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´╗┐Title: Graded Lessons in English
 - An Elementary English Grammar Consisting of One Hundred Practical Lessons, Carefully Graded and Adapted to the Class-Room
Author: Kellogg, Brainerd, Reed, Alonzo
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Graded Lessons in English
 - An Elementary English Grammar Consisting of One Hundred Practical Lessons, Carefully Graded and Adapted to the Class-Room" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

** Transcriber's Notes **

Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in +pluses+ represent boldface;
words enclosed in /slashes/ represent underlined words. Words enclosed in
~tildes~ represent a wavy underline.

To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are

- The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals
  signs (==).
- Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (--).
- Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (\).
- Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no
  horizontal line under them.
- Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..)
- Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (')
- Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes  (`)
- Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this:

     ----, helping

- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like

      \   ting
** End Transcriber's Notes **















REED'S WORD LESSONS, A COMPLETE SPELLER. Designed to teach the correct
spelling, pronunciation, and use of such words only as are most common in
current literature, and as are most likely to be misspelled, mispronounced,
or misused, and to awaken new interest in the study of synonyms and of
word-analysis. 188 pages, 12mo.

REED'S INTRODUCTORY LANGUAGE WORK. A simple, varied, and pleasing, but
methodical series of exercises in English to precede the study of technical
grammar. 253 pages, 16mo, linen.

REED & KELLOGG'S GRADED LESSONS IN ENGLISH. An elementary English grammar,
consisting of one hundred practical lessons, carefully graded and adapted,
to the class-room. 215 pages, 16mo, linen.

REED & KELLOGG'S HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A work on English grammar and
composition, in which the science of the language is made tributary to the
art of expression. A course of practical lessons carefully graded, and
adapted to every-day use in the school-room. 386 pages, 16mo, cloth.

complete series of lessons in English grammar and composition based on the
natural development of the sentence. For schools that have not time to
complete more than one book on grammar. 328 pages, 16mo, cloth.

KELLOGG & REED'S WORD-BUILDING. Fifty lessons, combining Latin, Greek, and
Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes, and suffixes, into about fifty-five hundred
common derivative words in English; with a brief history of the English
language. 122 pages, 16mo, cloth.

KELLOGG & REED'S THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. A brief history of the grammatical
changes of the language and its vocabulary, with exercises on synonyms,
prefixes, suffixes, word-analysis, and word-building. A text-book for high
schools and colleges. 226 pages, 16mo, cloth.

KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON RHETORIC. Revised and enlarged edition.
Supplementing the development of the science with exhaustive practice in
composition. A course of practical lessons adapted for use in high schools,
academies, and lower classes of colleges. 345 pages, 12mo, cloth.

KELLOGG'S TEXT-BOOK ON ENGLISH LITERATURE. with copious extracts from the
leading authors, English and American, and full instructions as to the
method in which these books are to be studied. 485 pages, 12mo, cloth.


The plan of "Graded and Higher Lessons in English" will perhaps be better
understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this
course is brought into competition.

+Method of One Class of Text-books+.--In one class are those that aim
chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of
Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space
to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules,
declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,--work of which
a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has
little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing
his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful,
old-time method.

+Method of Another Class of Text-books+.--In another class are those that
present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling,
Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General
Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these
books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some
scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected,
and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good
text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a
clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or
its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words+.--It is the plan of
this course to trace with easy steps the natural development of the
sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the
details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to
disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely
intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only
by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices
and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to
discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic
whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not
because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls
into such errors as "How many sounds _have_ each of the vowels?" "Five
years' interest _are_ due." "She is older than _me_." He probably would not
say "each _have_," "interest _are_," "_me_ am." One thoroughly familiar
with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using
correctly the few inflectional forms in English.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse+.--Through the study
of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts
of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws
of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of
unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of
good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or
unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the
sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts
in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every
element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He
should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that,
when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the
difficulty and the remedy for it.

+The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation+.--The laws of
thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the
sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a
knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign
language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own
language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be
his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of
the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation,
since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those
of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are
beginning to appreciate these facts.

+The Study of the Sentence for Discipline+.--As a means of discipline
nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the
sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to
discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts
of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils
thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come
to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These
results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced
teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the
beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and
little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be
gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To
compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as
"complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional
adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is
grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for

+Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence+.--Teachers familiar
with text books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight
parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following
lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is
remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the
sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of
sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of
the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to
continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The
inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a
separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable
one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent.

+Sentences in Groups--Paragraphs+.--In tracing the growth of the sentence
from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is
introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen
with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil
to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand.
Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with
questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to
prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons
on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They
lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into
paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead
him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the
several models presented.

+The Use of the Diagram+.--In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram,
found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly
and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence,
of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase--to picture
the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts
in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture,
that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole
made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various
relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing
all these things by piecemeal or in succession.

But, if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they
may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of
this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams.

+The Objections to the Diagram+.--The fact that the pictorial diagram
groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations,
and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is on the
contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary
order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary
order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as
the logical relations are kept clear.

The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne
out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in
written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of
the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a
decision on every point.

+The Abuse of the Diagram+.--Analysis by diagram often becomes so
interesting and so helpful that, like other good things, it is liable to be
overdone. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. When the
ordinary constructions have been made clear, diagrams should be used only
for the more difficult sentences, or, if the sentences are long, only for
the more difficult parts of them. In both oral and written analysis there
is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. When the diagram has
served its purpose, it should be dropped.


The exercises in composition found in the numbered Lessons of this book are
generally confined to the illustration and the practical application of the
principles of the science as these principles are developed step by step.
To break up the continuity of the text by thrusting unrelated composition
work between lessons closely related and mutually dependent is exceedingly

The Composition Exercises suggested in this revision of "Graded Lessons"
are designed to review the regular Lessons and to prepare in a broad,
informal way for text work that follows. But since these Exercises go much
farther, and teach the pupil how to construct paragraphs and how to observe
and imitate what is good in different authors, they are placed in a
supplement, and not between consecutive Lessons of the text.

To let such general composition work take the place of the regular grammar
lesson, say once a week, will be profitable. We suggest that the sentence
work on the selections in the Supplement be made to follow Lessons 30, 40,
50, 60, 70, 77; but each teacher must determine for himself when these and
the other outlined lessons can best be used. We advise that other
selections from literature be made and these exercises continued with the
treatment of the parts of speech.

For composition work to precede Lesson 30 we suggest that the teacher break
up a short story of one or two paragraphs into simple sentences, making
some of these transposed, some interrogative, and some exclamatory. The
pupils may be required to copy these, to underline the subject and the
predicate, and to tell, in answer to suggestive questions, what some of the
other words and groups of words do (the questions on the selections in the
Supplement may aid the teacher). The pupils may then write out the story in
full form. To vary the exercise, the teacher might read the story and let
the pupils write out the short sentences.


The teacher is recommended, before assigning any lesson, to occupy the time
of at least two or three recitations, in talking with his pupils about
language, always remembering that, in order to secure the interest of his
class, he must allow his pupils to take an active part in the exercise. The
teacher should guide the thought of his class; but, if he attempt to do
_all the talking_, he will find, when he concludes, that he has been
left to do _all the thinking_.

We give below a few hints in conducting this talk on language, but the
teacher is not expected to confine himself to them. He will, of course, be
compelled, in some instances, to resort to various devices in order to
obtain from the pupils answers equivalent to those here suggested.


+Teacher+.--I will pronounce these three sounds very slowly and distinctly,
thus: _b-u-d_. Notice, it is the _power_, or _sound_, of the letter, and
not its name, that I give. What did you hear?

+Pupil+.--I heard three sounds.

+T.--+Give them. I will write on the board, so that you can see them, three
letters--_b-u-d_. Are these letters, taken separately, signs to you of

+P.--+Yes, they are signs to me of the three sounds that I have just heard.

+T.--+What then do these letters, taken separately, picture to your eye?

+P.--+They picture the sounds that came to my ear.

+T+.--Letters then are the signs of what?

+P.--Letters are the signs of sounds+.

+T+.--I will pronounce the same three sounds more rapidly, uniting them
more closely--_bud_. These sounds, so united, form a spoken word. Of what
do you think when you hear the word _bud_?

+P+.--I think of a little round thing that grows to be a leafy branch or a

+T+.--Did you see the thing when you were thinking of it?


+T+.--Then you must have had a picture of it in your mind. We call this
+mental picture+ an +idea+. What called up this idea?

+P+.--It was called up by the word _bud_, which I heard.

+T+.--A _spoken word_ then is the sign of what?

+P.--A spoken word is the sign of an idea+.

+T+.--I will call up the same idea in another way. I will _write_ three
_letters_ and unite them thus: _bud_. What do you see?

+P+.--I see the word _bud_.

+T+.--If we call the other word _bud_ a _spoken_ word, what shall we call

+P+.--This is a _written_ word.

+T+.--If they stand for the same idea, how do they differ?

+P+.--I _see_ this, and I _heard_ that.

+T+.--You will observe that we have called attention to _four_ different
things; viz., the +real bud+; your _mental picture_ of the bud, which we
have called an +idea+; and the +two words+, which we have called signs of
this idea, the one addressed to the ear, and the other to the eye.

If the pupil be brought to see these distinctions, it may aid him to
observe more closely and express himself more clearly.


+Teacher+.--What did you learn in the previous Lesson?

+Pupil+.--I learned that a spoken word is composed of certain sounds, and
that letters are signs of sounds, and that spoken and written words are the
signs of ideas.

This question should be passed from one pupil to another till all of these
answers are elicited.

All the written words in all the English books ever made, are formed of
twenty-six letters, representing about forty sounds. These letters and
these sounds make up what is called artificial language.

Of these twenty-six letters, +a, e, i, o, u+, and sometimes +w+ and +y+,
are called +vowels+, and the remainder are called +consonants+.

In order that you may understand what kind of sounds the vowels stand for,
and what kinds the consonants represent, I will tell you something about
the _human voice_.

The air breathed out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles,
stretched like strings across the top of the windpipe, and causes them to
vibrate. This vibrating makes sound. Take a thread, put one end between
your teeth, hold the other in your fingers, draw it tight and strike it,
and you will understand how voice is made.

If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open, a
class of sounds is formed which we call _vowel_ sounds.

But, if the voice is held back by your palate, tongue, teeth, or lips,
_one_ kind of _consonant_ sounds is made. If the _breath_ is driven out
_without voice_, and is held back by these same parts of the mouth, the
_other_ kind of _consonant_ sounds is formed. Ex. of both: _b, d, g; p, t,

The teacher and pupils should practice on these sounds till the three kinds
can easily be distinguished.

You are now prepared to understand what I mean when I say that the +vowels+
are the +letters+ which stand for the +open sounds of the voice+, and that
the +consonants+ are the +letters+ which stand for the sounds made by the
+obstructed voice+ and the +obstructed breath+.

The teacher can here profitably spend a few minutes in showing how ideas
may be communicated by _Natural Language_, the language of _sighs, groans,
gestures_ of the hands, _attitudes_ of the body, _expressions_ of the face,
_tones_ of the voice, etc. He can show that, in conversation, we sometimes
couple this _Natural Language_ of _tone_ and _gesture_ with our language of
words, in order to make a stronger impression. Let the pupil be told that,
if the passage contain feeling, he should do the same in _Reading_ and

Let the following definitions be learned, and given at the next recitation.

+DEFINITION.--Artificial Language, or _Language Proper_, consists of the
spoken and written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts+.

+DEFINITION.--_English Grammar_ is the science which teaches the forms,
uses, and relations of the words of the English Language+.


Let the pupils be required to tell what they learned in the previous

+Teacher+.--When I pronounce the two words _star_ and _bud_ thus: _star
bud_, how many ideas, or mental pictures, do I call up to you?


+T+.--Do you see any connection between these ideas?


+T+.--When I utter the two words _bud_ and _swelling_, thus: _bud
swelling_, do you see any connection in the ideas they stand for?

+P+.--Yes, I imagine that I see a bud expanding, or growing larger.

+T+.--I will connect two words more closely, so as to express a thought:
_Buds swell_. A thought has been formed in my mind when I say, _Buds
swell_; and these two words, in which something is said of something else,
express that thought, and make what we call a _sentence_. In the former
expression, _bud swelling_ it is assumed, or taken for granted, that buds
perform the act; in the latter, the swelling is asserted as a fact.

_Leaves falling_. Do these two words express two ideas merely associated,
or do they express a thought?

+P+.--They express ideas merely associated.

+T+.--_Leaves fall_.

Same question.

+P+.--A thought.


+P+.--Because, in these words, there is something _said_ or _asserted_ of

+T+.--When I say, _Falling leaves rustle_, does _falling_ tell what is
thought of leaves?


+T+.--What does _falling_ do?

+P+.--It tells the _kind_ of leaves you are thinking and speaking of.

+T+.--What word _does_ tell what is thought of leaves?


+T+.--You see then that in the thought there are two parts; something of
which we think, and that which we think about it.

Let the pupils give other examples.


Commit to memory all definitions.

+DEFINITION.--A _Sentence_ is the expression of a thought in words+.

Which of the following expressions contain words that have _no connection_,
which contain words _merely associated_, and which are _sentences_?

1. Flowers bloom.
2. Ice melts.
3. Bloom ice.
4. Grass grows.
5. Brooks babble.
6. Babbling brooks.
7. Grass soar.
8. Doors open.
9. Open doors.
10. Cows graze.
11. Curling smoke.
12. Sugar graze.
13. Dew sparkles.
14. Hissing serpents.
15. Smoke curls.
16. Serpents hiss.
17. Smoke curling.
18. Serpents sparkles.
19. Melting babble.
20. Eagles soar.
21. Birds chirping.
22. Birds are chirping.
23. Birds chirp.
24. Gentle cows.
25. Eagles are soaring.
26. Bees ice.
27. Working bees.
28. Bees work.
29. Crawling serpents.
30. Landscape piano.
31. Serpents crawl.
32. Eagles clock.
33. Serpents crawling.



Illustrate, by the use of _a_, _b_, and _p_, the difference between the
_sounds_ of letters and their _names_. Letters are the signs of what? What
is an idea? A _spoken_ word is the sign of what? A _written_ word is the
sign of what? How do they differ? To what four different things did we call
attention in Lesson 1?

How are _vowel_ sounds made? How are the two kinds of _consonant_ sounds
made? What are vowels? Name them. What are consonants? What is artificial
language, or language proper? What do you understand by natural language?
What is English grammar?

What three kinds of expressions are spoken of in Lessons 3 and 4? Give
examples of each. What is a sentence?



On the following sentences, let the pupils be exercised according to the

+Model+.--_Intemperance degrades_. Why is this a _sentence?_ Ans.--Because
it expresses a thought. Of what is something thought? Ans.--Intemperance.
Which word tells what is thought? Ans.--_Degrades_.

1. Magnets attract.
2. Horses neigh.
3. Frogs leap.
4. Cold contracts.
5. Sunbeams dance.
6. Heat expands.
7. Sunlight gleams.
8. Banners wave.
9. Grass withers.
10. Sailors climb.
11. Rabbits burrow.
12. Spring advances.

You see that in these sentences there are two parts. The parts are the
_+Subject+_ and the _+Predicate+_.

+DEFINITION.--The _Subject of a sentence_ names that of which something is

+DEFINITION.--The _Predicate of a sentence_ tells what is thought+.

+DEFINITION.--The _Analysis of a sentence_ is the separation of it into its

Analyze, according to the model, the following sentences.

+Model+.--_Stars twinkle_. This is a _sentence_, because it expresses a
thought. _Stars_ is the _subject_, because it names that of which something
is thought; _twinkle_ is the _predicate_, because it tells what is thought.

+To the Teacher+.--After the pupils become familiar with the definitions,
the "Models" may be varied, and some of the reasons maybe made specific;
as, "_Plants_ names the things we tell about; _droop_ tells what plants
do," etc.

Guard against needless repetition.

1. Plants droop.
2. Books help.
3. Clouds float.
4. Exercise strengthens.
5. Rain falls.
6. Time flies.
7. Rowdies fight.
8. Bread nourishes.
9. Boats capsize.
10. Water flows.
11. Students learn.
12. Horses gallop.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--I will draw on the board a heavy, or shaded,
line, and divide it into two parts, thus:


We will consider the first part as the sign of the _subject_ of a
sentence, and the second part as the sign of the _predicate_ of a

Now, if I write a word over the first line, thus--(doing it)--you will
understand that that word is the subject of a sentence. If I write a word
over the second line, thus--you will understand that that word is the
predicate of a sentence.

  Planets   |  revolve

The class can see by this picture that _Planets revolve_ is a sentence,
that _planets_ is the subject, and that _revolve_ is the predicate.

These signs, or illustrations, made up of straight lines, we call

+DEFINITION.--A _Diagram_ is a picture of the offices and relations of the
different parts of a sentence+.

_Analyze_ and _diagram_ the following sentences.

1. Waves dash.
2. Kings reign.
3. Fruit ripens.
4. Stars shine.
5. Steel tarnishes.
6. Insects buzz.
7. Paul preached.
8. Poets sing.
9. Nero fiddled.
10. Larks sing.
11. Water ripples.
12. Lambs frisk.
13. Lions roar.
14. Tigers growl.
15. Breezes sigh.
16. Carthage fell.
17. Morning dawns.
18. Showers descended.
19. Diamonds sparkle.
20. Alexander conquered.
21. Jupiter thunders.
22. Columbus sailed,
23. Grammarians differ.
24. Cornwallis surrendered.

       *       *       *       *       *



You have now learned to analyze sentences, that is, to separate them into
their parts. You must next learn to put these parts together, that is, to
_build sentences_.

We will find one part, and you must find the other and do the building.

+To the Teacher+.--Let some of the pupils write their sentences on the
board, while others are reading theirs. Then let the work on the board be

Correct any expression that does not make _good sense_, or that asserts
something not strictly true; for the pupil should early be taught to _think
accurately_, as well as to write and speak grammatically.

Correct all mistakes in _spelling_, and in the use of _capital letters_ and
the _period_.

Call attention to the agreement in form of the predicate with the subject.
See Notes, p. 163.

Insist on neatness. Collect the papers before the recitation closes.

+CAPITAL LETTER-RULE.--The first word of every sentence must begin with a
_capital letter_+.

+PERIOD--RULE.--A _period_ must be placed after every sentence that simply
affirms, denies, or expresses a command+.

Construct sentences by supplying a _subject_ to each of the following

Ask yourself the question, What swim, sink, hunt, etc.?

1. ---- swim.
2. ---- sinks.
3. ---- hunt.
4. ---- skate.
5. ---- jingle.
6. ---- decay.
7. ---- climb.
8. ---- creep.
9. ---- run.
10. ---- walk.
11. ---- snort.
12. ---- kick.
13. ---- flashes.
14. ---- flutters.
15. ---- paddle.
16. ---- toil.
17. ---- terrifies.
18. ---- rages.
19. ---- expand.
20. ---- jump.
21. ---- hop.
22. ---- bellow.
23. ---- burns.
24. ---- evaporates.

This exercise may profitably be extended by requiring the pupils to supply
_several_ subjects to each predicate.



Construct sentences by supplying a _predicate_ to each of the following

Ask yourself the question, Artists do what?

1. Artists ----.
2. Sailors ----.
3. Tides ----.
4. Whales ----.
5. Gentlemen ----.
6. Swine ----.
7. Clouds ----.
8. Girls ----.
9. Fruit ----.
10. Powder ----.
11. Hail ----.
12. Foxes ----.
13. Water ----.
14. Frost ----.
15. Man ----.
16. Blood ----.
17. Kings ----.
18. Lilies ----.
19. Roses ----.
20. Wheels ----.
21. Waves ----.
22. Dew ----.
23. Boys ----.
24. Volcanoes ----.
25. Storms ----.
26. Politicians ----.
27. Serpents ----.
28. Chimneys ----.
29. Owls ----.
30. Rivers ----.
31. Nations ----.
32. Indians ----.
33. Grain ----.
34. Rogues ----.
34. Volcanoes ----.
35. Rome ----.
36. Briars ----.

This exercise may be extended by requiring the pupils to supply several
predicates to each subject.



Of what two parts does a sentence consist? What is the subject of a
sentence? What is the predicate of a sentence? What is the analysis of a

What is a diagram? What rule for the use of capital letters have you
learned? What rule for the period?

Impromptu Exercise.

Let the pupils "choose sides," as in a spelling match. Let the teacher
select _predicates_ from Lesson 8, and give them alternately to the pupils
thus arranged. The first pupil prefixes to his word whatever suitable
subjects he can think of, the teacher judging of their fitness and keeping
the count. This pupil now rises and remains standing until some one else,
on his side or the other, shall have prefixed to his word a greater number
of apt subjects. The strife is to see who shall be standing at the close of
the match, and which side shall have furnished the greater number of
subjects. The exercise may be continued with the _subjects_ of Lesson 9.
Each pupil is to be limited to the same time--one or two minutes.



The +_predicate_+ sometimes contains +_more than one word_+.

_Analyze_ and _diagram_ according to the model.

+Model+.--_Socrates was poisoned_.

  Socrates  |  was poisoned

This is a sentence, because it expresses a thought. _Socrates_ is the
subject, because ----; _was poisoned_ is the predicate, because ----.
[Footnote: The word _because_--suggesting a reason--should be dropped from
these "+Models+" whenever it may lead to mere mechanical repetition.]

1. Napoleon was banished.
2. Andre was captured.
3. Money is circulated.
4. Columbus was imprisoned.
5. Acorns are sprouting.
6. Bells are tolled.
7. Summer has come.
8. Sentences may be analyzed.
9. Clouds are reddening.
10. Air may be weighed.
11. Jehovah shall reign.
12. Corn is planted.
13. Grammarians will differ.
14. Snow is falling.
15. Leaves are rustling.
16. Children will prattle.
17. Crickets are chirping.
18. Eclipses have been foretold.
19. Storms may abate.
20. Deception may have been practiced.
21. Esau was hated.
22. Treason should have been punished.
23. Bees are humming.
24. Sodom might have been spared.



+To the Teacher+.--Continue oral and written exercises in agreement. See
Notes, pp. 163,164.

Prefix the little helping words in the _second column_ to such of the more
important words in the _third column_ as with them will make complete
predicates, and join these predicates to all subjects in the _first column_
with which they will unite to make good sense.

     1       |        2        |     3
Burgoyne     | are             | woven.
Henry Hudson | was             | defeated.
Sparrows     | can be          | condensed.
Comets       | is              | inhaled.
Time         | have been       | worn.
Turbans      | may be          | slacked.
Lime         | has been        | wasted.
Steam        | could have been | seen.
Air          | must have been  | deceived.
Carpets      | were            | quarreling.


Point out the _subject_ and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 28,
31, 34.

Look first for the word that asserts, and then, by putting _who_ or _what_
before this _predicate_, the _subject_ may easily be found.

+To the Teacher+.--Most violations of the rules of concord come from a
failure to recognize the relation of subject and predicate when these parts
are transposed or are separated by other words. Such constructions should
therefore receive special attention. See Notes, pp. 164, 165.

Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this
recitation. See "Hints for Oral Instruction."

See "Suggestions for COMPOSITION EXERCISES," p. 8, last paragraph.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--By the assistance of the few hints here
given, the ingenious teacher may render this usually dry subject
interesting and highly attractive. By questioning the pupil as to what he
has seen and heard, his interest may be excited and his curiosity awakened.

Suppose that we make an imaginary excursion to some pleasant field or
grove, where we may study the habits, the plumage, and the songs of the
little birds.

If we attempt to make the acquaintance of every little feathered singer we
meet, we shall never get to the end of our pleasant task: but we find that
some resemble one another in size, shape, color, habits, and song. These we
associate together and call them sparrows.

We find others differing essentially from the sparrows, but resembling one
another. These we call robins.

We thus find that, although we were unable to become acquainted with each
_individual_ bird, they all belong to a few _classes_, with which we may
soon become familiar.

It is so with the words of our language. There are many thousand words, all
of which belong to eight classes.

These classes of words are called +Parts of Speech+.

We classify birds according to their form, color, etc., but we group words
into _classes_, called +Parts of Speech+, with respect to their use in the

We find that many words are names. These we put in one class and call them

Each pupil may give the name of something in the room; the name of a
distinguished person; a name that may be applied to a class of persons; the
name of an animal; the name of a place: the name of a river; the name of a
mountain; the name of something which we cannot see or touch, but of which
we can think; as, _beauty_, _mind_.

Remind the pupils frequently that these _names_ are all _nouns_.


+DEFINITION.--A _Noun_ is the name of anything+.

Write in columns, headed _nouns_, the names of domestic animals, of garden
vegetables, of flowers, of trees, of articles sold in a dry goods store,
and of things that cannot be seen or touched; as, _virtue_, _time_, _life_.

Write and arrange, according to the following model, the names of things
that can _float_, _fly_, _walk_, _work_, _sit_, or _sing_.

          Cork   |
          Clouds |
+Model+.--Wood   + floats or float.
          Ships  |
          Boys   |

Such expressions as _Cork floats_ are _sentences_, and the nouns _cork_,
_ship_, etc., are the subjects. You will find that _+every subject+ is a
+noun+ or some word or words used for a noun_.

Be prepared to analyze and parse the sentences which you have made. _Naming
the class to which a word belongs is the first step in parsing_.

+Model for Analysis+.--This is a sentence, because -----; _cork_ is the
subject, because -----; _floats_ is the predicate, because -----.

+Parsing+.--_Cork_ is a _noun_, because it is the name of a thing--the bark
of a tree.


Select and write all the nouns in the sentences given in Lessons 28, 31,

Tell why they are nouns.

In writing the nouns, observe the following rule.

+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--Every proper or individual name must begin with a
capital letter+.

+To the Teacher+.--See Notes, pp. 167-169.


With respect to what, do we classify words (Lesson 14)? What are such
classes called? Can you illustrate this classification? What are all names?
What is a noun? What is the first step in parsing? What is the rule for
writing individual names?



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--We propose to introduce you now to another
class of words. (The teacher may here refer to the talk about birds.)

You have learned that one very large class of words consists of _names of
things_. There is another very important class of words used to tell what
these things _do_, or used to _express_ their _existence_.

When I say, _Plants grow_, is _grow_ the name of anything? +P+.--No.
+T+.--What does it do? +P+.--It tells what plants _do_. It _expresses

+T+.--When I say, _God is_, what does _is_ express? +P+.--It expresses
_existence_, or _being_.

+T+.--When I say, _George sleeps_, _sleeps_ expresses _being_ and something
more; it tells the condition, or _state_ in which George is, or exists,
that is, it expresses _state of being_.

All the words that assert _action, being_, or _state of being_, we call

Let the teacher write nouns on the board, and require the pupils to give
all the words of which they can think, telling what the things named can
do. They may be arranged thus:--

_Noun_.  _Verbs_.
       | grow,
       | droop,
Plants + decay,
       | flourish,
       | revive.

Each pupil may give a verb that expresses an action of the body; as _weep,
sing_; an action of the mind; as, _study, love_; one that expresses being
or state of being.

+DEFINITION.--A _Verb_ is a word that asserts action, being, or state of

The office of the verb in all its forms, except two (the participle and the
infinitive, see Lessons 48 and 49), is to +_assert_+. This it does whether
the sentence affirms, denies, or asks a question.

+To the Teacher+.--In the exercises of this and the next two Lessons, let
the pupils note the agreement of the verb with its subject. See Notes, pp.

Supply, to each of the following _nouns_, as many appropriate _verbs_ as
you can think of.

Let some express _being_ or _state of being_.

Water ----.
Wind ----.
Pens ----.
Parrots ----.
Vines ----.
Farmers ----.
Trees ----.
Ministers ----.

One verb may consist of _two, three_, or _four_ words; as, _is singing,
will be sung, might have been sung_.

Form _verbs_ by combining the words in columns 2 and 3, and add these verbs
to all the _nouns_ in column 1 with which they appropriately combine.

  1    |       2          |    3
Laws   | has been         | published.
Clouds | have been        | paid.
Food   | will be          | restored.
Health | should have been | preserved.
Taxes  | may be           | collected.
Books  | are              | obeyed.

The examples you have written are sentences; the _nouns_ are _subjects_,
and the _verbs_ are _predicates_.

As verbs are the only words that assert, _+every predicate+ must be a
+verb+, or must contain a verb_.

Be prepared to _analyze and parse five of the sentences_ that you have

+Model+.--_Laws are obeyed_. Diagram and analyze as in Lesson 11.

+Parsing+.--_Laws_ is a noun, because----; _are obeyed_ is a _verb_,
because it asserts action.


Select and write all the verbs in the sentences given in Lessons 28, 31,
34, and tell why they are verbs.



From the following nouns and verbs, build as many sentences as possible,
taking care that every one makes good sense.

Poems, was conquered, lambs, rebellion, stars, forests, shone, were seen,
were written, treason, patriots, meteors, fought, were discovered, frisk,
Cain, have fallen, fled, stream, have crumbled, day, ages, deer, are
flickering, are bounding, gleamed, voices, lamps, rays, were heard, are
gathering, time, death, friends, is coming, will come.

+To the Teacher+.--Before this recitation closes, let the teacher open up
the subject of Lesson 19. See "Hints for Oral Instruction."



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--We propose to introduce you now to the
_third part of speech_. +T.--+If I should ask who whispered, and some boy
should promptly confess, what would he say? +P.--+_I_ whispered.
+T.--+Would he mention his own name? +P.--+No. +T.--+What word would he use
instead? +P.--+_I_.

+T.--+Suppose that I had _spoken to_ that boy and had accused him of
whispering, how should I have addressed him without mentioning his name?
+P.--+_You_ whispered. +T.--+What word would be used instead of the name of
the boy _to_ whom I spoke? +P.--+_You_.

+T.--+Suppose that, without using his name, I had told you what he did,
what should I have said? +P.--+_He_ whispered. +T.--+What word would have
been used instead of the name of the boy _of_ whom I spoke? +P.--+_He_.

(Repeat these questions and suppose the pupil to be a girl.)

+T.--+If I should tell that boy to close his book, when his book was
already closed, what would he say without mentioning the word book?
+P.--+_It_ is closed.

+T.--+If I should accuse several of you of whispering, and one should speak
for himself and for the others whispering with him, what would he say? _We_

+T--+Suppose that a boy should inform me that all of the boys on that seat
had whispered, what would he say? +P.--+_They_ whispered.

_I, you, he, she, it, we_, and _they_ are not names, but they are used
instead of names. We call such words +Pronouns+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Pronoun_ is a word used for a noun+.

+CAPITAL LETTERS--RULE.--The words _I_ and _O_ should be written in capital

Analysis and Parsing.

+Model.--+_You will be rewarded_.

+Oral Analysis--+This is a sentence, because----; _you_ is the subject,
because----; _will be rewarded_ is the predicate, because----.

+Parsing.--+_You_ is a _pronoun_, because it stands for the name of the
person spoken to; _will be rewarded_ is a verb, because----.

1. We think.
2. She prattles.
3. We have recited.
4. I study.
5. You have been seen.
6. It has been decided.
7. He was punished.
8. They are conquered.
9. Thou art adored.

Compose nine similar sentences, using a pronoun for the subject of each,
and diagram them.

+To the Teacher.--+Call special attention to the agreement of the verb with
_I_ and _you_. See Notes, p. 164.

Before this recitation closes, explain "Modified Subject." See "Hints for
Oral Instruction."



+Hints for Oral Instruction.--+The _Subject_ and the _Predicate_ may be
considered as the foundation on which every sentence is built. No sentence
can be constructed without them.

You have already learned that these parts _alone_, sometimes make a
complete structure; but we are about to show you that they are often used
as the foundation of a structure, which is completed by adding _other_

I hold in my hand several pieces of metal, with letters and other
characters stamped on them. What do you say I have in my hand? +P+.--Money.
+T.--+Yes. What other word can you use? +P.--+_Coin_. +T.--+Yes. I will
write on the board this sentence: _Coin is stamped_.

The subject _coin_ is a general name for all such pieces of metal. I will
write the word _the_ before this sentence. _The coin is stamped_. I have
now made an assertion about one particular coin, so the meaning of the
subject is limited by joining the word _the_.

I can again limit the meaning of the subject by putting the word _a_ before
it. The assertion is now about one coin, but no particular one. I point to
the piece near me and say, _This coin is stamped_. I point to the one
farther from me and say, _That coin is stamped_.

When words are joined to the subject to limit its meaning, we say that the
subject is _modified_.

The words _the, a, this_, and _that_ modify the subject by limiting the
word to one coin, or to one particular coin.

We can modify the subject by joining some word which will tell what _kind_
of coin is meant.

Here is a coin dated 18--. We can say, _The new coin is stamped_. Here the
word _new_ tells what kind of coin is meant. What other words can I use to
modify _coin_? +P.--+_Beautiful, bright, new, round, silver_. +T.--+These
words _beautiful, bright, new, round_, and _silver_ modify the subject by
telling the qualities of the coin.

We call the words _the, beautiful_, etc., +Modifiers+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Modifier_ is a word or group of words joined to some part
of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning+.

The +_Subject_+ with its +_Modifiers_+ is called the +_Modified Subject_+.


Analyze and diagram the following sentences.

+Model.--+_The genial summer days have come_.

       days          |  have come
\The \genial \summer |

+Explanation of the Diagram.--+The lighter lines, joined to the subject
line, stand for the _modifiers_, the less important parts.

+Oral Analysis.--+This is a sentence, because----; _days_ is the subject,
because----; _have come_ is the predicate, because----; _The, genial_, and
_summer_ are _modifiers_ of the subject, because they are words joined to
the subject to modify its meaning. _The genial summer days_ is the
_modified subject_.

+To the Teacher.--+To excite thought and guard against mere routine, pupils
may, so far as they are able, make the reasons specific. For example,
"_The_ points out some particular clouds, _dark_ tells their color," etc.

Here and elsewhere the teacher must determine how far it is profitable to
follow "Models." There is great danger of wasting time in repeating forms
that require no mental effort.

1. The angry wind is howling.
2. The dead leaves fall.
3. The dark clouds lower.
4. The tall elm bends.
5. All men must die.
6. The lusty bellows roared.
7. A boding silence reigned.
8. Little Arthur was murdered.
9. The mighty oak was uprooted.
10. The fragile violet was crushed.
11. The beautiful marble statue was carved.
12. The turbid torrent roared.
13. The affrighted shepherds fled.
14. The vivid lightning flashes.
15. Those elegant Etruscan vases are broken.


What is a verb? Give examples of verbs of action. Of being. Of state of
being. May a verb consist of more than one word? Illustrate. Verbs are the
only words that do what? What must every predicate contain?

What parts of speech are explained in the preceding Lessons? What is a
pronoun? Give the rule for writing the words _I_ and _0_.

What is the foundation on which every sentence is built? May the subject be
modified? What is a modifier? What is the modified subject?



We have here prepared the foundations of sentences which you are to
complete by writing two or more suitable modifiers to each subject. Be
careful to choose and arrange your material so as to make a neat and
appropriate structure.

+Model+.---------- eminence was reached.
      _That lofty_ eminence was reached.

1. ---- speaker was applauded.
2. ---- difficulties were overcome.
3. ---- leaf trembles.
4. ---- accident happened.
5. ---- books should be read.
6. ---- houses are built.
7. ---- soldiers perished.
8. ---- opinions prevailed.
9. ---- leader fell.
10. ---- task is completed.

For other subjects and predicates, the teacher is referred to Lessons 7 and

Build sentences by prefixing _modified subjects_ to the following

1. ---- frolic.
2. ---- crawl.
3. ---- are dashing.
4. ---- was caught.
5. ---- escaped.
6. ---- chatter.
7. ---- flourished.
8. ---- whistles.

Build, on each of the following subjects, three sentences similar to those
in the model.

+Model+ ------------- sun ---------------

      _The bright_    sun _is shining_.
      _The glorious_  sun _has risen_.
      _The unclouded_ sun _is sinking_.

1. ---- snow ----.
2. ---- dew ----.
3. ---- wind ----.
4. ---- landscape ----.

+To the Teacher+.--Please take notice that the next Lesson begins with
"Hints for Oral Instruction."



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--You are now prepared to consider the _fourth
part of speech_. Those words that are added to the subject to modify its
meaning are called +Adjectives+.

Some grammarians have formed a separate class of the little words _the_,
and _an_ or _a_, calling them _articles_.

I will write the word _boys_ on the board, and you may name adjectives that
will appropriately modify it. As you give them, _I_ will write these
adjectives in a column.


small    |
large    |
white    |
black    |
straight + boys.
crooked  |
five     |
some     |
all      |

What words here modify _boys_ by adding the idea of size? What by adding
the idea of color? What by adding the idea of form? What by adding the idea
of number? What are such words called? Why?

Let the teacher name familiar objects and require the pupils to join
appropriate adjectives to the names till their stock is exhausted.

+DEFINITION.--An _Adjective_ is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+.

Analysis and Parsing.

+Model+.--_A fearful storm was raging_. Diagram and analyze as in Lesson

+Written Parsing+.

_Nouns_. | _Pronouns_. | _Adjectives_. | _Verbs_.
storm    | ----        | A fearful     | was raging.

+Oral Parsing+.--_A_ is an _adjective_, because it is joined to the noun
_storm_, to modify its meaning; _fearful_ is an _adjective_, because
------; _storm_ is a noun, because ------; _was raging_ is a verb, because

1. The rosy morn advances.
2. The humble boon was obtained.
3. An unyielding firmness was displayed.
4. The whole earth smiles.
5. Several subsequent voyages were made.
6. That burly mastiff must be secured.
7. The slender greyhound was released.
8. The cold November rain is falling.
9. That valuable English watch has been sold.
10. I alone have escaped.
11. Both positions can be defended.
12. All such discussions should have been avoided.
13. That dilapidated old wooden building has fallen.

+To the Teacher+.--See Notes, pp. 169, 170.



Prefix five adjectives to each of the following nouns.

Shrubs, wilderness, beggar, cattle, cloud.

Write ten sentences with modified subjects, using in each two or more of
the following adjectives.

A, an, the, heroic, one, all, many, every, either, first, tenth, frugal,
great, good, wise, honest, immense, square, circular, oblong, oval, mild,
virtuous, universal, sweet, careless, fragrant.

Write five sentences with modified subjects, each of which shall contain
one of the following words as a subject.

Chimney, hay, coach, robber, horizon.

_An_ and _a_ are forms of the same word, once spelled _an_, and meaning
_one_. After losing something of this force, _an_ was still used before
vowels and consonants alike; as, _an eagle, an ball, an hair, an use_.
Still later, and for the sake of ease in speaking, the word came to have
the two forms mentioned above; and an was retained before letters having
vowel sounds, but it dropped its _n_ and became _a_ before letters having
consonant sounds. This is the present usage.


A apple; a obedient child; an brickbat; an busy boy.


A heir; a hour; a honor.

Notice, the first letter of these words is _silent_.


An unit; an utensil; an university; an ewe; an ewer; an union; an use; an
history; an one.

_Unit_ begins with the sound of the consonant _y_; and _one_, with that of

+To the Teacher+.--See "Suggestions for COMPOSITION EXERCISES," p. 8, last



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--I will now show you how the _predicate_ of a
sentence may be modified.

_The ship sails gracefully_. What word is here joined to _sails_ to tell
the _manner_ of sailing? +P+.--_Gracefully_.

+T+.--_The ship sails immediately_. What word is here joined to _sails_ to
tell the _time_ of sailing? +P+.--_Immediately_.

+T+.--_The, ship sails homeward_. What word is here joined to _sails_ to
tell the _direction_ of sailing? +P+.--_Homeward_.

+T+.--These words _gracefully, immediately_, and _homeward_ are modifiers
of the predicate. In the first sentence, _sails gracefully_ is the
+_Modified Predicate_+.

Let the following modifiers be written on the board as the pupil suggests

               | instantly.
               | soon.
               | daily.
               | hither.
The ship sails + hence.
               | there.
               | rapidly.
               | smoothly.
               | well.

Which words indicate the time of sailing? Which, the place? Which, the

The teacher may suggest predicates, and require the pupils to find as many
appropriate modifiers as they can.

The Predicate with its modifiers is called the +_Modified Predicate_+.

Analysis and Parsing.

Analyze and diagram the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns,
verbs, and adjectives.

+Model+.--_The letters were rudely carved_.

 letters |  were carved
 \The    |    \rudely

+Written Parsing+.--See _Model_, Lesson 22.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a sentence, because----; _letters_ is the
subject, because----; _were carved_ is the predicate, because----; _The_ is
a modifier of the subject, because----; _rudely_ is a modifier of the
predicate, because----; _The letters_ is the modified subject, _were rudely
carved_ is the _modified predicate_.

1. He spoke eloquently.
2. She chattered incessantly.
3. They searched everywhere.
4. I shall know presently.
5. The bobolink sings joyously.
6. The crowd cheered heartily.
7. A great victory was finally won.
8. Threatening clouds are moving slowly.
9. The deafening waves dash angrily.
10. These questions may be settled peaceably.
11. The wounded soldier fought bravely.
12. The ranks were quickly broken.
13. The south wind blows softly.
14. Times will surely change.
15. An hour stole on.




Analyze and diagram the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, and verbs.

+Model+.--_The frightened animal fled still more rapidly_.

      animal       |         fled
 \The \frightened  |   \rapidly

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--Notice that the three lines forming this
group all slant the same way to show that each stands for a modifying word.
The line standing for the principal word of the group is joined to the
predicate line. The end of each of the other two lines is broken, and
turned to touch its principal at an angle.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a sentence, because----; _animal_ is the subject,
because----; _fled_ is the predicate, because----; _The_ and _frightened_
are modifiers of the subject, because----; _still more rapidly_ is a
modifier of the predicate, because it is a group of words joined to it to
limit its meaning; _rapidly_ is the principal word of the group; _more_
modifies _rapidly_, and _still_ modifies _more_, _The frightened animal_ is
the modified subject; _fled still more rapidly_ is the modified predicate.

1. The crocus flowers very early.
2. A violet bed is budding near.
3. The Quakers were most shamefully persecuted.
4. Perhaps he will return.
5. We laughed very heartily.
6. The yellow poplar leaves floated down.
7. The wind sighs so mournfully.
8. Few men have ever fought so stubbornly.
9. The debt will probably be paid.
10. The visitor will soon be here.
11. That humane project was quite generously sustained.
12. A perfectly innocent man was very cruelly persecuted.


What is an adjective? What are the words _an_ or _a_, and _the_ called by
some grammarians? When is _a_ used, and when _an?_ Give examples of their

What is the modified predicate? Give an example. Give an example of one
modifier joined to another.


Select your subjects from Lesson 9, and construct twenty sentences having
modified subjects and modified predicates.

Impromptu Exercise.

Select sentences from Lessons 6, 7, and 11, and conduct the exercise as
directed in Lesson 10. Let the strife be to see who can supply the greatest
number of modifiers to the subject and to the predicate. The teacher can
vary this exercise.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--You have learned, in the preceding Lessons,
that the meaning of the predicate may be limited by modifiers, and that one
modifier may be joined to another. Words used to modify the predicate of a
sentence and those used to modify modifiers belong to one class, or one
_part of speech_, and are called +Adverbs+.

+T+.--_She decided too hastily_. What word tells how she decided?
+P+.---_Hastily_. +T+.--What word tells how hastily? +P+.--_Too_.
+T+.--What then are the words _too_ and _hastily?_ +P+.--Adverbs.

+T+.--_Too much time has been wasted_. What word modifies _much_ by telling
how much? +P+.--_Too_. +T+.--What _part of speech_ is _much?_ +P+.--An
adjective. +T+.--What then is _too?_ +P+.--An adverb.

+T+.--Why is _too_ in the first sentence an adverb? Why is _too_ in the
second sentence an adverb? Why is _hastily_ an adverb?

Let the teacher use the following and similar examples, and continue the
questions. _He thinks so. So much time has been wasted_.

Let the teacher give verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and require the pupils
to modify them by appropriate adverbs.

+DEFINITION.--_An Adverb_ is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or
an adverb+.

Analysis and Parsing.

Analyze, diagram, and parse the following sentences.

+Model+.--_We have been very agreeably disappointed_. +Diagram+ as in.
Lesson 25.

For +Written Parsing+, use _Model_, Lesson 22, adding a column for adverbs.

+Oral Parsing+.--_We_ is a pronoun, because----; _have been disappointed_
is a verb, because----; _very_ is an _adverb_, because it is joined to the
adverb _agreeably_ to tell how agreeably; _agreeably_ is an _adverb_,
because it is joined to the verb _have been disappointed_ to indicate

1. The plough-boy plods homeward.
2. The water gushed forth.
3. Too much time was wasted.
4. She decided too hastily.
5. You should listen more attentively.
6. More difficult sentences must be built.
7. An intensely painful operation was performed.
8. The patient suffered intensely.
9. That story was peculiarly told.
10. A peculiarly interesting story was told.
11. An extravagantly high price was paid.
12. That lady dresses extravagantly.

The pupil will notice that, in some of the examples above, the same adverb
modifies an adjective in one sentence and an adverb in another, and that,
in other examples, an adjective and a verb are modified by the same word.
You may learn from this why such modifiers are grouped into one class.




1. You must diagram neatly.
2. The sheaves are nearly gathered.
3. The wheat is duly garnered.
4. The fairies were called together.
5. The birds chirp merrily.
6. This reckless adventurer has returned.
7. The wild woods rang.
8. White fleecy clouds are floating above.
9. Those severe laws have been repealed.
10. A republican government was established.
11. An unusually large crop had just been harvested.
12. She had been waiting quite patiently.
13. A season so extremely warm had never before been known.
14. So brave a deed [Footnote: _Can be commended_ is the verb, and _not_ is
    an adverb.] cannot be too warmly commended.




Build sentences containing the following adverbs.

Hurriedly, solemnly, lightly, well, how, somewhere, abroad, forever,
seldom, exceedingly.

Using the following subjects and predicates as foundations, build six
sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates, two of which
shall contain adverbs modifying adjectives; two, adverbs modifying adverbs;
and two, adverbs modifying verbs.

1. ------- boat glides -----.
2. ------- cloud is rising -----.
3. ------- breezes are blowing -----.
4. ------- elephant was captured -----.
5. ------- streams flow -----.
6. ------- spring has opened -----.

We here give you, in classes, the material out of which you are to build
five sentences with modified subjects and modified predicates.

Select the subject and the predicate first.

_Nouns and
Pronouns.      Verbs.        Adjectives.   Adverbs_.

branch       | was running | large, that | lustily
coach        | were played | both, the   | downward
they         | cried       | all, an     | very
we           | is growing  | several, a  | rapidly
games        | cheered     | amusing     | not, loudly, then



+To the Teacher+.--We here suggest additional work in composition, with
particular reference to the choice and position of adjectives. See Notes,
pp. 171,172.

+_Caution_+.--When two or more adjectives are used with a noun, care must
be taken in their arrangement. If there is any difference in their relative
importance, place nearest the noun the one that is most intimately
connected with it.

+To the Teacher+.--We have in mind here those numerous cases where one
adjective modifies the noun, and the second modifies the noun as limited by
the first. _All ripe apples are picked_. Here _ripe_ modifies _apples_, but
_all_ modifies _apples_ limited by _ripe_. Not _all apples_ are _picked_,
but only _all_ that are _ripe_.


  A wooden pretty bowl stood on the table.
  The blue beautiful sky is cloudless.
  A young industrious man was hired.
  The new marble large house was sold.

+_Caution_+.--When the adjectives are of the _same_ rank, place them where
they will sound the best. This will usually be in the order of their
length--the longest last.


  An entertaining and fluent speaker followed.
  An enthusiastic, noisy, large crowd was addressed.

+_Caution_+.--Do not use the pronoun +_them_+ for the adjective +_those_+.


  Them books are nicely bound.
  Them two sentences should be corrected.


  arouse, o romans
  hear, o israel
  it is i
  i may be Mistaken
  you Have frequently been warned
  some Very savage beasts have been Tamed


What is an adverb? Give an example of an adverb modifying an adjective; one
modifying a verb; one modifying an adverb. Why are such expressions as _a
wooden pretty bowl_ faulty? Why is _an enthusiastic, noisy, large crowd_
faulty? Why is _them books_ wrong? Why is _i may be Mistaken_ wrong? Why is
_hear, o israel_, wrong? Study the Review Questions given in previous

+To the Teacher+.--See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement--Selection
from Darwin.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--In the preceding Lessons, you have learned
that several words may be grouped together and used as one modifier. In the
examples given, the principal word is joined directly to the subject or to
the predicate, and this word is modified by another word. In this Lesson
also groups of words are used as modifiers, but these words are not united
with one another, or with the word which the group modifies, just as they
are in the preceding Lessons. I will write on the board this sentence: _De
Soto marched into Florida_. +T+.--What tells where De Soto marched?
+P+.--_Into Florida_. +T+.--What is the principal word of the group?
+P+.--_Florida_. +T+.--Is _Florida_ joined directly to the predicate, as
rapidly was in Lesson 25? +P+.--No. +T+.--What little word comes in to
unite the modifier to _marched?_ +P+.--_Into_. +T+.--Does _Florida_ alone,
tell where he marched? +P+.--No. +T+.--Does _into_ alone, tell where he
marched? +P+.--No.

+T+.--These groups of related words are called +Phrases+. Let the teacher
draw on the board the diagram of the sentence above.

Phrases of the form illustrated in this diagram are the most common, and
they perform a very important function in our language.

Let the teacher frequently call attention to the fact that all the words of
a phrase are _taken together_ to perform _one distinct office_.

A phrase modifying the subject is equivalent to an adjective, and,
frequently, may be changed into one. _The dew of the morning has passed
away_. What word may be used for the phrase _of the morning?_
+P+.--_Morning_. +T+.--Yes. The _morning_ dew has passed away.

A phrase modifying the predicate is equivalent to an adverb, and,
frequently, may be changed into one. _We shall go to that place_. What word
may be used for the phrase, _to that place?_ +P+.--_There_. +T+.--Yes. We
shall go _there_.

Change the phrases in these sentences:---

_A citizen of America was insulted.

We walked toward home_.

Let the teacher write on the board the following words, and require the
pupils to add to each, one or more words to complete a phrase, and then to
construct a sentence in which the phrase may be properly employed: _To,
from, by, at, on, with, in, into, over_.

+DEFINITION.--A _Phrase_ is a group of words denoting related ideas but not
expressing a thought+.

Analysis and Parsing.

Analyze the following sentences, and parse the nouns, pronouns, adjectives,
verbs, and adverbs.

Model.--_The finest trout in the lake are generally caught in the deepest

    trout       |    are caught
\The \finest \in     \generally  \in
              \                   \
               \ lake              \ water
                ------              ----------
                  \the                \the  \deepest

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--You will notice that the diagram of the
_phrase_ is made up of a slanting line, standing for the introductory and
connecting word, and a horizontal line, representing the principal word.
Under the latter, are placed the little slanting lines standing for the
modifiers of the principal word. Here and elsewhere all modifiers are
joined to their principal words by slanting lines.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a sentence, because ------; _trout_ is the
subject, because -----; _are caught_ is the predicate, because ------; the
words _The_ and _finest_, and the phrase, _in the lake_, are modifiers of
the subject, because -----; the word _generally_ and the phrase, _in the
deepest water_, are modifiers of the predicate, because ------; _in_
introduces the first phrase, and _lake_ is the principal word; _in_
introduces the second phrase, and _water_ is the principal word; _the_ and
_deepest_ are modifiers of _water_; _The finest trout in the lake_ is the
modified subject, and _are generally caught in the deepest water_ is the
modified predicate.

1. The gorilla lives in Africa.
2. It seldom rains in Egypt.
3. The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth.
4. The wet grass sparkled in the light.
5. The little brook ran swiftly under the bridge.
6. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga.
7. The steeples of the village pierced through the dense fog.
8. The gloom of winter settled down on everything.
9. A gentle breeze blows from the south.
10. The temple of Solomon was destroyed.
11. The top of the mountain is covered with snow.
12. The second Continental Congress convened at Philadelphia.



Build sentences, employing the following phrases as modifiers.

To Europe, of oak, from Albany, at the station, through the fields, for
vacation, among the Indians, of the United States.

Supply to the following predicates subjects modified by phrases.

---- is situated on the Thames.
---- has arrived.
---- was destroyed by an earthquake.
---- was received.
---- has just been completed.
---- may be enjoyed.

Supply to the following subjects predicates modified by phrases.

Iron ----.
The trees ----.
Squirrels ----.
The Bible ----.
Sugar ----.
Cheese ----.
Paul ----.
Strawberries ----.
The mountain ----.

Write five sentences, each of which shall contain one or more phrases used
as modifiers.



Re-write the following sentences, changing the italicized words into
equivalent phrases.

+Model+.--A _golden_ image was made.
   An image _of gold_ was made.

You will notice that the adjective _golden_ was placed before the subject,
but, when changed to a phrase, it followed the subject.

1. The book was _carefully_ read.
2. The old soldiers fought _courageously_.
3. A group of children were strolling _homeward_.
4. No season of life should be spent _idly_.
5. The _English_ ambassador has just arrived.
6. That _generous_ act was liberally rewarded.

Change the following adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases, and
employ the phrases in sentences of your own building.

Wooden, penniless, eastward, somewhere, here, evening, everywhere, yonder,
joyfully, wintry.

Make a sentence out of the words in each line below.

  Boat, waves, glides, the, the, over.
  He, Sunday, church, goes, the, on, to.
  Year, night, is dying, the, the, in.
  Qualities, Charlemagne, vices, were alloyed, the, great, of, with.
  Indians, America, intemperance, are thinned, the, out, of, by.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--In the preceding Lessons, the little words
that were placed before nouns, thus forming phrases, belong to a, class of
words called +Prepositions+. You noticed that these words, which you have
now learned to call prepositions, served to introduce phrases. The
preposition shows the relation of the _idea_ expressed by the principal
word of the phrase to that of the word which the phrase modifies. It serves
also to connect these words.

In the sentence, _The squirrel ran up a tree_, what word shows the relation
of the act of running, to the tree? Ans. _Up_.

Other words may be used to express different relations. Repeat, nine times,
the sentence above given, supplying, in the place of _up_, each of the
following prepositions: _Around, behind, down, into, over, through, to,
under, from_.

Let this exercise be continued, using such sentences as, _The man went into
the house; The ship sailed toward the bay_.

+DEFINITION.--A _Preposition_ is a word that introduces a phrase modifier,
and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word

+Analysis and Parsing+.

+Model+.--_Flowers preach to us_.

For +Analysis+ and +Diagram+, see Lesson 31.

For +Written Parsing+, see Lesson 22. Add the needed columns.

+Oral Parsing+.--_Flowers_ is a noun, because----; _preach_ is a verb,
because----; _to_ is a _preposition_, because it shows the relation, in
sense, between _us_ and _preach;_ _us_ is a pronoun, because it is used
instead of the name of the speaker and the names of those for whom he

1. The golden lines of sunset glow.
2. A smiling landscape lay before us.
3. Columbus was born at Genoa.
4. The forces of Hannibal were routed by Scipio.
5. The capital of New York is on the Hudson.
6. The ships sail over the boisterous sea.
7. All names of the Deity should begin with capital letters.
8. Air is composed chiefly of two invisible gases.
9. The greater portion of South America lies between the tropics.
10. The laurels of the warrior must at all times be dyed in blood.
11. The first word of every entire sentence should begin with a capital
12. The subject of a sentence is generally placed before the predicate.

Impromptu Exercise.

(The teacher may find it profitable to make a separate lesson of this

Let the teacher write on the board a subject and a predicate that will
admit of many modifiers. The pupils are to expand the sentence into as many
separate sentences as possible, each containing one apt phrase modifier.
The competition is to see who can build the most and the best sentences in
a given time. The teacher gathers up the slates and reads the work aloud,
or has the pupils exchange slates and read it themselves.



When two or more subjects united by a connecting word have the same
predicate, they form a +_Compound Subject;_+ and, when two or more
predicates connected in like manner have the same subject, they form a
+_Compound Predicate_+.

In the sentence, _Birds and bees can fly_, the two words _birds_ and
_bees_, connected by _and_, have the same predicate; the same action is
asserted of both birds and bees. In the sentence, _Leaves fade and fall_,
two assertions are made of the same things. In the first sentence, _birds_
and _bees_ form the _compound subject_; and, in the second, _fade_ and
_fall_ form the _compound predicate_.

Analyze and parse the following sentences.

+Models+.--_Napoleon rose, reigned, and fell_.

_Frogs, antelopes, and kangaroos can jump_.

                  rose            Frogs
              ,=,=====            ======.=.
             /  '                       '  \
Napoleon|   / X ' reigned     antelopes ' X \   | can jump
========|==|    '========     =========='    |==|=========
        |   \and'                       'and/   |
             \  ' fell        kangaroos '  /
              `-'======       =========='='

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--The short line following the subject line
represents the entire predicate, and is supposed to be continued in the
three horizontal lines that follow, each of which represents one of the
parts of the _compound predicate_. These three lines are united by dotted
lines, which stand for the connecting words. The +X+ denotes that an _and_
is understood.

Study this explanation carefully, and you will understand the other

+Oral Analysis+ of the first sentence.

This is a sentence, because ----; _Napoleon_ is the subject, because ----;
_rose_, _reigned_, and _fell_ form the _compound predicate_, because they
belong in common to the same subject, and say something about Napoleon.
_And_ connects _reigned_ and _fell_.

1. The Rhine and the Rhone rise in Switzerland.
2. Time and tide wait for no man.
3. Washington and Lafayette fought for American Independence.
4. Wild birds shrieked, and fluttered on the ground.
5. The mob raged and roared.
6. The seasons came and went.
7. Pride, poverty, and fashion cannot live in the same house.
8. The tables of stone were cast to the ground and broken.
9. Silver or gold will be received in payment.
10. Days, months, years, and ages will circle away.


What is a phrase? A phrase modifying a subject is equivalent to what?
Illustrate. A phrase modifying a predicate is equivalent to what?

What are prepositions? What do you understand by a compound subject?
Illustrate. What do you understand by a compound predicate? Illustrate.



The words _and_ and _or_, used in the preceding Lesson to connect the nouns
and the verbs, belong to a class of words called +_Conjunctions_+.

Conjunctions may also connect _words_ used as _modifiers;_ as,

A daring _but_ foolish feat was performed.

They may connect phrases; as,

We shall go to Saratoga _and_ to Niagara.

They may connect _clauses_, that is, expressions that, standing alone,
would be sentences; as,

He must increase, _but_ I must decrease.

+DEFINITION.--A _Conjunction_, is a word used to connect words, phrases, or

The +_Interjection_+ is the eighth and last _part of speech_. Interjections
are mere exclamations, and are without grammatical relation to any other
word in the sentence.

+DEFINITION.--An _Interjection_ is a word used to express strong or sudden


Bravo! hurrah! pish! hush! ha, ha! alas! hail! lo! pshaw!

Analyze and parse the following sentences.

+Model+.--_Hurrah! that cool and fearless fireman has rushed into the house
and up the burning stairs_.


  fireman            |     has rushed
  \That\ and \       |    \   and  \
        \.....\            \........\
         \     \            \        \up
          \cool \fearless    \into    \stairs
                              \        ----------
                               \house     \the  \burning

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--The line representing the interjection is
not connected with the diagram. Notice the dotted lines, one standing for
the _and_ which connects the two _word_ modifiers; the other, for the _and_
connecting the two _phrase_ modifiers.

+Written Parsing+.

N.       Pro.  Adj.          Vb.       Adv.  Prep. Conj.  Int.
        |    |          |            |     |      |     |
fireman |    | the      | has rushed |     | into | and | hurrah
house   |    | that     |            |     | up   | and |
stairs  |    | cool     |            |     |      |     |
        |    | fearless |            |     |      |     |
        |    | burning  |            |     |      |     |

+Oral Parsing+ of the _conjunction_ and the _interjection_.

The two _ands_ are conjunctions, because they _connect_. The first connects
two word modifiers; the second, two phrase modifiers. _Hurrah_ is an
_interjection_, because it expresses a burst of sudden feeling.

1. The small but courageous band was finally overpowered.
2. Lightning and electricity were identified by Franklin.
3. A complete success or an entire failure was anticipated.
4. Good men and bad men are found in all communities.
5. Vapors rise from the ocean and fall upon the land.
6. The Revolutionary war began at Lexington and ended at Yorktown.
7. Alas! all hope has fled.
8. Ah! I am surprised at the news.
9. Oh! we shall certainly drown.
10. Pshaw! you are dreaming.
11. Hurrah! the field is won.



+COMMA--RULE.--Phrases that are placed out of their natural order
[Footnote: A phrase in its natural order follows the word it modifies.] and
made emphatic, or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence,
should be set off by the comma+.


+Model+.--The cable, _after many failures_, was successfully laid. Upon the
platform 'twixt eleven and twelve I'll visit you. To me this place is
endeared by many associations. Your answers with few exceptions have been
correctly given. In English much depends on the placing of phrases.

+COMMA--RULE.--Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated
from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed+.


+Model+.--Caesar _came, saw, and conquered_.
          Caesar _came and saw and conquered_.

He travelled in _England, in Scotland, and in Ireland_.

(The comma is used in the first sentence, because a conjunction is omitted;
but not in the second, as all the conjunctions are expressed.)

A brave prudent and honorable man was chosen.

Augustus Tiberius Nero and Vespasian were Roman emperors.

Through rainy weather across a wild country over muddy roads after
a long ride we came to the end of our journey.

+PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--_Abbreviations_ generally begin with
capital letters and are always followed by the period+.

+Model.--+_Mr., Esq., N. Y., P. M_.

gen, a m, mrs, no, u s a, n e, eng, p o, rev, prof, dr, gram, capt, coi,
co, va, conn.

+EXCLAMATION POINT--RULE.--All _exclamatory expressions_ must be followed
by the exclamation point+.


+Model.--+_Ah! Oh! Zounds! Stop pinching!_

Pshaw, whew, alas, ho Tom, halloo Sir, good-bye, welcome.



+To the Teacher.--+Call attention to the agreement of verbs with compound
subjects. Require the pupils to justify the verb-forms in Lesson 36 and
elsewhere. See Notes, pp. 165-167.

Write _predicates_ for the following _compound subjects_.

Snow and hail; leaves and branches; a soldier or a sailor; London and

Write _compound predicates_ for the following _subjects_.

The sun; water; fish; steamboats; soap; farmers; fences; clothes.

Write _subjects_ for the following _compound predicates_.

Live, feel, and grow; judges and rewards; owes and pays; inhale and exhale;
expand and contract; flutters and alights; fly, buzz, and sting; restrain
or punish.

Write _compound subjects_ before the following _predicates_.

May be seen; roar; will be appointed; have flown; has been recommended.

_Write compound predicates_ after the following _compound subjects_.

Boys, frogs, and horses; wood, coal, and peat; Maine and New Hampshire;
Concord, Lexington, and Bunker Hill; pins, tacks, and needles.

Write _compound subjects_ before the following _compound predicates_.

Throb and ache; were tried, condemned, and hanged; eat, sleep, and dress.

Choose your own material and write five sentences, each having a _compound
subject_ and a _compound predicate_.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--When we say, _The sun gives_, we express no
complete thought. The subject _sun_ is complete, but the predicate _gives_
does not make a complete assertion. When we say, _The sun gives light_, we
do utter a complete thought. The predicate _gives_ is completed by the word
_light_. Whatever fills out, or _completes_, we call a +Complement+. We
will therefore call _light_ the complement of the predicate. As _light_
completes the predicate by naming the thing acted upon, we call it the
+Object Complement+.

Expressions like the following may be written on the board, and by a series
of questions the pupils may be made to dwell upon these facts till they are
thoroughly understood.

The officer arrested -----;
the boy found -----;
Charles saw -----;
coopers make -----.

Besides these verbs requiring object complements, there are others that do
not make complete sense without the aid of a complement of _another_

A complete predicate does the asserting and expresses what is asserted. In
the sentence, _Armies march_, _march_ is a complete predicate, for it does
the asserting and expresses what is asserted; viz., _marching_. In the
phrase, _armies marching_, _marching_ expresses the same act as that
denoted by _march_, but it _asserts_ nothing. In the sentence, _Chalk is
white_, _is_ does the asserting, but it does not express what is asserted.
We do not wish to assert merely that chalk _is_ or _exists_. What we wish
to assert of chalk, is the quality expressed by the adjective _white_. As
_white_ expresses a quality or attribute, we may call it an +Attribute

Using expressions like the following, let the facts given above be drawn
from the class by means of questions.

Grass growing; grass grows; green grass; grass is green.

+DEFINITION.--The _Object Complement of a sentence_ completes the
predicate, and names that which receives the act+.

+DEFINITION.--The _Attribute Complement_ of a sentence completes the
predicate and belongs to the subject+.

The complement with all its modifiers is called the +_Modified

Analysis and Parsing.

+Model+.--_Fulton invented the first steamboat_.

 Fulton | invented | steamboat
        |             \      \
                       \the   \first

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--You will see that the line standing for the
_object complement_ is a continuation of the predicate line, and that the
little vertical line only touches this without cutting it.

+Oral Analysis.--+_Fulton_ and _invented_, as before. _Steamboat_ is the
_object complement_, because it completes the predicate, and names that
which receives the act. _The_ and _first_, as before. _The first steamboat_
is the _modified complement_.

1. Caesar crossed the Rubicon.
2. Morse invented the telegraph.
3. Ericsson built the Monitor.
4. Hume wrote a history.
5. Morn purples the east,
6. Antony beheaded Cicero.

+Model+.--_Gold is malleable_.

Gold | is \ malleable

In this diagram, the line standing for the _attribute complement_,
like the _object line_, is a continuation of the predicate line; but
notice the difference in the little mark separating the
_incomplete_[Footnote: Hereafter we shall call the _verb_ the
_predicate_, but, when followed by a complement, it must be regarded
as an _incomplete_ predicate.] predicate from the complement.

+Oral Analysis+.---_Gold_ and _is_, as before.

_Malleable_ is the _attribute complement_, because it completes
the predicate, and expresses a quality belonging to gold.

7. Pure water is tasteless.
8. The hare is timid.
9. Fawns are graceful.
10. This peach is delicious.
11. He was extremely prodigal.
12. The valley of the Mississippi is very fertile.

+To the Teacher+--See Notes, pp. 183,184.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Place _adverbs_ where there can be no doubt as to the
words they modify.


I only bring forward a few things.

Hath the Lord only [Footnote: Adverbs sometimes modify phrases.]spoken by

We merely speak of numbers.

The Chinese chiefly live upon rice.

+Caution+.--In placing the adverb, regard must be had to the
_sound_ of the sentence.


We always should do our duty.
The times have changed surely.
The work will be never finished.
He must have certainly been sick.

+Caution+.--_Adverbs_ must not be used _for adjectives_.


I feel badly.
Marble feels coldly.
She looks nicely.
It was sold cheaply.
It appears still more plainly.
That sounds harshly.
I arrived at home safely.

+Caution+.--_Adjectives_ must not be used _for adverbs_.


The bells ring merry.
The curtain hangs graceful.
That is a decided weak point.
Speak no coarser than usual.
These are the words nearest connected.
Talk slow and distinct.
She is a remarkable pretty girl.

+To the Teacher+.--For additional exercises in distinguishing adjectives
from adverbs, see Notes, p. 181.


What is a conjunction? What is an interjection? Give two rules for the use
of the comma (Lesson 37). What is the rule for writing abbreviations? What
is the rule for the exclamation point? What is an object complement? What
is an attribute complement? Illustrate both. What are the cautions for the
position of the adverb? What are the cautions for the use of the adverb and
the adjective?

+To the Teacher+.--See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement-Selection
from Habberton.

       *       *       *       *       *



+Caution+.--Phrase modifiers should be placed as near as may be to the
words they modify.

+To the Teacher+.--For composition exercises with particular reference
to arrangement, see Notes, pp. 172-176.


  A fellow was arrested with short hair.
  I saw a man digging a well with a Roman nose.
  He died and went to his rest in New York.
  Wanted--A room by two gentlemen thirty feet long and twenty feet wide.
  Some garments were made for the family of thick material.
  The vessel was beautifully painted with a tall mast.
  I perceived that it had been scoured with half an eye.
  A house was built by a mason of brown stone.
  A pearl was found by a sailor in a shell.

Punctuate these sentences when corrected.

+Caution+.--Care must be taken to select the right preposition.

+To the Teacher+.--For the preposition to be used, consult the Unabridged


  They halted with the river on their backs.
  The cat jumped on the chair.
  He fell onto the floor.
  He went in the house.
  He divides his property between his four sons.
  He died for thirst.
  This is different to that.
  Two thieves divided the booty among themselves.
  I am angry at him.

+Caution+.--Do not use two negative, or denying, words so that one shall
contradict the other, unless you wish to affirm.


I haven't no umbrella.

Correct by dropping either the adjective _no_ or the adverb _not_; as, I
have _no_ umbrella, or I have _not_ an umbrella.

  I didn't say nothing.
  I can't do this in no way.
  No other emperor was so wise nor powerful.
  Nothing can never be annihilated.



1. Brutus stabbed Caesar.
2. Man is an animal.
3. Washington captured Cornwallis.
4. Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.
5. Balboa discovered the Pacific ocean.
6. Vulcan was a blacksmith.
7. The summer has been very rainy.
8. Columbus made four voyages to the New World.
9. The moon reflects the light of the sun.
10. The first vice-president of the United States was John Adams.
11. Roger Williams was the founder of Rhode Island.
12. Harvey discovered the circulation of blood.
13. Diamonds are combustible.
14. Napoleon died a prisoner, at St.. Helena.
15. In 1619 the first ship-load of slaves was landed at Jamestown.

The pupil will notice that _animal_, in sentence No. 2, is an _attribute
complement_, though it is not an adjective expressing a quality belonging
to man, but a noun denoting his class. +_Nouns_+ then may be +_attribute

The pupil will notice also that some of the _object_ and _attribute
complements_ above have phrase modifiers.



Using the following predicates, build sentences having subjects,
predicates, and object complements with or without modifiers.

---- climb ----; ---- hunt ----; ---- command ----; ---- attacked
----; ---- pursued ----; ---- shall receive ----; ---- have seen ----;
---- love ----.

Change the following expressions into sentences by _asserting_ the
qualities here _assumed_. Use these verbs for predicates:

Is, were, appears, may be, became, was, have been, should have been, is
becoming, are.

+Model+.--_Heavy_ gold.    Gold _is heavy_.

Green fields; sweet oranges; interesting story; brilliant sunrise; severe
punishment; playful kittens; warm weather; pitiful sight; sour grapes;
amusing anecdote.

Prefix to the following nouns several adjectives expressing qualities, and
then make complete sentences by _asserting_ the same qualities.

          white   |          Chalk _is white_.
+Model+.--brittle + chalk.   Chalk _is brittle_.
          soft    |          Chalk _is soft_.

Gold, pears, pens, lead, water, moon, vase, rock, lakes, summer, ocean,

Find your own material, and build two sentences having object complements,
and two having attribute complements.





 Learning | /  '         \  | mind
 =========|=and'          \=======
          | \  ' elevates /   \the

             /  ' \forward
    He  |   /   '
 =======|=== and'
        |   \   '
             \  ' kissed | him

In the second diagram, one of the predicate lines is followed by a
complement line; but the two predicate lines are not united, for the two
verbs have not a common object.

1. Learning expands and elevates the mind.
2. He ran forward and kissed him.
3. The earth and the moon are planets.
4. The Swiss scenery is picturesque.
5. Jefferson was chosen the third president of the United States.
6. Nathan Hale died a martyr to liberty.
7. The man stood speechless.
8. Labor disgraces no man.
9. Aristotle and Plato were the most distinguished philosophers of
10. Josephus wrote a history of the Jews.
11. This man seems the leader of the whole party.
12. The attribute complement completes the predicate and belongs to the
13. Lord Cornwallis became governor of Bengal after his disastrous defeat.
14. The multitude ran before him and strewed branches in the way.
15. Peter Minuits traded with the Indians, and bought the whole island of
    Manhattan for twenty-four dollars.





                             / '    \in
                            / X'     \  council
                           /   '      \---------
 Henry IV. | was \        /    ' simple
===========|==============     '==========
  \of      |        \very \ and'    \in
   \  House                \   '     \  manners
    \--------               \  '      \---------
      \the \of               \ ' chivalric
            \  Burbon         \============
             \-------                \in
                                      \  field

The line standing for the word-modifier is joined to that part of the
complement line which represents the _entire_ attribute complement.

1. Henry IV., of the House of Bourbon, was very wise in council, simple in
   manners, and chivalric in the field.
2. Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalia.
3. The diamond is the most valuable gem.
4. The Greeks took Troy by stratagem.
5. The submarine cable unites the continent of America and the Old World.
6. The Gauls joined the army of Hannibal.
7. Columbus crossed the Atlantic with ninety men, and landed at San
8. Vulcan made arms for Achilles.
9. Cromwell gained at Naseby a most decisive victory over the Royalists.
10. Columbus was a native of Genoa.
11. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.
12. The morning hour has gold in its mouth.
13. The mill of the gods grinds late, but grinds to powder.
14. A young farmer recently bought a yoke of oxen, six cows, and a horse.
15. America has furnished to the world tobacco, the potato, and Indian




   Cotton   |  is raised
            |  \              Egypt
                \          /'-------
                 \in      / '
                  \      / X'
                   \    /   ' India
                    \--/    '--------
                       \    '
                         \  '
                          \ ' United States

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--In this diagram the line representing the
principal part of the phrase separates into three lines. This shows that
the principal part of the phrase is compound. _Egypt_, _India_, and _United
States_ are all introduced by the same preposition _in_, and have the same
relation to _is raised_.

1. Cotton is raised in Egypt, India, and the United States.
2. The navy of Hiram brought gold from Ophir.
3. The career of Cromwell was short.
4. Most mountain ranges run parallel with the coast.
5. Now swiftly glides the bonny boat.
6. An able but dishonest judge presided.
7. The queen bee lays eggs in cells of three different sizes.
8. Umbrellas were introduced into England from China.
9. The first permanent English settlement in America was made at Jamestown,
   in 1607.
10. The spirit of true religion is social, kind, and cheerful.
11. The summits of the Alps are covered with perpetual snow.
12. The months of July and August were named after Julius Caesar and
    Augustus Caesar.
13. All the kings of Egypt are called, in Scripture, Pharaoh.
14. The bamboo furnishes to the natives of China, shade, food, houses,
    weapons, and clothing.



Supply _attribute complements_ to the following expressions. (See Caution,
Lesson 40.)

The marble feels ----. Mary looks ----. The weather continues ----. The
apple tastes ----. That lady appears ----. The sky grows ----. The leaves
of roses are ----. The undertaking was pronounced ----.

Write a subject and a predicate to each of the following nouns taken as
_attribute complements_.

+Model+.--_Soldier_.--That old man has been a _soldier_.

Plant, insect, mineral, vegetable, liquid, gas, solid, historian, poet,
artist, traveler, emperor.

Using the following nouns as subjects, build sentences each having a simple
predicate and two or more _object complements_.

Congress, storm, education, king, tiger, hunter, Arnold, shoemakers,
lawyers, merchant.

Build three sentences on each of the following subjects, two of which shall
contain _object complements_, and the third, an _attribute

  The _sun_ gives _light_.
  The _sun_ warms the _earth_.
  The _sun_ is a luminous _body_.

Moon, oak, fire, whiskey.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--You have learned, in the preceding Lessons,
that a _quality_ may be _assumed_ as belonging to a thing; as, _white
chalk_, or that it may be _asserted_ of it; as, _Chalk is white_. An
_action_, also, may be _assumed_ as belonging to something; as, _Peter
turning_, or it may be _asserted;_ as, Peter _turned_. In the expression,
_Peter, turning, said_, what word expresses an action as _assumed_, and
which _asserts_ an action? Each pupil may give an example of an action
asserted and of an action assumed; as, Corn _grows_, corn _growing_; geese
_gabble_; geese _gabbling_.

This form of the verb, which merely _assumes_ the act, being, or state, is
called the +Participle+.

When the words _growing_ and _gabbling_ are placed before the nouns, thus:
_growing corn, gabbling geese_, they tell simply the kind of corn and the
kind of geese, and are therefore _adjectives_.

When _the_ or some other adjective is placed before these words, and a
preposition after them, thus: _The growing of the corn, the gabbling of the
geese_, they are simply the _names_ of actions, and are therefore _nouns_.

Let each pupil give an example of a verb asserting an action, and change it
to express:--

1st, An _assumed_ action; 2d, A permanent _quality;_ 3d, The _name_ of an

_Participles_ may be completed by _objects_ and _attributes_.

+Analysis and Parsing+.

+Model+.--_Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again_.

  Truth    |  will rise
  \cru     |    \again
   \  shed
       \  earth

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--In this diagram, the line standing for the
principal word of the participial phrase is broken; one part slants, and
the other is horizontal. This shows that the participle _crushed_ is used
like an adjective to modify _Truth_, and yet retains the nature of a verb,
expressing an action received by truth.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a sentence, because ----; _Truth_ is the subject,
because ----; _will rise_ is the predicate, because ----; the phrase,
_crushed to earth_, is a modifier of the Subj., because ----; _crushed_
introduces the phrase and is the principal word in it; the phrase _to
earth_ is a modifier of _crushed_; _to_ introduces it, and _earth_ is the
principal word in it; _again_ is a modifier of the Pred., because ----.
_Truth crushed to earth_ is the modified subject, _will rise again_ is the
modified predicate.

+Parsing+--_Crushed_ is the form of the verb called _participle_. The
action expressed by it is merely _assumed_.

1. The mirth of Addison is genial, imparting a mild glow of thought.
2. The general, riding to the front, led the attack.
3. The balloon, shooting swiftly into the clouds, was soon lost to sight.
4. Wealth acquired dishonestly will prove a curse.
5. The sun, rising, dispelled the mists.
6. The thief, being detected, surrendered to the officer.
7. They boarded the vessel lying in the harbor.
8. The territory claimed by the Dutch was called New Netherlands.
9. Washington, having crossed the Delaware, attacked the Hessians stationed
   at Trenton.
10. Burgoyne, having been surrounded at Saratoga, surrendered to Gen.
11. Pocahontas was married to a young Englishman named John Rolfe.
12. A shrug of the shoulders, translated into words, loses much force.
13. The armies of England, mustered for the battles of Europe, do not
    awaken sincere admiration.

(Note that the participle, like the predicate verb, may consist of two or
more words.)

(Note, too, that the participle, like the adjective, may belong to a
_noun complement_.)



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--There is another form of the verb which,
like the participle, cannot be the predicate of a sentence, for it cannot
_assert_; as, She went out _to see_ a friend; _To lie_ is a disgrace. As
this form of the verb expresses the action, being, or state in a general
manner, without limiting it directly to a subject, it is called an
+Infinitive+, which means _without limit_. The infinitive generally follows
_to_; as, _to walk, to sleep_.

Let each pupil give an infinitive.

The infinitive and the preposition _to_ constitute a phrase, which may be
employed in several ways.

+T+.--_I have a duty to perform_. The infinitive phrase modifies what?

+P+.--The noun _duty_. +T+.--It then performs the office of what? +P+.--Of
an adjective modifier.

+T+.--_I come to hear_. The infinitive phrase modifies what? +P+.--The verb
_come_. +T+.--What office then does it perform? +P+.--Of an adverb

+T+.--_To lie is base_. _What_ is base? +P+.--To lie. +T+.--_He attempted
to speak_. _What_ did he attempt? +P+.--To speak. +T+.--_To lie_ is a
subject, and _to speak_ is an _object_. What part of speech is used as
subject and object? +P+.--The noun.

+T+.--The +Infinitive+ phrase is used as an +adjective+, an +adverb+, and a

_Infinitives_ may be completed by _objects_ and _attributes_.

+Analysis and Parsing+.

+Model+.--_David hasted to meet Goliath_.

  David   |  hasted
          |    \to
                \  meet | Goliath

+Analysis of the Infinitive Phrase+.--_To_ introduces the phrase; _meet_,
completed by the object _Goliath_, is the principal part.

+Parsing of the Phrase+.--_To_ is a preposition, because ----; _meet_ is a
verb, because ----; _Goliath_ is a noun, because ----.

1. I come not here to talk.
2. I rejoice to hear it.
3. A desire to excel leads to eminence.
4. Dr. Franklin was sent to France to solicit aid for the colonies.
5. To retreat was impossible.

(_To_ is here used merely to introduce the infinitive phrase.)

  \  retreat
      / \   |  was  \  impossible

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--As this _phrase subject_ cannot, in its
proper form, be written on the subject line, it is placed above, and, by
means of a support, the phrase diagram is made to rest on the subject line.
The _phrase complement_ may be diagramed in a similar way, and made to rest
on the complement line.

6. The hands refuse to labor.
7. To live is not all of life.
8. The Puritans desired to obtain religious freedom.
9. The Romans, having conquered the world, were unable to conquer
10. Narvaez sailed from Cuba to conquer Florida.
11. Some savages of America and Africa love to wear rings in the nose.
12. Andrew Jackson, elected to succeed J. Q. Adams, was inaugurated in



ERRORS TO BE CORRECTED. (See Caution 1, Lesson 41.)

Punctuate as you correct. (See Lesson 37.)

  A house was built for a clergyman having seven gables.
  The old man struck the saucy boy raising a gold-headed cane.
  We saw a marble bust of Sir W. Scott entering the vestibule.
  Here is news from a neighbor boiled down.
  I found a cent walking over the bridge.
  Balboa discovered the Pacific ocean climbing to the top of a mountain.

Punctuate the following exercises.

  Cradled in the camp Napoleon was the darling of the army.
  Having approved of the plan the king put it into execution.
  Satan incensed with indignation stood unterrified.
  My friend seeing me in need offered his services.
  James being weary with his journey sat down on the wall.
  The owl hid in the tree hooted through the night.


Give the caution relating to the position of the phrase modifier; that
relating to the choice of prepositions; that relating to the double
negative (Lesson 41). Give examples of errors. Can a noun be an attribute
complement? Illustrate. What do you understand by a participle? Into what
may some participles be changed? Illustrate. What offices does the
infinitive phrase perform? Illustrate them.

+To the Teacher+.--See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement--Selection
from George Eliot.



MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS FOR CORRECTION. (See Cautions in Lessons 30, 40, and

  There never was such another man.
  He was an old venerable patriarch.

  John has a cadaverous, hungry, and lean look.
  He was a well-proportioned, fine fellow.

  Pass me them potatoes.

  Put your trust not in money.
  We have often occasion for thanksgiving,

  Now this is to be done how?
  Nothing can justify ever profanity.

  To continually study is impossible.

(An adverb is seldom placed between the preposition _to_ and the

  Mary likes to tastefully dress.
  Learn to carefully choose your words.

  She looks queerly.
  Give me a soon and direct answer.

  The post stood firmly.
  The eagle flies highly.
  The orange tastes sweetly.

  I feel tolerable well.
  The branch breaks easy.
  Thistles grow rapid.
  The eagle flies swift.
  This is a miserable poor pen.

  A wealthy gentleman will adopt a little boy with a small family.
  A gentleman called from Africa to pay his compliments.

  Water consists in oxygen and hydrogen.
  He went out attended with a servant.
  I have a dislike to such tricksters.
  We have no prejudice to foreigners.
  She don't know nothing about it.
  Father wouldn't give me none.
  He hasn't been sick neither.
  I won't have no more nohow.

+To the Teacher+.--Let the reason be given for every correction.



Build sentences in which the following participles shall be used as

Being fatigued; laughing; being amused; having been elected; running;
having been running.

Expand each of the following sentences into three sentences, using the
_participial form_ of the verb as a _participle_, in the first; the same
form as an _adjective_, in the second; and as a _noun_, in the third.

+Model+.--The stream _flows_. The stream, _flowing_ gently, crept through
the meadow. The _flowing_ stream slipped away to the sea. The _flowing_ of
the stream caused a low murmur. The stream flows. The sun rises. Insects
hum. The birds sing. The wind whistles. The bells are ringing. The tide

Form _infinitive phrases_ from the following verbs, and use these phrases
as _adjectives, adverbs_, and _nouns_, in sentences of your own building.

Smoke, dance, burn, eat, lie, try.

+To the Teacher+.--For exercises to distinguish the participle from the
predicate verb, see Notes, pp. 181, 182.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--In the sentence, _The robin's eggs are
blue_, the noun _robin's_ does what? +P+.--It tells what or whose eggs are
blue. +T+.--What word names the things owned or possessed? +P+.--_Eggs_.
+T+.--What word names the owner or possessor? +P+.--_Robin's_.

+T+.--The noun _robin's_ is here used as a _modifier_. You see that this
word, which I have written on the board, is the word _robin_ with a little
mark (') called an apostrophe, and the letter _s_ added. These are added to
denote possession.

In the sentence, _Webster, the statesman, was born in New Hampshire_, the
noun _statesman_ modifies the subject _Webster_ by explaining what or which
Webster is meant. Both words name the same person.

Let the pupils give examples of each of these two kinds of +Noun
Modifiers+--the +Possessive+ and the +Explanatory+.

Analysis and Parsing.

+Model+.--_Julia's sister Mary has lost her diamond ring_.

  sister (Mary) |  has lost  |   ring
    \Julia's    |                \her  \diamond

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--_Mary_ is written on the subject line,
because _Mary_ and _sister_ both name the same person, but the word _Mary_
is inclosed within marks of parenthesis to show that _sister_ is the proper
grammatical subject.

In _oral analysis_, call _Julia's_ and _Mary_ modifiers of the subject,
_sister_, because _Julia's_ tells whose sister, and _Mary_ explains sister
by adding another name of the same person. _Her_ is a modifier of the
object, because it tells whose ring is meant.

_Julia's sister Mary_ is the _modified subject_, the predicate is
unmodified, and _her diamond ring_ is the _modified object complement_.

1. The planet Jupiter has four moons.
2. The Emperor Nero was a cruel tyrant.
3. Peter's wife's mother lay sick of a fever.


4. An ostrich outruns an Arab's horse.
5. His pretty little nephew Arthur had the best claim to the throne.
6. Milton, the great English poet, became blind.
7. Caesar gave his daughter Julia in marriage to Pompey.
8. London, the capital of England, is the largest and richest city in the
9. Joseph, Jacob's favorite son, was sold by his brethren to the
10. Alexander the Great [Footnote: _Alexander the Great_ may be taken as
    one name, or _Great_ may be called an explanatory modifier of
    _Alexander_.] was educated under the celebrated philosopher Aristotle.
11. Friends tie their purses with a spider's thread.
12. Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna.
13. His fate, alas! was deplorable.
14. Love rules his kingdom without a sword.



Nouns and pronouns denoting possession may generally be changed to
equivalent phrases; as, _Arnold's treason_ = _the treason of Arnold_. Here
the preposition _of_ indicates _possession_, the same relation expressed by
the apostrophe (') and _s_. Change the following possessive nouns to
equivalent phrases, and the phrases indicating possession to possessive
nouns, and then expand the expressions into complete sentences.

+Model+.--The _earth's_ surface. The surface _of the earth_ is made up of
land and water.

The earth's surface: Solomon's temple; England's Queen; Washington's
Farewell Address; Dr. Kane's Explorations; Peter's wife's mother; George's
friend's father; Shakespeare's plays; Noah's dove; the diameter of the
earth; the daughter of Jephthah; the invasion of Burgoyne; the voyage of
Cabot; the Armada of Philip; the attraction of the earth; the light of the

Find for the things mentioned below, _other_ names which shall describe or
explain them. Add such names to these nouns, and then expand the
expressions into complete sentences.

+Model+.--_Ink_.--_Ink, a dark fluid_, is used in writing.

Observe the following rule.

+COMMA-RULE.--An _Explanatory Modifier_, when it does not restrict the
modified term or combine closely with it, is set off by the comma+.

+To the Teacher+.--See Notes, pp. 176, 177.

New York, rain, paper, the monkey, the robin, tea, Abraham Lincoln,
Alexander Hamilton, world, peninsula, Cuba, Shakespeare.

Write three sentences, each of which shall contain a noun or pronoun
denoting possession, and a noun or pronoun used to explain.

+To the Teacher+.--For additional exercises in the use of possessive
modifiers, see Notes, pp. 182, 183.




1. The toad spends the winter in a dormant state.
2. Pride in dress or in beauty betrays a weak mind.
3. The city of London is situated on the river Thames.
4. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769, on an island in the Mediterranean.
5. Men's opinions vary with their interests.
6. Ammonia is found in the sap of trees, and in the juices of all
7. Earth sends up her perpetual hymn of praise to the Creator.
8. Having once been deceived by him, I never trusted him again.
9. Aesop, the author of Aesop's Fables, was a slave.
10. Hope comes with smiles to cheer the hour of pain.
11. Clouds are collections of vapors in the air.
12. To relieve the wretched was his pride.
13. Greece, the most noted country of antiquity, scarcely exceeded in size
    the half of the state of New York.




1. We are never too old to learn.
2. Civility is the result of good nature and good sense.
3. The right of the people to instruct their representatives is generally
4. The immense quantity of matter in the Universe presents a most striking
   display of Almighty power.
5. Virtue, diligence, and industry, joined with good temper and prudence,
   must ever be the surest means of prosperity.
6. The people called Quakers were a source of much trouble to the Puritans.
7. The Mayflower brought to America [Footnote: One hundred and one may be
   taken as one adjective.] one hundred and one men, women, and children.
8. Edward Wingfield, an avaricious and unprincipled man, was the first
   president of the Jamestown colony.
9. John Cabot and his son Sebastian, sailing under a commission from Henry
   VII. of England, discovered the continent of America.
10. True worth is modest and retiring.
11. Jonah, the prophet, preached to the inhabitants of Nineveh.




+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--A word-modifier may sometimes be expanded
into a phrase or into an expression that asserts.

+T+.--_A wise man will be honored_. Expand _wise_ into a phrase, and give
me the sentence. +P+.--A man _of wisdom_ will be honored. +T+.--Expand
_wise_ into an expression that asserts, join this to _man_, as a modifier,
and then give me the entire sentence. +P+.--A man _who is wise_ will be

+T+.--You see that the same quality may be expressed in three ways--A
_wise_ man, A man _of wisdom_, A man _who is wise_.

Let the pupils give similar examples.

+T+.--In the sentence, _A man who is wise will be honored_, the word _who_
stands for what? +P+.--For the noun _man_. +T+.--Then what part of speech
is it? +P+.--A pronoun.

+T+.--Put the noun _man_ in the place of the pronoun _who_, and then give
me the sentence. +P+.--_A man, man is wise, will be honored_.

+T+.--I will repeat your sentence, changing the order of the words--_A man
will be honored. Man is wise_. Is the last sentence now joined to the first
as a modifier, or are they two separate sentences? +P+.--They are two
separate sentences.

+T+.--Then you see that the pronoun _who_ not only stands for the noun
_man_, but it connects the modifying expression, _who is wise_, to _man_,
the subject of the sentence, _A man will be honored_, and thus there is
formed what we call a +Complex Sentence+. These two parts we call
+Clauses+. _A man will be honored_ is the +Independent Clause;+ _who is
wise_ is the +Dependent Clause+.

Clauses that modify nouns or pronouns are called +Adjective Clauses+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Clause_ is a part of a sentence containing a subject and
its predicate+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Dependent Clause_ is one used as an adjective, an adverb,
or a noun+.

+DEFINITION.--An _Independent Clause_ is one not dependent on another

+DEFINITION.--A _Simple Sentence_ is one that contains but one subject and
one predicate, either or both of which may be compound+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Complex Sentence_ is one composed of an independent clause
and one or more dependent clauses+.

Analysis and Parsing.


    man   | will be honored
  \A  `   |
     who ` | is \ wise

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--You will notice that the lines standing for
the subject and predicate of the _independent clause_ are heavier than
those of the _dependent clause_. This pictures to you the relative
importance of the two clauses. You will see that the pronoun _who_ is
written on the subject line of the dependent clause. But this word performs
the office of a conjunction also, and this office is expressed in the
diagram by a dotted line. As all modifiers are joined by _slanting_ lines,
to the words they modify, you learn from this diagram that _who is wise_ is
a modifier of _man_.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a _complex sentence_, because it consists of an
_independent clause_ and a _dependent clause_. _A man will be honored_ is
_the independent clause_; _who is wise_ is the _dependent clause_. _Man_ is
the subject of the independent clause; _will be honored_ is the predicate.
The word _A_ and the clause, _who is wise_, are modifiers of the subject.
_A_ points out _man_, and _who is wise_ tells the _kind_ of man. _A man who
is wise_ is the modified subject; the predicate is unmodified. _Who_ is the
subject of the dependent clause, _is_ is the predicate, and _wise_ is the
attribute complement. _Who_ connects the two clauses.

1. He that runs may read.
2. Man is the only animal that laughs and weeps.
3. Henry Hudson discovered the river which bears his name.
4. He necessarily remains weak who never tries exertion.
5. The meridians are those lines that extend from pole to pole.
6. He who will not be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the rock.
7. Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates.
8. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
9. The thick mists which prevail in the neighborhood of Newfoundland are
   caused by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.
10. The power which brings a pin to the ground holds the earth in its
11. Death is the black camel which kneels at every man's gate.
12. Our best friends are they who tell us of our faults, and help us to
    mend them.

The pupil will notice that, in some of these sentences, the dependent
clause modifies the subject, and that, in others, it modifies the noun

+COMMA--RULE.--The _adjective_ or the _adverb clause_, when it does not
closely follow and restrict the word modified, is generally set off by the




Expand each of the following adjectives into

1. A phrase;
2. A clause;

and then use these three modifiers in three separate sentences of your own

                                  | _who has energy_,
+Model+.--_Energetic; of energy_; +   or
                                  | _who is energetic_.

An _energetic_ man will succeed. A man _of energy_ will succeed. A man who
has _energy_ (or _who is energetic_) will succeed.

Honest, long-eared, beautiful, wealthy.

Expand each of the following _possessive nouns_ into

1. A phrase;
2. A clause;

and then use these three modifiers in three separate sentences.

+Model+.--_Saturn's rings_; the rings _of Saturn_; the rings _which
surround Saturn_.

_Saturn's_ rings can be seen with a telescope. The _rings of Saturn_ can be
seen with a telescope. The rings _which surround Saturn_ can be seen, with
a telescope.

Absalom's hair; the hen's eggs; the elephant's tusks.

Change the following simple sentences into complex sentences by expanding
the participial phrases into clauses.

The vessels carrying the blood from the heart are called arteries. The book
prized above all other books is the Bible. Rivers rising west of the Rocky
Mts. flow into the Pacific ocean. The guns fired at Concord were heard
around the world.

+To the Teacher+.--For additional composition exercises with particular
reference to adjective clauses, see Notes, p. 177.




+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--You learned in Lesson 83 that an adverb can
be expanded into an equivalent phrase; as, The book was _carefully_ read =
The book was read _with care_.

We shall now learn that a phrase used as an adverb may be expanded into an
+Adverb clause+. In the sentence, _We started at sunrise_, what phrase is
used like an adverb? +P+.--_At sunrise_. +T+.--Expand this phrase into an
equivalent clause, and give me the entire sentence. +P+.--We started _when
the sun rose_.

+T+.--You see that the phrase, _at sunrise_, and the clause, _when the sun
rose_, both modify _started_, telling the time of starting, and are
therefore equivalent to adverbs. We will then call such clauses +Adverb

Analysis and Parsing.


   We    |    started
                  ` when
             sun   \  rose

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--The line which connects the two predicate
lines pictures three things. It is made up of three parts. The upper part
shows that _when_ modifies _started_; the lower part, that it modifies
_rose_; and the dotted part shows that it _connects_.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a complex sentence, because ----; _We started_ is
the independent clause, and _when the sun rose_ is the dependent clause.
_We_ is the subject of the independent clause, and _started_ is the
predicate. The clause, _when the sun rose_, is a modifier of the predicate,
because it tells when we started. _Started when the sun rose_ is the
modified predicate.

_Sun_ is the subject of the dependent clause, and _rose_ is the predicate,
and the is a modifier of _sun_; _the sun_ is the modified subject. _When_
modifies _rose_ and _started_, and connects the clause-modifier to the
predicate _started_.

+Parsing+ of _when_.--_When_ is an adverb modifying the two verbs _started_
and _rose_, thus connecting the two clauses. It modifies these verbs by
showing that the two actions took place at the same time.

1. The dew glitters when the sun shines.
2. Printing was unknown when Homer wrote the Iliad.
3. Where the bee sucks honey, the spider sucks poison.
4. Ah! few shall part where many meet.
5. Where the devil cannot come, he will send.
6. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept.
7. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
8. When the tale of bricks is doubled, Moses comes.
9. When I look upon the tombs of the great, every emotion of envy dies
   within me.
10. The upright man speaks as he thinks.
11. He died as the fool dieth.
12. The scepter shall not depart from Judah until Shiloh come.




Expand each of the following phrases into an adverb clause, and fit this
clause into a sentence of your own building.

+Model+.--_At sunset; when the sun set_. We returned _when the sun set_.

At the hour; on the playground; by moonlight; in youth; among icebergs;
after school; at the forks of the road; during the day; before church; with
my friend.

To each of the following independent clauses, join an adverb clause,
and so make complex sentences.

---- Peter began to sink. The man dies ----. Grass grows ----. Iron ----
can easily be shaped. The rattlesnake shakes his rattle ----. ---- a nation
mourns. Pittsburg stands ----. He dared to lead ----.

+To the Teacher+.--For additional composition exercises with particular
reference to adverb clauses, see Notes, p. 177.

See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement--Selection from the Brothers


In what two ways may nouns be used as modifiers? Illustrate. Nouns and
pronouns denoting possession may sometimes be changed into what?
Illustrate. Give the rule for the punctuation of explanatory modifiers.
Into what may an adjective be expanded? Into what may a participial phrase
be expanded? Give illustrations. Give an example of a complex sentence. Of
a clause. Of an independent clause. Of a dependent clause. Into what may a
phrase used as an adverb be expanded? Illustrate.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_That stars are suns is taught by
astronomers_. What is taught by astronomers? +P+.--That stars are suns.
+T+.--What then is the subject of _is taught_? +P+.--The clause, _That
stars are suns_. +T+.--This clause then performs the office of what part of
speech? +P+.--Of a noun.

+T+.--_Astronomers teach that stars are suns_. What do astronomers teach?
+P+.--That stars are suns. +T+.--What is the object complement of _teach_?
+P+.--The clause, _that stars are suns_. +T+.--What office then does this
clause perform? +P+.--That of a noun.

+T+.--_The teaching of astronomers is, that stars are suns_. What does _is_
assert of teaching? +P+.--That stars are suns. +T+.--What then is the
attribute complement? +P+.--_That stars are suns_. +T+.--Does this
complement express the quality of the subject, or does it name the same
thing that the subject names? +P+.--It names the same thing that the
subject names. +T+.--It is equivalent then to what part of speech? +P+.--To
a noun.

+T+.--You see then that a clause, like a noun, may be used as the subject
or the complement of a sentence.

Analysis and Parsing.


  stars | are '\suns
        |  |
          / \   | is taught
                |   \by
                     \  astronomers

You will understand this diagram from the explanation of the second diagram
in Lesson 49.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a complex sentence, in which the whole sentence
takes the place of the independent clause. _That stars are suns_ is the
dependent clause. _That stars are suns_ is the subject of the whole
sentence, etc. ----. _That_ simply introduces the dependent clause.

In _parsing_, call _that_ a conjunction.

1. That the Scotch are an intelligent people is generally acknowledged.
2. That the moon is made of green cheese is believed by some boys and
3. That Julius Caesar invaded Britain is a historic fact.
4. That children should obey their parents is a divine precept.
5. I know that my Redeemer liveth.
6. Plato taught that the soul is immortal.
7. Peter denied that he knew his Lord.
8. Mahomet found that the mountain would not move.
9. The principle maintained by the colonies was, that taxation without
   representation is unjust.
10. Our intention is, that this work shall be well done.
11. Our hearts' desire and prayer is, that you may be saved.
12. The belief of the Sadducees was, that there is no resurrection of the

       *       *       *       *       *




+DEFINITION.--A _Compound Sentence_ is one composed of two or more
independent clauses+.

+Model+.--_War has ceased, and peace has come_.

  War  |  has ceased
       |    '
            ' and
  peace  |   has ' come

+Explanation of the Diagram+.--These two clause diagrams are shaded alike
to show that the two clauses are of the same rank. The connecting line is
not slanting, for one clause is not a modifier of the other. As one entire
clause is connected with the other, the connecting line is drawn between
the predicates simply for convenience.

+Oral Analysis+.--This is a _compound sentence_, because it is made up of
two independent clauses. The first clause, etc. ----.

1. Morning dawns, and the clouds disperse.
2. Prayer leads the heart to God, and he always listens.
3. A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stir up anger.
4. Power works easily, but fretting is a perpetual confession of weakness.
5. Many meet the gods, but few salute them.
6. We eat to live, but we do not live to eat.
7. The satellites revolve in orbits around the planets, and the planets
   move in orbits around the sun.
8. A wise son maketh a glad father, but a foolish son is the heaviness of
   his mother.
9. Every man desires to live long, but no man would be old.
10. [Footnote: A verb is to be supplied in each of the last three
    sentences.] Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before
    a fall.
11. Towers are measured by their shadows, and great men, by their
12. Worth makes the man, and want of it, the fellow.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--You have already become acquainted with
three kinds of sentences. Can you name them?

+P+.--The Simple sentence, the Complex, and the Compound.

+T+.--These classes have been made with regard to the _form_ of the
sentence. We will now arrange sentences in classes with regard to their

_Mary sings. Does Mary sing? Sing, Mary. How Mary sings!_ Here are four
simple sentences. Do they all _mean_ the same thing?

+P+.--They do not.

+T+.--Well, you see they differ. Let me tell you wherein. The first one
tells a fact, the second asks a question, the third expresses a command,
and the fourth expresses sudden thought or strong feeling. We call the
first a +Declarative sentence+, the second an +Interrogative sentence+, the
third an +Imperative sentence+, and the fourth an +Exclamatory sentence+.

+DEFINITION.--A _Declarative Sentence_ is one that is used to affirm or to

+DEFINITION.--An _Interrogative Sentence_ is one that expresses a

+DEFINITION.--An _Imperative Sentence_ is one that expresses a command or
an entreaty+.

+DEFINITION.--An _Exclamatory Sentence_ is one that expresses sudden
thought or strong feeling+.

+INTERROGATION POINT--RULE.--Every direct interrogative sentence should be
followed by an interrogation point+. [Footnote: To The Teacher.--See Notes,
pp. 178, 179.]


Change each of the following declarative sentences into three interrogative
sentences, and tell how the change was made.

+Model+.--_Girls can skate. Can girls skate? How can girls skate? What
girls can skate?_ You are happy. Parrots can talk. Low houses were built.

Change each of the following into an imperative sentence. Notice that
independent words are set off by the comma.

+Model+.--_Carlo eats his dinner. Eat your dinner, Carlo_. George plays the
flute. Birdie stands on one leg.

Change each of the following into exclamatory sentences.

+Model+.--_You are happy. How happy you are! What a happy child you are!
You are so happy!_

Time flies swiftly. I am glad to see you. A refreshing shower fell. Lapland
is a cold country. It is hot between the tropics.

Write a declarative, an interrogative, an imperative, and an exclamatory
sentence on each of the following topics.

Weather, lightning, a stage coach.




In the analysis, classify these sentences first with reference to their
_form_, and then with reference to their _meaning_.

1. Wickedness is often made a substitute for wit.
2. Alfred was a brave, pious, and patriotic prince.
3. The throne of Philip trembles while Demosthenes speaks.
4. That the whole is equal to the sum of its parts is an axiom.
5. The lion belongs to the cat tribe, but he cannot climb a tree.
6. Pride is a flower that grows in the devil's garden.
7. Of all forms of habitation, the simplest is the burrow.
8. When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice.
9. When the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn.
10. Cassius, be not deceived. [Footnote: _Cassius_ is independent, and
    may be diagramed like an interjection. The subject of _be
    deceived_ is _thou_, or _you_, understood.]
11. How poor, how rich, how abject, how august, how wonderful is man!
12. Which is the largest city in the world?




1. Politeness is the oil which lubricates the wheels of society.
2. 0 liberty! liberty! how many crimes are committed in thy name!
3. The mind is a goodly field, and to sow it with trifles is the worst
   husbandry in the world.
4. Every day in thy life is a leaf in thy history.
5. Make hay while the sun shines.
6. Columbus did not know that he had discovered a new continent.
7. The subject of inquiry was, Who invented printing?
8. The cat's tongue is covered with thousands of little sharp cones,
   pointing towards the throat.
9. The fly sat upon the axle of a chariot-wheel and said, "What a dust do I
10. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, attempting to recross the Atlantic in his little
    vessel, the Squirrel, went down in mid-ocean.
11. Charity begins at home, but it should not stay there.
12. The morn, in russet mantle clad, walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern



I haven't near so much. I only want one. Draw the string tightly. He writes
good. I will prosecute him who sticks bills upon this church or any other
nuisance. Noah for his godliness and his family were saved from the flood.
We were at Europe this summer. You may rely in that. She lives to home. I
can't do no work. He will never be no better. They seemed to be nearly
dressed alike. I won't never do so no more. A ivory ball. An hundred head
of cattle. george washington, gen dix of n y. o sarah i Saw A pretty
Bonnet. are You going home? A young man wrote these verses who has long
lain in his grave for his own amusement. This house will be kept by the
widow of Mr. B. who died recently on an improved plan. _In correcting the
position of the adjective clauses in the two examples above, observe the
caution for the phrase modifiers, Lesson_ 41. He was an independent small
farmer. The mind knows feels and thinks. The urchin was ragged barefooted
dirty homeless and friendless. I am some tired. This here road is rough.
That there man is homely. pshaw i am so Disgusted. Whoa can't you stand
still. James the gardener gave me a white lily. Irving the genial writer
lived on the hudson.



Build one sentence out of each group of the sentences which follow.

+Model+.--An _able_ man was chosen.
        A _prudent_ man was chosen.
        An _honorable_ man was chosen.
  An _able, prudent_, and _honorable_ man was chosen.

  Pure water is destitute of color.
  Pure water is destitute of taste.
  Pure water is destitute of smell.

  Cicero was the greatest orator of his age.
  Demosthenes was the greatest orator of his age.

  Daisies peeped up here.
  Daisies peeped up there.
  Daisies peeped up everywhere.

Expand each of the following sentences into three.

  The English language is spoken in England, Canada, and the United States.
  The Missouri, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers are branches of the Mississippi.

Out of the four following sentences, build one sentence having three
explanatory modifiers.

+Model+.--Elizabeth was _the daughter of Henry VIII_.
        Elizabeth was _sister of Queen Mary_.
        Elizabeth was _the patron of literature_.
        Elizabeth defeated the Armada.
Elizabeth, _the daughter of Henry VIII., sister of Queen Mary, and the
patron of literature_, defeated the Armada.

  Boston is the capital of Massachusetts.
  Boston is the Athens of America.
  Boston is the "Hub of the Universe."
  Boston has crooked streets.

Expand the following sentence into four sentences.

  Daniel Webster, the great jurist, the expounder of the Constitution, and
  the chief of the "American Triumvirate," died with the words, "I still
  live," on his lips.



+To the Teacher+.--For additional exercises in composition, see Notes, pp.

Change the following simple sentences into complex sentences by expanding
the phrases into adjective clauses.

+Model+.--People _living in glass houses_ shouldn't throw stones.
        People _who live in glass houses_ shouldn't throw stones.

  Those living in the Arctic regions need much oily food.
  A house built upon the rock will stand.
  The boy of studious habits will always have his lesson.
  Wellington was a man of iron will.

Change the following complex sentences into simple sentences by contracting
the adjective clauses into phrases.

  Much of the cotton which is raised in the Gulf States is exported.
  The house which was built upon the sand fell.
  A thing which is beautiful is a joy forever.
  Aaron Burr was a man who had fascinating manners.

Change the following simple sentences into complex sentences by expanding
the phrases into adverb clauses.

+Model+.--Birds return _in the spring_.
        _When spring comes_, the birds return.

  The dog came at call. In old age our senses fail.

Change the following complex sentences into simple sentences by contracting
the adverb clauses into phrases.

  The ship started when the tide was at flood.
  When he reached the middle of his speech, he stopped.

By supplying noun clauses, make complete sentences out of the following

  ---- is a well-known fact.
  The fact was ----.
  Ben. Franklin said ----.



What is a letter? Give the name and the sound of each of the letters in the
three following words: _letters, name, sound_. Into what classes are
letters divided? Define each class. Name the vowels. What is a word? What
is artificial language? What is English Grammar? What is a sentence? What
is the difference between the two expressions, _ripe apples_ and _apples
are ripe_? What two parts must every sentence have? Define each. What is
the analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What are parts of speech?
How many parts of speech are there? Give an example of each. What is a
noun? What is a verb? What must every predicate contain? What is a pronoun?
What is a modifier? What is an adjective? What adjectives are sometimes
called articles? When is _a_ used? When is _an_ used? Illustrate. Give an
example of one modifier joined to another. What is an adverb? What is a
phrase? What is a preposition? What is a conjunction? What is an
interjection? Give four rules for the use of capital letters (Lessons 8,
15, 19, 87). Give two rules for the use of the period, one for the
exclamation point, and one for the interrogation point (Lessons 8, 37, 63).



What is an object complement? What is an attribute complement? How does a
participle differ from a predicate verb? Illustrate. What offices does an
infinitive phrase perform? Illustrate. How are sentences classified with
respect to form? Give an example of each class. What is a simple sentence?
What is a clause? What is a dependent clause? What is an independent
clause? What is a complex sentence? What is a compound sentence? How are
sentences classified with respect to meaning? Give an example of each
class. What is a declarative sentence? What is an interrogative sentence?
What is an imperative sentence? What is an exclamatory sentence? What
different offices may a noun perform? Ans.--_A noun may be used as a
subject, as an object complement, as an attribute complement, as a
possessive modifier, as an explanatory modifier, as the principal word in a
prepositional phrase, and it may be used independently_. Illustrate each
use. What are sometimes substituted for nouns? _Ans.--Pronouns, phrases,
and clauses_. Illustrate. What is the principal office of a verb? What
offices may be performed by a phrase? What, by a clause? What, different
offices may an adjective perform? What parts of speech may connect clauses?
_Ans.--Conjunctions, adverbs, and pronouns_. (See Lessons 62, 59, and 57.)
Give rules for the use of the comma (Lessons 37, 54, 57). Give and
illustrate the directions for using adjectives and adverbs, for placing
phrases, for using prepositions, and for using negatives (Lessons 40, 41).

+To the Teacher+.--For additional review, see "Scheme," p. 185.

If the early presentation of an outline of technical grammar is not
compelled by a prescribed course of study, we should here introduce a
series of lessons in the construction of sentences, paragraphs, letters,
and general compositions. The pages following Lesson 100 will furnish

See especially COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement--Selection from




+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--Hereafter, in the "Hints," we shall drop the
dialogue form, but we expect the teacher to continue it. A poor teacher
does all the talking, a good teacher makes the pupils talk.

The teacher may here refer to his talk about the classification of birds,
and show that, after birds have been arranged in great classes, such as
robins, sparrows, etc., these classes will need to be subdivided, if the
pupil is to be made thoroughly acquainted with this department of the
animal kingdom. So, after grouping _words_ into the eight great classes,
called Parts of Speech, these classes may be divided into other classes.
For instance, take the two nouns _city_ and _Brooklyn_. The word _city_ is
the _common_ name of all places of a certain class, but the word _Brooklyn_
is the _proper_ or particular name of an _individual_ of this class. We
have here, then, two kinds of nouns which we call +Common+ and +Proper+.

Let the teacher write a number of nouns on the board, and require the pupil
to classify them and give the reasons for the classification.

To prepare the pupil thoroughly for this work, the teacher will find it
necessary to explain why such words as _music, mathematics, knowledge_,
etc., are common nouns. _Music, e. g._, is not a proper noun, for it is not
a name given to an individual thing to distinguish it from other things of
the same class. There are no other things of the same class--it forms a
class by itself. So we call the noun _music_ a _common_ noun.


The speaker seldom refers to himself by name, but uses the pronoun _I_
instead. In speaking _to_ a person, we often use the pronoun _you_ instead
of his name. In speaking _of_ a person or thing that has been mentioned
before, we say _he_ or _she_ or _it_. These words that by their _form_
indicate the speaker, the hearer, or the person or thing spoken of, are
called +Personal Pronouns+. See Lesson 19, "Hints."

Give sentences containing nouns repeated, and require the pupils to improve
these sentences by substituting pronouns.

When we wish to refer to an object that has been mentioned in _another_
clause, and at the same time to _connect the clauses_, we use a class of
pronouns called +Relative Pronouns+. Let the teacher illustrate by using
the pronouns _who, which_, and _that_. See Lesson 57, "Hints for Oral

When we wish to ask about anything whose _name is unknown_, we use a class
of pronouns called +Interrogative Pronouns+. The interrogative pronoun
stands for the unknown name, and asks for it; as, _Who_ comes here? _What_
is this?

_Both men were wrong_. Let us omit _men_ and say, _Both were wrong_. You
see the meaning is not changed--_both_ is here equivalent to _both men_,
that is, it performs the office of an adjective and that of a noun. It is
therefore an +Adjective Pronoun+. Let the teacher further illustrate the
office of the adjective pronoun by using the words _each, all, many, some,
such_, etc.



+A _Common Noun_ is a name which belongs to all things of a class+.

+A _Proper Noun_ is the particular name of an individual+.


+A _Personal Pronoun_ is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker,
the one spoken to, or the one spoken of+.

+A _Relative Pronoun_ is one that relates to some preceding word or words,
and connects clauses+.

+An _Interrogative Pronoun_ is one with which a question is asked+.

+An _Adjective Pronoun_ is one that performs the offices of both an
adjective and a noun+.



Build each of the following groups of nouns into a sentence. See Rule,
Lesson 15.

  webster cares office washington repose home marshfleld.

  george washington commander army revolution president united states
  westmoreland state virginia month february.

  san francisco city port pacific trade united states lines steamships
  sandwich islands japan china australia.

Write five simple sentences, each containing one of the five personal
pronouns: _I, thou_ or _you, he, she_, and _it_.

Write four complex sentences, each containing one of the four relative
pronouns: _who, which, that_, and _what_.

_What_ is used as a relative pronoun when the antecedent is omitted. The
word for which a pronoun stands is called its antecedent. When we express
the antecedent, we use _which_ or _that_. I shall do _what_ is required; I
shall do the _thing which_ is required, or _that_ is required.

Build three interrogative sentences, each containing one of the three
interrogative pronouns: _who, which_, and _what_.

Build eight sentences, each containing one of the following adjective
pronouns: _few, many, much, some, this, these, that, those_.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--When I say _large, round, sweet, yellow
oranges_, the words _large, round, sweet_, and _yellow_ modify the word
_oranges_ by telling the _kind_, and limit the application of the word to
oranges of that kind.

When I say _this orange, yonder orange, one orange_, the words _this,
yonder_, and _one_ do not tell the kind, but simply point out or number the
orange, and limit the application of the word to the orange pointed out or

Adjectives of the first class describe by giving a quality, and so are
called +Descriptive adjectives+.

Adjectives of the second class define by pointing out or numbering, and so
are called +Definitive adjectives+.

Let the teacher write nouns on the board, and require the pupils to modify
them by appropriate descriptive and definitive adjectives.


+A _Descriptive Adjective_ is one that modifies by expressing quality+.

+A _Definitive Adjective_ is one that modifies by pointing out, numbering,
or denoting quantity+.


Place the following adjectives in two columns, one headed _descriptive_,
and the other _definitive_, then build simple sentences in which they shall
be employed as _modifiers_. Find out the meaning of each word before you
use it.

  Round, frolicsome, first, industrious, jolly, idle, skillful, each, the,
  faithful, an, kind, one, tall, ancient, modern, dancing, mischievous,
  stationary, nimble, several, slanting, parallel, oval, every.

Build simple sentences in which the following _descriptive_ adjectives
shall be employed as _attribute complements_. Let some of these attributes
be _compound_.

  Restless, impulsive, dense, rare, gritty, sluggish, dingy, selfish,
  clear, cold, sparkling, slender, graceful, hungry, friendless.

Build simple sentences in which the following _descriptive_ adjectives
shall be employed.

Some of these adjectives have the _form_ of _participles_, and some are
_derived_ from _proper nouns_.

+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--An Adjective derived from a proper noun must begin
with a capital letter+.

  Shining, moving, swaying, bubbling, American, German, French, Swiss,
  Irish, Chinese.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_The man caught_ makes no complete
assertion, and is not a sentence. If I add the object complement _fish_, I
complete the assertion and form a sentence--_The man caught fish_. The
action expressed by _caught_ passes over from the man to the fish.
_Transitive_ means _passing over_, and so all those verbs that express an
action that passes over from a doer to something which receives, are called
+Transitive verbs+.

_Fish swim_. The verb _swim_ does not require an object to complete the
sentence. No action passes from a doer to a receiver. These verbs which
express action that does not pass over to a receiver, and all those which
do not express action at all, but simply _being_ or _state of being_, are
called +Intransitive verbs+.

Let the teacher write transitive and intransitive verbs on the board, and
require the pupils to distinguish them.

When I say, I _crush_ the worm, I express an action that is going on now,
or in present time. I _crushed_ the worm, expresses an action that took
place in past time. As _tense_ means _time_, we call the form _crush_ the
_present tense_ of the verb, and _crushed_ the _past tense_. In the
sentence, The worm _crushed_ under my foot died, _crushed_, expressing the
action as assumed, is, as you have already learned, a participle; and, as
the action is completed, we call it a _past participle_. Now notice that
_ed_ was added to _crush_, the verb in the present tense, to form the verb
in the past tense, and to form the past participle. Most verbs form their
past tense and their past participle by adding _ed_, and so we call such
+Regular verbs+.

I _see_ the man; I _saw_ the man; The man _seen_ by me ran away. I _catch_
fish in the brook; I _caught_ fish in the brook; The fish _caught_ in the
brook tasted good. Here the verbs _see_ and _catch_ do not form their past
tense and past participle by adding _ed_ to the present, and so we call
them _Irregular verbs_.

Let the teacher write on the board verbs of both classes, and require the
pupils to distinguish them.



+A _Transitive Verb_ is one that requires an object+. [Footnote: The
_object_ of a transitive verb, that is, the name of the receiver of the
action, may be the _object complement_, or it may be the subject; as,
Brutus stabbed _Caesar_, _Caesar_ was stabbed by Brutus.]

+An _Intransitive Verb_ is one that does not require an object+.


+A _Regular Verb_ is one that forms its past tense and past participle by
adding _ed_ to the present+. [Footnote: If the present ends in _e_, the _e_
is dropped when _ed_ is added; as, lov_e_, lov_ed_; believ_e_, believ_ed_.]

+An _Irregular Verb_ is one that does not form its past tense and past
participle by adding _ed_ to the present+.


Place the following verbs in two columns, one headed _transitive_ and the
other, _intransitive_. Place the same verbs in two other columns, one
headed _regular_ and the other, _irregular_. Build these verbs into
sentences by supplying a subject to each intransitive verb, and a subject
and an object to each transitive verb.

  Vanish, gallop, bite, promote, contain, produce, provide, veto, secure,
  scramble, rattle, draw.

Arrange the following verbs as before, and then build them into sentences
by supplying a subject and a noun attribute to each intransitive verb, and
a subject and an object to each transitive verb.

  Degrade, gather, know, was, became, is.

A verb may be transitive in one sentence and intransitive in another. Use
the following verbs both ways.

+Model+.--The wren _sings_ sweetly.

The wren _sings_ a pretty little song.

  Bend, ring, break, dash, move.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--When I say, He will come _soon_, or
_presently_, or _often_, or _early_, I am using, to modify _will come_,
words which express the _time_ of coming. These and all such adverbs we
call +Adverbs of Time+.

He will come _up_, or _hither_, or _here_, or _back_. Here I use, to modify
_will come_, words which express _place_. These and all such adverbs we
call +Adverbs of Place+.

When I say, The weather is _so_ cold, or _very_ cold, or _intensely_ cold,
the words _so, very_, and _intensely_ modify the adjective _cold_ by
expressing the _degree_ of coldness. These and all such adverbs we call
+Adverbs of Degree+.

When I say, He spoke _freely, wisely_, and _well_, the words _freely,
wisely_, and _well_ tell how or _in what manner_ he spoke. All such adverbs
we call +Adverbs of Manner+.

Let the teacher place adverbs on the board, and require the pupil to
classify them.


+_Adverbs of Time_ are those that generally answer the question+, _When?_

_+Adverbs of Place are those that generally answer the question+, Where?

+Adverbs of Degree are those that generally answer the question+, To what

+Adverbs of Manner are those that generally answer the question+, In what


Place the following adverbs in the four classes we have made--if the
classification be perfect, there will be five words in each column--then
build each adverb into a simple sentence.

  Partly, only, too, wisely, now, here, when, very, well, where, nobly,
  already, seldom, more, ably, away, always, not, there, out.

Some adverbs, as you have already learned, modify two verbs, and thus
connect the two clauses in which these verbs occur. Such adverbs are called
_+Conjunctive Adverbs+_.

The following _dependent_ clauses are introduced by _conjunctive adverbs_.
Build them into complex sentences by supplying _independent clauses_.

------ _when_ the ice is smooth;
------ _while_ we sleep;
------ _before_ winter comes;
------ _where_ the reindeer lives;
------ _wherever_ you go.


CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS. [Footnote: For classified lists, see pp. 190,191.]

+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_Frogs, antelopes, and kangaroos can jump_.
Here the three nouns are of the same rank in the sentence. All are subjects
of _can jump. War has ceased, and peace has come_. In this compound
sentence, there are two clauses of the same rank. The word _and_ connects
the subjects of _can jump_, in the first sentence: and the two clauses, in
the second. All words that connect words, phrases, or clauses of the _same
rank_ are called +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+.

_If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. I will go, because you need
me_. Here _if_ joins the clause, _you have tears_, as a modifier,
expressing condition, to the independent clause, _prepare to shed them
now;_ and _because_ connects _you need me_, as a modifier, expressing
reason or cause, to the independent clause, _I will go_. These and all such
conjunctions as connect dependent clauses to clauses of a _higher rank_ are
called +Subordinate Conjunctions+.

Let the teacher illustrate the meaning and use of the words _subordinate_
and _co-ordinate_.


+_Co-ordinate Conjunctions_ are such as connect words, phrases, or clauses
of the same rank+.

+_Subordinate Conjunctions_ are such as connect clauses of different rank+.


Build four short sentences for each of the three _co-ordinate conjunctions_
that follow. In the first, let the conjunction be used to connect principal
parts of a sentence; in the second, to connect word modifiers; in the
third, to connect phrase modifiers; and in the fourth, to connect
independent clauses.

And, or, but.

Write four short complex sentences containing the four _subordinate
conjunctions_ that follow. Let the first be used to introduce a noun
clause, and the other three to connect adverb clauses to independent

That, for, if, because.



What new subject begins with page 95? Name and define the different classes
of nouns. Illustrate by examples the difference between common nouns and
proper nouns. Name and define the different classes of pronouns. Can the
pronoun _I_ be used to stand for the one spoken to?--the one spoken of?
Does the relative pronoun distinguish by its _form_ the speaker, the one
spoken to, and the one spoken of? Illustrate. Can any other class of
pronouns be used to connect clauses?

For what do interrogative pronouns stand? Illustrate. Where may the
antecedent of an interrogative pronoun generally be found? _Ans.--The
antecedent of an interrogative pronoun may generally lie found in the
answer to the question_.

Name and define the different classes of adjectives. Give an example of
each class. Name and define the different classes of verbs, made with
respect to their meaning. Give an example of each class. Name and define
the different classes of verbs, made with respect to their form. Give an
example of each class.

Name and define the different classes of adverbs. Give examples of each
kind. Name and define the different classes of conjunctions. Illustrate by

Are prepositions and interjections subdivided? (See "Schemes" for the
conjunction, the preposition, and the interjection, p. 188.)

+To the Teacher+.--See COMPOSITION EXERCISES in the Supplement-- Selection
from Dr. John Brown.

We suggest that other selections from literature be made and these
exercises continued.




You have learned that two words may express a thought, and that the thought
may be varied by adding modifying words. You are now to learn that the
meaning or use of a word may sometimes be changed by simply changing its
_form_. The English language has lost many of its inflections, or forms, so
that frequently changes in the meaning and use of words are not marked by
changes in form. These _changes_ in the _form, meaning_, and _use_ of the
parts of speech, we call their +Modifications+.

_The boy shouts. The boys shout_. I have changed the form of the subject
_boy_ by adding an _s_ to it. The meaning has changed. _Boy_ denotes _one_
lad; _boys_, _two or more_ lads. This change in the form and meaning of
nouns is called +Number+. The word _boy_, denoting one thing, is in the
+Singular Number;+ and _boys_, denoting more than one thing, is in the
+Plural Number+.

Let the teacher write other nouns on the board, and require the pupils to
form the plural of them.


+_Modifications of the Parts of Speech_ are changes in their form, meaning,
and use+.


+_Number_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes one thing
or more than one+.

+The _Singular Number_ denotes one thing+.

+The _Plural Number_ denotes more than one thing+.

+RULE.--The _plural_ of nouns is regularly formed by adding _s_ to the

Write the plural of the following nouns.

  Tree, bird, insect, cricket, grasshopper, wing, stick, stone, flower,
  meadow, pasture, grove, worm, bug, cow, eagle, hawk, wren, plough,

When a singular noun ends in the sound of _s, x, z, sh_, or _ch_, it is not
easy to add the sound of _s_, so _es_ is added to make another syllable.

Write the plural of the following nouns.

  Guess, box, topaz, lash, birch, compass, fox, waltz, sash, bench, gas,
  tax, adz, brush, arch.

Many nouns ending in _o_ preceded by a consonant form the plural by adding
_es_ without increasing the number of syllables.

Write the plural of the following nouns.

  Hero, cargo, negro, potato, echo, volcano, mosquito, motto.

Common nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant form the plural by
changing _y_ into _i_ and adding _es_ without increasing the number of

Write the plural of the following nouns.

  Lady, balcony, family, city, country, daisy, fairy, cherry, study, sky.

Some nouns ending in _f_ and _fe_ form the plural by changing _f_ or _fe_
into _ves_ without increasing the number of syllables.

Write the plural of the following nouns.

  Sheaf, loaf, beef, thief, calf, half, elf, shelf, self, wolf, life,
  knife, wife.



From the following list of nouns, select, and write in separate columns:
1st. Those that have no plural; 2d. Those that have no singular; 3d. Those
that are alike in both numbers.

  Pride, wages, trousers, cider, suds, victuals, milk, riches, flax,
  courage, sheep, deer, flour, idleness, tidings, thanks, ashes, scissors,
  swine, heathen.

The following nouns have very irregular plurals. Learn to spell the

_Singular.   Plural.     Singular.   Plural_.
 Man,        men.        Foot,       feet.
 Woman,      women.      Ox,         oxen.
 Child,      children.   Tooth,      teeth.
 Mouse,      mice.       Goose,      geese.

Learn the following plurals and compare them with the groups in the
preceding Lesson.

  Moneys, flies, chimneys, valleys, stories, berries, lilies, turkeys,
  monkeys, cuckoos, pianos, vetoes, solos, folios, gulfs, chiefs, leaves,
  roofs, scarfs, inches.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_The lion was caged. The lioness was caged_.
In the first sentence, something was said about a _male_ lion; and in the
second, something was said about a _female_ lion. Modifications of the noun
to denote the sex of the object, we call +Gender+. Knowing the sex of the
object, you know the gender of its name. The word _lion_, denoting a male
animal, is in the +Masculine Gender;+ and _lioness_, denoting a female
lion, is in the +Feminine Gender+.

The names of things _without_ sex are in the +Neuter Gender+.

Such words as _cousin, child, friend, neighbor_, may be _either masculine
or feminine_.


_Gender_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes sex.

The _Masculine Gender_ denotes the male sex.

The _Feminine Gender_ denotes the female sex.

The _Neuter Gender_ denotes want of sex+.

The masculine is distinguished from the feminine in three ways:--

1st. By a difference in the ending of the nouns.

2d. By different words in the compound names.

3d. By words wholly or radically different.

Arrange the following pairs in separate columns with reference to these

  Abbot, abbess; actor, actress; Francis, Frances; Jesse, Jessie; bachelor,
  maid; beau, belle; monk, nun; gander, goose; administrator,
  administratrix; baron, baroness; count, countess; czar, czarina; don,
  donna; boy, girl; drake, duck; lord, lady; nephew, niece; landlord,
  landlady; gentleman, gentlewoman; peacock, peahen; duke, duchess; hero,
  heroine; host, hostess; Jew, Jewess; man-servant, maid-servant; sir,
  madam; wizard, witch; marquis, marchioness; widow, widower; heir,
  heiress; Paul, Pauline; Augustus, Augusta.


What new way of varying the meaning of words is introduced in Lesson 78?
Illustrate. What are modifications of the parts of speech? What is number?
How many numbers are there? Name and define each. Give the rule for forming
the plural of nouns. Illustrate the variations of this rule. What is
gender? How many genders are there? Name and define each. In how many ways
are the genders distinguished? Illustrate.



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_Number_ and _gender_, as you have already
learned, are modifications affecting the _meaning_ of nouns and pronouns.
Number is almost always indicated by the ending; gender, sometimes. There
are two other modifications which refer not to changes in the _meaning_ of
nouns and pronouns, but to their different _uses_ and _relations_. In the
English language, these changes are not often indicated by a change of

_I Paul_ have written. _Paul, thou_ art beside thyself. _He_ brought _Paul_
before Agrippa. In these three sentences the word _Paul_ has _three
different uses_. In the first, it is used as the name of the _speaker_; in
the second, as the name of _one spoken to_; in the third, as the name of
_one spoken of_. You will notice that the _form_ of the noun was not
changed. This change in the use of nouns and pronouns is called +Person+.
The word _I_ in the first sentence, the word _thou_ in the second, and the
word _he_ in the third have each a different use. _I_, _thou_, and _he_ are
personal pronouns, and, as you have learned, distinguish _person_ by their
_form_. _I_, denoting the speaker, is in the +First Person+; _thou_,
denoting the one spoken to, is in the +Second Person+; and _he_, denoting
the one spoken of, is in the +Third Person+.

_Personal pronouns_ and _verbs_ are the only words that distinguish person
by their form.

_The bear killed the man_. _The man killed the bear_. _The bear's grease
was made into hair oil_. In the first sentence, the bear is represented as
_performing_ an action; in the second, as _receiving_ an action; in the
third, as _possessing_ something. So the word _bear_ in these sentences has
three different uses. These uses of nouns are called +Cases+. The use of a
noun as subject is called the +Nominative Case+; its use as object is
called the +Objective Case+; and its use to denote possession is called the
+Possessive Case+.

The _possessive_ is the only case of nouns that is indicated by a change in

A noun or pronoun used as an _attribute_ complement is in the _nominative
case_. A noun or pronoun following a preposition as the principal word of a
phrase is in the _objective case_. _I_ and _he_ are _nominative_ forms.
_Me_ and _him_ are _objective_ forms.

The following sentences are therefore incorrect: It is _me_; It is _him_;
_Me_ gave the pen to _he_.


_Person_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes the
speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of.

The _First Person_ denotes the one speaking.

The _Second Person_ denotes the one spoken to.

The _Third Person_ denotes the one spoken of.

_Case_ is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes its office
in the sentence.

The _Nominative Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as subject or
as attribute complement.

The _Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as possessive

The _Objective Case of a noun or pronoun_ denotes its office as object
complement, or as principal word in a prepositional phrase+.



Tell the _person_ and _case_ of each of the following nouns and pronouns.

+_Remember_+ that a noun or pronoun used as an _explanatory modifier_ is in
the same case as the word which it explains, and that a noun or pronoun
used _independently_ is in the _nominative case_.

  We Americans do things in a hurry.
  You Englishmen take more time to think.
  The Germans do their work with the most patience and deliberation.
  We boys desire a holiday.
  Come on, my men; I will lead you.
  I, your teacher, desire your success.
  You, my pupils, are attentive.
  I called on Tom, the tinker.
  Friends, countrymen, and lovers, hear me for my cause.

Write simple sentences in which each of the following nouns shall be used
in the _three persons_ and in the _three cases_.

Andrew Jackson, Alexander, Yankees.

Write a sentence containing a noun in the _nominative_ case, used as an
_attribute;_ one in the _nominative_, used as an _explanatory modifier_;
one in the _nominative_, used independently.

Write a sentence containing a noun in the _objective case_, used to
_complete two predicate verbs_; one used to _complete_ a _participle_; one
used to _complete_ an _infinitive_; one used _with a preposition_ to make a
phrase; one used as an _explanatory modifier_.

+To the Teacher+.--See pp. 183, 184.



+DEFINITION.--_Declension_ is the arrangement of the cases of nouns and
pronouns in the two numbers+.

Declension of Nouns.


            _Singular_.   _Plural_.
  _Nom_.     lady,        ladies,
  _Pos_.     lady's,      ladies',
  _Obj_.     lady;        ladies.


            _Singular_.   _Plural_.
  _Nom._     child,       children,
  _Pos._     child's,     children's,
  _Obj._     child;       children.

Declension of Pronouns.



            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     I,               we,
  _Pos._     my _or_ mine,    our _or_ ours,
  _Obj._     me;              us.

SECOND PERSON--_common form_.

            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     you,             you,
  _Pos._     your _or_ yours, your _or_ yours,
  _Obj._     you;             you.

SECOND PERSON--_old form_.

            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     thou,            ye or you,
  _Pos._     thy _or_ thine,  your _or_ yours,
  _Obj._     thee;            you.

THIRD PERSON--_masculine_.

            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     he,              they,
  _Pos._     his,             their _or_ theirs,
  _Obj._     him;             them.

THIRD PERSON--_feminine_.

            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     she,             they,
  _Pos._     her _or_ hers,   their _or_ theirs,
  _Obj._     her;             them.

THIRD PERSON----_neuter_.

            _Singular_.       _Plural_.
  _Nom._     it,              they,
  _Pos._     its,             their _or_ theirs,
  _Obj._     it;              them.

_Mine, ours, yours, thine, hers_, and _theirs_ are used when the name of
the thing possessed is omitted; as, This rose is _yours_ = This rose is
_your rose_.


By joining the word _self_ to the possessive forms _my, thy, your_, and to
the objective forms _him, her, it_, the +_Compound Personal Pronouns_+ are
formed. They have no possessive case, and are alike in the nominative and
the objective.

Their plurals are _ourselves_, _yourselves_, and _themselves_. Form the
_compound personal pronouns_, and write their declension.


  _Sing. and Plu._
  _Nom._ who,
  _Pos._ whose,
  _Obj._ whom.

  _Sing. and Plu._
  _Nom._ which,
  _Pos._ whose,
  _Obj._ which.

_Of which_ is often used instead of the possessive form of the latter

  _Sing. and Plu._
  _Nom._ that,
  _Pos._ ----,
  _Obj._ that.

  _Sing. and Plu._
  _Nom._ what,
  _Pos._ ----,
  _Obj._ what.

_Ever_ and _soever_ are added to _who, which_, and _what_ to form the
+_Compound Relative Pronouns_+. They are used when the antecedent is
omitted. For declension, see above.



+RULE.--The _possessive case_ of nouns is formed in the singular by adding
to the nominative the apostrophe and the letter _s_ ('s); in the plural, by
adding (') only. If the plural does not end in _s_, the apostrophe and the
_s_ are both added+.

Write the _possessive singular_ and the _possessive plural_ of the
following nouns, and place an appropriate noun after each.

  Robin, friend, fly, hero, woman, bee, mouse, cuckoo, fox, ox, man, thief,
  fairy, mosquito, wolf, shepherd, farmer, child, neighbor, cow.

Possession may be expressed also by the preposition _of_ and the
_objective_; as, the _mosquito's_ bill = the bill _of_ the _mosquito_.

The possessive sign ('s) is confined _chiefly_ to the names of persons and

We do not say the _chair's_ legs, but the legs _of_ the _chair_. Regard
must be had also to the _sound_.

IMPROVE THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS, and expand each into a simple sentence.

  The sky's color; the cloud's brilliancy; the rose's leaves; my uncle's
  partner's house; George's father's friend's farm; the mane of the horse
  of my brother; my brother's horse's mane.

When there are several possessive nouns, all belonging to one word, the
possessive sign is added to the last only. If they modify different words,
the sign is added to each.

CORRECT THE FOLLOWING EXPRESSIONS, and expand each into a simple sentence.

+Model+.--_Webster and Worcester's dictionary may be bought at Ticknor's
and Field's book-store_.

The possessive sign should be added to _Webster_, for the word _dictionary_
is understood immediately after. Webster and Worcester do not together
possess the same dictionary. The sign should not be added to _Ticknor_, for
the two men, Tieknor and Field, possess the same store.

Adam's and Eve's garden; Jacob's and Esau's father; Shakespeare and
Milton's works; Maud, Kate, and Clara's gloves; Maud's, Kate's, and Clara's
teacher was ----.

When one possessive noun is explanatory of another, the possessive sign is
added to the last only.


  I called at Tom's the tinker's.
  They listened to Peter's the Hermit's eloquence.
  This was the Apostle's Paul's advice.


  Our's, your's, hi's, their's, her's, it's, hisn, yourn, hern.



+_Remember_+ that _I, we, thou, ye, he, she, they_, and _who_ are
+_nominative_+ forms, and must not be used in the objective case.

+_Remember_+ that _me, us, thee, him, her, them_, and _whom_ are
+_objective_+ forms, and must not be used in the nominative case.

+To the Teacher+.--The _eight_ nominative forms and the _seven_ objective
forms given above are the only distinctive nominative and objective forms
in the English language. Let the pupils become familiar with them.


  Him and me are good friends.
  The two persons were her and me.
  Us girls had a jolly time.
  It is them, surely.
  Who will catch this? Me.
  Them that despise me shall be lightly esteemed.
  Who is there? Me.
  It was not us, it was him.
  Who did you see?
  Who did you ask for?

+_Remember_+ that pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number,
gender, and person.


  Every boy must read their own sentences.
  I gave the horse oats, but he would not eat it.
  Every one must read it for themselves.
  I took up the little boy, and set it on my knee.

+_Remember_+ that the relative _who_ represents persons; _which_, animals
and things; _that_, persons, animals, and things; and _what_, things.


  I have a dog who runs to meet me.
  The boy which I met was quite lame.
  Those which live in glass houses must not throw stones.


+To the Teacher+.--For "Schemes," see p. 186.

How many modifications have nouns and pronouns? Name and define each. How
many persons are there? Define each. How many cases are there? Define each.
How do you determine the case of an explanatory noun or pronoun? What is
declension? How are the forms _mine, yours_, etc., now used? What is the
rule for forming the possessive case? What words are used only in the
nominative case? What words are used only in the objective case? [Footnote:
_Her_ is used in the possessive case also.] How do you determine the
number, gender, and person of pronouns?



+To the Teacher+.--For general "Scheme" for parsing, see p. 189.

Select and parse all the nouns and pronouns in Lesson 53.

+Model for Written Parsing+.--_Elizabeth's favorite, Raleigh, was beheaded
by James I._

                    _Kind_.   Prop.
  MODIFICATIONS.    _Person_. 3d
                    _Number_. Sing.
                    _Gender_. Fem.
                    _Case_.   Pos.
  SYNTAX.                   Pos. Mod. of _favorite_.

                    _Kind_.   Com.
  MODIFICATIONS.    _Person_. 3d
                    _Number_. Sing.
                    _Gender_. Mas.
                    _Case_.   Nom.
  SYNTAX.                   Sub. of _was beheaded_.

                    _Kind_.   Prop.
  MODIFICATIONS.    _Person_. 3d
                    _Number_. Sing.
                    _Gender_. Mas.
                    _Case_.   Nom.
  SYNTAX.                   Exp. Mod. of _favorite_.

James I.
                    _Kind_.   Prop.
  MODIFICATIONS.    _Person_. 3d
                    _Number_. Sing.
                    _Gender_. Mas.
                    _Case_.   Obj.
  SYNTAX.                   Prin. word after _by_.

+To the Teacher+.--Select other exercises, and continue this work as long
as it may be profitable. See Lessons 56, 57, 61, 64, and 65.



+Adjectives have one modification;+ viz., _Comparison_.


+_Comparison_ is a modification of the adjective to express the relative
degree of the quality in the things compared+.

+The _Positive degree_ expresses the simple quality+.

+The _Comparative degree_ expresses a greater or a less degree of the

+The _Superlative degree_ expresses the greatest or the least degree of the

+RULE.--Adjectives are regularly compared by adding _er_ to the positive to
form the comparative, and _est_ to the positive to form the superlative+.

Adjectives of one syllable are _generally_ compared regularly; adjectives
of two or more syllables are often compared by prefixing _more_ and _most_.

When there are two correct forms, choose the one that can be more easily

Compare the following adjectives. For the spelling, consult your

Model.--_Positive.  Comparative.   Superlative_.
        Lovely,     lovelier,      loveliest; _or_
        lovely,     more lovely,   most lovely.

  Tame, warm, beautiful, brilliant, amiable, high, mad, greedy, pretty,

Some adjectives are compared _irregularly_. Learn the following forms.

  _Positive.  Comparative.  Superlative_.
   Good,      better,       best.
   Bad,   |
   Evil,  +   worse,        worst.
   Ill,   |
   Little,    less,         least.
   Much,  |
   Many,  |   more,         most.



+_Remember_+ that, when two things or groups of things are compared, the
_comparative_ degree is commonly used; when more than two, the
_superlative_ is employed.

+_Caution_+.--Adjectives should not be _doubly_ compared.


  Of all the boys, George is the more industrious.
  Peter was older than the twelve apostles.
  Which is the longer of the rivers of America?
  This was the most unkindest cut of all.
  He chose a more humbler part.
  My hat is more handsomer than yours.
  The younger of those three boys is the smarter.
  Which is the more northerly, Maine, Oregon, or Minnesota?

+_Caution_+.--Do not use adjectives and adverbs extravagantly.


  The weather is horrid.
  That dress is perfectly awful.
  Your coat sits frightfully.
  We had an awfully good time.
  This is a tremendously hard lesson.
  Harry is a mighty nice boy.

+_Remember_+ that adjectives whose meaning does not admit of different
degrees cannot be compared; as, _every_, _universal_.

Use in the three different degrees such of the following adjectives as
admit of comparison.

All, serene, excellent, immortal, first, two, total, infinite,
three-legged, bright.

+_Adverbs_+ are compared in the same manner as adjectives. The following
are compared regularly. Compare them.

Fast, often, soon, late, early.

In the preceding and in the following list, find words that may be used as

The following are compared irregularly. Learn them.

  _Pos.          Comp.        Sup. _
  -----------   ----------   --------
  Badly, Ill,   worse,       worst.
  Well,         better,      best.
  Little,       less,        least.
  Much,         more,        most.
  Far,          farther,     farthest.

Adverbs ending in _ly_ are generally compared by prefixing _more_ and
_most_. Compare the following.

Firmly, gracefully, actively, easily.

+To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils select and parse all the adjectives and
adverbs in Lesson 27. For forms, see p. 189. Select other exercises, and
continue the work as long as it is profitable. See "Schemes" for review, p.


How is a noun parsed? What modification have adjectives? What is
comparison? How many degrees of comparison are there? Define each. How are
adjectives regularly compared? Distinguish the uses of the comparative and
the superlative degree. Give the directions for using adjectives and
adverbs (Lesson 88). Illustrate. What adjectives cannot be compared? How
are adverbs compared?




+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--_I picked the rose_. I will tell the same
thing in another way. _The rose was picked by me_. The first verb _picked_
shows that the subject _I_ represents the actor, and the second form of the
verb, _was picked_, shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. This
change in the form of the verb is called +Voice+. The first form is called
the +Active Voice+; and the second, the +Passive Voice+.

The _passive_ form is very convenient when we wish to assert an action
without naming any actor. _Money is coined_ is better than _somebody coins


+_Voice_ is that modification of the transitive verb which shows whether
the subject names the _actor_ or the _thing acted upon_+.

+The _Active Voice_ shows that the subject names the actor+.

+The _Passive Voice_ shows that the subject names the thing acted upon+.

In each of the following sentences, change the _voice_ of the verb without
changing the meaning of the sentence. Note the other changes that occur in
the sentence.

  The industrious bees gather honey from the flowers.
  The storm drove the vessel against the rock.
  Our words should be carefully chosen.
  Death separates the dearest friends.
  His vices have weakened his mind and destroyed his health.
  True valor protects the feeble and humbles the oppressor.
  The Duke of Wellington, who commanded the English armies in the
    Peninsula, never lost a battle.
  Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt.
  Dr. Livingstone explored a large part of Africa.
  The English were conquered by the Normans.

Name all the transitive verbs in Lessons 20 and 22, and give, their



+Hints for Oral Instruction+.--When I say, _James walks_, I assert the
walking as a _fact_. When I say, _James may walk_, I do not assert the
action as a fact, but as a _possible_ action. When I say, _If James walk
out, he will improve_, I assert the action, not as an actual fact, but as a
_condition_ of James's, improving. When I say to James, _Walk out_, I do
not assert that James actually does the act, I assert the action as a

The action expressed by the verb _walk_ has been asserted in _four_
different _ways_, or +modes+. The first way is called the +Indicative
Mode+; the second, the +Potential Mode+; the third, the +Subjunctive Mode+;
the fourth, the +Imperative Mode+.

Let the teacher give other examples and require the pupils to repeat this

For the two forms of the verb called the +Infinitive+ and the +Participle+,
see "Hints," Lessons 48 and 49.

_I walk. I walked. I shall walk_. In each of these three sentences, the
manner of asserting the action is the same. _I walk_ expresses the action
as _present_. _I walked_ expresses the action as _past_, and _I shall walk_
expresses the action as _future_. As +Tense+ means _time_, the first form
is called the +Present Tense+; the second, the +Past Tense+; and the third,
the +Future Tense+.

We have three other forms of the verb, expressing the action as _completed_
in the _present_, the _past_, or the _future_.

_I have walked out to-day. I had walked out when he called. I shall have
walked out by to-morrow_. The form, _have walked_, expressing the action as
_completed_ in the present, is called the +Present Perfect Tense+. The
form, _had walked_, expressing the action as _completed_ in the past, is
called the +Past Perfect Tense+. The form, _shall have walked_, expressing
an action to be _completed_ in the future, is called the +Future Perfect

Let the teacher give other verbs, and require the pupils to name and
explain the different tenses.

_I walk. Thou walkest. He walks. They walk_.

In the second sentence, the verb _walk_ was changed by adding _est_; and in
the third, it was changed by adding _s_. These changes are for the sake of
agreement with the person of the subject. The verb ending in _est_ agrees
with the subject _thou_ in the second person, and the verb ending in _s_
agrees with _he_ in the third person. In the fourth sentence, the subject
is in the third person; but it is plural, and so the verb drops the _s_ to
agree with they in the plural.

Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. The
person and number _forms_ will be found in Lessons 93, 94.


+_Mode_ is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of
asserting the action or being+.

+The _Indicative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a fact+.

+The _Potential Mode_ asserts the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity
of acting or being+.

+The _Subjunctive Mode_ asserts the action or being as a mere condition,
supposition, or wish+.

+The _Imperative Mode_ asserts the action or being as a command or an

+The _Infinitive_ is a form of the verb which names the action or being in
a general way, without asserting it of anything+.

+The _Participle_ is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an
adjective or of a noun, and expressing the action or being as assumed+.

+The _Present Participle_ denotes action or being as continuing at the time
indicated by the predicate+.

+The _Past Participle_ denotes action or being as past or completed at the
time indicated by the predicate+.

+The _Past Perfect Participle_ denotes action or being as completed at a
time previous to that indicated by the predicate+.

+_Tense_ is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the
action or being+.

+The _Present Tense_ expresses action or being as present+.

+The _Past Tense_ expresses action or being as past+.

+The _Future Tense_ expresses action or being as yet to come+.

+The _Present Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at the
present time+.

+The _Past Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being as completed at some
past time+.

+The _Future Perfect Tense_ expresses action or being to be completed at
some future time+.

+_Number_ and _Person_ of a verb are those modifications that show its
agreement with the number and person of its subject+.




+_Conjugation_ is the regular arrangement of all the forms of the verb+.

+_Synopsis_ is the regular arrangement of the forms of one number and
person in all the modes and tenses+.

+_Auxiliary Verbs_ are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs+.

The auxiliaries are _do_, _be_, _have_, _shall_, _will_, _may_, _can_, and

+The _Principal Parts_ of a verb are the present indicative or the present
infinitive, the past indicative, and the past participle+.

These are called _principal parts_, because all the other forms of the verb
are derived from them.

We give, below, the _principal parts_ of some of the most important
_irregular verbs_. Learn them.

_Present_.      _Past_.        _Past. Par._
Be _or_ am,     was,             been.
Begin,          began,           begun.
Blow,           blew,            blown.
Break,          broke,           broken.
Choose,         chose,           chosen.
Come,           came,            come.
Do,             did,             done.
Draw,           drew,            drawn.
Drink,          drank,           drunk.
Drive,          drove,           driven.
Eat,            ate,             eaten.
Fall,           fell,            fallen.
Fly,            flew,            flown.
Freeze,         froze,           frozen.
Go,             went,            gone.
Get,            got,             got _or_ gotten.
Give,           gave,            given.
Grow,           grew,            grown.
Have,           had,             had.
Know,           knew,            known.
Lay,            laid,            laid.
Lie, (to rest)  lay,             lain.
Ride,           rode,            ridden.
Ring,           rang _or_ rung,  rung.
Rise,           rose,            risen.
Run,            ran,             run.
See,            saw,             seen.
Set,            set,             set.
Sit,            sat,             sat.
Shake,          shook,           shaken.
Sing,           sang _or_ sung,  sung.
Slay,           slew,            slain.
Speak,          spoke,           spoken.
Steal,          stole,           stolen.
Swim,           swam _or_ swum,  swum.
Take,           took,            taken.
Tear,           tore,            torn.
Throw,          threw,           thrown.
Wear,           wore,            worn.
Write,          wrote,           written.

The following irregular verbs are called +_Defective_,+ because some of
their parts are wanting.

  _Present_.  _Past_. | _Present_.  _Past_.
  Can,        could.  | Will,      would.
  May,        might.  | Must,      ----
  Shall,      should. | Ought,     ----




_Pres_.   _Past_.  _Past Par._
See,      saw,     seen.


  _Singular_.                  _Plural_.
1. I see,                    1. We see,
2. You see, _or_             2. You see,
   Thou seest,
3. He sees;                  3. They see.


1. I saw,                    1. We saw,
2. You saw, _or_             2. You saw,
   Thou sawest,
3. He saw;                   3. They saw.


1. I shall see,              1. We shall see,
2. You will see, _or_        2. You will see,
   Thou wilt see,
3. He will see;              3. They will see.


1. I have seen,              1. We have seen,
2. You have seen, _or_       2. You have seen,
   Thou hast seen
3. He has seen;              3. They have seen.


1. I had seen,               1. We had seen,
2. You had seen, _or_        2. You had seen,
   Thou hadst seen,
3. He had seen;              3. They had seen.


1. I shall have seen,        1. We shall have seen,
2. You will have seen, _or_  2. You will have seen,
   Thou wilt have seen,
3. He will have seen;        3. They will have seen.



  _Singular_.                  _Plural_.
1. I may see,                1. We may see,
2. You may see, _or_         2. You may see,
   Thou mayst see,
3. He may see;               3. They may see.


1. I might see,              1. We might see,
2. You might see, _or_
   Thou mightst see,         2. You might see,
3. He might see;             3. They might see.


1. I may have seen,          1. We may have seen,
2. You may have seen, _or_   2. You may have seen
   Thou mayst have seen,
3. He may have seen;         3. They may have seen.


  _Singular_.                  _Plural_.
1. I might have seen,        1. We might have seen,
2. You might have seen, _or_ 2. You might have seen,
   Thou mightst have seen,
3. He might have seen;       3. They might have seen.



  _Singular_.                  _Plural_.
1. If I see,                 1. If we see,
2. If you see, _or_          2. If you see,
   If thou see,
3. If he see;                3. If they see.



2. See (you _or_ thou);      2. See (you).



To see.


To have seen.



Seeing,        Seen,        Having seen.

+To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils prefix _do_ and _did_ to the simple
present _see_, and thus make the _emphatic form_ of the present and the
past tense.

Let _can_ and _must_ be used in place of _may_; and _could_, _would_, and
_should_, in place of _might_.

Require the pupils to tell how each tense is formed, and to note all
changes for agreement in number and person.

A majority of modern writers use the _indicative_ forms instead of the
_subjunctive_, in all of the tenses, unless it may be the _present_. The
_subjunctive_ forms of the verb _to be_ are retained in the present and the
past tense. Let the pupils understand that the mode and tense forms do not
always correspond with the actual meaning. _The ship sails next week. I may
go to-morrow_. The verbs _sails_ and _may go_ are _present_ in form but
_future_ in meaning. _If it rains by noon, he may not come_. The verb
_rains_ is _indicative_ in form but _subjunctive_ in meaning.

The plural forms, _You saw, You were_, etc., are used in the _singular_



Fill out the following forms, using the principal parts of the verb _walk.
Pres., walk; Past, walked; Past Par., walked_.



_Singular_.                            _Plural_.
1. I    / _Pres_ /,                    1. We   / _Pres_ /,
2. You  / _Pres_ /,                    2. You  / _Pres_ /,
   Thou / _Pres_ /est,
3. He   / _Pres_ /s;                   3. They / _Pres_ /.


1. I    / _Past_ /,                    1. We   / _Past_ /,
2. You  / _Past_ /,                    2. You  / _Past_ /,
   Thou / _Past_ /st,
3. He   / _Past_ /;                    3. They / _Past_ /.


1. I _shall_    / _Pres_ /,       1. We _will_  / _Pres_ /,
2. You _will_   / _Pres_ /,       2. You _will_ / _Pres_ /,
   Thou _wil-t_ / _Pres_ /,
3. He _will_    / _Pres_ /;       3. They _will_ / _Pres_ /.


1. I _have_     /_Past Par._/,  1. We _have_   /_Past Par._/,
2. You _have_   /_Past Par._/,  2. You _have_  /_Past Par._/,
   Thou _ha-st_ /_Past Par._/,
3. He _ha-s_    /_Past Par._/;  3. They _have_ /_Past Par._/.


1. I _had_       /_Past Par._/, 1. We _had_   /_Past Par._/,
2. You _had_     /_Past Par._/, 2. You _had_  /_Past Par._/,
   Thou _had-st_ /_Past Par._/,
3. He _had_      /_Past Par._/; 3. They _had_ /_Past Par._/.


1. I _shall have_    /_Past Par._/, 1. We _will have_   _Past Par._,
2. You _will have_   /_Past Par._/, 2. You _will have_  _Past Par._,
   Thou _wil-t have_ /_Past Par._/,
3. He _will have_    /_Past Par._/; 3. They _will have_ _Past Par._.



1. I _may_       / _Pres._ /,     1. We _may_   / _Pres._ /,
2. You _may_     / _Pres._ /,     2. You _may_  / _Pres._ /,
   Thou _may-st_ / _Pres._ /,
3. He _may_      / _Pres._ /;     3. They _may_ / _Pres._ /.


1. I _might_       / _Pres._ /,   1. We _might_   / _Pres._ /,
2. You _might_     / _Pres._ /,   2. You _might_  / _Pres._ /,
   Thou _might-st_ / _Pres._ /,
3. He _might_      / _Pres._ /;   3. They _might_ / _Pres._ /.


1. I _may have_       /_Past Par._/, 1. We _may have_   /_Past Par._/,
2. You _may have_     /_Past Par._/, 2. You _may have_  /_Past Par._/,
   Thou _may-st have_ /_Past Par._/,
3. He _may have_      /_Past Par._/; 3. They _may have_ /_Past Par._/.


1. I _might have_       /_Past Par._/, 1. We _might have_   /_Past Par._/,
2. You _might have_     /_Past Par._/, 2. You _might have_  /_Past Par._/,
   Thou _might-st have_ /_Past Par._/,
3. He _might have_      /_Past Par._/; 3. They _might have_ /_Past Par._/.



_Singular_.                   _Plural_.
1. If I    / _Pres._ /,       1. If we   / _Pres._ /,
2. If you  / _Pres._ /,       2. If you  / _Pres._ /,
   If thou / _Pres._ /,
3. If he   / _Pres._ /;       3. If they / _Pres._ /.



2. / _Pres._ / (you _or_ thou);  2. / _Pres._ / (you).



To / _Pres._ /.


To _have_ /_Past Par._/.


PRESENT.           PAST.               PAST PERFECT.
/_Pres./ing_. /_Past Par._/  _Having /Past Par./_

+To the Teacher+.--Let the pupils fill out these forms with other verbs. In
the indicative, present, third, singular, _es_ is sometimes added instead
of _s_; and in the second person, old style, _st_ is sometimes added
instead of _est_.



In studying this Lesson, pay no attention to the line at the right of each



  _Singular_.                       _Plural_.
1. I am ----,                     1. We are ----,
2. You are ---- _or_              2. You are ----,
   Thou art ----,
3. He is ----;                    3. They are ----.


1. I was ----,                    1. We were ----,
2. You were ----, _or_            2. You were ----,
   Thou wast ----,
3. He was ----;                   3. They were ----.


1. I shall be ----,               1. We shall be ----,
2. You will be ----, _or_         2. You will be ----,
   Thou wilt be ----,
3. He will be ----;               3. They will be ----.


1. I have been ----,              1. We have been ----,
2. You have been ---- _or_        2. You have been ----,
   Thou hast been ----,
3. He has been ----;              3. They have been ----.


1. I had been ----,               1. We had been ----,
2. You had been ---- _or_         2. You had been ----,
   Thou hadst been ----,
3. He had been ----;              3. They had been ----.


1. I shall have been ----,        1. We shall have been ----,
2. You will have been ---- _or_   2. You will have been ----,
   Thou wilt have been ----,
3. He will has been ----;         3. They will have been ----.



  _Singular_.                       _Plural_.
1. I may be ----,                 1. We may be ----,
2. You may be ---- _or_           2. You may be ----,
   Thou mayst be ----,
3. He may be ----;                3. They may be ----.


1. I might be ----,               1. We might be ----,
2. You might be ---- _or_         2. You might be ----,
   Thou mightst be ----,
3. He might be ----;              3. They might be ----.


1. I may have been ----,          1. We may have been ----,
2. You may have been ---- _or_    2. You may have been ----,
   Thou mayst have been ----,
3. He may have been ----;         3. They may have been ----.


1. I might have been ----,        1. We might have been ----,
2. You might have been ---- _or_  2. You might have been ----,
   Thou mightst have been ----,
3. He might have been ----;       3. They might have been ----.



  _Singular_.                       _Plural_.
1. If I be ----,                  1. If we be ----,
2. If you be ---- _or  _          2. If you be ----,
   If thou be ----,
3. If he be ----;                 3. If they be ----.


1. If I were ----,                1. If we were ----,
2. If you were ---- _or_          2. If you were ----,
   If thou wert ----,
3. If he were ----;               3. If they were ----.



2. Be (you _or_ them) ----;       2. Be (you)------.


To be ----.


To have been ----.


PRESENT.            PAST.           PAST PERFECT.
Being ----.         Been.           Having been ----.

+To the Teacher+.--After the pupils have become thoroughly familiar with
the verb _be_ as a principal verb, teach them to use it as an auxiliary in
making the +Progressive Form+ and the +Passive Form+.

The _progressive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the
_present participle_ of some verb.

The _passive form_ may be made by filling all the blanks with the _past
participle_ of a _transitive_ verb.

Notice that, after the past participle, no blank is left.

In the progressive form, this participle is wanting; and, in the passive
form, it is the same as in the simple.



+To the Teacher+.--For additional matter, see pp. 163-167.

+_Remember_+ that the verb must agree with its subject in number and

Give the person and number of each of the following verbs, and write
sentences in which each form shall be used correctly.

_Common forms_.--Does, has=ha(ve)s, is, am, are, was, were.

_Old forms_.--Seest, sawest, hast=ha(ve)st, wilt, mayst, mightst, art,

When a verb has two or more subjects connected by _and_, it must agree with
them in the plural. _A similar rule applies to the agreement of the


+Model+.--Poverty and obscurity _oppresses_ him who thinks that _it is

Wrong: the verb _oppresses_ should be changed to _oppress_ to agree with
its two subjects, connected by _and_. The pronoun _it_ should be changed to
_they_ to agree with its two antecedents, and the verb _is_ should be
changed to _are_ to agree with _they_.

  Industry, energy, and good sense is essential to success.
  Time and tide waits for no man.
  The tall sunflower and the little violet is turning its face to the sun.
  The mule and the horse was harnessed together.
  Every green leaf and every blade of grass seem grateful.

+Model+.--The preceding sentence is wrong. The verb _seem_ is plural, and
it should be singular; for, when several singular subjects are preceded by
_each_, every_, or _no_, they are taken separately.

  Each day and each hour bring their portion of duty.
  Every book and every paper were found in their place.

When a verb has two or more singular subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_,
it must agree with them in the singular. _A similar rule applies to the
agreement of the pronoun_.


  One or the other have made a mistake in their statement.
  Neither the aster nor the dahlia are cultivated for their fragrance.
  Either the president or his secretary were responsible.
  Neither Ann, Jane, nor Sarah are at home.

To foretell, or to express future time simply, the auxiliary _shall_ is
used in the first person, and _will_ in the second and third; but when a
speaker determines or promises, he uses _will_ in the first person and
_shall_ in the second and third.


  I will freeze, if I do not move about.
  You shall feel better soon, I think.
  She shall be fifteen years old to-morrow.
  I shall find it for you, if you shall bring the book to me.
  You will have it, if I can get it for you.
  He will have it, if he shall take the trouble to ask for it.
  He will not do it, if I can prevent him.
  I will drown, nobody shall help me.
  I will be obliged to you, if you shall attend to it.
  We will have gone by to-morrow morning.
  You shall disappoint your father, if you do not return.
  I do not think I will like the change.
  Next Tuesday shall be your birthday.
  You shall be late, if you do not hurry.




+Model+.--Those things _have_ not _came to-day_.

Wrong, because the past _came_ is here used for the past participle _come_.
The present perfect tense is formed by prefixing _have_ to the _past

  I done all my work before breakfast.
  I come in a little late yesterday.
  He has went to my desk without permission.
  That stupid fellow set down on my new hat.

_Set_ is generally transitive, and _sit_ is intransitive. _Lay_ is
transitive, and _lie_ is intransitive.

  He sat the chair in the corner.
  Sit that plate on the table, and let it set.
  I have set in this position a long time.
  That child will not lay still or set still a minute.
  I laid down under the tree, and enjoyed the scenery.
  Lie that stick on the table, and let it lay.
  Those boys were drove out of the fort three times.
  I have rode through the park.
  I done what I could.
  He has not spoke to-day.
  The leaves have fell from the trees.
  This sentence is wrote badly.
  He throwed his pen down, and said that the point was broke.
  He teached me grammar.
  I seen him when he done it.
  My hat was took off my head, and throwed out of the window.
  The bird has flew into that tall tree.
  I was chose leader.
  I have began to do better. I begun this morning.
  My breakfast was ate in a hurry.
  Your dress sets well.
  That foolish old hen is setting on a wooden egg.
  He has tore it up and throwed it away.
  William has took my knife, and I am afraid he has stole it.
  This should be well shook.
  I begun to sing, before I knowed what I was doing.
  We drunk from a pure spring.
  I thought you had forsook us.
  His pencil is nearly wore up.
  He come, and tell me all he knowed about it.



+To the Teacher+.--See "Scheme," p. 187.

How many modifications have verbs? Ans.--_Five; viz., voice, mode, tense,
number, and person_. Define voice. How many voices are there? Define each.
Illustrate. What is mode? How many modes are there? Define each. What is an
infinitive? What is a participle? How many different kinds of participles
are there? Define each. Illustrate. What is tense? How many tenses are
there? Define each. Illustrate. What are the number and the person of a
verb? Illustrate. What is conjugation? What is synopsis? What are
auxiliaries? Name the auxiliaries. What are the principal parts of a verb?
Why are they so called? How does a verb agree with its subject? When a verb
has two or more subjects, how does it agree? Illustrate the uses of _shall_
and _will_.

+To the Teacher+.--Select some of the preceding exercises, and require the
pupils to write the parsing of all the verbs. See Lessons 34, 35, 48, 49,
and 56.

+Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+.--_The Yankee, selling his farm, wanders
away to seek new lands_.


_Verbs_.   _Kind_.       _Voice_. _Mode_. _Tense_. _Num_. _Per_.

*selling Pr. Par., Ir., Tr. Ac.   ---   ---   ---  ---  Mod. of _Yankee_.
wanders  Reg., Int.         ---   Ind.  Pres. Sing. 3d. Pred. of   "
*seek    Inf, Ir., Tt,      Ac.   ---    "    ---  ---  Prin. word in phrase
                                                         Mod. of _wanders_.

[Footnote *: Participles and Infinitives have no _person_ or _number_.]



Participles sometimes partake of the nature of the noun, while they retain
the nature of the verb.

Build each of the following phrases into a sentence, and explain the nature
of the participle.

+Model+.-- ----_in building a snow fort_. They were engaged _in building a
snow fort_. The participle _building_, like a noun, follows the preposition
_in_, as the principal word in the phrase; and, like a verb, it takes the
object complement _fort_.

  ---- by foretelling storms. ---- by helping others. ---- on approaching
  the house. ----- in catching fish.

Use the following phrases as subjects.

  Walking in the garden ----. His writing that letter ----. Breaking a
  promise ----.

Use each of the following phrases in a complex sentence. Let some of the
dependent clauses be used as adjectives, and some, as adverbs.

  ---- in sledges. ---- up the Hudson. ---- down the Rhine. ---- through
  the Alps. ---- with snow and ice. ---- into New York Bay. ---- on the
  prairie. ---- at Saratoga.

Build a short sentence containing all the parts of speech.

Expand the following simple sentence into twelve sentences.

  Astronomy teaches the size, form, nature, and motions of the sun, moon,
  and stars.

Contract the following awkward compound sentence into a neat simple

  Hannibal passed through Gaul, and then he crossed the Alps, and then came
  down into Italy, and then he defeated several Roman generals.

Change the following complex sentences to compound sentences.

  When he asked me the question, I answered him courteously.
  Morse, the man who invented the telegraph, was a public benefactor.
  When spring comes, the birds will return.

Contract the following complex sentences into simple sentences by changing
the verb in the dependent clause to a participle. Notice all the other

  A ship which was gliding along the horizon attracted our attention.
  I saw a man who was plowing a field.
  When the shower had passed, we went on our way.
  I heard that he wrote that article.
  That he was a foreigner was well known.
  I am not sure that he did it.
  Every pupil who has an interest in this work will prepare for it.

Change the following compound sentences to complex sentences.

+Model+.--Morning dawns, and the clouds disperse. When morning dawns, the
clouds disperse.

  Avoid swearing; it is a wicked habit.
  Pearls are valuable, and they are found in oyster shells.
  Dickens wrote David Copperfield, and he died in 1870.
  Some animals are vertebrates, and they have a backbone.

Expand each of the following sentences as much as you can.

  Indians dance. The clock struck. The world moves.




I have got that book at home.

+Model+.--Wrong, because _have_, alone, asserts possession. _Got_, used in
the sense of _obtained_, is correct; as, _I have just got the book_.

  Have you got time to help me?
  There is many mistakes in my composition.

+Model+.--Wrong, because _is_ should agree with its plural subject
_mistakes_. The adverb _there_ is often used to introduce a sentence, that
the subject may follow the predicate. This often makes the sentence sound
smooth, and gives variety.

  There goes my mother and sister.
  Here comes the soldiers.
  There was many friends to greet him.
  It ain't there.

+Model+.--_Ain't_ is a vulgar contraction. Correction--It _is not_ there.

  I have made up my mind that it ain't no use.
  'Tain't so bad as you think.
  Two years' interest were due.
  Every one of his acts were criticised.
  I, Henry, and you have been chosen.

+Model+.--Wrong, for politeness requires that you should mention the one
spoken to, first; the one spoken of, next; and yourself, last.

  He invited you and I and Mary.
  Me and Jane are going to the fair.
  I only want a little piece.
  He is a handsome, tall man.
  Did you sleep good?
  How much trouble one has, don't they?
  He inquired for some tinted ladies' note-paper.
  You needn't ask me nothing about it, for I haven't got no time to answer.
  Him that is diligent will succeed.
  He found the place sooner than me.
  Who was that? It was me and him.
  If I was her, I would say less.
  Bring me them tongs.
  Us boys have a base-ball club.
  Whom did you say that it was?
  Who did you speak to just now?
  Who did you mean, when you said that?
  Where was you when I called?
  There's twenty of us going.
  Circumstances alters cases.
  Tell them to set still.
  He laid down by the fire.
  She has lain her book aside.
  It takes him everlastingly.
  That was an elegant old rock.



1. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
2. Strike! till the last armed foe expires!
3. You wrong me, Brutus.
4. Shall we gather strength by irresolution and inaction?
5. Why stand we here idle?
6. Give me liberty, or give me death!
7. Thy mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens, and thy faithfulness reacheth unto
   the clouds.
8. The clouds poured out water, the skies sent out a sound, the voice of
   thy thunder was in the heaven.
9. The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory.
10. The verdant lawn, the shady grove, the variegated landscape, the
    boundless ocean, and the starry firmament are beautiful and magnificent
11. When you grind your corn, give not the flour to the devil and the bran
    to God.
12. That which the fool does in the end, the wise man does at the
13. Xerxes commanded the largest army that was ever brought into the field.
14. Without oxygen, fires would cease to burn, and all animals would
    immediately die.
15. Liquids, when acted upon by gravity, press downward, upward, and
16. Matter exists in three states--the solid state, the liquid state, and
    the gaseous state.
17. The blending of the seven prismatic colors produces white light.
18. Soap-bubbles, when they are exposed to light, exhibit colored rings.
19. He who yields to temptation debases himself with a debasement from
    which he can never arise.
20. Young eyes that last year smiled in ours
      Now point the rifle's barrel;
    And hands then stained with fruits and flowers
      Bear redder stains of quarrel.


+Capital Letters+.--The first word of (1) a sentence, (2) a line of poetry,
(3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question
introduced into a sentence, and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered
or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter. Begin with a capital
letter (5) proper names and words derived from them, (6) names of things
personified, and (7) most abbreviations. Write in capital letters (8) the
words _I_ and _O_, and (9) numbers in the Roman notation. [Footnote: Small
letters are preferred where numerous references to chapters, etc., are

+Examples+.--1. The judicious are always a minority.

2. Honor and shame from no condition rise;
   Act well your part, there all the honor lies.
3. The question is, "Can law make people honest?"
4. Paintings are useful for these reasons: 1. They please; 2. They
5. The heroic Nelson destroyed the French fleet in Aboukir Bay.
6. Next, Anger rushed, his eyes on fire.
7. The Atlantic ocean beat Mrs. Partington.
8. The use of _O_ and _oh_ I am now to explain.
9. Napoleon II. never came to the throne.

+Period+.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative
sentence, (2) an abbreviation, and (3) a number written in the Roman

For examples see 1, 7, and 9 in the sentences above.

+Interrogation Point+.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause
should be followed by an interrogation point.

+Example+.--King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets?

+Exclamation Point+.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the
exclamation point.

+Example+.--Oh! bloodiest picture in the book of time! +_Comma_+.--Set off
by the comma (1) a phrase out of its natural order or not closely connected
with the word it modifies; (2) an explanatory modifier that does not
restrict the modified term or combine closely with it; (3) a participle
used as an adjective modifier, with the words belonging to it, unless
restrictive; (4) the adjective clause, when not restrictive; (5) the adverb
clause, unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies; (6) a
word or phrase independent or nearly so; (7) a direct quotation introduced
into a sentence, unless _formally_ introduced; (8) a noun clause used as an
attribute complement; and (9) a term connected to another by or and having
the same meaning. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases,
unless all the conjunctions are expressed; (11) independent clauses, when
short and closely connected; and (12) the parts of a compound predicate and
of other phrases, when long or differently modified.

+_Examples_+.--l. In the distance, icebergs look like masses of burnished
metal. 2. Alexandria, the capital of Lower Egypt, is an ill-looking city.
3. Labor, diving deep into the earth, brings up long-hidden stores of coal.
4. The sun, which is the center of our system, is millions of miles from
us. 5. When beggars die, there are no comets seen. 6. Gentlemen, this,
then, is your verdict. 7. God said, "Let there be light." 8. Nelson's
signal was, "England expects every man to do his duty." 9. Rubbers, or
overshoes, are worn to keep the feet dry. 10. The sable, the seal, and the
otter furnish us rich furs. 11. His dark eye flashed, his proud breast
heaved, his cheek's hue came and went. 12. Flights of birds darken the air,
and tempt the traveler with the promise of abundant provisions.

+_Semicolon_+.--Independent clauses (1) when slightly connected, or (2)
when themselves divided by the comma, must be separated by the semicolon.
Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common
dependence on something that precedes or follows; and (4) before _as, viz.,
to wit., namely, i. e._, and _that is_, when they introduce examples or

+_Examples_+.--1. The furnace blazes; the anvil rings; the busy wheels
whirl round. 2. As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I
rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I
slew him. 3. He drew a picture of the sufferings of our Saviour; his trial
before Pilate; his ascent of Calvary; his crucifixion and death. 4. Gibbon
writes, "I have been sorely afflicted with gout in the hand; to wit,

+_Colon_+.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these
parts are themselves divided by the semicolon; and (2) before a quotation
or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced.

+_Examples_+.--l. Canning's features were handsome; his eye, though deeply
ensconced under his eyebrows, was full of sparkle and gayety: the features
of Brougham were harsh in the extreme. 2. To Lentullus and Gellius bear
this message: "Their graves are measured."

+_Dash_+.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or
figures, and (2) of such words as _as_, _namely_, or _that is_, introducing
illustrations or equivalent expressions. Use the dash (3) where the
sentence breaks off abruptly, and the same thought is resumed after a
slight suspension, or another takes its place; and (4) before a word or
phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. The dash may be used (5) instead
of marks of parenthesis, and may (6) follow other marks, adding to their

+_Examples_+.--1. In M------w, v. 3-11, you may find the "beatitudes." 2.
There are two things certain in this world--taxes and death. 3. I said--I
know not what. 4. I never would lay down my arms--_never_-- NEVER--+NEVER+.
5. Fulton started a steamboat----he called it the Clermont--on the Hudson
in 1807. 6. My dear Sir,--I write this letter for information.

+_Marks of Parenthesis_+.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to enclose what
has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence.

+Example+.--The noun (Lat. _nomen_, a name) is the first part of speech.

+_Apostrophe_+.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters,
(2) in the pluralizing of letters, figures, and characters, and (3) to
distinguish the possessive from other cases.

+_Examples_+.--1. Bo't of John Jones 10 lbs. of butter. 2. What word is
there one-half of which is _p's_? 3. He washed the disciples' feet.

+_Hyphen_+.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) between the parts of compound words
that have not become consolidated, and (2) between syllables when a word is

+_Examples_+.--1. Work-baskets are convenient. 2. Divide _basket_ thus:

+_Quotation Marks_+--Use quotation marks to enclose a copied word or
passage. If the quotation contains a quotation, the latter is enclosed
within single marks.

+_Example_+---The sermon closed with this sentence: "God said, 'Let there
be light.'"

+_Brackets_+.--Use brackets [ ] to enclose what, in quoting another's
words, you insert by way of explanation or correction.

+_Example_+.--The Psalmist says, "I prevented [anticipated] the dawning of
the morning."


+_To the Teacher_+.--It is very profitable to exercise pupils in combining
simple statements into complex and compound sentences, and in resolving
complex and compound sentences into simple statements. In combining
statements, it is an excellent practice for the pupil to contract, expand,
transpose, and to substitute different words. They thus learn to express
the same thought in a variety of ways. Any reading-book or history will
furnish good material for such practice. A few examples are given below.

+_Direction_+.--Combine in as many ways as possible each of the following
groups of sentences:--

+_Example_+.--This man is to be pitied. He has no friends.

1. This man has no friends, and he is to be pitied.
2. This man is to be pitied, because he has no friends.
3. Because this man has no friends, he is to be pitied.
4. This man, who has no friends, is to be pitied.
5. This man, having no friends, is to be pitied.
6. This man, without friends, is to be pitied.
7. This friendless man deserves our pity.

1. The ostrich is unable to fly. It has not wings in proportion to its
2. Egypt is a fertile country. It is annually inundated by the Nile.
3. The nerves are little threads, or fibers. They extend, from the brain.
   They spread over the whole body.
4. John Gutenberg published a book. It was the first book known to have
   been printed on a printing-press. He was aided by the patronage of John
   Paust. He published it in 1455. He published it in the city of Mentz.
5. The human body is a machine. A watch is delicately constructed. This
   machine is more delicately constructed. A steam-engine is complicated.
   This machine is more complicated. A steam-engine is wonderful. This
   machine is more wonderful.

You see that short statements closely related in meaning may be improved by
being combined. But young writers frequently use too many _ands_ and other
connectives, and make their sentences too long.

Long sentences should be broken up into short ones when the relations of
the parts are not clear.

As clauses may be joined to form sentences, so sentences may be united to
make _paragraphs_.

A +_paragraph_+ is a sentence or a group of related sentences developing
one point or one division of a general subject.

The first word of a paragraph should begin a new line, and should be
written a little farther to the right than the first words of other lines.

+_Direction_+.--Combine the following statements into sentences and
paragraphs, and make of them a complete composition:--

Water is a liquid. It is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. It covers about
three-fourths of the surface of the earth. It takes the form of ice. It
takes the form of snow. It takes the form of vapor. The air is constantly
taking up water from rivers, lakes, oceans, and from damp ground. Cool air
contains moisture. Heated air contains more moisture. Heated air becomes
lighter. It rises. It becomes cool. The moisture is condensed into fine
particles. Clouds are formed. They float across the sky. The little
particles unite and form rain-drops. They sprinkle the dry fields. At night
the grass and flowers become cool. The air is not so cool. The warm air
touches the grass and flowers. It is chilled. It loses a part of its
moisture. Drops of dew are formed. Water has many uses. Men and animals
drink it. Trees and plants drink it. They drink it by means of their leaves
and roots. Water is a great purifier. It cleanses our bodies. It washes our
clothes. It washes the dust from the leaves and the flowers. Water is a
great worker. It floats vessels. It turns the wheels of mills. It is
converted into steam. It is harnessed to mighty engines. It does the work
of thousands of men and horses.

+_To the Teacher_+.--Condensed statements of facts, taken from some book
not in the hands of your pupils, may be read to them, and they may be
required to expand and combine these and group them into paragraphs.


In writing a letter there are six things to consider--the _Heading_, the
_Introduction_, the _Body of the Letter_, the _Conclusion_, the _Folding_,
and the _Superscription_.


+_Parts_+.--The Heading consists of the name of the +_Place_+ at which the
letter is written, and the +_Date_+. If you write from a city, give the
door-number, the name of the street, the name of the city, and the name of
the state. If you are at a hotel or a school, or any other well-known
institution, its name may take the place of the door-number and the name of
the street. If you write from a village or other country place, give your
post-office address, the name of the county, and that of the state.

The Date consists of the month, the day of the month, and the year.

+_How Written_+.--Begin the Heading about an inch and a half from the top
of the page--on the first ruled line of commercial note--and a little to
the left of the middle of the page. If the Heading is very short, it may
stand on one line. If it occupies more than one line, the second line
should begin farther to the right than the first, and the third farther to
the right than the second.

The Date stands upon a line by itself if the Heading occupies two or more

The door-number, the day of month, and the year are written in figures, the
rest in words. Each important word begins with a capital letter, each item
is set off by the comma, and the whole closes with a period.

_Direction_.--Study what has been said, and write the following headings
according to these models:---

1.  Hull, Mass., Nov. 1, 1860.
2.  1466 Colorado Ave.,
    Rochester, N. Y.,
    Apr. 3, 1870.
3.  Newburyport, Mass.,
    June 30, 1826.
4.  Starkville, Herkimer Co., N. Y.,
    Dec. 19, 1871.

1. n y rondout 11 1849 oct. 2. staten island port richmond 1877 25 january.
3. brooklyn march 1871 mansion house 29. 4. executive chamber vt february
montpelier 1869 27. 5. washington franklin como nov 16 1874. 6. fifth ave
may new york 460 9 1863. 7. washington d c march 1847 520 pennsylvania ave


_+Parts+_.--The Introduction consists of the _+Address+_--the Name, the
Title, and the Place of Business or the Residence of the one addressed--and
the _+Salutation+_. Titles of respect and courtesy should appear in the
Address. Prefix _Mr._ (plural, _Messrs_.) to a man's name; _Master_ to a
boy's name; _Miss_ to the name of a girl or an unmarried lady; _Mrs._ to
the name of a married lady. Prefix _Dr_. to the name of a physician, or
write _M.D._ after his name. Prefix _Rev_. (or _The Rev_.) to the name of a
clergyman; if he is a Doctor of Divinity, prefix _Rev. Dr_., or write
_Rev_. before his name and _D.D._ after it; if you do not know his
Christian name, prefix _Rev. Mr._ or _Rev. Dr._ to his surname, but never
_Rev_. alone. _Esq._ is added to the name of a lawyer, and to the names of
other prominent men. Avoid such combinations as the following: _Mr. John
Smith, Esq., Dr. John Smith, M.D., Mr. John Smith, M.D._, etc.

Salutations vary with the station of the one addressed, or the writer's
degree of intimacy with him. Strangers may be addressed as _Sir, Rev. Sir,
General, Madam, Miss Brown_, etc.; acquaintances as _Dear Sir, Dear Madam_,
etc.; friends as _My dear Sir, My dear Madam, My dear Mr. Brown_, etc.; and
near relatives and other dear friends as _My dear Wife, My dear Boy,
Dearest Ellen_, etc.

_+How Written+_.--The Address may follow the Heading, beginning on the next
line, or the next but one, and standing on the left side of the page; or it
may stand in corresponding position after the Body of the Letter and the
Conclusion. If the letter is written to a very intimate friend, the Address
may appropriately be placed at the bottom of the letter; but in other
letters, especially those on ordinary business, it should be placed at the
top and as directed above. There should always be a narrow margin on the
left-hand side of the page, and the Address should always begin on the
marginal line. If the Address occupies more than one line, the initial
words of these lines should slope to the right, as in the Heading.

Begin the Salutation on the marginal line or a little to the right of it,
when the Address occupies three lines; on the marginal line or farther to
the right than the second line of the Address begins, when this occupies
two lines; a little to the right of the marginal lime, when the Address
occupies one line; on the marginal line, when the Address stands below.

Every important word in the Address should begin with a capital letter. All
the items of it should be set off by the comma, and, as it is an
abbreviated sentence, it should close with a period. Every important word
in the Salutation should begin with a capital letter, and the whole should
be followed by a comma.

_+Direction+_.--Study what has been said, and write the following
introductions according to these models:--

1. Dear Father,
              I write, etc.

2. The Rev. M. H. Buckham, D.D.,
        President of U. V. M.,
             Burlington, Vt.
   My dear Sir,

3. Messrs. Clark & Brown,
        Quogue, N. Y.

4. Messrs. Tiffany & Co.,
         2 Milk St., Boston.
   Dear Sirs,

1. david h cochran lld president of polytechnic institute brooklyn my dear
sir. 2. dr John h hobart burge 64 livingston st brooklyn n y sir. 3. prof
geo n boardman Chicago ill dear teacher. 4. to the president executive
mansion Washington d c mr president. 5. rev t k beecher elmira n y sir. 6.
messrs gilbert & sons gentlemen mass boston. 7. mr george r curtis minn
rochester my friend dear. 8. to the honorable wm m evarts secretary of
state Washington d c sir.


+_The Beginning_+.--Begin the Body of the Letter at the end of the
Salutation, and on the _same_ line, if the Introduction consists of four
lines--in which case the comma after the Salutation should be followed by a
dash;--otherwise, on the line _below_.

+_Style_+.--Be perspicuous. Paragraph and punctuate as in other kinds of
writing. Spell correctly; write legibly, neatly, and with care.

_Letters of friendship_ should be colloquial, natural, and familiar.
Whatever is interesting to you will be interesting to your friends.

_Business letters_ should be brief, and the sentences should be short,
concise, and to the point.

In _formal notes_ the third person is generally used instead of the first
and the second; there is no Introduction, no Conclusion, no Signature, only
the name of the Place and the Date at the bottom, on the left side of the


_+Parts+_.--The Conclusion consists of the _+Complimentary Close+_ and the
_+Signature+_. The forms of the Complimentary Close are many, and are
determined by the relations of the writer to the one addressed. In letters
of _friendship_ you may use _Your sincere friend; Yours affectionately ;
Your loving son or daughter_, etc. In business letters, you may use _Yours;
Yours truly; Truly yours; Yours respectfully; Very respectfully yours_,
etc. In official letters use _I have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient
servant; Very respectfully, your most obedient servant_.

The Signature consists of your Christian name and your surname. In
addressing a stranger write your Christian name in full. A lady addressing
a stranger should prefix her title--_Miss_ or _Mrs._--to her own name,
enclosing it within marks of parenthesis, if she prefers.

_+How Written+_.--The Conclusion should begin near the middle of the first
line below the Body of the Letter, and should slope to the right like the
Heading and the Address. Begin each line of it with a capital letter, and
punctuate as in other writing, following the whole with a period. The
Signature should be very plain.


The Folding is a simple matter when, as now, the envelope used is adapted
in length to the width of the sheet. Take the letter as it lies before you,
with its first page uppermost, turn up the bottom of it about one-third the
length of the sheet, bring the top down over this, taking care that the
sides are even, and press the parts together.

Taking the envelope with its back toward you, insert the letter, putting in
first the edge last folded. The form of the envelope may require the letter
to be folded in the middle. Other conditions may require other ways of


_+Parts+_.--The Superscription is what is written on the outside of the
envelope. It is the same as the Address, consisting of the Name, the Title,
and the full Directions of the one addressed.

_+How Written+_.--The Superscription should begin near the middle of the
envelope and near the left edge-- the envelope lying with its closed side
toward you--and should occupy three or four lines. These lines should slope
to the right as in the Heading and the Address, the spaces between the
lines should be the same, and the last line should end near the lower
right-hand corner. On the first line the Name and the Title should stand.
If the one addressed is in a city, the door-number and name of the street
should be on the second line, the name of the city on the third, and the
name of the state on the fourth. If he is in the country, the name of the
post-office should be on the second line, the name of the county on the
third--(or by itself near the lower left-hand corner), and the name of the
state on the fourth. The titles following the name should be separated from
it and from each other by the comma, and every line should end with a
comma, except the last, which should be followed by a period. The lines
should be straight, and every part of the Superscription should be legible.
Place the stamp at the upper right-hand corner.


Newburgh, N. Y.
Jan. 7. 1888

Messrs. Hyde & Co.,
250 Broadway. N. Y.


Please send me by Adams Express the articles mentioned in the enclosed

Be careful in the selection of the goods, as I desire them for a special
class of customers.

When they are forwarded, please inform me by letter and enclose the

Yours truly,

Thomas Dodds.]


250 Broadway, N. Y.
Jan 9, 1888.

Mr. Thomas Dodds,
Newburgh, N. Y.

Dear Sir,

We have to-day sent you by Adams Express the goods ordered in your letter
of the 7th inst. Enclosed you will find the invoice.

We hope that everything will reach you in good condition and will prove
satisfactory in quality and in price.

Very truly yours,

Peter Hyde & Co.]


Thomas Dodds,

Bought of Peter Hyde & Co.

 3   boxes Sperm Candles. 140 lbs.,            @33c.    $46.20
 7   do.   Adamantine Extra Candles, 182 lbs., "26c.     47.32
 120 lbs.  Crushed Sugar,                      "12-1/2c. 15.00
 60  do.   Coffee   do.,                       "11-1/4c.  6.75


176 Clinton St. Brooklyn, N. Y.
Dec. 12, 1887

Messrs. Fisk & Hatch,
5 Nassau St., N. Y.


Learning by advertisement that a clerkship in your house is vacant, I beg
leave to offer myself as a candidate for the place. I am sixteen years old,
and am strong and in excellent health. I have just graduated with honor
from the seventh grade of the Polytechnic Institute, Brooklyn, and I
enclose testimonials of my character and standing from the President of
that Institution.

If you desire a personal interview, I shall be glad to present myself at
such time and place as you may name.

Very respectfully yours,

Charles Hastings.]

(in the third person).

_Mr. and Mrs. Brooks request the pleasure of Mr. Churchill's company at a
social gathering, next Tuesday evening, at_ 8 _o'clock_.
  32 _W_. 31_st Street, Oct_. 5.

_Mr. Churchill has much pleasure in accepting Mr. and Mrs. Brooks's kind
invitation to a social gathering next Tuesday evening_.
  160 _Fifth Ave., Oct_. 5.


Concord, N. H.
Jan. 10, 1888.

George Chapman, Esq.,
Portland, Conn.

My dear Friend,

It gives me great pleasure to introduce to you my friend, Mr. Alpheus
Crane. Any attention you may be able to show him I shall esteem as a
personal favor.

Sincerely yours,

Peter Cooper.]


21 Dean St., Toledo, Ohio.
Dec. 16, 1887.

My dear Mother,

I cannot tell you how I long to be at home again and in my old place. In my
dreams and in my waking hours, I am often back at the old homestead; my
thoughts play truant while I pore over my books, and even while I listen to
my teacher in the class-room. I would give so much to know what you are all
doing--so much to feel that now and then I am in your thoughts, and that
you do indeed miss me at home.

Everything here is as pleasant as it need be or can be, I suppose. I am
sure I shall enjoy it all by and by, when I get over this fit of
homesickness. My studies are not too hard, and my teachers are kind and

Do write me a long letter as soon as you get this and tell me everything.

Much love to each of the dear ones at home.

Your affectionate son,

Henry James.

[Footnote: In familiar (and official) letters, the Address may stand, you
will remember, at the bottom.] Mrs. Alexander James, Tallmadge, Ohio.]

[Illustration of Envelope: Mrs. Alexander James, Tallmadge, Summit Co.

+_To the Teacher_+.--Have your pupils write complete letters and notes of
all kinds. You can name the persons to whom these are to be addressed.
Attend minutely to al1 the points. Letters of introduction should have the
word _Introducing_ (followed by the name of the one introduced) at the
lower left-hand corner of the envelope. This letter should not be sealed.
The receiver may seal it before handing it to the one addressed.

Continue this work of letter-writing until the pupils have mastered all the
details, and are able easily and quickly to write any ordinary letter.


I. A noun or pronoun used as subject or as attribute complement of a
predicate verb, or used independently, is in the nominative case.

II. The attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the
same case (Nom. or Obj.) as the word to which it relates.

III. A noun or pronoun used as possessive modifier is in the possessive

IV. A noun or pronoun used as object or objective complement, or as the
principal word of a prepositional phrase, is in the objective case.

V. A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as
the word explained.

VI. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender.

With two or more antecedents connected by _and_, the pronoun is plural.

With two or more singular antecedents connected by _or_ or _nor_, the
pronoun is singular.

VII. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

With two or more subjects connected by _and_, the verb is plural.

With two or more singular subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_, the verb is

VIII. A participle assumes the action or being, and is used like an
adjective or a noun.

IX. An infinitive is generally introduced by _to_, and with it forms a
phrase used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

X. Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.

XI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.

XII. A preposition introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in
sense, of its principal word to the word modified.

XIII. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses.

XIV. Interjections are used independently.


+Remark+.--The following are some of the marks used in correcting
proof-sheets for the printer:--

[Symbol: dele] De-le = Strike out.

[^] Ca-ret = Something to be inserted.

[/] This calls attention to points or letters placed in the margin as

[Symbol: dotted circle] This calls attention to the period.

[tr.] Transpose.

[Symbol: para] Begin a new paragraph with the word preceded by [.

[No Symbol: para] No new paragraph.

[Symbol: v' ] This calls attention to the apostrophe.

+To the Teacher+.--We suggest that the pupils learn to use these marks in
correcting compositions. The following exercises are given as

[Illustration: Corrected letter]



Before Lesson 8 is assigned, the pupils may be required to note, in Lessons
6 and 7, the subjects that add _s_ to denote more than one, and then to
mark the changes that occur in the predicates when the _s_ is dropped from
these subjects. In Lesson 8, the predicates may be changed by adding or
dropping _s_, and other subjects may be found to correspond. In Lesson 9,
_s_ may be dropped from the plural subjects, and other predicates may be
found to agree.

At this stage of the work we should give no formal rules, and should avoid
such technical terms as _number, person, tense_, etc. The pupils may be led
to discover rules for themselves, and to state them informally. Exercises
and questions may be so directed that the pupils may draw some such
conclusion as the following:--

When a simple form of the verb is used to tell what one thing does, _s_ or
_es_ is added (unless the subject is _I_ or _you_).

Let the pupils see that the _s_-form of the verb is used only in telling
what one thing _does_, not what it _did_; as, "The boy _runs_," "The boy
_ran_"; and that its subject always stands for the one spoken of; as, "_He
runs_," "_I run_."

Before Lesson 12 is assigned, attention may be called to the use of _is,
was_, and _has_, in Lesson 11 and elsewhere. For the predicates introduced
by these words let the pupils find subjects which name more than one, that
they may note the change of _is_ to _are_, _was_ to _were_, and _has_ to
_have_. The forms _does_ and _do_ may also be introduced, and these
exercises continued till the pupils are led to discover some such rule as
the following:--

_Is, was, has_, and _does_ are used with subjects denoting but one. _Are,
were, have_, and _do_ are used with subjects denoting more than one.

We suggest that the form of a question and the use of the question mark be
introduced after Lesson 12, and that the pupils be allowed to change the
sentences in Lessons 11 and 12 by placing the subject after the first
auxiliary. A straight line may be drawn under each subject, and a waving
line under each predicate, thus:--

~Was~ /Napoleon/ ~banished?~

The sentences given for analysis will furnish material for making
interrogative sentences, and for justifying the agreement of verbs.

In connection with Lesson 19 attention may be called to the agreement of
verbs with _I_ and _you_. Exercises may be given from which the pupils will
draw the following conclusions:--

_I_ can be used with _am, was, have_, and _do_. _You_ may mean one or more
than one, but the verb always agrees as if _you_ meant more than one.

Exercises may be given requiring the pupils to use such expressions as "You
_were_," "They _were_," "We _were_," "He _doesn't_," etc., and to repeat
them aloud till the ear is accustomed to the right form.

When predicate verbs immediately follow their subjects, there is little
danger of errors in agreement, except that _was_ is often used incorrectly
for _were_, and _don't_ for _doesn't_. The chief object of introducing
these exercises here is to train the pupils' observation so that they will
readily and naturally note the agreement of the subject and predicate when
these terms are transposed, or are separated by other words. To determine
the correct form of the verb in such cases, let the pupils see how it
sounds when placed immediately after its subject. We suggest exercises like
the following:--

  1 is      are
  2 was     were
  3 has     have
  4 does    do
  5 comes   come
  6 goes    go
  7 thinks  think
  8 writes  write

1. With what kind of letter ~(4)~ _each_ of these names ~begin~?
2. Under this rule ~(1) found~ important _exceptions_.
3. The _farm_, with all the cattle and horses, ~(2) sold~.
4. With what mark ~(4)~ imperative _sentences_ ~end~?
5. Every _effort_ of the friends of these measures (3) failed.
6. There (5) trying _times_ in every man's life.
7. _One_ of them (6) to Vassar College.
8. Not _one_ in ten (7) about this.
9. _Neither_ of you (8) correctly.
10. After this (5) the calisthenic _exercises_.
11. A _cargo_ of Delaware peaches (3) arrived.
12. There (6) the cars.
13. There (6) a _train_ of cars.

After these blanks have been filled with the verbs above, as indicated by
the numbers, the sentences may be repeated aloud till the correct form is

Let the pupils see that in (2), Lesson 36, _were identified_ is asserted of
two things, and that in (3) _was anticipated_ is asserted of one of two
things, but not of both. Let them give other examples of connected subjects
with verbs singular in form, and with verbs plural in form. The meaning of
_singular_ and _plural_ may be explained, and the pupils may form some such
rule as the following:--

With two or more subjects connected by _and_ the verb agrees in the plural.

With two or more singular subjects connected by _or_ or _nor_ the verb
agrees in the singular.

The pupils may examine such sentences as--

1. Each word and gesture _was_ suited to the thought;
2. Every bud, leaf, and blade of grass _rejoices_ after the warm rain;
3. No dew, no rain, no cloud _comes_ to the relief of the parched

and note that _each_, _every_, and _no_ show that the things named in the
different subjects are taken separately, and that the verbs are therefore

Such sentences as--

  "In the death of Franklin, a philosopher and statesman _was_ lost to the

may be given to show that subjects connected by _and_ may name the same
thing, and so take a verb in the singular.

Such examples as the following may be given and justified:--

1. Beauty and utility _are_ combined in nature.
2. Either beauty or utility _appears_ in every natural object.
3. Here _is_ neither beauty nor utility.
4. Time and tide _wait_ for no man.
5. Wisdom and prudence _dwell_ with the lowly man.
6. _Does_ either landlord or tenant profit by this bill?
7. Neither landlords nor tenants _profit_ by this bill.
8. Every fly, bee, beetle, and butterfly _is_ provided with six feet.
9. That desperate robber and murderer _was_ finally secured.
10. That desperate robber and that murderer _were_ finally secured.
11. The builder and owner of the yacht _has_ sailed from Liverpool.
12. The builder and the owner of the yacht _have_ sailed from Liverpool.
13. A lame and blind man _was_ provided with food and lodging.
14. A lame and a blind man _were_ provided with food and lodging.

Particular attention may be called to examples 9-14, that the pupils may
note the effect of repeating _that_, _the_, and _a_.

Pupils should early learn that rules in grammar should not be followed
rigidly and blindly, as they generally have variations and exceptions.
Caution, however, should be used in presenting exceptions, lest the pupils
become confused. They may be presented in reviews after the rules and
general principles are well understood. They need not be formally stated,
but may be introduced in the way of observation lessons that appeal to the
judgment rather than to the memory. In this way such constructions as the
following may be introduced:--

1. Neither he nor _I am _going. (Better--He is not going, nor am I.)
2. Neither John nor his _sisters were_ there.
3. _Action_, and not words, _is_ needed.
4. _Bread and milk is_ good food.
5. The _committee are_ unable to agree on _their_ report.
6. The _committee has_ made _its_ report.

Other examples may be given till the pupils are led to discover that in
examples like (1) and (2) the verb agrees with its nearest subject, and
that the plural subject is usually placed next to the verb; that in (3) the
verb agrees with the affirmative subject, another verb being understood
with the negative subject; that in (4) "bread and milk" represents one
article of food; and that in (5) the individuals of the committee are
thought of, while in (6) the committee as a whole is thought of. In (5) and
(6) the agreement of the pronoun may also be noted. Pronouns may be
introduced into many of the preceding exercises and the pupils led to apply
to the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent what has been learned
of the agreement of the verb with its subject. Let the pupils determine why
the following connected subjects are arranged in the proper order:--

1. You and I are invited.
2. Mary and I are invited.
3. You and Mary are invited.
4. You and Mary and I are invited.

abbreviations see p. 191.]

Pupils may copy the following list of names, and note all peculiarities in

  Texas, state, river, Red River, city, Albany, New Orleans, Kansas City,
  statesman, Thomas Jefferson, Thos. Jefferson, author, Charles Dickens,
  Chas. Dickens, writer, George William Curtis, Geo. Wm. Curtis, Geo. W.
  Curtis, poet, John Greenleaf Whittier, John G. Whittier, J. G. Whittier,
  gulf, sea, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, lake, Lake Erie, general,
  General Robert Edmund Lee, Gen. Robt. E. Lee, doctor, Doctor Valentine
  Mott, Dr. V. Mott, professor, Prof. Goldwin Smith.

  Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote "The Song of Hiawatha."
  John Bunyan wrote "The Pilgrim's Progress."
  The subject for composition was "A Day in the Woods."

We give the following questions to illustrate our method of conducting an

+Observation Lesson+.--Are _city_ and _Albany_ both names? What difference
can you discover in meaning? What in form? Which of the names just written
are _class_ names? Which are _individual_ names? Mention an individual name
made up of two names; one of three names; one of four. How many capitals do
you find in each of the names just mentioned? Mention seven words that are
written without capitals as class names, and again with capitals as parts
of individual names. Mention a word that is shortened, or _abbreviated_, by
omitting all but the first, or _initial_, letter. Mention an _abbreviation_
containing two letters; one containing three; one containing four. What new
use of the period have you discovered in this exercise? What three words in
this exercise are used together as the title of a book? What four as the
title of a poem? What five as the subject of a school composition? Each of
these groups may be regarded as a kind of individual name. Besides the
first word, what words begin with capitals in each of these three groups?
Notice that these are the principal words.

For another exercise the pupils may copy the following sentences, noting
carefully capitals and punctuation marks:--

1. The city of Chicago is on Lake Michigan.
2. The steamer _City of Chicago_ sails from Jersey City.
3. The island of Cuba is under Spanish rule.
4. The Isle of Man is in the Irish Sea.
5. The Hon. Wm. E. Gladstone is an English statesman.
6. The subject for composition was "The View from my Window."
7. In the evening Aunt Mary entertained my cousin and me with stories of
   Uncle Remus.
8. Miss Evans--afterward Mrs. Lewes--was the author of "The Mill on the
9. We may call the Supreme Being our Heavenly Father.
10. The Old Testament points to the coming of a Messiah.
11. George I., George II., George III., George IV., and William IV.
    preceded Victoria.

The teacher may find the following questions suggestive:--

+Observation Lesson+.--Is _Chicago_, or _city of Chicago_ the individual
name of the place mentioned in (1)? Is _Chicago_, or _City of Chicago_ the
name of the steamer mentioned in (2)? Is the town mentioned in (2) named
_Jersey_, or _Jersey City_? Is the body of water mentioned in (1) known as
_Michigan_, or _Lake Michigan_? What is the name of the island mentioned in
(3)?--in (4)? Is _Irish_, or _Irish Sea_ the name of the body of water
mentioned in (4)?

Notice that _Spanish_, in (3), and _English_, in (5), are not names, or
nouns. They begin with capitals, because they are derived from the
individual names _Spain_ and _England_.

What names in (7) usually denote relationship? Notice that such words as
_uncle, captain, professor_, etc., do not necessarily begin with capitals
unless prefixed to individual names.

What group of words in (6) is treated as an individual name? What in (8)?
Which words of these groups are regarded as the most important?

In (8) do you find a period after _Miss_?--after _Mrs._?

_Miss_ is not written as an abbreviation.

What words in (9) and (10) are used as names of the Deity? What is _Old
Testament_ the particular name of?

What do you discover in the names found in (11)?

For other exercises, pupils may be required to bring in lists of
geographical and biographical names, titles of books, etc.

We earnestly recommend the introduction here of letter-writing to
illustrate the use of capitals, abbreviations, and punctuation. (See pp.
146-161.) The writing of _headings, introductions, conclusions_, and
_superscriptions_ will give most excellent practice in capitals, etc. The
_body_ of the letter may be directed to the same end. For instance, an
invitation to a friend may be accompanied by a description of the route to
be taken and of the places or objects of interest to be seen on the way. Or
the writer may mention some of the books he has read, with the names of the
characters and of the places mentioned.


Words denoting quality form a very large and important group. Our knowledge
of things about us is a knowledge of their qualities. A writer's style is,
to a large extent, determined by his use of adjectives. We therefore
recommend special drill in the choice and the use of adjectives. The
exercises given below may serve as suggestions to the teacher. Groups of
adjectives like the following may be presented, the pupils being required
to join them to appropriate nouns:--

_Some Qualities learned directly through the Senses_.






Pupils will find little difficulty in largely increasing the lists above.
Many other groupings may be made; as, of qualities learned by comparison,
measurement, or experiment; qualities of the mind; qualities pertaining to
right and wrong, etc.

Groups of nouns like the following may be made, and the pupils may be
required to mention as many qualities as possible belonging to each of the
things named:--


Pupils may mention animals properly described by the following


Careless persons and those that have a meager list of adjectives at command
overwork and abuse such words as--

_nice, awful, horrid, splendid, elegant, lovely_.

We hear of _nice mountains_, _awful pens_, _horrid ink_, _splendid pie_,
_elegant beef_, _lovely cheese_, etc.

Pupils may study the meaning of the six adjectives last mentioned, and use
them to fill the following blanks:--

            | distinction
  ----------+ workmanship
            | calculation

            | stillness
  ----------+ chasm
            | rumbling

            | child
  ----------+ features
            | character

            | palace
  ----------+ victory
            | illumination

            | manners
  ----------+ taste
            | furniture

            | deeds
  ----------+ dreams
            | butchery

This work may very profitable be extended.

A word picture is often spoiled by using too many adjectives; as,

  "A _great_, _large_, _roomy_, spacious hall";
  "_Superb_, delicious, _magnificent_ pumpkin-pie";
  "A _stingy_, miserly, _close-fisted_ fellow."

The italicized words may be omitted.

Pupils should be taught to watch for such errors, and to correct them.

Pupils may be required to copy choice selections from literature, and to
note carefully capitals, punctuation, and the use of adjectives. We offer
the following exercise as a specimen:--

  We piled with care our nightly stack
  Of wood against the chimney-back,--
  The oaken log, green, huge, and thick,
  And on its top the stout back-stick;
  The knotty fore-stick laid apart,
  And filled between with curious art
  The ragged brush; then, hovering near,
  We watched the first red blaze appear,
  Heard the sharp crackle, caught the gleam
  On whitewashed wall and sagging beam,
  Until the old, rude-furnished room
  Burst, flower-like, into rosy bloom.


+Observation Lesson+.--Of what are the lines above a picture? Where, and in
what kind of house, do you think this picture was seen?

What object is pictured by the help of five adjectives? Are the adjectives
that precede the name of this object of the same rank? Are those that
follow of the same rank? What noun is modified by three adjectives of
different rank? What noun by three adjectives two of which are of the same
rank? What difference is found in the punctuation of these several groups?

Notice how the noun _crackle_ crackles as you pronounce it, and how the
adjective _sharp_ makes it penetrate. Notice how strong a picture is made
in the two lines immediately before the last. The adjectives here used
bring out the most prominent qualities of the room, and these qualities
bring along with them into the imagination all the other qualities. This is
what we must try to make our adjectives do.

Point out all the adjectives in the selection above, and explain the office
of each.

What peculiar use of capitals do you discover in these lines of poetry?

Much that has been suggested above concerning the use of adjectives will
apply to adverbs also.


The following exercises are given to show how pupils may discover for
themselves the _natural order_ of words and phrases:--

(_a_) Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.
(_b_) William's sister Mary is an excellent musician.
(_c_) Everything suddenly appeared so strangely bright.
(_d_) We saw it distinctly.
(_e_) We had often been there.
(_f_) Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo.

+Observation Lesson+.--The words and the phrases in the sentences above
stand in their _Natural Order_.

From (_a_) and (_b_) determine the natural order of the subject, predicate,
and complement. From (_b_) determine the natural order of a possessive
modifier, of an explanatory modifier, and of an adjective. From (_c_),
(_d_), and (_e_) determine the several positions of an adverb joined to a
verb. Determine from (_c_) the position of an adverb modifying an adjective
or another adverb. Determine from (_a_) and (_f_) the natural order of a

Pupils may copy the following, and note the arrangement and the punctuation
of the phrases:--

(_g_) This place is endeared to me by many associations.
(_h_) To me, this place is endeared by many associations.
(_i_) Your answers, with few exceptions, have been correctly given.
(_j_) He applied for the position, without a recommendation.

+Observation Lesson+.--Phrases in their natural order follow the words they
modify. When two or more phrases belong to the same word, the one most
closely modifying it stands nearest to it.

In the first sentence above, _to me_ tells to whom the place is endeared;
_by many associations_ tells how it is endeared to me, and is therefore
placed after to me. Try the effect of placing _to me_ last. Phrases, like
adjectives, may be of different rank.

Phrases are often transposed, or placed out of their natural order. Notice
that _to me_, in (_h_) above, is transposed, and thus made emphatic, and
that it is set off by the comma.

In (_i_), the phrase is loosely thrown in as if it were not essential, thus
making a break in the sentence. To make this apparent to the eye we set the
phrase off by the comma.

Place the phrase of (_i_) in three other positions, and set it off. When
the phrase is at the beginning or at the end of the sentence, how many
commas do you need to set it off? How many, when it is in the middle?

Do you find any choice in the four positions of this phrase? After having
been told that your answers were correct, would it be a disappointment to
be told that they were not all correct? Is the interest in a story best
kept up by first telling the important points and then the unimportant
particulars? What then do you think of placing this phrase at the end?

What does the last phrase of (_j_) modify? Take out the comma, and then see
whether there can be any doubt as to what the phrase modifies.

In the placing of adverbs and phrases great freedom is often allowable, and
the determining of their best possible position affords an almost unlimited
opportunity for the exercise of taste and judgment.

Such questions as those on (_i_) above may suggest a mode of easy approach
to what is usually relegated to the province of rhetoric. Let the pupils
see that phrases may be transposed for various reasons--for emphasis, as in
(_h_) above; for the purpose of exciting the reader's curiosity and holding
his attention till the complete statement is made, as in (_i_) above, or
in, "In the dead of night, with a chosen band, under the cover of a truce,
he approached"; for the sake of balancing the sentence by letting some of
the modifying terms precede, and some follow, the principal parts, as, "In
1837, on the death of William IV., Victoria succeeded to the throne"; and
for other reasons.

Other selections maybe made and these exercises continued, the pupils
discussing fully the effects of all possible changes.

Pupils may note the transposed words and phrases in the following
sentences, explaining their office and the effect of the transposition:--

1. Victories, indeed, they were.
2. Down came the masts.
3. Here stands the man.
4. Doubtful seemed the battle.
5. Wide open stood the doors.
6. A mighty man is he.
7. That gale I well remember.
8. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh.
9. Blood-red became the sun.
10. Louder waxed the applause.
11. Him the Almighty Power hurled headlong.
12. Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
13. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred.
14. So died the great Columbus of the skies.
15. Aeneas did, from the flames of Troy, upon his shoulders, the old
    Anchises bear.
16. Such a heart in the breast of my people beats.
17. The great fire up the deep and wide chimney roared.
18. Ease and grace in writing are, of all the acquisitions made in school,
    the most difficult and valuable.

Pupils may read or write the following sentences in the transposed order,
and explain the effect of the change:--

19. He could not avoid it.
20. He would not escape.
21. I must go.
22. He ended his tale here.
23. It stands written so.
24. She seemed young and sad.
25. I will make one more effort to save you.
26. My regrets were bitter and unavailing.
27. I came into the world helpless.
28. A sincere word was never utterly lost.
29. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin.


30. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
31. What states border on the Gulf of Mexico?
32. Whom did you see?
33. What is poetry?
34. Which course will you choose?
35. Why are the days shorter in winter?
36. When was America discovered?
37. Were you there?
38. Has the North Pole been reached?

+Observation Lesson+.--When the interrogative word is subject or a modifier
of it, is the order natural, or transposed? See (30) and (31) above.

When the interrogative word is object or attribute complement, or a
modifier of either, what is the order? See (32), (33), and (34).

When the interrogative word is an adverb, what is the order? See (35) and

When there is no interrogative word, what is the order? See (37) and (38).

The sentences above will furnish profitable review lessons in _analysis_.


We suggest that, from two or more paragraphs of some interesting and
instructive article, leading sentences be selected, and that the pupils be
required to explain the office and the punctuation of the easier adjective
and adverb phrases, to vary the arrangement in every possible way, and to
discuss the effects of these changes. Then, after finding the general
subject and the heading for each paragraph, the pupils may arrange these
sentences and work them into a composition, making such additions as may be


The chief difficulty in the punctuation of the different kinds of modifiers
is in determining whether or not they are restrictive. The following
examples may serve as the basis of an observation lesson:--

(_a_) The words _golden_ and _oriole_ are pleasant to the ear.
(_b_) Words, the signs of ideas, are spoken and written.
(_c_) Use words that are current.
(_d_) Words, which are the signs of ideas, are spoken and written.
(_e_) The country anciently called Gaul is now called France.
(_f_) France, anciently called Gaul, derived its name from the Franks.
(_g_) Glass bends easily when it is hot.
(_h_) I met him in Paris, when I was last abroad.

The following explanations may be drawn from the pupils:--

In (_a_) the application of _words_ is limited, or restricted, to the two
words mentioned; in (_c_) _words_ is restricted to a certain kind. In (_b_)
and (_d_) the modifiers do not restrict. They apply to all words and simply
add information. In (_e_) the participial phrase restricts the application
of _country_ to one particular country; but in (_f_) the phrase describes
without limiting. The omission of the comma in (_g_) shows that _Glass
bends easily_ is not offered as a general statement, but that the action is
restricted to a certain time or condition. _When it is hot_ is essential to
the intended meaning. The punctuation of (_h_) shows that the speaker does
not wish to make the time of meeting a prominent or essential part of what
he has to say. The adverb clause simply gives additional information. If
(_h_) were an answer to the question, When did you meet him? the comma
would be omitted. The sense may be varied by the use or the omission of the

Let the pupils see how incomplete the statements are when the restrictive
modifiers are omitted, and that the other modifiers are not so necessary to
the sense. In such expressions as _I myself, we boys_, the explanatory
words are not restrictive, but they combine closely with the modified term.


Adjective clauses allow little change in position. They usually follow
closely the word modified. Often they may be contracted into adjectives or
into adjective phrases.

Selections from standard writers may be made with special reference to the
study of adjective clauses. The position, punctuation, and choice of
relatives may be noticed, and, as far as possible, the clauses may be
changed into equivalent adjectives or into phrases.


An adverb clause may stand before the independent clause, between its
parts, or after it; as, "When it is hot, glass bends easily;" "Glass, when
it is hot, bends easily;" "Glass bends easily when it is hot." Notice the
punctuation of these examples.

Adverb clauses may be contracted in various ways. Clauses introduced by the
comparatives _as_ and _than_ are usually found in an abbreviated form; as,
"You are as old _as_ he (_is old_);" "You are older _than_ I (_am old_)."
Attention may be called to the danger of mistaking here the nominative for
the objective. We suggest making selections for the study of adverb


Noun clauses may be contracted; as, "_That we should obey_ is necessary" =
"_Obedience_ is necessary," or, "_To obey_ is necessary;" "I can hardly
realize _that my friend is gone_" = "I can hardly realize _my friend's
being gone_." By substituting _it_ for the subject clause, this clause
maybe placed last and made explanatory; as, "_It_ is necessary _that we
should obey_." The object clause is sometimes transposed; as, "_That my
friend is gone_, I can hardly realize." The noun clause may be made
prominent by introducing the independent clause parenthetically; as,"_His
story_, we believe, _is exaggerated_."

Notice the punctuation of the clauses above. The noun clause used as
attribute complement is generally set off by the comma. Noun clauses that
are quotations need special treatment.


We suggest the following observation lesson:--

1. Goldsmith says, "Learn the luxury of doing good."
2. Goldsmith says that we should learn the luxury of doing good.
3. "The owlet Atheism, hooting at the glorious sun in heaven, cries out,
   'Where is it?'"
4. Coleridge compares atheism to an owlet hooting at the sun, and asking
   where it is.
5. "To read without reflecting," says Burke, "is like eating without
6. May we not find "sermons in stones and good in everything"?
7. There is much meaning in the following quotation: "Books are embalmed
8. We must ask, What are we living for?
9. We must ask what we are living for.

+Observation Lesson+.--Notice that the writer of (1) has copied into his
sentence (quoted) the exact language of Goldsmith. The two marks like
inverted commas and the two marks like apostrophes, which inclose this
copied passage (quotation), are called _Quotation Marks_.

Name all the differences between (1) and (2). Is the same thought expressed
in both? Which quotation would you call _direct?_ Which, _indirect?_

Notice that the whole of (3) is a quotation, and that this quotation
contains another quotation inclosed within _single marks_. Notice the order
of the marks at the end of (3).

Point out the differences between (3) and (4). In which is a question
quoted just as it would be asked? In which is a question merely referred
to? Which question would you call _direct?_ Which, _indirect_? Name every
difference in the form of these.

In which of the above sentences is a quotation interrupted by a
parenthetical clause? How are the parts marked?

Point out a quotation that cannot make complete sense by itself. How does
it differ from the others as to punctuation and the first letter?

In (7) a _Colon_ precedes the quotation to show that it is _formally

In (8) a question is introduced without quotation marks. Questions that,
like this, are introduced without being referred to any particular person
or persons, are often written without quotation marks. State the
differences between (8) and (9).

In quoting a question, the interrogation point must stand within the
quotation marks; but, when a question contains a quotation, this order is
reversed. Point out illustrations above.

Sum up what you have learned. (See rules for capitals, comma, colon, and
quotation marks, pp. 140-143.)

Selections written in the colloquial style and containing frequent
quotations and questions may be taken from reading-books, for examination,
discussion, and copying. Noun phrases may be expanded, and noun clauses
contracted, transposed, etc.


Frequently independent clauses are contracted by using repeated parts but
once and uniting the other parts into a compound term, as in Lesson 67.
They are also contracted by omitting such words as may be readily
understood; as, "Is it true, or _not;_" "He is a philosopher, _not a
poet_." For punctuation, see rules for the comma and the semicolon, p. 141.


We recommend that the teacher select some short article containing valuable
information and break up each paragraph into short, disconnected
expressions. One paragraph at a time may be put on the board for the pupils
to copy. The general subject may be given, and the pupils may be required
to find a proper heading for the paragraph. The different ways of
connecting the expressions may be discussed in the class. By contracting,
expanding, transposing, and by substituting entirely different words, a
great variety of forms may be had. (The forms found in the "Example," p.
144, and the list of connectives, p. 190, may be helpful.) The pupils may
then combine the different paragraphs into a composition. For the
explanation of _paragraph_, see p. 145, and Exercises for Composition in
the Supplement.

We give below material for one composition:--

Frog's spawn found in a pond. At first like a mass of jelly. Eggs can be

In a few days curious little fish are hatched. These "tadpoles" are lively.
Swim by means of long tails. Head very large--out of proportion. Appearance
of all head and tail. This creature is a true fish. It breathes water-air
by means of gills. It has a two-chambered heart.

Watch it day by day. Two little gills seen. These soon disappear. Hind legs
begin to grow. Tail gets smaller. Two small arms, or forelegs, are seen.
Remarkable change going on inside. True lungs for breathing air have been
forming. Another chamber added to the heart.

As the gills grow smaller, it finds difficulty in breathing water-air. One
fine day it pokes its nose out of the water. Astonished (possibly) to find
that it can breathe in the air. A new life has come upon it. No particular
reason for spending all its time in water; crawls out upon land; sits down
upon its haunches; surveys the world. It is no longer a fish; has entered
upon a higher stage of existence; has become a frog.

This work of analyzing a composition to find the leading thoughts under
which the other thoughts may be grouped is in many ways a most valuable

It teaches the pupil to compare, to discriminate, to weigh, to systematize,
to read intelligently and profitably.

The reading-book will afford excellent practice in finding heads for
paragraphs. Such work is an essential preparation for the reading-class.

This composition work should serve as a constant review of all that has
been passed over in the text-book.


It is often difficult to distinguish an adjective complement from an adverb
modifier. We offer the following explanation:--

"Mary arrived _safe_." As we here wish to tell the condition of Mary on her
arrival, and _not_ the _manner_ of her arriving, we use _safe_, not
_safely_. "My head feels _bad_" (is in a bad condition, as perceived by the
sense of feeling). "The sun shines _bright_" (is bright--quality,--as
perceived by its shining).

You must determine whether you wish to tell the _quality_ of the thing
named or the _manner_ of the action.

When the idea of being is prominent in the verb, as in the examples above,
you see that the adjective, and not the adverb, follows.

Let the pupils show that the following adjectives and adverbs are used

1. I feel sad.
2. I feel deeply.
3. I feel miserable.
4. He appeared prompt and willing.
5. He appeared promptly and willingly.
6. She looks beautiful.
7. She sings beautifully.


When the past tense and the past participle differ in form, they are often
confounded in use; as,

  I _done_ it;
  I _seen_ it.

Pupils may be required to construct short sentences, oral or written, using
the _Past_ forms found in Lesson 91 as predicates, and the _Past
Participle_ forms either as modifiers or as completing words in compound

They may be led to some such conclusion as the following:--

The _Past_ is always an asserting, or predicate, word; the _Past
Participle_ never asserts, but is used as an adjective modifier or as the
completing word of a compound verb; the _Present_ may be used as a
predicate or as an infinitive.

Exercises like the following may be copied, and repeated aloud:--

1. _Lay_ down your pen.
2. _Lie_ down, Rover.
3. I _laid_ down my pen.
4. The dog then _lay_ down.
5. I have _laid_ down my pen.
6. The dog has _lain_ down.
7. _Set_ the pail down.
8. _Sit_ down and rest.
9. I then _set_ it down.
10. I _sat_ down and rested.
11. I have _set_ it down.
12. I have _sat_ down.
13. My work was _laid_ aside.
14. I was _lying_ down.
15. The trap was _set_ by the river.
16. I was _sitting_ by the river.
17. The garment _sits_ well.
18. The hen _sits_ on her eggs.
19. He came in and _lay_ down.
20. The Mediterranean _lies_ between Europe and Africa.

Notice that we may speak of _laying_ something or _setting_ something, or
may say that something is _laid_ or is _set_; but we cannot speak of
_lying_ or _sitting_ something, or of something being _lain_ or _sat_.
_Set_, in some of its meanings, is used without an object; as, "The sun
_set_;" "He _set_ out on a journey."

_Lay_, the present of the first verb, and _lay_, the past of _lie_, may
easily be distinguished by the difference in meaning and in the time


Pupils may be required to copy such forms as the following:--

The sailor's story; the farmer's son; the pony's mane; the monkey's tail; a
day's work; James's book; a cent's worth; a man's wages; the child's toys;
the woman's hat; the sailors' stories; the farmers' sons; the ponies'
manes; the monkeys' tails; three days' work; five cents' worth; two men's
wages; those children's toys; women's hats.

This may be continued till the pupils are able to form some such statement
as the following:--

(_'s_) and (_'_) are the possessive signs, (_'_) being used when _s_ has
been added to denote more than one, (_'s_) in other cases.

Such expressions as the following may be copied:--

Dombey and Son's business; J. J. Little & Co.'s printing-house; William the
Conqueror's reign; Houghton, Mifflin, and Company's publications.

This may be continued till the pupils learn that, when a group of words may
be treated as a compound name, the possessive sign is added to the last
word only.


The treatment of the objective complement may be introduced in a review
course, when the class is sufficiently mature. The following explanation
may aid some teachers:--

In "It made him _sad_," _made_ does not fully express the action performed
upon him--not "_made_ him," but "_made sad_ (saddened) him." _Sad_ helps
_made_ to express the action, and also denotes a quality which as the
result of the action belongs to the person represented by the object _him_.

Whatever completes the predicate and belongs to the object we call an
_Objective Complement_.

Nouns, infinitives, and participles may also be used in the same way; as,

  "They made Victoria _queen_,"
  "It made him _weep_;"
  "It kept him _laughing_."

   They | made / queen | Victoria

+Explanation+.--The line that separates _made_ from _queen_ slants toward
the object complement to show that _queen_ belongs to the object.

A noun or pronoun used as objective complement is in the objective case.

The teacher may here explain such constructions as, "I proved it to be
_him_," in which _it_ is object complement and _to be him_ is objective
complement. _Him_, the attribute complement of _be_, is in the objective
case because _it_, the assumed subject of _be_, is objective. Let the
pupils compare "I proved it to be _him_" with "I proved that it was _he;_"
"_Whom_ did you suppose it to be?" with "_Who_ did you suppose it was?"


The following uses of nouns and pronouns, not found in the preceding
Lessons, may be introduced in a review course.

1. He gave _John_ a book.
2. He bought _me_ a book.

_John_ and _me_, as here used, are generally called _Indirect Objects_. The
"indirect object" names the one _to_ or _for_ whom something is done. We
treat these words as phrase modifiers without the preposition. If we change
the order, the preposition must be supplied; as, "He gave a book _to
John;_" "He bought a book _for me_."

Nouns denoting _measure, quantity, weight, time, value, distance_, or
_direction_ may be used adverbially, being equivalent to phrase modifiers
without the preposition; as,

1. We walked four _miles_ an _hour_.
2. It weighs one _pound_.
3. It is worth a _dollar_.
4. The wall is ten _feet_, six _inches_ high.
5. I went _home_ that way.

The following diagram will illustrate both the "indirect object" and the
"noun of measure:"--

They offered Caesar the crown three times.

   They  |  offered  | crown
         | \      \      \the
            \      \ times
             \      \------
              \        \three
               \ Caesar

+Explanation+.--_Caesar_ (the "indirect object") and _times_ (denoting
measure) stand in the diagram on lines representing the principal words of
prepositional phrases.


These schemes will be found very helpful in a general review. The pupils
should be able to reproduce them, omitting the Lesson numbers.

Scheme for the Sentence.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)


      Noun or Pronoun (6, 14, 19).
      Phrase (49).
      Clause (61).

      Verb (6,16).

        Noun or Pronoun (39).
        Phrase (49).
        Clause (61).
        Adjective (39).
        Noun or Pronoun (42).
        Clause (61).

      Adjectives (20, 22).
      Adverbs (24, 27).
      Participles (48).
      Nouns and Pronouns (53).
      Phrases (31, 48, 49).
      Clauses (57, 59).

      Conjunctions (35, 36, 62).
      Pronouns (57).
      Adverbs (59).

    +Independent Parts (36, 64)+.

+Classes+--+Meaning+.--Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative,
Exclamatory (63).

+Classes+--+Form+.--Simple, Complex, Compound (57, 62).

Scheme for the Noun.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

  NOUN (14).

      Subject (6).
      Object Complement (39).
      Attribute Complement (42).
      Adjective Modifier (53).
      Prin. word in Prep. Phrase (34).
      Independent (64).

      Common (71).
      Proper (71).

        Singular (78, 79).
        Plural (78, 79).

        Masculine (80).
        Feminine (80).
        Neuter (80).

        First (81-83).
        Second (81-83).
        Third (81-83).

        Nominative (81-85).
        Possessive (81-85).
        Objective (81-85).

Scheme for the Pronoun.


    +Uses+.--Same as those of the Noun.

      Personal (71, 72).
      Relative (71, 72).
      Interrogative (71, 72).
      Adjective (71, 72).

    +Modifications+.--Same as those of the Noun
                    (78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 95).

Scheme for the Verb.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons_.)

      To _assert_ action, being, or state.--Predicate (6, 16).
      To _assume_ action, being, or state. Participles (48).
                                         Infinitives (49).

        Regular (74).
        Irregular (74, 91).
        Transitive (74),
        Intransitive (74).

        Active (89).
        Passive (89).
        Indicative (90-94).
        Potential (90-94).
        Subjunctive (90-94).
        Imperative (90-94).
        Present (90-94).
        Past (90-94).
        Future (90-94).
        Present Perfect (90-94).
        Past Perfect (90-94).
        Future Perfect (90-94).
        Singular (90, 92-95).
        Plural (90, 92-95).
        First (90, 92-95).
        Second (90, 92-95).
        Third (90, 92-95).

        Present (90-94, 96, 98).
        Past (90-94, 96, 98).
        Past Perfect (90-94, 96, 98).

        Present (90, 92-94).
        Present Perfect (90, 92-94).

Scheme for the Adjective.

(_The numbers refer to Lessons.)_


      Modifier (20, 23).
      Attribute Complement (39).

      Descriptive (73).
      Definitive (73).

      Pos.  Deg. (87, 88).
      Comp. Deg. (87, 88).
      Sup.  Deg. (87, 88).

Scheme for the Adverb.


      Time (75).
      Place (75).
      Degree (75).
      Manner (75).

      Pos.  Deg. (87, 88).
      Comp. Deg. (87, 88).
      Sup.  Deg. (87, 88).

+Schemes for the Conj., Prep., and Int+.

    Co-ordinate (36, 76). No Modifications.
    Subordinate (36, 76). No Modifications.

THE PREPOSITION (34, 41).--No Classes. No Modifications.

THE INTERJECTION (36).--No Classes. No Modifications.

+Model for Written Parsing adapted to all Parts of Speech+.--_Oh! it
has a voice for those who on their sick beds lie and waste away_.

Oh!       Class: Int.       Voice:           Independent.
          Sub-C.:           Mode:
                            Deg. of

it        Class: Pro.       Voice:           Sub. of _has_.
          Sub-C.: Per.      Mode:
                            Per.:  3d.
                            Num.:  Sing.
                            Gen.:  Neut.
                            Case:  Nom.
                            Deg. of
                            Comp.:           Pred. of _it_.

has       Class: Vb.        Voice: Act.
          Sub-C.: Ir., Tr.  Mode: Ind.
                            Tense:  Pres.
                            Per.:   3d.
                            Num.:   Sing.
                            Deg. of

a         Class: Adj.       Voice:           Mod. of _voice_.
          Sub-C.: Def.      Mode:
                            Deg. of
                             Comp.: ----

voice     Class: N.         Voice:           Obj. Com. of _has_.
          Sub-C.: Com.      Mode:
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Sing.
                            Gen.: Neut.
                            Case: Obj.
                            Deg. of

for       Class: Prep.      Voice:           Shows Rel. of
          Sub-C.:           Mode:            _has_ to
                            Tense:           _those_.
                            Deg. of

those     Class: Pro.       Voice:           Prin. word after
          Sub-C.: Adj.      Mode:            _for_.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Gen.: M.or F.
                            Case: Obj.
                            Deg. of

who       Class: Pro.       Voice:           Sub. of _lie_ and
          Sub-C.: Rel.      Mode:            _waste_.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Gen.: M.or F.
                            Case: Nom.
                            Deg. of

on        Class: Prep.      Voice:           Shows Rel. of _lie_
          Sub-C.:           Mode:            to _beds_.
                            Deg. of

their     Class: Pro.       Voice:           Pos. Mod. of
          Sub-C.: Per.      Mode:            _beds_.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Gen.: M.or F.
                            Case: Pos.
                            Deg. of

sick      Class: Adj.       Voice:           Mod. of _beds_.
          Sub-C.: Des.      Mode:
                            Deg. of
                             Comp.: Pos.

beds      Class: N.         Voice:           Prin. word after
          Sub-C.: Com.      Mode:            _on_.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Gen.: Neut.
                            Case: Obj.
                            Deg. of

lie       Class: Vb.        Voice: ----      Pred. of _who_.
          Sub-C.: Ir., Int. Mode: Ind.
                            Tense: Pres.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Deg. of

and       Class: Conj.      Voice:           Con. _lie_ and
          Sub-C.: Co-or.    Mode:            _waste_.
                            Deg. of

waste     Class: Vb.        Voice: ----      Pred. of _who_.
          Sub-C.: Reg., Int.Mode: Ind.
                            Tense: Pres.
                            Per.: 3d.
                            Num.: Plu.
                            Deg. of

away.     Class: Adv.       Voice:           Mod. of _waste_.
          Sub-C.: Place     Mode:
                            Deg. of
                             Comp.: ----

For exercises in general parsing, select from the preceding Lessons on


+Remark+.--Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper; some are
relative pronouns; and some are adverbs or adverb phrases, which, in
addition to their office as modifiers, may, in the absence of the
conjunction, take its office upon themselves, and connect the clauses.


+_Copulative_+.--_And, both...and, as well as_, [Footnote: The _as well as_
in "He, _as well as_ I, went"; and not that in "He is _as well as_ I am."]
are conjunctions proper. Accordingly, _also, besides, consequently,
furthermore, hence, likewise, moreover, now, so, then_, and _therefore_ are
conjunctive adverbs.

+_Adversative_+.--_But_ and _whereas_ are conjunctions proper. However,
_nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, still_,
and _yet_ are conjunctive adverbs.

+_Alternative_+.--_Neither, nor, or, either... or_, and _neither...nor_ are
conjunctions proper. _Else_ and _otherwise_ are conjunctive adverbs.


Connectives of Adjective Clauses.

_That, what, whatever, which, whichever, who_, and whoever are relative
pronouns. _When, where, whereby, wherein_, and _why_ are conjunctive

Connectives of Adverb Clauses.

_Time_.--_After, as, before, ere, since, till, until, when, whenever,
while_, and _whilst_ are conjunctive adverbs.

_Place_.--_Whence, where_, and _wherever_ are conjunctive adverbs.

_Degree_.--_As, than, that_, and _the_ are conjunctive adverbs,
correlative, with adjectives or adverbs.

_Manner_.--_As_ is a conjunctive adverb, correlative often with an
adjective or an adverb.

_Real Cause_.--_As, because, for, since_, and _whereas_ are conjunctions

_Reason_.--_Because, for_, and _since_ are conjunctions proper.

Purpose.--_In order that, lest_ (=_that not_) _that_, and _so that_ are
conjunctions proper.

_Condition_.--_Except, if, in case that, on condition that, provided,
provided that_, and _unless_ are conjunctions proper.

_Concession_.--_Although, if_ (=_even if_), _notwithstanding, though_, and
_whether_ are conjunctions proper. _However_ is a conjunctive adverb.
_Whatever, whichever_, and _whoever_ are relative pronouns used

+Connectives of Noun Clauses+.

_If, lest, that_, and _whether_ are conjunctions proper. _What, which_, and
_who_ are pronouns introducing questions; _how, when, whence, where_, and
_why_ are conjunctive adverbs.


+Remarks+.--Few abbreviations are allowable in ordinary composition. They
are very convenient in writing lists of articles, in scientific works, and
wherever certain terms frequently occur.

Titles prefixed to proper names are generally abbreviated, except in
addressing an officer of high rank. Titles that immediately follow names
are almost always abbreviated.

Names of women are not generally abbreviated except by using an initial for
one of two Christian names.

Abbreviations that shorten only by one letter are unnecessary; as, _Jul._
for "July," _Jno._ for "John," _da._ for "day," etc.

1_st_, 2_d_, 3_d_, 4_th_, etc., are not followed by the period. They are
not treated as abbreviations.

@, At.
+A. B.+ or +B. A.+ (_Artium Baccalaureus_), Bachelor of
+Acct., acct.+, or +a/c+, Account.
+A. D.+ (_Anno Domini_), In the year of our Lord.
+Adjt.+, Adjutant.
+Aet.+ or +aet.+ (aetatis), Of age, aged.
+Ala.+, Alabama.
+Alex.+, Alexander.
+A. M.+ or +M. A.+ (_Artium Magister_), Master of Arts.
+A. M.+ (_ante meridiem_), Before noon.
+Amt.+, Amount.
+And.+, Andrew.
+Anon.+, Anonymous.
+Ans.+, Answer.
+Anth.+, Anthony.
+Apr.+, April.
+Arch.+, Archibald.
+Ark.+, Arkansas.
+Arizona+ or +Ariz.+, Arizona Territory.
+Atty.+, Attorney.
+Atty.-Gen.+, Attorney-General.
+Aug.+, August; Augustus.
+Av.+ or +Ave.+, Avenue.
+Avoir.+, Avoirdupois.
+Bart.+, Baronet.
+bbl.+, Barrels.
+B. C.+, Before Christ.
+Benj.+, Benjamin.
+Brig.-Gen.+, Brigadier-General.
+B. S.+, Bachelor of Science.
+bu.+, Bushels.
+c+ or +ct.+, Cents.
+Cal.+, California.
+Cap.+, Capital. +Caps.+, Capitals.
+Capt.+, Captain.
+C. E.+, Civil Engineer.
+cf.+ (_confer_), Compare.
+Chas.+, Charles.
+Chron.+, Chronicles.
+Co.+, Company; County.
+c/o+, In care of.
+C. O. D.+, Collect on delivery.
+Col.+, Colonel; Colossians.
+Coll.+, College; Collector.
+Conn.+, Connecticut.
+Colo+, or +Col.+, Colorado.
+Cr.+, Credit; Creditor.
+cub. ft.+, Cubic feet.
+cub. in.+, Cubic inches.
+cwt.+, Hundred-weight.
+d.+, Days; Pence.
+Danl.+ or +Dan.+, Daniel.
+D. C.+, District of Columbia.
+D. C. L.+, Doctor of Civil Law.
+D. D.+ (_Divinitatis Doctor_), Doctor of Divinity.
+D. D. S.+, Doctor of Dental Surgery.
+Dec.+, December.
+Del.+, Delaware.
+Deut.+, Deuteronomy.
+D. G.+ (_Dei gratia_), By the grace of God.
+Dist.-Atty.+, District-Attorney.
+D. M.+, Doctor of Music.
+do.+ (_ditto_), The same.
+doz.+, Dozen.
+Dr.+, Doctor; Debtor.
+D. V.+ (_Deo volente_), God willing.
+E.+, East.
+Eben.+, Ebenezer.
+Eccl.+, Ecclesiastes.
+Ed.+, Edition; Editor.
+Edm.+, Edmund.
+Edw.+, Edward.
+e. g.+ (_exempli gratia_), For example.
+E. N. E.+, East-northeast.
+Eng.+, English; England.
+Eph.+, Ephesians; Ephraim.
+E. S. E.+, East-southeast.
+Esq.+, Esquire.
+et al.+ (_et alibi_), And elsewhere.
+et al.+ (_et alii_), And others.
+et seq.+ (_et sequeniia_), And following.
+etc.+ or +&c.+ (et caetera), And others; And so forth.
+Ex.+, Example; Exodus.
+Ez.+, Ezra.
+Ezek.+, Ezekiel.
+Fahr.+ or +F.+, Fahrenheit (thermometer).
+Feb.+, February.
+Fla.+, Florida.
+Fr.+, French; France.
+Fran.+, Francis.
+Fred.+, Frederic.
+Fri.+, Friday.
+ft.+, Feet.
+Ft.+, Fort.
+fur.+, Furlong.
+Ga.+, Georgia.
+Gal.+, Galatians.
+gal.+, Gallons.
+Gen.+, General; Genesis.
+Geo.+, George.
+Gov.+, Governor.
+gr.+, Grains.
+h.+, Hours.
+Hab.+, Habakkuk.
+Hag.+, Haggai.
+H. B. M.+, His (or Her) Britannic Majesty.
+hdkf.+, Handkerchief.
+Heb.+, Hebrews.
+H. H.+, His Holiness (the Pope).
+hhd.+, Hogsheads.
+H. M.+, His (or Her) Majesty.
+Hon.+, Honorable.
+Hos.+, Hosea.
+H. R. H.+, His (or Her) Royal Highness.
+ib.+ or +ibid+, (_ibidem_), In the same place.
+id.+ (_idem_), The same.
+Idaho+, Idaho.
+i.e.+ (_id est_), That is.
+I. H. S.+ (_Jesus hominum Salvator_), Jesus, the Savior of Men.
+Ill.+, Illinois.
+in.+, Inches.
+incog.+ (i_ncognito_), Unknown.
+Ind.+, Indiana.
+Ind. T.+, Indian Territory.
+inst.+, Instant, the present month.
+Iowa+ or +Io.+, Iowa.
+I. O. O. F.+, Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
+Isa.+, Isaiah.
+Jac.+, Jacob.
+Jan.+, January.
+Jas.+, James.
+Jer.+, Jeremiah.
+Jona.+, Jonathan.
+Jos.+, Joseph.
+Josh.+, Joshua.
+Jr.+ or +Jun.+, Junior.
+Judg.+, Judges.
+Kans.+ or +Kan.+, Kansas.
+Ky.+, Kentucky.
+l.+, Line; ll., Lines.
+l.+ or +lb.+, Pounds sterling.
+La.+, Louisiana.
+Lam.+, Lamentations.
+L.+, Latin.
+lb.+ or lb-. (_libra_ or _librae_), Pound or pounds in weight.
+l.c.+, Lower case (small letter).
+Lev.+, Leviticus.
+L. I.+, Long Island.
+Lieut.+, Lieutenant.
+LL. B.+(_Legum Baccalaureus_), Bachelor of Laws.
+LL. D.+ (_Legum Doctor_), Doctor of Laws.
+M.+ or +Mons.+, Monsieur.
+M.+ (_meridies_), Noon.
+m.+, Miles; Minutes.
+Mad.+, Madam. +Mme.+, Madame.
+Maj.+, Major.
+Mal.+, Malachi.
+Mar.+, March.
+Mass.+, Massachusetts.
+Matt.+, Matthew.
+M. C.+, Member of Congress.
+M. D.+ (_Medicinae Doctor_), Doctor of Medicine.
+Md.+, Maryland.
+mdse.+, Merchandise.
+Me.+, Maine.
+Mem.+, Memorandum; Memoranda.
+Messrs.+, Messieurs.
+Mic.+, Micah.
+Mgr.+, Monseigneur.
+Mich.+, Michigan; Michael.
+Minn.+, Minnesota.
+Miss.+, Mississippi.
+Mlle.+, Mademoiselle.
+Mmes.+, Mesdames.
+Mo.+, Missouri.
+mo.+, Months.
+Mon.+, Monday.
+M. P.+, Member of Parliament.
+Mont.+, Montana.
+Mr.+, Mister.
+Mrs.+, Mistress (pronounced Missis).
+MS.+, Manuscript.
+MSS.+, Manuscripts.
+Mt.+, Mountain.
+N.+, North.
+N. A.+, North America.
+Nath.+, Nathaniel.
+N. B.+ (_nota bene_), Mark well.
+N. C.+, North Carolina.
+N. Dak.+, North Dakota.
+N. E.+, New England.
+N. E.+, Northeast.
+Nebr.+ or +Neb.+, Nebraska.
+Neh.+, Nehemiah.
+Nev.+, Nevada.
+N. H.+, New Hampshire.
+N. J.+, New Jersey.
+N. Mex.+ or +N. M.+, New Mexico.
+N. N. E.+, North-northeast.
+N. N. W.+, North-northwest.
+N. O.+, New Orleans.
+No.+ (_numero_), Number,
+Nov.+, November.
+N. W.+, Northwest
+N. Y.+, New York.
+Obad.+, Obadiah.
+Oct.+, October.
+Ohio+ or +O.+, Ohio.
+Oreg.+ or +Or.+, Oregon.
+Oxon.+ (_Oxonia_), Oxford,
+oz.+, Ounces.
+p.+, Page, +pp.+, Pages.
+Pa.+ or +Penn.+, Pennsylvania.
+Payt.+ or +payt.+, Payment.
+per cent+, or +per ct.+ (_per centum_) or %, By the hundred.
+Ph. D.+ (_Philosophiae Doctor_), Doctor of Philosophy.
+Phil.+, Philip; Philippians.
+Phila.+, Philadelphia.
+pk.+, Pecks.
+P. M.+, Postmaster.
+P. M.+ or +p. m.+ (_post meridiem_), Afternoon.
+P. O.+, Post-Office.
+Pres.+, President.
+Prof.+, Professor.
+Pro tem.+ (_pro tempore_), For the time being.
+Prov.+, Proverbs.
+prox.+ (_proximo_), The next month.
+P. S.+, Postscript.
+Ps.+, Psalms.
+pt.+, Pints.
+pwt.+, Pennyweights.
+qt.+, Quarts.
+q. v.+ (_quod vide_), Which see.
+Qy.+, Query.
+rd.+, Rods.
+Recd.+, Received.
+Rev.+, Reverend; Revelation.
+R. I.+, Rhode Island.
+Robt.+, Robert.
+Rom.+, Romans (Book of); Roman letters.
+R. R.+, Railroad.
+R. S. V. P.+ (_Repondez s'il vous plait_), Answer, if you please.
+Rt. Hon.+, Right Honorable.
+Rt. Rev.+, Right Reverend.
+S.+, South.
+s.+, Shillings.
+S. A.+, South America.
+Saml.+ or +Sam.+, Samuel.
+Sat.+, Saturday.
+S. C.+, South Carolina.
+S. Dak.+, South Dakota.
+S. E.+, Southeast.
+Sec.+, Secretary.
+sec.+, Seconds.
+Sep.+ or +Sept.+, September.
+Sol.+, Solomon.
+sq. ft.+, Square feet.
+sq. in.+, Square inches.
+sq. m.+, Square miles.
+S. S. E.+, South-southeast.
+S. S. W.+, South-southwest.
+St.+, Street; Saint.
+S. T. D.+ (_Sacrae Theologiae Doctor_), Doctor of Divinity.
+Sun.+, Sunday.
+Supt.+, Superintendent.
+S. W.+, Southwest.
+T.+, Tons; Tuns.
+Tenn.+, Tennessee.
+Tex.+, Texas.
+Theo.+, Theodore.
+Theoph.+, Theophilus.
+Thess.+, Thessalonians,
+Thos.+, Thomas.
+Thurs.+, Thursday.
+Tim.+, Timothy.
+tr.+, Transpose.
+Treas.+, Treasurer.
+Tues.+, Tuesday.
+ult.+ (_ultimo_), Last--last month.
+U. S.+ or +U. S. A.+, United States of America; United States Army.
+U. S. M.+, United States Mail.
+U. S. N.+, United States Navy.
+Utah+ or +U. Ter.+, Utah Territory.
+Va.+, Virginia.
+Vice-Pres.+, Vice-President.
+viz.+ (_videlicet_), To wit, namely.
+vol.+, Volume.
+vs.+ (_versus_), Against.
+Vt.+, Vermont.
+W.+, West.
+Wash.+, Washington.
+Wed.+, Wednesday.
+Wis.+, Wisconsin.
+wk.+, Weeks.
+Wm.+, William.
+W. N. W.+, West-northwest.
+W. S. W.+, West-southwest.
+W. Va.+, West Virginia.
+Wyo.+, Wyoming.
+Xmas.+, Christmas.
+yd.+, Yards.
+y.+ or +yr.+, Years.
+Zech.+, Zechariah.
+& Co.+, And Company.


+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph+.


Morren says that angleworms often lie for hours almost motionless close
beneath the mouths of their burrows. I have occasionally noticed the same
fact with worms kept in pots in the house; so that by looking down into
their burrows their heads could just be seen. If the ejected earth or
rubbish over the burrows be suddenly removed, the end of the worm's body
may very often be seen rapidly retreating.

This habit of lying near the surface leads to their destruction to an
immense extent. Every morning, during certain seasons of the year, the
thrushes and blackbirds on all the lawns throughout the country draw out of
their holes an astonishing number of worms; and this they could not do
unless they lay close to the surface.

It is not probable that worms behave in this manner for the sake of
breathing fresh air, for they can live for a long time under water. I
believe that they lie near the surface for the sake of warmth, especially
in the morning; and we shall hereafter find that they often coat the mouths
of their burrows with leaves, apparently to prevent their bodies from
coming into close contact with the cold, damp earth.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--We will break up Mr. Darwin's
first group of sentences into single sentences or single statements, each
having but one predicate verb.

1. Angleworms often lie for hours almost motionless close beneath the
mouths of their burrows. 2. Morren says this. 3. I have occasionally
noticed the same fact with worms kept in pots in the house. 4. By looking
down into their burrows their heads could just be seen. 5. The ejected
earth or rubbish over the burrows may suddenly be removed. 6. The end of
the worm's body may then very often be seen rapidly retreating.

Find the two chief words (subject and predicate) in 1. What does _often_
do? What does the group of words _for hours_ do? The group _almost
motionless_ describes what things? The group _close beneath the mouths of
their burrows_, used like a single adverb, tells what? Find the two chief
words in 2. _This_ helps out the meaning of _says_, but it is not an
adverb. _This_ is here a pronoun standing for the thing said. What whole
sentence does _this_ take the place of? Find the subject and the predicate
verb in 3. What noun follows this verb to tell what Mr. Darwin noticed?
What does _occasionally_ do? What does _same_ go with? What group of eight
words tells in what way Mr. Darwin noticed this fact? Find the unmodified
subject and predicate in 4. What does the second _their_ go with? What does
_by looking down into their burrows_ tell? What does _just_ do? In 5, put
_what_ before _may be removed_, and find two words either of which may be
used as subject. What is the office of _the_, _ejected_, and the group
_over the burrows_? What does _suddenly_ do? Find the subject and the
predicate verb in 6. _Retreating_ helps out the meaning of the predicate
and at the same time modifies the subject. Notice that _the end rapidly
retreating_ is not a sentence, nor is _worms kept in pots_, in 3.
_Retreating_ and _kept_ here express action, but they are not predicates;
they do not assert. You learned in Lesson 16 that certain forms of the verb
do not assert. _Of the worm's body_ modifies what? _Then_ and _very often_
do what?

If you will compare these numbered sentences with Mr. Darwin's, you will
see how two or more sentences are put together to make one longer sentence.
You see Mr. Darwin puts our sentence 1 after _says_ to tell what Morren
says. What word here helps to bring two sentences together? Change this
sentence about so as to make _says Morren_ come last. See how many other
changes you can make in the arrangement of the words and groups of words in
this sentence. What two words are used to join 3 and 4 together? Notice
that these sentences are not joined so closely as 1 and 2, as is shown by
the semi-colon. Notice that _if_ has much to do in joining 5 and 6. These
are more closely joined than 3 and 4, but not so closely as 1 and 2. How is
this shown by the punctuation? Put 5 and 6 together and change their order.
Find, if you can, still another arrangement.

+To the Teacher+.--It is very important that pupils should learn to see
words in groups and to note their offices. If difficulties and
technicalities be avoided, such exercises as we suggest above may be begun
very early. They will lead to an intelligent observation of language and
will prepare the way for the more formal lessons of the text-book.

If time can be had, such exercises may profitably be continued through the
second and third paragraphs of the selection above.

We have said elsewhere that the sentence exercises on this selection from
Darwin may follow Lesson 30, but the teacher must determine.

+The Paragraph+.--If we write about only one thing, or one point, our
sentences will be closely related to each other. If we write on two or more
points, there will be two or more sets of sentences--the sentences of each
set closely related to one another, but the sets themselves not so closely
related. A group of sentences expressing what we have to say on a single
point, or division, of our subject is called a +paragraph+. How many
paragraphs do you find in the selection above? How are they separated on
the page?

Let us examine this selection more carefully to find whether the sentences
of each group are all on a single point and closely related, and whether
the groups themselves are related. Do the sentences of the first paragraph
all help to tell of a certain habit of angleworms? Do the sentences of the
second paragraph tell what results from this habit? Do the sentences of the
third paragraph tell what is thought to be the cause of this habit? If you
can say yes to these questions, the sentences in each paragraph must be
closely related. Are a habit, a result of it, and a cause of it related in
thought, or meaning? If so, the paragraphs are related.

You must now see that paragraphing helps both the reader and the writer,
and that we should master it.

+The Style+.--We shall not here say much about what we may call the style
of the author--his way of putting his thought, or manner of expressing it.
But this you will notice: his words are few, plain, and simple; the
arrangement of them is easy; and so what is said is said clearly. You are
nowhere in doubt about his meaning unless it be in the second paragraph. It
may puzzle you to see what _their_, _they_, and _they_ in the second
sentence of this paragraph stand for. Let _an astonishing number of worms_
and _out of their holes_ change places, and substitute _birds_ and _worms_
for _they_ and _they_, and see whether the meaning would be clearer.
Clearness is worth all it costs. You cannot take too much pains to be

+First-hand Knowledge+.--As you know, we get our knowledge in two ways. We
get it by seeing and by thinking about what we see; and we get it by
listening to other people and reading what they have written. What we get
by seeing, by observation, is first-hand knowledge; what we get from others
is second-hand knowledge. Both kinds are useful; we cannot have too much of
either. But the kind that it does us most good to get and is worth most to
us when got is first-hand knowledge. This especially is the kind which you
should make your compositions of. In the first two paragraphs of the
selection above, Darwin is telling what he saw, and in the third he is
explaining what he saw. That is why what he says is so fresh and

And just one thing more. If such a man as Charles Darwin thought it worth
his while to spend much time in studying and experimenting upon angleworms
and then to write a large book about them, surely you need not think
anything in nature beneath your notice.


Tell in two or three short paragraphs what you have observed of some worm,
insect, or other creature, and what you think about it.

+To the Teacher+.--We suggest that what is said above be read by the pupils
and discussed in the class, and that the substance of it be reproduced in
the pupils' own language. Such reproduction will serve as a lesson in oral

It may be profitable for the pupils to reproduce the selection from Darwin.

+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph+.


The whistles completed, I was marched with music to the place where the
"Jacks" grew. It was just such a place as boys delight in--low, damp, and
boggy, with a brook hidden away under overhanging ferns and grasses.

1. The children knew by sight the plant that bore the "Jacks," and every
discovery was announced by a piercing shriek of delight. 2. At first I
looked hurriedly toward the brook as each yell clove the air; but, as I
became accustomed to it, my attention was diverted by some exquisite ferns.
3. Suddenly, however, a succession of shrieks announced that something was
wrong, and across a large fern I saw a small face in a great deal of agony.
4. Budge was hurrying to the relief of his brother, and was soon as deeply
imbedded as Toddie was in the rich, black mud at the bottom of the brook.
5. I dashed to the rescue, stood astride the brook, and offered a hand to
each boy, when a treacherous tuft of grass gave way, and, with a glorious
splash, I went in myself.

This accident turned Toddie's sorrow to laughter, but I can't say I made
light of my misfortune on that account. To fall into _clear_ water is not
pleasant, even when one is trout-fishing; but to be clad in white trousers
and suddenly drop nearly knee-deep into the lap of mother earth is quite a
different thing.

I hastily picked up the children and threw them upon the bank, and then
strode out, and tried to shake myself, as I have seen a Newfoundland dog
do. The shake was not a success--it caused my trouser's legs to flap
dismally about my ankles, and sent the streams of treacherous ooze
trickling down into my shoes. My hat, of drab felt, had fallen off by the
brookside, and been plentifully spattered as I got out.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--We will put the first paragraph
above into single sentences.

1. The whistles completed, we were marched with music to the place. 2. The
"Jacks" grew in this place. 3. It was a place low, damp, and boggy, with a
brook hidden away under overhanging ferns and grasses. 4. Boys delight in
such a place.

Find the subject noun (or pronoun) and the predicate verb in each of the
four sentences above. Does _the whistles completed_ make complete sense?
You learned in Lesson 16 that some forms of the verb do not assert--cannot
be predicates. Does _brook hidden_, in 3, contain a predicate? What can you
say of _hidden?_ Find a noun in 3 used to complete the predicate and make
the meaning of the subject plainer. What group of adjectives modifies
_place_? Tell why these three adjectives are separated by commas. What long
phrase describes _place_?

Find the first verb in the second paragraph of the selection. What is the
object complement of this verb? _That bore the "Jacks"_ does what? The
pronoun _that_ stands for _plant_. _The plant bore the "Jacks,"_ standing
by itself, is a complete sentence; but by using _that_ for _plant_ the
whole expression is made to do the work of an adjective. What conjunction
joins on another expression that by itself would make a complete sentence?
What are the subject and the predicate of this added sentence? _By a
piercing shriek of delight_ does what? Of what use are the phrases _at
first_ and _toward the brook_ in sentence 2? What group of words is joined
to _looked_ to tell on what occasion or how often? Find in this group a
subject, a predicate, and an object complement. What connects this group to
_looked_? What two sentences does _but_ here bring together? Does the
semicolon show that this connection is close? Point out what you think to
be the leading subject and the leading verb after _but_. _By some exquisite
ferns_ is joined to what? What group of words goes with _was diverted_ to
tell when? Find in this group a subject, a predicate, and an attribute
complement. Point out in the first part of 3 the leading subject and its
verb. What does _suddenly_ go with? What does _of shrieks_ modify?
_However_ is loosely thrown in to carry the attention back to what goes
before. Notice the commas. Answer the question made by putting _what_ after
_announced_. In this group of words used as object complement can you find
a subject, a predicate, and a complement? What two sentences does _and_
here bring together? Point out the subject, the predicate, and the
complement in the second of these. _Across a large fern_ is joined like an
adverb to what? _In a great deal of agony_ modifies what? Find a compound
predicate in 4. What phrase is joined to _was imbedded_ to tell where? The
group of words _as deeply as Toddie was (imbedded)_ is joined to what? Find
in 5 a compound predicate made up of three verbs, one of which has an
object complement.

+To the Teacher+.--See suggestions with the preceding selection. If our
exercises on the second paragraph above are found too hard, the compound
and complex sentences may be broken up into single statements.

We have indicated elsewhere that this sentence work may follow Lesson 40.

+The Narrative+.--This selection from "Helen's Babies" is a story and
therefore a narrative. But there are some descriptive touches in it. All
stories must have such touches. Perhaps it is not always essential to
distinguish between narration and description, but it is worth your while
to do it occasionally. Try to point out the descriptive parts in these
paragraphs. You certainly can find a descriptive sentence in the first
paragraph, and descriptive words, phrases, and clauses throughout the
selection. What help to the narrative do these descriptive touches give?

+The Paragraphs+.--What have you learned about the sentences that make up
one paragraph? Are the paragraphs more, or less, closely related than the
sentences of each paragraph? Why? Examine these paragraphs and see whether
any sentences can be changed from one paragraph to another. If you think
they can, give your reason. Is the order of these paragraphs the right one?
Can the order anywhere be changed without throwing the story out of joint?

+The General Topic and the Sub-topics+.--We shall find that every
composition has its general subject and that each paragraph in the
composition bus its own particular subject. Let us call the subject of the
whole composition the _general topic_. _Sub_ means _under_, and so let us
call the point which each paragraph develops a _sub-topic_. In the story
above we may find some such outline as the following:--

      1. The Place where Jacks Grow.
      2. The Mishap to the Excursionists.
      3. The Uncle Takes his Seriously.
      4. His Attempt at Repairs.

Do you think that such a _framework_ helps a writer to tell his story? Do
you not think that each sub-topic must suggest some thoughts that the
general topic alone would not suggest? If you keep clearly before you the
sub-topic of your paragraph, what effect do you think it will have on the
thoughts and the sentences of that paragraph? With a good framework clearly
before you, must not your story move along in an orderly way from a
beginning to an end? Have you ever heard stories badly told? If so, what
were the faults?


Have you not had some experience that you can work up into a good story? If
you have, tell the story upon paper, making use of the instruction we have
given you in our talk above.

+To the Teacher+.--Perhaps a reproduction of the story above may be



And this is Dovecote Mill. I must stand a minute or two here on the bridge
and look at it, though the clouds are threatening and it is far on in the
afternoon. Even in this leafless time of departing February, it is pleasant
to look at it. Perhaps the chill, damp season adds a charm to the
trimly-kept building, as old as the elms and chestnuts that shelter it from
the northern blast.

The stream is brimful now, and half drowns the grassy fringe in front of
the house. As I look at the stream, the vivid grass, the delicate, bright
green softening the outline of the great trunks and branches that gleam
from under the bare purple boughs, I am in love with moistness, and envy
the white ducks that are dipping their heads far into the water, unmindful
of the awkward appearance in the drier world above.

1. And now there is the huge covered wagon, coming home with sacks of
grain. 2. That honest wagoner is thinking of his dinner, which is getting
sadly dry in the oven at this late hour; but he will not touch it till he
has fed his horses--the strong, submissive beasts, who, I fancy, are
looking mild reproach at him from between their blinkers, that he should
crack his whip at them in that awful manner, as if they needed such a hint!
3. See how they stretch their shoulders up the slope toward the bridge,
with all the more energy because they are so near home. 4. Look at their
grand, shaggy feet, that seem to grasp the firm earth, at the patient
strength of their necks bowed under the heavy collar, at the mighty muscles
of their struggling haunches. 5. I should like to see them, with their
moist necks freed from the harness, dipping their eager nostrils into the

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--Notice that in sentence 1, third
paragraph, the subject is placed after the predicate. Tell what _now_ and
_there_ do. _Coming home with sacks of grain_ does what? Does _coming_
express action? Does it assert action? What is it? What does _home_ do? Put
_its_ before _home_ and then read the whole phrase. What other change do
you find necessary? A noun is sometimes used alone to do the work of an
adverb phrase, the preposition being omitted. What is the office of
_minute_ in the second sentence of the first paragraph? What preposition
could be put in? In 2, third paragraph, the pronoun _which_ stands for
_dinner_. Read the sentence, using the noun instead of the pronoun. Have
you now two sentences, or one? You see that _which_ not only stands for
_dinner_, but it joins on a sentence so as to make it describe the dinner.
What does _till he has fed his horses_ do? Omitting _till_, would this
group of words be a sentence? What, then, joins this group, and makes it do
the work of an adverb? Notice the dash after _horses_. The writer here
breaks off rather suddenly and begins again, using _beasts_ instead of
_horses_. To _beasts_ are added many descriptive words. You will learn that
this noun _beasts_ added to the noun _horses_ is called an explanatory
modifier. Notice that _I fancy_ is thrown in loosely or independently and
is set off by commas. All the other words beginning with _who_ and ending
with _hint_ are joined by _who_ to _beasts_. Notice that the writer makes
these beasts think like persons, and so uses _who_ instead of _which_ or
_that_. Do we ordinarily speak of looking anything? In _who are looking
reproach_, what is the object complement of _are looking_? What long group
of words made up of two sentences tells why the beasts are looking
reproach? Read separately the main divisions of 2. What conjunction
connects these? Is one of these divisions itself divided into parts by
commas? Should, then, some mark of wider separation be put between the main
divisions of 2? To build so long a sentence as 2 is venturesome. We advise
young writers not to make such attempts. It is hard to write very long
sentences and keep the meaning clear. In 3 the subject of _see_ is _you_,
which is generally omitted in a command. You are here told to see what?
Break this long object complement up into two sentences. What do the horses
stretch? Where do they stretch their shoulders? How do they stretch? Why do
they stretch with more energy? What is the subject of _look_ in 4? The
phrase beginning with _at_ and ending with _earth_ does what? Find two
other long phrases introduced by _at_ and tell what they do. _That seem to
grasp the firm earth_ goes with what? Put the noun _feet_ in place of the
pronoun _that_ and make a separate sentence of this group. What word, then,
makes an adjective modifier of this sentence and joins it to _feet_? Does
_to grasp_ assert action? What do you call it? It is here used as attribute
complement. _Bowed under the heavy collar_ describes what? Does _bowed_
assert action? What do you call it?

+To the Teacher+.--If time permits, we believe that such exercises as the
above may profitably be continued. This sentence work may perhaps best
follow Lesson 50. See suggestions with preceding exercises.

+Descriptive Writing+.--This extract from the novelist who called herself
"George Eliot" we have slightly changed for our purpose. It is purely
+descriptive+. It is a painting in words--a vivid picture of a very pretty
scene. How grateful we are to those who can, as it were, turn a page of a
book into canvas, and paint on it a rich verbal picture that delights us
every time we read it or recall it! How many such pictures there are in our
libraries! And how little they cost us when compared with those that we buy
and hang upon our walls!

+Some Features of a Good Description+.--Does this author mention many
features of the mill, of the stream, and of the horses pulling their load
over the bridge? Do those that she does mention suggest to you everything
else? Name some of the things suggested to you but not mentioned in this
description. Does not some of the charm of a description lie in the
reader's having something left him to supply? If the author had given you
every little detail of the mill, the stream, and the laboring horses, would
not the description have been dull and tiresome? What things that the
author imagined but did not really see are mentioned in the third
paragraph? Do these touches of fancy or imagination help the picture? Do
they show that the author was in love with her work? and do they therefore
stimulate your fancy or imagination?

+The Framework+.--In making a framework for this description would you take
for the general topic "The Scene from the Bridge" or "Things Seen from a
Bridge"? or would you prefer some other wording of it? Now write out a
framework, placing the sub-topics under the general topic as you have been


Describe some scene that you greatly enjoy, or draw your picture from
imagination. Make a framework and try to profit by all that we have said.



Once upon a time there was a very old man, whose eyes were dim, whose ears
were dull, and whose knees trembled. When he sat at table, he could
scarcely hold his spoon; and often he spilled his food over the tablecloth
and sometimes down his clothes.

His son and daughter-in-law were much vexed about this, and at last they
made the old man sit behind the oven in a corner, and gave him his food in
an earthen dish, and not enough of it either; so that the poor man grew
sad, and his eyes were wet with tears. Once his hand trembled so much that
he could not hold the dish, and it fell upon the ground and broke all in
pieces, so that the young wife scolded him; but he made no reply and only
sighed. Then they brought him a wooden dish, and out of that he had to

One day, as he was sitting in his usual place, he saw his little grandson,
four years old, fitting together some pieces of wood. "What are you
making?" asked the old man.

"I am making a wooden trough," replied the child, "for father and mother to
feed out of when I grow big."

At these words the father looked at his wife for a moment, and presently
they began to cry. Henceforth they let the old grandfather sit at the table
with them, and they did not even say anything if he spilled a little food
upon the cloth.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--What is the order of subject and
predicate in the first sentence of this selection? The word _there_ does
not tell where; it is put before _was_ to let the subject follow. _There_
is frequently so used and is then called an independent adverb. Find in the
first sentence three adjective clauses. What connects each to _man_? What
other office has this connective? How are these adjective clauses connected
with one another? What is the office of the dependent clause in the next
sentence? If this clause were placed after its principal clause, would the
comma be needed? Are the clauses separated by the semicolon as closely
connected as those divided by the comma?

After _made_ and some other words the _to_ before the infinitive is
omitted. Find such an instance in the first sentence of the second
paragraph. In this same sentence change _gave him his food_, making _him_
come last. You have learned that a noun or a pronoun may be used without a
preposition to do the work of an adverb phrase. What does _one day_ do in
the third paragraph? Is a preposition needed before _day?_ In the same
sentence _years_ is used adverbially to modify the adjective _old_. It
would be hard to find a preposition to put before _years_. We might say
"old to the extent of four years," but _four years_ answers for the whole
phrase. In this same paragraph what words are quoted exactly as the old man
uttered them? Describe the quotation marks. Notice that the next quotation
is broken by the words _replied the child_, and so each part of the
quotation is separately inclosed within quotation marks.

+To the Teacher+.--We have here touched a few features of the sentences
above. The exercises given with the preceding selections will suggest a
fuller examination of the phrases and clauses.

+Suggestions from this Narrative+.--We see that this beautiful story has a
purpose. Its purpose is to teach us kindness to our parents. It is well
planned. Every sentence and every paragraph is adapted to the end in view.
No useless item or circumstance is admitted. The story stops when the end
is reached. Anything added to the fifth paragraph would spoil the story. We
certainly can learn much from such a model.

+Paragraphs+.--Does every sentence in the first paragraph aid in picturing
the helplessness of the old grandfather? Is the picture complete? Does the
second paragraph strongly impress us with the unkindness of the son and
daughter-in-law, who ought to have been moved to pity by the old man's
condition? Does it contain an unnecessary sentence? In telling how the
grandchild unconsciously taught a lesson, a dialogue is introduced, and so
what really belongs to one sub-topic is put in the form of two paragraphs.
It is customary to make a separate paragraph of each single speech in a
dialogue. Read the last paragraph carefully and see whether one could wish
to know anything more about the effect of the lesson taught by the child.

Make a framework for this story.


Make up a short story from your own experience, or from your imagination,
and try to profit by the suggestions above. Prepare a framework at the

+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph+.


Overwork almost always ends in weakening the digestive organs. There are
those who overtax their minds through months and years, forgetful that
there is a close connection between overwork and dyspepsia. Everyone should
remember that there is a point beyond which he cannot urge his brain
without harm to his stomach; and that, when he loses his stomach, he loses
the very citadel of health. The whole body is renewed from the blood, and
the blood is made from the food taken into the stomach. The power of the
blood to renew bone and brain and muscle depends upon a good digestion.

Too little sleep is fatal to health. Perhaps you have to work hard all day;
but that is no reason why you should resolve, "If I cannot have pleasure by
day, I will have it at night." You are taking the very substance of your
body when you burn the lamp of pleasure till one or two o'clock in the
morning. God has made sleep to be a sponge with which to rub out fatigue. A
man's roots are planted in night, as a tree's are planted in soil, and out
of it he should come, at waking, with fresh growth and bloom. As a rule,
you should take eight hours of the twenty-four, for sleep.

+The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+.--In the exercises under the
selection from the Brothers Grimm what did you learn about _there_ as used
twice in the second sentence above? What does _those_ mean? What long
adjective clause is joined to _those_ by _who_? Does this clause read so
closely as not to need a comma before _who_? Does _forgetful_ describe the
persons represented by _who_? Why is a comma used before _forgetful_? You
learned in a preceding exercise that a noun may do the work of an adverb
phrase without the help of a preposition. A noun clause may do the same.
The adjective _forgetful_ is modified by the noun clause _that ...
dyspepsia_. If we say _forgetful of the fact_, we see that the noun clause
means the same as _fact_ and has the same office. What two long noun
clauses aroused to complete _should remember_? What conjunction introduces
each of these clauses? What conjunction joins them together? What mark of
punctuation between? If one of these noun clauses were not itself divided
into clauses by the comma, would the semicolon be needed? The clause
_beyond ... stomach_ goes with what word? _When ... stomach_ modifies what
verb? Classify the sentences of this paragraph as simple, complex, or

+To the Teacher+.--We have here treated informally some difficult points.
Perhaps these may be better understood when the book is reviewed.

+The Various Objects Writers Have+.--From your study of the preceding
selections you learn that a writer may have any one of several objects in
writing. He may wish simply to instruct the reader, as does Darwin in what
he says of earthworms. He may wish merely to amuse the reader, as does Mr.
Habberton in our extract from "Helen's Babies." He may wish only to put
before them a picture which, like that of George Eliot's, shall afford
delight. Or he may wish to get hold of what we call our wills and lead us
to do something, perform some duty. This is what the story from the
Brothers Grimm aims at. And you saw how it does this--by working on our
feelings. There are at least these four objects that a writer may propose
to himself. Which of these four objects has Mr. Beecher in the paragraphs
we quote? Does he instruct? Does he try to get us to do something? Would it
help you to have clearly before you from the beginning the object you are
seeking to accomplish?

+Figurative Expressions+.--In these paragraphs Mr. Beecher calls a man's
stomach the citadel of health, and sleep a sponge to rub out fatigue with,
and says a man's roots are planted in night. He does not use these words
_citadel_, _sponge_, and _roots_ in their first or common meaning. He uses
them in what we call a +figurative+ sense. He means to say that a man's
stomach is to him what a fortress is to soldiers, a source of strength;
that in sleep fatigue disappears as do figures on a slate or blackboard
when a wet sponge is drawn across them; and that a man gets out of night
what a tree's roots draw out of the soil, nourishment and vigor. Such
figurative uses of words give strength and beauty to style.


In the paragraphs quoted above you were told of the effects on health of
overwork and of insufficient sleep. Perhaps you can write of exercise, of
proper food, of clothes, or of some other things on which health may

+Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph+.


Rab belonged to a lost tribe--there are no such dogs now. He was old and
gray and brindled; and his hair short, hard, and close, like a lion's. He
was as big as a Highland bull, and his body was thickset. He must have
weighed ninety pounds at least.

His large, blunt head was scarred with the record of old wounds, a series
of battlefields all over it. His muzzle was as black as night, his mouth
blacker than any night, and a tooth or two, all he had, gleamed out of his
jaws of darkness. One eye was out, one ear cropped close. The remaining eye
had the power of two; and above it, and in constant communication with it,
was a tattered rag of an ear that was for ever unfurling itself, like an
old flag.

And then that bud of a tail, about an inch long, if it could in any sense
be said to be long, being as broad as it was long! The mobility of it, its
expressive twinklings and winkings, and the intercommunications between the
eye, the ear, and it, were of the oddest and swiftest.

Rab had the dignity and simplicity of great size. Having fought his way all
along the road to absolute supremacy, he was as mighty in his own line as
Julius Caesar or the Duke of Wellington in his, and he had the gravity of
all great fighters.

+To the Teacher+.--We suggest exercises on the uses of words similar to
those preceding. Before attempting this it may be well to let the pupils go
over these condensed expressions and supply the words necessary to the
analysis. For instance, in the first paragraph _hair_ may be followed by
_was_ and _Highland bull_ by _is big_. In the next paragraph _wounds_ may
be followed by _marking_, _as night_ by _is black_, etc. In the third
paragraph _and then_ may be followed by _there was_, etc. The pupils will
determine whether supplying these words makes the description stronger or

Pupils may note especially the offices of nouns, verbs, and adjectives.
This selection abounds in descriptive nouns and verbs that are particularly
well chosen. Let the pupils point out such.

+The Description+.--How does the description above impress you? Are only
characteristic parts and features selected? Are these few features enough
to give you a distinct and vivid picture of Rab? What comparisons do you
find? How do they help? Pick out some words or phrases that seem to you
very expressive. Find some words that are used, not in their first or
common sense, but in a figurative sense. How do they help?

+Paragraphs+.--Which paragraph puts before you the dog as a whole? Where
must this paragraph naturally stand? Why? Which paragraph describes Rab's
character? What does each of the other paragraphs describe? If you think
the arrangement of paragraphs above is the best, tell why.

Make a framework for this description.


Write a description of some animal which you have closely observed and in
which you are interested. Be careful to pick out leading or characteristic
features that will bring others into the reader's imagination. First
prepare a framework.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Graded Lessons in English
 - An Elementary English Grammar Consisting of One Hundred Practical Lessons, Carefully Graded and Adapted to the Class-Room" ***

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