneasy for a time, and
suddenly, being taken with the involuntary muscular convulsions that
so frequently follow the administration of this powerful drug, ran
around the kitchen yelping and howling at a most terrible rate, and
ultimately, to the no small discomfiture and amazement of the maid,
sprang up into the wash-tub, at which unceremonious caper, on the part
of the dog, the woman became greatly alarmed and ran out into the
street, followed by the whole household, crying mad dog, which soon
produced an uproar in the neighbourhood, no one daring to satisfy
himself as to the correctness of the report, and all, perhaps, too
ignorant of the subject to discern the real cause of the animal's
singular behaviour. The tailor, still bearing a strong attachment to his
unfortunate favourite, and being somewhat more daring than his
neighbours, ventured, at length, to peep into the kitchen to see the
state of affairs, and seeing the dog still convulsed and foaming at the
mouth, was more than ever confirmed in the belief of hydrophobia, and
knowing full well the biting propensities of the animal, independent of
rabies, concluded, much to the relief of every one, to shoot him. The
next step in the programme was the dragging out and consigning of the
patient to a watery grave, which was accomplished by placing, with a
pair of tongs, a noose over the head of the animal, and thus hauling him
out of the basement window amid the cheers of the assembled populace who
soon cast him into the Delaware.

The second case of rabies as related to us by Mr. Hembel was as
follows:--In 1793 the barbers of the city were in the habit of going
around to the various boarding-houses for the purpose of shaving the
visitors in their apartments, instead of accommodating them, as at the
present time, in their own establishments.

One of these knights of the razor, living also in Front street, when
going to and from a fashionable boarding-house in the vicinity, was not
unfrequently assailed by a small cur who often took him by the heels
when hurrying along.

To get rid of this annoying little animal as speedily and secretly as
possible, he had recourse to the powers of strychnia, which produced in
a very short time similar effects upon the poor victim, and the result
was another great hue and cry about mad dogs.

These authentic and remarkable cases of hydrophobia were heralded in all
the papers of the day, which, from that time forward, were filled with
notes of caution to all dog-owners.

Of the 'treatment' of rabies we will make but a few remarks, as of the
immense number of specifics proposed for this disease, amounting in all
to several hundred, few or none can be relied on to the exclusion of the
others; but those medicines, perhaps, known as opiates or
anti-spasmodics, claim a larger share of attention than any others in
combating the disease after its development. In looking over the very
original works of Jacques Du Fouilloux, a worthy cynegetical writer of
the sixteenth century, we find a prescription that was supposed by many
to be an infallible specific for this disease, and as it appears to us
quite as certain in its effects on the animal economy as many others of
the inert substances that have been lauded to the skies both in our
country and in other parts of the world as antidotes, we take the
liberty of transcribing it, as also of adding a translation of his
quaint French.

'Autre recepte par mots preservants la rage.'

'Ay appris vne recepte d'vn Gentil-homme, en Bretaigne, lequel faisoit
de petits escriteaux, où n'y auoit seulement que deux lignes, lesquels
il mettoit en vne omellette d'oeufs, puis les faisoit aualer aux chiens
qui auorient esté mords de chiens enragez, et auoit dedans l'escriteau,
'Y Ran Quiran Cafram Cafratrem, Cafratrosque'. Lesquels mots disoit
estre singuliers pour empescher les chiens de la rage, mais quant à moi
ie n'y adiouste pas foy.

I have learned a recipe from a nobleman of Brittany, which is composed
of a written charm, in which there are only two lines; these he put in
an omelet of eggs, he then made the dogs that had been bitten by a rabid
animal swallow them. There was on the paper "'Y Ran Quiran Cafram
Cafratrem, Cafratrosque'". These words were said to be singularly
efficacious in preventing madness in dogs, but for my part I do not
credit it.

Although our quaint author considered the above charm even too
marvellous for his belief, we give below his own prescription in which
he placed implicit confidence, but, no doubt, on trial it would prove
'"as singularly efficacious" as the other'.

Baing pour lauer, les chiens, quand ils ont esté mords des chiens
enragez, de peur qu'ils enragent.

Quand les chiens sont mords ou desbrayez de chiens enragez, il faut
incontinent emplir vne pippe d'eau, puis prendre quatre boisseaux de sel
et les ietter dedans, en meslaut fort le sel auec vn baston pour le
faire fondre soudainement: et quand il sera fondu, faut mettre le chien
dedans, et le plonger tout, sans qu'il paroisse rien, par neuf fois:
puis quand il sera bien laué, faut le laisser aller, celà l'empeschera
d'enrager.

When a dog has been bitten or scratched by another affected with
madness, we must immediately take a tub of water and throw into it four
bushels of salt, stirring it briskly with a stick to make it dissolve
quickly. When the salt shall be dissolved, put the dog into the bath,
and plunge him well nine times, so that the bath shall cover him each
time; now that he is well washed you may let him go, as this will
prevent his becoming rabid.

Having given publicity to the two preceding valuable receipts, we must
be pardoned for adding our own views upon this point, as a caution to
those who may not feel sufficient faith in the remedies above mentioned.

The wound should be thoroughly washed and cleansed as soon as possible
after the bite is inflicted: no sucking of the parts, as is advised by
many, for the purpose of extracting the poison, as the presence of a
small abrasion of the lips or interior of the mouth would most assuredly
subject the parts to inoculation. If the wound be ragged, the edges may
be taken off with a pair of sharp scissors; the wound must then be
thoroughly cauterized with nitrate of silver (lunar caustic), being sure
to introduce the caustic into the very depths of the wound, so that it
will reach every particle of poison that may have insinuated itself into
the flesh. If the wound is too small to admit of the stick of caustic,
it may be enlarged by the knife, taking care, however, not to carry the
poison into the fresh cut, which can be avoided by wiping the knife at
each incision. Should the wound be made on any of the limbs, a bandage
may be placed around it during the application of these remedies, the
more effectually to prevent the absorption of the virus. Nitrate of
silver is a most powerful neutralizer of specific poisons, and the
affected parts will soon come away with the slough, no dressings being
necessary, except perhaps olive oil, if there should be much
inflammation of the parts. If the above plan be pursued, the patient
need be under no apprehension as to the result, but make his mind
perfectly easy on the point. This is the course generally pursued by the
veterinary surgeons of Europe, and there are but few of them who have not,
some time in their practice, been bitten and often severely lacerated by
rabid animals; nevertheless, we never hear of their having suffered any
bad effects from such accidents. If caustic be not at hand, the wound
may be seared over with red-hot iron, which will answer as good a
purpose, although much more painful in its operation. Mr. Blaine, in
closing his able and scientific article on this subject, very justly
remarks,

  "Would I could instil into such minds the 'uncertainty' of the disease
  appearing at all; that is, even when no means have been used; and the
  'perfect security' they may feel who have submitted to the preventive
  treatment detailed. I have been bitten several times, Mr. Youatt
  several also; yet in neither of us was any dread occasioned: our
  experience taught us the 'absolute certainty' of the 'preventive'
  means; and such I take on me to pronounce they always prove, when
  performed with dexterity and judgment." We acknowledge ourselves a
  convert to this gentleman's doctrine; and feel satisfied that if the
  above course be adopted, there need be no fear whatever of the
  development of this frightful affection.--L.]



[Footnote 1: 'La Folie des Animaux', by M. Perquin.]


[Footnote 2: The physician Apollonius, having been bitten by a rabid
dog, induced another dog to lick the wound,

  "ut idem medicus esset qui vulneris auctor fuit."]


[Footnote 3: 'Journal Pratique de Méd. Vét.']


[Footnote 4: 'Sporting Magazine', vol. xviii. p. 186.]


[Footnote 5: Daniel's 'Rural Sports', vol. i. p. 220.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER VIII.

THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES.

The diseases that attack the same organ are essentially different, in
different animals, in their symptoms, intensity, progress, and mode of
treatment. In periodic ophthalmia--that pest of the equine race and
opprobrium of the veterinary profession--the cornea becomes suddenly
opaque, the iris pale, the aqueous humour turbid, the capsule of the
lens cloudy, and blindness is the result. After a time, however, the
cornea clears up, and becomes as bright as ever; but the lens continues
impervious to light, and vision is lost.

Ophthalmia in the dog presents us with symptoms altogether different.
The conjunctiva is red; that portion of it which spreads over the
sclerotica is highly injected, and the cornea is opaque. As the disease
proceeds, and even at a very early period of its progress, an ulcer
appears on the centre; at first superficial, but enlarging and deepening
until it has penetrated the cornea, and the aqueous humour has escaped.
Granulations then spring from the edges of the ulcer, rapidly enlarge,
and protrude through the lids. Under proper treatment, however, or by a
process of nature, these granulations cease to sprout; they begin to
disappear; the ulcer diminishes; it heals; scarcely a trace of it can be
seen; the cornea recovers its perfect transparency, and vision is not in
the slightest degree impaired.

There is a state of the orbit which requires some consideration. It is
connected with the muscles employed in mastication. Generally speaking,
the food of the dog requires no extraordinary degree of mastication, nor
is there usually any great time employed in this operation. That muscle
which is most employed in the comminution of the food, namely, the
temporal muscle, has its action very much limited by the position of the
bony socket of the eye; yet sufficient room is left for all the force
that can be required. In some dogs, either for purposes of offence or
defence, or the more effectual grasping of the prey, a sudden violent
exertion of muscular power, and a consequent contraction of the temporal
muscle, are requisite, but for which the imperfect socket of the orbit
does not seem to afford sufficient scope and room. There is an admirable
provision for this in the removal of a certain portion of the orbital
process of the frontal bone on the outer and upper part of the external
ridge, and the substitution of an elastic cartilage. This cartilage
momentarily yields to the swelling of the muscles; and then, by its
inherent elasticity, the external ridge of the orbit resumes its
pristine form. The orbit of the dog, the pig, and the cat, exhibits this
singular mechanism.

The horse is, to a certain extent, also an illustration of this. He
requires an extended field of vision to warn him of the approach of his
enemies in his wild state, and a direction of the orbits somewhat
forward to enable him to pursue with safety the headlong course to which
we sometimes urge him; and for this purpose his eyes are placed more
forward than those of cattle, sheep, or swine. That which Mr. Percivall
states of the horse is true of our other domesticated animals:

  "The eyeball is placed within the anterior or more capacious part of
  the orbit, nearer to the frontal than to the temporal side, with a
  degree of prominence peculiar to the individual, and, within certain
  limits, variable at his will."

In many of the carnivorous animals the orbit encroaches on the bones of
the face. A singular effect is also produced on the countenance, both
when the animal is growling over his prey and when he is devouring it.
The temporal muscle is violently acted upon; it presses upon the
cartilage that forms part of the external ridge; that again forces
itself upon and protrudes the eye, and hence the peculiar ferocity of
expression which is observed at that time. The victims of these
carnivorous animals are also somewhat provided against danger by the
acuteness of sight with which they are gifted. Adipose matter also
exists in a considerable quantity in the orbit of the eye, which enables
it to revolve by the slightest contraction of the muscles.

We should scarcely expect to meet with cases of fracture of the orbital
arch in the dog, because, in that animal, cartilage, or a
cartilago-ligamentous substance, occupies a very considerable part of
that arch; but I have again and again, among the cruelties that are
practised on the inferior creation, seen the cartilage partly, or even
entirely, torn asunder. I have never been able satisfactorily to
ascertain the existence of this during life; but I have found it on
those whom I have recommended to be destroyed on account of the brutal
usage which they had experienced. Blows somewhat higher, or on the thick
temporal muscle of this animal, will very rarely produce a fracture.

A few cases of disease in the eye may be interesting and useful.

'Case' I.--The eyes of a favourite spaniel were found inflamed and
impatient of light. Nothing wrong had been perceived on the preceding
day. No ulceration could be observed on the cornea, and there was but a
slight mucous discharge. An infusion of digitalis, with twenty times the
quantity of tepid water, was employed as a collyrium, and an aloetic
ball administered. On the following day the eyes were more inflamed, The
collyrium and the aloes were employed as before, and a seton inserted in
the poll.

Three or four days afterwards the redness was much diminished, the
discharge from the eye considerably lessened, and the dog was sent home.
The seton, however, was continued, with an aloetic ball on every third
or fourth day.

Two or three days after this the eyes were perfectly cured and the seton
removed.

'Case' II.--The eye is much inflamed and the brow considerably
protruded.

This was supposed to be caused by a bite. I vainly endeavoured to bring
the lid over the swelling. I scarified the lid freely, and ordered the
bleeding to be encouraged by the constant application of warm water, and
physic-ball to be given.

On the following day the brow was found to be scarcely or at all
reduced, and the eye could not be closed. I drew out the haw with a
crooked needle, and cut it off closely with sharp scissors. The excised
portion was as large as a small-kidney-bean. The fomentation was
continued five days afterwards, and the patient then dismissed cured.

'Case' III.--A pointer was brought in a sad state of mange. Redness,
scurf, and eruptions were on almost every part. Apply the mange ointment
and the alterative and physic balls. On the following day there was an
ulcer on the centre of the cornea, with much appearance of pain and
impatience of light. Apply an infusion of digitalis, with the liquor
plumbi diacetatis. He was taken away on the twelfth day, the mange
apparently cured, and the inflammation of the eye considerably lessened.
A fortnight afterwards this also appeared to be cured.

'Case' IV.--A spaniel had been bitten by a large dog. There was no wound
of the lids, but the eye was protruded from the socket. I first tried
whether it could be reduced by gentle pressure, but I could not
accomplish it. I then introduced the blunt end of a curved needle
between the eye and the lid; and thus drawing up the lid with the right
hand, while I pressed gently on the eye with the left hand, I
accomplished my object. I then subtracted three ounces of blood and gave
a physic-ball. On the following day the eye was hot and red, with some
tumefaction. The pupil was moderately contracted, but was scarcely
affected by any change of light. The dog was sent home, with some
extract of goulard, and a fortnight afterwards was quite well.

'Case' V.--A dog received a violent blow on the right eye. Immediate
blindness occurred, or the dog could apparently just discern the
difference between light and darkness, but could not distinguish
particular objects. The pupil was expanded and immovable. A
pink-coloured hue could be perceived on looking earnestly into the eye.
A seton was introduced into the poll, kept there nearly a month, and
often stimulated rather sharply. General remedies of almost every kind
were tried: depletion was carried to its full extent, the electric fluid
was had recourse to; but at the expiration of nine weeks the case was
abandoned and the dog destroyed. Permission to examine him was refused.

I have, in two or three instances, witnessed decided cases of dropsy of
the eye, accumulation of fluid taking place in both the anterior and
posterior chambers of the eye; there was also effusion of blood in the
chambers, but in one case only was there the slightest benefit produced
by the treatment adopted, and in that there was gradual absorption of
the effused fluid.

About the same time there was another similar case. A pointer had
suddenly considerable opacity of one eye, without any known cause: the
other eye was not in the least degree affected. The dog had not been out
of the garden for more than a week. The eye was ordered to be fomented
with warm water.

On the following day the inflammation had increased, and the adipose
matter was protruded at both the inner and outer canthus. The eye was
bathed frequently with a goulard lotion. On the fourth day the eyeball
was still more inflamed, and the projections at both canthi were
increased. A curved needle was passed through both eyes, and there was
considerable bleeding. On the following day the inflammation began to
subside. At the expiration of a week scarcely any disease remained, and
the eye became as transparent as ever.

A curious ease of congenital blindness was brought to my infirmary. A
female pointer puppy, eight weeks old, had both her eyes of their
natural size and formation, but the inner edge of the iris was strangely
diseased. The pupil was curiously four-cornered, and very small. There
hung out of the pupil a grayish-white fibrous matter, which appeared to
be the remainder of the pupillary membrane.

Six months afterwards we examined her again, and found that the pupil
was considerably enlarged, and properly shaped, and the white skin had
vanished. In the back-ground of the eye there was a faint yellow-green
light, and the dog not only showed sensibility to light, but some
perception of external objects. At this period we lost sight of her.

A very considerable improvement has taken place with regard to the
treatment of the enlarged or protruded ball of the eye. A dog may get
into a skirmish, and have his eye forced from the socket. If there is
little or no bleeding, the case will probably be easily and successfully
treated.

The eye must, first, be thoroughly washed, and not a particle of grit
must be left. A little oil, a crooked needle, and a small piece of soft
rag should be procured. The blunt end of the needle should he dipped
into the oil, and run round the inside of the lid, first above and then
below. The operator will next--his fingers being oiled--press upon the
protruded eye gently, yet somewhat firmly, changing the pressure from
one part of the eye to the other, in order to force it back into the
socket.

If, after a couple of minutes' trial, he does not succeed, let him again
oil the eye on the inside and the out, and once more introduce the blunt
end of the needle, attempting to carry it upwards under the lid with two
or three fingers pressing on the eye, and the points of pressure being
frequently changed. In by far the greater number of cases, the eye will
be saved.

If it is impracticable to cause the eye to retract, a needle with a
thread attached must be passed through it, the eye being then drawn as
forward as possible and cut off close to the lids. The bleeding will
soon cease and the lids perfectly close.

'Ophthalmia' is a disease to which the dog is often liable. It is the
result of exposure either to heat or to cold, or violent exertion; it is
remedied by bleeding, purging, and the application of sedative medicine,
as the acetate of lead or the tincture of opium. When the eye is
considerably inflamed, in addition to the application of tepid or cold
water, either the inside of the lids or the white of the eye may be
lightly touched with the lancet. From exposure to cold, or accident or
violence, inflammation often spreads on the eye to a considerable
degree, the pupil is clouded, and small streaks of blood spread over the
opaque cornea. The mode of treatment just described must be pursued.

The crystalline lens occasionally becomes opaque. There is cataract. It
may be the result of external injury or of internal predisposition. Old
dogs are particularly subject to cataract. That which arises from
accident, or occasionally disease, may, although seldom, be reinstated,
especially in the young dog, and both eyes may become sound; but, in the
old, the slow-growing opacity will, almost to a certainty, terminate in
cataract.

There is occasionally an enlargement of the eye, or rather an
accumulation of fluid within the eye, to a very considerable extent. No
external application seems to have the slightest effect in reducing the
bulk of the eye. If it is punctured, much inflammation ensues, and the
eye gradually wastes away.

In 'amaurosis', the eye is beautifully clear, and, for a little while,
this clearness imposes upon the casual observer; but there is a peculiar
pellucid appearance about the eye--a preternatural and unchanging
brightness. In the horse, the sight occasionally returns, but I have
never seen this in the dog.

The occasional glittering of the eyes of the dog has been often
observed. The cat, the wolf, some carnivora, and also sheep, cows, and
horses, occasionally exhibit the same glittering. Pallas imagined that
the light of these animals emanated from the nervous membrane of the
eye, and considered it to be an electrical phenomenon. It is found,
however, in every animal that possesses a 'tapetum lucidum'. The
shining, however, never takes place in complete darkness. It is neither
produced voluntarily, nor in consequence of any moral emotion, but
solely from the reflection that falls on the eye.

[The eye and its diseases being so concisely treated by Mr. Youatt, we
are emboldened to add a more full and particular treatise on this
interesting subject, couched in language the most simple, and we trust
sufficiently plain to be understood by the most unscientific patron of
the canine race.



THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES.

THE NICTITATING MEMBRANE.

It is somewhat astonishing that an organ, so delicate and so much
exposed as the eye of the hunting dog necessarily is, should not more
frequently be attacked with disease, or suffer from the thorns,
poisonous briars, and bushes that so constantly oppose their progress
while in search of game. Nature, ever wise in her undertakings, while
endowing this organ with extreme sensibility, also furnished it with the
means of protecting itself in some measure against the many evils that
so constantly threaten its destruction.

The plica semilunaris, haw or nictitating membrane, though not as
largely developed in the dog as in some other animals, is, nevertheless,
of sufficient size to afford considerable protection to the ball of the
eye, and assists materially in preventing the accumulation of seeds and
other minute particles within the conjunctiva. This delicate membrane is
found at the inner canthus of the eye, and can be drawn at pleasure over
a portion of the globe, so as to free its surface from any foreign
substances that might be upon it. Although the eye of the dog is
attacked by many diseases, almost as numerous as those of the human
being, still they are much less frequent and far more tractable.


OPTHAMALIA--SIMPLE INFLAMMATION OF THE EYE.

In its mild form this disease is frequently met with, and easily yields
to the administration of the proper remedies, but when it appears as an
epidemic, in a kennel, it proves more stubborn. The discharge in
epidemic ophthalmia, when carried from one dog to the eyes of another,
no doubt is contagious, and, therefore, it is necessary to separate dogs
as much from each other as possible during any prevalent epidemic of
this nature.

The disease announces itself by slight redness of the conjunctiva,
tenderness to light, and increased flow of the secretions.

The eyeball appears retracted in its socket, and more moist and
transparent than usual. The infected vessels of the conjunctiva form a
species of net-work, and can be moved about with this membrane, showing
that the inflammation is entirely superficial, and not penetrating the
other coverings of the eye. Extravasation of blood within the
conjunctiva, (bloodshot,) is also not an uncommon appearance, but is
frequently the first symptom that draws our attention to the malady.

As the disease progresses, the conjunctiva becomes more vascular, the
photophobia intolerable, the cornea itself becomes opaque, and sometimes
exhibits a vascular appearance.  There is considerable itching of the
ball, as evinced by the disposition of the dog to close the eye. If the
disease progresses in its course, unchecked by any remediate means, the
cornea may lose its vitality, ulceration commence, and the sight be for
ever destroyed by the bursting and discharge of the contents of the eye.

'Causes.'--Simple canine opthalmia proceeds from many causes, distinct
in their character, but all requiring pretty much the same treatment.
Bad feeding, bad lodging, want of exercise, extremes of heat, and cold,
are the most active agents in producing this affection.

'Treatment.'--The disease in its mild form is very tractable, and
requires but little attention; soothing applications, in connexion with
confinement to an obscure apartment and low diet, will generally correct
the affection in its forming stage.

In all inflammations of the eye, tepid applications we consider
preferable to cold, the latter producing a temporary reaction, but no
permanent good, while the former exerts a soothing and relaxing
influence over the tissues and parts to which they are applied.

Weak vinegar and water, with a small proportion of laudanum, we have
frequently seen used with advantage as a wash in this complaint.

When there is fever, it will be necessary to bleed, and purge.
Scarifying the conjunctiva with the point of a lancet, has been resorted
to by some veterinary surgeons with success.


CHRONIC OPHTHALMIA.

When the disease assumes this form, the discharge from the eyes is
lessened, and becomes more thick, the conjunctiva is not of such a
bright arterial red, but more of a brick-dust colour, and the inner side
of the lids when exposed will present small prominences and ulcerations.

'Treatment.'--More stimulating collyria will now be necessary, as
solutions of sulphate of zinc, copper, acetate of lead, &c. See No. 1,
2, 3, of the Collyria. The direct application of sulphate of copper, or
nitrate of silver, will often be of great benefit in changing the action
of the parts.

The lids should be turned down and brushed over two or three times with
the above articles in substance, and the dog restrained for a few
moments to prevent him from scratching during the temporary pain
inflicted upon him by the application.

Laudanum dropped in the eye will also prove very beneficial, allaying
the itching and pain, at the same time stimulating the organs to renewed
action. If the disease does not succumb under this treatment, a seton
placed in the pole will generally conquer it.


TRAUMATIC OPHTHALMIA

is produced by wounds of poisoned briars, stings of insects, bites of
other dogs, the scratching of cats, or the actual presence of foreign
bodies in the eye itself, which latter cause frequently occurs, and is
often overlooked by the sportsman.

'Treatment'.--This species of ophthalmia is best subdued by the
application of emollient poultices, depletion, purgation and cooling
washes. If a seed, small briar, or other substance has got in under the
lids, or inserted itself in the globe of the eye, the dog keeps the eye
closed, it waters freely, and in a short time becomes red and inflamed.
The removal of the article alone, will generally produce a cure;
sometimes it is necessary to use a cooling wash and administer a purge
or two. Great care should he had for the extraction of extraneous
substances from the eyes of dogs, as their presence often causes great
suffering to the animal even while diligently employed in the field. The
writer has seen dogs more than once rendered useless while hunting, by
grass, cloverseeds, or other small particles burying themselves under
the lids.

'Ophthalmia of Distemper'.--This species of inflammation will be spoken
of when treating of this latter affection.


SYMPATHETIC OPHTHALMIA

arises from the presence of some other disease located in another
portion of the body, as derangement of the stomach, mange, surfeit, &c.
The presence of one of these affections will indicate the cause of the
other.

'Treatment'.--Soothing applications to the organ itself, and remedies
for the removal of the primary affection.


HYDROPHTHALMIA

though not a common affection in the canine race, is occasionally met
with; several cases have come under the observation of the writer, and
no doubt there are but few dog-fanciers who have not seen the eyeballs
of some dog suffering with this malady, ready to start from their
sockets.

This affection depends upon a superabundance of the humours of the eye,
occasioned by over-secretion, or a want of power in the absorbent
vessels to carry off the natural secretions of the parts.

Old dogs are more apt to suffer from this disease than young dogs:
nevertheless, the latter are not by any means exempt; we once saw a pup,
a few days old, with the globe of the eye greatly extended by this
affection.

As the disease progresses, the eye becomes more hard and tender, the
sight is greatly impaired, and ultimately, if not arrested, the eye
bursts, discharges its contents, and total blindness ensues, greatly to
the relief of the poor animal.

'Treatment'.--This disease is very intractable, and is to be combated by
saline purges, bleeding, and stimulating application to the organ
itself. Mercurial ointment, rubbed over the eyebrow, will assist in
stimulating the absorbents.

When the disease has progressed for a long time, and the pain, as is
often the case, seems intense, it will save the animal great suffering,
by opening the ball and allowing the humours to escape. This may be done
by puncturing the cornea or the sclerotic coat with a needle. Setons
introduced along the spine would have a good effect.


CONGENITAL BLINDNESS

occasionally occurs throughout a whole litter, no doubt being entailed
upon the progeny of those dogs who have defective vision, or who are old
and infirm at the time of copulation. The best and only remedy is speedy
drowning.


CATARACT

consists in the partial or complete opacity of the crystalline lens; it
results from numerous causes, and is more frequent in the old than the
young subject. In old dogs both eyes are usually attacked, producing
absolute blindness, while in young animals one eye alone is generally
attacked.

'Causes.'--Old age, hard work, and bad feeding, are the agents most
active in the production of this affection; it generally comes on
slowly, but sometimes very quickly.

When the disease occurs in young dogs, it is generally the result of
wounds or blows over the head, convulsions and falls.

'Treatment.'--Little can be accomplished towards curing this disease
either in the old or young dog, as the disease, in spite of all our
efforts, will run its course, and terminate in total opacity of the
lens. Mild purging, blistering on the neck, introduction of the seton,
and blowing slightly stimulating powders into the eye, will sometimes
arrest the progress of the disease in the young dog.


ULCERATIONS ON THE CORNEA

are sometimes very troublesome, and if not put a stop to, will often
cause opacity and blindness, if not total destruction of the eye.

Slightly stimulating washes and purges are useful; the careful
application of nitrate of silver will often induce the ulcer to heal; it
must be put on very nicely and gently.


SPOTS ON THE CORNEA

are the result of ulcers and inflammation. If they do not materially
interfere with vision, they had better be left alone.

Powdered sugar and a small quantity of alum blown into the eye daily
through a quill, we have seen used with much success.


AMAUROSIS--GUTTA SERENA OR GLASS EYE,

A partial or complete paralysis of the optic nerves of either side is
not a frequent disease. It usually comes on gradually, but sometimes may
appear in the course of a few hours from the effects of wounds or
convulsions. When the paralysis is complete, total blindness of course
ensues. The intimate connection, or sympathy, existing between the
nerves of either eye, is so peculiar that disease of one is quickly
followed by a corresponding disease in the other.

Amaurosis, therefore, ordinarily ends in total blindness. The disease is
characterized by a dilated stage of the pupil, which seldom contracts
under the effect of any degree of light thrown upon it. The coats and
humours of the eye are perfectly transparent, in fact appear to be more
pellucid than natural.

'Causes.'--This affection is produced in many different ways; among the
most common causes may be mentioned wounds on the head, or of the parts
surrounding the nerve, strains, falls, disease of the bone, convulsions,
and epileptic fits.

We have seen a case produced by a tumour, which occupied the posterior
portion of the orbit, and caused the organ to be somewhat protruded from
its proper position, giving the eye the appearance of hydrophthalmia,
for which it was taken, the existence of the tumour never for a moment
being suspected. In this case there was partial amaurosis in both sides,
although nothing of disease could be discovered in the left eye.

Amaurosis is a very deceptive disease, the nerves alone being affected;
the humours and coverings of the eye remaining perfectly transparent and
natural, imposes upon the inexperienced observer, but is easily detected
by those who have witnessed the disease in others. There is a singular
watery appearance and vacant stare about the eye of the dog that cannot
be mistaken. This peculiarity is owing, no doubt, to the enlargement of
the pupil, as before observed.

'Treatment'.--When proceeding from blows, convulsions, or inflammation
of the nerve itself, bleeding will be serviceable, as also purging and
blistering. If the disease should appear without any symptom, or other
cause, to lead us to believe that there is any local affection, the
antiphlogistic course should be laid aside, and resort be had to local
and constitutional tonic applications, and revulsive frictions to the
nape of the neck and spine. A seton may also be applied; and electricity
has been recommended in such cases, no doubt arising from want of tone
in the general system.

This affection, in spite of every effort, is very unmanageable, and but
seldom yields to any course of treatment. Strychnia has been used
lately, both internally and externally, in the cure of this complaint;
it may be sprinkled over a blistered surface immediately above the eye,
in the proportion of a grain morning and evening; it may also be
administered inwardly at the same time, in doses from the half a grain
to a grain twice a day.


EXTIRPATION OF THE EYE.

It sometimes becomes necessary, from the diseased state of this organ,
that it should be taken completely from its socket. This operation,
though frightful, perhaps, to consider, is very simple in its
application, and may be performed without difficulty by any one
accustomed to the use of the knife. The animal is to be held firmly, as
before directed, and an assistant to keep the lids widely extended.

If the lids cannot be drawn well over the eye, owing to enlargement of
the ball caused by disease, they may be separated by an incision at the
external angle. A curved needle armed with a thread is now to be passed
entirely through the eye, being careful to include sufficient of the
sound parts within its grasp to prevent its tearing out. This finished,
the needle may be detached, and the ends of the thread being united, the
movements of the eye can be governed by means of this ligature: then
proceed as follows:

1st. The assistant keeping the lids well separated, the operator draws
the eye upward and outward, and then inserting the scalpel at the inner
and lower angle of the eye, with a gentle sweep separates the ball from
the lids, extending the incisions through to the external canthus.

2d. The ball is now to be drawn inwardly and downward, while the
scalpel, continuing the circular movement as far as the internal
canthus, separates the upper lid.

3d. The muscles and optic nerves still bind this organ to the orbit,
which attachments can easily be destroyed by the scalpel, by pulling the
eye forward sufficiently to reach them. If the eye has been extirpated
on account of any malignant disease, it is necessary to remove every
particle of muscle from the orbit; and when the disease has extended
itself to the lids, it will also be proper to remove that portion of
them included in the affection.

The hemorrhage from the operation is trifling, and may generally be
arrested by the pressure of the fingers, or the insertion of a conical
ball of lint within the socket, which may be allowed to remain two or
three days if necessary. If there is nothing to apprehend from
hemorrhage, it is only necessary to draw the lids together, and unite
that portion which has been separated by a suture, and place a hood over
the whole.

We do not recommend the stuffing of the orbit with lint, except in case
of hemorrhage, as its presence will sometimes produce violent
inflammation, which may extend to the brain. The cavity of the eye will,
in a measure, be filled up by newly formed matter. The dog must be
restricted to a low cooling diet, and have administered two or three
saline purges.


ULCERATIONS OF THE EYELIDS

are often met with in old mangy, ill-fed animals, and are difficult to
overcome, except by curing the the primary affection, which is often no
easy task. The lids become enlarged, puffy, and tender, the lashes fall
out, and the edges present an angry reddish appearance.

'Treatment'--Must be directed, in the first place, to the curing of the
old affection, by which, in connection with blisters, purging,
stimulating washes, &c., a cure may be effected. When the swelling of
the lids is considerable, scarifying them with the point of a lancet
will often be of much service. Ointment of nitrate of silver may also be
smeared on the edges.


WARTS ON THE EYELIDS

sometimes make their appearance; they may be lifted up with the forceps,
and excised with a knife or scissors, and the wound touched with nitrate
of silver. The same treatment will answer for those warts, or little
excrescences, that sometimes come on the inside of the lids.


ENTROPIUM--INVERSION OF THE EYELIDS.

This disease we do not find mentioned by any of the writers on canine
pathology: nevertheless, we are led to believe that it is not an
uncommon form of ophthalmia; and we must express our surprise that it
should have escaped the attention of such close observers as Blain and
Youatt.

The acute form of the disease resulting from, or attending, simple
ophthalmia, we have often witnessed, but the chronic form, of which we
more particularly speak, is more rare. We have seen three cases of the
latter, and, no doubt, might have found many more if our opportunities
of studying canine pathology were equal to those of the English writers.
The inversion of the eyelids upon the globe is accompanied with pain and
irritation, swelling and inflammation, both of the lids and eye, which
ultimately renders the dog almost useless, if not entirely blind.

'Causes'.--Neglected chronic ophthalmia was, no doubt, the cause of the
disease in two cases, a setter and a pointer, while the other, in a
hound, was the result of an acute attack of ophthalmia brought on by
scalding with hot pitch thrown upon the animal. Some of this substance
entered the eye, while a large portion adhered to the muzzle and lids.
The eye, as well as the lids, became inflamed; the latter, being puffed
up and contracted on their edges, were necessarily drawn inwards from
the tension of the parts, and double entropium was thus produced. The
inflammation and tumefaction of the parts continued for a considerable
time, and when ultimately reduced by the application of tepid
fomentations, the skin appeared greatly relaxed; and the muscular fibres
having lost their power of support or contractility, owing to their long
quiescence, seemed no longer able to keep their lids in their proper
situation; the edges therefore remained in the abnormous position
previously assumed.

By this strange condition of the parts, the eyeball continued greatly
irritated by the constant friction of the lashes; water was continually
flowing over the lids, and from its irritating character produced
considerable excoriation of the face and muzzle. The conjunctiva
remained inflamed, the cornea in due course became ulcerous, and the eye
was ultimately destroyed by the discharge of its contents. This was the
course and final termination of the disease in the case of the hound
above referred to, all of which disastrous results might have been
prevented by proper management.

'Treatment.'--When in England, we sent to the United States a fine bred
pointer dog, designed as a present for one of our sporting friends. This
animal travelled from Leeds to Liverpool, chained on top of the railroad
cars; the journey occupied several hours, daring which the weather was
cold and boisterous, and we noticed on his arrival at the latter place
that his eyes were watering and somewhat inflamed. On examining them
more particularly, we were enabled to extract several pieces of cinder
from under the lids, which seemed to relieve him somewhat. He went to
sea, in the care of the steward, on the following day; and remained on
deck exposed to the inclemency of the weather during a long voyage. When
he arrived in Philadelphia, the inflammation, we were informed, was very
considerable, occasioned by the presence of some other small particles
of cinder that may have escaped our attention before shipping him. The
presence of these foreign substances in the eye, in connection with the
salt spray and irritating atmosphere, greatly aggravated the ophthalmia,
and resolved it into a chronic affection, which ultimately resulted in
entropium.

"Fop" was hunted during the same autumn, which no doubt increased the
malady to a considerable extent; and before the hunting season was over,
the dog was rendered almost useless: the lids becoming so much swollen
and the irritation so considerable, that it was deemed cruel to allow
him to go into the field.

When we saw him some time in the course of the same winter, the lower
lids of both eyes were completely inverted on their globes, and the
conjunctival inflammation and flow of tears considerable.

The eyes seemed contracted within their sockets, and at times were
nearly hidden from view, the corneas were somewhat opaque, the
photophobia intolerable, and the animal showed evident signs of extreme
pain, by his restless anxiety and constant efforts at scratching and
rubbing the eyes.

Under the judicious application of cooling astringent collyria, and
other remediate means, the irritation and pain of the parts were
relieved, and the lids somewhat retracted.

"Fop" remained in this condition till the following autumn, suffering at
times considerably from the increased inflammation and tumefaction of
the lids, which continued obstinately to persist, insomuch that when
turned out by the pressure of the fingers on them, they immediately
contracted, and were forced inwards on the ball when freed from the
fingers.

Finding that no external application was of any permanent benefit, we
resolved to have resort to the same operation we saw practised in the
Parisian hospitals for the cure of a similar malformation in the human
subject.

To insure quiet we enclosed the body of the dog in a case, made
stationary and sufficiently small to prevent struggling, with the head
firmly fixed by a sliding door, as represented in the accompanying
drawing.

The mouth was kept closed by a small strap passed around the muzzle.
This method of fixing a strong dog, we consider the best ever adopted
for all nice operations on the face. The first step in the operation was
to pinch up a portion of the lax skin of the diseased lid and pass three
needles, armed with silk ligatures, successively through the base of the
upraised integuments.

One needle approximating the external canthus, another the internal, and
a third midway between these two points, as represented in the annexed
drawing.

The next step was lo raise up the integuments included in the ligature,
and, by means of a pair of sharp scissors, cut off the super-abundant
skin as near to the ligatures as possible; having care however to leave
sufficient substance included in the ligatures, to prevent their
sloughing out before adhesion has taken place. The next and last step of
the operation was, to draw the edges of the wound together by tying each
ligature, which procedure immediately secured the lid and held it firmly
in its natural position. The ligatures were now cut short, and a large
wire muzzle, covered over with some dark substance on the operated eye,
being put on him, and his legs hobbled with a piece of strong twine,
more effectually to prevent his scratching the head, "Fop" was then set
at liberty, and soon became reconciled to this eye-shade.

The hemorrhage was trifling, the wound healed up by the first intention
and the ligatures were drawn away in a few days, when a perfect cure was
effected--the conjunctiva having lost its inflammatory appearance, and
the cornea having again become quite transparent.

The other eye was operated on in the same way and with like success. In
the first operation we cut away the loose flaccid integuments only;
whereas, in the second, we snipped small longitudinal fibres from the
cartilage itself, and the operation consequently was more perfect, if
possible, than in the first instance.

The eyes were now perfectly restored, and remained well during the whole
of the shooting season, after which we lost sight of our patient, he
having accompanied one of our friends as a "compagnon de voyage" on a
commercial expedition to Santa Fe, and, when on his return, had the
misfortune to lose "Fop," who was carried off into captivity by some
prowling Camanches, who no doubt have long since sacrificed him to the
Great Spirit in celebrating the buffalo or wolf dance.


PROTRUSION OF THE EYE

The eye may be forced from its orbit by wounds or the bites of other
animals.

If not materially injured, the ball should be cleaned with a little
tepid water, or by wiping off with a fine silk or cambric handkerchief,
and immediately replaced within its socket; otherwise the inflammation
and swelling of the lids will soon prevent its easy admission. When
handling the protruded eye, the fingers should be dipped in olive oil or
warm water.

When sufficient time has elapsed from the occurrence of the accident to
prevent the ball being replaced, owing to the swelling and contraction
of the lids, an incision may be made at the external angle of the eye,
so as to divide the lids, which will then admit the eye into its natural
position. If not, the lid itself can be raised up and slit far enough to
allow its being drawn over the globe. As considerable inflammation
generally follows this accident, it will be prudent to bleed the animal
and confine him.

We have seen eyes replaced, that have been out of their sockets for
several hours, perfectly recover their strength and brilliancy.


WEAK EYES.

Some dogs, particularly several breeds of spaniels, have naturally weak
eyes, attended by an over-secretion and constant flow of tears, more
particularly when exposed to the sun. When there is no disease of the
lachrymal duct, the secretion may be diminished and the eyes
strengthened by the daily application of some slightly tonic wash, as
No. 1, 2, 3, &c.


FISTULA LACHRYMALIS.

The lachrymal duct is a small canal, leading from the internal angle of
the eye to the nostrils, and is the passage through which the tears
escape from the eye. This duct may become closed by inflammation of the
lining membrane of the nose, caries of the bone, ulcers, fungous
growths, or by the presence of some extraneous substance impacted in it.
The tears, no longer having a natural outlet, are necessarily forced
over the lids, accompanied, not unfrequently, by a good deal of purulent
matter.

This canal, when thus obstructed from some one of the above causes,
often forms an ulcerous opening at its upper extremity, just below the
internal canthus, for the escape of the pus that usually collects in a
sac at that point. This perforation is called "Fistula Lachrymalis." The
tears, entering the canal at its punctum, are carried along till they
pass out at the fistulous opening.

Treatment'.--This is a very troublesome affection, and has been
pronounced incurable by some writers. However, we would not hesitate
making an attempt at relieving a favourite or valuable dog of this
disagreeable deformity. We should first endeavour to clear out the nasal
canal, either by means of a minute flexible probe, or by directing a
stream of water from a suitable syringe through its course. A small
silver or copper style may then be placed in the canal to keep it open,
as also to direct the tears through the natural route. This being done,
and the dog confined in such a way as not to be able to scratch or rub
the eye, the fistulous opening might close up in a short time. However,
it might be necessary to wear the style for many months. In such a case,
we see no reason why a wire muzzle, such as used by us after the
operation for Entropium, might not be worn for an indefinite period,
without any inconvenience to the animal.


CARUNCULA LACHRYMALIS AND PLICA SEMILUNARIS, OR HAW.

The caruncula lachrymalis is a small glandular body situated at the
internal commissure of each eye. This little gland often becomes greatly
enlarged from inflammation or fungous growths--old dogs are much more
subject to the disease than young ones.

'Treatment'.--The application of cooling collyria and a weak solution of
nitrate of silver, will generally suppress the further growth of this
gland. If, however, it continues much swollen and runs on to
suppuration, it may be punctured with a lancet and poultices applied. If
the affection be of a malignant character, the gland may be drawn out by
passing a ligature through its base, and then excised.

The haw is most frequently concerned in the disease, and may also be
removed.


Collyria:

No. I.

[Symbol: Rx] Vinegar                             [Symbol: ounce]   i.
             Laudanum                            [Symbol: scruple] i.
             Water                               [Symbol: ounce] vii.

Mix.--The eyes to be frequently bathed with the mixture.


No. 2.

[Symbol: Rx]  Sulphate of zinc (white vitriol)   [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                              [Symbol: ounce]  vi.

M.--To be used as above.


No. 3.

[Symbol: Rx]  Sulphate of copper (blue vitriol)   [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                               [Symbol: ounce]  vi.

M.--To be used as above.


No. 4.

[Symbol: Rx]  Acetate of lead (sugar of lead)     [Symbol: scruple] ii.
              Water                               [Symbol: ounce]   vi.

M.--To be used as above.


No. 5.

[Symbol: Rx]  Argenti nitrat. (nitrate of silver) [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                               [Symbol: ounce]  vi.

M.--To be dropped in the eye 2 or 3 times daily.


No. 6.

[Symbol: Rx]  Sub-muriate of mercury (corrosive sublimate)      grs. x.
              Water                               [Symbol: ounce]   vi.

M.--To be used as the preceding.


No. 7.

[Symbol: Rx]  Argenti nitrat (nitrate of silver)                grs. v.
              Fresh butter or lard                [Symbol: ounce]    i.

No. 8.

[Symbol: Rx]  Powdered alum                          grs. xv.
              Calomel                                grs. vii.


M.--Blown in the eye, will often have a most excellent effect, more
particularly in old chronic ophthalmia.


No. 9.

Infusions of slippery elm bark, sassafras or elder pith, infusions of
green tea, flaxseed, &c., are all excellent emollient applications--L.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER IX.

THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES.


'Canker in the Ear.'

All water-dogs, and some others, are subject to a disease designated by
this name, and which, in fact, is inflammation of the integumental
lining of the inside of the ear. When the whole of the body, except the
head and ears, is surrounded by cold water, there will be an unusual
determination of blood to those parts, and consequent distension of the
vessels and a predisposition to inflammation. A Newfoundland dog, or
setter, or poodle, that has been subject to canker, is often freed from
a return of the disease by being kept from the water.

The earliest symptom of the approach of canker is frequent shaking of
the head, or holding of the head on one side, or violent scratching of
one or both ears. Redness of the integument may then be observed, and
particularly of that portion of it which lines the annular cartilage.
This is usually accompanied by some enlargement of the folds of the
skin. As soon as any of these symptoms are observed, the ear should be
gently but well washed, two or three times in the day, with lukewarm
water, and after that a weak solution of the extract of lead should be
applied, and a dose or two of physic administered.

If the case is neglected, the pain will rapidly increase; the ear will
become of an intenser red; the folds of the integument will enlarge, and
there will be a deposition of red or black matter in the hollow of the
ear. The case is now more serious, and should be immediately attended
to. This black or bloody deposit should be gently but carefully washed
away with warm water and soap; and the extract of lead, in the
proportion of a scruple to an ounce of water, should be frequently
applied, until the redness and heat are abated. A solution of alum, in
about the same quantity of alum and water as the foregoing lotion,
should then be used.

Some attention should be paid to the method of applying these lotions.
Two persons will be required in order to accomplish the operation. The
surgeon must hold the muzzle of the dog with one hand, and have the root
of the ear in the hollow of the other, and between the first finger and
the thumb. The assistant must then pour the liquid into the ear; half a
tea-spoonful will usually be sufficient. The surgeon, without quitting
the dog, will then close the ear, and mould it gently until the liquid
has insinuated itself as deeply as possible into the passages of the
ear. Should not the inflammation abate in the course of a few days, a
seton should be inserted in the poll, between the integument and the
muscles of the occiput, reaching from ear to ear. The excitement of a
new inflammation, so near to the part previously diseased, will
materially abate the original affection. Physic is now indispensable.
From half a drachm to a drachm of aloes, with from one to two grains of
calomel, should be given every third day.

Should the complaint have been much neglected, or the inflammation so
great as to bid defiance to these means, ulceration will too often
speedily follow. It will be found lodged deep in the passage, and can
only be detected by moulding the ear; the effused pus will occasionally
occupy the inside of the ear to its very tip. However extensive and
annoying the inflammation may be, and occasionally causing so much
thickening of the integument as perfectly to close the ear, it is always
superficial. It will generally yield to proper treatment, and the
cartilage of the ear may not be in the slightest degree affected. Still,
however, the animal may suffer extreme pain; the discharge from the
ulcer may produce extensive excoriation of the cheek; and, in a few
cases, the system may sympathise with the excessive local application,
and the animal may be lost.

The treatment must vary with circumstances. If the ulceration is deep in
the ear, and there is not a very great degree of apparent inflammation,
recourse may be had at once to a stimulating and astringent application,
such as alum or the sulphate of zinc, and in the proportion of six
grains of either to an ounce of water. If, however, the ulceration
occupies the greater part of the hollow of the ear, and is accompanied
by much thickening of the integument, and apparent filling up of the
entrance to the ear, some portion of the inflammation must be first
subdued.

The only chance of getting rid of the disease is to confine the ear. A
piece of strong calico must be procured, six or eight inches in width,
and sufficiently long to reach round the head and meet under the jaw.
Along each side of it must be a running piece of tape, and a shorter
piece sewed at the centre of each of the ends. By means of these the cap
may be drawn tightly over the head, above the eyes, and likewise round
the neck behind the ears, so as perfectly to confine them.

After all, no mild ointment will dispose such an ulcer to heal, and
recourse must be had at once to a caustic application. A scruple of the
nitrate of silver must be rubbed down with an ounce of lard, and a
little of it applied twice every day, and rubbed tolerably hard into the
sore until it assumes a healthy appearance; it may then be dressed with
the common calamine ointment.

If the discharge should return, the practitioner must again have
recourse to the caustic ointment.

The cartilage will never close, but the integument will gradually cover
the exposed edges, and the wound will be healed. The ear will, however,
long continue tender, and, if it should be much beaten, by the shaking
of the head, the ulcer will reappear. This must be obviated by
occasionally confining the ears, and not overfeeding the dog.

Some sportsmen are accustomed to 'round' the ears, that is to cut off
the diseased part. In very few instances, however, will a permanent cure
be effected, while the dog is often sadly disfigured. A fresh ulcer
frequently appears on the new edge, and is more difficult to heal than
the original one. Nine times out of ten the disease reappears.

The Newfoundland dog is very subject to this disease, to remedy which
recourse must be had to the nitrate of silver.

Spaniels have often a mangy inflammation of the edges of the ear. It
seldom runs on to canker; but the hair comes off round the edges of the
ear, accompanied by much heat and scurfiness of the skin. The common
sulphur ointment, with an eighth part of mercurial ointment, will
usually remove the disease.

From the irritation produced by canker in or on the ear, and the
constant flapping and beating of the ear, there is sometimes a
considerable effusion of fluid between the integument and the cartilage
occupying the whole of the inside of the flap of the ear. The only
remedy is to open the enlarged part from end to end, carefully to take
out the gossamer lining of the cyst, and then to insert some bits of
lint on each side of the incision, in order to prevent its closing too
soon. In a few days, the parietes of the cyst will begin to adhere, and
a perfect cure will be accomplished

If the tumour is simply punctured, the incision will speedily close, and
the cyst will fill again in the space of four-and-twenty hours. A seton
may be used, but it is more painful to the dog, and slower in its
operation.

The ear should be frequently fomented with a decoction of white poppies,
and to this should follow the Goulard lotion; and, after that, if
necessary, a solution of alum should be applied. To the soreness or
scabby eruption, which extends higher up the ear, olive oil or
spermaceti ointment may be applied. In some cases, portions of the
thickened skin, projecting and excoriated, and pressing on each other,
unite, and the opening into the ear is then mechanically filled. I know
not of any remedy for this. It is useless to perforate the adventitious
substance, for the orifice will soon close; and, more than once, when I
have made a crucial incision, and cut out the unnatural mass that closed
the passage, I have found it impossible to keep down the fungous
granulations or to prevent total deafness.

The following is a singular case of this disease:--1st July, 1820 a dog
was sent with a tumour, evidently containing a fluid, in the flap of the
ear. A seton had been introduced, but had been sadly neglected. The hair
had become matted round the seton, and the discharge had thus been
stopped. Inflammation and considerable pain had evidently followed, and
the dog had nearly torn the seton out. I removed it, washed the ear
well, and applied the tincture of myrrh and aloes. The wound soon
healed. On the 14th the ear began again to fill. On the 17th the tumour
was ripe for the seton, which was again introduced, and worn until the
9th of August, when the sides of the abscess appeared again to have
adhered, and it was withdrawn. Canker had continued in the ear during
the whole time; and, in defiance of a cold lotion daily applied, the ear
was perceived again to be disposed to fill. The seton was once more
inserted, and the cyst apparently closed. The seton was continued a
fortnight after the sinus was obliterated, and then removed. Six weeks
afterwards the swelling had disappeared, and the canker was quite
removed. This anecdote is an encouragement to persevere under the most
disheartening circumstances.

All dogs that are foolishly suffered to become gross and fat are subject
to canker. It seems to be a natural outlet for excess of nutriment or
gross humour; and, when a dog has once laboured under the disease, he is
very subject to a return of it. The fatal power of habit is in few cases
more evident than in this disease. When a dog has symptoms of mange, the
redness or eruption of the skin, generally, will not unfrequently
disappear, and bad canker speedily follow. The habit, however, may be
subdued, or at least may be kept at bay, by physic and the use of
Goulard lotion or alum.

Sportsmen are often annoyed by another species of canker Pointers and
hounds are particularly subject to it.

This species of canker commences with a scurfy eruption and thickening
of the edges of the ear, apparently attended by considerable itching or
pain. The dog is continually flapping his ear, and beating it violently
against his head. The inflammation is thus increased, and the tip of the
ear becomes exceedingly sore. This causes him to shake his head still
more violently, and the ulcer spreads and is indisposed to heal, and at
length a fissure or crack appears on the tip of the cartilage, and
extends to a greater or less distance down the ear.

The narration of one or two cases may be useful, as showing the
inveteracy of the disease.

8th Feb. 1832.--A Newfoundland dog, very fat, had dreadful canker in
both ears, and considerable discharge of purulent matter. He was
continually shaking his ears, lying and moaning. Apply the canker
lotion, and give the alterative balls.

13th. The discharge considerably lessened from one ear, but that from
the other has increased. Continue the lotion and apply a seton.

22d. The dog, probably neglected at home, was sent to me. Both ears
were as bad as ever.

25th. The dog is perfectly unmanageable when the lotion is poured into
the ear, but submits when an ointment is applied. Use ung. sambuci,
[Symbol: ounce] j. cerus, acet. [Symbol: ounce] j., mix well together.
Continue the alteratives.

30th. Slowly amending; the whining has ceased, and the animal seldom
scratches. Continue the lotion, alteratives, and purgatives.

10th Oct.--Slowly improving. Continue the treatment.

17th. One ear well, the other nearly so.

24th. Both ears were apparently well.  Omit the lotion.

28th. One ear was again ulcerated. Applied the aerugo aeris.

31st. This has been too stimulating, and the ulceration is almost as
great as at first. Return to the ung. sambuci and cerusa acetata.

From this time to the 24th February, 1833, we continued occasionally
taking out the seton, but returning to it every two or three days;
applying the canker lotion until we were driven from it, mixing with it
variable quantities of tinctura opii, having recourse to mercurial
ointment, and trying a solution of the sulphate of copper. With two or
three applications we could keep the disease at bay; but with none could
we fairly remove the evil. The sulphate of zinc, the acetate of lead,
decoctions of oak bark, a very mild injection of the nitrate of
silver,--all would do good at times; but at other times we were set at
complete defiance.

Another gentleman brought his dog about the same time. This was also a
Newfoundland dog. He had always been subject to mangy eruptions, and had
now mange in the feet, the inside of the ear covered with scaly
eruptions, the skin red underneath, considerable thickening of the ear,
and a slight discharge from its base. A seton was inserted and a
physic-ball given every second day. The canker lotion had little good
effect. Some calamine ointment, with a small portion of calomel, was
then had recourse to.

In ten days the dog had ceased to scratch himself or shake his head, and
the ear was clean and cool. The seton was removed; but the animal being
confined, a little redness again appeared in the ear, which the lotion
soon removed.

At the expiration of a month he was dismissed apparently cured; but he
afterwards had a return of his old mangy complaints, which bade defiance
to every mode of treatment.

Herr Maassen, V. S., Wümemburg, has lately introduced, and with much
success, the use of creosote for the cure of canker in the ear.

The first experiment was on a setter with canker in his ear. The owner
of the dog had ordered it to be hanged, as all remedies had failed in
producing a cure. Herr Maassen prescribed creosoti 3ss. et spirit, vini
rectificat. 3ij. This mixture was applied once in every day to the
diseased part. In a few weeks the dog was completely cured, and has
since had no return of the complaint. In a terrier, and also in three
spaniels, the effect of this application was equally satisfactory. In
some cases, where the disease showed itself in a less degree, the
creosote was dissolved in water, instead of spirit of wine. It is always
necessary to take away the collar while the dog is under treatment, in
order that the flap of the ear may not be injured by striking against it.


VEGETATING EXCRESCENCES IN THE EAR. (By F. J. J. Rigot.)

Productions of this kind, which he had the opportunity of observing only
once, are sometimes united in masses, and completely close the auditive
canal. The surface is granulated and black, and there escapes from it an
unctuous fetid discharge. On both sides the animal is exceedingly
susceptible of pain, and the excrescences bleed if the slightest
pressure is brought to bear upon them.

He thought it right to cut away these excrescences bodily, which he
found to be composed of a strong dense tissue, permitting much blood to
escape through an innumerable quantity of vascular openings. They were
reproduced with extreme promptitude after they had been cut off or
cauterized. Some of them appeared no more after being destroyed by the
nitrate of mercury.

Sometimes, however, twenty-four hours after a simple incision, not
followed by cauterization, these productions acquire an almost
incredible size. It seemed, in M. Rigot's case, to be impossible to
conquer the evil, and the patient was destroyed.


ERUPTIONS IN THE EAR.

A Newfoundland dog had long been subject to mangy eruptions on the back
and in the feet. They had suddenly disappeared, and the whole of the
inside of the ear became covered with scaly eruptions. The skin was red;
there was considerable thickening of the ear, and a discharge from the
base of it. The canker-lotion was used, a physic-ball given every second
day, and a seton inserted in the poll reaching from ear to ear. No
apparent benefit resulted. A little calamine ointment, to which was
added one-eighth part of mercurial ointment, was then tried, and
considerable benefit immediately experienced. The dog no longer
continued to scratch himself or to shake his head, and the ear became
clean and cool. The seton was removed, and nothing remained but a little
occasional redness, which the lotion very soon dispersed.

The owner, however, became ultimately tired of all this doctoring, and
the animal was destroyed.

A poodle had had exceedingly bad ears during several months. There was
considerable discharge, apparently giving much pain. The dog was
continually shaking his head and crying.  A seton was introduced, the
canker-lotion was resorted to, and alterative and purgative medicines
exhibited. On the 29th of December the discharge from the ear ceased;
but, owing to the neglect of the servant, it soon broke out again, and
there was not only much excoriation under the ear, but, from the matting
of the hair, deep ulcers formed on either side, the edges of the wound
were ragged, and the skin was detached from the muscular parts beneath.
Probes were introduced on each side, which passed down the neck and
nearly met. The smell was intolerably offensive, and the dog was reduced
almost to a skeleton. I was, for the second time, sent for to see the
case. I immediately recommended that the animal should be destroyed; but
this was not permitted. I then ordered that it should daily be carefully
washed, and diluted tincture of myrrh be applied to the wounds. They
showed no disposition to heal, and the dog gradually sunk under the
continued discharge and died.


VIOLENT AFFECTION OF THE EAR.

20th May, 1928.--A spaniel screamed violently, even when it was not
touched, and held its head permanently on one side, as if the muscles
were contracted. The glands beneath the ear were enlarged, but the
bowels were regular; the nose was not hot; there was no cough. A warm
bath was ordered, with aperient medicine.

On the 22d she was no better. I examined the case more carefully. The
left ear was exceedingly hot and tender: she would scarcely bear me to
touch it. I continued the aperient medicine, and ordered a warm lotion
to be applied, consisting of the liquor plumbi acetatis and infusion of
digitalis. She improved from the first application of it, and in a few
days was quite well. A fortnight afterwards the pain returned. The
lotion was employed, but not with the same success. A seton was then
applied. She wore it only four days, when the pain completely
disappeared.

I have an account in my records of the conduct of a coward, who, coming
from such a breed, was not worthy of the trouble we took with him. He
was a Newfoundland dog, two years old, with considerable enlargement,
redness, and some discharge from both ears. He was sent to our hospital
for treatment. When no one was near him, he shook his head and scratched
his ears, and howled dreadfully. Many times in the course of the day he
cried as if we were murdering him. We sent him home thoroughly well, and
glad we were to get rid of him.


CROPPING OF THE EARS.

I had some doubt, whether I ought not to omit the mention of this cruel
practice. Mr. Blaine very properly says, that

  "it is one that does not honour the inventor, for nature gives nothing
  in vain. Beauty and utility appear in all when properly examined, but
  in unequal degrees. In some, beauty is pre-eminent; while, in others,
  utility appears to have been the principal consideration. That must,
  therefore, be a false taste, that has taught us to prefer a
  'curtailed' organ to a perfect one, without gaining any convenience by
  the operation." He adds, and it is my only excuse saying one word
  about the matter, that "custom being now fixed, directions are proper
  for its performance."

The owner of the dog commences with maiming him while a puppy. He finds
fault with the ears that nature has given him, and they are rounded or
cut into various shapes, according to his whim or caprice. It is a cruel
operation. A great deal of pain is inflicted by it, and it is often a
long time before the edge of the wound will heal: a fortnight or three
weeks at least will elapse ere the animal is free from pain.

It has been pleaded, and I would be one of the last to oppose the plea,
that the ears of many dogs are rounded on account of the ulcers which
attack and rend the conch; because animals with short ears defend
themselves most readily from the attacks of others: because, in their
combats with each other, they generally endeavour to lay hold of the
neck or the ears; and, therefore, when their ears are shortened, they
have considerable advantage over their adversary. There is some truth in
this plea; but, otherwise, the operation of cropping is dependent on
caprice or fashion.

If the ears of dogs must be cropped, it should not be done too early.
Four, five, or six weeks should first pass; otherwise, they will grow
again, and the second cropping will not produce a good appearance. The
scissors are the proper instruments for accomplishing the removal of the
ear; the tearing of the cartilages out by main force is an act of
cruelty that none but a brute in human shape would practise; and, if he
attempts it, it is ten to one that he does not obtain a good crop. If
the conch is torn out, there is nothing remaining to retain the skin
round the auricular opening: it may be torn within the auditory canal,
and as that is otherwise very extensible in the dog, it is prolonged
above the opening, which may then probably be closed by a cicatrix. The
animal will in this case always remain deaf, at least in one ear. In the
mean time, the mucous membrane that lines the 'meatus auditorias'
subsists, the secretion of the wax continues; it accumulates and
acquires an irritating quality; the irritation which it causes produces
an augmentation of the secretion, and soon the whole of the subcutaneous
passage becomes filled, and seems to assume the form of a cord; and it
finishes by the dog continuing to worry himself, shaking his head, and
becoming subject to fits.

Mr. Blaine very naturally observes, that, "it is not a little surprising
that this cruel custom is so frequently, or almost invariably, practised
on pug-dogs, whose ears, if left alone to nature, are particularly
handsome and hang very gracefully. It is hardly to be conceived how the
pug's head--which is not naturally beautiful except in the eye of
perverted taste--is improved by suffering his ears to remain."

If the cropping is to be practised, the mother should have been
previously removed. It is quite erroneous, that her licking the wounded
edges will be serviceable. On the contrary, it only increases their
pain, and deprives the young ones of the best balsam that can be
applied--the blood that flows from their wounds.


POLYPI IN THE EARS.

Dr. Mercer, in The Veterinarian, of July, 1844, gives an interesting
account of the production of polypi in the meatus of the ear. He
considers that there are two kinds of polypi--first, the soft, vascular
and bleeding polypus, usually produced from the fibro-cartilaginous
structure of the outer half of the tube; and, secondly, the hard and
cartilaginous polypus or excrescence produced from the lining membrane
of its inner half. The first is termed the hæmatoid polypus, and the
other the chondromatous. The dog suffering under either generally has a
dull, heavy, and rather watery eye. He moans or whines at intervals. If
his master is present he feels a relief in pressing and rubbing his
aching ear against him. At other times he presses and rubs his ear
against the ground, in order to obtain a slight relief, flapping his
ears and shaking his head; the mouth being opened and the tongue
protruded, and the affected ear pointing to the ground. Then comes a
sudden, and often a profuse, discharge of fetid pus. The local discharge
of pus and blood becomes daily more and more fetid, and the poor animal
becomes an object of disgust.

In the first variety of polypus, where it is practicable, the soft and
vascular excrescence should be excised with a pair of scissors or a
small knife, or it may be noosed by a ligature of silk or of silver
wire, or twisted off with a pair of forceps. Immediately after its
removal, the base of the tumour should be carefully destroyed by the
nitrate of silver, and this should be repeated as long as there is any
appearance of renewed growth. Any ulcer or carious condition of the
meatus should be immediately removed.

In order to protect the diseased parts, a soft cap should be used, and
within the ear a little cotton wadding may defend the ear from injury.

Dr. Mercer very properly remarks that, in the second or chondromatous
variety of polypus of the meatus, the treatment must depend upon the
concomitant circumstances. If the tumour is seated close to the membrana
tympani, and has a broad and sessile base, then it cannot be excised or
noosed with any degree of success. It must therefore be treated by the
daily application of the solid nitrate of silver, applied exactly to its
surface; and, in the intervals of application, the use of any collyria
may be had recourse to. If the substance of the growth be firm and
solid, and possess little sensibility, then a very speedy mode of
getting rid of it is to divide its substance with a small knife; and
afterwards, by applying the solid nitrate of silver, the tumour will
soon be sloughed away.

The dog is liable to polypi in the nasal cavity, in the anus, and in the
vagina, which it will not be out of place to mention here.

The polypi of the nasal and of the anal cavities often show themselves
under the form of rounded bodies, projecting from the nose or anus.
Their size and consistence are variable--sometimes soft, tearing with
the greatest facility, and bleeding at the slightest touch; at other
times, solid and covered with pituitary membrane. They are generally the
result of ulcerations, wounds, fractures, perforations of the turbinated
bones, sinuses,&c. These polypous productions obstruct the passage of
the air, and more or less impede the breathing. They are best extirpated
by means of a ligature, or circular compression, on the pedicle of the
polypus, and tightened every second day.

We may discover the presence of a tumour of this nature in one of the
nasal passages, when, on putting our hand to the orifice of the nostril,
there issues little or no air; or when we sound the nostril with the
finger or a probe, or examine it on a bright day.

The methods of destroying polypi in the nasal cavity vary with the
texture, size, form, and position of these excrescences. Excision with
the bistoury, or with scissors, may be tried when the polypus is near
the orifice of the nostril, and particularly when it is not large at the
base. Excision should be followed by cauterization with the red-hot
iron, by which a portion of the base of the tumour is destroyed, and
which could not be reached by a sharp instrument. To succeed in these
operations, it is frequently necessary to cut through the false nostril.
The edges of the wound may afterwards be united by a suture.

The ligature, or circular compression, excised immediately on the
pedicle of the polypus, by means of a wire or waxed string, and directed
into the nasal cavity by means of a proper instrument, may he tried when
the polypus is deeply situated, and particularly when its base is
narrow. But, for this operation, which is difficult to perform, and
which may be followed by a new polypous production, when the base is not
perfectly destroyed, we may substitute the forcible detachment,
especially when we have to act on vascular and soft excrescences.

The Italian greyhound is strangely subject to these polypi in the matrix
or vagina. The reason for it is difficult to explain.

A bitch, ten years old, was brought to the author on the 20th December,
1843, with an oval substance, as large as a thrush's egg, occasionally
protruding from the vagina. I advised that it should be removed by means
of a ligature; but the owner was afraid, and a fortnight was suffered to
pass before she was brought again. The tumour had rapidly increased; it
was as large as a pigeon's egg, considerably excoriated, and the pedicle
being almost as large as the tumour itself. The operation was now
consented to. I passed a ligature as firmly round the pedicle and as
high up as I could. The bitch scarcely seemed to suffer any pain.

3d Jan.--The circulation is evidently cut off, and the tumour is
assuming a thoroughly black hue, but it appears to cause no
inconvenience to the dog. I tightened the ligature. 4th. The tumour is
now completely black, considerably protruded, and apparently destitute
of feeling. I again tightened the ligature.

5th. The tumour not appearing disposed to separate, and the uterus
seeming to be drawn back by its weight, I cut off the tumour close to
the ligature. Not the slightest pain seemed to be given, and the tumour
was hard and black. There was, however, a very little oozing of bloody
fluid, which continuing to the 8th, I injected a slight solution of alum
into the vagina, and three days afterwards the discharge was perfectly
stopped.

[Although our author has given us several interesting and practical
pages upon the diseases of the ear and its appendages, it seems to us
that the arrangement of the matter is rather objectionable, and not
sufficiently explicit to be easily comprehended by sportsmen, not before
familiar with the subject; we therefore add a concise resumé or epitome
of these troublesome affections, which we trust will be found of
practical utility to the reader.


SIMPLE OTORRHÆA,

or running from the ear, produced by inflammation of the mucous membrane
of the external auditory canal, is of frequent occurrence. The dog
should be purged with salts, and the ear washed with castile soap and
tepid water. The following solution may be introduced several times a
day:

[Symbol: Rx]  Sulphate of zinc      [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                 [Symbol: ounce]   i.
      Mix.                            or,

[Symbol: Rx]  Sugar of lead         [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                 [Symbol: ounce]   i.


If the discharge be fetid, the following may be applied often:

[Symbol: Rx]  Chloride of lime      [Symbol: drachm]   i.
              Water                               1 pint.


This affection in old dogs is very troublesome, and in most cases
impossible to cure. Alum, zinc, copper, lead, and other astringent
applications may be used in powder, as a local application in these
cases. A seton and blisters will also be serviceable.


TUMORS OF THE FLAP.

A tumour, particularly in old dogs, is often seen extending from the tip
of the flap even to the base of the ear. It progresses slowly but
surely, if not interfered with in its career, and will become eventually
enormously large and very painful. These tumours are most common in old
setters, Newfoundlands, and hounds.

Treatment'.--The tumour, at its commencement, may be discussed by the
application of astringent washes, as warm vinegar, water, and laudanum,
or sugar of lead. When, however, it has become more extensive, the only
remedy is opening it through its whole extent, and pressing out its
purulent content. A poultice may then be applied, and tepid fomentations
used for several days. It is often extremely difficult to heal up the
abscess, or arrest the fetid discharge that is constantly collecting: a
seton placed in the poll, in connexion with washes of a stimulating
character, will, however, effect a cure, if patiently persevered in.
Either of the following will answer this purpose:

[Symbol: Rx]    Chloride of lime    [Symbol: drachm] i.
                Water               [Symbol: ounce] vi.
      Mix.                            or,

[Symbol: Rx]  Sulphate of zinc            [Symbol: scruple] i.
              Water                       [Symbol: ounce] jii.
    Mix.


We used on one occasion tincture of iodine with perfect success
in an old and obstinate case.


CANKER IN THE EAR.

This is a rather indefinite term, as applied to the diseased ear of a
dog; in fact, any malignant corroding sore may be called a canker, no
matter where situated. Some writers describe, under the head of canker,
a violent chronic otitis, attended by a purulent sanguinoid discharge.
Others understand by canker a species of erysipelatous inflammation,
that makes its appearance on the inside of the flap, and extends itself
to the interior of the ear. What we understand by canker, is an acute
inflammation of the lining membrane of the ear, destroying the tympanum
or drum, and producing total deafness. The secretion is often
considerable, and if not removed, will soon fill up the cavity of the
ear with a dark reddish deposit, which greatly increases the irritation
and inflammation of the parts. Mr. Blaine states that he has seen this
disease take a very malignant character, and extend its ravages over the
face, destroying the soft parts, and even penetrating through the bone
into the interior of the head.

'Causes'.--This disease may he excited by any of those causes that
produce a general or local inflammatory action; exposure to cold, the
presence of malignant diseases on other portions of the body, high
living, heat, confinement, or extraneous substances lodged in the organ
itself.

Water-dogs are most subject to this affection, owing, no doubt, to the
frequent afflux of blood to these parts, while the remainder of the body
is immersed in the water. A tendency to this peculiar inflammation may
also be produced in these animals by the action of the water upon the
delicate membranes of the ear, which occasions a violent shaking of the
head and beating of the flaps, which not unfrequently bruises them
considerably. Dogs that seldom or never go into the water are not,
however, by any means exempt from the disease; as we have often seen it
developed in terriers, mastiffs, and every species of mongrel.

'Treatment'.--When the disease appears in its acute form, and without
any apparent cause beyond luxurious living and confinement, bleeding,
purging, low diet, and regular exercise, together with tepid and
soothing washes, will generally relieve the inflammatory action of the
parts. The ear should be carefully and tenderly washed out with castile
soap, and a small quantity of the following solution poured into it two
or three times daily, and the ear worked about gently in the hand to
secure the percolation of the fluid through its structure.


[Symbol: Rx]    Goulard's extract         [Symbol: ounce] sj.
                Water                                 1 pint.
      Mix.
                                             or,
[Symbol: Rx]    Sugar of lead             [Symbol: scruple] i.
                Water                     [Symbol: ounce]   i.
      Mix.
                                             or,
[Symbol: Rx]    Powdered alum             [Symbol: scruple] i.
                Water                     [Symbol: ounce]   i.
      Mix.


The above mixtures should be warmed before using, otherwise the dog may
resist their introduction.

When the disease from bad treatment or neglect has subsided into the
chronic form, and ulceration and suppuration have commenced, it will be
necessary to pursue a somewhat different treatment, and remain more
patient, awaiting the result.

At this time the auditory passage is filled with a dark purulent
secretion, which forms a thick and irritating crust.

This deposit should first be removed by washing with castile soap and
tepid water, and the daily application of a hop poultice. If there be
much inflammatory action of the parts, the dog may be bled, and
alterative or purgative balls administered. The following wash must be
used two or three times daily.

[Symbol: Rx]    Sugar of lead               [Symbol: scruple]  i.
                Laudanum                        gtt.--20 (drops.)
                Water                       [Symbol: ounce]    i.
      Mix.

As the discharge is usually very offensive, the following solution will
correct its fetor, and should be injected or poured in the ear.

[Symbol: Rx]   Chloride of lime             [Symbol: drachm]   i.
               Water                        [Symbol: ounce]   vi.
      Mix.

If granulations have sprung up, touch them with a camel's hair brush,
dipped in the following mixture:

[Symbol: Rx]    Sulphate of copper          [Symbol: scruple] i.
                Water                       [Symbol: ounce]   i.
      Mix.

If, however, the excrescences continue to sprout from the cartilage, and
the discharge continues unabated and offensive, they may be excised and
the parts brushed over with nitrate of silver in substance. After this
operation the flap often becomes extremely tender and much swollen;
poultices of poppy-heads or hops will often afford much relief.

Setons are of much value in the treatment of obstinate cases, and should
be placed in the poll, and kept open till a cure is effected, or the
case abandoned.

All greasy applications to the parts should be discarded; the only one
we consider allowable would be a very nice preparation of fresh butter,
alum, and laudanum, smeared over the surface of the ulcers when very
indolent and painful.

The following wash will be found very soothing in the same case:

[Symbol: Rx]   Opium                              gtt. 20.
               Gum arabic                         iss--
               Lime water              [Symbol: ounce] iv.

If the disease has progressed far enough to destroy a considerable
portion of the cartilages, and perforate the tympanum, more care is
necessary in using the above washes, as the fluid will enter the
internal ear through this opening, and cause much uneasiness to the
animal, if not fatal consequences.


WOUNDS OF THE EAR.

Wounds of the flap are often occasioned by the tearing of poisonous
briars, while hunting in close cover, or in conflict with other dogs.

The former will generally heal up without much trouble, but the latter,
when extensive, sometimes two or three inches in length, by requiring
uniting by one or more sutures, to prevent deformity.


WARTS.

When these little excrescences appear on the external or internal
portions of the flap, they may be taken off with the knife, and caustic
applied to the wound, to induce them to heal, and keep down further
granulations.


CANKER OF THE EDGE OF THE FLAP.

When a corroding sore of this nature attacks the edges of the ear, and
refuses to yield to the application of a few stimulating washes, such as
sulphate of copper, alum, borax, nitrate of silver, &c., the diseased
edges may be paired off, and the actual cautery applied to the parts.
This will frequently arrest its further progress.


POLYPUS OF THE EAR

Polypi often spring up from the interior of the ear; they may be cut off
with the scissors, or by the application of a fine wire, or horse-hair
ligature. The wound should be touched with caustic, tincture of iodine,
or the actual cautery.


DISEASES OF THE EAR--MANGY EDGES

This affection generally accompanies the same disease in other portions
of the body, but may occasionally make its appearance independent of
this cause. The edges of the flap become rough, thickened, and furrowed,
the itching intolerable; and the dog perpetually shaking and scratching
the head, occasions a constant oozing of blood from the wound.
Smooth-baited dogs are most subject to this disease, such as pointers,
hounds, and terriers.

'Treatment'--Slightly stimulating washes, such as castile soap,
alum-water, or infusion of oak-bark, will, in the majority of cases,
induce these sores to heal up. If these do not answer, it will be
necessary to use the mange ointment, keeping the animal hobbled to
prevent him from scratching. Old inveterate cases are best cured by
trimming off the affected parts.--L.]



CHAPTER X--ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND MOUTH ETC.


THE ETHMOID BONES.

There is some difficulty in describing the ethmoid bones; but we shall
not, however, deviate far from the truth if we give the following
account:

A great number of small hollow pedicles proceed from and form around the
cribriform plate; as they move downwards, they project into distinct
vesicles or cavities, smaller and more numerous behind, fewer in number
and larger in front; and each of them not a simple cavity, but more or
less convoluted, while the long walls of those cells are of gossamer
thinness, and as porous as gauze. They even communicate, and are lined,
and externally wrapped together, by the same membrane; the whole
assuming a pear-like form, attached by its base or greater extremity,
and decreasing in size as it proceeds downwards; the cells becoming
fewer, and terminating at length in a kind of apex, which passes under
the superior turbinated bone, and forms a valve between the nasal cavity
and the maxillary sinuses. If to this is added, that the olfactory or
first pair of nerves abut on these cribriform plates, and pass through
their minute openings, and spread themselves over every one of these
cells, we have a tolerably correct picture of this portion of the
ethmoid bones. This nerve has different degrees of development in
different animals, in proportion to their acuteness of smell. There is
comparatively but little necessity for acuteness in the horse. The ox
has occasion for somewhat more, especially in the early part of the
spring, when the plants are young, and have not acquired their peculiar
scent. In the sheep it is larger, and fills the superior portion of the
nasal cavity; but in the dog it seems to occupy that cavity almost to
the exclusion of the turbinated bones. It is also much more fragile in
the dog than in the ox, and the plates have a considerably thinner
structure.

The ethmoid bone of the horse or the ox may be removed from its
situation with little injury; but that of the dog can scarcely be
meddled with without fracture. Below it are the two turbinated bones;
but they are reduced to insignificance by the bulk of the ethmoid bone.
The inferior turbinated bone in the dog is very small, but it is
curiously complicated.

The 'meatus' contains three distinct channels; and the air, loitering,
as it were, in it, and being longer in contact with the sensitive
membrane by which it is lined, contributes to the acuter sense of smell.
The larger cavity is along the floor of the nasal duct. It is the proper
air-passage; and because it has this important function to discharge, it
is out of the way of violence or injury.

The 'lachrymal duct' is the channel through which the superfluous tears
are conveyed to the lower parts of the nostril. A long canal here
commences, and runs down and along the maxillary bone. It is very small,
and terminates in the cuticle, in order that the highly sensitive
membrane of the nose may not be excoriated by the tears occasionally
rendered acrimonious in inflammation of the eye. The oval termination of
this duct is easily brought into view by lifting the nostril.

From some occasional acrimony of the tears, the lining of this duct may
be inflamed and thickened, or some foreign body, or some unctuous matter
from the ciliary glands, may insinuate itself into the duct, and the
fluid accumulates in the sac and distends it, and it bursts; or the
ulcer eats through the integument, and there is a small fistulous
opening beneath the inner canthus of the eye, or there is a constant
discharge from it. It is this constant discharge that prevents the wound
from healing. In some cases the lachrymal bone is involved in the
ulcerative process and becomes carious. In the dog, and particularly in
the smaller spaniel, the watery eye, 'fistula lachrymalis', is of no
unusual occurrence. The fistula will be recognised by a constant,
although perhaps slight, discharge of pus.

The structure and office of the 'velum palati', or veil of the palate,
is in the horse a perfect interposed section between the cavity of the
mouth and the nose, and cutting off all communication between them. In
the dog, who breathes almost entirely through the mouth, the velum
palati is smaller; the tensor muscle, so beautifully described by Mr.
Percivall, is weak, but the circumflex one is stronger and more
developed. When 'coryza' in the dog runs on to catarrh, and the membrane
of the pharynx partakes of the inflammation, the velum palati becomes
inflamed and thickened, but will not act as a perfect communication
between the mouth and the nose. When there is a defluxion from the nose,
tinged by the colour of the food, and particles of food mingle with it,
we have one of the worst symptoms that can present itself, because it
proves the extent and violence of the inflammation.

In inflammatory affections of the membrane of the nose in the dog, we
often observe him snorting in a very peculiar way, with his head
protruding, and the inspiration as forcible as the expiration. An emetic
will usually afford relief, or grain doses of the sulphate of copper.


THE NASAL BONES.

The nasal bones of the dog (see fig. 2, in the head of the dog, page
181) are very small, as they are in all carnivorous animals. Instead of
constituting the roof, and part of the outer wall of the cavity, as in
other animals, the nasal bones form only a portion, and a small one, of
the roof.

The 'superior maxillaries' here swell into importance, and constitute
the whole of the outer wall, and, sometimes, a part of the roof. The
jaws are the weapons of offence and defence; and as much space as
possible is devoted to the insertion of those muscles that will enable
the animal to seize and to hold his prey. One of the most powerful of
them, the 'masseter', rises from the superior maxillary bone, and
spreads over its whole extent: therefore, that bone is developed, while
the nasal bone is compressed into a very small space. The substitution
of a portion of cartilage, instead of bone, at the posterior part of the
orbital ring, in order to give more play for the coracoid process of the
posterior maxillary, round which the temporal bone is wrapped, is a
contrivance of the same nature.

The scent of the dog is not sacrificed or impaired by the apparent
diminution of the nasals; for the cavity enlarges considerably upward,
and is occupied chiefly by the 'ethmoid bone', which, having the greater
portion of nervous pulp spread on it, seems to have most to do with the
sense of smell.

The nasal bones of the dog are essentially different from those of the
horse, cattle, and sheep. They commence, indeed, as high up in the face
as those of the horse, their superior extremities being opposite to the
lachrymal gland; but that commencement is an apex or point varying
materially in different breeds. They form, altogether, one sharp
projection, and are received within breeds these processes extend nearly
one-third of the length of the nasals.

The superior maxillary (3.3.) takes the situation of the nasal (2.),
pushes the lachrymal bone (4.) out of its place, and almost annihilates
it, reaches the frontal bone (7.) and expands upon it, and forms with it
the same denticulated suture which is to be seen in the nasal. The
action of the muscle between these bones, and for the development of
which all this sacrifice is made, is exceedingly powerful. The strength
of this muscle in a large dog is almost incredible: the sutures between
these bones must possess corresponding strength; and so strong is the
union between them, that, in many old dogs, the suture between the
superior maxillary and frontal bones is nearly obliterated, and that
between the nasal and frontal maxillary quite effaced.

As the nasal bones proceed downward they become somewhat wider. They
unite with a long process of the anterior maxillary for the purpose of
strength, and then terminate in a singular way. They have their apexes
or points on the outer edge of the bone; and these apexes or points are
so contrived, that, lying upon, and seemingly losing themselves, on the
processes of the anterior maxillary, they complete, superiorly and
posteriorly, that elliptical bony opening into the nose which was
commenced by the maxillary anteriorly and inferiorly. The nasal cavity
of the dog, therefore, and of all carnivorous animals, terminates by a
somewhat circular opening, more or less in the form of an ellipse. This
bony aperture varies in size in different dogs, and, as we should expect
from what we have seen of the adaptation of structure to the situation
and wants of the animal, it is largest in those on whom we are most
dependent for speed and stoutness.

The 'olfactory', or first pair of nerves, have a double origin, namely,
from the 'corpus striatum' and the base of the 'corpus callosum'. They
are prolongations of the medullary substance of the central portion of
the brain. They are the largest of the cerebral nerves. Their course is
exceedingly short; and they have not a single anastomosis, in order that
the impression made on them may be conveyed undisturbed and perfect to
the brain.

The olfactory nerve is a prolongation of the substance of the brain, and
it abuts upon the cribriform bone, of which mention has been made. I
will not speak of the singular cavities which it contains, nor of their
function; this belongs to the sensorial system: but its pulpy matter has
already been traced to the base of the ethmoid bone, and the under part
of the septum, and the superior turbinated bone. Although we soon lose
it in the mucous membrane of the nose, there is little doubt that in a
more filmy form it is spread over the whole of the cavity, and probably
over all the sinuses of the face and head. It is, however, so mingled
with the mucous membrane, that no power of the lens has enabled us to
follow it so far. It is like the 'portio mollis of the seventh pair,
eluding the eye, but existing in sufficient substances for the
performance of its important functions.

We have frequent cases of 'Ozæna' in old dogs, and sometimes in those
that are younger. The discharge from the nostril is abundant and
constant, and sometimes fetid. The Schneiderian membrane, of more than
usual sensibility in this animal, is exposed to many causes of
irritation, and debilitated and worn out before its time. Pugs are
particularly subject to Ozæna. I scarcely ever knew a very old pug that
had it not to a greater or less degree. The peculiar depression between
the nasal and frontal bones in this breed of dogs, while it almost
totally obliterates the frontal sinuses, may narrow the air-passage at
that spot, and cause greater irritation there from the unusual rush of
the air, and especially if the membrane becomes inflamed or any foreign
body insinuates itself.

Little can be done in these cases, except to encourage cleanliness about
the face and nostrils. It is, in the majority of these cases, a disease
of old age, and must take its course.

A terrier uttered a continual loud stertorous sound in breathing, which
could be plainly heard in our parlour when the dog was in the hospital.
The animal was evidently much oppressed and in considerable pain. He
made continual, and generally ineffectual, efforts to sneeze. When he
did succeed, a very small quantity of pus-like fluid was discharged; the
dog was then considerably relieved, but a quarter of an hour afterwards
he was as bad as ever. I ordered a slight emetic every third day. There
was some relief for seven or eight hours, and then he was as bad as
ever. I could neither feel nor see any cause of obstruction. The owner
became tired, and the dog was taken away; but we could not learn what
became of it.

Another terrier was occasionally brought for consultation. The dog
breathed with considerable difficulty, and occasionally snorted with the
greatest violence, and bloody purulent matter was discharged; after
which he was somewhat relieved; but, in the course of a few days, the
obstruction was as great as ever. I am not aware of a single instances
of this affection of the pug being completely removed. The discharge
from the nostrils of the bull-dog is often considerable, and, once being
thoroughly established, is almost as obstinate as in the pug.


OZÆNA.

Ozæna, or fetid discharge from the nose, is, perhaps, the most
troublesome and frequent affection that this organ is subject to; it is
attended, at first, with slight fever, swelling of the parts, and a
fetid discharge from the nostrils, which, if not corrected in the early
stage of the disease, subsides into a chronic purulent secretion, that
not only weakens the dog, but renders him peculiarly offensive. Caries
and destruction of the bones of the nose will ultimately take place.

'Causes'.--Inflammation of the lining membrane of the nose, either
idiopathic, or arising from distemper, or other morbid disturbance of
the system. It may also be a symptom, or the produce, of polypi in this
organ.

'Treatment'.--In commencing the treatment of this disease, it will be
necessary first to prescribe some alterative medicines, as balls of
aloes and rhubarb, and protect the animal from all severe atmospherical
vicissitudes. This precaution, in connexion with mild astringent
injections into the seat of the disorder, will generally effect a cure.

'Injections for Ozæna'.

No. 1.
[Symbol: Rx]  Sulphate of Zinc.........................grs. v to x.
              Water..............................[Symbol: ounce] i.
              Mix.

No. 2.
[Symbol: Rx]  Alum.............................[Symbol: scruple] ii.
              Water..............................[Symbol: ounce] i.
              Mix

No. 3.
[Symbol: Rx]  Chloride of Soda........................grs. v. to x.
              Water..............................[Symbol: ounce] i.
              Mix.

No. 4.
[Symbol: Rx]  Teneriffe, Madeira or Sherry wine..[Symbol: ounce] i.
              Extract of Tannin.............................grs. iv.
              Mix.

[Any of the above injections will answer a good purpose. No. 3 is
particularly useful to correct the fetidness of the discharge. When the
disease is an old chronic affection, it should not be arrested too
suddenly by astringent injections; in such cases it will be better to
insert a seton in the poll, and thus keep up a drain from the system
after the suppression of the other.--L.]


THE SENSE OF SMELL.

In the dog we trace the triumph of 'olfactory power'. How indistinct
must be that scent which is communicated to, and lingers on, the ground
by the momentary contact of the foot of the hare, the fox, or the deer;
yet the hound, of various breeds, recognises it for hours, and some
sportsmen have said for more than a day. He also can not only
distinguish the scent of one species of animal from another, but that of
different animals of the same species. The fox-hound, well broken-in,
will rarely challenge at the scent of the hare, nor will he be imposed
upon when the crafty animal that he pursues has taken refuge in the
earth, and thrusts out a new victim before the pack.

The sense of smelling is, to a certain degree, acute in all dogs. It is
a provision wisely and kindly made, in order to guide them to their
proper food, or to fit them for our service. It may possibly be the
medium through which much evil is communicated. Certain particles of a
deleterious nature may be, and doubtless are, arrested by the mucous
membrane of the nose, and there absorbed, and the constitution, to a
considerable degree, becomes affected. Hence appears the necessity for
attention to ventilation, and especially to prevent the membrane of the
nose from being habitually stimulated and debilitated by the effluvia
generated in a close and hot kennel.

M. Majendie instituted some curious experiments on the sense of
smelling, and he was led to believe that it depended more on the fifth
pair of nerves than on the olfactory nerve. He divided the fifth pair,
and from that moment no odour, no puncture, produced the slightest
apparent impression on the membrane of the nose. In another dog he
destroyed the two olfactory nerves, and placed some strong odours
beneath the nostrils of the animal. The dog conducted himself as he
would have done in his ordinary state. Hence he concluded it probable
that the olfactory nerve was not that of smelling.

The simple fact, however, is, that there are two species of nerves here
concerned--those of common and of peculiar sensation. The olfactory
nerve is the nerve of smelling, the fifth pair is that of common
sensation. They are to a certain degree necessary to each other.

'Scent'.--This leads us to the consideration of the term "scent." It
expresses the odour or effluvium which is constantly issuing from every
animal, and especially when that animal is in more than usual exercise.
In a state of heat or excitement, the pores of the skin appear relaxed,
and a fluid or aqueous vapour is secreted, which escapes in small or
large quantities, adheres to the persona or substances on which it
falls, and is, particularly, received on the olfactory organs. The
hound, at almost the earliest period, begins to comprehend the work
which he has to perform. The peculiar scent which his nostrils imbibe
urges him eagerly to pursue but the moment he ceases to be conscious of
the presence of the effluvium, he is at a perfect loss.

Mr. Daniel, in his work on the Chase, very properly observes, that "the
scent most favourable to the hound is when the effluvium, constantly
perspired from the game as it runs, is kept by the gravity of the air at
the height of his breast. It is then neither above his reach nor does he
need to stoop for it. This is what is meant when the scent is said to be
breast-high."

When the leaves begin to fall, the scent does not lie well in the cover.
It frequently alters materially in the same day. This depends
principally on the condition of the ground and the temperature of the
air, which should be moist but not wet. When the ground is hard and the
air dry, there will seldom be much scent. The scent rarely lies with a
north or east wind. A southerly wind without rain is the best. Sudden
storms are sure to destroy the scent. A fine sunshiny day is not good;
but a warm day without sun is always a good one. If, as the morning
advances, the drops begin to hang on the bushes, the scent will not lie.
During a white frost the scent lies high, and also when the frost is
quite gone; but at the time of its going off the scent never lies. In a
hard rain, if the air is mild, the scent will sometimes be very good. A
wet night often produces the best chases. In heathy countries, where the
game brushes the grass or the boughs as it goes along, the scent seldom
fails. It lies best on the richest soils; but the countries that are
favourable to horses are not always so to hounds. The morning usually
affords the best scent, and the game is then least able to escape. The
want of rest, added perhaps to a full belly, gives the hounds a decided
superiority over an early-found fox; and the condition of the ground and
the temperature of the air are circumstances of much importance.

Such are the results of the best observations on scent; but, after all,
we have much to learn concerning it. Many a day that predicated to be a
good one for scent has turned out a very bad one, and 'vice versa'. An
old or experienced sportsman, knowing this, will never presume to make
sure of his scent.

We shall be forgiven if we pursue this subject a little at length.

There is not only a constant appropriation of new matter to repair the
losses that animals are continually sustaining, but there is a constant
elaboration of gaseous or fluid matter maintaining the balance of the
different systems, and essential to the continuance of life. This
effluvium, as the animal moves from place to place, is attracted and
detained for a while by the substances with which it comes into contact,
or it remains floating in the atmosphere.

There is a peculiar smell or scent belonging to each individual, either
generally or under peculiar circumstances.

The sportsman takes advantage of this; and, as most species of dogs
possess great acuteness of olfactory power, they can distinguish, or
are readily taught to distinguish, not only the scent of the hare from
that of the fox, but that of the hare or fox which they are pursuing
from that of half a dozen others that may be started during the chase.

The dogs that are selected for this purpose are those the conformation
of whose face and head gives ample room for the development of the
olfactory apparatus, and these are the different species of hounds; but
a systematic education, and too often a great deal of unnecessary
cruelty, is resorted to, in order to make them perfect in their work.
The distinction between the scent of the fox and that of the hare is
soon learned by the respective packs; and, when it is considered that
the hunted hare is perspiring at every pore, and her strength being
almost exhausted, she is straining every limb to escape from her
pursuers, the increasing quantity of vapour which exudes from her will
prevent every other newly started animal from being mistaken for her.

It has been well observed that when the atmosphere is loaded with
moisture, and rain is at hand, the gas is speedily dissolved and mingles
with the surrounding air. A storm dissipates it at once, while the
cessation of the rain is preceded by the return and increased power of
scent. A cold, dry easterly wind condenses and absorbs it, and this is
even more speedily and irretrievably done by superabundant moisture. On
fallows and beaten roads the scent rarely lies well, for there is
nothing to detain it, and it is swept away in a moment; while over a
luxuriant pasture, or by the hedge-row, or on the coppice, it lingers,
clinging to the grass or the bushes. In a sunshiny day the scent is
seldom strong; for too much of it is evaporated by the heat. The most
favourable period is a soft southerly wind without rain, the scent being
of the same temperature and gravity with the atmosphere. Although it
spreads over the level, it rises not far above the ground, and, being
'breast high', enables the hound, keeping his muzzle in the midst of it,
to run at his greatest speed. The different manners or attitudes in
which the dog runs afford pleasing and satisfactory illustrations of the
nature of the scent. Sometimes they will be seen galloping with their
noses in the air, as if their game had flown away, and, an hour or two
afterwards, every one of them will have his muzzle on the ground. The
specific gravity of the atmosphere has changed, and the scent has risen
of fallen in proportion.

A westerly wind stands next to a southerly one, for a hunting morning.
This is all simple enough, and needs not the mystification with which it
has been surrounded. A valuable account of this may be found in
Johnson's Shooting Companion, a work that is justly and highly approved.

Mr. Delmé Radcliffe has also, in his splendid work on "the noble
science," some interesting remarks on the scent of hounds. He says that
there is an idiosyncracy, a peculiarity, in their several dispositions.
Some young hounds seem to enter on their work instinctively. From their
first to their last appearance in the field they do no wrong. Others,
equally good, will take no notice of anything; they will not stoop to
any scent during the first season, and are still slack at entering even
at the second; but are ultimately distinguished at the head of the pack;
and such usually last some seasons longer than the more precocious of
the same litter.


THE TONGUE.

The manner of drinking is different in the different animals. The horse,
the ox, and the sheep do not plunge their muzzles into the water, but
bring their lips into contact with it and sip it gradually. The dog,
whose tongue is longer, plunges it a little way into the fluid, and,
curving its tip and its edges, laps, in the language of Johnson, with a
"quick reciprocation of the tongue." The horse sucks the water that is
placed before him, the dog laps it; and both of them are subject to
inflammation of the tongue, to enlargement of that organ, and to a
considerable or constant flow of saliva over it.

Extending from the base to the tip of the tongue there is on either side
a succession of tendons, which help to retain the tongue in the mouth,
and to curve the edge of it, so as to convey the food or the water to
the posterior part of the mouth. These all spring from one central cord,
and ramify over the membrane of the tongue. On opening the mouth, and
keeping it open by means of two pieces of tape, one behind the upper
canine teeth, and the other behind the lower ones, and drawing the
tongue from the mouth and exposing its under surface, a cuticular fold
or ridge will present itself, occupying a middle line from the base of
the tongue to its very point. If this is opened with a lancet, a minute
fibrous cord will be exposed through its whole extent. It is the cord
which governs the motions of the tongue.

This cord is, sometimes, foolishly and uselessly detached from its
adhesions, so far as we can effect it, and drawn forward with a
tenaculum and divided. There is one abominable course pursued in
effecting this. The violence used in stripping down the tendon is so
great, and the lacerated fibrous substance is put so much on the stress,
and its natural elasticity is so considerable, that it recoils and
assumes the appearance of a dying worm, and the dog is said to have been
wormed. For the sake of humanity, as well as to avoid the charge of
ignorance, it is to be hoped that this practice will speedily cease.


THE BLAIN.

The blain is a vesicular enlargement on the lateral and under part of
the tongue in horses, oxen, and dogs, which, although not of unfrequent
occurrence, or peculiarly fatal result, has not been sufficiently
noticed by veterinary authors. In the horse and the dog it is often
unaccompanied by any previous indisposition, or by other disease; but
suddenly there is a copious discharge of saliva, at first limpid and
without smell, but soon becoming purulent, bloody, and exceedingly
fetid. On examination, the tongue is found apparently enlarged. It is
elevated from its base between the maxillary bones, and on the side and
towards the base of it are seen large vesicles, pellucid, red, livid, or
purple; and, if the discharge is fetid, having near their bases ulcers,
irregular, unhealthy, and gangrenous.

In the horse and the dog the progress of the disease is slow, and seldom
extends beyond the sides of the tongue. The vesicles are not of such
magnitude as to interfere with respiration, and the ulcers are neither
many nor foul.

In cattle it is sadly different. The vesicles attain an enormous size.
They quickly break and form deep ulcerations, which are immediately
succeeded by other vesicles still larger. The whole membrane of the
mouth becomes affected; the inflammation and swelling extend to the
cellular substance of the neighbouring parts, and the head and neck are
considerably, and sometimes enormously, enlarged; the respiratory
passages are obstructed; the animal breathes with the greatest
difficulty, and is, in some cases, literally suffocated.

The primary seat of blain, is the cellular substance beneath the
integument of the part. As the sublingual glands stretch along the under
part of the tongue, and their ducts open on the side of the frænum, it
is possible that this disease may proceed from, or be connected with,
obstruction or inflammation of these ducts. Dissection, however, has not
proved this; and the seat of the disease, when the swellings are first
discovered, is chiefly the cellular tissue between the integument and
the lateral parts of the tongue, and also that between the membrane of
the mouth and the sublingual glands.

'Post-mortem' examination shows intense disease: the small intestines
are highly inflamed with red and black patches, which are also found in
the c¾cum, colon, and rectum.

The blain is more frequent in spring and summer than at other seasons of
the year. These are the times when the animal is debilitated by the
process of moulting, and is then more than usually disposed to
inflammatory complaints. It is usually an epidemic disease. Many cases
of it occur about the same time in certain districts, and over a great
extent of country. When it appears in towns, the country is rarely
exempt from it. I am not prepared lo say that it is contagious either in
the horse or the dog. I have not seen any instance of it. At all events,
it is not so virulent in these animals as it is in cattle.

The vesicles should be freely lanced from end to end. There will not,
perhaps, be much immediate discharge; for the vesicle will be distended
by a substance imperfectly organised, or of such a glassy or inspissated
nature as not readily to escape. It will, however, soon disappear; and
in four-and-twenty hours, in the majority of cases, the only vestige of
the disease will be an incision, not, perhaps, looking very healthy, but
that will soon become so and heal. If there have been any previous
ulcerations, or the slightest fetor, the mouth should he frequently
washed with a diluted solution of the chloride of lime; one part of the
saturated solution, and eleven of water. This will act as a powerful and
useful stimulus to the foul and indolent ulcer. When all unpleasant
smell is removed, the mouth should be bathed with a lotion composed of
equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water, or half an ounce of alum
dissolved in a quart of water, and two ounces of the tincture of catechu
added to the solution. I do not recollect a case in the horse or dog, in
which these medicines were not employed with advantage. In cattle,
before there has been fetor attending the discharge, or the constitution
has been materially affected, these simple means will perfectly succeed.

If the practitioner is consulted somewhat too late, when the
constitution has become affected, and typhoid fever has ensued, he
should still lance the tumours, and apply the chloride of lime and the
tincture of myrrh, and give a gentle aperient. He should endeavour to
rouse and support the system by tonic medicines, as gentian and colomba
with ginger, adding to two drachms of the first two, and one drachm of
the last, half an ounce of nitre; but he should place most dependence on
nourishing food. Until the mouth is tolerably sound, it is probable that
the animal will not be induced to eat; but it will occasionally sip a
little fluid, and, therefore, gruel should be always within its reach.
More should occasionally be given, as thick as it will flow, with a
spoon or small horn.

[INFLAMMATION OF THE TONGUE.

Glossitis or inflammation of the tongue is not an unfrequent disease,
but is occasionally met with in its simple form or in connexion with
inflammatory affections of the throat. Under all and any circumstances
this affection must be considered a dangerous malady, as it not
unfrequently proves fatal in the course of a few hours from suffocation,
occasioned by the swelling of the organ itself and other portions of the
throat. The disease comes on suddenly with fever, heat, swelling and
redness of the tongue. The tongue protrudes from the mouth and exhibits
a dry, hot, inflammatory appearance, the respiration is hurried, and the
animal expresses great uneasiness, and constant desire to lap water,
which he can with difficulty accomplish. If not arrested, the
inflammation may terminate in suppuration, by which process the swelling
is relieved, and a cure often effected.

'Causes'.--Independent of the natural agents before referred to in the
production of inflammatory affections, there are some few causes to
which we can especially attribute this disease.  Direct injuries done to
the member itself, either by wounds or stings of insects, the taking of
poisonous or irritating substances into the mouth, want of water while
hunting in hot weather, &c.

Several years ago we witnessed the death of a very valuable pointer,
suffering from this disease produced by poison maliciously administered.
He was affected so suddenly and violently with inflammation of the
throat and tongue that his owner, Mr. F--, was lead to believe that a
bone had lodged in the throat, which was the occasion of all the
trouble. After proper examination and considerable delay, he was forced
to abandon this erroneous idea, but not in time to save the poor animal,
who soon died from strangulation or congestion of the lungs. This
valuable dog might have been saved if promptly and energetically treated.

The stings of wasps or bees may also produce this affection.

'Treatment'.--Nothing can be done with this malady without the use of
the lancet, by which six or eight ounces of blood should be drawn at the
commencement of the disease. If the tongue is much swollen and very
tender, longitudinal incisions should be made in it, extending as far
back as possible, and their bleeding assisted by sponging the mouth out
with tepid water. Astringent applications may then be used as washes,
such as alum water, strong vinegar, infusions of oak bark or solutions
of nitrate of silver, four or six grains to the ounce, to be applied
once or twice a day. A large blister may also be placed under the
throat, and when the inflammation is sufficiently reduced to allow the
introduction of articles into the stomach, a powerful purge of aloes
should be given.  Nothing, however, can be done without copious
bleeding.--L.]


THE LIPS

of the dog discharge, with somewhat less efficiency, the same office as
in the horse, cattle, and sheep; and are usefully employed in gathering
together the food, and conveying it to the mouth. The lips also secrete
the saliva, a fluid that is indispensably necessary for the proper
comminution of the food.

Swellings on the inside of the cheek or upper lip, and extending nearly
to the angle of the lip, are of frequent occurrence. A superficial sore
spreads over it, slightly covered by a yellowish, mattery pellicle; and
on the teeth, and extending down the gums, there is a deposition of
hardened tartarous matter, which is scaled off with a greater or less
degree of difficulty. It must be removed, or the sore will rapidly
spread over the cheek. A lotion of equal parts of tincture of myrrh and
water, with a few drops of the tincture of cantharides, will be usually
sufficient to cause the swelling to subside, and the pellicle to be
detached. The lip, however, will generally remain slightly thickened. A
little soreness will sometimes return, but be easily reduced.


THE TEETH

next claim attention.

According to the dentition of the dog by M. Girard and Linnæus, the
following is the acknowledged formula:

Incisors, 5/6; Canines, (1-1)/(1-1); Molars, (6-6)/(7-7),=42.

The following cuts exhibit the front teeth of the dog in various
stages of growth and decay:

[Seven illustrations, shown in full in the html version of this text.]

The full-grown dog has usually 20 teeth in the upper, and 22 in the
lower jaw, with two small supernumerary molars. All of them, with the
exception of the tushes, are provided with a bony neck covered by the
gums, and separating the body of the tooth from the root. The projecting
portion of the teeth is more or less pointed, and disposed so as to tear
and crush the food on which the dog lives. They are of a moderate size
when compared with those of other animals, and are subject to little
loss of substance compared with the teeth of the horse. In most of them,
however, there is some alteration of form and substance, both in the
incisors and the tushes; but this depends so much on the kind of food on
which the animal lives, and the consequent use of the teeth, that the
indication of the age, by the altered appearance of the mouth, is not to
be depended upon after the animal is four or five years old. The incisor
teeth are six in number in each jaw, and are placed opposite to each
other. In the lower jaw, the pincers, or central teeth, are the largest
and the strongest; the middle teeth are somewhat less; and the corner
teeth the smallest and the weakest. In the upper jaw, however, the
corner teeth are much larger than the middle ones; they are farther
apart from their neighbours, and they terminate in a conical point
curved somewhat inwards and backwards.

As long as the teeth of the full-grown dog are whole, and not injured by
use, they have a healthy appearance, and their colour is beautifully
white. The surface of the incisors presents, as in the ruminants, an
interior and cutting edge, and a hollow or depression within. This edge
or border is divided into three lobes, the largest and most projecting
forming the summit or point of the tooth. The two lateral lobes have the
appearance of notches cut on either side of the principal lobe; and the
union of the three resembles the 'fleur de lis', which, however, is in
the process of time effaced by the wearing out of the teeth. (Figs. 3
and 4.)

While the incisor teeth are young, they are flattened on their sides,
and bent somewhat backwards, and there is a decided cavity, in which a
pulpy substance is enclosed. This, however, is gradually contracted as
the age of the dog increases.

M. F. Cuvier speaks of certain supernumerary teeth occasionally
developed in each of the jaws. There is much irregularity accompanying
them; and they have even been supposed to have extended to seven or
eight in number.


THE INDICATIONS OF AGE.

The dog displays natural indications of age. The hair turns gray to a
certain extent as in the human being. This commences about the eyes, and
extends over the face, and weakens the sight; and, at ten years old, or
earlier, in the majority of dogs, this can scarcely be mistaken. At
fifteen or sixteen years the animal is becoming a nuisance, yet he has
been known to linger on until he has reached his two-and-twentieth year.

Among the diseases from which the dog suffers, there are few of more
frequent occurrence than decayed teeth, especially in towns, or in the
habitations of the higher classes of society: the carious teeth, in
almost every case, becoming insufferably fetid, or  so loose as to
prevent mastication; or an immense accumulation of tartar growing round
them.

The course which the veterinary surgeon pursues is an exceedingly simple
one. If any of the teeth are considerably loose, they must be removed.
If there is any deposit of tartaric acid, it must be got rid of by means
of the proper instruments, not very different from those which the human
surgeon employs. The teeth must be perfectly cleaned, and every loose
one taken away. Without this the dog will be an almost insufferable
nuisance. The decayed and loose teeth being removed, chlorinated lime
diluted with 15 or 20 times its bulk of water should be applied to the
gums. By the use of this the ulcers will quickly heal; the fetor will be
removed, and the deposition of the tartar prevented. Mr. Blaine first
introduced the chlorinated lime for the accomplishment of these
purposes.

Two little histories out of a great number will sufficiently illustrate
these cases. A terrier had scarcely eaten during more than a week. He
dropped his meat after attempting to chew it, and the breath was very
offensive. Several of the teeth were loose, and the rest were thickly
encrusted with tartar. The gums had receded from the teeth, and were
red, sore, and ulcerated.

I removed all the loose teeth; for experience had taught me that they
rarely or never became again fixed. I next, with the forceps and knife,
cleaned the others, and ordered the diluted chlorinated lime to be
alternated with tincture of myrrh and water. The extraction of the loose
teeth, and the removal of the tartar from those that were sound,
occupied a full hour; for the dog resisted with all his might. He,
however, soon began to eat; the lotions were continued; and five months
afterwards, the mouth of the dog was not in the slightest degree
offensive.

An old dog should not be quite abandoned. A pug had only four teeth
remaining beside the canines. They were all thickly covered with tartar,
and two of them were very loose. The gums and lips were in a dreadfully
cankerous state, and the dog was unable to eat. All that he could do was
to lap a little milk or broth.

I extracted the two loose teeth, cleaned the others, and ordered a
lotion of equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water to be applied.

'13th August', 1842.--A very considerable discharge of pus was observed,
with blood from the mouth, apparently proceeding from the cavity whence
one of the teeth had been extracted. The dog is exceedingly thirsty, and
walks round and round the water-dish, but is afraid to lap. He has not
eaten for two days. Use the lotion as before, and force him with strong
soup.

'15th.' The dog has not voluntarily eaten, but is still forced with
soup. He is very costive. Give two grains of calomel and an equal
quantity of antimonial powder.

'18th.' He has eaten a very little, but gets thinner and weaker.
Continue the lotion.

'27th.' The ulcers are nearly healed, and the discharge of pus has
ceased.

'31st.' The mouth is clean, the gums are healed, and there is no longer
anything offensive about the dog.


THE LARYNX

is placed at the top of the windpipe, the exit from the lungs, and is
also connected with the Schneiderian membrane. At its upper part is the
epiglottis, the main guard against the passage of the food into the
respiratory tubes, and, at the same time, of the instrument of the
voice. It consists of five cartilages united together by a ligamentous
substance, and, by distinct and perfect articulations, adapting itself
to every change of the respiratory process and the production of the
voice.

At the base is the 'cricoid cartilage,' the support and bond of union of
the rest. Above are the 'arytenoid cartilages,' resting on the 'chorda
vocales' and influencing their action. The 'epiglottis' is placed at the
extremity of the opening into the windpipe, with its back opposed to the
pharynx, so that when a pellet of food passes from the pharynx in its
way to the oesophagus, the epiglottis is applied over the glottis, and by
this means closes the aperture of the larynx, and prevents any portion
of the food from passing into it. The food having passed over the
epiglottis, that cartilage, from its elastic power, again rises and
resumes its former situation.

The 'thyroid cartilage' envelopes and protects all the rest, and
particularly the lining membrane of the larynx, which vibrates from the
impulse of the air that passes. The vibrations spread in every direction
until they reach the delicate membrane of the tympanum of the ear. That
membrane responds to the motion without, and the vibration is carried on
to the pulp of the auditory nerve, deep in the recesses of the ear. The
loudness of the tone--its acuteness or graveness--depends on the force
of the expired air and the shortening or lengthening of the chord. Hence
it is, that the tone of the bark of the dog, or the neighing of the
horse, depends so much on the age or size of the animal. Thus we compare
the shrill bark of the puppy with the hoarse one of the adult dog; the
high-toned but sweet music of the beagle with the fuller and lower cry
of the fox-hound, and the deep but melodious baying of the mastiff. I
may, perhaps, be permitted to add to these, the whinnying of the colt
and the neighing of the horse.

Each animal has his peculiar and intelligible language. He who has long
lived among them will recognise the tone of delight at meeting, rising
into and terminating in a sharper sound; the strong and elevated tone
when they are calling to or challenging each other at a distance; the
short expression of anger--the longer, deeper, hoarser tone of fear; the
murmur almost as deep, but softer, of habitual attachment, and the
elevated yet melodious token of sudden recognition. I could carry on a
conversation with a dog that I once possessed for several minutes, and
one perfectly intelligible to both.

Inflammation of the larynx is a frequent and dangerous complaint. It
usually commences with, and can scarcely be distinguished from, catarrh,
except that it is attended by cough more violent and painful, and the
dog expectorates considerably. Acute laryngitis is not so frequent an
occurrence; but there is much danger attending it. Blood must be
abstracted to as great an extent as the pulse will bear, or until it
becomes evidently affected. To this must follow digitalis, nitre, tartar
emetic, and aloes, and to these must be added a powerful blister. A
considerable quantity is effused and organized, the membrane is
thickened, perhaps permanently so, and the whole of the submucous
cellular tissue becomes oedematous.

The dog is subject to sudden attacks of 'angina'. It has been imagined,
from the appearances that are manifested, that some strange body is
arrested in the windpipe or the throat. There is no dread of water or of
the usual fluids; the dog will lap once or twice from that fluid which
is placed before him, and turns slowly away from it; and this
circumstance gives rise to what is called dumb madness. The dog barks in
a particular manner, or rather howls like a rabid dog: he is out of
spirits, has a strange, anxious, altered countenance, and is alternately
cold and hot. Frequently added to this is redness of the buccal and
nasal membranes. He refuses all solid food, and either will not drink or
finds it difficult to swallow anything. His mouth is generally open, and
contains a spumy matter exhaling an offensive smell. His tongue, charged
with a great quantity of saliva, protrudes from his mouth, and the
submaxillary glands are enlarged. To these appearances are added a
yellow tint of the eyes, constipation, and a small quantity of urine,
surcharged with a deep yellow colour. At this period the disease has
generally reached a considerable degree of virulence. Often the
inflammation extends to the back part of the mouth and larynx; and in
this last case the respiration is attended by a hoarse, hissing kind of
sound.

The progress of the disease is rapid, and, in a few days, it reaches its
highest degree of intensity. It is always fatal when it is intense; and,
when its influence is widely spread, it is a very dangerous complaint.

Somewhat rarely the subjects of it recover. After death we find great
redness and injection in all the affected nervous surfaces, and
indications of abscesses in which suppuration was not fully established.


FOREIGN ARTICLES IN THE THROAT

When a substance, such as a bone, has become impacted in the throat, the
better plan is to attempt to push it downwards into the stomach, as
there is but little hope of extracting it.

[A portion of sponge may be securely tied on the end of a piece of
ratan, whalebone, or other flexible material, and inserted in the mouth,
may be carried over the tongue down the throat against the foreign
article, which may then be gently pushed before it. If this should not
succeed, and the substance appears firmly imbedded in the throat, an
incision may be made in the oesophagus and the bone extracted.--L.]


BRONCHOCELE OR GOITRE

in the dog is almost daily forced upon our notice. If a spaniel or
pug-puppy is mangy, pot-bellied, rickety, or deformed, he seldom fails
to have some enlargement of the thyroid gland. The spaniel and the pug
are most subject to this disease. The jugular vein passes over the
thyroid gland; and, as that substance increases, the vein is sometimes
brought into sight, and appears between the gland and the integuement,
fearfully enlarged, varicose, and almost appearing as if it were
bursting. The trachea is pressed upon on either side, and the oesophagus
by the left gland, and there is difficulty of swallowing. The poor
animal pants distressingly after the least exertion, and I have known
absolute suffocation ensue. In a few cases ulceration has followed, and
the sloughing has been dreadful, yet the gland has still preserved its
characteristic structure. Although numerous abscesses have been formed
in the lower part of it, and there has been considerable discharge,
viscid or purulent, the upper part has remained as hard and almost as
scirrhous as before.

'Cause of Goitre'.--In many cases, this enlargement of the thyroid
glands is plainly connected with a debilitated state of the constitution
generally, and more particularly with a disposition to rickets. I have
rarely seen a puppy that had had mange badly, and especially if mange
was closely followed by distemper, that did not soon exhibit goitre.
Puppies half-starved, and especially if dirtily kept, are thus affected;
and it is generally found connected with a loose skin, flabby muscles,
enlarged belly, and great stupidity. On the other hand, I have seen
hundreds of dogs, to all appearance otherwise healthy, in whom the
glands of the neck have suddenly and frightfully enlarged. I have never
been able to trace this disease to any particular food, whether solid or
liquid; although it is certainly the frequent result of want of
nutriment.

Some friends, of whom I particularly inquired, assured me, that it is
not to any great extent prevalent in those parts of Derbyshire where
goitre is oftenest seen in the human being.

It is periodical in the dog. I have seen it under medical treatment, and
without medical treatment, perfectly disappear for a while, and soon
afterwards, without any assignable cause, return. There is a breed of
the Blenheim spaniel, in which this periodical goitre is very
remarkable; the slightest cold is accompanied by enlargement of the
thyroid gland, but the swelling altogether disappears in the course of a
fortnight. I am quite assured that it is hereditary; no one that is
accustomed to dogs can doubt this for a moment.

'Treatment'.--I am almost ashamed to confess how many inefficient and
cruel methods of treatment I many years ago adopted. I used mercurial
friction, external stimulants, and blisters; I have been absurd enough
to pass setons through the tumours, and even to extirpate them with the
knife. The mercury salivated without any advantage, the stimulants and
the blisters aggravated the evil; the setons did so in a tenfold degree,
so that many dogs were lost in the irritative fever tint was produced;
and, although the gland, when directed out, could not be reproduced, yet
I have been puzzled with the complication of vessels around it, and in
one case lost my patient by hemorrhage, which I could not arrest.

When the power of iodine in the dispersion of glandular tumours was
first spoken of, I eagerly tried it for this disease, and was soon
satisfied that it was almost a specific. I scarcely recollect a case in
which the glands have not very materially diminished; and, in the
decided majority of cases, they have been gradually reduced to their
natural size. I first tried an ointment composed of the iodine of
potassium and lard, with some, but not a satisfactory result. Next I
used the tincture of iodine, in doses of from five to ten drops, and
with or without any external local application; but I found, at length,
that the simple iodine, made into pills with powdered gum and syrup,
effected almost all that I could wish. It is best to commence with the
eighth of a grain for a small dog, and rapidly increase it to half a
grain, morning and night. A larger dog may take from a quarter of a
grain to a grain. In a few instances, loss of appetite and slight
emaciation have been produced; but then, the medicine being suspended
for a few days, no permanent ill effect has ever followed the exhibition
of iodine.


PHLEGMONOUS TUMOUR.

A phlegmonous tumour under the throat, and accompanied by constitutional
disturbance, with the exception of there being little or no cough, often
appears in the dog. Comparing the size of the animals, these tumours are
much larger than in either the horse or ox; but they are situated higher
up the face, and do not press so much upon the windpipe, nor is there
any apparent danger of suffocation from them. The whole head, however,
is sometimes enlarged to a frightful degree, and the eyes are completely
closed. More than a pint of fluid has sometimes escaped from a
middle-sized dog at the first puncture of the tumour.

The mode of treatment is, to stimulate the part, in order to expedite
the suppuration of the tumour, and to lance it freely and deeply, as
soon as matter is evidently formed. The wound should be dressed with
tincture of aloes, and a thick bandage placed round the neck, to prevent
the dog from scratching the part, which often causes dreadful
laceration.

These tumours in the throat of the dog are not always of a phlegmonous
character. They are cysts, sometimes rapidly formed, and of considerable
size, and filled with a serous or gelatinous fluid.



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XI.


ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE CHEST; THE DIAPHRAGM; THE PERICARDIUM; THE
HEART; PLEURISY; PNEUMONIA; SPASMODIC COUGH

The chest is the superior, or in quadrupeds the anterior, cavity of the
trunk of the body: it is divided into two cavities by a membranous
partition, termed 'mediastinum;' and separated from the abdomen, or
cavity which contains the liver, spleen, pancreas, and other abdominal
viscera, by the 'diaphragm,' which is of a musculo-membranous nature.
This membrane may be described, as it is divided, into the main circular
muscle, with its central tendinous expansion forming the lower part, and
two appendices, or 'crura,' as they are termed from their peculiar
shape, constituting its superior portion. We trace the fleshy origin of
the grand muscle, laterally and inferiorly, commencing from the
cartilage of the eighth rib anteriorly, and following somewhat closely,
as we proceed backward, the union of the posterior ribs with their
cartilages, excepting, however, the two last. The attachment is
peculiarly strong. It is denticulated: it encloses the whole of the
latter and inferior part of the chest as far as the sternum, where it is
connected with the ensiform cartilage.

The diaphragm is the main agent, both in ordinary and extraordinary
respiration. In its quiescent state it presents its convex surface
towards the thorax, and its concave one towards the abdomen. The
anterior convexity abuts upon the lungs; the posterior concavity is
occupied by some of the abdominal viscera.

Thus far we have described the diaphragm as found in the horse, ox, and
sheep. There is some difference with regard to the dog. The muscular
part of the diaphragm is thick and strong in every species of dog, while
the aponeurotic expansion is comparatively smaller. From the smaller
expanse of the thorax of the dog, and the consequent little expansion of
the diaphragm, the action, although occasionally rapid and violent--for
he is an animal of speed--is not so extensive, and more muscle and less
tendon may be given to him, not only without detriment, but with evident
advantage. Therefore, although we have occasional rupture of the heart
of the dog, oftener perhaps than in the horse, there is no case of
rupture of the diaphragm on record.

The cavity of the thorax is lined by a membrane, termed pleura, which
covers the surface of the lungs.

The lungs on either side are enclosed in a separate and perfect bag,
anil each lung has a distinct pleura. The heart lies under the left
lung; and, more perfectly to cut off all injurious connexion or
communication of disease between the lungs and the heart, the heart is
enclosed in a distinct pleura or bag, termed the 'pericardium'. This
membrane closely invests the heart, supports it in its situation,
prevents too great dilatation when it is gorged with blood, and too
violent action when it is sometimes unduly stimulated. Notwithstanding
the confinement of the pericardium, the heart, when under circumstances
of unusual excitation, beats violently against the ribs, and, were it
not thus tied down, would often bruise and injure itself, and cause
inflammation in the neighbouring parts.

The 'heart' is composed of four cavities; two above, called 'auricles',
from their shape, and two below, termed 'ventricles', occupying the bulk
of the heart. In point of fact, there are two hearts--the one on the
left side propelling the blood through the frame, and the other on the
right side conveying it through the pulmonary system; but, united in the
manner in which they are, their junction contributes to their mutual
strength, and both circulations are carried on at the same time.

The beating of the heart in the dog is best examined behind the elbow on
the left side. The hand, applied flat against the ribs, will give the
number and character of the pulsations. The pericardium, or outer
investing membrane of the heart, is frequently liable to inflammation,
milked by a quickened and irregular respiration, and an action of the
heart, bounding at an early period of the disease, but becoming scarcely
recognisable as the fluid increases. The patient is then beginning
gradually to sink. A thickening of the substance of the heart is
occasionally suspected, and, on the other hand, an increased capacity of
the cavities of the heart; the parietes being considerably thinner, and
the frame of the animal emaciated.

The pulse of the greater part of our domestic animals has been
calculated by Mr. Vatel, in his excellent work on Veterinary Pathology,
to be nearly as follows:


In the horse,     from   32 to     38  pulsations in a minute.
  "  ox or cow,    "     35  "     49             "
  "  ass,          "     48  "     54             "
  "  sheep,        "     70  "     79             "
  "  goat,        from   72  to    76  pulsations in a minute.
  "  dog,          "     90  "    100             "
  "  cat,          "    110  "    120             "
  "  rabbit,       .    .         120             "
  "  guinea-pig,   .    .         140             "
  "  crow,         .    .         136             "
  "  duck,         .    .         136             "
  "  hen,          .    .         140             "
  "  heron,        .    .         200             "


The pulse of the dog may be easily ascertained by feeling at the heart
or the inside of the knee, and it varies materially, according to the
breed, as well as the size of the animal. This is very strikingly the
case with some of the sporting dogs, with whom the force as well as the
rapidity of the pulse vary materially according to the character and
breed of the dog.

There is, occasionally, in the dog as in the human being, an alteration
of the quantity, as well as of the quality, of the blood. 'Anæmia' is
the term used to designate a deficiency in quantity; 'plethora' is the
opposite state of it. M. D'Arbor relates a very curious account of the
former:

Two dogs were sent into the hospital of the veterinary school at Lyons.
They did not appear to suffer any considerable pain. Their skin and
mucous membranes that were visible had a peculiar appearance. They had
also comparatively little power over their limbs; so little, indeed,
that they rested continually on one side, without the ability to shift
their posture. When they were placed on their feet, their limbs gave
way, and they fell the moment they were quitted. In despite of the care
that was taken of them, they died on the second day.

Incisions were made through the skin, but in opening them no blood
flowed. The venæ cavæ themselves did not contain any--there were only
two clots of blood in the cavities of their hearts. One of them, of the
size of a small nutmeg, occupied the left ventricle; the other, which
was still smaller, was found at the base of the right ventricle. The
chest of one of them enclosed a small quantity of serosity; a similar
fluid was between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, and the
same was the case in the larger ventricles of the encephalon. The other
viscera did not offer anything remarkable, except the paleness and
flaccidity of their tissue. The great fatigues of the chase, and the
immersion of these animals in water at the time that they were very much
heated, appeared to have been the causes of this singular disease. In
the report of the labours of the School of Alfort, in the year 1825, the
same anæmia was remarked in two dogs that died there; one of them had
lately undergone a considerable hemorrhage, and in the other anæmia had
developed itself spontaneously.

It is in fact among dogs that this extreme anæmia has been principally
observed, and is ordinarily fatal. It has been remarked by M. Crusal in
a bullock attacked with gastro-enteritis.

This disease, according to M. Vatel, is generally the symptom of a
chronic malady, or the instantaneous effect of an excessive hemorrhage.
It is rarely primary. The extreme discoloration of the tissues, and of
the mucous membrane more particularly, the disappearance of the
subcutaneous blood-vessels, and the extreme feebleness of the animal,
are the principal symptoms. There also often exists considerable
swelling of the limbs.

The following singular case of a wound penetrating into the chest and
pericardium of a dog, is recorded by Professor Delafond:

A mastiff dog fighting with another was stabbed in the chest by the
master of his antagonist. Five hours after the accident, the Professor
was sent for. On the exterior of the sternum was a laceration an inch
and a half in length, covered by a spumy fluid, from the centre of which
was heard a gurgling noise, showing that a wound had penetrated into the
sac of the pleura. The respiration was quick, and evidently painful; the
beating of the heart was also strong and precipitate. The finger being
introduced into the wound, penetrated between the fourth and fifth rib
on the left side. "Having arrived at the pleuritic sac," says the
Professor, "I gently tapped the surface of the lung, in order to assure
myself that it was not injured; my finger penetrated into the
pericardium, and the point of the heart beat against it."

He bathed the wound with a little diluted wine, and brought the edges of
it as near together as he could, and confined them with a suture,
administering a mild aperient.

On the following day, the animal walked slowly about, seeking for
something to eat; he gave him some milk. On changing the dressing, he
tried whether he could again introduce any sound into the wound; but it
would only penetrate a very little way; indeed, re-union by adhesion had
already taken place.

On the fifth day, the animal was in good spirits; the wound had a
healthy red appearance, and all tended to a speedy cure.

On the eighth day he was sent home to his master, a distance of two
leagues from his house. He saw the dog eighteen months afterwards, and
he was as eager as ever after his game.

The following is a case of rupture of the heart:--A black pointer, of
the Scotch breed, had every appearance of good health, except that she
frequently fell into a fit after having run a little way, and sometimes
even after playing in the yard. She was several times bled during and
after these fits. When I examined her, I could plainly perceive
considerable and violent spasmodic motion of the heart, and the sounds
of the beating of the heart were irregular and convulsive. She was sent
to the infirmary, in order to be cured of an attack of mange; but during
her stay in the hospital she had these fits several times: the attack
almost always followed after she had been playing with other dogs. She
appeared as if struck by lightning, and remained motionless for several
minutes, her gums losing their natural appearance and assuming a bluish
hue. After the lapse of a few minutes, she again arose as if nothing had
been the matter. She was bled twice in eight days, and several doses of
foxglove were administered to her. The fits appeared to become less
frequent; but, playing one day with another dog, she fell and expired
immediately.

The 'post mortem' examination was made two hours after death. The cavity
of the pericardium contained a red clot of blood, which enveloped the
whole of the heart; it was thicker in the parts that corresponded with
the valve of the heart; and on the left ventricle, and near the base of
the left valve of the heart, and on the external part of that viscus,
was an irregular rent two inches long. It crossed the wall of the valve
of the heart, which was very thin in this place. The size of the heart
was very small, considering the height and bulk of the dog. The walls of
the ventricles, and particularly of the left ventricle, were very thick.
The cavity of the left ventricle was very small; there was evidently a
concentric hypertrophy of these ventricles; the left valve of the heart
was of great size.

The immediate cause of the rupture of the valve of the heart had
evidently been an increase of circulation, brought on by an increase of
exercise; but the remote cause consisted in the remarkable thinness of
the walls of the valve of the heart. This case is remarkable in more
than one respect; first, because examples of rupture of the valve of the
heart are very rare; and, secondly, because this rupture had its seat in
the left valve of the heart, while, usually, in both the human being and
the quadruped, it takes place in the right; and this, without doubt,
because the walls and the valves of the right side are thinner.

Diseases of the investing membrane of the lungs, and the pleura of the
thoracic cavity, and of the substance of the lungs, are more frequent
than those of the heart.


PLEURISY,

or inflammation of the membrane of the chest and the lungs of the dog,
is not unfrequent. There are few instances of inflammation of the lungs,
or pneumonia, that do not ultimately become connected with or terminate
in pleurisy. The tenderness of the sides, the curious twitching that is
observed, the obstinate sitting up, and the presence of a short,
suppressed, painful cough, which the dog bears with strange impatience,
are the symptoms that principally distinguish it from pneumonia.  The
exploration of the chest by auscultation gives a true picture of it in
pleurisy; and, by placing the dog alternately on his chest, his back, or
his side, we can readily ascertain the extent to which effusion exists
in the thoracic cavity; and, if we think proper, we can get rid of the
fluid. It is not a dangerous thing to attempt, although it is very
problematical whether much advantage would accrue from the operation.
With a favourite dog it may, however, be tried; and, to prevent all
accidents, a veterinary surgeon should be entrusted with the case.


PNEUMONIA,

or inflammation of the substance of the lungs, is a complaint of
frequent occurrence in the dog, and is singularly marked. The extended
head, the protruded tongue, the anxious, bloodshot eye, the painful
heaving of the hot breath, the obstinacy with which the animal sits up
hour after hour until his feet slip from under him, and the eye closes,
and the head droops, through extreme fatigue, yet in a moment being
roused again by the feeling of instant suffocation, are symptoms that
cannot be mistaken.

Here, from the comparative thinness of the integument and the parietes,
we have the progress of the disease brought completely under our view.
The exploration of the chest of the dog by auscultation is a beautiful
as well as wonderful thing. It at least exhibits to us the actual state
of the lungs, if it does not always enable us to arrest the impending
evil.

Mr. Blaine and myself used cordially to agree with regard to the
treatment of pneumonia, materially different from the opinions of the
majority of sportsmen. Epidemic pneumonia was generally fatal, if it was
not speedily arrested in its course. The cure was commenced by bleeding,
and that to a considerable extent, when not more than four-and-twenty or
six-and thirty hours had passed; for, after that, the progress of the
disease could seldom be arrested. Blistering the chest was sometimes
resorted to with advantage; and the cantharides ointment and the oil of
turpentine formed one of the most convenient as well as one of the most
efficacious blisters. A purgative was administered, composed of mutton
broth with Epsom salts or castor oil; to which followed the
administration of the best sedatives that we have in those cases,
namely, nitre, powdered foxglove, and antimonial powder, in the
proportion of a scruple of the first, four grains of the second, and two
grains of the third.

Congestion of the lungs is a frequent termination of pneumonia; and in
that congestion the air-cells are easily ruptured and filled with
blood. That blood assumes a black pulpy appearance, commonly indicated
by the term of 'rottenness', an indication or consequence of the
violence of the disease, and the hopelessness of the case. A different
consequence of inflammation of the lungs is the formation of tubercles,
and, after that, of suppuration and abscess, when, generally speaking,
the case is hopeless. A full account of this is given in the work on the
Horse.

Two cases of pneumonia will be useful:

Oct. 22d, 1820. A black pointer bitch that had been used lo a warm
kennel, was made to sleep on flat stones without straw. A violent cough
followed, under which she had been getting worse and worse for a
fortnight. Yesterday I saw her. The breathing was laborious. The bitch
was constantly shifting her position, and, whether she lay down or sat
up, was endeavouring to elevate her head. Her usual posture was sitting,
and she only lay down for a minute. The eyes were surrounded, and the
nose nearly stopped with mucus. V. S. [Symbol: ounce] viij. Emet.
Fever-ball twice in the day.

23d. Breathing not quite so laborious. Will not eat. Medicine as before.
Apply a blister on the chest.

24th. Nearly the same. V. S. [Symbol: ounce] vj. Bol. utheri.

26th. Decided amendment. She breathes with much less difficulty. Less
discharge both from eyes and nose. Bol. utheri.

Nov. 7th. Sent home well.

A singular and not uninstructive case came before me. A lady in the
country wrote to me to say, that her terrier was thin, dull, husking,
and perpetually trying to get something from the throat; that her coat
stared, and she frequently panted, I replied, that I apprehended she had
caught cold; and recommended bleeding to the extent of four ounces, a
grain each of calomel and emetic tartar to be given every fourth
morning, and a fever-ball, composed of digitalis, nitre, and tartrate of
antimony, on each intermediate day.

A few days after this I received another letter from her, saying, that
the dog was bled as ordered, and died on the following Thursday. That
another veterinary surgeon had been called in, who said that the first
one had punctured the 'vena cava' in the operation, and that the dog had
bled to death internally; and she wished to know my opinion. I replied,
that the charge proceeded from ignorance or malice, or both. That in one
sense he was right--the jugular, which the other had probably opened,
runs into the vena cava, and may, with some latitude, be considered a
superior branch of it; therefore, thus far the first man had punctured
the vena cava, which I had done many hundred times; but that the point
of union of the four principal veins that form the vena cava was too
securely seated in the upper part of the thorax for any lancet to reach
it. That the rupture of some small arterial vessel might have caused
this lingering death, but that the puncture of a vein would either have
been speedily fatal, or of no consequence; and that, probably, the
animal died of the disease which she had described.


SPASMODIC COUGH

is a troublesome disease to manage. Dogs, and especially those
considerably petted, are subject to frequent cough, requiring a material
difference in the treatment. Sometimes there is a husky cough, not to so
great a degree as in distemper, but followed by the same apparent effort
to get something from the throat, the same attempt to vomit, and the
ejection of mucus, frothy or adhesive, and occasionally discoloured with
bile. It proceeds from irritability or obstruction in some of the
air-passages, and oftenest of the superior ones. An emetic will clear
the fauces, or at least force out a portion of the adhesive matter which
is clogging the bronchial tubes.

A cough of this kind, and attended in its early stages by little fever,
seldom requires anything more for its cure than the exhibition of a few
gentle emetics, consisting of equal portions of calomel and emetic
tartar, given in doses varying from half a grain to one grain and a half
of each.

A harsh hollow cough is attended by more inflammatory action. The
depletive system must be adopted here. A loud and harsh cough will yield
only to the lancet and to purgatives, assisted by sedative medicines
composed of nitre, antimonial powder, and digitalis, or small doses of
syrup of poppies, or more minute doses of the hydrocyanic acid; this
last medicine, however, should be carefully watched, and only given
under surgical advice.

28th October, 1842. A spaniel was apparently well yesterday, but
towards evening a violent cough suddenly came on. It was harsh and
hollow, and terminated in retching. There was a discharge of water from
the eyes; but the nose was cool and moist. Give an emetic, and then two
grains of the James's powder.

29th The animal coughed almost the whole of the night. There was more
watery discharge from the eyes, which appeared to be red and impatient
of light; the nose continued cool, and the dog did not refuse his food.
An aperient ball was given; and twice afterwards in the day, the nitre,
antimonial powder, and digitalis.

30th. The cough is as frequent, but not very loud. Give a mixture of
syrup of poppies and prussic acid morning and night, and the ball as
yesterday.

31st. Nearly in the same state as yesterday, except that he is not so
thirsty, and does not eat so well. Give the mixture three times daily.

Nov. 1st. He had an emetic in the morning, which produced a large
quantity of phlegm, but the cough is no better. No evacuation during the
two last days. Give an aperient ball, and the mixture as before in the
evening.

The prussic acid has been fairly tried; it has not in the least
mitigated the cough, but begins to make the dog sick, and altogether to
destroy his appetite. Give three times in the day a mixture consisting
of two-thirds of a drachm of syrup of poppies, and one-third of syrup of
buckthorn. The sickness ceased, and the cough remained as before, I then
gave twice in the day half a grain of calomel, the same of opium, two
each of pulvis antimonialis and digitalis, and four grains of nitre,
morning and noon, with six grains of the Dover's powder at night. This
was continued on the 3d, 4th and 5th of November, when there were longer
intervals of rest, and the dog did not cough so harshly when the fit was
on him.

On the 6th, however, no medicine was given; but towards evening the dog
coughed as much as ever, and a decided mucous discharge commenced from
the nose and the eyes, with considerable snorting. An emetic was given,
and the balls resorted to as before.

'7th.' He appeared to be much relieved by the emetic. The cough was
better, the dog ate well, and had regained his usual spirits. The ball
as before.

'9th'. Slight tenesmus now appeared. It quickly became frequent and
violent. The dog strained very much; but the discharge was small in
quantity, and consisted of adhesive mucus. Give two drachms of castor
oil, and the fever ball with opium. The cough is worse, and the dog still
continues to strain, no blood, however, appearing.

'11th'. The opium and oil have had their desired effect, and the cough
is better.

'12th', Except the animal is kept under the influence of opium, the
cough is dreadfully troublesome. I have, however, obtained one point. I
have been permitted to subtract four ounces of blood; but blood had been
mingling with the expectorated mucus before I was permitted to have
recourse to the lancet.

'13th'. The dog is better, and we again have recourse to the fever
mixture, to which, on the '14th', I added a very small portion of the
carbonate of iron, for the dog was evidently getting weak. The sickness
has returned, and the cough is decidedly worse.

'16th'. Rub a small quantity of rheumatic embrocation, and tincture of
cantharides.

'17th.' The first application of the blister had not much effect; but
this morning it began to act. The dog ran about the house as cross as he
could be for more than an hour; there was considerable redness on the
throat and chest. The cough, however, was decidedly better.

'18th'. The cough is better. Again apply the embrocation.

'19th.' The cough and huskiness have returned. Employ an emetic, and
continue the embrocation.

'20th'. The cough is decidedly worse. Continue the embrocation, and give
the fever mixture.

'23d'. The embrocation and medicine have been daily used; but the cough
is as bad as ever. Balls of assafoetida, squills, and opium were had
recourse to.

25th. The second ball produced the most distressing sickness, but the
cough was evidently relieved. The assafoetida was discontinued.

'28th'. The cough, during the last two days, has been gradually getting
worse. It is more laborious and longer, and the intervals between it are
shorter. Give another emetic and continue the other medicine.

30th'. The effect of the emetic was temporary, and the cough is again
worse.

'Dec'. 2d'. Very little change.

5th'. The cough appears to be stationary. Again have recourse to the
antimony, digitalis, and nitre.

8th'. The cough is certainly better. Try once more the assafoetida. It
again produced sickness, but of a very mild character.

12th'. The assafoetida was again used used morning and night. The cough
continues evidently to abate.

14th'. The dog coughs very little, not more than half-a-dozen times in
the day. Notwithstanding the quantity of medicine that has been taken,
the appetite is excellent, and the spirits good.

16th'. The cough is still less frequent, but when it occurs it is
attended with retching.

19th'. The cough is daily getting better, and is not heard more than
three or four times in the four-and-twenty hours, and then very slight.

30th'. At length I can say that the cough has ceased. It is seldom that
so much trouble would have been taken with a dog. It is the neglect of
the medical attendance which is often the cause of death. Professor
Delafond, of Alfort, gives a most interesting and complete table of the
usual diagnostic symptoms of pleurisy and pneumonia.


PLEURISY.

'Commencement of the Inflammation'.
Shivering, usually accompanied by slight colicky pains, and followed by
general or partial sweating. Inspiration always short, unequal, and
interrupted; expiration full; air expired of the natural temperature.
Cough unfrequent, faint, short, and without expectoration. Artery full.
Pulse quick, small, and wiry.

'Auscultation'.
A respiratory murmur, feeble, or accompanied by a slight rubbing through
the whole extent of the chest, or in some parts only.

'Percussion'.
Slight, dead, grating sound. Distinct resonance through the whole of the
chest, and pain expressed when the sides are tapped or compressed.

'Terminations'
Delitescence. Cessation of pain; moderate temperature of the skin;
sometimes profuse general perspiration. Respiration less accelerated;
inspiration easier and deeper. Pulse fuller and softer. Breath of the
natural temperature. Return of the natural respiratory murmur and
resonance.  The walls of the chest cease to exhibit increased
sensibility.

'Effusion, false Membranes'.
Inspiration more and more full.

'Auscultation and Percussion.
Complete absence of the respiratory murmur, with the crepitating
wheezing always at the bottom of the chest; sometimes a gurgling noise.
Vesicular respiration very strong in the upper region of the chest, or
in the sac opposite to the effusion.

'Continuance of the Effusion'.
Absence of the respiratory murmur gains the middle region of the chest,
following the level of the fluid. These symptoms may be found on only
one side; a circumstance of frequent occurrence in the dog, but rare in
other animals. The respiratory murmur increases in the superior region
of the chest, or on the side opposite to the effusion. Inspiration
becomes more and more prolonged. Breath always cold. Cough not existing,
or rarely, and always suppressed and interrupted. Exercise producing much
difficulty of respiration.

'Resolution or Re-absorption of the effused fluid, and Organization of
false Membrane, the consequence of Pleurisy'.

Slow but progressive reappearance of the respiratory murmur, and
disappearance of the sounds produced by the fluid. Diminution of the
force of the respiratory murmur in the superior part of the chest, or of
the lung opposite to the sac in which the effusion exists. Gradual
return of the respiratory murmur to the inferior part of the chest.
Inspiration less deep, and returning to its natural state.

'Chronic Pleurisy, with Hydrothorax'.
Inspiration short. Cough dry, sometimes with expectoration; frequent or
capricious; always absence of complete respiratory murmur in the
inferior portion of the chest. Sometimes the gurgling noise during
inspiration and expiration. Strong respiratory murmur in the superior
portion. In dogs these symptoms sometimes have existence only on one
side of the chest. The mucous membranes are infiltrated; serous
infiltration on the lower part of the chest and belly; sometimes of the
scrotum or the inferior extremities; generally of the fore legs. The
animal lies down frequently, and dies of suffocation.



PNEUMONIA.

'Commencement of the Inflammation'.
General shivering, rarely accompanied by colicky pains, followed by
partial sweats at the flanks and the inside of the thighs. Inspiration
full, expiration short. Air expired hot. Cough frequently followed by
slight discharge of red-coloured mucus. Artery full. Pulse accelerated,
strong, full, and soft.

'Auscultation'.
Absence of respiratory murmur in places where the lung is congested;
feebleness of that sound in the inflamed parts, with humid crepitating
wheezing. The respiratory murmur increased in the sound parts.

'Percussion'.
The dead grating sound confined to the inflamed parts. Distinct
resonance at the sound parts; increased sensibility of the walls of the
chest slight, or not existing at all.

'Terminations'.
Resolution. Temperature of the skin moderate. Sometimes profuse partial
sweats. Laborious respiration subsiding; inspiration less deep. Artery
less full. Pulse yielding. Breath less hot. Gradual and progressive
disappearance of the crepitating 'râle'. Slow return of the resonance.

'Red Hepatization'.
Respiration irregular and interrupted.

'Auscultation and Percussion.
Circumscribed absence of the respiratory murmur, in one point, or in
many distinct parts of the lung. The respiratory murmur increased in one
or more of the sound parts of the lung, or in the sound lung if one is
inflamed.

'Passage to a State of Gray Induration'.
The absence of respiratory murmur indicates extensive hepatization of
one lung; a circumstance, however, of rare occurrence. When the
induration is of both lungs, and equally so, the respiratory murmur and
the inspiration remain the same, except that they become irregular. The
cough dry or humid, frequent, and sometimes varying.  Exercise
accompanied by difficulty of respiration, without dyspnoea.

'Resolution or Re-absorption of the Products of Inflammation of the
Parenchymatous Substance of the Lungs'.

Diminution of the force of the respiratory murmur in the sound parts.
Cessation of the crepitating wheezing. Slow return of the respiratory
murmur where it had ceased. Respiration ceases to be irregular or
interrupted, and returns slowly to its natural state, or it remains
interrupted. This indicates the passage from red to gray induration.

'Chronic Pneumonia--(Gray Induration.)'
Inspiration or expiration interrupted, cough unfrequent; suppressed;
rarely with expectoration; always interrupted. Complete absence of
respiratory murmur.

'Softening of the Induration, Ulcerations, Vomicæ, &c.'
Mucous and wheezing; mucous râle in the bronchia; discharge from the
nostrils of purulent matter, white, gray, or black, and sometimes fetid.
Paleness of the mucous membranes. The animal seldom lies down, and never
long at a time. Death by suffocation, when the matter proceeding from
the vomicæ, or abscesses, obstructs the bronchial passages, or by the
development of an acute inflammation engrafted upon the chronic one.



CHAPTER XII.

ANATOMY OF THE GULLET, STOMACH, AND INTESTINES: TETANUS; ENTERITIS;
PERITONITIS; COLIC; CALCULUS IN THE INTESTINES: INTUSSUSCEPTION;
DIARRHOEA; DYSENTERY; COSTIVENESS; DROPSY; THE LIVER; JAUNDICE; THE
SPLEEN AND PANCREAS; INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY; CALCULUS; INFLAMMATION
OF THE BLADDER; RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER; WORMS: FISTULA IN THE ANUS.

The 'oesophagus', or gullet, of the dog, is constructed in nearly the
same manner as that of the horse. It consists of a similar muscular tube
passing down the neck and through the chest, and terminating in the
stomach, in which the process of digestion is commenced. The orifice by
which the gullet enters the stomach is termed the 'cardia', probably on
account of its neighbourhood to the heart or its sympathy with it. It is
constantly closed, except when the food is passing through it into the
stomach.

The 'stomach' has three coats: the outermost, which is the common
covering of all the intestines, called the peritoneum; the second or
muscular coat, consisting of two layers of fibres, by which a constant
motion is communicated to the stomach, mingling the food, and preparing
it for digestion; and the mucous or villous, where the work of digestion
properly commences, the mouths of numerous little vessels opening upon
it, which exude the gastric juice, to mix with the food already
softened, and to convert it into a fluid called the chyme. It is a
simpler apparatus than in the horse or in cattle. It is occasionally the
primary seat of inflammation: and it almost invariably sympathises with
the affections of the other intestines.

The successive contractions of each portion of the stomach, expose by
turns every portion of the alimentary mass to the influence of the
gastric juice, and each is gradually discharged into the alimentary
canal.

As the chyme is formed, it passes out of the other orifice of the
stomach, and enters the first intestine or 'duodenum'.

It may be naturally supposed that this process will occasionally be
interrupted by a variety of circumstances. Inflammation of the stomach
of the dog is very difficult to deal with. It is produced by numerous
different causes. There is great and long-continued sickness; even the
most harmless medicine is not retained on the stomach. The thirst is
excessive; there are evident indications of excessive pain, expressed by
the countenance and by groans: there is a singular disposition in the
animal to hide himself from all observation; an indication that should
never be neglected, nor the frequent change from heat to cold, and from
cold to heat.

The mode of treatment is simple, although too often inefficient. The
lancet must be immediately resorted to, and the bleeding continued until
the animal seems about to fall; and to this should quickly succeed
repeated injections. Two or three drops of the croton oil should be
injected twice or thrice in the day, until the bowels are thoroughly
opened. The animal will be considerably better, or the disease cured, in
the course of a couple of days.

There is a singular aptitude in the stomach of the dog to eject a
portion of its contents; but, almost immediately afterwards, the food,
or a portion if not the whole of it, is swallowed again. This is a
matter of daily occurrence. There is a coarse rough grass, the
'cynosurus cristatus', or crested dog's-tail. It is inferior for the
purposes of hay, but is admirably suited for permanent pastures. It
remains green after most other grasses are burnt by a continuance of dry
weather. The dog, if it be in his power, has frequent recourse to it,
especially if he lives mostly in a town. The dry and stimulating food,
which generally falls to his share, produces an irritation of his
stomach, from which lie is glad to free himself; and for this purpose he
has recourse to the sharp leaves of the cynosurus. They irritate the
lining membrane of the stomach and intestines, and cause a portion of
the food to be occasionally evacuated; acting either as an emetic or a
purgative, or both. They seem to be designed by nature to be substituted
for the calomel and tartar emetic, and other drugs, which are far too
often introduced.

An interesting case of the retention of a sharp instrument in the
stomach is related by Mr. Kent of Bristol.

On the 23d of February, Mr. Harford, residing in Bristol, when feeding a
pointer-dog, happened to let the fork tumble with the flesh, and the dog
swallowed them both. On the following morning, Mr. Kent was desired to
see the animal; and, although he could feel the projection of the fork
outwardly, which convinced him that the dog had in reality swallowed it,
yet, as he appeared well, and exhibited no particular symptoms of pain
or fever, Mr. Kent gave it as his opinion that there was a possibility
that he might survive the danger, and the animal was sent to him, in
order to be more immediately under his care. The treatment he adopted
was, to feed him on cow's liver, with a view to keep the stomach
distended and the bowels open; and he gave him three times a day half a
pint of water, with sufficient sulphuric acid to make it rather strongly
sour to the human tongue, with the intention of assisting the stomach in
dissolving the iron.

On the following Sunday, the skin, at the projecting point, began to
exhibit some indication of ulceration; and on Monday a prong of the fork
might be touched with the point of the finger, when pressed on the
ulcer. Mr. Kent then determined on making an effort to extract the fork
on the following morning, which he accordingly did, and with but little
difficulty, assisted by a medical friend of the owner. The dog was still
fed on cow's liver; his appetite remained good, and with very little
medical treatment the external wound healed. The animal improved rapidly
in flesh during the whole time. He left the infirmary in perfect health,
and remained so, with one inconvenience only, a very bad cough, and his
being obliged to lie at length, being unable to coil himself up in his
usual way.

The fork was a three-pronged one, six and a half inches long. The
handle, which was of ivory, was digested: it was quite gone; and either
the gastric fluid or the acid, or both conjointly, had made a very
apparent impression on the iron.

Dogs occasionally swallow various strange and unnatural substances.
Considerable quantities of hair are sometimes accumulated in the
stomach. Half-masticated pieces of straw are ejected. Straw mingled with
dung is a too convincing proof of rabies. Dog-grass is found irritating
the stomach, or in too great quantities to be ejected, while collections
of earth and dung sometimes threaten suffocation. Pieces of money are
occasionally found, and lead, and sponge. Various species of polypus
irritate the coats of the stomach. Portions of chalk, or stone, or
condensed matters, adhere to each other, and masses of strange
consistence and form are collected. The size which they assume increases
more and more. M. Galy relates an extraordinary account of a dog. It was
about three years old when a tumour began to be perceived in the flank.
Some sharp-pointed substance was felt; the veterinary surgeon cut down
upon it, and a piece of iron, six inches in length, was drawn out.

The following fact was more extraordinary: it is related by M. Noiret. A
hound swallowed a bone, which rested in the superior part of the
oesophagus, behind the pharynx, and caused the most violent efforts to
get rid of it. The only means by which it could be made to descend into
the stomach was by pushing it with the handle of a fork, which, escaping
from the hand of the operator, followed the bone into the stomach. Two
months afterwards, on examining the stomach, the fork was plainly felt
lying in a longitudinal direction, parallel with the position of the
body; the owner of the dog wishing mechanically to accelerate the
expulsion of this body, endeavoured to push it backwards with his hands.
When it was drawn as far back as possible, he inserted two fingers into
the anus, and succeeded in getting hold of the handle, which he drew out
nearly an inch; but, in order to be enabled fully to effect his object,
it was necessary to make an incision into the rectum, and free the
substance from every obstacle that could retain it. This he did not
venture to do, and he was therefore compelled to allow the fork to pass
back into its former position.

About three months after the accident, M. Noiret made an incision, three
inches from above to below, and the same from the front backwards. He
also made an incision through the muscular tissue. Having arrived at the
peritoneum, he made another incision, through which he drew from the
abdomen a part of the floating portion of the large intestines, and
introduced his fingers into the abdominal cavity. He seized the handle
of the fork, which was among the viscera, and free about half-way down,
and drew it carefully towards the opening made in the flank. The other
half of the fork was found to be closely enveloped by the origin of the
mesocolon, which was red, hard, and inflamed. The operator freed it by
cutting through the tissues which held the fork, and then drew it easily
out. The animal was submitted to a proper course of treatment, and in
three weeks afterwards was perfectly cured.

The food, having been converted into chyme by the digestive power of the
stomach, soon undergoes another and very important change. It, or a
portion of it, is converted into chyle. It is mixed with the bile and a
secretion from the pancreas in the duodenum. The white thick liquid is
separated, and contains the nutritive part of the food, and a yellow
pulpy substance is gradually changed into excrement. As these substances
pass on, the separation between them becomes more and more complete. The
chyle is gradually taken up by the lacteals, and the excrement alone
remains.

The next of the small intestines is the 'jejunum', so called from its
being generally empty. It is smaller in bulk than the duodenum, and the
chyme passes rapidly through it.

Next in the list is the 'ileum'; but it is difficult to say where the
jejunum terminates and the ileum commences, except that the latter is
usually one-fifth longer than the former.

At the termination of the ileum the 'cæcum' makes its appearance, with
a kind of valvular opening into it, of such a nature that everything
that passes along it having reached the blind or closed end, must return
in order to escape; or rather the office of the cæcum is to permit
certain alimentary matters and all fluids to pass from the ileum, but to
oppose their return.

The 'colon' is an intestine of very large size, being one of the most
capacious, as well as one of the longest, of the large intestines. It
commences at the cæsum caput coli, and soon expands into a cavity of
greater dimensions than even that of the stomach itself. Having attained
this singular bulk, it begins to contract, and continues to do so during
its course round the cæcum, until it has completed its second flexure,
where it grows so small as scarcely to exceed in calibre one of the
small intestines; and though, from about the middle of this turn, it
again swells out by degrees, it never afterwards acquires its former
capaciousness; indeed, previously to its junction with the rectum, it
once more materially differs in size.

At the upper part of the margin of the pelvis the colon terminates in
the 'rectum', which differs from the cæcum and colon by possessing only
a partial peritoneal covering, and being destitute of bands and cells.
It enlarges towards its posterior extremity, and is furnished with a
circular muscle, the sphincter ani, adapted to preserve the anus closed,
and to retain the fæculent matter until so much of it is accumulated in
the rectum as to excite a desire to discharge it.


TETANUS,

a disease of great fatality, often depends upon the condition of the
stomach; but it is not frequent in dogs.

Why the dog is so little subject to 'tetanus', or lock-jaw, I am unable
to explain. Sportsmen say that it sometimes attacks him when, being
heated in the chase, he plunges into the water after the stag. The
French give it the name of 'mal de cerf', from stags being supposed to
be attacked in a similar way, and from the same cause. In the course of
nearly forty years' practice, I have seen but four cases of it. The
first arose from a wound in the foot. The cause of the second I could
not learn. In both the spasmodic action was dreadful as well as
universal. The dogs lay on their sides, the neck and legs stretched out,
and the upper legs kept some inches from the ground by the intensity of
the spasm. They might be taken up by either leg, and not a portion of
the frame change its direction. At the same time, in their countenances,
and by their hoarse cries, they indicated the torture which they
endured.

In the third case, which occurred 12th June, 1822, the head was drawn
permanently on one side, and the whole body formed a kind of bow, the
dog walking curiously sideways, often falling as it walked, and
frequently screaming violently. I ordered him to be well rubbed with an
ammoniacal liniment, and balls of tonic and purging medicine to be given
twice in the day. The dog gradually recovered, and was dismissed cured
on the 20th.

On the 16th November, in the same year, a bull-terrier had a similar
complaint. He had been tried in the pit a fortnight before, and severely
injured, and the pain and stiffness of his joints were increasing. The
head was now permanently drawn on one side. The dog was unable to stand
even for a moment, and the eyes were in a state of spasmodic motion. He
was a most savage brute; but I attempted to manage him, and, by the
assistance of the owner, contrived lo bleed him, and to give him a
physic-ball. At the same time I advised that he should be destroyed.

His master would not consent to this; and, as the dog occasionally ate a
little, we contrived to give a grain each of calomel and opium every
sixth hour. In the course of three days he was materially recovered. He
could stand, but was exceedingly weak, I ordered the calomel lo be
omitted, but the opium to be continued. Three days afterwards he was
sent into the country, and, as I heard, perfectly recovered.

The following is a very interesting case of tetanus, detailed by M.
Debeaux, of the Royal French Chasseurs:

A favourite dog was missing. Four days had passed, and no intelligence
could be obtained with regard to him until he returned home, fatigued
and half-starved. He had probably been stolen. In the excess of their
joy, the owners crammed him with meat until he became strangely ill. His
throat was filled with froth, the pupils of his eyes were dilated, the
conjunctiva was strongly injected, his neck was spasmodically
contracted, and the spine of the back was bowed, and most highly
sensible to the touch. M. Debeaux was sent for; it was an hour before he
could attend. The dog was lying on his belly; the four limbs were
extended and stiff. He uttered the most dreadful and prolonged howling
every two or three minutes. The surgeon ordered the application of a
dozen leeches to the chest and belly; laxative medicines were given, and
embrocations applied to the spine and back.

Three days passed, and the symptoms evidently augmented. The excrement
was dark and fetid, and the conjunctiva had a strong yellow tint.
Leeches were again employed; emollient lotions and aperient medicines
were resorted to. The sensibility of the spine and back was worse than
ever; the animal lay on his belly, stretching out his four limbs, his
neck fixed, his jaws immovable, his voice hoarse, and he was utterly
unable to move.

The bathings, lotions, and aperients were continued, with very few
intermissions, until the 14th day, when the muscles began to be a little
relaxed; but he cried whenever he was touched. On the 15th, for the
first time, he began to eat a little, and his natural voice returned;
still, however, the spasms occasionally appeared, but very much
mitigated, and on the 20th the pain had entirely ceased.

On the 5th of the next month he travelled two leagues with his master.
It was cold, and the snow fell. On his reaching home, all the horrible
spasms returned, and it was eleven days before he was completely cured.
[1]

Mr. Blaine gives the following account of his experience of this disease:

  "It is remarkable, that although dogs are subject to various spasmodic
  affections, yet they are so little subject to lock-jaw that I never
  met with more than three cases of it among many thousands of diseased
  dogs. Two of these cases were 'idiopathic'; one being apparently
  occasioned by exposure to cold air all night; the other the cause was
  obscure. The third was of that kind called 'sympathetic', and arose
  from extreme injury done to one of the feet. In each of these cases
  the convulsive spasm was extreme, and the rigidity universal but not
  intense. In one case the jaw was only partially locked. Both warm and
  cold bathings were tried. Large doses of opium and camphor were given
  by the mouth, and also thrown up in clysters. The spine of one was
  blistered. Stimulating frictions were applied to all, but in neither
  case with any salutary effect." [2]


ENTERITIS.

'Enteritis', or inflammation of the intestine, is a disease to which
dogs are very liable. It may be produced by the action of several
causes. The intestines of the dog are peculiarly irritable, and subject
to take on inflammatory action, and this tendency is often much
increased by the artificial life which they lead. It is a very frequent
complaint among those dogs that are much petted. A cold temperature is
also a common cause of disease in these dogs.

I was consulted with regard to a dog who was hiding himself in a cold,
dark corner, paved with stone. Every now and then he lifted his head and
uttered a howl closely resembling that of a rabid dog. He fixed his gaze
intently upon me, with a peculiarity of expression which many would have
mistaken for rabid. They, however, who have had the opportunity of
seeing many of these cases, will readily perceive the difference. The
conjunctiva is not so red, the pupil is not so dilated, and the dog
appears to implore pity and not to menace evil.

In this state, if the dog is approached, he will not permit himself to
be touched until he he convinced that no harm is intended. A peculiar
slowness attends each motion; his cries are frequent and piteous; his
belly hot and tender; two cords, in many cases, seem to run
longitudinally from the chest to the pubis, and on these he cannot bear
the slightest pressure. He abhors all food; but his thirst for water,
and particularly cold water, is extreme; he frequently looks round at
his flanks, and the lingering gaze is terminated by a cry or groan. In
the majority of cases there is considerable costiveness; but, in others,
the bowels are freely opened from the beginning.

The peritoneal inflammation is sometimes pure, but oftener involves the
muscular coat of the intestines. Its prevailing cause is exposure to
cold, especially after fatigue, of lying on the wet stones or grass. Now
and then it is the result of neglected rheumatism, especially in old and
petted dogs.

The treatment is simple. Bleed until the pulse falters, put the animal
in a warm bath, and let the belly be gently rubbed while the dog is in
the water, and well fomented afterwards; the drink should consist of
warm broth, or warm milk and water. The bleeding should be repeated, if
little or unsatisfactory relief is obtained; and the examination of the
rectum with the finger, and the removal of any hardened fæces that may
have accumulated there, and the cautious use of enemata, neither too
stimulating nor too forcibly injected, should be resorted to. No
medicine should be employed until the most urgent symptoms are abated.
Castor oil, the mildest of our purgatives--syrup of buckthorn assisting
the purgative property of the oil, and containing in its composition as
much stimulating power as is safe--and the spirit of while poppies--the
most convenient anodyne to mingle with the other medicines--will
generally be successful in allaying the irritation already existing, and
preventing the development of more. Even this must not be given in too
large quantities, and the effect must be assisted by a repetition of the
enemata every fifth or sixth hour. On examination after death the nature
of the disease is sufficiently evident: the peritoneum, or portions of
it, is highly injected with blood, the veins are turgid, the muscular
membrane corrugated and hardened, while often the mucous membrane
displays not a trace of disease. In violent cases, however, the whole of
the intestines exhibit evidence of inflammation.

I was much gratified a few years ago in witnessing the decided manner in
which Professor Spooner expressed himself with regard to the treatment
of enteritis in the dog.

  "I should deem it advisable," said he, "to administer a purgative; but
  of what would that consist? Calomel? Certainly not. I was surprised to
  hear one gentleman assert that he should administer it to the extent
  of from five to ten grains, and another to say that he should not
  hesitate to exhibit a scruple of calomel to a dog, and to all
  carnivorous animals. I should never think of exhibiting it as a
  cathartic. I should only administer it in small doses, and for the
  purpose of producing its specific effect on the liver, which is the
  peculiar property of this drug. Given in larger doses it would not be
  retained, and if it got into the intestines it would act as a powerful
  drastic purgative." [3]

In our treatment of the horse we have got rid of a great proportion of
the destructive urine-balls and drastic purgatives of the farrier. The
cow is no longer drenched with half-a-dozen deleterious stimulants. A
most desirable change has been effected in the medical treatment of
these animals. Let us not, with regard to the dog, continue to pursue
the destructive course of the keeper or the huntsman.

The following case of enteritis, with rupture of the colon, may be
useful:

On March 15, 1840, I was requested to attend a large dog of the bull
breed, three years old, who had not appeared to be well during the last
four or five days.

I had scarcely arrived ere I recognised it to be a case of enteritis. He
had a dreadful shivering fit, to which succeeded heat of the skin and
restlessness. The muzzle was dry and hot, as also was the tongue. The
eyes were sunken and redder than usual; the breathing was accelerated,
but not very laborious; the extremities were cold, while the surface of
the body was hot and painful to the touch. The bowels were constipated,
and had been so during the last week; some dung however was evacuated,
but it was hard and dry, and in small quantities. The pulse was quick,
but full; and there was a slight pain and considerable irritation in the
rectum. I took from him [Symbol: ounce] x. of blood before the desired
effect was produced, and then gave him tinct. opii gr. xiv., et spt.
ether, nit. gutt. viij., cum ol. ricini [Symbol: ounce] iij., and an
opiate enema to allay the irritation of the rectum. This was about 8
o'clock, A.M.

11 A.M.--The bowels have not been moved, and the pain is more intense;
his countenance expresses great anxiety; he frequently lies on his
stomach, and the pulse is small but quick. I gave him a little broth,
and ordered the abdomen to be fomented with hot flannels.

2 P.M.--He has had distressing sickness, and is extremely anxious for
water. I introduced my finger into the rectum, but could not discover
any hardened fæces. Enemata, composed of mag. sulphas and warm water,
were frequently thrown into the intestines; as soon as one came away
another was thrown up.

4 P.M.--No better: gave him pulv. aloes [Symbol: ounce] j.; calomel, gr.
vj. et pulv. opii gr. viij. The fomentations to be continued, and the
abdomen rubbed with a lin. terebinthinæ.

5 P.M.--A great change has taken place within the last hour; the hind
extremities are paralysed; the mouth and ears are cold; the pulse is
more hurried and irregular, and almost imperceptible; the respiration is
laborious and irregular, as is the pulse; and the dog is frequently
sick.  To be kept quiet.

6 P.M.--Another change: he lies panting and groaning piteously; his
limbs are bathed in sweat, with convulsive struggles. At twenty minutes
past six he died.

A post-mortem examination presented general marks of inflammation; the
small intestines were extremely red, while the large ones were in a
gangrenous state and most offensive, with a rupture of the colon. I did
not expect to meet with the rupture, and am at a loss to account for it.
The liver was of a pale ashen colour, and very light. I put a piece of
it into some water, and it floated on the surface. The other contents of
the abdomen did not show the slightest appearance of disease.

September 2d, 1843.--A black pug-bitch, 18 months old, was yesterday
taken violently sick; the vomiting continued at intervals the greater
part of the day, and she had not eaten during the last 24 hours. I could
not possibly get at her, on account of her ferocity: as she had not had
the distemper, and as I was misled by her age and the watery discharge
from her eyes, and as she had had several motions yesterday, I imagined
that the attack might be the beginning of that disease. Learning that
she was fond of sweet things, I prepared an emetic containing a grain of
calomel and a grain of tartar emetic: she took it readily, and I
promised to call on the following day.

Sept. 3.--The weakness at the eyes had disappeared, but there had been
no motion. On getting at her by main force I found her belly very tense
and rather hot: she had again been sick, was very eager for water, and
still refused to eat. The disease was now evident. As she appeared too
unmanageable for anything else, I produced a physic-ball, in giving
which I was bitten.

Six hours afterwards I again went: no fæces had passed: I administered
two enemas, the second of which was returned with a small quantity of
hardened fæces and an intolerable smell. I ordered the water to be
removed, and broth to be substituted.

Sept. 4.--The dog is in good spirits, has eaten heartily, and had no
motion, probably because it was habitually cleanly, and had not been
taken out of doors. Her owner considered her as quite well, and
dismissed me. Three days afterwards a servant came to say that all was
going on very well.


PERITONITIS.

Chronic inflammation of the 'peritoneal membrane' is a frequent disease
among dogs. The animal loses his appetite and spirits; he sometimes eats
a little and sometimes not; he becomes thin, his belly is tucked up, and
when we closely examine him we find it contracted and hard, and those
longitudinal columns of which I have already spoken are peculiarly dense
and almost unyielding. He now and then utters a half-suppressed whine,
and he occasionally seeks to hide himself. In the greater number of
cases he after a while recovers; but he too often pines away and dies.
On examination after death the case is plain enough. There is
inflammation of the peritoneal membrane, more indicated by undue
congestion of the bowels than by the general blush of the membrane. The
inflammation has now spread to the muscular coat, and the whole of the
intestine is corrugated and thickened.

There is another peritoneal affection, aggravated by combination with a
rheumatic tendency, to which the dog is more disposed than any other
domesticated animal. It has its most frequent origin in cold, or being
too much fed on stimulating and acrid food, and probably from other
causes which have not yet been sufficiently developed.

Here also no drastic purgative is to be admitted; it would be adding
fuel to fire: not a grain of calomel should be used, if the life of the
animal is valued. The castor oil mixture will afford the most certain
relief, a drop or two of the oil of peppermint being added to it.


COLIC.

The dog is also subject to fits of 'colic', principally to be traced to
improper food, or a sudden change of food, or exposure to cold. This is
particularly the case with puppies. There is no redness of the eye, no
heat of the mouth, no quickened respiration; but the animal labours
under fits of pain. He is not quiet for a minute. He gets into one
corner and another, curling himself closely up, but he does not lie
there more than a minute or two; another fit of pain comes on; he utters
his peculiar yelp, and seeks some new place in which he may possibly
find rest.

It is with considerable diffidence that I offer an opinion on this
subject contrary to that of Mr. Blaine. He states that the treatment of
this species of colic is seldom successful, and that which has seemed
the most efficacious has been mercurial purgatives; namely, calomel one
grain, aloes a scruple, and opium a quarter of a grain, until the bowels
are opened. I have seldom found much difficulty in relieving the patient
suffering under this affection; and I gave no aloes nor calomel, but the
oleaginous mixture to which I have so often referred. I should not so
much object to the aloes, for they constitute an excellent purgative for
the dog; nor to a dog that I was preparing for work, or that was
suffering from worms, should I object to two or three grains of calomel
intimately mixed with the aloes: from the combined effect of the two,
some good might be obtained.


CALCULUS IN THE INTESTINES

Many persons have a very foolish custom of throwing stones, that their
dogs may dive or run after them, and bring them to their owner's feet:
the consequence is, that their teeth are soon worn down, and there are
too many cases on record in which the stone has been swallowed. It has
been impeded in its progress through the intestinal canal, inflammation
has ensued, and the animal has been lost, after having suffered the most
dreadful torture.

Professor Simonds relates a case in which a dog was thus destroyed. The
animal for some days previous to his admission into the hospital had
refused his food, and there was obstinate constipation of the bowels, to
remove which aperient medicine had been given. The pulse was
accelerated, there was distension of the abdomen with evident tenderness
on pressure, the extremities were cold, no fæces were voided, and he
occasionally vomited. Some aperient medicine was given, which was
retained on the stomach, and enemas and external stimulants were
resorted to, but two days afterwards he died.

The intestines were examined, and the offending body was found to be a
common pebble. The dog had long been accustomed to fetch stones out of
the water. One of these stones had passed through the stomach into the
intestines, and, after proceeding some distance along them, had been
impacted there. The inflammation was most intense so far as the stone
had gone; but in the part of the intestine to which it had not reached
there was not any. This was an interesting and instructive case, and
should make its due impression.

Another account of the strange contents of the intestines of a bitch may
be here introduced.

A valuable pointer-bitch was sent to the infirmary of Mr. Godwin of
Litchfield. She presented a very emaciated appearance, and had done so
for four or five months. Her evacuations for a day or two were very thin
and copious, and afterwards for several days nothing was passed. When
pressing the abdomen with both hands, a hard substance was distinctly
felt in the inferior part of the umbilical region. She was destroyed,
and, upon 'post-mortem' examination, a calculus was discovered in the
ileum about the size and shape of a hen's egg, the nucleus of which was
a portion of hair. The coats of the intestines were considerably
thickened and enlarged, so as to form a kind of sac for its retention.
Anterior to this was another substance, consisting of a ball of hair,
covered with a layer of earthy matter about the eighth of an inch thick,
and next to this another ball of hair of less dimensions, intermixed
with a gritty substance. The stomach contained a large quantity of hair,
and a portion of the omentum, about the size of n crown piece, was
thickly studded with small white calculi, the largest about the size of
a pea, and exceedingly hard.


INTUSSUSCEPTION.

If 'peritonitis'--inflammation--is neglected, or drastic purgatives are
too often and too plentifully administered, a peculiar contraction of
the muscular membrane of the intestine takes place, and one portion of
the bowel is received within another--there is 'intussusception'. In
most cases, a portion of the anterior intestine is received into that
which is posterior to it. Few of us have opened a dog that had been
labouring under this peculiar affection without being struck with the
collapsed state of the canal in various parts, and in some much more
than in others. Immediately posterior to this collapsed portion, it is
widened to a considerable extent. The peristaltic motion of the
intestine goes on, and the consequence is, that the constricted portion
is received into that which is widened, the anterior portion is
invaginated in the posterior: obstruction of the intestinal passage is
the necessary consequence, and the animal dies, either from the general
disturbance of the system which ensues, or the inflammation which is set
up in the invaginated part.

I will say nothing of medical treatment in this case; for I do not know
the symptoms of intussusception, or how it is to be distinguished from
acute inflammation of the bowels. Acute inflammation will not long exist
without producing it; and, if its existence should be strongly
suspected, the treatment would be the same as for inflammation.

The domesticated dog, from the nature of his food, more than from any
constitutional tendency, is liable to constipation. This should never be
neglected. If two or three days should pass without an evacuation, the
case should be taken in hand; otherwise inflammation will be very soon
established. In order to procure an evacuation, the aloetic ball, with
one or two grains of calomel, should be given. Beyond that, however, I
should not dare to go; but, if the constipation continued, I should have
recourse to the castor-oil mixture. I should previously examine and
empty the rectum, and have frequent recourse to the enema-syringe; and I
should continue both. It would be my object to evacuate the intestinal
canal with as little increased action as possible.


DIARRHOEA

is the discharge of fæces more frequently than usual, and thinner than
their natural consistence, but otherwise not materially altered in
quality; and the mucous coat of the intestines being somewhat congested,
if not inflamed. It is the consequence of over-feeding, or the use of
improper food. Sometimes it is of very short continuance, and disappears
without any bad consequence; the health being unaffected, and the
character of the fæces not otherwise altered than by assuming a fluid
character. It may not be bad practice to wait a day, or possibly two, as
it is desirable for the action of the intestines to be restored without
the aid of art. I should by no means give a physic-ball, or a grain of
calomel, in simple diarrhoea. I should fear the establishment of that
species of purging which is next to be described. The castor-oil mixture
usually affords the best hope of success.

Habitual diarrhoea is not an unfrequent disease in petted dogs: in some
it is constitutional, in others it is the effect of neglected
constipation. A state of chronic inflammation is induced, which has
become part of the constitution of the dog; and, if repressed in the
intestines, it will appear under a more dangerous form in some other
place.


DYSENTERY

is a far more serious complaint. In most cases a considerable degree of
inflammation of the mucous coat exists, and the mucus is separated from
the membrane beneath, and discharged per anum. The mucus thus separated
from the intestinal membrane assumes an acrid character. It not only
produces inflammation of the membrane, dangerous and difficult to treat,
but it excoriates the anus and neighbouring parts, and produces pain and
tenesmus.

This disease has sometimes been fatally misunderstood. A great deal of
irritation exists in the intestinal membrane generally, and in the lower
part of the rectum particularly. The fæces passing over this denuded
surface cause a considerable degree of pain, and there is much
straining, and a very small bit or portion of faces is evacuated. This
has often been seen by the careless observer; and, as he has taken it as
an indication of costiveness, some drastic purgative has been
administered, and the animal quickly killed.

No one that had ascertained the real nature of the disease would
administer calomel in any form or combination; but the anodyne mixture
as an enema, and also administered by the mouth, is the only medicine
from which benefit can be expected.


COSTIVENESS

is a disease when it becomes habitual. It is connected with disease of
the intestinal canal. Many dogs have a dry constipated habit, often
greatly increased by the bones on which they are too frequently fed.
This favours the disposition to mange and to many diseases depending on
morbid secretions. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens
the teeth, and causes fetid breath. The food often accumulates in the
intestines, and the consequence is inflammation of these organs. A dog
should never be suffered to remain costive more than a couple of days.
An aloetic ball or some Epsom salts should then be administered; and
this failing to produce the desired effect, the castor-oil mixture, with
spirits of buckthorn and white poppies, should be administered, and the
use of the clyster-pipe resorted to. It may be necessary to introduce
the finger or the handle of a spoon when the fæcal matter is more than
usually hard, and it is with difficulty broken down; small doses of
castor-oil should be afterwards resorted to, and recourse occasionally
be had to boiled liver, which the dog will rarely refuse. The best
means, however, of preventing costiveness in dogs, as well as in men, is
regular exercise. A dog who is kept chained up in a kennel should be
taken out and have a certain quantity of exercise once in the
twenty-four hours. When this cannot be done, the food should consist
chiefly of well-boiled farinaceous matter.


DROPSY

Another disease, which is not confined to the abdominal cavity, is
dropsy: but, as in the dog it most commonly assumes that form which is
termed ascites, or dropsy of the abdomen, it may be noticed in this
place. It is seldom an idiopathic or primary affection, but is
generally the consequence of some other disease, most commonly of an
inflammatory kind.

Dropsy is a collection of fluid in some part of the frame, either from
increased exhalation, or from diminished absorption, the consequence
of inflammation. The divisions of dropsy are into active and passive, or
acute and chronic. The causes are also very properly arranged as
predisposing and exciting. The diseases on which dropsy most frequently
supervenes are fevers and visceral inflammations and obstructions. The
dog is peculiarly subject to 'ascites' or 'dropsy of the belly', and the
quantity of fluid contained in the abdomen is sometimes almost
incredible. It is usually accompanied or characterised by a weak,
unequal, small, and frequent pulse--paleness of the lips, tongue, and
gums--flaccidity of the muscles, hurried breathing on the least
exertion, feebleness of the joints, swellings of the lower limbs,
effusion of fluid into the integuments or among the muscles, before
there is any considerable effusion into the thorax or the abdomen, and
an unhealthy appearance of the cutaneous surface. The urine seldom
coagulates. This form of dropsy is usually seated in the abdomen or
cellular tissue.

The treatment of ascites is seldom perfectly successful. The great
extent of the peritoneum, the number and importance of the viscera with
which it is connected, and of the absorbent glands which it encloses,
the number and weakness of the veins which transmit their blood to the
portal vessels, and the absence of valves, in some measure account for
the frequent accumulation of fluid in this cavity. It appears in both
sexes from the usual causes of inflammatory disease. Unwholesome diet,
the drastic operation of purgatives, external injuries, the suppression
of accustomed secretions and discharges, all are exciting causes of
dropsy.

The animal has suffered materially from mange, which has been apparently
cured: the itchiness and eruption altogether disappear, but many weeks
do not elapse ere ascites begins to be seen, and the abdomen is
gradually distended with fluid. When this appears in young and healthy
animals, it may be conquered; but when there has been previous disease
of almost any kind, comparatively few patients permanently recover.
Irritability of the stomach, and a small and accelerated pulse, are
unfavourable. If the operation of tapping has taken place, at all times
there is danger; but, if there is a thick, brown, albuminous or fetid
discharge, it is very unlikely that any permanent advantage will result
from the operation.

We will introduce a few cases as they occur in our clinical records.

'November 7th, 1821'.--A spaniel, nine years old, had been, during four
months, alternately asthmatic or mangy, or both. Within the last few
days she had apparently increased in size. I was sent for. The first
touch of the abdomen betrayed considerable fluctuation. She likewise had
piles, sore and swelled. I ordered an alterative ball to be given
morning and night.

'8th'. One of the balls has been given, and two doses of castor oil; but
no effect has been produced. An injection was administered.

'9th'. A small evacuation of water has been produced, and the bowels
have been slightly opened. Give a dose of the castor-oil mixture.

'10th'. The obstruction has been removed; the enlargement is somewhat
diminished; much water has passed. Give an alterative ball every
morning.

'14th'. The alteratives have been continued, and there is a slow but
evident decrease of the abdomen.

'18th'. I cannot detect any effusion in the abdomen. Give a pill every
alternate day for a fortnight. At the expiration of this period the dog
was apparently well.

'April 23d', 1822.--A terrier, ten years old, had cough and mange, which
ceased. The belly for the first time began to enlarge, and on feeling
the dog considerable fluctuation was evident. He would not eat, but he
drank immoderately. Give daily a ball consisting of tonic and physic
mist., with powdered digitalis and tartrate of iron.

'May 6th'.--He is in better spirits, feeds tolerably well, but is rather
increased in size. Give daily a ball of tartrate of iron, digitalis,
ginger, and a grain of calomel.

22'd'. Much thinner, the belly very considerably diminished: a slight
fluctuation is still to be perceived. Continue medicine, with a
half-grain only of calomel.

'July 17th'.--The medicine has been regularly given, and the water of
the abdomen has rapidly disappeared, until a fortnight ago: since that
time it has been once more filling. The medicine was ordered to be
repeated.

'August 6th'.--The medicine has once more produced its proper effect,
and the fluid has disappeared.

On the '16th', however, the fluctuation was again too plainly felt, and
the owner determined to have nothing more to do with the case. The
animal was never brought again, nor could I trace it. The dog might have
been saved if the owner had done it justice.

As soon as dropsy appears to be established, proper medicines must be
resorted to. Foxglove, nitre, and ginger should be first tried in the
proportional doses of one, ten, and eight grains, given morning and
night. If this does not succeed, iodine from half-a-grain to a grain may
be given morning and night, and a weak solution of iodine rubbed on the
belly.

This being ineffectual, recourse may be had to tapping, taking care that
the trocar is not plunged sufficiently deep to wound the intestines. The
place for the operation is directly on the 'linea alba', or middle line
of the belly, and about midway between the pubis and the navel. The
whole of the intestinal fluid may be suffered to escape. A bandage
should then be applied round the belly, and retained there a week or
more.

Mr. Blaine very properly states, that the difference between fatness and
dropsy is, that the belly hangs pendulous in dropsy, while the back bone
stands up, and the hips are protruded through the skin; while the hair
is rough, and the feeling of the coat is peculiarly harsh. It may be
distinguished from pregnancy by the teats enlarging, in the latter case,
as gestation advances, and the young ones may occasionally be felt to
move. In addition to this it may be stated, that the presence of water
is readily and unerringly detected. If the right hand is laid on one
side of the belly, and the other side is gently struck with the left
hand, an undulating motion will be readily perceived.

In old dogs, dropsy, under the title of "anasarca," is an unfrequent but
occasional accompaniment of ascites. If pressure is made on any
particular parts, they yield and continue depressed for a longer or
shorter period of time, and slowly and by degrees regain their natural
form. The skin is dry and distended, and with no natural action; the
circulation is languid and small, the muscular powers are diminished,
the animal is unquiet, the thirst is great, the tongue is pale, the
appetite diminished, and the limbs are swelled. The best mode, of
treatment is the infliction of some very small punctures in the
distended skin, and the application of gentle friction. The majority of
cases of this kind are usually fatal, and so is almost every case of
encysted dropsy.

A dog had cough in February, 1825. Various medicines were administered,
and at length the cough almost suddenly ceased, and evident ascites
appeared. The thirst was insatiable, the dog would not touch food, and
he was unable to lie down more than two minutes at a time.

Digitalis, cream of tartar, and hydrarg. submur. were given on the 9th
April.

On the 13th he was much worse, and apparently dying. He had been unable
to rise for the last twelve hours, and lay panting. I punctured the
abdomen, and four quarts of fluid were evacuated.

'14th'. The panting continues. The dog will not eat, but he can lie down
in any posture.

'15th'. The panting is diminished, the appetite is returning, and water
continues to ooze from the wound,

'17th'. The wound healed on the night of the 15th, and already the fluid
begins to collect. The medicine still continued.

'20th'. The spirits good, and strength improving; but the belly is
evidently filling, and matter is discharged from both the nose and eyes.

'26th'. The swelling a little diminished, respiration easy, and the dog
walking comfortably about, and feeding well.

'May 13th'.--The swelling, which for some days past diminished, is now
again increasing; but the dog is strong and breathes easily. Medicine as
before.

'24th.'. The dog is thinner, weaker, filling fast, and the thirst
excessive. [Symbol: Rx]: Crem. tart., ferri tart. [Symbol: ounce] ij.,
pulv. flor. anthemid. [Symbol: ounce] iiij., conser. ros. q. s.: divide
in bol. xii.: cap. in dies.

'27th'. During two days he has been unable to lie down more than a
minute at a time. Again tapped: fully as much fluid was evacuated as
before; but there is now blood mingling with it.

30th. Much relieved by the tapping, and breathes with perfect ease;
but, now that the enormous belly is reduced, the dog is very thin. Bol.
continued.

June 8th. Within the last three days the animal has filled again with
extraordinary rapidity. [Symbol: Rx;]: Ferr. tart. [Symbol: scruple] j.,
opii. gr. 1/4, pulv. gentianæ [Symbol: scruple] j., cons. ros. q. s.: f.
bol. capiend. in dies.

13th. Is again strangely distended; I advised, or rather solicited,
that it might be destroyed; but this not being granted, I once more
tapped him. At least a gallon of dark-coloured fluid was evacuated.

22d. Again rapidly filling, but not losing either flesh or strength.

July 4th.--Once more punctured, and a gallon of dark-coloured fluid
evacuated.

12th. Again filling and rapidly losing flesh and strength.

26th. Once more tapped: immediately after which he appeared to be
revived, but almost immediately began again to fill.

Aug. 2d.--He had eaten tolerably; appeared to have nothing more than
usual the matter with him, when, being missed for an hour, he was found
dead. No examination was permitted.

In 1824 a spaniel, six years old, was brought to the infirmary. It had
had an asthmatic cough, which had left it. It was now hollow in the
flanks, the belly pendulous, and an evident fluctuation of water. The
owner would not consent to any operation. An aloetic physic-ball,
however, was given every fifth day, and a ball, composed of tartrate of
iron, digitalis, nitre, and antimonial powder, on every intermediate
morning and night. The water evidently accumulated; the dog was sent
for, and died in the course of a week.

There are a few medicines that may be useful in arresting the effusion
of the fluid; but they too often fail in producing any considerable
benefit. The fox-glove is, perhaps, possessed of the greatest power,
combined with nitre, squills, and bitartrate of potash. At other times
chamomile, squills, and spirit of nitrous ether, may be tried.

The following case, treated by the administration of iodine, by
Professor Dick, is important:--

A black and tan coloured retriever was sent to me labouring under
ascites. He was tapped, and two quarts of fluid abstracted. Tonics,
combined with diuretics were given, but the fluid continued to
accumulate, and in three weeks he was again tapped, and another two
quarts drawn away. The disease still went on, and a fortnight afterwards
a similar quantity was withdrawn. Various remedies were tried in order
to check the power of the disease, but without effect, and the abdomen
again became as much distended with the effused serum as before.

He was then put under a course of iodine, which soon began to show its
beneficial influence by speedily allaying his excessive thirst; and in
about a month the whole of the effused fluid was absorbed, although from
the size of the abdomen it must have amounted to a similar quantity to
that drawn off on the previous occasions. The dog's appetite soon
returned; he gained flesh rapidly, and has continued quite well, and,
from being a perfect skeleton, soon became overloaded with fat.

Induced by the great benefit derived in this case from the iodine, I
took the opportunity of trying it on a Newfoundland dog similarly
affected. He was put on a course of iodine, and the quantity of the drug
was gradually increased. As absorption rapidly commenced, the fluid was
completely taken up; but, partly in consequence of pushing the medicine
too far, and partly from extensive disease in the liver, unfavourable
symptoms took place, and he sunk rather unexpectedly. Still, however,
from the obvious and decided advantage derived from the medicine, I have
no doubt that iodine will be found one of the most efficient remedies in
dropsy in dogs.

Iodine is a truly valuable drug. When first introduced into veterinary
practice it was observed that it readily accomplished the reduction of
the enlarged glands that frequently remain after catarrh; but it was
presently evident that it reduced almost every kind of tumour, even the
growth of tubercles in the lungs. Professor Morton, in his Manual of
Pharmacy, has admirably described the different combinations of iodine.


THE LIVER

of the dog seems to follow a law of comparative anatomy, that its bulk
shall be in an inverse proportion of that of the lungs. The latter are
necessarily capacious; for they need a large supply of arterial blood,
in order to answer to their rapid expenditure when the utmost exertion
of strength and speed is required. The liver is, therefore, restricted
in its size and growth. Nevertheless, it has an important duty to
fulfil, namely, to receive the blood that is returned from the
intestines, to separate from the blood, or to secrete, by means of it,
the bile; and then to transmit the remaining portion of it to the lungs,
where it undergoes the usual process of purification, and is changed to
arterial blood. In the performance of this office, the liver often
undergoes a state of inflammation, and disease ensues, inveterate, and
setting at defiance every means of cure. Both the skin and the urine
become tinged with a yellow effusion. The animal is dull, and gradually
wastes away.

In a few days the yellow hue becomes more intense, and particularly on
the cuticle, the conjunctiva, the iris, the gums, and the lips. A state
of fever becomes more and more perceptible, and there are alternations
of cold and heat. The pulse varies from 80 to 120; the dry tongue hangs
from the mouth; the appetite ceases, but the animal is peculiarly
desirous of cold water. The dog becomes restless; he seeks to hide
himself; and he groans, if the parts in the neighbourhood of the liver
are pressed upon.

Frequent vomitings now appear, slimy, and evidently containing gall. The
animal becomes visibly thinner, obstinately refuses all solid food, and
only manifests thirst. He begins to stagger as he walks; he withdraws
himself from observation; he anxiously seeks some dark place where he
may lay himself with his chest and belly resting on the cold ground, his
fore legs stretched out before him, and his hind legs almost as far
behind him. The fever increases, the skin becomes of a dark yellow
colour, the mucous membrane of the mouth and conjunctiva is of a dirty
red, the expired air is evidently hot, the gaze is anxious, the urine is
of a saffron yellow, or even darker: in short, there now appears every
symptom of inflammation of the liver, with jaundice.

As the disease proceeds the animal begins to vomit masses of a yellowish
green substance, occasionally mixed with blood. He wastes away to a
skeleton, he totters in his walk, he is half unconscious, the pulse
becomes weak and interrupted, the temperature sinks, and death ensues.

The duration and course of the disease are deceptive. It occasionally
proceeds so insidiously that several days are suffered to pass before
the owner perceives any marks of disease, or seeks any aid. The duration
of the disease is usually from ten to twelve days. It terminates in
congestion of blood in the liver, or a gradual restoration to health.
The latter can only take place in cases where the inflammation has
proceeded very slowly; where the commencement and progress of the
disease could be discovered by debility and slight yellowness of the
skin, and especially where speedy recourse has been had to medical aid.

The predisposing causes of this disease are often difficult to discover.
The dog, in warm climates, seems to have a natural disposition to it. As
exciting causes, atmospheric influence may be reckoned, sultry days,
cold nights, and damp weather. Other occasional causes may be found in
violent falls, bruises, and overfeeding. Fat petted dogs that are easily
overheated by exertion are often attacked by this disease. The result of
the disease depends on its duration, course, and complication. If it is
attended to early, it can generally be cured. If it has existed for
several days, and the fever has taken on a typhoid character--if the
yellow hue is perceptible--the appetite failing, and vomiting ensuing,
the cure is doubtful; and, if inflammation of the stomach has taken
place, with high fever, vomiting of blood, wasting away, and fits
occurring, there is no chance of cure.

When simple jaundice alone is visible, a moderate laxative of sulphate
of magnesia and tartaric acid, in conjunction with some aromatic and
mucilaginous fluid, or, quite in the beginning of the disease, an
emetic, will be found of considerable service; but, when the yellow
colour has become more intense, and the animal will no longer eat, and
the fever and weakness are increased, it is necessary to give calomel,
tartar-emetic, camphor, and opium, in the form of pills, and to rub some
strong liniment on the region of the liver: the doses of calomel,
however, must be very small. If inflammation of the stomach appears,
mucilaginous fluids only must be given. Bleeding may be of service in
the commencement of the disease, but afterward it is hurtful.

This is an account of hepatitis as it occasionally appears, and
particularly on the Continent; but it does not often assume so virulent
a character in our country. There is often restlessness, thirst, and
sickness, accompanied by much prostration of strength; or general heat
and tenderness. Occasionally there is purging; but much oftener
constipation, that bids defiance to almost every medicine. The principal
or almost only hope of cure consists in bleeding, physicking, and
blistering on the right side.

Of bilious disease, assuming the character of inflammation, we have too
many cases. It may be spontaneous or brought on by the agency of other
affections. Long-continued and inveterate mange will produce it. It is
often connected with, or produced by, distemper, or a dull inflammatory
disease of the liver, and it is generally accompanied by pustular
eruption on the belly. The skin is usually tinged of a yellow hue, and
the urine is almost invariably impregnated with bile. The suffusion
which takes place is recognised among sportsmen by the term "yellows."
The remedy should be some mercurial, with gentian and aloes given twice
in the day, and mercurial ointment well rubbed in once in the day. If
this treatment is steadily pursued, and a slight soreness induced in the
mouth, the treatment will usually be successful. Mr. Blaine observes,

  "A moderate soreness of the mouth is to be encouraged and kept up. I
  have never succeeded in removing the complaint without it."


JAUNDICE.

M. W. Leblanc, of Paris, has given an interesting account of the causes
and treatment of 'jaundice' in the dog.

The prevailing symptom of this disease in the dog is a yellow
discoloration of the skin and the mucous membranes of greater or less
intensity. It generally announces the existence of very serious disease,
as inflammation of the liver and its excretory ducts, or of the
gall-bladder, or the stomach, or small intestines, or contraction or
'obliteration' of the excretory ducts of the liver, in consequence of
inflammation of these vessels, or the presence of concrete substances
formed from the bile. The dogs in which he found the most decided traces
of this disease laboured under diarrhea, with stools of a reddish brown
or black colour for one, two or three days.

The causes of jaundice are chiefly over-fatigue (thus, greyhounds are
more subject to it than pointers), immersions in water, fighting,
emetics or purgatives administered in over-doses, the repeated use of
poisonous substances not sufficiently strong at once to destroy the
animal, the swallowing of great quantities of indigestible food, and
contusions of the abdominal viscera, especially about the region of the
liver. The most serious, if not the most common cause, is cold after
violent and long-continued exercise; and especially when the owners of
dogs, seeing them refuse their food after a long chase, give them
powerful purgatives or emetics.

The treatment should have strict relation to the real or supposed cause
of jaundice, and its most evident concomitant circumstances. Some of
these symptoms are constant and others variable. Among the first,
whatever be the cause of the disease, we reckon acceleration of the
pulse; fever, with paroxysms of occasional intensity; and a yellow or
reddish-yellow discoloration of the urine. Among the second are
constipation, diarrhoea, the absence or increase of colour in the faecal
matter, whether solid or fluid. When they are solid, they are usually
void of much colour; when, on the contrary, there is diarrhea, the fæces
are generally mingled with blood more or less changed. Sometimes the
dejections are nearly black, mixed with mucus. It is not unusual for a
chest affection to be complicated with the lesions of the digestive
organs, which are the cause of jaundice.

With these leading symptoms there are often others connected that are
common to many diseases; such as dryness and heat of the mouth, a fetid
smell, a staggering gait, roughness of the hair, and particularly of
that of the back; an insatiable thirst, accompanied by the refusal of
all food; loss of flesh, which occasionally proceeds with astonishing
rapidity; a tucked-up flank, with hardness and tenderness of the
anterior part of the belly.

The jaundice which is not accompanied with fever, nor indeed with any
morbid change but the colour of the skin, will require very little
treatment. It will usually disappear in a reasonable time, and M.
Leblanc has not found that any kind of treatment would hasten that
disappearance.

When any new symptom becomes superadded to jaundice, it must be
immediately combated. Fever, injection of the vessels of the
conjunctiva, constipation, diarrhoea, or the discoloration of the urine,
require one bleeding at least, with some mucilaginous drinks. Purgatives
are always injurious at the commencement of the disease.

  "I consider," says M. Leblanc, "this fact to be of the utmost
  importance. Almost the whole of the dogs that have been brought to me
  seriously ill with jaundice, have been purged once or more; and either
  kitchen salt, or tobacco, or jalap, or syrup of buckthorn, or emetic
  tartar, or some unknown purgative powders, have been administered.

  "Bleeding should be resorted to, and repeated if the fever continues,
  or the animal coughs, or the respiration be accelerated. When the
  pulse is subdued, and the number of pulsations are below the natural
  standard--if the excrements are still void of their natural colour--if
  the constipation continues, or the animal refuses to feed--an ounce of
  manna dissolved in warm water should be given, and the dog often
  drenched with linseed tea. If watery diarrhoea should supervene, and
  the belly is not hot nor tender, a drachm or more, according to the
  size of the dog, of the sulphate of magnesia or soda should be
  administered, and this medicine should be repeated if the purging
  continues; more especially should this aperient be had recourse to
  when the fæces are more or less bloody, there being no fever nor
  peculiar tenderness of the belly.

  "When the liquid excrement contains much blood, and that blood is of a
  deep colour, all medicines given by the mouth should be suspended, and
  frequent injections should be thrown up, consisting of thin starch,
  with a few drops of laudanum. Too much cold water should not be
  allowed in this stage of the disease. Injections, and drinks composed
  of starch and opium, are the means most likely to succeed in the black
  diarrhoea, which is so frequent and so fatal, and which almost always
  precedes the fatal termination of all the diseases connected with
  jaundice.

  "In simple cases of jaundice the neutral salts have seldom produced
  much good effect; but I have obtained considerable success from the
  diascordium, in doses of half a drachm to a drachm.

  "Great care should be taken with regard to the diet of the dog that
  has had jaundice, with bloody or black diarrhoea; for the cases of
  relapse are frequent and serious and almost always caused by improper
  or too abundant food. A panada of bread, with a little butter, will
  constitute the best nourishment when the dog begins to recover his
  appetite. From this he may be gradually permitted to return to his
  former food. Most especially should the animal not be suffered to take
  cold, or to be left in a low or damp situation. This attention to the
  food of the convalescent dog may be thought to be pushed a little too
  far; but experience has taught me to consider it of the utmost
  importance, and it is neither expensive nor troublesome."


THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS.

The spleen is generally regarded as an appendage to the absorbent
system. Tiedemann and Gmelin consider that its specific function is to
secrete from the blood a fluid which possesses the property of
coagulation, and which is carried to the thoracic duct, and then, being
united with the chyle, converts it into blood, and causes an actual
communication between the arterial and absorbent systems. According,
however, to Dr. Bostock, there is a fatal objection to this, namely,
that animals have been known to live an indefinite length of time after
the removal of the spleen, without any obvious injury to their
functions, which could not have been the case if the spleen had been
essentially necessary for so important a process.

A knowledge of the diseases of the spleen in the dog appears to be less
advanced than in any other animal. In the cases that I have seen, the
earliest indications were frequent vomiting, and the discharge of a
yellow, frothy mucus. The animal appeared uneasy, shivering, the ears
cold, the eyes unnaturally protuberant, the nostrils dilated, the flanks
agitated, the respiration accelerated, and the mucous membranes pale.
The best treatment I know is the administration, twice in the day, of a
ball composed of a grain of calomel and the same quantity of aloes, and
five grains of ginger. The dog frequently cries out, both when he is
moved and when he lies on his bed. In the course of three days the
yellow mucus is generally disappearing, and the expression of pain is
materially diminished.

If the bowels are much constipated after two days have passed, two
scruples of aloes may be given, and a grain of calomel; frequent
injections may also be administered.

We are almost totally ignorant of the functions of the 'pancreas'. It
probably is concerned in assimilating the food, and converting the chyme
of the stomach into chyle.


INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY

is a serious and dangerous malady. This organ is essentially vascular in
its texture; and although it is small in volume, yet, on account of the
quantity of blood which it contains, and the rapidity with which its
secretions are performed, it is disposed to frequent and dangerous
inflammation. The immediate causes of inflammatory action in this viscus
are blows and contusions in the lumbar region; hard work long continued,
and the imprudent use of stimulating substances employed as
aphrodisiacs; the presence of calculi in the kidney, and the arrest of
the urine in the bladder. The whole of the kidney may be affected with
anæmia or defect of blood, or this may be confined to the cortical
substance, or even to the tubular. The kidneys are occasionally much
larger than usual, without any other change of structure; or simple
hypertrophy may affect but one of them. They are subject to atrophy,
which may be either general or partial; or one of the kidneys may be
completely wanting, and this evidently the consequence of violence or
disease.

Hydatids, though seldom met with in the human kidney, are not
unfrequently found in that of the dog. All these are circumstances that
have not received sufficient attention.


CALCULOUS CONCRETIONS

are of more frequent occurrence than is generally imagined, but they are
not confined to the kidneys; there is scarcely a portion of the frame in
which they have not been found, particularly in the brain, the glandular
substance, and the coats of the intestines.

I cannot say with Mr. Blaine that I have seen not less than 40 or 50
calculi in my museum; but I have seen too many fearful examples of the
complaint. There has been usually great difficulty in the urinary
evacuation; and at length one of the calculi enters the urethra, and so
blocks up the flow of the urine that mortification ensues.

M. Lautour relates a case of renal calculus in a dog. He had
occasionally voided his urine with some difficulty, and had walked
slowly and with evident pain. August 30, 1827, a sudden exacerbation
came on, and the dog was dreadfully agitated. He barked and rolled
himself on the ground almost every minute; be made frequent attempts to
void his urine, which came from him drop by drop. When compelled to
walk, his hind and fore legs seemed to mingle together, and his loins
were bent into a perfect curve; his flanks were drawn in; he could
scarcely be induced to eat; and he evidently suffered much in voiding
his fæces. Mild and demulcent liquids were his only food. Warm baths and
injections were applied almost unceasingly, and in eight days he seemed
to have perfectly gained his health.

In March, in the following year, the symptoms returned with greater
intensity. His hind limbs were dragged after him; he rapidly lost flesh,
and his howlings were fearful and continuous. The same mode of treatment
was adopted without any good effect, and, his cries continuing, he was
destroyed.

The stomach and intestines were healthy. The bladder was enlarged from
the thickness and induration of its parietes; the mucous membrane of it
was covered with ecchymoses; the kidneys were three or four times their
natural size; and the pelvis contained a calculus weighing 126 grains,
composed of 58 grains of uric acid and 58 of ammonia, with 10 grains of
phosphate of lime.

Of the nature and causes of urinary calculi in the bladder we know very
little. We only know that some solid body finds its way or is formed
there, gradually increases in size, and at length partially or entirely
occupies the bladder. Boerhaave has given a singular and undeniable
proof of this. He introduced a small round pebble into the bladder of a
dog. The wound perfectly healed. A few months afterwards the animal was
killed, and there was found a calculus of considerable size, of which
the pebble was the nucleus.

Occasionally the pressure of the bladder on the calculus which it
contains is exceedingly great, so much so, indeed, as to crush the
calculus. A small calculus may sometimes be forcibly extracted, or cut
down upon and removed; but when the calculus is large, a catheter or
bougie must be passed up the penis as far as the curve in the urethra,
and then somewhat firmly held with the left hand, and pressing against
the urethra. A scalpel should be taken, and an incision made into the
urethra. The catheter being now withdrawn, and the finger or a pair of
forceps introduced into the bladder, the calculus may be grasped and
extracted.

There are some instances in which as many as 20 or 30 small calculi have
been taken from the bladder of a dog. Twice I have seen calculi
absolutely crushed in the bladder of a dog; and Mr. Blaine says that he
found no fewer than 40 or 50 in the bladder of a Newfoundland dog. One
of them had passed out into the urethra, and had so blocked up the
passage that the flow of urine was prevented, and the animal died of
mortification.

With much pleasure I refer to the details of Mr. Blaine with regard to
the management of 'vesical calculi'.

  "When a small calculus," says he, "obstructs the urethra, and can be
  felt, it may be attempted to be forced forward through the urethra to
  the point of the penis, whence it may be extracted by a pair of
  forceps. If it cannot be so moved, it may be cut down upon and removed
  with safety; but when one or more stones are within the bladder, we
  must attempt lithotomy, after having fully satisfied ourselves of
  their existence there by the introduction of the sound; to do which it
  must be remembered that the urethra of the dog in passing the bladder
  proceeds nearly in a direct line backwards, and then, making an acute
  angle, it passes again forwards to the bladder. It must be therefore
  evident, that when it becomes necessary to introduce a catheter,
  sound, or bougie, it must first be passed up the penis to the
  extremity of this angle; the point of the instrument must then be cut
  down upon, and from this opening the instrument may be readily passed
  forward into the bladder. The examination made, and a stone detected,
  it may, if a very small one, be attempted to be pushed forward by
  means of a finger passed up the anus into the urethra; but, as this
  could be practicable only where the dog happened to be a large one, it
  is most probable that nothing short of the operation of lithotomy
  would succeed. To this end, the sound being introduced, pass a very
  small gorget, or otherwise a bistoury, along its groove into the
  bladder, to effect an opening sufficient to admit of the introduction
  of a fine pair of forceps, by which the stone may be laid up and
  extracted."
  'Blaine's Canine Pathology', p. 180.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER

is of frequent occurrence in the dog; it is also occasionally observed
in the horse and the ox. It sometimes appears as an epizootic. It is
generally announced by anxiety, agitation, trembling of the hinder
limbs, frequent attempts to urine, vain efforts to accomplish it, the
evacuation small in quantity, sometimes clear and aqueous, and at other
times mucous, laden with sediment, thick and bloody, escaping by jets,
painfully and with great difficulty, and then suddenly rushing out in
great quantity. To this list of symptoms colic may often be added. The
animal drinks with avidity, but seldom eats much, unless at the
commencement of the complaint. The skin is hard and dry, he looks at his
flanks, and his back and flanks are tender when pressed upon.

During the latter portion of my connexion with Mr. Blaine, this disease
assumed an epidemic character. There was a great drought through almost
every part of the country. The disease was characterised by general
uneasiness; continual shifting of the posture; a tucked-up appearance;
an anxious countenance; a quick and noisy pulse; continued panting; the
urine voided in small quantities, sometimes discharged drop by drop, or
complete stoppage of it. The belly hot, swelled, and tender to the
touch; the dog becoming strangely irritable, and ready to bite even his
master.

'1st May', 1824.--Two dogs had been making ineffectual attempts to void
their urine for nearly two days. The first was a terrier, and the other
a Newfoundland. The terrier was bled, placed in a warm bath, and an
aloetic ball, with calomel, administered. He was bled a second time in
the evening, and a few drops of water were discharged. On the following
day, the urine slowly passed involuntarily from him; but when he
attempted to void any, his efforts were totally ineffectual. Balls
composed of camphor, pulv. uva ursi, tinct. ferri mur., mass purg., and
pulv. lini. et gum. arab., were administered morning, noon, and night.

On the 5th the urine still passed involuntarily. Cold lotions were
employed, and tonic and astringent medicines administered, with castor
oil. He gradually got well, and no trace of the disease remained until
June the 6th, when he again became thin and weak, and discharged much
bloody urine, but apparently without pain. The uva ursi, oak bark, and
powdered gum-arabic were employed.

On the 12th he had become much better, and so continued until the 1st of
July, when he again exhibited the same complaint more violently than
before.  He was exceedingly tender on the loins, and screamed when he
was touched. He was bled, returned to his uva ursi and powdered gum, and
recovered. I saw him two years afterwards apparently well.

The Newfoundland dog exhibited a similar complaint, with nearly the same
accompaniments.

'May' 1.--He was disinclined to move; his belly was hard and hot, and he
was supposed to be costive. Gave an aloetic ball with iron.

2d. He has endeavoured, in vain, several times to void his urine. He
walks stiffly with his back bound. Subtract eight ounces of blood; give
another physic-ball, and apply cold affusion to the loins.

3d. He frequently attempts to stale, and passes a little urine at each
time; he still walks and stands with his back bound. Syr. papav. et
rhamni, with tinct. ferr. mur., a large spoonful being given morning and
night.

4th. He again tries, ineffectually, to void his urine. Mist. et pulv.

5th. Unable to void a drop of urine; nose hot; tongue hangs down; pants
considerably; will not eat; the countenance has an anxious character.
Bleed to twelve ounces; apply cold affusion. Medicine as before, with
cold affusion.

6th. Appears to be in very great pain; not a drop of water has passed
from him. Medicine and other treatment as before. In the evening he lay
down quietly. On the next morning he was found dead. All the viscera
were sound except the bladder, which was ruptured; the abdomen contained
two quarts of bloody fluid. The mucous membrane of the bladder appeared
to be in the highest state of inflammation. It was almost black with
extravasated blood. On the neck of the bladder was an enlargement of the
size of a goose's egg, and almost filling the cavity of the pelvis. On
cutting into it, more than two ounces of pus escaped.

On June 29, 1833, a poodle was brought to me. He had not been observed
to pass any urine for two days. He made frequent attempts to void it,
and cried dreadfully. The bladder could be felt distended in the
abdomen. I put him into a warm bath, and took from him a pound of blood.
He seemed to be a little relieved. I did not leave him until after
midnight, but was soon roused by his loud screams, and the dog was also
retching violently. The cries and retching gradually abated, and he
died. The bladder had burst, and the parietes were in a dreadful state
of inflammation.

A dog had laboured under incontinence of urine more than two months. The
water was continually dropping from him. The servant told me that, three
months before, he had been shut into a room two days, and, being a
cleanly animal, would not stale until he was liberated. Soon after that
the incontinence of urine was observed. I gave the usual tonic balls,
with a small portion of opium, night and morning, and ordered cold water
to be frequently dashed on the perinæum. A month afterwards he was quite
well.

Comparatively speaking, 'profuse staling' is not a common disease,
except when it is the consequence of bad food, or strong diuretics, or
actual inflammation. The cause and the result of the treatment are often
obscure. Bleeding, purging, and counter irritation, would be indicated
to a certain extent, but the lowering system must not be carried too
far. The medicine would probably be catechu, uva ursi, and opium.

At times blood mingles with the urine, with or without coagulation. The
cause and the source of it may or may not be determined. Generally
speaking it is the result of some strain or blow.

A terrier bitch, in January, 1820, had incontinence of urine. No
swelling or injury could be detected. I used with her the simple tonic
balls.

10th January'.--She is now considerably better, and only a few drops
are observed.

2d February'.--The disease which had seemingly been conquered began
again to reappear; the medicine had been neglected. Again have recourse
to it.

4'th March'.--The disease now appears to be quite checked by the cold
lotion and the balls.


A CASE OF RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER

This is a singular account, and stands almost alone.

The patient was a valuable spaniel belonging to that breed known as "The
Duke of Norfolk's," and now possessed in its full perfection by the Earl
of Albemarle. Professor Simonds shall give his own account:

I was informed that almost from a puppy to the time when he was two
years old, the dog had always been delicate in his appearance, and was
observed to void his urine with difficulty; but there were not
sufficient indications of disease for the owner to suppose that medical
attendance was necessary until within a few days of his death, and then,
finding that the act of staling was effected with increased difficulty,
and accompanied with extreme pain; that the dog refused his food, was
feverish; that at length there were frequent or ineffective efforts to
expel the urine, the dog crying out from extremity of pain, and it was
sufficiently evident that great mischief was going on, he was placed
under my care; and even then he was walked a mile and a half to my
infirmary.

My attention was immediately directed to him; the man who brought him
informing me that he seemed much easier since he left home. On
examination, I at once pronounced that he could not recover; in fact,
that he was rapidly sinking; but, from his then state, I could give no
opinion with regard to the precise nature or extent of his disease. He
was placed upon a bed in an appropriate apartment, with directions not
to be disturbed, and in a few hours he died.

The 'post-mortem' appearances were the abdomen containing from four to
five pints of fluid, having much the character of, but more bloody than,
that found in cases of ascites. The peritoneum seemed to be dyed from
its immersion in this fluid, as it showed a general red hue, not
apparently deeper in some parts than in others. There was an absence, to
a great extent, of that beautiful appearance and well-marked course of
the minute blood-vessels which accompany many cases of original
peritonitis. Extending the examination, I found the bladder to be
ruptured, and that the fluid of which I have spoken was to a large
extent composed of urine, mingled with some other secretion from the
peritoneal investure of the abdomen and its viscera, probably produced
from the presence of an irritant, the urine being brought into direct
contact with the membrane. Farther research showed that this rupture of
the bladder was caused in the manner which I have stated. The
'post-mortem' examination displayed a chronic enlargement of the
prostate gland of a considerable size, causing by its pressure a
mechanical obstruction to the passage of the urine. Death in this
instance was not immediately brought about by the abnormal state of the
original organ affected; but the prostate gland, having early in the
life of the animal become diseased, and, being gradually increased in
size, became a cause of still more serious disease, attacking more
important organs.


WORMS.

There are various kinds of worms to which the dog is subject; they have
occasionally been confounded with each other; but they are essentially
different in the situations which they occupy, and the effects which
they produce.

The 'ascarides' are small thread-like worms, generally not more than six
or ten lines in length, of a white colour, the head obtuse, and the tail
terminating in a transparent prolongation. They are principally found in
the rectum. They seem to possess considerable agility; and the itching
which they set up is sometimes absolutely intolerable. To relieve this,
the dog often drags the fundament along the ground.

All the domesticated animals are subject to the annoyance which these
worms occasion. They roll themselves into balls as large as a nut, and
become entangled so much with each other that it is difficult to
separate them. Sometimes they appear in the stomach, and in such large
masses that it is almost impossible to remove them by the act of
vomiting. It has been said that packets of ascarides have been collected
in the stomach containing more than one hundred worms. These collections
are rarely or never got entirely rid of. Enormous doses of medicine may
be given, and the worms may not be seen again for several weeks; but, at
length, they reappear as numerous as ever.

Young dogs are exceedingly subject to them, and are with great
difficulty perfectly freed from their attacks. Another species of worm
is the 'teres'. It would resemble the earth-worm in its appearance, were
it not white instead of a red colour. They are very common among dogs,
especially young dogs, in whom they are often attended by fits.
Occasionally they crawl into the stomach, and there produce a great deal
of irritation.

Another, and the most injurious of the intestinal worms, is the
'taenia', or 'tape-worm'. It is many inches in length, almost flat in
the greater part of its extent, and its two extremities are nearly or
quite equal. Tape-worms associate in groups like the others, but they
are not so numerous; they chiefly frequent the small intestines. They
are sometimes apt to coil themselves, and form a mechanical obstruction
which is fatal to the dog.

The presence of all these worms is readily detected. There is generally
a dry, short cough, a staring coat, a hot and fetid breath, a voracious
appetite, and a peculiar state of the bowels; alternately constipated to
a great degree, or peculiarly loose and griping. In young dogs the
emaciated appearance, stinted growth, fetid breath, and frequent fits,
are indications not to be mistaken.

At other times, however, the dog is filled with worms with scarcely any
indication of their presence. Mr. Blaine very properly remarks that it
docs not follow, because no worms are seen to pass away, that there are
none: neither when they are not seen does it follow even that none pass;
for, if they remain long in the intestines after they are dead, they
become digested like other animal matter.

The means of expelling or destroying worms in the intestines of the dog
are twofold: the first and apparently the most natural mode of
proceeding, is the administration of purgatives, and usually of drastic
ones; but there is much danger connected with this; not merely the fæces
will be expelled, but a greater or less portion of the mucus that lines
the intestinal canal. The consequence of this will be griping and
inflammation to a very dangerous extent. Frequent doses of Epsom salts
have been given; but not always with success, and frequently with
griping. Mercurial medicines have been tried; but they have not always
succeeded, and have often produced salivation. One method of expelling
the worm has been adopted which has rarely failed, without the slightest
mischief--the administration of glass finely powdered. Not a particle of
it penetrates through the mucus that lines the bowels, while it destroys
every intestinal worm. The powdered glass is made into a ball with lard
and ginger.

The following account of the symptoms caused by taenia may be
interesting. A dog used to be cheerful, and particularly fond of his
master; but gradually his countenance became haggard, his eyes were red,
his throat was continually filled with a frothy spume, and he stalked
about with an expression of constant inquietude and suffering. These
circumstances naturally excited considerable fear with regard to the
nature of his disease, and he was shut up in a court, with the intention
of his being destroyed. Thus shut up, he furiously threw himself upon
every surrounding object, and tore them with his teeth whenever he could
seize them. He retired into one of the corners of the court, and there
he was continually rubbing his nose, as it were to extract some foreign
body; sometimes he bit and tore up the earth, barking and howling
violently; his hair stood on end, and his flanks were hollow.

During the whole of his disease he continued to recognise his master. He
ran to him at the slightest word. He refused nothing to drink; but he
would not eat. He was killed on account of the fear excited among the
neighbours.

The veterinary surgeon who attended him suspected that there was some
affection of the head, on account of the strange manner in which he had
rubbed and beaten it. The superior part of the nose was opened, and two
tæniæ; lanceolatæ were found: it was plain enough that they were the
cause of all the mischief.

The proprietor of the dog nevertheless believed that it was a case of
rabies; he had the caustic applied to his hands, and could not persuade
himself that he was safe until he had been at the baths of Bourbonne.
[4]

There is a worm inhabiting the stomach of young dogs, the 'Ascaris
Marginata', a frequent source of sickness and occasionally of spasmodic
colic, by rolling itself into knots. It seems occasionally to take a
dislike to its assigned residence, and wanders into the oesophagus, but
rarely into the larger intestines. A dog had a severe cough, which could
not be subdued by bleeding or physic, or sedative or opiate medicines.
He was destroyed, and one of these ascarides was found in the trachea.
Others find their way into the nasal cavity; and a dreadful source of
irritation they are when they are endeavouring to escape, in order to
undergo one of the changes of form to which they are destined, or when
they have been forced into the nostril in the act of vomiting.

I once had a dog as a patient, whose case, I confess, I did not
understand. He would sneeze and snort, and rub his head and nose along
the carpet. I happened to say that the symptoms in some respects
resembled those of rabies, and yet, that I could not satisfy myself that
the dog was rabid. The mention of rabies was sufficient, and in defiance
of my remonstrances the animal was destroyed.

The previous symptoms led me to examine the nasal cavity, and I found
two of these ascarides, one concealed in the middle and the other in the
upper meatus, through neither of which could any strong current of air
be forced, and from which the ascarides could not be dislodged.

Worms may be the cause of sudden death in a dog. The following case,
communicated by Professor Dick, illustrates this fact:

I lately had the body of a dog sent to me: his owner sent the following
letter by the same conveyance.

  "My keeper went out shooting yesterday morning with the dog which I
  now send to you. He was quite lively, and apparently well, during the
  former part of the day; but towards evening he was seized with violent
  vomiting. When he came home he refused to eat, and this morning about
  eight o'clock he died. As I have lost all my best dogs rather
  suddenly, I will thank you to have him examined, and the contents of
  his stomach analyzed; and have the kindness to inform me whether he
  has been poisoned, or what was the cause of his death."

On opening the abdomen, the viscera appeared quite healthy: the stomach
was removed, and the contents were found to be more decidedly acid than
usual. The acids were the muriatic and acetic: the finding of an
increased quantity of these is far from being unusual. There was not a
trace of arsenical, mercurial, nor any other metallic poison present. Of
the vegetable poisons, I can only say there was not the slightest trace
of the morbid effects of any of them. The pericardium and the left side
of the thorax contained a small quantity of bloody serous fluid, and the
heart was full of black blood. The left lung was a little inflamed. The
trachea contained some frothy yellow mucous matter, similar to the
contents of the stomach. In the larynx was found one of those worms
occasionally inhabiting the cavities of the nose, and which had probably
escaped from the nose while the dog had been hunting; and, lodging in
the larynx, had destroyed the animal by producing spasms of the larynx.
The worm was about one inch and a half in length, and had partly
penetrated through the rima glottidis. Another worm about the same size
was found in the left bronchia, and a still smaller one among the mucus
of the trachea: there were also four others in the nose.

Some years ago I found some worms of the filacia species in the right
ventricle of the heart of a dog, which had produced sudden death by
interrupting the action of the valves.

The following is a curious case of tape-worm, by Mr. Reynold:

On an estate where a great quantity of rabbits are annually destroyed in
the month of November, we have observed that several dogs that were
previously in good health and condition soon became weak, listless, and
excessively emaciated, frequently passing large portions of the
tape-worm. This induced us to examine the intestines of several hares
and rabbits; and, with, very few exceptions, we found each to contain a
perfect tape-worm three to four feet in length. We then caused two of
the dogs whose cases appeared the worst to be separated from the others,
feeding them on potatoes, &c.; and, in eight or ten days, after voiding
several feet of the worms, they were perfectly restored to their former
strength and appearance. The worm disease, hitherto so formidable to the
spaniel and pointer, may in a great measure be fairly attributed to the
custom of giving them the intestines of their game, under the technical
appellation of "the paunch." The facts above stated, in explaining the
cause of the disease, at the same time suggest the remedy.

'A worm in the urethra of a dog'.
M. Séon, veterinary surgeon of the Lancers of the Body Guard, was
requested to examine a dog who strained in vain to void his urine, often
uttering dreadful cries, and then eagerly licking his penis. M. Séon,
after having tried in vain to abate the irritation, endeavoured to pass
an elastic bougie. He perceived a conical body half an inch long
protruding from the urethra with each effort of the dog to void his
urine, and immediately afterwards returning into the urethra. He crushed
it with a pair of forceps, and drew it out. It proved to be a worm
resembling a strongylus, four and a half inches long. It was living, and
moving about. M. Séon could not ascertain its species. The worm being
extracted, the urine flowed, and the dog soon recovered. [5]


FISTULA IN THE ANUS.

This is a too frequent consequence of piles. It is often the result of
the stagnation of hardened fæces in the rectum, which produces
inflammation and ulceration, and frequently leaves a fistulous opening.
If we may judge what the quadruped suffers by the sufferings of human
beings, it is a sadly painful affair, whether the fistula is external or
internal. Whether it may be cured by a mild stimulant daily inserted to
the bottom of the abscess, or whether there is a communication with the
opening of the rectum which buries itself in the cellular tissues around
it, and requires an operation for its cure, it will require the
assistance of a skilful surgeon to effect a cure in this case.



[Footnote 1: Tetanus observed on a Dog, by M. Debeaux.--'Pract. Med.
Vet.' 1829, p. 543]


[Footnote 2: 'Blaine's Canine Pathology', p. 151.]


[Footnote 3: 'Proceedings of the Veterinary Medical Association',
1839-40]


[Footnote 4: 'Prat. Méd. Vét.' 1824, p. 14.]


[Footnote 5: 'Prat. Méd. Vét.', Fév. 1828.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XIII.

BLEEDING; TORSION; CASTRATION, PARTURITION; AND SOME DISEASES
CONNECTED WITH THE ORGANS OF GENERATION.


BLEEDING.

This operation is exceedingly useful in many accidents and diseases. It
is, in fact, as in the horse, the sheet-anchor of the practitioner in
the majority of cases of an inflammatory character. There is some
difference, however, in the instrument to be used. The lancet is the
preferable instrument in the performance of this operation. The fleam
should be banished from among the instruments of the veterinary surgeon.

A ligature being passed round the lower part of the neck, and the head
being held up a little on one side, the vein will protrude on either
side of the windpipe. It will usually be advisable to cut away a little
of the hair over the spot designed to be punctured. When a sufficient
quantity of blood is abstracted, it will generally be necessary, and
especially if the dog is large, to pass a pin through both edges of the
orifice, and secure it with a little tow.

When no lancet is at hand, the inside of the flap of the ear may be
punctured with a pen-knife, the course of a vein being selected for this
purpose. In somewhat desperate cases a small portion of the tail may be
amputated.

The 'superficial brachial vein', the 'cephalic' vein of the human
subject, and the 'plat' vein of the farrier, may be resorted to in all
lamenesses of the fore limb, and especially in all shoulder-wrenches,
strains of the loins, and of the thigh and the leg, and muscular and
ligamentous extensions of any part of the hind limbs; the 'vena saphena
major', and the 'anterior tibial' vein may be punctured in such cases.

The quantity of blood to be abstracted must be regulated according to
the size and strength of the dog and the degree of inflammation.

One or two ounces may be sufficient for a very small dog, and seven or
eight for a large one.


TORSION

To M. Amusat, of Paris, we are indebted for the introduction of the
artery-forceps for the arresting of hemorrhage. I shall do but justice
to him by describing his mode of proceeding. He seizes the divided
vessel with a pair of torsion-forceps in such a manner as to hold and
close the mouth of the vessel in its teeth. The slide of the forceps
then shuts its blade, and the artery is held fast. The artery is then
drawn from out of the tissues surrounding it, to the extent of a few
lines, and freed, with another forceps, from its cellular envelope, so
as to lay bare its external coat. The index and thumb of the left hand
are then applied above the forceps, in order to press back the blood in
the vessel. He then begins to twist the artery. One of the methods
consists in continuing the torsion until the part held in the forceps is
detached. When, however, the operator does not intend to produce that
effect, he ceases, after from four to six revolutions of the vessel on
its axis for the small arteries, and from eight to twelve for the large
ones. The hemorrhage instantly stops. The vessel which had been drawn
out is then replaced, as the surrounding parts give support to the knot
which has been formed at its extremities. The knot becomes further
concealed by the retraction of the artery, and this retraction will be
proportionate to the shortening which takes place by the effect of the
twisting, so that it will be scarcely visible on the surface of the
stump. It is of the utmost importance to seize the artery perfectly, and
to make the stated number of twists, as otherwise the security against
the danger of consecutive hemorrhage will not be perfect.

Mr. W. B. Costello, of London, was present when the operation was
performed at Paris. He brought back a full account of it as performed
there, and availed himself of an early opportunity of putting it to the
test before some of our metropolitan surgeons. A dog was placed on the
table, the forceps were applied, and the operation perfectly succeeded.

A few days afterwards a pointer bitch was brought to my infirmary, with
a large scirrhous tumour near the anterior teat on the left side. It had
been gradually increasing during the last five months. It was becoming
more irregular in its form, and on one of its tuberculous prominences
was a reddish spot, soft and somewhat tender, indicating that the
process of suppuration was about to commence.

I had often, or almost uniformly, experienced the power of iodine in
dispersing glandular enlargements in the neck of the dog, and also those
indurated tumours of various kinds which form about the joints of some
domesticated animals, particularly of cattle; but frequent
disappointment had convinced me that it was, if not inert, yet very
uncertain in its effect in causing absorption of tumours about the mammæ
of the bitch. Having also been taught that the ultimate success of the
excision of these enlargements depended on their removal before
suppuration had taken place, and the neighbouring parts had been
inoculated by the virus which so plentifully flowed from the ulcer, I
determined on an immediate operation; and, as the tumour was large, and
she was in high condition, I thought it a good case for 'the first trial
of torsion'. She was well physicked, and on the third day was produced
before my class and properly secured. I had not provided myself with the
'torsion forceps', but relied on the hold I should have on the vessel by
means of a pair of common artery forceps; and the effect of imperfect
instruments beautifully established the power of torsion in arresting
hemorrhage.

Two elliptical incisions were made on the face of the tumour, and
prolonged anteriorly and posteriorly about an inch from it. The portion
of integument that could be spared was thus enclosed, while the opposed
edges of the wound could be neatly and effectually brought together
after the operation. The dissection of the integument from the remaining
part of the face of the tumour was somewhat slow and difficult, for it
was in a manner identified with the hardened mass beneath; but the
operation soon proceeded more quickly, and we very soon had the scirrhus
exposed, and adhering to the thorax by its base. About two ounces of
venous blood had now been lost.

I was convinced that I should find the principal artery, by which the
excrescence was fed, at its anterior extremity, and not far from the
spot where the suppuration seemed to be preparing: therefore, beginning
posteriorly, I very rapidly cut through the cellular texture, elevating
the tumour and turning it back, until I arrived at the inner and
anterior point, and there was the only source of supply; the artery was
plainly to be seen. In order to give the experiment a fair chance, I
would not enclose it in the forceps, but I cut through it. A jet of
blood spirted out. I then seized the vessel as quickly as I could, and
began to turn the forceps, but before I could effect more than a turn
and a half I lost my hold on the artery. I was vexed, and paused,
waiting for the renewed gush of blood that I might seize the vessel
again; but to my surprise not a drop more blood came from the arterial
trunk. That turn and a half, considerable pressure having been used, had
completely arrested the hemorrhage. I can safely say that not more than
four drachms of arterial blood were lost.

The wound was sponged clean: there remained only a very slight oozing
from two or three points; the flaps were brought together, secured by
the ordinary sutures, and the proper bandages applied. The weight of the
tumour was twenty-two ounces; there was no after-bleeding, no unpleasant
occurrences; but the wound, which had been nearly six inches in length,
was closed in little more than three weeks.

He will essentially promote the cause of science, and the cause of
humanity, who will avail himself of the opportunity which country
practice affords of putting the effect of torsion to the test: and few
things will be more gratifying than the consciousness of rescuing our
patients from the unnecessary infliction of torture.

In docking, it will be found perfectly practicable: our patients will
escape much torture, and tetanus will often be avoided. The principal
danger from castration has arisen from the severity with which the iron
has been employed. The colt, the sheep, and the dog will be fair
subjects for experiment. The cautery, as it regards the first, and the
brutal violence too frequently resorted to in operating upon the others,
have destroyed thousands of animals.


CASTRATION.

This operation is performed on a great portion of our domestic animals.
It renders them more docile, and gives them a disposition to fatten. It
is followed by fewest serious accidents when it is performed on young
animals. The autumn or spring should, if possible, be chosen for the
operation, for the temperature of the atmosphere is then generally
uniform and moderate. It should be previously ascertained that the
animal is in perfect health; and he should be prepared by a mash diet
and bleeding, if he is in a plethoric state, or possessed of
considerable determination. If it is a young animal that is to be
operated upon, an incision may be made into the scrotum, the testicle
may be protruded, and the cord cut without much precaution, for the
blood will soon be stayed; but for older animals it will be advisable to
use a ligature, applied moderately tightly round the spermatic cord a
little more than an inch beyond its insertion into the testicle; the
scalpel is then used, and a separation effected between the ligature and
the testis. The vas derens needs not to be included; a great deal of
pain will then be spared to the animal.

The ordinary consequences of castration are pain, inflammation,
engorgement, and suppuration. The pain and suppuration are inevitable,
but generally yield to emollient applications. The engorgement is often
considerable at first, but soon subsides, and the suppuration usually
abates in the course of a few days. It has been said that the castrated
dog is more attached and faithful to his master than he who has not been
deprived of his genital powers: this, however, is to be much doubted. He
has, generally speaking, lost a considerable portion of his courage, his
energy, and his strength. He is apt to become idle, and is disposed to
accumulate fat more rapidly. His power of scent is also very
considerably diminished and he is less qualified for the sports of the
field. Of this there can be no doubt. It has been said that he is more
submissive: I very much doubt the accuracy of that opinion. He may not
be so savage as in his perfect state; he may not be so eager in his
feeding; but there is not the devotion to his master, and the quickness
of comprehension which belongs to the perfect dog.

The removal of the ovaries, or spaying of the female, used to be often
practised, and packs of spayed bitches were, and still are, occasionally
kept. In performing this operation, an opening is made into the flank on
one side, and the finger introduced--one of the ovaries is laid hold of
and drawn a little out of the belly; a ligature is then applied round
it, just above the bifurcation of the womb, and it is cut through, the
end of the ligature being left hanging out of the wound. The other ovary
is then felt for and drawn out, and excised and secured by a ligature.
The wound is then sewed up, and a bandage is placed over the incision.
Some farriers do not apply any ligature, but simply sew up the wound,
and in the majority of cases the edges adhere, and no harm comes of the
operation, except that the general character of the animal is
essentially changed. She accumulates a vast quantity of fat, becomes
listless and idle, and is almost invariably short-lived.

The female dog, therefore, should always be allowed to breed. Breeding
is a necessary process; and the female prevented from it is sure to be
affected with disease sooner or later; enormous collections and
indurations will form, that will inevitably terminate in scirrhus or
ulceration.

A troublesome process often occurs when the female is not permitted to
have young ones; namely, the accumulation of milk in the teats,
especially if at any previous time, however distant, she may have had
puppies once. The foundation is laid for many unpleasant and
unmanageable complaints. If she is suffered to bring up one litter after
another, she will have better health than those that are debarred from
intercourse with the male.

The temporary union which takes placed between the male and female at
the period at which they are brought together is a very singular one.
The corpora cavernosa of the male and the clitoris of the female being
suddenly distended with blood, it is impossible to withdraw either of
them until the turgescence of the parts has entirely ceased.


PARTURITION

The pupping usually takes place from the sixty-second to the
sixty-fourth day; and the process having commenced, from a quarter to
three quarters of an hour generally takes place between the production
of each puppy.

Great numbers of bitches are lost every year in the act of parturition:
there seems to be a propensity in the females to associate with dogs
larger than themselves, and they pay for it with their lives. The most
neglected circumstance during the period of pregnancy is the little
exercise which the mother is permitted to take, while, in point of fact,
nothing tends more to safe and easy parturition than her being permitted
or compelled to take a fair quantity of exercise.

When the time of parturition has arrived, and there is evident
difficulty in producing the foetus, recourse should be had to the ergot
of rye, which should be given every hour or half hour, according to
circumstances. If after a certain time some, although little, progress
has been made, the ergot must be continued in smaller doses, or perhaps
suspended for a while; but, if all progress is evidently suspended,
recourse must be had to the hook or the forceps. By gentle but continued
manipulation much may be done, especially when the muzzle of the puppy
can be brought into the passage. As little force as possible must be
used, and especially the foetus little broken. Many a valuable animal is
destroyed by the undue application of force.

If the animal seems to be losing strength, a small quantity of laudanum
and ether may be administered.

  "The patience of bitches in labour is extreme," says Mr. Blaine; "and
  their distress, if not removed, is most striking and affecting. Their
  look is at such time particularly expressive and apparently
  imploring."

When the pupping is protracted, and the young ones are evidently dead,
the mother may be saved, if none of the puppies have been broken. In
process of time the different puppies may, one after another, be
extracted; but when violence has been used at the commencement, or
almost at any part of the process, death will assuredly follow.

'June' 15, 1832.--A spaniel bitch was brought to my infirmary to-day,
who has been in great and constant pain since yesterday, making repeated
but fruitless efforts to expel her puppies. She is in a very plethoric
habit of body; her bowels are much confined, and she exhibits some
general symptoms of febrile derangement, arising, doubtless, from her
protracted labour. This is her first litter. Upon examination, no young
could be distinctly felt.

Place her in a warm bath, and give her a dose of castor oil, morning and
evening.

'June' 16.--The bitch appears in the same state as yesterday, except
that the medicine has operated freely upon the bowels, and the febrile
symptoms have somewhat decreased. Her strainings are as frequent and
distressing as ever. Take two scruples of the ergot of rye, and divide
into six doses, of which let one be given every half hour.

In about ten minutes after the exhibition of the last dose of this
medicine, she brought forth, with great difficulty, one dead puppy, upon
taking which away from her, she became so uneasy that I was induced to
return it to her. In about a quarter of an hour after this I paid her
another visit: the puppy could not now be found; but a suspicious
appearance in the mother's eye betrayed at once that she had devoured
it. I immediately administered an emetic; and in a very short time the
whole foetus was returned in five distinct parts, viz., the four
quarters and the head. After this, the bitch began to amend very fast;
she produced no other puppy; and as her supply of milk was small, she
was soon convalescent.

Twelve months afterwards she was again taken in labour, about eleven
o'clock in the morning, and after very great difficulty, one puppy was
produced. After this the bitch appeared in great pain, but did not
succeed in expelling another foetus, in consequence of which I was sent
for about three o'clock, P.M. I found her very uneasy breathing
laboriously; the mouth hot, and the bowels costive; but I could not
discover any trace of another foetus. She was put into a warm bath, and
a dose of opening medicine was administered.

About five o'clock she got rid of one dead and two living puppies.

'2d'. She is still very ill; she evinces great pain when pressed upon
the abdomen; and it is manifest that she has another foetus within her.
I ordered a dose of the ergot, and in about twenty minutes a large puppy
was produced, nearly dying. She survived with due care.

I cannot refrain from inserting the following case at considerable
length.

'Sept.' 4, 1820.--A very diminutive terrier, weighing not 5 lbs. was
sent to my hospital in order to lie in. She was already restless and
panting. About eight o'clock at night the labour pains commenced; but
until eleven scarcely any progress was made. The 'os uteri' would not
admit my finger, although I frequently attempted it.

At half-past eleven, the membranes began to protrude; at one the head
had descended into the pelvis and the puppy was dead. In a previous
labour she had been unable to produce her young, although the ergot of
rye had been freely used. I was obliged to use considerable force, and
she fought terribly with me throughout the whole process. At half-past
one, and after applying considerable force, I brought away a large
foetus, compared with her own size. On passing my finger as high as
possible, I felt another foetus living, but the night passed and the
whole of the following day, and she ate and drank, and did not appear to
be much injured.

Several times in the day I gave her some strong soup and the ergot. Some
slight pains now returned, and by pressing on the belly the nose of the
foetus was brought to the superior edge of the pelvis. The pains again
ceased, the pudenda began to swell from frequent examination, the bitch
began to stagger, and made frequent attempts to void her urine, with
extreme difficulty in accomplishing it. I now resorted to the crotchet;
and after many unsuccessful attempts, in which the superior part of the
vagina must have been considerably bruised, I fixed it sufficiently
firmly to draw the head into the cavity of the pelvis. Here for a while
the shoulder resisted every attempt which I could make without the
danger of detruncating the foetus. At length by working at the side of
the head until my nails were soft and my fingers sore, I extracted one
fore leg. The other was soon brought down; another large puppy was
produced, but destroyed by the means necessary for its production. This
was the fruit of two hours' hard work.

She was completely exhausted, and scarcely able to stand. When placed on
the ground she staggered and fell at almost every step. Her efforts to
void her urine were frequent and ineffectual.

At four o'clock I again examined her; the external pudenda were sore and
swelled, and beginning to assume a black hue. It was with considerable
difficulty that I could introduce my finger. A third foetus irregularly
presented was detected. I could just feel one of the hind legs. No time
was to be lost. I introduced a small pair of forceps by the side of my
finger, and succeeded in laying hold of the leg without much difficulty,
and, with two or three weak efforts from the mother,--I could scarcely
call them pains,--I brought the leg down until it was in the cavity of
the pelvis. I solicited it forward with my finger, and, by forcibly
pressing back the 'labia pudendi', I could just grasp it with the finger
and thumb of the right hand. Holding it there, I introduced the finger
of the right hand, and continued to get down the other leg, and then
found little difficulty until the head was brought to the superior edge
of the pelvis. After a long interval, and with considerable force, this
was brought into the pelvis, and another puppy extracted. This fully
occupied two hours.

The bitch now appeared almost lifeless. As she was unable to stand, and
seemed unconscious of every thing around her, I concluded that she was
lost: I gave her one or two drops of warm brandy and water, covered her
up closely, and put her to bed.

To my surprise, on the following morning, she was curled round in her
basket; she licked my hands, and ate a bit of bread and butter; but when
put on her legs staggered and fell. The pudendum was dreadfully swollen,
and literally black. In the afternoon she again took a little food: she
came voluntarily from her basket, wagged her tail when spoken to, and on
the following day she was taken in her basket a journey of 70 miles, and
afterwards did well; no one could be more rejoiced than was her master,
who was present at, and superintended the greater part of the
proceedings.

'The beneficial effect of Ergot of Rye in difficult Parturition'.--The
following case is from the pen of Professor Dick:

On the 10th instant, a pointer bitch produced two puppies; and it was
thought by the person having her in charge that she had no more. She was
put into a comfortable box, and with a little care was expected to do
well. On the next morning, however, she was sick and breathed heavily,
and continued rather uneasy all the day.

On the forenoon of the following day I was requested to see her. I found
her with her nose dry, breath hot, respiration frequent, mouth hot and
parched, coat staring, back roached, pulse 120, and a black fetid
discharge from the vagina. Pressure on the abdomen gave pain. A pup
could be obscurely felt; the secretion of milk was suppressed, and the
skin had lost its natural elasticity.

Tepid water with a little soap dissolved in it was immediately injected
into the uterus, which in a considerable degree excited its action; and
this injection was repeated two or three times with the same effect.

After waiting for half an hour, the foetus was not discharged nor
brought forward; therefore a scruple of the ergot of rye was then made
into an infusion with two ounces of water, and one-third of it given as
a dose; in half an hour, another one-third of it; the injections of warm
water and soap being also continued. Soon after the second dose of the
infusion, a dead puppy was expelled; the bitch rapidly recovered, and,
with the exception of deficiency of milk, is now quite well.

This case would seem to prove the great power of the ergot of rye over
the uterus; but, until more experiments are made, it is necessary to be
cautious in ascribing powers to medicines which have not been much tried
in our practice. It is not improbable that the warm water and soap might
have roused the uterus into action without the aid of the ergot; and it
is therefore necessary that those who repeat this experiment should try
the effects of the medicine unaided by the auxiliary.

The Professor adds, that the great power which this drug is said to have
on the human being, and the apparent effect in the case just given,
suggest the propriety of instituting a further trial of it, and of our
extending our observations to cattle, amongst which difficult cases of
calving so frequently occur.

Mr. Simpson thus concludes some remarks on ergot in difficult
parturition. This medicine possesses a very great power over the uterus,
rousing its dormant or debilitated contractility, and stimulating it to
an extra performance of this necessary function after its natural energy
has been in some measure destroyed by forcible but useless action. The
direct utility of the ergot was manifested in cases where the uterus
appeared quite exhausted by its repeated efforts; and certainly it is
but fair to ascribe the decidedly augmented power of the organ to the
stimulus of the ergot, for no other means were resorted to in order to
procure the desired effect. Its action, too, is prompt. Within ten
minutes of the administration of a second or third dose, when nature has
been nearly exhausted, the parturition has been safely effected.

'Puerperal Fits'.
Nature, proportions the power and resources of the mother to the wants
of her offspring. In her wild undomesticated state she is able to suckle
her progeny to the full time; but, in the artificial state in which we
have placed her, we shorten the interval between each period of
parturition, we increase the number of her young ones at each birth, we
diminish her natural powers of affording them nutriment, and we give her
a degree of irritability which renders her whole system liable to be
excited and deranged by causes that would otherwise be harmless:
therefore it happens that, when the petted bitch is permitted to suckle
the whole of her litter, her supply of nutriment soon becomes exhausted,
and the continued drain upon her produces a great degree of
irritability. She gets rapidly thin; she staggers, is half unconscious,
neglects her puppies, and suddenly falls into a fit of a very peculiar
character. It begins with, and is sometimes confined to, the respiratory
apparatus: she lies on her side and pants violently, and the sound of
her laboured breathing may be heard at the distance of twenty yards.
Sometimes spasms steal over her limbs; at other times the diaphragm and
respiratory muscles alone are convulsed. In a few hours she is certainly
lost; or, if there are moments of remission, they are speedily succeeded
by increased heavings.

The practitioner unaccustomed to this fearful state of excitation, and
forgetful or unaware of its cause, proceeds to bleed her, and he seals
her fate. Although one system is thus convulsively labouring, it is
because others are suddenly and perfectly exhausted; and by abstraction
of the vital current he reduces this last hold of life to the helpless
condition of the rest. There is not a more common or fatal error than
this.

The veterinary practitioner is unable to apply the tepid bath to his
larger patients, in order to quiet the erythism of certain parts of the
system, and produce an equable diffusion of nervous influence and
action; and he often forgets it when he has it in his power to save the
smaller ones. Let the bitch in a fit be put into a bath, temperature 96°
Fahrenheit, and covered with the water, her head excepted. It will he
surprising to see how soon the simple application of this equable
temperament will quiet down the erythism of the excited system. In ten
minutes, or a quarter of an hour, she may be taken out of the bath
evidently relieved, and then, a hasty and not very accurate drying
having taken place, she is wrapped in a blanket and placed in some warm
situation, a good dose of physic having been previously administered.
She soon breaks out in a profuse perspiration. Everything becomes
gradually quiet, and she falls into a deep and long sleep, and at length
awakes somewhat weak, but to a certain degree restored.

If, then, all her puppies except one or two are taken from her, and her
food is, for a day or two, somewhat restricted, and after that given
again of its usual quantity and kind, she will live and do well; but a
bleeding at the time of her fit, or suffering all her puppies to return
to her, will inevitably destroy her.

A bitch that was often brought to my house was suckling a litter of
puppies. She was foolishly taken up and thrown into the Serpentine in
the month of April. The suppression of milk was immediate and complete.
There was also a determination to the head, and attacks resembling
epilepsy. The puppies that were suffered to remain with the mother, were
very soon as epileptic as she was, and were destroyed. A seton was
inserted on each side of her neck. Ipecacuanha was administered; and
that having sufficiently worked, a small quantity of diluted sulphuric
acid was given. A fortnight afterwards she was perfectly well.

'Inversion of the Uterus in a Bull Bitch after Pupping. Extirpation
and Cure.'

By M. Cross, M. V., Milan.--In July, 1829, I was desired to attend a
small bull bitch six years old, and who had had puppies four times. The
uterus was completely inverted, and rested all its weight on the vaginal
orifice of the urethra, preventing the discharge of the urine, and thus
being the cause of great pain when the animal endeavoured to void it, or
the faecal matter. The uterus was become of almost a black colour,
swelled, softened, and exhaling an insupportable odour. Judging from
this that the preservation of the uterus was impossible, and reckoning
much on the good constitution of the patient, I warned the proprietor of
the danger of its reduction, even supposing that it was practicable, and
proposed to him the complete extirpation of the uterus as the only means
that remained of saving the bitch.

Armed with his consent, I passed a ligature round the neck of the
uterus, at the bottom of the vagina, and drew it as tight as I possibly
could. On the following day I again tightened the ligature, in order to
complete the mortification of the part, and the separation of the womb.
On the third day I extirpated the womb entirely, close to the haunch.
There was very slight loss of blood, but there ran from the walls of the
vagina a small quantity of ichorous fluid, with a strong fetid smell.
The operation was scarcely completed ere she voided a considerable
quantity of urine, and then searched about for something to eat and to
drink.

The portion of the uterus that was removed weighed fourteen ounces. The
mucous membrane by which it was lined was in a highly disorganized
state. From time to time injections of a slight infusion of aromatic
plants were introduced into the vagina, and the animal was nourished
with liquid food of easy digestion.

The first day passed without the animal being in the slightest degree
affected; but, on the following day, in despite of all our care, an
ichorous fluid was discharged, which the dog would lick notwithstanding
all our efforts to prevent it. The general health of the animal did not
seem to be in the slightest degree affected.

On the fourth day after the operation, the cords that had served as a
ligature fell off, and all suppuration from the part gradually ceased.

'October 20th'.--Three months have passed since the operation, and she
is perfectly well.



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XIV.

THE DISTEMPER.


By this singular name is distinguished a prevalent disease now about to
come under our consideration, which was first observed on the continent.
The rapidity with which it spread, the strange protean appearances which
it assumed, and its too frequent fatal termination, surprised and
puzzled the veterinary surgeons; and they called it "la maladie des
chiens," the disease or distemper in dogs.

It is comparatively a new disease. It was imported from France about one
hundred years since, although some French authors have strangely
affirmed that it is of British origin. Having once gained footing among
us, it has established itself in our country, to the vexation and loss
of the sportsman, and the annoyance of the veterinary surgeon. However
keepers, or even men of education, may boast of their specifics, it is a
sadly fatal disease, and destroys fully one-third of the canine race.

Dogs of all ages are subject to its attack. Many, nine and ten years
old, have died of pure distemper; and I have seen puppies of only three
weeks fall victims to it; but it oftenest appears between the sixth and
twelfth month of the animal's life. If it occurs at an early period, it
proves fatal in the great majority of cases; and, if the dog is more
than four years old, it generally goes hard with him. It is undeniably
highly contagious, yet it is frequently generated. In this it bears an
analogy to mange, and to farcy and glanders in the horse.

One attack of the disease, and even a severe one, is no absolute
security against its return; although the dog that has once laboured
under distemper possesses a certain degree of immunity; or, if he is
attacked a second time, the malady usually assumes a milder type. I
have, however, known it occur three times in the same animal, and at
last destroy him.

Violent catarrh will often terminate in distemper; and low and
insufficient feeding will produce it. It frequently follows mange, and
especially if mercury has been used in the cure of the malady. When we
see a puppy with mange, and that peculiar disease in which the skin
becomes corrugated, and more especially if it is a spaniel, and
pot-bellied or rickety, we generally say that we can cure the mange, but
it will not be long before the animal dies of distemper; and so it
happens in three cases out of four. Whatever debilitates the
constitution predisposes it for the reception or the generation of
distemper. It, however, frequently occurs without any apparent exciting
cause.

That it is highly contagious cannot admit of doubt. A healthy dog can
seldom, for many days, be kept with another that labours under distemper
without becoming affected; and the disease is communicated by the
slightest momentary contact. There is, however, a great deal of caprice
about this. I have more than once kept a dog in the foul-yard of my
hospital for several successive weeks, and he has not become diseased.
Inoculation with the matter that flows from the nose, either limpid or
purulent, and in an early or advanced stage of the distemper, will, with
few exceptions, produce the disease; yet I have failed to communicate it
even by this method. Inoculation used to be recommended as producing a
milder and less fatal disease. So far as my experience goes, the
contrary has been the result.

Distemper is also epidemic. It occurs more frequently in the spring and
autumn than in the winter and summer. If one or two dogs in a certain
district are affected, we may be assured that it will soon extensively
prevail there; and where the disease could not possibly be communicated
by contagion. Sometimes it rages all over the country. At other times it
is endemic, and confined to some particular district.

Not only is the disease epidemic or endemic, but the form which it
assumes is so. In one season, almost every dog with distemper has
violent fits; at another, in the majority of cases, there will be
considerable chest affection, running on to pneumonia; a few months
afterwards, a great proportion of the distempered dogs will be worn down
by diarrhoea, which no medicine will arrest; and presently it will be
scarcely distinguishable from mild catarrh.

It varies much with different breeds. The shepherd's dog, generally
speaking, cares little about it; he is scarcely ill a day. The cur is
not often seriously affected. The terrier has it more severely,
especially the white terrier. The hound comes next in the order of
severity; and after him the setter. With the small spaniel it is more
dangerous; and still more so with the pointer, especially if he has the
disease early. Next in the order of fatality comes the pug; and it is
most fatal of all with the Newfoundland dog. Should a foreign dog be
affected, he almost certainly dies. The greater part of the northern
dogs brought by Captain Parry did not survive a twelvemonth; and the
delicate Italian greyhound has little chance, when imported from abroad.

Not only does it thus differ in different species of dogs, but in
different breeds of the same species. I have known several gentlemen who
have laboured in vain for many years, to rear particular and valuable
breeds of pointers and greyhounds. The distemper would uniformly carry
off five out of six. Other sportsmen laugh at the supposed danger of
distemper, and declare that they seldom lose a dog. This hereditary
predisposition to certain kinds of disease cannot be denied, and is not
sufficiently attended to. When a peculiar fatality has often followed a
certain breed, the owner should cross it from another kennel, and
especially from the kennel of one who boasts of his success in the
treatment of distemper. This has occasionally succeeded far beyond
expectation.

It is time to proceed to the symptoms of this disease; but here there is
very considerable difficulty, for it is a truly protean malady, and it
is impossible to fix on any symptom that will invariably characterise
it.

An early and frequent symptom is a gradual loss of appetite, spirits,
and condition: the dog is less obedient to his master, and takes less
notice of him. The eyes appear weak and watery; and there will be a very
slight limpid discharge from the nose. In the morning there will,
perhaps, be a little indurated mucus at the inner corner of the eye.
This may continue two or three weeks without serious or scarcely
recognizable illness. Then a peculiar husky cough is heard, altogether
different from the sonorous cough of catarrh, or the wheezing of asthma.
It is an apparent attempt to get something from the fauces or throat. By
degrees the discharge from the eyes and nose, and particularly the
former, will increase. More mucus will collect in the corners of the
eye; and the eye will sometimes be closed in the morning. The
conjunctiva and particularly that portion which covers the sclerotica,
will be considerably injected, but there will not be the usual intense
redness of inflammation. The vessels will be large and turgid rather
than numerous, and frequently of a darkish hue.

Occasionally, however, the inflammation of the conjunctiva will be
exceedingly intense, the membrane vividly red, and the eye impatient of
light. An opacity spreads over the cornea, and this is quickly succeeded
by ulceration. The first spot of ulceration is generally found precisely
in the centre of the cornea, and is perfectly circular; this will
distinguish it from a scratch or other injury. The ulcer widens and
deepens, and sometimes eats through the cornea, and the aqueous humour
escapes. Fungous granulations spring from it, protrude through the lids,
and the animal evidently suffers extreme torture.

A remarkable peculiarity attends this affection of the eye. However
violent may be the inflammation, and by whatever disorganization it may
be accompanied, if we can cure the distemper, the granulations will
disappear, the ulcer will heal, the opacity will clear away, and the eye
will not eventually suffer in the slightest degree. One-fourth part of
the mischief in other cases, unconnected with distemper, would
inevitably terminate in blindness; but permanent blindness is rarely the
consequence of distemper.

It may not be improper here shortly to revert to the different
appearance of the eye in rabies. In the early stage of this malady there
is an unnatural and often terrific brightness of the eye; but the cornea
in distemper is from the first rather clouded. In rabies there is
frequent strabismus, with the axis of the eye distorted outwards. The
apparent squinting of the eye in distemper is caused by the probably
unequal protrusion of the membrana nictitans over a portion of the eye
at the inner canthus, in order to protect it from the light. In rabies,
the white cloudiness which I have described, and the occasional
ulceration with very little cloudiness, and the ulceration, are confined
to the cornea; but a dense green opacity comes on, speedily followed by
ulceration and disorganization of every part of the eye.

The dog will, at this stage of distemper, be evidently feverish, and
will shiver and creep to the fire. He will more evidently and rapidly
lose flesh. The huskiness will be more frequent and troublesome, and the
discharge from the nose will have greater consistence. It will be often
and violently sneezed out, and will gradually become more or less
purulent. It will stick about the nostrils and plug them up, and thus
afford a considerable mechanical obstruction to the breathing.

The progress of the disease is now uncertain. Sometimes fits come on,
speedily following intense inflammation of the eye; or the inflammation
of the nasal cavity appears to be communicated, by proximity, to the
membrane of the brain. One fit is a serious thing. If it is followed by
a second within a day or two, the chances of cure are diminished; and if
they rapidly succeed each other, the dog is almost always lost. These
fits seldom appear without warning; and, if their approach is carefully
watched, they may possibly be prevented.

However indisposed to eat the dog may previously have been, the appetite
returns when the fits are at hand, and the animal becomes absolutely
voracious. Nature seems to be providing for the great expenditure of
power which epilepsy will soon occasion. The mucus almost entirely
disappears from the eyes, although the discharge from the nose may
continue unabated; and for an hour or more before the fit there will be
a champing of the lower jaw, frothing at the mouth, and discharge of
saliva. The champing of the lower jaw will be seen at least twelve hours
before the first fit, and will a little while precede every other. There
will also be twitchings of some part of the frame, and usually of the
mouth, cheek, or eyelid. It is of some consequence to attend to these,
as enabling us to distinguish between fits of distemper and those of
teething, worms, or unusual excitement. The latter come on suddenly. The
dog is apparently well, and racing about full of spirits, and without a
moment's warning he falls into violent convulsions.

We may here, likewise, be enabled to distinguish between rabies and
distemper. When a person, unacquainted with dogs, sees a dog struggling
in a fit, or running along unconscious of every surrounding object, or
snapping at everything in his way, whether it be a human being or a
stone, he raises the cry of "mad dog," and the poor brute is often
sacrificed. The very existence of a fit is proof positive that the dog
is not mad. No epilepsy accompanies rabies in any stage of that disease.

The inflammation of the membrane of the nose and fauces is sometimes
propagated along that of the windpipe, and the dog exhibits unequivocal
proofs of chest affection, or decided pneumonia.

At other times the bowels become affected, and a violent purging comes
on. The fæces vary from white with a slight tinge of gray, to a dark
slate or olive colour. By degrees mucus begins to mingle with the fæcal
discharge, and then streaks of blood. The fæcal matter rapidly lessens,
and the whole seems to consist of mingled mucus and blood; and, from
first to last, the stools are insufferably offensive. When the mingled
blood and mucus appear, so much inflammation exists in the intestinal
canal that the case is almost hopeless.

The discharge from the nose becomes decidedly purulent. While it is
white and without smell, and the dog is not too much emaciated, the
termination may be favourable; but when it becomes of a darker colour,
and mingled with blood, and offensive, the ethmoid or turbinated bones
are becoming carious, and death supervenes. This will particularly be
the case if the mouth and lips swell, and ulcers begin to appear on
them, and the gums ulcerate, and a sanious and highly offensive
discharge proceeds from the mouth. A singular, half-fetid smell arising
from the dog, is the almost invariable precursor of death.

When the disease first visited the continent, it was regarded as a
humoral disease. Duhamel, who was one of the earliest to study the
character of the malady, contended that the biliary sac contained the
cause of the complaint; the bile assumed a concrete form, and its
superabundance was the cause of disease. Barrier, one of the earliest
writers on the subject, described it as a violent irregular bilious
fever. Others regarded it as a mucous discharge, or a depurative; and
others, as a salutary crisis, removing from the constitution that which
oppressed the different organs. Others had recourse to inoculation, in
order to give it a more benign character; and others, and among them
Chabert, considered that it possessed a character of peculiar malignity,
and he gave it a name expressive of its nature and situation--'nasal
catarrh'. It exhibited the ordinary symptoms of coryza: it was a
catarrhal affection in its early stage; but it afterwards degenerated
into a species of palsy. The causes were unknown. By some, they were
attributed to the natural voracity of the dog; by others, to his
occasional lasciviousness; by others, to his frequent feeding on
carrion, or the refuse of fat and soups.

There is no doubt that nasal catarrh is, to a very considerable degree,
contagious on the continent. It often spreads over a wide extent of
country, and includes numerous animals of various descriptions. It is
complicated with various diseases; and particularly, at an early stage,
with ophthalmia. It may be interesting to the reader to trace the
progress of the disease among our continental neighbours. It commences
with a certain depression of spirits; a diminution of appetite; a
heaviness of the head; a heat of the mouth; an attempt to get something
from the throat; an insatiable thirst; an elevated temperature of the
body; a dry and painful suffocating cough; and all these circumstances
continue twenty to thirty days, until at length the dog droops and dies.

The duration of distemper is uncertain. It sometimes runs its course in
five or six days; or it may linger on two or three months. In some cases
the emaciation is rapid and extreme: danger is then to be apprehended.
When the muscles of the loins are much attenuated, or almost wasted,
there is little hope; and, although other symptoms may remit, and the
dog may be apparently recovering, yet, if he continues to lose flesh, we
may be perfectly assured that he will not live. On the other hand, let
the discharge from the nose be copious, and the purging violent, and
every other symptom threatening, yet if the animal gains a little flesh,
we may confidently predict his recovery.

When the dog is much reduced in strength and flesh, a spasmodic
affection or twitching of the muscles will sometimes be observed. It is
usually confined at first to one limb; but the most decisive treatment
is required, or these spasms will spread until the animal is altogether
unable to stand; and while he lies every limb will be in motion,
travelling, as it were, at the rate of twenty miles an hour, until the
animal is worn out, and dies of absolute exhaustion. When these spasms
become universal and violent, they are accompanied by constant and
dreadful moans and cries.

In the pointer and the hound, and particularly when there is little
discharge from the eyes or nose, an intense yellowness often suddenly
appears all over the dog. He falls away more in twenty-four hours than
it would be thought possible; his bowels are obstinately constipated; he
will neither eat nor move; and in two or three days he is dead.

In the pointer, hound, and greyhound, there sometimes appears on the
whole of the chest and belly a pustular eruption, which peels off in
large scales. The result is usually unfavourable. A more general
eruption, however, either wearing the usual form of mange, or
accompanied by minute pustules, may be regarded as a favourable symptom.
The disease is leaving the vital parts, and expending its last energy on
the integument.

The 'post-mortem' appearances are exceedingly unsatisfactory: they do
not correspond with the original character of the disease, but with its
strangely varying symptoms. If the dog has died in fits, we have
inflammation of the brain or its membranes, and particularly at the base
of the brain, with considerable effusion of a serous or bloody fluid. If
the prevailing symptoms have led our attention to the lungs, we find
inflammation of the bronchial passages, or, in a few instances, of the
substance of the lungs, or the submucous tissue of the cells. We rarely
have inflammation of the pulmonary pleura, and never to any extent of
the intercostal pleura. In a few lingering cases, tubercles and vomicæ
of the lungs have been found.

If the bowels have been chiefly attacked, we have intense inflammation
of the mucous membrane, and, generally speaking, the small intestines
are almost filled with worms. If the dog has gradually wasted away,
which is often the case when purging to any considerable extent has been
encouraged or produced, we have contraction of the whole canal,
including even the stomach, and sometimes considerable enlargement of
the mesenteric glands [1].

The membrane of the nose will always exhibit marks of inflammation, and
particularly in the frontal sinuses and ethmoidal cells; and I have
observed the portion of membrane on the septum, or cartilaginous
division of the nostrils, between the frontal sinuses and ethmoidal
cells, to be studded with small miliary tubercles. In advanced stages of
the disease, attended with much defluxion from the nose, the cells of
the ethmoidal bone and the frontal sinuses are filled with pus.

Ulceration is sometimes found on the membrane of the nose, oftenest on
the spot to which I have referred--occasionally confined to that; and
now and then spreading over the whole of the septum, and even corroding
and eating through it; generally equal on both sides of the septum; in a
few instances extending into the fauces; seldom found in the larynx, but
occasionally seen in the bronchial passages. The other viscera rarely
present any remarkable morbid appearance.

The distemper is clearly a disease of the mucous membranes, usually
commencing in the membrane of the nose, and resembling nasal catarrh. In
the early stage it is 'coryza', or nasal catarrh; but the affection
rapidly extends, and seems to attack the mucous membranes generally,
determined to some particular one, either by atmospheric influence or
accidental causes, or constitutional predisposition. The fits arise from
general disturbance of the system, or from the proximity of the brain to
the early seat of inflammation.

This account of the nature and treatment of distemper will, perhaps, be
unsatisfactory to some readers. One thing, however, is clear, that for a
disease which assumes such a variety of forms, there can be no specific;
yet there is not a keeper who is not in possession of some supposed
infallible nostrum. Nothing can be more absurd. A disease attacking so
many organs, and presenting so many and such different symptoms, must
require a mode of treatment varying with the organ attacked and the
symptom prevailing. The faith in these boasted specifics is principally
founded on two circumstances--atmospheric influence and peculiarity of
breed. There are some seasons when we can scarcely save a dog; there are
others when we must almost wilfully destroy him in order to lose him.
There are some breeds in which, generation after generation, five out of
six die of distemper, while there are others in which not one out of a
dozen dies. When the season is favourable, and the animal, by hereditary
influence, is not disposed to assume the virulent type of the disease,
these two important agents are overlooked, and the immunity from any
fatal result is attributed to medicine. The circumstances most conducive
to success will be the recollection that it is a disease of the mucous
surfaces, and that we must not carry the depleting and lowering system
too far. Keeping this in view, we must accommodate ourselves to the
symptoms as they arise.

The natural medicine of the dog seems to be an emetic. The act of
vomiting is very easily excited in him, and, feeling the slightest
ailment, he flies to the dog-grass, unloads his stomach, and is at once
well. In distemper, whatever be the form which it assumes, an emetic is
the first thing to be given. Common salt will do when nothing else is at
hand; but the best emetic, and particularly in distemper, consists of
equal parts of calomel and tartar emetic. From half a grain to a grain
and a half of each will constitute the dose.

This will act first as an emetic, and afterwards as a gentle purgative.
Then, if the cough is urgent, and there is heaving at the flanks, and
the nose is hot, a moderate quantity of blood may be taken--from three
to twelve ounces--and this, if there has been previous constipation, may
be followed by a dose of sulphate of magnesia, from two to six drachms.

In slight cases this will often be sufficient to effect a cure: but, if
the dog still droops, and particularly if there is much huskiness, the
antimonial or James's powder, nitre and digitalis, in the proportion of
from half a grain to a grain of digitalis, from two to five grains of
the James's powder, and from a scruple to a drachm of nitre, should be
administered twice or thrice in a day. If on the third or fourth day the
huskiness is not quite removed, the emetic should be repeated.

In these affections of the mucous membranes, it is absolutely necessary
to avoid or to get rid of every source of irritation, and worms will
generally be found a very considerable one in young dogs. If we can
speedily get rid of them, distemper will often rapidly disappear; but,
if they are suffered to remain, diarrhoea or fits are apt to supervene:
therefore some worm medicine should be administered.

I have said that vomiting is very easily excited in the dog; and that
for this reason we are precluded from the use of a great many medicines
in our treatment of him. Calomel, aloes, jalap, scammony, and gamboge
will generally produce sickness. We are, therefore, driven to some
mechanical vermifuge; and a very effectual one, and that will rarely
fail of expelling even the tape-worm, is tin filings or powdered glass.
From half a drachm to a drachm of either may be advantageously given
twice in the day. There may generally be added to them digitalis,
James's powder, and nitre, made into balls with palm oil and a little
linseed meal. This course should be pursued in usual cases until two or
three emetics have been given, and a ball morning and night on the
intermediate days. Should the huskiness not diminish after the first two
or three days, if the dog has not rapidly lost flesh, I should be
disposed to take a little more blood, and to put a seton in the poll. It
should be inserted between the ears, and reaching from ear to ear.

When there is fever and huskiness, and the dog is not much emaciated, a
seton is an excellent remedy; but, if it is used indiscriminately, and
when the animal is already losing ground, and is violently purging, we
shall only hasten his doom, or rather make it more sure.

It is now, if ever, that pneumonia will be perceived. The symptoms of
inflammation in the lungs of the dog can scarcely be mistaken. The quick
and laborious breathing, the disinclination or inability to lie down,
the elevated position of the head, and the projection of the muzzle,
will clearly mark it. More blood must be subtracted, a seton inserted,
the bowels opened with Epsom salts, and the digitalis, nitre, and
James's powder given more frequently and in larger doses than before.

Little aid is to be derived from observation of the pulse of the dog; it
differs materially in the breed, and size, and age of the animal. Many
years' practice have failed in enabling me to draw any certain
conclusion from it. The best place to feel the pulse of the dog is at
the side. We may possibly learn from it whether digitalis is producing
an intermittent pulse, which it frequently will do, and which we wish
that it should do: it should then be given a little more cautiously, and
in smaller quantities.

If the pneumonia is evidently conquered, or we have proceeded thus far
without any considerable inflammatory affection of the chest, we must
begin to change our plan of treatment. If the huskiness continues, and
the discharge from the nose is increased and thicker, and the animal is
losing flesh and becoming weak, we must give only half the quantity of
the sedative and diuretic medicine, and add some mild tonic, as gentian,
chamomile, and ginger, with occasional emetics, taking care to keep the
bowels in a laxative but not purging state. The dog should likewise be
urged to eat; and, if he obstinately refuses ail food, he should be
forced with strong beef jelly, for a very great degree of debility will
now ensue

We have thus far considered the treatment of distemper from its
commencement; but it may have existed several days before we were
consulted, and the dog may be thin and husky, and refusing to eat. In
such case we should give an emetic, and then a dose of salts, and after
that proceed to the tonic and fever balls.

Should the strength of the animal continue to decline, and the discharge
from the nose become purulent and offensive, the fever medicine must be
omitted, and the tonic balls, with carbonate of iron, administered. Some
veterinary surgeons are very fond of gum resins and balsams. Mr. Blaine,
in his excellent treatise on the distemper in his Canine Pathology,
recommends myrrh and benjamin, and balsam of Peru and camphor. I much
doubt the efficacy of these drugs. They are beginning to get into
disrepute in the practice of human medicine; and I believe that if they
were all banished from the veterinary Materia Medica we should
experience no loss. When the dog begins to recover, although not so
rapidly as we could wish, the tonic balls, without the iron, may be
advantageously given, with now and then an emetic, if huskiness should
threaten to return; but mild and wholesome food, and country or good
air, will be the best tonics.

If the discharge from the nose become very offensive, the lips swelled
and ulcerated, and the breath fetid, half an ounce of yeast may be
administered every noon, and the tonics morning and night; and the mouth
should be frequently washed with a solution of chloride of lime.

At this period of the disease the sub-maxillary glands are sometimes
very much enlarged, and a tumour or abscess is formed, which, if not
timely opened, breaks, and a ragged, ill-conditioned ulcer is formed,
very liable to spread, and very difficult to heal. It is prudent to
puncture this tumour as soon as it begins to point, for it will never
disperse. After the opening, a poultice should be applied to cleanse the
ulcer; after which it should be daily washed with the compound tincture
of benjamin, and dressed with calamine ointment. Some balls should be
given, and the animal liberally fed.

Should the fits appear in an early stage, give a strong emetic; then
bleed, and open the bowels with five or six grains of calomel and a
quarter grain of opium: after this insert a seton, and then commence the
tonic balls.

The progress of fits in the early stages of the disease may thus be
arrested. The occurrence of two or three should not make us despair;
but, if they occur at a later period, and when the dog is much reduced,
there is little hope. This additional expenditure of animal power will
probably soon carry him off. All that is to be done, is to administer a
strong emetic, obviate costiveness by castor oil, and give the tonic
balls with opium.

Of the treatment of the yellow disease little can be said; we shall not
succeed in one case in twenty. When good effect has been produced, it
has been by one large bleeding, opening the bowels well with Epsom
salts, and then giving grain doses of calomel twice a day in a tonic
ball.

While it is prudent to obviate costiveness, we should recollect that
there is nothing more to be dreaded, in every stage of distemper, than
diarrhoea. The purging of distemper will often bid defiance to the most
powerful astringents. This shows the folly of giving violent cathartics
in distemper; and, when I have heard of the ten, and twenty, and thirty
grains of calomel that are sometimes given, I have thought it fortunate
that the stomach of the dog is so irritable. The greater part of these
kill-or-cure doses is ejected, otherwise the patient would soon be
carried off by super-purgation. There is an irritability about the whole
of the mucous membrane that may be easily excited, but cannot be so
readily allayed; and, therefore, except in the earliest stage of
distemper, or in fits, or limiting ourselves to the small portion of
calomel which enters into our emetic, I would never give a stronger
purgative than castor-oil or Epsom salts. It is of the utmost
consequence that the purging of distemper should be checked as soon as
possible.

In some diseases a sudden purging, and even one of considerable
violence, constitutes what is called the crisis. It is hailed as a
favourable symptom, and from that moment the animal begins to recover;
but this is never the case in distemper: it is a morbid action which is
then going on, and which produces a dangerous degree of debility.

The proper treatment of purging in cases of distemper, is first to give
a good dose of Epsom salts, in order to carry away anything that may
offend, and then to ply the animal with mingled absorbents and
astringents. A scruple of powdered chalk, ten grains of catechu, and
five of ginger, with a quarter of a grain of opium, made into a ball
with palm oil, may be given to a middle-sized dog twice or thrice every
day. To this may be added injections of gruel, with the compound chalk
mixture and opium.

When the twitchings which I have described begin to appear, a seton is
necessary, whatever may be the degree to which the animal is reduced.
Some stimulating embrocation, such as tincture of cantharides, may be
rubbed along the whole course of the spine; and the medicine which has
oftenest, but not always, succeeded, is castor-oil, syrup of buckthorn,
and syrup of white poppies, given morning and night, and a tonic ball at
noon. If the dog will not now feed, he should be forced with strong
soup. As soon, however, as the spasms spread over him, accompanied by a
moaning that increases to a cry, humanity demands that we put an end to
that which we cannot cure. Until this happens I would not despair; for
many dogs have been saved that have lain several days perfectly
helpless.

As to the chorea which I have mentioned as an occasional sequel of
distemper, if the dog is in tolerable condition, and especially if he is
gaining flesh, and the spring or summer is approaching, there is a
chance of his doing well. A seton is the first thing; the bowels should
be preserved from constipation; and the nitrate of silver, in doses of
one-eighth of a grain, made into a pill with linseed meal, and increased
to a quarter of a grain, should be given morning and night.

We should never make too sure of the recovery of a distempered dog, nor
commit ourselves by too early a prognosis. It is a treacherous disease;
the medicines should be continued until every symptom has fairly
disappeared; and for a month at least.

It may be interesting to add the following account of the distemper in
dogs, by Dr. Jenner. Several of our modern writers have copied very
closely from him.

  "That disease among dogs which has familiarly been called the
  'distemper,' has not hitherto, I believe, been, much noticed by
  medical men. My situation in the country favouring my wishes to make
  some observations on this singular malady, I availed myself of it,
  during several successive years, among a large number of foxhounds
  belonging to the Earl of Berkeley; and, from observing how frequently
  it has been confounded with hydrophobia, I am induced to lay the
  result of my inquiries before the Medical and Chirurgical Society. It
  may be difficult, perhaps, precisely to ascertain the period of its
  first appearance in Britain. In this and the neighbouring counties, I
  have not been able to trace it back beyond the middle of the last
  century; but it has since spread universally. I knew a gentleman who,
  about forty-five years ago, destroyed the greater part of his hounds,
  from supposing them mad, when the distemper first broke out among
  them; so little was it then known by those most conversant with dogs.
  On the continent I find it has been known for a much longer period; it
  is as contagious among dogs as the small-pox, measles, or scarlet
  fever among the human species; and the contagious miasmata, like those
  arising from the diseases just mentioned, retain their infectious
  properties a long time after separation from the distempered animal.
  Young hounds, for example, brought in a state of health into a kennel,
  where others have gone through the distemper, seldom escape it. I have
  endeavoured to destroy the contagion by ordering every part of a
  kennel to be carefully washed with water, then whitewashed, and
  finally to be repeatedly fumigated with the vapour of marine acid, but
  without any good result.

  "The dogs generally sicken early in the second week after exposure to
  the contagion; it is more commonly a violent disease than otherwise,
  and cuts off at least one in three that are attacked by it. It
  commences with inflammation of the substance of the lungs, and
  generally of the mucous membrane of the bronchi. The inflammation at
  the same time seizes on the membranes of the nostrils, and those
  lining the bones of the nose, particularly the nasal portion of the
  ethmoid bone. These membranes are often inflamed to such a degree as
  to occasion extravasation of blood, which I have observed coagulated
  on their surface. The breathing is short and quick, and the breath is
  often fetid; the teeth are covered with a dark mucus. There is
  frequently a vomiting of a glairy fluid. The dog commonly refuses
  food, but his thirst seems insatiable, and nothing cheers him like the
  sight of water. The bowels, although generally constipated as the
  disease advances, are frequently affected with diarrhoea at its
  commencement. The eyes are inflamed, and the sight is often obscured
  by mucus secreted from the eyelids, or by opacity of the cornea. The
  brain is often affected as early as the second day after the attack;
  the animal becomes stupid, and his general habits are changed. In this
  state, if not prevented by loss of strength, he sometimes wanders from
  his home. He is frequently endeavouring to expel by forcible
  expirations the mucus from the trachea and fauces, with a peculiar
  rattling noise. His jaws are generally smeared with it, and it
  sometimes flows out in a frothy state, from his frequent champing.

  "During the progress of the disease, especially in its advanced
  stages, he is disposed to bite and gnaw anything within his reach; he
  has sometimes epileptic fits, and a quick succession of general though
  slight convulsive spasms of the muscles. If the dog survive, this
  affection of the muscles continues through life. He is often attacked
  with fits of a different description; he first staggers, then tumbles,
  rolls, cries as if whipped, and tears up the ground with his teeth and
  fore feet: he then lies down senseless and exhausted. On recovering,
  he gets up, moves his tail, looks placid, comes to a whistle, and
  appears in every respect much better than before the attack. The eyes,
  during this paroxysm, look bright, and, unless previously rendered dim
  by mucus, or opacity of the cornea, seem as if they were starting from
  their sockets. He becomes emaciated, and totters from feebleness in
  attempting to walk, or from a partial paralysis of the hind legs. In
  this state he sometimes lingers on till the third or fourth week, and
  then either begins to show signs of returning health (which seldom
  happens when the symptoms have continued with this degree of
  violence), or expires. During convalescence, he has sometimes, though
  rarely, profuse hæmorrhage from the nose.

  "When the inflammation of the lungs is very severe, he frequently dies
  on the third day. I know one instance of a dog dying within
  twenty-four hours after the seizure; and in that short space of time
  the greater portion of the lungs was, from exudation, converted into a
  substance nearly as solid as the liver of a sound animal. In this case
  the liver itself was considerably inflamed, and the eyes and flesh
  universally were tinged with yellow, though I did not observe anything
  obstructing the biliary ducts. In other instances I have also observed
  the eyes looking yellow.

  "The above is a description of the disease in its several forms; but
  in this, as in the diseases of the human body, there is every
  gradation in its violence.

  "There is also another affinity to some human diseases, viz., that the
  animal which has once gone through it very rarely meets with a second
  attack. Fortunately this distemper is not communicable to man. Neither
  the effluvia from the diseased dog nor the bite have proved in any
  instance infectious; but, as it has often been confounded with canine
  madness, as I have before observed, it is to be wished that it were
  more generally understood; for those who are bitten by a dog in this
  state are sometimes thrown into such perturbation that hydrophobia
  symptoms have actually arisen from the workings of the imagination.
  Mr. John Hunter used to speak of a case somewhat of this description
  in his lectures.

  "A gentleman who received a severe bite from a dog, soon after fancied
  the animal was mad. He felt a horror at the sight of liquids, and was
  actually convulsed on attempting to swallow them. So uncontrollable
  were his prepossessions, that Mr. Hunter conceived he would have died
  had not the dog which inflicted the wound been found and brought into
  his room in perfect health. This soon restored his mind to a state of
  tranquillity. The sight of water no longer afflicted him, and he
  quickly recovered." [2]

Palsy, more or less complete, is sometimes the termination of the
distemper in dogs.

It is usually accompanied by chorea, and it is then, in the majority of
cases, hopeless. Setons should be inserted in the poll, being then, as
nearly as possible, at the commencement of the spinal cord. They should
be well stimulated and worn a considerable time. If they fail, a plaster
composed of common pitch, with a very small quantity of yellow wax and
some powdered cantharides, spread on sheep's-skin, should be placed over
the whole of the lumbar and sacral regions, extending half-way down the
thigh on either side. The bowels should be kept open by mild aperients,
in order that every source of irritation may be removed from the
intestinal canal. Some mild and general tonic will likewise be useful,
such as gentian and ginger.



[Footnote 1: The following is a very frequent and unexaggerated history
of distemper, when calomel has been given in too powerful doses:

'August 30, 1828'.--A spaniel, six months old, has been ailing a
fortnight, and three doses of calomel have been given by the owner. He
has violent purging, with tenesmus and blood. Half an ounce of
caster-oil administered.

'31st.' Astringents, morning, noon, and night.

'Sept. 6.' The astringents have little effect, or, if the purging is
restrained one day, it returns with increased violence on the following
day. Getting rapidly thin. Begins to husk. Astringents continued.

'10th'. The purging is at last overcome, but the huskiness has rapidly
increased, accompanied by laborious and hurried respiration.--Bleed to
the extent of three ounces.

'11th'. The breathing relieved, but he obstinately refuses to eat, and
is forced several times in the day with arrow-root or strong soup.

'18th'. He had become much thinner and weaker, and died in the evening.
No appearance of inflammation on the thoracic viscera, nor in any part
of the alimentary canal. The intestines are contracted through the whole
extent.

'Veterinarian', ii. 290.]


[Footnote 2: 'Medico-Chirurgical Transitions', 31st March, 1809.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XV.

SMALL-POX; MANGE; WARTS; CANCER; FUNGUS HÆMATODES; SORE FEET.


SMALL-POX.

In 1809, there was observed, at the Royal Veterinary School at Lyons, an
eruptive malady among the dogs, to which they gave the name of
'small-pox'. It appeared to be propagated from dog to dog by contagion.
It was not difficult of cure; and it quickly disappeared when no other
remedies were employed than mild aperients and diaphoretics. A sheep was
inoculated from one of these dogs. There was a slight eruption of
pustules formed on the place of inoculation, but nowhere else; nor was
there the least fever.

At another time, also, at the school at Lyons, a sheep died of the
regular sheep-pox. A part of the skin was fastened, during
four-and-twenty hours, on a healthy sheep, and the other part of it on a
dog, both of them being in apparent good health. No effect was produced
on the dog, but the sheep died of confluent sheep-pox.

The essential symptoms of small-pox in dogs succeed each other in the
following order: the skin of the belly, the groin, and the inside of the
fore arm, becomes of a redder colour than in its natural state, and
sprinkled with small red spots irregularly rounded. They are sometimes
isolated, sometimes clustered together. The near approach of this
eruption is announced by an increase of fever.

On the second day the spots are larger, and the integument is slightly
tumefied at the centre of each.

On the third day the spots are generally enlarged, and the skin is still
more prominent at the centre.

On the fourth day the summit of the tumour is yet more prominent.
Towards the end of that day, the redness of the centre begins to assume
a somewhat gray colour. On the following days, the pustules take on
their peculiar characteristic appearance, and cannot be confounded with
any other eruption, On the summit is a white circular point,
corresponding with a certain quantity of nearly transparent fluid which
it contains, and covered by a thin and transparent pellicle. This fluid
becomes less and less transparent, until it acquires the colour and
consistence of pus. The pustule, during its serous state, is of a
rounded form. It is flattened when the fluid acquires a purulent
character, and even slightly depressed towards the close of the period
of suppuration, and when that of desiccation is about to commence, which
ordinarily happens towards the ninth or tenth day of the eruption. The
desiccation and the desquamation occupy an exceedingly variable length
of time; and so, indeed, do all the different periods of the disease.
What is the least inconstant, is the duration of the serous eruption,
which is about four days, if it has been distinctly produced and guarded
from all friction. If the general character of the pustules is
considered, it will be observed, that, while some of them are in a state
of serous secretion, others will only have begun to appear.

The eruption terminates when desiccation commences in the first
pustules; and, if some red spots show themselves at that period of the
malady, they disappear without being followed by the development of
pustules. They are a species of abortive pustules. After the
desiccation, the skin remains covered by brown spots, which, by degrees,
die away. There remains no trace of the disease, except a few
superficial cicatrices on which the hair does not grow.

The causes which produce the greatest variation in the periods of the
eruption are, the age of the dog, and the temperature of the situation
and of the season. The eruption runs through its different stages with
much more rapidity in dogs from one to five months old than in those of
greater age. I have never seen it in dogs more than eighteen months old.
An elevated temperature singularly favours the eruption, and also
renders it confluent and of a serous character. A cold atmosphere is
unfavourable to the eruption, or even prevents it altogether. Death is
almost constantly the result of the exposure of dogs having small-pox to
any considerable degree of cold. A moderate temperature is most
favourable to the recovery of the animal. A frequent renewal or change
of air, the temperature remaining nearly the same, is highly favourable
to the patient; consequently close boxes or kennels should be altogether
avoided.

I have often observed, that the perspiration or breath of dogs labouring
under variola emits a very unpleasant odour. This smell is particularly
observed at the commencement of the desiccation of the pustules, and
when the animals are lying upon dry straw; for the friction of the bed
against the pustules destroys their pellicles, and permits the purulent
matter to escape; and the influence of this purulent matter is most
pernicious. The fever is increased, and also the unpleasant smell from
the mouth, and that of the fæces. In this state there is a disposition
which is rapidly developed in the lungs to assume the character of
pneumonia. This last complication is a most serious one, and almost
always terminates fatally. It has a peculiar character. It shows itself
suddenly, and with all its alarming symptoms. It is almost immediately
accompanied by a purulent secretion from the bronchi, and the second day
does not pass without the characters of pneumonia being completely
developed. The respiration is accompanied by a mucous 'râle' which often
becomes sibilant. The nasal cavities are filled with a purulent fluid.
The dog that coughs violently at the commencement of the disease,
employs himself, probably, on the following day, in ejecting, by a
forcible expulsion from the nostrils, the purulent secretion which is
soon and plentifully developed. When he is lying quiet, and even when he
seems to be asleep, there is a loud, stertorous, guttural breathing.


MANGE.

The existence of certain insects found burrowing under the skin of the
human being, and of various tribes of animals, has been acknowledged
from the 12th century. In the 17th century, correct engravings of these
insects were produced. On the other hand many doubted their existence,
because it had not been their lot to see them. In 1812, Galés, a pupil
in the hospital of St. Louis, pretended to have found some of them. They
were put into the hands of M. Raspail, of Paris, who proved that they
were nothing more than the common cheese-mites; and substituted by Galés
for those seen by Bonomo.

Professor Hertwig, of Berlin, has given a graphic sketch of these
insects (Veterinarian, vol. xi. pp. 373, 489).

Mr. Holthouse states that, "placed on the skin of a healthy individual,
they excite a disease in the part to which they were confined, having
all the characters of scabies; that insects taken from mangy sheep,
horses, and dogs, and transplanted to healthy individuals of the same
species, produce in them a disease analogous to that in the animals from
which they were taken; and that there are too many well-attested cases
on record to permit us to doubt of scabies having been communicated from
animals to man."

Mange may in some degree be considered as an hereditary disease. A mangy
dog is liable to produce mangy puppies, and the progeny of a mangy bitch
will certainly become affected sooner or later. In many cases a
propensity to the disease will be speedily produced. If the puppies are
numerous, and confined in close situations, the effluvia of their
transpiration and fæcal discharges will often be productive of mange
very difficult to be removed. Close confinement, salted food, and little
exercise, are frequent causes of mange.

'The Scabby Mange' is a frequent form which this disease assumes. It
assumes a pustular and scabby form in the red mange, particularly in
white-haired dogs, when there is much and painful inflammation. A
peculiar eruption, termed surfeit, which resembles mange, is sometimes
the consequence of exposure to cold after a hot sultry day. Large
blotches appear, from which the hair falls and leaves the skin bare and
rough. Acute mange sometimes takes on the character of erysipelas; at
other times there is considerable inflammation. The animal exhibits heat
and restlessness, and ulcerations of different kinds appear in various
parts, superficial but extensive. Bleeding, aperient and cooling
medicines are indicated, and also applications of the subacetate of
lead, or spermaceti ointment. A weak infusion of tobacco may be resorted
to when other things fail, but it must be used with much caution. The
same may be said of all mercurial preparations. The tanner's pit has
little efficacy, except in slight cases. Slight bleedings may be
serviceable, and especially in full habits; setons may be resorted to in
obstinate cases. A change in the mode of feeding will often be useful.
Mild purgatives, and especially Epsom salts, are often beneficial, and
also mercurial alternatives, as Æthiop's mineral with cream of tartar
and nitre. The external applications require considerable caution. If
mercury is used, care must be taken that the dog does not lick it. The
diarrhoea produced by mercury often has a fatal effect.

Unguents are useful, but considerable care must be taken in their
application. They must be applied to the actual skin, not over the hair.
In old and bad cases much time and patience will be requisite. Mr.
Blaine had a favourite setter who had virulent mange five years. He was
ordered to be dressed every day, or every second day, before the disease
was complete conquered.

Cutaneous affections have lately been prevalent to an extent altogether
unprecedented on this and on the other side of the channel. In the
latter part of 1843 the disease assumed a character which had not been
known among us for many years. The common mange, which we used to think
we could easily grapple with, was now little seen: even the usual red
mange with the fox-coloured stain was not of more frequent occurrence
than usual, but an intolerable itchiness with comparatively little
redness of skin, and rarely sufficient to account for the torture which
the animal seemed to endure, and often with not the slightest
discoloration of the integument, came before us almost every day, and
under its influence the dog became ill-tempered, dispirited, and
emaciated, until he sunk under its influence. All unguents were thrown
away here. Lotions of corrosive sublimate, decoction of bark, infusion
of digitalis or tobacco, effected some little good; but the persevering
use of the iodine of potassium, purgatives, and the abstraction of blood
very generally succeeded.

The sudden appearance of redness of the skin, and exudation from it, and
actual sores attending the falling off of the hair, and itching, that
seemed to be intolerable, have also been prevalent to an unprecedented
extent. This mange, however, is to a certain degree manageable. A dose
or two of physic should he given, with an application of a calamine
powder, and the administration of the iodide of potassium.

Mr. Blaine gives a most valuable account of mange in the dog, part of
which I shall quote somewhat at length. Mange exerts a morbid
constitutional action on the skin; it is infectious from various
miasmata, and it is contagious from personal communication. In some
animals it may be produced by momentary contact; it descends to other
animals of various descriptions; there is no doubt that it is
occasionally hereditary: it is generated by effluvia of many various
kinds; almost every kind of rancid or stimulating food is the parent of
it. High living with little exercise is a frequent cause of it, and the
near approach of starvation is not unfavorable to it. The scabby mange
is the common form under which it generally appears. In red mange the
whole integument is in a state of acute inflammation; surfeit, or
blotches, a kind of cuticular eruption breaks out on particular parts of
the body without the slightest notice, and, worse than all, a direct
febrile attack, with swelling and ulceration, occurs, under which the
dog evidently suffers peculiar heat and pain. Last of all comes local
mange. Almost every eruptive disease, whether arising from the eye, the
ear, the scrotum, or the feet, is injurious to the quality as well as
the health of every sporting dog: the scent invariably becomes diseased,
and the general powers are impaired.

There are several accounts of persons who, having handled mangy dogs,
have been affected with an eruption very similar to the mange. A
gentleman and his wife who had been in the habit of fondling a mangy pug
dog, were almost covered with an eruption resembling mange. Several of
my servants in the dog-hospital have experienced a similar attack; and
the disease was once communicated to a horse by a cat that was
accustomed to lie on his back as he stood in the stall.


WARTS.

These are often unpleasant things to have to do with. A Newfoundland dog
had the whole of the inside of his mouth lined with warts. I applied the
following caustic:--Hyd. suc-corrosivi [Symbol: ounce] j., acidi mur.
[Symbol: ounce], alcoholis [Symbol: ounce] iiij., aquæ [Symbol: ounce]
ij. The warts were touched twice every day, and in less than a fortnight
they had all disappeared.

Another dog had its mouth filled with warts, and the above solution was
applied. In four days considerable salivation came on, and lasted a
week, but at the expiration of that time the warts had vanished. The
owner of the dog had applied the solution with the tip of her finger;
she experienced some salivation, which she attributed to this cause.

The skin of the dog, from the feebleness of its perspiratory functions,
is little sensible to the influence of diaphoretics: therefore we trust
so much to external applications for the cure of diseases of the skin of
that animal.


CANCER

This is a disease too frequent among females of the dog tribe, and
occasionally seen in the male. Its symptoms, local and general, are
various. They are usually very obscure in their commencement; they
increase without any limit; they are exasperated by irritants of any
kind; and in the majority of cases their reproduction is almost
constant, and perfectly incurable.

With regard to the female, it is mostly connected with the secretion of
milk. Two or three years may pass, and at almost every return of the
period of oestrum, there will be some degree of enlargement or
inflammation of the teats. Some degree of fever also appears; but, after
a few weeks have passed away, and one or two physic balls have been
administered, everything goes on well. In process of time, however, the
period of oestrum is attended by a greater degree of fever and
enlargement of the teats, and at length some diminutive hardened nuclei,
not exceeding in size the tip of a finger, are felt within one of the
teats. By degrees they increase in size; they become hard, hot, and
tender. A considerable degree of redness begins to appear. Some small
enlargements are visible. The animal evidently exhibits considerable
pain when these enlargements are pressed upon. They rapidly increase,
they become more hot and red, various shining protuberances appear about
the projection, and at length the tumour ulcerates. A considerable
degree of sanious matter flows from the aperture.

The tumours, however, after a while diminish in size; the heat and
redness diminish; the ulcer partly or entirely closes, but, after a
while, and especially when the next period of oestrum arrives, the
tumour again increases, and with far greater rapidity than before, and
then comes the necessity of the removal of the tumour, or if not, the
destruction of the animal. In the great majority of cases, the removal
of the cancer does not destroy the dog, but lessens its torture. The
knife and the forceps must usually be resorted to, and in the hands of a
skilful surgeon the life of the animal will be saved.

When the cancer is attached to the neighbouring parts by cellular
substance alone, no difficulty will be experienced in detaching the
whole of it. The operation will be speedily performed, and there will be
an end of the matter; but, if the tumour has been neglected, and the
muscular, the cellular, or even the superficial parts have been
attacked, the utmost caution is requisite that every diseased portion
shall be removed. Mr. Blaine adds to this that

  "it must also be taken into the account, that, although in the canine
  cancer ulceration does not often reappear in the intermediate part,
  when the operation has been judiciously performed, yet, when the
  constitution has been long affected with this ulcerative action, it is
  very apt to show itself in some neighbouring part soon after."


FUNGUS HÆMATODES.

In the month of March, 1836, a valuable pointer dog was sent to Mr. Adam
of Beaufort, quite emaciated, with total loss of appetite and with a
large fungus hæmatodes about the middle of the right side of his neck.
It had begun to appear about five months before, and was not at first
larger than a pea. Mr. Adam gave him a purgative of Barbadoes aloes,
which caused the discharge of much fetid matter from the intestines. At
the expiration of three days he removed the tumour with the knife. There
was a full discharge of healthy matter from the wound. During the period
of its healing the animal was well fed, and ferruginous tonics were
given. In a little more than three weeks the wound had completely filled
up with healthy granulations, and the dog was sent home to all
appearance quite well.

At the expiration of three months another tumour made its appearance
near the situation of the former one, growing fast; it had attained
nearly the size of the other. Mr. Adam removed it immediately, ordering
a system of nutritive feeding and tonics. It appeared at first to go on
favourable; but, five days after the removal of the second one, a third
made its appearance.

This was removed at the expiration of another five days; but the animal
was totally unable to walk, with very laborious breathing and cold
extremities. A cathartic was given and the legs bandaged; but the wounds
made no progress towards healing, and at the end of three days he died.
On exposing the cavity of the thorax it was almost covered with
variously formed tumours, from the size of a pigeon's egg to that of a
small pea. The intercostal muscles had many of these adhering to them,
and a few small ones were developed on the heart. There were three on
the diaphragm, in the centre of which matter was formed. The
blood-vessels, kidneys, &c., were free from disease. These tumours were
white, or nearly so, rather hard, and of a glandular substance. The
external ones were soft, red, and almost destitute of blood-vessels,
except the first, which bled considerably. There was dropsy of the
abdomen.


SORE FEET

Sore feet constitute a frequent and troublesome complaint. It consists
of inflammation of the vascular substance, between the epidermis and the
parts beneath. It is the result of numerous slight contusions, produced
by long travelling in dry weather, or hunting over a hard and rough
country, or one covered with frost and snow. The irritation with which
it commences continues to increase and a certain portion of fluid is
determined to the feet, and tubercles are formed, hard, hot, and tender,
until the whole foot is in a diseased state, considerably enlarged. The
animal sadly suffers, and is scarcely able to stand up for a minute.
Sometimes the ardour of the chase will make him for a while forget all
this; but on his return, and when he endeavours to repose himself, it is
with difficulty that he can be got up again. The toes become enlarged,
the skin red and tender, and the horny sole becomes detached and drops.
Local fever, and that to a considerable extent, becomes established; it
reacts on the general economy of the animal, who scarcely moves from his
bed, and at length refuses all food. At other times a separation takes
place between the dermis and the epidermis, which is a perfect mass of
serosity.

Still, however, it is only when all this has much increased, or has been
neglected, that any permanently dangerous consequences take place. When
violent inflammation has set in, the feet must be carefully attended to,
or the dog may be lamed for life. One or two physic-balls may be given;
all salted meat should be removed, and the animal supplied with food
without being compelled to move from his bed. The feet should be bathed
with warm water, and a poultice of linseed meal applied to them twice in
the day. If, as is too often the case, he should tear this off, the feet
should be often fomented. It is bad practice in any master of dogs to
suffer them to be at all neglected when there are any tokens of
inflammation of the feet. The neglect of even a few days may render a
dog a cripple for life. If there are evident appearances of pus
collecting about the claws, or any part of the feet, the abscess should
be opened, well bathed with warm water, and friar's balsam applied to
the feet.

When the feet have been neglected, the nail is apt to grow very rapidly,
and curve round and penetrate into the foot. The forceps should he
applied, and the claws reduced to their proper size.

If there are any indications of fever, or if the dog should be
continually lying down, or he should hold up his feet, and keep them
apart as much as he can, scarifications or poultices, or both, should be
resorted to.

When the feet of a dog become sore in travelling, the foolish habit of
washing them with brine should never be permitted, although it is very
commonly resorted to. Warm fomentations, or warm pot-liquor, or
poultices of linseed meal should be applied, or, if matter is apparently
forming, the lancet may be resorted to.

Dogs are frequently sent to the hospital with considerable redness
between the toes, and ichorous discharge, and the toes thickened round
the base of the nails, as if they were inclined to drop off. The common
alterative medicine should be given, and a lotion composed of hydrarg.
oxym. gr. vi., alcohol [Symbol: ounce] j., et aq. calcis [Symbol: ounce]
iiij., should he applied to the feet three times every day. Leathern
gloves should be sewn on them. These cases are often very obstinate.

Generally speaking, the dog has five toes on the fore feet, and four on
the hind feet, with a mere rudiment of a fifth metatarsal bone in some
feet; but, in others, the fifth bone is long and well proportioned, and
advances as far as the origin of the first phalanx of the neighbouring
toe.

[The editor begs leave to add a more detailed and systematic treatise of
the affections generally attacking the feet and limbs of our dogs.


DISEASES OF THE FEET.

SORE FEET.

Inflammation of the feet, a disease somewhat analogous to founder in
horses, and often attended with equally bad results, particularly in the
English kennels, is comparatively rare with us, although there are few
sportsmen but have met with some cases among their dogs. The feet become
tender, swollen, and hot, violent inflammatory action sets in, the toes
become sore, the claws diseased, and the balls very painful, and often
suppurate.

The animal is thus speedily rendered useless; not being able to support
his body, owing to the intense pain, he remains in his house, and
employs the most of his time in temporarily assuaging his sufferings by
constantly licking the diseased members.

'Causes'.--Running long distances over frozen or stony grounds, hunting
over a rough and ill-cleaned country, over-feeding, confinement, and
lazy habits, are all conducive in some measure to this affection.

This form of disease is not uncommon among those dogs used in toling
ducks on the Chesapeake bay, these animals being obliged to run
incessantly to and fro over the gravel shores, in their efforts to
attract the canvass-back.  We have seen many dogs that have been made
cripples by this arduous work, and rendered prematurely old while yet in
their prime. It would certainly be wise and humane on the part of those
who pursue this sport either for pleasure or gain, to provide suitable
boots for these sagacious animals, who in return would repay such
kindness by increased ardour and length of service. These articles might
be made of leather, or some other durable substance, in such a manner
that they could be laced on every morning before commencing their
labours.

The claws should be allowed to project through openings in the boot, as
this arrangement will give much more freedom to the feet, and the boot
itself will not be destroyed so soon by the penetration of the toes
through its substance. Boots thus neatly made will neither interfere
with his locomotive nor swimming powers, but add greatly to the comfort
of the animal, and secure his services for many years.

'Treatment'.--No stimulating applications to the feet are to be used,
such as salt water, ley, fish brine, or urine, but rather emollient
poultices and cooling washes. These last-mentioned remedies should be
carefully applied, and the dog confined to his house as much as
possible: in fact, there is little difficulty in restraining him in this
respect, as he has but little inclination or ability to move about.

Purging balls should be administered every night, and blood abstracted
if there be much fever, as indicated in the heat, swelling, and pain of
the limbs.

If the balls continue to swell, and there is a collection of pus within
them, they may be opened by the lancet, and the contents evacuated,
after which apply a linseed poultice. When the inflammation has
subsided, simple dressings of melted butter or fresh lard will generally
effect a cure.


PUSTULAR AFFECTION OF THE FEET.

Dogs frequently have a pustular eruption between the toes, either
accompanying mange or some other skin disease, or entirely independent
of any other affection.

'Causes'.--Want of cleanliness, bad housing, improper food, vermin, and
depraved constitution.

'Treatment'.--Frequent washing with castile soap and water will correct
this disease; the feet and legs after washing should be rubbed dry,
particularly between the toes.  When the pustules are large, they may be
opened with the lancet and a poultice applied. If the disease appears
complicated with mange, or dependent upon other general causes, the
primary affection must be removed by the proper remedies, which
generally carries off with the secondary disease.


SPRAINS

It is not an uncommon occurrence for dogs, while running, climbing
fences, or jumping ditches, to sprain themselves very severely in the
knee, or more frequently in the shoulder-joint; and if not properly
attended to, will remain cripples for life, owing to enlargement of the
tendon and deposition of matter.

We once had a fine, large, powerful bull-dog, that sprained himself in
the shoulder while running very violently in the street after another
dog, and in some way, owing to the great eagerness to overtake the
other, tripped up when at the top of his speed, fell on his chest, and
when he arose commenced limping, and evidently suffered from
considerable pain. On taking him home, we examined his feet, limbs, and
chest very particularly, expecting to find a luxation or fracture of
some of the bones of the leg or feet, or perhaps the presence of a piece
of glass or other article deeply imbedded in the ball. None of the above
accidents, however, being brought to light by our examination, or that
of a medical friend who expressed a wish to see our patient, we
concluded that a simple sprain of some of the tendons had taken place.

On the following day there was slight swelling and tenderness of the
shoulder-joint, accompanied by great unwillingness to put the foot to
the ground, owing to the pain that seemed to be produced by the
extension of the leg. The limb was fomented, and the dog confined for
several days, till the swelling and tenderness disappeared; but, greatly
to our astonishment and that of others, he still remained lame as
before.

This lameness continued for several months, when we parted with him,
sending him to a relative in the country, who informed us that he never
recovered the use of his limb, but that it became shrivelled and
deformed for want of use.

The cause of lameness in this dog is as unaccountable as some cases of
lameness we see in horses. We are convinced that there was neither
fracture nor luxation, nor any other unnatural displacement of the
parts, and can attribute it to nothing but enlargement of one of the
tendons of the shoulder-joint resulting from inflammation. If it had
been in our power, we should have liked to have examined this animal
after death.

'Treatment'.--Hot fomentations to the part affected, together with
purging balls and bleeding, if there be great tenderness and swelling of
the limb. When the inflammation and tumefaction have disappeared, rub
the parts with opodeldoc, or other stimulating mixtures.


WOUNDS OF THE FEET.

Dogs are apt to cut their feet by stepping upon sharp tools, bits of
oyster-shell, old iron, &c., or by the introduction of thorns, burrs,
nails, bits of glass, and other articles, into their balls.

'Treatment'.--If the cut be very deep, or divides the ball, the foot
must be washed in tepid water, and the edges of the wound drawn together
and retained in their position by a couple of sutures or a strap or two
of adhesive plaster, and the animal confined.

Where thorns or sand-burrs have pierced the foot, diligent search should
be made to extract them, or the wound will suppurate, and the dog
continue lame for a long time. This caution is particularly necessary
when minute particles of glass have entered the foot. A poultice in such
cases should be applied, after removing every particle within our reach,
and the, foot be wrapped up, or, what is better, enclosed in a boot of
some kind, sufficiently strong to protect it from the dirt or other
small particles which otherwise would enter the wound and prevent its
healing. In a case of great emergency, one of our friends hunted a
setter dog three successive days in a leather boot, which we instructed
a country cobbler to put on him to protect his foot from a recent and
deep cut, that he had received from treading upon some farming utensils.
The boot was taken off every night, the foot nicely cleaned, the leather
oiled and replaced ready for the following day. The wound afterwards
healed up, and no trace of the incision now remains. The boot should be
made of stout, flexible leather, and extend beyond the first joint; the
seam must be in front, so as not to interfere with the dog's tread.
There should be openings for the claws, and the sole large enough to
allow the expansion of the ball pads when in motion: a small layer of
tow had better be laid on the bottom of the foot before putting on the
boot.

It is often very difficult to tell the exact spot where a briar or thorn
has entered the foot, owing to its penetrating so far into the substance
of the ball as to be entirely concealed under the skin, or by the
swelling of the parts surrounding it. In all such cases the bottom of
the foot should he gently pressed by the thumb, and the point where the
dog exhibits symptoms of must pain should be, particularly examined,
and, if necessary, cut down upon to extract the extraneous substance, no
matter what it may be.


LONG NAILS OR CLAWS.

The nails of some dogs require occasional cutting, otherwise they grow
so long and fast that they turn in and penetrate the ball of the foot.
If we cut them, a strong, sharp knife is necessary for the purpose;
filing them off we consider far preferable.


LAMENESS

Dogs, as well as horses, become lame from stiff joints, splints, and
sprains. Stiff joints are occasioned by anchylosis, or the deposit of
calcareous or osseous matter within the ligament or around the head of
the bone, which latter defect is known as ring-bone in the horse.

'Treatment'.--Stimulating friction to the parts, such as spirits of
camphor, or camphorated liniment, mercurial ointment, tincture of
iodine, opodeldoc, blistering, c.--L.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XVI.

FRACTURES


These are of not unfrequent occurrence in the dog; and I once had five
cases in my hospital at the same time.

In the human subject, fractures are more frequent in adults, and,
perhaps, in old men, than in infants; but this is not the case with the
smaller animals generally, and particularly with dogs. Five-sixths of
the fractures occur between the time of weaning and the animal being six
months old; not, perhaps, because of their chemical composition, that
the bones are more fragile at this age; but because young dogs are more
exposed to fall from the hands of the persons who carry them, and from
the places to which they climb; and the extremities of the bones, then
being in the state of epiphysis, are easily separated from the body of
the bone. When the fracture takes place in the body of the bone, it is
transverse or somewhat oblique, but there is scarcely any displacement.

A simple bandage will be sufficient for the reduction of these
fractures, which may be removed in ten or twelve days, when the
preparatory callus has acquired some consistence. One only out of twenty
dogs that were brought to me with fractures of the extremities, in the
year 1834, died. Two dogs had their jaws fractured by kicks from horses,
and lost several of their teeth. In one of them the anterior part of the
jaw was fractured perpendicularly; in the other, both branches were
fractured. Plenty of good soup was injected into their mouths. Ten or
twelve days afterwards, they were suffered to lap it; and in a little
while they were dismissed cured.

It will be desirable, perhaps, to describe our usual method of reducing
the greater part of the fractures which come under our notice.

I.--The 'humerus' was fractured just above the elbow and close to the
joint. The limb was enclosed in adhesive plaster, and supported by a
firm bandage. The bones were beginning to unite, when, by some means
concerning which I could never satisfy myself, the 'tibia' was broken a
little above the hock. Nothing could well be done with this second
fracture; but great care was taken with regard to the former. The lower
head of the humerus remained somewhat enlarged; but the lameness became
very slight, and in three weeks had nearly or quite disappeared. Nothing
was done to the second fracture; in fact, nothing more than a slight,
annular enlargement, surrounding the part, remained--a proof of the
renovating power of nature.

II.--A spaniel was run over by a light carriage. It was unable to put
the left hind leg to the ground, and at the upper tuberosity of the
ileum some crepitus could be distinguished. I subtracted six ounces of
blood, administered a physic-ball, and ordered the patient to be well
fomented with warm water several times during the night. On the
following day no wound could be discovered, but there was great
tenderness. I continued the fomentation. Two or three days afterwards
she was evidently easier. I then had the hair cut close, and covered the
loins and back with a pitch-plaster. At the expiration of six days the
plaster was getting somewhat loose, and was replaced by another with
which a very small quantity of powdered cantharides was mingled. At the
expiration of the fifth week she was quite well.

III.--The 'thigh-bone' had been broken a fortnight. It was a compound
fracture: the divided edges of the bone protruded through the
integuments, and there was no disposition to unite. It is not in one
case in a hundred that an animal thus situated can be saved. We failed
in our efforts, and the dog was ultimately destroyed.

IV.--The 'femur' was broken near the hip. I saw it on the third day,
when much heat and swelling had taken place. I ordered the parts to be
frequently bathed with warm water. The heat and tenderness to a
considerable degree subsided, and the pitch-plaster was carefully
applied. At the expiration of a week the plaster began to be loosened. A
second one was applied, and when a fortnight longer had passed, a slight
degree of tenderness alone remained.

V.--The following account is characteristic of the bull terrier. The
'radius' had been broken, and was set, and the bones were decidedly
united, when the dog, in a moment of frantic rage, seized his own leg
and crushed some of the bones. They were once more united, but his wrist
bent under him in the form of a concave semicircle, as if some of the
ligaments of the joint had been ruptured in the moment of rage. It was
evident on the following day that it was impossible to control him, and
he was destroyed.

VI.--A spaniel, three months old, became fractured half-way between the
wrist and the 'elbow'. A surgeon bound it up, and it became swollen to
an enormous size, from the adhesive plaster that had been applied and
the manner of placing the splints. I removed the splints. On the
following morning I had the arm frequently fomented: a very indistinct
crepitus could be perceived at the point of the humerus: I applied
another plaster higher up, and including the elbow. The hair not having
been cut sufficiently close, the plaster was removed, applied much more
neatly and closely, and the original fracture was firmly bound together.
No crepitus was now to be perceived.

I saw no more of our patient for four days, when I found that he had
fallen, and that the elbow on the other side was fractured within the
capsular ligament. A very distinct crepitus could be felt, and the dog
cried sadly when the joint was moved. I would have destroyed him, but he
was a favourite with his master, and we tried what a few days more would
produce. I enclosed the whole of the limb in a plaster of pitch, and
bound it up without splints. Both the bandages remained on nearly a
fortnight, when the fractures were found to be perfectly united, and the
lameness in both legs gradually disappeared.

VII.--July 22, 1843. A spaniel was frightened with something on the bed,
and fell from it, and cried very much. The instep, or wrist, of the
right leg, before was evidently bowed, and there was considerable heat
and tenderness. It was well fomented on the two following days, and then
set, and adhesive plaster was tightly applied, and a splint bound over
that.

24th. The foot began to swell, and was evidently painful. The outer
bandage was loosened a little, but the inner bandage was not touched.

Aug. 4. The bandage, that had not been meddled with for eleven days, now
appeared to give him some pain. For the last two days he has been gently
licking and gnawing it. The splints were removed; but the adhesive
plaster appearing even and firm, was suffered to remain.

26th. Everything appeared to be going on well, when he again leaped from
his bed. The wrist was much more bowed, and was tender and hot. Simple
lint and a firm calico bandage were had recourse to.

27th. He is unable to put his foot to the ground, and the joint is
certainly enlarging. An adhesive plaster, made by a Frenchman, was
applied at the owners request, over which was placed a splint. The dog
soon began to gnaw the plaster, which formed a sticky but not very
adhesive mass. Before night the pain appeared to be very great, and the
dog cried excessively. I was sent for. We well fomented the leg, and
then returned to our former treatment. There was evidently a great deal
of pain, but it gradually passed over, and a slight degree of lameness
alone remained.

I have great pleasure in adding the following accounts of the successful
treatment of fractures in dogs by Mr. Percivall:

  "Hopeless as cases of fracture in horses generally are, from the
  difficulty experienced in managing the patient, they are by no means
  to be so regarded in dogs. I have in several instances seen dogs
  recover, and with very good use of the parts, if not perfect
  restoration of them, when the accidents have been considered, at the
  time they took place, of a nature so irremediable as to render it
  advisable to destroy the animals.

  "May 4, 1839. A valuable Irish spaniel fell from a high wall, and
  fractured his 'off shoulder'. On examination, I found the 'os humeri'
  fractured about an inch above its radial extremity, causing the limb
  to drop pendulously from the side, and depriving the animal of all use
  of it. The arm, by which I mean the fore arm, was movable in any
  direction upon the shoulder, and there was distinct crepitus: in a
  word, the nature of the accident was too plain to admit of doubt; nor
  was there any splinter or loose piece of bone discoverable. I directed
  that the animal might be laid flat upon his sound side in a hamper, or
  covered basket or box, of sufficient dimensions, but not large enough
  to admit of his moving about; to have his hind legs fettered, his
  mouth muzzled, and his injured parts covered with a linen cloth wetted
  with a spirit lotion.

  'May' 5. The parts are tumefied, but not more, nor even so much as one
  night have expected. Continue the lotion.

  '6th'. At my request, Mr. Youatt was called in to give his opinion as
  to the probability of effecting a cure. He thought from the
  inconvenient situation of the fracture, that the chances of success
  were doubtful; and recommended that a plaster, composed of thick
  sheep-skin and pitch, cut to the shape of the parts, should be
  applied, extending from the upper part of the shoulder down upon the
  arm, and reaching to the knee; and that the whole should be enveloped
  in well-applied bandages, one of them being carried over the shoulders
  and brought round between the fore legs, to support the limb, and aid
  in retaining the fractured ends in apposition. Prior to the
  application of the pitch plaster the hair was closely shorn off. Thus
  bound up, the dog was replaced in his hamper, and had some aperient
  medicine given to him.

  '8th'. The medicine has operated; and he appears going on well, his
  appetite continuing unimpaired.

  '10th'. He growls when I open the basket to look at him. On examining
  him (while his keeper had hold of him), I found the plaster loosening
  from its adhesion; I took it off altogether, and applied a fresh one,
  composed of the stopping composition I use for horses' feet.

  June 7. Up to this time everything appears to have been going on
  properly. The fracture feels as if it were completely united, and, as
  the plaster continues to adhere firmly, I thought the bandages
  enveloping it, as they were often getting loose, might now he
  dispensed with, and that the dog might with benefit be chained to a
  kennel, instead of being so closely confined as he has been. In
  moving, he does not attempt to use the fractured limb, but hops along
  upon the three other legs.

  July. He has acquired pretty good use of the limb. Being now at
  liberty, he runs about a good deal; halting, from there being some
  shortness of the limb, but not so much as to prevent him being
  serviceable, as a 'slow' hunter, in the sporting-field.

  "About a twelvemonth ago," continues Mr. Percivall, "I was consulted
  concerning a blood-hound of great size and beauty, and of the cost of
  £50, that had been a cripple in one of his hind limbs for some
  considerable time past, owing, it was said or thought, to having
  received some injury. After a very careful handling, and examination
  of the parts about the hips, the places where he expressed pain, I
  came to the conclusion that there had been, and still existed, some
  fracture of 'the ischial portion of the pelvis', but precisely where,
  or of what nature, I could not determine; and all the treatment I
  could recommend was, that the animal should be shut up within a basket
  or box of some, sort, of dimensions only sufficient to enable him to
  lie at ease, and that he be kept there for at least six months,
  without being taken out, save for the purpose of having his bed
  cleansed or renewed. His owner had previously made up his mind to have
  him destroyed; understanding, however, from me, that there still
  remained a chance of his recovery, he ordered his groom to procure a
  proper basket, and see that the dog's confinement was such as I had
  prescribed. The man asked me to allow him to have his kennel, which,
  being no larger than was requisite for him, I did not object to; and
  to this he had an iron lattice-door made, converting it into a sort of
  wild beast cage. After two months' confinement, I had him let out for
  a short run, and perceived evident amendment. I believe altogether
  that he was imprisoned five months, and then was found so much
  improved that I had him chained to his kennel for the remaining month,
  and this, I believe, was continued for another month. The issue was
  the complete recovery of the animal, very much to the gratification
  and joy of his master, by whom he is regarded as a kind of unique or
  unobtainable production.

  "The fractures of dogs and other animals must, of course, be treated
  in accordance with all the circumstances of their cases; but I have
  always considered it a most essential part of their treatment that
  such portable patients as dogs and cats, &c., should be placed and
  kept in a state of confinement, where they either could not, or were
  not likely to, use or move the fractured parts; and, moreover, I have
  thought that failure, where it has resulted after such treatment, has
  arisen from its not having been sufficiently long persisted in."

In the opinion of Professor Simonds, when there is fracture of the bones
of the extremities, a starch bandage is the best that can be employed.
If applied wet, it adapts itself to the irregularities of the limbs; and
if allowed to remain on twelve hours undisturbed, it forms a complete
case for the part, and affords more equal support than anything else
that can possibly be used.

The following case was one of considerable interest. It came under the
care of Professor Simonds. Two gentlemen were playing at quoits, and the
dog of one of them was struck on the head by a quoit, and supposed to be
killed. His owner took him up, and found that he was not dead, although
dreadfully injured. It being near the Thames, his owner took him to the
edge of the river, and dashed some water over him, and he rallied a
little. Professor Simonds detected a fracture of the skull, with
pressure on the brain, arising from a portion of depressed bone. The dog
was perfectly unconscious, frequently moaning, quite incapable of
standing, and continually turning round upon his belly, his straw, or
his bed. It was a case of coma; he took no food, and the pulsation at
the heart was very indistinct.

  "I told the proprietor that there was no chance of recovery except by
  an operation; and, even then, I thought it exceedingly doubtful. I was
  desired to operate, and I took him home.

  "The head was now almost twice as large as when the accident occurred,
  proceeding from a quantity of coagulated blood that had been effused
  under the skin covering the skull. I gave him a dose of aperient
  medicine, and on the following morning commenced my operation.

  "The hair was clipped from the head, and an incision carried
  immediately from between the eye-brows to the back part of the skull,
  in the direction of the sagittal suture. Another incision was made
  from this towards the root of the ear. This triangular flap was then
  turned back, in order to remove the coagulated blood and make a
  thorough exposure of the skull. I was provided with a trephine,
  thinking that only a portion of the bone had been depressed on the
  brain, and it would be necessary, with that instrument, to separate it
  from its attachment, and then with an elevator remove it; but I found
  that the greater part of the parietal bone was depressed, and that the
  fracture extended along the sagittal suture from the coronal and
  lamdoidal sutures. At three-fourths of the width of the bone, the
  fracture ran parallel with the sagittal suture, and this large portion
  was depressed upon the tunics of the brain, the dura mater being
  considerably lacerated. The depressed bone was raised with an
  elevator, and I found, from its lacerated edges and the extent of the
  mischief done, that it was far wiser to remove it entirely, than to
  allow it to remain and take the chance of its uniting.

  "In a few days, the dog began to experience relief from the operation,
  and to be somewhat conscious of what was taking place around him.  He
  still requires care and attention, and proper medicinal agents to be
  administered from time to time; but with the exception of occasionally
  turning round when on the floor, he takes his food well, and obeys his
  master's call."[1]



[Footnote 1: Trans. Vet. Med. Assoc., i. 51.]



       *       *       *       *       *



CHAPTER XVII.

MEDICINES USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES OF THE DOG.


These are far more numerous and complicated than would, on the first
consideration of them, be imagined. The Veterinary Surgeon has a long
list of them, suited to the wants and dangers, imaginary or real, of his
patients; and he who is not scientifically acquainted with them, will
occasionally blunder in the choice of remedies, or the application of
the means of cure which he adopts. Little attention may, perhaps, be
paid to the medical treatment of the dog; yet it requires not a little
study and experience. I will endeavour to give a short account of the
drugs, and mode of using them, generally employed.

The administering of medicines to dogs is, generally speaking, simple
and safe, if a little care is taken about the matter, and especially if
two persons are employed in the operation. The one should be sitting
with the dog between his knees, and the hinder part of the animal
resting on the floor. The mouth is forced open by the pressure of the
fore-finger and thumb upon the lips of the upper jaw, and the medicine
can be conveniently introduced with the other hand, and passed
sufficiently far into the throat to insure its not being returned. The
mouth should be closed and kept so, until the bolus has been seen to
pass down. Mr. Blaine thus describes the difference between the
administration of liquid and solid medicines:

  "A little attention will prevent all danger. A ball or bolus should be
  passed completely over the root of the tongue, and pushed some way
  backward and forward. When a liquid is given, if the quantity is more
  than can be swallowed at one effort, it should be removed from the
  mouth at each deglutition, or the dog may be strangled. Balls of a
  soft consistence, and those composed of nauseous ingredients, should
  be wrapped in thin paper, or they may disgust the dog and produce
  sickness."

Dogs labouring under disease should be carefully nursed: more depends on
this than many persons seem to be aware. A warm and comfortable bed is
of a great deal more consequence than many persons who are fond of their
dogs imagine. Cleanliness is also an essential point. Harshness of
manner and unkind treatment will evidently aggravate many of their
complaints. I have sometimes witnessed an angry word spoken to a healthy
dog produce instant convulsions in a distempered one that happened to be
near; and the fits that come on spontaneously in distemper, almost
instantly leave the dog by soothing notice of him.

'Acidum Acetum (Vinegar)'.--This is useful for sprains, bruises, and
fomentations.

'Acidum Nitricum (Nitric Acid; Aqua Fortis)'.--This may be used with
advantage to destroy warts or fungous excrescences. A little of the acid
should be dropped on the part and bound tightly down. The protuberance
will slough off and healthy granulations will spring up. A surer
application, however, is the nitrate of silver.

'Acidum Hydrocyanicum (Prussic Acid)'.--This is an excellent application
for the purpose of allaying irritation of the skin in dogs; but it must
be very carefully watched. I have seen a drachm of it diluted with a
pint of distilled water, rapidly allay cuticular inflammation. The
dreadful degree of itching which had been observed during the last two
or three years yielded to this application alone; and to that it has
almost invariably yielded, a little patience being used.

'Acupuncturation' is a practice lately introduced into veterinary
surgery. It denotes the insertion of a needle into the skin or flesh of
a person or animal suffering severely from some neuralgic affection. The
needle is small and sharp: it is introduced by a slight pressure and
semi-rotating motion between the thumb and forefinger, and afterwards
withdrawn with the same motion. This should always employ a quarter of
an hour at least, and in cases of very great pain it should continue two
hours; but when the object is to afford an exit to the fluid collected,
mere puncture is sufficient. It is attended with very little pain; and
therefore it may be employed at least with safety if not with advantage.
The operation was known and practised in Japan, many years ago; but it
was only in the seventeenth century that its singular value was
ascertained. In 1810 some trials of it were made in Paris, and M. Chenel
look the lead. He had a young dog that he had cured of distemper, except
that a spasmodic affection of the left hind leg remained. He applied a
needle, and with fair success. He failed with another dog; but M.
Prevost, of Geneva, relieved two mares from rheumatism, and an entire
horse that had been lame sixteen months. In the Veterinary School at
Lyons acupuncturation was tried on two dogs. One had chorea, and the
other chronic paralysis of the muscles of the neck. The operation had no
effect on the first; the other came out of the hospital completely
cured. In the following year acupuncturation was tried without success
in the same school. Four horses and two dogs were operated upon in vain.

'Adeps (Hog's Lard)' forms the basis of all our ointments. It is
tasteless, inodorous and free from every stimulating quality.

'Alcohol (Rectified Spirit)'.--This is principally used in tinctures,
and seldom or never administered to the dog in a pure state.

'Aloes, Barbadoes'.--From these are formed the safest and best aperients
for the dog--consisting of powdered aloes, eight parts; antimonial
powder, one part; ginger, one part; and palm oil, five parts; beaten
well together, and the size of the ball varying from half a drachm to
two drachms, and a ball administered every fourth or fifth hour. Mr.
Blaine considers it to be the safest general purgative. He says that
such is the peculiarity of the bowels of the dog, that while a man can
take with impunity as much calomel as would kill two large dogs, a
moderate-sized dog will take a quantity of aloes sufficient to destroy
two stout men. The smallest dog can take 15 or 20 grains; half a drachm
is seldom too much; but the smaller dose had better be tried first, for
hundreds of dogs are every year destroyed by temerity in this
particular. Medium-sized dogs usually require a drachm; and some large
dogs have taken two or even three drachms.

'Alteratives' are medicines that effect some slow change in the diseased
action of certain parts, without interfering with the food or work. The
most useful consist of five parts of sublimed sulphur, one of nitre, one
of linseed meal, and two of lard or palm oil.

'Alum' is a powerful astringent, whether employed externally or
internally. It is occasionally administered in doses of from 10 to 15
grains in obstinate diarrhoea. In some obstinate cases, alum whey has
been employed in the form of a clyster.

'Oxide of Antimony', in the form of a compound powder, and under the
name of James's powder, is employed as a sudorific, or to cause a
determination to the skin.

The 'Antimonii Potassio Tartras (Tartar Emetic)', besides its effect on
the skin, is a useful nauseant, and invaluable in inflammation of the
lungs and catarrhal affections of every kind. The 'Black Sesquisulphuret
of Antimony' is a compound of sulphur and antimony, and an excellent
alterative.

'Argenti Nitras--Nitrate of Silver (Lunar Caustic)'.--I have already
strongly advocated the employment of this caustic for empoisoned wounds
and bites of rabid animals. In my opinion it supersedes the use of every
other caustic, and generally of the knife. I have also given it
internally as a tonic to the dog, in cases of chorea, in doses from an
eighth to a quarter of a grain. A dilute solution may be employed as an
excitant to wounds, in which the healing process has become sluggish.
For this purpose, ten grains or more may be dissolved in a fluid ounce
of distilled water. A few fibres of tow dipped in this solution, being
drawn through the channel which is left on the removal of a seton,
quickly excite the healing action. Occasionally one or two drops of this
solution may be introduced into the eye for the purpose of removing
opalescence of the cornea. In cases of fungoid matter being thrown out
on the cornea, the fungus may be touched with a rod of nitrate of
silver, and little pain will follow.

The 'Peruvian Bark', or its active principle the disulphate of quina, is
a valuable tonic in distemper, especially when combined with the iodide
of iron; the iron increasing with the general tone of the system, and
the iodine acting as a stimulant to the absorbents.

'Blisters' are occasionally useful or indispensable in some of the
casualties and diseases to which the dog is liable. They are mostly of
the same description, and act upon the same principles as in the horse,
whether in the form of plaster, or ointment, or stimulating fluid.
Blisters can be kept on the dog with difficulty: nothing short of a wire
muzzle will suffice; Mr. Blaine says, that for very large dogs, he used
to be compelled to make use of a perforated tin one. The judgment of the
practitioner will determine in these cases, as well as with regard to
the horse, whether the desired effect should be produced by severe
measures or by those of a milder character, by active blisters or by
milder stimulants; the difficulty of the measures to be adopted, and the
degree of punishment that may be inflicted, being never forgotten by the
operator.

We have stated in our work on the Horse, that "the art of blistering
consists in cutting or rather shaving the hair perfectly close; then
well rubbing in the ointment, and afterwards, and, what is the greatest
consequence of all, plastering a little more of the ointment lightly
over the part, and leaving it. As soon as the vesicles have perfectly
risen, which will be in twenty or twenty-four hours, the torture of the
animal may be somewhat relieved by the application of olive or
neat's-foot oil, or any emollient ointment.

"An infusion of two ounces of the cantharides in a pint of oil of
turpentine, for several days, is occasionally used as a languid blister;
and when sufficiently lowered with common oil, it is called a 'sweating'
oil, for it maintains a certain degree of irritation and inflammation on
the skin, yet not sufficient to blister; and thus gradually abates or
removes some old or deep inflammation, or cause of lameness." [1]

Iodine in various cases is now rapidly superseding the cantharides and
the turpentine.

'Calomel'--Sufficient has been said of this dangerous medicine in the
course of the present work. I should rarely think of exhibiting it,
except in small doses for the purpose of producing that specific
influence on the liver, which we know to be the peculiar property of
this drug. In large doses it will to a certain extent produce vomiting;
and, if it finds its way into the intestines, it acts as a powerful
drastic purgative.

'Castor Oil (Oleum Ricini)'.--This is a most valuable medicine. It is
usually combined with the syrup of buckthorn and white poppies, in the
proportions of three parts of the oil to two of the buckthorn and one of
the poppy-syrup; which form a combination of ingredients in which the
oleaginous, stimulant, and narcotic ingredients happily blend.

'Catechu.'--This is an extract from the wood of an acacia-tree '(Acacia
catechu)', and possesses a powerful astringent property. It is given in
cases of superpurgation, united with opium, chalk, and powdered gum. A
tincture of it is very useful for the purpose of hastening the healing
principle of wounds. Professor Morton says, that he considers it as the
most valuable of the vegetable astringents.

'Clysters.'--Professor Morton gives an account of the use of clysters.
The objects, he says, for which they are administered, are--1. To empty
the bowels of fæces: thus they act as an aperient. Also, to induce a
cathartic to commence its operations, when, from want of exercise or due
preparation, it is tardy in producing the desired effect. Clysters
operate in a twofold way: first, by softening the contents of the
intestines; and, secondly, by exciting an irritation in one portion of
the canal which is communicated throughout the whole; hence they become
valuable when the nature and progress of the disease require a quick
evacuation of the bowels. The usual enema is warm water, but this may be
rendered more stimulating by the addition of salt, oil, or aloes. 2. For
the purpose of killing worms that are found in the rectum and large
intestines: in this case it is usually of an oleaginous nature. 3. For
restraining diarrhoea: sedatives and astringents being then employed. 4.
For nourishing the body when food cannot be received by the mouth. Gruel
is generally the aliment thus given.  5. For allaying spasms in the
stomach and bowels.

'Copper'--Both the verdigris, or subacetate, and the blue vitriol of
sulphate of copper, are now comparatively rarely used. They are employed
either in the form of a fine powder, or mixed with an equal quantity of
the acetate of lead in order to destroy proud flesh or stimulate old
ulcers. They also form a part of the ægyptiacum of the farrier. There
are many better drugs to accomplish the same purpose.

'Creosote' is seldom used for the dog. We have applications quite as
good and less dangerous. It may be employed as a very gentle excitant
and antiseptic.

'Creta Preparata (Chalk)', in combination with ginger, catechu, and
opium, is exceedingly useful; indeed, it is our most valuable medicine
in all cases of purging, and particularly the purging of distemper.

'Digitalis' is an exceedingly valuable drug. It is a direct and powerful
sedative, a mild diuretic, and useful in every inflammatory and febrile
complaint.

'Gentian' and 'Ginger' are both valuable; the first as a stomachic and
tonic, and the last as a cordial and tonic. It is occasionally
necessary, or at least desirable, to draw this distinction between them.

'Chloride of Lime' is a useful application for ill-conditioned wounds
and for the frequent cleansing of the kennel.

'Epsom Salts', or 'Sulphate of Magnesia', are mild yet effective in
their action: with regard to cattle and sheep, they supersede every
other aperient; for the dog, however, they must yield to the castor-oil
mixture.

'Mercury'--The common mercurial ointment is now comparatively little
used. It has given way to the different preparations of iodine. In
direct and virulent mange, it is yet, however, employed under the form
of calomel, and combined with aloes, but in very small doses, never
exceeding three grains. It is also useful in farcy and jaundice. The
corrosive sublimate is occasionally used for mange in the dog, and to
destroy vermin; but it is a very uncertain and dangerous medicine.

'Palm Oil' would be an excellent emollient, if it were not so frequently
adulterated with turmeric root in powder. It is far milder than the
common lard.

'Nitrate of Potash' is a valuable cooling and mild diuretic, in doses of
eight or ten grains.

'Sulphur' is the basis of the most effectual applications for mange. It
is a good alterative, combined usually with antimonials and nitre, and
particularly useful in mange, surfeit, grease, hide-bound, and want of
condition.

'Turpentine' is an excellent diuretic and antispasmodic; it is also a
most effectual sweating blister and highly useful in strains.

'The Sulphate of Zinc' is valuable as an excitant to wounds, and
promotes adhesion between divided surfaces and the 'radix'.



[Footnote 1: The Horse, p. 501.]



       *       *       *       *       *



APPENDIX.


THE NEW LAWS OF COURSING,

'As Revised and Enlarged at a Meeting of Noblemen and Gentlemen, held at
the Thatched House Tavern, St. James's Street, June 1, 1839'.

I. Two stewards shall be appointed by the members at dinner each day, to
act in the field the following day, and to preside at dinner. They shall
regulate the plan of beating the ground, under the sanction of the owner
or occupier of the soil.

II. Three or five members, including the secretary for the time being,
shall form a Committee of Management, and shall name a person, for the
approbation of the members, to judge all courses--all doubtful cases
shall be referred to them.

III. All courses shall be from slips, by a brace of greyhounds only.

IV. The time of putting the first brace of dogs in the slips shall be
declared at dinner on the day preceding.  If a prize is to be run for,
and only one dog is ready, he shall run a by, and his owner shall
receive forfeit: should neither be ready, the course shall be run when
the Committee shall think fit. In a match, if only one dog be ready, his
owner shall receive forfeit; if neither be present, the match shall be
placed the last in the list.

V. If any person shall enter a greyhound by a name different from that
in which he last appeared in public, without giving notice of such
alteration, he shall be disqualified from winning, and shall forfeit his
match.

VI. No greyhounds shall be entered as puppies unless born on or after
the 1st of January of the year preceding the day of running.

VII. Any member, or other person, running a greyhound at the meeting,
having a dog at large which shall join in the course then running, shall
forfeit one sovereign; and, if belonging to either of the parties
running, the course shall be decided against him.

VIII. The judge ought to be in a position where he can see the dogs
leave the slips, and to decide by the colour of the dogs to a person
appointed for that purpose: his decision shall be final.

IX. If, in running for prizes, the judge shall be of opinion that the
course has not been of sufficient length to enable him to decide as to
the merits of the dogs, he shall inquire of the Committee whether he is
to decide the course or not; if in the negative, the dogs shall be
immediately put again into the slips.

X. The judge shall not answer any questions put to him regarding a
course, unless such questions are asked by the Committee.

XI. If any member make any observation in the hearing of the judge
respecting a course, during the time of running, or before he shall have
delivered his judgment, he shall forfeit one sovereign to the fund; and,
if either dog be his own, he shall lose the course. If he impugn the
decision of the judge, he shall forfeit two sovereigns.

XII. When a course of an average length is so equally divided that the
judge shall be unable to decide it, the owners of the dogs may toss for
it; but, if either refuse, the dogs shall be again put in the slips, at
such time as the Committee may think fit; but, if either dog be drawn,
the winning dog shall not be obliged to run again.

XIII. In running a match the judge may declare the course to be
undecided.

XIV. If a member shall enter more than one greyhound, 'bonâ fide' his
own property, for a prize, his dogs shall not run together, if it be
possible to avoid it; and, if two greyhounds, the property of the same
member, remain to the last tie, he may run it out or draw either, as he
shall think fit.

XV. When dogs engaged are of the same colour, the last drawn shall wear
a collar.

XVI. If a greyhound stand still in a course when a hare is in his or her
sight, the owner shall lose the course; but, if a greyhound drops from
exhaustion, and it shall be the opinion of the judge that the merit up
to the time of falling was greatly in his or her favour, then the judge
shall have power to award the course to the greyhound so falling, if he
think fit.

XVII. Should two hares be on foot, and the dogs separate before reaching
the hare slipped at, the course shall be undecided, and shall be run
over again at such time as the Committee shall think fit, unless the
owners of the dogs agree to toss for it, or to draw one dog; and if the
dogs separate after running some time, it shall be at the discretion of
the Committee whether the course shall be decided up to the point of
separation.

XVIII. A course shall end if either dog be so unsighted as to cause an
impediment in the course.

XIX. If any member or his servant ride over his opponent's dog when
running, so as to injure him in the course, the dog so ridden over shall
be deemed to win the course.

XX. It is recommended to all union meetings to appoint a committee of
five, consisting of members of different clubs, to determine all
difficulties and cases of doubt.


'The following general rules are recommended to judges for their
guidance:'

The features of merit are:

The race from slips, and the first turn or wrench of the hare (provided
it be a fair slip), and a straight run-up.

Where one dog gives the other a go-by when both are in their full speed,
and turns or wrenches the hare. (N. B. If one dog be in the stretch, and
the other only turning at the time he passes, it is not a fair go-by.)

Where one dog turns the hare when she is leading homewards, and keeps
the lead so as to serve himself, and makes a second turn of the hare
without losing the lead.

A catch or kill of the hare, when she is running straight and leading
homewards, is fully equal to a turn of the hare when running in the same
direction, or perhaps more, if he show the speed over the other dog in
doing it. If a dog draws the fleck from the hare, and causes her to
wrench or rick only, it is equal to a turn of the hare when leading
homewards.

When a dog wrenches or ricks a hare twice following, without losing the
lead, it is equal to a turn.

N. B. It often happens when a hare has been turned, and she is running
from home, that she turns of her own accord to gain ground homeward,
when both dogs are on the stretch after her; in such a case the judge
should not give the leading dog a turn.

There are often other minor advantages in a course, such as one dog
showing occasional superiority of speed, turning on less ground, and
running the whole course with more fire than his opponent, which must be
led to the discretion of the judge, who is to decide on the merits.


LOCAL RULES.

I. The number of members shall be regulated by the letters in the
Alphabet, and the two junior members shall take the letters X and Z, if
required.

II. The members shall be elected by ballot, seven to constitute a
ballot, and two black balls to exclude.

III. The name of every person proposed to be balloted for as a member,
shall be placed over the chimney-piece one day before the ballot can
take place.

IV. No proposition shall be balloted for unless put up over the
chimney-piece, with the names of the proposer and seconder, at or before
dinner preceding the day of the ballot, and read to the members at such
dinner.

V. Every member shall, at each meeting, run a greyhound his own
property, or forfeit a sovereign to the Club.

VI. No member shall be allowed to match more than two greyhounds in the
first class, under a penalty of two sovereigns to the fund, unless such
member has been drawn or run out for the prizes, in which case he shall
be allowed to run three dogs in the first class.

VII. If any member shall absent himself two seasons without sending his
subscription, he shall be deemed out of the Society, and another chosen
in his place.

VIII. No greyhound shall be allowed to start if any arrears are due to
this Society from the owner.

IX. Any member lending another a greyhound for the purpose of saving his
forfeit (excepting by consent of the members present) shall forfeit five
sovereigns.

X. Any member running the dog of a stranger in a match shall cause the
name of the owner to be inserted after his own name in the list, under a
penalty of one sovereign.

XI. No stranger shall be admitted into the Society's room, unless
introduced by a member, who shall place the name of his friend over the
chimney-piece, with his own attached to it; and no member shall
introduce more than one friend.

XII. The members of the [erased] Clubs shall be honorary members of this
Society, and when present shall be allowed to run their greyhounds on
payment of the annual subscription.

XIII. This Society to meet on the [erased] in [erased], and course on
the [erased] following days.



       *       *       *       *       *



INDEX.

Acupuncturation, used in neuralgic affections
                 mode of performing
Adam, Mr., on fungus hæmatodes
Adeps, the basis of all ointments
African wild dog, description of the
Agasæi, British hunting dogs, description of
Age, the indications of
Albanian dog, description of the
Alcohol, only used in tinctures
Alicant dog, description of the
Aloes, Barbadoes, the best purgative
Alpine spaniel, description of
Alteratives, the most useful
Alum, a powerful astringent
Amaurosis, symptoms of
American wild dogs, description of the
Anæmia, description of
        causes of
        'post-mortem' appearances
Anasarca, nature of
Andalusian dog, description of the
Angina, nature of
Antimony, the oxide of, a sudorific
          the black sesquisulphuret of, an alterative
Anubis, an Egyptian deity with the head of a dog
Anus, polypus in the
      fistula in the
Aquafortis, a caustic
Argus, the dog of Ulysses
Arrian on hunting
Artois dog, description of the
Ascarides, a species of worms
Ascites, 'see' Dropsy
Attention, an important faculty
Auscultation, use of
Australasian dog, description of the

Barbary dog, description of the
Barbet, description of the
Bark, Peruvian, a valuable tonic
Barry, a celebrated Bernardine dog, anecdote of
Bath, use of in puerperal fits
Beagle, description of the
Bell, Professor, opinion on the origin of the dog
Bernardine dog, description of the
Billy, a celebrated terrier
Bladder, inflammation of the
         rupture of the
Blain, nature, causes, treatment, and 'post-mortem' appearances of
Blaine, Mr., opinion on kennel lameness
                     on tetanus
                     on dropsy
                     on calculus
                     on distemper
                     on mange
Bleeding, best place for
          directions for
          useful in epilepsy
          useful in distemper
Blenheim spaniel, description of the
Blisters, uses of
          composition
          mode of applying and guarding
Bloodhound, description of the
Brain, comparative bulk of in different animals
       description of the
Breaking-in of hounds
       cruelty disadvantageous
Breeding of greyhounds
       should always be permitted
British hunting-dogs, Agasæi, description of
Bronchocele, nature of
             causes and treatment of
Búánsú, or Nepâl dog, description of
Buffon, opinion as to the origin of the dog
Bull-dog, description of the
          crossed with the greyhound
Bull terrier, description of the


Cæcum, description of the
Calculus, nature, causes, and treatment of,
          in the intestines, causes of,
          cases,
Calomel, a dangerous medicine
          should not be used in enteritis
Cancer, symptoms of
        treatment of
Canis, genus
Canker in the ear, causes, symptoms and treatment of
                   cases of
Canute, laws concerning greyhounds by
Cardia, description of the
Castor oil, a valuable purgative
Castration, proper time for
            mode of performing
            not recommended
Catechu, an astringent
Caustic, lunar, the best
Cayotte, description of the
Chabert, anecdote of the dog of
Chalk, an astringent
Charles I, anecdote of the dog of
Charles II's spaniel, description of
Chest, anatomy and diseases of the
       proper form of, in the greyhound
                       in the fox-hound
Chest-founder, nature, causes, and treatment of
Chloride of lime, uses of
Chorea, nature of, causes, treatment
        cases
        in distemper
Chryseus scylex, or dhole, description of the
Claret, a celebrated greyhound
Classification, zoological
Climate, effect of
Clysters, uses of
Coach-dog, description of the
Cocker, description of the
Colic, causes, symptoms, and treatment of
Colon, the
       rupture of the
Colour of the greyhound
       of the pointer
Constipation, causes and treatment of
Copper, preparations of, and their uses
Coryza, the early stage of distemper
Costiveness, causes and treatment of
             means of preventing
Cough, spasmodic, nature and treatment of
Coursing, Ovid's description of
          anecdotes of
          laws of
          general rules for the guidance of judges
          local rules
Creosote, a dangerous medicine
          useful in canker
Creta, an astringent
Cropping of the ears
          deafness frequently caused by
          disapproved of
          proper method of

Cross-breeding, effect of
Cuba, mastiff of
Cur, description of the
Cyprus, greyhounds of, described
Cynosaurus cristatus, an useful emetic
Czarina, a celebrated greyhound


Dakhun wild dog, description of the
Dalmatian dog, description of the
Danish sacrifices of dogs, description of