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Title: Elements of Physiophilosophy
Author: Oken, Lorenz
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Elements of Physiophilosophy" ***

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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)

 Transcriber's Notes

 Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected.

 Variations in hyphenation have been standardised, but other variations
 in spelling, accents and punctuation are as in the original.

 There are several very wide tables in the book (e.g. Table A is 16
 columns/380 characters wide). These have been divided into blocks
 of 3 or 4 columns. The row alignment has been preserved and, where
 appropriate. the 1st column repeated for each block.

 The Errata and Corrigenda have been implemented, except for the final

 _For the words_ evolution _and_ evolved, _read passim in the Botanical
 and Zoological parts_, perfection _and_ perfected, _as the text may

 Italics are represented thus _italic_.

       *       *       *       *       *




    [Illustration: Portrait of a man, signed W Bagg]








    &c. &c.







 "Of all truths relating to phenomena, the most valuable to us are
 those which relate to the order of their succession. On a knowledge of
 these is founded every reasonable anticipation of future facts, and
 whatever power we possess of influencing those facts to our advantage.
 Even the laws of geometry are chiefly of practical importance to us as
 being a portion of the premises from which the order of the succession
 of phenomena may be inferred."


Begun in the autumn of the year 1845, without the cognizance, or
at the suggestion of a single human being, the present Translation
is due to the fact of its original having encountered a somewhat
kindred spirit, and aroused therein the desire to render others
participant, if possible, in the large amount of instruction it is
so well calculated to afford. And now that the work is done, what
remains for the labourer at second-hand to say by way of preamble to
his newly-dressed wares? Had the book been printed within the pale of
a philosophical or physico-theological sect, the Translator's final
duty would have been clearly enough prescribed. Already bound to the
profession of "particular tenets," his main object would be to indulge
in a laudatory but servile abstract of his author's doctrines, or,
if having set out with the expressed intention of illustrating their
bearings upon the state of science past, present, and to come, he would
become so drunk beforehand with the large and unbridled potation of
his creed, as to surprise the casual reader by informing him that such
an intention is useless, for the two stand in direct antithesis to
each other. Examples of this mode of procedure are not wanting at the
present day, whether at home or abroad. They are the produce of that
spirit, which, rife enough in the Middle Ages, has been so graphically
described by Professor Whewell under the title of the "Commentatorial,"
and "whose professed object is to explain, to enforce, to illustrate
doctrines assumed to be true, but not to obtain additional truths or
new generalizations." While from dealings of this character, as being
utterly opposed to the sacred cause of Truth, I turn away with feelings
of repugnance, to which the lessons of some personal experience have
lent their aid, it is not my business, upon the other hand, to
enter the lists of controversy against those who, having neither the
capacity, nor the desire of its cultivation, for the higher walks of
science, delight to dismiss a work of the present kind with some idle
anathema of mysticism or evasive outcry for more facts.

I refrain from essaying to give any condensed formula or outline[A] of
Professor Oken's Physio-philosophy: first, because its leading points
have been already noted in his own prefaces to the German work and
its translation; secondly, because the book will, I trust, best speak
for itself to those who shall come with minds unprejudiced and duly
prepared, each one in his particular department, to its study; and,
lastly, because any such attempt would necessarily involve an amount
of historical and critical details, which must be here superficially
treated and so misplaced. Suffice it to observe, that the present
work stands alone in Germany, as being the most practical application
upon a systematic scale of the principles advanced by Schelling, more
especially in the Mathesis and Ontology; for the concluding part or
Biology stands almost "per se." As such it will form, apart from other
and higher considerations, a readily available introduction to the
writings upon similar subjects of Carus, Steffens, Hegel and others,
and may induce further attempts to render, by translation or history,
the English student familiar with much of what at present is known only
by scattered fragments in journals, or through the medium of reviews.
From what has been said, the reader will be at no loss to discern in
what light the Translator humbly desires to be viewed in reference to
the present work. He rests content with the confident hope that its
pages will be, at least, found eminently suggestive, that new thoughts
will be awakened by facts and their relations being here cast in a
fresh mould, that shall stimulate others in the field of inquiry, and
open paths hitherto untrod. In this he is but expressing the sentiments
of the author himself, and acknowledging what the present time with
its accumulating mass of knowledge presses upon us more and more--the
necessity of work, wherein abstract science and experience, theory
and facts shall advance together, the Ideal in part receiving and
reflecting back with increased lustre the light which it has derived
from the Real or outward semblance of things.

[A] For this the reader may be referred to the 3d vol. of Prof.
Blainville's Hist. des Sciences de l'Organisation; Par. 1845; or better
still, to the sketch (preceded by a view of Schelling's philosophy),
which is given by M. Saint-Agy in the Tome Complémentaire of Cuvier's
Hist. des Sciences Naturelles, 1845. He there rightly observes of
Oken's work, that "pendant les quarante dernières années il n'a presque
paru en Allemagne d'ouvrages d'anatomie, de physiologie, de physique et
de chimie auxquelles elle n'ait servi de base." For what a master-mind
like Oken's is capable of creating, I would especially refer to his
theory of the Cranial Homologies, which has been in our own country
so beautifully carried out, modified, and proved by the extensive
researches of Professor Owen.

Meanwhile, it is with no small amount of diffidence and hesitation
that the present Translation will quit my hands. Hemmed in by a rigid
dialectic terminology upon all sides, I have had difficulties of no
ordinary kind to contend with in adapting a language, composed of such
varied elements as our own, to meet the requisites of general clearness
and conciseness that form so prominent a feature of the German work. If
errors and obscurities exist, the blame, it will be observed, attaches
to myself, not to the distinguished author. Ill-health has conflicted
much with the calmness and repose of mind so indispensable to an
undertaking, at once novel in kind and character to the English reader;
or otherwise, these (my last labours unto any extent as a Translator)
might have been rendered more worthy of the Ray Society and the objects
it has in view.

To those who have kindly afforded me assistance in the progress
of the work, and to the latter body for undertaking it, I here
return many grateful thanks. The Author himself in a letter to the
Translator, dated Jan. 12, 1847, acknowledges the acceptance of his
work by the Society in the following words:--"The intelligence of my
Physio-philosophy having been deemed worthy of translation by so goodly
and enlightened a Society, cannot be otherwise unto me than a source of


[B] "Die Nachricht dass meine Naturphilosophie von einer sociferigen
und erleuchteten Gesellschaft der Uebersetzung für würdig erachtet
worden ist, konnte nicht anders als mir Freude gewähren."


It is with no readiness or pleasure that I write introductions of any
kind, and usually abstain from doing so, partly because they appear
to me like a kind of apology or makeshift for the author, and partly
because the contents of the book itself should indicate his status or
position. With regard, however, to the history of the work, some few
words are certainly requisite for its Translation.

I wrote the first Edition of 1810 in a kind of inspiration, and on
that account it was not so well arranged as a systematic work ought
to be. Now, although this may appear to have been amended in the
second and third edition, yet still it was not possible for me to
completely attain the object held in view. The book has therefore
remained essentially the same as regards its fundamental principles,
such as those concerning the formation of matter, the protoplasmic
substance (_Schleim-Substanz_) and vesicular form of the organic mass,
the signification and function of the organs, as also the principles
of classification in Minerals, Plants and Animals, so that all this
is consequently as old as the first edition. It is only the empirical
arrangement into series of plants and animals, that has been modified
from time to time in accordance with the scientific elevation of
their several departments, or just as discoveries and anatomical
investigations have increased and rendered some other position of the
objects a matter of necessity. This susceptibility to change will of
course be persistent in the future, although the principles themselves
should continue wholly unchanged; ay, the very stability of the latter
will tend the more to invite the naturalist to the pursuit of empirical
inquiries, by determining beforehand in what direction he is to extend
his point of view, and thus spare himself the trouble of blindly and
laboriously groping about in the dense labyrinth of facts. Such a work
therefore as the present can only approximate completion through the
progress made in science, and each new edition will supply some defect
of its predecessor in the distribution or parcelling out of things.

In the first edition the principle was raised of individual bodies
being alone the object of Natural History, and that in the next place
they are to be arranged according to the combination of their organs or
component parts, and by no means after the division or mere form of a
single organ; that, for example, a special organ or anatomical system
lies as the basis of each Vegetable and Animal class, and that there
must be therefore as many classes, and no more, as there are cardinal
organs present upon which to found them. On that account it was
absolutely necessary first of all to find out these cardinal organs,
and determine their rank; and, in so doing, it was shown that organs
and classes are at bottom of one kind, and that the development by
stages or degrees of the embryo is the antetype of that of the classes;
furthermore, that each class takes its starting-point from below, and
consequently that the classes do not stand simply one above the other,
but fall into a series of mutually parallel ranks. Now it is this
which, along with the doctrine of the infusorio-vesicular form of the
organic mass, and that touching the signification of parts, as to how
e. g. the blossom is the repetition of the vegetable axis or trunk, the
cephalic bones that of the vertebræ, the feet of the branchiæ, and the
maxillæ in turn of the feet, appears to me the cardinal point attained
in my Philosophy of Nature; more especially, because it was these
very doctrines which were first of all, i. e. before all the others,
comprehended and almost universally adopted. The inorganic matters and
activities pass, however, parallel also to the anatomical formations
and functions; and that this is the case too with the spiritual or
psychical functions the philosophy of the future will probably be in
the condition to point out.

The reader will not expect to find that the serial arrangement of
Plants and Animals, with their parallelism, has been in every instance
thoroughly attained. The present is but a sample of how we are to
proceed in our desire of obtaining a Natural system. With such an
attempt one has something to change every year, and I have in the
present translation made some alterations in respect to the Mollusca
and Fishes. In this sense then it is my wish that the book may be
regarded, and accordingly received with its due amount of indulgence.



The first principles of the present work I laid down in my small
pamphlet entitled _Grundriss der Naturphilosophie, der Theorie der
Sinne und der darauf gegrundeten Classification der Thiere_; Frankfurt
bey Eichenberg, 1802, 8vo (out of print). I still abide by the position
there taken, namely, that the Animal Classes are virtually nothing
else than a representation of the sense-organs, and that they must be
arranged in accordance with them. Thus, strictly speaking, there are
only 5 Animal Classes: _Dermatozoa_, or the Invertebrata; _Glossozoa_,
or the Fishes, as being those animals in whom a true tongue makes for
the first time its appearance; _Rhinozoa_, or the Reptiles, wherein the
nose opens for the first time into the mouth and inhales air; _Otozoa_,
or the Birds, in which the ear for the first time opens externally;
_Ophthalmozoa_, or the Thricozoa, in whom all the organs of sense are
present and complete, the eyes being moveable and covered with two
palpebræ or lids. But since all vegetative systems are subordinated
to the tegument or general sense of feeling, the Dermatozoa divide
into just as many or corresponding divisions, which, on account of the
quantity of their contents, may be for the sake of convenience also
termed classes. Thereby 9 classes of the inferior animals originate,
but which, when taken together, have only the worth or value of a
single class. So much by way of explaining the apparent want of
uniformity in the system.

I first advanced the doctrine, that all organic beings originate from
and consist of _vesicles_ or _cells_, in my book upon Generation. (_Die
Zeugung._ Frankfurt bey Wesche, 1805, 8vo.) These vesicles, when singly
detached and regarded in their original process of production, are the
infusorial mass, or the protoplasma (_Ur-Schleim_) from whence all
larger organisms fashion themselves or are evolved. Their production
is therefore nothing else than a regular agglomeration of Infusoria;
not of course of species already elaborated or perfect, but of mucous
vesicles or points in general, which first form themselves by their
union or combination into particular species. This doctrine concerning
the primo-constituent parts of the organic mass is now generally
admitted or recognised, and I need not, therefore, add anything by way
of apology for it or defence.

In mine and Kieser's _Beyträgen zur vergleichenden Zoologie, Anatomie
und Physiologie_; Frankfurt bey Wesche, 1806, 4to, I have shown that
the intestines originate from the umbilical vesicle, and that this
corresponds to the vitellus. It is true _Friedrich Wolf_ had already
discovered it in the chick, but his was only a single instance, and
completely forgotten. I have also discovered it and without knowing
anything about my being anticipated, since it was nowhere taught. But
I have elevated this structure to the light of a general law, and it
is that unto which I may fairly lay claim. In the same essay I have
introduced into the Physiology the Corpora Wolfiana, or Primordial
Kidneys, but, having failed to recognise their signification, any one
who pleases may filch away the credit of their bare detection.

In my Essay: _Ueber die Bedeutung der Schädelknochen_, (Ein Programm
beym Antritt der Professur an der Gesammt-Universität zu Jena; Jena
gedruckt bey Göpfert, 1807, verlegt zu Frankfurt bey Wesche, 4to,) I
have shown that the head is none other than a vertebral column, and
that it consists of four vertebræ, which I have respectively named
Auditory, Maxillary or Lingual, Ocular and Nasal vertebra; I have also
pointed out that the maxillæ are nothing else but repetitions of arms
and feet, the teeth being their nails; all this is carried out more
circumstantially and in detail in the _Isis_, 1817, S. 1204; 1818,
S. 510., 1823. _litt. Anzeigen_ S. 353 und 441. This doctrine was at
first scoffed at and repulsed; finally, when it began to force its way,
several barefaced persons came forward, who would have made out if they
could, that the discovery was achieved long ago. The reader will not
omit to notice that the above essay appeared as my Antritts-Programm,
or Inaugural discourse, upon being appointed Professor at Jena.

In my Essay entitled _Ueber das Universum als Fortsetzung des
Sinnensystems_; Jena bey Frommann, 1808, 4to, I showed that the
Organism is none other than a combination of all the Universe's
activities within a single individual body. This doctrine has led me
to the conviction that World and Organism are one in kind, and do not
stand merely in harmony with each other. From hence was developed my
Mineral, Vegetable and Animal system, as also my philosophical Anatomy
and Physiology.

In my Essay entitled _Erste Ideen zur Theorie des Lichts, der
Finsterniss, der Farben und der Wärme_; Jena bey Frommann, 1808, 4to,
I pointed out, that the Light could be nothing but a polar tension of
the æther, evoked by a central body in antagonism with the planets;
and that the Heat were none other than the motion of this æther. This
doctrine appears to be still in a state of fermentation.

In my Essay entitled _Grundzeichnung des natürlichen Systems der Erze_;
Jena bey Frommann, 1809, 4to, I arranged the Ores for the first time,
_not_ according to the Metals, but agreeably to their _combinations_
with Oxygen, Acids, and Sulphur, and thus into _Oxyden_, _Halden_,
_Glanzen_, and _Gediegenen_. This has imparted to the recent science of
Mineralogy its present aspect or form.

In the first edition of my _Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie_, 1810
and 1811, I sought to bring these different doctrines into mutual
connexion, and to show, forsooth, that the Mineral, Vegetable, and
Animal classes are not to be arbitrarily arranged in accordance with
single or isolated characters, but to be based upon the cardinal organs
or anatomical systems, from which a firmly established number of
classes must of necessity result; moreover, that each of these classes
commences or takes its starting-point from below, and consequently
that all of them pass parallel to each other. This parallelism is now
pretty generally adopted, at least in England and France, though with
sundry modifications, which, from the principles being overlooked or
neglected, are based at random, and are not therefore to be approved
of. As in chemistry, where the combinations follow a definite numerical
law, so also in Anatomy the organs, in Physiology the functions, and
in Natural History the classes, families and even genera of Minerals,
Plants and Animals, present a similar arithmetical ratio. The genera
are indeed, on account of their great number and arbitrary erection to
the rank whose title they bear, not to be circumscribed or limited in
every case with due propriety, nor brought into their true scientific
place in the system; it is nevertheless possible to render their
parallelism with each other clear, and to prove that they by no means
form a single ascending series. If once the genera of Minerals, Plants
and Animals come to stand correctly opposite each other, a great
advantage will accrue therefrom to the science of Materia Medica; for
corresponding genera will act specifically upon each other.

These principles, which I have now carried out into detail, were
retained in the _second_, and have been also in the _third_ or
present edition of the _Physio-philosophy_, the arrangement and
serial disposition of the natural objects having, with my increase
of knowledge and concomitant views of things, been amended, enlarged
or diminished, as the case might require, especially in the Mineral,
Vegetable and Animal systems. I am very well aware that there is many
an object which does not stand in its right place; but where again is
there a single system in which this is not still more strikingly the
case? We have here dealt only with the restoration of the edifice,
wherein, after years of long and oft-repeated attempts, the furniture
may for the first time be properly distributed, without detriment to
its general bearings or ground plan.

In my _Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte_, the Mineralogical and Zoological
portions of which are out of print, but the Botanical still to be had
(Weimar, Industrie-Comptoir, 1826), I have arranged for the first
time the genera and species in accordance with the above principles,
and stated everything of vital importance respecting these matters.
This was the first attempt to frame a scientific Natural History, and
one unto which I have remained true in my last work, the _Allgemeine
Naturgeschichte_, the principles whereof I have sought to develop more
distinctly and in detail in the work now before the reader.

Thus then have I prosecuted throughout a long series of years one kind
of principle, and worked hard to perfectionate it upon all sides. Yet,
notwithstanding my endeavour to amass the manifold stores of knowledge
so requisite to an undertaking like this, I could not acquire within
the vast circuit that appertains thereunto, many things which might be
necessary unto a system extending into all matters of detail. This it
is to be hoped the reader will acknowledge, and have forbearance for
the errors, against which every one will stumble who has busied himself
throughout life with a single branch of the natural sciences. Natural
History is not a closed department of human knowledge, but presupposes
numerous other sciences, such as Anatomy, Physiology, Chemistry and
Physics, with even Medicine, Geography and History; so that one must be
content with knowing only the main facts of the same, and relinquishing
the Singular to its special science. The gaps and errors in Natural
History can therefore be filled up or removed only by numerous writers
and in the lapse of time.


  Conception of the Science                                     1
  Division of the Science. Truth.

  PART I. MATHESIS                                              5

  Nothing, § 31. Something, § 50.

  A. _PNEUMATOGENY_                                            13

  Primary Act, § 55. Primary Consciousness, § 59. God, § 61.
  a. Primary Rest, § 71. b. Time, § 72. Polarity, § 76. Motion,
  § 80. Man, § 93. c. Space, § 108. Point, Line, Surface,
  Globe, Rotation.

  B. _HYLOGENY_                                                35

  a. Gravity, § 148. Matter, Æther, Heavenly Bodies. b. Light,
  § 182. c. Heat, § 198. Fire.

  PART II. ONTOLOGY                                            49

  A. _COSMOGENY_                                               ib.

  a. Rest, Centre, § 209. Motion, Line, Planets, § 215. c. Form,
  § 231. Planetary System, Comets.

  B. _STÖCHIOGENY_                                             59

  Condensation, § 253. Simple matters, Elements. a. Air § 282.
  b. Water, § 294. c. Earth, § 303.

  C. _STÖCHIOLOGY_                                             68

  Functions of the Elements. 1. Functions of the Æther, § 317.
  a. Gravity, § 320. b. Light, § 321. Inflexion, Refraction, Reflexion,
  Colours, § 354. Colours and Planets, § 379. c. Heat,
  § 385. 2. Function of the Air, § 410. Electrism. 3. Function of
  the Water, § 432. Solution. 4. Function of Earth, § 438.

  D. _KINGDOMS OF NATURE_                                      95

  Individuals, § 463.

  FIRST KINGDOM--MINERALS                                      96

  I. _MINERALOGY_, § 474. Division, § 490.

  a. Chemical Division                                        103

  b. Genetic Division. Classes                                106

  Class I. Earth-Earths        Earths.

  II. Water-Earths        Salts.

  III. Air-Earths        Inflammables.

  IV. Fire-Earths       Ores.

  Table A to face page                                        120

  II. _GEOLOGY_        121

  _I._ Form of the Planet, § 546. Primary Valleys. _II._
  Organs of the Planet, § 570.

  A. _Earths_                                                 127

  a. Earth Formation--Primary Rocks, § 573. Granite, Gneiss,
  Mica-schist, Lamination, Primary Limestone. b. Water-formation,
  § 622. Transition-rocks, Sedimentary or Stratified Rocks,
  Stratified Limestone, Petrifactions or Fossil Remains.
  c. Air-formation--Trap-rocks, § 681. d. Fire-formation--Volcanic
  Rocks, § 690.

  B. _Metallic Ores_                                          148

  a. Metallic Veins, § 693. b. Production of Ore, § 698. c. Poison,
  § 755. d. Magnetism, § 760. e. Earth-magnetism, § 771.

  C. _Inflammables_                                           166

  a. Sulphur, § 801. b. Coal, § 819.

  D. _Salts_                                                  170

  a. Salt-periods, § 827. b. Chemism, § 847.

  PART III. BIOLOGY                                           178

  A. _ORGANOSOPHY_                                             ib.

  I. _Organogeny._ Galvanism, § 867. Primary Organism, § 882.

  Creation of the Organic                                     184

  a. Elementary Body--Protoplasma or Primary Mucus, § 898.
  Change. b. Form--Globe, § 926. Primary Vesicle, § 933. Infusoria,
  § 935. Theory of Generation, § 943. c. Processes of the
  Organic. 1. Earth-process--Nutrition, § 964.
  2. Water-process--Digestion, § 971. 3. Air-process--Respiration,
  § 977. 4. Motion, § 984.

  II. _Organognosy_                                           197

  Division of the Organism, § 933, into Planetary and Cosmic Organism.
  Processes of the Cosmic Organism, § 1014. 1. Process of Gravity,
  § 1021. 2. Process of Heat, § 1024. 3. Process of Light, § 1027.

  SECOND KINGDOM--VEGETABLE KINGDOM                           204

  I. _PHYTOGENY_, § 1038.

  A. _Planetary Organs_--Vegetable Trunk                      206

  I. _Tissues_, § 1055. 1. Water-organ--Cellular Tissue, § 1056.
  2. Earth-organ--Vascular Tissue, § 1062. 3. Air-organ--Tracheal
  Tissue, § 1065.

  II. _Anatomical Systems--Sheaths_, § 1075. 1. Tracheal
  System--Wood, § 1077. Vascular System--Liber, § 1080. 3. Cellular
  System--Bark, § 1084.

  III. _Organs--Members_, § 1086. 1. Water-organ--Root, § 1090.
  Earth-organ--Stalk, § 1096. 3. Air-organ--Leaves, § 1120.

  B. _Æther-Organs_--Thyrsus or Flower                        228

  1. Floral Envelopes, § 1187. Involucrum, Calyx, Corolla--Numerical
  Law, § 1209. Coloration, § 1241. Stamen-filaments, § 1252--Anthers.
  2. Pistil, § 1276. Style. 3. Seed, § 1301. 4. Fruit,
  § 1335. Fruit of the Flowerless Plants, § 1346.

  II. _PHYTO-PHYSIOLOGY_                                      255

  I. _Functions of the Trunk._ 1. Facts.

  A. Constituent Parts. a. Inorganic Bodies--Elements, § 1364.
  b. Organic Bodies, § 1368.

  B. Preliminary Events                                       259

  2. Processes                                                262

  A. Cellular Processes, § 1385. Absorption, Evaporation, Digestion.

  B. Vascular Processes, § 1399. Conveyance of Sap, Mixture of Sap,

  C. Tracheal Processes, § 1411. Inspiration, Nutrition, Oxydation.
  Galvanic Process--Sap-motion, § 1443.

  II. _Functions of the Floral Organs_                        272

  1. Function of the Corolla--Fecundation, § 1454. Irritability.
  2. Function of the Ovarium, § 1473. 3. Function of the Seed.
  Germination, § 1476. Growth, § 1481. Fall of the Leaf.

  III. _PHYTOLOGY_                                            279

  _Vegetable System_, §§ 1508-1754.

  Table B opposite to page                                    316

  THIRD KINGDOM--ANIMAL KINGDOM                               318

  I. _ZOOGENY_                                                318

  Anatomy                                                     326

  I. _Tissues_                                                327

  1. Point-tissue--Nervous mass, § 1801. 2. Globe-tissue--Osseous
  mass, § 1825. 3. Line-tissue--Muscular mass, § 1835. 4. Vesicular
  tissue, § 1846. Integument.

  II. _Anatomical Systems or Sheaths_                         338

  A. _Vegetative_                                             339

  1. Intestinal System, § 1878. 2. Cutaneous System, § 1909.
  Branchiæ, Tracheæ. 3. Vascular System, § 1926. 4. Sexual
  System, § 1999.

  B. _Animal Systems_                                         356

  1. Nervous System, § 2018. Brain, Senses. 2. Osseous System,
  § 2079. Vertebral Number, § 2109. 3. Muscular System, § 2118.

  III. _Organs_                                               378

  A. _Vegetative_                                             378

  1. Intestinal Organs, § 2158. 2. Vascular Organs, § 2194.
  Branchiæ, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, Kidneys. 3. Respiratory Organs,
  § 2246. Coverings, Hairs. 4. Sexual Organs, § 2285. Impregnation,
  § 2315. Urinary Organs, § 2337.

  B. _Animal Organs_                                          404

  1. Osseous Organs--Limbs, § 2370. 2. Muscular Organs, § 2398.
  3. Nervous Organs, § 2405--Senses. 1. Vascular Sense--Sense
  of Feeling, § 2440. 2. Intestinal Sense--Taste, § 2454. 3. Pulmonic
  Sense--Smell, § 2468. 4. Osseo-Muscular Sense--Hearing,
  § 2476. 5. Nervous Sense--Vision, § 2488.

  II. _PHYSIOLOGY_                                            423

  A. _General Functions_                                      423

  B. _Special Functions_                                      425

  I. Functions of the Tissues, § 2539--Heat.

  II. Functions of the Systems                                429

  A. Of the Vegetal Systems. 1. Digestion, § 2571. Poisoning.
  2. Respiration, § 2639. 3. Circulation, § 2655.

  B. Functions of the Animal Systems                          442

  1. Of the Osseous System, § 2672. 2. Of the Muscular System,
  § 2686. 3. Of the Nervous System, § 2700. Mesmerism, § 2721.
  Sleep, § 2736. Periodicity, § 2761.

  III. _Functions of the Organs_                              455

  1. _Functions of the Encephalic or Brain-Animal_            456

  A. Organs of Motion.

  B. Organs of Sensation                                      458

  1. Sense of Feeling, § 2786. Sense of Taste, § 2821. Sense of
  Smell, § 2835. Auditory Sense, § 2849. Speech. Sense of
  Sight, § 2902.

  2. _Functions of the Sexual Animal_                         477

  A. Vegetal Sexual Organs--Formation of Urine, § 2934

  B. Animal Sexual Organs                                     480

  1. Male Organs, § 2946. 2. Female Parts, § 2952. Mammæ.
  Development of the Fruit or Foetus, § 2981. Parallelism of the
  Foetus with the Animal Classes, § 3034. Periods of Life, § 3502.

  III. _ZOOLOGY_                                              494

  A. Division into Provinces                                  501

  B. Division into Circles                                    502

  C. Division into Classes                                    511

  First Province, Somatozoa (Rumpfthiere) Splanchnozoa;       511
  including the three Circles of Intestinal, Vascular, and
  Respiratory Animals, or Protozoa, Conchozoa, and Ancyliozoa;
  with their contained Classes                          up to 568

  Metamorphosis of Insects, § 3291. Parallelism, § 3299.
  Relationships, § 3301.

  Second Province, Cephalozoa, (Kopfthiere);                  544
  including the two circles of Sarcose and Sense-Animals;
  with their contained Classes                          up to 568

  D. Division into Orders and Families                        569

  Of those included within the Classes of the First Province or
  with their Tabular Co-arrangement                     up to 614

  Of those comprised by the Classes of the Second Province or
  Sarcozoa; with their Tabular Co-arrangement           up to 653

  IV. _PSYCHOLOGY_        654

  A. _Spiritual Functions of the Somato- or Dermatozoa_       654

  B. _Spiritual Functions of the Cephalozoa_                  658


  Page 4, § 30, _read_ upon the primary proposition of mathematics
          or the axiom.

       5, § 35, _for_ magnitudes _read_ quantities.

       8, § 39, _for_ Manifold _read_ Different.

      11, § 49, _l._ 10, _for_ elevating themselves in power,
         _read_ becoming suppressed.
          § 50, _l._ 4, dele the second --.

      12, _l._ 1, _for_ magnitudes _read_ quantities;
          _l._ 5, _for_ -- _read_ 0.
          § 52, _for_ emerged _read_ been evolved out of
          nothing, or been produced from it by addition; but it is, &c.
          § 54, _for_ removing _read_ suppressing.

      14, § 59, _l._ 8, _for_ posits itself _read_ itself

      16, _for_ presentation _read passim_, representation.

      32, § 134, _for_ Disintegrated _read_ Dissevered.

      32, § 137, _for_ never _read_ nowhere.

      37, § 161, _l._ 7, _for_ it _read_ there.

      38, § 164, _for_ inventive _read passim throughout
          Part I._ postulate.

      39, _l._ 1, _for_ and the axiom is _read_
         the axiom being.

      44, § 195, _l._ 15, _for_ that it may shine _read_
         upon which it shines.

      50, § 214, last line, _for_ darker _read_ dark.

      59, § 253, _read_ heavy and material.

      61, § 269, 1 and 2, _for_ caloric _read_ hydrogen,
          _and for_ hydrogen _read_ carbon.

      80, § 388, _for_ nitrogen _read_ hydrogen.

     112, _l._ 6, _for_ Terpentin _read_ Serpentin;
          _l._ 7 from bottom, _for_ Calces _read_
          Calcareous earths.

     124, § 562, _for_ the recent _read_ new.

     139, § 633-4, _for_ disintegrations _read_ dispersions.

     159, § 761, _for_ metallic read _magnetic_.

     186, § 914, _for_ heat of blood _read_ blood-heat.

     209, § 1060, _read_ constantly circulate therein.

     213, § 1077, _l._ 6, _for_ but before _read_ and
          whereas; _l._ 7, _for_ have _read_ previously,
         _and dele_ it has then, _and read_ the appearance is now.

     228, § 1161, _read_ has been reproduced _after_ trunk,
         _and dele_ being.

     249, § 1314, _for_ umbilicus _read_ hilum, _and for_
          cause _read_ basis.

     307, § 1679, _instead of_ stipaceous _read_ hypogynous.

     308, § 1687, _l._ 2, _read_ Stielblumen or Hypogynes.

     320, § 1763, _after_ light-æther _read_ from the dead mass, &c.

     327, § 1800, _for_ substance, &c., _read_ contents become, &c.

     328-9, _for_ Myxozoa _read_ Protozoa, _and for_ Medusæ
            _read_ Acalephæ _here and passim_.

     330, _l._ 2, _after the word_ radiating _read_ æther.

     332, § 1824, _for_ substance _read_ contents, _and_
          § 1827, _for_ substance _read_ mass.

     334, § 1837, _read_ upon the middle rate of oxydation.

     327, _l._ 5, _transpose the words_ matter _and_ spirit.

     345, § 1928, _read_ elemental matter.

     346, § 1931, _read_ at certain points, _after_ each other.

     354, § 1992, _read_ through the medium of the gills, the water
          through that of the intestine, &c.

     355, § 2006, _for_ along with _read_ which belong to the
         category of.

     361, § 2039, _read_ plexus-forming ramules; § 2046, _for_
          is imparted _read_ furnishes us, _and for_ by
          _read_ with.

     362, § 2050, _for_ oesophageal _read_ pharyngeal,
         _passim_, _as also_, pharynx _for_ oesophagus.

     372, § 2114, _for_ enter into the composition of _read_
          appertain to; _and for_ Mammalia _read_ Thricozoa.

     376, § 2141, _read_ the bone, the fluid which has been
          secreted from it and rigidified.

     381, § 2176, _for the last word_ cyst _read_ cyst,
          _hic et passim_.

     386, § 2211, _read_ bivalve Mollusca, _passim throughout

     393, _l._ 1, _read_ exsecernent.

     398, § 2313, _read_ Snail-type of organization.

     405, § 2371, _read_, or the integument _after_ respiratory

     408, § 2387, _for_ carnivorous _read_ false molars;
          _for_ incisor _read_ laniary molar; _for_
          premolar _read_ second, _and for_ tuberculous
         _read_ third true molar.

     493, § 3054, _for_ testaceous Mollusca _read_ Conchozoa
          or Shell-animals.

     515, § 3170, _for_ stock _read_ trunk.

     544, § 3301, _after_ analogy _read_ which at best is but
          a word of random definition.

     532, § 3256, _read_ pharyngeal or pneumogastric nerves, _to
          end of paragraph_. _For the words_ evolution _and_
          evolved, _read passim in the Botanical and Zoological parts_,
          perfection _and_ perfected, _as the text may require_.




1. Philosophy, as the science which embraces the principles of the
universe or world, is only a logical, which may perhaps conduct us to
the real, conception.

2. The universe or world is the reality of mathematical ideas, or, in
simpler language, of mathematics.

3. Philosophy is the recognition of mathematical ideas as constituting
the world, or the repetition of the origin of the world in

4, 5. Spirit is the motion of mathematical ideas. Nature, their

6. The philosophy of Spirit is the representation of the movements of
ideas in consciousness.

7. The philosophy of Nature that of the phenomena or manifestations of
ideas in consciousness.

8. The world consists of two parts: of one apparent, real, or material;
and one non-apparent, ideal, spiritual, in which the material is not
present, or which is naught in relation to the material.

9. There are, accordingly, two parts or divisions of Philosophy, viz.
Pneumato-and Physio-philosophy.

10. Physio-philosophy has to show how, and in accordance indeed with
what laws, the Material took its origin; and, therefore, how something
derived its existence from nothing. It has to portray the first periods
of the world's development from nothing; how the elements and heavenly
bodies originated; in what method by self-evolution into higher and
manifold forms, they separated into minerals, became finally organic,
and in Man attained self-consciousness.

11. Physio-philosophy is, therefore, the generative history of
the world, or, in general terms, the History of Creation, a name
under which it was taught by the most ancient philosophers, viz. as
Cosmogony. From its embracing the universe, it is plainly the Genesis
of Moses.

12. Man is the summit, the crown of nature's development, and must
comprehend everything that has preceded him, even as the fruit includes
within itself all the earlier developed parts of the plant. In a word,
Man must represent the whole world in miniature.

13. Now since in Man are manifested self-consciousness or spirit,
Physio-philosophy has to show that the laws of spirit are not different
from the laws of nature; but that both are transcripts or likenesses of
each other.

14. Physio-and Pneumato-philosophy range, therefore, parallel to each

15. Physio-philosophy, however, holds the first rank,
Pneumato-philosophy the second: the former, therefore, is the ground
and foundation of the latter, for nature is antecedent to the human

16. Without Physio-philosophy, therefore, there is no
Pneumato-philosophy, any more than a flower is present without a stem,
or an edifice without foundation.

17. The whole of philosophy depends, consequently, upon the
demonstration of the parallelism that exists between the activities of
Nature and of Spirit.


18. It will be shown in the sequel that the Spiritual is antecedent to
nature. Physio-philosophy must, therefore, commence from the spirit.

19. It will also be shown in the sequel that the whole Animal Kingdom,
e. g. is, none other than the representation of the several activities
or organs of Man; naught else than Man disintegrated. In like manner
nature is none other than the representation of the individual
activities of the spirit. As, therefore, Zoology can be termed the
Science of the Conversion of Man into the Animal Kingdom, so may
Physio-philosophy be called the Science of the Conversion of Spirit
into Nature.

20. Physio-philosophy is divisible, therefore, into three parts. The
_first_ of these treats of spirit and its activities; the _second_, of
the individual phenomena, or things of the world; the _third_, of the
continuous operation of spirit in the individual things.

The first division is the doctrine of the _Whole_ (de Toto)--_Mathesis_.

The second, that of _Singulars_ (de Entibus)--_Ontology_.

The third, that of the _Whole in the Singulars_ (de Toto in

21. The Science of the Whole must divide into two doctrines; into that
of immaterial totalities--_Pneumatogeny_; and into that of material

Ontology teaches us the phenomenon of matter. The first phenomenon of
this are the heavenly bodies comprehended by _Cosmogony_; these develop
themselves further, and divide into the elements--_Stochiogeny_.

From these elements the Earth element develops itself still further,
and divides into minerals--_Mineralogy_; these minerals unite into one
collective body, and this is _Geogeny_.

The Whole in Singulars is the living or _Organic_, which again divides
into plants and animals.

Biology, therefore, divides into _Organogeny_, _Phytosophy_ and

 After this division of the subject the question first of all arises,
 what is science, provided there is one.


22. Science is a series of necessarily inter-dependent and consecutive
propositions, which rest upon a certain fundamental proposition.

23. Now, if anything be certain it can only be _one_ in number. If,
then, there be only _one_ certainty, there can also be only _one_
science, from which all the rest must be derived.

24. The Mathematical is certain, and, by virtue of this character, it
stands also alone. Mathematics is the only true science, and thus the
primary science, the Mathesis, or Knowledge simply, as it was called
by the ancients. The fundamental propositions of mathematics must,
therefore, be fundamental propositions for all other sciences also.

25. Physio-philosophy is only a science when it is reducible to, i. e.
can be placed upon an equal footing with, mathematics. Mathematics is
the universal science; so also is Physio-philosophy, although it is
only a part, or rather but a condition of the universe; both are one,
or mutually congruent.

26. Mathematics is, however, a science of mere forms without substance.
Physio-philosophy is, therefore, Mathematics endowed with substance.

27. The substance of Physio-philosophy must be of one kind with the
form of Mathematics.

28. The certainty of mathematical propositions depends upon no
proposition being essentially different from another. Though there may
be much that is diversified or heterogeneous, there is nothing new in

For to prove a mathematical proposition is to show (or demonstrate)
that it is equivalent, i. e. of the same kind with another proposition.
All mathematical propositions must, consequently, resemble a first

29. Physio-philosophy must also show that all its propositions, or that
all things, resemble each other, and, finally, some first proposition
or thing.

30. These natural propositions or natural things must, however,
resemble also mathematical propositions, and depend, after all, upon
the primary proposition of mathematics or the axiom.

 Now then comes the question, what is the first principle of




31. The highest mathematical idea, or the fundamental principle of all
mathematics is the zero = 0.

The whole science of mathematics depends upon zero. Zero alone
determines the value in mathematics.

32. Zero is in itself nothing. Mathematics is based upon nothing, and,
consequently, arises out of nothing.

33. Out of nothing, therefore, it is possible for something to arise,
for mathematics, consisting of propositions, is a something in relation
to 0. Mathematics itself were nothing if it had none other than its
highest principle zero. In order, therefore, that mathematics may
become a real science, it must, in addition to its highest principle,
subdivide into a number of details, namely, first of all into
numbers, and, finally, into propositions. What is tenable in regard
to mathematics must be equally so of all the sciences; they must all
resemble mathematics.

34. The first act towards realization or the becoming something, is an
origination of Many. All reality can, accordingly, manifest itself only
in multiplicity.

That which belongs to the Many is a Definite; this again is a Limited;
the Limited is a Finite. The Finite only is real.

 The question now arises, how it happens that mathematics becomes a
 multiplicity, or, what is the same thing, a reality, a something.

35. The reality of mathematics consists in the universality of its
quantities; viz. numbers or figures. Every number, and every thing
which belongs to mathematics, can be derived from no other source than

Mathematical multiplicity, or its reality, must have proceeded,
therefore, out of zero.

36. Zero, however, contains no number and no figure really in itself;
it contains, forsooth, neither 1 nor 2, neither a point nor a line
within itself. The Singulars or details cannot, therefore, reside in
a real, but only an ideal manner in zero; or, in other words, not
_actually_, but only _potentially_. The conditions here are the same
as with all mathematical ideas. We may conceive, e. g., an idea or
definition of a triangle in so general a sense that it shall comprehend
all triangles, without, however, a definite triangle being actually
intended, or without even a triangle actually existing. In order that
the idea of the triangle be realized, it must become a definite, in
other words, an obtuse or an acute triangle. In short, the idea of the
triangle must multiply itself, be self-evolved, or else it is as naught
in reference to mathematics, or only a geometrical zero.

The individual objects or figures of mathematics thus attain existence,
so far only as the idea comprising them emerges out of itself and
assumes an individual character.

It is clear that all individual triangles taken together closely
resemble the ideal triangle, or, to express the same in more general
terms, that the Real is equivalent to the Ideal, that the former
is but the latter which has become dissevered and finite, and that
the aggregate of every Finite is equivalent to the Ideal. This will
probably be rendered still more distinct by the example of ice and
water. The crystals of ice are nothing else than water bounded by
definite lines. So, also, are the Real and Ideal no more different
from each other than ice and water; both of these, as is well known,
are essentially one and the same, and yet are different, the diversity
consisting only in the form. It will be shown in the sequel that
everything which appears to be essentially different from another, is
so only in the form.

The Real and Ideal are one and the same, only under two kinds of form.
The latter is the same under an indefinite, eternal, single form; but
the Real is also the same, yet under the form of quantity, and, as
will be shown, of multiplicity. An infinity resides in both; in the
Real an endlessness of individual forms; in the Ideal but one endless
form; in the latter case an eternity, in the former an infinity. The
quantity and multiplicity of the whole of mathematics is contained in
the same manner in the 0, that the quantity and multiplicity of the
triangles are in the ideal or primary triangle. Mathematics is a system
of nullities or nothings, and this admits of being easily proved.

37. Zero is indeed the universality of mathematics, this, however,
is not real, but only ideal. Every number issues out of zero, like
the multiplicity of the real triangles out of the primary triangle.
This progression of numbers out of zero takes place through a process
of becoming determinate and limited; just as the real triangles are
only definitions of the absolute triangle. The process of becoming
determined is identical with becoming a Finite; becoming real is called
becoming finite. Mathematical singulars or numbers can, therefore, be
nothing else than zero disintegrated, or rendered real by determination.

What zero is in infinite intensity, that are numbers in endless
extensity. Zero is of two forms: under the ideal it is mere intensity;
under the real mere extensity, or a series of numbers. The latter is
only expanded intensity; the former, extensity concentrated on the
point; both are, consequently, one and the same in toto. Numbers are
identical with zero; they are zero in a state of extension, while
zero is equivalent to numbers in a state of intensity. The sense
in which numbers are said to come out of zero is, therefore, very
clear; they have not issued forth from zero as if they had previously
resided individually therein, but the zero has emerged out of itself,
has itself become apparent, and then was it a finite zero, a number.
So, also, does the idea of a circle become a real circle, not from
the latter emerging from the former, but from this itself becoming
manifest. The individual circle is a manifestation or phenomena of the
spiritual circle.

38. All realization, therefore, is not the origin of a something that
has not previously been; it is only a manifestation, a process of
extension taking place in the idea.

Thus the Real does not arise out of the Ideal, but is the Ideal itself
in a condition of definition and limitation, as are, e. g. the actual
triangle or the actual circle. If, then, the Ideal and Real be one,
everything is necessarily identical, and this identity dominates not
merely between the Ideal and Real in a general sense, but between all
individual members of the Real.

39. The identity of every Different, or of all things among themselves
and with the highest unity, is the _essence_ of things. The limitation
or definition of the Ideal is their _form_. Limitation is the
Impartient of form.

40. Limitation is originally only a quantitative relation, e. g. the
size of the angle in a triangle; later on it becomes also a relation of
direction or of position.

In both cases the limitation is only an ideal relation. Realization
also takes place, therefore, only in an ideal manner; and the Real is
therefore ideal, not simply as it regards its _form_, but also its
_essence_. Every Plural resembles itself and the highest principle in
essence; or, in other words, all Singulars are united through essence
with the highest One. All diversity of the Plural resides merely in the
form, limitation or manifestation. The one unchanging essence possesses
one ideal form, which is that of pure unity, and the same essence has
a limitation, a real form, which is that of subdivision. There is only
one essence in all things, the 0, the highest identity; but there are
infinitely numerous forms.

Numbers are naught else than different forms of the one unchangeable
essence, namely, the 0.

 If, then, all numbers are only zero in a state of extension, and are
 consequently identical with it, the question arises, what are the
 first finitings of zero, or as what does it appear when it is no
 longer merely ideal or indefinite; in short, what is the first form of
 the real zero, or of the essence in general?


41. The ideal zero is absolute unity, or monas; it is not a
singularity, such as one individual thing, or as the number 1; but an
indivisibility, a numberlessness, in which neither 1 nor 2, neither a
line nor a circle can be found; in short, an unity without distinction,
an homogeneity, brightness, or translucency, a pure identity.

42. The mathematical monas is _eternal_. It succumbs to no definitions
of time and space, is neither finite nor infinite, neither great nor
small, neither quiescent nor moved; but it is and it is not all this.
That is the conception of eternity.

Mathematics is thus in possession of an eternal principle.

43. Since all the sciences are equivalent to mathematics, nature must
also possess an eternal principle.

The principle of nature, or of the universe, must be of one and the
same kind with the principle of mathematics. For there cannot be two
kinds of monades, nor of eternities, nor of certainties. The highest
unity of the universe is thus the Eternal. The Eternal is one and
the same with the zero of mathematics. The Eternal and zero are only
denominations differing in accordance with their respective sciences,
but which are essentially one.

44. The Eternal is the _nothing_ of Nature.

As the whole of mathematics emerges out of zero, so must everything
which is a Singular have emerged from the Eternal or nothing of Nature.

The origin of the Singular is nothing else than a manifestation of the
Eternal. Thereby unity, brightness, homogeneity are lost, and converted
into multiplicity, obscurity, diversity.

Unity posited manifoldly is an expansion without termination, but one
that always remains the same.

Realization or manifestation is an expansion of the Eternal.


45. The first form of the expansion or manifestation of the
mathematical monas, or of 0 is +-. The +-is nothing else than the
definition of 0. 0 is the reduction of the positive and negative series
of numbers, upon which the whole of arithmetic depends. A series of
numbers is, however, nothing else than a repetition of a + 1 or a-1;
consequently, the whole of arithmetic reduces itself to + 1-1.

What, however, is a + 1, or-1? Obviously nothing else than a single +
or-. The figure is quite superfluous, and only indicates how often +
or-has been assumed; instead, therefore, of + 1 we can posit +; instead
of-1 simply-. The series + 1 + 1 + 1 is synonymous with + + +; or
instead of 3 we may posit + + +, and so on for every figure ad libitum.
The figures are nothing more than shorter signs for the two highest
mathematical forms or ideas of numbers. Numbers are nothing different
from the ideas of numbers; they are the latter themselves, only several
times posited. Essentially numbers do not exist, but only their two
ideas. These ideas, however, exist an infinite number of times.

Multiplicity or _real_ infinity is, accordingly, nothing special or
particular, but only an arbitrary repetition of the Ideal, an incessant
positing of the idea. The idea posited is reality, non-posited it is =

46. The first multiplicity is duality, +-. This duality alters nothing
in the essence of the monas, for +-is = 0. It is the monas itself only
under another form. In multiplication it is thus the form alone that

There are many forms, but not many essences.

47. The first or primary duality is not, however, a double unity, both
members of which are of equal rank, but an antagonism, disunion, or
_diversity_. Many diversities are _multiplicity_. The Many is thus
complex. The first form is not therefore a simple division of zero or
the primary unity, but an antagonistic positing of itself, a becoming

48. Every Finite is in the same manner only the self-definition
of the Eternal. The Eternal becomes, accordingly, real, by binary
self-division. When the Eternal is manifested, it is either a positive
or negative. The whole of arithmetic is nothing else than a ceaseless
act of positing and negating, of affirming and denying.

All realization is nothing else than the act of positing and negating.
The act of positing and negating of the Eternal is called realization.

49. Positing and negating is, however, an _act_ or function. Arithmetic
is, therefore, a ceaseless process of acting or performing. Numbers are
_acts_ of the primary idea, or, properly speaking, stationary points
of its function, and hence proceeds a division into the two ideas +
and -. If these remain always alone nothing is added to them. They
alone produce the whole science of arithmetic, and simply because they
are never exhausted by the act of positing themselves repeatedly, but
capable after this of again becoming suppressed. Since + is
in essence nothing else than a simple positing, a mere affirmation,
and-a mere suppression of this affirmation, a negation; so is the
positive unity = 1 nothing but an affirmation once declared, and
the whole series of numbers is a reiterated affirmation. The act of
affirmation alone gives the number, and the latter is thus the definite
quantity devoid of intrinsic value. Bare affirmation alone without
reference to any substance is unity, duality, &c.


50. Still, however, there must be something, which is posited and
negatived. The form must have a substance.

This something is the primary idea, or the very Eternal of mathematics,
the zero; for + - is = 0. The + is naught else than zero affirmed;
the - naught else than this + 0 negatived = - 0. Now since an
affirmation once declared is = 1, so are unity and zero identical. Zero
differs only from finite unity in that it is not affirmed.

51. The - is not simply the want of affirmation, but its explicit
abstraction. The + presupposes the 0; the - the + and 0; the 0,
however, presupposes neither + nor-. Purely negative quantities are,
as is known, a nonentity, because they can only bear reference to
positive quantities. The - is, indeed, the retroversion of + into 0; yet
alone, therefore, it is not perfectly equal to 0. It is a retrovertent,
and consequently the second _act_, which presupposes the positive. By
the - we know what is not; the 0 is, however, a nothing in every respect.
The - is the _copula_ between 0 and +.

52. If the + is the 0 posited, so is it a nothing posited or
determined. This position is, however, a number, and therefore a
mathematical something. The nothing thus becomes a something, a Finite,
a Real, through the simple positing of itself, and the something
becomes a nothing by the removal of this self-position. The nothing
itself is, however, the mere neglect of its self-position. The
something, the + -, has consequently not arisen or been evolved out
of nothing, or been produced from it by addition; but it is nothing
itself; the whole undivided nothing has become unity. The nothing
_once_ posited as nothing is = 1. We cannot speak of production or
evolution in this case; but of the complete identity and uniformity of
the nothing with the something; it is a virgin product or birth.

53. Zero _must_ be _endlessly_ positing itself, for in every respect it
is indefinite or unlimited, eternal. The number of finite singularities
must, therefore, pass into the Infinite.

54. The whole of Arithmetic is nothing but the endless repetition of
nothing, an endless positing and suppressing of nothing.

We can become acquainted with nothing but the nothing, for the Original
of our knowledge is the 0.

There is no other science than that which treats of nothing.

Every Real, if it were such in itself, could not be known, because
the possibilities of its properties would pass into the Infinite. The
nothing alone is cognizable, because it has only a single property,
namely, that of having none; concerning which knowledge no doubt can be



55. The + - or, in other words, numbers are acts or functions. Zero
is, consequently, the primary act. Zero is, therefore, no _absolute_
nothing, but an act without substratum. Generally speaking there is,
therefore, _no_ nothing; the mathematical nothing is itself an _act_,
consequently a something. The nothing is only postulate.

56. An act devoid of substratum is a spiritual act. Numbers are,
accordingly, not positions and negations of an absolute nothing, but of
a spiritual act.

57. The zero is an eternal act; numbers are repetitions of this eternal
act, or its halting points, like the steps in progression. With zero
the Eternal therefore originates directly, or both are only different
expressions for one and the same act, according with the difference
of the science wherein they are employed. Mathematics designates its
primary act by the name of zero; Philosophy by that of Eternal. It
is an error to believe that numbers were absolute nothings; they are
acts and consequently realities. While numbers in a mathematical sense
are positions and negations of Nothing, in the philosophical they are
positions and negations of the Eternal. Everything which is real,
posited, finite, has become this out of numbers; or, more strictly
speaking, every Real is absolutely nothing else than a number. This
must be the sense entertained of numbers in the Pythagorean doctrine,
namely, that everything or the whole universe had arisen from numbers.
This is not to be taken in merely a quantitative sense, as it has
hitherto been erroneously, but in an intrinsic sense, as implying
that all things are numbers themselves, or the acts of the Eternal.
The essence in numbers is naught else than the Eternal. The Eternal
only is or exists, and nothing else is when a number exists. There
is, therefore, nothing real but the Eternal itself; for every Real,
or everything that is, is only a number and only exists by virtue of
a number. Every Singular is nothing for itself, but the Eternal is in
it, or rather it is itself only the Eternal, though not the Eternal in
itself, but affirmed or negatived. The existence of the Singular is
not its own existence, but only that of the Eternal subjected to an
arbitrary repetition; for the act of being and affirming are of one

58. The continuance of Being is a continuous positing of the Eternal,
or of nothing, a ceaseless process of becoming real in that which is
not. There exists nothing but nothing, nothing but the Eternal, and all
individual existence is only a fallacious existence. All individual
things are monades, nothings, which have, however, become determined.

The Eternal must posit without cessation, for otherwise it would be an
actual nothing, while in fact it is an act; but it must incessantly
suppress also this position, else it would be only a finite act, or an
act which had only one kind of direction, that of affirmation + + + +,
and so on, which represents only the half of arithmetic. The totality
of the Finite is, therefore, of eternal duration also: the Singular,
however, issues forth and disappears like the numbers in arithmetic.
The eternal duration of the Finite consists, however, only in ceaseless
repetition. Such an Eternal is to be distinguished therefore from the
Primary eternal, and is called the Infinite. The totality of finite
things is not therefore eternal, but only _infinite_.


59. Two tendencies are present in the primary act, both of which being
inseparable are one in kind. It has the tendency to posit, and also
to suppress, itself. The unity strives unto binary division or to
antagonism, even as the 0 strives to produce + or-. While the primary
act itself posits, it does this indeed out of its own strength, and
that which it posits is also none other than itself; it itself posits
i. e. _actively_; and is itself posited i. e. _passively_; it itself
posits itself, is the self-position of itself; for + is nothing else
than 0 self-posited. The positing and posited act are of one kind; the
latter, however, is the Real, the Finite; the former the Ideal, the
Eternal. Both are distinguished from each other through this only,
that the Real is the posited, numbered, and consequently determined
act; the ideal, however, the positing, consequently numbering and thus
undetermined act. While, however, the + is nothing else than 0, it must
necessarily bear a relation to it, and thus retrograde into the 0. This
retrogression is an act in the reverse direction, or what is indicated
in mathematics by negation. The-has been therefore necessarily granted
with the +, else the + would not be represented as = to 0. The act of
positing is therefore at the same time also an act of negation. So soon
as the 0 is or exists, it is = +-. The realization of the Eternal is
accordingly a complete antagonism of itself. For 0 is equal to +-, not
simply = + or = to-.

60. The being of the Eternal is therefore a _self-manifestation_. Every
Singular is nothing but a self-manifestation; since all numbers are
only positions of zero or of +, which can never be without-. In every
essence there are two, but the two are the one essence itself, which
posits itself by division. The Positing of the Eternal in the sense in
which it has been hitherto adopted, namely, as a realization of the
same, is not merely an act of positing, not an indeterminate Positing,
but an antagonism of itself. The zero is simply the indeterminate
Positing, or the negative Positing; but the number, or the real is the
antagonism of zero, the +-, or the self-manifestation. The 0 cannot be
thought of for itself alone without the +; the latter, however, not
without 0, as well as the-also not without 0; for it is the suppression
of the posited 0, namely, the +. Every act of self-manifestation is
therefore twofold, a manifestation (= +), but a manifestation of
itself, consequently a retrogression into 0 (=-). Through negation the
Finite becomes united with the Eternal. Every disappearance of the
Finite is a retrogression into the Eternal; for it must return to
whence it came. It has arisen out of nothing, is itself the existing
nothing; it must therefore retrograde again into the nothing.


61. The self-manifestation of the primary act is _self-consciousness_.
The eternal self-consciousness is God.

62. The continued act of self-consciousness, or becoming self-conscious
repeated, is called _representation_. God is therefore comprehended
in ceaseless representation. Representations are single acts of
self-consciousness. Single acts, however, are real things. All real
things, however, are the world. The world therefore originates with the
representations of the Eternal.

63. The representations are, however, manifested or attain only reality
through _expression_. The world is therefore the language of God; the
creation of the world the speaking of God. "God spake, and it was."
It is not merely said, God thought and it was. Thought belongs merely
to spirit; in so far, however, as it becomes apparent, it is a word,
and the sum of all apparent thoughts is speech. This is the created,
realized system of thought. The thought is only the idea of the world,
but speech is the idea actualized.

64. As thought differs from speaking, so does God from the world.
Our world consists in our apparent thoughts, namely, the words. The
universe is the _language_ of God. So far as the thoughts lie at the
foundation of the words, it can be said, that our world were the play
of our thoughts, and the actual world that of God's. The word has
become world. Worldly things have no more reality for God, than our
words or our language for us. We carry a world within us while we
think; we posit or create a world without us while we speak. Thus God
carries the world within himself while he thinks; he posits the same
without himself or creates it, while he speaks. In so far as thought
necessarily precedes speech, it may be said, that there would have been
no world, if God had not thought. In the same sense it may be also
said, that all things are nothing but representations, thoughts, ideas
of God. So soon as God thinks and speaks is there a real thing. To
speak and to create are one. All, that we perceive, are words, thoughts
of God; we are ourselves nothing else than such words or thoughts of
God, consequently his metatypes or images, in as far as we unite in
ourselves the whole system of speech. There is therefore no being
without self-consciousness. That only which thinks is (for itself);
that which does not think is not for itself, but only for some other
consciousness. The world differs from God as doth our speech from us.
The self-consciousness of God is independent of the world, even as our
self-consciousness is independent of our speech.

65. The divine laws are also the laws of the world; this has therefore
been created and governed in accordance with eternal and immutable laws.

66. Physio-philosophy is the history of creation; the creation,
however, is the language of God. The system of thought, however,
lies necessarily at the foundation of the system of speech. Now the
science of the laws of thought is called logic; physio-philosophy is
therefore a divine doctrine of speech or a divine logic. The laws of
speech instruct us in the genesis of language. Physio-philosophy is,
therefore, the science of the genesis of the world, or Cosmogony.


67. As the complete principle of mathematics consists of three ideas,
so also does the primary principle of nature, or the Eternal. The
primary principle of mathematics is 0; so soon, however, as it is
actual, is it + and-; or the primary idea resolves itself in being at
once into two ideas, each of which resembles the other in essence,
but differs from it in form. Thus it is here one and the same essence
under three forms, or three are one. Now that which holds good of
mathematical principles, must hold good also of the principles of
nature. The primary act is manifested, or operates under three forms,
which correspond to the 0, + and-.

These three ideas of the Eternal are all equivalent to each other, are
the same primary act, each of them being whole and undivided, but each
otherwise posited. The positing primary act is the whole Eternal; the
posited is likewise the whole Eternal, and that which is subtractive,
retrogressive, combining the two first, is also the whole Eternal.
Although all three ideas are equivalent to each other, still the
positing idea ranks first, the posited second, and the combining third;
not as if they had first arisen successively (this is impossible, for
they are coexistent, namely, before all time), nor as if they occupied
different positions (for they are everywhere); but only according to
their order and value. How one may be three and three one, is thus
rendered comprehensible only by mathematics.

68. The first idea is the original, that therefore which is thoroughly
independent, which having arisen from and being based upon itself,
has consequently emerged from nothing else; in short, it is the
eternal idea, like the mathematical 0 = _Monas aoristos_. Everything
is possible with it; it can propose and solve all problems, knows
therefore everything and creates everything. It is the generative,
creative and paternal idea.

69. The two other ideas have emerged out of the first, although
apparently equivalent to it; yea, they have themselves issued out
of themselves. The second idea is, therefore, _Dyas aoristos_, and
corresponds to the mathematical +; the third idea is the _Trias
aoristos_, and corresponds to the mathematical-, so that by the three
the primary trinity 0 +-is completed. The first idea labours or, what
is more, rejoices from all eternity to convert itself into the two
others. The action or the life of God consists in eternally manifesting
itself, eternally contemplating itself in unity and duality, eternally
dividing itself and still remaining one. The second idea has issued
next from the first, and is therefore related to it as Son is to
Father, when the ideas are viewed as personified. The third idea has
emerged conjointly from the second and first, and forms therefore the
spiritual union, the mutual love between both. It may be therefore
simply called Ghost or Spirit, if it is thought of as personified.

70. Since every Singular, having been produced through the primary
trinity, is only the expressed word of the primary trinity, so also
must their qualities be recognizable in the same. The Singular is not
simply therefore a position of one idea, but of all three. All things
have issued out of the trinity. The essence of the universe consists in
the trinity which is unity, and in the unity which is trinity; for it
is a likeness of the primary trinity. _Being_, generally, is an act,
and that, indeed, of a threefold nature. Apart from act or function
there is no _being_. That, which is called nothing, is in itself an
act, and there is, therefore, no absolute nothing. The nothing is only
something relative to a particular being. Even the mathematical zero is
not nothing, but an act. It is nothing only in reference to particular
numbers. Numbering is a repetition of one and the same act. The forms
or conditions of the primary act are Rest, Motion, and Extension or

a. PRIMARY REST. (_First form of the Primary Act._)

71. The primary idea is the position simply without any relation, or
any antagonism; it is the oscillating resting point in the universe,
around which everything collects itself, and from which everything
emerges; the _Centrum ubique, circumferentia nusquam_. The primary
idea is the substratum of everything, which will come before us in the
sequel of this work. Everything depends upon this primary essence;
all action, motion, and form issues forth from it; or rather, in all
phenomena naught else appears than the primary essence in different
stages of position, just as in all numbers naught else appears but the
zero. The primary idea is the absolute beginning. This primary idea is
the non-representable, the never apparent and yet omnipresent, idea;
but which is always withdrawing itself from our view when we imagine or
believe that we gaze upon it; in short, the Spiritual, which declares
itself in everything and yet always remains the same. The origin of all
action may be termed the primary force.

b. MOTION, TIME. (_Second form of the Primary Act._)

72. The primary idea operates only, while it posits; through positing,
however, arises a succession of positing, or numbers; positing
and successive positing are one. The function of the primary idea
consists in an eternal repetition of the essence; the primary act is
a continuous self-repeating act. Repetition of the primary act devoid
of another substratum is _Time_. Time is none other than the eternal
repetition of the positing of the Eternal, corresponding to the series
of numbers + 1 + 1 + 1 + n. Time has not been created, but has emerged
directly out of the primary act and its position; it is the function of
God himself. Something has thus already originated, which appears to
conduct us into the universe. Time is the first portal through which
the operation of God passes over into the world. Time is the infinite
succession of numbers or the mathematical nothings. The mathematising,
numbering act is Time. Numbers, however, are Singulars or finitudes,
which constitute the world.

73. Time is infinite, for it is the totality of positing; it is only
the points or numbers in it that are the Finite.

74. All things are created in time; for time is the totality of
Singulars. Time is no stationary quantity, which is always changing
itself into something new during its progressive flux. It is not a
continuous stream, but a repetition of one and the same act, namely,
the primary act, like as it were to a rolling ball, which constantly
returns upon itself. There is no endless, still less an eternal thing;
for things are only positions of time. Time itself is, however, only
repetition, and thus also a suppression of these positions. The
vicissitude of things is in fact time; if there be no change, there is
also no time. Time is an universal property of things. Exemption from
time is only in the Eternal.

75. Time, not being itself the Finite, but creating it, is not itself
a Real, but still an Ideal, a form only of the primary act, an idea,
with which finite things have been directly posited. Time is the act of
numbering; numbering is thinking; thinking is time. Our thinking is our
time. In sleep there is no time for us. God's thought is God's time;
God's time, however, is all time, consequently time of the world. Time
is not of earthly but heavenly descent or origin. In so far a divine
quality belongs to all finite things. They are divine, in so far as
they are time; terrestrial, in so far as they are evanescent moments of


76. Time is an action of the primary power; and all things are active
only in so far as they are filled or inspired with the idea of time.
The whole activity of things, all their forces arise out of the primary
act or primary power, are only moments of the same. There are, however,
no positive without negative numbers, consequently also no moments of
time without suppression of the same. There is, therefore, no single
force, but each is the position of + and-. A force consisting of two
principles is called _Polarity_. Time is, therefore, the primary
polarity, and polarity is manifested at the very instant in which the
creation of the world is stirring.

77. Polarity is the first force which appears in the world. If time
is eternal, polarity must also be eternal. There is no world, and in
general nothing at all without polar force.

78. Every single thing is a duplicity.

79. The law of causality is a law of polarity. Causality is valid only
in time, is only a series of numbers. Time itself has no causality.
Causality is an act of generation. The sex is rooted in the first
movement of the world.


80. Polarity may be viewed as a single positing of +-; if, however,
this positing repeats itself, _Motion_ originates, viz. when many
+-+-are consecutively posited, and thus the principal poles separate
from each other, as in an iron bar when magnetizing. Time is a polar
positing of the primary act, and an endless repetition of this
positing; through this originate individual things, whose succession is

81. Primary motion is the result of primary polarity. All motion has
originated from duplicity; consequently from the idea in a dynamic not
a mechanical manner. A mechanical motion, which might be produced ad
infinitum by mechanical impulses, is an absurdity. There is nowhere a
purely mechanical motion; nothing, as it is at present in the word,
has become so by impulse; an internal act, a polar tension lies at the
bottom of all motion.

82. Motion itself, however, is not twofold in character; it is unity,
but the result of duality. In time we have to distinguish the polar
act of position, and the act of repeating this position, which is
motion. Motion is the simple repetition of the polar, twofold act, or
the ceaseless separation of poles; but, as in every polar line the two
poles are in all cases together, so even is this mutual separation of
poles only a repetition of polarity.

83. Motion also is not created, but has emerged directly from the
Eternal, is the primary function itself repeated. Motion is the ever
self-manifesting, consequently progressive God.

84. Motion is thought, which is manifested as speech. Thought polarizes
the fingers. If the thought be powerful it moves them, and through
them other bodies. Speech is only a thought that has passed over into
motion. The world is the thought of God that has been translated into
motion, the _moved thought of God_--thought spoken. It is here evident
that the world is not simply the _thought_ but the _language_ of God;
for there is no action without motion; consequently no thought without
speech, and vice versâ.

85. There is no thing which were without motion, just as there is none
without time. A Finite without everlasting motion is a contradiction.
All rest in the world is only relative, is but a combined motion. There
is only rest in the Eternal, in the nothing of nature.

86. The primary motion is only possible in a circle, because it fills
every thing.

87. The motion of finite things by polarity may, in a wider sense, be
called life; for life is motion in the circle. Polarity, however, is
a constant retrogression into itself. Without life there is no being.
Nothing is, simply by virtue of being, e. g. by its mere presence; but
everything of which a being can be declared, is only, or manifests
itself, by its polar motion or by life. Being and life are inseparable
ideas. While God acts, he creates life.

88. Life is nothing new, that came first into the world, after it was
created, but an Original, an idea, a moved thought of God, the primary
act itself with all its consequences.

89. There is in the universe no vital force of its own; the individual
things lie not there some time and await the polarizing breath, but
they first _become_ through the breath of God. The _Causa existentiæ_
is life.

90. There is nothing properly dead in the world; that only is dead
which is not, only the nothing. Something can only cease to live, when
its motion ceases; this, however, ceases only when deprived of its
polarity; the polarity dissolved, however, is zero. Thus individual
things retreat into the Absolute, if they cease to live. Everything
in the world is endowed with life; the world itself is alive, and
continues only, maintains itself, by virtue of its life; just as an
organic body maintains itself, only while it is constantly being
generated anew by the vital process.

91. Every living thing is twofold in character. It is one persistent
in itself, and one immersed in the universe. In everything,
therefore, are two processes, one individualizing, vitalizing, and one
universalizing, destructive. By the process of destruction, the finite
thing seeks to become the universe itself; by the vitalizing process,
however, the variety of the universe, and yet with that to remain a
Singular. That only is truly living which represents the Eternal, and
the whole multiplicity of the universe in the _Singular_.

92. The whole in the singular is called _Individual_. The individual is
an example of computation, which admits only of being developed, from
its comprehending the whole of arithmetic in itself. Nothing individual
can persist eternally; it must eternally move itself, consequently fill
up everything, displace everything, must become itself the universe.


93. Time consists of single acts; i. e. the life or the absolute act
does not work with one stroke, but an infinite number of times. All
acts, therefore, taken together, all finite things in time, are equal
to the primary act or the Eternal.

94. There are two totalities, a primary totality 0 +-, and a secondary,
or the summing up of all numbers 0 + n-n; the former the eternal, the
latter the finite totality, or the one the eternity, the other the

95. The more a thing has adopted into itself of the Manifold of the
universe, by so much the more is it animated, by so much the more does
it resemble the Eternal. It is conceivable, for a finite or living
essence to unite all numbers or acts in itself, without, however,
its being the very Eternal. It would, however, be obviously the most
perfect finite essence, and, as a secondary totality, be the likeness
of the primitive; the former the compound universality, the latter the

96. Such an essence would be necessarily the highest and last,
whereunto creation could attain; for more than the universe cannot
be represented in one thing. With such an essence creation would be
closed or would terminate.

97. Since the realization of the Eternal is a becoming self-conscious,
so is the highest creature also a Self-conscious, but a Singular.
Such a creature is the finite God, or God become corporeal. God is
_Monas indeterminata_, the highest creature is _Monas determinata,
Totum determinatum_. A finite self-conscious being we call Man. Man
is an idea of God, but that in which God wholly, and in every single
act becomes an object unto himself. Man is God represented by God in
the infinity of time. God is a Man representing God in _one_ act of
self-consciousness, without time.

98. Man is God wholly manifested. God has become Man, zero has become
+-. Man is the whole of arithmetic, compacted, however, out of all
numbers; he can therefore produce numbers out of himself. Man is a
complex of all that surrounds him, namely, of element, mineral, plant
and animal.

99. The other things _below_ man are also ideas of God, but none
of these ideas is the whole representation of arithmetic. They are
only parts of the divine conscience posited in time; but man is
God, planted or posited uninjured in time. Man is the object in the
self-consciousness of God; the creatures below man are, however, the
objects only of the _consciousness_ of God. Thus, if God places before
and from himself only single qualities, there are worldly things;
if, however, God in this crowd of representations attains to his own
entire representation, then arises Man. God is = + 0-, Man = + [oo]
0-[oo], the animal is = + n 0-n. The animals are only represented
in part. The subject of self-consciousness is = + 0-; the objects,
however, are the numbers which are equivalent to this, being = [oo]
+ 3 + 2 + 1 + 0-1-2-3-[oo]. Thus if all numbers, all world-elements,
together with their perfections, occur in consciousness = + 0-, there
is a Man; if only single, and perhaps but few things, such as food,
stones, &c. (with the entire exception of the celestial bodies), enter
consciousness, there is an animal. They are represented only partly or
in a portion of the universe, but man is represented wholly or in all
its parts. Animals are fragments of man.

100. No creatures _below_ Man can possess self-consciousness. They
have, indeed, consciousness of their several acts and of their
sensations, and possess memory; but as these several acts are only
parts of the world, or of the great consciousness, and are not the
Whole, they can never become objective unto themselves, never imagine.
Animals are men, who never imagine. They are imaginative, but never
of themselves wholly; they are therefore beings who never attain to
consciousness concerning themselves. They are single accounts; Man is
the whole of mathematics.


101. An action, which is not determined by some other action, is free.
God is free, because apart from him there is none other action.

102. Man, as being an image of God, is likewise free; as being an
image of the world he is devoid of freedom. Man is, therefore, in his
primary commencement or principle free, but not in his end or object
to be attained. In the resolution Man is free, in the execution he is
not free. The mathematician can select at pleasure any proposition; but
having selected it, must solve it in accordance with necessary laws and
with definite numbers and figures. Man is a twofold being, compounded
of freedom and necessity.


103. Hitherto we have considered simply the arithmetical relations of
the primary act and of the universe. We have shown, to wit, that all
ideas fluctuate simply under the forms of numbers; that everything was
comprised in the 0 +-. Time was only the active series of numbers;
motion was the actual arithmetical calculation, namely, the process of
reducing numbers to absolute identity, to zero.

104. Life is moreover only a mathematical problem, which, the higher
it ascends, approaches so much the nearer to absolute zero in its
attainment of the infinity of numbers, becomes so much the more endowed
with life.

105. Arithmetic is the science of the second idea, or that of time and
motion, or of life; it is, therefore, the first science; mathematics
not only begins with it, but creation also, with the becoming of time
and of life. Arithmetic is, accordingly, the truly absolute or divine
science, and therefore everything in it is also directly certain,
because everything in it resembles the Divine. Theology is arithmetic

106. Hence it follows in the most perfect manner, that every science,
if it would possess certainty, must resemble arithmetic. Now a science
always implies a science treating of certain objects; all certain
objects must, therefore, resemble the objects of arithmetic; or all
objects, of whatever denomination, whether natural or spiritual, must
correspond to arithmetical objects, consequently in idea be numbers, an
actual arithmetical problem, as it were the numbers of motion, of life.

107. A natural thing is nothing but a self-moving number; an organic or
living thing is a number moving itself out of itself, or spontaneously;
an inorganic thing, however, is a number moved by another thing; now,
as this other thing is also a real number, so then is every inorganic
thing a number moved by another number, and thus ad infinitum. The
movements in nature are only movements of numbers by numbers; even as
arithmetical computation is none other than a movement of numbers by
numbers, but with this difference, that in the latter this operates in
an ideal manner, in the former after a real.

c. FORM, SPACE. (_Third form, of the Primary Act._)

108. Viewed arithmetically every position is a number, geometrically,
however, it is a point. What the 0 is in arithmetic, the point is in
geometry; the one the arithmetical, the other the geometrical nothing.
Both sciences commence with nothing and are only different views of
nothing. The 0 is a temporal nothing (a number), the point a spatial
nothing (a figure).

109. The first motion of numbers or of points is the motion of the
primary number, the 0, or the primary act; and this motion depends upon
the multiplicity of numbers or points, upon the disintegration of the
identical primary number, upon the +-. The first motion of the primary
act is an expansion of itself into multiplicity, whereby not merely
sequence but an addition also is posited. The primary act is not simply
positing, but also posited; as the former it is time, as the latter
it is time posited universally. Time remaining stationary is _Space_.
Space is not different in essence from time, but only according to
position; it is only time resting, while this is moved, active space.

110. Space has first arisen out of time, as the third idea out of
the second, but only ideally. It has arisen out of it, while, time
being the act of positing, it is the posited; now as time posits from
eternity, so is space also from eternity and in eternity. The eternity
of space, however, depends not upon duration, but upon extension; it is

111-112. Space is everywhere, as time is ever. Two spaces can no more
exist than two times. There is only _one_ Eternal. Time and space are,
however, nothing special that has attained unto the Eternal, but the
Eternal itself. They are also not two kinds of qualities subsisting
near each other, but are _one in kind_. The series of numbers is
infinite, thus universal; space is consequently universal.

113. Space is an idea like time, a form of God like time; it is the
passive form, the extended 0 = + 0-.

114. All temporal things are also in space and limited. An unlimited
thing extended through the whole of space is an absurdity. God's
operation only is extended through the whole of space; it is space
itself; when he willed to act, he became time; but when he was time, he
became space.

115. Space has not been created, but has emerged out of the Eternal; it
is nothing new in the universe, nothing next to God and present with
him, but coexistent with God.

116. Single things must be both in space and in time; or a real thing
first originates, where time and space cross each other at one point;
they cross, however, everywhere, and therefore things are everywhere.

117. There is no void or empty space, no time and no place, were a
Finite could not be; for time and space are virtually the manifesting
primary act, the zero that has become thing.


118. Time has begun with number, space with the point, with the
spatial nothing, with the zero of space. This point necessarily posits
itself "ad infinitum;" it extends itself also in all directions, and
necessarily in equal distances. Such an extended point is the _Sphere_.

119. The sphere is nothing peculiar, nothing new in the thoughts of
God, but only the point expanded, while this again is but a contracted
sphere, just as the totality of numbers is an expanded 0, and this
their contracted sphere.

120. Space is spherical, and, indeed, an infinite sphere. The sphere
has been posited with space, and consequently from eternity; it is also
an idea, and that, indeed, the total idea; for time and space have in
it been posited together.

121. For God to become real, he must appear under the form of the
sphere. There is no other form for God. God manifesting is an infinite

122. The sphere is, therefore, the most perfect form; for it is the
primary, the divine form. Angular forms are imperfect. The more
spherical a thing is in form, by so much the more perfect and divine is
it. The Inorganic is angular, the Organic spherical.

123. The universe is a globe, and everything, which is a Total in the
universe, is a globe.


124. While the point expands, it is active; this active expansion is
a simple repetition of the point, and this is a _Line_, which in the
sphere, however, is a _Radius_. With time originates not merely a
series of numbers, but together with it also the line. The line and
time are of one kind, repeated positions of the nothing, of the point.
It is consequently clear, how that time were a repeated positing of the
Eternal itself: for the line is only a repeated self-positing of the
point, of the nothing. God fluctuating in his eternity, and the point,
are one in kind; but God acting is a line, being or existing a sphere,
i. e. the point in the act of being.

125. The line is nothing new in creation, but time itself, when
regarded more closely. God creates the line as little as he does time;
but this originates unto him, while he moves, while he thinks. It is
impossible to think without producing a line. The line is therefore
from eternity, is a series of numbers.

126. The essence of the line does not consist in its two extremities
being continued with equal significance into the Infinite; but in its
_radiality_, i. e. that one extremity turned towards the centre has
become central, converging, absolute; but the other turned towards
the periphery has become divergent, finite, multiplicity. The primary
line is a line produced with two antagonized characters. The central
extremity is 0, the peripheral is the bisected zero = ±. This radial
line gives us the antetype of a new polarity. The two extremities
are not related as + and-towards each other, but as 0 and +-. At the
instant, when a line originates in the universe, it is not a line
merely, or an indefinite line that originates; but one that is definite
at both extremities, polar, indeed, but after a determinate fashion.
Nothing, not even a finite thing, exists in an indefinite manner.

127. There is no mathematically straight line in the world: all real
lines are polar; they are all rooted in God by one extremity, by the
other in finitude. The primary act becomes in its first operation
not merely a posited nothing, a numerical series; not merely time,
not merely an aoristic line, but a _Linea determinata_; in short, God
can step forth into time only as radius. The _Monas determinata_ is a
_Monas radialis_, or a centroperipheric monas.

128. The essence of the primary antagonism is a centroperipheric
antagonism. As centre is related to periphery, so is here one pole
related to the other. Polar existence and central or peripheral
existence are one. Primary polarity is centroperiphery. The primary
line is constantly in a state of polar action, which is called
_tension_; for it is always converging and diverging, at once central
and peripheric. Every line originates, therefore, only by tension, and
is only by it, yea, every line is nothing else than this tension.

129. A line, one extremity whereof strives towards the centre, the
other to the periphery, the one to identity, the other to duality,
will exhibit itself in the world as a _line of Light_, in the planet
as a _Magnetic line_. Magnetism is centroperipheric antagonism, a
radial line, 0--±, the action of the line being cleft at one extremity.
Magnetism has its root in the beginning of creation. It is prophesied
with time.


130. The periphery is the boundary of the sphere, and is, consequently,
a superficies or _Surface_. This, therefore, originates also directly
with the positing of the Eternal.

131. As the primary line is not a purely polar, but a radial line, so
is the primary surface not a level, but a curved or convex surface.

132. There is _no level_ surface in the universe, no pure surfaces any
more than pure lines. All surfaces are curved. For example, those of
drops, of the heavenly bodies, of animals. The surface of a sphere is
no _Continuum_; but consists properly of the divided peripheric and
upright extremities of the radii; it is a ±.

133. The surface of a globe has no centre, no 0, like the radius; but
is an absolute Dualized, a ± without 0.

134. This mode of operating of the primary act is manifested as
electricity. Electricity is a merely peripheric antagonism, without
centre, thus without union; an eternally Dissevered without rest.
Electricity is thus also a special form, under which polarity makes its
appearance, and is likewise rooted in the primary creation. There is,
consequently, no thing which were not magnetic and electric.

135. The idea of a surface is constantly that of _surrounding_. It
is not generated by a section of a globe, but by the completion, the
_circumferential limitation_ of the sphere. The essence of the sphere
is _boundary_. Every surface is finite, is convex. In the divine
position a surface never occurs, save on the boundary of the primary

136. As no thing can exist without a line, without a radius, so also
none can be without surface, without circumscription. The single
surface is identical with the _Locus_ of the old philosophers. Every
Finite is a closed whole, and that thing is of the most perfect kind
which has the most perfect closure, surface, periphery (or skin).

137. The surface is also not different from the primary act, but a
form of the primary act itself; or a boundary, which, however, nowhere
remains stationary, but is always displaced by means of the eternal
act. Therefore the world is at once unlimited and limited; the latter
in reference to the closure of the surface, the former to the endless
expansion of the same.

138. The periphery is the object in divine consciousness, the point
which, posited without the centre, is thus one and the same, centre
(subject) and periphery (object). It is everywhere the same point, the
same 0, wherever it be posited. Hence the profound saying, "_Mundus est
Sphæra, cujus centrum ubique, circumferentia nusquam_."

139. The surface stands in antagonism to the line, like periphery and
centre; it stands perpendicular upon the radius, and can never pass
parallel to linear action. Electricity ranks in eternal antagonism to


140. The line and surface are density, the representation of time
and space; they have therefore like these originated out of nothing,
namely, out of the point. The sphere is the expanded nothing. Nothing
thus extended, or nothing _posited_, becomes a something, viz. line,
surface, density, polarity. The line is a long nothing, the surface a
hollow nothing, the sphere a dense nothing; in short, the something is
a nothing which has received only predicates. All things are nothings
with different forms. The point is = 0, the line = +, the surface = +-,
the sphere = + 0-.

141. The internal motion of the globe, or the becoming of the globe, is
manifested in the universe as _Heat_, in the planet as _Chemistry_.


142. The primary sphere is rotating, for it has originated through
motion; the motion of the sphere cannot, however, be progressive,
for it fills everything. God is a rotating globe. The world is God
rotating. All motion is circular, and there is everywhere no straight
motion any more than there is a single line or straight surface.
Everything is comprehended in ceaseless rotation. Without rotation
there is no being and no life; for without it, there is no sphere, no
space and no time.

143. The more perfectly circular the motion of a thing is, so much
the more perfect is it. Straight motion is only the mechanical; such,
however, exists not through itself. The more a body moves in a straight
direction, the more mechanical and ignoble is it. Straight motion too
yields only straight form.


144. The sphere with its attributes is the totality of numbers, is thus
a rotating number. The universe is the same. In arithmetic the quantity
of divine positions is regarded; in the sphere, however, the direction
of these positions, or of series of numbers.

145. The doctrine of the sphere is _Geometry_; for all forms are
contained in the sphere. All geometrical proofs admit of being
conducted through the sphere. Geometry has originated directly from
arithmetic, or is arithmetic itself, with this difference, that the
latter regards series of numbers as individualities, the former,
however, as a whole. Arithmetic is a geometry _seriebus discretis_;
geometry is an arithmetic _seriebus continuis_, a solidified arithmetic.

146. Geometry is a science of equal value with arithmetic; it is
even as certain, because it has no other propositions; it is equally
eternal, is the same realization of the primary act, the _Deus
geometrizans_ of the Pythagoreans. Everything to be certain must
therefore resemble geometry, must be itself a position of geometry,
only under other relations.

147. Geometry is more real, more finite, therefore also more apparent,
and, as it were, more material than arithmetic. The ideas in it have
become something determinate, have assumed form, while before they
still fluctuated formless in arithmetic; here were they mere ghosts
without veils, but in geometry they have received these veils. _Time_
has received for its form, its body, the line; _space_, the surface;
_life_, the globe, consequently the rotation for its form or body. It
is to be here remarked, that ideas always become more real and more
finite, always approximate nearer to actual manifestation, the lower
they descend or the more they are considered individually. Geometry has
not originated later than arithmetic, but is only a more individual
view of ideas, arithmetic being more universal. Geometry is arithmetic
with stationary numbers, = points. The Divine thus approximates to
manifestation, to materiality, the more individual it becomes; and
this is very natural, for it verily limits itself more and obtains
always more predicates. The more a thing obtains predicates, by so
much the more perfect is its finiteness. By geometry we are actually
transferred into the universe, but only into the formal, in which it
has, like a skeleton, been sketched for us solely upon a general plan;
namely, as infinite extension, in which line and periphery, central and
peripheric action, magnetism, electricity, and rotation, &c., have been


a. GRAVITY. (_First form of the World. Rest._)

148. In arithmetic the divine acts are only undetermined = numbers. In
geometry the numbers obtain determinate or finite directions, become
figures. All figures have, however, an especial direction to the
centre. Figures are nought but centres manifoldly posited.

149. The direction to a centre is, however, an act, which never ceases
to operate. The primary act strives therefore to posit ad infinitum
nought else than a centre, i. e. points.

150. If there are points without the centre, it so happens only because
the succeeding points have been displaced by the points that were first
posited. The peripheric points are only with reluctance out of the
centre. The globe only exists in an uneasy state, because it has no
place in the centre.

151. Every finite thing strives towards the centre. The finite is only
something, in so far as it is posited in the centre, and it maintains
its value according to its distance from the centre. This exertion
or endeavour, by virtue of which things would be in the centre, is

152. What the retrogression of numbers into 0 is, that is the gravity
in the sphere. The gravity is a geometrical reduction of position
unto nothing. The sphere is only produced by _action_, and that
indeed by the centroperipheric. This action must therefore manifest
itself in two ways, as centrifugality and centripetality. The first
is the dispersion of the primary act or of points, the second is the
collection of the primary acts or points into the unity, and this is
gravity. Centrifugality originates only in a constrained manner or with
reluctance, for the primary act always seeks the centre, and only moves
towards the periphery, because it has no longer any place there. If
centripetality be regarded as a force, then is centrifugality no force,
but only centripetality itself retreating from the centre; even as cold
and darkness are probably no particular forces in themselves, but only
weaker degrees of heat or light.

153. Gravity is not motion simply, but motion unto a centre, unto rest.

154. That which is itself in the very centre is therefore not heavy.
The primary act is not heavy.

155. As all finite things are positions of the primary act in the
sphere out of the centre, so are all of them heavy. Gravity is the
force that strives unto the centre, and which is there impeded by other
forces already present therein. A finite thing, that is not heavy, is
a contradiction. The gravity of the single thing is weight. The world
itself has no weight, or else it must be heavy in relation to something
else without it. The ideas of gravity and weight, as we speak of them
in reference to individual things, are not applicable to the world,
still less to God.

156. Gravity is also nothing new in the world, but it is only the
positing of the centre in space. As necessarily as the Eternal, when it
manifests itself, must appear under a definite form, so also must it
be necessary with the eternal effort, to return into itself or appear
as gravity. Gravity is nothing different from the primary act, nothing
specially created; but the spherical position of the same tending unto
the centre.

157. Now, as the sphere has originated out of nothing, so also has
gravity originated out of the same. The form is a formed nothing:
the form is, however, no form without internal forming force, and to
this gravity belongs. The being of form and the being of gravity are
one. Gravity is a weighty nothing, a heavy essence, striving towards
centre, a realization of the first divine idea. Gravity cannot,
therefore, be perceived in the universe as a whole, but only in its

158. If gravity is the primary act that has become real, so must
everything originate out of gravity, or everything must acknowledge
gravity to be the common mother of the finite. It is in all cases,
or in every individual thing, only the gravity, the Ponderose, which
exists, otherwise nothing exists; for verily nothing exists without the
divine primary, which is incessantly a central, act.


159. Points, which strive towards the centre, are compressed, because
they would all occupy one and the same spot. These points, however,
are forces, which take up space and therefore exclude other points. A
space that excludes another is _Matter_. Everything which has been said
of gravity holds good in respect to matter; for matter is only another
word for gravity. A heavy thing is a material thing.

160. To the totality of a thing belongs not merely its figure nor its
tension or motion simply, but also its _gravity_. This is, however, a
whole sphere. Matter is, consequently, a total position of the primary
act, a trinity of ideas.

161. Matter has been imparted with space and time. All space is
material; ay, matter is itself the space and the time, the form and
the motion; for space is nothing special, but only extended or formed
force. It is here also shown that the nothing does not exist. There
is as little nothing in the universe as there is an 0 in mathematics.
So soon as the nothing is, there is something. The whole universe is
material, is nothing but matter; for there is the primary act eternally
repeating itself in the centre. The universe is a rotating globe of

162. But the universe is an acting gravity, a matter, in which the
centroperipheric antagonism is active; it is therefore _everywhere
matter only, which acts_. There is no activity without matter, but also
no matter without activity, both being one; for gravity is itself
the activity, and itself the matter. Matter is only limited activity.
A matter which does not move is not; it can only subsist through
continuous origination, through life. There is no dead matter; it is
alive through its being, through the eternal that is in it. Matter has
no existence in itself, but it is the Eternal only that exists in it.
Everything is God, that is there, and without God there is absolutely

163. It is an illusion to believe that matter were an actual something
subsisting in itself. It is even so with numbers, upon which a
reality also is bestowed, when they are still demonstrable nothings.
A number is nothing truly than an affirmation several times repeated,
a reiterated deposition of what is nothing, what is no number. This
deposition happens likewise in the universe, where it is the primary
act, that is deposited. Where, however, this is, no other station can
occur. This exclusive property is usually called the _Impenetrable_,
the _Material_. It cannot be said in what spot matter arises, so
secretly and suddenly does it start into existence. It is matter
properly at the first manifestation of being, of time and of space; for
at the same instant also the line, surface, density and gravity have
been given. The line does not exist if it does not _act_; the sphere
does not exist if it be not inert, i. e. if its forces do not strive
towards the centre, and consequently to connexion. Nothing exists if it
is not material. Matter is accordingly coexistent with the presence of

164. The Immaterial does not exist; for even the Material which is
_not_, is the Immaterial. Everything that is, is material. Now,
however, there is nothing that is not; consequently, there is
everywhere nothing immaterial. Immateriality is only a postulate
principle, by which to get at matter, like the 0 in mathematics, which
is nothing in itself, does not even exist, but that still must be
posited, in order that numbers may bear a reference to it.

165. God only is immaterial; he is the only permanent immaterial
invention, and the axiom being the Formless, Polarless, Timeless. A spirit
with form is a contradiction. But the matter also does not exist,
because matter is nothing, because it is only a sphere of central
actions, which is gravity.

166. The material universe is called nature. There can be only _one_
nature, as well according to time as to space and to divine animation.
There is only one God, whose operations expressed, or materially
posited, are nature. Nature has originated out of nothing like time
and space; or with these has nature also been. God has made heaven and
earth out of nothing.

167. God has not found matter co-eternal with himself, and, like an
architect, arranged this to his fancy; but he has, out of his own
eternal omnipotence, by his will simply, evoked the world out of
nothing unto existence. He has thought and spoken, and it was.

168. The doctrine of matter is the Philosophy of Nature. It is
therefore the science also of all Singulars, like geometry and
arithmetic; thus at bottom is only the third part of mathematics, and
is even as certain and demonstrable as this.


169. The matter, which is the direct position of God, which fills the
whole universe, which is the time in a state of tension and motion, the
formed space, the heavy primary essence, I call the _Primary matter_,
the matter of the world, cosmic matter, _Æther_. The æther is the
first realization of God, the eternal position of the same. It is the
first matter of creation. Everything has consequently originated out
of it. It is the highest, divine element, the divine body, the primary
substance = 0 +-.

170. The æther fills out the whole universe, and is, consequently, a
sphere, yea, the world's sphere itself; the world is a rotating globe
of æther.

171. The sphere of æther, not as yet individualized, I call _chaos_.
From the beginning was chaos, and this was æther, and unto the end
will chaos become æther. The æther is the apparent nothing, and thus
it is the chaos. This was not the latter and not the former, but an
existing nothing.

172. The æther is the imponderable matter, because it is gravity and
totality itself, because it is the infinite matter.

173. The æther has no life; it is the only mortuum, because it is the
heavy 0. In æther, however, reside all the principles of life, all
numbers; it is the substratum, the essence of life. There is only one
universal substratum in nature.


174. Everything which emerges out of æther and is posited as a finite
matter, can be nought else than a repetition of the sphere.

175. The æther subdivides into an endless number of subordinate
rotating spheres, and so it must, because the world is not a whole
devoid of parts, but only a whole in the parts, only a repetition of
_positions_. The chaotic sphere of æther consists essentially at one
and the same time of an infinity of spheres.

176. A chaos has never existed. The General never exists, but only the
Particular. Chaos was from eternity a multiplicity of ætherial globes.
Chaos is only postulate.

177. Every sphere of æther is complete in itself and closed, and
therefore rotating around its axis and around the universal axis of the

178. The new rotation in the heavenly bodies condensed in the periphery
of the æther, follows as a necessary result, on account of the unequal
velocity of its outwardly and inwardly lying points.

179. Every individual sphere has _two_ motions in itself; the one
depends upon the representation of the primary act in itself by the
_special_ rotation; the other re-attempts to regain the primary centre,
through the _general_ rotation around the universal axis.

180. Such a sphere rotating for itself is called _a Heavenly body_. A
heavenly body again is the image or metatype of the Eternal; it is a
whole, it is alive; everything, even the highest, can originate out of
it; everything develop itself out of the coagulated, individualized
æther. The heavenly body has a double life, an individual and an
universal, since it is for itself and at the same time in the general
centre. Every _Individual_ must have a double life.

181. The heavenly bodies are as old as the æther, consequently they
are from the beginning, and endure also without end. As they are only
coagulated æther, so are they susceptible of being resolved into the
same, such as are probably the comets.

b. LIGHT, LINE. (_Second form of the World. Motion._)

182. The æther is from eternity, not merely monas, but also dyas;
from eternity it stands in a state of tension with itself, when, as
the image of the existing primary act, it has emerged out of itself
into two poles. This self-egression or self-manifestation of æther,
or of substance simply, is the self-egression of the point into the
periphery. As dyas, æther exists under the form of polarity, of
central and peripheric effort; the æther in a state of tension is a
centroperipheric antagonism.

183. The æther is separated from eternity into a central and peripheric
substance, and that indeed through its simple position as a globe. The
universe is a duplicity in the form of æther; it is both indifferent
and different æther, both central and peripheric. The central mass
of æther may be called sun, the peripheric planet. Only one sun can
originate in a globe of æther, but many planets.

184. Between the central and peripheral mass of the æther, between the
sun and planets, there is tension. Through this solar-planetary tension
the æther fluctuating between the two becomes polarized.

185. The tension of the æther proceeds from the centre and thus from
the sun. Were the sun to be removed, the polarity of the æther would be
annulled; it would be again the indifferent chaotic æther, the null and
void matter. For the absolute substance to exist it needed not simply
itself, but an identical centre and a dissevered periphery. Is there
no peripheric mass, no planet, so also is the tension annulled; centre
cannot be without periphery, sun not without planet, nor vice versâ.
The tension of æther is thus excited by the sun and conditioned by the
planet. The planet is not the principle, but the Redintegrant of the
tension of æther by the opposition.

186. At that part of the universe where no periphery stands opposed to
centre, no planet to the sun, the æther is not tense, but indifferent,
annulled. There can thus only be columns of æther, which are rendered
tense, namely, those _columns_ of æther which are found between the
sun and the planets. Near to the planets the æther is void of action,
indifferent, non-apparent. There are consequently as many apparent
æther-columns, as there are heavenly bodies, that stand in the process
of polarity opposed to each other. These columns move with the
planets around the suns. The indifferent æther of the world-space is,
therefore, successively rendered tense, as the planets move around
suns, and becomes again indifferent behind the planets.

187. But besides this, that columns of tension only exist, and
therefore that the æther is nowhere active as a sphere, there is still
no spot in the world-space where there would be only indifferent æther,
nothing; for the æther consists of many globes of æther. There is thus
nowhere an indifferent æther, consequently nowhere an empty space. The
idea of the repletion of space is not that of the sphere, but of the
columns of tension, which by their crossing in every direction form a
sphere only externally.

188. That which is thought of as originally filling space is not the
quiescent but only the moved, tensed æther. The former is the void
space, the nothing.

189. The tension of æther is an action, which operates according to the
line. This linear activity, which makes its exit from the central mass
and is excited hence to the peripheral mass, is _Light_, or in short,
light is tension of æther.

190. Light is a traction of lines or radial action; consequently an
antetype of magnetism. A ray of light is a radius. The ray of light
has two extremities different from each other; that turned towards the
sun is 0, that which comes in contact with the planets is ±. Light is,
therefore, a splitting, rending action.

191. Light is the life of the æther. Hitherto the æther was an inactive
nothing, mere substratum for a future. This nothing, when it becomes
centroperipheric, seeks to tear the mathematical point into radii and
circumferences, _appears_; and this centroperipheric manifestation we
call light.

192. The untensed, indifferent æther is, therefore, _darkness_, and
this is the essence, the rest of æther. Chaos was thus darkness; the
world arose out of darkness when light became. Light has originated out
of darkness when the chaos was moved. Were it possible therefore for
all light to vanish, the world would again return into its old nothing;
for darkness and nothing are one. God has separated the light from the

193. If light be only a column of æther in a state of tension, light
is or exists only between the planet and the sun; near to the planet
and behind it is darkness. The primary sphere is a dark sphere,
transpierced only by single rays of light. Each star, however, stands
in a state of tension with another; thus many thousand rays of light
stream forth from each, and fill out the world-space in all directions.
There is therefore no absolute darkness, because there are infinitely
numerous rays of light. In the night also there is always as much
light present as is necessary to maintain the heavenly bodies in their
action. For the world there is no night, but only for the planets.
It will be shown that the air maintains its existence simply through
the operation of light; were it therefore always dark, were night
to endure for ever, the air must soon assume another composition or
mixture, and everything that lives in it must fall to ruin. This is
shown also by the diseases and crises of the same.

194. Light is from eternity, for the tense æther was from eternity.
The dark chaos exists only as postulate. Light is time that has become
real, the first manifestation of God; is God himself positing, is
the dyadic God. The dyas is not merely radiality but light; or both
are one, time and light are one, motion and light are one. When God
numbers, when he draws lines, he thus creates light. God becoming
self-conscious is light. Light is God illuminating. Darkness has
accordingly never existed, although the light is derived from the
darkness, like numbers and figures are out of nothing.

195. Light is no matter. There is no substance called light, but the
æther is illuminant through its binary division. The sun does not,
therefore, stream forth when it illumines the planets, and loses
nothing of its magnitude; it is not to be feared that we shall ever
lose it. That the sun is an undulating sea of flame, that it is
throughout a volcano, that combustions or electrical processes of
light, appearing to us as light, occur in its atmosphere; that the
velocity of rotation hurls about the light-particles, and that these
particles scattered in the world-space are, by an unknown route, or by
means of comets, again brought back to the sun, are opinions unworthy
the inquirer into nature. The sun gives out nothing but the impulse,
not, however, the mechanical, which makes the space of heaven tremble
upon which it shines; but the purely spiritual, as the nerves rule the
muscle. The sun can never be extinguished, never become dark; for it
gives out light, not as a fire, but simply by reason of its standing
in the midst; its simple position, its enchainment to the planets is
light. A fire upon the sun would not be perceived by us; it would
not lighten nor warm us, because of its having no relation to us.
The central relation of the sun toward us cannot, however, remain
unobserved, and this observation is even that of light.

196. Matter has become by means of light, is a child of light, is but
illuminating æther. Every binary division of matter manifests itself as

197. The whole universe is transparent, because everything has issued
out of the tension of æther. Everything which is matter is light, and
without light there is nothing. Without light the universe is not
only dark but it is even not. Light is the universe, and every Finite
is only a different position of light. The world is a thoroughly
illuminating globe, a rotating globe of light. The solar system must
have been created according to the laws of light. The phenomena
of the world are only representations of optics, consequently of
living geometry. What we see is nothing but optical construction or
figuration. (Vid. Oken's 'Essay über das Licht;' Jena. Fromann. 1808.)

c. HEAT, DENSITY. (_Third form of the World. Shape._)

198. Light is not simply a motion in itself, a mere continuous
excitation of polarity in the æther, but it is also the æther itself
_set in motion_ thereby. All polar actions resolve themselves finally
into motion of the polarized masses. The end of electricity, galvanism,
magnetism, is motion. It will be, however, shown that all these polar
functions are only repetitions of the primary polarity; this must
therefore produce what the former did, namely, ætherial motion.

199. Every point of the æther becomes polar, every one attracts and
_repels_ the other; whereby motion arises in the innermost parts of
the æther itself. Not a portion of the æther is moved on, but motion
originates in the mass of æther itself. The æther-atoms quit each other.

200. The æther is, however, that which is filling space, is space
itself, the Expansissimum of the world, the Formless and therefore that
which adopts all forms. The formless æther, when it moves itself,
must be connected with a phenomenon, that depends upon its expansion
and identification, which is polarized by light. This action of the
æther does not therefore depend upon the tension of æther, not upon
production from differences in the same, but upon dissolution of the
tension, therefore upon extension, upon the indifferent representation
of space. This action, which is at the same time universal, can only be
heat. Moved æther is _Heat_.

201. Heat is the contest of the indifferent æther with light; light
alone produces heat. Without light the world were not only dark, but
also absolutely cold. Cold is untensed and quiescent æther, death,
nothing; dark and cold are one. Heat is therefore the result of light,
but equally eternal with it; it is space represented really, as that is
real time.

202. Heat is not moved indifferent ether, which is = nothing; but moved
and tensed or the _moved light_.

203. Heat penetrates into thickness as an extending function, but does
not oscillate between two poles like light. It is only the function
of density, and depends upon nothing else, not upon lines or mere
surfaces, but upon the living sphere.

204. Heat and light, although characters of _one_ substance, yet
stand in an antagonism like thickness and line, or as indifference
and difference. Heat is properly the first perfected position of the
primary act, while light is only the act of positing; the latter
therefore is +, the former-. Or also, gravity is the absolute position,
simply = 0; light is the commencing egression of this position out
of itself +-, heat the completion + 0-, and therefore the position
everywhere; it will everywhere deposit, therefore it is motion,
repletion of space, expansion. Light is gravity become real, or 0
become real; 0 however, rendered real, is +-. Heat is as-at the same
time +-and 0, or light and gravity, material light, light that is
filling. Both will also assert the antagonism of their genesis through
all forms of the world. The heat seeks to destroy the line, which the
light endeavours to establish; heat seeks to produce homogeneity in the
Dissimilar, light to effect the reverse. Heat is slow in its motion;
with it the mass of æther must continually move, or move whither it
will operate; light, however, acts spiritually and rapidly, without
motion of the mass, but only glides continually with the latter. Heat
is not created, it is no special matter different from æther. There is
no _body of heat_.

205. Heat is everywhere where the æther is, and must consequently be
regarded as a sphere. Heat is not present merely in the columns of
æther between the heavenly bodies, but everywhere. Therefore heat does
not move itself in the direction of the line, but it extends itself on
all sides, as real space.


206. Light and heat were the first phenomena of the world. Heat with
light, however, are _Fire_. Fire is the totality of æther, is God
manifested in his totality. God, previous to his determination to
create a world, was darkness; in the first act of creation, however, he
appeared as fire. There is no higher, more perfect symbol of divinity
than fire. God's whole consciousness, apart from individual thoughts,
is fire. The Holy Scriptures therefore usually admit of God appearing
under the form of a fire, as a fiery bush, a flame. The world is none
other than a rotating globe of fire.

207. Everything that is, has originated out of fire; everything is
only _cooled_, rigidified fire. As everything has become out of fire,
so must everything to be annihilated have recourse to fire. If finite
things be only fire singly posited, so must every change occurring in
the same be an igneous change. Nothing changes in the world but fire.
The essential change of things take place only by fire.


208. The Triplicity of the primary act in the universe has now been
completely demonstrated. The first manifestation of God is monas; to
this corresponds _Gravity_, _Æther_, darkness, the cold of chaos. The
second manifestation of God is the dyas; to this corresponds the æther
in a state of tension, the _Light_. The third manifestation of God is
the trias; to this corresponds the want of form, _Heat_. _God being in
himself is Gravity_; _acting_, self-emergent, _Light_; _both together_,
or returning into himself, _Heat_. These are the _three Primals_ in the
world, and equal to the three which were prior to the world. They are
the manifested triunity = _Fire_.





209. Through light duplicity originates in the æther, by virtue
of which the æther divides into central and peripheric æther. The
peripheric necessarily rotates around the central. Every part of the
æther is a sphere; the æther therefore is separated by the light into
infinitely numerous central and peripheric spheres. Creation is an
endless position of centres. The primary centre is inventive.

210. There cannot be therefore only a single central mass; otherwise
the universe would be a finite.

211. The central spheres are characterized by absoluteness, the
peripheric, however, by finiteness, division; the former are something
in themselves, but the latter are so only by opposition; yet the two
could not be without each other.

212. Every central body must be surrounded by several peripheric
bodies. The peripheric spheres rotate around the central, the images of
the primary centre. A Whole, consisting of a central body and several
peripheric bodies, is called _solar system_.

213. Chaos is not conceivable, without being at the same time solar
system. The solar systems are nothing specially created, but have been
given with chaos or with light, are indeed only the æther separated by
light. The primary matter appearing as light must appear at the same
time as sun and planet. Primary act, sun and planet are of one kind,
and differ only in this, that the former is posited individually in the
latter, while in itself it is non-posited.

214. There is no general central body, no central sun, about which all
suns and planets gravitate. The essence of the æther consists in its
complete dissipation. There exists only an infinity of solar systems,
which taken together form the central body. All solar systems pursue a
course to and fro through each other, like the blood-globules in the
vessels. The general central body is only inventive. That the general
central body may be dark (that it must be, if present, from its being
invisible) is an assertion which betrays an ignorance of the essence of
light. A dark central body is an absurdity.


215. Sun and planet, as individual spheres, have also their own
individual gravity. The æther therefore must exist otherwise than in
the universal sphere. The next change of the æther is _condensation_,
more intense gravity, because it becomes more individual, centre
and periphery approximate more closely to each other. The heavenly
bodies must contain more matter, more æther in an equal space than the
terrestrial globe.

216. The heavenly bodies have obtained their matter nowhere else than
out of the primary matter, the æther; they are condensed æther. The
heavenly bodies of a solar system have derived their mass out of the
æther, which is found within the confines of this solar system. The
matter of the heavenly bodies was thus previous to its coagulation
strewn in the space of the solar system, and has been by so much the
rarer, as the space of the solar system is larger than the volume of
all the planets together with the sun. It admits therefore of being
calculated how much rarer the æther is than e. g. water.

217. The æther is therefore not absolutely imponderable, but only so in
relation to the heavenly bodies. Light and heat are therefore ponderose
substances, though they are not ponderable.

218. The separation of the æther into central and peripheric mass has
happened according to the laws of light, and thus according to the
centroperipheric primary antagonism. As a consequence of this, only
_one_ central body can originate in a solar system; the mass of the
periphery can, however, divide into several, and must divide into as
many as the light has moments of operation; of this we shall speak for
the first time in treating of colours.

219. The matter of the periphery can be condensed by light into no
other form than that of a _hollow_ globe around the sun. The planets
are originally concentric _hollow globes_, in the midst of which the
sun is formed. There are several hollow globes, because the light has
several points of contraction at certain distances from the sun.

220. The number of hollow planetary globes is a definite one, and it is
not an arbitrary matter how many of them originate.

221. The matter of such a hollow globe of æther is still, however,
rarer by so much than the present planetary mass, as that of our earth
would be rarer if it were to form a hollow globe around the sun, about
as thick only as from the earth to the moon.

222. This hollow globe rotates with the sun, because the whole globe
of æther, which fills out the space of the subsequent solar system,
rotates; therefore everything necessarily tends in one direction.

223. These hollow planetary globes, on account of the rarity of their
mass, their rotation, and the greater tension of light, could not
subsist in the equatorial plane of the solar system, but coagulate
together in equatorial rings about the centre of the whole system. The
planetary foetuses are only _solar rings_, which rotate with the sun.

224. If the whole coagulated æther of the solar system be so small in
quantity, that when extended around the sun in a planetary track or
course, it still does not become solid; so also can the orbitar ring
not persist, but it contracts itself through light, rotation and
the peculiar excited gravity into a _globe_. This globe continues to
rotate, as it did when under the conditions of orbitar ring, of hollow
globe and as æther; i. e. it pursues a course around the sun. The
peripheric globe travels necessarily in the same plane in which the sun
rotates. This is therefore called the zodiac. This globe rotates also
around its own axis and virtually in the same direction, according to
which it performs its course or the sun rotates. A globe coursing and
rotating around the sun in its equatorial plane and in its direction is
called _planet_.

225. At the first aggregation of the mass of the planetary ring into
a planetary globe, the latter was still very much extended, the
earth extending beyond the moon. The mass was thus gaseous. What
happened in the great globe of æther, of which the sun has become
the centre, happens also here. An opposition of centre to periphery
again originates; and a subordinate sun and new orbitar rings are
formed. If the mass of the planetary equatorial ring be only small and
consequently rare, it rolls into a globe and together with this into

226. If it be much, consequently so dense, that it coheres, it remains
stationary, and is _Saturn's ring_.

227. This is the genesis of the planetary system, but everything has
become, and remained as it became, at one stroke. The moon can never
have existed as an orbitar ring around the earth in time, or else it
had been solid. Being once solid, it can no more coagulate into a
globe. Still less, however, have the planets originated from conjoined
moons. From whence then have the moons come? The solar system has not
arisen mechanically, but dynamically; it has not become what it is by
being projected or hurled from the hand of God, nor by impulses and
aberrations; but by polarization according to eternal laws, according
to the laws of light.

228. As a necessary number of planetary productions exists, so also is
their magnitude, distance and velocity a determinate one. No planet,
whatever its situation, has attained that by chance. Were the earth
larger, it must also have occupied some other place, and have had
another velocity, another density of mass, &c.

229. The coagulating matter of æther must collect into a larger mass
in the centre than in the periphery. The centre will exist everywhere,
and the periphery comes only to its behalf as if it were a scaffold
or prop only to existence. The sun can only be the principle of the
determination of the planets by the preponderance of its mass. Our sun
comprises above 700 planetary systems in itself.

230. Sun and planet are mutually conditionated; both have originated
at the same time, the former as the positive pole, the latter as the
negative, as the necessary counterpoint, or the one as 0, the other
as ±. The hypothesis, which surmises that the planets have come from
another solar system, is not maturely considered. For how have they
there originated? Such explanations are mere child's play. Sun and
planet are in idea but _one_ piece, only _one_ line with two different
extremities. The same act which polarizes the sun polarizes also
the planets out of chaos. One and the same æther that has become
positive, is called sun, when negative, it is called planet. Both
are only a single globe of æther, the centre of which is called sun,
the periphery, planet. The latter belongs to the sun, like a stone
though detached from, belongs to, the earth; its rotation is therefore
similar, but retarded.


231. The sun cannot be in the absolute middle of the solar system,
on account of its antagonism with the planets, which would likewise
become the centre. The collective mass of the planets is the secession
of the sun from the centre. The situation of the sun or the degree of
its excentricity bears relation to the polar force of the planets. The
form, under which the solar system really exists, cannot therefore be
the sphere, but the ellipse, i. e. the duplicity of the centre.

232. The sphere is only the type of the universe, of the æther,
but not of the solar system nor the Finite. No Finite is absolutely
spherical. As the real universe can only exist in a bicentral
condition, so is there in this respect also no universal central
body. It is there, but under the form of bicentrality, as sun and
planet. God only is monocentral. The world is the bicentral God, God
the monocentral world, which is the same with monas and dyas. The
primary polarity, the dyas, the radiality, the light establishes
itself in nature as bicentrality, which is the cosmogenic expression
for self-manifestation or self-consciousness. Self-consciousness is a
living ellipse.

233. The bicentrality determines the distance of the planets from the
sun. If the sun as the active pole be strong or energetic, the planets
will occupy a remote situation; if it be feeble or weak, one that is
near. The strength of the polar energy depends, however, upon the
quantity of the mass. Were the mass of the sun less, all the planets
would range nearer to it; were it greater, they would be all driven
further off, as electricity repels the pith-balls of elder-wood; more
than this the planets are not towards the sun, but even less. The
energy of the solar polarization depends not merely upon its magnitude,
but also upon the velocity of rotation, which harmonizes with the
former; the latter, however, depends upon the original velocity of
rotation of the æther. The velocity of the rotation of æther being
assumed as definite, that of the sun must be definite also, and with
this everything accords.

234. The circumvolution of the planets around the sun is a _polar_
process of _attraction_ and _repulsion_, by virtue of the primary law
in the solar system, by virtue of the light. The planet then can only
be repelled in the neighbourhood of the sun from the sun, when it has
the _same_ solar pole in itself, when it has become positive; and can
only attract it at a distance from the sun, when it has received the
opposite pole to the sun, or has become negative.

235. This is only conceivable in that the planet, while it draws
nearer to the sun, extinguishes in itself by its _own_ power the
negative pole, and produces on the contrary the positive pole, or
becomes a sun; and that, as it removes itself from the sun, it again
extinguishes the positive solar pole, and generates the negative
planetary pole within itself. This substantial production of
alternating poles upon the planet takes place through the diversity
of its surface as water and land, through the oblique position
of its axis, whereby summer and winter are produced, through the
processes, or through the life that is upon it, through the processes
of decomposition and combination effected by water, through the
revival and death of vegetation, and even the white colour of snow.
The planet discharges its pole in the neighbourhood of the sun, like
a cork pellet, and reloads of itself at a distance from the sun;
and thus oscillates to and fro, like the hammer in an electrical
bell. The course of the planets takes place with the greatest ease.
It is everywhere no force of weight, of impulse, but of the easiest
self-motion. The planet revolves by its own force to and from the sun,
like the blood circulates to and from the heart.

236. The planet cannot, however, be diverted from its course, because
the other heavenly bodies, probably the comets, do not act mechanically
but only polarly upon it. By means of this polarity they maintain
themselves always at a distance, even as the sun keeps itself at a
distance from the planets. In addition to this, the polar tension
between the comet and the sun is stronger than between the comet and
the planets. The perturbations of the planets depend upon their polar
relations to each other. Although the planets have a centrifugal
tendency, they are not thrown by a prodigious mechanical force in
the direction of the tangent, and then drawn back by an attractive
force of the sun, that has no import or meaning; but they course in
a playful manner round the sun. A theory of attraction of this kind
has no physical sense. Such an attraction is a _Qualitas occulta_, an
angel which flies before the planets. It does not create the world by
impulses and strokes, but only by vivification.

237. Were the planet dead, it could not be attracted or repelled by
the sun; it would have from the very beginning always maintained a
similar pole in itself, and it could therefore only move in a circular
manner around the sun. The circular motion or course around the sun is
not generally conditioned by the polarity of the planets, but depends
upon the primary rotation. Proportionably to the mutual interchange
of polar operation between the sun and planet, the latter would only
approach the sun in the line of the apsides, and thus remove from it;
but by the primary rotation it is conducted around it. The elliptical
path is consequently the result of rotation and of the polar or linear
interchange of operation between the two heavenly bodies.

238. The moon would keep a wholly circular path around the sun, if it
were not disturbed by the earth, were it not through the difference of
the earth's poles to passively retain also different polarities; for
the moon is in itself dead.

239. The moon is not attracted more forcibly by the earth than the sun;
and therefore it remains not by the earth. The sun exercises more polar
action, more photal action upon it than the earth, and yet it falls not
into the sun, for the very same reason that the earth itself does not
fall in. The moon is forsooth to be regarded as itself a planet with a
definite charge of electricity, which is always equably maintained by
light; as such it rotates circularly about the sun. But it rotates in
the same path wherein the earth rotates; therefore the latter operates
upon it and draws it in its strange serpentine line around the sun.

240. The more living a planet is, by so much the more excentric is its
path, because it enters into great opposition with the light.

241. If polarization by light be the cause of the attraction and
repulsion of the planets from the sun, so is it also the cause of the
distance of the planetary masses generally. The individual distance
of the several planets is determined by the energy of their own polar
excitation. Planets, which possess a strong polar energy, must range
further than the others from the sun. This polar energy is, however,
dependent upon the magnitude and density of the mass, upon the level
state or unevenness of the surface, upon the capacity for heat, upon
the quantity of water, upon the position of the axis in regard to
the path, upon the possible processes of vegetation; it is thus not
to be determined. Before vegetation was upon the earth, there were
other processes, e. g. the aqueous precipitations, that changed the
polarity; so that the path might formerly have been different to what
it subsequently was or is now.

242. Planets are consequently those bodies which possess in themselves
a peculiar degree of polarity and a substantial change of the same,
whereby their individual distance and the nature of their paths are


243. The comets are heavenly bodies, devoid of a persistent grade of
polarity, and without any substantial change in the same. They obtain
their polarity solely from the sun, like the cork-pellet from the
electrical machine. The comet is therefore repelled as far from the sun
as there is still an action between it and the polarity that has been
imparted to the comet.

244. At the point where all antagonism between comet and sun ceases,
the former must remain stationary, and resolve itself again into æther.
This is the case with those comets that never return. These comets are
temporal coagulations of æther by light, and thus continued creation.

245. The æther coagulates where the light, already polarized in part by
the operations of other heavenly bodies, encounters it. This depends
upon fortuitous constellations.

246. These comets originate like the planets; they are æther condensed
in the form of an orbitar ring. This dissevered _orbitar ring_ is the
_tail_, which is only a more gaseous æther, through which, or even
through the nucleus itself, the stars are seen. The tail follows the
comet not really but only ideally. Around the nucleus, so far as it is
prolonged, the light concentrates the æther. New æther is constantly
emitting light, while that which was before illuminating as tail again
becomes dark and again sinks into a state of indifference. The tail
is only an optical spectrum. For how can the tail be really a part of
the comet, since it is always turned backwards from the sun, since it
therefore follows and precedes the nucleus? The nucleus is only the
lamp which kindles the æther surrounding it for some time. The light
suffers a modification through the nucleus; it therefore polarizes
only the æther behind it. The tail is the evident example of what is
antecedent in the origin of the heavenly bodies. It is the heavenly
body conceived in the act of becoming, but unto which polarization is
wanting; it cannot therefore concentrate itself, but again dissolves
when the nucleus is gone. Every heavenly body is a mass of æther in the
world-space, which is materialized by light, and separated out of its
indifference into difference, into more solid masses. Finally, the tail
becomes dense æther, a nucleus.

247. These comets are thus true meteors; as they originate, so
originate the globes of fire, by polarization occurring in the
atmosphere, or even too above the limits of the atmosphere.

248. Meteoric stones are terrestrial comets. The opinion that they come
from the moon has no foundation. There is probably as little metal as
water upon the moon.

249. Returning comets are probably polarized by two suns.

250. A comet can never come into collision with a planet; the fear of
such an event is equally absurd with the hypothesis, that a comet had
produced the deluge or displaced the earth's axis.

251. Two planets also can never come into mutual collision, not
even those that have been recently discovered, although their paths
intersect each other.

252. The planets are returning comets, which, however, before they have
come to the second sun, have produced within themselves the opposite
pole to the sun. What happens to the comets through the influence of
the second sun, the planets effect of themselves.



253. Through its separation into polar masses the æther becomes
_condensed_, heavy and material.

254. This condensation is the result of the _fixation_ of a definite
pole on a definite mass of æther. The essence of the æther consists in
its having no fixed pole, but that all the poles oscillate to and fro
with the greatest facility from one particle of æther to the other.
This is what is meant by indifference, by equivalency of poles; no part
of the æther differs from another, because none retains permanently a
definite pole, but each of them all the poles. The formation of the
heavenly bodies is none other than an union of poles to a definite mass
of æther.

255. A mass of æther with a fixed pole is a dense matter; such a
mass of æther I call _terrestrial_ matter, but the æther itself the
_cosmic_. Sun and planet must be terrestrial matters, for the essence
of both consists in the difference of their poles.

256. The cause of the fixation of poles resides in light.

257. The heavenly bodies go to ruin by removal of the fixation of the
pole abiding on the mass, substratum or substance, not by mechanical
demolition. The destruction of the heavenly bodies is a retrogression
of their mass into æther by means of fire. Heat does not drive the
bodies, after the manner of a wedge, from each other, but only
suppresses their polarity, and then the atoms must withdraw from
each other. Heat depends only on the destruction of poles, _not_ upon
extension. The heavenly bodies are ruined in the same way that they
have originated, namely, through the primary act in its retrogression.

258. It is only the pole, no other concealed property, which maintains
the being of the mass. The mass is not a terrestrial mass subsisting
simply by its own rest. Nothing material is the cause of the form
of matter, but the Spiritual. Matter has therefore no quality, no
consistence of itself, but is nothing, is æther. Mass cannot supplant
mass, nor mechanism destroy anything material. The destruction must
proceed from within.

259. The fixation of poles in the substance is the _impenetrability_
of matter. It is only the spirit in matter which renders this
impenetrable, not the mass itself.

260. The æther is penetrable, and therefore also _penetrating_. Heat is
penetrating; light, as æther in a state of tension, is only partially

261. All the diversity of matter depends upon the fixation of poles in
the substance. For there is no diversity in the universe without poles,
without binary division. The substance always remains the same, it is
only the poles that change. The substance is the Indestructible, the
Persistent, the æther, the nothing.

262. The fixation is the perquisite, but the necessary one, of the
substance. The diversity of things resides only in the perquisite. In
the substance all are alike. There is only _one_ substance, only _one_

 ELEMENTAL BODIES. (_How many kinds of Æther-condensations may exist?_)

263. The æther has three forms, and can therefore condense itself after
a ternary manner, or in other words, there can be only three kinds of
fixations of poles.

264. The condensations of the several forms of æther must be simple
matters or _Elemental bodies_, as they are called.

265. There can therefore be only three simple bodies, a body of gravity
= 0, one of light = +, and one of heat =-.

266. If the heat of the æther becomes fixed, the rarest, most mobile
and lightest body must originate. The body of heat is _Hydrogen_.

267. If the light of the æther becomes fixed, a less dense, and thus
a less heavy matter, must originate, and one whose atoms are moveable
against each other. The body of light must be the most active in
nature; it must determine the changes of all other elemental bodies.
The body of light is _Oxygen_.

268. If the gravity of the æther become fixed, the greatest
condensation must originate. The densest matter is necessarily the
heaviest. The dense matter must be immoveable in its atoms, i. e.
endowed with form. The body of gravity is _Carbon_ (as basis of the

269. Besides these 3 elemental bodies, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon,
there can be no other simple bodies. All other bodies must be only
different degrees of fixation of the above-mentioned bodies, or
combinations of the same. Different degrees of carbon are without doubt
the metals. Different degrees of oxygen are probably chlorine, iodine,
bromine. Different degrees of hydrogen are probably sulphur. Nitrogen
is probably peroxydised hydrogen, or an oxyd of hydrogen; this is
indicated by its medium weight, and its perfectly azotic character.


270. Simple bodies cannot exist for themselves, for there can nowhere
be an æther, which merely belongs to gravity, or merely to light or to

271. An elemental body is never a Total, but invariably a Polar, a
something not whole, properly a half or rather but a third essence, a
fraction. One-sidedness is therefore the character of the elemental

272. One pole is nowhere produced, but all are invariably present
together. The terrestrial matter completed must therefore consist of
the three primary bodies, but occurring in diverse proportions. As
light and heat can never subsist without the substance of the æther, so
also can no body of light and no body of heat subsist per se without
the body of gravity or carbon, and vice versâ. The general materials of
nature are therefore combinations of the three primary bodies.

273. The æther is the totality of the primary bodies in equal
proportion, where thus no pole is fixed, but all are comprehended in
fixation, i. e. in constant change.

274. All other general matters must be also combinations of the three
primary bodies, but with different fixation, or in unequal proportion.
There can consequently be only four general matters.

275. The first general matters are called _Elements_. There are only
four elements, one general and three particular.

  1. Element, Fire.
  2. - - - -  Heat.
  3. - - - -  Light.
  4. - - - -  Gravity.

276. Each element is a total representation of the æther.

277. An element is not that which is chemically inseparable, but it is
only the _Whole_, which has first originated. But the elemental bodies
are chemically non-decomposible, because they are already separate,
being moieties or fractions.

278. The heat element is the hydrogen element--_Air._

279. The light element is the oxygen element--_Water._

280. The gravity element is the carbon element--_Earth._

281. In each element, beside the basic or combustible elemental body,
there is also oxygen; for they are verily naught else than the æther
fixed by light, æther that has become heavy by means of light.


282. The first condensation of the æther must be that which corresponds
to its condition as heat. This element, as being that in which the
atoms have no connexion, must be therefore the lightest and rarest. In
this element the poles must be fixed in the least degree, and therefore
change with the slightest operation. This element is therefore moveable
in all directions, is the most unstable, and in form most similar to
the æther.

283. Active freedom from form predominates in it, i. e. its atoms are
constantly striving to withdraw from each other, or the mass to extend.
This endeavour is called elasticity. Elasticity is none other than the
endeavour to become a greatest or interminable globe. The terrestrial
matter, with this striving towards an universal globe, is called _gas_.

284. The formless internally moveable element, constantly extending
itself and changing its pole, is the _Air_.

285. The air is the first terrestrial element, the first degree of
ætherial condensation associated with the feeblest fixation of poles,
the constant change of which is manifested in its electric relations.
It corresponds in every respect, in mobility, extension, general
penetration, &c., to heat. The air consists of a preponderance of the
body of heat or hydrogen (oxydulated as nitrogen in the proportion of
79 by volume), and of a fair quantity of the body of light or oxygen
(21); also of a very small amount of the body of gravity or carbon, as
evidenced in the carbonic acid.

286. The air is a maximum of air, a medium of water, and a minimum of

287. As heat is not merely indifferent æther, nor merely its motion or
extension, but is the æther moved by the polarity of light, so is the
hydrogen gas in the air not in a pure state, but converted by oxygen
into nitrogen. The air is in every respect therefore an element that
has undergone combustion, an oxyd of hydrogen and carbon.

288. The oxygen is that which is everywhere active, exciting, moving,
and vivifying everything; it is the light in the Terrestrial. The
nitrogen is inert, as it were mortified, and therefore mortifying
or causing death; the former the +, the latter the-. The greatest
activity among all terrestrial elements resides in the air, since all
polarizations issue from it.

289. The changes in the air are accompanied by constant changes of
temperature, for they are verily in themselves nothing else than
changes of caloric-æther.

290. All subsequent elements must originate from or be condensations of
air, even as this has arisen out of, and been a condensation of, the

291. Condensations, however, are fixations of poles; the other elements
differ therefore only from air by having other poles fixed in them.

292. Since the poles are at the same time fixed more internally on
these elements, they can no longer have the gaseous form.

293. They must on this account contain more bulk and be therefore


294. If the polarity of light becomes fixed in a certain quantity of
the mass of æther, or the oxygen of the air obtains the preponderance,
a less changing element originates possessing a more definite
character, and the atoms of which adhere more strongly to each other
than those of air.

295. This element has, in addition to the gaseous effort towards a
general globe or periphery, the effort at the same time also to a
centre, or to an individual globe. It is therefore neither elastic
or gaseous. The effort of a mass to a _special_ and _general_ globe
is a conflict betwixt form and want of form. This effort is called

296. The fluid element must contain a preponderance of oxygen (85), and
less hydrogen (15). There is also some carbon present in it. The carbon
of water is to be sought in the slime of the sea, for the sea, and not
fresh water, is the primary water.

297. The fluid element oxygen is the _Water_. Water in large as well
as in small quantities, seeks to represent the globe, namely, to
form drops. It possesses therefore the effort unto form, while it is
always relapsing into formlessness. This oscillation between form
and formlessness is the conception of fluidity, which is therefore
essentially different from that of gasidity; it might be said that the
latter were the arithmetic or constant change of numbers; but that
fluidity were the combination of arithmetic with geometry.

298. If the essence of water consists in the contest between form
and formlessness, it must thus seek to produce fluidity everywhere.
Liquefaction is, however, called solution, namely, globules are formed,
both on a large and small scale. The function of water is therefore
solution. It dissolves the air, (imbibes it) like the earth.

299. Water is more difficult to analyze than air, because its poles are
more fixed.

300. In the analysis of water, the body of heat emerges in a pure state
as hydrogen, because the antagonism here subsists in an abrupt manner;
in the air it is constantly changing. Hydrogen is therefore nitrogen
wholly deoxydised.

301. If water is the oxygen-element, so is it the light-element or
condensed light-æther; thus it is as little something absolutely new as
the air.

302. Terrestrial life originates out of water, as does the cosmic life
out of light. All form originates from water; for it is the general
fluid, or that which strives towards form. Without water, there would
be no life, no Solid and no Organic.


303. If the gravity of æther condenses itself, or the action of gravity
be fixed in a quantity of æther, there originates immobility of the
atoms, i. e. an effort upon their part towards a single direction,
namely, simply towards the centre. The effort towards a single
direction or towards the centre, is cohesion or rigidity.

304. The mass with fixed gravity is carbon. If therefore the carbonic
acid of air, or the carbon of water, obtain the preponderance over the
other elemental bodies, there thus originates the rigid centripetal

305. The heavy, rigid, carbon-element is the _Earth_. The earth is
neither gaseous nor fluid. The earth contains a preponderance of
carbon, with a tolerable quantity of oxygen, and a slight amount of
hydrogen and nitrogen. The earth is an oxyd of carbon.

306. If fire is indicated by + 0-, the air then corresponds to the-,
the water to +, the earth to the 0. The earth is therefore the
Identical, water the Indifferent, air the Different; or the first the
centre, the second the radius, the last the periphery of the general
globe or of fire. The earth is naught but an accumulation of points. If
radii occur in it, it happens only because all points have not place in
the middle point.

307. The capacity for analysis of the elements comports with the serial
order of their origin. The air is most easily analysed, the water with
difficulty, the earth scarcely or not at all. The æther is occupied in
eternal analysis, and therefore appears only when it is momentarily
polarized unto light or heat, i. e. obtains the disposition to fixation.

308. If air represent arithmetic, so does earth the geometry or
universality of forms. Water is the synthesis of both, the algebra;
æther the analysis.

309. The geometrical figures of the earthy are called crystals; the

geometry of the earth is Crystallography.

310. In the creation the three primary ideas attained only by degrees
to reality. First of all the trias becomes real in the air, then the
dyas in water, and lastly the monas in the earth. The creation of the
elements is none other than a representation of the three divine ideas
in a finite sphere. Creation is a process of formation of the nothing.

311. Creation ceases with the production of the fixed or stable form;
for all ideas have parted from each other, and settled down into the
most Individual, with which separation all further formation of new
matters necessarily ceases. Creation is a constant analysis of the
æther, of air, and finally, of water.

312. The element that is correspondent to gravity necessarily
occupies the centre upon the planet. It is surrounded by the element
corresponding to light, the water, like the centre is by the radii;
both are enveloped by the heat-element or air, which forms the
periphery of the globe, the integument of the planet.

313. The forms of the elements are the following; water is spherical
in its greatest as well as least parts; for it is the point merging
out of itself, and can therefore nowhere acquire form. The earth is
everywhere nothing but point; it is therefore concrete, and every
part self-subsistent or individual, while in water no part subsists
for itself, but at every opportunity is confluent with the other, and
therefore arrives nowhere at individuality. Finally, air is the eternal
flight of the smallest parts to the periphery. In the earth the Finite
or Singular is for itself; in the water it is so only through the
Whole; in the air it is not indeed for itself, but is there only the
Whole without individualized parts.

314. The world is twofold, an ætherial and a terrestrial; both are
transcripts or copies of each other, and both ultimately of God. The
terrestrial world has originated out of the æther; it is therefore
further removed from God than the æther; this is the discharged,
purified Terrestrial.

315. God is a threefold Trinity; at first the Eternal, then the
Ætherial, and finally the Terrestrial, where it is completely divided.

316. The holy primary number is 3; the second is 9. The æther is 1 in
3; the other elements are simply the 3 of the æther, together 4. 2 × 3,
however, or 6, lies at the bottom of this 4. The symbolic numbers are
consequently 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, which fundamentally are one and the same,
but in different combinations. With this, however, all formation does
not yet terminate; to the 4 elements is added the vegetable and animal
kingdom. The number of the days of creation is 6.



1. _Functions of the Æther._

317. The spiritual activity of æther manifests itself as a _process of
combustion_, which appears as fire. The combination of the substance
with light and heat is fire; the elements have therefore originated
by a process of combustion. All matter has undergone combustion, and
indeed æther has been submitted to the same process. The process of
fixation of the æther or the process of condensation, is consequently a
process of combustion.

318. Each heavenly body has originally burnt, was nothing but fire;
the Vulcanic has preceded the Neptunian agency. It was, however, the
primary process of combustion, through which the at present combustible
matters first originated. The present volcanoes must not be regarded as
synonymous with the primary combustion. There it was not Vesuvii that
burnt, but æther.

319. What has not been burnt upon the planet, is again reduced.
A something that has not originally suffered combustion is a
contradiction. The metal is therefore not the Original, as for
obvious reasons also, the solid cannot proceed directly out of the
æther, without having been first gaseous and fluid. The processes of
combustion upon the planet are all secondary, are imitations of the
primary combustion in matter, in the elements. Fire consists of the
combinations of the three activities, gravity, light, and heat, which
are now to be separately considered.


320. The functions of gravity are exhibited principally in the motion
of the heavenly bodies, and are so completely unfolded in works upon
Physics and Astronomy, that they may here be passed over in silence.


321. The æther and the terrestrial matter are correlative, like Higher
and Lower, unity and multiplicity, and therefore stand in the same
antagonism with each other, as the air with the two inferior elements.
The æther is constantly seeking to convert the matter into itself, to
render it indifferent by depolarization, this, however, to condense it.
Matter is only condensed æther. This condensation proceeds, however,
from the polarization of light, and it is consequently the activity of
light by which the æther hardens into matter.

322. The activity of the æther or the light dies or becomes obscured in
matter. The next obscuration of light, or its immediate transition into
matter is the polar primary body, _oxygen_. Oxygen is the corporeal
light. It is the spirit of light to posit every thing with an internal
polarity, to convert everything into oxygen, to render everywhere free
the oxygen pole; for the process of fixation can only happen through
activity = light, and fixation is a production of primary bodies.

323. Light is the manifestation of positive tension, of the tension
of oxygen. When this reaches its maximum, light issues forth. This is
evident upon the planet. Every generation of the Similar takes place
through the similar principles; the cosmic generation of light must
be therefore imparted also by positive tension, by that of oxygen. No
reference has been here made to the negative relation of oxygen in
electrical tension; it does not come under the denomination.

324. The sun is the body of oxygen, the _water_ in the world-space; the
planet, however, is the basic body, the earth in world-space. The æther
is diffused between the two as the air of heaven. The sun appears to
have only the density of water; for it is four times less dense than
the earth, and is thus pretty nearly in the condition of water.

325. The sun must be water, even because it is a body of oxygen. It
must be denser than water, because it is in the centre, is central

326. It gives out light only, because it is water; for as such it is in
eternal motion.

327. The solar water is moved by the planets, like ebb and flow. At
every point of the sun opposite to which a planet stands, there is
flow; there the illumination is stronger, in other situations weaker.
There must be several seas of light upon the sun, as many as there are
planets placed opposite to it. There is nowhere a perfectly quiescent
point in the sun; therefore it is nowhere wholly solid.

328. The shining is an ebb and flow of the sun. Query Do not the spots
and flashes of the sun depend upon this? The ebb and flow also of the
sea gives out light; every motion in water shines. The sun does not
simply shine by external motion, but because it is by this motion
polarized unto the Innermost. It is a true gelatinous animal, a body
trembling through its whole mass, and thereupon phosphorescent.

329. The sun is not inhabited. It has no firm ground.

330. The contest of the primary principles of the elemental bodies upon
the planet appears as light.

331. Light is now more closely characterized. It is no longer merely
the tension of æther generally, but tension of material elemental
bodies. Thereby the light has been torn from heaven and given to
the earth. Light has a chemical relation, and admits therefore of
comparison with terrestrial matters.

332. Through light the negative, its opposite or the basic, pole has
been evoked in matter. The sun is self-posited as oxygen against the
planet as Azotic or phlogiston; hydrogen and carbon. Light therefore
deoxydises the bodies; it converts them into itself, into a polar
principle. Acids placed in the light become deoxydised; nitric acid,
muriate of silver. Oxygen is developed in light out of water. In like
manner the constituent parts of the air continue separated only through


333. The light tends from the sun to the earth, not merely because
the polarization in accordance with its nature streams forth from the
centre to the periphery, because the light is radiality; but because
the earth is the basic pole of the sun. It is thus polarity, and not
simply the straight line, which light obeys. Light tends to the centre
of the earth, because between this and the sun the tension oscillates.
The line of tension is only between the two centres.

334. In whatever direction light may fall upon the earth, it must
strive towards the middle point. Those bodies that have in themselves
the earthy nature, attract the light, not by virtue of an hidden
quality, but out of the antagonism with the sun; now it may proceed
either from greater density or from true basic import.

335. Rays of light, which pass close to the earth, as rays of tension
between the sun and another star, become, from the polarity of the
earth being stronger than that of the star, diverted from their
straight direction and drawn towards the middle point. This diversion
of light from its direct course is called _Inflexion_.

336. It is chiefly basic bodies that inflect the light towards
themselves. No such body has an infinite shadow. In other respects, all
bodies inflect because they are much denser than light.


337. Light, as an Ætherial, permeates matter, and must on that very
account pass toward the middle point of the earth, because it is
virtually none other than the tension of both middle points, the earth
and the sun. Originally therefore the light must have gone through the

338. This permeation is not, however, mechanical but dynamic, and is
indeed necessarily a propagation of the tension of æther through the

339. Matter is susceptible of the same polarization of which the æther
is susceptible, because it is on no account different from the æther;
the polarization only takes place more slowly.

340. The transmission of light is called _Translucency_.

341. The æther is transparent, because it is everywhere the propagation
of the tension of light, because it is itself, or becomes, light
everywhere. Bodies can also be transparent, only in so far as they
are the light itself, i. e. in so far as the same polarization can
be excited in them which is constantly excited in æther by the sun.
But this is not only possible, but necessary; for matter is surely
the æther itself, only condensed. The polarity æther must therefore
be capable also of being excited in the condensed æther, although in
a much less degree. The transparency of matter is a tension of æther
continually ringing through matter. The whole universe originally was
transparent; it has only originated through tension of light.

342. Matter is a tension of light that has become central. This
continuous tension of light in matter in relation to the centre, and
thus with curvation, is called _Refraction_.

343. All transparent bodies must refract light. The bodies are,
however, denser than the æther; therefore the light, which passes from
a rarer into a denser medium, must be refracted towards the centre
(plummet of incidence), and in the reverse case turned from it.

344. Materiality is not the only determinant of refraction, but also
the density of the element, the earth refracting light more than water,
and this more than air.

345. The density also is not the only determinant, but the quality
also of the matter; the Basic or Planetary must refract more than the
Oxygenic or Solar.

346. As translucency is not a dead transmission of light, but a
continued propagation of tension; so must it be viewed as a process
of light in matter, but one excited from without. Translucency is a
_co-illumination_, like the concord of equally attuned instruments.

347. Co-illuminating bodies are thus analogous still to the æther.
If there are non-transparent bodies, they can only be found in the
earth-element, which, being furthest removed from the æther, has
perfected itself independently, and they must indeed be wholly

348. The co-illumination of bodies or their transparency is an
effort of deoxydation. Bodies that cannot at all be deoxydised are


349. Transparency belongs only to those bodies which have in themselves
a twofold character. It will be shown that the metals are absolutely
identical matters, and therefore non-transparent. The metals are the
only non-transparent bodies. Metaleity = non-transparency.

350. The light falls upon a non-transparent only through a transparent
body, and thus one in which the tension of light propagates
itself. This co-illumination of the matter placed in front of the
non-transparent body cannot cease to co-illuminate; the tension must
thus abide in it, and turn back from the non-transparent body, in a
straight direction if the tension fell direct upon it, at a certain
angle, if obliquely. This phenomenon is called _Reflexion_.

351. Reflexion is no repulsion of light, but only its tension continued
into the medium, in which the tension has been.

352. A non-transparent body indicates nothing for the tension of light
but the limit of the co-illuminating matter; it does not at all operate
itself upon the light, it is as it were a void space.

353. Transparent bodies also reflect partly, because they are only
relative æther, because they only co-illuminate, are not themselves
tensed; or because the basis in all is the metal. Every other medium
is, however, an æther differently fixed; in every one therefore the
tension has been changed; every medium is thus a limit for the tension,
and therefore the transparent bodies also reflect. Since the tension
becomes altered, when it passes into another medium, it always remains
by preference in the neutral medium; therefore reflexion originates
also by the air, when the light passes out of glass very obliquely into

_Operation of the terrestrial Elements upon Light._


354. It results from all this, that light cannot enter unchanged into
mutual operation with matter. The tension of æther changes itself in
matter. This change of light through the influence of matter is a
debilitation of the tension of æther and lastly its complete cessation.
There can be therefore no absolutely transparent matter; the æther only
is this absolutely transparent matter. The denser a material is, by so
much the more will it be capable of suppressing in itself the tension
of light. The most transparent bodies must also become with a greater
density adiaphanous or opaque, because the Metallic increases in them.

355. This suppression or expiration of the tension of light in bodies
has received, as likewise proceeding from the mechanical theory of
light, the name of _absorption_. The absorption is not a mechanical
adherence of the particles of light in the pores of bodies. There are
no pores for light, and this requires none.

356. The absorption or _decrescence_ of light is a retrogression
of light into the indifference of æther, into _darkness_. Light in
conflict with matter does not continue light, but becomes a mean
condition between light and darkness.

357. The substratum of light, the æther, has two extreme conditions,
and only two, the tensed and the non-tensed; the one is the _light_,
the other the _dark_. Between the two, however, are the mediate
conditions of _twilight_ or "clare-obscure." The light æther emits
rays, the dark does not; the mediate conditions are half the two.
The light condition is the clear unsullied light, the absolute
translucency; the darkness is the absolute want of translucency; the
mediate members are offuscated light, mediate tensions of æther.

358. The mean tension of æther, or light mingled with darkness,
is called _Colour_. Colour is a finite, fixed light, the actual
transmission of light into matter.

359. No matter can be uncoloured. An uncoloured matter is a nonentity.

360. Since matter is rigidified light, even so must it be posited in
reference to colour, like light. Pure light materially substantiated or
posited is _White_. The untensed æther materially posited is _Black_.

361. The mediate tensions of æther, or the mixture of Light and Dark,
are mean conditions of White and Black, mixtures of the two extremes
or androgynisms of White and Black. If we do not call White and Black
colours, colours are then partial positions of light in matter, or in
the dark.

362. Colour originates only in the _confinity_ of Light and Dark, or in
the limit between White and Black. They are therefore microscopic.

363. Darkness is the cause of colours.

364. There is nothing visible but colour, but the coloured matter.
The Non-corporeal itself is invisible. Darkness is the cause of all
visibility. Were there no darkness, there would be no world for the
eye. Colours are only illuminated darkness.

365. In the limit between Light and Dark there is neither White nor
Black, but their possible mediate conditions, or the proper colours,
the material tensions of æther. If the shadow-line of light be viewed
under a magnifying glass, colours will be seen to reside in it. They
are invisible only before on account of their minuteness. The prism and
the lens do nothing else than magnify the shadow-line of light. They
only show the colours that already exist therein, but do not create

366. There is properly only _one_ colour between White and Black;
it is the transmission of light into matter generally. If we look
through a prism with the refracting angle presented downwards, at an
horizontal fissure in the shutter of a dark chamber, the red colour
is then exhibited upon the upper and lower borders of the spectrum
so formed within the eye; thus, in both instances, where the Dark is
above and the White beneath, as also where the latter is above and
the former beneath, as on the inferior border of the opening. Upon
the lower border of the upper Red, and thus in the Clare, Yellow
appears, which is consequently a mixture of Red and White, as seen
through the thinner part of the prism. Yellow is thus brighter Red.
Upon the upper border of the lower Red, thus also in the Clare, Blue
appears, which is consequently a mixture also of Red and White, but
the latter seen through the thicker part of the prism. Blue is thus
offuscated Red. If Yellow and Blue be mixed, Green then originates.
There can be therefore only four colours, whereof the Red is a mixture
of Black and White, Yellow of Red and White, Blue of Red and Black,
Green of Blue and Yellow. The first three are simple or mixed colours,
the last a compound colour or a medley. These colours are parallel
to the gradations in nature, or the latter are none other than the
materializations of colours or the gradations of light. All other
colours must be contained in the Red; it must serve as the basis
or groundwork of all; it must be the noblest, most total, fullest
and purest colour. This colour is the first position of the æther
as matter, and thus of _fire_. _Fire-colour_ is the first-born, the
noblest, highest, fullest, purest; it is the ætherial, cosmic colour.
In fire the light is offuscated by gravity, and thereby coloured.

367. The light is not, however, perfected by its position as fire, but
is posited also terrestrially. There are therefore terrestrial colours

368. There can be only three terrestrial colours, neither more nor
less; for there are only three different material or offuscated
positions of light.

369. The first terrestrial offuscation of light is the _air_. The
colour of the air is thus second in the rank of colours. As the
fire-colour plays the chief part in the cosmic and in all colours, so
does the air-colour among the terrestrial. It is the highest colour of
the planet.

370. The second offuscation of light is water. The colour of water is
the third colour.

371. The third offuscation of light is the earth; and this colour is
the last, the most ignoble. The colours part into two series, the
cosmic or solar, and the terrestrial or planetary. The cosmic is the
Red. The first terrestrial is Blue. The second is Green. The third
is Yellow. Red alone is worth as much as all the three others taken
together. It is the identification of all numbers. Green is merely
their synthesis, the terrestrial, finite totality.

372. The genesis of colours is thus the genesis of the elements, or
that of matter. It cannot be otherwise; for the becoming of matter is
verily an offuscation of light, a coloration. Colour agrees essentially
with the elements, and is itself nothing different from element. Fire
is in its essence red, as being the impartient of light and heat; air
is in its essence nothing else than the blue æther by virtue of its
being gaseous; water is the green æther, earth the yellow. If the æther
is tensed, it then becomes red or fire; if it attains its blue stage,
it becomes air; at the green stage, water, upon the yellow, earth.

373. The elements are only gradations of light, colours. They have
therefore been formed according to the laws of light; for colours are
without doubt the legitimate developments of light.

374. Red, as being the solar or fire-colour, ranks parallel with
oxygen; the more powerful indeed the combustion, the more powerful is
the oxydation, and by so much redder the flame. Matters also become red
through oxydation. The Red vanishes lastly into White, and thus the
highest oxydation is white.

375. The next interchange of Red is with Blue; it becomes red
by oxydation, this again blue by desoxydation, but by excessive
alkalization and terrification, yellow. It is Red that imparts
oxydation, Blue that resolves it and reduces the poles to indifference.

376. From the same cause Red warms, but Blue on the contrary does not.
The calefaction given out in prismatic spectra of colours is an impure
work, in which refractions, diversions and convergences of light, as
well as demi-foci, cooperate.

377. The sun in the firmament may be viewed as the bright opening in
the darkened chamber. Colours are therefore nothing but images of the
sun in darkness, self-manifestations of the sun in dark matter. A point
of light thrown into darkness is colour. This is the case around the
sun, which is therefore surrounded by a hollow globe of colours, by
its own refulgence. The rainbow is a ring around the sun consisting of
infinite positions of the solar spectra in darkness.

378. The symbolical doctrine of the colours is correct according to
the philosophy of nature. _Red_ is fire, love--Father. _Blue_ is air,
truth and belief--Son. _Green_ is water, formation, hope--Ghost. These
are the three cardinal virtues. _Yellow_ is earth, the Immoveable,
Inexorable, falsity the only vice--Satan. There are three virtues,
but only one vice. A result obtained by Physio-philosophy, whereof
Pneumato-philosophy as yet augurs nothing.


379. Every condensation of æther by light is consequently a production
of colour, and inversely, every production of colour is a condensation
of the æther. The laws of coloration run parallel with those of
materialization, or, what is more, are the same. The planets are thus
produced according to the laws which light exercises in the production
of colours.

380. There are as many productions of heavenly bodies as there are of
colours, and thus there are four.

381. The sun is the incorporation of Red or fire, the planets are that
of the three terrestrial colours. The comets belong to the kingdom of

382. The planets are only suns reflected in darkness as in a mirror;
they have originally been hollow globes of colour, then orbitar
rings of colour (solar rainbows), then points of colour. The planets
are coagulated colours, for they are coagulated light. At that very
distance from the sun, where light begins to grow dim, where, to speak
in the Newtonian sense, it begins to refract, there planetary mass
originates. The mass of the planet thus coagulates together around the
sun, but not in an uniform manner like a mass of pulp, but in pauses of
colours, exactly like a rainbow.

383. These planetary chromatic arcs or bows of colour are related to
the sun like the three terrestrial colours to the cosmic, or as the
three terrestrial elements to fire. _Three_ planetary productions
must have thus formed around the sun, because the light condenses,
materializes itself in three moments. Therefore the planets range
themselves in groups at three great distances. To the _first_
production belong Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Vesta, Juno, Ceres
and Pallas. They are the first digression from Red, the Yellow; the
Earthy preponderates in them. They are all placed close together. To
the _second_ production belong Jupiter and Saturn; water rules them,
and fluctuates visibly upon them; they are the Green. They range
at a great distance from the former group. To the _third_ and most
remote productions belongs Uranus; it is the Blue, in which the air
preponderates. It again ranges at a great distance from the former
group. The comets are naught but æther, which is about to become air.

384. The production of the earth-planets or of the first group is
dispersed into so many as it is on account of the proximity of the sun,
on account of the energy of the rays of light, as well as the import of
the Earthy, which exists essentially under many forms. The planetary
rings have been arranged like scales behind each other, like clouds
through electrical pauses; but these repeat themselves more rapidly, in
the neighbourhood of the sun.

c. HEAT.

385. While the æther falls into a state of tension or shines, it is
thrown into motion. This motion of æther manifests itself as the
conatus or effort to extension. The extension, however, considered as a
world-phenomenon, is _Heat_.

386. Light, when it operates upon terrestrial matter, excites this to
special polarization, whereby the Ætherial that is in it is set in
motion, i. e. heat is generated.

387. Light never moves directly the mass itself, but only the Ætherial
that is in it. Through this motion of the æther it becomes separated
from matter; and this separation is manifested as _free_ heat.

388. Heat is not matter itself any more than light is, but it is only
the act of motion in the primary matter. In heat, as well as in light,
there certainly resides a material substratum; yet this substratum does
not give out heat and light; but the _motion_ only of the substratum
gives out heat, and the _tension_ only of the substratum light. There
is no body of heat; hydrogen is the body of heat, just as oxygen may be
called the body of fire.

389. Heat is real space; into it all forms have been resolved, as all
materiality has been resolved into gravity, and all activity, all
polarity into light. Heat is the universal form, consequently the want
of form.

390. Light properly develops heat out of matter through separation of
the fixed poles from the substance, whereby the latter again passes
over into æther.

391. The development of heat in a body is not an extrusion of a matter
adherent, and as it were foreign, to it; but an ascent of the matter
itself into heat. The matter does not develop, or give out heat, but
_becomes_ heat, namely æther.

392. The loss which a body sustains by the radiation of heat is as
slight as the æther is subtile or rare; thus it is infinitely small,
where the æther is infinitely light. We cannot speak of the loss of
matter, while it is hot; although a true loss is present, if the point
in question be philosophically regarded, it can come, however, as
little under consideration as the weight of the æther.

393. The fusion of bodies is a diminution of the fixity of their poles,
their further evaporation, and thus an approximation to indifference or
the apolarity of æther. Heat is the actual retrogression of matter into
æther; light is only the efficient of this transition.

394. As heat becomes originally excited, so must it be always
excited; two causes for one effect are impossible. The excitation of
heat by oxydation takes place in the same way as by light, namely
by polarization and separation therefore of the Indifferent. The
generation of heat by chemical processes is based upon the same
principle. Lastly, the generation also of heat by compression and
simple _friction_ is wholly similar to that which is caused by
light. In every case they are only polar, and by no means mechanical
operations upon matter, whereby the fixity of the poles becomes changed.

395. It is not a change of cohesion, which the friction mechanically
effects, but the act is purely dynamical. The essence of friction
consists in the constant renewal of polar change, because thereby an
infinite number of projecting points or apices are alternately brought
into contact. There is verily no smooth body.

396. Heat is the transition of light unto darkness; for it is
indifferent æther, only moved. Colours are thus also a conflict of
light with heat, and out of this conflict issues the most beautiful,
the highest colour, the Red of fire. In fire, the contest between light
and darkness has risen to the highest pitch; the æther therefore is
also moved to the greatest degree, becomes hot. If the indifference
becomes the maximum, the vital tension then relaxes, the fire is
extinguished; finally motion ceases, it is cold and dark.

397. In matter also light and heat operate against each other. Light
deoxydizes, heat oxydizes. If light appears to oxydize, it is only by
evoking heat.

398. Heat is the function of expansion for matter. Every body has a
definite degree or amount of expansion, therefore a definite fixity of
æther; this æther is _latent_ heat.

399. Heat operates spherically in matter or in all directions, not in
the linear direction like light. The propagation of heat can only take
place slowly, because it is not a polar action, but only the result of
such an one, only motion. Heat does not penetrate bodies mechanically,
but dynamically like light, yet without decomposing them, as light does.

400. Heat is related as indifferent æther to the matter as to a Polar.
This relation imparts the _process of conduction_. Light, however, is
itself polar and disturbs matter, while it passes through it.

401. With the exception of their cohesion matters are not directly
changed by heat.

402. During every process of decomposition, during every process of
light heat must be produced, but not light also during every process of

403. Dense materials must conduct heat because they are most opposed to
it. It is only the formed element therefore that can possess capacity
for conducting heat.

404. Absence of form is the character of isolators of heat, form that
of the conductors, apart from every remaining quality. Solid bodies,
which easily pass into the formless condition are isolators.

405. The densest bodies among the solids must be the best conductors.
Regard may be first paid to the nature of their constituent parts in
the sequel of the present section of this work.

406. The conduction of heat is a continuous excitation from one part
striving against or resisting the other; the earths (as metals) are the
best conductors.

407. Matters, which are images of heat, do not conduct, because
they enter only as minimum into conflict with it, and while they
expand at once convert themselves into the same. Such is the air.
The Heterogeneous only conducts. The heat expands in the air only by
continuous motion of the aerial particles. The air is an isolator.
Water ranks in the middle between air and earth.

408. With respect also to conduction, light is opposed to heat. Light
is conducted by those very bodies, which isolate heat, and isolated,
not admitted to permeate or absorbed, by those which conduct heat. The
air conducts light, isolates heat; the metal, the earth conducts heat,
isolates light; water holds a mediate relation towards the two, yet
towards light that of a conductor, because it is deoxydizable.

409. The conduction of light is likewise a process of deoxydation,
or a disintegration of matter. By the conduction of light the bodies
are chemically analysed, and finally resolve themselves into their
principles; such after all is the case with every glass and crystal.
As the process of conduction of light may be called a process of
deoxydation, so also may it be called a process of the generation of
colour. The conduction is an offuscation of light, a colouring; the
deoxydation is a solution of the material bonds, an elevation unto

2. _Functions of the Air._


410. The air is the slightest combination of the primary bodies,
and stands in opposition with the two other elements, as more solid
combustions. In this antagonism the air lays claim upon the other
elements to analyse them; these, however, upon the air, to combine, and
undergo more vivid combustion.

411. This antagonism is on a large scale an antagonism of periphery and
centre, like the primary antagonism, by which planets and suns have
withdrawn from each other. The tension of air with the other elements
is called _Electricity_. The centroperipheric antagonism between
the sun and the planet, between light and colour, represented in an
elementary manner is electricity.

412. Sun and planet are electrically related to each other, and
the circumrotation of the latter may be viewed as conditioned by
the change of electrical poles. Colours also are only electrical
productions. Light itself is similar to an electrical tension of the

413. Electricity is an action of the periphery or limit and thus of the
surface of the globe. The surface of the globe is, however, everywhere
+-without centre. The principles of electricity are therefore eternally
separated without having a middle point, as occurs in magnetism. The
electrical poles live in eternal animosity, because they have no point
of union. Such is then the essence of electricity. Electricity is
therefore only a function of surfaces without any line. It clings only
to the upper surface of the bodies, and does not penetrate into their
thickness. It is only the tension of the surfaces of bodies against
each other, of the apices of divided radii.

414. The air is the periphery, the _limit_ or boundary of the earth.
Electricity is therefore the spirit of air. It is in its most active
state in that stratum of air which is in contact with the earth,
because there the limits are situated. Upon this lightning depends.

415. Electricity, as an aerial function, is terrestrial heat. Both are
therefore conducted by the same rigid linear bodies and isolated by the
same. The isolation of electricity coalesces with absence of form, or
with the transition of denser bodies into air.

416. Electricity is an antagonism between air on the one side and water
and earth upon the other. By these therefore two kinds of operation are
posited in the air.

417. While electricity is the tension of air with the other elements,
it is also the tension of the principles themselves of air. Electricity
is a twofold character appertaining to the two principles of air. The
tension of æther and of substance, thus the tension of fire repeated
upon the two elementary bodies of air, is electricity. Electricity
exists under two forms, as the electricity of the substance or body
of fire, and as that of the planet. These two conditions are perhaps
incorrectly named + E and-E, or positive and negative electricity.

418. The + E is the more energetic, active in itself, polar; it is
the electricity of fire represented in oxygen. The-E is the weaker,
that which has only been evoked, the basic; it is the electricity of
the planet represented in nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, sulphur. It may
be said that-E is related to + E as planet is to sun, as periphery
to centre. The sun is + E, the planet-E, the one the electricity of
oxygen, the other of hydrogen.

419. These electrical conditions must always be changing in the air,
according as the slightest influence is brought to bear upon them from
without. The air consists in this change of electrical poles. Were
the poles not to change, the air would be a solid element. The earth
is an air with _fixed_ electricity, the water with extinguished or
neutralized electricity.

420. The twofold character of the aerial principles is increased by
every polarizing action from without, and therefore principally by the
surface of the earth, which consists of two elements. Were there no
surface to the earth, were simply air present, then there would be no
electrical change of poles. The surface of the earth itself, however,
produces no change of poles in the air, for it remains always neutral;
but it becomes unequal or polar from the change wrought upon it by
water and earth, by light, by heating and by chemical processes.

421. The air also changes the electricities while it roams over the
earth. This wandering motion is a contact of differently polarized
tracts of the earth. Every mountain, valley, and river, every meadow is
differently polarized; from each the air derives another electricity.
Through this ceaseless alternation of polar exchange, its activity
becomes so elevated that at last the electricity makes its appearance
in a manner cognizable by the senses. The production of electricity by
_friction_ admits of a similar explanation. Friction is in miniature,
what the sweeping of air is over the earth. Were the earth quite level,
and composed of homogeneous matter, the air would not become electric
by motion.

422. All terrestrial electricity has been evoked by a change of poles
analogous to friction. Through light nothing foreign is posited in the
air, any more than by friction, and by both the electricity is attained
in a similar dynamical manner.

423. The elements of the air, polarized to the highest degree by
electricity, must combine, and this combination is the process of
combustion. The final result of electrical tension is combustion
of air. It is only, however, the two primary bodies that undergo
combustion; the two constituent parts of the air must, therefore, be
driven by electricity to their last extreme, even to the most perfect
element of fire and the basic or terrestrial substance. The internal
combination of both these primary or elemental bodies, or the product
of this aerial combustion is next of all _water_. The termination of
electrical tension in the air is rain. All rain is the extinguished
function, the dying spirit of air. The two hostile principles are
reconciled in water. Water accompanies every process of combustion.

424. By electricity the air was separated into the two inferior
elements, into water and earth. At present, where the whole water and
the whole earth has been precipitated from air, rain is certainly as a
rule only water condensed and held in solution in the air.

425. The nitrogen gas is the residue of the primary rain. After the air
has become sea by the combination of oxygen and hydrogen, it no longer
creates water out of its own bulk, but now rederives it from the sea,
and still but imitates its primary process in rain.

426. Were there merely solid land upon the planet, the oxygen pole
would be evoked in the air, and the latter would be precipitated wholly
as water. Were there merely water or sea upon the planet, the nitrogen
pole would be evoked, and the air be wholly precipitated as earth. But
since the two elements are constantly and alternately operating upon
the air, so must at one time water, at another earth, be generated and
precipitated from it. The earths in the act of falling down, or in
precipitation, are the meteoric stones. They are only the after-births
of the primary decomposition of air.

427. It can indeed be none other than carbonic acid, which is converted
by decomposition into meteoric stones, or at least into the metals and
earths which they contain. Sulphur must be regarded as the melting
down of carbon and hydrogen. In the upper lighter regions of the air
carburetted hydrogen gas may very well be present, and condense itself
into meteoric stones.

428. The condensation must take place by means of electricity. The
greater condensation or solidification, as well as the calefaction,
results indeed first through the fall.

429. Their bursting is only conceivable when some hydrogen gas is in
the meteoric stone, which gas, when submitted to the highest degree of
heat, becomes finally fulminating gas and bursts the stone.

430. Meteoric stones are children of our planet, and not of the
world-space. They are the antagonism of the water-formation or of rain.

431. The falling stars are simply indeed condensed carbon or hydrogen
gas, but which by reason of its small mass does not become solid. It
is probably converted only into sulphur. Thus falling stars would
be the other halves of meteoric stones; the latter consisting of a
preponderance of carbon, being therefore earths and metals; the former
of a preponderance of hydrogen, being therefore carburetted hydrogen
or sulphur. A greater number of meteoric stones must fall over the sea
than over the solid land.

3. _Function of the Water._


432. The function of water is necessarily homologous with the process
of combustion, because the main bulk or proportion of water is oxygen.
In conformity with its spiritual activity does water seek to convert
the two other elements into water, to impart to them its form, to
fluidize them. This happens with the air when it has been absorbed;
but upon the earth also the water exercises the same action.

433. The function of water is the formation of globes or the _Process
of Solution_; it directs itself chiefly against the solid; for the
solid element is the redintegrant factor of water. Solution is a
positing of the solid under the internal polar form, but the poles of
which have not yet separated. Every solid _formation_ has come out of
water, as water has out of air; every new formation must also return
out of water, by fluidization, by relaxation of the poles. By solution,
solid matters are again reduced to their primary condition, and are
then capable of reassuming new fixities. The process of solution is a
process of becoming water, not by agglutination, but by liberations of
fixity; a _Solution_ in the strongest sense of the term.

434. No process of solution is conceivable without oxydation. The
dissolved body, while it obtains the aqueous nature, is taken up in
the sense of oxygen. No solution occurs without oxygen, as well as no
combustion is possible without water. The solvent character of water is
based upon the preponderance of the oxygen over the hydrogen.

435. During every solution the two principles of water enter into
a state of tension with each other, as the two aerial principles
do in electricity. This tension is established by that which is to
undergo solution; for everything so circumstanced is polar towards
water. During every solution the oxygen is elevated in its pole, and
the hydrogen likewise. If the solution be very heterogeneous, they
separate, the water is decomposed. In the pure process of solution the
water simply abides in a state of tension; if each aqueous principle is
actually and independently self-evolved, chemistry then originates; but
of this we shall discourse in the sequel. The process of solution may
be characterized as the equilibrium of the process of tension between
the object that is to undergo solution and the solvent, and between the
two principles of the latter, whereby separation is not thus attained.
As electricity finally strikes out into the process of combustion, so
does that of solution into the chemical.

436. Solution is in essence like electricity. Solution is an electrical
tension between oxygen and carbon; electricity is a process of solution
between oxygen and nitrogen, a process of tension without separation of
principles. Air and water are in a state of constant tension towards
each other; and hence therefore result the constant evaporation and the

437. What lightning is in the air, namely formation of water, that is
chemistry in water. The salt in the sea is what the clouds are in the
air. Two electrical clouds are what two salts are in the water. Rain is
the imitation of the creation of water. Precipitation of salt is the
imitation of the creation of earth.

4. _Functions of the Earth._


438. The earth-element is the highest result of combustion in creation,
the highest fixation of æther. The earth is the æther represented as
centre in the Material, or it is the identification of all polar binary
division in the Terrestrial, independently of oxydation; therefore its
parts are motionless, be they dust or compact masses. The earth is the
corporeal gravity, the substance as a perfectly simple position without
emergence out of itself, the 0, the terrestrial monas. The earth is
consequently the heaviest and densest element, and is that which must
include the middle point of our own and every planet.

439. In the middle of the planet there is only earth, and nothing else;
the middle is not hollow, does not contain any central fire as has been
imagined, nor air, and the science of Geogeny will show that no metal
also could be contained in the interior of the earth.

440. In the air both material principles are only associated with each
other, in water they are mixed, but in the earth identified, blended

441. The earth is to the other elements what the sun is to the planets,
namely, the basis, the centre and that the mathematical as well as
the dynamic centre. That this is the part played by the earth-element
is proved not only by its character, but also by its volume. The
earth-element exceeds the other elements in mass as much as the sun
does the planets; the water is only the vascular system in the flesh of
the earth-element; while the air is only the expression of the limit or
in other words its integument.

442. Everything therefore that now occurs upon the planet develops
itself out of the earth, the water and the air being only the
auxiliaries of generation. The Earthy is developed in the water by
the air. As creation has been closed with the earth, so may the solid
materials, which are now and then found upon the planet apart from the
earth, not be products of the first creation, but only developments of
the planet when created and cosmically completed.

443. The earth as material gravity is solid. It has, however,
originated out of the fluid, therefore by a process of cohesion; this
is called the _Process of Crystallization_.

444. The process of crystallization is perfectly equivalent to the
process of fixation of the æther, and is only the termination of
the same. As light at any spot in the world-space creates a central
point, the nucleus of a comet, around which more of the mass of
æther is constantly accumulating till it finally coagulates into
the solid condition; so does the process of crystallization evoke
some particular spot, point or nucleus in the water, wherein the
crystallizing forces are excited, which attract the mass that is
susceptible of fixation and fashion it into a crystal. The process of
crystallization is a process of fixation, and with it also is furnished
the theory of crystallization. The process of crystallization is a
process of polarization, and one indeed that proceeds from a centre;
or, properly speaking, the point, from which the polarizing process
emerges in a fluidity that is fixable or in other words susceptible of
crystallization, becomes a central point, a middle point and virtually
the middle point of the crystal.

445. The process of polarization does not originate absolutely in
the fluid, any more than light has the power of concentrating or
crystallizing itself in any given part of the æther; but by an external
determination. This is a granule, a projecting point in the vessel
or in the hollow of the earth, in which the crystals originate. The
crystal never begins in the middle of the fluid, but only on its walls
or on the surface. The point of polarization or of crystallization has
been granted; now this is polar towards the fluid, and works therefore
by polarizing upon it, and through this water also passes over into the
crystal, forming what is called water of crystallization.

446. This polarization of the fluid passes in every direction; for
every polar point is polar all around. Thus a spherical portion of
the fluid is polarized round about the point. The fixable parts are
spheroidally attracted and gather together from all sides around the
point. For were the polarization not to traverse the whole mass, but
only according to individual lines, the crystal must then indeed be
jagged or indented.

447. In this manner the crystal would have been a globe, from the
fixable particles lying together in distinct points, after the manner
of pulp. But this is impossible, because the point of starting or
departure is differently polarized to the fluidity, being negative
according to observation. Every polar process does not operate in
continuity, so that one end of the line should be purely positive,
the other, however, purely negative; but every polar line is an
infinity of poles, where, however, at one end the positive character
only, at the other the negative preponderates. Such a line is e. g.
as follows, +-+-+-, which begins with + and ends with-; it therefore
has a preponderance of + at one end, of-at the other, and yet is both
everywhere. By this infinity of polar change the fixable particles
range themselves behind each other, while they separate from each
other to an infinitely minute degree; these parts polarized behind
each other are lines or fibres. Every crystal must accordingly consist
of fibres; none possesses an homogeneous or pultaceous structure.

448. In the crystal one principal direction of polarization originates,
which is effected by the antagonism of the point of crystallization
with the fluid mass. It gives the direction of the crystal and its
energy gives the length. This principal line consists of two poles
that recede from each other, and these determine the two ends of the
crystal, which are always similar, provided no mechanical obstacle be

449. From each of the mutually seceding poles lines of polarization
issue at definite angles, which (like elliptical radii on the
periphery) meet at the sides of the newly produced crystal. Then again
between these radii tension arises, so that the fibres become lamellæ.
The main line between the two mutually seceding poles is the central
line or _polar axis_ of the crystal; the angular lines which determine
the position of the lamellæ, are the _polar radii_. The polar radii
determine the _nucleus_ of the crystal and are therefore nuclear lines;
the polar axis determines the whole of the crystal, is the crystal,
the central-line, and determines the form in general, or what has been
called the secondary form.

450. Since all polar activities operate only in a straight line, there
can thus be no globular crystal. Water is only susceptible of assuming
the globular form upon a large as well as a small scale, because there
are no fixed poles in it. The nucleus does not originate previous to
the secondary form; since it is verily impossible for the polar rays to
originate without a polar axis.

451. There are no actual degradations in the genesis of the crystal;
they are only a mathematical expression for the finished form of the

452. The number of possible or actual nuclei is definite. They are
based upon the combination of the laws of the globe with those of the

453. The simplest angular body must be circumscribed by at least four
surfaces, and thus be a tetrahedron.

454. The fundamental nucleus of crystals is, however, the double
tetrahedron or the hexahedron, namely the trilateral double-pyramid;
for radii do not proceed simply from the point of commencement, but
also from the extremities of the axis. When the superior and inferior
radii meet, they must form a double-tetrahedron. The disposition to
this form has been implanted in all crystals. If the nucleus becomes no
such hexahedron, the aberration from, still admits of being referred
to, the hexahedron.

455. There is no prismatic nucleus. The columns and parallelopiped
nuclei are only mutilations.

456. The tetrahedron is also only a mutilated nucleus. To the essence
of a nucleus belong two tetrahedra, with their bases joined to each

457. The six-sided double-pyramid is a duplication of the hexahedron.
The octahedric nuclei, are things intermediate between the three-and
six-sided interruptions of the natural type, like quadrinumeral or
tetrapetalous corollæ in flowers.

458. Columns originate only between the two tetrahedra, without doubt
owing to deficiency in bulk.

459. If the three-sided double-pyramid be the primary form of crystals,
so must the six-sided column with trilateral terminal pyramids be
the ultimate form. The rhomboidal-dodecahedron is therefore the most
perfect crystal. It is the most perfect representation of the globe in
the angular form.

460. The crystal can not commence with the nucleus and then for the
first time continue to grow or even _change_ into the perfected
crystal, because it becomes only crystal in the conflict of the linear
and spherical action. As little as the sun can be produced without
the planet, or vice versâ, so little can a nucleus subsist without
what is called the external shell or crust. The nucleus is in fact
determined by the shell of the crystal, namely by the polar axis. But
inversely also the shell is determined by the nucleus, by the polar
radii. A nucleus alone would be called a centre of a circle without
circumference. Microscopic crystals therefore have at once the same
perfected form as the largest in size. A crystal is an entire heavenly
body; it is determined by central forces, which have, however, been
roused and conducted by dualizing forces, forces of light. Everywhere
do we meet with the same laws of the fixation of æther, upon a small as
well as large scale.

461. Every solid matter and thus the Terrestrial generally, is
crystallized upon a small as well as large scale. There cannot be an
atom that were not crystallized, not arranged according to central and
polar forces. Every crystal is therefore, and especially by reason
of the infinity of the subordinate poles, crystallized again upon an
infinitely small scale, or in other words it consists of infinitely
numerous crystals. Every lamella or every particle of the lamella of
a crystal consists again of crystals. These are what are called the
_integral parts_, properly integral forms of the crystal. They are all
probably hexahedra. The metals usually form but very small crystals,
probably because the atoms are too heavy and cannot therefore be
attracted from any distance.

462. Crystallography has been incorrectly made the principle of
division in Mineralogy. A single character can never become a principle
of division. If also it were actually true, that the form is always
disposed according to the Interior, yet the form could never be the
principle of division, but the Interior itself. The form is only the
sign, but not the spirit, the essence of the mass.



463. All the matters that have hitherto originated have done so only
in a _general_ not a _particular_ manner. They are constituent parts
of the universe, in which as yet no distinctions reside. So soon as
distinctions occur in the elements, they cease to be general matters,
and become particular or individual things. The sum of the individuals
is the Kingdoms of Nature.

464. The kingdoms of nature are the repetition of the world upon the
planet. This repetition in consciousness is Natural History.

465. Acts of the world repeated upon the planet are combinations of the
elements. Creation, which has hitherto advanced, now retrogrades, and
thus by the combinations of general elements that have been already

466. Combinations of the elements, in accordance with the laws of the
world, are upon the finite planet particular or individual bodies. The
kingdoms of nature are the totality of particular bodies.

467. That which is not a Particular belongs not to the kingdoms of
nature, and thus also does not come within the province of Natural
History, but of Physics.

468. The earth-element lies at the basis of all the combinations of the
elements. These combinations are therefore ascensions or retrogressions
in creation. Only three such combinations are therefore possible, viz.
1. Of the earth with water, or air, or fire--binary combination. 2. Of
the earth with water and air, without fire--ternary combination. 3. Of
the earth with water, air, and fire--quaternary combination.

469. Out of the binary combination the quiescent bodies originate, for
they are only a part of the planet--_Minerals_, _Earths_.

470. Out of the ternary combination originate bodies that are
internally moved, for they are a whole planet in Particulars--_Plants_.

471. Out of the quaternary combination particular bodies, moved
throughout and rotating around themselves, originate; for they are
representations of the whole universe--_Animals_. Individual bodies
that are moved internally are called organic.

472. There can be therefore only _three_ Kingdoms of Nature. The
first consists simply of individualities, because it is not the equal
proportion of all the elements. The two other kingdoms, however, are
combinations of the individualities of the earth-element with two or
three elements, and are thus equivalent to the planet or to the whole
universe. The organic bodies are thus combinations of the Singular with
the Whole, and supply the third part of the Philosophy of Nature, the



473. Uni-or bin-elementary terrestrial bodies are minerals or earths;
their development is Mineralogy in the general sense of that term.
The earths regarded individually gives us the science of _Mineralogy_
proper; combined to form a whole, that of _Geology_.


474. Mineralogy teaches us the development of the earth-element.

475. The earth-element does not exist universally, but only in
particular bodies or individuals. There is no general earth, but it is
either silicious earth or common salt, sulphur or iron, and so on.

476. The earth-element or the earth can only sustain changes, which are
permanent or abiding; for in it alone fixation has become formation, in
which the atoms do not move, or whereby at least a constant individual
character of body, or one that is chemical, becomes apparent. The
changes undergone by the other three elements are not constant, because
of the atoms ceaselessly moving and balancing themselves. They do not
exist individually, but only universally. There is only _one_ water,
_one_ air, and only _one_ fire; there are therefore no igneous, aerial,
and aqueous individuals.

477. The changes of the earth-element can only take place upon its
fundamental or characteristic body, thus on carbon.

478. Nothing can, however, change of itself. All change must proceed
from external influence. All things can be changed therefore by such
influences only as are already antecedent to or _before_ them. The two
other bodies, however, are prior to carbon; before the earth-element
only the three other elements.

479. The earth can therefore be changed in only two ways; either the
carbon by the other elemental bodies, or the total earth-element by the
other elements.

480. The changes wrought by the influence of these bodies are, however,
only partial or fractional changes. Therefore partial or chemical
diversities only originate, and with them other different bodies or
degrees of such. The changes effected by the elements are, however,
total changes, which bear not only reference to the carbon, but to all
the constituent parts of the earth-element.

481. Total changes or different conditions of the earth-element are
called _Minerals_, or earths.

482. The _genesis_ of minerals, thus their collective character, as
differently posited fixations of earth, determines the classes, orders,
and genera.

483. The _genus_ is the product of a genetic moment, and is therefore
always a definite, chemical mixture, which alone consequently expresses
the essential character. Hitherto there has been no definition of
mineral genera.

484. _Species_ of minerals are successive developments of the genetic
moment, thus stöchiometric subdivisions of the genetic mixture, e. g.
the different degrees of oxydation of nitrogen, in the oxyde, binoxyde
gases and nitric acid. Hitherto it was not known what a mineral species
might be; Physio-philosophy has been the first to introduce clearness
to these conceptions.

485. A stöchiometric mixture in the earth-element is an individual.

486. Individuals only are the object of natural history, and thus
neither water, air, nor fire. This also was not known previous to
Physio-philosophy; it is, however, gradually acknowledged also by

487. The crystalline form is merely an external character for the
species, and therefore the same nuclei may occur in the different

488. Kinds or _varieties_ are different conditions of cohesion. They
are therefore not determined by the form of the secondary crystal,
since the aberration of forms results only from a stoppage upon their
part half way or from the quantitative energy of the polar radii or
polar axes.

489. While æther, air, and water, as being general matters, do not
belong to the mineral system, what have been called artificial salts
must on the contrary be admitted therein, because they are no works of
art. The chemist only brings bodies together which do not come together
accidentally in nature. It is a true misapprehension of nature's
products if those substances only, that adhere to the earth, are
recognized as such; surely this definition is perfectly ridiculous.

490. Two kinds or modes of division are possible, a _chemical_, and a
genetic or philosophical.

491. The chemical principle of division of the earth are the elemental
bodies. The philosophical or naturo-historical principles of division
are the elements.

492. In reference to the chemical bodies four combinations only are
possible. 1. Carbon, represented as perfectly pure, may be regarded
as _Metal_. 2. Carbon united with hydrogen, is manifested in the
_Inflammables_. 3. Carbon with oxygen makes its appearance in the
_Earths_. 4. Carbon with oxygen and hydrogen in the _Salts_. According
to this view, the classes would succeed each other thus:--

  1. Ores.
  2. Inflammables.
  3. Earths.
  4. Salts.

Now, as the earths here intervene between the Inflammables and salts,
it is at once seen that the series is incorrect; for the earths form by
far the largest mass, and must therefore constitute the groundwork or
basis of Mineralogy, and thus stand at the commencement. If all metals,
Inflammables and salts were to be deducted, the globe of the earth
would still lose but little of its magnitude.

493. This chemical division admits thus of no strict arrangement, since
what are called minerals follow each other unnaturally. Meantime the
chemical view admits also of a philosophical treatment and amelioration
of the serial order. It may be said that the earth consists of much
carbon, little oxygen and very little hydrogen, without any other
element. Salt, of little carbon, much oxygen and little hydrogen,
together with water. The Inflammables of little carbon and oxygen, much
hydrogen, besides air. Ore, of much carbon, little hydrogen, and still
less oxygen with fire. As the fire or the æther is imponderable, so do
the three elemental bodies appear blended together into one apparently
simple body, with which gravity, light as lustre, heat as spirit and
the conduction of heat, are only spiritually combined.

494. But this view leads directly to the _genetic_ division, as the
only true one, to that, namely, which has been based upon the mutual
influence of all the elements. It is itself the ultimate cause or
foundation of chemical division.

495. There can accordingly, as there are only four elements, be only
four kinds of minerals. The Earthy either continues unchanged, or it is
changed by water, air and fire.

496. When the _earth-element_ originates or separates itself from the
water, in order to free itself from all the properties of the latter
as well as from those of the air and fire, and to become stiff and
solid, the remaining elements exert an incessant influence upon it, and
draw a portion of it into their circle, i. e. they confer upon it their

  a. The Earth-element can be changed by fire             Fire-minerals.
  b. Or changed by air                                    Air-minerals.
  c. Or changed by water                                  Water-minerals.
  d. Or lastly, it is severed wholly and substantially }  Earth-minerals.
      free                                             }

497. Through the influx of _fire_ upon the formation of the Earthy
it becomes an identical, homogeneous mass, in which the possibility
resides, as in the æther itself, of undergoing all changes. This
developmental stage of the earth-element is represented by the _metal_.
The homogeneous mass of the metal can become earthy by oxydation,
aqueous or saline by acidification, aerial or combustible by being

498. The metal is unanalysable, as is the æther, although it consists
of three forms. The metal is easily restored or brought back from its

499. Besides, however, the identical, homogeneous or simple character,
the metal has still also the three characters of fire or of the æther.
It is therefore a triplicity in identity.

a. In so far as _gravity_ is represented in it, it has the identical
or homogeneous mass already indicated, and is heavier than all other
bodies. It is central mass. It must be regarded as pure carbon. Metal
and the body of gravity are one.

b. In so far as light is represented in it, it has the peculiar lustre,
which stands again also in intimate connexion with the homogeneous
mass. The usual colour of metals is white, the colour of unsullied
light. The lustre is properly a self-illumination, and thereupon
depends their repulsion of light, or opacity. Metals are therefore
adiaphanous or opaque, because they are noncombustible by light. As
soon as they become decomposible, namely oxydes, they become also
transparent. The metals are the only opaque bodies, because they alone
are non-decomposible. All matters become only opaque by admixture with
metal, or in so far as the metallic body resides at the bottom of all.
The visibility of the world is based upon its metallic character.
Without metal we would see nothing.

c. In so far as _heat_ is represented in metal is it extensible,
fusible and fluidifiable. Metal is water that has become dense.

500. In so far as the _air_ has acted upon the Earthy during its
origin, it has imparted to it electrical and combustible properties;
the metal has combined with hydrogen, has become an Inflammable, as in
sulphur or pit-coal. Sulphur may be regarded as the intimate fusion
of hydrogen with metal; coal as a combination of the same probably
elicited by means of oxygen. Inflammables are idioelectric and
combustible, because they are rigidified air. That matter belongs only
to the Inflammables, which, being once kindled in exposure to the air,
continues to burn of _itself_. The Inflammables are volatile, since
they undergo combustion, i. e. they take on the condition of their
antetype, the air. They have from metal the opacity and the colours,
but they do not preserve the lustre or self-illumination. They become
transparent simply by crystallization or oxydation.

501. With the generation of the Earthy _water_ imparts also to a
portion of the same its properties, dissolubility and transparency.
To the metal and hydrogen oxygen is next added. An hydrated Earthy
originates. The Aqueo-earthy is fluid in water; it is _salt_. Salt
changes its form in the readiest manner, because it is the metatype or
likeness of water; and hence its susceptibility to crystallization. It
is not combustible by itself, because it is essentially an oxyde and
hydroid. Salt is a metal or Inflammable that has undergone combustion,
and can therefore never be simple.

502. Now that part of the earth-element, which remains after the
salt, the Inflammable and the metal have been separated, is plainly
the _Earthy_ or the _earth_. It has therefore no aqueous properties,
is not soluble; it has no aerial properties, is not electric and
combustible; has no metallic properties, is not heavy, nor opaque and
glittering, not fusible and malleable or extensible. The pure Earthy is
always fixed or firm, and therefore figurate. The Earthy is a metal,
with which the oxygen has been intimately melted down; for it is the
identification of all elements.

503. The Earthy is the principal mass, because it represents the
earth-element itself. Salt, Inflammable and metal are only subordinate
masses, because they are only displacements of the earth-element by the
other elements. Therefore a small part only of the Earthy has become
salt, a yet smaller Inflammable, and the smallest, metal.

504. Although the metal is simple, it can by no means correspond, as
might otherwise appear, to the earth-element; for every element is
a totality of elemental bodies, and therefore those minerals, which
represent the pure earth-element, must be compound, without, however,
exhibiting the characters of the other elements. This is found only in
the earths.

505. There are, accordingly, in a genetic point of view, four, and only
four, mineral classes. They originate in an ascending direction, from
the earth-element by water and air up to fire. The Classes are--

    I. Earth-minerals  Earths.
   II. Water-   "      Salts.
  III. Air-     "      Inflammables.
   IV. Fire-    "      Ores.

a. _Earths_ are those minerals, which admit of being changed neither
by water, nor air, nor by fire; i. e. which are neither soluble,
combustible, fusible, neither yield colour, nor are particularly
heavy. Such minerals have been properly called earths, as silicious,
sacrilegious earth, &c.

b. _Salts_ are those which have aqueous properties, i. e. are soluble.

c. _Inflammables_ are those which have aerial properties, i. e. are
inflammable and volatile.

d. _Metallic ores_ are those which have the three properties of fire,
are superlatively heavy, yielding light or colour, and fusible.

506. The _Earths_ are to be regarded as the proper total earth-element,
namely as carbon neutralized by oxygen. The _Salts_ are to be regarded
as combinations of the earth-and water-elements; therefore as
combinations of carbon with oxygen and hydrogen. The _Inflammables_
are to be regarded as combinations of the earth-element with the
air-element, thus of carbon with hydrogen, which supplies the place
of nitrogen. The _Metals_ are to be regarded as combinations of the
earth-element with the fire-element; therefore as carbon without any
other body, only combined with spiritual actions, namely gravity, light
and heat. Hence the apparent simplicity of metals, and the great number
of special properties, which are absent in the other classes.


507. As there is not simply a single earth, salt, Inflammable
and metal, but in each class many of them; we have to inquire
what is the groundwork of their further distinctions or of their
systematic division. Here also may we go to work again chemically and

a. _Chemical Division._

The _Metals_, _chemically_ regarded, do not admit of being separated
into constituent parts. They exhibit only physical differences in
gravity, colour, hardness, malleability, conducting power, tension or
their mutual polarity. If it be endeavoured to arrange them according
to these respects, nothing but disorder results. The same is the
case in reference to their affinity for oxygen, sulphur, the acids
and other metals. Rather more order is at once displayed if their
philosophical composition, namely as carbon and fire, be submitted to
our consideration.

508. In consequence of this view, the _Metals_ must divide into
Earth-metals and Fire-metals; and the latter again into three
subdivisions, nearly as follows:--

A. Earth-metals--difficultly fusible and invariably
oxydized--Sidereometalla, e. g. Iron--Manganese, Wolfram, Uranium,
Titanium, Chromium, &c.

B. Fire-metals.

a. Heavy metals; difficultly fusible, unoxydized or noble metals, e. g.
Platinum, Nickel, Cobalt.

b. Light metals; the easily fused noble metals--e. g. Gold, Silver, &c.

c. Heat-metals; the easily fused, ignoble and frequently volatile
metals, e. g. Lead, Tin, Antimony, Zinc, Arsenic, &c.

509. The _Inflammables_ divide under a chemical point of view into two
groups--into the varieties of Coal and Sulphur, whereof the Earthy lies
at the basis of the former which is non-fusible; the Aerial at that of
the latter. They do not admit of being divided, unless a mean betwixt
the two be taken, the combinations of carbon and hydrogen in the resins.

510. The _Salts_ admit of a better dismemberment. Their constituent
parts are alkalies and acids, the former the Earthy, the latter the
Aqueous. The mean condition is exhibited by the neutral salts, so that
three orders are the result.

511. Now by the philosophical view we have first attained to the very
remarkable import of the acids. They are forsooth nothing else than
oxydized elements and mineral classes. In the nitric acid it is evident
that, as the acid of nitrogen, it is the _aerial acid_; as sulphuric
acid is the _inflammable acid_; arsenic acid the _metallic acid_. Upon
this ground we may expect that the other acids also have a similar
origin. Without much hesitation hydrochloric acid may be viewed as the
_aqueous acid_, which is associated with the sea; the carbonic acid
as _æther-_ or _igneous-acid_, as well on account of its constituent
parts and gaseous character, as chiefly on account of its general
diffusion. There remain then only two that have been called mineral
acids, the fluoric and boracic acids, the first of which, as conqueress
of the earths is the _earth acid_, the last being thus the acid of the
_salts_. We have accordingly--

a. _Elemental acids._

  1. The oxydized æther        is    Carbonic acid.
  2. The oxydized air                Nitric acid.
  3. The oxydized water              Hydrochloric acid.

b. _Mineral acids._

  4. The oxydized earth        is    Fluoric acid.
  5. The oxydized salt               Boracic acid.
  6. The oxydized inflammable        Sulphuric acid.
  7. The oxydized metal              Arsenic acid.

512. The vegetable and animal acids are none other than repetitions of
the elemental and mineral acids. They may perhaps be parallelized in
the following manner.

  Fire-acid         (Carbonic acid)       Acetic acid      Hæmatosine.
  Air-acid          (Nitric acid)         Malic acid       Lactic acid.
  Water-acid        (Hydrochloric acid)  Saccharine acid  Mucic acid.
  Earth-acid        (Fluoric acid)        Tartaric acid    Phosphoric ac.
  Salt-acid         (Boracic acid)        Tannic acid      Uric acid.
  Inflammable-acid  (Sulphuric acid)      Succinic acid    Sebacic acid.
  Ore-acid          (Arsenic acid)        Indic acid       Formic acid.

All the remaining acids must be viewed as subordinate to, or as kinds
of these.

513. The _alkalies_ appear to follow the same course, though it does
not admit of being so completely demonstrated.

  Fire-alkali  Ammonia  Vegetable,  and  Animal alkalies.
  Air-alkali   Potash   Alcaloids        Alcaloids.
  Water        Soda                      Urea.
  Earth        Lithium                   Bile, &c.

514. The earths proper do not consist of two principles, and do not,
therefore admit of being chemically divided.

515. This division is only incorrect in a naturo-historical sense,
because it has no reference to the totality. Inasmuch as every mineral
class is viewed as having originated out of only one or two elements,
it divides by the chemical method only into constituent parts or
fractions, as the acids and alkalies, which are obviously only
moieties, and taken in a strict sense are not true minerals.

b. _Genetic Division of the Classes._

516. The total division only is genetic and consequently correct.

517. As the classes have originated through that which directly
preceded them, namely, the elements; so must the divisions of the
classes be determined by the other classes. Such divisions are called
orders. Every class necessarily divides into four orders.

  Order 1. Earths.
        2. Salts.
        3. Inflammables.
        4. Ores.



518. There must be therefore pure earths, haloid or salt-earths,
inflammable earths and metallic earths or ores.

1. The Earth-earths must have neither saline, nor inflammable nor
metallic properties, and thus also be insoluble in acids. Such is the
case with the _Silicious earths_.

2. The Haloid-earths must have saline properties, dissolve in acids,
but not fall to pieces when exposed to air and fire. Such is the
behaviour of _Argillaceous earth_; it admits besides of combining with
water, that antetype of the salts.

3. The Inflammable earths must be soluble in acids and exhibit electric
or aerial properties. Such is the behaviour of the _Talcose earths_;
its minerals are unctuous, fall when exposed to the air into electric
lamellæ, and burn brittle.

4. The Metallic earths must undergo change in acids, air and fire. The
_calcareous earth_ dissolves in all acids, burns corrosive and becomes
almost a metallic calx. The Orders of earth are consequently:

  1. Earth-earths             _Silica_; Quartz, &c.
  2. Haloid-earths            _Clays_; Felspar, &c.
  3. Inflammable-earths       _Talcs_; Mica, &c.
  4. Metallic-earths or Ores  _Calx_.

519. Nature does not produce any so-called pure calcareous earth,
but only this earth in an _oxydated_ condition. Carbonic acid is the
oxygen of the earth that has become free, and the corroding calx is the
Metallic, the other constituent part of the Earthy, which has obtained
some oxygen, but lost the Aqueous by the carbonic acid and thereby has
become corrosive.

520. The carbonate calcareous earth is the whole earth, not the
corrosive. This is only the half of the earth-element, only its basic
or phlogistic principle. What has been called pure calcareous earth is
a half earth; the perfect or naturo-historical earth is just that which
is chemically impure.

521. The calcareous earth is not, however, perfected with one position.
It still exhibits several stages of development which appear to be
approximations to the salt, e. g. Strontian and Baryta.

522. The silicious earth, which principally represents the Earthy,
holds its principles more firmly together. No separation occurs there
in the carbonic acid and the basic or corroding body of earth; no
association with water, no great activity, no direct participation in
the highest evolutions of the planet; but it continues to lie in an
extreme state of contraction, and in a state of indifference in the
non-differencing darkness.

523. This pure earth is the basis, the pedestal of all the other
earths, and the foundation of the planet; for it alone is the earth
proper, the earth-abiding earth-element, while the other masses of
earth, divided in their principles, have pitched themselves in outward
opposition to the sun and other elements. The silicious earth is
in every respect the centre of all earthy productions, these being
only digressions from it. The Zircon earth is only a removal or
displacement of the silicious toward the argillaceous earth.

524. The argillaceous earth also is not dissevered into its principles;
it is not found as a carbonate. On the contrary, it is at once shown to
be far more pliable by its capacity for being kneaded and moulded in
water, and by its hardening when exposed to air and fire. It is also
seized upon and dissolved, i. e. reduced to the aqueous condition,
by all acids. Its kindred earths are the Glucine and Yttria, verging
towards the talcose earths.

525. The first dismemberment of principles is shown by the talcose
earth. Where it appears uncombined with the former earths it is
carbonate, yet still feebly corrosive.

526. These three principal earths together make up the body of the
earth, while the calcareous earth is only spread over them like a
mantle or crust.

527. As no earth is in its totality corrosive, and none such occurs
in nature or has at least not been originally produced from it, so
may the insolubility of the earths in water be set up as an essential
and thoroughly valid characteristic of the earths. Their distinctive
characters have been sedulously rendered fluctuating, by having been
drawn not from nature, but the products of art. That the corrosive
chalk is soluble in water, and may therefore be a salt is true; but
it has not issued thus out of the womb of nature. Mineralogy knows
nothing of a corrosive calcareous earth. The earths are sufficiently
separated from the salts by their insolubility in water. They are
separated from the ores by their incombustibleness, or, if they have
been already burnt, by their incapacity for reduction. As both of these
qualities are imparted by fire, so the earths are distinguished by
their immutability in fire, whereby is naturally understood not the
scoriation, but change of the earthy character. They differ also in
the same manner from the Inflammables. Nature does not undertake the
artificial reductions of earths to Metalloids, at least not so, that
they may become again of themselves earths. The metals are permanent

528. Earth is thus the body, which is mutable neither in water, air,
nor fire. _Earth is a water-, air-, and fire-proof body._ This is
the brief, rigid, wholly exclusive, and significantly expressive
definition, which a so-called empirical science could never, but
philosophy alone, bestow.

529. The Ore is not soluble in water, nor mutable in air; on the
contrary, it is fusible, oxydizable, or reducible in fire. _Ore is a
water-and air-, but not fire-proof body._

530. The Inflammable is immutable in water, but mutable in air and
fire. _The Inflammable is a water-proof, but not air-and fire-proof

531. The Salt is soluble in water, and decomposible in fire, but
immutable in air. _Salt is an air-, but not water-and fire-proof
body._ The legitimate series of gradations comprised in the above four
definitions cannot escape the attentive reader, nor moreover that the
properties of the earths are all affirmative. Nature has not employed
such insignificant means of distinction as our mineralogy has done;
has nowhere used an acid in order to distinguish the metals from the
earths, nor savour to separate the salts from the earths; but she
selects universal reagents which are the elements themselves. So simple
is Nature, if we do not violate her by art.


532. There is not merely a single silicious mineral, but many such,
just as in clay, talc, and calx. How, then, do differences occur in
these earths? When we survey the science of Mineralogy we remark that
most minerals are composed of several earths; with them also metals,
coal, sulphur, alkalies and acids are frequently associated. It follows
thereupon that the further distinctions are no longer of an _internal_
kind, namely, alterations of substance; but proceed from combinations
and thus indicate stöchiometric bodies. The next division of the orders
I call _Families_.

Order 1. _Silicious_ minerals.    *

533. With how many bodies now can the silicious earth combine? It will
first of all appear in a pure condition, as in quartz; then, in the
next place, combine with the other earths, thus with clay, talc and
calx. We have thus four families of _Earth-silices_.

  Fam. 1. Pure-Silex        Quartz.
       2. Argillaceo-Silex  Zircon.
       3. Talco-Silex       Emerald.
       4. Calcareo-Silex    Leucite.

534. Thus the hardest minerals or the silicious precious stones are
here placed. But these are obviously not exhausted with the above
four combinations, but more of the latter must still be sought for.
Those bodies which rank next to the earths, and can therefore enter
into the following combinations are the other mineral classes, such
as the salts, Inflammables, and metals; and we accordingly obtain the
following _silicious_ minerals, as constituting _classes_.

  Fam. 5. Salt-Silex         Topaz.
       6. Inflammable-Silex  Diamond.
       7. Ore-Silex          Garnet.

535. Still all the silicious minerals are not exhausted with these
combinations. But now the silicious earth can combine with nothing more
than the _elements_, whence three families originate.

  Fam.  8. Water-Silex  Hornstone, Silicious schist, Jasper, Flint, Opal.
        9. Air-Silex    Silicious sinter, as Tripoli and Polierschiefer.
       10. Fire-Silex   Obsidian with Pitchstone, Pearlstone and Pumice.

536. Upon casting a glance at this series, it is shown, that the first
seven families occur in a crystalline, but the last three only in a
compact or structureless condition. The latter occur at the same time
in large masses, the former, on the contrary, but scantily dispersed.
The first family or the quartz, occurs as well in a compact and massive
state as crystallized; the others, on the contrary, taken collectively,
are only crystallized, and scarcely form small rocks here and there,
but never mountain-chains. They are the precious stones proper, both
on account of their hardness, as also their rarity. Precious stones
are thus only combinations of silex with other earths, and with the
classes; on the contrary, the elemental silices only, viz. the earth-,
water-, air-and fire-silices, are massive.

537. It is here shown, that freedom finds a place also in dead nature.
Quartz only is necessary as the earth in general. Its marriages with
the other earths, &c., to form precious stones are not necessary, but
free or accidental, and may therefore happen for the first time in the

538. If we now proceed to the arrangement of the Clay, we find
exactly the same law to prevail in the genesis of its minerals i. e.
stöchiometric combinations with other orders, classes, and elements. We
have likewise--


  Fam.  1. Silicious clays      Felspar.
        2. Argillaceous clays   Sapphire.
        3. Talcose clays        Ruby.
        4. Calcareous clays     Epidote.


  5. Salt-clays           Schorl.
  6. Inflammable clays    Azurite.
  7. Ore-clays            Harmotome.


   8. Water-clays          Clay-slate.
   9. Air-clays            Potter's-clay, Clay-stone.
  10. Fire-clays           Lavas, Phonolite, Toad-stone.

The water-clays are hydrates; the air-clays volatilized hydrates; the
fire-clays are clay fused or transmuted by heat. Here also the first 7
families only are crystallized; the 3 last, on the contrary, as well as
the first in part, occur only in a compact state and in large masses.

539. The Talcs follow the same laws, and we have--


  Fam. 1. Silicious talcs        Mica.
       2. Argillaceous talcs     Sapphirine.
       3. Talcose talcs          Talc, Chlorite.
       4. Calcareous talcs       Augite.


       5. Salt-talcs          Hornblende.
       6. Inflammable-talcs   Asbestus.
       7. Ore-talcs           Olivine.


  Fam. 8. Water-talcs         Serpentin, Steatite.
       9. Air-talcs           Lithomarge, Fuller's-earth, Bole.
      10. Fire-talcs          Basalt.

Here also the first 7 families only are crystallized and occur for the
most part in a scattered manner; but the aqueous, aerial, and igneous
families, as well as the first family in part, are merely compact and
mountainous masses.

540. The fourth order or that of the Calcareous earths is developed
likewise according to the same laws. As, however, it approximates the
salts, and therefore combines with acids, it presents many anomalous
varieties, of which account cannot be taken in every instance. These
minerals are soft throughout, change by fire and admit of being
wholly or partially dissolved in acids. Here belong the zeolites, or
combinations of the calcareous earths with the other earths.

            A.--_Calcareous earths, Zeolites._

   1. Silicio-calcareous earths  Lapis lasuli, Scapolite.
   2. Argillaceo-      "         Mesotype, Analcime, Stilbite.
   3. Talco-           "         Stellite.
   4. Calcareo-        "         Tabular spar.

            B.--_Classes of Calcareous earths._

   5. Halo-calcareous earths    Boracite.
   6. Inflammable-  "           Phosphate of lime, Fluorspar?
   7. Ore-          "           Titanite, Tungsten.

                C.--_Elemental-Calcareous earths._

   8. Water calcareous earth    Hydrophyllite? Wavellite.
   9. Air-           "          Gypsum, Heavy-spar, Celestine.
  10. Fire-          "          Limestone.

Here also the first 7 tribes only occur crystallized, the 3 last, in a
great measure, compact, and as mountainous masses.



541. The chief distinctions of the salts consist also in their
combination with the other classes, and we have therefore 4 orders--

  1. Earth-Salts         Double-salts.
  2. Saline-Salts        Neutral-salts.
  3. Inflammable-Salts   Saponaceous-compounds.
  4. Metallic-Salts      Vitriols.

The same will hold good without doubt of the orders, as in the case
of the earths. They form as many families as there are principal
masses of them present, with which they may combine. As the acids,
from being the children or offspring of water, play the chief part in
the water minerals, and are themselves nothing else than oxydized and
outwardly lying masses, they carry consequently within themselves the
number and import of the families; thus it is they which determine
indeed the division. If the bases were to be taken as the groundwork
of arrangement, there would be only earths and alkalies, and on the
other hand numerous metals, by which step the mineralogist would fall
into the unprincipled method of classification adopted by empirics.
Here also the philosophy of nature shows, and that indeed upon sound
reasoning, that the acids and not the bases afford the principle of a
natural classification. A somewhat different opinion is held by the
chemist, who must characterize the salts according to both series; but
this is by no means the course taken by the historian of nature.


_Earth-Salts--Double Salts._

(Combinations of acids with earths.)

  Fam. 1-4. Earthy-acids or Fluoric-acid earths; here also belong Bromic,
            Iodic, and Cyanic acids.
  5. Salt or Boracic-acid.
  6. Inflammable or Sulphuric-acid--Alum, Sulphate of magnesia.
  7. Metallic or Arsenic-acid.
  8. Water or Hydrochloric-acid--the earths Barytes, Strontian, and Lime;
     Murias ammoniæ, Chloride of Calcium.
  9. Air or Nitric-acid--Strontium, Nitrate of lime.
  10. Fire or Carbonic-acid--Vegetable-acid earths.

Order II.

_Salt-Salts--Neutral Salts._

(Combinations of acids with alkalies.)

  1-4. Fluoric-acid
    5. Boracic-acid       Borax.
    6. Sulphuric-acid     Sulphate of soda, Sulphate of potash.
    7. Arsenic-acid.
    8. Hydrochloric-acid  Rock-salt, Muriate of soda, Sal-ammoniacum or
    9. Nitric-acid        Nitrate of potash or saltpetre, Cream of tartar.
   10. Carbonic-acid      Soda, Subcarbonate of potash, Binoxalate of
                          potash, Acetate of potash.



(Soluble, and at the same time combustible bodies.)

  1-4. Earth-Soaps        Calcareo-sulphuret of potash.
    5. Salt-Soaps         Common sulphuret of potash.
    6. Inflammable-Soaps  Fatty or soft soaps.
    7. Metallic-Soaps     Metallic Soaps.
    8. Water-Soaps        Animal mucilages.
    9. Air-Soaps          Saccharum or sugar.
   10. Fire-Soaps         Vegetable extracts.



(Combinations of acids with metals.)

  1-4. Fluoric-acid
    5. Boracic-acid
    6. Sulphuric-acid      Iron, Copper, Zinc, Vitriol.
    7. Arsenic-acid        White arsenic.
    8. Hydrochloric-acid   Calomel, Corrosive sublimate.
    9. Nitric-acid         Nitrate of silver.
   10. Carbonic-acid       Sugar of lead.



542. It is very difficult to arrange this class, because it has
been wholly neglected by mineralogists, and is, properly speaking,
quite unknown to them, because they have had recourse only to those
combustible bodies which occur accidentally in the earth, while
according to philosophical principles everything belongs to the
province of natural history, that has originated or may originate in
nature, so that its situation is a matter of complete indifference.
If we follow the same laws according to which the earths and salts
have been so excellently arranged, we must here also adopt four
orders, namely, combustible things which bear a resemblance to earths,
others to salts, others to metals; finally, others which represent
combustibility in a pure state, and thus we obtain--

  1. Earth-Inflammables         Coals.
  2. Salt-Inflammables          Fats.
  3. Inflammable-Inflammables   Resins.
  4. Ore-Inflammables           Colouring matters.

The Earth-inflammables will be such as are solid and burn, without
becoming fluid, e. g. Common Coal. The Salt-inflammables will either
be or become fluid before they undergo combustion, and are readily
converted of themselves into acids, e. g. Animal and Vegetable Fats.
The Inflammable-inflammables will be of a sulphurous character, solid
or fluid, fragile, electric, fetid and fluid before they burn. These
properties are found in the Resins. The Ore-inflammables are those
which, independently of their combustibility, possess pre-eminently one
property of metals, namely their non-transparency, or coloration, e. g.
the Pigments or colouring matters from the organic kingdoms.



  1-4. Earth-Coals        Common-coal, a mixture of coal and earths.
    5. Salt-Coals         Gunpowder, viz. a combination of charcoal with
                          a salt.
    6. Inflammable-Coals  Glance-coal, viz. carbon without earths.
    7. Ore-Coals          Black-lead, or carburet of iron.
    8. Water-Coals        Peat-bog and brown or Common coal?
    9. Air-Coals          Lignite or wood-coal?
   10. Fire-Coals         Animal carbon, fibrine.


_Salt-Inflammables--Adipaceous or Unctuous bodies._

  1-4. Earth-fats          Spermaceti? Tallow.
    5. Salt-fats           Lard and Train-oil?
    6. Inflammable-fats    Butter?
    7. Ore-fats            Wax?
    8. Water-fats          Vegetable oils?
    9. Air-fats            Desiccative or drying oils.
   10. Fire-fats           Greasy oils.



  1-4. Earth-resins          Sulphur, Phosphorus.
    5. Saline-resins         Chloride of sulphur, Chlorate of Sulphur.
    6. Inflammable-resins    Mineral-pitch, Amber, Turpentine.
    7. Ore-resins            Balsams.
    8. Water-resins          Gum-resins.
    9. Air-resins            Ætherial oils.
   10. Fire-resins           Alcohol, Æther.



  1-4. Earth-pigments         Ochre-pigments.
    5. Salt-pigments          Soluble-pigments from roots and wood, such
                              as Krapp and Dier's-weed.
    6. Inflammable-pigments   Retinoid-pigments from roots and wood, such
                              as Dragon's-blood, Turmeric.
    7. Ore-pigments           Indigo or devil's-dye.
    8. Water-pigments         Sap-colours, such as Sap-green, Oak-gall.
    9. Air-pigments           Flower colours, such as Saffranon and
   10. Fire-pigments          Animal colours, as Scarlet and Blood-red.



543. The metals are again easier of arrangement, because they have a
resemblance to earths and have been better worked out both in chemistry
and mineralogy. They divide very naturally into--

  1. Earth-Ores         Ochres, combinations of metals with oxygen.
  2. Salt-Ores          Haloids, insoluble combinations of metals with
  3. Inflammable-Ores   Blendes, combinations of metals with Sulphur,
                        Phosphorus, and Selenium.
  4. Metallic-Ores      Pure metals.

The principles of this arrangement which has been at present pretty
generally followed, were first published in my essay 'Das naturliche
System der Erze,' 1809. In order to gain a proper insight into the
serial gradation of all the families we must first regard the 4th order.



   1. Silicious-Ochres     Metallic calces with silicious earth, as
                           Lierite, Dioptase, Electric calamine.
   2. Argillaceous-Ochres  Clay-iron-stone.
   3. Talcose-Ochres       Blue-iron-stone.
   4. Calcareous-Ochres    Black oxyde of manganese.
   5. Salt-Ochres          Calces not peroxydized. Bog-iron.
   6. Inflammable-Ochres   Pure calces without metallic lustre, as
                           Wolfram, Protoxide of Uranium, Rutile,
   7. Ore-Ochres           Oxydulated, as Iron-glance, Red oxyd of Copper.
   8. Water-Ochres         Hydrates, as Brown-iron-stone-ore, Gray ore of
   9. Air-Ochres           Malm-rocks; volatilized Ochres of the
                           difficultly fusible metals, as Umbra, Yellow
                           earth, Earthy manganese, Black cobalt.
  10. Fire-Ochres          Slags, volatilized calces of the difficultly
                           fusible metals, as oxyde of or White antimony,
                           Protoxide of Arsenic.



  Fam. 4. Earth-Haloids         Fluoric-acid.
       5. Salt-Haloids          Boracic-acid.
       6. Inflammable-Haloids   Sulphuric-acid, as Sulphate of lead,
                                Phosphoric-acid as Green and Blue
                                phosphates of iron, Diarsenate of iron,
                                Uran-glance, Green phosphate of Lead.
       7. Ore-Haloids           Chromic-acid, as Chromate of lead,
                                Arsenic-acid, as Cube-ore, Arseniate of
                                iron, Olivenite, Cobalt-bloom.
       8. Water-Haloids         Hydrochloric-acid, as Muriate of copper,
       9. Air-Haloids           Nitric-acid.
      10. Fire-Haloids          Carbonic-acid, as Iron-spar, Red
                                manganese-ore, Earthy blue-copper,
                                Malachite, Carbonate of lead.



   1. Silicious-Blendes     Zinc-blendes, Cinnabar, Red antimony and
   2. Argillaceous-Blendes  Iron and Copper pyrites.
   3. Talcose-Blendes       Sulphuret of Titanium, Chrome, Uranium.
   4. Calcareous-Blendes    Sulphuret of Molybdena.
   5. Salt-Blendes          Copper-glance, Gray copper.
   6. Inflammable-Blendes   Nickel-glance, Cobalt-glance.
   7. Ore-Blendes           Sulphuret of Platinum.
   8. Water-Blendes         Gray antimony, Galena.
   9. Air-Blendes           Bismuth-glance, Arsenical pyrites.
  10. Fire-Blendes          Silver-glance-ore.



(Pure or reduced metals.)

544. The classification of metals is one of the most difficult, because
no natural arrangement of them has been as yet attempted, and their
signification is also so mysterious that we can only get at it, by
clinging fast to the laws of development. Thus assuming, that they
likewise arrange themselves according to the elements, classes and
orders of the earths, we have at once the _Elemental metals_. The
earth-metals are without doubt the difficultly fusible, ignoble or
oxydized, such as iron with its congeners. Then the air-metals present
themselves with their peculiar character of volatility, as Arsenic with
its congeners. These being once rendered solid, the easily fusible but
non-volatile will correspond to water, such as Lead with its congeners.
The noble metals consequently as Gold, Silver, &c., must doubtless be
regarded as fire-metals. Having once separated these 4 groups, the
_Class-metals_ admit of being more readily brought into their place.
There is one metal, which subjected to moisture is readily converted
into a salt, namely copper. This is consequently the representative
of the salts among the metals. Ore-metals are, without doubt, those
resembling iron, which do not, however, occur in an oxydized condition
and are therefore noble Irons. Of this kind are Platinum with its
retinue. Between Copper and Platinum nothing else can be introduced
but Nickel and Cobalt, as they are likewise difficultly fusible and
tolerably noble. They are thus the Inflammable metals. After all
these separations a great group is still left of the earth-metals
or the difficultly fusible and ignoble. They divide therefore
without doubt according to the 4 earths. If now iron approximates
the argillaceous-earths, so will those metals whose oxydes are
distinguished by a striking colour be regarded as talc-metals. Of this
kind are Titanium, Chromium, Uranium, which crystallize moreover into
spiculæ like hornblende, or into lamellæ like mica. These again being
separated the silicious and calcareous-metals remain for investigation.
The former are those which scarcely admit of being reduced; the latter,
on the contrary, those which approximate to the noble, difficultly
fusible metals, namely to platinum. It can hardly be doubted that
Tantalum is the silicious-metal. For the calcareous-metals Sulphuret
of Molybdenum is left, to which Osmium seems to approximate. We have
accordingly the following genetic arrangement:


  (Difficultly fusible and ignoble.)

   1. Silicious-Metals     Tantalium.
   2. Argillaceous-Metals  Wolfram, Cerium, Manganese, Iron.
   3. Talcose-Metals       Titanium,  Chromium, Uranium, Vanadium.
   4. Calcareous-Metals    Molybdenum, Osmium.


  (Difficultly fusible and noble.)

   5. Salt-Metals          Copper.
   6. Inflammable-Metals   Nickel, Cobalt.
   7. Ore-Metals           Platinum, Palladium, Iridium, Rhodium.


  (Easily fusible or noble.)

   8. Water-Metals         Antimony, Lead, Tin
   9. Air-Metals           Zinc, Cadmium, Bismuth, Arsenic.
  10. Fire-Metals          Tellurium, Mercury, Silver, Gold.

Every one will easily see that these groups of metals agree with their
antetypes in properties, as also that this arrangement is more natural
than any that has hitherto been advanced. Glancing at it, it must
strike the reader that in several of the families 4 metals are present,
and that none exceed this number. There are 4 sideroid, 4 titanoid, 4
platinoid, 4 arsenicoid and 4 argyroid metals. Now, as they are to be
viewed as deoxydized earths, it must be assumed that in each family
they are mindful of their origin, and everywhere represent the 4 earths
along with the character of their family. They are earths divided unto
the last members, or reduced in a primo-chemical manner. In order to
recognize the parallelism of the classes, orders and families, we have
only to compare the adjoining table. We cannot expect to find all the
minerals ranging there in their proper place. For we are treating the
subject at present only as regards its principles.

                             Table A
        FIRST CLASS.


  |         ORDER I.         |         ORDER II.         |
  |       Earth-Earths.      |        Salt-Earths.       |
  |          _Silex._        |          _Clays._         |
  |                          |                           |
  | _Fam. 1. Pure Silex._    |_Fam. 1. Silicious Clays._ |
  |  1. Quartz.              |  1. Feldspar.             |
  |  2. Iron Flint.          |  2. Anorthite.            |
  |                          |  3. Petalite.             |
  |                          |  4. Oligoclase.           |
  |                          |  5. Triphane.             |
  |                          |  6. Andalusite.           |
  |                          |  7. Crucite.              |
  |_F. 2. Argillaceo-Silex._ | _F. 2. Argillaceous       |
  |                          |                   Clays._ |
  |  1. Zircon.              |  1. Sapphire.             |
  |  2. OErstedite.          |  2. Chrysoberyl.          |
  |                          |  3. Cyanite.              |
  |                          |  4. Sillimanite.          |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 3. Talco-Silex._     | _F. 3. Talcose Clays._    |
  |  1. Emerald.             |  1. Spinel.               |
  |  2. Davidsonite.         |  2. Automolite.           |
  |  3. Euclase.             |  3. Dichroite.            |
  |  4. Phenacite.           |                           |
  | _F. 4. Calcareo-silex._  | _F. 4. Calcareous-Clays._ |
  |  1. Leucite.             |  1. Epidote.              |
  |  2. Glaucolite.          |  2. Mangan-epidote.       |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Silex._      | _F. 5. Salt-Clays._       |
  |  1. Topaz.               |  1. Yttro-cerite.         |
  |  2. Physalite.           |  2. Schorl.               |
  |  3. Pycnite.             |  3. Axinite.              |
  |                          |                           |
  |_F. 6. Inflammable Silex._|_F. 6. Inflammable-Clays._ |
  |  1. Diamond.             |  1. Lazulite.             |
  |                          |  2. Turquois.             |
  |                          |  3. Amblygonite.          |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Silex._       | _F. 7. Ore-Clays._        |
  |  1. Garnet.              |  1. Harmotome.            |
  |  2. Vesuvian.            |  2. Gadolinite.           |
  |  3. Acmite.              |  3. Orthite.              |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 8. Water-Silex._     | _F. 8. Water-Clays._      |
  |  1. Flint-stone.         |  1. Wærthite.             |
  |  2. Jasper.              |  2. Allophane.            |
  |  3. Hornstone.           |  3. Pyrophyllite.         |
  |  4. Opal.                |  4. Clay-slate.           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 9. Air-Silex._       | _F. 9. Air-Clays._        |
  |  1. Tripoli.             |  1. Potter's-clay.        |
  |  2. Polierschiefer.      |  2. Clay-stone.           |
  |  3. Silicious-sinter.    |  3. Porcelain-clay.       |
  |                          |  4. Cimolite.             |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Silex._     | _F. 10. Fire-Clays._      |
  |  1. Pitchstone.          |  1. Clay Iron-stone.      |
  |  2. Pearlstone.          |  2. Toad-stone.           |
  |  3. Obsidian.            |  3. Phonolite.            |
  |  4. Pumice.              |  4. Lavas.                |
  |                          |                           |
  |       ORDER III.         |        ORDER IV.          |
  |    Inflammable Earths.   |       Ore-earths.         |
  |          _Talcs._        |    _Calcareous-earths._   |
  |                          |                           |
  |_Fam. 1. Silicious Talcs._| _Fam. 1. Silicious Kalke._|
  |  1. Mica.                |  1. Lapis-lazuli.         |
  |  2. Pinite.              |  2. Hauyne.               |
  |  3. Holmesite.           |  3. Sodalite.             |
  |  4. Margarite.           |  4. Scapolite.            |
  |                          |  5. Nepheline.            |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  |_F. 2. Argillaceous Talcs._| _F. 2. Argillaceo-Kalke._|
  |  1. Sapphirine.          |  1. Fugenstein.           |
  |  2. Seybertite.          |  2. Frehnite.             |
  |                          |  3. Chabazite.            |
  |                          |  4. Laumontite.           |
  |                          |  5. Stilbite. 6. Desmin.  |
  |                          |  7. Analcime.             |
  |                          |  8. Mesotype.             |
  | _F. 3. Talcose Talcs._   | _F. 3. Talco-Kalke._      |
  |  1. Talc.                |  1. Adelforsite.          |
  |  2. Pyrophillite.        |  2. Stellite.             |
  |  3. Chlorite.            |  3. Mellilite.            |
  |                          |  4. Humboldtite.          |
  |_F. 4. Calcareous Talcs._ | _F. 4. Calcareo-Kalke._   |
  |  1. Augite.              |  1. Tubular spar.         |
  |  2. Diopside.            |  2. Apophyllite.          |
  |  3. Sahlite. 4. Pyroxene.|                           |
  |  5. Coccolite.           |                           |
  |  6. Hedenbergite.        |                           |
  |  7. Diallage. 8. Bronzite.|                          |
  |  9. Hypersthene.         |                           |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Talcs._      | _Fam. 5. Salt-Kalke._     |
  |  1. Grammatite.          |  1. Boracite.             |
  |  2. Strahlstein.         |  2. Datholite.            |
  |  3. Hornblende.          |                           |
  |  4. Anthophyllite.       |                           |
  |_F. 6. Inflammable-Talcs._|_F. 6. Inflammable-Kalke._ |
  |  1. Asbestus.            |  1. Cryolite.             |
  |                          |  2. Fluorspar.            |
  |                          |  3. Wagnerite.            |
  |                          |  4. Apatite.              |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Talcs._       | _F. 7. Ore-Kalke._        |
  |  1. Chrysolite.          |  1. Titanite.             |
  |  2. Hyalosiderite.       |  2. Tungsten.             |
  |                          |  3. Pharmacolite.         |
  |                          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 8. Water-Talcs._     | _F. 8. Water-Kalke._      |
  |  1. Schiller-spar.       |  1. Diaspore.             |
  |  2. Serpentine.          |  2. Wavellite.            |
  |  3. Steatite.            |  3. Hydrophyllite.        |
  |  4. Meerschaum.          |                           |
  |                          |                           |
  | _F. 9. Air-Talcs._       | _F. 9. Air-Kalke._        |
  |  1. Agalmatolite.        |  1. Aluminite.            |
  |  2. Lithomarge.          |  2. Heavy-spar.           |
  |  3. Fuller's-earth.      |  3. Celestine.            |
  |  4. Bole.                |  4. Gypsum.               |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Talcs._     | _F. 10. Fire-Kalke._      |
  |  1. Basalt.              |  1. Mellilite.            |
  |                          |  2. Magnesite.            |
  |                          |  3. Strontianite.         |
  |                          |  4. Limestone.            |
  |                          |                           |



  |         ORDER I.          |           ORDER II.           |
  |       Earth-Salts.        |          Salt-Salts.          |
  |       _Double Salts._     |         _Neutral Salts._      |
  |                           |                               |
  | _Fam. 1. Silicic Acid._   | _Fam. 1. Fluoric Acid._       |
  |   Fluoric-acid earths.    |   Alkalis.                    |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 2. Albuminic Acid._   | _F. 2. Bromic Acid._          |
  |    Bromic acid.           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 3. Oxide of Magnesia._| _F. 3. Iodic Acid._           |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 4. Oxide of Calcium._ | _F. 4. Cyanic Acid._          |
  |    Cyanic acid.           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 5. Hydrochloric Acid._| _F. 5. Hydrochloric Acid._    |
  |    Boracic acid.          |  1. Sassoline.                |
  |                           |  2. Borax.                    |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 6. Pyric Acid._       | _F. 6. Inflammable-Acid._     |
  |  1. Alum.                 |  1. Sulphate of Soda.         |
  |  2. Magnesia.             |  2. Sulphate of Potash.       |
  |                           |  3. Mascagnine.               |
  |                           |  4. Sub-nitrate of Bismuth.   |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 7. Metallic Oxide._   | _F. 7. Ore-Acid._             |
  |    Arsenic acid.          |  1. Antimonium diaphoreticum. |
  |                           |      Fowleri.                 |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 8. Water-Acid._       | _F. 8. Water-Acid._           |
  |  1. Sulphate of Magnesia. |  1. Rock-salt.                |
  |  2. Sulphate of Baryta.   |  2. Muriate of Soda.          |
  |  3. Murias Ammoniæ.       |  3. Salmiac.                  |
  |  4. Chloride of Calcium.  |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 9. Air-Acid._         | _F. 9. Air-Acid._             |
  |    Nitric acid.           |  Nitrate of Potash.           |
  |  1. Nitrate of Strontian. |                               |
  |  2. Nitrate of Lime.      |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Acid._       | _F. 10. Fire-Acid._           |
  |    Carbonic acid.         |  1. Soda.                     |
  |    Super-carbonate of     |  2. Subcarbonate of Potash.   |
  |      Lime.                |  3. Binoxalate of Potash      |
  |    Acetate of Potash.     |  4. Acetate of Potash.        |
  |                           |                               |
  |        ORDER III.         |          ORDER IV.            |
  |    Inflammable Salts.     |          Ore-Salts.           |
  |        _Soaps._           |           _Vitriols._         |
  |                           |                               |
  |_Fam. 1. Silicio-sulphuret_| _Fam. 1. Fluoric Acid._       |
  |     _of Potash._          |   Metals.                     |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |_F. 2. Argillaceo-sulphuret_ | _F. 2. Bromic Acid._        |
  |   _of Potash._            |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |_F. 3. Magnesio-sulphuret_ | _F. 3.  Iodic Acid._          |
  |     _of Potash._          |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |_F. 4. Calcareo-sulphuret_ | _F. 4. Cyanic Acid._          |
  |    _of Potash._           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Soaps._       | _F. 5. Hydrochloric Acid._    |
  |  1. Potassio-sulphuret of |                               |
  |      Potash.              |                               |
  |  2. Ammoniaco-sulphuret   |                               |
  |      of Potash.           |                               |
  | _F. 6. Inflammable-Soaps._| _F. 6. Inflammable-Acid._     |
  |  1. Hard or Soda-soap     |  1. Green or Iron-vitriol.    |
  |  2. Soft or Potash-soap   |  2. Blue or Copper-vitriol.   |
  |  3. Linimentum volatile   |  3. White or Zinc-vitriol.    |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 7. Metallic Soaps._   | _F. 7. Metallic Acid._        |
  |  1. Carbonate of Lead.    |  1. White Arsenic.            |
  |                           |  2. Liquor arsenicalis        |
  |                           |      Fowleri.                 |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 8. Water-Soaps._      | _F. 8. Water-Acid._           |
  |  1. Mucus.                |  1. Butter of Antimony.       |
  |  2. Gelatine.             |  2. Calomel.                  |
  |  3. Albumen.              |                               |
  |  4. Coagulable lymph.     |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 9. Air-Soaps._        | _F. 9. Air-Acid._             |
  |  1. Sugar.                |  1. Nitrate of Silver.        |
  |  2. Manna.                |                               |
  |  3. Honey.                |                               |
  |                           |                               |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Soaps._      | _F. 10. Fire-Acid._           |
  |  1. Extracts.             |  1. Tartar emetic.            |
  |                           |  2. Sugar of Lead.            |
  |                           |  3. Fulminating Silver.       |
  |                           |                               |
  |                           |                               |



  |         ORDER I.          |        ORDER II.        |
  |    Earth-Inflammables     |   Salt-Inflammables.    |
  |          _Coals._         |          _Fats._        |
  |                           |                         |
  | _Fam. 1. Silicious Coals._| _Fam. 1. Spermaceti._   |
  |  1. Common Coal.          |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |_F. 2. Argillaceous Coals._| _F. 2. Adipocire._      |
  |  1. Common Coal.          |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 3. Talcose Coals._    | _F. 3. Oleine._         |
  |  1. Common Coal.          |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 4. Calcareous Coals._ | _F. 4. Tallow._         |
  |  1. Common Coal.          |  1. Stearine.           |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Coals._       | _F. 5. Salt-Fats._      |
  |  1. Gunpowder.            |  1. Lard.               |
  |                           |  2. Train-oil.          |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 6. Inflammable-Coals._|_F. 6. Inflammable-Fats._|
  |  1. Anthracite.           |  1. Butter.             |
  |                           |  2. Cream.              |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Coals._        | _F. 7. Ore-Fats._       |
  |  1. Black Lead.           |  1. Wax.                |
  |  2. Pyrorthite.           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 8. Water-Coals._      | _F. 8. Water-Fats._     |
  |  1. Brown Coals.          |  1. Cocoa-butter.       |
  |  2. Peat.                 |  2. Palm-oil.           |
  |                           |  3. Nutmeg.             |
  |                           |  4. Laurel-oil.         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 9. Air-Coals._        | _F. 9. Air-Fats._       |
  |  1. Lignite.              |  1. Linseed-oil.        |
  |                           |  2. Nut-oil.            |
  |                           |  3. Hemp-oil.           |
  |                           |  4. Poppy-oil.          |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Coals._      | _F. 10. Fire-Fats._     |
  |  1. Fibrine.              |  1. Rape-oil.           |
  |                           |  2. Olive-oil.          |
  |                           |  3. Oil of Almonds.     |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |         ORDER III.        |          ORDER IV.      |
  |  Inflammable-Inflammables.|      Ore-Inflammables.  |
  |          _Resins._        |          _Pigments._    |
  |                           |                         |
  | _Fam. 1. Sulphur._        |_Fm. 1. Silicious-       |
  |                           |               Pigments._|
  | 1. Alcohol of Sulphur.    |  1. Litmus.             |
  | 2. Orpiment.              |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 2. Boron._            |_F. 2. Argillaceous      |
  |                           |     Pigments._          |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 3. Selenium._         | _F. 3. Talc Pigments._  |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 4. Phosphorus._       | _F. 4. Calcareous       |
  |                                   Pigments._        |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Resins._      | _F. 5. Salt-Pigments._  |
  | 1. Chloride of Sulphur.   |  1. Krapp.              |
  | 2. Chloride of Phosphorus.|  2. Dier's-weed.        |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |_F. 6. Inflammable-Resins._|_F. 6. Inflammable-      |
  |                           |               Pigments._|
  |  1. Mineral-pitch.        |  1. Sandal-wood.        |
  |  2. Amber.                |  2. Log-wood.           |
  |  3. Turpentine.           |  3. Curcuma.            |
  |  4. Caoutchouc.           |  4. Chlorophyle.        |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Resins._       | _F. 7. Ore-Pigments._   |
  |  1. Turpentine.           |  1. Succory.            |
  |  2. Balsam of Peru.       |  2. Quercitron.         |
  |  3. Mecca-balsam          |  3. Woad.               |
  |                           |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  | _F. 8. Water-Resins._     | _F. 8. Water-Pigments._ |
  |  1. Assafoetida.          |  1. Sap-green.          |
  |  2. Gumboge.              |   2. Oak-gall.          |
  |  3. Myrrh.                |                         |
  |  4. Opium.                |                         |
  |                           |                         |
  |_F. 9. Air-Resins._        | _F. 9. Air-Pigments._   |
  | 1. Petroleum.             |  1. Saffranon.          |
  |  2. Dippel's Oil.         |  2. Saffron.            |
  |  3. Camphor.              |  3. Anotto.             |
  |  4. Oil of Turpentine.    |                         |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Resins._     | _F. 10. Fire-Pigments._ |
  |  1. Spirits of Wine.      |  1. Scarlet.            |
  |  2. Sulphuric Ether.      |  2. Blood-red.          |
  |  3. Acetic Ether.         |                         |
  |  4. Formic Spirit.        |                         |
  |                           |                         |



  |          ORDER I.          |         ORDER II.         |
  |         Earth-Ores.        |         Salt-Ores.        |
  |          _Ochres._         |           _Halde._        |
  |                            |                           |
  |_Fam. 1. Silicious Ochres._ |_Fam. 1. Silicious Halde._ |
  |  1. Lierite.               |  1. Fluor-Cererium.       |
  |  2. Dioptase.              |                           |
  |  3. Antimonial Silver.     |                           |
  |  4. Electric Calamine.     |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |_F. 2. Argillaceous Ochres._|_F. 2. Argillaceous Halde._|
  |  1. Clay Iron-stone.       |    Bromic acid.           |
  |  2. Polymignite.           |                           |
  |  3. Yttro-tantalite.       |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 3. Talc Ochres._       | _F. 3. Talc-Halde._       |
  |  1. Blue Iron-stone.       |    Iodic acid.            |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 4. Calcareous Ochres._ | _F. 4. Calcareous Halde._ |
  |  1. Black oxide of         |    Cyanic acid.           |
  |      Manganese.            |                           |
  |  2. Pyrochlore.            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Ochres._       | _F. 5. Salt-Halde._       |
  |  1. Bog-iron.              |    Boracic acid.          |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 6. Inflammable-Ochres._| _F. 6. Inflammable-Halde._|
  |  1. Wolfram.               |  1. Sulphate of Lead.     |
  |  2. Protoxide of           |  2. Blue phosphate        |
  |      Uranium.              |      of Iron.             |
  |  3. Rutile.                |  3. Uran-glance.          |
  |  4. Tin-stone.             |  4. Green phosphate       |
  |                            |      of Lead.             |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Ochres._        | _F. 7. Ore-Halde._        |
  |  1. Iron-glance.           |  1. Chromate of           |
  |  2. Titanate of Iron.      |      Lead.                |
  |  3. Chromate of Iron.      |  2. Cube-ore.             |
  |  4. Red Copper ore.        |  3. Olivenite.            |
  |                            |  4. Cobalt-bloom.         |
  | _F. 8. Water-Ochres._      | _F. 8. Water-Halde._      |
  |  1. Thraulite.             |  1. Muriate of Copper.    |
  |  2. Brown Iron-stone       |  2. Horn-lead.            |
  |      ore.                  |                           |
  |  3. Gray ore of            |  3. Horn-silver.          |
  |      Manganese.            |                           |
  | _F. 9. Air-Ochres._        | _F. 9. Air-Halde._        |
  |  1. Umbra.                 |    Nitric acid.           |
  |  2. Yellow-earth.          |                           |
  |  3. Black Copper.          |                           |
  |  4. Black Cobalt.          |                           |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Ochres._      | _F. 10. Fire-Halde._      |
  |  1. White Antimony         |  1. Iron-spar.            |
  |  2. Mennige.               |  2. Earthy blue copper.   |
  |  3. Bismuth Ochre.         |  3. Carbon of Lead.       |
  |  4. Protoxide of           |  4. Calamine.             |
  |      Arsenic.              |                           |
  |           ORDER III.       |         ORDER IV.         |
  |    Inflammable-Ores.       |         Ore-Ores.         |
  |   _Inflammables._          |         _Metals._         |
  |                            |                           |
  |_F. 1. Silic. Inflammables._| _F. 1. Silicious Metals._ |
  |  1. Zinc-blende.           |  1. Tantalium.            |
  |  2. Cinnabar.              |                           |
  |  3. Red Antimony.          |                           |
  |  4. Ruby Silver-ore.       |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 2. Argillaceous        | _F. 2. Argillaceous       |
  |     Inflammables._         |       Metals._            |
  |  1. Iron Pyrites.          |  1. Wolfram.              |
  |  2. Copper Pyrites.        |  2. Iron.                 |
  |  3. Tin Pyrites.           |  3. Cerium.               |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 3. Talc Inflammables._ | _F. 3. Talc-Metals._      |
  |                            |  1. Vanadium.             |
  |                            |  2. Uranium.              |
  |                            |  3. Titanium.             |
  |                            |  4. Chromium.             |
  | _F. 4. Calcareous          | _F. 4. Calcareous Metals._|
  |     Inflammables._         |                           |
  |  1. Sulphuret of           |  1. Molybdenum.           |
  |      Molybdena.            |  2. Osmium.               |
  |  2. Pyrochlore.            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 5. Salt-Inflammables._ | _F. 5. Salt-Metals._      |
  |  1. Copper-glance.         |  1. Copper.               |
  |                            |  2. Gray-copper.          |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 6. Inflammable         |_F. 6. Inflammable-Metals._|
  |      -Inflammables._       |                           |
  |  1. Nickel-glance.         |  1. Nickel.               |
  |  2. Cobalt-glance.         |  2. Cobalt.               |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 7. Ore-Inflammables._  | _F. 7. Ore-Metals._       |
  |  1. Sulphur-Platinum.      |  1. Rhodium.              |
  |                            |  2. Iridium               |
  |                            |  3. Palladium.            |
  |                            |  4. Platinum.             |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 8. Water-Inflammables._| _F. 8. Water-Metals._     |
  |  1. Antimonial             |  1. Antimony.             |
  |      Nickel                |  2. Tin.                  |
  |  2. Gray Antimony          |  3. Lead.                 |
  |  3. Galena.                |                           |
  |                            |                           |
  | _F. 9. Air-Inflammables._  | _F. 9. Air-Metals._       |
  |  1. Acicular Bismuth.      |  1. Zinc.                 |
  |  2. Bismuth-glance.        |  2. Cadmium.              |
  |  3. Arsenical Pyrites.     |  3. Bismuth.              |
  |                            |  4. Arsenic.              |
  | _F. 10. Fire-Inflammables._| _F. 10. Fire-Metals._     |
  |  1. Foliated Tellurium.    |  1. Tellurium.            |
  |  2. Silver-glance.         |  2. Mercury.              |
  |                            |  3. Silver.               |
  |                            |  4. Gold.                 |
  |                            |                           |


545. Geology is the history of the formation of the planet. It is the
doctrine which comprises the structure and thus the form, with the
organs or members of the planet, if we would compare the latter with an
organic body.

1. _Form of the Planet._

546. Crystallization belongs to the essence of the earth as the
globular form does to that of water. The life of the earth consists in
the formation of crystals. The being of the earth and of the crystal
are identical. The solid planet earth, has originated also according to
the laws of crystallization.

547. It is not, however, a single large crystal, the structure of which
appears to be homogeneous; but it is crystallized in its smallest
parts; it is an accumulation of crystals, which its atoms, integral
parts, or _constituent forms_ present for our examination. If a schorl
or feldspar were extended to the size of the whole earth, its integral
parts, though undiscoverable before by the microscope, would then
become visible. Crystals would be exhibited therein of silicious,
argillaceous, talcose, and calcareous earths, of iron, boracic acid,
&c. In short it would prove a complex _kind_ of _rock_ or _mountain_.
The fundamental or principal mass of the planet is thus a granular
_kind_ of _rock_ or _mountain_, probably like granite. Each of these
constituent forms is crystallized for itself out of the fluid-mass
according to the laws developed in the theory of crystallization,
in every point of the fluid a globe of crystallizing forces being
constituted, that generated the constituent forms.

548. The earth (regarded as planet, not as element) has during its
coagulation into a solid nucleus, generated an infinity of polar
spheres, as every polar line consists of an infinite vicissitude of

549. These integral crystals have originated only in drops of water;
for then only was an infinite multitude of polar axes and polar radii
separated from each other. Water in infinitely numerous drops is rain.
In the primary rain each drop crystallized, and each fell towards
the centre, because the primary water ranged over a vast extent. The
granular rock has originated in and out of rain. It is crystallized

550. It does not follow from this, that the earth should be an
accidental accumulation of small crystals, which, by the rotation of
the planet, formed themselves mechanically into a spheroid. As in small
crystals the infinity of poles reunites to constitute some principal
polarities, so also is this the case with the globe of the earth; this
results from its genesis whereby it is present in a definite space, and
hence coheres or hangs together as _one_ piece. The earth is only _one_
small punctule of contraction wrought in æther-space by the agency of
light. Again, it was without doubt a single central tension, which,
occurring upon a large scale, attracted together all the particles of
æther, and from that circumstance arranged them also. It was probably
magnetism, which is so intimately connected with the rotation of the
earth's axis, or the conflict of magnetism in its interior with the
electricity upon its surface, which was active in the condensation and
arrangement of the masses.

551. This arrangement of the parts of the earth, upon a large scale,
is a regulation of its constituent forms. The adjusting forces are,
however, those that operate through the whole sphere, and are thus
linear and spherical at one and the same time. By these the laminæ of
the nucleus were determined. The constituent forms of the earth are
consequently arranged in laminæ. What in the crystal is called the
cleavage of the laminæ, is in the earth _stratification_. The strike of
the strata combined with their dip determines the crystal nucleus of
the earth.

552. The strike and dip of the strata happened without doubt according
to definite laws of crystallization, and has by no means been resigned
to elevating force, mechanical dislocation, or even to chance.

553. On this very account the two directions of the earth's laminæ
cannot have a similar bearing over the whole earth. They can only
have a long tract extending in the same direction in individual
mountain-chains. This does not, however, exclude a parallel strike and
dip occurring in some wholly different quarter of the world; it must
indeed occur, and in such instances we meet with the opposing sides or
edges of the earth's nucleus.

554. The earth has without doubt originated according to the laws of
the polyhedron, which represents in the nearest manner the globe. The
polyhedron of the globe is the rhomboidal dodecahedron.

555. The land cannot therefore have an equal elevation everywhere above
the water, because the crystal consists of edges, angles, and surfaces
or sides. The mountain tops are probably the angles, the mountain
ridges or chains the edges, the plains the lateral surfaces of the

556. Several mountain-chains run parallel, but interrupted, with the
equator. This parallelism extends to the most temperate zones. Then
follow oblique mountain-chains, as the Carpathian, Alps, Pyrenees.
Lastly, mountain-chains pass from the poles to the equator, as the
Sewo, Ural and Altai mountains. Subordinate mountain-chains unite the
latter transversely and the former in the direction of the meridian.
The earth is probably a _regular_ net of crystal edges and angles, and
thus of crystal surfaces also.


557. Although the earth may be regarded as originally a crystal, that
consists of level surfaces, edges and angles, wide fissures may still
have originated between its laminæ, such as we see in large crystals of
felspar. These fissures or gaps are the primary valleys.

558. There must be therefore valleys or parallel valleys, which
probably extend for hundreds of miles, and are many miles
deep--Longitudinal valleys.

559. The laminæ of the earth had without doubt transverse fissures,
which have been called hidden passages. These transverse fissures are
the transverse valleys, which are consequently less long and deep.

560. The mountains originate of themselves. They do not properly
originate, but valleys only originate, and the ridges of the crystal
laminæ afford the mountains. The mountains have not been originally
upheaved above the surface of the earth, nor the valleys depressed. A
valley, which is several miles broad, must originally have been several
miles deep, and the mountain wall consequently several miles high. The
earth at its origin was a cloven and jagged polyhedron, a polyhedric
star, such as the moon is still.

561. The mountains are not therefore large crystals, which crystallized
above the surface of the earth. They are only crystal laminæ, and may
be as irregular as possible in form; for they are ruptured crystals.

562. The water, which from the beginning had covered the polyhedron,
now sunk into the primary valleys. From the water resulted new
and final crystallizations, and these deposited themselves in the
valleys, upon the level ground and the flanks of the mountains; and
thus the fathomless primary valleys have been in part filled up. There
are no longer any primary valleys upon the earth.

563. After the water was once confined in narrow canals, it must begin
to flow, and by the force of its current many a steep primary wall must
have fallen in, been crumbled into ruins, and either been left upon the
spot or washed away--Diluvial drift rocks (Trümmersteine), Nagelfluhe,
Stratified rocks.

564. The principal direction of the water was formerly, as it is even
now, determined by the rotation of the earth; it flowed therefore
from east to west under the equator, from north-east to south-west in
our temperate zones, and pretty well from the north or from the poles
toward the equator in the frigid zones.

565. The primary valleys, which had originated in these directions,
were more excavated by aqueous agency than those which ran in other
directions, new valleys being also produced; the mountain chains
therefore upon the earth agree in the main with the water courses, and,
though not generated from, have been certainly changed in character
by, the latter. Such must be our conclusion, if in the formation of
the earth nothing but crystallization be taken into consideration.
Condensation alone brings yet other phenomena along with it.

566. The first and most important of these is the elevation of
temperature. We cannot think otherwise than at the first precipitation
of the earthy a number of huge cavities remained in the interior of the
earth, which were filled with water. This being heated, was converted
into steam, which thrust up the superincumbent rock, and converted it
into new mountains or mountain-chains. These agencies of heat may be
called primary volcanoes, although they are not to be confounded with
volcanoes proper.

567. The igneous cavities were probably placed in a certain order,
according with the original edges and angles of the earth's body. They
may have therefore thrown up mountain tops and chains.

568. But the cavities, besides raising mountain chains, could just as
well depress or allow them to sink in, and thus produce valleys. By
these means the seas have probably been formed. Like the seas so also
have the inland seas or lakes originated.

569. Lastly, a similar origin must be ascribed to the world-sea or
ocean. Many earthquakes arose, with all their concomitant phenomena,
by partial and sudden falling in of the deep descending cavities of
the earth. Frequently that which fell in was again driven out by the
expansive force of the suddenly compressed air.

2. _Organs of the Planet._

570. The principal mass or body of the planet is formed by the earths
proper, as being the typical or genuine representatives of the
earth-element. The other classes, as the metallic minerals or ores,
the Inflammables, and salts, are to be regarded only as viscera of
this body. If we take a circumspective glance at the planet, we cannot
fail to recognize this remarkable relation, that it is properly the
elemental families only of the earths that form the mountain masses,
while the other families are only scattered within them, like the
glands in an animal body. Let us again place the Families in tabular
contrast with each other.


    A. Earth-silices.   Earth-clays.     Earth-talcs.    Earth-calces.

  Fam. 1. Quartz.      1. Felspar.     1. Mica.        1. Lapis-lazuli.
       2. Zircon.      2. Sapphire.    2. Sappharine.  2. Mesotype.
       3. Emerald.     3. Ruby.        3. Talc.        3. Stellite.
       4. Leucite.     4. Epidote.     4. Angite.      4. Tabular-spar.
       5. Topaz.       5. Schorl.      5. Hornblende.  5. Boracite.
       6. Diamond.     6. Azurite.     6. Asbestus.    6. Phosphorite.
       7. Garnet.      7. Harmotone.   7. Olivine.     7. Titanite.

    B. Water-silices.   Water-clays.     Water-talcs.    Water-calces.
       8. Hornstone.  8. Clay-slate.  8. Serpentine.  8. Hydrophyllite.

    C. Air-silices.      Air-clays.       Air-talcs.      Air-calces.
       9. Tripoli.     9. Clay-stone.  9. Lithomarge.  9. Gypsum.

    D. Fire-silices.    Fire-clays.      Fire-talcs.     Fire-calces.
      10. Obsidian.    10. Lava.       10. Basalt.     10. Limestone.

571. Now we here observe that only Quartz, Hornstone, Tripoli and
Obsidian, occur as mineral aggregates in large masses, while all
the others are only rare precious stones. Among the Clays, only
Felspar, Clay-Slate, Hornstone and Lava. Among the Talcs, only Mica,
Serpentine, Lithomarge, and Basalt. Among the Calcareous-earths, which
incline towards the nature of salts, all the first families are of
rare occurrence, and the latter only appear as mineral masses. This
regularity speaks moreover retrospectively in favour of the correctness
of the classification. The families have thus the same import or value
in Geology as in Oryctognosy.


572. The proper organs of the planet are the mineral aggregates or
rocks. These are either presented to us as they have originally
been precipitated from water by chemical process, or as they have
been changed by the co-operation of the other elements. There are
thus _genetic_ and _metamorphosed_ kinds of rock. The former were
crystallized previous to the current of the water--_Primary rocks_.
These rocks are changed either--

  1. By water--Transition-rocks, or
  2. By air--Trappean-rocks.
  3. By fire--Volcanic-rocks.

There are properly four kinds of rock formations--

  1. Earth-formation, masses that have originated through the crystallizing
  force of the earth-element itself--Primary-rocks.
  2. Aqueous-formation--Transition-rocks.
  3. Aerial-formation--Trappean-rocks.
  4. Igneous-formation--Volcanic-rocks.

The stratified rocks, having originated for the most part mechanically,
are only the object of Physio-philosophy, in so far as chemical
precipitations partly occur amongst them.

573. The earth-formation is represented by the crystallized primary

a. _Earth-Formation._

574. The earths can only be precipitations from the element that
immediately precedes them, and thus from water. They have been
enveloped in the water, as this has been in the air, and the latter
again in the æther, but not mechanically, as we at present dissolve
clay in water, nor chemically either, as lime dissolves by corrosion in
water, but dynamically. The water did not exist from the beginning as
water in the air, but only its principles, which became for the first
time water, when they had combined by electricity.

575. Even so was it the case with the earths. The primary water,
which was present prior to the solid nucleus of the earth, is not
the water, with which we are at present acquainted; it had still the
earthy principles, the basic in itself, which being separated by a
differencing act from the oxygenous of the water, was deposited as
carbon specially produced. No calcareous, argillaceous, and silicious
earth was imbedded in the primary water. How then could they have
been dissolved in it? Some say, by a great quantity of acids which
prevailed at that time; but from whence then did these acids come? The
largest quantity of them resides in lime, gypsum, and common salt; but
how could this quantity, which has not so much as acidified all the
calcareous earth, have held the rest of the earths in solution? And
then again are all the earths soluble by the process of acidification?
We cannot reason in geogeny, as we would of a common chemical
precipitation, where we precipitate earths that have been dissolved by
elective affinities.

576. The earths _originated_ for the first time, when they were
separated from the primary water. The instant of their precipitation
was also the instant of their generation, even as rain is, or rather
was, a production of the water. It is easy to say that the earths had
been dissolved in the water, and were then precipitated by elective
affinities. But it is absurd to rest content with such an assertion.
The chief question still remains; how did the earthy originate, before
the earth was? Every one can say how that which had already originated,
and was only suspended in water, was precipitated. But we are in the
habit of distinguishing the several earths, before having taken a
survey of matters and inquired if earths then existed.

577. It must not, however, be thought, that all had happened in a
gradual manner; that air was first converted into water, and lastly,
after a lapse of some thousand years, the latter again into earth,
without with the one element the principles conducting to the others
being already and necessarily imparted. No, everything has been granted
and determined at _one_ stroke, even as with the impregnation of the
ovum all the organs of the future embryo are determined, although they
first develop themselves gradually. The same agent, which creates the
air solicits also its two principles unto combustion in the water; and
the same act, which separates the oxygen gas out of the air as water,
separates also the carbon from it to constitute earth. Not one can be
posited, without the other being codetermined.

578. The analysing principle cannot be a something internal residing
in the planet itself. But all that it is, it is through antagonism
with the sun. This antagonism is light. This it is that divorces or
separates the elements from their matrix; it is light, which has
sundered the æther into the twofold air, and the air again into the
denser elements, water and earth, separating the oxygen from the
nitrogen and later on from the carbon, which must be taken up in water
as an oxide.

579. At the commencement of the separation the fluid must be the first
to emerge, because the cohesion or fixation of the poles is possible
only in a successive manner, yet not as if water were according to its
determination to be the first and the Earthy the second in the order
of production. As the oxygen separated from the air to create water,
so also must the carbon that was left have been precipitated from the
water and metamorphosed into earth. Thence and thence only may we
venture to say, that the earths originated out of water; for, properly
speaking, they arose as absolutely for themselves as air and water; but
as air succeeded æther, and water air, so did the earth the water.

580. Whatever be the bulk of the mass of water, to the same extent is
the Earthy, or the germ of the Earthy, diffused throughout it. The
whole is a fluid mass of earth. Light, however, penetrates the mass of
water as a transparent body. As translucency is not a mechanical but a
dynamic act, or process of differentialization in matter; so does this
earth-water become separated into a mass of oxygen and carbon, or into
ordinary water and into the earth-element.

581. The genesis of the earths is a process of conduction of light. All
transparency is a formation of earth; for it is a separation of the
Aqueous from the body of gravity. Where non-transparency exists, there
has earth been already formed.

582. As the conducting process of light is an act of deoxydation, so
are the earths at the same time also deoxydized by precipitation, and
this in four stages which indicate the elements whereby light operates
upon the Basic in water; or it might be said, by the four colours
of, or by coloured, light. We already know that the earth, which
presents in itself the most dismembered character is the calcareous
earth; but that those which have preserved a more identical character
in themselves are the silicious, argillaceous, and talcose earths.
These earths may be viewed as those in which the lime has absorbed a
proportion of oxygen, which has in it become carbonic acid. There is
indeed only _one_ earth-substance in water. In this substance, which
is neither silex nor calx, the polar principle has distributed itself,
and that very portion, which has obtained the most thereof, has become
calcareous earth.

583. The calcareous earth has originated in the upper parts of the
aqueous globe, the other earths, however, in the depths, in the middle
of that globe; for in the upper regions of the water, the light can
exert a greater polarizing influence, and therefore that very earth
is generated which stands nearest to the æther or to the light, viz.
the different calcareous earth. But in the depths of the water, the
light loses its energy, and is no longer in a condition to elicit
the Oxygenous in the Basic; thereby identical and more fixed earths


584. The differenced calcareous earth has been associated with the
differential water, remained for a longer period identical with and
dissolved in it, and was therefore the last to be precipitated from
it. The silicious earth with its neighbours must necessarily have been
the first to separate from the water, as it is in a proper sense,
that earth from which all water has been withdrawn. Two periods of
precipitation exist therefore in geogeny, one that of the identical or
fundamental earths, and one of the internally subdivided calcareous

585. The silicious, argillaceous, and talcose earths must occupy, from
their having been first precipitated, the middle of the planet. The
water being earthy everywhere, had everywhere the capacity to become
earth; but different earths originated, where the light was different
in the fluid mass of earth. In pure light, or that upon the surface,
the Earthy dualized itself into calcareous earth; in situations, where
the light exercised less influence, the Earthy became talcose, still
deeper argillaceous earth; lastly, at such a depth where the light
could scarcely reach, the Earthy became a pure Earthy or silicious

586. Precipitation, both upon a large and small scale, is a process of
crystallization; the integral parts of the planet originate, like the
nucleus and the perfected crystal, through central action and polar
action. The integral forms of the planet impart the crystalline granule
or its joints.

587. The integral forms of the three fundamental earths crystallized
with and through each other into _one_ mass, or, in other words, the
nucleus of the earth consists of a crystalline mass of the three
fundamental earths. The solid nucleus of the earth consists of crystals
upon a small scale of silex, clay, and talc.

588. As, however, no pole is produced of perfect purity in nature, so
are the integral forms not perfectly pure fundamental earths, but other
and later factors enter also into their composition, e. g. calcareous
earth, with even ores and salts. The silicious earth is crystallized as
quartz, the argillaceous as feldspar, the talc as mica.

589. The mixture of the three crystallized fundamental earths, which
composes the nucleus of the earth, and upon which the polarized masses
of soil have been supported, is therefore a definite species of rock,
which has all the properties of _Granite_, although that which has been
extruded from the earth may have been altered by heat.

590. As the mass of the earth is about five times denser than water; so
must the planet, before the Earthy was separated, have been much denser
than at present. With its separation the fluid must have suddenly
diminished, and moved towards the middle point of the planet. During
the descent of water for many miles in extent, it must separate in
drops. The separation of the earths was combined with rain.

591. In every falling drop the three fundamental earths, which are
insoluble in water, crystallized. The first crystals therefore are
only of the size of drops. It is only by this mode of origin that the
crystallization into one another of the three constituent parts of
granite without any cementing substance can be comprehended. Granite is
an earthy hail-storm. The hail-stones crystallized during their fall in
a similar manner with each other.

592. Upon the whole the silicious character predominates in granite,
as the primary formation of the planet, and must do so, for silicious
earth is the primary earth, the principal earth of this precipitation,
and one from which clay and talc subsequently proceed, being higher
heterogynisms produced by light. Properly speaking only two perfectly
different characters of earth exist, the silicious earth as the pure
separation of the Earthy, and the calcareous earth, as the last
separation of the water from the Earthy. It may also be said that
in the calcareous earth fire, in the talcose earths the air, in the
argillaceous earth water has exercised its influence and displaced
the Earthy. Not only quartz is silicious earth, but feldspar and mica
consist in a great measure of the same. Still, however, these last
two constituent forms are wholly different from quartz, and very far
removed from the nature of silex; the feldspar obviously forming the
transition to clay by its resolution into porcellanic earths, but the
mica passing over into talc.

593. There does not exist in nature an order of silex, clay, or talc,
so soon as we take up these earths in a simply chemical manner. Nature
instead of silex produces quartz, instead of clay feldspar, instead of
talc mica; and these must be the earths, that determine this part of
the mineral system; they are the characters of orders; there is thus
properly no order of silex but of quartz, none of clay but of feldspar,
none of talc but of mica, at least according to their signification.

594. The points of origin for this division of the mineral system
or that formed by the fundamental earths are the three fundamental
crystallizations, and upon these _everything_ that does not belong
to the calcareous earth must and does naturally arrange itself. The
mineral system is only the developed and separated granite. The fact
cannot rest unobserved, that mica has only one laminar cleavage,
feldspar two, quartz three, this being for the first time a perfect
crystal, a double tetrahedron with one column.

595. With granite and with it alone the solidity, the body and form of
the earth has been given; it is the homogeneous fundamental mass of the
planet, and is therefore crystallized throughout to the finest degree
in its three constituent forms.


596. If, in addition to granite, several formations are displayed
which bear traces of the same mode of origin, of the same component
parts and the same aggregation, it may be inferred that they are only
metamorphoses of the same precipitate. Granite is the basis of geogeny.

597. Granite is a totality for the earth, it is a representation of the
three terrestrial elements under the form of identical earth; it is the
earth represented in silex, water in clay, and air in talc; it is an
universe represented individually in the earth-elements.

598. The granite can undergo metamorphosis in only three ways; for its
essence is indeed only trinity. Nothing can individualize itself from
granite but quartz, feldspar, and mica. All the formations of this
period are thus _quartz_, _feldspar_, or _mica formations_. The granite
appears under a threefold form as quartz, feldspar, and mica-granite.

599. The first quartz formation is properly the granite itself, and
its character will be also the determinant for all the metamorphoses of

600. The first structure, in which the character of feldspar as regards
its laminated form and its more argillaceous nature obtains the
preponderance, is _Gneiss_--Feldspar-granite.

601. The first structure in which mica is the predominant character, is
the _Mica-schist_--Mica-granite.

602. All rocks that do not belong to the calcareous formation come
under these three forms. The progressive formation of the earth takes a
threefold course, since it begins in a threefold and yet single manner
in granite.

603. The gneiss and mica-schist precipitations followed subsequently to
the completion of granite. For all precipitation is a true process, in
which water has a certain tension peculiar to this process, by virtue
of which this form of earth and no other has been produced.

604. By granite the silicious principally came out of water, but what
was argillaceous and talcose remained behind.

605. Gneiss and mica-schist are indeed subdivided granite, but not in
the sense of the already perfected granite having been again stirred up
and dissolved, but as already separated in principles, in the primary

606. Gneiss and mica-schists are products of a more mighty operation of
light than granite. They are nearer to the upper layers of water.

607. After the granitic rain, or after the formation of granite, the
sphere of water was no longer perfectly transparent; but water was
now found also in the primary valleys, in which the light had more
power, and thus greater capacity for splitting. During the formation
of granite the water has only become polar by light; but, as it was
there wholly transparent without opposition, it could never attain to a
perfect dualization. In the second earth-rain and in the valleys, the
light on the contrary produces dualization of the fundamental earths,
since the sides of the mountains afford opposition to the light, become
themselves polar against the water, and at the same time heat is

608. Gneiss and mica-schist enter into a polar relation with gravity,
and that indeed as a Different to an Identical, as periphery to centre
or as light to gravity.

609. Now the falling granite had in part lost its quartz and obtained
a predominance of feldspar. Furthermore as the water-globe was already
greatly collapsed, the crystals thus originated in larger drops, and
occurred besides in water already stagnant or flowing. The schistose
gefüge must have emerged as well through the preponderance of the
laminar felspar, as by the flowing of water and the attraction of the
granite-walls. This schistose granite is _gneiss_.

610. When the gneiss was thrown down the talc predominated in the
water; it now fell in the same manner with less quartz and feldspar,
and was deposited in a still more schistose form than mica-schist.

611. Granite, gneiss and mica-schist are the first that together form
a Whole, each factor whereof has been evolved in an equally perfect


612. By this active antagonism of granite to gneiss and mica-schist
the _Lamination_ of the latter is determined. Every particle of gneiss
is attracted from the granite-wall and placed in a definite direction,
corresponding to the polar operation of granite; the particles of
gneiss already deposited attract the coming ones, and so on. The parts
of the gneiss and mica-schist are not deposited upon the granite by
virtue of their dead or inert gravity, but by virtue of living polar
attraction. They are not therefore deposited in the depth of the
primary valleys, nor do they fill up the latter; but they are attracted
by the granite-walls and deposited to a greater or less extent like
laminæ of crystallization, in large perpendicular layers.

613. By these two precipitations the primary valleys were in part
filled up, and partly narrowed by the polar attraction of the walls.
The primary valleys therefore are no longer present upon the earth,
unless everything be called a primary valley that has not arisen or
been excavated by the current of water.

614. Gneiss and mica-schist have indeed taken part in the primary
crystallization, yet are, however, only its last movements, as the
water had already met with resistance, and was partly stagnant; their
mass therefore is not so purely crystallized as granite. They are not
parts of the earth's nucleus, but lie only like a crust upon it like
hollow crystals.

615. It may be said that gneiss and mica-schist originated only because
there were fathomless valleys in the granite, in which the dissevering
actions were inclosed, and extended themselves from one mountain-wall
to another, while the light could be reflected in them and heat the

616. So long as the granite was devoid of valleys, so long also did no
other formation originate. This is proved by the fact that upon the
highest mountains the granite is bare and uncovered, while this is not
the case upon its lateral walls. It is therefore the second and third
earth-rain that first originated, after the earth was heated. Gneiss
and mica-schist are, so to speak, precipitated by reflected light.

617. The principal valleys of gneiss and mica-schist have not
originated by themselves, but have been modelled according to the form
of the granitic valleys. The valleys of those earth-precipitates are
properly only subsequent valleys.

618. The lamination is not everywhere a mechanical phenomenon,
but without doubt also a polar. It is exactly the same law, which
determines the lamination of crystals, that does that of the strata of
the earth, and operates also in producing their lamination.


619. The earths must be viewed as _one_ mass, the component parts of
which observe a mutual relation. Now, after the silex, clay and talc
had been precipitated, a proportionate abundance of lime became free,
which was then thrown down at the end of this period of precipitation,
as _Primary limestone_.

620. The calcareous mass may be viewed as corrosive earth, from which
a certain quantity of carbon has been set free. As such, and combined
with the oxygen developed out of the water by the influence of light to
form carbonic acid, the lime was insoluble and was precipitated.

621. The primary limestone has also not been mechanically deposited.
It has a crystalline texture, is a calcareous granite, and generally
succeeds the mica-schist formation.

b. _Water-Formation--Transition-Rocks._


622. The metamorphosis of the granite did not terminate with
these precipitations. They are only the starting points for the
metamorphosis, in which the effort was first manifested to free
themselves from the primary combination. In the metamorphosis of
earths, the fundamental earths, or the constituent parts of granite,
strove to become each for itself a particular rock. They were all
identified in quartz; in granite they for the first time parted company
with each other, yet still formed a common sphere; lastly, in gneiss
and mica-schist they all separated into three spheres, but which still
did not differ in mass from granite.

623. Individualization had not yet been attained. The gneiss had still
all the constituent parts of the granite, as well as the mica-schist;
both are only a more peripheric, slaty granite, the one having a
preponderance of the Argillaceous, the other of the Talcose. With these
formations, however, Geogeny cannot remain stationary; for verily the
law of the development of the world is individualization. Instead of
granite, simply quartz, instead of gneiss simply clay, instead of
mica-schist simply talc must be separated; and then the termination
of this period is attained, the trinity of the simple earths has been
completely represented.

624. All the Earthy could not have been separated from the water by
the first storm of precipitation. For the water now rested very much
collapsed upon the earth's nucleus, and could no longer therefore
assume the form of rain. That therefore which was now precipitated
could no longer be thoroughly crystallized, but must follow the current
and disquietude of the water, and thus emerge from it in a slaty or
massive condition.

625. The quartz of the granite endeavours to set itself free from the
clay and talc, or it becomes freed by the latter removing from it in
virtue of its polar behaviour. There is therefore one series of rocks,
in which the granite is constantly rejecting the feldspar and mica
more and more, and at last subsists as quartz simply, which _quartzose
rocks_ as forming entire mountains are for intelligible reasons not of
frequent occurrence.

626. The completion of the gneiss in its entire separation from the
granite, and the evolution of feldspar upon a large scale constitutes
the _clay-slate_, and finally clay-stone and clay-porphyry. This yields
us a new series of formations, in which the gneiss gradually attains to
being divested of quartz and mica and to a pure position as feldspar.
The clay-slate is a true gneiss, that has lost the definite particles
of quartz and mica.

627. The position of mica-schist constitutes in its purity the
talc-formation, talc-slate, chlorite-slate, hornblende-slate.

628. After these several precipitations, the calcareous mass
remains behind in the water, and now, as in the first periods of
crystallization, is charged with carbonic acid, and is precipitated as
transitionary calx under the form of _mountain limestone_.

629. These formations are found upon the whole to be arranged on the
earth, in the order of time at which they were precipitated from the
water. In the middle of the loftiest mountains is granite, then gneiss
and mica-schist; then follow quartzose rocks, clay-slate or porphyry,
talcose rocks, and lastly on the edge of all these runs the chain
of alpine or mountain limestone. In the last of these formations
are found fossil remains of corals and molluscous animals. For these
formations fell first of all after the water had a solid bottom, and
the granitic mountains projected above it.


630. The period had now arrived in which the fundamental earths,
being upon the whole completed, predominate. That which was separated
in a chemical way from the Earthy out of water, has been in great
part precipitated. This period, however, although the first and most
extensive, indicates but the half of Geogeny, or as yet only one pole
in the genesis, which requires the other. In the beginning both poles
were in the water, that of the fundamental earths as well as that
of the calcareous earth; the light shone upon, dissevered them, and
earths, the most heterogeneous in respect to water, were first of all

631. While the fundamental earths were precipitated, the calcareous
earth was repelled and retained, on account of its homogeneity, in
water, because the acid half continued longer fluid than the basic.
The water was thus after its separation from these substances a true

632. Through this separation, however, the great antagonism in the
water ceased; and subordinate antagonisms now made their appearance,
which were kept united by the former. The calcareous earth is now
occupied no more as one pole, but is the whole water itself, upon
which, as it is less deep, the light acts anew and with greater force.

633. The dispersions of earths began just at this period to
multiply themselves, from the only fettering agent, namely gravity,
having betaken itself to rest; every earthy now emerges from its
connexions, the factors falling wholly asunder into alkalies and acids,
which combine in a multifarious manner.

634. These dispersions associated with the torrents of water that
were now everywhere present prevented crystallization from taking
place upon a large scale; they moreover mingled with the mechanically
water-borne and crumbling débris of the earlier species of rocks; their
laminations therefore resemble rather a mechanical deposit from water.
They are the _Stratified rocks_.

635. As the first period must include the calcareous earth, so also
in the period of strata or in the dualized period this earth is not
without a slight antagonism of the fundamental earths; and this it
is which for the first time becomes distinct, but always with a
preponderance of the calcareous over the fundamental earths, while in
the primary periods this relative proportion of the two was the reverse.

636. The primary period repeats itself again in the second, and thus
strata consisting of the fundamental earths originate, as we have seen
exemplified in the primary and transition formations of limestone. The
precipitation of strata is divided also into four formations, into
silicious, argillaceous, talcose and calcareous strata, close to which
range also the strata of ores, Inflammables and salts.

637. In other respects the chemical deposits of this period are so
blended with the mechanical, that their mode of origin seems for the
most part to have happened in both ways.

638. The silicious formation returning in the stratified periods is
chiefly under the condition of _sandstone_. Apart from that, which has
originated through the detritus of the older kinds of rocks, it may be
assumed, that the prevailing lime still held some silicious earth in a
state of moisture within itself, and that this during its separation
was precipitated as a fine alcohol, namely, as sand. If, however, sand
fell, so also must a proportionate quantity of lime fall, by combining
itself with an acid. Sand and lime therefore usually accompany each
other. If the two be regarded also as only floated freely and suspended
in water, still the chemical antagonism manifests itself between them
as if they were in a mortar, and they have been precipitated in layers
alternating with each other. The sandstone is as a rule therefore
imbedded in the lime; it is a mortar containing but little lime. The
mechanical silicious deposits are exemplified in the Nagelfluh, old red
sandstone, Grauwacke, sandstone and drift-sand.

639. The stratified clay appears to have been deposited as clay-stone;
it passes over into slate and potters' clay. The talcose strata pass by
serpentine and potters' stone into steatite and meerschaum.


640. The pole which had operated continuously from the fundamental
earths contained in the Earthy has now separated from it, and the
tension is again extinguished. The Earthy is now contained in a pure
state in water without continuance of the silicious pole; the influx
of water has now obtained the preponderance. So soon, however, as the
antagonism of this water to the stratified silex, clay and talc ceases,
the more internal, hitherto restrained by the feebler antagonism,
becomes awakened, as it did after the precipitation of the fundamental

641. The principles are necessarily combined more firmly in the
fundamental than in the calcareous earths. In this both the oxygenic
and basic earth-principle must each attain for itself completion, and
represent the two primary bodies in the earth with the same capacity
for separation and activity.

642. The production of earths results from a constant antagonism
subsisting between them and water. The more the Basic is thrown down,
by so much does the Oxygenous preponderate to a greater degree in
water. The water becomes oxydized and seeks to divide into its two
principles, into oxygen and hydrogen.

643. By this contest tension is also excited in the earth-principles,
namely, oxygen and carbon, and they begin in themselves to separate.
The metallic basis of the earths strives to become free. During the
separation, however, the oxygen snatches as it were some carbon along
with it and appears as carbonic acid; but the carbon of the earthy lays
claim to some of the hydrogen and oxygen to combine with it and appears
as corrosive or calcareous earth.

644. The acid is therefore a half of the earth, which passes over into
water, and the corrosive earth is also a half of the earth that has
lost its Aqueous. The former is the Aqueous in the earths, the latter
the Earthy itself separated from the former.

645. The corrosive force is therefore no peculiar action in nature, but
only the effort made by the earths to complete themselves and imbibe
water or acid. The corrosive force is no synthesis, but a moiety.

646. A total earth may be therefore regarded as a combination of acid
and corrosive body. These two component parts are separable in the
calcareous and talcose earths; but in the argillaceous and silicious
earths they are so intimately dissolved, that they can not be separated
from each other.

647. Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, but not oxygen, fall or range upon
the corrosive side of the earth in question.

648. Regarded in this general manner the corrosive principle stands
opposite to the principle of combustion, and what is combustible, is
in idea corrosive. The corrosive power is, however, but feeble in the
gaseous nitrogen, stronger in hydrogen and finally strongest in the
body of earth. The earthy carbon is the proper corrosive principle.
The direct antagonism is not therefore between the corrosive body and
oxygen, but between it and the carbonic acid, and therefore between it
and all the acids, or acidity generally. The last earthy antagonism is
that between the corrosive body and acid.

649. The corrosive body regarded specially as simply a pure earthy
body, must stand opposite to the two moveable elements. The corrodent
is therefore constantly striving to draw water and air into itself, and
upon this depend also the effects produced by the corroding matters.
The corrosive calcareous earth acts in a destructive manner, it
abstracts water and air from bodies. The action of the corrosive body
is a deprivation of water and air, and hence the elevated temperature
of burnt lime in water. If again the corrosive lime be full of water
and air, it is neutralized. It is now forsooth again a total earth, in
a mechanical sense being again provided with water and acid. All earths
are an equal or identical mixture. Acids and alkalies are thus to be
regarded in this respect as moieties, and thereupon their chemical
relation appears to depend. The elemental bodies are desirous to
complete themselves. If therefore a base stands in corresponding import
with a certain acid, it will thus have a greater affinity for the
latter, tending to separate it from some other combination. Upon this
principle, which has indeed been hitherto unknown to exist, the grades
of affinity appear to depend.

650. As regards the mode of occurrence of the calcareous earth, it
also is not of so mechanical a nature as is generally supposed. Its
legitimate relation to sandstone and other precipitations, speak
against that. But crystallization has for the most part disappeared in
it; and it is only in cavities that crystals shoot out, like the ores
in metallic veins. In granite the commencement is crystal, but in lime
it is the termination; crystallization determines the character in
granite, in calx or lime, however, the crystals are only blossoms.

651. The calcareous earth multiplies itself as a reduction of the earth
of gravity and that indeed three times. There exists, so to speak, a
corrosive silicious as also argillaceous and talcose earth. The three
corrosive earths are calcareous earth, strontian and baryta, or it may
be said that the first would be salt, the second Inflammable, and the
third, metal.

652. Still a polar separation emerges in the stratified calx, while
the two earth-principles become more individualized. The carbonate of
lime ranks on the lowest stage. In this, however, the differencing
process of light had not remained stationary, but elevated the carbon
to a higher grade; carburetted hydrogen and sulphur originate in the
calcareous earth combined as gypsum, with oxygen.

653. It may be said, that calx were decomposed into alkali and carbon;
water into oxygen and acid. Carbon and oxygen become carbonic acid in
limestone. Carbons and hydrogen become sulphur, combined with oxygen
sulphuric acid in gypsum. Hydrogen and oxygen become hydrochloric acid
in common salt.

654. Gypsum is to be regarded as a calcareous earth, which is
inflammable in character, as the fundamental earths were metallic.
The philosophical essence of gypsum consists not in its oxydation
by sulphuric acid, but in the combination of calcareous earth with
sulphur, as occurs in that of iron-spar with iron; in this combination,
however, the carbonic acid has still remained, whereby the sulphur
became acid. The gypsum was therefore a carbonaceo-sulphate of lime, an
oxydized metal with a very large proportion of calcareous earth.

655. Gypsum and chalk are related polarwise to each other, separate
during the general precipitation, and are deposited opposite to, or
alternately upon, each other.

656. In fluor-spar, apatite and boracite the last differentialization
of lime and carbonic acid is lost. The principal masses are the
carbonate and sulphate of lime.

657. The strata of the Inflammables, such as of pit-coal, and of the
ores, as of iron, calamine, appear to have originated in simply a
mechanical manner.


658. The precipitating process is a process of polarization, which
comprises several stages. In it there are moments of time.

659. If the fluid mass be large, this polarization will then require
considerable time to penetrate throughout it.

660. The polarizing process will issue from a definite point, which
is different from water, and thus form the point upon which the light
operates with greatest force.

661. This is solid ground. During the calcareous precipitation, there
was no other ground present save that of the mountain tops. It was
thus from these that the calcareous precipitation set out.

662. With each precipitation a greater number of mountain tops made
their appearance, because the water sank; for the calcareous earth is
about three times denser than water.

663. Such being the conditions belonging to the sedimentary periods,
several consecutive centuries characterized by precipitations with
repeated recessions and elevations of the water, elapsed and have left
evidence of the time thus consumed.

664. The recession of the water was not always an ebbing or sinking
in, but a diminution or disappearance of the same, like the water in
a glass lessens in quantity, or becomes thoroughly solid, if salt
crystallizes therein.

665. By such precipitations whole basins of land became dry or freed
from sea-water. Streams therefore of fresh water originated, and with
them corresponding organizations.

666. These streams gradually filled the basins and formed seas. As the
seas coalesced by the constantly descending water, an inland sea arose.

667. This inland sea became again salidified, and that indeed of itself
by the influence of light and the dissolution of the salt-banks, which
were not overflown. Such is still the Caspian sea and others of that
kind. In these marine plants and animals could again originate.

668. Thereupon new precipitations of salt succeeded, the gypsum and
calx being again dissolved, and consequently diminutions also of water,
whereby rivers again originated. One and the same basin of land was
alternately covered with fresh and saline water.

669. Marine and fresh-water animals could therefore originate and
perish alternately. And this is the explanation of the fact why banks
inclosing both kinds of animals are found above and below each other.

670. An alternating ingress of the sea is not therefore necessary in
all cases to explain the occurrence of marine fossil remains. Such an
assumption is also wholly inconceivable. Nor is alternating elevation
and depression of the soil necessary to the explanation of this

671. During the time of precipitation the temperature of the water and
consequently of the earth and air also was necessarily raised. All
creatures, which then originated, must correspond therefore to those of
warmer climates.

672. The fossil remains do not require the assumption of a change
having taken place in the inclination or bearing of the earth's axis;
nor of a heating of the surface by a fiery interior.

673. With every later precipitation other animals and plants must
originate, because the temperature and also the mixture of water was
changed. The fossils therefore indicate the age of the sedimentary

674. During the last precipitations the creatures of colder climates
must have originated.

675. Land animals cannot, or but rarely, be found in the sedimentary
strata, if even they had already been in existence prior to their
formation. For the inundations did not break in suddenly, but the water
rose by degrees. They had time therefore to retire to the high grounds.

676. Land plants may, on the contrary, lie in the sedimentary strata,
because of their inability to escape.

677. The bones of birds and men must be found least of all fossilized,
because a retreat by them was most easily effected. It does not follow,
from our not finding them, that they have not existed.

678. The different fossil remains have therefore not simply lived,
where they are found, but originated there also. Some of course may
have been floated also to these localities.

679. The inundations of water were in general necessary, because basins
of land and precipitations were everywhere present; but not all on that
account at the same time.

680. In this sense there was a general flood, a deluge, namely, for
every land.

c. _Air-formation._


681. Vapours and gases of different kinds may be contained in the
interior of the earth in two ways, either chemically combined as
carbonic acid, or mechanically inclosed in cavities of the earth.
Both may be developed, or expanded by calefaction, and the latter by
diminution of pressure.

682. If those that are chemically combined be developed by calefaction,
they then form vesicular spaces in the masses of earth whereby the
latter are extended and raised above the surface; such as amygdaloid,
basalt and others of this kind.

683. Warm springs may originate by subterraneous processes, chemical or
volcanic; probably, too, by the compression of air that has forced its
way into these situations.

684. Earthquakes may indeed originate in different ways; as in addition
to the falling in of cavities, by the chemical development also of
gases, by their subjection to heat, by aqueous vapours, and also by the
sudden diminution of pressure upon these incarcerated gases.

685. This diminution of pressure proceeds from sudden rarefaction
of the atmosphere--due probably to the disappearance of air in a
particular place, or resulting from a change of the wind, or the
formation of heavy rain. Earthquakes can therefore extend through many
countries, without requiring to depend upon each other or on a common
focus of action.

686. The silicious trap is silicious sinter, tripoli and polierschiefer.

687. The argillaceous trap, amygdaloid, clinkstone, several porphyries.

688. The talcose trap, basalt.

689. The calcareous trap, probably chalk.

d. _Fire-formation._


690. Volcanoes are secondary combustions of masses that have originated
through the primary combustion, and are therefore only of local
occurrence. Such combustible masses are without doubt bodies belonging
to the class of Inflammables, and thus carbons, sulphur, sulphuretted
metals. Simply burning gases would throw up on high the masses of
earth, but not heat them to the degree of fusion.

691. By the heat of these combustions the masses of earth have been
fused, forming lavas. The silicious lavas are obsidian, pitch-stone.
The argillaceous lavas are the kinds usually met with. Next come the
talcose lavas. The calcareous lavas are probably dolomite.


692. Metallic-ores and Inflammables are products of the planet, when
completed, and have not originated along with the origin of the latter,
like the earths. The question accordingly arises, what have been the
forces by which the metals and Inflammables were produced.


693. Fissures in rocks, so narrow that they cannot be illuminated by
the sun, are called passages or _veins_. They are rarely found in
granite, appear generally for the first time in gneiss, more rarely
in the later kinds of rocks, and almost cease to be met with in the
stratified chain of mountains. They are found principally in mountains,
and thus in masses of earth which project above the level land. We must
thus arrive at the conclusion that they have there originated by actual
fissure, and that indeed for this reason, that masses which project
or stand freely out would admit of yielding asunder more easily than
the masses of the plains. This fissure may take place by mechanical
disruption, by land-slips, or even also by desiccation.

694. The veins are not prolonged into the kind of rock that underlies
them, as e. g. gneiss veins into granite, and so on; they have hence
originated from above.

695. They are open and wider above and strike out below; they have not
therefore originated by a force acting from beneath.

696. In the schistose rock they form generally transverse fissures.

697. There was a time in which the veins stood empty, as well as a time
in which the primary valleys were empty, namely unreplenished with
gneiss, mica-schist, and such like minerals.


698. Geogeny takes two directions; the one passes upon the periphery
into the splitting action of light, the other into the abyss, where
darkness reigns.

699. The valleys were the condition that conduced to the
differentialization of the earths, because in them light had power
to produce the highest polarity. By the valleys the Earthy has been
separated into its principles; silex has separated into clay and talc,
to which finally carbonate calcareous earths and salts succeeded.

700. The Earthy cannot subsist in its identity in the broad valleys;
the earth cannot be represented as the pure symbol of gravity. All
bodies that have originated upon the _surface_ of the planet are oxydes
or salts.

701. If the earth-difference be generated in the illumined valleys, so
must the earth-identity be produced in the dark valleys; for it is the
absence of light alone that allows the purely Basic to subsist. This
earth generated out of gravity is the ore.

702. The ore is a child and a treasure of darkness; where light is, it
must vanish; it cannot endure its gaze. Metal when exposed to day is
given up to annihilation, to oxydation.

703. Darkness is, however, no power, and can consequently be only the
opportunity, not the cause of anything's happening. Other forces,
instead of that of light, must have therefore operated in the
production of ores. In order to discover these forces the relations of
the ores must be carefully weighed or considered.

704. The ore is in a philosophic sense a reduced earth, and so reduced
indeed that the basic principle has obtained the preponderance over the
oxygenic or supporter of combustion, and attained unto substantiality.

705. In light, in the water forsooth when illuminated, the two
earth-principles were already divided internally, but not completely
separated; salt only originated, namely an acid and alkali.

706. The ore is, however, a salt wholly reduced, and indeed the reduced
alkali has become metal, the reduced acid with the basis of hydrogen,
Inflammable, namely, coal or sulphur.

707. Now as light was not able to produce such a separation in the free
or full sense of the term, forces must thus have been present in the
dark passages, which completed this separation.

708. Ore and Inflammable are the total salt dissevered, and this is the
dissolution of the two; the former are blue and yellow, the latter is
the compound green.

709. The processes of the formation of salt and of ore are both indeed
processes of separation, but yet they stand opposite to, or rather
transcend each other. Both mutually conditionate each other.

710. While the earths submitted to the action of light upon the surface
of the planet are converted into salt, the process of the formation
of ore takes place in the dark or under the earth; or while above the
oxygen is predominant, the basic body is that below. The ore imparts
upon a large scale its oxygen to the salt, and the salt bestows its
basic body on the ores.

711. No ores could originate in the middle of the earth were light even
to have no access thereunto. For not merely do earth and darkness
belong to the genesis of the ore, but earthy water like as unto salt.

712. The ore is not a conversion of earths that have already existed,
or been actually separated; but it originates first of all during the
process of separation. Where ore is, fluid has thus been, and polarity,
which is not directly derived from light. The ore is a mere child of
the planet, a pure terrestrial essence generated without the joint
assistance of the heaven, and therefore the highest substantiality of
the planet, the spirit of the earth.

713. What gneiss and mica-schist, calx and salt, are in the bright
valleys, such is the ore in the dark valleys; the former are the
differenced ore, and this is their identification.

714. There is no peculiar metallic body or seed, which had already
existed in the primary creation as something special or peculiar,
and which by one process only, as perhaps even by its gravity,
was precipitated or posited from the fluid mass. One and the same
substance, if found exposed in a valley to the light, becomes earth;
but ore when it is in a dark passage.

715. Of a certainty neither clay, sand, talc, or calx become metal.
For these are at once definitions of the spirit, words that have been
already completed and expressed, and cannot be recalled; so also the
ore will not again become clay, even if it be submitted to light. The
indeterminate substance only, which under other conditions might have
become clay, becomes in the darkness ore.

716. What is not in idea, prior to the adjustment or fixation of a
pole, reduced to ore, can on no account become that out of an already
finished mass of earth. Conversions of earth into ore by chemical arts
are labours bestowed in vain.

717. Yet if ores do originate, they originate only out of the
indefinite Basic, which is still in the water, just as trap stones
originate not from a stony dust that pre-existed, but out of the pure
indifferent substance of the air.

718. The veins and the formation of ore are one, as are the valleys
with the calcareous and salt formations; and he who asks how has the
ore originated, must forthwith inquire as to what is the essence of the

719. The ore has not originated externally to the veins and been at
some time or other conducted into them by means of water. For how
should it thus originate? The reply is, a specific action must have
been at work in the fluid, which determined it to separate ore and
nothing else. But where is this ore-forming action in the free space
of water? Nowhere. And if also the ore had been separated or diffused
throughout the whole mass of water, what a world-wonder is it that
it merely flowed into the veins and some stockworks? What prevented
it from filling in large masses the broader valleys? The mechanical
theorist upon metallic veins must assume an attraction on the part of
the veins for the ore-particles in water; but how could this attraction
have drawn these particles for miles in extent out of the water? and
were this action strong enough, it must still be gifted with greater
power to produce or at least separate the ore out of the water, that is
found in the empty spaces formed by the veins.

720. Since ore has on a large scale separated from the calcareous and
salt formations like the Identical from the Different, it has done
so also upon a small scale in the veins. There the same process of
separation has preceded it.

721. Now, however, nothing can be separated, i. e. nothing be reduced,
without the oxygen accumulating upon something else. The Earthy must
therefore separate during the formation of metal into the Reduced and

722. The reduced earthy is the metal or inflammable; the peroxydized,
however, an earth proper. This earth is called _vein-stone_.

723. The ore has _only_ originated in opposition to the vein-stone,
and when this has taken the Different of the Earthy into itself.
Therefore the vein-stones are also different from the kind of rock in
which they occur, and that through greater differentialization; they
have even receded for the most part into acid and alkaline poles, as
calc-spar, fluor-spar, heavy-spar, which are the usual vein-stones.
All vein-stones are oxyds and as a rule, those in which the oxygen is
freely manifested, namely as acid. The vein-stones were the sheath of
the ore, which could first appear when this sheath had withdrawn itself.

724. The metal stands in relation to the vein-stone. Thus in
argillaceous vein-stones we commonly meet with iron, manganese; in the
quartzoze with gold; in the calcareous with lead, &c. There are here
also extremes. There are vein-stones, called sterile veins, in whose
antagonism no metal has been formed; and there are veins, that are
merely filled with metal, such as the Stockwerke, Lager.

725. Since the ore and the vein-stones thus originate together, and in
such a manner that they conditionate each other; their fundamental mass
must have been one, and a separating force, which is not light, must
have operated upon them.

726. Moreover, as the ores occur only in narrow spaces with their
vein-stones and both form alternating tables upon the walls of the
veins, they must have been attracted by the latter.

727. The walls of the vein consequently exert a polar influence upon
the ore and vein-stone. Now, if this be their mode of action, they must
be in a condition to separate the fundamental mass.

728. It is thus the vein themselves, which, by a vital force, produce
the metals; they are thus a living womb, or matrix as it has been
emphatically termed.

729. Two walls in close juxtaposition are requisite for the production
of metal. Upon a freely exposed wall or face of rock no metals are

730. By this separation, however, two kinds of minerals originate,
Inflammables, and ores proper or metals. The action of the walls must
be therefore of a twofold nature.

731. But two cases also are conceivable, in accordance wherewith this
polarity of the vein admits of being divided. It subsists either quite
alone between the two walls, as surface-polarity or electricity; or
it subsists between the mediate point of the earth and the walls,
constituting centroperipheric polarity or magnetism.

732. The product of the surface polarity are the Inflammables, of the
radial polarity the metals.

733. Since no more metals and Inflammables originate at the present
day, although magnetism and electricity are in continual operation;
a third influence moreover must have been in constant activity. Now
this cannot be thought of as any other than _heat_. The metals must
thus have originated while the earth was still in a glowing state, and
when thus also magnetism and electricity could operate more powerfully
towards effecting a reduction of the mass. By heat the mass in the
veins was probably converted into gas, through which its separation
by means of magnetism and electricity into ore and transition earth
could more easily take place. The metals are thus sublimations, which
were first deposited, when the earths or rather the mountain-stock
began to cool. Thus also zeolithic crystals were deposited in the upper
stores of mines. Metals are thus the children of heat, of magnetism
and electricity; the heat renders the mass in a fit state for being
separated in the next place by the polar forces.

734. Metal is carbon completely reduced, which contains nothing more
of the other elements in itself, namely, neither hydrogen nor oxygen.
It is consequently the Basic of the earth-element without material
admixture, and thus is earth with the properties of its prototype, of
fire or of gravity, of light and of heat.

735. In accordance with this interpretation metal can be produced by no
other process than the centro-peripheric. Its occurrence in fissures of
the earth that are mostly perpendicular likewise proves this.

736. In the deeply situated veins, therefore, the more identical or
purer formations of ore must occur; while, on the contrary, in those
situated higher up or exposed to the day, i. e. in closer proximity to
the water, air and light, the more different or compound formations of
ore must be produced.

737. The four classes of ores occupy a position in the veins tolerably
accordant with these relations; an additional proof that they have
originated in the vein and not been floated into it by the action of

738. The production of ore which occurs in the _upper_ parts of the
veins, furnishes us with the saline ores; for here the water, air
and earth are principally active. In the upper depths are found most
frequently the oxygenized metals, or as they are called mineral spars,
as spathic-iron, malachite, calamine, lead-spar, pyromorphite, &c.
Finally, the metallic or ore-spars actually pass over into salts, and
by the horn-silver ores into the vitriols. They are for the most part

739. The salt-formation of the ores has always decreased in proportion
to the light having less access to it, and hence in greater depths,
or in wholly mountainous masses. There the ore has not been deposited
as a light-difference, but only as a Terrestrial, just as the earths,
especially the calcareous earth, have obtained the same. It has not
attained to a complete evolution of the polar body so as to constitute
an acid, but the two principles have only emerged opposite to each
other. They are oxydized ores, consequently those among the ores,
that represent the character of earths, namely, the ochres. They are
frequently uncrystallized.

740. So far the appearance of these ores is thoroughly earthy and
devoid for the most part of metallic lustre; finally, the genesis of
the ore turns upon the side of the identity, the principle of gravity
having secured itself wholly in the depths, previous to the adverse
accession of water and light. In such situations nothing more than
heat and the centro-peripheric polarity of the vein-wall operates. The
Metallic recedes wholly from the salt and from the earth. The oxygen
disappears, but in its place comes sulphur, and the sulphuretted ores
originate, e. g. the bi-sulphurets of iron, blendes, glance-ores.

741. Lastly, every combination or influence of the other elements and
mineral-classes vanishes; acids, oxygen and sulphur are no longer
generated in the perfectly dark depths, and the ore stands there in its
entire identity, homogeneous, resplendent and heavy as the sterling
metal. The same results from sublimation. The heavier metals remain
below, the lighter ones and the sulphur ascend.

742. As the orders of earth are placed in the veins, so also are the
different metals themselves; for the cause of genesis is alike in both.

743. The earth-like metals, as iron, manganese, &c. which occur
constantly oxydized, are usually found upon the surface of the planet;
the hydroid or water-like, as lead, tin, lie usually deeper; the aeroid
or air-like, as arsenic, zinc, exhibit pretty nearly the same relations
as the sulphur metals; lastly, the pyroid or fire-like, e. g. the noble
metals such as gold and silver occur frequently in great depths and not
unfrequently in granite; the two preceding metals generally occur in
gneiss, but the first even in younger or more recently formed rocks.

744. As a certain regularity prevails in the arrangements of ores and
of metals in the veins, so also does this hold good in respect to their
distribution over the planet.

745. The more the polar earths are separated and deposited in the
broad valleys exposed to light, by so much the more in quantity and
of greater purity is the ore produced in its own valleys of darkness.
The first effect, however, happens through the power of the sun; the
more powerful therefore its influence, although indirect, so much the
greater in quantity and purity is ore produced in the depths. The
greatest quantity of ore and that of the noblest kind was inevitably
generated beneath the equator. There also more lime as well as more
salt are probably found upon the surface of the water; towards the
north the oxydized metals, or the whole series of iron-metals, were
produced. In the Temperate Zones we find more lead, zinc, bismuth and

746. Thus the theory itself of ores furnishes us with a proof, such as
the theory of the earth that has been hitherto entertained could not
afford, that the equator forsooth has since the formation of the metals
not been displaced. The metals formed themselves cotemporaneously
with the gneiss, and have thus begun to form prior to the existence
of the organic world. It is therefore a vague opinion, devoid also of
foundation, that since the earth has been inhabited by animals, even by
the higher or hair-clothed vertebrata, its axis has been changed.

747. No earthly phenomenon speaks so clearly and loudly against the
mechanical theories in the natural sciences as ore. Not only has the
whole planet been included in the ore, but also the whole of science,
the whole of philosophy.

748. The first transition of the Earthy into the metallic character
is indicated by iron. Iron ranks next to earth, especially to the
argillaceous earth, is everywhere associated with it and is most
generally distributed, being mixed with almost every earth and even all
organic bodies, to their very elements.

749. The whole series of metals has but _one_ root. What the primary
earth is for the metamorphosis of earths, that is iron for the metals:
it is their silicious earth.

750. The iron as being the first transition from the Earthy into
the Metallic has the highest grade of fusion, and all metals which
approximate to this, belong to the retinue of iron. This grade may be
set down as 20,000F.

751. As iron is the root of all metals, so every division or group of
ore has a principal metal, which occurs in more considerable quantity
than the rest and characterizes the division. Among the saline ores,
copper under the form of malachite is the principal metal. Its fusing
point is 6000F. Among the sulphurous ores, _lead_ is the chief metal;
it has with its neighbours the lowest grade of fusion, which may be
set down in round numbers as 600F. Among the volatile, arsenic is the
principal metal.

752. Among the standard metals, silver is the principal metal; it has
with its affinities a fusing point, which ranges midway between that of
iron and lead, being probably about 5000F.

753. There are four grades of fusion of the metals, which are removed
from each other by very wide intervals, between which no metal is
situated. Quicksilver is fluid at the temperature of the air and
becomes volatile like arsenic. Moreover the artificial metals are
associated with the alkalies and acids. Lead, with its congeners, melts
at 500F.; silver with gold and copper at 5000; iron, platinum and such
like at 20,000.

754. There are four metallic characters, which are shown to be peculiar
in all their relations, in their affinities for oxygen, acid, and
sulphur, in respect to specific gravity, fusibility, extensibility, in
their electric relation, in mode of fracture, in occurrence, age, and
geographical distribution, &c.


755. It is a remarkable fact that the principal metal of the elemental
metals, obtains mostly by oxydation or acidification poisonous
properties, while the proper earth-metal, iron, acts beneficially upon
the animal organization. Among the water-metals lead becomes poisonous
by acidification; among the fire-metals mercury. Among the air-metals
arsenic ranks highest, becoming poisonous by mere oxydation. Among the
earth-metals, only one among the salt-metals is poisonous, and that is

756. The metals thus appear to become poisonous, when they enter into
or put on the character of salt, or of water.

757. The above are also those very metals, which unite most readily
with the others, to form alloys, amalgams or metallic compounds. Copper
is very readily alloyed; lead almost always contains silver; mercury is
susceptible of amalgamation; arsenic metallizes the others almost like

758. The air-metals appear to have lost for the most part the metallic
character; arsenic therefore destroys also magnetism.

759. The essence of metallic poison thus appears to reside in the
endeavour on the part of the metals to suppress the metallic character
and convert themselves into the formless elements. The metallic poison
is the direct opponent of the metals themselves, and through this, of
everything that has form, and thus of the Organic also.


760. Two actions are necessarily manifested in iron, one clearing or
dividing in so far as it is earth, and one to be identifying, in so
far as it is metal. Iron is the fluctuation between oxydation and
reduction, between light and gravity, and this conflict of the two
latter is _Magnetism_. Magnetism is the spiritual function of the

761. Magnetism belongs essentially to the metals only. What is not
metal, is magnetic only according to idea or signification; it may be
therefore aptly said, that such a body hath no magnetism, and that what
has it, were metallic.

762. Magnetism is the direct property only of iron; this alone is the
hybrid or heterogynous metal.

763. Magnetism appertains only to the other metals in as far as they
are positions of iron; and is the more powerful, the nearer they stand
in relation to iron. All metals are magnetic in idea, whether magnetism
be manifested in them or not.

764. All metals have originated through magnetism, through the radial
polarity, or the conflict of light and gravity. Magnetism is the
action betwixt light and darkness, periphery and centre. Magnetism as
being a metalgenerating action tends towards the centre of darkness
of gravity. What in the earths and salts is the duplex tendency of
crystallization, is in the metals the identifying magnetism, as an
everlasting operation of attraction.

765. Magnetism is still, however, not identical with gravity. Gravity
is the centre abstractedly from the periphery; but magnetism is the
centre only in relation to the periphery or light.

766. Polarity belongs to the essence as well as the genesis of
magnetism; the metal subsists only through a constant resistance
against the universal process of oxydation, against the developmental
process of the earth-principles, which the metal is always striving to
conceal. The metal is altogether the most mysterious essence of the
planet. This resistance to the disclosure of the Innermost of the earth
is magnetism. Where magnetism has wholly attained this concealment, it
renders the metal perfectly free and disappears, because it has become
completely embodied. In the noble metals it has attained what it is
still seeking in iron.

767. Magnetism is a linear action with two different extremities,
like the primary radius. By one extremity magnetism runs towards
the identical centre, by the other towards the partite, electrical
periphery, towards the oxydized earths. One extremity will reduce, the
other oxydize; one will become metal, the other earth. This is the
difference between north and south pole, the former centre, the latter

768. There is no peculiar magnetic fluid, any more than there is a
matter of light, heat and electricity. In magnetism the spirit only of
the earth appears, as in light the spirit of heaven.

769. Magnetism is a constant process of excitation. This process of
excitement is the process of imparting and of propagation. Magnetism
has not been given, but excited. It breathes life into the iron bar,
whereby the latter awakes, and that is magnetism.

770. Every action, which induces differences in a line of iron,
renders it therefore magnetic; thus electricity, unequal calefaction
and a blow, whereby it is thrown into a state of vibration. An iron bar
planted perpendicularly becomes magnetic, because it is then a radius
to the earth. From the same reason it becomes magnetic, if placed in
the magnetic meridian.


771. If all metals are in idea magnetic; so must the metallic veins, as
products of magnetism, be magnetic lines. Every vein has a north and a
south pole.

772. As every vein is a magnetic line or magnetic needle upon a large
scale; so must two veins abutting against each other represent likewise
a magnetic tension. A mountain of ores is a net of numerous magnets
interlacing each other. As one vein is related to the other, so must
one metalliferous mountain be related to the other; and thus two
mountains of this character stand in magnetic polarity with each other.
The whole earth is surrounded by a magnetic net.

773. As every metal, every vein, every rock is in miniature a
magnet, so must the earth be a magnet upon a large scale. There is a
_Terrestrial magnetism_.

774. This magnetism belongs only to the earth only in so far as it
possesses a metallic quality, for magnetism is only the spirit of
the metals, not of the other terrestrial bodies, as the earths,
Inflammables, and salts.

775. Magnetism is no general character of the earth, still less of the
whole solar system, except in so far as the metallic principle lies at
the basis of every thing earthy. Magnetism does not operate outwardly
over the earth.

776. The determinants of terrestrial magnetism are the _metallic
veins_, or the metallic beds in the crust of the earth.

777. Terrestrial magnetism has not been produced or determined by
a magnetic nucleus; since a metal in the middle of the earth is a
contradiction. All determinations of terrestrial magnetism depend
upon the nature, character, distribution, number and direction of the
metallic veins or beds.

778. Thus the direction of the magnetic axis of the earth, its
mutability, the declination of the magnetic meridian, the inclination
or dip of the needle, in short every phenomenon without distinction
that concerns magnetism, must be derived from the nature of the
metallic veins. Another momentum does not indeed exist for magnetism.

779. Terrestrial magnetism can only be based upon the polarity of
metallic veins, and this upon the ores they contain. It must therefore
accommodate itself to the distribution of the chief masses of metals,
especially of the idiomagnetic metal. Now it has been ascertained,
that the noble metals are accumulated about the equator, such as gold,
silver, copper, which may be regarded as non-magnetic. In the northern
temperate zones, the mountains contain for the most part metals that
are non-magnetic and semi-noble, as lead, zinc, antimony, which are
usually combined as ores with sulphur. Iron, on the contrary, being the
only magnetic metal, (a fact which is also determined chiefly by the
magnetic needle in terrestrial magnetism) is accumulated in greater
quantity towards the north-pole and becomes always rarer in occurrence
towards the equator. The southern hemisphere of the earth, is indeed
less known in this respect; but, that towards the south-pole iron
reincreases in quantity, is rendered evident by the magnetic needle
when conveyed beyond the equator, inclining to the south-pole. If the
cause of the inclination upon the northern hemisphere be sought for in
the presence of iron, the same must be done in regard to the southern.
The arrangement of the metallic groups from north-to south-pole is
thus; iron, lead, silver, lead, iron.

780. Iron has been deposited at both poles and this in accordance with
the genesis of metals, for iron is a half reduced metal, and must
consequently be subjected to the demi-action only of light. At or
beneath the equator the Ferrogeneous is wholly reduced, and becomes

781. There is obviously, however, less iron at the south-than the
north-pole, because the greatest part of the planet is there covered
with water, and thus in general with less earth less metal also is to
be found. From this alone it may be explained why the magnetic needle
conveyed beyond the equator still remains horizontal and first inclines
about the tenth degree of southern latitude towards the south-pole.

782. The north-pole is thus more energetic than the south-pole, so that
the two poles must be also inversely related to each other. It is only
from this antagonism of the two poles of the earth that we comprehend,
why upon the southern hemisphere the south-pole of the needle dips
towards the earth, and why the needle does not turn completely round.
For if there was an equal quantity of iron in both hemispheres of the
earth, the southern must have the same magnetic pole, and thus attract
the north-pole of the needle; and under the equator the needle must
have actually no direction. The cause of the direction and dip of the
needle rests thus in the antagonism of the two poles of the earth, and
this again in the unequal masses of iron.

783. The action of terrestrial magnetism does not reside in the iron
formation alone, but in its antagonism to the reduced ores. The
terrestrial magnetism is a tension between iron and silver. The lead
imparts the poles.

784. As the earth is a globe, so are the two masses of iron situated
nearer to its axis than the masses of silver and lead. If therefore
the latter exert also any influence upon the direction of the magnetic
needle, yet nevertheless the poles of magnetism must coincide nearly
with the poles of the earth's axis, because the exciters of magnetism
operate in this direction.

785. The magnetic meridian runs indeed in general from pole to pole,
but as it is not the earth's axis, which determines the magnetism, but
the metallic masses, so the direction of the meridian deviates from
the earth's axis in accordance with these masses.

786. The magnetic needle can therefore assume a different direction on
every part of the earth, according as its relative position is varied
between two principal masses of metals, and even as is indicated by the
movement of the compass with the change of geographical longitudes,
it is removed from one metallic mass, approaches another, and by
this becomes more powerfully attracted. Upon the whole, however,
the direction must tend toward the poles. Such are the phenomena of
_declination_ of the magnetic needle; and we can now comprehend why
this is present.

787. But there must be also spots upon the earth, where the needle
points straight to the north, probably, when it is between two metallic
masses, or stands at a certain angle to them. These are the _lines
without declination_, of which there are many as is well known, but
which have not as yet been reduced to any law. Nor can they ever be so,
because we shall never become acquainted with the metallic beds.

788. As the solid land, so far as it projects out of the water, forms
a horse-shoe figure, of which the two Americas represent one leg,
Europe with Asia and Africa the other leg, the sea being interposed
between them; so must the lines without declination fall principally
in the ocean, between the earth's crura. Moreover as both these crura
of the earth are unequal in size, so must the one influence the needle
more than the other, and in this respect also there can be therefore
no regularity in the lines without declination. Thus everything
co-operates, to the effect of rendering the direction of the magnetic
needle unequal; such as the distribution of metalliferous mountains, of
masses of iron, of the earth's hemispheres, of the earth's crura, and
inversely the earth has probably obtained this horse-shoe form through
magnetism. The cavities of the earth probably do not fall in there,
because the ground, namely the mountains, is supported by metallic
plates. On this account the earth probably maintains an oblique
position in her course. In accordance with this the earth's axis had
first changed, when the metals were generated. According to this also,
the sea had rushed in first, when the metallic veins were present.
Lastly, in accordance with this, the metals would be generated, when
the whole earth was still covered, and the veins filled with water.
Unto such conclusions the philosophy of nature can alone conduct us.
The cause of a horse-shoe magnet acting more powerfully than any other
shaped instrument, resides probably in the form of the earth's crura.

789. The magnetic meridian varies, however, not only according to
places, but times also. This is explicable from the mutation of metals
under the poles, as well as under the equator and in the temperate
zones. Processes of oxydation and reduction are always occurring, the
more too if the water recedes and tracts of land become dry. To this,
culture, the clearing of woods, the draining of swamps and probably
mining operations themselves conduce.

790. It must besides be clear to every one, who has learnt to look upon
nature as a whole, that the numerous metallic masses of metal upon the
earth are not indifferent to the genesis of metal, that they are not
foreign to iron; but that they stand invariably in one relation to it,
which can only be magnetic; for therein only are they metals.

791. Magnetism is an infinity of tensions spread over the whole earth,
of which the tension towards the axis is but the principal, not the
sole, tension. The expression hereof is the net of metallic veins.

792. Every magnetic line consists of an endless number of shifting
poles; for every magnetic line can be but the metatype of terrestrial



793. Coal and sulphur may be regarded as the representatives of the
Inflammables, making their appearance in the carbonic acid of lime, and
the sulphuric acid of gypsum, just as the metals did among the alkalies.

794. The Inflammables are accordingly associated with the acids or the
salts, the ores with the earths. It may be said that the former are
reduced acids, the latter reduced earths.

795. The Inflammables are consequently those that succeed next to the
salts or water-minerals. Their determining element is in this respect
also the air; that of the ores is therefore the fire.

796. The Inflammable, as being the reduced acid, must have the
strongest affinity for oxygen. A body, which by its own force, attracts
the oxygen from the air, so that it appears luminous, is called

797. The generating spirit of the Inflammables coincides with the
spirit of air, and thus with electricity. The generating spirit of
metals coincides with the light; it is the radial action in the
Massive, or magnetism.

798. Electricity has become embodied in the Inflammable, i. e.
idioelectric; in metal, light has become embodied, i. e. idiomagnetic.

799. Now, as the Inflammable exists under two forms, with the
preponderance of the earth-nature as coal, and with that of the
air-nature as sulphur, so must the electricity appear fixed chiefly in
the latter. This fixation is the idioelectricity.

800. As electricity is in its essence a constantly dualized agent, so
can only one pole belonging to it become fixed. In sulphur this is what
has been called the _negative_ pole.


801. As the air stands opposed to the earth, so must sulphur to coal.
The latter is thus endowed with positive electricity.

802. Coal is, however, the fundamental body of the metals. The metals
are consequently related as positive electrics to sulphur. Sulphur is
air-metal or idio-negative; metal is earth-or idiopositive sulphur.
Sulphur therefore occurs almost solely with metals, as iron, pyrites,
glance; yet frequently with arsenic, the metal that resembles it, e. g.
in realgar.

803. Sulphur is the basis of all idioelectrism, and this property
occurs only in bodies, in so far as they are positions of sulphur.

804. Magnetism and electrism are correlated, as iron and sulphur, as
gravity and light, as centre and periphery. The same spirit, which when
ruling in the dark, exhibits itself as magnetic, is manifested when it
has attained to light in sulphur as electrical. Magnetism is only the
electricity identified.

805. We may therefore speak of idiomagnetic metals as well as
idioelectric bodies.

806. Magnetism therefore stands in accordance with these relations in
opposition to electrism; they mutually change or annihilate each other.

807. Electrism has, in accordance with its signification, the power
of manifesting itself with one pole accumulated or set free from the
other, as e. g. the negative in a cake of resin; in magnetism, on the
contrary, both poles are always together and inseparable. The radius is
divided into two in every part of its length.

808. As the functions of metal and of sulphur are correlated, so also
are their substances; they are opposed, and hence the metallization by
means of sulphur with all its results. This antagonism is, however,
dormant or concealed; that of the functions manifests itself much more

809. The metals, as being dense, central, and linear masses, must
fall into a state of tension with electricity as with heat; this is
called conduction. The metals are therefore conductors of electrism. In
antagonism to the conducting power of the metals sulphur is naturally
an _isolator_; for what is idioactive is virtually also isolating.
Iron may be likewise called an isolator of magnetism. There is only
_one_ series of bodies in nature, belonging to the peripheric and
expansive functions, that conducts; the metals only are conductors.
Isolation belongs to the essence of electricity. _Isolating action_ and
_Electricity are one_; for electricity is the surface-function, wherein
the line, which is the only conductor, disappears.

810. Electrism does not tend towards the metals, and can therefore
have no definite direction in the earth; there is neither an electric
meridian, nor an electric equator. There is only an electrical surface
to the earth, and this is alike in all regions of the world.

811. The metals must accordingly stand opposed to sulphur as positive
bodies, if not as idiopositive, yet as such when brought into collision
with sulphur. The metals, when rubbed with sulphur, constantly become
positive, and the sulphur remains negative.

812. The earths also become positive when rubbed with sulphur; in
short, everything which, in the genesis of the earth, ranks below
sulphur, is positive. Heated bodies rubbed with cold, and rough bodies
with smooth, must become negative.

813. Bodies become positive with sulphur, simply because the essence
of sulphur is of a negative character, or because, in other words, it
is nothing else but negativity; the persistency of one pole and the
counter-resistance to every other, is called _isolation_. The metals
are conductors, because they stand opposed to sulphur.

814. Positive isolation only is evolved opposite to sulphur, in zinc,
probably because this belongs to the air-metals.

815. What sulphur is in its series, that is _zinc_ in the metallic
series; the isolating electric rod, with which the other bodies are
associated; the one the positive, the other the negative isolator; in
so far forsooth as one can isolate bodies that have arisen through
linear action. With zinc the other metals become negative, because it
can be nothing else than positive, as sulphur can be none other than
negative. (That this does not hold good absolutely, we need scarcely be

816. Two fixations of electricity thus exist, and from these the
electric phenomena must be derived. So long as we imagine that
electrical proportions run in a continuous line, so long shall we never
be able to avoid contradictions. Two rods stand firmly, and from out
and around these two heaps of bodies form, which in reference to their
electrical relation (according to the experiments hitherto performed)
are naturally exhibited as only _one_ series.

817. Sulphur does not stand alone, but is associated with a series,
especially of the higher Inflammables, bitumens or mineral-resins,
ætherial oils and hydrogen gas. The higher the inflammability ascends,
by so much the more energetic is the negative character, so that,
finally, the sulphur itself becomes positive towards such matters.

818. If in every polar action it can be proved, that each polar line
consists of infinitely numerous poles, and that each point in it
can be alternately changing both polarities, in accordance with the
mutation of the principal poles that exert their influence; so is it in
electricity. There is scarcely a single body which cannot be positive
as well as negative, if it only becomes displaced in its own series, or
is transported into the other.

b. COAL.

819. During the electrical separation of the Basic of the earth, or
during the communication of the aerial character to the Earthy, a body
remains behind with positive character, or the _Coal_.

820. Coal may be regarded as volatilized metal, as a metal which can
change by the action of water or acid upon it into air. Black-lead is a
coal, which is directly associated with the metals.

821. Coal appears therefore less in particular places, than as
expanded into entire rocky masses, as e. g. in the clay-slate and as
carbonic-acid in lime.

822. The coal was, during the earth-formation, separated from the sea,
yet not, or only rarely, by itself, but along with other masses of
earth, while the sulphur rather accompanies the metals. Coal passes
over into the earths, the sulphur into the metals.

823. The volatilized earth or coal, i. e. the earth that has ascended
through water or salt unto air, is associated with a higher kingdom,
and that indeed the general mass of the vegetable kingdom, as is the
case in the pit-coals, which are reversions of plants.

824. As the earths and metals extend into pit-coals, so does sulphur
lose itself in idioelectric, inflammable substances, which are likewise
reversions of a sulphur that has escaped into a higher kingdom. Here
belong the amber, mineral resins and naphthas.

825. There are thus two ways, by which the reduced earthy seeks to
mount aloft; by the carbon, as belonging to the more inert earth;
and the Resinous, as belonging to the more active air. The vegetable
kingdom has its root in the simple earths, especially the hydroid
argillaceous earths; the animal kingdom in the divided calcareous

826. Sulphur is yellow, because it is the earthy that has come to
light, the carbon is black, because it is sulphur volatilized,
moistened in the gloom or darkness of the earth.



827. So long as the basis of the acid is an earthy, such as carbon
or sulphur in the carbonic and sulphuric acids, does the earthy also
obtain the preponderance, and the lime as well as the gypsum or
sulphate of lime are precipitated as insoluble bodies.

828. It is only through the influence of light constantly becoming
more powerful by reason of the solid land under the water that the
oxydation of water rises to the highest degree, so that this element
finally converts itself into an acid, or hydro-oxide. This process
must be regarded as a decomposition of water, whereby a portion of the
hydrogen forms sulphur with the carbon, the rest with the oxygen an

829. The hydro-oxide is hydrochloric acid. This acid must be regarded
as peroxydized hydrogen. Its signification is thus that of being water
itself, or a whole element with a preponderance of oxygen. It attains
this rank by its constituent parts, namely, the two general gaseous
primary bodies, by its distribution as a whole element around the
earth; by its occurrence as an earth-formation in rock-salt; finally,
by its presence in all vegetable and animal juices. Hydrochloric acid
is the type of all acids, as the iron is of all metals. All acids are
but imitations of the hydrochloric. All abide by the signification of
water, or are conversions of elements or earths by oxydation into an
hydroid condition.

830. Between the acidified water and the Earthy a higher antagonism now
emerges. The Earthy separates a part of its carbon from the carbonic
acid and sulphur, so that the rest remains behind peroxydized, and
makes its appearance as an alkali.

831. The alkali is to be regarded as the last conversion of calcareous
earth in respect to water. It is an earth, whose oxygen has converted
itself with a portion of its carbon into acid and been set free; a salt
halved upon the basic side. This general alkali, that has originated in
water, is _soda_ or natrom.

832. Alkali and acid are the last antagonism in the earthy, moieties,
which can never subsist without each other.

833. The alkali is corrosive, because it seeks water and acid, in order
to perfect itself; acid is pungent to the taste, because it seeks earth
or alkali.

834. Their antagonism is the highest antagonism between water and
earth; it is also the representation of the antagonism between fire
and the terrestrial elements, or also between light and gravity.
Therefore this antagonism has a cosmic or universal signification.

835. The combination of this antagonism is the _sea_-or _common salt_.

836. Sea-salt is the universal salt. All other salts are to be regarded
only as metamorphoses of it, as well as the acids only conversions of
the acid of common salt, and the alkalies of soda.

837. The sea-salt is essential to water. It is the product of geogeny,
has not entered the water from without, but been generated in it, and
is constantly being regenerated, so long as light shines upon the sea.
Properly speaking, sea-salt has been in the water from the beginning;
but it was previously shrouded in the other earths, and could act
substantially for the first time, when they had been separated from it.
It has become salt, or water and earth-element by the agency of light.

838. The sea-salt has also been generated in opposition to the
calcareous earths, and during its separation been rendered polar
towards the latter. The salt mines are therefore associated with
the last calcareous formation, the gypsum, and this it is also that
determines their lamination.

839. As it may be said, that the metals separate into coal and
sulphur, namely, pass over at their iron-extremity into coal, at their
arsenical, into sulphur; so may it be said, that the earths separate
into acids and alkalies; the one by the conversion of silica into
fluoric acid, the other by that of calcareous earth into soda. Carbonic
and sulphuric acid take possession of the calcareous earth; the
hydro-oxide of the alkali.

840. The sea-salt has been the last to be separated from, because it
was last generated in, the water. The salt beds belong to the last
precipitation, by not having been mechanically thrown down, but as
already observed and as their occurrence proves, by an alternating
process of separation from the acidified lime. It is absurd to wish to
explain the presence of common salt in the sea by a solution of saline
beds. For where have the latter come from?

841. With the separation of the ore and the Inflammable out of the
primary water and the confluence of the Earthy into marine salt, its
metamorphosis upon the surface or when exposed to light is at an
end. All forms of the planet have been successively developed out of
the earth-element. It can attain no further to anything new, and if
nature had not yet been concluded, that which in the sequel is still
dynamically developed upon our earth, must be thus a product, which
extends beyond the mineral kingdom.

842. As the fundamental earths lose themselves in pure carbon, in
resin, and so in the vegetable world, so the series of corrosive earths
resolves itself likewise in remnants of an organic, and that indeed
the animal, kingdom. As the pit-coals and resins are associated with
the metals and Inflammables, so are the fossil animal remains with
the calcareous earth; and thus the voice of the organic world speaks
already with force and clearness to those that hearken, from out the

843. For the metamorphosis of the earths, nature has twice prepared
herself, has planted at the same time two great points of origin,
according to which all her action is directed, and which remain in
constant correspondence with each other.

844. The main pole is granite. It is at once the primary pole, to which
the second main pole, the lime, is directed. The granite brings the
series through gneiss and mica-schist down to clay-and talc-slate, then
makes a sudden transition to the ores, and terminates at a boundary,
where pit-coals and resins conduct us into a new kingdom.

845. The lime rejects from itself the sand and sedimentary clay,
progresses through barytes and strontian up to gypsum, makes a sudden
bound or transition from thence to the salts, and terminates at a
limit, where corals and molluscous animals conduct us into a new

846. Salt concludes the growth of the earths; it is the eruption
or breaking out of the soul, as the metal was the body of earths
completed. Both finally pass into a higher world, the metal into the
_corporeal_, the salt into the _psychical_.


847. The spiritual activity, the soul of the earth has declared itself
in crystallization, the spirit of the metals in magnetism, that of
the Inflammables in electrism. The calcareous epoch is also the
manifestation of a peculiar activity, whose ultimate product is salt.
It has been already shown what the functions of the latter are, but the
signification of its acts has not yet been mentioned.

848. By the influence of light the water becomes elevated in its
oxygen-action, enters thus into tension with itself, and this
constitutes the tendency to solution which is the function of water.
The oxygenous water solicits the basic principle in the earth; this
issues forth, but still combined with its oxygen that has become free;
the formerly identical earth is a calcareous earth in a state of
tension with itself. What does not admit of being brought into a state
of tension, is thrown down as fundamental earth. Hitherto this process
was a mere process of solution, i. e. it had attained in the solid and
fluid only to tension, not to disseverment of the poles.

849. But the light always renders the water more oxygenous, and
therefore the earth always more basic; finally, the one portion of the
basic in the water, namely the hydrogen, separates itself, and becomes
peroxydized or the hydrochloric acid. A portion of the Basic in the
Earthy, namely the metallic body or carbon, separates itself also, and
the remainder becomes peroxydized or soda. As the calcareous earth
was at first dissolved in, and therefore one mass with, water, so at
present is the alkali also combined with the acid water; while both
dissolved in each other constitute salt.

850. In this process therefore _whole_ elements have been taken only
as _one_ primary body, and they have combined with each other like
the two primary bodies. The water has no longer become an element or
Equiponderant, but an Oxygenous, a true light-body; the earth has
no longer continued a total earth of equal specific gravity, but by
relative peroxydation has become an Aqueous, a Soluble. The salt has
thus from the union of the two lower elements, seeing that each was of
no more value than one primary body, become a _new_ element.

851. This process converts the elements again into their primary
condition, creates new elements and thus actually new matters. It
is therefore a struggle of the elements with their primary bodies,
a separation and interchange of the same. Such a process is called
_Chemism_. This is the essence or interpretation of chemism, viz. the
creation of new elements out of the old, by the reduction of these to
the nature of the primary bodies.

852. Chemism, which separates or combines, ranks a step higher than the
process of solution, which has the power only of heterogynizing, but
not of separating. Thus the electrical spark separates and combines
in combustion, while the tension of air enforces only evaporation.
Chemistry drives the elements to their utmost. In water the oxygen is
the predominating; it becomes, however, perfect first in the acid of
salt. In the earth the body of gravity prevails; but it becomes first
of all predominant in soda.

853. The opposition of the two primary bodies has been represented in
the two inferior elements as chemical tension, and the combination of
these primary elements is a chemical product.

854. Chemism is moreover a process of combustion, in which, however,
a whole element supplies the place of oxygen, and a whole element the
place of the base. It is an elementary process of combustion.

855. Chemism is the metatype of primary creation, both from its being
a material process of combustion, as from its creating new elements.
It is the union of the antagonism between æther and terrestrial matter
occurring within the circle of the terrestrial elements. Chemism is a
true conversion of substances according to their fixation.

856. All chemism takes place only in water; not only because the
particles can move therein, but because chemism is a process of
combustion of the elements themselves. The inferior elements, however,
such as water and earth, can only undergo combustion with each other,
because the two are moreover related to each other as æther and mass;
or as oxygen and base, for the two, so to speak, have become unipolar.
Without Fluid and Solid we cannot think of chemism.

857. The chemism of air is in the beginning electricity and then
the true process of combustion; both are similar, but different in
position. In the process of combustion both elements are unipolar in
the air, thus moieties; but in chemism two elements unite so as to
constitute a Whole. The product of air-chemism is water, as the product
of earth-chemism is salt. Water and salt fall into one position, but
transcend each other, even as the process of combustion invades the
province of chemism. The relation of electrism to chemism has now been
expressed in the clearest manner. The one is chemical tension of air,
but chemism is the electrical tension of earth and water.

858. Chemism is related to magnetism, as salt is to metal, as the
sedimentary to the primary periods. The whole sedimentary period
is a product of chemism, as the whole primary period is a product
of magnetism; salt and metal are only the last evolution of these
periods, and the products for whose sake all the preceding actions and
formations have taken place; granite and lime with their ramifications,
are but the stems, upon which metal and salt are borne as blossoms.

859. Magnetism and chemism are thus the creating agents for the solid
nucleus of the earth, and through both is it completed. The process of
earth-formation is a magneto-chemism.

860. Regarding the earth as an entire crystal, magnetism is the
Determinant of its polar axes and polar radii, while chemism is the
same in respect to its integral parts.

861. All terrestrial action is an interchange of these two functions
or souls, which are none other than the living gravity and the living
light upon the planet. The electricity, like the heat, only maintains
them in eternal tension or extension.

862. Chemism is the process of space, density, quiescent heat;
therefore the latent heat or the temperature must change in every
chemical process. Chemism is related to magnetism, as heat is to
gravity, to electricity like as to light. Crystallization is point,
magnetism line, electrism surface, chemism cube, or expressed according
to their powers: O⁰, O¹, O², O³.

863. Nothing can become solid without taking water into admixture with
it. This water is the water of admixture. Nothing also can assume form,
without taking water into itself--water of crystallization.

864. In so far as magnetism is active in crystallization, it renders
the water identical, basic, and this therefore becomes solid; the water
is not as water in a crystal, but it first becomes so by separation.

865. All chemical processes are based on the union of bodies, which are
elements, but which, like acids and alkalies, have assumed the nature
of the primary bodies.

866. The elective affinities are based upon the polarizibility or
transmutability of the Fluid and the Solid into the primary bodies.
That is decomposed and combined, which during admixture maintains the
animation in the strongest degree unto the origin. What cannot be so
reduced, is precipitated, as is silex. The chemism is a bin-elementary
process, and therefore constitutes the termination of this period
of creation, or of the mineral kingdom. So soon as a tri-elementary
process originates, the products pass over into a new kingdom.





A. _Galvanism._

867. If we take a retrospective glance at the _development_ of the
planet, we find that it commenced with the simplest actions, and
then assumed a more elevated character by gradually drawing together
several actions and letting them work in common. In magnetism the
earth-element alone was active, and this having freed itself from the
other elements by crystallization, asserted itself as a particular
form upon the planet. By this single act of the planet, an extensive
series of positions or numbers originated, which may be called _mineral

868. Up to the formation of the solar system or of the planet, the
character of creation is _analytic_. The three primary ideas emerged
from each other as gravity, light and heat, and appeared as fire.
These three united actions emerged again from each other and became
air, water and earth, which together make up the planet. This was
therefore the descending creation. But from and after this period, the
character of the development of the planet becomes _synthetic_, for the
divided elements again united with each other. By synthesis only or by
combination of the elements does the planet progressively advance,
and by it only does it divide into lesser planetary masses or bodies,
called _individuals_. This is the ascending creation.

869. To the earth-element, in which the active magnetism is isolated,
comes the element-water; and by the identification of both into _one_
body, a new process is evolved, which we have recognized by the term
_chemism_--salt. Then the earth-element combines with air and becomes
an Inflammable, in which the process is likewise extinguished and only
a dead product is left--the Inflammable. Then it combines with fire
and is converted into ore. There never originates therefore from the
twofold combination of the earth-element with any other element, but
one product, that namely in which the Earthy obtains the preponderance,
or a mineral.

870. _Two_ elements only belong to the essence of chemism, and they
indeed are the two lowest, the elements carbon and oxygen, both being
reduced to their primary condition, i. e. to that of an alkali in
natron, and an acid in the hydrochloric or that of common salt.

871. As the principle or rationale of chemical action consists only
in the potentiality of two elements to revert to their polar, or the
oxygenous, condition, this action must thus become extinct, so soon as
the creation of the new or secondary element has resulted. For if the
tension equalizes itself in the two, and the two only be coexistent, so
in accordance with the compensation no new tension can originate, and
yet such is the groundwork of all chemical action. The result of the
chemical process is consequently death; and furthermore, because it is
also a simple bin-elementary process, it cannot be the ultimate goal or
limit attained by the development of the planet.

872. The next stage to which the genesis of the planet ascends consists
in the bin-elementary processes being associated with the _third_
terrestrial element. In this manner a process originates in which the
powers of _earth_ and of _water_ marry or conjoin with the power of
_air_, and thus originates a chemical power or chemism, influenced by
the air.

873. The chemism, when influenced by air, is one of a perpetual
character; for this power dies only because the tension of its two
elements is balanced or equalized; the influence of the air is,
however, none other than the constant renewal of the tension.

874. Now, the process of tension in the air is electrism or that action
in which the two poles being devoid of indifference range opposite to
each other, can therefore never unite, and the end attained by which is
oxydation. The new process is consequently a chemical power constantly
excited by electrism--it is an _electro-chemism_. (Ed. 1st, 1810.) This
composite process is known under the name of _Galvanism_.

875. Hereby the galvanism has been most rigorously and
characteristically separated from the chemism, and the succession of
stages been exactly indicated. By the accession of a single but higher
nature-factor, namely, the air, chemism advances one and _only_ one
stage higher. We have consequently made no leap or abrupt transition
in tracing out our genesis of nature. Magnetism is the uni-elementary,
chemism the bin-elementary, galvanism the tri-elementary process of the
_planet_, in so far as it is occupied with its own evolution, or that
of the _Solid_.

876. Considered in relation to the result and also the internal nature
of the process, galvanism is in no wise different from chemism, but
only in reference to the continuance of the tension. The fluid and
solid are in both the co-equal media or means; the decompositions,
separations and combinations also, are alike in both. The air has no
other office than to sustain the opposition, which in chemism proceeds
through the difference of the two unipolar elements, acid and alkali.

877. The air maintains this animosity of the elements only
by oxydation, and so far takes part in the contest like a
fellow-combatant; yet this invariably happens only while the water is
preserved by these means in its primary condition, that of the acid.
The air breathes life only into the chemical body, without being body
itself. No galvanism therefore continues, if it be denied the access of
air. The chain or column enters it is true into tension also without
air, but remains only for a short time in that state, or so long only
as there is a trace of oxygen in the water.

878. Galvanism, as a tri-elementary process, represents the planet in
its _totality_. The galvanic column is an entire planet, a planet upon
the planet, the planet individualized.

879. The individual, taken in a strong sense, is an entire planet taken
up into Singulars, a triplicity of the elements in the particular or
_special_ unity. In galvanism there consequently issues forth for the
first time an individual, which is equivalent to a cosmic totality.
Galvanism is the metatype of the planet. All other and profounder
processes are not total in character, nor metatypes of a whole system,
but only moieties thereof.

880. The planet, regarded in itself, in its three elements, apart
from its relation to the sun, is a galvanic body, a column, just as
inversely this is a planet.

881. The attributes, which consequently belong to the planet,
abstractedly from the sun, must belong to every galvanic process, or
to such a body. The planet is a Whole included in itself, and thus is
galvanism. The latter acts only in a closed chain, or only by its own
body or its materiality forming _one_ circle that returns into itself.
The three elements are mutually self-excited and moved, and that indeed
from internal causes, though not apart from external conditions. Thus
galvanism is like an individual planet.

B. _Primary Organism._

882. An individual (total, self-included) body, excited and moved by
itself, is called _Organism_. _Organism is what individual planet is._
The metatype of the planet is organism; or a planet upon the planet
is organism. The planet is not itself an organism, because it is not
individual or galvanic in every point.

883. The self-excitation of the individualized elements, is called life.

884. Galvanism is the principle of life. There is no other vital force
than the galvanic polarity. The heterogeneity of the three terrestrial
elements in a circumscribed individual body is the _vital force_. The
galvanic process is one with the vital process.

885. Organism is galvanism residing in a thoroughly _homogeneous mass_.
The galvanic column is no organism, because it only admits the galvanic
process just as the planet does, in individual places. A body only,
which is zinc-pole, silver-pole and moist pulp at every conceivable
point, is an organism. A galvanic pile, pounded into atoms must become
alive. In this manner nature brings forth organic bodies.

886. Electrism has a basis; it is the air. Magnetism has a basis; it
is the metal. Chemism has a basis; it is the salt. So has galvanism a
basis; it is the organic mass.

887. Accordingly, what would be organic, must be galvanic; what would
be alive, must be galvanic. Life is not different from organism, nor
also from galvanism. For life is verily the vital process. But the
vital process is an organic, galvanic process. Galvanism lies at the
basis of all the processes of the organic world. They are either
modifications of it, or only its combinations with other and still
higher actions. A living thing, which is not galvanic, is a nonentity.

888. With galvanism consequently the first step has been made out of
the inorganic into the organic kingdom. Every aught of nature, which
has hitherto originated, is inorganic. These, however, were mere
individualities. The character of the Inorganic consists consequently
in something being a Singular, a moiety, or a metatype of a Singular;
the character of the Organic in its being the metatype of a whole or
round number. Organic things are internal self-exciting numbers; the
inorganic things are fractions.

889. Every fraction is dead. No moiety can attain to life, for it does
not receive its complement. What is simply fluid, cannot be organic,
because it is not the totality of the planet. What is simply solid,
cannot be organic. It is only a third of the organism. Every organism
is produced according to the laws of galvanism, according to the law of
the triplicity.

890. As the terrestrial magnetism is indeed only one, but includes an
infinity of magnets, which are rendered manifest in the progress of the
earth's life; so also in the great galvanism of the earth an infinite
number of subordinate galvanic triplicities reside inclosed, which
become gradually detached, and, instead of the universal galvanism,
represent an infinity of individual galvanisms. The universal galvanism
cannot exist, without establishing itself as an infinity of individual
galvanisms. As magnetism is only associated with the net of metallic
veins, so is the absolute only, with the universality of its finite
positions. The number of organisms is infinite, both in coexistence as
also in consecutive existence.

891. An organism is an individual in the rigid sense of the word,
because it is ruined, so soon as one of its three members parts from
the rest. In this sense only are there properly speaking organic

892. If we do not confine indivisibility to what is mechanical, but
extend it also to the chemical; individuals may be likewise granted
to the mineral kingdom. The minerals are chemical individuals; for by
separation they are likewise annihilated as such, and moreover the
relation of mixture of chemical bodies is not one of an arbitrary
kind. The gray ores are a definite mixture of sulphur and antimony,
and are thereby individuals. The silver, lead, and copper, that
are accidentally mixed in this compound, do not at all alter the
individuality, and by no means prove a capacity residing in the
matters for mixture in all conceivable numbers. Such a mixture would
be a medley only. In plants and animals casual component parts occur
also frequently. Thus the individuality of the ruby-silver appears
to consist in the definite mixture of sulphur and arsenic, with the
addition perhaps of antimony. The silver is only mingled with it,
and therefore present in all numbers. The same holds good of the
bi-sulphurets of iron, and the glance-ores. (Ed. 1st, 1810.)

_Creation of the Organic._

893. It has been demonstrated from the genesis of the Organic, that
its essence consists in the universality of the planetary processes.
Every organic individual has essentially three processes in itself,
which must be regarded as its fundamental processes, whereof no one can
ever be wanting. Seeing, that if this be the case, the body is only a
chemical or magnetic, a crystallized carcase.

894. The first three planetary processes, namely, the earth-process,
water-process, and air-process, or the _forming_, _chemicalizing_, _and
electrifying or oxydizing processes_, are also the first three vital

895. It has been shown, that with every new process and with every
new combination of processes, the materials also of the same were
altered, ennobled, rendered more composite, and thereupon also more
decomposible. Herein also nature advances consecutively and creates new
materials for the organic world.

896. In the metamorphosis of the earths, when the chemism was added to
the process of formation, not only the alkalinity and acidity issued
forth in the calcareous earth and the salts, but the pure Earthy also
became free from fixity, and manifested itself as _carbon_ in the
carbonic acid.

897. The last product of an antecedent stage is always the basis of
that which is subsequent. _The fundamental matter of the organic world
is consequently the carbon._


898. If in this carbon the three processes of the planet, namely, the
formative or its special, the chemicalizing or fluidizing, and the
electrifying or oxydizing, process, concentrate themselves, and are
present with all their energy in every atom of the organic body; so
must the mass of carbon be at the same time solid, fluid, and aerial,
oxydizable in every spot, and thus also _soft_. Now a carbon mixed
identically with water and air is _Mucus_.

899. Mucus is oxydized, hydrated carbon; or expressed in purely
philosophical language, mucus is the universality of the minerals and
elements, or the synthesis of earth, salt, Inflammable, and ore in
water and air.

900. Every Organic has issued out of mucus, is naught but mucus under
different forms. Every Organic is again soluble into mucus; by which
naught else is meant, than that the formed mucus becomes one devoid of

901. _The primary mucus, out of which every thing organic has been
created, is the sea-mucus._

902. Mucus belongs originally and essentially to the sea, and has not
been mixed with the latter through the dissolution in it of putrefying

903. The sea-mucus has originated in the progress of planetary
development, like the calcareous earth has with the carbon and like
the sea-salt. As little as this could have entered the sea originally
through solution of rock-salt; so little could the mucus through the
perishing of animals and plants, for none of these were yet present,
but could be first developed, only with the production of this mucus.

904. The sea-mucus was originally generated through the influence of
light and by the denudation of the crude masses, especially of the
earths and salts, which was thereby effected; while with the metals and
Inflammables ranging opposite to these, the carbon thus became free,
and betook itself as carbonic acid to the water and air. Thus also has
salt been produced.

905. The sea-mucus, as well as the salt, is still produced by the
light. Everything takes place through the differentialization, or by
the absolution of fixed poles on the earth-element. _Light shines upon
the water, and it is salted. Light shines upon the salted sea, and it

906. All life is from the sea, none from the continent.

907. All mucus is endowed with life.

908. The whole sea is alive. It is a fluctuating, ever self-elevating
and ever self-depressing organism.

909. Where the sea-organism by self-elevation succeeds in attaining
unto form, there issues forth from it a higher organism. Love arose out
of the sea-foam.

910. The primary mucus was and is still generated in those very parts
of the sea where the water is in contact with earth and air, and thus
upon the shores.

911. The first creation of the Organic took place, where the first
mountain summits projected out of the water; and thus indeed without
doubt in India, if the Himalaya be the highest mountain.

912. The first organic forms, whether plants or animals, emerged from
the shallow parts of the sea.

913. _Man also is a child of the warm and shallow parts of the sea in
the neighbourhood of the land._

914. It is possible, that Man has only originated on one spot, and that
indeed the highest mountain in India. It is even possible, that only
one favorable moment was granted, in which Men could arise. A definite
mixture of water, definite blood-heat, and definite influence of
light must concur to his production; and this has probably been the
case only in a certain spot and at a certain time.

915. The first men were the littoral and mountainous inhabitants of
warmer countries, and found therefore at once reptiles, fishes, fruit,
and game for food.


916. The number of individual organisms is not persistent. For they
are verily only products of a ceaseless polarization or a constant
evocation of poles in the great galvanism, positions of the general
galvanism in time. Thus, as the poles change, so also do the organic
individuals. The kingdom of organisms is an iron bar, in which the
magnetic poles originate and vanish or change, according as the
polarizing magnet is removed. Organisms change, because they are
numbers, thoughts of God.

917. The process of change in organic individuals is that of their

918. But this destruction is as nothing for nature. There originate
again in the same moment other organisms in other situations. The
process that destroys the poles is only one that effects their change.

919. The world-organism only is eternal, and devoid of change, with the
exception of that which is within its poles. It can itself change with
no other, because it is only one.

920. No individual organism is eternal, because it is only a changing
pole of the world-organism.

921. There is no constancy in the individualities. Change only is

922. The world only is persistent. Nothing in it is constant. Were
individuals not to perish, but live for ever, the world must then die;
for the life of the world, like every life, consists only in the change
of poles. Individuals could in no way therefore continue alive, if
the world were to remain alive, because this is only possible through
change of the individuals, which are its organs; nor could they, were
the world to die, because the totality of individuals is the world

923. Death is no annihilation, but only a change. One individual
emerges out of another. Death is only a transition to another life, not
unto death.

924. This transition from one life to another takes place through the
primary condition of the Organic, or the mucus.

925. If new individuals originate, they could not therefore originate
directly from others; but they must be redissolved into mucus. Every
generation is a new creation.


926. The organism is a metatype of the planet and must also have the
corresponding form. It is the _Sphere_. This results also from the
combination of the three actions, which being in equiponderance could
only produce the globe.

927. The sphere must commence with the idea of the point. For the idea
of the sphere is the idea of the centre, which is a point. The point,
however, is not different from the sphere. It is only the infinitely
small or minute sphere.

928. The primary mucus is globular in form. The primary mucus does not
swell into a single sphere, but it divides into infinitely numerous
spheres. For were it only one sphere, it would be the planet itself.
But it is an individual, or only one sphere in the great sphere. The
idea of the great sphere consists however of an infinity of small

929. The primary mucus consists of an infinity of points. This admits
of being proved by its mode of origin. It is formed on the limit
between water and earth, consequently in a line. This line, however,
becomes constantly dissevered by disquietude, and divides therefore
necessarily into infinitely numerous points.

930. The primary Organic is a mucous point.

931. The organic world commences not merely with one point, but with
infinitely numerous points. Where earth, water, and air are found in
_one_ spot, there also is an organic point.

932. The organic points originate upon the surface of the earth, not
in it, and not in the air. For only between earth and air do all three
elements enter into collision.


933. Through the oxydation of the air an opposition of the component
parts, or of the Fluid and Solid, issues forth in the organic point,
and these mutually conditionate each other. The Fluid and Solid
cannot, however, be otherwise conditioned, seeing that the former
is the Contained, the latter the Containing. The Solid is only a
precipitate from the Fluid wrought by the influence of the air. The
air, however, is externally related to the mucus-point. The Solid can
therefore originate nowhere else than between the Fluid and the air. It
consequently surrounds in accordance with its genesis the Fluid. The
physical cause thereof is naturally the oxydation of mucus upon its
periphery. A globe, the middle of which is fluid, but the periphery
solid, is called a bladder or cyst.

934. The first organic points are vesicles. The organic world has for
its basis an infinity of vesicles. (Ed. 1st, 1813. §. 922.)


935. The mucous primary vesicle may in a philosophical sense be aptly
called infusorium, like as we designate the primary condition of
the embryo, by the word vitellus. Now are we making use of definite

936. Everywhere, where the three elements cooperate, are infusoria
present--thus upon the sea-shore, the tide-mark or strand, and shallow
watery places.

937. The infusorium is a galvanic point, a galvanic vesicle, a galvanic
column or chain.

938. In every infusorium there is triplicity of the poles, or properly
speaking, of the processes. Each one maintains itself by the nutritive,
digestive, and respiratory process, or what amounts to the same, the
infusorial globule of mucus assumes a figure, its peculiar fluidity is
formed in its interior, and it becomes oxydized. As is well known, no
infusorium can live without moisture, and none if the access of air
having been prevented, or the water boiled, it is freed from the air
and the Earthy.

939. If the organic fundamental substance _consist_ of infusoria, so
must the whole organic world _originate_ from infusoria. Plants and
animals can only be metamorphoses of infusoria.

940. This being granted, so also must all organizations _consist_ of
infusoria, and during their destruction dissolve into the same. Every
plant, every animal is converted by maceration into a mucous mass;
this putrefies, and the moisture is stocked with infusoria.

941. Putrefaction is nothing else than a division of organisms into
infusoria, a reduction of the higher to the primary, life.

942. Organisms are a synthesis of infusoria. Their generation is none
other than an accumulation of infinitely numerous mucous points,
infusoria. In these the organisms have not forsooth been at once wholly
and perfectly depicted as on the smallest scale, nor contained in a
state of preformation; but they are only infusorial vesicles, that by
different combinations assume different forms, and grow up into higher


943. The theory of generation is in _this_ sense a synthetical and
epigenetic, not an analytic.

944. The theory of preformation contradicts the laws of nature's

945. Generation is a successive formation, both in relation to the
quantity as well as the quality, and the specific organs. It having
been preposited, that an organism has several organic systems, so
must these range according to their importance, and like the systems
of nature, behind each other, and be also developed in this order. As
the whole of nature has been a successive fixation of æther, so is
the organic world a successive fixation of infusorial mucus-vesicles.
The mucus is the æther, the chaos for the organic world. The semen of
all animals consists also of infusoria; the same may be said of the
vitellus. The pollen of flowers consists in like manner of microscopic
vesicles with globules, which have a life of their own and move
themselves in water. Many confervæ indeed divide evidently into a
multitude of living, self-moving globules, which, after they have swam
about for some time, again unite to form a stem of conferva.

946. Every generation consequently commences à priori or from the
beginning. The organic substance must again be dissolved into the
original chaos, if any thing new should reoriginate.

947. Out of an organic menstruum only can a new organism proceed, but
not one organism out of the other. A finished or perfect organism
cannot gradually transform itself into another.

948. The generative juices, or semen and vitellus, are none other than
the total organism reduced to the primary menstruum.

949. Physically regarded also every individual originates only from
the Absolute, but no one out of the other. The history of generation
is a retrogression into the Absolute of the Organic, or the organic
chaos--mucus, and a new evocation from the same.

950. This development from mucus is only applicable however to the
generation of the perfect organisms, but not to the origin of the
organic body, or the infusorial mass. The former originate only from an
organic mass that has been already formed; but the infusorial mass, as
constituting the organic primary bodies, cannot have originated in the
same way. It does and must originate directly from the Inorganic. For
whence can the organic matter have otherwise proceeded?

951. The infusorial mucus-mass originated, as has been already
remarked, at the moment when the earth's metamorphosis was at an end;
at the moment, when the planet succeeded in so bringing together and
identifying all the elementary processes, that they were all together
or at one and the same time in every point.

952. Hence the organic primary body originated also by synthesis, not
by analysis, if regard be paid to its factors. But do we consider this
substance as first emerging into view, when the coarse, abundant,
isolated materials, such as earth, metals, Inflammables, and salts
had separated themselves from it; that this organic primary body then
remained behind as it were for the first time: it has then originated
through analysis, or was preformed; but so preformed as are also the
metals, and as is everything. It need scarcely be observed, that this
last separation from out the Earthy is the _carbon_, the dissolution
of the earths into atoms, and thus again into points or globules
susceptible of form.

953. Everything is preformed in æther, like as every Mathematic is
preformed in zero, every Active in God; yet for that very reason
nothing individual is preformed therein; but it originates first
through _fixation of poles on the substance_. This is the true meaning
of the original generation of the Organic.

954. This origin of the organic primary bodies I designate _Generatio
originaria_, _Creation_.

955. But infusorial vesicles can also originate by mere division of
larger organic carcases, and these can again originate as well through
the combination of these secondary as of the primitive vesicles, or
as it were by coagulation only, such being the case indeed in the
intestinal worms also. I nominate this generation, _Generatio æquivoca_.

956. All generation is _Generatio æquivoca_; whether imparted by sexes
or not. For the generative juices of the sexual organs themselves are
naught else than organic primary mass, and have originated by division.

957. There are only two kinds of generation in the world. The creation
proper and the propagation that is sequent thereupon, or the _Generatio
originaria_ and _secundaria_.

958. No organism has been consequently created of larger size than an
infusorial point. No organism is, nor has one ever been, created, which
is not microscopic.

959. Whatever is larger, has not been created, but developed.

960. Man has not been created, but developed. So the Bible itself
teaches us. God did not make man out of nothing; but took an elemental
body then existing, an _earth_-clod or carbon; moulded it into form,
thus making use of _water_; and breathed into it life, namely _air_,
whereby galvanism, or the vital process arose.

961. The original origin of organization has been imparted by the
co-operating influence of heat and light. By the heat, because
without this no galvanic and no chemical process is possible;
further, because heat is the totality of æther, the moved æther, the
ætherial air, and thus the menstruum of all action. But the heat is
not sufficient to animate the three terrestrial elements, because it
imparts only the possibility of procedure and of action; while it does
not differentialize, nor posit tension, but maintains everything in
identity, fluidity. In the heat alone every thing must become fluid and
finally decompose. Unto heat therefore the accession is yet necessary
of the Cosmic-differencing, or the light. The light inspires the body
prepared by heat with life, antagonism, polarity.

962. The æther imparts the substance, the heat the form, the light the
life. (Oken first started this opinion in his work, 'Die Zeugung,'
Frankfurt, Wesche, 1805.)

c. _Processes of the Organic._

963. The life of the organic body is not a single but a threefold
action, consisting of the actions of the three terrestrial elements,
which become the three fundamental processes of the body, or of life,
and in which _three_ processes galvanism consists.


964. The magnetic earth-process is virtually the formative; and in
organic bodies is called the _nutrient_ process.

965. The process of nutrition is the principal process in the organic
world. Its product or its basis is the fundamental mass of the body
itself. As crystal and the process of crystallization are related to
each other, so are the body and the process of nutrition.

966. The process of nutrition is the sustaining, and proper fundamental
process of the organism.

967. It is present entire and indivisible in every part of the body.
Whencesoever it is ablated or withdrawn, there is death.

968. It operates according to the laws of crystallization.

969. Its very forms are crystals modified by the organic mass or, what
amounts to the same, by the other processes combined therewith. The
organic body is an accumulation of an infinity of (organic) crystals

970. In the planetary process of formation, which is a process of
crystallization, the organism is continually comprehended. It is the
planetary body ever becoming; the latter is an organic body, which has
ceased to become.


971. Another action, that helps to constitute the organic body, is the
chemism, which is not only the process of liquefaction, but the process
also of the formation or creation of new organic matter. It is known to
us under the name of _Digestive process_.

972. The digestive process elevates the Inorganic up to the organic
mass, like the chemism has converted the Earthy into carbonate of lime
and finally into muriatic natron. The digestive process is the _process
of the formation of mucus_. Regarded philosophically the nutritive
juice (or chyle) is naught else than mucus. This is also correct in a
physiological point of view.

973. The digestive process is the second organic process, in so far as
it has been fashioned after the type of the water; but the first, in so
far as every Organic has originated out of water.

974. As forming only the mucus it is not directly distributed in every
part of the body like the nutritive process, which is the body or
planet itself. But it interposes, or is mediate, everywhere.

975. As the water of the planet is related to the continent or earth's
nucleus, so are the digestive matters or the mucus of nutrition to the
body. The Earthy, however, is the principal mass of the planet, upon
which the others have been supported. So is the nutritive body the
principal mass, upon which the digestive body has been supported.

976. No organism is conceivable without a digestive process.


977. The action of the air finally settles down also in mucus. It is
that which sustains the constant heterogeneity of the organic factors,
the electrical tension. The electrical tension has, however, oxydation
for its result. The organic process of electricity is thus at the same
time a process of oxydation. It is called _Respiratory process_.

978. Without respiratory process, no organism is conceivable. By
its influence difference has been induced in the chyle, and by this
difference only does the latter become decomposible or serviceable for
the process of nutrition.

979. The respiratory process is also present not immediately in every
part of the body, but only mediately. It is the atmosphere of the body.

980. The mutation, which the juices undergo through the process of
respiration, is none other than an emergence from their state of
indifference. Thereby each point of the juice becomes polar towards
every other; all are mutually attracted, all repelled, whereby a
decisive vortication originates.

981. As every globule of sap or mucus is indifferent, it has thus
naturally an affinity for air. The air itself is comprehended, like the
water and the earth, in the organism. And thus it may with full force
be said; that the organism is elevated by respiration to the element
air, by digestion to the element water, by nutrition to the element
earth. So that respiratory process = air-process, digestive process =
water-process, and nutritive process = earth-process.

982. The first three organic processes are consequently true synotypes
of the planetary processes--are planet-forming processes in miniature
in individuals. The fundamental organism has thus been shown to be in
its apparent processes a synotype or likeness of the planet; in other
words, a microscopic planet.

983. These three processes constitute the galvanic process. Making
use of the expressions applied to the inorganic kingdom, we found the
organism to be a combination of magnetism, chemism, and electrism;
while in organic parlance it is a nutritive process, maintained by
respiration and digestion. The processus nutritorius, digestivus,
respiratorius, together constituting galvanism.


984. Motion is no peculiar or self-persistent process, but the
necessary manifestation of galvanism. Motion has been established with
the three organic fundamental processes.

985. Every motion depends upon the galvanic process. Taken in a strict
sense, there is no _process_ of motion, but motion only. For motion
is verily but the phenomenon of galvanism. The process of motion is
synonymous with the galvanic process.

986. The galvanic process is a process of motion effected in circles,
in its own factors, in its planet, but not from without; it is
consequently an actual vital process.

987. As the process of motion is the phenomenon common to all three
organic fundamental processes, so is the whole organism characterized
by it. The essence of the Organic depends consequently upon its
automatic or self-motion.

988. _Self-motion_ is the only, but essential and ultimate, distinction
between the Organic and Inorganic. (Ed. 1st, 1810. § 904.) All other
distinctions that have been advanced do not suffice; because they do
not comprehend the totality of the organism, nor the three fundamental
processes in _one_ phenomenon, but only individual attributes.

989. A circumscribed, closed mass, which moves itself, is an organism.
The perpetuum mobile is only the organism.

990. Every Inorganic moves not itself, but is only moved by external
influences; because every Inorganic is only a part of a whole.

991. The organic motion is present and possible in every point of a
body. A mass that is automatic, or thoroughly moved by itself, is an

992. The Inorganic consists in motion having vanished from it, and in
being simply mass. But the Organic consists exactly in this alone,
namely, that the Massive has disappeared, or that the mass is in
constant motion. The Organic becomes destroyed, so soon as motion
disappears in it; the Inorganic is destroyed, so soon as motion enters
it. Motion is therefore the soul, whereby the Organic is elevated above
the Inorganic.


_Division of the Organism._


993. Hitherto we have regarded the organism merely in a general point
of view; namely, as regards the substance, form, and processes, which
must indiscriminately occur in every organism. We have seen that it is
composed of at least _three_ elements, the earth, water and air. There
is still, however, one combination that is possible and therefore also
actual, namely, with the æther or the _fire_.

994. The organic world has two stages in its development. Upon each
stage, however, it is the totality or synotype of nature, yet is
different in each.

995. The organism represents the whole solar system; but this divides
into two stages. The lowest of these is the Planetary, or totality of
the Earthy, Aqueous and Aerial; the higher is the Solar or Cosmic,
namely, the totality of earth, water, air and fire. Thus there is
a tri-elementary and a quadri-elementary totality. As the first is
already an organism, so much the more too must be the second. Thus
there must be one organism, which comprehends indeed all systems in
itself, but with the preponderance of the Planetary; and one with the
preponderance of the Solar.

996. In the planetary organism the æther-systems will be either
wanting, or only indicated as mere projections; they are there only,
in so far as the planet itself is not without light. In the solar
organism, however, the planetary systems are subordinate to the æther
processes; the former are only there, because the sun cannot be without
planets. In the planetary organism the æther-system has only been taken
up into the Terrestrial; but in the Solar the Terrestrial has been
taken up into the æther.

997. In the planetary organism all the processes launch out into
production or alterations of the matters; it is a chemical organism;
in the solar organism there are processes, which neither change, nor
produce matters, it may be therefore styled light organism.

998. The chemical organism is associated with the earth, the spiritual
with the water and air; the former must therefore consist principally
of carbon, the latter of the combination of oxygen with hydrogen, and
thus of nitrogen.

999. The carbon-organism must moreover in accordance with its import be
associated with the Inflammables and metals, and through these with the
silicious earth.

1000. The nitrogen-organism on the contrary with the salts and
calcareous earths; thus we have silicious organisms and calcareous
organisms; Inflammable organisms and salt organisms. From this it is
already clear, that the planetary or primary organism is not general,
nor indefinite, but the _plant_; for no General or Indefinite has
existence. The solar or quadri-elementary organism admits in like
manner of being recognized as _animal_. This is the philosophical
deduction. But there is also a physiological, which conducts to the
same result.

1001. The mucus-vesicle can feasibly pass into two kinds of condition
only. It either remains in the water, or is cast upon the shore, or
in the mud. In the last case it continues to lie, and is only supplied
with light, and oxydized by the air upon the upper side; in the first
case, on the contrary, it rolls about constantly in the water, and is
alternately illumed and oxydized upon all sides. The first vesicle thus
obtains a single axis from above downwards, between light and darkness;
the second on the contrary gains a multitude of axes from without
inwards, where it is alone dark and deoxydized. The first is thus
devoid of any middle point, and finds its centre of gravity only in the
middle of the earth, while the latter acquires its centre of gravity in
its Interior, and this renders the Interior polar towards all points of
the circumference. The plant is only one axis, or from having no middle
point, is properly only one radius, which has its centre in the centre
of the earth; the animal is an infinity of axes or radii, which concur
or converge in the creature itself; the plant is an inverted cone, the
animal an infinity of cones or a globe.

1002. Thus the planetary organism originates, if the primary vesicle
having been taken out of the water is given up to the earth, to
immobility and to _darkness_. But the light-organism arises, if the
primary vesicle continue in water, or in the Moveable and Diaphanous.
Here then in their genesis an essential difference is declared
between the two organic worlds. Planetary organism originates, if
the vesicle develops itself apart from the water, in which case it
is withdrawn on one side from the light; but the light-organism
originates if it remains in water itself, where it can be supplied on
all sides with light. The essence of both is expressed by the names
_darkness_-organism and _light_-organism.

1003. The basis of both kingdoms is therefore exactly similar; the
vesicle and the mucus lie at the foundation of both. It depends solely
upon the surrounding element, whether out of one and the same mass this
or that organism should arise, or rather upon the active influence of
the light, this being conditioned only by the elements. Not a word can
accordingly be spoken about preformation. In darkness-organism the
water-vesicle has been placed between earth and air, and thus fettered
to the earth; in light-organism, however, the vesicle has been placed
in the water and so freed from the earth.

1004. The planetary organism has, in accordance with its situation and
import, been bound to the earth. It must originate like the metal in
the earth, in the darkness and, as it were, in a vein. But it is at the
same time a light-product; it must rise from out of the earth into the
air and towards the light. It is a mucus, living metallic vein, which
elevates itself from out the earth into the air.

1005. This organism, which originates in the darkness of the earth, and
grows therefrom into the air so as to meet the light, is _plant_.

1006. The solar-organism is, in accordance with its import, void of
connexion with the earth; like a planet it revolves freely about the
earth, and everywhere receives its image or likeness in the influence
of all four elements.

1007. The organism, which, free from the earth, has originated in
water, or properly speaking, in the transparency, is _animal_.

1008. The vegetable and animal are the only organic, kingdoms. In
both, nature has exhausted herself, and has in the last kingdom, as
in a mirror, been wholly reflected. They are together planet and sun,
or thus solar system. But since the animal comprehends all elements
in itself, so it contains also the plant, and is therefore for itself
vegetable and animal kingdom, or the whole solar-system.

1009. The plant hath no free system of motion, because motion is
wanting to it; bound to the elements, by these it is determined. The
element of motion, the æther, lies apart from it. It has only motion,
if and while the elements act upon, or solicit it, thereunto.

1010. It moves itself only by an external or _foreign_ stimulus. If
no foreign stimulus be present, it does not move itself. A root
grows, moves itself towards one spot, not because it there _seeks_ for
moisture, but because it is _affected_ by the moisture which is there
found. Were the moisture not to act upon it, it would wither.

1011. The animal has independent motion. For it has indeed taken up
the centre, the earth-and the light-system which is the principle of
motion, into itself.

1012. Thus the animal moves itself independently of external stimuli.
The animal can move itself from _want_ of stimulus. It moves itself to
_seek_ for, and thus from want of, nourishment, which consequently does
not act upon it; the plant cannot, however, move itself owing to want
of food, but only die.

1013. _This is the essential and only conclusive distinction between
animal and plant._ All others that have been advanced are not

_Processes of the Cosmic Organism._


1014. The primary or planetary organism cannot be the last product of
nature's development: for it is only indeed the metatype of the three
terrestrial elements, and consequently not of the totality of nature.
The mucus-organism ascends to a higher stage, since it superadds to
its three elements the primary element, or ascends itself to primary
elements. It becomes an _ætherial globe of mucus_.

1015. Hitherto there were merely three processes in the organism; to
these consequently the fourth is added, which is the æther-process. It
may be called the fire-process.

1016. With the fire-process the development of the organic world has
been carried to the highest pitch and therewith closed.

1017. The highest organism is a quadri-elementary individual, or a
quadri-elementary mucus.

1018. The four elements are, however, the universe. The higher organism
is consequently not merely a synotype of the planet, but of it and the
sun, or of the whole universe. The higher organism is an universe in
miniature; in the profoundest, truest sense of the word is it _small
world_, _microcosm_.

1019. The planetary, terrestrial organisms are related to the solar or
cosmic, as the planet is to solar-system.

1020. The cosmic organism has besides the systems of nutrition,
digestion, and respiration, those of the æther in itself, and thus of
the gravity, light and heat. These are immaterial, spiritual processes,
which produce no more matters.

1. _Process of Gravity._

1021. The organ of gravity is that of quiescence or rest, the organ
constituting the basis of the organic body, or rather of the other
æther-organs, the centralization.

1022. It imparts form to the higher organism.

1023. The quiescent, sustaining, form-imparting system is the rigid
earth-system, and appears as the _osseous system_.

2. _Process of Heat._

1024. As the heat is the motion of the æther, so is there a system of
motion in the organism.

1025. The system, which has no other function to perform than to move,
is the _muscular system_.

1026. The osseous system is related to the muscular system as mass to
motion, as Passive to Active. The former maintains the form, the latter
changes the same exactly like gravitation and heat.

3. _Process of Light._

1027. The light-system must be related to all other spiritual systems
and the three fundamental systems of the organism, or to the _simply_
organic systems as light is to matter, being thus polarizing or

1028. Now the domination of light consists in the sustenance of
polarity in all matter. The air itself is preserved in its duplicity
only by light. All the points of the organism are polarized by the
light-system. The light-system acts consequently through the whole body.

1029. The light-system is not capable of producing matter, like the
terrestrial systems. This is self-evident.

1030. It does not polarize by effecting chemical changes. If
nevertheless these are present, they are thus only results, occurring
while the terrestrial processes are set in action by the process of

1031. Light polarizes the Material by mere fixation or discharging of
poles, and thus in a spiritual manner. So also does the light-system of
the organism. It governs the organism not by mechanical power, not by
mass, but by a _spiritual breath or aura_.

1032. The organic light-system is the Animative of the organism. In it
the spirit exercises its power over the mucous mass. It is the _nervous


1033. The light-polarity can bring about no other tension in the mass
than that which is peculiar to it, and thus the galvanic tension, whose
highest and purest phenomenon is motion. The light-system principally
causes motion in the mass, like as in æther.

1034. The nervous system has, however, a life also in itself, or the
_internal_ light-polarity that is without any relation to the organic
mass. This action of the nerves is called _sensibility_, and its
phenomenon, _feeling_ or _sensation_. The system of sensation is the
nervous system as sun in itself; in the motor-system it is as sun in a
centre of planets.

1035. The organism, like the elementary nature, is completed by four

  1. By the Nutrient,
  2.   "    Digestive,
  3.   "    Respiring, and
  4.   "    Motive, unto which the nerves, muscles, and
              bones belong.

1036. It is impossible for more than these to be developed in an
organism; impossible, for any thing else but what is in nature to
originate therein; impossible, that any thing new be born by it.
Everything in nature is only repetition of an Antecedent or something
that has gone before. How could the organism be aught else, how aught
else than the focus of the four elements!



1037. The Vegetable Kingdom is the individual development of the three
planetary elements.


1038. Phytogeny represents the developmental history of individual
plants, or, properly speaking, the idea of the plant.

1039. To the plant belong all the definitions that have been hitherto
deduced. It is an organism fettered to the earth, is developed only
apart from water, only in the dark, in the earth; is associated
with the metal, with the carbon; is a magnetic needle that has been
attracted out of the earth into the air towards the light. Seeds
germinate better if they have been protected beforehand from the access
of light; the radicle sinks, indeed, into the earth, because it obeys
the gravity, the quiescence or rest; but it is therein maintained,
because it is there humid and dark. This is a reason that has not yet
been connoted, for the plant having been fettered to the earth. There
are indeed plants which also take root in water, but the water is still
darker than the air. The root has, in this respect, completely the
character of the metal, that is a child of darkness.

1040. Consisting for the greatest part of carbon, plants are associated
with the pit-coals, through these pass over into the carbon of the
clay-slate rocks; finally, through the black-lead unto the iron. In
like manner, through their hydrogenous import, they pass over into
the inflammable asphalts, and through these unto sulphur. Metal and
sulphur have, in the Geogeny, announced themselves as the precursors,
or harbingers, of the vegetable world. In this respect, also, can the
vegetable kingdom be regarded as the mineral kingdom, that, having
continued to grow, has become alive. The ore, which becomes organic,
becomes carbon or plant.


1041. The character of each development consists in the separation
of the Indifferent or Chaotic into its ideas or actions, i. e. the
development of every system is first completed, when it is divided into
as many substantial systems as it numbers factors, or has processes in

1042. Although the plant is only essentially a planetary-organism,
it must yet be developed unto an æther- or light-organism; and it
therefore divides into planetary- and solar-or light-organs.

1043. The planetary organs are those that have the earth-, water-, and
air-process above them, and which are made known in the root, the stalk
and foliage, which together constitute the vegetable stem.

1044. The light-organs begin to be stirring in the blossom, and are
divulged as sexual organs. They are a repetition of the trunk.

1045. The vegetable body divides therefore into two great principal
parts, which are synotypes of each other, into _trunk_ and _blossom_ or
_inflorescence_. If we regard the vegetable trunk empirically; it is
then divisible into three stages, whereof each consists of the organs
of the three fundamental processes, which seek to separate from each

a. The first stage is that of the _three tissues_ namely of the
parenchyma, medulla or pith; of the _cells_, _ducts_, and _tracheæ_ or
_spiral vessels_.

b. The second stage is _that of the shaft_ or main axis, where these
three have separated concentrically into cortex or _bark_, _liber_,
and _wood_, constituting the anatomical _systems_ or _sheaths_.

c. The third stage is that of the _caudex_ proper or the trunk,
in which the three tissues have separated in the direction of the
longitudinal axis into _root_, _stalk_ or stem, and _leaves_, these
making up the _organs_ proper or _members_. The inflorescence divides
into two stages, into _flower_ and _fruit_.

d. The fourth stage or that of the _flower_ repeats root, stalk and
leaves, in _seeds_, _pistil_ and in the _corolla_.

e. The fifth stage or that of the _fruit_ is a further repetition of
these three parts of the flower in the nut, plum and berry, unto which,
as synthesis, comes the apple.

A. _Vegetable-trunk._

1046. The vegetable-trunk is the development of the three
fundamental processes up to their complete separation or substantial
representation. It divides itself into the tissues or the pith
(parenchyma), into the shaft and into the trunk.

1047. The plant is a galvanic water-vesicle, and as such earth, water
and air. Upon this vesicle it is, however, the earth-element that
chiefly acts. While the earth seeks to encroach upon the vesicle, the
magnetic process becomes active therein, and it enters into opposition
with the air. The vesicle becomes now determined by two elements, by
the earth and by the air; it stands itself in the category of the water.

1048. The plant may be characterized as organic water which is
polarized upon two sides, towards the earth and the air. The vegetable
vesicle must therefore maintain two poles. While it would represent in
itself the magnetic pole, it endeavours to identify itself, to obey
gravity and merge into the darkness towards the mediate point of the
earth; but that it may remain a galvanic pole, it becomes excited by
the air, strives to become a Different and to attain the light.

1049. The vegetable vesicle receives two opposed extremities, an
identical earth-and a dyadic air-extremity; and thus the plant must
be regarded as the organism, which manifests a constant endeavour,
upon the one side to become earth, on the other air, upon the one side
identical metal, on the other duplex air.

1050. The plant is a radius, that towards the centre becomes identical,
towards the periphery divides or starts asunder. The plant is not
therefore an entire circle or globe, but only a section of such, a
cone, whose apex has been turned towards the centre of the earth, or
would become earth-centre. It can therefore have no middle-point. It
will on the contrary demonstrate that the animal is the totality of
radii, is consequently diameter, and has therefore a centre of its own,
or is entire globe. As the whole earth is surrounded by plants, and
all their roots turn towards the centre; the whole vegetable kingdom
only forms a sphere, composed of infinitely numerous cones. On the
contrary every individual animal forms a sphere for itself alone,
and is therefore worth as much as all plants taken together. Animals
are entire heavenly bodies, satellites or moons, which circulate
independently about the earth; all plants, on the contrary, taken
together are only equivalent to one heavenly body. An animal is an
infinity of plants.

1051. In so far as an organism strives unto identity or to gravity,
it seeks to produce the Metallic, the carbon, the Alkaline. The
indifferent and alkaline character appears in the earth-extremity of
the plant. Mucus and acid bodies are evidenced for the most part in the
root. In so far as the organism strives unto duplicity, it will produce
the salt, the acid and the Inflammable. Acids and electric bodies are
manifested in the air-extremity of the plant.

1052. The two vegetable extremities are accordingly related to each
other as alkali and acid, and as carbon and hydrogen. In the air the
water is divided into oxygen and hydrogen, acids and oils; in the earth
it hardens into earths and carbon.

1053. The earth-end or the alkaline extremity of the plant is the
_root_; the air-end, or the acid and oily, is the entire _stem-fabric_,
or body. The plant has first of all two cardinal organs, viz. root and
stem-fabric. Both together represent the water divided into earth-
and air-mucus. The root is the central extremity of the plant, and is
therefore prolonged or runs out into magnetic points; the stem-fabric
is the peripheric and therefore expands into branches and electric

1054. But besides the air, the _light_ also operates upon the plant and
stimulates it to grow aloft and produce a light-organ. This light-organ
can thus originate only upon the apex or summit. It is the _flower_.
The flower can therefore stand nowhere else than on the summit or end
of the plant. The light however acts upon many points of the upper
surface of the vegetable trunk and elongates the same. One plant can
therefore support numerous flowers, but all of these must stand upon an
extremity. Wherever therefore a flower may happen to stand, that spot
must be regarded as a summit or end. There is thus also, according to
the physiological view of the matter, a _light-organ_ in the plant,
which is its animal pre-affection. The chief antagonism in the plant is
in this respect therefore between trunk and inflorescence the former is
related to the latter as plant to animal. Were the plant to attain unto
animal functions; they could thus only take place in the flower.

I. _Tissues._

1055. The tissues are the unseparated organs of the three fundamental
processes, the earth-, water-, and air-process.


1056. If a mucus-vesicle lie upon the ground, it thus continues
indifferent upon the lower or dark side, and is only affected by
the gravity and the water; the upper side, on the contrary, by the
differencing air and light. It is consequently prolonged into the earth
and into the air. It must pass over from the round into a linear
form. The elongation is not a mere protraction of the vesicle, but an
apposition of new vesicles. For it happens through polarization, and
thus by infinite repetition of the primary vesicle. The plant is thus a
body of infinitely numerous vesicles.

1057. In so far as the plant is a multiplication of the primary
vesicle, it consists of _Cellular tissue_. The anatomy of plants
informs us, that there is nothing _originally_ in the plant but
cellular tissue, and that other forms first emerge or make their
appearance in the sequel.

1058. The cellular tissue indicates the Indifferent in the plant, for
it is only an accumulation of the indifferent primary vesicles. In so
far as the plant consists thereof, is it indifference--water-plant.

1059. The cellular tissue is only oxydized, desiccated mucus. Chemistry
has proved, that the wood is only oxydized mucus.

1060. The cellular tissue being the water organized and saturated with
earth, or the organized mucus, has consequently the chemical function
in itself of solution, homogeneous production, or formation of mucus.
As therefore the plant originates, so does it enlarge. It originates
as vesicle, and its growth is a constant origination of vesicles; from
the Indifferent, which is the water. The sap contained in the cells
consists of water and starch-granules, which constantly circulate
therein in a circle.

1061. The fundamental form of the cells is the rhomboidal-dodecahedron
(Kieser's Phytotomie); for around a globe only 6 others of equal size
can be placed, whereby its 6 lateral surfaces are pressed in, which
during the induration impart to it the form of a six-sided column.
Above and below these 7 globes only 3 others admit of being placed,
whereby 3 point-converging surfaces originate, which thus complete the
middle globe as rhomboidal-dodecahedron.


1062. So long as the vesicles or cells lie as globes upon each
other, triangular interspaces are found between them, which stand in
conjunction with each other on all sides. As water is found in these
interspaces, it is plain that they do not entirely disappear with
the transformation of the cells into rhomboidal-dodecahedra. These
spaces are called intercellular passages or sap-tubes, _Vessels_. In
many plants, such as those which contain a milky juice, particular
sap-tubes run through a part of these intercellular passages, and are
probably formed by condensation of the sap. Both are therefore in a
physiological respect of one kind. At bottom also the blood-vessels of
animals are naught else but passages in felted cellular tissue.

1063. As the principal polarity of plants has been directed upwards,
and the cells therefore been protracted lengthwise; so also the chief
direction of the vessels is parallel with the axis of the plant.

1064. The vegetable sap ascends in these tubes, which must be therefore
viewed indeed as constituting the earth-or nutritive organ.


1065. The plant is not merely earth-and water-organism, but also
air-organism; and there must therefore be developed in it an anatomical
system, which coincides with the process of air.

1066. Besides the cells and tubes naught else is found in vegetable
tissue but spiral vessels; what are called scalariform tubes, annular
vessels, dotted ducts, vermiform or strangulated vessels, are no
peculiar formations in themselves, but only different conditions of the
spiral vessels.

1067. The spiral vessels are the air-system of the plant, and therefore
rightly deserve the name of _Tracheæ_. They exhibit the structure of
the air-tubes in insects, and contain, according to the most authentic
observations, air, and not sap, except in the period of adolescence,
as occurs in the animal kingdom.

1068. The spiral vessels consist of one or several filaments spirally
contorted, and held together by a delicate tubular-shaped membrane.

1069. They must be regarded as elongated cells, upon whose parietes
the starch-granules have been placed in serial juxtaposition with
each other, so as to form spirally-twisted filaments, as is to be
plainly seen in many cells and also in Confervæ. This spiral condition
originates without doubt from the spiral-shaped motion of the granules
in cell-sap.

1070. The ultimate cause of this spiral motion, as well as the position
of the parts, appears to reside in the rotation of the sun.

1071. Upon this also depends probably the winding of the stem of
plants, with the spiral-shaped position of the leaves and branches, as
probably even the contortions of the snail's shell and of the hairs
upon the crown of the head.

1072. The production of the spiral form originates from the antagonism
of the light with the matter. The number of spiral vessels is therefore
less in those parts that are beneath, than in those above, the earth,
or less in the root than the stem. The more indeed an organ has
been exposed to the air, by so much the more do the spiral vessels
preponderate, as e. g. in the leaves.

1073. An organ must necessarily be nobler in character, the more spiral
vessels it contains. The plant also that, with more spiral vessels,
exhibits them particularly arranged, must take a higher rank. The
lowest plants, as the mushrooms, lichens and mosses, consist therefore
entirely of cellular tissue; in the ferns therefore only a single
bundle of spiral vessels makes its appearance. When plants become
nobler, several fasciculi of spiral vessels originate; and in tracing
this feature we ascend from the ferns to the grasses and lilies, up to
the lower Dicotyledons. In the higher Dicotyledons the packets of the
tracheæ increase for the first time to such a degree, that they form a
closed circle, the fibrous ring or zone of wood.

1074. The tracheæ extend from one end of the plant to the other; many
are wont to terminate only in nodes, while these are to be regarded as
arrested branches. The air can therefore penetrate through the spiral
vessels from the leaves even to the apices of the roots.

II. _Anatomical Systems--Sheaths._

1075. These originate by vagination and separation of the tissues in
the transverse direction, and prevail throughout the whole plant.
The idea of the whole vegetable structure is extremely simple.
Originally the plant is a vesicle in water, or cellular tissue in the
seed; root and stalk also consist in their main bulk or proportion
of cellular tissue, which is called parenchyma. Therein the three
planetary processes reside inclosed. Such a plant is still in the
recognizable state of the primary organism. In the sequel, however,
through the influence of light, the polarity between light and
darkness issues forth in the parenchyma, the cellular tissue obtains
a linear direction, and becomes elongated into spiral vessels. The
spiral vessels form one or several fasciculi, which emerge out of the
parenchyma, by which they, and each packet individually, are circularly
surrounded. The cellular tissue is as it were the soil, in which the
fasciculi of spiral vessels are rooted as proprietary plants and out of
which they grow.

1076. The effort of the three vegetable processes, to separate their
organs from, and perfect them independently of, each other, is in
incessant operation, both from without inwards, as well as from above
downwards, because in both cases is light there, darkness here, dryness
there, humidity here. The cellular tissue, that has finally become
independent in the transverse direction or from without inwards, is
called _bark_, the self-substantial tubular tissue is called _liber_,
the non-dependent tracheal tissue, _wood_.


1077. With increased influence of light the tracheal fasciculi also
increase, and form a circle of columns in the parenchyma around the
centre of the plant. Between the column, externally and internally to
the same, is the parenchyma. The more, however, the columns accumulate,
by so much the more does it diminish, and whereas the columns
previously stood singly in the parenchyma, the appearance is now as if
narrow _plates_ only of parenchyma traversed between the columns from
without inwards. Finally the columns predominate to such an extent and
approximate so closely, that the _plates_ almost disappear. They are
now called insertions of cellular tissue, or _medullary rays_. As the
tracheæ convey air, and have thus been more exposed to the process of
oxydation, they generally harden sooner than in other parts.

1078. Around the fasciculi of spiral vessels the cellular tissue also
strives to elongate, and begins at the same time to harden. Such
extended cells, in which the light has almost disappeared, are called
fibres. Indurated tracheæ and fibres are called _Wood_. The wood is
always in the vicinity of the spiral vessels. It is a production
synchronous with the latter.

1079. Only, where spiral vessels are, can genuine wood originate; but
it is not everywhere, where they are found, that woody fibres must be
also present, although the cells extend around all bundles of spiral
vessels. If the degree of oxydation of the cells be slight, they do not
harden, but continue herbaceous in texture. The parenchyma has now been
separated by a circle of fibrous columns into an external and internal,
or peripheric and central. The central parenchyma becomes void of sap
and spongy, because the plant imbibing its nutriment on the surface,
and the air and the light operating thereupon, the processes conduct it
thither. This withered parenchyma is called _pith_, which in accordance
with its origin merits no physiological consideration, nor is worthy
and susceptible of any philosophical construction.


1080. As the plant draws in its nourishment from without, so is the
main proportion of the sap necessarily present in the periphery of the
spiral vessels. The elongated cells in the neighbourhood of the spiral
vessels, and which principally contain sap, are called _Liber_.

1081. Liber is necessarily present around every packet of spiral
vessels, and thus with fasciculi everywhere dispersed throughout the
stem. The liber is only situated beneath the bark, when the number
of the spiro-vascular fasciculi is so great, that they form a closed
circle in the parenchyma; it is only beneath the bark, in so far as
it accompanies the spiral vessels, but can only surround the latter
from without. As it is only the woody plants that have been usually
examined, the false idea has thus originated of the liber having, as it
were from its very essence, to be beneath the bark.

1082. In the liber is the main seat of vegetable activity. For it is
soft cellular tissue with open intercellular passages, wherein the sap
can move.

1083. Now as every fascicle of spiral fibres is surrounded by liber,
such a fascicle must be regarded as a whole plant. A plant consists
accordingly of as many plants, as it has or can have tracheal
fasciculi. Every plant is a trunk of infinitely numerous plants; for
every one can contain infinitely numerous tracheal fascicles. One plant
is a whole vegetable world. (Ed. 1st, 1810. § 1065.)


1084. No spiral vessels lie upon the surface of the plant, for
where they originate, there the liber forms around them, and this
is consequently the External. The surface of plants is therefore
necessarily environed by liber, notwithstanding the greater influence
of the light. The cellular tissue upon the surface of plants is,
however, less rich in sap than the liber around the tracheal
fasciculi, because it is too rapidly evaporated and dried up by the
immediate contact of the air, light and heat. The surface of the
plant is too strongly oxydized by the air, and therefore the cells
harden. The sap also decomposes too rapidly and becomes rigid, so that
an irregular formation only can proceed from it. The external, more
inactive, or irregularly wood-converted layer of cells, is the _Bark_.

1085. The plant has thus likewise three anatomical systems, which
are nothing new, but only the repetition or rather vagination of the
three tissues; alburnum and cambium are only transitional, not special

III. _Organs of the Vegetable Trunk.--Members._

1086. Organs are separated parts of the body, and combinations of
single tissues and systems, and are consequently a Whole in Singulars.
There are, however, no uniform combinations; but one or the other
system asserts its preponderance and imparts the character.

1087. In conformity with the developmental progress of the whole of
nature, namely, that of always separating further its chaotically
mingled parts, individualizing and yet forming them with the others
into a whole, vegetation cannot continue stationary with the partition
into bark, liber and wood, seeing that they are always circumscribed
and form a body in common; but they must also sever this body itself
into as many members as it has constituent parts. This severance makes
its appearance in the longitudinal axis, because in this direction the
antagonisms of air and light with water and earth are more powerful.

1088. Through the separation of the vegetable trunk _three_ members
only can originate; one with the preponderance of cells or of bark,
one with that of vessels or of liber, and one with that of the tracheæ
or of wood. The cellular tissue has been posited as vegetable trunk in
the _root_, the vascular tissue as a special member is _stalk_, the
tracheal tissue _leaf_. In this manner the trunk of the plant divides
into three great divisions; more are not possible.

1089. Now the root is the perfected water-organ, because it is always
fixed in water; the leaf is the perfected air-organ, because it moves
in the air; the stalk is the perfected earth-organ, because it removes
the mass out of water and air. Root is a heap of cells; leaf a plane of
tracheæ; stalk a bundle of vessels.


1090. By the two polar systems, the earth-and air-system, the cellular
and tracheal system, is the development of the plant confirmed. Thereby
is it in the next place a twofold organism. By the first system it has
been turned towards the planet and immersed in earth and water, by the
second it has been turned towards the sun and immersed in the air. The
root and the fabric of the stem, or root and stem simply, have now
obtained their truest significance. Each is the whole plant, each the
whole organism; in the root this is only in its original purity, but in
the stem it is upon a higher stage. Root is stem in water and earth;
stem is root in air and light.

1091. The root has accordingly more cellular tissue, fewer tracheæ; in
the stem this condition is reversed. The root resembles young plants,
or such as still rank upon a lower stage, and have but few columns
of tracheæ. The root has therefore no marrow or pith. It may be said
that it should have no pith, because it is usually thinner than the
stem and richer in sap; but it has only the latter character, from
consisting for the most part merely of cellular tissue. Root is the
vegetable trunk with preponderating cellular tissue. In consequence of
the antagonism between root and stem, wherein even their difference
consists, the one strives to produce the Chemical, the watery earth or
the mucus, but the other the Electrical, the combustible air-bodies.

1092. The root, as producing mucus or infusoria, has therefore in
itself the organic process of putrefaction, in so far as the origin
of mucus and infusoria is a result of the putridity. It corresponds
to imbibition and digestion. To this is referrible the mouldy, and
as it were fetid, condition of the root. Through the process of
decomposition, which it evokes in its neighbourhood, it kills its
nutriment, takes possession of it, and thus originates completely,
as does every first organism, out of putrefaction, out of infusoria.
To the essence of the root belong therefore not merely food, but the
favouring relations of decomposition, as earth and water, whereby
the access of the air, as necessary to every galvanism, has not been

1093. The earth is not merely a mechanical station for the plant, in
order to give it the perpendicular direction, but it is necessary for
polar excitation, whereby the decomposition is imparted. A plant placed
upright in pure water, although with the roots, necessarily perishes.
Darkness is at the same time the lurking-place of putrefaction, as
being that which only plays its part in localities where the polarizing
and dissevering influence of light is wanting.

1094. The root always passes perpendicular into the earth, on account
of its greater weight due to repletion with water. In all zones
therefore the root stands perpendicular to the horizon, and thus the
whole plant, although this is somewhat inclined towards the sun.

1095. The developmental stages of the root pass probably parallel to
the parts of the vegetable stem.

a. In respect to the tissue, there are thus cellular roots, as is
probably the case in the fungi, and with the fibrils of all roots;
tubular or vascular roots as in the mosses, tracheal roots in the rest.

b. In respect to the systems the bulbs are the cortical or bark-roots;
the tubers the liber-roots; the fibres the woody-roots.

c. In respect to the members of the trunk, the turnip is perhaps the
genuine root, the tap-root the stalk-root, the so-called aerial roots,
the leaf-roots.


1096. The stalk is the idea of the whole plant, posited under the
import of the organ of nutrition, of the vessels. The structure of the
stalk is therefore accordant with that of the root. The anatomical
systems are alike in both, bark, liber and tracheæ being in the same

1097. In the stalk, however, the opposition of tissues and systems
emerges more strongly, and therefore they all become individualized
also to a higher degree. The spiral vessels become more freed from
the cellular tissue; the bark is more distinctly divided from the
liber; this again from the wood, and in its centre the cellular tissue
dries up into pith. As, however, the stalk is the first product
of the light-influence, the tracheal system cannot attain as yet
entire freedom. The cells have nevertheless been extended, and the
intercellular passages are formed into regular tubes. The _Stalk_ is
the trunk of the plant with a preponderating system of tubes.

1098. This separation of the tissues and systems, with the endeavour
upon the part of each to become individually perfect and isolated from
the other, is effected by the air and the light. As root imbibes the
mucous or slimy water, and sustains the chemical process in the plant,
so does the stalk set the water in motion, since it exposes it to the
air and light, whereby the chemical earth-process becomes separated
into different saps and elemental bodies.

1099. Through the influence of the air, light and heat upon the
stalk, as well as by its antagonism with the root, its elongation
is determined. The greater amount of energy of the aerial polarity
is in the higher regions; it is thus more excited by these than by
the lower, and the bud being lighter grows more rapidly in the upper
parts, and obtains an elongated form. The excitation is stronger also
upon the side exposed to the light. It grows also more strongly in
that direction, and thus the stalk stands indeed upwards, but somewhat
inclined from the perpendicular line towards the sun.

1100. The perpendicular direction of the stalk is, however, as
mechanically determined by gravity as the root. Paradoxical as this
assertion may appear, it is still correct; for if we think of a moist
globe, which is superiorly affected by air, light and heat, the upper
aqueous or mucous parts are thus lighter, and necessarily ascend
upwards through the pressure of the heavy or unheated parts, just as
the air-bubbles in beer ascend to the surface. The light it is true can
draw them somewhat sideways, chiefly because this side is more heated,
more decomposed, and also undergoes a greater amount of evaporation;
but the proper cause invariably resides in the ascent of the light
parts between the heavy or immoveable. The stalk therefore grows
upwards also in the darkness, and then indeed quite perpendicularly,
because it has not been diverted by light. Were the light merely the
Dirigent, it could not be comprehended, why towards the poles trees
still stand tolerably perpendicular, and do not lie completely upon
the earth. Were, however, the air that which determines the direction,
plants could not thus have been inclined towards the sun, nor could we
comprehend why the flowers and also the leaves obey the sun's course.
Finally, were neither air nor light the imparters of direction, then
the plant could shoot in no other direction than quite perpendicularly
upwards, as is done too for the most part by the fungi.

1101. The _winding_ of the stalk appears to originate from the
rotation of the sun. The next cause is probably the greater heating
and decomposition that occurs upon one side. In accordance with this
assumption the plants upon the northern hemisphere of the earth must
wind spirally upwards from left to right, or from morning towards
evening, if our gaze be directed towards the meridian, but inversely
upon the southern hemisphere. But this is not the case. May we
therefore conjecture that plants, twisted contrary to rule, have been
transported from their native soil?

1102. The kinds of stalk follow also, without doubt, the direction
of developmental stages of the vegetable trunk. There are therefore
cellular stalks in the fungi, vascular stalks in the mosses, tracheal
stalks in the ferns. A bark-stalk is the culm, a liber-stalk the scape,
a wood-stalk probably the trunk of a palm. A root-stalk is the rhizoma,
a perfect-stalk the stem, a leaf-stalk being probably the shrub.


1103. The differencing, severing character of air and light must never
be lost from our thoughts, nor also that at a height this character
manifests itself more powerfully than on the surface of the earth,
where the stem abandons its androgynous position in relation to the
root. Through the constant process of differencing the tracheal
fascicles of the plant may finally become so independent that they
no longer stand in need of the others, and do not merely represent a
particular plant, but are perfected also as such.

1104. This dispersion of the tracheal fasciculi will not easily take
place upon the earth's surface, on account of its lesser degree of
aerial polarity, but at a certain height. If several stalks emerge from
the root, the bush or _shrub_ originates, but if only one, the tree. If
the subdivision first commence at a certain distance from the earth,
then do _Branches_ originate.

1105. The formation of branches demonstrates in part a great store of
tracheal fasciculi, and part by an easy differential capacity in the
plant. Both come to the same thing.

1106. Plants devoid of branches are similar or analogous to roots.

1107. The branches again ramify from the same cause by which the stem
ramifies. A branch or twig must be regarded as an entire fascicle of
tracheæ, which forms superiorly a closed vesicle or bud, that raises
the bark, bursts it open into scales and then opens itself. The opening
of the external tracheal tubes or vesicle becomes a leaf; a twig can
therefore occupy no other position than in the sheath or angle of
a leaf. Every succeeding leaf upon the twig is in the same manner a
ruptured vesicle of tracheæ. As many leaves therefore originate as
there are tracheal zones present.

1108. Every branch is an entire plant. All the tissues and systems
are found in it. Tracheæ free themselves from the stalk, pass towards
the circumference, break through the bark and carry with them the
liber, whose external layer again becomes bark. The branch is only
an elongated bud. The stalk is the soil or the root of the branches.
Branches, that have been cut off and stuck in the earth, grow. There is
nothing contradictory, in the tracheal fascicles of the branch growing
downwards into the stalk. A branched tree is a complete wood.

1109. From the same cause, or by the influence of water on different
situations in the earth, the root has branches. But as this influence
is weaker than that of air and light, so the number, density, and
length of the roots is less.

1110. The polarization of the tracheal fascicles into branches takes
place all around the stalk in one situation. The influence is equal
upon all sides. The idea of the formation of branches is the star.
All branches have a radiate position around the stalk--all form a
verticillum or whorl.

1111. Every other position of branches is only an alteration of the
verticillate arrangement.

1112. In most plants the arrangement of the branches admits of being
reduced to the spiral line. This position is only the verticil drawn

1113. This drawing out takes place through the continued growth of
the stalk, in which the bundles of tracheæ, doubtless by the varied
operation of light, develop themselves in order, become individualized,
and issue from the stalk as branches.

1114. The crucial position of the branches depends upon the same growth
of the stalk, but one in which transverse polarities are present. The
irregular or dispersed position is most probably the last completion
of the spiriform.

1115. The spiriform arrangement stands in relation with the formation
of the tracheæ.

1116. The branches of the root observe no such regularity, partly on
account of weaker polarity, partly on account of the obstacles placed
in their way, at one time by the impenetrable earth, at another by want
of water.

1117. The more the stem is differenced, so much the higher is it
developed. Thus the richer in number the branches, by so much the
more perfect is the stem. The stelliform branches belong to the first
development. The plants, that have this arrangement, stand lower in the
scale. To this the crucial appears to succeed, as a mediate position
between the former and that which follows. The spiriform ranks higher.
In it the stem is manifestly differenced more multilaterally. The
dispersed arrangement appears to be the highest, because in it the
greatest freedom prevails, because the poles have acted on every part
of the plant, because they are everywhere in the air and in light.
Plants with dispersed branches are organized air; without branches they
are organized water as well as earth. Those plants only which have
circles of tracheæ or rings of wood, as e. g. the Dicotyledons, ramify;
these alone are, properly speaking, a conjunction by growth of many
plants, and one that is truly persistent, or that bears fruit several
times. The Monocotyledons being devoid of woody rings, do not, or but
very rarely, ramify. Most of them therefore die off after they have
once produced fruit. The ramification is a multiplication of the plant,
in which the buds continue to stand upon the old stem.

_Formation of Nodes._

1118. The formation of nodes, as in the grasses, is an attempt at
differentialization, that has not, however, attained to perfection.
A node is a branch-whorl which has continued to adhere to the stalk.
Therefore the tracheæ also terminate in the circumference of the node.

1119. The formation of nodes consequently ranks directly under
the stelliform formation of branches. Taken in a strict sense the
formation of nodes occurs only in plants with sheathing leaves or in


1120. If in the progressive separation of the tissues the tracheæ
finally obtain the preponderance, so that they issue forth free from
the envelope of cellular tissue, the _leaves_, or _Foliage_, then

1121. The ribs of the leaf are the fascicles of tracheæ that have
become free, and are still only connected together laterally by a thin
layer of cellular tissue.

1122. The leaves can be regarded as gigantic and unrolled spiral
vessels, and these again as microscopic and involuted leaves.

1123. As through the root the water-process enters the plant, and
through the stalk the earth-process, so does the air-process through
the leaves.

1124. It is probably the stomata through which the air is conducted
into the tracheæ; the connexion, however, has not yet been proved.

_Gemmæ or Buds._

1125. With the formation of branches there is at the same time a
diminution of the cellular tissue, and an increase of the tracheæ.
Entirely new spiral vessels commence in the branches, and are not
continued or prolonged into the stalk. The further indeed the extent of
the ramification, by so much less is the quantity of cellular tissue,
and by so much greater the number of the tracheæ. It comes at last to
this, that the tracheal fascicles, which were from all sides surrounded
by dense cellular tissue, are only then loosely connected by a thin
layer of such substance. This ramuscule is still therefore only a
hollow stalk, consisting of fascicles of tracheæ disposed in circles,
and so united by a thin cellular integument or membrane, that the whole
forms a vesicle.

1126. This vesicle is a _Bud_. A bud is at bottom none other than the
end of a twig that has become hollow.

1127. Several buds are usually involved in each other, i. e. many
vesicles of tracheal rings have been encased in each other. They issue
gradually forth and become shoots or buds. Buds are bulbs at the end of
the branches.


1128. If the bud or the external vesicle ruptures, while the cellular
substance becomes consumed at the apex or between two or more tracheal
fascicles, it is then manifested as a _leaf_ or _Leaves_.

1129. Then the second vesicle grows forth, becomes petiolated, ruptures
and becomes leaf or leaves. In this manner a twig is formed, surrounded
in a spiral manner by leaves.

1130. The younger leaves have been originally inclosed in the older, as
in their sheaths.

1131. Every perfect leaf, i. e. every leaf-vesicle, must be regarded as
the terminal extremity of an entire twig, from or out of the angle of
which a new twig grows forth, that again as a bud ruptures, and from
which again a twig grows forth.

1132. All leaves therefore range directly opposite to each other. A
branch with many leaves is a system of branches, which grow out of each
other, like the articular pieces of the grass-culm or straw.

1133. A leaf is a whole plant with all its tissues and systems; with
cells, ducts, tracheæ; bark, liber, wood, stalk and branches. The leaf
is a tree of special form, a tree, whose branches or tracheal fascicles
all lie in one plane and are held together by parenchyma. It is the
bodily expression of the position of the tracheal circle in the stem,
only ruptured and to the greatest degree attenuated.

1134. In the division of the ribs of the leaf the internal arrangement
of the woody fasciculi in the stem has been placed before our eyes, as
by the scalpel of an anatomist.

1135. From the arrangement of the ribs of the leaf the structure of the
whole plant can be recognized and its character determined. The leaf is
the table of contents or index of the stem.

1136. Plants, which have no tracheæ, have also no leaf-ribs--Mosses.

1137. Plants, which have only isolated or non-ramifying fascicles of
tracheæ, have parallel leaf-ribs that do not ramify--Monocotyledons.

1138. Plants, which have a circle of tracheæ, or rings of
wood, have leaves with ramified ribs--reticular leaves or true

1139. The stronger indeed the ramification of the leaf-ribs, by so
much the higher is the perfection of the leaf. The lowest leaf is that
devoid of ribs, the higher that with parallel ribs, the highest being
the reticular-veined leaf.

1140. The number and forms of the leaves that proceed from a bud,
depend partly upon the number of tracheal fascicles, which pass out of
the ramule into the leaf, partly upon the form of the leaf-bud.

1141. If the bud be simply ruptured at its apex or only between two
fascicles of tracheæ, there then originates the spathiform leaf.

1142. If the cellular substance between several tracheal fascicles be
consumed by the severing action of light and by the air, then the bud
divides into several leaves.

1143. The fundamental form of the leaf is the oviform, because the
bud is to be thought of as being round. Through the elongation or
compression of the bud, lanciform, cordiform leaves, &c. originate.
Besides it appears, that the leaf-buds, at least those of the
reticular-veined leaves, burst in a circinate manner, like the ferns,
and unroll themselves. Therefore the leaves are unilateral and clasp
the stem inferiorly; or the petiole displays its spathiform origin.
In this case the leaf is not a part of a hollow globe, but the entire
globe, that has ruptured in the transverse direction at the extremity
of the petiole. Such is the case at least in the demispathiform leaves
of the Umbelliferous plants.

1144. The primary position of the leaves like that of the branches
is thus verticillate, yet always, however, under the idea of one
being encased within the other. The leaves are here only the ultimate

1145. If the leaves upon the ramules issue from each other, then this
happens in the same manner as with the branches.

1146. The verticillate position of the leaves is therefore the lowest,
next succeeds the crucial, then the spiriform, and lastly the scattered.

1147. The spathose leaves are only to be regarded as a single bud, and
therefore differ from the whorl, in so far as we regard this as the
development of several leaves, that have not, however, been extruded
from each other.

1148. Divided leaves originate through a higher operation of light.
In them the formation of ribs preponderates, and therefore they rank
higher than the undivided.

1149. From this cause the pinnate leaves are the highest.

1150. From the same cause the radical must be worse developed than
the ramular leaves. They are usually non-pinnated, undivided, because
they have more cellular substance in their composition than the upper
leaves. In the leaf-system, consequently, the whole idea of the plant
has been recontained; on the earth resides the chemical character,
as is evidenced by cellular, dense and misshapen leaves; above in
the air, on the contrary, the leaves are more delicate and are
divided--indicating an electric character.

1151. The division and pinnation of leaves can only progress according
to the odd numbers, 3, 5, 7, because the midrib determines the odd

1152. Leaflets occurring in pairs, or equally pinnated, are arrests of

1153. The even number or the symmetrical form is unnatural in the
vegetable kingdom.

1154. The leaves are, like the young bark, and thus the whole trunk of
the plant, green, because the vegetable kingdom represents the lower
totality of the earth, the planet, whose synthesis is the water.

1155. From the same cause, the chief colour of the animal kingdom is
red, the colour of fire. Thus, plant is to animal, as green is to red.

1156. The division of leaves passes also parallel to the stages of
rank in plants. _Cellular leaves_ are the scales of mosses and ferns;
_vascular leaves_, the long riband-like leaves of Monocotyledons;
_tracheal_ leaves the reticular leaf of Dicotyledons. The _cortical
leaf_ is the sheath; the _liber leaf_ is probably the fat leaf; the
_wood leaf_ the acicular leaf. The _radical leaf_ is the undivided
reticular leaf; the _stalk-leaf_ the free or ragged reticular leaf; the
_perfect leaf_ the pinnate. The _bracteal leaves_ repeat all forms in
the thyrsus, since they are floral leaves.

1157. The accessory leaves or _stipules_ are none other than the
remnant of the sheath-formation, out of which all the leaves, and
therefore the wings of the leaf-petioles or phyllodia, have issued

1158. The thyrsus has also its series of leaves; the scale-like or
radical leaf is involucre and bractea; the vascular or spathe-leaf is
calyx; the tracheal or reticular leaf is corolla.

1159. The vegetable trunk, namely, root, stalk, and leaf, is a perfect
organism, which can exercise all the functions which belong to its
individual life. If it therefore produces anything, that can be nothing
new, but only itself repeated. This repetition of itself is called
propagation. The organs of propagation are thus none other than a
repetition of the organs of the vegetable trunk. The plant thereby
steps forth out of its individuality into the province of the genus.

B. _Æther Organs._


1160. Hitherto we have regarded the plant as simply a planetary
organism, namely, as a trunk with water-, earth-, and air-organ. But
the primary vesicle does not lie wholly in the dark, but is illuminated
upon its apex by the sun. Every operation, however, produces its like;
thus in the plant a light-organ must also be developed. As the light
evokes heat in the æther, so also does it evoke a heat-organ in the
plant. As the heavenly bodies corevolve in æther by means of light and
motion, or the gravitation condenses the æther into matter, so also
must an organ of gravity originate also in the plant. These organs
are not, however, predominant in the plant, because it is essentially
planet or vegetable trunk. They can be therefore nothing else than the
parts of the trunk itself with the properties of the æther or fire.
They are thus a repetition of the trunk, wherein, in place of the
material processes of growth, those of the light, heat, and gravity
occur. The light-organ excites the heat-organ by polarization unto
motion and thereby originates the organ of gravity.

1161. The process in which through polar tension the trunk has been
reproduced, as the Whole in miniature, is called sexual process. The
æther-organs are thus sexual organs. These sexual organs can only be
a leaf-formation, because the last development of the stem is the
leaf. The leaf-formations which, by means of polar tension, reproduce
the trunk, are the _Flower_. The light-organ is the _corolla_. The
heat-organ is the _pistil_. The organ of gravity the _seed_. The pollen
upon the stigma sets the pistil in a state of tension with the trunk,
whereby the sap, out of which the seed attains to perfection, ascends.
Without this tension the pistil would not have had strength sufficient
to perfect the seed. It would wither ere the latter had obtained
sufficient nourishment.

1162. The development of the flower takes place through
differentialization, individualization, or complete separation of the
trunk-organs. The trunk indeed summons up all power in the leaves, to
separate the three vegetable tissues and represent each as a particular
organ; only in this formation it does not wholly succeed; for in a leaf
the ribs or tracheal fascicles are still held together by cellular
tissue. In the first place with the perfect separation of the tissues
or, properly speaking, with the ex-organization of each of them unto
an independent Whole, the limit of the vegetation is attained and the
growth completed. This was the course of the whole of nature; in every
system she has proceeded to individual consummation of the factors,
to their liberation from chaos; and the developments of the systems
were concluded, so soon as all factors became independent, or so soon
as every factor had itself become an entire nature. Such was the case
in the genesis of elements, and such in the metamorphosis of the
earth-element into earths, salts, Inflammables, metals.

1163. This complete severance and individualization can no longer be
effected by the air, but must be achieved by the light. The air is
itself not the wholly differencing element, but derives its potency
only from the light. All ultimate separation and individualization is
reserved for the light.

1164. Root and stem are the water-and earth-plant, the leaf is the
air-plant, the flower is the light-or rather fire-plant.

1165. In the flower the problem has been solved, of producing an entire
plant simply by the light without earth, water, and air, or as it were
in a merely spiritual manner.

1166. The plant is a flower that has been posited under three ideas,
under the idea of earth, water, and air. As in æther or fire all the
elements are dissolved; so are all the elements of the plant in the

1167. The flower is truly, not merely in idea, the whole plant with all
systems and formations, posited under a _single_ idea, under that of
the æther, namely, of the gravity, light and heat, or the fire.

1168. The flower as the æther-organ of the plant is not so independent
as an animal, but subordinated to the planetary systems, being only a
separation of the parts of the trunk, not a new formation, as in the
animal kingdom.

1169. The flower as the highest formative consummation of the plant, or
as the highest vegetable organ, is the extremity of the ramules. (Ed.
1st. 1810. § 1176.)

1170. Although the flower is a repetition of the whole plant,
namely, of the root, stalk, and leaf; it can still only be a direct
transmutation of the leaf. For every Superior proceeds from that which
is immediately subjacent. The light-organ can only be developed out
of the air-organ, not out of the water-organ. The transition from the
water-organ into the light-organ is necessarily indicated through the
aerial form. Preparations are necessary, gradual dismemberments must
precede, before the isolated consummation can result. The air purifies
the organs, in order that they may become participant of light.

1171. The flower is the totality of the leaves of a ramule placed upon
the extremity of the latter. For a flower is the whole plant, and is
the Ultimate of the plant.

1172. The flower is a terminal leaf-bud. A leaf-bud, after whose
rupture the ramule cannot grow any more.

1173. The flower necessarily stands in a whorl-shaped manner, because
it is the end of the branch; it is the terminal whorl of the plant.

1174. With the flower the ramule or the plant dies off, partly because
it is the extremity, partly because wholly separated tissues cannot
live. In the flower therefore the plant reverts to its origin. It is a
ramule, whose buds have continued stationary.

1175. The idea of the vesicle lies at the basis of the flower. It is an
entire vegetable vesicle, a leaf-bud that has not been drawn asunder.
The flower is the last vesicle into which the stalk swells out.

1176. The flower-vesicle agrees with the leaf-vesicle. The form of the
flower must pass parallel to the form of the leaves. This has reference
principally to the position and number of parts.


1177. The flower is the synthesis of the entire plant with complete
analysis of the organs. Flower, pistil, and seed are the leaves, stalk,
and root separated, and yet all combined to form a common organ.
This flower regarded in its analysis is the flower proper; in its
dissolution it is called _fruit_.

1178. The flower-vesicle is according to its essence a threefold
vesicle. In it the leaf-system or the air-plant has been represented,
but in like manner and of necessity also the earth-and water-plant,
or the vesicles in which stalk and root have been taken up into
the kingdom of light. Thus there is the _leaf-_, _stalk-_, and

1179. The leaf-flower is in the periphery, the stalk- and root-flower
in the centre of the vesicle. For the former is the metatype or copy of
the leaves, the latter of the stalk and the root.

1180. The leaf-flower is the highest and the very first to be
developed. It is that, which chiefly corresponds to light; the
trunk-flower is, however, the lowest, the last developed, because it
is only the trunk that has been prolonged with difficulty to form a
flower. It is the child of the heat and gravity.

1181. It may be also said that the leaf-flower is the electrical, the
stem-flower, however, the chemical. In the latter the chemical process
must still act visibly, it must still be produced mucus; in the former,
however, this must disappear and resolve itself into purely electrical

1182. The flower consists of three leaf-buds. The leaf-bud is the
corolla or blossom. The stalk-bud the pistil. The root-bud the seed.

1183. The corolla is the external whorl of leaves, is first developed,
has the form of a leaf, is a vesicle, secretes in itself electrical,
inflammable bodies, and is directed towards the sun.

1184. The difference between corolla and pistil is that of the two
principal tissues, the tracheal and cellular tissue. By the light
the tracheal fasciculi become finally separated from the cellular
substance, evolved to a higher degree as the child or product of light,
and planted outwardly. The corolla is the tracheal circle, which has
forcibly gained its freedom.

1185. The pistil is the vascular substance that has become freely
evolved, yet to the highest stage; in a similar relation likewise does
the seed stand to the cellular substance. In the fruit therefore the
flower again reverts to the primary condition of the plant.

1186. The flower and pistil are therefore those very organs which have
been most antagonized in the plant. They are in the highest state
of polar tension, and stand opposite each other like electrism and
chemism, or as light and matter. This antagonism in the Organic is
called _sex_.


1187. The blossom is the leaf-formation, in which the separation of the
principal tissues is completely attained, where the tracheal fascicles
entirely separate from the cellular substance, and become a leaf with
free ribs. The cellular substance becomes the _corolla-petal_, the rib
the stamen.

1188. The blossom passes through the three stages of leaf-varieties
before it attains its completion, and divides therefore into three
whorls, which correspond to the root-leaves, stalk-, and ramular or
perfect leaves. The radical or squamose leaf appears in its repetition
as _involucrum_ or _spatha_. The stalk or vascular leaf as _calyx_. The
perfect or tracheal leaf as _corolla_.

a. _Involucrum._

1189. As the root puts forth numerous branches, so the involucrum or
spatha frequently incloses many blossoms that constitute the thyrsus
or synthetic form of inflorescence.

1190. The thyrsus or dense panicle is the whole ramage or branch-fabric
repeated in the involucrum; it is therefore just as manifold as the

1191. The inflorescence is still as complex as the arrangement of the
branches, because with every flower the ramule dies off or ceases to
grow, whereby very numerous and strange relations are brought to light.

1192. The involucrum corresponds to the scale-leaves or bracts, and
is therefore as a rule polypetalous. The involucral leaves stand upon
a lower stage of development, are for the most part only squamose or
spathiform, rarely divided or pinnate.

1193. The involucral leaves necessarily stand, as being the radical
leaves of the flower, at the bottom of the peduncles or flower-stalks;
each flower-stalk therefore has usually an involucral or bracteal leaf

b. _Calyx._

1194. The repetition of the cauline or spathe-leaf in the flower is
the _Calyx_. It does not stand therefore at the base of the peduncle,
but towards its summit, and is the external bud of the blossom; it
is mostly spathiform, rarely or but slightly cloven, and very rarely
polysepalous; it is generally green like the leaves. Although the calyx
is no essential organ in itself, still it is rarely wanting and is
often itself the supporter of the corolla and stamina.

1195. As the calyx is more incomplete than the corolla, so it has
usually but three lobes, and if it has five, then they are frequently
placed irregularly.

1196. The developmental stages of the calyx are also three.
Corresponding to the scale-like leaf or bract, it is only squamiform,
as in the catkins of the hazel and fir-cones; corresponding to the
spathe-leaf, it is tubular or unisepalous; corresponding to the
reticular leaf, it is multisepalous, and mostly deciduous.

1197. The tubular calyx exhibits likewise three stages of
development. At first it is scale-like, confluent with the ovary or
epigynous--_ovarial corollæ_. It is next spathe-like, simply connected
with the corolla or perigynous--_calycine corollæ_. Lastly, it
resembles the reticular-veined leaf, being free from both the above
organs, or hypogynous--_pedunculate corollæ_.

c. _Corolla._

1198. From the character of the corolla or crown as being a ramular
leaf all its properties admit of being deduced. It is the upper
leaf-bud, inasmuch as the ramular leaves stand above those of the
stalk. It is, on this account too, the internal, inasmuch as the lower
leaves admit within them the upper.

1199. The corolla is homologous with the whole mass of the petiolated
or ramular leaves. Thus their arrangement, form, and number taken
together are not worth more than the characters of the corolla, nor are
they worth less, because they are relations of deeper organs.

1200. The corolla stands also in a whorl, because it is the totality of

1201. The laws of the leaf-formation are also the laws of the
corolla-formation. The corolla will therefore represent at one time a
greater, at another a less, ramified leaf-system.

1202. The corolla is the last verticil in the series of leaf-whorls;
for it represents the last leaf-form, and must fade, because the
tissues have completely separated from each other, namely, the tracheæ
as stamina, from the cells that constitute corolla leaflets or petals.
No part can carry on life by or for itself.

1203. The parts of the corolla range in an alternating manner with
those of the calyx, because they are the next supra-consecutive bud.

1204. In accordance with the three stages of the leaf-formation the
corolla is also resolvable into three forms. The scale-or root-leaf
returns in the several squamiform micropetals of what have been called
the Apetalous plants; it corresponds to the involucrum--squamoid
corolla. The spathe-or stalk-leaf appears in the tubular-shaped or
Monopetalous corolla. It is a leaf-bud, which has only ruptured at the
apex, like most calyces, unto which it corresponds--spathoid corolla.
Lastly, in the polypetalous corolla the reticular or petiolated leaf
appears upon its highest stage--reticular or phylloid corolla. The rank
of the leaves consequently determines also that of corollæ.

1205. Although we regard the corolla as a whorl of leaves, namely, as
several leaf-buds approximated, a yet clearer insight into its numbers
and positional relations is attained, by viewing it only as the lobes
of a single leaf.

1206. If we regard the petals of a polypetalous corolla in the
import or light of _pinnate leaflets_, the legitimate regularity of
their numerical relations, and the so-called irregularity of their
arrangement is easily explained. The papilionaceous corollæ have been
manifestly constructed according to the plan of the pinnate leaf; the
vexillum or vane corresponds to the odd leaflet, the alæ or wings to
the two anterior, the carina or keel to the two posterior pinnate
leaflets; and hence their consecutive ratio of decrease in respect to

1207. All irregular corollæ admit of being referred to the
papilionaceous form. One petal is always found, which separates from
the others, is either larger or smaller, or entirely ablated, and
consequently corresponds to the odd pinnate leaflet or vane.

1208. The irregular monopetalous or tubular corollæ admit also of
being referred to the papilionaceous form. They need only be regarded
as a confluence of petals. The labiate corollæ are one of the same
character; but, on the contrary, the lower lip is trifid, the upper,
and thus the keel, bifid. Here the papilionaceous corolla stands,
properly speaking, reversed.


1209. The number of petals in the corolla ranges parallel with the mode
of development of the pinnate leaves. But at first the odd terminal
leaf necessarily originates, because a leaf must have several pairs of
ribs, before it splits in a ptiloidal or pinnate manner. The primary
number of petals is therefore one. This number is found in those plants
called apetalous, where the small lateral petals are abortive, and
frequently the terminal petal itself, as in the catkin, where only the
calyx has been left remaining.

1210. The normal ratio, in which the numbers of the petals progress, is
the odd or uneven. For a leaf is to be regarded as a single fascicle of
fibres with cellular substance. This packet of fibres grows straight
out. It is solicited by the light to give off bundles of fibres; there
is thus no existing cause, why it should only give off such upon one,
and not upon the other, side of the bundle. At the first division
therefore it must be an _odd_ leaflet, which is the principal bundle of
fibres, while two _even_ pinnate leaflets take their origin upon its

1211. The second number of petals is therefore _three_; for this is the
first number in which a pinnate leaf can appear. This number is much
more frequently met with than the former, because all division of a
terminal bud necessarily strives after the representation of the whorl.
Under this head come most Monocotyledons, as grasses, rushes, lilies.

1212. Of the three petals of a corolla all three are not of equal
import, two only are alike as being lateral pinnate leaflets; the
third, however, is present as the odd or uneven leaflet.

1213. Upon this inequality of import depends the irregularity of many
ternary corollæ, e. g. of the Orchideæ, Apiaceæ, and even many Irides
and lilies.

1214. If the trinity or ternary division depend upon the pinnated leaf,
so must also the next number depend thereupon.

1215. The third prevalent number in the vegetable world is the quinary.
The quinary division originates, when to the two pinnate leaflets two
others are superadded. The pentapetalous corolla is also an _odd_
pinnate leaf in a whorl-shaped position with four pinnate leaflets.

1216. The pentapetalous is naturally higher in rank than the
tripetalous, and this than the monopetalous, corolla.

1217. In the former four petals are of equal rank, but the fifth or
odd petal differs from them. This difference is shown in its position,
size, form, design, and colouring. The odd leaf is usually larger, of a
rounded form, having more ribs and other spots or markings.

1218. It appears as if, with this second liberation of fibrous
fascicles from the main bundle, the differentialization were closed.
For most corollæ are only quinarily divided, or admit at least of being
referred back to that number.

1219. It is readily comprehended why there are only three breaks
present in the number of petals, that these are denoted by one, three,
and five, and that they rarely ascend to seven, nine, and so on. For
the posterior pinnate leaflets are wont also to abort or be arrested in
the leaves.

1220. There can be no plant with _originally_ two corolla-lobes or
petals; for the fibrous bundle does not thus divide itself; one main
fasciculus is always left. The cause why the principal bundle does not
divide into two equal fasciculi resides in the very nature or essence
of the stalk. The idea of the stalk operates throughout the whole
plant. The odd or uneven leaflet is only the last expansion of the
stalk. The even leaflets are its branches.

1221. For the same reason there can be no _originally_ quaternary

1222. There can be none that is originally sexanary.

1223. But an originally septenary corolla is conceivable, if forsooth
the energy of light is still in a condition to separate two bundles
of fibres. How rarely this occurs is well known, and thus it still
continues doubtful whether this form is not to be explained by an
arrest of development.

1224. Nature can produce no originally octo-, deka-, or
dodeka-petalous, &c. corolla.

1225. Corollæ with originally nine, eleven, and more numbers are not
impossible. The last seem only to exist.

1226. All corollas having even numbered petals, originate through
arrest of the odd leaflet.

1227. The number two originates most usually and in the simplest manner
from the arrest of the number three. If it originates from the quinary
quantity, two pinnate leaflets are then coarrested.

1228. The aberration is recognized either from the position of the
lobes or petals that have been left remaining, or from comparison of
the number in other parts, in the calyx and capsule.

1229. The quaternary corolla is a quinary without the uneven leaflet.

1230. The hexapetalous is a doubling of the tripetalous, corolla.
There are two whorls of petals, provided the calyx has not become
corolla-like in character. Both cases are demonstrable through the
alternating arrangement of the parts.

1231. The number eight is a doubled four.

1232. Nine is indeed in most instances a product of three multiplied by

1233. The number ten is a doubled five.

1234. In every number of petals the law of unequal development
consequently prevails.

1235. The original arrangement of the parts of the corolla is
bilateral, and therefore symmetrical. In the papilionaceous corollæ
this originally symmetrical arrangement is most perfectly maintained.
They repeat the position of their pinnate leaves.

1236. This symmetrical arrangement is shown even in many tubular, as
in the labiate and personate, corollæ. The trifid lower lip is the
standard and wings; the bifid upper lip, on the contrary, the keel.

1237. The small liguliform petal of the lettuce's corolla is a tubular
corolla entirely slit up; it is therefore mostly quinque-dentate.

1238. Corollæ which have only a single petal (the tubular-shaped
corollæ should not be styled monopetalous, but those which actually
have a single petal to the corolla) are indeed to be regarded for
the most part as an odd leaflet; yet still much variety appears to
take place in these developmental arrests. Thus here no division of
the fibrous bundle was attained, or the lateral leaflets have wholly

1239. In many this one leaflet also is arrested, and the corolla is
wholly wanting. Such a corolla is to be viewed as a stem with radical,
but without ramular leaves.

1240. It is not a matter of indifference whether the single involucre
that is left remaining be called calyx or corolla; the distinction
between both is philosophically correct, though at the same time also
it may be frequently difficult to determine. Colour and relation to the
stamina and fruit determine much; but respect must be also paid to the
whole idea of the plant, whether it has radical leaves or not, whether
the leaf-ribs do or do not ramify. Alternating stamina afford evidence
of its being the corolla.


1241. As the colour ranges parallel with the import or quality of the
matter, or since the matter and colour are of one and the same kind, so
also must this hold good of the colour of the light-flower.

1242. As the corolla only, and not the calyx, is the proper
light-organ, so also will it only obey the light in the coloration.

1243. The corolla can no longer be coloured green, for it is no longer
a leaf. Now that which obtains another signification, which passes
over into another element, must, with the function, lay aside also
the old colour. The corolla is besides the perishing, fading leaf; as
this begins to turn yellow or red in the autumn, so does the corolla
immediately at its origin. It is a born autumnal leaf.

1244. The whole plant must be regarded as a green synthetic colour; the
corolla as the analysis of the Green.

1245. The first division of the Green is Yellow and Blue. These two
colours are the first which make their appearance in the corolla.

1246. Yellow is the earth-colour, corresponds to the root, and
consequently indicates the lowest colour. Yellow corollæ are less
developed than those which are otherwise coloured. The corollæ of
spring flowers are therefore yellow; so likewise is the middle of the
corolla, as is specially exemplified in the disk of the Syngenesious

1247. Blue is the second colour of corollæ in the scale of dignity,
or rank. Blue is displayed on the better developed corolla, and is
frequently the colour in the rays of the Syngenesiæ. Blue belongs to
the temperate zones.

1248. If Yellow and Blue be the divided Green of the leaves, the
complementary colour to that of the corollæ must thus remain in the
trunk. The trunks of plants having blue corollæ should therefore
be yellow; those with yellow corollæ should furnish blue colouring
matters, like the Woad.

1249. Red is the third corolla-colour, the true light-colour, in the
which properly all corollæ have been immersed; and if they exhibit any
other colours, these should be viewed only as instances of aberration
from Red. The Reds are the splendid colours, which develop themselves
in the middle of summer; in flaming red mantles are the flowers of the
torrid zone veiled.

1250. Finally, the form triumphs over the colour. The light has in Red
done everything which it could do for colour, having allured as it were
all the colours out of the plant; it now, on the contrary, bestows its
attention upon the form and delicacy of the substance. The white colour
makes its appearance in antithesis to the red, and is mostly associated
with very delicate structure.

1251. The cells of the red corollæ are replete with starch-granules,
but those of the white are quite empty. The yellow and blue corollæ
range in the middle. Red is a superabundance, White a deficiency, of
nutriment. The most noble and beautiful corollæ, as well as the lowest
also, may therefore be white. White and red are the general colours
for all families of plants, but yellow and blue are special colours.
In general the trunk is green, the corolla white, the seed black. The
mediate stages are red, yellow, and blue.


1252. At length we come to the last work achieved by the light in the
corolla, or to complete separation of the systems or tissues. If ever
bundles of fibres may entirely separate from the cellular substance,
this is possible only in the corolla, as being the final light-organ.
Separation must, however, be attained: for thus far do the claims of
light extend. But no development remains stationary before it has
corresponded with the operations of the developing agent.

1253. In the corolla, as being the highest kind of leaf, the ribs,
as the fibrous fascicles, must finally separate themselves from the
leaf-substance as cellular tissue. The corolla is a double organ.

1254. In conformity with the whole structure of the plant, the ribs are
placed internally, the membranes externally.

1255. The leaf-ribs, isolated and perfected as a particular organ, are
the _Stamen-filaments_.

1256. The leaf-membranes, or probably the phyllodia, isolated and
evolved into a particular organ, are the corolla-petals. These compose
in the strongest sense the corolla. The filaments consist for the
greatest part of spiral fibres, and the corolla-petals of the finest
cellular tissue, which may be almost designated as granular. This then
would be the rational import of the corolla and its stamen-filaments.
Both are of similar production; they exhibit like substance, colour,
and delicacy, with cotemporaneous development and cotemporaneous death.

1257. Not only are the ribs of the corolla, but those also of
the calyx, liberated to become filaments. There are calyx-and

1258. As ribs, the filaments must stand in the middle of their petals,
i. e. opposite to them.

1259. Filaments, which alternate with the parts of the corolla,
are consequently calyx-filaments; such as alternate with the lobes
of the calyx, or stand opposite to the petals of the corolla, are

1260. Most filaments, and consequently the calycine, are alternating
in their arrangement. Most corollæ therefore have no longer strength
sufficient to produce filaments.

1261. Flowers provided with opposite and alternating filaments have
consequently two circles of them, as is the case in many Pinks.
With the determination of the number of filaments the race has been
therefore specified.

1262. The number of filaments stands in relation to the parts of the
corolla; therefore three and five are the prevailing numbers.

1263. There is no absolute number in the filaments, but only one
of relation. Corollæ with three petals have invariably also three
filaments, and those with five of the former, the same number too of
the latter.

1264. The number of filaments is always the simple or multiple of the
parts of the corolla. Three calyx-or corolla-parts have 3 × 1 or 3 × n,
filaments. 6 is not 6, but 3 × 2; 9 is 3 × 3; 10 is 5 × 2; 20 is 5 × 4;
or 5 × 3 + 5 × 1, and so on.

1265. The filaments do not simply follow the number, but also the
conjunction, position and arrest, of the corolla. They are epigynous,
peri-or hypogynous.

1266. In irregular corollæ the filaments are usually abortive; as in
those of the orchideous, labiate and papilionaceous plants.

1267. The arrest of the filaments usually stands in inverse relation
with the corolla. In the case of a larger-sized petal the filament is
small, and, on the contrary, larger in opposite parts of the corolla.


1268. The corolla obtains its last function in the production of the
highest electrical bodies, which it exhales as sweet odours. Ætherial
oils ascend out of the corolla into the air.

1269. The filament, as a leaf-rib that has become free, is a moribund
ramuscular extremity, which still strives, according to the law of
pinnation, to produce three buds, whereof, however, the terminal one is
in general arrested, and the two lateral scarce attain unto apertion.

1270. The two lateral buds of the filaments are the _Anthers_. They
mostly open in a spathose manner, because they have not strength enough
to develop themselves as perfect gemmæ or buds.

1271. The anthers are to be regarded as follicles, which mostly rupture
upon the dorsal or external aspect.

1272. The starch-flour, which forms the precipitate termed albumen in
the seed, here obtains in the light-organ electrical properties, and is
called _pollen_.

1273. The pollen has a light-function in the plant.

1274. The function of the pollen must be differencing, thus vivifying
and secernent.

1275. The principal antagonism of the pollen is with the pistil, upon
which it must therefore act in a properly differencing manner. The
pollen does not hang, like the seed, by a stalk or pedicle to the wall
of the anther, but is exudated from it like chemical bodies. It is
nevertheless a vesicle, like all organic parts. This vesicle consists
of two membranes, and contains yet smaller vesicles, which are called
_fovilla_ or pollen-viscus. When the pollen comes into contact with the
moist surface of the stigma, its external membrane ruptures, and the
internal with its contained fovilla protruding in the form of a tube,
penetrates the style in many instances down to the seed, whereby the
germ first becomes developed or self-subsistent.


1276. If the corolla be the light-flower, the stalk-flower is

1277. The stalk-flower, as being a repetition of the stem, must
be developed later than the leaf-flower. It consequently stands
superiorly upon, and so far within, this. The corolla is related to the
stalk-flower like circumference to centre.

1278. The stalk repeated in the flower is the _Ovarium_, _germen_
or _pistillum_. It is frequently converted into wood in the nut and
becomes hardened into stone.

1279. Nevertheless, the pistil like the corolla is a leaf-formation,
because everything that originates subsequently to, can be none other
than, the leaf. It is a leaf-bud under the idea of the stalk. The
pistil is thus a leaf-whorl like the corolla, and one which is subject
to the same fatalities, only with this difference, that its leaves are
wont to open first after it has withered, and consequently through
physical forces.

1280. Every leaf that has been closed in a vesicular or tubular form
is a _follicle_ or _carpel_. There are therefore uni-, bi-, and
tri-locular ovaria, &c. The loculi or cells of the ovarium are none
other than closed carpels. As many therefore as there are of the
former, so many are there of the latter, and vice versâ. The septa or
partition-walls are none other than the involuted edges of the closed
and confluent carpels.

1281. Uni-locular ovaria consist therefore only of one leaf. The legume
is only a compressed carpel.

1282. Every carpel or every cell has its raphé or suture directed
inwards or along the axis of the flower. For the leaves are always so
conjoined that the two halves of the upper or inner side stand counter
to each other.

1283. All other sutures are adventitious and, by their mode of
dehiscence, determine those parts of the ovarium which are called
valves. These sutures are either _dorsal_ or on the back of the
carpel, e. g. _capsula loculicida_; _conjunctive_, where two carpels
abut against each other, e. g. _capsula septicida_; or finally, between
both by the side of the dorsal suture, so that the valve springing up
resembles a shutter, as in many siliquæ or pods.

1284. The columella of the ovary is none other than the internal edge
of the carpels from which the leaf-wall has been freed.

1285. Each carpel-leaf is to be regarded as the common petiole of a
pinnate leaf, upon whose lateral petioles the seeds depend. The seeds
always hang therefore upon the inner angle of the cells.

1286. As the parts of the corolla alternate with the calyx, so do the
carpels or cells of the ovary with the corolla; they stand therefore
opposite the parts of the calyx or are situated in front of them.

1287. The parts of the ovary follow also the uneven series of numbers,
one, three, five. The number two is usually found in irregular, e. g.
the labiate, corollæ.

1288. If few cells be present as parts of the flower, the carpels are
then to be regarded as arrested. In the personate corollæ three are
arrested, but in the papilionaceous, four. The legumen is only a fifth
part of the ovarium.

1289. The development of the carpels stands usually in an inverse
relation to the size of the parts of the corolla. Thus the legume is
situated between the two insignificant petals of the keel, opposite
to the large vexillum; in the Personatæ a carpel is situated in the
fissure of the upper lip; upon the lower lip, consisting of three
lobes, only one carpel is situated, which consequently supplies the
place of four, and is therefore also larger.

1290. The stages of leaf-formation are also displayed in the matured
state of the ovarium. The _radical_ or _scale-leaf_ is repeated in the
_cariopsis_; as in the grasses, orachs, nettles, and such like plants.

1291. The _spathe-leaf_ becomes a _siliqua_, or hollow capsule, in
which forsooth the septa are arrested, and the seeds stand upon the
conjoined edges of the carpels, upon their walls, or also upon a
mediate replum and placenta, as in the proper Siliquose plants with the
poppies, Resedæ, Primulæ and pinks.

1292. The reticular-leaf is perfected into a _capsule_, where the
carpels are so confluent with each other, that they form septa and bear
the seeds upon the internal angle or upon the axis, as in the Rues. If
these carpels separate, then polycarpal plants, as the Ranunculaceæ,
Malvaceæ, Magnoliaceæ, originate. In these the median columella is the
elongated floral peduncle. If they separate, without leaving a median
columella between them; they are then simply called _follicles_, as in
the larkspur and celandine. If this capsule be compressed flat; it is
called _legumen_, as in the beans.

1293. The cariopsis generally contains one and that a large seed; the
siliqua or hollow capsule is many-or small-seeded; the follicle few-or
moderately-seeded; the capsule many-and also few-seeded.

1294. In the cariopsis the seed is attached to the base or apex; in
the follicle in a row upon the inner suture; in the siliqua upon
the carpellar edges, or their walls, and on a meso-replum or frame;
in the capsule upon the inner angle or on a middle axis or column.
Seed-bearing alæ to the columella are only the carpellar edges
prolonged into the loculi or cells.


1295. What the stamen-filament is for the petal of the corolla, that is
the style for the ovarial petal or the carpel, viz. the rib that has
become free. As, however, the leaf-formation in the ovary is generally
imperfect, so also is the separation of the tissues or systems. The
style is not therefore freed at once from its root, but projects only
above the leaf-substance.

1296. But as the singular circumstance occurs in the ovary that the
midrib is arrested while only the marginal ribs shoot out, so is the
style the elongation and coalescence of the two marginal ribs. Every
stigma is therefore biacuminate.

1297. There must always be as many styles as the ovary has carpels or
cells. If only one style appear, in this case it is then made up of
several mid-ribs. In most instances the number of styles is recognized
in the number of the stigmata.

1298. As being the rib of the ovary the style is the last ramuscular
extremity of the stalk, which is resolved into mucus upon the stigma.

1299. Stamen-filament is related to style, as leaf to stalk, thus as
air to earth, as Differencing to Differencizable, as electrism to
chemism or rather nutrition. This is the lower comparison; in a true
sense they are related as light to heat.

1300. The light is the Active, the heat the Passive; light the Moving,
heat the Moveable; light the Vitalizing, heat the Inactive, or that
which becomes vitalized; light the spirit, heat the matter--male and
female principle. Thus are corolla and pistil related to each other.

3. SEED.

1301. The root repeats itself in the interior of the ovary under the
æther-form. The root ascends out of the earth to become an organ of

1302. After the leaves have been made independent in the corolla, and
the stalk in the pistil, the root also separates and appears as a free
organ, as _Seed_.

1303. The seeds are necessarily in the interior of the ovary; for the
cellular organ can first appear, after the leaf-and stalk-buds have
opened as corolla and ovarium. The blossom is a bulb, the external
testa or covering of which is the leaf-, the mediate the stalk-, and
lastly, the internal the root-vesicle. The stalk is adherent to the
leaves, the root to the stalk; so also the seeds to the ovary, and this
to the corolla.

1304. The seeds are developed in the ovary under the same relations in
which the root is developed in the earth, namely, in the dark.

1305. The darkness does not allow the chemical body to attain unto
difference; therefore the sap within the capsule must, instead of
separating itself into spiral vessels and leaf-substance, continue to
remain there undivided and without form, i. e. in the condition of
simple granules, or germs of future cells.

1306. The seeds, like the root, are a mass of cells; like it they
contain an accumulation of mucus, but of course more highly-formed,
being separated into flour, starch, acid matter, oil, and such like

1307. These seminal substances are deposited upon the alkaline, in
opposition to the acid, side of the ovary; just as the root also
represents the alkaline factor in reference to the stalk, in which
appears the formation of acids.

1308. The seeds are the pinnate leaflets of the ovarian leaves, which
continue in the condition of buds. They stand therefore as unclosed
vesicles upon both edges of the carpel, as is particularly distinct in
the legumens.

1309. As both edges are similar to each other, so there can be no ovary
that has fewer than two seeds. In all one-seeded ovaries therefore one
seed has been arrested, a fact that admits too of being demonstrated in
the majority of cases.

1310. Every seed is placed at the extremity of a lateral rib of the
carpel. These lateral ribs are called seed-bearers or _placentæ_. If
such lateral ribs terminate before reaching the edge of the carpel,
then the seeds stand upon the juncture or wall of the carpel. This does
not, however, occur frequently, but only in the Siliquosæ, poppies,
and some others. The elongated lateral rib, whereupon the seed hangs,
is called umbilical cord. It is no peculiar organ, but only the

1311. The direction of the seeds is possible in five ways, either
upright and horizontal, transverse, or rising obliquely upwards and
downwards in relation to the axis of the ovary.

1312. Every perfect seed (of Dicotyledons) is none other than a
pentifoliar, involuted, pinnate leaf. The shell of the seed is the
leaf-spathe or _phyllodium_, the two seed-lobes are the two posterior
pinnate leaflets, while the germinal leaflets, or _plumula_, are the
two anterior pinnate leaflets, together with the odd leaflet. The
seed-rib or vascular cord (_raphe_) is continued into the seed-rootlet
or radicle, and this into the petiole of the cotyledons.

1313. Every seed-coat must consist of three integuments; for every
leaf consists of the lower and upper membrane, and of the interjacent
parenchyma, in which the vessels are dispersed. The external
leaf-membrane forms the most hard and coloured covering of the seed
(_testa_), the internal the brown seed-tunic or _pellicula_; between
the two lies the brown fibrous tissue, or desiccated parenchyma with
the vessels.

1314. The hilum is the basis of the bud or of the seed-leaf; the
seed-hole or micropyle is on the apex of the involuted bud, or rather
of the phyllodium, in which the germ lies rolled up.

1315. Umbilicus and micropyle are united with each other by means of
seed or leaf-rib (raphe). Both rarely stand opposite to each other,
so as that the one should be below, the other above; but the apex of
the leaf is usually so involuted that it again reaches the bottom of
the leaf, whereby umbilicus and micropyle come into close and mutual
approximation, as in the beans. The seed-petiole elongates itself
into the seed-rib; this is continued upon the back of the phyllodium
or testa, bends round, and returns again to the umbilicus, so as to
describe a complete circle. The shell of the seed has consequently the
form of the young fern or fern-capsule.

1316. The radicle is the continuation of the seed-rib, which is,
however, dismembered itself, moves off, and thereby causes the
micropyle to be, or, properly speaking, only renders it, free. The
testa or seed-shell is consequently a phyllodium thrown over the germ,
but the micropyle is the upper opening of the bud.

1317. The germ of the seed or embryo, namely, radicle, cotyledons and
plumule, is therefore only the quinary pinnate leaf without the spathe
or testa.

1318. Thus the whole seed, shell and embryo, completely resembles a
pinnate leaf with a phyllodium, as we see it in the umbellate plants,
only it must be thought of as one so involuted, that the fine leaves
adhere reversed in the phyllodium. Seeds may consequently change
into leaves. A seed has therefore been formed also in all its parts
like a papilionaceous corolla. This resemblance speaks moreover
retrogressively, for the petals of the papilionaceous corolla being
viewed only as a single leaf-bud. Seeds may therefore change also into
corollæ. All parts of the seed are thus an unity, a single pinnate
leaf, and it is consequently impossible for them to have been patched
up out of what has been called the seed-ovum, namely, the testa and
embryo, which would come from some other source or out of the pollen.

1319. The seed is the whole plant in miniature: the root being
portrayed in the umbilical cord, and radical leaf in the phyllodium;
stalk in the radicle; caudal leaves in the seed-lobes; ramuscule in the
cotyledonal petiole; ramular leaves in the cotyledons. Seeds may thus
change into an entire plant. The seed is consequently nothing new in
the plant, but the repetition of the same under the relations and forms
of the root.

1320. It is plain that the seeds must always change into the same
plant; for they are indeed nothing else but this. The identity ensuing
upon propagation is accordingly nothing singular and incomprehensible;
it would be so were it otherwise. With the seed the plant has but
reverted again to its primary condition, to the galvanic, mucous
vesicle, out of which in a secondary manner the young plant is
developed like as is the first plant out of the primary vesicle.

1321. The radicle is not therefore root itself, but only emits rootlets.

1322. The germ or the radicle must observe different positions towards
the umbilicus, according as the seed-leaf or the testa has been more or
less involuted, and according as the germ is removed from the micropyle.

1323. The albumen or perisperm is no particular organ, but only the
deposit from the sap, which the inner wall of the testa secretes. The
albumen stands in no organic connexion with the parts of the seed. That
therefore which has become connate with the kernel or nucleus cannot be

1324. The arillus can be none other than bud-seeds of the testa,
because it is placed under the phyllodium. It corresponds to the floral
involucrum or bracteal scales.

1325. As the seeds are none other than leaves that have remained
stationary in the condition of root, so must they pass through the
three leaf-stages. There can be therefore only three principal
differences in the seed-formation.

1326. The seeds of plants with reticular leaves consist of several
leaves arranged symmetrically or in pairs. They have necessarily _two_

1327. The seeds of plants with spathose leaves consist too only of
the latter, i. e. the seed-leaves remain encased in each other. They
have consequently only one seed-lobe, which also incloses only one

1328. This seed-lobe is a phylloidal leaf, whose parenchyma has been
superabundantly filled with farinaceous matter or flour.

1329. That which is named vitellus can be none other than the
succeeding counter-leaf.

1330. What in the Monocotyledons, at least in most of them, and in
the grasses, is called albumen, is not so, but only the flour of the

1331. The germination of these seeds is nothing else than an elongating
of the spathiform seed-lobe into a culm, from the bottom of which
radicles spring forth, as out of a bulb. A monocotyledonous seed is in
its structure none other than a small bulb with undivided coverings.

1332. Lastly, the third form of seeds makes its appearance in those
plants which have only scale-like leaves. The seed-lobe is wanting in
them, and they elongate themselves directly into the plumule or little

1333. They are devoid of the distinction of testa and embryo, because,
on account of the deficiency of genuine leaf-formation, they are
none other than the first. For the embryo is only a small leaf. They
therefore include only albumen or _germinal powder_, as it is correctly

1334. Here belong not merely fungi, fuci, lichens and mosses, but also
the ferns, as being those which have only cells or squamoid leaves.
For the frond with the spiral vessels does not rank in the category of
leaf, but of stalk.


1335. The fruit is the coalescence or blending of the three parts
of the flower, or the seed, ovarium and corolla. In the flower the
individual perfection of every part of the trunk was completely
attained; the leaves being separated quite freely from the stalk became
corolla; the stalk separated from the leaves and root became pistil;
lastly, the root separated from all, became the seed. In this manner
indeed each organ attained its ratio of perfection; the perfection,
however, of the Whole does not alone consist in the perfection of the
several parts for themselves, but in the union or combination of these
individual perfections. The vegetable trunk, as being a Partial, has
been represented in the parts of the flower, but as a Whole, in the

1336. The fruit is therefore the last and most perfect consummation of
the plant, or the whole vegetable trunk repeated as unity.

1337. In the fruit not merely the sum of all vegetable forms is united,
but also that of all vegetable matters. It is the whole vegetable body
repeated mathematically, physically and chemically.

1338. The fruit therefore is also that part of the plant in which all
vegetable bodies have been concentrated into flesh. Now, as the highest
vegetable bodies pass over into the next, and consequently into the
animal kingdom, and are therefore palatable as food, so is the fruit
also in essence the sarcocarp. For this is the directly edible part of
the plant, that e. g. which does not need being cooked.

1339. The nutritious substance of the fruit can be none other than a
highly elevated and analysed kind of mucus, such as starch and gum,
sugar and acids. Flour is that which resembles the root, sugar the
stalk, acids the foliage; therefore flour is in the seed, sugar in the
pistil, and acid in the calyx.

1340. There can be only three kinds of fruit, that constantly accord
with the preponderance of the three parts of the flower, as seed-fruit,
pistil-and corolla-fruit.

1341. The fruit that has the preponderance of the seed, or where the
edible substance resides in the seed, and the ovary itself has become
seed-shaped, is the _Nut_. The nut is the cariopsis that has become
sarcocarp; it is therefore one-seeded--farinaceous sarcocarp.

1342. In the ovarian fruit the ovarium has become demi nut-like, half
corolla-like or fleshy, as in the _Plum_. It is the carpel that has
become sarcocarp--acid sarcocarp.

1343. The fruit, in which the whole ovarium together with the calyx
is edible, is the corolla-fruit, the _Berry_. Only those perfectly
soft fruits are true berries which are inclosed by the calyx, as being
forsooth a part of the blossom. The berry is the siliqua or hollow
capsule that has become sarcocarp. Therefore it has numerous and small
seeds--saccharine sarcocarp.

1344. Finally, these fruits combine to form a common fruit, which
represents the proper synthesis of all parts of the blossom, or in
which seed, ovarium and flower, along with the calyx, have become
sarcocarp. This is the _Apple_, a syncarpus. The apple is the calyx
become sarcocarp, and as it usually incloses several carpels, it is
therefore polycarpal and contains few seeds. It consists of seed,
ovarium and calyx, which have become flesh. The apple, as being an
unopen calyx-fruit, may probably be regarded as the fruit of the trunk.
It furnishes properly drink and food, is the fruit against thirst and
hunger--the universal, alimentary sarcocarp. The apple contains all
the bodies that have been named, viz. flour, acids and sugar. It is
thus chemically also the synthetic fruit, which may be converted into
the whole animal flesh, and thus become a true medium of nutrition. The
nut is only garbage, the plum and berry, cherry and grape, only drinks
or delicacies.

1345. Other vegetable substances, which range lower in chemical
development, as mucus, bitter and colouring matters, with resins, are
associated for the greatest part in root, stalk and leaves.


1346. The flowerless or asexual plants can have no genuine seed or no
embryo. For the genuine seed is the repetition of the blossom under the
idea of root. (Ed. 1st, 1810. § 1564.)

1347. That which has been called germinal powder is no seed or germ,
but only albumen or perisperm. It has no seed-petiole, has only been
exuded out of what has been called the wall of the capsule, and
exhibits in its composition no seed-lobes. (Ed. 1st. § 1586.)

1348. What is termed capsule in the Acotyledones is none other than the
seed-shell, whereupon it follows of itself, that the so-called seeds
can have no umbilical cords or seed-petioles. (Ed. 1st; 1810. § 1573.)

1349. The capsules of ferns are involuted like most dicotyledonous
seeds. The ring corresponds to the seed-rib or raphe, the fissure
to the seed-aperture or micropyle. The involuted fern-capsule is a
repetition of the involuted fern-frond. The little heaps of capsules or
sori are consequently not pollen, but a nest of seeds surrounded by an
indusium or veil, which, probably, corresponds to the ovary.

1350. The capsule of mosses is an antetype of monocotyledonous seeds;
it is a spathe-leaf with the lateral suture; it springs up in a tubular
manner similar to grass-leaves, that free themselves from the nodes of
the culm.

1351. The hollow columella, which likewise contains germinal powder,
is an internal spathe, which corresponds to the germinal leaf of

1352. The oral teeth are the dissevered parallel strips of vessels in
the culm and leaf of the Monocotyledons.

1353. The urn-supporting pedicel is the seed-petiole or umbilical cord.

1354. The calyptra probably corresponds to the arillus and thus to the
bud-scales; or possibly to the indusium of the ferns, and thus to the

1355. The leaf-roses would consequently be the involucral leaves of the
moss-stalk; the moss-stalk itself a peduncle or flower-stalk; so that
in the upper involucral leaves rudiments might indeed appear of stamina.

1356. In the lichens and fuci the whole trunk is none other than

1357. In the fungi, the antetype of the Acotyledons, it may be almost
said that the whole stem is nothing else but albumen, the external
layers of which only cling together in a membranaceous manner, and
represent a kind of seed-shell. The fungus is an albumen-body,
which has coagulated out of vegetable juices. In the fungus, seed,
seed-vessel, ovary, blossom, foliage and trunk have become blended into

1358. In a perfect blossom the albumen is therefore the repetition of
a fungus; the acotyledonous seed that of lichen; the monocotyledonous
seed-vessel that of a moss; the dicotyledonous, however, is the
repeated fern. It may be also said that the albumen were fungus; the
germ, lichen; the seed-vessel, moss; the ovary perhaps, a fern, namely,
its indusium.


1359. The life of the plant consists in the co-operation of its
functions. The representation of these functions is the vegetable
physiology or the theory of vegetation.

1360. _Vegetation depends first of all upon the two principal
antagonisms of the plant, or those between the tracheal and cellular
systems, or between the stem-and rootsystems, sun and planet, air and
water with earth, light and matter, electrism and chemism._

1361. The functions divide into those of the _æther-organs_--_blossom_,
and the planetary organs--_stem_.


1362. The functions of the trunk are those of the tissues, systems
and members; thus first of the cells, vessels or ducts and tracheæ;
secondly, of the bark, liber and wood; lastly, of the root, stalk and

1. _Facts._

1363. The phenomena to be regarded in plants bear relation to their
constituent parts, and the changes or preliminary incidents which they

A. _Constituent Parts._

The chemical constituent parts of vegetables are inorganic and organic.



1364. The plant contains all the _primitive bodies_; carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen and nitrogen. The carbon forms the principal mass, and almost
alone constitutes its solid parts. The nitrogen is only present in
small quantity, being, as it were, a trace only of the future animal

1365. In the plant all the _elements_ are also active, as the æther,
which, through the gravitation of the root, strives towards the middle
point or centre of the earth. The light, which imparts the general
polarity and decomposition, as well as produces colours. The latter
appear to reside in the starch-flour. The heat, that sustains the
indifference, promotes the evaporation and the course of the sap, as
also protects the plant from being killed by frost or cold. The air
that penetrates through the spiral vessels to all parts, and is also
met with occasionally in the hollow stalks, the interstices and cells
of the pith and cuticle. It imparts the process of oxydation. The
water is the proper mother of the plant, being the medium by which
the nutrition is imparted. It contains in a state of absorption some
hydrogen and nitrogen, a larger amount of oxygen, and abundance of
carbonic acid; besides different salts, mucus, sugar, and acids. The
earth, as element, bestows upon the plant a firm station, so that the
water-and air-organs continue separate from each other.

_Minerals or Earths._

1367. The plant is also a totality in reference to the _earths_. It
contains all the mineral classes, and from each of these indeed the
principal or fundamental minerals. It can therefore only thrive in a
soil which represents the whole mineral kingdom. Among the earths the
siliceous earth is very frequently found in plants, and especially
in the graminaceous kinds. This, having been dissolved in the earth
by potash and the rich supply even of carbonic acid, appears to be
absorbed or imbibed by the plant. The argillaceous earth is scarcely
met with in the plant itself; but from imbibing and storing up water
for the consumption of the plant, it is without doubt its best and most
necessary soil. The talcose earth is rarely found contained in plants;
it, however, keeps the soil slacker, by dividing into laminæ, and being
present for the most part as mica in sand. The calcareous earth is a
more essential constituent part of plants, and is found therein in
tolerable quantity, usually combined with phosphoric or carbonic acid.
Of the salts, all plants contain a fair proportion of common salt and
potash, combined too with carbonic acid; soda with saccharic or oxalic
acid; probably also ammonia. Of the acids, carbonic acid appears to be
alone contained in a free state in vegetable sap; the other elemental
and mineral acids are united to alkalies, talcose and calcareous
earths. As regards the Inflammables, almost the whole plant consists of
carbon, but contains also some sulphur. The metals are represented by
iron, which occurs in all plants.


1368. These must be regarded as the repetition of the inorganic bodies.
The alcohol, which does not indeed occur ready formed in the plant, but
is developed out of the sugar, certainly corresponds to the æther. The
ætherial or volatile oils, and the balsams and resins that are thence
formed, correspond with the air. The mucus, gelatine, albumen, and
sugar correspond to water; the wood, gum, starch and vegetable mould,
to the earth. Of the organic salts, plants contain tannin, with azetic,
benzoic, mucic, gelatic, saccharic, tartaric, citric, malic, oxalic,
tannic, oleic, isatic, and hydrocyanic acids. The alkaline bodies are
pungent, bitter, stupefying, and saponaceous; the fixed or greasy
oils, the wax and the vegetable butters, are to be regarded as organic
Inflammables; the colouring matters, as the organic ores.

1369. These bodies intermixed form the compound vegetable matters. What
has been called vegetable sap is for plants, what the blood is for
animals. It consists for the greatest part of water and mucus, starch,
sugar, acids, and salts. It passes over into vinous and then into
acetous fermentation. The starch-granules appear to form in the cells.

1370. To the secreted saps belong the coloured milky juices present
in particular vessels, and consisting for the most part of water with
resins, as in the celandine and spurge. The particular saps, especially
those of the fruits, are very composite, consisting for the most
part either of mucus, sugar and acids, or occasionally of gelatine
and albumen. Solid compound matters are almost universally made up
of flour, which consists principally of starch and gum; or they are
furthermore mucus in the roots and seeds. The excreted or separated
matters, which no longer interpose in the vegetable process, are
the etherial oils, resins, fixed oils, colouring matters, poisonous
substances, gum, tannin, nectar-juices, and even water.

B. _Preliminary Events._


1371. The influence of the elements produces different phenomena in
the plant. I have felt constantly more inclined to consider, that not
merely the descent of the root, but even the ascent of the stalk was
simply to be viewed as a mechanical event, or one forsooth effected by
gravity. The roots obey under all circumstances the gravity and would
grow as far as the centre of the earth, were they to meet with no
impediment; and there they would follow the revolution of the earth,
and consequently become spirally convoluted upon themselves. It is
almost beyond doubt that the water, which sinks downwards and, as it
were like that in stalactites, invariably rigidifies or hardens at the
radical capillaries, is heavier in the root. The cause of this greater
weight depends upon the mucus not being decomposed.

1372. The straight ascent of the stalk also depends upon nothing
else than gravity. The upper drops of mucus become lighter by means
of greater heat and by decomposition in light and air, and they are
therefore compressed by the heavier in the upward direction. It is
always such a small drop upon the summit, which hardens into its
uppermost cell. The stalk, therefore, grows upwards through the same
forces and in the same manner, as the air-bubbles ascend in a glass
of beer. The cause of their becoming lighter resides certainly in the
vital process, which nevertheless effects in this respect nothing else
than the extension or increase; but yet the cause of the ascent is
naught else than the gravity.

1373. The _light_ likewise acts upon the direction of plants and
especially that of their leaves; not simply from its promoting growth
by elevation of temperature and by decomposition, but obviously in a
mechanical manner also; for not only do the branches of plants in a
green-house grow towards the window, but most leaves turn themselves
the whole day in obedience to the course of the sun. This turning
must, nevertheless, have one and the same kind of cause with the
growing towards light; it also is only a conatus or effort unto growth.
The upper leaf-cells, being illuminated by the sun, become lighter, and
are therefore directed at once, like the apices of the branches, toward
the influence of light. The cells that stand perpendicularly upon the
surface of the leaf are to be regarded as branches conjoined by growth.

1374. The _sleep of plants_ depends also upon the same influence of the
light. The upper leaf-cells sleep during the night, while the lower
cells, especially those of the petiole, fill and consequently bend the
latter upwards. The sleep of the flower must have the same cause. As
likewise the alternating motion of many leaves, as in the Mimosæ.

1375. The motion also performed by the staminal filaments towards the
pistil must finally depend upon this unequal replenishment of the
external and internal cells.

1376. The coloration of the parts of plants is a result of the
decomposition of the starch-granules in the cells by the agency of

1377. The operation of the _heat_ is more intelligible than any other.
That which is to move and separate itself, must have a certain degree
of extension, or must be fluid, namely, aquiform. In a cold temperature
the upper saps, not becoming warmer than the lower, are consequently
not lighter, and on that account also do not ascend upwards. The mortal
freezing of trees descends from above downwards. In other respects
plants have, like animals, a self-inherent, though very feeble, process
of heat. Germination proves this, in cases where many seeds lie upon
each other.

1378. The air acts also mechanically and physically upon plants,
by causing motion of the solid parts and by promoting evaporation.
Electricity is without doubt active in the spring of the year, and
evokes the antagonism between the fabric of the stem and root.

1379. The physical operation of water consists indeed, for the greatest
part, in its preserving the solid parts in a supple or pliant state.
Its principal office is, however, to convey nourishment to the plant.

1380. The earths act beneficially only upon plants, if they have been
all mixed with each other. Mineral salts occurring in moderate quantity
in the soil promote growth; alkalies and acids are injurious thereunto.
The same holds good of Inflammables and metallic limes.


1381. That the plant imbibes water, and this indeed in great quantity,
by its whole surface is a well-ascertained fact; but it has been by
no means equally determined whether it obtains its nourishment simply
through the water, or directly also from the air, e. g. the carbon, as
well as the nitrogen, from the carbonic acid. The principal imbibition,
however, takes place through the root; but experiments that have been
made upon this subject leave it doubtful, whether in this case it is
simply mucus, extract from the humus or vegetable mould, or simply
carbonic acid that has been absorbed.

1382. It is moreover a fact that the green parts of plants exposed to
direct sun-light consume or take in carbonic acid, and develop or give
out oxygen; on the contrary, during the night, and even in cloudy or
gloomy days, they absorb oxygen and exhale or develop carbonic acid.
Now, as there are far more gloomy or at least cloudy than clear days,
it thus becomes evident that far more oxygen has been taken up, than
separated, from the air. During germination oxygen gas is consumed and,
on the other hand, carbonic acid developed.

1383. The saps ascend upwards, and chiefly indeed, in the liber; on its
passage different substances forming from it, which appear especially
in the fruit in greatest proportion and variety.

2. _Processes._

1384. The tissues of plants form three formations, which must
be similar in their functions, and can only exhibit subordinate
differences. The cell-formation is displayed in the cellular tissue,
in the bark and root. The vascular formation in the vascular tissue,
in the liber and stalk. The tracheal formation in the tracheal tissue,
the wood and the leaves. There can accordingly be only three principal
functions in the vegetable stem, and of these each will display minor

A. _Cellular Processes._


1385. As the root is the cellular organ proper, so in it principally
resides the water-process or the commencement of chemical elaboration
and analysis. Now the chemism in an organic body is called digestion.

1386. The root is the mouth or pharynx of the plant, and is therefore
principally concerned with absorption. Its process is therefore the
formation of mucus, or as it were of salivation. The root cannot,
however, create mucus, as it was created at the conclusion of the
earth-metamorphosis in the sea; it can absorb it or in the highest
degree compound it out of the constituent parts.

1387. The process of the formation of mucus is a process of
putrefaction; the function of the root consists accordingly in
supporting a constant process of putrefaction. The soil in which the
root stands must contain substances susceptible of, and the conditions
necessary to, putrefaction. These substances are organic matters and
water; the conditions heat and access of air. Such a soil is called
humus or mould. In a pure, dry earth, no root can thrive.

1388. Carbon, from its being the earthy body, is the principal one in
the formation of mucus, and the basis also of the vegetable bodies.
A root can develop itself, if it stand only in a soil such as the
calcareous, which contains carbon and water. The calcareous soil is
as it were an original mould. It is probable that the calcareous earth
is constantly decomposed by the root and its carbon absorbed. The
calcareous earth is again neutralized by the carbonic acid of the water
and air.

1389. There can be no doubt that the root also abstracts carbon from
these elements, and converts it into mucus, or probably separates
it from carbonic acid. The mucus approximates the animal nature, so
that the root in its constituent parts, in its smell, and even in its
structure, exhibits animal properties; animal substances therefore are
also the best nutritive media of plants.

1390. That which putrefies most easily is the best manure.

1391. Through the process of putrefaction many kinds of antagonisms
and attractions, by which the absorption takes place through the
root-filaments, are aroused.

1392. The root has not merely one orifice for absorbing, but it imbibes
upon the whole surface, from its being still immersed in the chemical
menstruum. The integument of animals does the same.


1393. The bark, as an organ of cellular tissue, which is placed wholly
in the outward direction, must principally exercise the process of
absorption and evaporation. Now, as there are two kinds of bark, a
root-and a stalk-bark, or a water-and air-bark, so upon the former
will the business of absorption chiefly devolve, on the latter that of

1394. As the bark of the stalk possesses stomata, which are wanting
in that of the root, so is this a probable reason for these apertures
being organs of evaporation. This opinion is corroborated also by
aquatic leaves being without stomata, while they occur in the leaves
exposed to air.

1395. Meanwhile the stalk is of a twofold character; it is only the
root that has ascended into the air. As an aerial root it absorbs.
Without doubt the stalk absorbs the same as the root, namely, moisture
from the air and carbonic acid. Experiments prove it.


1396. The cells are the crystallized drops of mucus, the fundamental
mass of the vegetable and consequently the water, which converts
itself into the Earthy, or wherein the Solid has been elaborated and
precipitated. They construct the Solid that has been absorbed into new
cells. But the Solid can only assume other forms by means of water. The
solution, however, with mixture of bodies and formation into globules
is digestion. The cells are thus the stomachs of which the plant has
millions like mouths.

1397. The bodies absorbed must move in the cells; for chemical solution
and mixture, being itself nothing else than separation and union of
atoms, is consequently motion. In a single cell the motion must be upon
all sides, because the atoms are attracted and repelled from all points
of the cell-wall. In cells, however, which are united with others and
therefore subjected to longitudinal polarity, this motion must be
performed in accordance with the axis of the cells.

1398. This motion proceeds to and fro, because the extremities of the
cells have different polarities, and therefore repel the same atoms,
which they have before attracted. In the cells the mucus appears to be
converted into starch-granules.

B. _Vascular Processes._

a. _Vessel-process--Conveyance of Sap._

1399. The vessels or intercellular passages conduct the sap, or
the water of the plant. Their function is therefore the continued
conveyance of the sap that has been absorbed from the root, and
rendered solid or consistent by the evaporation going on in the bark
and elaborated by the cells.

1400. The vessels of plants are notwithstanding to be compared with the
lymphatic vessels of animals, in so far also as these are distributed
throughout the whole body, and convey the sap simply in one direction
not in a circle.

1401. As the passages between all the cells are in all directions,
so the vegetable saps or fluids flow in all directions, and not to
one centre as in the animal. Plants have no heart. The sap pursues a
tolerably rapid course in the vessels. A fading or drooping cabbage,
two feet in length, can gradually become erect in a few minutes after
being put to soak in water. In other respects the course of the sap in
the vessels may be seen in many plants under the microscope.

b. _Liber-process--Mixture of Sap._

1402. In the liber, as being the mass of intercellular passages,
the sap contained in the vessels principally accumulates, as in the
thoracic duct of animals; in it the matters have not been simply
conveyed and dissolved, but also mixed and converted into true
vegetable sap, into blood.

1403. The tubes of the liber are those by which the chemical life is

c. _Stalk-process--Secretion._

1404. The stalk is the root planted in air, and consequently its
process is the differenced process of putrefaction, in which the mucus
becomes further evolved.

1405. The analysis chiefly occurs in the stalk; the mucus, or rather
the starch, becoming converted into sugar and acids.

1406. Sugar is the mucus of the stalk, and is found in every vegetable
sap, especially that of such plants as are characterized by the systems
of the stalk, and have not yet attained the formation of the reticular
leaf, as the Monocotyledones, e. g. the grasses.

1407. The sugar originates from a process of fermentation; the process
of the stalk must consequently be regarded as a vital _process of

1408. The process of fermentation is that of putrefaction carried
on in the air, or the polar process of fermentation. Both processes
consequently observe a polar relation towards each other.

1409. The sugar-process passes over finally into acidification.

1410. The _Inflammables_, as the ætherial oils, balsams, and resins,
are formed in the antagonism of the sugar or of the _acids_. Here
also belong most of the peculiar vegetable matters, as the milky
saps, colouring matters, medicinally active bodies, poisons, and the

C. _Tracheal-processes._

a. _Leaf-process--Inspiration._

1411. In the foliage the woody rings have issued freely into the air,
in order that they may offer their whole surface to its influence, and
thus become electrified and oxydized.

1412. The leaf is the free, external organ of respiration to the plant;
it is its _lung_. Through the leaf the air, and chiefly its oxygen, is
transferred into the plant, just as it is through the lungs into the

1413. The leaves take in oxygen gas; this is their _essential_
function, and not that of exhaling it.

1414. The leaves _only_ exhale oxygen gas when exposed to light. The
development of oxygen in the plant is accordingly a light-and not an
air-process. In consequence of this the leaves give out oxygen gas only
during the day, but during the night and even upon gloomy days, where
not the light but only the air is active, they take in oxygen and give
out carbonic acid.

1415. The light develops the oxygen gas out of the plant in a perfectly
inorganic manner, like as from every water, that can be set in a
process of tension. _Rumford_ has developed by simple glass tubes
oxygen gas out of water. The oxygen gas of plants is therefore a
result only of the decomposition of water in an inorganic manner by the
agency of light, or virtually the separation only of the oxygen that is
clinging to the water.

1416. Through the process of respiration in the plant carbonic acid has
been formed and excreted. For the mucus becomes oxydized, and thereby
the process also of fermentation, the product of which is carbonic
acid, is promoted.

1417. The respiratory process of the leaves is the perfected process of
fermentation in the stalk, in which finally, namely, in the fruit-saps,
the separation of both the products of fermentation, the vinous and
acetic, is prepared.

1418. Just as acids and sugar originate in the stalk, so in the foliage
does their electrical antagonism, or the ætherial oils and perfumes.
Sweet scents or perfumes are properties of the air, and therefore
originate also with the aerial process. This is retrospectively a proof
that the leaf-process is the respiratory process.

1419. Through the leaves, with which the whole surface of the earth
is covered, the planet respires, and thereby the surface of the earth
principally obtains its electricity.

1420. Vegetation must therefore effect an important change in the
earth's electricity. The earth must be differently polarized after, to
what it was before, the fall of the leaf.

1421. Thereby the northern hemisphere is differently polarized to the
southern, because the latter has less soil than the former.

b. _Wood-process--Nutrition._

1422. As most of the spiral vessels are collected together in the body
of wood, and finally in the leaves issue forth quite free and naked
into the air, so must the wood conduct for the most part air into the
plant. The polarization of the other systems, of the liber and the
bark, must therefore proceed from the body of wood.

1423. The greatest amount of induration must originate in the body of
the spiral vessel, because in it the process of oxydation takes place
in the most active manner. From the same cause the process of nutrition
must also be supported by it in the most powerful manner. The wood is
the chief seat of nutrition.

c. _Tracheal-process--Oxydation._

1424. The structure of the spiral vessels, their resemblance to the
tracheæ or air-tubes of insects, their distribution throughout the
whole trunk, the air they contain which is found decidedly free in
the plant, leave no doubt that the tracheæ are air-conveying organs,
and consequently have, like the arteries in animals, the process of
respiration directly intrusted to them.

1425. Now through the process of respiration the general polarity, and
consequently the cause or fundamental principle of all life, enters the

1426. The tracheæ penetrate or traverse the whole plant from the apex
of the root to that of the flower. Their operation must therefore also
extend through the whole plant.

1427. The tracheal system must also govern the plant by polarity, and
thus in an immaterial manner.

1428. This polarity acts simply in the direction of the plant's
longitude, not transversely, like the material fundamental processes.

1429. The tracheæ impart in a spiritual manner the antagonism between
the root and fabric of the stem.

1430. As the tracheæ are, or constitute, the highest system of the
plant, so must it be them upon which the light principally acts. The
material processes of plants are kept in activity by the antagonism of

1431. By this only are the instantaneous changes, which follow upon the
influence of light or section of the spiral vessels, to be explained.
Upon this, therefore, depends the instantaneous elevation of the
processes under the influence of a ray of light, and their depression,
if only a cloud pass in front of and obscure the sun; hence too does
the plant die, so to speak, upon the very spot, if the spiral fibres
within the liber be cut through, but the latter left uninjured.

1432. The liber no longer conveys any sap to the divided tracheæ,
solely because it has lost the condition to be affected by the
light-polarity. On the contrary, a plant does not die so soon, if the
liber be cut through, but the spiral vessels preserved. The spiral
fibres conditionate consequently the motion and the excitation of the
organic processes.

1433. _The spiral fibres are therefore, apart even from their function
of respiration, or rather because this is the highest vegetable
function, that for the plant, which the nerves are for the animal._

1434. The tracheæ of plants do not ramify like the nerves of animals;
but if they divide, they separate only as fascicles, which have been
liberated from their origin. The tracheæ commence too directly in
the mass of cells, wherever that may happen to be, and thus become
what governs an organ, exactly like the animal nerves. Their analogy
is greatest with the sympathetic nerves. The tracheæ, just as in the
animal kingdom, are the mediators, not the founders, of vegetable life.

1435. The principle of motion must reside in the tracheæ, provided that
higher, and not merely chemical movements, occur in the plant.

1436. These movements must and can only exist in those organs which
consist almost entirely of spiral vessels, and thus only in the highest

1437. Such are the leaves and the corollæ. Is it wished to compare the
corolla, apart from its sexual relation, with an organ in animals, it
can only be contrasted with the highest nervous organ. The corolla is
the brain of plants, that which corresponds to light, but which here
remains stationary upon the sexual stage. It may be said that what is
sex in the plant, becomes brain in the animal, or the brain is only the
animal sex.

1438. The most general function of the brain is, however, feeling or
touch combined with motion. If the corolla could attain to a sensorial
function, it would be to that of touch.

1439. It is conducted thereto; but at the instant, when it is indulged
in feeling the mental capacity of the animal, it sinks down exhausted
and dies. It is punished for the risk that has been run in wishing to
attain unto self-cognition.

1440. Motion and touch are revealed only in the highest organs of
the plant, or in the stamina. The filament moves upon the pistil
and touches it with the pollen, which at that instant, however, is
scattered in small particles, and leaves behind the filament in a
withered state.

1441. The motion performed by the filaments appears to be a simple
operation of the irritability in the tracheæ that have become soft,
without undergoing chemical decomposition, but probably by sudden
influx of sap, induced by the tension of air in the spiral vessels.

1442. In the highest, or the pinnate, leaves, movements, which are
probably a result of the tracheal irritability, also occur, but
are devoid the object of coming into contact with, or of touching,
anything. The sensitive plants, as Hedysarum gyrans, move their leaves,
not from any intrinsic determination upon their part, but in accordance
with an antecedent stimulus, and thus not voluntarily, but probably
through the influence merely of polar tension. The movements of leaves
are convulsions of plants, although too an afflux of sap be caused or
induced by the stimulus.


_Galvanic Process._

1443. _The motion of the sap is imparted through the antagonism of the
respiratory and digestive processes._ For these two processes are the
combination of the Chemical with the Electric, which is the galvanism.

1444. The galvanic poles attract and repel the fluidity; thus the
vegetable sap is attracted by the root and by the stalk. But the
differencing or the oxygen pole is the stronger of the two. The
determining principle of the movement of the sap resides consequently
in the stalk, and the chief direction of the sap-motion tends upwards.

1445. At times, when the air-polarity is elevated, the sap also ascends
more rapidly. As in summer, upon clear warm days. It ascends slowly
upon gloomy and chill days. That in this also light and heat are
playing their parts, is self-intelligible. Thereby the upper particles
of sap become lighter and ascend, being pressed upwards by the lower
and colder particles. As they are nevertheless by no means changed,
this is a proof that, during the time so employed, polar forces also
act upon them.

1446. But the root has also the endeavour to attract the sap; but
as its pole is feebler in character, the stalk draws the sap from
the ultimate extremities of the root into itself. If accordingly the
polarity of the air becomes weaker, while the plant is losing its
leaves or the organs of polarization; so is it easy to imagine why the
motion of the sap becomes slower. As, however, the aerial polarity is
always stronger than that of the earth, the sap must thus in winter
also take the same, or upward, direction.

1447. A fall or descent of the sap can therefore never take place
abstractedly forsooth from the root, in which it sinks by its own
gravity. How a part of a plant, e. g. a twig, could continue alive,
were the sap to have fallen or receded from it, is not to be conceived.
It does not follow from what has been just stated, that movements of
sap should not take place in all directions, and consequently too
downwards; they must indeed occur rather than otherwise, and that
indeed upon all sides; only the principal track or course of the sap
must always pass in the direction upwards.

1448. The movement of the sap consists simply in an ascent and
impulsion of its particles upon all sides, but without any
_circulation_. A circulation would only be possible if the plant were
an organism disengaged from the elements; but as the earth and air
belong to its organization; it thus necessarily oscillates between
both, and its movements also can only be oscillations of a similar
intervening character.

1449. There are consequently no arteries and veins, and still less a
heart in plants, as some have striven to make out.

1450. The vessels of plants are most properly to be compared with the
lymphatic vessels of animals, the fluid or sap of which also tends from
all parts towards one summit, namely, the lungs, while still at times
retrogressive movements also seem to occur.

1451. The vegetable sap does not move in a straight line upwards, but
in all directions, to the right and left, in a zigzag manner, and so
on. This is proved by two incisions being made in a branch opposite to
each other. The motion of the sap in the plant is more an impulsion of
the sap toward all sides, with a predominance in the direction upwards,
than a rapid current as in the blood. If we reflect that the motion
of the sap when seen under the microscope and then magnified several
hundred times, still only resembles a gentle rippling of small drops,
it thus becomes clear that the true current or flow occurs only in
a very tardy manner. Wherever therefore in the plant the process of
differencialization may be brought into play, there the sap is impelled.

1452. Through the polarization of the sap the cells also become polar
towards each other, and then even the cell-walls, whereby the cellular
sap with its mucous granules is kept in constant motion. The theory
of the motion of sap has not consequently been based upon the theory
of capillary tubules; nor is heat alone the cause of its ascent; nor
the empty space, which originates superiorly by evaporation; nor
electricity in an inorganic sense.


1453. These functions correspond to those of the light, heat, and
gravity in the corolla, pistil and seed. The corolla irradiates, the
pistil gives out heat, the seed sinks like the earth towards the centre.

1. _Function of the Corolla._


1454. As in the vegetable trunk the principle function has been the
antagonism between the aerial and the terrestriaqueous plant, so must
the same function be repeated in the corresponding organs of the
blossom. It oscillates in the principal antagonism between the corolla
and pistil, which is the antagonism of leaf and stem, that of electrism
and chemism, of light and body, of spirit and matter.

1455. The pollen electrifies, animates, or inspirits the ovarium, by
which means it becomes stimulated to the development of seeds. Without
this animating influence the seed had not been developed.

1456. This relation, whereby through the balance of an antagonism,
a whole organism has been evoked into life, is called the _sexual

1457. The sex is consequently the antagonism between spirit and
matter, light and mass, æther and the terrestrial elements, sun and
planet, between electrism and chemism, that has been represented in an
organism as totality. In sex consequently the primary antagonism of the
world, or that of spirit and matter, centre and periphery, has been
organically represented.

1458. The sex has hence from the beginning been established and
prophesied; manifests itself also under diverse forms in the Organic,
but becomes first individualized in an organic body. This is the lofty
sense or signification of the sexual relation, that in it the Spiritual
and Material pair together, and thereby sprout forth or germinate into
a whole world. In sex the mystery of creation lies concealed.

1459. What is producing the fruit is called the _female_, that which
awakes production, the _male_.

1460. Mascularity is the spirit of the world, feminality the matter
which becomes animated by the former; mascularity is the light of the
word, which illuminates the feminality, and it is pregnant; mascularity
is the electricity of the world, which arouses the female chemism unto
galvanic circulation. By the male the female becomes animated; before
this it is dead and devoid the differentialization, which is necessary
to every action.

1461. Impregnation is a simple act of light upon the matter, an
_irradiation_, as it was termed, with such an exalted appreciation
of its significance, by the ancients. The male imparts nothing in
impregnation but the _solar ray_, or _fluid nervous mass, in its
semen_, which awakes, animates, and inspirits the quiescent female. The
female supplies or furnishes all the Material or, as in the plant, the
fruit. In other respects it is not to be understood, as if no material
whatever had been imparted by the male, but only that it is not the
matter as such, which the male gives the female, that becomes fruit;
but that the tension which resides in male semen, evokes at the same
time, as by a process of contagion or fermentation, a similar tension
in the female.

1462. The process of tension resides originally in the male, because he
is related or akin to the light; but the female first obtains the light
through the male.

1463. Impregnation is an excitation by the electrical, of the
slumbering chemical, process. The pregnancy is consequently an
uninterrupted chemical process.

1464. The female is the first and lies deeper in the developmental
history of the planet (but not in the creation), just as the digestive
process is prior or antecedent to the respiratory.

1465. In the truest sense is feminality co-ordinated with the
digestive, the mascularity with the respiratory, system. The female
is (organically considered) abdomen, the male, thorax. Pregnancy
is a sexual process of digestion, impregnation a sexual process of
respiration. In impregnation the female respires the male, whereby it
receives into itself a thoracic function, becomes itself male, i. e.
is then capable of producing something out of itself. Now, the female
produces a fruit, which is synonymous with both principles.

1466. The semen is the fruit of the male. The male is always pregnant,
and that indeed by virtue of his own power. This power is deficient in
the female, which does not possess the light in itself, but only the
elemental bodies that are ready and susceptible of form.

1467. The anthers are the male organs, the pollen is the semen. The
pistils are the female organs, the seed-granules are properly speaking,
the _germ_.

1468. The pollen is a most highly differenced, electrical product; the
seed-granule a wholly indifferent, and tranquil mucous mass. The pollen
falls upon the stigma of the pistil, and irradiation has taken place;
the material fruit-capsule gains thereby so much polarity, that saps
enough ascend, in order to develop the germless seed-vesicles.

1469. It is quite unnecessary for the pollen, with its sap or gas,
to be materially conveyed through the style to the seed. It is only
requisite for the style to be excited, dualized, electrified, and then
it has life enough of its own. But it does not follow, because it is
unnecessary for the sap of the floral dust or pollen to reach the
seed-granules, that it cannot or ought not to reach thereunto. In many
plants the pollen-tube does actually reach there and penetrate through
the micropyle. In many styles it is still held as impossible, for the
pollen-tube to penetrate through them to the seeds. The pollen-sap
indeed simply evokes on the apex of the seed (upon the summit of the
lorical rib, through whose liberation the micropyle originates) the
vital process, which, without this stimulus, would perish. Thereby a
new cell is secreted, from whence the germ is developed.


1470. In impregnation the heaven is married to the earth; for then the
spirit descends, and does not esteem itself too highly to become flesh.
Impregnation is the highest immaterial action of the plant.

1471. If, therefore, the irritability of the plant at any time, or
but once only, makes its appearance independently, it must be in the
sexual organs, and in the moments of impregnation. Impregnation ensues,
when the two mundane principles of the plant, light and matter, have
attained, as corolla and fruit, to the highest pitch of perfection;
then the tension of the spiral vessels ranks so high, that they
exercise their function independently of what is terrestrial in the
plant, _move_ themselves in the male filaments, touch the female organ,
and die in this their highest effort.

1472. Thus has it only been conceded to the plant to be, in the instant
of impregnation, an animal and enjoy animal passion.

2. _Function of the Ovarium._

1473. The ovary, by its own power, is in a condition to draw towards
it the chemical saps from out the stem, and as it were by its own heat
to thrust new buds from its leaf-ribs, namely, the seed-pellicles or
testæ. It has not, however, strength sufficient to put forth also the
leaf-work, namely, the embryo, upon the apex of the seed-shell. It
requires for this purpose the stimulus of the floral pollen. If the
plant is very rich in sap, the ovary is so likewise, and converts
itself into fruit or sarcocarp. As a rule, therefore, trees only bear
a crop of fruit. If also the impregnation is less perfect, the force
of the sap continues to remain inherent in the ovarian leaves; they
become rich in sap, fleshy, and likewise fruity in character; trees,
therefore, with imperfect or separated blossoms, as the Amentaceæ,
Urticaceæ, Euphorbiaceæ, Papilionaceæ, Terebinthaceæ, and Rosaceæ,
usually bring forth a crop of fruit.

1474. A stronger degree of refinement appears in these fruit-saps than
in the saps of the stem, because corolla and seeds range closer to
each other. They are therefore more varied and richer in substance.
The fruit-substances range usually upon the side of the water or the
salts, while those of the seed range upon the side of the earth or the
Inflammables. The substances of the seed are flour and oil, those of
the fruit sugar and acids; the former supplies food, the latter drink.

1475. Seed and ovary stand therefore in antagonism, like earth and

3. _Function of the Seed_.


1476. The seed is the plant contracted upon its centre, it is the heavy
mineral mass, which can only undergo changes by the operation of the
other elements, like as it arrived only at completion by the operation
of the floral pollen. This acts upon it when within the dry ovary,
like the water and oxygen in the dry earth. These changes are its
development or germination.

1477. All the planetary elements belong to germination, and to growth
the Cosmical also with all its actions. To germination belongs earth,
water, and air; to growth, light, heat, and gravity; with all the four
mineral classes also, such as earth, salt, Inflammable, and metal.
The plant contains silicious and calcareous earth, salts, coal with
sulphur, and lastly, iron.

1478. Germination is the disjunctive emergence wrought by means of
moisture, heat and oxydation in the processes of decomposition and
fermentation. No seed germinates in irrespirable kinds of air.

1479. The cotyledons or seed-lobes are the synthesis of the two
processes; they are at once root and leaf, therefore resolvable into
mucus, and may yet become green.

1480. In germination the elemental bodies of the root-and
stalk-polarity directly emerge; the mucus or the flour separates into
alcaline gum, that seeks the darkness, and into acid sugar, which
elevates itself into the illuminated air.


1481. Growth is none other than continued germination. The sap being
polarized by the air becomes of necessity decomposed. One part
evaporates as carbonic acid and water, the other coagulates into
oxydized mucus or into cell-walls.

1482. Growth proceeds directly from the process of digestion and
respiration, while its polar organs constantly remove further from each

1483. Properly speaking the digestive and respiratory processes are
none other than growth, since both separate from each other. That,
which originates between them, is the process of nutrition, the
vascular system.

1484. Growth oscillates between the process of decomposition and that
of fermentation; it is an uninterrupted fermentation.


1485. If every pole of the plant has been perfected in an isolated
manner, it has thus become identical with the air, and the aerial
process ceases.

1486. With the cessation of the aerial process, the respiratory organ
must also die off or perish.

1487. The decadence, or falling off, of the leaves is the result of the
tension having been abrogated between them and the stem; it is a death
by suffocation.

1488. The fall of the leaf therefore occurs in the autumn, or after the
fruit is matured.


1489. The age of a plant is included between the the limits of the
sap's impulse, and that which has been called its fall or descent.

1490. The actual fall of the sap is the death of the plant.

1491. If with the cessation of the influence of light, the polarity
ceases entirely in the plant; it is then one year old or an _annual_.
Every part of it dies off.

1492. In biennial plants the aerial polarity indeed disappears, but the
polarity of the root remains. Flower, leaf, and stalk die.

1493. Perennial plants, also, do not entirely lose the stem-polarity,
but only while they develop a new plant about the old. Flower and leaf
only perish, while the water-and earth-organs remain alive.

1494. The old liber dies with every maturation of the fruit, because
there the difference attains solution. But a new life develops itself
in the parenchyma of the plant, and forms new liber or, properly
speaking, a new plant about the old.

1495. Persistent plants consist of numerous plants, which gradually
grow round about each other.

1496. In accordance with the idea of the plant, each one perishes with
the maturation of the fruit.

1497. On account of the addition of the new plant about the old,
the plant has also been confined to no definite magnitude and to no
definite number in its mode of ramification.

1498. Indefiniteness in form, size and number, is the character of the
plant, although a law lies at the basis of all this. The animal has a
definite size, because several animals do not grow around each other.


1499. Hitherto the organs of the plant have been considered in a
general point of view or as to their idea in time; to this now follows
the development of the plant in a special sense, or its representation
in space.

1500. The vegetable tissues, systems, and organs have only by degrees
been disengaged from each other and independently perfected. The
independent or self-substantial development of the organs constitutes
definite or _individual_ plants.

1501. A plant, in which all the organs are present, separately or
self-substantially developed and yet combined, is without doubt the
highest in point of rank.

1502. Before it attains to this separation, nature can only produce
lower forms, in which fewer organs have attained to independence. These
forms constitute the diversity of plants and their plurality, for
nature establishes every principal form as a finished organization.

1503. There are as many plants different from each other as there are
organs, namely, tissues, anatomical systems and members.

1504. The sum of all plants is called the vegetable kingdom; _this is
the self-substantial representation of all vegetable organs_. (Ed. 1st,
1810, p. 123.)

1505. The vegetable kingdom is consequently the expression of
the vegetable idea, or of the perfect plant represented _in the
multiplicity of individuals_; it is the plant disintegrated, or
anatomised, by nature herself.

1506. Were we therefore acquainted with all vegetable organs, we should
know their rank and developmental series; and thus also recognize the
character, rank, and developmental series of the plants themselves,
or their divisions. There can be no doubt that the lowest organs, e.
g. the tissues, have been first developed and independently perfected
as plants; later on they separate into anatomical systems and finally
into members, whereby perfect plants must originate. _The division or
classification of the vegetable kingdom is consequently that of the
vegetable organs._ The Systematic of plants is a copy of that of their
organs, or a plastic representation of the philosophical vegetable
anatomy. With this every thing has been granted, which is requisite
for the building or erection of the vegetable system. All principles,
together with the methods, rest in the proposition that has been

1507. The artificial systems of plants are related to the vegetable
kingdom, as the lexicon or dictionary is to language. Those systems
which have hitherto been termed natural, but which should properly
be called _methodical_, are related to the vegetable kingdom, as
the ordinary grammar is to a language. The vegetable system must,
however, be related to the vegetable kingdom, as the philosophical or
genetic grammar is to language. This only agrees with the essence of
the language, or is _natural_. The vegetable system is necessarily a
philosophical or genetic one, that alone being truly or legitimately
natural. (This system was first propounded by Oken, in the Ed. 1st
of the Naturphilosophie, 1810; further developed in _Dietrich's_
Garten Journal, 1813; carried out in his Naturgeschichte fur Schülen,
1821, and in his Lehrbuch der Nat. Gesch. _Botanik_. Weimar, 1825.)
The _artificial_ system collects the materials for the edifice, but
leaves them to lie without order and in confusion; the _methodical_ or
what has been called the natural system separates these materials and
arranges them in homogeneous groups; the _genetic_, philosophical or
truly natural, system, again mixes them amongst each other, but thereby
actually erects the edifice. All three systems are therefore necessary
and good, and no one of them merits being despised by the other; it
is only when one of them imagines that it is the other, or can render
the others unnecessary, that it trespasses from out its circle, and
deserves reproach. Thus for _Floras_, whose ultimate object is to find
out rapidly the names of plants upon botanical excursions, as also
for the labelling of specimens in botanic gardens, the artificial
system is the best; for the description, however, of foreign plants
the methodical; but for insight into the whole vegetable world the
philosophical or natural system. Would we compare Floras with each
other, the latter system must certainly come into play; but then the
matter to be dealt with is not about an excursion-book.


1508. Taken in a strict sense all the diversity of vegetable structure
of vegetables has reference first of all to the difference in the
tissues; these being either unseparated, or separated, into special
systems and members. At first the tissues lie confusedly, or without
order, amongst themselves. They then _separate_ in a concentric and
tubular form into systems, that are encased _within_ each other, like
the bark, liber, and wood, which form the _shaft_. Furthermore they
separate into members, and appear one _above_ the other, as root,
stalk, and foliage, which collectively may be called the _stem_; these
are repeated as seed, pistil, and corolla, which together are called
_flower_, and combined, _fruit_, namely, nut, plum, berry and apple.
I designate by the term _stock_ or trunk all the parts as far as the
blossom; and this together with the fruit I name thyrsus. The vegetable
stock, whose tissues have not yet separated into members, I style, from
want of a better word, _thallus_. As we divide political kingdoms into
_provinces_ and _circles_, so also may these titles be suitably applied
here. It is evident, that the plants which simply consist of tissues
and have as yet no sheaths and members, are the _Acotyledones_; those,
however, provided with sheaths, but devoid of true roots, stalk, and
foliage, _Monocotyledones_; those with true foliage or reticular-veined
leaves are, on the contrary, _Dicotyledones_. The natural system of
vegetables stands accordingly in the following manner.


  Province I. HISTOPHYTA, OR TISSUE-PLANTS--Acotyledones.
                         Class 1. Cell-plants.
                               2. Duct-
                               3. Trachea-

          II. THECOPHYTA, OR SHEATH-PLANTS--Monocotyledones.

                               4. Bark-plants.
                               5. Liber-
                               6. Wood-

         III. ARTHROPHYTA, OR MEMBER-PLANTS--Dicotyledones.

           Circle 1. _Axis-plants_--Tubulifloræ.
                               7. Root-plants.
                               8. Stalk-
                               9. Leaf-


          Circle 2. _Flower-plants_--Thalamopetalæ.
                             10. Seed-plants.
                             11. Ovarium-
                             12. Corolla-

          Circle 3. _Fruit-plants_--Calycopetalæ.
                             13. Nut-plants.
                             14. Plum-
                             15. Berry-
                             16. Apple-

1509. A slight glance at the above table shows us the procedure of
Nature. The higher she ascends, the more and more she separates, and
thereby increases, the organs. There may therefore be plants which have
only a single organ or tissue, as well as others, which possess all.

1510. There cannot, however, be any plant which could simply possess
the higher without the lower organs. Higher organized plants are not
such therefore, by virtue of their having some one organ more perfectly
developed, or separated into several parts; but through this, that
they actually possess several different organs. The higher grade
of organization depends accordingly not upon the perfection of the
_Singular_, but the _number_ of the _Different_. The Perfected consists
in the _multiplicity_ combined to constitute _unity_, but by no means
in the simply homogeneous multitude of the _parts_. Numerous stamina
may render a _corolla_ higher, but not on that account the whole plant;
many digits may make a hand nobler, but not on that account, the
animal. But with many digits also that hand is nobler, in which the
digits are dissimilar.

_First Province._


_Devoid of, or without true spiral-vessels, leaves, corollæ, and

The vegetable kingdom ascends, in accordance with the five main
positions of the organs, by five stages; these are again separable into
larger groups, which may be called _asexual_ and _sexual_ plants.

1511. The tissues are a something internal, being, as it were, the
viscera of plants or their parenchyma, which does not meet the light,
and can therefore have no light-organs, which are developed only out of
the foliage or leaves. The anatomical systems and organs are tissues
that have become external, have attained to air and light, and are
hence developed into air-and light-organs. Now, the light-organs are
sexual organs. The Tissue-plants can therefore have no sexual organs;
and plants divide accordingly into asexual and sexual plants. The
asexual are female plants, and are consequently the first or lowest.
Thus there can be thus no sexual or male plants, without the female
being found that belong to them.

1512. Male or androgynous plants are only possible, if spiral vessels
or tracheæ be present. They first, however, originate when the tracheæ
become external, or form a circle in the stalk, i. e. are accessible by
light; as in the Mono-and Dicotyledones.

1513. The asexual plants are not cryptogamic, but agamic. They do not
perform self-impregnation clandestinely, but not at all; for they
do not attain light-difference, and consequently not male organs.
Analogues of stamina may make their appearance in the mosses, but they
invariably fail to attain the development of pollen. What have been
called male parts in other cryptogamia, do not merit consideration.
Such projections or prefigurations are besides to be found everywhere.

1514. The asexual plants are simply formations of the tissues, of the
galvanic vesicle, and are thus of a female nature. They are nothing
more than a great utricle full of small vesicles, which by desiccation
subdivide into _germinal dust_ or sporules, each granule whereof
attracts other mucous vesicles out of the moisture, in order to form
again a large utricle.

1515. The asexuals cease in the process of vegetation, where the other
plants begin. With the rupture of the gemmal-or bud-vesicle in the
higher plants a new world for the first time emerges into view, such as
stem, leaves, blossom, and then the ultimate bud ruptures for the first
time as the pericarp, and scatters its higher organized germinal powder
as true seeds.

1516. An asexual plant is one, which, without all the intermediate
organs of the stem, at once represents the capsule or ovary. It
consists only of the beginning and end of the plant.

1517. The higher plants differ from the lower by the interposition of
new organs between the two terminal organs, namely, the primary vesicle
and the true seed. It may be said, that the asexual plant is naught but
seed, and that the seed of the higher plants is a fungus upon a leafy
peduncle, a fungus more highly organized by light.

1518. The asexual plants have no true root, stalk, and leaf; they have
not even a true bark, liber, and wood, in so far as these first make
their appearance through separation. Tracheæ are first exhibited in
the higher ferns, and then only as constituting a single string, which
occupies the middle of the plant, and consequently forms no circle or

1519. As again the true seed is a leaf-formation, and possesses
therefore cotyledons or seed-lobes, such seeds must be wanting in the
asexual plants; they are therefore Acotyledones. From the same cause,
however, the germinal leaves or plumula must be also wanting; they are
therefore germless, or anembryonic.

1520. The farinaceous or granular matter, lying next to the germ
when within the shell of the true seeds, is called the _albumen_ or
perisperm; the seeds of the asexual plants are therefore nothing else
but albumen. They are therefore devoid of the funiculus or, what has
been called, umbilical cord.

1521. The involucre, wherein, in true seeds, the germ and albumen are
found, is the seed-coat or testa; consequently what has been called
the capsule of the asexual plants (of mosses and ferns) corresponds
simply to this spermoderm or seed-covering, and is no true ovarium. The
capsules of mosses and ferns are therefore seeds full of albuminous

1522. If any of these be regarded as a capsule, it can be the
_calyptra_ of the mosses. This, too, is probably nothing else than the
external testa; the proper capsule being its internal coat.

1523. The _indusium_ of ferns incloses several capsules as they have
been called, or properly seeds, and might therefore, if considered
alone, be compared with an ovarium, but it is probably none other than
the covering corresponding to the perichoetium that surrounds the
base of the setæ in mosses. The sorus is an accumulation of seeds with
pulverulent albumen contained in a membranaceous covering, the indusium.

1524. The life of the asexual plants consists simply in the galvanic
process. They are the primary organisms, planted in air.

1525. As being simply galvanic process, they would require but little
light and air; they therefore seek the darkness, like the roots, and
thrive also in a corrupt atmosphere, in caves, mines, cellars, and such
like situations. They can from the same cause thrive only in moisture,
in water, upon marshy meadow lands, after rain, copious dew, and so on.

1526. They are devoid the process of fermentation, as being that which
is imparted by the oxydation of air, and they therefore yield neither
sugar nor acids. They are simply the organized process of putrefaction;
their ultimate product is therefore germinal powder, infusorial matter.
Their remaining secretions are alkaline bodies; to which belong the
pungent, fetid, and nauseous excretions, as the hydrogen gas and
ammonia of the fungi, the mucus of the fuci, the carbonate of lime in
the lichens, the cell-threads of the mosses, the fetid principle of

1527. Very few of these plants require the course of a summer in order
to perfect or complete the vital course; a single ray of light of one
day's, aye, of one hour's duration, is sufficient with most of them
to evoke the feeble difference, to rouse the swell of the sap, and
precipitate the infusorial powder.

1528. Automatic movements, as in the leaves and stamina of the higher
plants, scarcely occur in them, or at most in the ferns, from their
possessing spiral vessels. They divide, according to the tissues, into
three classes, into Cell-, Vessel-, and Trachea-plants.



Here belong those plants which consist simply of cellular tissue,
having no sap-tubes and tracheæ. Such plants, too, possess no regular
or hexagonal cellular tissue.

1529. The cellular tissue, in which there is only a single active
process, cannot essentially alter its primary form. It is therefore an
accumulation of round or cylindrical mucus-vesicles.

1530. Mucus-vesicles, in which the air-process is not as yet active,
cannot be coloured green; but must have the colour of the earth.

1531. Plants, composed of amorphous and earth-coloured cellular tissue,
are _Fungi_. The fungi are simply clusters of mucus-vesicles joined
together in a more or less regular manner, their union being effected
in dark, hollow and wet situations.

1532. They may therefore originate wherever mucous juices are evolved
by the potential agency of a higher organization, and thus by
putrefaction. The fungi originate by _æquivocal generation_. They are
the anal-organizations of the higher plants and animals; the corrupted
and luxuriating juices.

1533. Nevertheless the fungus is propagated by division of its
vesicles, which again, in accordance with their peculiar laws of
polarity, attract mucus-vesicles, and thus obtain the form of the
earlier or parent fungus. This is only a more regulated kind of
_æquivocal generation_.

1534. The origin of the fungi may therefore happen in a twofold manner,
namely, by formation from other juices, and by that of their own, which
is called propagation. Still at bottom both are one in kind.

1535. Their granules or vesicles are seeds, properly sporules, which
are self-developed without male polarization.


1536. The fungi pass moreover through stages of development, which
range parallel to the vegetable classes; since it is impossible for any
other organs to originate in them but such as belong to the idea of the
plant. The lowest fungus can therefore change only, by endeavouring to
develop in itself ducts, tracheæ, roots, and such like parts.

1537. There are accordingly as many developmental stages of the fungi
as there are vegetable classes. These divisions are called _families_.

1538. The vegetable families range parallel to the classes. This law
must hold good of all the classes. There are therefore in each class 16
families. An association of families upon each stage may be called an

1539. At first the fungus is none other than a mucus-vesicle or a small
cluster of vesicles, e. g. an _uredo_ or _mildew_. Such a vesicle next
becomes longitudinally extended, and includes within itself other
vesicles or granules, e. g. _mould_. These mould-filaments or threads
unite again so as to form a common mass, which is surrounded by an
external membrane, and is then called _puff-ball_. The pulverulent
granules, which were irregularly accumulated in the puff-balls, unite
at length in a regular manner to constitute a trunk of varied form, as
in the _ascomycetes_, e. g. _sphæriæ_. Finally, the mould-filaments
with their sporules are regularly collected together in an investing
membrane, which, like a puff-ball, is supported upon a stipes or
stem, e. g. the sarcomycetes or _agarics_. There are therefore 5
developmental stages of the fungi, which correspond to those of the
classes; viz. the parenchyma, shaft, stem, flower, and fruit; and
constitute orders.

1540. Each order is resolvable again into three divisions or families,
which correspond to the organs. Thus there are in each class 16 tribes
or families, which obviously range parallel to the vegetable organs or
classes. (Vid. Tab. B.)

1541. A tribe or family is consequently the representation of a
vegetable organ within a class.

1542. The genera obey the same law; for essential differences are only
conceivable through the presence of different organs.

1543. Species is in the animal kingdom that which copulates without
necessity and compulsion. The same definition is applicable to plants.
The species range, without doubt, according to the diversities in the
individual organs themselves, which admit of a great multitude of
combinations, the number of which is not as yet to be determined.

1544. The component parts of the fungi are either perfectly
indifferent, mucous or gelatinoid matter; or they are of an alcaline
nature, being acrid, poisonous, and such like. Their odour is usually
dead, disagreeable, and loathsome, or analogous to their essential
process of decomposition.


_Vessel-or Duct-plants--Mosses._

1545. The intercellular passages or succigerent vessels of plants make
their first appearance in a state of perfection, when, the cells being
extended lengthways, have become hexagonal and are placed in regular
juxtaposition. In these plants therefore we meet with regular cellular
tissue, but still without spiral vessels or tracheæ.

1546. As the vessels or ducts constitute the fundamental tissue of the
liber, while this is the principal system of the stalk; so now does the
stem begin to be manifested and separated from the fruit. The seeds
are no longer therefore distributed in the present class throughout
the whole trunk, but developed in a special involucrum or theca, which
corresponds to the puff-ball, or to the pileus of the higher organized

1547. Plants with vessels, and consequently a cauliform formation, have
at once also the commencement of a bark, and next the green colour. The
vascular are the first green plants, and differ chiefly through that
character from the fungi. They are the _Fucacæ_ or _Sea-wracks_.

1548. They have the colour of the water, because the course of the
sap corresponds to the aqueous process; they are aquatic, just as the
brown fungi are terrestrial, plants. Their component parts are aqueous,
indifferent, mucous, and filose. Their habitation is the water itself
or bogs. If they occupy dry situations, they live only when it rains.

1549. They likewise pass through the five stages of vegetation, and
form therefore five orders.

1550. Order 1. The lowest or _Tissue-mosses_, corresponding to the
Uredines; are again naught but cells or mucous pellicles, but, from
growing in water, and being consequently exposed to light and a
stronger oxydation, they are green--_Tremellini_.

1551. They multiply by subdivision, since new vesicles or granules
are developed in their interior, which become separated, and subsist
or continue to grow for themselves. They therefore originate also by
æquivocal generation, but by such an one as constantly occurs in water
and light.

1552. The second order, or the _Vascular mosses_ corresponds to the
sheaths, or to the Hyphomycetes. They are long filaments replete
with granules, growing in water, and therefore green--_Confervaceæ_.
These plants begin to ramify, and either increase by this means or by
effusion of granular matter.

1553. The third order, that of the _Tracheal mosses_, corresponds to
the stem, or to the Gasteromycetes. A membranous trunk originates in
water, which in certain places secretes the seeds in special vesicles
or cysts--_Fucales_ or connate Confervæ. The fuci have at once the form
of a stalk with root and leaves, because they correspond to these three
organs of the axis.

1554. The fourth order, the _Floral mosses_, endeavours to obtain the
_blossom_, and therefore elevates itself out of the water, but loses
on that account the trunk-like character, and exhibits for the most
part only membranous expansions, upon which seeds are secreted, which
being usually of a beautiful colour, thus assume the appearance of
corollæ--_Lichenales_. The lichens are fuci in dry situations. They
correspond to the Pyrenomycetes or Sphæriaceæ.

1555. As the variegated colours appear in the blossom, so do they
also in the lichens; but here they are for the first time chemically
developed, distributed throughout the whole substance, and concealed.
Most lichens yield colouring matters.

1556. As the stem is, in accordance with their signification, wanting
to the lichens, they thus require a foreign trunk for their nutrition.
They are therefore developed for the most part upon other plants, and
principally upon the bark.

1557. Lastly, the fifth order, _Fruit-mosses_, originates through the
development of a self-substantial _fruit_ upon a cauliform stem--the
_Mosses_ proper.

1558. As these are the highest plants of this class, and those that
directly precede the tracheal formation, so the bark already resolves
itself into individual leaves, which are, however, still destitute of
spiral vessels.

1559. What have been called the seeds or sporules are accumulated in a
capsule-like fruit upon the summit of the stalk. This fruit corresponds
to the pileated fungus, and therefore springs up in an opercular manner
like the latter.

1560. But this capsule is only a spermoderm, which incloses albuminous
granules that have no proper germ or seed-lobes; they are plants with
seed-vessels or pyxidia, upon an open-leaved stalk.

1561. They divide likewise into sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)



1562. At first a fascicle only of spiral vessels can originate, which
is necessarily surrounded by cellular tissue, and therefore lies in the
middle of the plant. Such plants are the _Filices_ or ferns.

1563. As the spiral vessels are the antetype of the leaves, so does
the trunk here obtain the form of the leaf, without itself producing
true leaves. For, in the ferns, the fruits lie upon the back of the
apparent leaf, which can only be the trunk.

1564. The fruits, being further removed from the fungi, no longer
spring up in an opercular, but in a valvular, manner like the higher

1565. Green plants with imperfect spiral vessels and blossoms, and also
with naked seeds devoid of true capsules, belong to the class of Ferns.

1566. I therefore place in this class the _Coniferæ_ or trees with
acicular foliage, because they have no ovarium, but naked seeds; and
besides these, some other plants, though doubtfully, on account of
their very abortive blossoms, as the Naiadaceæ. There are therefore
Tracheal plants without and with stamina. The first portray the stock
or trunk, the second, the thyrsus or blossom; they live mostly in dry
situations, and produce resins or fetid matters.

1567. First order. _Parenchymatous ferns--Aquatic ferns._ I here place
the aquatic ferns, because, as water-plants, they occupy a lower
situation, because they support the fruits upon a radical trunk, and
finally, because these fruit-vesicles have two kinds of contents, all
of which seems to remind us of the fuci and lichens; they correspond to
the Tremellini.

1568. Second order. _Sheath-ferns--Club-ferns._ Here commence the
land ferns, and those kinds indeed whose so-called capsules open in
a valvular manner, just as in the liverworts; or almost after the
fashion of a pyxidium by an orifice, somewhat as in the mosses; the
trunk is provided with squamose leaves or lobes, e. g. Lycopodiaceæ and
Osmundaceæ; they correspond to the Confervaceæ.

1569. Third order. _Stem-ferns--Annular or Ring-ferns._ Here we meet
with phylloidal involuted capsules or seeds upon the back of a stem
that is likewise leaf-like; e. g. the typical or true ferns.

1570. They have rudiments of roots and a stem, together with foliage,
because they are the prototypes of these three organs.

1571. The ring of their capsules corresponds to the midrib of the
leaf. In the preceding order the capsule was only an upsprung stalk;
but it is here an upsprung and unfolded leaf, the prototype of the

1572. The fern-capsules, namely, the true seeds, are an accumulation
of leaf-buds at the extremity of the fascicle of spiral vessels. The
indusium is the upraised epidermis, which opens in a spathose manner;
it consequently stands in the signification perhaps of the floral
spathe or involucrum. They correspond to the Fuci.

1573. Fourth order. _Floral ferns--Fluviales._ If the tracheal plants
be exalted unto the flower, male organs cannot fail in at once
beginning to develop. I place therefore in this order the Naiadaceæ
with very arrested blossoms, and simply stamina without calyx and
corolla. The spiral vessels are rather doubtful.

1574. Fifth order. _Fruit ferns--Coniferæ._ Tree with
imperfectly-formed spiral vessels, stamina without corollæ, seeds
without ovarium; thus agreeing with the Cryptogamia even to the
stamina; they form likewise sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)


1575. So soon as the three tissues separate completely from each other
into bark, liber, and wood, while the tracheæ are arranged circularly
into several clusters or groups, does the antagonism of these organs
also make its appearance, and exhibit itself as sex in the floral

1576. This separation can only be attained through the influence of
the air and light, whereby the sexual organs are conditionated. These
plants have therefore the several organs of the trunk and blossom.

1577. Anthers can be wanting to none of the following plants. Now, the
anthers are leaf-buds; the leaf-formation must be therefore developed
also in their antagonism, or in the seed. The leaves of the seed,
however, are called seed-lobes; consequently all seeds of sexual
plants have seed-lobes or cotyledons.

1578. Now the perfect seed is the whole plant in miniature with
root, stalk, and leaf. This formation is, however, only possible
where there is a sex, or where the vegetable tissues have emerged
self-substantially from each other.

1579. But the anthers are buds upon a floral rib; consequently all
sexual plants must have a part of the blossom, which ranks in the
signification of leaf, and thus either the calyx or, with this also,
the corolla.

1580. All sexual plants must have a shaft or scape, in which its three
parts, bark, liber, and wood, are to be distinguished; even so must the
three parts of the stem, the root, stalk, and leaf, have the parts of
the blossom which correspond to them, viz. seed, ovarium, and calyx or

1581. The sexual plants next divide into Stock-and Blossom-plants, the
former of these parting into Shaft-and Stem-plants.

_Second Province._


1582. In the Shaft-plants the invaginate character is predominant, the
wood being surrounded by liber, and this by bark; they are therefore
tubular in form--_tubular plants_.

1583. The cellular tissue preponderates in them, and the tracheal
fascicles form therefore no closed circle, but are dispersed; scattered
fasciculi cannot, however, ramify but only pursue a straight course and
form streaks--_striated plants_.

1584. Ramification is wanting unto these plants, partly on account
of their tubular form, partly on account of the smaller quantity of
tracheal fascicles--_aramose plants_. A vegetable stem without branches
is called shaft or scape; thus they are _shaft-plants_.

1585. The blossoms do not stand upon ramules, but upon the stem
itself; thus, if ever ramification originates, it can first occur in
the floral peduncles.

1586. As they are deficient in branches, so also are they in
buds--_agemmal_ or _budless plants_.

1587. The tendency to produce branches forms nodes, which are only
imperfect ramal zones--_nodose plants_.

1588. Where the formation of branches is wanting, the minor
ramification of ribs must be also wanting in the leaves; they are

1589. The leaf is only a ruptured and expanded tube or spathe, which
surrounds the shaft--_spathose plants_.

1590. Where branches are wanting, there can be also no petiolated
leaves; they have therefore only radical leaves, from the
midst of which the shaft or scape sprouts forth, only as a
floral-peduncle--_radical-leaved plants_.

1591. If all these leaves be still sheathed or encased within each
other, they are called bulbs--_bulbose plants_.

1592. Since the corolla is the repetition of the leaves, so also must
its structure resemble theirs--_spathose corollæ_.

1593. But as there are here only radical leaves, so also is the corolla
only a radical leaf-corolla. In the blossom, however, the radical
leaf has become spathe, the cauline leaf, calyx, the ramuscular leaf,
corolla. Such blossoms consist therefore either of a spathe only, as in
the Aroideæ, or of a calyx--_calycine plants_.

1594. The stamina originate from the calyx. In calycine flowers
therefore all the stamina must range opposite to the corolla-petals.
These plants have only _opposite_, no _alternate stamina_. It has been
generally assumed that the Monocotyledones have no true corollæ, but
only coloured calyces. Philosophy agrees with this opinion; but adds
thereunto that the corollæ of the Monocotyledones may be also merely
spathes or involucra.

1595. The separation of the bud-formation here takes place for the
first time in the blossom, namely, in the stamina. The number of the
floral parts must be limited to three; for this is the first number,
in which the leaf-ribs may divide. Corollæ, stamina, and capsules are

1596. As the seed is only an undeveloped leaf-bud, so in it only can
the number of the leaf be found. Since, however, the leaf does not
ramify in the present group of plants, but is only a single spathose
leaf; so also does the seed consist only of one such leaf or of
one seed-lobe--_Monocotyledones_. The wheat-seed or grain is none
other than a grass-leaf with a short spathe and very dense, highly
farinaceous, lamellæ. In germinating a new leaf emerges from the short
spathe; it is the germinal leaf.

1597. Thus plants having a tubular stem, and such kind of foliage,
corollæ and seeds, are Monocotyledones.

1598. The chemical bodies are more diversified in these than in the
remaining members of the vegetable kingdom. In the roots, as in the
tubers of the Orchideæ we meet with distinct mucilage; in the bulbs
with alkalies or acrid matter; and with sugar, as being a feeble
conversion of the starch in the stalk. The mucilage of the root
becomes, when repeated in the seed, flour. Oily matters or acids seldom
occur, and fleshy fruits scarcely ever.

1599. The ovary is almost throughout this region of plants either a
single spathose leaf or caryopsis; or three spathe-leaves are united
together, which thus, as follicles or carpels, usually burst open upon
the internal edge.


1600. If we now proceed to survey the Monocotyledons, in the order just
set before us, we shall recognize among them three typical groups,
to which the others are allied; they are the Gramineæ, Liliaceæ, and

1601. The Grasses obviously rank the lowest as well in respect of their
root, stalk, and foliage, as also of their stunted blossoms, ovarium,
and seeds.

1602. To them succeed the Lilies, which have a well-marked root, a more
perfect, though still always herbaceous, stalk, and a few spathoid,
more numerously ribbed leaves; lastly, their corollæ, ovaria, and
seeds are perfect; but still they invariably have no genuine fruits.

1603. Finally, the Palms are elevated above all by their stem being
rich in tracheæ and wooded, as also by the perfection of their
fruit. Scientifically, the scapose or shaft-plants must also resolve
themselves into three classes; into Bark-, Liber-, and Wood-plants.



1604. In these plants the whole stalk must have assumed the form of the
cortex or bark, and consequently be hollow--_tubular_, or _culmaceous

1605. A mere bark cannot ramify. But the tendency unto ramification is
manifested as nodes--_nodose plants_.

1606. The leaf which still represents the bark, is only imperfectly
slit up, and therefore still forms a tube. Such leaves are called
tubular or spathe-leaves proper.

1607. Such tubular leaves being only half slit up can only shoot forth
gradually from each other, and that indeed in such a manner that they
stand actually by twos, encased in, or opposite to, each other.

1608. Since the blossom is, as it were, an impression, or copy
of the leaves, so will it here also consist only of spathiform,
involucral, or calycine leaves, and only of two, one of which, though
opposite to, is surrounded by the other. Such floral parts are called
glumes--_glumaceous plants_. If four glumes are present, then the
external pair of them corresponds to the involucrum or spatha, the
internal to the calyx.

1609. The corolla-petals are of necessity arrested in plants such as
these, where no true leaf is as yet developed; frequently two only are
left persistent as pellicles or _lodiculæ_.

1610. This is still more the case with the ovary and seed; in each only
one leaf attains development, and the seed has entirely coalesced with
the ovarium. This kind of fruit is called _caryopsis_.

1611. Nodose plants with hollow scape or shaft, tubular leaves, glumose
blossoms, and cariopsidal fruits are _Grasses_.


1612. The Bark-plants pass moreover, together with their subdivisions,
through the five stages of vegetable organs, and they will therefore
produce also a more perfect stalk, leaves, and flowers. The whole calyx
will, however, never be coloured or corolla-like in its character.
Cortical plants are thus herbaceous plants with hollow stalk, and with
an arrested or green calyx, without sarcose or fleshy fruit.

1613. Those, which have simply glumose flowers, are without doubt the
lowest in rank, as corresponding to the tissues and stock, but not yet
to the flower.

1614. These again divide into two great groups, whereof the one
includes plants with simply uni-seminal cariopsides, the other,
on the contrary, capsules containing a free seed--_Grasses_ and
_Reed-grasses_. The grasses which have a cariopsis or grain-fruit
reascend by two stages; the most inferior in rank do not attain to a
ramification, but the flowers stand crowded together in spikes; the
others, on the contrary, are pedunculated and ramify in panicles.

1615. Among the higher kinds instead of glumes there are regular
flowers, of which, however, the calyx is still glumose or at least
green. The cariopsis is converted into a multilocular capsule, as in
the Restiaceæ, Commelineæ, &c.

1616. The first order, or the _Parenchymatous grasses_, have glumose
flowers with a cariopsis for fruit, borne upon culms or nodose straws,
and do not attain to any ramification--_spicate grasses_. In their
seeds we meet with the greatest amount of starch developed, though
doubtless at the cost of the trunk.

1617. The second order of _Spathose grasses_ are similar, and support
ramified flowers--_paniculate grasses_. In this division occur grasses
of a dendroidal character, and having occasionally fruit-like ovaria,
as in the bamboos.

1618. The third order consists of the _Cauline grasses_. Here the
leaves at once separate completely from the shaft, which is therefore
free from nodes. Nut-like capsules, though still inclosed in glumes,
also make their appearance--_reed-grasses_.

1619. The fourth order, _Floral grasses_. The leaves are still only
radical; the shaft is anodal; the flowers are separated into green
calyx and coloured corolla, with three or six stamina, and mostly with
a trilocular capsule--Junceæ, to which the Commelinaceæ are allied.

1620. The fifth order, _Carpal grasses_. Hollow anodal shafts,
with scarcely spathiform, mostly broad leaves, the ribs of which
begin to ramify; with similar calyces and corollæ, and numerous
capsules--_Seeroseæ_, to which the _Alismaceæ_ and _Hydrocharideæ_ are

1621. The highest kind of fruit attained by this class is nut-like,
never fleshy in character. The stalk is nowhere woody as in some
grasses. The grasses divide, as do all other orders of plants, into
sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)



1622. The substance of the stalk is soft and succulent; its structure
devoid of nodes; the leaves are tolerably free and ribbed; calyx
and corolla coloured, both being perfectly formed and invariably
tripartite, as is likewise the capsule, which has many seeds upon its
inner angle. These plants are the _Lilies_. In the present class all
parts have been developed in conformity to the liber, are rich in sap,
and have become dense and fleshy.

1623. The roots are mostly tubers or bulbs, containing a superior kind
of mucilage, or aromatic principles. The shaft is not hollow but,
though herbaceous, filled up; the leaves are elevated upon the stalk.
One division of these plants has irregular corollæ with stunted stamina
and capsules, the latter containing mostly dust-like seeds, as in the
Orchideæ and aromatic plants.

1624. The other division has regular 2 × 3ary corollæ, with, perfect
glume-capsules and middling-sized seeds, as the Irideæ and Liliaceæ

1625. The first order, _Parenchymatose lilies_. The corollæ are
irregular, bilabiate, and stand upon the calyx and a membranous
sexlocular capsule with very small seeds; are divided according to the
pollen--e. g. _pulverulent Orchideæ_.

1626. The second order, _Sheath-lilies_. Characters similar to those
of the preceding order, but the pollen is agglomerated into waxy
granules--_granular orchideæ_.

1627. The third order, _Stem-lilies_. The corollæ are likewise
bilabiate and situated above the calyx, but the ovarium contains few
seeds, and the capsule is mostly nut-like--_aromatic plants_, such as
the _Scitamineæ_ and _Musaceæ_.

1628. The fourth order _Floral-lilies_, have regular blossoms,
separated into calyx and corolla, placed _above_ the capsule, and
mostly furnished with three stamina. Here belong the _Hypoxideæ_,
_Hæmodoraceæ_ and _Irideæ_.

1629. The fifth order, _Fruit-lilies_. The leaves have not yet
completely separated from each other, but still form bulbs; the corollæ
are regular, have six stamina, and are placed _beneath_ the capsule, as
in the _true lilies_. To this order belong the _Colchicaceæ_, _Aloinæ_
and _Liliaceæ_. Their bulbs contain mostly acrid matters. They divide
into sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)



_Plants with woody shaft and with fruits, mostly enclosed in spadices._

1630. The desiccation of the cells and fibres is promoted by the
increased process of oxydation. Where therefore the tracheæ attain the
preponderance, there the conversion into wood originates.

1631. The stalks of these plants are not hollow, but have a dense
interior, because the fasciculi of tracheæ lie within the liber, and
there increase.

1632. The main bulk of the stalk will consist of tracheæ.

1633. As the tracheæ are longitudinal organs, and the other tissues
also extend lengthways, so does the stalk or stem in these plants
predominate over the other parts.

1634. In this class the most perfect leaves as regards their present
stage are developed; for they are only expansions of the tracheæ, which
are here present in superabundance. As regards the form also, these
leaves must rank higher than those of the preceding class; the spathe
is shorter, the leaf itself usually broad, many-ribbed, and frequently
pinnate. The leaves are also perfect as to position, being no longer
mere radical leaves, but situated upon the stalk, even on its apical

1635. The ramification gradually emerges into view, where forsooth its
occurrence is possible in the shaft-plants, or in the inflorescence.
It is always multiple in character, mostly spadici-, muscari-, and

1636. As regards the blossom the ovarium is most perfectly evolved,
because it is developed out of the stalk; it is ternary and becomes
elevated into a fruit with few seeds.

1637. The corollæ are frequently stunted, yet regular and 2 × 3ary,
though insignificant on account of the preponderance in size of the

1638. In this class we meet with the first true or genuine fruits;
because in it for the first time the three anatomical systems are
completely separated.

1639. Plants having a ligneous stalk, free and many-ribbed leaves,
ramified inflorescence and ternary fleshy fruits, are the _Palmaceæ_.
The Palmaceæ have a woody, very hollow stem, with many-ribbed,
divided, and often pinnate leaves; a muscariform inflorescence lodged
in spathes, sexanary corollæ with nuts, berries, or drupes. With the
palms are associated the Typhaceæ, Aroideæ, Piperales, Pandanales,
Dioscoreæ, Smilaceæ, Asparagi, Convallariæ, and Bromeliæ; for their
stalks are mostly woody, the leaves broad, and placed upon the stalk,
the corollæ stunted, while, on the contrary, the ovarium is carpoidal
or fruit-like. The five orders may be disposed as follows:

1640. Order I. _Palmaceæ parenchymatosæ._ _Cynomoridæ_, _Typhaceæ_,

1641. Order II. _P. thecales._ _Saurureæ_, _Piperaceæ_, _Pandanaceæ_.

1642. Order III. _P. axonales._ _Dioscoreæ_, _Smilaceæ_, _Parideæ_.

1643. Order IV. _P. florales._ _Asparagoideæ_, _Convallariæ_,

1644. Order V. _P. carpales._ _Palms._

1645. The plants of the first order are very imperfect herbs with
spadices. Those of the second have mostly a ligneous, nodose stalk,
with one-seeded fruits in spadices, without corollæ. The third have
separated corollæ disposed in an open form of inflorescence. The fourth
have perfect sexanary corollæ, with a frequently woody stalk and
ternary, many-seeded berries. The fifth order consists of trees having
large leaves, muscariform spadices, and perfect fruits, nuts, plums,
and berries, ternary and one-seeded. They divide into sixteen families.
(Vid. Tab. B.)

_Third Province._


1646. With the separation of the stock or trunk into root, stalk and
leaf, the latter organ attains its perfection; it becomes a reticular
leaf--the plants possessing it being called _reticular_.

1647. The retinerved or reticular leaf is, however, only the result
of a modified organization in the stalk, and indicates a ramification
or foliiform arrangement of the tracheæ in the stem. The foliiform
arrangement of the tracheæ in the stalk is their circular disposition.
These plants have _woody zones_. Through this zone or ring of wood
first originates the perfect separation into wood, liber and bark,
whereof each formerly occupied the whole stalk or stem.

1648. The stalk is no longer a shaft or scape, but it divides into
branches and twigs--_ramular plants_.

1649. The reticular-veined are ramular leaves, and are no longer
therefore spathiform but petiolated--_petiolated leaves_. It is only at
the root that spathose leaves may occur, and this only in the plants of
the inferior classes.

1650. With the disappearance of the spathose leaves, and the appearance
of the ramules, the nodes and bulbs also disappear.

1651. The blossoms stand no longer upon a radical peduncle or stipes,
but upon ramules; in other words, upon a plant, which again stands upon
another plant, namely, the stalk.

1652. As all the higher separations of leaves here occur, so also
does the flower obtain its higher amount of separation; it becomes
quinary--_pentaschematose plants_. The ovarium passes through all
numerical conditions, being 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and polycarpellar. In like
manner all the forms of ovaria and fruits occur in the present class,
such as caryopsis, follicle, legumen, siliqua, capsule, nut, plum,
berry and apple.

1653. As the seed is a leaf-formation, so must it resemble the
reticular leaf. But reticular leaves are not spathes or simple tubes,
but ramified or separated ribs. The seed has therefore several leaves,
and two indeed for the first time, which are called seed-lobes. These
plants are therefore styled _Dicotyledones_.


1654. The Dicotyledones are, in the first place, empirically divisible
into apetalous, monopetalous and polypetalous, or into plants with
calycine, tubular and petalous corollæ.

1655. It might be believed that the Apetalæ were, without further
trouble, the lowest in point of rank; but, when closely considered,
they appear as Polypetalæ with stunted corolla-petals, and are
obviously allied to the Rosaceæ. Moreover, they all bear nuts, a fact
which occurs in no other class, and they must be therefore placed
among the fruit-bearing plants. Since, however, they are epigynous
and perigynous, so must the other polypetalous Perigynæ enter into
proximity with them, and in like manner forsooth come among the

1656. Thus the Dicotyledones separate into the Monopetalæ, hypogynous
Polypetalæ, and perigynous Polypetalæ, along with the Apetalæ. Viewed
in a scientific light, they separate according to the principal members
of the plant into three districts, Axis-, Flower-, and Fruit-plants.



1657. The Monopetalæ or Tubulifloræ are the lowest in rank, and must
therefore take the place here assigned them. They are still spathose
corollæ. Among them are found for the most part only cariopsides and
membranous capsules, rarely fruits. They are usually, too, merely
herbs, rarely bushes, and still more rarely trees.

1658. They divide into Epigynes, Peri-and Hypogynes, of which the
former are the lowest, the latter the highest; for in that which is
left similar the coalition is an inferior sign.

1659. Their essential or typical character does not, however, reside
in the blossom, but in the trunk, and that indeed in the root, stalk,
and foliage. The question therefore may now be asked, whether in the
Epigynes the root, in the Perigynes the stalk, and in the Hypogynes the
foliage, be the principal organ.



1660. That the Tubulifloræ with superior blossoms and fleshy root are
radical plants, admits of being easily demonstrated. The preponderance
of the root is evident from its size, its quantity of contained sap,
or special chemical ingredients. A root that is rich in sap, and much
denser than the stalk, is called a turnip. These plants are thus

1661. Among the Monopetalæ, however, there are napiform roots only
in the _Epigynes_, namely, the Syngenesia or salad-plants, and among
some _Perigynes_, namely, the Campanuleæ, as well as the Cucurbitaceæ.
The Syngenesia are consequently the radical plants. The roots of the
Scorzoneræ, Pastinaceæ, Cichoraceæ, and Tussilago or coltsfoot, &c.,
belong to this class.

1662. That the Scabiosæ and Valerianeæ are directly related to the
Syngenesia is likewise indicated by their roots. Unto these succeed in
point of structure the Campanulaceæ and the Cucurbitaceæ, which have
frequently, too, napiform or turnip-shaped roots.

1663. The number of the Syngenesia is so great that they fill up all
the orders of the trunk. In accordance with their whole structure they
are obviously the lowest, the stalk being for the most part herbaceous
and placed within a circle of radical leaves, but being itself provided
with few, imperfect, and scarcely ever pinnate leaves; they have
moreover numerous stunted blossoms that are connate with the single or
solitary seed, and crowded together, like spadices, grass-spikes, or
the fungal pilei, upon a carpoclinium or receptacle.

1664. They are a repetition of the fungi and grasses; of the former
in their fleshy root and inflorescence, of the latter likewise in the
inflorescence and in the spathoidal root-leaves; above all, in the
single large seed, confluent with the ovarium and calyx. The principle
of their division must, where it is possible, and for obvious reasons,
be drawn from the organs of the trunk.

1665. First order. _Radicariæ parenchymatosæ._--Syngenesia, having
radical leaves and uniform florets, tubular or wholly stunted ligular
florets--_Cichoraceæ_ and _Thistles_.

1666. Second order. _P. vaginatæ._--Syngenesia, with opposite leaves
and different kinds of florets, such as radiated, partly lingual and
partly tubular corollæ--_Sunflowers_, _Silphieæ_.

1667. Third order. _R. axonales._--Syngenesia, with alternate leaves
and diversified florets--_Anthemideæ_, _Senecionidæ_, _Astereæ_.

1668. Fourth order. _R. florales._--Here the ovarium is no longer
dense and confluent with the calyx, and it begins to become
trilocular--_Scabiosæ_, _Valerianeæ_, and _Campanulæ_.

1669. Fifth order. _R. fructuariæ._--Here a perfect fruit is developed,
which is connate with the calyx--_Asarideæ_, _Passifloreæ_, and
_Cucurbitaceæ_. They have apple-like 3-5 ry fruits, and many of them
have napiform roots, e. g. the Gichtrüben. They divide into sixteen
families. (Vid. Tab. B.)



1670. Plants with a predominating development of stalk, leaves
narrow, mostly opposite, quaternary corollæ upon the calyx, ovarium
multilocular, and containing few seeds.

1671. Here everything, both root and leaf, must be stalk-like in
character; the stalk is therefore woody, the root fibrous, the foliage
twig-like or narrow, like needles.

1672. This structure is chiefly found in the _Heaths_ and _Stellatæ_.
The stalk is mostly woody; the foliage either aciculiform or leathery
in texture, and never pinnated. The leaves are either arranged in
whorls or opposite, a position which indicates a lower grade of
development. Moreover, they are related to the plants of the preceding
class; they are either _Epigynous_ or _Perigynous_. The corolla and
ovarium follow the opposite position of the leaves; the former being
quadripartite, the latter bi-and quaternary. Most of them grow in hot
countries upon dry ground, and their virtues reside in the stalk, e. g.
the Peruvian bark.

1673. The Stellatæ or Rubiaceæ are without doubt the lowest, because
they are epigynous and have a quadri-petalous corolla, with a binary
and frequently only follicular ovarium.

1674. First order. _Cauliariæ parenchymatosæ._ The _Stellatæ_ proper
along with the _Coffeaceæ_, all of them being two-seeded.

1675. Second order. _C. vaginatæ._ The Rubiaceæ with bilocular
many-seeded capsules--_Rondeletiæ_ and _Cinchoneæ_.

1676. Third order. _C. axonales._ _Rubiaceæ_ with
fruits--_Guettardidæ_, _Hameliæ_, _Gardeniæ_.

1677. Fourth order. _C. florales._ Quadripetalar Perigynæ, with similar
capsules or berries--_Epacrideæ_, _Vacciniaceæ_, _Ericaceæ_.

1678. Fifth order, _C. fructuariæ._ Quaternary Perigynes with
fruits--_Myrobalaneæ_, _Olacineæ_, _Diospyroideæ_ and _Sapoteæ_. (For
the arrangement of their families vid. Tab. B.)



1679. Herbs having broad leaves, quinary hypogynous corollæ, and
bilocular capsule. Here the whole stem has become leaf; all the parts
are soft; they are _herbs_ in the propermost sense of the word.

1680. Here belong the _hypogynous_ Monopetalæ: _Primulaceæ_,
_Personatæ_, _Solaneæ_, _Gentianeæ_, _Asclepiadæ_, _Cariceæ_,
_Asperifoliæ_, _Sambuceæ_. The roots are fibrous; the stalk herbaceous,
being wholly covered, and that indeed with large leaves; calyx and
corolla quinquepartite, frequently bilabiate; the germen a bilocular
membranous capsule, which seldom becomes fleshy, and contains few
seeds. It is these plants which serve chiefly as food for cattle, and
whose whole trunk is officinally known under the name of _herbage_;
relations which express the leafy character.

1681. First order, _Foliariæ parenchymatosæ_. Herbs with bilocular
capsules, in which there are many seeds placed upon a median
cone. The capsule dehisces, while both carpels separate from each
other--_Primulaceæ_, _Scrophulariæ_, _Solaneæ_.

1682. Second order, _F. vaginatæ_. For the most part herbaceous,
their many-seeded carpels springing open at the dorsal
suture--_Orobanchaceæ_, _Rhinanthaceæ_, and _Bignoniaceæ_.

1683. Third order, _F. axonales_. Regular quinary corollæ with seeds
borne upon the margins of the two carpellar valves--_Gentianaceæ_,
_Asclepiadaceæ_, _Jasmineæ_.

1684. Fourth order, _F. florales_. Few seeds in one capsule; the
pistil becomes nut-like or trilocular--_Labiatæ_, _Polemoniaceæ_,

1685. Fifth order, _F. fructuariæ_. Herbs and shrubs with fruits; as
nuts, plums and berries. For their sixteen families (vid. Tab. B.)


1686. Flowers polypetalous.



1687. Calyx, corolla, stamina and ovarium perfectly separated from each
other--_Pedunculate corollæ_, _Stielblumen_ or _Hypogynes_. The blossom
must be here developed in the most perfect manner; i. e. all its parts
must be complete and separated from each other. This is the case only
in the hypogynous Polypetalæ.

1688. The lowest organized kinds must, from being a repetition of
them, remind us of the grasses and Syngenesia. They are therefore
polycarpellar or multi-ovarial.--_Ranunculaceæ_, _Malvaceæ_,

1689. Unto these are allied those plants whose ovaria consist of
several carpels, but that are connate with each other, and mutually
separate for the first time with their maturation or decay, as in
the _Rutaceæ_, _Polygaleæ_, _Malvaceæ_, _Aurantiacæ_, _Platanaceæ_,
_Malpighieæ_, _Sapindeæ_.

1690. The highest are characterized by coalition of the carpels
into a single ovarium with stunted dissepiments, and by corollæ
that are well developed and distinguished for colour, delicacy, and
magnitude--_Carnations_, _Violets_, _Cistaceæ_, _Siliquosæ_, _Poppies_,



1691. Plants having a preponderance of seed, that draws after it all
the floral parts.

1692. The ovaria have become seed-like, have separated from each other,
and inclose for the most part only a single seed.

1693. As in the grasses and Syngenesia many flowers are collected
into a spike or upon a receptacle, so here are many carpels in a
single corolla--_Ranunculaceæ_, _Geraniaceæ_, _Tiliaceæ_, _Malvaceæ_,

1694. The stamina are usually of indefinite number, and mostly connate.

1695. All forms of stalks are here met with; such as herbs, bushes,
shrubs, and trees. All forms also of leaves; spathose leaves,
petiolated leaves, simple and divided, yet rarely pinnated.

1696. The component parts are usually mucilage, as in the roots of the

1697. They divide into two great groups, into the quinary and
sexanary. Since among the quinary, herbaceous stalks with nodes and
spathe-leaves, but capsules only, occur; they must be arranged in the
lowest rank. The sexanary bear fruits.

1698. First order, _Seminariæ parenchymatosæ_. Herbs with nodes and
spathose leaves, together with numerous, mostly one-seeded, carpels,
attached in an irregular manner to a median columella--_Ranunculaceæ_
and _Geraniaceæ_.

1699. Second order, _S. vaginatæ._ Trees having many-seeded carpels,
coalesced like the style, _Theaceæ_, _Tiliaceæ_, _Elæocarpaceæ_.

1700. Third order, _S. axonales._ Bushes and shrubs with free,
mostly simple, leaves, ovaria, mostly one-seeded, and arranged
in a circle around the mediate axis or columella; anthers
bilocular--_Hermanniaceæ_, _Dombeyaceæ_, _Sterculiaceæ_, and

1701. Fourth order, _S. florales._ For the most part trees, having
frequently divided leaves and similar ovaria, yet mostly many-seeded
and connate--_Malvaceæ_ and _Bombaceæ_.

1702. Fifth order, _S. fructuariæ._ Corollæ mostly sexanary, ovaria
in a circle without a columella--_Magnoliaceæ_, _Menispermaceæ_,
_Dilleniaceæ_, _Anonaceæ_. They divide into sixteen families. (Vid.
Tab. B.)



1703. Hypogynous Polypetalæ with perfect multilocular
ovarium--_Polygaleæ_, _Melieæ_, _Aurantiaceæ_, _Platanaceæ_,
_Malpighieæ_, _Sapindeæ_.

1704. While in the preceding class the number of the carpels was
usually indeterminate; it is here limited to three and five. In the
one, they usually stood around a middle columella or axis, in the
other, they form a true capsule with perfect partition-walls or septa,
and a single style. The number of the seeds is moderate, i. e. there
are more than one, but they are easily counted. They are therefore of
mediate size, having no kernels, as is the case in the nuts, but also
no granules, as in the berries or poppy capsules. In the preceding
class the fruits were rare; here they occur frequently in the upper
orders. The number of the floral parts is, throughout the present
class, five, that of the stamina five or ten, and they are seldom
coalesced; the stalk also passes through all the stages of development
from that of the herb through the shrub into the tree. The leaves are
seldom spathe-like, but frequently coriaceous and aciculate, as in
their predecessors the _Heaths_; many are pinnated.

1705. First order, _Capsulariæ parenchymatosæ_--_Rutaceæ_. Herbs and
shrubs frequently provided with aciculate and coriaceous leaves;
corollæ regular with ten stamina; ovarium consisting of five carpels,
which separate when ripe, and contain few seeds--_Rutaceæ_, _Diosmaceæ_.

1706. Second order, _C. vaginatæ._ Shrubs and trees with similar
corollæ and ovaria, which are nevertheless frequently separated and
fleshy--_Quassiaceæ_, _Ochnaceæ_.

1707. Third order, _C. axonales._ Mostly shrubs and trees with
irregular corollæ and bilocular ovarium--_Polygalaceæ_, _Vochysieæ_,

1708. Fourth order, _C. florales._ Trees with a woody or berry-like
ovarium, having several cells--_Cedreleæ_, _Melieæ_, _Aurantiaceæ_.

1709. Fifth order, _C. fructuariæ._ Trees; flowers quinary, ovarium
mostly ternary, becoming a winged or fleshy fruit. (Their sixteen
families probably pursue the order indicated at Tab. B.)



1710. Corollæ stipaceous, having free stamina; ovaria with stunted
septa, and numerous marginal seeds--_Carnations_, _Violets_,
_Cistaceæ_, _Siliquosæ_, _Papaveraceæ_, _Guttiferæ_.

1711. The stalk passes through all the stages of formation, from the
nodose herb unto the shrub and tree. The leaves occur likewise under
all forms, modes, division, and arrangement. The plants of this class
are found in all climates, and yield etherial or volatile and fatty oil
with resins. They divide first of all into quinary and quaternary; the
former being mostly herbs with a hollow capsule; the latter herbs,
shrubs, and trees, with siliquæ or berries.

1712. Their strength or virtue resides in the flower, which, is
therefore of large size, beautifully coloured, sweet-scented, is
frequently appreciated and adopted as an ornament. On the contrary,
the ovarium and seed are stunted. The former is a siliqua or hollow
capsule, which therefore supports the numerous smaller seeds on the

1713. First order, _Corollariæ parenchymatosæ_. Nodose herbs with
spathose leaves, quinary corollæ, and ten stamina; many seeds
upon a columellar or median placenta situated within a hollow
capsule--_Portulaceæ_, _Carnations_.

1714. Second order, _C. vaginatæ_. Herbs, shrubs, and trees, with
similar but mostly multi-staminal corollæ, and seeds on the capsular
septa--Droseraceæ, _Hypericineæ_, _Violaceæ_, _Cistaceæ_, and _Bixeæ_.

1715. Third order, _C. axonales_. Herbs with quaternary corollæ and a

1716. Fourth order, _C. florales_. Bushes and shrubs with quaternary
corollæ and numerous stamina; ovarium a siliqua or multi-valvular
hollow capsule--_Capparidæ_, _Berberideæ_, _Papaveraceæ_.

1717. Fifth order, _C. fructuariæ_. Trees with quaternary and quinary
corollæ, numerous stamina, and a fruit--_Guttiferæ_. They divide into
the usual sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)


_Fruit-plants--Apetalæ, Perigynes._

1718. Stunted calycine corollæ, with nuts, plums, berries, or apples.

1719. They are perigynous Polypetalæ, and include the Apetalæ and

1720. The nut consists of a large seed, connate with the woody ovarium,
and frequently with the calyx.

1721. The plum is a legumen, between the coats of which fleshy matter
has accumulated, and whose internal tunic or endocarp has become woody.
The berry is a many-seeded hollow capsule, which, as well as the calyx,
has become soft and succulent.

1722. The apple is an ovarium surrounded by a fleshy calyx.


_Nut-plants--Apetalæ, Diclines._

1723. Ovarium woody, and inclosing only one seed. Here belong the
Apetalous and Diclinous Exogens.

1724. These plants repeat the fungi, grasses and Syngenesia, and have
therefore imperfect corollæ, the calyx of which has alone remained, and
usually closely surrounds the nut.

1725. The stalk is indeed usually woody; yet is still found to be also
herbaceous and nodose with spathiform leaves. The leaves are simple,
frequently needle-shaped or else arrested. The principal ingredients
are starch, as in the Gramineæ and Syngenesia.

1726. The inflorescence is mostly amentaceous, as in the Agarics,
Grasses and Syngenesia.

1727. They divide into androgynous and dioecious plants.

1728. First order, _Nucariæ parenchymatosæ_. Hermaphrodite herbs with
nodes and spathose leaves, calyx green, superior, and quinquepartite
with five opposite stamina; nut mostly triangular and utricular.

1729. Second order, _N. vaginatæ_. Form of vegetation pretty nearly
as in preceding order, but the calyx is corolla-like, and the stamina
mostly alternate--_Phytolacceæ_, _Illecebreæ_.

1730. Third order, _N. axonales_. Hermaphrodite, calyx corolla-like,
superior and wholly quaternary; herbs and shrubs bearing nuts and
plums--_Nyctagineæ_, _Daphneæ_, and _Santalaceæ_.

1731. Fourth order, _N. florales_. Trees, calyx corolla-like but
inferior; capsules, plums and berries--_Proteaceæ_.

1732. Fifth order, _N. fructuariæ_. Diclines; herbs, shrubs and trees
without corollæ, but with nuts or plums. (Their sixteen families stand
in the order exhibited at Tab. B.)



1733. Polypetalous calycine corollæ, with a drupe or its fundamental
form, the legumen. Here belong the papilionaceous plants, Rhamnaceæ and

1734. The stalk is frequently herbaceous with nodes; but mostly
fruticose and arborescent.

1735. The leaves here attain their highest development, and are mostly
pinnated, sometimes endowed with the power of independent motion.

1736. The corollæ are mostly irregular, quinary, arranged like pinnate
leaves, with ten, rarely more, connate and free stamina.

1737. The ovarium is a single carpel, owing to the four others being
arrested; it is usually compressed and bivalved, with few seeds; it is
a legumen, frequently converted into a fleshy fruit.

1738. The Papilionaceæ are so rich in number that they include all the
orders of the trunk, and even transcend or exceed its limits; their
allied families are the Rhamnaceæ and Terebinthaceæ with fleshy fruits.

1739. First order, _Drupariæ parenchymatosæ_. Papilionaceæ with
herbaceous, nodose stalk and pinnated leaves; corolla-petals and single
stamen free; seed-lobes thin--Hedysareæ, _Astragaleæ_, _Glycineæ_.

1740. Second order, _D. vaginatæ_. Herbs and shrubs with ternary
or tendrilless leaves; the corolla-petals or stamina frequently
confluent--_Trifoliaceæ_, _Genisteæ_, _Galegeæ_.

1741. Third order, _D. axonales_. Bushes, shrubs, or trees, frequently
training with pinnate leaves and tendrils; calyx large, seed-lobes
thick--_Vicieæ_, _Beans_, _Dalbergiæ_.

1742. Fourth order, _D. florales_. Shrubs and trees, with tolerably
regular flowers and separated stamina; legumens with frequently
transverse septa, embryo straight--_Geoffroyæ_, _Swartzieæ_,
_Detarium_, _Mimosæ_, and _Cassiæ_.

1743. Fifth order, _D. fructuariæ_. Regular flowers with separate
stamina and multilocular plums--_Stackhouseæ_, _Empetreæ_,
_Celastrineæ_, _Rhamneæ_, and _Terebintheæ_. (For their sixteen
families vid. Tab. B.)


_Berry-plants_--_Umbelliferæ_, &c.

1744. Ovarial and calycine corolla with a single perfectly soft fruit
or berry, on which are five corolla-petals, with a moderate number of
stamina. This fruit is wholly edible, and has only one or two styles;
stalk and leaves pass through all the stages of formation.

1745. They divide first of all into two groups, having few or many
stamina; of these the fruit of one is dry, of the other fleshy. The dry
fruits are also perfectly edible, as the Caraway-seeds.

1746. First order, _Baccariæ parenchymatosæ_. Epigynous; nodose herbs
with two seeds in the calyx; only five stamina--_Umbellatæ_.

1747. Second order, _B. vaginatæ_. Mostly shrubs with quinary corollæ
and bi-or quinquelocular berries--_Mistletoes_, _Elders_, _Araliaceæ_,

1748. Third order, _B. axonales_. Bushes and shrubs with quaternary
corollæ, only one style and one multilocular many-seeded
capsule--_Epilobeæ_, _Salicariæ_.

1749. Fourth order, _B. florales_. Mostly shrubs with quinary corollæ
and manifold stamina; capsule or berry multilocular--_Melastomaceæ_.

1750. Fifth order, _B. fructuariæ_. Trees with many, frequently
fasciculated, stamina; fruit multilocular and many-seeded--_Myrtaceæ_.
These plants likewise divide into sixteen families. (Vid. Tab. B.)



1751. The fruit is an apple, i. e. several carpels, containing but few
seeds, adhere in one calyx, upon which there are five corolla-petals,
with four to six times as many stamina. Herbs, shrubs, and trees with
different kinds of leaves are here met with; the corollæ are mostly
small and perigynous, the style separated, and thus polycarpal.
Perigynous Polycarpæ. They grow, dispersed over the whole earth, in
dry situations; several of them yield edible fruits, and are pretty
generally cultivated.

1752. The apples are without doubt the most perfect fruit, as well
in reference to their structure as their chemical ingredients. The
apple consists of all the parts of the blossom: seed, capsule, and
fleshy calyx, and is besides polycarpellar, i. e. composed of separate
carpels. Its edible substance or flesh is not simply a sweet-meat, but
a true aliment, which admits of being eaten after it has been kept
fresh for a year, of being dried, exported, or cooked as a kitchen
vegetable; in cases of exigency too it occurs in such abundance that
the whole human race might live upon it, which cannot be said of any
other fruit. The apple quenches at the same time the thirst, and thus
supplies also the place of drink. All the other fruits are either a
dainty relish only against thirst, or a simple amylaceous medium of
nutrition. However, most of the plants belonging to this class produce
only dry capsules and calyces.

1753. They divide into two groups, having few or many stamina.

First order, _Pomariæ parenchymatosæ_. Herbs with few stamina and five
or more carpels, as the _Crassulaceæ_ and _Mesembryanthemaceæ_.

Second order, _P. vaginatæ_. Shrubs with few stamina, only two to three
carpels and few seeds.--_Tamaricaceæ_, _Bruniaceæ._

                        VEGETABLE SYSTEM   Table B
 |                               FIRST PROVINCE.                            |
 |                                                                          |
 |                          HISTOPHYTA--ACOTYLEDONES.                       |
 |                                                                          |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |                    |     CLASS I.    |    CLASS  II.    |   CLASS III.   |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |       ORGANS.      |    Cellulares.  |    Vasculares.   |   Tracheales.  |
 |                    |      _Fungi._   |      _Mosses._   |     _Ferns._   |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 | ORD. I. Parenchyma.| Roste.          | Schleim-Moose.   | Wasser-Farren. |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |  F. 1. Cells.      |  Entophyta.     |  Diatomaceæ.     |  Marsileaceæ.  |
 |     2. Ducts.      |  Epiphyta.      |  Nostochineæ.    |  Pilulariæ.    |
 |     3. Tracheæ.    |  Tuberculariæ.  |  Batrachospermeæ.|  Equisetaceæ.  |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 | O. II. Sheaths.    | Schimmel.       | Wasserfäden.     | Kugelfarren.   |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |  F. 4. Bark.       |  Mucorini.      |  Confervaceæ.    |  Lycopodiaceæ. |
 |     5. Liber.      |  Mucedines.     |  Ulvaceæ.        |  Ophioglosseæ. |
 |     6. Wood.       |  Byssaceæ.      |  Leptomiteæ.     |  Danæaceæ.     |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 | O. III. Axis.      | Balgpilze.      | Fuci.            | Ringfarren.    |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |  F. 7. Root.       |  Trichodermaceæ.|  Cerameæ.        |  Parkereæ.     |
 |     8. Stalk.      |  Trichiaceæ.    |  Floridæ.        |  Cyatheæ.      |
 |     9. Leaves.     |  Lycopodineæ.   |  Fucoideæ.       |  Polypodiaceæ. |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 | O. IV. Blossom.    | Kernpilze.      | Lichens.         | Fluvialen.     |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |  F. 10. Seed.      |  Cytisporeæ.    |  Coniothalameæ.  |  Naiadeæ.      |
 |     11. Ovarium.   |  Phacidiaceæ.   |  Gasterothalameæ.|  Podostemeæ.   |
 |     12. Corolla.   |  Sphæriaceæ.    |  Hymenothalameæ. |  Ceratophylleæ.|
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 | O. V. Fruit.       | Fleischpilze.   | Mosses.          | Nadelholz.     |
 |                    |                 |                  |                |
 |  F. 13. Nut.       |  Tremellini.    |  Marchantiaceæ.  |  Abieteæ.      |
 |     14. Plum.      |  Cupulati.      |  Ricciaceæ.      |  Taxaceæ.      |
 |     15. Berry.     |  Clavati.       |  Jungermanniaceæ.|  Cupresseæ.    |
 |     16. Apple.     |  Pileati.       |  Bryaceæ.        |  Cycadeæ.      |

 |                    |                    SECOND PROVINCE.                 |
 |                    |                                                     |
 |                    |              THECOPHYTA--MONOCOTYLEDONES.           |
 |                    |                                                     |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |                    |     CLASS IV.    |      CLASS V.     |   CLASS VI.  |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |       ORGANS.      |    Corticales.   |    Liber-plants.  |  Wood-plants.|
 |                    |    _Gramineæ._   |     _Liliaceæ._   |  _Palmaceæ._ |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 | ORD. I. Parenchyma.| Spiked Grasses.  | Staub-Orchiden.   | Rohrkolben.  |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |  F. 1. Cells.      |  Secale.         |  Neottiæ.         |  Cynomoria.  |
 |     2. Ducts.      |  Phleum.         |  Arethuseæ.       |  Typhaceæ.   |
 |     3. Tracheæ.    |  Festuca.        |  Ophrydeæ.        |  Aroideæ.    |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 | O. II. Sheaths.    | Panicled Grasses.| Granular Orchideæ.| Piperaceæ.   |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |  F. 4. Bark.       |  Bulrushes.      |  Malaxides.       |  Saurureæ.   |
 |     5. Liber.      |  Milium.         |  Epidendra.       |  Piperaceæ.  |
 |     6. Wood.       |  Arundinaceæ.    |  Vanillæ.         |  Pandanac    |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 | O. III. Axis.      | Reed-Grasses.    | Aromatic plants.  | Sassaparillæ.|
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |  F. 7. Root.       |  Sedges.         |  Amomeæ.          |  Dioscoreæ.  |
 |     8. Stalk.      |  Junceæ.         |  Canneæ.          |  Smilaceæ.   |
 |     9. Leaves.     |  Ruscus.         |  Musaceæ.         |  Parideæ.    |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 | O. IV. Blossom.    | Juncineæ.        | Schwerdel.        | Asparagoidæ. |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |  F. 10. Seed.      |  Restiaceæ.      |  Hæmodoraceæ.     |  Asparagoidæ.|
 |     11. Ovarium.   |  Serpeæ.         |  Irideæ.          |  Convallariæ.|
 |     12. Corolla.   |  Commelyneæ.     |  Narcissi.        |  Bromeliæ.   |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 | O. V. Fruit.       | Seeroseæ.        | Liliaceæ.         | Palms.       |
 |                    |                  |                   |              |
 |  F. 13. Nut.       |  Alismaceæ.      |  Colchicaceæ.     |  Calamariæ.  |
 |     14. Plum.      |  Hydrocharideæ.  |  Asphodeleæ.      |  Cocoeæ.     |
 |     15. Berry.     |  Hydropeltideæ.  |  Alliaceæ.        |  Phoeniceæ.|
 |     16. Apple.     |  Nymphæacæ.      |  Tulipaceæ.       |  Borasseæ.   |


  |                                                     |
  |                                                     |
  |          CIRCLE I. _Stem-plants--Monopetalæ._       |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |    CLASS VII.    |  CLASS VIII.   |    CLASS IX.    |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |   Root-plants.   | Stalk-plants.  |   Leaf-plants.  |
  |     _Epigynæ._   |   _Perigynæ._  |    _Hypogynæ._  |
  |                  |                |                 |
  | Root-leaved.     | Stellatæ.      | Personatæ.      |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |  Cichoraceæ.     |  Galiaceæ.     |  Primulaceæ.    |
  |  Carduraceæ.     |  Spermacocidæ. |  Scrophulariæ.  |
  |  Mutisiæ.        |  Coffeaceæ.    |  Solanaceæ.     |
  |                  |                |                 |
  | Opposite-leaved. | Cinchonaceæ.   | Bignoniaceæ.    |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |  Eupatorium?     |  Hedyotidæ.    |  Orobancheæ.    |
  |  Helianthus.     |  Rondeletiæ.   |  Rhinantheæ.    |
  |  Silphieæ.       |  Cinchoneæ.    |  Bignoniæ.      |
  |                  |                |                 |
  | Alternifoliar.   | Hameliaceæ.    | Contortæ.       |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |  Senecionidæ.    |  Guettardidæ.  |  Gentianeæ.     |
  |  Astereæ.        |  Hameliæ.      |  Asclepiadeæ.   |
  |  Vernoniæ.       |  Gardeniæ.     |  Jasmineæ.      |
  |                  |                |                 |
  | Aggregatæ.       | Ericaceæ.      | Tetraspermeæ.   |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |  Scabiosæ.       |  Epacrideæ.    |  Labiatæ.       |
  |  Lobeliæ.        |  Myrtilli.     |  Polemoniaceæ.  |
  |  Campanulæ.      |  Heaths.       |  Convolvulaceæ. |
  |                  |                |                 |
  | Sicuonoidæ.      | Diospyraceæ.   | Pyrenaceæ.      |
  |                  |                |                 |
  |  Asaridæ.        |  Myrobalaneæ.  |  Asperifoliæ.   |
  |  Loaseæ.         |  Olacineæ.     |  Verbenaceæ.    |
  |  Passifloreæ.    |  Diospyros.    |  Sambuceæ.      |
  |  Cucurbitaceæ.   |  Sapotæ.       |  Myrsineæ.      |

  |                                                   |
  |                                                   |
  | CIRCLE II. _Flower-plants--Hypogynous Polypetalæ._|
  |               |                 |                 |
  |   CLASS X.    |    CLASS XI.    |   CLASS XII.    |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Seed-plants.  | Ovarium-plants. | Corolla-plants. |
  |  _Polycarpæ._ |  _Capsuliferæ._ |   _Siliquosæ._  |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Ranunculaceæ. | Rutaceæ.        | Caryophyllaceæ. |
  |               |                 |                 |
  |  Ranunculi.   |  Ruteæ.         |  Portulaceæ.    |
  |  Helleboreæ.  |  Diosmeæ.       |  Spergula.      |
  |  Geraniaceæ.  |  Zygophylleæ.   |  Carnations.    |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Tiliaceæ.     | Ochnaceæ.       | Violaceæ.       |
  |               |                 |                 |
  |  Theaceæ.     |  Xanthoxyleæ.   |  Droseraceæ.    |
  |  Lime-trees.  |  Ochneæ.        |  Violets.       |
  |  Elæocarpeæ.  |  Quassieæ.      |  Cistaceæ.      |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Sterculiaceæ. | Polygalaceæ.    | Cruciferæ.      |
  |               |                 |                 |
  |  Hermanneæ.   |  Polygaleæ.     |  Radishes.      |
  |  Dombeyaceæ.  |  Vochysieæ.     |  Cresses.       |
  |  Sterculeæ.   |  Pittosporeæ.   |  Cabbages.      |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Malvaceæ.     | Meliaceæ.       | Papaveraceæ.    |
  |               |                 |                 |
  |  Malveæ.      |  Cedreleæ.      |  Capers.        |
  |  Hibisceæ.    |  Melieæ.        |  Berberideæ.    |
  |  Bombaceæ.    |  Aurantiaceæ.   |  Poppies.       |
  |               |                 |                 |
  | Magnoliaceæ.  | Malpighiaceæ.   | Guttiferæ.      |
  |               |                 |                 |
  |  Magnolieæ.   |  Platanaceæ.    |  Dipterocarpeæ. |
  |  Menispermeæ. |  Malpighieæ.    |  Calophylleæ.   |
  |  Dilleneæ.    |  Hippocrateæ.   |  Marcgraviaceæ. |
  |  Anoneæ.      |  Sapindeæ.      |  Garcinieæ.     |

 |                                                                   |
 |                                                                   |
 |   CIRCLE III. _Fruit-plants--Apetalæ_ and _perigynous Polypetalæ_.|
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  CLASS XIII. |   CLASS XIV.  |    CLASS XV.   |    CLASS XVI.     |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Nut-plants. |  Plum-plants. |  Berry-plants. |  Apple-plants.    |
 |  _Nucariæ._  |  _Drupaceæ._  |   _Baccariæ._  |    _Pomaceæ._     |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 | Oleraceæ.    | Astragalaceæ. | Umbellatæ.     | Sempervivæ.       |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Sclerantheæ.|  Hedysareæ.   |  Saniculidæ.   |  Galacineæ.       |
 |  Atriplices. |  Astragaleæ.  |  Carrots.      |  Crassulaceæ.     |
 |  Amaranths.  |  Glycineæ.    |  Caraways.     |  Mesembryanthemeæ.|
 |              |               |                |                   |
 | Polygonaceæ. | Trifoliaceæ.  | Caprifoliaceæ. | Tamariscineæ.     |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Plantains.  |  Trifolieæ.   |  Mistletoes.   |  Tamarisks.       |
 |  Phytolacceæ.|  Genisteæ.    |  Sambuceæ.     |  Buniaceæ.        |
 |  Illecebreæ. |  Galegeæ.     |  Vines.        |  Hamamelideæ.     |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 | Thymelaceæ.  | Phaseolaceæ.  | Lythraceæ.     | Saxifrageæ.       |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Nyctagineæ. |  Vetches.     |  Trapeæ.       |  Saxifrages.      |
 |  Daphnoideæ. |  Dalbergieæ.  |  Epilobeæ.     |  Cunoniaceæ.      |
 |  Santalaceæ. |  Sophoreæ.    |  Salicariæ.    |  Lilacs.          |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 | Lauraceæ.    | Mimosaceæ.    | Melastomaceæ.  | Rosaceæ.          |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Proteaceæ.  |  Detarieæ.    |  Rhexieæ.      |  Potentillæ.      |
 |  Aquilarineæ.|  Mimoseæ.     |  Melastomeæ.   |  Neuradeæ.        |
 |  Laurels.    |  Cassieæ.     |  Grossularieæ. |  Sanguisorbeæ.    |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 | Diclinisten. | Terebinthaceæ.|  Myrtaceæ.     | Fruit-trees.      |
 |              |               |                |                   |
 |  Amentaceæ.  |  Empetreæ.    | Lecythideæ.    |  Pomegranates.    |
 |  Nettles.    |  Celastrineæ. |  Barringtonieæ.|  Plums.           |
 |  Artocarpeæ. |  Rhamneæ.     |  Leptospermeæ. |  Medlars.         |
 |  Euphorbicæ. |  Terebintheæ. |  Myrteæ.       |  Apples.          |

Third order, _P. axonales_. Herbs, shrubs, and trees, with similar
blossoms, but many seeds.--_Saxifrageæ_, _Cunoniaceæ_, _Hortensiæ_ and

Fourth order, _P. florales_. Herbs and shrubs, with many stamina and

Fifth order, _P. fructuariæ_. Trees with multistaminal-corollæ and
fleshy fruits.--_Monimieæ_, _Pomegranates_, _Plums_, _Medlars_,
_Apples_. (For their sixteen families vid. Tab. B.)

1754. In order to prove that each class of vegetables commences from
below, and that all ascend in a parallel series beside each other, it
is requisite only to place them in a tabular form. Further details upon
this subject are to be found in my earlier works upon Natural History.
The adjoining Table may here suffice. I place the families according to
my "Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte," although I am very well aware that
all do not stand in the right place. That indeed no one will expect.



1755. The animal kingdom is the individual development of all four


1756. Is the development of the animal kingdom in consciousness. The
repetition of the animal creation is spiritually divisible into Anatomy
(Zoogeny), Physiology (Zoonomy), and Zoology.


1757. Zoogeny represents the idea of the animal or the developmental
history of the individual animal.


1758. The Highest to which the vegetable kingdom could attain was
the blossom; and of this the sexual parts are the completion. At the
instant when the sex originated, the vegetable functions became of a
nobler character; for the sexual organs are only the inferior organs
refined or purified by light. The electrical and chemical process of
the vegetable body are again represented, but in a spiritual manner,
in the blossom. The functions of the fruit were none other than those
of the elevated chemism; they were only the nobler processes of
digestion and nutrition. As their purest expression of life, and that
which has been produced simply by their co-operation, is the motion
which resides in cellular tissue, so also was it this only, which
obtained a preponderance in the fruit, and that indeed at the cost of
the material processes. The germen obtained a kind of motion; yet this
appears to be still imparted by material processes. In the corolla,
however, this expression of life attained to completion. It is no
longer simple nutrition or accumulation of sap that moves the stamina
upon the female stigma, but a purely polar act; the Immaterial, the
Spiritual produces the phenomena of life. These movements of copulation
are by no means a coalescence, are not a nutritive act, nor the result
of mechanical decissation, as is the case in many capsules; but true
elevated vital actions. The parts reassume after the motion their first
or original position, a feat which is performed by no capsule upon its
dehiscence. Of these movements, those of the leaves in the sensitive
plants, e. g. Hedysarum gyrans, are the antetypes or prefigurations.
There consequently originates with the highest development of the
light-organs in the plant, a motion independent of the material
processes, and of the terrestrial elements.

1759. A motion, that is liberated from the terrestrial elements, is
free from their mechanism; it simply obeys the nature of the æther,
which is of a spiritual, or voluntary, kind.

1760. The essence of volition or free-will does not reside, in a
physical sense, in the consciousness of the action, but in the
autocrasy; or in the ability to perform an action, without external or
terrestrial influence. The æther-actions have originated from special
polarity. Independent movements must therefore be such as have been
produced simply by polarity, apart from material intrusion.

1761. The ability or power upon the part of organic bodies to apprehend
polar excitation, to move themselves simply by its means, and again to
restore themselves to their former state, without regard being paid
to a material process, I call _Irritability_. That organ is irritable
which can move itself without any other object than that of automacy or

1762. Irritability belongs to the plant, but is only of that kind
where the perception cannot express itself otherwise than by direct
motion. In the sexual parts and probably in the highest leaf-formation,
the plant is elevated to irritability; unto motion through simple
perception, unto motion without design, to motion from mere lust or
desire. The highest spiritual operation, of which the plant is capable,
is irritability. But as everything which has attained its Highest,
stands at the end of its development, so also has the plant terminated,
when it has once exercised its power of irritability through copulation.


1763. All the irritable motion of the vegetable may be confined or
reduced to the movements of the stamen-filaments, the other movements
being merely precursors of these. What, therefore, the stamina would
achieve by their motion, that the irritability does in a general point
of view. The motion of the stamina is directed merely upon the stigma,
in order to impart the male pollen to the female body; and thus, simply
to evoke the spiritual tension, which resides originally in the male
semen, as in light-æther from the dead mass, but that originally dwells
in the female seed as in the dark mass of earth.

1764. Now, since the stigma bears simply relation to the contents
of the ovary, and conveys everything to this, and thus, to a female
utricle, which is the middle of the plant, or its body proper; so in
the motion of the male organs, the conatus or effort upon their part to
introduce an elemental matter, or rather its spirit into this utricle,
or this body, is rendered manifest or revealed. The highest Spiritual
of the plant is accordingly not a mere motion in the general sense;
but one that is definite and wholly special--_a motion of Ingestion_.
The direction or design of the first _independent_ motion is therefore
_Ingestion_; this again not being of a general, but a wholly definite
import, namely, an ingestion of the _male_ organ into the _female_.

1765. The Male is, however, characterized by its self-substantial
polarity, and by its self-intrinsic life; the Female by the want of
polarity, by a heterodependent life. The act of ingestion thus depends
upon polarization, upon evocation and maintenance of an independent
life. The fruit is vivified by impregnation, ay, for the first time
then obtains life; the female becomes self-active through the vital
spirit received from the male; the body is kept alive by, and only
by, ingestion. The act of ingestion is the act that tends unto the
self-substantial, independent life.

1766. The blossom dies, so soon as, by ingestion, it has attained this
independent life. If we assume that it could not die, but retain the
life that was momentarily won for several instants; then this would
happen only by repetition of the first act, whereby it had obtained
in an instant a self-substantial life; and thus by repetition of the
ingestion. By ceaseless ingestion only can the blossom gain a lasting,
self-substantial life of motion.

1767. But such a blossom, when self-dependently subsisting, could not
continue in further union with the vegetable stock or trunk, for this
is no longer requisite for its life's support; through the first act of
vivification, through the once sprinkled pollen, it virtually becomes
detached and falls as fruit to the ground; as a fruit certainly, or
as a female body, unto which is wanting the _continued_ excitation
produced by the male coition. A fruit thus detached or fallen off, and
retaining the male filaments, which ceaselessly exercise the function
of ingestion, will be of necessity engaged in constant motion; will be
a blossom, that incessantly practises copulation.

1768. As in this blossom the motion of ingestion is that alone
which sustains it, and nothing more can flow to it from a stem;
so also will this blossom be occupied in constant motion; and it
consequently comes to pass that the action, which broke forth at the
last and instantaneously in the plant, being thus the highest or most
individualized, is here the first, inferior, and most general action,
or one that lies at the foundation of all other processes. The free
blossom is naught but movement of ingestion.

1769. The blossom, however, concentrates in itself all the lower
vegetable processes, is itself naught but the aggregate of such
processes repeated in the body of the light; thus the blossom, having
been set free, is a vesicle of ingestion endowed with all terrestrial


1770. The vegetable blossom loses its definition as plant, so soon
as it has acquired self-substantial life; it loses its definition,
because as blossom, it simply lives in light, while the plant must half
dwell in darkness; it loses it, because the copulating motion can be
frequently self-repeated.

1771. The self-moveable or automatic blossom has consequently passed
over into a new kingdom, or into one whose very definition is the
self-substantial motion.

1772. A blossom, which, when separated from the stem, maintains by its
own motion the galvanic process or the life within itself, and gets its
process of polarization, not from a body lying external to or coherent
with it (as is the vegetable stem); but only from itself--such blossom
is an _Animal_. An animal is blossom without stem or a flower, which of
itself produces its stem, this being the reverse of what takes place
in the plant. The essence of the animal consists in the maintenance
through its own motion of the galvanic vital process. It has been
already shown above, in speaking "quoad" the distinction of the organic
essences, that the exclusive or only valid difference between plant
and animal, was motion arising in the latter apart from any external
stimulus. We have now been brought by quite another route to the same

1773. If the animal is the floral vesicle living from or by itself,
it can no longer lie fettered like the plant between two elements; it
must be nominally free from the chains of darkness, and thus from the
earth. No animal is so joined by growth with the earth, that like as in
a plant this should be a co-operating pole in its processes. No animal
must co-exist in two elements like the plant, but it has all elements
in itself, like the blossom includes all vegetable parts. It may be
said that the plant has been immersed in the earth, water, and air;
these three elements having, on the contrary, been immersed in the
animal. The animal is in respect to them the continent, the planet;
they, however, are the continent in respect to the plant. Thus the
relations to the world are completely reversed in both.

1774. An animal is a floral vesicle freely separated from the earth,
and living alone through its own motion in the water and air. And
here it is not locomotion that is treated of, since this by no means
belongs to the animal's essence. Yet on this account the poor oyster
was formerly adduced as an argument against this animal character, but
unjustly; for would a man frozen up in an ice-block lose his character
as an animal? The oyster opens its shell and shuts it too, as well as
the crocodile opens and shuts its jaws.


We will now proceed to knit or associate with this genetic or
physiological, the physio-philosophical mode of development.

1775. Every Organic originates from a mucus-point. If this mucus-point
occur in the darkness, it thus becomes a terrestrial organism, a plant;
if it enter into the light, which is only possible in the water and
in air, it thus becomes a solar organism, independent of the planet,
self-moving around itself like the sun, an animal.

1776. An animal is a light-mucus-vesicle, a plant, so far as the root
is concerned, a darkness-mucus-vesicle; but it works its way unto air
and light, and becomes a light-mucus-vesicle in the blossom.

1777. A free blossom is consequently to be philosophically regarded as
equivalent to the primary mucus-vesicle, which has at once developed
itself in the water. Now, such an aqueo-mucus-vesicle is directly that
which the blossom can first become through a series of developments,
and by divestures of the Dark.

1778. The plant is an animal retarded by the darkness; the animal is a
plant blooming directly through the light, and devoid of root.

1779. The animal has been posited as a light-or æther-Total upon the
planet; the vegetable as a planetary Total in light.

1780. The animal is a whole solar system, the plant only a planet. The
animal is therefore a whole universe, the plant only its half; the
former is microcosm, the latter microplanet.


1781. No animal can become developed beneath the earth, or where it is
absolutely dark and dry. None simply or solely in air. Water is the
origin or source of all animals.

1782. They have originated upon the sea-shore, but not in the midst of
the sea, nor in that of the land. The deluge cast up the first men.
They were littoral inhabitants, and without doubt carnivorous, as
savages still are. For whence could they have obtained also fruits,
cabbage, and turnips?


1783. In so far as the animal vesicle is a whole solar system, to it,
the characters that transcend the plant, such as motion, belong.

1784. But motion is not that alone which is displayed in the floral
cyst when it has become solar; but with it there is yet something
higher bestowed.

1785. Like light or sun the vesicle has the principle of its
polarization or determination in itself; and it is certainly itself
which moves its organs in conformity with this self-determination;
but it is withal in antagonism towards the elements, like the sun is
towards the planets. Through this antagonism the sun is destined unto
the development of light. Although the light is its own product, still
it perceives the object toward which the æther-polarity is directed.
This perception of the direction, whither motion should act by means
of the central polarity, is in the animal called _Sensation_.

1786. Sensation is the relation of the Central to the Peripheric, of
the sun to the planet; motion is the relation of the periphery to
the centre, of the planet to the sun. The Animal emerges into being
from the alternating play of the supremest antagonism in the heavenly
bodies, the Vegetable from that of the terrestrial antagonisms.

1787. Emission of light is discharging or unloading of the sun achieved
by the influence of the planets; sensation is unloading of the animal
by objects, by the world, and by its own organs.

1788. Sensation is therefore a positing of _want_ in the animal.
Through sensation nothing comes into, but rather something passes out
of us.

1789. The animal vesicle is a sentient or feeling blossom.


1790. As the essence of the blossom consists in the sex, so indeed is
the blossom none other than the sexual system; thus it may be said that
the animal vesicle is none other than a _sentient Sexual cyst_. This
discovery is of the highest importance for the whole of zoosophy.

1791. Two fundamental properties are originally combined in the
animal, at the very instant when an animal can exist. There is never
one without the other, never simply sensation, but also motion; but
the latter is not simply this, but is at once also a _movement of
copulation_. The animal is a sentient genital.

1792. Both fundamental properties are however subordinated to each
other. The basis of the animal organism is the sexual system; with this
the animal commences; what is further developed in addition thereunto,
is only higher completion. But what it, as sexual system, does, it does
only through sensation.

1793. It is natural that the animal has not been concluded with the
sentient sexual system; but that the terrestrial processes also are
developed like as in the plant, and perfected indeed more individually
than in the latter. The main distinction is, however, this; that these
processes have preceded in the plant, and the sexual system grown out
of them; in the animal, on the other hand, the sexual system is the
foundation, the root, out of which these processes grow forth. The
first and simplest animal vesicle is a sexual cyst, a _matrix_ or


1794. The animal is a twofold representation of the organization,
being at one time the planetary, and at one time the solar. There is
a planetary animal and a solar animal in the higher organism. The
planetary animal is the plant in the animal, the galvanic animal; the
solar animal is the sentient, the light-or æther-animal.

1795. The highest completion of the vegetable animal is in the
blossom. There is thus a sexual or _Sex's animal_ and a sensitive or
_Sensation's animal_.

1796. The completed animal consists of two animals, because it is at
once planet and sun, plant and animal.

1797. The vegetable and the sensitive animal have been formed parallel
to each other, yet in such a manner that the former being the lowest,
contains only the dispositions unto the highest. There are consequently
vegetative and animal organs, which take a parallel range. The animal
grows upon a vegetable body. It may be aptly said, that the root of the
plant becomes the mouth or head of the animal, the stem the trunk or
visceral body, the blossom the sexual parts. The three parts therefore
of the animal body, and the antagonism therefore of the head with the
sexual parts, unite through the medium of the vegetable stem, or the
visceral body.


1798. The parts of the animal body divide, as in the plant, into
tissues, anatomical systems, and into organs proper or members. The
tissues are the constituent parts of the systems, these of the organs,
and all collectively, or associated, of the body.

I. _Animal Tissues._

1799. These are the mathematical primary forms, whereof the animal body
consists, and divide into the animal and vegetative fundamental forms.


1800. As animality is the representation of the three conditions of
æther, and thus of the gravity, with light and heat or motion, so are
three tissues to be met with, which correspond to these three forms.
The light emerges from the centre; the gravity occupies the whole
mass; the motion oscillates between the two. The organic light-mass
will therefore, as sun, occupy the centre, the gravity-mass, like the
planets, the periphery, the motion-mass, like the heat, the radii
between the two. The primary form is, however, the primary vesicle.
If, therefore, new tissues appear in the animal, they can thus be only
metamorphoses of the vesicle. The vesicle, can only resolve itself into
three forms; either its contents become self-substantial--_Point_;
or in like manner the envelope--_Line_; or, finally, both become an
uniform mass--_Globe_.

1. _Point-tissue._

1801. We take up or commence the study of the animal substance, with
the condition under which it has originated, that of a vesicle or
sensitive blossom. The vegetable texture attained a form which was
prescribed by the light. Now, as the animal vesicle is, in the first
place, nothing else but a Sentient, so must the texture of the original
animal vesicle be commensurate with this property.

1802. The highest perfection of the blossom was, however, resolution
of the texture into the original form of vesicles or granules, a
retroconduction of the organic mass to the primary condition, yet under
the signification of light. The Highest of the blossom was an organized
and designedly-prepared granular texture--pollen.

1803. Now a substance which absolves itself from the terrestrial
forms, and would assume the form of the æther, and thus of that which
is most discrete, can represent no other form than that of the point.
The whole æther is an infinity of non-coherent atoms. This atomic
formation, when metatyped or copied in a terrestrial mass, can be none
other than a granular substance.

1804. The fundamental substance of the animal is point-substance; but,
since the essence of the animal consists in its being a sensitive
substance, so must it belong to the latter's essence, that it be atomic
or punctiform. The point-texture is equivalent to the sensitive mass.

1805. It might be believed, that as the animal is a floral vesicle,
the cystic or cell-form must also lie at its foundation; only, there
is another relation beyond that which occurs in the plant. This animal
cyst is an already organized cyst, an _organ_, no longer a component
part of an anatomical system; this cystic form cannot, therefore, enter
into the texture of the animal mass; yet meanwhile, as is natural,
the sensitive mass admits of being reduced, but only as organic in
a general sense, to the vesicular form. The lowest animals, such as
the Infusoria, Polyps, Acalephæ, or sea-nettles, in short, all Protozoa
or mucous animals consist of this point-substance, and are wholly
sensitive mass.

_Nervous Mass._

1806. The sensitive mass is called in higher animals, _Nervous
mass_. The nervous texture is a conjoined series of mucus-granules,
which have become albuminous in character. The nervous mass is the
least organized; it has selected the primary forms, which have been
preconstructed in æther, or the densely fluid solar matter. The
Dominant of the terrestrial organs can have also no other form, than
such as agrees with the Dominant or governing primary mass of the
planetary system; or it can have none other, because at the instant
when it exists, it is sentient. At the first instant of the origin of
organic matter, it can, however, originate only as infinitely numerous
points; at the termination of the plant, this mass would be displayed
as a light-organ; being thus engendered as such, it must forsake the
vegetable forms, and assume the universal form-susceptive primary form,
which is the form of the point. The floral mass, the delicate petals
of the corolla, the stamina and the pollen are to be deemed the first
onset or advance that is made to nervous mass. The cellular tissue
becomes delicate and gradually resolves itself into granules.

1807. Granular or point-mass is, however, an accumulation of centres.
The nervous mass is therefore, in accordance with the conception of the
Organic, a repeated, multiplied centre. The nervous mass has therefore
a light-function, i. e. the gentlest polarization in the organism.
Nervous mass is light-mass.

1808. The animal substance has commenced with the nervous mass; thus
with that which is the highest, and which physiologists have deemed to
be the ultimate mass. The origin of the animal is from the nerves, and
all anatomical systems are only free evolutions or separations from the
nervous mass. The animal is naught but nerve. What it is further or in
addition, is obtained elsewhere, or is a metamorphosis of nerves. The
mucus of the Infusoria, Polyps, and Acalephæ is nervous substance upon
the lowest stage or degree, where the other substances that are therein
involved and merged, have not as yet been perfected in an isolated

1809. The nervous mass indicates the absolute Indifferent in an animal,
and consequently that which is polarizable by the gentlest aura or

_Division of the Nervous Mass._

1810. The nervous mass behaves itself also in its production like the
solar mass. As from this the planets have through antagonism on the
periphery, emancipated themselves, so from the nervous mass have the
anatomical systems, which are subservient unto lower purposes.

1811. The development of the animal organs is a constant division
of the nervous mass, whereby it becomes more and more divested of
their coarse coverings, and traverses the same like radiating æther,
illuminant, heating, and moving æther. It is a positing of the centre
in the periphery.

1812. When also the other systems have been formed out of the identical
nervous mass, still the whole animal body is naught but nervous mass,
only, in a crude or inert condition. There is, consequently, no point
upon the body, on which the nervous phenomena are absolutely wanting,
or where they may not appear under certain relations.

1813. What remains behind of the nervous mass, has now the form of
filaments or rays, which are projected from one centre, the brain, to
all parts of the periphery.

1814. The nerves being individualized, and withdrawn from the coarser
mass, stand in need of no _actio in distans_, or no nervous atmosphere
(although for other reasons such a one may exist), in order that every
part of the body should have sensibility or feel; for every substance
is verily but an aberrant nervous substance, in which the original
spirit is still inherent or abides.

1815. Each part of the body has consequently irritability, and each
one has the capacity for sensation; and that, indeed, through and in
itself, or not borrowed from, what have been called, nerves; as it is
indeed only the coarse nervous envelope of the more delicate nerves.

1816. Yet, meanwhile it is certain, that nothing feels but the nervous
mass, because every thing, which feels, does, and hath the power to
do so, only in so far as it has been _nervous mass_. Precisely as all
metals are only magnetic in so far as they are metamorphosed iron,
which is the primary metal.

1817. Certain formations or textures must, on that account, have
different sensations, because they have deviated more or less remotely
from the primary texture; _without_ in this any regard being paid to
the number of nerves running to such systems.

1818. The transformation of the nervous mass upon the periphery is
chiefly imparted by oxydation, because here the oxygen of the water
exerts a direct influence. The transformation does not, however, simply
occur upon the periphery, but also internally, and that indeed in a
beamy or radial direction. The external parts will be harder, the
internal or radial continue soft, but be more solid than the nervous
mass itself.

2. _Globe-tissue._

1819. The nervous tissue alone cannot constitute the animal substance
concerned in all functions, but it must with further development pass
over into another. As the æther-mass cannot concentrate itself into
the sun without, from the antagonism with the refraction of light,
condensing into planets, so also a central mass cannot subsist in an
animal, without converting itself on the periphery into one that is
planetary or terrestrial.

1820. The antagonistic mass, originating in a peripheral relation
in the nervous mass, will surround the residue of the latter like a
cyst or cyst, just like the planetary masses, or the colours, have
primordially surrounded the sun as great hollow globes. The aggregate
and purer nervous mass becomes thus directly the central mass of the
animal--the _brain_.

1821. The limitary mass originates through oxygenation. Thus the
colours originate; they are an oxygenated light. Thus has every
terrestrial mass originated through combustion. The planets are suns
that have undergone combustion; the limitary mass is nervous mass
similarly treated and deoxydized.

1822. As having been already subjected to combustion, it therefore
becomes polarizable, and consequently susceptible of sensation in
the least degree. The limitary mass must be rigid or fixed; for it
has indeed originated through fixation of the poles, or through the
strongest oxydation. The limitary mass is the most rigid in the whole
animal; for it is the primary antagonism with the nervous mass, the
ultimate planetary matter, which is characterized by immoveability of
the atoms.

1823. The limitary mass must be typical of the earth-element, this
being the most rigid, and the end of the oxydation. The limitary mass
is the animal earth-mass, just as the median mass is the animal æther-
or fire-mass.

1824. The texture of the animal earth-mass must be that of a crystal,
but of a round globular crystal; for it is organic mass, and can
consequently have been only deposited as vesicle; it is, however,
earthy mass, so that the whole vesicle must be, with all its contents,
rigidified. Now, the rigidified substance of a vesicle is a globe--the
texture of the mass which is opposed to that of the nerves is
consequently the globular form.

_Osseous Mass._

1825. The rigidified limitary mass, which exhibits histologically
dense globes, consists of earthy substance, and surrounds the nervous
mass, is _osseous mass_. The osseous or bony texture is a solid globe
or rigidified vesicle, being thus ambitus or boundary, as well as
complexus or contents.

1826. Bone can only originate through oxydation of the animal mucous
or nervous mass, whereby it is converted into a vesicular form. These
vesicles are, however, by virtue of the highest oxydation, which must
necessarily enter into antagonism with the highest central organ,
converted wholly and thoroughly into rigid substance or earth, which is
the maximum of the oxydation or fixation of æther.

1827. The osseous mass, as the organic earth-mass, corresponds to
the gravity. It is the materiality in a general point of view in the
Organic, and consequently the Inert.

1828. Osseous or limitary organs will become more rigid in the air than
in water. The air-breathing animals must have more perfect bones or
harder limitary organs.

1829. Bones are therefore either wanting completely in the aquatic
animals, or they are mucus scarcely oxydized, in other words,
cartilage; or finally, almost entirely rough carbonated earth, in the
corals and shells.

1830. This theory is most beautifully proved in the corals. Internally
they consist of granular substance, like the polyps, or of sentient
nervous mass; externally they are simply earth or globular form, which
is the rudest antagonism presented to the likewise rude central mass.

1831. Bone essentially surrounds the nervous mass. The skull environs
and incloses the brain, the vertebræ the spinal cord, the ribs, the
visceral nerves the snail's shell all the soft parts of that animal,
the coral stem its polyp-tube, the horny coat the insect.

1832. The purest and highest antagonisms in an animal are nerve and
bone, and as such they are demonstrated on every occasion. The nerve
is that which is soft, powerless, changeable, sentient, governing,
and motion-imparting; the bone, what is hard, strong, unchangeable,
non-sentient, governed, and becoming moved; the one properly speaking
the spiritually vitalizing, the other the spiritually dead, or
self-subsistent simply in a mineral point of view. The bone is the
obedient planet of the nerve.

1833. Point-and globe-form are consequently, as regards the tissue of
the substance, the first two forms of the animal body.

1834. What develops itself apart from nerve and bone in the animal,
must either range between or below both; it must participate of both
forms, or be only their incompletion.

3. _Fibrous Tissue._

1835. The nervous and osseous substance could not range opposite to
each other, without a transition or a something interposing; as little
as could æther and Terrestrial, or sun and planet, between which the
moved æther or the heat oscillates, and conditionates the planetary

1836. Between the soft point-form of the nerve and the hard globe-form
of the bone, a semi-oxydation stands midway, just as the air stands
between the æther and the earth. As this is the medium element, wherein
the light is refracted into colours, and thereby warms and moves the
planet, so must this median animal formation be the element, through
which the nerve imparts its motion to the bones.

1837. This organ stands, like the air, upon the middle rate of
oxydation; the oxygen becomes alternately united with it and set free;
which is neither possible in the point-form, as being that which
incessantly liberates oxygen, nor in the globe-form, as being that
which always holds or retains the oxygen in union with it.

1838. This tissue must consist of firm or solid nervous granules, which
have been serially co-arranged in lines or radii. Such organic lines
are called _Fibres_.

1839. The fibrous is the third original tissue, which appears in the
animal organization.

1840. The nerve acts upon the fibres as upon the bone, or as a Central
upon a Peripheric, as the light upon the air.

1841. Thereby the soft fibre is polarized; the poles are mutually
attracted and repelled, and motion of the fibres originates, their
extremities approximating or withdrawing by virtue of the polarity.
Contractile fibres are called _sarcose or fleshy fibres_.


1842. The flesh is the median formation between nerve and bone. It is
half nervous mass, therefore sentient, half bone, therefore moving.

1843. The essence of the motion resides in the muscle, not in the
nerve. Such is the cause of motion, the muscle being the self-moving,
the bone that which is moved.

1844. The flesh must surround the bone, as the air or water surrounds
the earth.

1845. The flesh is a terrestrial substance, just as the bone is; the
nerve is a cosmical substance, and on that account the mediator of


4. _Cellular Tissue._

1846. There are three, and only three constituent forms essential to
the animal substance, the point, the globe, and the line; equivalent to
centre, periphery, and radius.

1847. Out of these three all other forms, of whatever kind, are
developed, through degradation unto vegetable structure. This form can
be none other than the _Cell-form_. In the animal there are therefore
four fundamental forms, while in the vegetable only one occurs.

1848. The cellular form may be also called the water in the animal, the
globe-form the earth, the fibrous the air, the point-form the fire.
Thus is the animal even in its tissues a whole universe, for it cannot
otherwise be thought of.

1849. The cellular substance is the last division of the
point-substance, because the nervous granule becomes hollow. A true
cellular tissue first makes its appearance therefore in the higher

1850. Bone, flesh and nerve are the highest organs of the animal; the
viscera, which mostly consist of cellular tissue, will indicate the
Vegetative in the animal. Proper animal organs can only present the
above-mentioned triplicity. What is not bone, flesh or nerve, is not
animal, but vegetable.

1851. Nerve, flesh and bone are mutually excited, and are independent
of the cellular tissue. They are moreover the animal in the animal, the
thoroughly Free and Voluntary.

1852. These three substances have therefore nothing to do with the
three terrestrial processes; they do not digest, respire, nourish nor
transport about the galvanic sap, but live for themselves or to their
own satisfaction.

1853. The origination of the three inferior substances out of the
nervous mass, is perfectly similar to the original creative process
of the three terrestrial elements from the æther. The animal organism
is a second world-creation, for in the organic æther an organic air,
earth and water, have been produced, or it has itself become these
through fixation of the poles. This capacity for resemblance between
the organic and inorganic elements is marvellous; but yet there would
be more to wonder at, ay, it would be thoroughly incomprehensible, if
the organic elements had been created according to some other type.

1854. When once the nervous mass has become separated from the three
other masses, each then commences to be self-substantially perfected,
and become a particular organ, though it is still under the supremacy
of the primary mass.

1855. The principal mass which constitutes the animal body, after
complete separation of the chaotic nervous mass, is without doubt the
fundamental mass of everything organic; being the mucus or cellular
mass, in which the other elements have only been included like veins of
ore. It is the cellular mass therefore which we will first consider in
its process of formative evolution.

1856. As cellular mass it must be the seat of the galvanic process, and
thus of the life proper. In the cellular mass consequently the three
vegetative processes, or the three terrestrial elementary processes,
must be firmly established; as there digestion, respiration and
nutrition are.

1857. With these three processes, the three superior elementary forms,
which are peculiar to the animal, as nerves, bones, and muscles, will
have nothing to do, excepting in so far as they govern them. As in the
plant, so also in an animal, the terrestrial processes are only the
appurtenance of the cellular tissue.

1858. In cellular tissue is therefore the seat of life. But the
vegetative mass simply lives that it may live, while the animal lives,
in order to combine the universe with the life. The animal elements
live only in order to feel and move, in order to act freely like the
world; the vegetative only, that they may subsist as planet. The latter
are an image of the planet, the former of the world; the one deal with
matter, the other with spirit.


1859. The cellular tissue does not continue a mere parenchyma in the
animal as in the plant, but it obtains a definite anatomical form.

1860. The animal cellular tissue has issued forth from its highest
formation in the plant, or out of the blossom, which is a great bladder
or cyst composed of primary vesicles. It is the secondary cystic
form, wherein the animal cellular tissue appears, when it becomes an
anatomical system.

1861. The animal cellular tissue forms therefore everywhere _large
bladders_ or _cysts_, whose walls consist of primary vesicles, or of
the vegetable cellular tissue. Cyst-walls are teguments.

1862. The cellular system in the animal is _Tegumentary system_.

1863. The idea of the integument is the wall of a cyst. There is
no tegument apart from the meaning of circumscription, inclusion, and
limitation. There is no flat integument, or one that could be designed
after the idea of the plane. Every tegument is periphery, just as there
is nowhere a surface in the universe, which could have been produced
according to the level or plane.

1864. All terrestrial processes, as digestion, respiration, and
nutrition, are consequently tegumentary processes. All these organs
must be tegumentary organs. Intestine, vessel, lung, in a word all
viscera are naught but tegument.

1865. The vegetable tissue becomes in the animal, tegumentary
tissue. The tegumentary formation is the vegetable in an animal--the
parenchyma, the _Visceral_.

1866. The lowest distinction between animal and plant resides
accordingly in this, that the vegetable tissue consists of actual
vesicles, which form everywhere closely compressed masses; the animal
cellular tissue on the contrary of granules, which inclose a hollow
space. The animal body is a hollow globe of vesicles, the vegetable
body one full of vesicles. (Ed. 1st, 1810, § 1870.)

1867. Every animal cyst is necessarily composed of the element of
the vesicles, and is then for the first time an organ. The vegetable
bladders are, however, single vesicles, and as such are already an
organ. In the plant therefore the cellular tissue is upon the lowest
stage, being only an aggregate devoid of secondary form; in the animal
along with its aggregation a secondary form has been imparted. In this
the higher character of the animal is at once demonstrated.

1868. The above is certainly a distinction between the two organisms,
but it is not the _essential_ one; for with it, what is animal has
been by no means expressed; this being first imparted in the three
cosmic elemental forms, which manifest themselves through sensation and
motion, and then admit of being recognized as an animal. The corolla is
also a cyst, but without being an animal; because, to this animal-like
tegumentary formation, the proper animal elements are still wanting.

1869. Now as the tegument is none other than the form, under which
the cellular tissue exists in the animal, we must regard it as an
elemental form, which has stepped into the place of the cellular. The
tegumentary form constitutes the fourth form, and is none other than
the primo-vesicular form elevated to a higher rank, by being composed
of cell-granules, which have been formerly nerve-granules.

1870. The animal body must consist of nerve, muscle, bone, and
tegument, and of no other fundamental form; in other words, of point,
line, globe, and cyst.

II. _Anatomical Systems._

1871. All anatomical systems are developments and separations of the
four tissues, which are prolonged as sheaths through the whole body,
like as in the plant are the bark, liber and wood.

1872. They are divisible next of all into two great parties, into the
terrestrial and cosmical, or vegetative and animal.


1873. The vegetable systems can only be different developments of the
tegument. They accord with the galvanic factors. Any further derivation
of them is unnecessary. The tegumental development must be represented
as the systems of digestion, respiration, and nutrition, since from it
these have been sufficiently borrowed or derived.

1874. Except these three systems there can be no other tegumental
system; and, if such appear to be present, they must be subordinate
to these. For there cannot be subsequently any more than there was
fundamentally or at bottom.

1875. In the animal, however, the galvanic processes do not remain
entangled in _one_ mass, as in the plant. But they are even
characterized as animal by their individual liberation from the whole
mass. In the plant digestion or absorption, and nutrition or the course
of the sap, were in one kind of mass or one kind of cellular tissue,
all three processes (together with respiration) being in a tolerably
confused condition.

1876. The animal appears in its dignity by separation of these
processes, and by the perfection of each individually, or "per se."

1877. As all life consists only in the constant conversion of what
is inorganic into the Organic, so is the process of digestion or
absorption necessarily the first in animals.


1878. The chemical process of the galvanism is conversion of the
Inorganic into mucus, and thus an assumption of this matter into the
organic body. Now as every limit of the body is tegument or cellular
tissue, so can this assumption take place everywhere. Adoption of what
is external into an organic body is _absorption_.

1879. Absorption originates from the antagonism of the body with the
earth, which is organizable, and thus with the mucus.

1880. We call this slime or mucus, nutritive matter. Wherever such
matter can operate upon the body, a corresponding organ of absorption,
and thus a cell or integument, will be formed.

1881. The whole body is surrounded by integument; it was originally
nothing but integument.

1882. The essence of the integument consists in absorption, or in the
intervention of the chemical process.

1883. The integument is the root of the animal.

1884. The animal cellular mass is, however, in conformity with its
origin, a bladder or cyst that has been opened by light and air. The
integument is a large cyst not closed all round, but open at _one_
end. It is the open floral cyst, which has just become an animal.
The original integument is thus _Intestine_. The intestine is the

1885. The integument presents therefore to the external world, or
to the nutritive matter, two parietes or walls, an external and an

1886. Both walls are opposed to each other like light and darkness,
like air and water. The external is the light-and air-wall, the
internal the darkness-and water-wall.

1887. It is consequently only the internal wall that stands in the same
relation as the root. The internal is "par excellence" root, and is
thus a main organ of absorption.

1888. The external wall comes under the idea of the stem-bark, and
in so far only as this has a root-nature in itself, is it likewise

1889. As upon the external animal wall the light and air constantly
operate--for without light indeed no animal originates--so is this
wall more and more removed from the idea of the root, and becomes,
by virtue of the influence of light and air, instead of an absorbent
organ, an organ rather of decomposition--an _evaporation's organ_.

1890. As a cyst the internal wall incloses the nutritive matter,
which originates from the mucus, and thus from the organic water. The
internal wall is therefore constantly immersed in the water, and is
consequently in every respect a root.

1891. As the animal is only developed in light, so must the function
of the root languish in the external wall, and decay, because it is
devoid of the earth, which protects it from or against the light. This
deficiency is compensated for in another way, or by the formation of a
cavity, into which the media of nutrition enter, and which is dark like
the earth.

1892. Internal and external wall stand also opposite to each other,
like water and air. The one is the water-, the other the air-wall.

1893. The nutritive matters are not decomposed upon the internal wall
by extraneous influences, but they remain identical; ay, they become
indifferent, because they enter into darker and warmer water.

1894. On the other hand such nutritive matters are decomposed upon the
external wall; and there here therefore gradually originates, instead
of the chemicalizing root-process, the polarizing process of air.

1895. In a perfect light-animal it is only the internal wall that is
chemicalizing; the external has become oxydizing. The internal is a
mucus-wall, but the external, on account of the decomposition of mucus,
an oxygen-wall.


1896. The more an animal has been exposed to the air and light, by so
much the greater is the antagonism between its internal and external
wall. In aquatic animals the antagonism is at its minimum, because
externally and internally there is water; both parietes are therefore
mucus-walls. The external wall of the fishes secretes an abundance of
mucus, as does that also of the worms, snails, and molluscs.

1897. But an internal wall is still the more mucous of the two, because
it is darker and warmer.

1898. At first the animal is content with the antagonism of the walls;
especially so long as it remains occluded in dark and deep water,
or within other animals. Many intestinal worms, polyps, and even
Acalephous animals, are but simple sacs.

1899. When the animal organization, however, ranks upon a higher stage,
light, or even air, operates more upon its external wall, but upon its
internal, water; thus the antagonism of the two walls is carried out to
the utmost degree.

1900. Through the different, ay, opposed processes, the two walls
finally adopt another structure. The external becomes denser and
harder, on account of the decomposition by light and dessication
by air; the internal, however, retains its original structure and
consistence. Soft, aqueous, indifferent, and constantly absorbent, it
is only a viscous mucus.

1901. In place of an integument of similar tissue throughout, one will
originate, whose external tissue is dense and oxydized, but whose
internal is loose or spongy, and indifferent. The previously uniform
integument will now separate or fall into two distinct layers; into a
soft muco-cellular layer, and into a tough coriaceo-cellular layer.

1902. With the last attainable antagonism the layers finally separate;
two bladders or cysts, disunited from each other, originate; of these
the internal is the _mucous_, the external the _coriaceous cyst_.

1903. Now the internal cyst alone is the _intestine_, the external the
_cutis_ or _skin_.

1904. Intestine and cutis belong to _one_ formation, or to the
integument. They pass directly into each other at the mouth and anus.
Their structure also is wholly similar.

1905. They are merely distinguished by darkness and light, but more
closely by water and air. The intestine is the _water-tegument_, the
skin the _air-tegument_.

1906. The functions of both are therefore co-related like dissolution
is to combustion, along with which the evaporation has been bestowed.

1907. Intestine and skin stand in antagonism with each other.

1908. The first animal, as being sentient integument, is a sac; the
first skin is also a sac; an animal around the animal.


a. _Branchiæ or Gills._

1909. The external wall, being constantly exposed to the air that is in
the water, can adopt no other than the aerial character, and is thus
like the leaf of the plant. The skin is the organ of evaporation, and
with this of oxydation also.

1910. A self-oxydizing integument is called a _Branchia_ or gill.

1911. The skin is essentially nothing else than a gill; and, if it
subsequently appears as anything else, this happens only through a
higher state of perfection being attained by its branchial function.

1912. The lowest animals, such as most of the worms, molluscs, and
snails, breathe through the external integument; even the gills of
fishes are none other than a piece of skin.

1913. Thus gills and intestine would be the first two organs, which are
developed out of the tegumentary system by the antagonism of air and
water. Through the gills, air, and through the intestine, water enters
the body. The gill is the atmosphere of the animal, the intestine is
its sea.

b. _Tracheæ, or Air-tubes._

1914. As the intestine, and in general every water-tegument is
prolonged into mucous tubes or absorbent vessels; so also, with a more
vigorous formation, the branchial membrane is drawn out into tubes, in
order to conduct the air or oxygen towards the intestinal vessels, just
as the intestine conveys through its absorbent ducts the water to the
vessels of the skin.

1915. This saccular inversion of the skin constitutes the tegumentary
lymphatic vessels, whose original function has been to transport
the oxygen, combined with the water, to the intestine. They are the
original respiratory vessels, which in the higher animals become,
through the pure influence of air, true _Air-tubes_, like the spiral

1916. The air-vessels traverse the thickness of the body toward the
intestinal membrane, like the mucous vessels do toward the branchial

1917. Thus an infinite number of air-vessels will and must originate.

1918. The air-tubes are consequently the formation which is properly
opposed to the lymphatic vessels. They are for the air or for the skin,
what these are for the water or the intestine. Air-vessels are first
displayed in insects, then in fishes, reptiles, birds, and Thricozoa or

1919. If the infinitely numerous air-vessels concur to form one stem,
they are then called _lungs_, as in the higher animals.

1920. The pulmonary vesicles are nothing but ramified air-tubes, such
as the insect has.

1921. The formation of air-tubes is one of a higher character than that
of the gills. For in it, indeed, the function has been separated from
all other functions. It is simply destined to convey the air without

1922. As they pass into the dark, light does not operate upon them;
and they will therefore less promote evaporation than mediate unto

1923. The anatomical idea of the air-vessels, or of the lung, is
a saccular inversion of the skin. The skin is prolonged into, and
ramifies towards, the body. The intestine is prolonged through the
absorbent vessels, as being also small inversions, toward the lung,
and becomes a stem--thoracic duct. Then the thoracic duct finally
unites with the lungs through the medium of the heart, which is a new

1924. Everything becomes stem which attains a higher grade, and which
approximates the air and light. The stem strives to be a centre, but
the ramification devolves upon the periphery; the former upon the Solar
or Animal; the latter upon the Planetary or Vegetative.

1925. The nobler therefore a formation, by so much the more single and
stemmy is it: such is the case with the trachea of the lungs, such with
the lymphatic duct.


1926. The earth or the nutritive mass acts also upon its formation,
and destines the tegument to a peculiar structure. The result of the
electric and chemical process, or of the oxydation of the mucus, is
precipitation, mass-and earth-formation; it is thus a process of
nutrition, since through it the Solid of the body, with even the
branchial and intestinal membranes, originates.

1927. The earth-system can only be developed where the two last systems
coincide, or where the intestinal and branchial processes enter into
mutual contact; in short, where the mucus is oxydized, and thereby
separated into what is aerial and rigid.

1928. This spot is only in the middle between the two. The process
of precipitation and the formation of elemental matter occurs,
consequently, between the two layers of integument, or at present
between the two teguments that have become self-substantial, or between
intestine and skin.

1929. A new formation must be evolved, whereby the two shall be held
together; a formation, whereby the antagonism shall be conducted from
one to the other; and thus whereby the mucus shall be conveyed to the
skin, but the air to the intestine.

1930. Were intestine and skin entirely separated from each other, each
would perish; the former would no longer be oxydized, the latter no
longer nourished.

1931. With their separation they must continue to be attached to each
other at certain points, and thus undergo eversion at certain points.
Thereby tubes originate in the intestine, which pursue their course
toward the skin; in this again tubes, which pass to the intestine.

1932. A tube, which receives mucus from the intestine, air from the
skin, and includes both within itself, is a long cyst. A cyst,
which conducts mucus to the skin and air to the intestine, is a
_Vessel_, a _vein_.

a. _Unclosed Vascular System._

1933. The vessel has, in virtue of its essence, two extremities,
an air-extremity, which is polar, and a water-extremity, which is
indifferent. Every vessel has been rooted in two systems, in the
intestine and skin, and is subservient to both.

1934. The vessel is no longer a something single, like the
last-mentioned or preceding cysts, but double. Every vessel hath two

1935. The organization necessarily produces two kinds of vessels.
A vessel, which conducts the mucus to the skin, cannot also convey
the air to the intestine. There is consequently a mucus-vessel and
an air-vessel, or a water-and an air-vessel, an indifferent and a

1936. The mucus-vessel is called _absorbent_, the air-vessel
_respiratory duct_ or trachea.

1937. Air-and absorbent vessel stand in antagonism like skin and
intestine, like water and air. The air-vessel is the skin or the
branchia, which passes to the intestine, the absorbent vessel is the
intestine, which passes to the air; the one the intestinal branchia,
the other the branchial intestine.

1938. So long as intestine and skin were one in kind, this vascular
process was in every situation. With their separation therefore the
vascular structure has of necessity originated between two opposed
situations. There is no point in the skin and none in the intestine,
where there might not be an air-and a water-vessel, a respiratory and
absorbent duct.

1939. There are therefore _numerous_ vessels, and consequently a
_Vascular system_.

1940. Air-and water-vessel must abut against each other; because they
are polar, because the one leads to this place and the other to that.

1941. The system of water-and air-ducts can form no closed vascular
system; for they only grow towards each other, as did formerly
intestine and skin.

1942. They would not have originated if both cysts had not separated
from each other. These vessels are not therefore to be met with in
animals that have no intestine. The transition of the water-into the
air-ducts takes place in the higher animals through the union of
the thoracic duct with the subclavian vein, which conveys the blood
directly to the lungs.

1943. The vascular system is properly the primo-cellular tissue, which
occupies the middle, and at whose extremities the two cysts remain
approximated, in order that they may continue to live.

1944. The vascular is the original system, since its two extremities
already carry in themselves the air-and mucus-process, so that branchia
and intestine are only to be viewed as peculiarly perfected conditions
of these extremities. I would even have developed the vascular system
first of all, had not another course been required to render the
subject intelligible.

1945. The first animal cyst is a vessel with two kinds of extremities,
whereof, like the plant, one draws its supply from the water, the other
from the air; but in the animal this is effected by its own motion.

1946. The branchia is nothing but a vascular tissue in the air, the
intestine none other than a vascular tissue in the water. Thus, do I
wish that these organs should be understood, and not as mere cystic

1947. Every point therefore in the intestine and skin absorbs, and thus
every part is perforated with infinitely numerous holes or pores. Here
they absorb air, there water.

1948. Every absorbent point of integument is drawn out as a tube
towards the respiratory system, in order to let what it has absorbed
become oxydized. These tegumentary prolongations into tubes are the
_lymphatic vessels_.

1949. In all teguments there are necessarily lymphatic vessels, but
more of them in the water-than the air-teguments. On that account the
lymphatic vessels are much more numerous in the intestine than the
skin. They are there called chyliferous, or lacteal vessels.

1950. The lymphatic vessels are the first of all vessels. Many animals,
as perhaps the Acalephæ and Distomata, appear to have only this kind of

1951. Lymphatic vessels are present in the skin, only in so far as it
has resigned the respiratory function to special organs.

_Meaning of the Unclosed Vascular System._

1952. The action of this unclosed vascular system is wholly similar to
the motion of sap and air in the plant, there being only an ascent of
the first, and a fall or descent of the last. In the absorbents the sap
ascends out of the root (intestine) into the leaves (branchiæ); in the
respiratory vessels the air descends from the foliage (skin) to the
intestine and the whole body of cells.

1953. This vascular system is therefore the pure remnant of the plant,
and has as yet assumed no properly animal character, except that both
its sets of vessels or tubes are self-substantial, and ramify, while in
the plant they are only intercellular passages or non-ramified spiral

1954. In insects this system has been most perfectly evolved; there
the air-tubes, being well parcelled out, are in great number, and run
directly to the intestine and dorsal vessel, which is, as it were, only
the trunk of the lymphatic vessels, or the chyliferous duct.

1955. Now, such a vascular system, merely oscillating, as it were,
between intestine and skin, can be but persistent in animals,
which express only the vegetable type of organization. If other
significations be introduced, so also will this vascular system be
otherwise evolved.

1956. The unclosed vascular system will be present along with an
energetic antagonism between skin and intestine; with an antagonism
that is almost suppressed, there will be none. There are then only
cells, or there is only point-substance, as in the Infusoria, polyps,
and Acalephæ or sea-nettles.

1957. The dermal vessels exist only in the air-insects, because in them
nothing but air and water are engaged in conflict. Externally there is
desiccated horn, internally mucous water.

1958. A perfectly unclosed vascular system appears to be developed only
in animals which respire air. At least there are only genuine air-tubes
and lymphatic vessels in such as breathe air; e. g., in the Mammalia,
birds, reptiles and fishes, the latter set of vessels being probably
not present in insects.

1959. Through the predominance of the air-process, as in insects, the
mucus that is conveyed to it becomes so rapidly decomposed, that no
more remains behind, for which a new vessel would be necessary.

1960. The galvanic process is at every instant annulled, and only
renovated by a new afflux or supply. Here the galvanism does not
subsist in itself as a peculiar and independent system.

b. _Closed Vascular System._

1961. The unclosed vascular system is not yet self-substantial,
because it is a cæcal eversion of the intestine or inversion of the
skin, being itself only a ramified intestine and skin. Every system,
however, attains its perfection, by being rendered independent of its
origin. Thus the leaf is the spiral vessel that has become free, the
root the cellular tissue in a like condition, the blossom the liberated
vegetable trunk. The vascular system will therefore aspire also to the
achievement of its blossom.

1962. If the decomposition that is effected by an inferior amount
of polarization, does not happen rapidly enough, for what has
flowed thither, to disappear, during its afflux, by evaporation
or precipitation; the rest of the mucus which has obtained the
air-polarity, is now repelled by the respiratory vessels, because both
have become synonymous.

1963. The oxydized superfluous mucus is at once, however, attracted
by the intestine, because they are not synonymous. There consequently
originates a vessel in the mass of mucus or parenchyma, that has
been secreted between the intestine and skin, which begins in the
respiratory membrane and terminates in the intestine.

1964. This vessel will commence at the end of the absorbents, or at a
point, where it devolves upon the respiratory vessels, to take up their
contents, namely the oxygen, together with the nutritive substance, and
convey them to the intestine. The mucus, which previously stagnated and
moved but slowly from one spot to another, is now again carried back by
another vessel without interruption to the intestine.

1965. The vessel which conveys oxydized mucus from the respiratory to
the intestinal system, is called _artery_.

1966. On the intestine, however, this polar mucus is again reduced to
ordinary mucus. It has now become synonymous with the intestine, is
repelled from it and attracted by the branchial membrane.

1967. One and the same fluid or sap is consequently brought back from
the branchia to the intestine, and from thence again to the branchia.
This last vessel is called _vein_.

a. _Arteries._

1968. The artery is, according to its signification, an air-vessel,
which is prolonged or elongated as far as the intestine. Essentially,
the artery conveys nothing but air, though this is effected by means
of a medium or vehicle, which is the undecomposed mucus (blood). It
is an air-tube, that has been self-substantially dismembered from the
skin, in order to become a special independent air-tube, or such as is
commensurate with animal nature.

1969. In the artery the external integument has been repeated in the
nutritive system, and hence the galvanism has become of a continuous

1970. The artery must therefore be the highest vessel, the most total
of all terrestrial processes. For it is the air-duct united with the
intestinal vessel. It contains mucus, which carries the properties of
both poles of the body in itself; there is oxydized mucus.

1971. The artery contains the whole body, lung and intestine, in short,
the whole animal, (whereas it was previously dispersed in two vessels,)
in a fluid state within itself. From the artery therefore nutrition
will directly take place; from it the animal will be formed.

1972. The air or respiratory vessels may be viewed as arteries carried
to the very extreme. In the lung the arterial system has attained its
highest purity, the oxygen only, without the indifferent substance,
being contained therein. The trachea is the roughest artery--Arteria

1973. The arterial system, in accordance with its signification, makes
its first appearance in water, because the aquatic mode of respiration
is less energetic, and thus the mucus is more feebly decomposed. The
Mollusca, snails, and many worms have a perfect arterial system. The
branchiæ do not, like respiratory tubes, pass into the body, as in
insects; but there are vessels which take up the oxygen and convey it
into the body.

1974. As lung and absorbent belong to the pure air or the pure water,
so do artery and vein to the water combined with the air. The two
former are therefore present only where aerial respiration occurs, and
the two latter where water merely is respired.

1975. The last system is only present in animals, in so far as they are
aquatic in their habits.

1976. Insects, as being purely aerial animals, have therefore arteries
and veins only so long as they are in the larva or worm-like condition,
and as flies or perfect insects may continue to live without them. On
the contrary, the purely aquatic animals appear enabled to live without
true respiratory and absorbent vessels. It in fact appears, that
lymphatic as well as respiratory vessels are wanting in the molluscs,
snails, and worms, since the water directly bathes or washes the

1977. Animals with both systems of vessels, the unclosed and closed,
must be more perfect in structure, and must at once combine worm and
insect in themselves. They are insects from having absorbent and
respiratory vessels, but worms as having arteries and veins.

b. _Veins._

1978. The veins are developed as mucus-vessels at the intestinal
extremities of the arteries, which absorb the arterial mucus (blood),
after it has deposited its air on the tegumentary substance, just as
the lymphatic vessels absorb their fluid from the intestine or any
other part of the body.

1979. As the artery is a respiratory vessel that has become
self-substantial, so is the vein a similarly conditioned, and
dismembered lymphatic vessel. In the one it is the lung, in the other
the intestine, that has become the free vascular system. But in the
proper vascular system both lung and intestine are repeated, the former
as artery, the latter as vein.

1980. These arterio-lymphatic vessels (veins) necessarily convey their
arterial mucus or blood into the stem of the original lymphatic system,
or the thoracic duct. For every Indifferent must be brought toward the
respiratory organ.

1981. The tegumentary lymphatic vessels (absorbents) consequently unite
with the arterio-lymphatic vessels (veins), before arriving at the
respiratory organ, and pursue their course thither in common, where
they pass over into the air-vessels. The usual notion or idea is, that
the lymphatic vessels, from conveying their fluid into the veins,
should be subordinated to the latter. But the true philosophical view,
is of reverse import, although the veins are larger than the thoracic
duct. In the investigation of such relations, recourse can by no means
be had to quantity or size, but to the importance of the quality or

1982. The veins are, properly speaking, subordinated to the lymphatic
vessels, just as the arteries are to the tracheæ, or air-tubes, and the
former therefore pass over into the lymphatic vessels.

c. _Circulation._

1983. Through the veins, as arterio-lymphatic ducts, the vascular
system has become a closed system in itself, because, on account of the
polarity, the vein unites at both extremities directly with the artery.
It is a continuation of the artery, like the air-duct is of the skin,
and the lymphatic vessel of the intestine. Thereby a _Circulation_ of
the arteriose mucus or blood originates.

1984. In its essence the circulation is a combination of the intestinal
with the branchial system into _one_ anatomical system.

1985. The circulation is therefore a higher formation, since through
it the vascular system repeats in itself the totality of the vegetable

1986. On that account the circulation is the vital process proper.

1987. But for that reason also, the circulation is impossible in the
plant, since it is devoid of arteries and veins.

1988. It makes its appearance in the aquatic animals, for they have,
generally speaking, vessels. Molluscs, snails, worms, and crabs already
possess a circulation; it is wanting, on the contrary, in those animals
that are without intestine, and ceases in insects, when, or in whom,
the air-vessels obtain the preponderance.

1989. In circulation the galvanism is restricted. In the skin,
intestine, air-and lymphatic vessel there is also galvanism, but
distributed upon organs that are remote and subservient to different

d. _Blood._

1990. The blood signifies the earth in the animal, combined with water
and air.

1991. The blood is the proper nutritive matter for the animal.

1992. The blood is earth, which carries all terrestrial elements in
itself, such as the air through the medium of the gills, the water
through that of the intestine, and is consequently a complete planet.

1993. The blood is a fluid planet.

1994. The blood is the fluid body.

1995. The body is the fixed or rigid blood. Blood and body are wholly
equivalent, have the same elements in themselves; only here the latter
are stationary, there they course along. Both consist of mucus or
gelatine, albumen and fibrine.

1996. The blood is half combusted mucus, the body mucus, that has been
wholly subjected to combustion.

1997. After the vascular system has attained its own circulation, or
to the closed galvanism, no higher development of the tegumentary
formation is any longer conceivable; as little as after the blossom
anything more could originate.

1998. After all three elements are united into _one_ point, into _one_
system, as is the case in the circulation, where the venous blood
represents the water, the arterial blood the earth and air, no new
system can further originate in the vegetative body.


1999. In so far as the animal adopts into itself, or is rather based
upon, the whole plant, the blossom or _Sex_ is also developed in it.
The vegetable sex consists of seed, capsule, and corolla.

2000. The seed is the first part of the blossom which is put forth
in the plant. The most inferior or asexual plants have only seeds
devoid of capsule and corolla, and produced without the concurrence
of female and male parts. The blossom in the animal is therefore in
the beginning also nothing but seeds or ova. Thus these animals are
asexual. Such as the Infusoria, whose body directly divides into new
animals, like the fungi.

2001. The second floral organ is the capsule, which contains on its
borders or dissepiments the seeds, and on its apex the stigma, or the
opening of the cyst.

2002. So also in the succeeding forms of animal life the animal capsule
or uterus originates. The orifice corresponding to the stigma is the
mouth of the womb; the seeds upon the septum become _ovary_.

2003. The lowest animals, as the Polyps, are fundamentally none other
than such an uterine system. The polyp's mouth is the os uteri; the sac
formed by the polyp's body is the uterus, in which ova-cysts or ovaries
develop, that open into the margins of the month.

2004. In such animals the uterus and intestine, as likewise the mouth
and uterine orifice are fundamentally _one_ organ; nutritive matter and
ova are also one in kind. External tegument as branchial organ is at
the same time also a tegument of the uterus.

2005. The higher animals are distinguished from the lower by separation
of all these intricate and, as it were, coalesced organs.

2006. Digestion, respiration and nutrition, growth and propagation,
are originally of one kind. But with further development come the male
parts also, which belong to the category of the organs.

_Parallelism of the Animal and Vegetable Body._

All vegetative systems of the animal body being now developed, the
attempt to co-ordinate them with those of the plant admits of being

2007. What the _sexual parts_ correspond to in plants, needs no

2008. And just as little that the _lung_ is the parallel organ to
the leaves or _foliage_. The relation of the other organs is, on
the contrary, difficult; the striking resemblance, however, of the
sexual parts and the lungs to the same systems in plants, is ground
sufficient for assuming also the parallelism of the other organs.

2009. If the _root_ be compared with the intestine, then the _stalk_,
as being the medium of the _vascular system_, must be regarded as

2010. The _bark_ will correspond to the _skin_, the liber to the
_veins_, the _wood_ as a tracheal body to the _arteries_.

2011. The vegetable tissue will be transformed into the lowest organs
of the animal; the _cells_ into the _mucous tissue_, the _intercellular
passages_ into the _lacteal vessels_, the _tracheæ_, or spiral vessels,
into the lowest kind of respiratory tubes or the _cutaneo-lymphatic
vessels_. We have accordingly the following parallel series:

         A. _Tissues._

  1. Cells        Mucous tissue.
  2. Ducts        Absorbents.
  3. Tracheæ      Cutaneo-absorbents.

        B. _Systems._

  4. Bark         Skin.
  5. Liber        Veins.
  6. Wood         Arteries.

       C. _Members._

  7. Root         Intestine.
  8. Stalk        Heart.
  9. Foliage      Lung.

     D. _Sexual parts._

  10. Seed        Ovum.
  11. Ovary       Uterus.
  12. Corolla     Testes.


2012. As in the blossom the light allows the whole vegetable trunk
to be once more developed, though with coloured signs or marks of
distinction, so also is the animal body taken up into the sense of
light, and the vegetative systems are elevated unto light-or rather

2013. A new animal originates upon the old animal and is equivalent to
it. Every perfect animal is twofold in its nature, being a planetary
and solar animal, a vegetative and animal being.

2014. Three animal systems must be developed out of the three
vegetative, an earth-, water-, and air-system, each being refined or
purified through the agency of light, and forming the bones, muscles,
and nerves, which correspond to the gravity or materiality, the heat or
motion, and the light or tension.

2015. Everything that is higher in its nature can only be developed out
of that which is its direct antecedent, like the blossom from the leaf.
Now the artery is the ultimate Vegetative. In this therefore, must the
elements of the osseous, muscular and nervous systems reside. Now, the
artery consists, of four parts, of the cellular, fibrous, dense serous
coat, and of the blood. The cellular coat or tunic is the remnant of
the whole tegumentary formation. The fibrous tunic is the embryo of
the muscular system. The serous tunic is the embryo of the osseous
system; for in old age it attains to ossification, bony lamellæ being
deposited around it. The blood is the embryo of the nervous system.
It is only requisite for it to coagulate, and it is then nervous
mass. Nervous globules are blood-globules quiescent, or in a state of
rest. Accordingly, in the artery, the whole body has been actually
prefigurated or typified.

2016. Every animal system necessarily exists under a duplex character,
being once in the service of the vegetative systems and once for
itself; or it exists as trunk and as blossom. There is, therefore,
a vegetative and animal nervous system, and, under such binary
conditions, osseous and muscular systems likewise.

2017. All three systems are offsets from the arteries, and therefore
their constant companions. The animal systems are called _flesh_.


2018. The nervous mass is coagulated blood. The nervous system is thus
a higher arterial system. The highest arteries, however, are the
air-tubes. The nerves therefore run parallel with the tracheal systems.

2019. What the tracheæ are for the vegetative body, namely, the
vitalizing and motor principle, such are the nerves for both the animal
and vegetative body.

2020. The nerves are distributed like the tracheæ of plants, in
individual threads or filaments, which run near to each other arranged
in a fascicular manner, and then mutually separate.

2021. The nervous filaments everywhere accompany the arteries, and, as
far as their ultimate ramifications, like the tracheæ of insects pass
to all parts of the body.

2022. The nervous mass has been separated into an arteriose and venous
mass, the former being the cineritious or gray substance, the latter
the medullary or white. The nervous system is therefore an entire
blood-system, with two poles; it is therefore alive and active for
itself, or independent of other systems.

2023. Both nervous masses are in a state of constant tension against
each other, and consequently in constant tension with the whole body.

2024. The nerves are filaments that, upon the separation of the
parts of the body, have remained behind, just like the arteries are
tubes individualized in the general parenchyma, throughout which the
sap was previously dispersed as in the vegetable trunk. The first
individualization necessarily takes place at the oral extremity. The
first nerve is a ring surrounding the pharynx or gullet. Thus,
if the body consists of several consecutive rings or cysts, as in the
Worms, each ring will or can have its nervous ring, which inferiorly
gives off nerves to the vegetative organs, and superiorly to the
animal, if these be present. Such a point for giving off nerves is
called a ganglion; since also every ganglion sends off nerves to join
other ganglia; so both below and above a nervous cord or string will
originate in the longitudinal direction. The nerves, which have been
left behind in the vegetative parts, form the vegetative nervous
system; those that remain in the animal parts, the animal system.

a. _Vegetative Nervous System._

2025. The vegetative nervous system is the nervous mass that has
remained behind, after the greatest part of it has become converted
into tegumentary formations. Now, as these tegumentary formations,
being surrounded in the higher animals by flesh, were thus viscera,
so may the vegetative nerves be called also _Visceral_ or _Splanchnic

2026. These visceral nerves govern the vessels, the intestine, and
lung; with the sexual parts also, yet in their case in combination with
the animal nerves, because the sexual parts are at one and the same
time organs of vegetative and animal life.

2027. These visceral nerves everywhere accompany the vessels, and are
therefore like these distributed in a cystic manner between intestine
and skin. They form a large cyst which concentrically surrounds the

2028. They do not, however, like the intestine, form any closed cyst,
but only a cystimorphous net, like the vessels.

2029. The two nervous masses are in them separated from each other,
like as the branchiæ have been distributed along the whole body and
separated from the intestine. The gray or branchoid substance has
separated itself from the white medullary substance into individual
_ganglia_, or as it were into individual nervous branchiæ. The
medullary substance has also retained its connexion though only in
a ramular manner, and not uninterruptedly like an integument. It is
called _plexus_.

2030. The ganglia and the plexuses stand in mutual opposition, like the
branchiæ and intestine, like artery and vein, like blood and lymphatic
vessels. The ganglia oxydize, polarize; they are the active. The
plexuses suffer, digest, and are the recipient.

2031. The visceral nerves, like the viscera, act for themselves, being
unconcerned for the animal systems.

2032. The visceral nerves have a vegetable sensation for themselves,
a sense of touch, such as the blossom might have in the instant of the

2033. As all formations have become symmetrical through and in
accordance with the vascular system, so does the vegetative nervous
system separate into two parallel stems which accompany the arterial
trunk. They are called intercostal nerves. These ramify and form
plexuses that accord with the visceral organs, which they govern.

b. _Animal Nervous System._

2034. The animal nervous system is the repetition of the vegetative,
and is combined therewith to constitute an unity. The nervous cyst
that was previously dissevered in a reticular manner, becomes a closed
tube, which is placed upon the light-exposed side of the other animal
systems, and thus upon the vertebral column. This closed nervous tube
is called the _myelon_, or _spinal cord_.

2035. The spinal cord is worth as much as all the visceral nerves
taken together; it is the felted system of intercostal nerves; and
is, properly speaking, none other than the posterior double cord of
ganglia. It consists therefore also of ganglia and plexuses, but
both have coalesced, on account of the increase of the mass and its
endeavour towards the attainment of union.

2036. The ganglia form a tube, which is inclosed by the tubes of the
plexuses. The ganglion-tube is the gray, the plexus-tube the medullary

2037. If the gray substance appear to reside within the medulla, this
is the result only of involution or a folding in. The parietes of the
spinal marrow stand therefore in everlasting tension with each other,
like ganglia and plexuses, and like arteries and veins.

2038. The spinal marrow is the content of the bones and muscles, like
the intercostal nerves or the visceral cord are the contents of the
abdominal cavity, and as the blood is that of the internal and fibrous
coat of the arteries. Bones and muscles are the animal parietes of the
nerves, as the two vascular membranes are the vegetative walls of the
blood. The skin, as branchia, incloses all, like the cellular membrane
does the vessels.

2039. As the intercostal ganglia give off plexus-forming ramules; so
does the spinal marrow; there are the spinal nerves. The spinal marrow
is, first of all therefore, the coalescence of the two intercostal

2040. These spinal nerves are, however, animal plexuses, which partly
encroach upon the visceral nerves, and partly pass to the animal

2041. There are therefore two kinds of spinal nerves, vegetative and
animal, and as many of them as there are divisions in the viscera and
in the animal systems.

2042. The nerves pass off symmetrically from the spinal cord, because
the nervous mass belongs to the symmetrical osseous system. They form
therefore rings both anteriorly and posteriorly.

2043. The nervous system does not consist of individual cysts, like
its two animal teguments, or bone and flesh. It is at one time the
type or image of the vascular trunk and its ramifications; at another
the indifferent æther-mass, which does not crystallize; it is lastly
the organic primary mass that has remained persistent, and must thus
be coherent in texture. It is the blood continually streaming from the
animal divisions of the heart.

2044. The whole animal nervous system is a tegumentary cyst with tubes
passing off from it symmetrically in the form of rings.

2045. The spinal cord cannot be the highest. It has only the lowest
signification, in so far as it stands in the service of the viscera and
the sense of touch, and thus follows the position and arrangement of
the bones. Thus the spinal cord is first of all an _osseo-nervous mass_.

2046. The nerves, as running for the most part _forwards_, are
musculo-nervous mass; those running backwards or outwards are
tegumentary or sensitive nerves. This signification furnishes us, also
with the physiological function of these two divisions of nerves. The
nerves are homologous with the flexors, the spinal cord with the
extensors; the nerves with the air, the medulla with the earth; the
former with the arteries, the latter with the veins; the nerves are
thus what is more active, the medulla that which is more inert.

2047. On that account the nerves only are in intercourse with the
world, while the medulla broods within itself. Consequently, both these
nerve-formations are not as yet the pure self-substantial nervous
blossom, which no longer imitates flesh and bone, but only itself.


2048. The highest point attained by the lower systems are the orifices
of the viscera, the mouth and the nose. The mouth is the first animal
sign, which the plant gives off in the blossom from itself. The Noblest
lies therefore at the anterior extremity of the animal, or in man in
the direction _upwards_.

2049. It consequently occupies the middle point, or one that is between
the anterior flesh and the posterior bones, and at the same time the
spot, from which all vital processes emerge, or the mouth.

2050. The oral nervous mass is the _Brain_. It forms originally the
posterior ganglia of the pharyngeal ring.

2051. The situation of the brain is essentially in front of or above
the body, in opposition to the sexual parts, which are the lower

2052. It is, however, above and behind; for it is originally situated
posteriorly. The brain can therefore originate only, when the posterior
medulla inclines from above forwards, making a curve in the latter
direction; the brain is a spinal cord that has been bent from above

2053. The more the spinal cord is curved forwards, so much the nobler
is it. This is self-evident.

2054. The brain is a spinal cord which makes the transit from the
signification of bone to that of flesh.

2055. In the brain therefore the tendency must principally reside, to
give off nerves, and perfect them into self-substantial nervous organs.

2056. In man the brain with its nerves curves round like a crosier, and
that more perfectly than in any other animal. The spinal cord therefore
in the highest formation of the brain returns again parallel to the
direction, in which it has ascended.

2057. In the brain there is of necessity the greatest quantity of
nervous mass. The brain is the nervous trunk, as the _liver_ is
probably the vascular trunk.

2058. In the brain the cystic formation has been most purely
represented; as e. g. in the cerebral cavities or ventricles. The brain
is the stomach of the nervous system or its lungs.

2059. The brain consists essentially of two substances, of one
accommodated to the flesh, and one to the bones, or of one arteriose,
and the other venous. The former is the gray or cortical, the latter
the white or medullary substance. The cortex is the lung of the brain,
the medulla the liver or the intestine.

2060. The bark or cortex is the polarizing, active, oxydizing; the
medulla the patient or suffering.

2061. This nervous pulmonary substance is continued along the spinal
cord and even along the nerves, there as veritable gray substance, here
as the vascular membrane of the nervous mass.


2062. The brain, as being a system that has been separated superiorly
from the other systems, determines the _Head_. The head is only there
in so far as a brain is there.

2063. Head and trunk are antagonistically disposed, as Animal and
Vegetable, or still more exactly, like nerve and bony flesh are to the

2064. The head is naught but a nervous organ.

2065. The concomitants of the nervous mass follow the brain, but,
instead of the medulla having been previously subordinated to, or at
least co-ordinated with, these, it is they that are thus related to
the brain. The bones of the brain are the brain-case or cranium, the
flesh of the brain, the face or countenance. On the head, bones and
flesh have been disposed in the strictest manner according to their
dignity or worth. Posteriorly there is almost pure bone, in front
almost pure muscle.

2066. The cranium can be none other than the vertebral column continued
around the brain. It consists of three vertebræ, the face of one. This
will become clear in what follows.

2067. If the bones of the head are the repetition of those of the
trunk, so also must the flesh of the head be a repetition of that of
the trunk. Pectoral and abdominal muscles are ennobled in the muscles
of the face.

2068. The face must have been principally formed by the orifice of the
intestine--the mouth, and by the opening of the lungs--the nose, and
by the apex of the vascular system--the members which are repeated as
jaws. The month is the stomach in the head, the nose the lung, the jaws
the arms and feet.

2069. The salivary glands are the liver in the head, as the mouth is
its stomach. The liver that was originally also symmetric in form has
become wholly symmetric in the higher organized head and forms two
glands. The salivary ducts are the hepatic or biliary ducts.

2070. The tongue is the pharynx elongated upon the anterior side,
because in front there is more flesh. The tongue is the extremity of
the intestine converted into muscle.

2071. The nose includes pectoral muscles, the mouth arthric muscles or
those of the limbs.

2072. If pectoral and abdominal muscles are repeated in the face, so
also must the anterior bones, ribs, and limbs be repeated. It will be
shown, in treating of the organs, that the nose is a vertebra, the jaws
members, and their muscles those of the limbs. The head is the whole
trunk with all its systems. The brain is the spinal marrow, the skull
the vertebral column, the mouth intestine and abdomen, the nose lung
and thorax, the jaws are members.


2073. The perfect animal again consists of two animals, the spiritual
or solar, and the terrestrial or planetary. The animal nervous system
does not continue to remain simply in the service of the other
systems, but seeks also to gradually render itself self-substantial
or independent. Now, the operation of the nervous system for
itself is sensation. The parts of the nervous system having become
self-substantial, will be therefore pure organs of sensation. Yet as
the nervous system cannot emancipate itself from the other systems,
so will its highest development be attained only in combination with
the highest development of the other systems. There are therefore as
many stages of the self-substantial nervous development, as there are
special anatomical systems.

2074. Sensation must be modified according to the processes performed
by those systems, with which the nervous system combines. These systems
are, however specifically distinct from each other. Sensations that are
specifically distinct are sensorial sensations. Organs of sense are
accordingly the combination of the highest part of an anatomical system
with the nervous system. Sensorial sensations are different processes
of the anatomical systems perceived in the nervous system.

2075. The first combination of the nerves with the vascular system
that has become free, or with the integument, is the sense of
feeling--vascular sense. The intestinal system emancipated and combined
with the nerves, is the tongue--gustatory sense--intestinal sense.
The lung upon its highest evolution with the nervous system is the
nose--olfactory sense--pulmonic sense. These are thus the sensorial
organs of the vegetative systems--senses of vegetative life.

2076. There are indeed three animal senses; but as the osseous and
muscular system form in their conjoined operation but one system or
the motor system--there can be therefore only 2 animal senses. The
osseo-muscular or motor sense is the ear. If the nervous system becomes
wholly self-substantial, the nervous sense thus originates, or the
eye, in which the brain itself has been planted outwardly, and acts
independently of all other systems.

2077. The vessels form the general system, and therefore the
tegumentary sense surrounds the whole body. Its brain is the spinal

2078. The four remaining senses are perfections of individual systems
at their perfect extremity, and thus in the proximity of the mouth
and the brain. They together form the head. The jaws and the tongue
obtain their nerves from the medulla oblongata, and this is therefore
the brain of the gustatory sense. The brain for the nose is the gray
cerebral substance, because the olfactory nerves are its elongations.
The ears obtain their nerves from the cerebellum, which is consequently
the auditory brain. The eyes are developments of the great brain or
cerebrum--optic brain. Such is the rationale and signification of the
divisions of the brain.


2079. The nervous mass consists of indifferent, deoxydized
blood-globules. If these be peroxydized, then the highest oxyd of
the planet is deposited in them, namely, the earth, and that indeed
which was the last remnant in the order of their production, or the
calcareous earth.

2080. Vesicles or cells replete with calcareous earth are globes. The
osseous texture consists therefore of globes; is only a dense cellular
tissue, and thus ranks nearest to the vegetable structure. The basis
of the bones is at first a cellular gelatine, which, with increased
oxydation, is converted into cartilage. Finally, calcareous earth is
deposited in this cartilage.

2081. In the lower organized animals, who breathe for the most part by
means of branchiæ, the acid combined with the calcareous earth is an
inorganic, or the carbonic acid, i. e. oxygen combined with carbon,
or the earthy Inflammable; in higher animals it is an organic acid or
phosphoric acid, i. e. oxygen combined with phosphorus, or the aerial
Inflammable. Phosphoric acid may be regarded as peroxydized gelatine,
as acid of gelatine. The bone is therefore earth, salt and Inflammable.

2082. The first appearance of the osseous mass is in the oxydizing
organs. It is formed from the dense or internal coat of the arteries,
since in old age bony lamellæ are deposited upon this. In the hearts
also of many animals bones are formed.

2083. The first regular formation of bones is exhibited in the trachea
or air-tube, which has been directly exposed to the oxydizing process
of the air. These first forms of the bones are rings.

2084. The antetype of the bone is, however, the intestine, as the
air-vessels are the antetype of the nerves. The bone is a tube, an
ossified intestine.

2085. There are two osseous systems, a vegetative and an animal; the
one surrounds the tegumentary systems, as, e. g. the scales of Fishes
and Reptiles, horny rings of Insects; the other the nervous systems.

a. _Vegetative Osseous System._

2086. The vegetative osseous system is divisible into dermal, tracheal,
intestinal, and vascular bones.

2087. The dermal bones are tegumentary rings, which surround the whole
body, and are tracheal rings in so far as the skin is originally a
respiratory organ. Such are the rings of the body in Insects, the
shells of the Gasteropods and Molluscs, with scales and scutes in

2088. The tracheal bones are the branchial arches and tracheal rings.

2089. The intestinal or splanchnic bones are tubes environing the
intestine, as in the corals, or imperfect annular segments, which at
one time are found in the stomach, as in the Mollusca, at another
in the pharynx, as in the Worms, Snails, Sea-urchins, and
Holothuriæ; constituting what are called pharyngeal maxillæ. The
branchial organs are fundamentally also none other than pharyngeal
rings. The lingual and palatal bones, with the intermaxillary bones,
belong also to the same category.

2090. The vascular bones are displayed in the hearts of many animals.
The three last divisions may be called visceral or splanchnic bones;
and then we have tegumentary, splanchnic, and nerve-bones.

b. _Animal Osseous System._

2091. The animal or nervo-osseous system must separate from the
vegetative system of bones, and be placed upon the side exposed to the
light. The side of the inferior animal that is exposed to the light, or
averted from the earth, is the upper surface, dorsal region or _back_.

2092. The back holds the same relation to the ventral side as light
does to the darkness, as sun to the earth; therefore the dorsal side is
of a dark, the ventral of a faint or pale colour.

2093. Back and belly are related polarwise to each other.

2094. Through the medium of the bones the distinction between back
and belly has been definitely established in the animal, and, as a
consequence thereof, the distinction also of right from left. Before
a formation of bone exists, the animal is for the most part a round

2095. The osseous system can in itself be only symmetrically

2096. The osseous is the only symmetrical system in an animal. The
other organs are so only in so far as they follow the arrangement of
the osseous system.

2097. The animal osseous system is, from its being a repetition of the
intestinal canal, a tube. This tube is surrounded, like the trachea, by
rings, between which the tegumentary tube suffers constrictions.

2098. The back is a series of numerous bony rings.

2099. These bony rings are the _bodies_ of the vertebræ.

2100. The vertebræ have originated through polar repetition, through
the muscular cysts.

2101. In addition to the series of vertebræ on the back, a vertebral
column is formed moreover along the ventral surface, and without doubt
there only where the air-organ, the branchia or lung, is situated. This
inferior vertebral column is the breast-bone or _sternum_.

2102. All the systems, even those that are of a subordinate character
in the animal, follow the direction of the main vertebral column. The
intestine, as well as the vessels, are placed in accordance with it.
Thus the principal trunks of the vessels take their rise along the
vertebral column, the other vessels being given off from them in this
situation, like the lymphatics from the intestine.

2103. The vascular ramules which surround the intestine and the skin,
run out from a main stem, and are directed in a symmetric manner
downwards and upwards (in the horizontal body of animals), or towards
the belly and back.

2104. If new bony rings originate, they must also take these
directions. They accompany the vessels that run in a circle,
as the vertebral column accompanies the vascular trunks. These
annularly-disposed bony twigs or apophyses constitute in the direction
downwards the ribs, in that upwards the vertebral arches. Anterior
and posterior to the vertebral column there consequently originates
a long canal formed by the bony rings. In the anterior canal lie the
galvanic or vegetative organs, in the posterior or upper, the organs
of light must be situated "par excellence." The former of these canals
is called the thoracic and abdominal cavity, the latter the vertebral
canal. The vertebral canal is not the bony or medullary cavity itself,
but it has been formed by several bony cysts in the same manner as
the thoracic cavity. It consists of the body and the two arches.
These are thus posterior (superior) ribs. The vertebral canal has the
same signification as the thoracic cavity has; it is only a posterior
thoracic cavity. It therefore contains, like the anterior canal,
viscera dissimilar in kind to bone; the one including the spinal cord,
the other vessels, intestine, and lung.

2105. The bony cysts that have originated through constriction do not
all harden into calcareous matter, but they remain as alternating
membranous cysts. Between the rings there are permanent cysts. The
membranous cysts form the _joint_, or articular capsule. An articular
capsule is a bone which has remained soft.

2106. This change in the ossific process takes place through the
attachment of muscles, concerning which we shall treat in the sequel.

2107. The whole osseous system is consequently a symmetrical
arrangement of several polar cysts and rings.

2108. The vertebra is not a single ring, but is at once a tolerably
compound osseous system. The whole osseous system is nothing but a
vertebra repeated.

2109. The number of the vertebræ necessarily conforms to that of the
pairs of nerves or ganglia of the spinal cord; for they are indeed
only the periphery or envelope of the latter. The number of nerves is,
however, adapted to that of the organs, which they have to take care of.

2110. Now, the nervous organs are the senses. There are consequently
as many divisions of vertebræ as there are senses. Thus there are
vertebræ appertaining respectively to the senses of touch, taste,
smell, hearing, and sight. Now as the four latter senses make up the
head, but that of touch or feeling is distributed over the whole body,
and superintended by the spinal nerves, the vertebræ thus divide into
two principal sections, into vertebræ of the head and trunk. The number
of cephalic vertebræ is 4; namely, nasal, ocular, lingual, and auditory

2111. To a perfect vertebra belong at least five pieces, namely,
the body, in front the two ribs, behind the two arches or spinous
processes; every vertebra of the head consists therefore of five pieces
also. In those vertebræ which are removed from the respiratory organ,
the ribs are smaller, as in the ventral ribs, and anchylosed with
the body, as in the cervical vertebræ, where they are represented by
the perforated transverse processes, and in the lumbar vertebræ they
disappear entirely.

2112. The formation of the cervical vertebræ, where the ribs have
been impacted or interposed between the body and spinous processes,
is continued into the cranial vertebræ. These are only expanded
cervical vertebræ. At the base of the skull four vertebral bodies lie
in a series one behind the other; the body of the occipital bone, the
two bodies of the sphenoid, and the vomer. Upon the sides of each of
these bodies are situated alar processes, which correspond to the
transverse processes of the cervical vertebræ, or to the ribs; e. g.
the articular heads or condyles of the occipital bone, the alæ majores
and minores of the sphenoids, and the two sides or lateral surfaces
of the vomer. Behind these are placed the two broad cranial bones,
which correspond to the spinous processes; as the occipital ridge or
crest, the parietal, frontal and nasal bones. The occipital vertebra
consists of the body, the two condyles and the occipital crest. The
parietal vertebra consists of the body of the posterior sphenoid, the
alæ majores, and the parietal bones. The frontal vertebra consists
of the body of the anterior sphenoid, the orbitar wings or alæ, and
the two frontal bones. The nasal vertebra consists of the vomer, the
ethmoid and the two nasal bones. The occipital vertebra is the auditory
vertebra; it incloses the auditory bones and the cerebellum, which
gives off the nerves of hearing. The parietal vertebra is the lingual
vertebra; the maxillary and lingual nerves passing through its alæ
majores. The frontal vertebra is that belonging to the eye; through
the orbitar plates or wings the optic nerves pursue their course, and
it environs the cerebrum, from which these nerves originate. The nasal
vertebra contains the olfactory nerves.

2113. Each cranial sense has thus only one vertebra, and the skull will
consequently be formed of four vertebræ, whereof three appertain to
the cranium, one unto the face. (See Oken's Ueber die Bedeutung der
Schädelknochen, 1807.--Isis, 1817, S. 1204.)

2114. Several vertebræ are, however, found for the sense of feeling
or touch, because it includes all the organs of the trunk. There must
be therefore as many vertebræ in the trunk as there are particular
organs placed therein. Of these there are three, the respiratory,
digestive, and sexual system, or thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. To
the thorax belong the neck, the arms, and the entire set of ribs. 5
vertebræ must appertain to the arms, because they have 5 digits and 5
nerves. But the ribs, and consequently also the digits, are determined
by branchial vessels, are only repeated branchial arches, whose number
in almost the entire class of fishes is 5. There are therefore also
5 thoracic or pulmonic vertebræ. Since the larynx consists of the 5
original branchial arches, and lies in front of the neck; so must the
5 superior cervical vertebræ stand in the signification of branchial
vertebræ. The odontoid process of the second vertebra must be regarded,
from its being separated from it in the foetus, as a particular
cervical vertebra. Accordingly, in the Thricozoa there are eight
cervical vertebræ. The 3 inferior cervical, and the 2 upper costal or
rib-vertebræ, give off through their interspaces the nerves of the
arms, and are consequently the brachial vertebræ. The 3-7th rib are
thus appended to the 5 proper thoracic vertebræ, which stand in the
signification of the pulmonary vertebræ. To these succeed the 5 short
ribs which belong to the abdomen; their vertebræ are thus intestinal
vertebræ. The succeeding vertebræ belong to the sexual system, and are
indeed the 5 lumbar or pedal vertebræ, because they furnish the pedal
or foot-nerves, the 5 sacral vertebræ being the proper sexual vertebræ.
The coccygeal or caudal vertebræ correspond to the cervical vertebræ,
and are present for the sake of the sexual branchiæ; usually one and
the other is arrested. Thus there are,--

  3×5 Respiratory vertebræ.
  3×5 Sexual vertebræ.
  1×5 Digestive vertebræ.

The number of the sensitive vertebræ is consequently 7×5=35, which
are distributed into three groups, in accordance with the principal
cavities of the body, whereof the 2 terminal groups consist of 15, but
the abdominal group, which combines or unites them, only of 5. The body
is accordingly not merely laterally, but also in length, a perfectly
symmetrical structure, which has been parcelled out in the following
manner into its five stockworks, stories or floors:

    I. _Dermal vertebra._
         A. _Sexual vertebræ._
              a. Coccygeal vertebræ  5,
              b. Sexual vertebræ     5,
              c. Pedal vertebræ      5.

         B. _Abdominal vertebræ_   5.

         C. _Thoracic vertebræ_.
              a. Pulmonary vertebræ  5,
              b. Brachial vertebræ   5,
              c. Cervical vertebræ   5.

   II. _Auditory vertebra_   1.
  III. _Lingual vertebra_    1.
   IV. _Optic vertebra_      1.
    V. _Nasal vertebra_      1.

This regularity is found too only in the human skeleton. The animals
are irregular men. (Vide Oken's Zahlengesetz in den Wirbeln. Isis,
1829, S. 306.)

_Cavities of the Trunk._

2115. The osseous system forms the trunk or body, because it follows
the vascular system; the two other galvanic systems, the dermal and
intestinal systems, form the large portions of the trunk or its
cavities; to them is added the sexual cavity or pelvis.

2116. There are thus three truncal cavities, a pulmonary, an
intestinal, and a sexual cavity, or thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic

2117. The osseous system will develop itself most feebly around the
abdominal, because it is the indifferent cavity. Therefore there are
either no ribs at all, or they are so short that they do not reach
to the anterior vertebral column or the sternum. The short or false
ribs are, according to their physiological sense, _abdominal_ or
_splanchnic_ ribs. The thoracic ribs must be perfectly developed, i.
e. abut against both vertebral columns, be entire ribs; the entire or
perfect ribs are thoracic or _pulmonary_ ribs. The sexual ribs are
arrested on the pedal and coccygeal vertebræ, but on the proper sexual
vertebræ, namely, the sacral bone, they are still present as rudiments.


2118. As the intestinal system reappears in what is animal under the
condition of a vertebral column, so also does the aggregate of the
vascular system ascend, and the vessels become animal.

2119. The animal vessels are the muscles, or filled-up vessels. The
polar process enters the body through the vessels; thereby the tubes
obtain two strong poles, and are drawn out lengthways. They are
_fibres_, and consist of a series of strongly oxydized blood-globules.

2120. The fibre is chiefly apparent in those vessels, such as the
arteries, in which the influence of air operates more forcibly. Now an
artery has, in addition to the external cellular coat, two coats, like
the first animal body, or one wall turned towards the mucus, and one
towards the air. The internal arterial wall is enteroid, the external
dermoid in character; the one being simply granular, the other fibrous
membrane. The two membranes separate into two cysts or tubes, which
likewise adhere within each other like intestine and skin. The external
will become fibre, the internal bone.

2121. There is a vegetative and an animal fibre-or muscle-system. The
one is associated with the tegumentary formations, the other with the
bones and nerves.

a. _Vegetative Muscles._

2122. The muscles of vegetative life are simply fibrous tunics, as in
the arteries, and are found in the skin, in the intestine, and in the

2123. The tegumentary muscles lie under the skin, and are inserted into
it, or into the dermo-osteous system, when such an one is present. If
the fibrous membrane be strongly developed under the skin, then it
receives the name of a _Panniculus carnosus_.

2124. The intestine has also its fibrous coat, which, upon the stomach,
anus, and pharynx, is frequently developed as a panniculus

2125. The same holds good of the vessels, especially of the arteries
and trachea.

2126. The fibres are either elongated or else annular fibres. The
latter obtain the preponderance at the extremities of the tubular
formations, as on the pharynx, anus, lips, and eyelids.

2127. We have consequently a dermal, splanchnic, and osseo-muscular

b. _Animal Muscles._

2128. In the oxydizing part of the vascular system the formation of
fibres must be preponderant over that of cells, and thus at the root of
the lungs.

2129. The vessel becomes in the lungs a fleshy cavity. The fleshy
vessel is the _heart_.

2130. The heart is a vascular fragment, with a preponderating
development of fibrous membrane.

2131. This fibrous membrane is developed at a spot where all vascular
systems enter into mutual proximity, such as the respiratory ducts and
the intestinal lymphatic vessel, the artery and the vein.

2132. In the union of all the highest galvanism is attained, and then
the formation may launch out into what is animal.

2133. The heart is the animal in the plant.

2134. The first heart is an arterial heart. There is originally no
venous heart. In the embryo, particularly in that of the bird, this is
extremely distinct; the arterial heart also emerges for the first time,
and per se, in the lowest animals, in the Molluscs, Snails, and even in
the Fishes, although in the latter it is regarded as a venous heart.

2135. The arterial heart is the central, the venous heart the

2136. The heart is the prototype of the muscular system. All muscles
must be a metatype of the heart.

2137. The muscle is hollow. It is a cyst.

2138. The muscular system is a manifold and serial juxtaposition of
fibrous cysts or of hearts. In this respect the muscle has been formed
in a corresponding manner to bone. Both are rows of cysts.

2139. But the muscle, as being the external fibrous tunic, is the
enveloping or external cyst.

2140. In idea, the muscle can only directly envelop the bones, and
not the other parts, for it ranks upon the same grade of development
with the bone; it is the arterio-fibrous wall, while the bone is the
internal arterial wall.

2141. Bone and flesh stand in antagonism like air and earth. The muscle
is that which is polarizing--moving, the bone what is polarized, moved.
The muscle is heart, the bone the moved blood. Bone and muscle are
related as that which is contained and what is containing. The muscle
is the wall of the cyst, the bone, the fluid which has been secreted
from it and rigidified.

2142. As therefore the muscle is an individual cyst, a heart, which
cannot invest the whole body like a single large cyst, so also must the
muscular contents be only a discrete cyst. The uninterrupted character
of the bones depends therefore upon that of the muscles, and the latter
upon the meaning of the heart.

2143. _A physiological rationale of the joints is accordingly afforded
in the heart._

2144. A bone is a rigidified, ossified heart; the osseous system is a
series of mutually dependent, alternately ossified and non-ossified
(arteriose and venous) hearts.

2145. The muscular cyst includes the soft bone, or the joint.

2146. At its two extremities there is preponderance of oxydation,
whereby the soft osseous cysts are combusted into hard calcareous

2147. The muscle is a cause of the alternating ossification.


2148. As the formation of bone predominates upon the side exposed to
the light or the nervous, so does that of muscle upon the shady or
vascular side. The abdominal side of the animal is the muscular, just
as the dorsal side is the osseous. Upon the thorax, abdomen, on the
members which belong to the anterior region of the body, and on the
face, the muscular layer is by far the most predominant. Posteriorly,
however, or upon the back, it is slightly wanting, and the bones there

2149. The back is related to the anterior surface (when regarded in
man) as bone is to muscle. What is _in front_ is muscle, what is
_behind_ is bone. The anterior side is therefore more active, nobler,
more powerful and more spiritual than the posterior. Posteriorly stands
the earth inert and rigidified, while in front is the air in ceaseless
capacity for, and actually in, motion. The anterior muscular layer is
more active and powerful than the posterior.

2150. In every muscular cyst there are two kinds of layers, an anterior
and a posterior, or stronger and weaker layer.

2151. The stronger layer is the flexing, the weaker the extending. For
the limbs have been necessarily bent forwards. The direction alone of
the joints at once resides in the structure, which is even determined
by these relations. Such a muscular layer, which mostly consists of
several bundles, is termed a muscle.

2152. A muscular cyst consists of flexor and extensor muscles. The
individual muscle is therefore only a piece of a cyst, and therefore
not in itself hollow. It is only an entire muscular layer of flexors
and extensors which is the pattern of the heart. The flexors are the
strongest and are placed in front, the extensors lie behind.

2153. In the heart the flexor layers have not yet separated from the
extensor layers, because the vegetable flesh has as yet no symmetry in

2154. Flexors and extensors occur in pairs; because the osseous system
is in pairs.

2155. There resides in the osseous and in the muscular system no cause
for a diversity in the two halves of the body. Thus, if there be a
difference, it must only reside in the asymmetrical galvanic systems.

3. _Organs._

2156. Organs are parts of an anatomical system, which separating,
combine with a part of another system, and thereby obtain a peculiar or
special function.

2157. For each system therefore there are as many organs, as there
are possible combinations of systems. There are vascular, intestinal,
pulmonary, sexual and tegumentary organs, with furthermore, osseous,
muscular and nervous organs.



2158. The intestinal or splanchnic system falls first of all into
three great divisions, into that of the viscera, the sex and the
head; the visceral intestine separates moreover into pulmonic, venous
and tegumentary intestine, and this in constant accordance with its
combinations and functions.

a. _Visceral Intestine._

2159. In the digestive system it is the chemical process that takes
precedence. This, however, divides into three moments, into that of
_solution_, _separation_ and _formation_, or crystallization, which is
here _absorption_. Thus the intestine separates also into a solvent,
secernent and absorbent intestine, and that indeed through its
combination with the pulmonic, vascular and tegumentary system. The
solvent viscus is the stomach, the second or secernent, the duodenum,
the third or absorbent, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum).

_Pulmonic Intestine._

2160. All solution is accompanied by oxydation. The gastric juice is in
its action an acid.

2161. The gastric juice obtains its oxygen from the spleen. The spleen
is the stomachic lung. This is attested by its position and close
approximation to the stomach; by its black, venous, and deoxydized
blood, which in certain diseases has been secreted even in the stomach;
by its want of any excretory duct; by its tissue, which resembles that
of the oxydized placenta; furthermore by the natural character of this
function when contrasted with the unnatural quality of other useless
functions that have been assigned to it; and lastly too, by the fact
that, without this opinion be admitted, it must remain a superfluous
organ, and as regards use, unknown. After a series of years, during
which this doctrine has been combated upon all sides, without, however,
a single reason, save and except that it was not believed, being
advanced by its opponents, I must still persist in the correctness of
the above view.

_Vascular Intestine._

2162. In the duodenum the _analysis_ of the food takes place through
the medium of the bile. It is consequently the _biliary_ intestine or

2163. The biliary intestine does not stand upon a par with the other
intestines, but has an equal rank with the stomach. It is therefore not
confined within the mesentery, but can expand itself like the stomach;
it has its vessels and nerves. In it the separation of the chyme into
chyle and excrementitious matter takes place.

2164. What the spleen is for the stomach, that is the liver for the
duodenum; it is the hepatic stomach, and consequently the vascular

2165. The liver is the ramification of the intestinal canal along with
the whole vascular system.

2166. Now, as the analysis is the principal function in the whole
process of digestion; so is the liver the chief organ of all digestive

2167. The liver is the centre, the brain of the digestive system,
because it is the blossom, the synthesis of the vascular system.
From it everything emanates, and upon it everything which concerns
digestion, ay, the whole body, retrogressively operates. If the liver
suffers or undergoes functional derangement, the whole vascular and
tegumentary formation then becomes a liver, as is exemplified in the
disease called jaundice.

2168. The bile effects the analysis or separation through its basic or
alkaline character, since it combines with the acids of the chyme, and
thereby forms the excrementitious matter.

2169. That which mediates between the acid and what is alkaline is the
fluid secreted by the pancreatic gland. The pancreatic gland is the
ramification of the intestine along with the arterial system.

_Tegumental Intestine._

2170. That in the jejunum and ileum or the small intestine proper,
and in that alone, absorption and thus the tegumentary function, but
nothing else, occurs, is well known. By this absorption the chyle
becomes removed from the intestine, so that the excrement alone is left.

b. _Sexual Intestine._

2171. The sexual is pre-eminently that which is exsecernent or
excretive, since one sex strives to redintegrate itself upon the other,
becomes ingestive for the other, but egestive for or in relation to
itself. It is therefore an essential property of the sexual parts, that
they secrete and excrete.

2172. Every galvanic system, which has been adjoined or appended to
the sexual parts, is excretive. They are, taken in a rigid sense, the
only system of excretion. The co-operative processes of the sex are
those of the vegetative systems, but they take place in the reverse
direction. The latter convey inwards, the former outwards. The kidneys
are a reversed or evacuating lung, an excrement-forming liver; the
urinary cyst is an exspirant, a trachea containing refuse matter;
the urethra is a glottis reversed; their diseases are therefore
similar. They thus expel products of the individual respiratory system.

2173. And in this is the sexual apparatus distinguished from them,
namely, that it expels the products of _all_ systems, the products of
the whole organism, or the organism itself. In the semen the whole male
body with all its parts transudes, or passes over in a fluid state,
into the female parts; in a child, the female together with the male
body, passes over--formed or fashioned into the world.

2174. The sexual intestine must therefore be expulsive also. It is that
which conducts the intestinal juice and the refuse of the aliment out
of the body.

2175. The evacuating or efferent intestine is the large intestine. It
is consequently the _Sexual intestine_.

2176. The large intestine is related to the abdominal or small
intestine, exactly like the urinary cyst is to the kidney, and
this to the vascular system. The small intestine passes therefore by
perforation into the large, not the latter into the former. The small
enters by perforating the large intestine, and therein evacuates its
alimentary residue, as into a special-cyst, that has nothing to do with
the intestinal system. The large intestine is the _excrement_-cyst,
just as that which has been called bladder is the _urinary_ cyst.

2177. The large intestine no longer digests, but only receives what is
left from the process of digestion and expels or casts it out.

2178. The large intestine begins with a cæcal extremity, or with an
obtuse cyst, and opens into the anus, exactly like the original animal
cyst, the polyp. The blind extremity is called cæcum. With this the
small intestine communicates by perforating it at an acute angle, and
that indeed in a direction which runs towards the obtuse cystiform
extremity; so that both intestines lie in mutual juxtaposition like a
fork, whereof the pharynx and the rectum are the two prongs, while
the cæcum is the handle.

2179. The two intestines are consequently by no means correlated.
In the perfect animal there are two intestinal systems thoroughly
distinct from each other; two intestines, which belong to two different
animals, the sexual and encephalic animal, or the plant and the animal.
The genesis of the large intestine and all its relations, which are
principally seen in the cæcum and rectum, plead for this philosophical
derivation of the two intestines.

2180. The rectum appertains wholly and entirely to the sexual system,
and especially to the uterus. It is devoid of mesentery, and supplied
by special vessels; it stands in most obvious sympathy with the uterus,
with its diseases, and with menstruation. Even hemorrhoids are a sexual
disease, a disease of the _sexual_ intestine.

2181. The anus is thus the intestinal mouth of the sexual animal. In
the lowest organized animals, the oviducts seminal and urinary ducts
together run into it, as into a proper mouth. The anus is a true oral
cavity in the fishes, reptiles, and even in the whale.

2182. The pharynx opens into the mouth, and so does the rectum
into the anus; the trachea opens into the month, and so does the
urethra into the anus; the salivary ducts open into the mouth, and so
into the anus do the oviducts, with the spermatic canals in the lower
animals. The rectum moreover lies behind the urinary cyst, like the
gullet behind the trachea.

2183. The sphincter or occlusor muscles of the anus have been formed
like the sphincter muscles of the pharynx. The anus is a mouth without
a head, and therefore a mouth without lips, or an pharynx.

_Cephalic Intestine._

2184. The union or combination of the intestine with the animal
systems, such as the nervous, muscular, and osseous, occurs in the head.

2185. In so far as it combines with bones and muscles, it becomes an
organ of motion, and, when with the nerves, an organ of sensation. The
animal or sarcal intestine is pharynx and mouth.

2186. The motor organ is an organ of prehension. The organs of
prehension are endowed with independent motion, and therefore move
towards the food. The first general organs of motion are the members
of the body. In the higher animals the thoracic members are at once
the prehensible organs. Instead of the aliment being obliged to flow,
as unto the plant, in a state of suspension in water, the animal moves
itself toward its food.

2187. The members are the first organs of prehension. But these are
repeated in the head as jaws and teeth. The teeth are the second organs
of prehension, but the first which belong to the cephalic intestine;
they are called _organs of seizure_ or prehension.

2188. The organ of digestion is, however, one of a chemical character.
It must be therefore repeated as such in the head. This is shown in
the _salivary glands_. The saliva is the animal gastric juice, and is
therefore directly solvent in its properties. It is _poison_.

2189. After and during the operation of the saliva, the aliments in
the mouth are subjected to the action of the molar teeth and ground or
_chewed_. These comminuting or crushing organs are only a repetition
of the act of prehension, and consequently belong to the prehensile or
biting organs.

2190. The mouth is the stomach repeated in the head.

2191. The union of the intestine with the nervous system is the

2192. The intestine, when repeated in the head's muscular system, is
the organ of deglutition, as is seen in the pharynx and oesophagus.

2193. The prehensile and manducatory, venomous, gustatory, and
deglutitory organs, are the forms into which the intestinal system
divides, when it is repeated in the after-animal, or in the sphere of
animal life. The gustatory organ is the nerve-intestine; the prehensile
organ the bone-intestine; the organ of deglutition the muscular
intestine; while the poison-organ is the proper cephalic intestine, or
the stomach.


2194. The vascular system regarded "en masse," or in a general sense,
has to participate in the nutrition of the body; so far it takes the
place of the cellular tissue, and cannot therefore be developed for
itself into any special _organs_. If, however, certain vessels separate
from the general system, and combine with other systems unto the
performance of special offices or functions, _organs_ then originate,
which, nevertheless, do not, in a rigid point of view, belong to these

2195. There are therefore as many vascular organs as there are possible
combinations; thus with the tegument, the lung, the intestine, the
sexual parts, and with the systems of animal life.


2196. The development of the vessels unto a special organ in the
integument are _Respiratory organs_; or, more properly speaking,
the development of the integument to constitute a special organ in
combination with the vessels, is a respiratory organ.

2197. In the commencement the branchiæ are only a vascular network
upon, and therefore subordinate to, the integument. They pass, however,
through all possible stages of development, until they have subjected
and converted also the integument into a vascular system; a point which
is attained in the formation of the lungs.

2198. The branchial membrane already commences in the earthworm to
concentrate itself and dilate, so as to form what have been called the
sacculi or pouches; in the leech it is folded inwards, so as to form
lateral vesicles or cysts, that prognosticate the air-passages or
stigmata of insects; in the Nereids the vessels project upon the back
from above the integument as free branchial ramules, a formation, which
is again found in the nudibranchiate Gasteropods.

2199. These branchial ramules form at first two rows extending along
the whole dorsal region; by degrees, however, the posterior set
disappear, and the cervical branchiæ only are left, as antetypes of the
gills of fishes.

2200. In the Mollusca the branchial vessels unite to form laminæ
upon the ventral sides, and are already surrounded by a kind of
thoracic cavity, the mantle, as is exemplified in the tectibranchiate
Gasteropods. Here again the branchiæ are either a simple vascular net
enveloped in a fold of the mantle, or elongated into filaments disposed
like the teeth of a comb, or into laminæ, &c.

2201. The lateral branchiæ of the Nereids usually emit filaments
resembling feet, upon the root of which the true branchiæ are then
placed. In the Crustacea these filaments harden into actual feet
provided with joints. The feet are therefore nothing else than
branchial filaments, which have lost their vegetative function.

2202. In many worms the same branchial filaments are converted into
hairs or bristles, which are therefore none other than desiccated
branchial filaments.

2203. Even the hairs of Mammalia and the feathers of Birds have been
left as remnants of the original branchial formation.

2204. Where the branchiæ have assumed the laminated form, they are
surrounded by a similarly formed covering or operculum. The shells
of the Mollusca are, as regards their signification, none other than
branchial opercula, or gill-covers; the same holds good also of the
gasteropodal and crustacean shells, and at bottom of every calcareous
and horny covering of the body.

2205. To the same category belong also the opercula of Fishes, and even
their scales. Fundamentally, the whole epidermis is only a product of
respiration or oxydation.

2206. The first saccular or cæcal inversion of the integument, as in
the Leeches, Molluscs, and Snails, is at once a predominance of the
tegumentary, obtained through the medium of the branchial formation,
whereby the skin commences to become a self-substantial organ of

2207. In the Scorpions the branchiæ are introverted sacs or cysts, into
which, however, instead of water, air already enters.

2208. This insaccation is converted in the Spiders into more distinct
air-cysts, which finally ramify in the higher insects and become true

2209. Lastly, the respiratory system obtains the upper hand to such
an extent, that, together with internal air-tubes, external branchial
laminæ are also developed, as in the Molluscs; but in them the tracheæ
obtain the preponderance over the blood-vessels, so that these laminæ
dry up and become wings or fins.

2210. The wings of Insects are branchial laminæ, converted into

2211. The wing-coverings or elytra are branchial opercula, and
correspond to the shells of bivalve Mollusca.

2212. Every insect therefore must properly possess four wings and two
wing-coverings, of which last, however, rudiments only appear to be
left in the nocturnal Lepidoptera.

2213. In the higher organized animals those gills only which are nearer
the head are persistent, the posterior or lateral branchiæ being
gradually arrested.

2214. These lateral branchiæ remain in Fishes as lateral mucous
openings, which constitute the lateral line.

2215. The cervical branchiæ are limited to the number five, which
has already begun to be established in the Crustacea; namely, at the
origins or roots of the five anterior pairs of feet.

2216. The number five probably derives its origin from the vegetable
kingdom, and that indeed from the genesis of the pinnate leaves, so
that one kind of numerical law appears to prevail with respect to this
organ in both organic kingdoms. It is probably also an imitation of
the five organs of sense.

2217. The vessels of the branchiæ of Fishes are accompanied by bony
rings, which correspond to the feet of Crustacea.

2218. All Fishes have, with few exceptions, five branchial arches.

2219. When in Fishes the sarcous system begins to produce viscera, then
the five branchial foramina pass inwards, and only a single respiratory
aperture is left for them in the fleshy body; namely, the external
branchial foramen.

2220. In the lower animals water or air passes in and out through
the same respiratory aperture, but in Fishes these two courses are
preserved distinct; for, except in the Lampreys, the water enters
through the mouth, and passes out through the branchial aperture.

2221. Here the attempt is manifested in a still greater degree, to
bring the process of respiration wholly under the control of what is
animal, this being in the next place, and for the first time attained,
when respiratory apertures only are left upon the head.

2222. The respiratory apertures of the head are the nostrils, which are
suddenly manifested in Fishes, but are in them simply subservient to
the sense of smell, and not as yet to the respiratory act.

2223. All the higher animals have, like fishes, branchial apertures in
the neck, only they coalesce and become obliterated at an early period,
or so soon as that respiratory process appears, when air passes through
the nostrils. In the Salamanders and Frogs these branchial foramina are
persistent for a longer time, frequently through the whole period of
life; but in Birds and Mammalia they disappear, while they are in the
embryo state.

2224. When the branchial apertures close, the vessels separate from
the arches, and betake themselves to a glandular body lying in front
of them. The thyroid gland is the remnant of the former branchial
formation, and is therefore found only in Reptiles, Birds, and


2225. In Fishes the internal organ of respiration is already indicated
by a cæcal eversion of the pharynx, which is surrounded by
the branchial arches. This membranous cæcal eversion is called the
swimming-cyst, which in the higher animals becomes double on account
of their symmetry, and is then called lung.

2226. In the Fish the aquatic and aerial process of respiration are
present together, the former being external, the latter internal.

2227. The branchial arches having coalesced, are converted in the
higher animals into tracheal rings, into the larynx and the posterior
cornua of the hyoid bone, if these are present, as in the Reptiles.
The larynx is therefore no special organ, but only a remnant of the
branchial respiratory apparatus.

2228. The laryngeal vessels are, like the thyroid glands, branchial
vessels, and in Fishes, therefore, the branchial vessels do not
correspond to the pulmonary vessels, but to those of the trachea.
The pulmonic vessels of Fishes are the blood-vessels of the
swimming-cyst, which convey blood directly into the heart, whereby
this organ obtains the signification of the left or arterial heart.

2229. When the branchial apertures have coalesced, the nose then opens
into the mouth or into the trachea, and in this way the nostrils assume
the complete character of aerial foramina.

2230. The nose is therefore originally an organ of smell, and then a
part of the respiratory system. It is the animal lung.

2231. As the secretion of bone is a product of the more powerful
process of oxydation, so do the bony rings multiply beneath the
branchial arches or the larynx, and are called tracheal rings. In
the feebly respiring Reptiles the trachea is therefore still in a
membranous condition, but in Birds and Mammalia, it is surrounded by
many rings, or is a repetition of the larynx.

2232. In Birds even a kind of inferior larynx originates, which is
provided with muscles and can produce tones.

2233. The ramification of the trachea into two bronchi or branches is
constantly progressing, and at length these tubes divide into a great
number of vesicles, which together form the lungs. The lung, which was
in the commencement a simple saccular inversion of the integument, has
now become a self-substantial organ, to which the respiratory vessels
have been subordinated. The lung also divides upon each side into five



2234. The self-substantial development of the vascular, and its
separation from the general, system, is most perfectly attained in the

2235. In the liver, as being the vascular system, which combines with
the intestinal canal, the venous system has become independent. The
portal vein arises from the intestinal canal, collects into one trunk,
and again ramifies in order to unite with the biliary ducts, which are
only a ramified saccular eversion of the intestine. This conjunction is
represented by the liver.

2236. The liver as being a venous organ stands therefore in opposition
to the lung, and produces, instead of oxydes, a basic body, or the
_bile_. The liver, as being the venous system which has become free, is
to be regarded as the highest development or blossom of the vascular

2237. It is for the vegetative body, what the brain is for the animal;
and hence, therefore, the similarity of structure and the sympathy
between both organs.


2238. As opposed to the liver, the arterial system also develops
itself upon the intestine as a respiratory or branchial organ. These
intestinal branchiæ are found in several of the lower organized
animals, especially in the Holothuriæ and Aphroditæ.

2239. In the higher animals they are aggregated into a special organ,
through which the gastric juice obtains oxygen; this is the spleen. The
spleen is the branchia of the stomach; it has therefore no excretory
duct and requires none.

2240. Lastly, the salivary glands also in the mouth as well as in the
duodenum, the abdomino-salivary glands, and even the odoriferous glands
on the rectum, such as the castor-and civet-pouches, are complications
of vessels with intestinal ramifications.



2241. The vascular organ of the sexual system is the kidneys.

2242. As the urine is chiefly characterized by the urea and thus by a
basic principle; it thus corresponds to the bile, and consequently the
kidneys directly to the liver or the lung reversed.

2243. But there is also a sexual branchia in those inferior animals
which breathe through the anus, such as many aquatic larvæ.

2244. The remnant of this in the higher animals appears to be the
allantois, and in the body itself probably what have been called the
primordial kidneys.

2245. The combination of the vascular system with the animal systems is
the sense of touch.


2246. The respiratory organ is a development of the integument.

2247. The perfect organ of respiration is an air-organ or _lung_;
combined with the tegumentary system, it is a water-organ or _branchia_.

2248. There are _dermo-branchiæ_ or the _branchiæ_ proper, as in the
Worms, Molluscs, Snails, and Crabs.

2249. Intestinal branchiæ in the Holothuriæ, constituting in the higher
animals a _spleen_.

2250. The sexual branchiæ are probably the primordial kidneys.

2251. The branchiæ when united with the osseous system are the
branchial arches of Fishes, which subsequently separate into larynx and
thyroid gland.

2252. The self-substantial development of the integument into the
respiratory organ is a lung.

2253. When united with the vascular system or the vegetative systems
generally, the integument forms the tracheal system of Insects.

2254. The tracheæ are spiral vessels as in plants.

2255. The respiratory organ, united with the motor system, is the lung
proper, which is situated within the thorax, and covered by ribs.

2256. The proper lung divides also, like the intestine, into two parts,
into the cystiform, pharyngeal expansion of the larynx, and into the
pulmonic substance, which is equivalent to the stomach, and wherein the
analysis of the air takes place.

2257. The trachea, and especially the larynx, is moreover an entire
thorax, a ribbed skeleton upon a small and membranous scale. In the
larynx, the animal thoracic structure, consisting of ribs and muscles,
resides prognosticated. The larynx has originated from the coalescence
of branchial arches. The ribs are a repetition of the branchial arches.

2258. The diaphragm is a formation, which admits, by no reasoning from
its anatomy, but only genetically, of being explained. Originally,
the whole body was only an abdomen, upon the external surface of
which the branchiæ were appended. A remarkable instance of this is at
once afforded by the Snails, and also the Fishes. As the gills were
converted into lungs, a special body or the thorax originated for them,
which encroached upon the abdomen. Now, the abdominal wall left between
these two cavities, was just the diaphragm.

2259. The diaphragm is not a transverse wall or septum. The idea of
such a cross-rail gainsays all sound physiology. It has been the
abdominal wall.

2260. The union of the lungs with the nervous system is the nose.

2261. The nose is the cephalic thorax; but it has also the thoracic
contents, or the very lung repeated in itself.

2262. The multicavernous ethmoid bone is the lung in the nose, the two
nostrils being the stigmata or foremost openings of the trachea. The
nasal muscles are homologous to the cartilages of the trachea, and
especially to those of the larynx.

2263. The velum palati is the diaphragm between nose and mouth, or
between the cephalic thorax and the cephalic abdomen.


2264. The animal coverings are desiccated respiratory organs
appertaining to the integument.

_Capillary Vessels._

2265. The principal function of the vessel is that of secretion,
whereby nutrition is imparted. This secretion must take place in the
whole body, in so far as it is opposed to the lung. The vessels then
pass over into the finest canals, and are called _capillary vessels_.

2266. The capillary system of vessels is an organ in antagonism to the
lung; what enters the latter organ, passes out through the former.

2267. The capillary system of vessels is the property of the
tegumentary system. It may almost be said that wherever there is
integument, there capillary vessels are present. The most perfect
evolution of capillaries is the integument. It is the proper
exsecernent, in opposition to the intestine, which is the absorbent

2268. Evaporation is the essential tegumentary process.

2269. The product of the evaporation is mucus.

2270. In the evaporation, however, the mucus becomes analyzed by the
influence of the air and light.


2271. The external mucus exuding from the skin becomes oxydized, the
inferior on the contrary reduced; the oxydized becomes vitreous and
transparent. It is the _Epidermis_.

2272. With the maximum of oxydation the epidermis passes over into a
vitreous transparent horn, e. g. _scales_.

2273. The scales, which invest the toes and digits are called claws,
and finally become nails. The finger-nail is nothing but a scale, which
in this situation has become particularly large and strong.

2274. That which is reduced beneath the vitrified epidermis determines
the colour of the skin. With a demi-oxydation it is uncoloured, appears
white. Where the integument is thin, the red colour of the blood
appears through it; such integument is therefore white upon the whole,
but red in individual places.

2275. With the most complete reduction effected by the highest
operation of light, its substratum or under-layer becomes black. The
mucus passes over into reduced carbon. Beneath the vitreous epidermis
there is thus a metallic _pigmentary membrane_.


2276. Capillary vessels, which simply convey mucus, but are elongated
singly above and from out the cutis, are _Hairs_. The idea of the hair
is a _capillary vessel_, the contents of which are no longer blood,
but reduced mucus. It is an indifferent capillary vessel. The hair is
hollow and contains an oil, which determines the colour.

2277. In the hairs the nutritive system is prolonged above the body.

2278. The hairs and scales are the general terrestrial system of the
body determined by the air.

2279. Thus the earth has sprung up into a plant. Scales and hairs are
like true vegetable leaves, which still continue their process in the
animal; they can no longer it is true make their respiratory process
hold good for the animal process itself, but are at present content
with only oxydizing the material of evaporation. It is properly the
integument only, not the entire body, which respires through hairs and

2280. The hairs are dried branchial filaments, and therefore continue
to occupy in Man, those situations only where in the lower animals
branchiæ or tentacula are placed. Around e. g. the mouth, upon the
head, under the arms or in the axillæ, and around the sexual apertures.

2281. The feathers are dried ramified branchiæ, pinnate leaves.

2282. The hairs participate in the electric process of the whole body.

2283. What determines the colour in the plant, determines it also in
the animal; only in the plant the colour is more coarsely precipitated,
and nothing therefore glimmers from the interior of the body, but all
is green. In an animal, however, the colouring matter is transparent,
and the interior is thus rendered visible.

2284. With the external coverings, such as scales, and lastly with the
hairs, all organs of the trunk, in so far as they are derived from
what is vegetable, are exhausted. The vegetable animal, as trunk, is
completed, and we must now therefore turn to the sexual organs.


2285. The sexual organs are developments of the integument upon a
higher grade, and combinations of the same with the animal systems,
like as the blossom is a repetition of all vegetative systems.

2286. They range in the middle between the vegetative and the
encephalic animal, and are therefore a totality for themselves, or a
sexual animal.

2287. There are vegetative and animal sexual parts.

I. _Vegetative Sexual Organs._

2288. Are special developments of the intestine, vessels and branchiæ.


2289. The proper sexual parts are a repetition of the digestive system
on its transition to what is animal, or to the organs of sense.

1. _Female Organs._

2290. The female parts are a floral capsule, consisting of an ovary
or sac, stigma and ova. All higher development takes place, however,
through separation of the complicated organs and processes.

2291. The three parts therefore of the gestative sac or matrix
separate, each part becoming self-substantially perfected. The orifice
elongates into a cervix or neck, which is gradually rendered more
distinct from the matrix, and in its highest and self-substantial
completion is called oviduct.

2292. The matrix elongates also at its cæcal extremity or fundus,
as well as at its open end. The germinal bodies also become
self-substantial, separate gradually from the fundus of the matrix, and
are then independent ovaria.

2293. As in the highest animal formation they also assume the animal
symmetry, while at first they were only single, or manifold, as in the
plicated capsules of Star-fishes, and therefore remained stationary at
the number two; so is the ovisac prolonged into two long cornua, or
trumpet-like tubes, which at the commencement, indeed, still include
the ova, as in Insects and Fishes, but are subsequently left entirely

2. _Male Parts._

2294. The leaf-formation is elevated to the corolla or the male parts
in the plant. They are, however, only the repetition of the plant upon
a higher stage. Hence in the animal also the male parts will be upon a
higher grade of position to the female.

2295. As the stamina surround the ovarian capsule in the plant, so do
animal stamina stand around the orifice of the oviduct; as _penes_.

2296. In the lowest ovisacs the penes are circularly disposed around
the orifice; as is exemplified by the tentacles of a Polyp; by degrees,
however, they are resolved, for the sake of symmetry, into two, and
then project upon the sides of the orifice, as in the Serpents and
Lizards. In the higher animals the two penes coalesce into _one_.

2297. This penis situated at the orifice of the oviduct is the
clitoris. The vagina is separated from the clitoris; but in the male
organs they both combine or blend with each other, and the vagina
becomes the seminal canal or that of the penis.

2298. As the orifice begins to assume a male character, and the
external parts to be more forcibly developed in the direction outwards,
so, on the other hand, do the internal parts recede the more, and
remain simply as ovaria or ovisacs, in which the ova, instead of being
formed as such, dissolve into pollen, mucus, or male semen. These
ovaria, which now secrete semen instead of vitelline vesicles, are
called testes.

2299. The testes originate, while the mucous ova are being reduced to
primary mucus, or to infusoria.

2300. What is male originates through an organic process of
decomposition or putrefaction of the ova. The semen is an organic
product of decomposition.

2301. The semen must contain infusoria. A semen which does not contain
infusoria, is ovum-like, or feminine. Except at the time of heat or
rut, and thus when the animals have a female character, the semen
possesses no infusoria, and is in that case simply albumen.

2302. Semen, which is devoid of infusoria, is incapable of
impregnation. How can one wretched female ovum impregnate or fructify

2303. As the trumpet-like tubes or oviducts belong to the ovaria, so
are they developed with the testes, and now convey semen instead of
ova. The female tubes become the vasa deferentia or _spermatic ducts_,
the uterine cornua, the vesiculæ seminales.

2304. Between the vesiculæ seminales and the vagina or the penis
the uterus shrivels up into the prostate gland, into which the vasa
deferentia open, like the oviducts do into the uterus.

2305. As the matrix is the proper female organ, so will the
spermatic ducts seek to combine with the penis, or at least open
self-substantially upon the os uteri. The testes open either through
the spermatic ducts into the vagina, as in Fishes, Reptiles, and Birds,
or into the penis, as in the Gasteropods, Insects, and Mammalia.

2306. Male and female parts are therefore perfectly homologous, the
former having a greater development of the external division, the
latter of the internal.

2307. The female parts have undertaken the business of vegetation, or
that of the viscera, the male that of the animal excitation.

2308. Since the male parts are no new formation, but the female parts
themselves, only characterized by internal arrest, and external
increase of development, so do male and female parts appear incapable
of occurring together in any animal. Perfect hermaphrodites would,
accordingly, be impossible; for where testes are, no ovaria could
be, because the testes are themselves the ovaria, or the latter only

2309. Hence androgynism would be possible only by one ovarium remaining
as such, and the other being converted into a testis.

2310. This development appears only possible when the two halves of the
body are unequal. Asymmetrical animals only can be androgynous. In
the snails one of the two molluscan shell-valves has been more largely
developed than the other, and therefore one half also of the body is
greater than the other. On this account many hermaphrodites are found
among these animals.

2311. Thus, there ought to be no androgynous animals with at the same
time two ovaria and two testes. Nevertheless, this very peculiarity
occurs in many of the lower organized animals, e. g. the worms.

2312. Accordingly, the principle of androgynism is in general to be
found in the want of symmetry. Symmetrical animals are as a rule
dioecious. No hermaphrodite is found among the Insects, Fishes,
Reptiles, Birds, and Mammalia.

2313. If such occur, they are formations that have remained persistent
at the lower stage of development, or upon the transition of the
embryo through the Snail-type of organization; they are thus
monstrosities, or malformations.

2314. These malformations also, when occurring in the higher animals,
can never possess more than one testicle and one ovarium. The uterus
then ranks midway between its condition as such, and that of a prostate
gland; the spermatic tube or urethra opens after a female fashion below
the root of the penis.


2315. Since the male sex is related to the female, as corolla to
capsule, as leaf to stalk, as air to water, and as light to matter; so
is it related also as integument to intestine, as lung to lymphatic
vessel, as artery to vein, as nerve to flesh or muscle, as Animal to

2316. Copulation is therefore an _irradiation_.

2317. Already, in the course of the heavenly bodies, has the highest
act of the animal, that of copulation, been preindicated or portrayed.
The creation of the universe or world is itself nothing but an act
of impregnation. The sex is prognosticated from the beginning, and
pursues its course like a holy and conservative bond throughout the
whole of nature. He therefore who so much as questions the sex in the
organic world, comprehends not the riddle or problem of the universe.

2318. If the female parts have effected a complete transition into the
male, so are the sexes necessarily separate and distinct.

2319. Since the male parts are the female that have been more highly
developed, so there resides in the latter the constant conatus or
effort to convert themselves into the male.

2320. This metamorphosis, or conversion, is, however, no longer
possible in the female parts, when already finished or fully formed,
but is only attainable in a new attempt being made upon their part, to
transform the fluid mass into ova.

2321. Gestation or pregnancy is none other than the propensity of the
Female to convert itself into the Male.

2322. The foetus is the male in a female, or the foetus is the male
sexual parts in the female.

2323. In idea, every foetus should be male. But, if mascularity
be attained with the first production, then the second necessarily
subsides into the female. In this manner there of necessity originates
an equiponderance in the number of both sexes.

2324. Moreover, if the sexual parts be regarded according to their
proper signification in the animal, they are the upper intestinal
system, as it has been developed in the mouth, and that indeed in such
a manner, that the female parts are the vegetative form or the oral
cavity, the male, the animal form, or the tongue with the salivary
glands; the former represent the process of deglutition, the latter
that of taste.

2325. Into the uterus or into the prostate gland the excretory ducts
of the sexual glands, or the spermatic canals and oviducts, pursue a
convergent course, like the salivary ducts do into the oral cavity.

2326. The testes, as also the ovaria, are forebodent of the _salivary
glands_. The semen and oviducts are salivary ducts; they open by twos
and symmetrically. Semen and ova are secreted like saliva. Semen and
ova have also a salivary function, though of this the former is endowed
with more than the latter.

2327. The ova correspond, as being an object of the semen, to the
object of the saliva, which is the food or aliment. The saliva imparts
to the bole or mouthful of food its first animal signification; it
renders it for the first time capable of passing over into animal
organs; it impregnates the morsel. The semen renders the ovum capable
of effecting the transition into an animal; it spits upon the ovum.

2328. Impregnation is a process of smearing with saliva, conception a
process of deglutition.

2329. Pregnancy is a process of digestion and formation of blood.

2330. If the internal sexual parts denote the internal visceral parts
of the mouth, so must the external parts of the one correspond to
the external of the other. The labia pudendi correspond to the lips,
and the clitoris to the tongue, which is more perfectly represented
in the penis. Both tongue and penis consist of two halves; in cases
where the former is fissured or divided, the latter is so also, as
in the Serpents and Lizards. In many animals, as the dogs and other
Mammalia, there is likewise a bone in the penis, which corresponds to
the os hyoides or linguale. The salivary ducts have combined with the
penis; or, taken in a more strict sense, it may be said, that in the
penis the tongue has coalesced with the oral cavity, so that both form
a canal,--that of the penis, into which the salivary ducts (vesiculæ
seminales) open.

2331. The sexual passion or venereal desire is a gustatory process of
the sexual animal, the copulation being at one and the same time a
matter both of taste and deglutition.

3. _Germ or Embryo._

2332. In the embryo the whole animal already resides in miniature, as
does the plant in its seed.

2333. The embryonic intestine is the vitellus or yelk.

2334. The embryonic integument is the amnion.

2335. The embryonic vascular system is the chorion.

2336. The embryonic sexual system is the allantois. The above
propositions can only be perfectly developed in the physiology.


2337. The hæmatopoietic or blood-preparing vascular system is the lung;
the blood-destroying, exsecernent vascular system is the kidneys. The
kidneys are the lung reversed. The liver decomposes the venous, the
kidneys the arteriose blood.

2338. The _kidneys_ are the individualized vascular system of the
sex, as the liver is that for digestion. They accord with the liver
in their glandular structure, in the renal pelvis, which is like the
gall-cyst, in the ureters that resemble the biliary ducts, and
lastly, in the general signification of the urine as a product, wherein
the whole organism, the whole blood-system has been excreted, like the
bile, in which the venous blood undergoes the same process.

2339. Every disturbance of the digestive function acts in a striking
and very direct manner upon the urine. The jaundice is apparent in
urine; and what else is diabetes than a malady analogous to diseases of
the liver? In urine we recognize what the bile has done with the food;
the urine is the fluid nutritive system, and consequently the fluid
organism "in toto;" the sexual blood, or sexual bile.

2340. The urine is the purest mirror or reflex of the bodily condition,
and hence ourology or the doctrine of urine is of the most universal
importance in semeiotics or symptomatic pathology: the ureters
correspond to the tracheal branches or bronchi; thus, the urinary
cyst to the trachea; the urethra to the larynx.

2341. In many animals the ureters open directly into the cloaca, as in
many Fishes, Reptiles.

2342. By degrees the cloaca is retracted towards the ureters, and then
originates a cloaca, which is both urethra and urinary cyst, as in

2343. In the higher animals, where a perfect ourocyst or urinary
cyst has been evolved, the urethra opens into the anterior wall
of the vagina, in front of which the urinary cyst then lies, in a
similar manner to the trachea in front of the pharynx.

2344. In many Fishes the urinary cyst is absent, their pulmonic sac
being also but feebly developed and only remaining as an asymmetrical
swimming-cyst--the ureters too open directly into the cloaca, just
as the swimming-cyst opens into the oesophagus. The pharynx of
Fishes, as being surrounded by the branchial arches, is at once pharynx
and larynx, like as in many animals cloaca and urinary cyst are of
one and the same kind.

2345. In many Reptiles (such as the Tortoises and Frogs) the urinary
cyst gives off two cæca or blind sacs, as is the case in the larynx
of many apes.

2346. In the Bird the two cul-de-sacs of the urinary cyst are much
more developed and have assumed the form of two cæcal intestines, so
that they have been actually viewed as such, and their number two been
assigned as characteristic of the bird, the other animals meanwhile
having only one. The cæca intestinalia of Birds are the lateral and
upper extremities of the urinary cyst. The true cæcum of the bird
is the vitelline canal or duct, just as in the fishes and all higher
organized animals; this being distinctly retained in the aquatic birds.

2347. In the Bird the rectum properly opens into the urinary cyst
between the two blind sacs or cæca, and that indeed with a regular
vulva, which is a sphincter muscle.

2348. The cloaca of the Bird is an urinary cyst, into which the anus

2349. The orifice of the cloaca is properly that of the urethra; ova
and fæces are moistened with urine. In a bird both these egesta are

2350. Like the urethra, so is the trachea membranous in Fishes, and in
most Reptiles also.

2351. Urinary cyst and urethra stand in sympathetic relation with
the trachea and larynx, and have also similar diseases, such as
catarrh, inflammation, &c.

2352. The proper proof, however, of the urinary cyst belonging to
the respiratory system resides in its genesis. It proceeds from the
allantois, which in Birds is a decided organ of respiration, a branchia.

2353. Out of this urinary cyst issue in the embryo what have been
called primordial kidneys, which shrink or dwindle down at a later
period, but have entirely the structure of branchiæ.

2354. Here then is a sexuo-respiratory process, which corresponds to
the anal respiration, upon a higher stage, of many worms and aquatic
larvæ, e. g. Holothuriæ and Libellulæ. This anal respiration is in its
signification a sexual respiration.

2355. Even in the acephalous bivalve Mollusca and Snails the respiratory
openings are almost always situated in the proximity of the anus; their
respiration is still a sexual respiration.

2356. For the first time in Insects it becomes a respiration of the
trunk; and for the first time in the higher animals a truly animal,
namely, a cephalic respiration.

2357. The urinary system is a double system; it conjoins in itself the
two highest galvanic processes, that of secretion and excretion.

2358. Secretion is an hepatic character, excretion a pulmonic
character. Secretion belongs to nutrition, excretion to respiration.
Excretion is an exspiration, secretion an influx or infusion. Secretion
is related to excretion as water is to air, as liver to lung, as basis
to oxygen.

2359. Secretion takes place, e. g. of bile and saliva, in so far as the
processes of the body, especially those of the digestion, are promoted.
Excretion is only effected in so far as that the organs, into which
what is secreted enters, may obtain a tracheal signification, i. e.
evaporation. All excretory orifices are in a certain sense larynges or
tracheal orifices. Thus, this relation between secretion and excretion
would have been discovered without recourse to conjecture being had
upon our part.

2360. The urine is "par excellence" a double product of this kind. It
is secreted in the kidneys for simply one object, like the bile. It is
excreted, because it belongs to the sexual system, which is essentially

2361. The object or purpose of the urine has not been subverted in
all animals. In Birds, where the urinary cyst and intestine are
confluent, the urine enters like the bile into the intestine, at least
at a spot where there is intestinal matter, which it renders fluid.

2362. In Insects and Snails it appears to invest as a mucus the ova,
and serve for their attachment. The same appears to hold good of
the spider's web. What has been called purple juice and ink (in the
Cephalopods) ranks probably in the signification of urine.


2363. The sexual intestine is the colon or large intestine, which, in
this respect, belongs to the sexual system, as has been indicated at §

II. _Animal Sexual Organs._

2364. The bones of the sex are the feet with their appurtenances, such
as the pelvis with the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebræ. The
muscles, as well as the nerves, are self-understood. But of these we
will speak in the sequel.


2365. All organs, which are purely animal, are penetrated or traversed
by the nervous system, just as the lower systems are by the tegumentary
formation. No higher organ is the wholly pure evolution of _one_
system, but the systems ever combine with each other; and this
combination, when individually represented, constitutes the organ.

2366. Organ is distinguished from system in not pursuing its course
through the whole body, nor consisting simply of one and the same mass,
but by its occupying a definite part of the body and being composed of
several systems.

2367. Every organ has therefore a special and specific function also.

2368. The systems of animal life divide only into two kinds of organs,
into those of sensation and those of motion, into the solar and
planetary, or central and peripheric.


2369. Bone and muscle are not societies, but only poles of one system.
There is therefore no mere bony organ, and no mere muscular organ.
Meanwhile we will here regard them in particular or "per se."

1. _Osseous Organs._

2370. The first bones were branchial arches or tracheal rings. When
the lungs were developed from the branchiæ, the branchial arches were
repeated as ribs or pulmonary arches. Lastly, should bones be formed,
which are to be wholly in the service of the animal or the nervous
system, so also must they be wholly liberated from the vegetative
organs, and become self-substantial, i. e. have nothing else to do, but
move. Free motor organs can be none other than ribs that have become

2371. These free ribs must inclose the respiratory organ or the
integument, which has become an organ of animal life; they are the
members or _limbs_. If we think of ribs, whose office is no longer to
inclose lungs, which must no longer be subservient to the uninterrupted
vital motion of respiration, and which are no longer united by
pleura into a closed cyst or sac--will not such simply retain the
self-substantial voluntary motion in themselves? will they not abandon
the inferior cystic form, and represent the same, though but ideally
and voluntarily? will not such a thorax open in front, like the
intestine has opened at its nobler extremity?--will not such ribs be
members, arms, digits? The members or limbs are the _members of the
trunk_, or ribs that have opened in front; they are the thorax that
has opened in front; and hence are nothing new, but only something
emancipated or set free. Such ribs can be none other than motor organs;
for they were previously nothing else. Then, however, they performed
motion in the service of the viscera; at present, where they are
absolved from this service, they execute it only in accordance to the
will of the head, simply according to its will, for they are _verily
nothing more than motor ribs_. Where, however, or in what region of
the body will the ribs attain unto such freedom? Without doubt, in the
neighbourhood of the head, and thus at the very spot where the lungs
derive one of their extremities. The limbs are therefore _cervical

2372. The arms are a thorax, consisting quite purely of bone and
muscle, and represented as isolated or detached from the viscus, or the
lung; on this depends their nobility, or, in other words, upon what is
vegetative having been wholly left behind.

2373. The arms, when clasped together by the fingers, are a thorax
without viscera, without heart and lungs; they are destined to inclose
a whole body in the embrace.

2374. By an embrace that which is embraced has been made our viscus; it
has been adopted as our animal heart, and as our animal vital organ--or
lung. The embrace has an exalted physiological signification, and
precisely that which it unconsciously possesses in the state of pure
love. Nature always thinks more nobly than we do. We follow blindfold
her beautiful regulations, and she rejoices in the sport.

2375. As the fundamental number of the branchiæ is five, so also must
the limbs represent five ribs; they split into five digits or fingers.
The feet of the Crustacea and Insects generally do not correspond to
our feet; but to our fingers. The lower organized animals have only
toes, no feet. The five thoracic feet of the crab correspond to our
fingers; its five abdominal feet to our toes.

2376. There are three limbs in accordance with the three totalities of
the body, truncal, sexual, and cephalic members, or arms, feet, and

2377. The members of the body or trunk belong to the thorax, because it
is the respiratory system. The abdomen has no members; what have been
so-called, are in their signification sexual limbs.

2378. Had the animal no sex, it would have no posterior limbs.

2379. As the three lower cervical and the two upper dorsal vertebræ
belong to the arms, so also they appear to commence with five ribs, but
then to become arrested, and again emerge to perfection in the digits.

2380. The shoulder appears to consist of five ribs, but this does not
as yet admit of being clearly pointed out. Meanwhile, it is certain
that the scapula, acromion, and coracoid are particular bones, to which
may be added the clavicle.

2381. The middle finger is the elongated radius, and is therefore
the longest or radial digit. It is that which is persistent, if only
one finger has been left, as in the horse. The ring-finger is the
ulnar finger. It is that which, along with the former, appears in the
bi-ungulate animals; the spurious or dew-claws are the auricular and
index-finger; the thumb is the last ramification, is therefore always
arrested, and frequently present only as a wart-like excrescence or

2382. All animals, which have true digits, are furnished with five of
them, more or less completely developed. If what has been called the
metacarpal bone of the thumb be numbered, which it must, as a digital
articulation or phalanx, every finger has thus one carpal bone, and
each bone of the fore arm also one.

2383. The sexual members or feet correspond in all their pieces to the
arms: the pelvis is the shoulder repeated; and certainly, the iliac
bone is equivalent to the scapula, the ischium to the coracoid process,
the os pubis to the acromion, the marsupial bone to the clavicle.

_Cephalic Members._

2384. Both pairs of limbs are repeated in the head, because in it the
whole trunk is repeated; the upper jaw corresponds to the arms, the
lower jaw to the feet. Each jaw consists of two members, which are
ankylosed in the higher animals at their point of meeting or in front,
but in Fishes are partly, and in Insects completely, separated.

2385. Each jaw consists of the same bony divisions as the limbs of the
trunk, of scapula, humerus, and fore-arm; or of pelvis, femur, and
tibia. This is easily to be demonstrated in Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes.

2386. The digits are repeated in the teeth. The teeth are claws.

2387. There are therefore five kinds of teeth, which correspond to the
five digits. The thumb becomes the canine tooth; the index-finger the
false molars; the middle finger the laniary molar, the ring-finger the
second, and the little finger the third true molar tooth.

2388. The intermaxillary with its incisor teeth belongs, as well as the
palatal bones, to the pharynx; and is a visceral or intestinal maxilla.

2389. The lower animals therefore, as the Fishes, have almost nothing
but intermaxillary and palatal teeth. They act principally upon the
lingual teeth. The reptiles have still palatal teeth, which higher up
in the vertebrate series disappear.


2390. As the cervical ribs have nothing more to inclose, have no longer
to respire, but only to move; their symmetrical development is thus
undelayed. The symmetry is at first wholly attained by the act of
opening or apertion.

2391. The limbs are the most symmetrical organs. They are symmetrical
in each smallest part, and these parts again assume a symmetrical
arrangement in regard to each other. They are the ideal of symmetry.

2392. They are, however, the free living symmetry. They can create by
their motions symmetrical forms. The symmetry consists chiefly in, and
has been produced only by, the motion.

2393. The symmetry of the motion is the most exalted, for it is that
which is endowed with life. The symmetry of the form is that which is

2394. The symmetry of the form appertains to inorganic nature, the
symmetry of the motion is the property of animals.

2395. Dancing and acting are the highest organic symmetrical movements,
and also the highest symmetries. They are the symmetry of the motor
members, wrought by motion.

2396. Music is a much higher symmetry of motion.

2397. Speech is the highest spiritual symmetry; it is the dance and
histrionism of the spirit or mind.

2. _Muscular Organs._

2398. The muscles are everywhere attached to the bones, and help to
form with them the same set of organs.

2399. The muscles of the larynx are therefore the antetypes of the
costal muscles, these of the member-muscles, and the dorsal muscles of
the scapular and pelvic muscles.

2400. The muscles of the limbs are found in a state of treble
repetition. That the muscles of the arm and leg are of one kind, admits
of being demonstrated with tolerable facility. But it is necessary,
that in doing this regard be paid to the ligaments.

2401. The ligaments are only stunted muscles. Without bringing them
into account, the muscular system does not admit of being explained and

2402. The crural muscles are again found in the lower jaw.

2403. The brachial muscles, on the upper jaw or face.

2404. The movements of the facial muscles correspond to those of the
limb-muscles. Upon this depends the interpretation of dumb-show, or the
art of physiognomy.

3. _Nervous Organs._

2405. Nervous organs are liberations of individual parts of the nervous
system, and their endowment with a peculiar function or sensation.

2406. The liberations of the nerves are combinations with the other
anatomical systems at the spot where they have attained their highest

2407. Each system, however, has its peculiar process. Through the
reception or adoption of the systems into the nervous system, a
peculiar sensation must therefore originate.

2408. Peculiar sensations are sensations of sense.

2409. The combinations of the anatomical systems with the nervous
system, whereby the former have been subordinated to the latter, are
consequently _sensorial organs_, or organs of sense.

2410. In the sensorial organs the processes of the several systems
attain unto sensation. They are brains of the anatomical systems.

2411. There are as many senses as there are different anatomical
systems, and consequently senses belonging to vegetative and animal

2412. The number of vegetative systems is 3; the vascular, intestinal,
and pulmonary system.

2413. The most complete combination of the vascular with the nervous
system is the integument--constituting the tegumentary sense, or _sense
of feeling_.

2414. The most complete combination of the intestinal system with the
nerves is the tongue--intestinal or _gustatory sense_.

2415. The most complete combination of the lungs with the nerves is the
nose--pulmonary or _olfactory sense_.

2416. Among the three animal systems, bones and muscles produce, from
their association, only one action--the motion. The most complete and
perfect combination of the motor system with the nerves, is in the
ear--osseo-muscular or _auditory sense_.

2417. The nervous system has become a self-substantial organ in the
eye--the nervous, or _visual sense_.

2418. There are therefore only 5 senses; they are none other than
repetitions of the anatomical systems in the sensation; they are the
highest developments which are possible in the lower systems, being the
blossoms or heads of such systems.

2419. These systems are, however, processes of the universe taken up
into the organization. In its organs of sense, the processes of the
universe are thus felt or perceived. The senses are world-organs, and
are therefore placed in contact with the world, or occupy an outward

2420. The vascular system is the nutritive system. In it the blood
coagulates into the solid parts of the body. The feeling-sense is
therefore sensible of the nutrition or rigidifying process of the
body. Now, the Solid of the planet is the earth. The sense of feeling
perceives therefore opposition--it is an _earth-sense_.

2421. The function of the intestinal canal is digestion. In taste,
the process of digestion is felt. But digestion is a solvent, a
hydrapoietic process; in taste the water is therefore felt--it is the

2422. Respiration is a process of oxydation. In smell the respiratory
process is felt. Oxydation is, however, an air-process--it is
_air-sense_. Thus do the three vegetative senses feel the elements of
the planet--are _planetary senses_.

2423. The animal systems are symbols of the æther, of the gravity with
the heat or motion, and of the light.

2424. The motion is only moved matter, and thus a combination of the
muscular and osseous system. The ear therefore perceives the motion
of the primary matter, or the atomic motion--it is _gravity-sense_,

2425. The light is the tension-process of the æther; to see, is
therefore in an organism to emit light or shine--_light-sense_.

2426. The signification of the senses is twofold; they are anatomical
_systems_ which have become nerves, and on that account also _elements_
that have attained unto sensation.

1. Sense of feeling--vascular, tegumentary, nutritive sense,

2. Gustatory sense--intestinal, digestive sense, _water-sense_.

3. Olfactory sense--pulmonic, respiratory sense, _air-sense_.

4. Auditory sense--osseo-muscular, motor sense, _æther-sense_.


5. Visual sense--nervous, tension-sense, _light-sense_.

2427. The sensorial organs are not simply combinations of the
anatomical systems with the nerves, but also with the bones and
muscles. These have been entirely taken up into the signification of
the animal body.

2428. Each sense has its own nervous, osseous, and muscular system.

2429. The sense of feeling has its bones and muscles in the limbs.

2430. The sense of taste, its bones in the lingual bone, its muscles in
and upon the tongue.

2431. The sense of smell, its bones in the nasal bones, its muscles
being frequently very much developed in the snout or proboscis.

2432. The sense of hearing, its bones in the auditory ossicles, its
muscles in the auditory conch.

2433. The sense of sight, its bones in a ring surrounding the sclerotic
coat and in the eyelids, its muscles in the ocular muscles.

2434. Besides the proper sensorial nerves, each organ of sense is
provided with nerves for the motor system and for the vegetative
systems, especially those of secretion.

2435. The integument has, besides the nerves of the tactile papillæ,
vascular and motor nerves.

2436. The tongue is supplied with nerves of motion and digestion, and
has therefore three pairs of nerves.

2437. The nose receives motor and respiratory nerves from the fifth

2438. The ear has likewise three kinds of nerves; the auditory nerves,
facial nerves, and a branch from the fifth pair, not to mention those
that are distributed to the auditory conch.

2439. The eye has, in addition to its wholly special motor nerves, a
number of others, which superintend its vegetative systems, such as the
iris and the secretions of the humours.


1. _Vascular Senses._

2440. All senses are only conditionated by the peripheric nervous mass
because they are combinations of the nervous mass with the blossoms of
the inferior systems.

2441. The most general system of the animal is the vascular system,
which is represented externally as integument. The animal was in the
commencement nothing but integument, and this again naught but vascular
and nervous mass, so that the whole integument was thus an organ of

2442. Through the integument the animal becomes an individual, or a
something distinct from the aggregate of nature. Now as the integument
is principally the organ of sensation, so is the primary sensation that
act, by which the animal is distinguished from nature. The tegumentary
sense is the sense of _distinction_, of limitation.

2443. Through the act of discriminating, a something foreign or
extraneous is granted us. The immediate perception of what is
extraneous, is called feeling. Tegumentary sense is _sense of feeling_.

2444. The feeling-sense is the first in the animal.

2445. It is that which is general in the animal.

2446. The whole animal is naught but a sense of feeling.

2447. Out of the feeling-sense all other senses must be developed, just
as all other systems are developed out of the tegumentary formation.

_Organs of Touch._

2448. Where, however, the skin has attained to a higher grade of
formation, or where it has combined with higher systems, there also
will the sense of feeling be supplied by the former.

2449. The combination of the integument with the osseous and muscular
system, and with a nervous system of its own, takes place in the limbs.
Since the motor members are only a liberated thorax, so no other sense
can belong to them but that of feeling, which the thorax previously

2450. But these sensitive organs are moved, and therefore voluntary
organs, digits, or former branchiæ. Moveable or voluntary organs of
feeling are called _tactile organs_. The feeling of the motor members
is touch.

2451. The highest feeling necessarily consists in touching, because it
has in that become active, while before it was only passive.

2452. In the situation of the sensitive papillæ, the origin of the
digits from respiratory organs admits of being still recognized. They
are arranged in spiral lines upon the points of the fingers.

2453. The sexual organs belong as tegumentary developments to the sense
of feeling. There is no special sexual sense.

2. _Intestinal Sense._

2454. Opposite to the general feeling or the integument, the function
of the intestine is evolved. In the trunk it is simply busied with
its own processes; when it first mounts or ascends into the head, it
becomes subordinated to the nervous action.

2455. The combination of the intestine with bones, muscles and peculiar
nerves, is presented in the tongue. This is the sensitive organ of the

2456. The tongue is a feeling-sense in water, just as the skin was that
in the air. For it is the blossom of the digestive process. To the
tongue therefore belongs the digestive or water-organ of the mouth,
which is constituted by the salivary glands.

2457. The sensation of what is fluid in its chemical relations is
called _taste_. Gustation is not a peculiar process, but obviously only
the nervous commencement of the digestive process. On that account also
the gustatory sense still lies concealed in a cavity. The whole buccal
or oral cavity still belongs to the sense of taste.

2458. As in the sense of feeling the motor system still predominates,
so does it also in the tongue, as being the second sense, which has
been liberated from the plant. The nervous mass is in this sense not
preponderant over the muscular and bony mass.

2459. The tongue is still to be regarded as an organ of touch, though
one in which the flesh or muscle has gained a mastery over the bones,
while in the true tactile organ the bones determine the principal forms
and functions. The tongue is a nervous organ in the muscle, the hand is
such in the bone.

2460. The hyoid or lingual bone is none other than the first branchial
arch, and consists pretty nearly of the same pieces as the arm.

2461. Compound lingual bones, such as occur in many Reptiles, have
originated from coalescence of several branchial arches.

2462. Like the limbs, so is the tongue originally a double organ. In
most Reptiles it is longitudinally fissured. Such animals have usually
also a double penis. In all animals the tongue is divided into two
moieties, which are only connate by means of suture. The penis also
consists of two connate penes.

2463. As in the tegumentary sense, the nerves could not be peculiar
or special in kind, but took their origin from all parts, and
particularly from the spinal cord, so also is this the case with the
intestinal sense, which is still only an internal tegumentary sense.
The lingual nerves proceed from several situations, and that too from
the upper part of the spinal cord.

2464. The oral cavity also consists, properly speaking, of mere tactile
organs, which have been repeated in the head. Thus, there are tactile
organs which are subservient to the gustatory sense, in biting,
chewing, and swallowing.

2465. The lips are tactile organs upon the threshold or brink, as it
were, of the gustatory sense.

2466. In the oral cavity, however, the glands of the intestinal canal
are repeated. The salivary glands secrete fluid, like the pancreatic

2467. The sense of feeling is present in all animals. They are only
animals by virtue of it; but the sense of taste appears to be first
formed at a later period, after the intestine has separated from the
integument; in the animals that have no intestine, its existence is
problematical, and even in Fishes and Birds it is but poorly developed.

3. _Pulmonic or Lung-sense._

2468. When the respiratory organ is hoisted up into the head, and there
becomes an organ of sensation, it passes over into a sense.

2469. That the nose is the thorax, together with its viscera, repeated
in the head, has been already remarked. The many convolutions of the
turbinated or olfactory bones correspond to the ramifications of the
trachea; the nasal cartilages to the tracheal or laryngeal rings; the
olfactory membrane to the pulmonic vesicles.

2470. The process of the lungs repeated in the head becomes smell, like
that of the intestine became taste. The olfactory sense is the highest
blossom of the arteriose vascular system or the branchial net. On this
account the olfactory membrane is the most delicate, and the densest
tissue of arteries and veins.

2471. The nose is related to the mouth, as the thoracic is to the
abdominal cavity; the olfactory membrane to the tongue, as the lung
is to the stomach. It is a cephalo-thorax. The nose is not therefore
so completely closed as the mouth, but is opened through the two most
anterior air-holes or spiracula. The nasal apertures or nostrils are
the last persistent remnants of the spiracula, after all those upon the
sides of the body have been closed up.

2472. It is the last organ of sense, which has been evolved from the
trunk. It is therefore nobler than the two others, and has also a
nobler object, the air.

2473. The nerves of the olfactory organ are peculiar to it, and are
encephalic nerves. As the sense of smell is the pulmonic or arteriose
sense; so also does the arteriose substance of the brain combine
with this organ. The olfactory nerves consist of cineritious or gray
substance, and are only prolongations thereof.

2474. This is the only phenomenon of the kind met with among all
nerves, but it is commensurate with the character or signification of
this organ. A sensible pulmonary organ can only have arteriose nerves.
As the liver is throughout venous, so is the nose throughout arteriose
in quality.


2475. It now only remains for us to consider the motor and the
sensitive system proper upon their highest stage of development. The
motor system, when represented in the nervous system, is a peculiar
organ of sensation, as is likewise the nervous system itself upon
attaining its highest state of development.

4. _Osseo-Muscular Sense._

2476. The lowest condition of the motor system is the limbs, which
represent no peculiar sense, but only the sense of feeling refined or
set in motion. This motor system ascends into the head, and there no
longer exercises its motive powers in prehension, progression, &c.,
but solely unto sensation. Now, a system, which converts its function
into that of sensation, is a sense.

2477. The sensorial organ, which simply through motion, or a resistance
presented to that of the atoms, produces sensation, or wherein the
motion as such is felt, is the _Ear_.

2478. The ear is none other than the ultimate development of the bone
and muscle, when they are brought under the direct dominion of the

2479. The auditory ossicles are the limbs subtilized or refined in
character. They have joints, are provided with muscles, and move
exactly like the limbs. It may be said; that the stapes is the scapula,
the incus the humerus, the malleus the fore arm, and the concha with
its cartilages, the hand with its digits.

2480. The ear, like the bulk of the limbs, has originated from
branchiæ. In Fishes, the auditory ossicles have degenerated into the
branchial opercula.

2481. The ear-trumpet (or Eustachian tube), which opens into the mouth,
is the internal branchial aperture.

2482. The motor system, however, belongs to the trunk, whose viscera
are repeated also in the ear, or in a cavity which has been called its
labyrinth. The three semicircular canals appear to correspond to the
intestine, the cochlea to the trachea.

2483. The ear has not only a nerve, but likewise a brain, of its own.

2484. The cerebellum is the auditory brain, and from it the acoustic
nerves take their rise. For, since the ear is the sense of the whole
motor system, and consequently of half the animal, it inevitably
follows, that an appropriate or special nervous mass must be developed
for it, just as the myelon or spinal chord has been for the trunk. An
organ, which is so constantly active, must necessarily have a large
nervous mass. The cerebellum is consequently not a brain in the general
sense, but one which is wholly individualized. It participates in the
motion, which, as sound, is transmitted to the animal.

2485. By its signification as well as by its own brain, the ear gives
us to recognize its elevated rank above the other senses.

2486. The ear must stand in relation with the body's limbs.

2487. The ears first make their appearance in animals, associated with
a tolerable development of the limbs. With the exception of a few
instances, the ears first become apparent in Fishes, being in them at
least furnished for the first time with true ossicles and semicircular
canals. The ear, like the limbs, with which it constantly maintains
a parallel course, is very slowly perfected. In the Fishes which
have only fins (as instruments of locomotion) it is wholly concealed
within the cranial bones; in the Reptiles it emerges or is more
exposed to view; but for the first time in Birds and Mammalia where,
generally speaking, the limbs also are first perfected, it attains
its completion; in them only is the cochlea fully developed, and an
auditory meatus which opens externally.

5. _Nervous Sense._

2488. In all lower organs, and even in the senses which have hitherto
been commented upon, the nervous system was not the chief, but only
the co-ordinate agent. It has only by its conjunction with, assisted
in elevating the character of, other systems, so that their material
might be converted into spiritual processes. But the nervous is also
a self-substantial system, and must therefore attain likewise a free

2489. With the highest organs of the nervous system, the relation which
has been hitherto maintained, must be reversed. The inferior systems
will now be the co-ordinate agents.

2490. The highest nervous organ can only possess that function, which
is originally peculiar to the nervous system, i. e. the most delicate
polarization, the light-function. There is the _Light-sense_.

2491. The eye is nothing but a nervous system represented in a state of
purest organization, just as the ear was the purest system of motion.

2492. In the eye it is the brain itself, which expands, in order to
turn unto or face the light.

2493. As the ear has its own brain, so also has the eye; the cerebrum
is the optic brain. (Ed. 1st, 1811. §. 2317.) This is the rationale of
our having two brains.

2494. Now the cortical or gray substance has been already diverted from
the cerebrum to supply the olfactory sense. Its medullary or white
substance remains for the eye. The medullary brain is the optic brain.
The medullary is consequently the nobler part of the nervous system.

2495. The brain's medulla is homologous to the light; its exterior or
cortical portion is related to the material light, the air.

2496. The eye is only a medullary brain, posited peripherically and in
a nervous manner. The brain itself has elongated and become integument.

2497. The visual membrane (or retina) is the cerebral substance
cystically expanded. It must be regarded as being originally a closed
bladder or cyst. (Ed. 1st, 1811. §. 2321.)

2498. The optic nerve is itself hollow, and unites the cerebral with
the orbitar cavity.

2499. The vitreous body, which fills out the cyst of the retina, is
the cerebral medulla which has become transparent, or a semi-fluid
albuminous mass.

2500. The sclerotic coat of the eye is the continuation of the brain's
dura mater.

2501. The vascular or choroid coat of the eye is the continuation of
the encephalic pia mater. All parts of the brain have been consequently
continued into the eye.

2502. Now, what the brain is for the earthly body, that also must it be
for the eye. The eye is not simply brain, but a representation also of
the whole body. The brain can, forsooth, be nowhere without its body;
if therefore it is elevated into the eye, so also must it take up and
elevate the body along with itself.

2503. The eye is an entire body, a whole animal. Again, in the next
place, the animal systems, such as limbs, thorax and abdomen, have
been most distinctly represented in it. The light is seized, respired,
digested, and hence felt by the eye.

2504. As the light represents chaotically the whole of nature, but this
material nature enters completely into the animal through the processes
of the trunk, so does the light enter it through the eye. The eye is
the chaotic representation of all material processes of a body.

2505. The limbs or members of the eye are repeated in the ocular
muscles and the sclerotic or bony ring; in many Fishes the eye stands
upon a flexible pedicle, as in the Crabs. The ocular muscles move the
eye in different directions like a hand.

2506. The sclerotic corresponds to the corium, the cornea to the
digital unguis, or finger-nail.

2507. The choroid or vascular coat, is the respiratory system or lung
in the eye. The iris corresponds to the larynx, the pupil to the
glottis; its expansion and contraction is a respiratory movement.

2508. The choroid coat incloses also an osseous mass, the lens--a
vertebral body. The morbid states of the lens are osseous diseases,
such as gout.

2509. In the chambers of the eye, water, as being a product of
digestion, is constantly secreted.

2510. The orbitar cavity is a mouth with salivary glands--giving vent
to tears.

2511. The lachrymal canal is a branchial duct, which opens into the
nose, like the Eustachian tubes did from the ear into the mouth.

2512. The eyelids consequently correspond to the lips, and are in like
manner fringed with hairs.

2513. As the body has everywhere two halves, and laterally also
presents two entire organisms, so also is the formation of the nervous
system a double one. Each eye is an entire body.

2514. In the two eyes the halves of the body have completely separated
as entire bodies, and each has attained self-substantiality. Each
eye is a free animal in the animal body. Each eye is therefore
circumscribed by its own _integument_--is a free animal. It is endowed,
like the hand, with omnilateral motion; it has cavities, i. e. its
bodily cavities and humours, or inclosed masses--_viscera_.

2515. An organ, which again repeats in its miniature the whole animal
itself, of which it is only a part, must necessarily be the highest
point unto which an organism can attain. With the eye the organization,
and consequently nature, has been concluded.

2516. The eye is a parasitic animal, of the same kind with the animal
upon which it exists.

2517. In a certain sense all sensorial organs are parasitic animals in
the animal; only they are not all of the same kind with it. No one of
the other senses has e. g. repeated _all_ lower systems in itself, and
it is therefore to be regarded only as a subordinate or half-animal,
which lives upon that which is more perfect.

_Senses of the Sexual Animal._

2518. In essaying to speak concerning the sensorial organs of the
sexual animal, we shall only encounter in the latter the emotions of
the vegetative senses, and these indeed disposed according to their

2519. The sense of feeling is most perfectly developed in the legs,
whereof the pelvis represents the scapula.

2520. The external sexual parts are the analogues of the gustatory
sense; the female parts being indeed those of the mouth; the male,
which are frequently furnished with bone, of the tongue. The jaws are
not repeated in a sexual animal, except in Insects, namely, as the
pharyngeal maxillæ.

2521. The analogue of the nose is wholly stunted, and is only left
persistent as a trachea or air-tube in the urethra.

2522. In other respects the cavity of the sexual parts is a
trunk-cavity "per se," like the thoracic and abdominal; the pelvic
cavity contains the viscera of a whole animal.


2523. Physiology is the doctrine or science which treats of the
functions of the animal. Like the organology was, so also must the
science of the functions be developed. There will be functions of the
whole animal, and of the tissues, systems and organs.


2524. The first act of the animal is an assimilation to the universe,
whereby it also receives or takes up into itself the primary function
of the universe. This is the perception of the circumscription and
totality in itself, its self-manifestation, the _feeling of self_. The
first action of the animal mass is that of self-sensation. Now, through
the self-sensation, self-substantiality has been granted.

2525. The animal is consequently a Whole in Singulars only through the
feeling of self.

2526. As the universe is only an analysis of the self-consciousness of
God; so also can the development of the animal and the formation of its
organs, be none other than an analysis of the self-sensation. All other
functions (just as all masses are only a metamorphosed nervous mass)
are but differently polarized self-sensations, or these as it were

2527. The self-sensation of an individual body is not, however,
inclosed within itself, like the primary relation of the universe;
because it is not the universe, but only a fraction of it, which
has sprouted forth like a bud from the great planetary body. The
self-sensation is not therefore a simple feeling of self, but a
feeling also of something _foreign_ or extraneous, and thus the
animal self-sensation becomes, in reference to Nature, an act of
discrimination or discernment.

2528. Now, the animal is distinguished only from Nature by the act of
being liberated from it. It is therefore comprehended in a constant
liberation or severance. The life of the animal continues only by a
constantly renewed and indefatigable severance, by a desertion or
falling off from Nature.

2529. In so doing, however, it detaches itself from Nature, as being
a part thereof; the severance is therefore a conversion of the nature
into an animal. In this consists the reciprocal action of both, viz.
that the animal is constantly seeking to assimilate the nature unto

2530. The ability or power to assimilate the nature, is called

2531. Excitability is the most general phenomenon of the organic mass,
and appertains both to plants and animals.

2532. But in the animal excitability, the free self-sensation,
within which a free motion is necessarily inherent, is superadded or
originates. This excitability unto motion I call _irritability_.

2533. Thus this irritability belongs only to animals.

2534. Irritability does not depend directly upon motion, but throughout
upon sensation. Without sensation no irritability is possible. If the
sensation ceases, so also does mobility, or the capacity for motion,

2535. Since irritability originates from the antagonism of the animal
with the world; so is it parallel to an antagonism of the heavenly
bodies, or to that of sun and planets. The mutual operation of these
two heavenly bodies is, however, an interchange of polarity, a polar
excitation. The irritability is a polar process; but one which is pure
and devoid of material excretions, just as the sun excites the earth
without eliciting therein any material change or transition. The animal
becomes polarized by the incentive agent or stimulus.

2536. Through the irritability there originates a double polarity in
the animal. In the first place one between the world and the animal; in
the second, one between the exterior of the animal and its interior.
The world-polarity gives the feeling or sensation, the body's polarity
the motion.

2537. In the sensation the animal always transcends itself; there is
thus only excitability. In the motion the animal abides or remains
within itself; but the self-sensation proceeds from both conditions.
Accordingly, in self-sensation the world, and the animal within the
animal, convene or come together. The animal is itself universe, and
it at the same time comprehends the great universe. Now, in both
conditions or in both functions has the animal been turned towards
the world and also towards itself. In feeling it turns itself towards
the world, in order to adopt this spiritually into, or repel this
from, itself; in motion it turns itself towards the world, in order to
materially adopt or to repel it. In both cases of assumption it turns
itself towards itself.

2538. Both these properties belong to the animal body; if individual
organs are deficient in them, it happens therefore, from their having
superadded or adduced other properties, which are predominant, to the
original ones. This is the essence of what is animal in a living body.
Thus, if from an animal all the vegetable systems could be subtracted,
it would do nothing but feel and move.


I. _Functions of the Tissues._


1. _Functions of the Point-Tissue._

2539. The point-tissue is also spiritually represented, and this
spiritual manifestation or expression is the stamp or impress of the
arrangement of the matter into points.

2540. The point-matter is the matter of sensation; the sensation is,
however, imparted by polarization. The act of feeling is a conduction
of the polarity from point to point; this is the light-polarity. This
light-like polarity transmitted from point to point is sensibility.

2541. The sensibility is not the result of a peculiar nervous fluid, or
even of mechanical vibration, &c., of the nerves; but of an antagonism
between animal and world, brain and tegument, sun and planet.

2542. The point-tissue is in every respect the æther which has become
the mucus, and has in every respect also to act in accordance thereunto.

2543. The sensibility or the nervous power, viewed in relation to the
smallness of the body, operates instantaneously upon every spot. It
is not first conducted or tardily conveyed hither and thither; but
everywhere, where an antagonism, a stimulus, a _planet_ is, there
also is the "vis nervosa." Where a planet is, there also is the solar

2544. But abstractedly or ideally considered, the nervous force
certainly requires a time to elapse for the propagation of the
stimulus, just as the light-tension darts through the æther only in a
given time. As light traverses at the rate of 40,000 miles per second,
so must the nervous power, if it obey similar laws to those of its
prototype, and the length of a man be estimated at 1-5000th of a mile,
glide through the human body in 1-200,000,000th of a second, which,
"quoad" the phenomenon, cannot, of course, be observed.

2545. Accordingly, it is theoretically certain that the nervous power
does not operate with absolute or unconditional velocity. To the
validity of this statement, observations of many kinds, especially
those made in diseases, and by astronomical computations of the strokes
of the chronometer, afford additional evidence.

2546. Thus, for a stimulus impinging upon the brain, to act or be
transmitted from thence into the toes, there elapses 1-200,000,000th
of a second. In the event of disease, a retardation in the process is
conceivable, and may admit even of being observed.

2. _Function of the Globe-tissue._

2547. The dense or solid form is the matter, when it has died away; the
function also, or the crystallization, died therein, so soon as the
crystal was represented. The office of the bones is only to preserve
the counterpoise to the nerve, to supply a limit, and therefore a
support to its action, by which means the achievement of the latter
first becomes possible.

2548. The business of the bone, is to play an antithetic part to the
nerve, and nothing else, or to serve the latter as a "terra firma,"
upon which it may execute its plans. The bone suffers, and in this
consists its office. The other offices of the bone, such as its
being the firm and solid framework of the body, its protecting the
nervous mass, &c., are subordinate matters, which are at once clearly

3. _Function of the Fibrous-tissue._

2549. There is the active motion. The primary motion is, however, a
result of the polar tension induced in the æther by the light. Just as
the heat has been produced in the æther by the light-polarity, so has
been the animal motion in the fibres by the polarity of the nerves.

2550. Every fibre, when it is in motion, has necessarily two polar
extremities. For the fibre stands between the artery which is
oxygenous, and the nerve which is basic, or between a zinc and silver

2551. In the conditions of rest the two poles must be neutralized,
or, generally speaking, not in existence. This is only possible by
disjunction of the galvanic circuit or chain.

2552. Since the artery is constantly operating upon the fibre, but the
nerve only, when it has been stimulated; so must this change in the
condition of the fibre reside in the change of the nervous influence.

2553. In unirritated conditions the nerve does not act upon the fibre;
the latter is not _illuminated_, nor does it stand in a state of
tension with the nerve, which is not in itself polar, but is only, when
stimulated, a sun towards the fibre, or polar within itself. If the
chain be then dissevered, the fibre is in a state of indifference.

2554. Thus, in the event of tension, the nervous extremity of the
fibre becomes negative, the arterial extremity positive; both ends
necessarily attract each other in order to discharge or unload
themselves. This attraction is an _abbreviation_ or contraction.

2555. After the discharge the fibrous extremities are homonymous; they
repel each other, and relaxation or extension ensues.

2556. The motion of the fibres is consequently a perfectly galvanic
process, devoid of _material_ interference, between nerve, fibre, and
blood. The nerve is silver, the artery zinc, and the fibre moist card.
All theories of motion based upon swelling of blood, elementary change,
and such like causes, are not animal, though organic in character; the
former are injections, the latter chemical processes.

2557. Through the fibrous tissue being shortened and elongated, the
entire animal is self-displaced.

2558. Through the fibrous tissue the animal _appears_ as animal,
through the point-tissue it is (and that in essence) an animal. God
is in himself, but he first appears in the world. This elucidates or
explains the relation of "noumenon" and "phenomenon."

4. _Function of the Cellular Tissue._

2559. This tissue has no other function than that in the plant. Many
saps or juices are effused into the cells. The latter are engaged in
constant expansion and contraction, whereby they decompose and propel
these juices. They are the proper seat of the nutritive process, since
they coincide with the capillary vessels.

2560. But as every rigidification is combined with volatilization, so
does a process of evaporation occur in them at the same time.

2561. This process is the property of the teguments or membranes, both
of those lining the internal cavities, as also of such as are placed

2562. But the process of evaporation is principally the function of the
true skin or corium. As an organ of evaporation the corium is similar
to the lung. It is consequently aeriform water, which of necessity
constitutes the principal mass of evaporation.

2563. The water is, however, mucous in character, the mucus becomes
oxydized in the air, and through this also carbonic acid is formed.


2564. The chief function of the cell-formation is the process of
heat. The cell-process and heat-process are one in kind. Heat is the
product of the process of condensation and rarefaction, and thus of the
nutrition and evaporation, both of which happen in the cells, or, if we
please, in the capillary vessels.

2565. In the skin the process of temperature is individualized.

2566. All temperature depends upon the process of condensation and
rarefaction. At one time it is the nerves, at another the vessels,
anon, external influences, which alter or modify it. Animal heat,
like the cosmic heat, has been produced by change of the fixation.
This change, however, takes place principally in the nutrition and

2567. The fat is the "residuum" or the antagonism of the process of
evaporation or water-formation. It is therefore deposited everywhere on
the water-organs, beneath the integument, along the intestine and the
vessels, around the kidneys, and so on.

2568. It is, like the adipocire, a product of the aqueous
decomposition. On this account it is subservient to the process of
temperature. It is the only isolator of heat, while all other animal
bodies are conductors.

II. _Functions of the Systems._

2569. The functions do not concern the whole body, but only its
principal parts.


2570. The vegetative functions are matter-changing processes, which,
consequently, correspond directly to the chemical processes, or are
rather of one kind with these, but altered by organic elemental bodies.

1. _Functions of the Intestinal System._

2571. The general function of the integument consists in the secretion
of juices, of which there are principally two kinds, the general and

2572. The general intestinal juice is mucus; it acts by rarefying.

2573. The gastric juice is of an aqueous, mucous, and acid nature. It
acts as an acid and is endowed with chemically solvent properties.

2574. The bile is of a basic, inflammable, alkaline nature. It acts
also chemically by analysing and precipitating.

2575. The saliva is the gastric juice of the head. It is a juice
_secreted_ under the influence of the sensibility, and is on that
account indifferencing, and nullifying in its effects; it is the
highest poison.

2576. As the indifferent saliva precedes the gastric juice, so does the
indifferent pancreatic fluid the bile.

2577. The proper function of the intestinal system is the digestion
with all its divisions. There is an animal and a vegetative, or oral
and abdominal digestion.

a. _Oral Digestion._

2578. Oral digestion is a mortifying or putting to death of the food.

2579. Since what is organic only serves as aliment for the animal,
but nothing can be assimilated to the latter, without its having been
previously reduced to the original condition of Infusoria, so also must
the first act of the digestive process depend upon this, or converting
the organic into primary organic bodies.

2580. This reduction to the primary condition is a putting to death
of the organic individual. Organisms only which have been killed, can
be converted into infusorial matter, and are then nutriment for the
animal. The first act of digestion is consequently an act of putting to

2581. The act of killing consists of two moments, the mechanical and
dynamical, or in lacerating and poisoning.


2582. The mechanical act of putting to death commences with the search
after nutriment, and thus with the movement of the feet; to this
succeeds the prehension, or seizure with the claws or hands.

2583. This motion of the limbs is then repeated in the cephalic
members, or the jaws.

2584. The seizure of the food with the cephalic arms or jaws, is the
infliction of a wound commensurate with the position and form of the
teeth. The teeth are digits of the cephalic limbs, or being devoid of
any fleshy layer, claws. A gripe with such digits is in itself the
infliction of a wound. For, in order that the food be grasped with
only sufficient firmness to admit of its being drawn into the mouth,
the sharp digital points of the mouth, i. e. the teeth, must make an
incision therein.

2585. To seize, bite, wound, and kill, is in an animal one and the
same act. For, so soon as the food or prey is seized, and consequently
wounded, it is drawn deeper into the mouth, and therefore a new grasp
and bite is essayed.

2586. Upon this the food is twirled about in the mouth by the muscles,
or is chewed, whereby the parts are separated into mechanical atoms.


2587. Mechanical atoms are, however, not yet dead, because the vital
polarity is not extinguished. It is requisite for a dynamic act, which
suppresses all galvanism, to operate upon them.

2588. As this act of killing has directly for its object the death
of the Organic and that alone, so is it a venenation or _process of
poisoning_. To poison is not merely a chemical act, but one having for
its immediate purpose, to separate the connexion of the organic atoms.

2589. The first act performed by the animal is that of poisoning.

2590. Poisoning, as being a direct aggression upon and destruction
of life, is a destruction of the galvanic process. Now, the galvanic
process is destroyed by suppression, destruction, and separation
of its poles. The demolition of poles is a _polar equilibration_.
Poisoning is equilibration of poles on the galvanic organism, or their

2591. The primary change of poles is, however, in the blood. Poisoning
is a balancing of the blood-poles.

2592. Indifferent blood is no longer blood, but chyle or infusorial
primary mass.

2593. The nutritive fluid or chyle is poisoned organic substance. There
is no aliment except what is wrought by poison.

2594. The poisoning of the aliments must take place through the medium
of their blood, or their sap. If poison therefore does not get into the
blood, the death does not ensue. The digestive juice is poison only for
the blood, but not for the other systems.

2595. Chemical bodies which induce death, act by destruction of the
bodies themselves, not merely by their neutralization or excessive
polarization. They do not operate very differently from iron when in a
state of red heat. Such is the case with sulphuric acid, nitric acid,
alkalies and arsenic.

2596. Now, if these bodies be called poisons, there are thus three
kinds of poisons, mineral or chemical, vegetable and animal poisons.

2597. The chemical poisons destroy the mass; they convert the Organic
into minerals.

2598. Vegetable poisons reduce the animal to the plant; they do not
effect the destruction of the mass in a general sense, but only that
which is purely animal, or the nervous system--they are nervous poisons.

2599. The animal poisons destroy what is vegetable in the animal, or
the galvanic process--are blood-poisons.

2600. _The saliva is the digestive poison._

2601. The saliva is not present, in order to macerate, and so prepare
the dry aliments for digestion, but to _poison_ them. Everything else
is only a subordinate operation. Now, the process of poisoning takes
place only in the blood. The saliva does not act without inflicting a

2602. Strictly regarded, all saliva is poison. There are examples of
the saliva of birds, and even of men when inflamed with passion, having
acted as poison.

2603. All other animal poisons, contagious principles or miasmata,
are analogous to the saliva, being partial salivæ, partial poisons.
Diseases of the skin produce tegumentary poisons or salivæ;
glandular diseases, glandular poisons; nervous diseases, nervous
poisons; diseases of the lungs, pulmonary poisons. The saliva is the
blood-poison; the hydrocyanic acid, the nervous poison.

2604. During mastication saliva imbues every atom of the food, whereby
the mass is throughout neutralized, or annulled.

_Docimasy or Testing._

2605. The oral digestion or that of the mouth cannot, however, occur
by itself, without its being a nervous process also. The intestinal
function taken up into the nervous system is the _taste_.

2606. Taste is the chemism resident in the head, the digestion in
the nerves. Taste therefore happens according to the theory of the
digestion or the chemism.

2607. The lowest element of the chemism is the water, the highest
repetition whereof in the earth is--the salt. The former is therefore
the object of abdominal digestion, the latter of nervous digestion.
To taste is to digest salt. In order to taste the salt, every part
of the food must be brought in contact with the tongue; this is only
possible through comminution of the aliment by means of the teeth. The
mastication dissolves the aliments mechanically into atoms, just as
digestion will resolve them chemically into "infusoria."

2608. That which should be digestible, must have a saline character,
must be soluble. The tongue is accordingly the test-organ of the
digestive process.


2609. At first the tongue tastes only with its apex or tip; but after
the salts which operate upon the tip are neutralized and examined,
the tongue will also taste with its root, the two extremities of the
tongue and their gustatory sensations being thus mutually opposed. It
therefore takes the morsel upon the root and presses it against the
palate, whereby the pharyngeal muscles clasp and swallow it.

2610. In deglutition the object of the tongue is not to give over or
surrender the morsel to the pharynx, but to enjoy it "per se." During
this fruition, however, it is robbed of it. Deglutition is therefore a
result of an undesigned mechanical contrivance. Each organ works for
the other, while fancying that it works for itself, which again it
actually does, while it reaps the enjoyment so derived. Has the tongue
finished tasting the food, then the pharynx obtains it involuntarily.

2611. To the saliva, and thus to a morsel, the acidulous gastric juice
is polarwise related; both therefore seek to unite, and with this their
organs also, namely, pharynx and stomach. The stomach obtains the
preponderance, because it is acidulous; the pharynx moves towards it
and with it also the morsel.


2612. If the food, when received into the stomach, continue acid by
virtue of its nature, or from not having been properly chewed and
imbued with saliva and so neutralized, it is then homonymous with
the gastric juice. The stomach therefore seeks to neutralize it, by
restoring it again to the action of the saliva.

2613. Acid aliments cause vomiting. Grass which has not been
masticated, and therefore enters acid or non-killed, and susceptible
of fermentation, into the stomach, is regularly brought back into the
mouth, and to the saliva, i. e. is ruminated or rechewed.

2614. Rumination is a regular act of vomiting, which has originated
from the antagonism of the saliva and gastric juice and from the acid
nature of the morsel.

b. _Intestinal Digestion._

2615. The intestinal digestion is the perfect chemical process taken up
along with all its moments into the animal.

_Gastric Digestion._

2616. The stomach exercises by means of the spleen the oxydizing
process of the intestine, the solvent function, and thus the action
of the water. The gastric juice is related to the food, like water is
to earth. The gastric digestion is liquefaction, unto which oxydation
makes the preliminary step.

2617. Through the process of liquefaction, the poles are only
potentially augmented, but are not dissevered, nor new substances
formed. The gastric digestion creates no new bodies, but only mixes the
old in the most homogeneous and intimate manner with each other.

2618. The gastric digestion is an animal process of fermentation. In
deranged states of the stomach there is therefore a propensity to acid
eructation, development of carbonic acid, and even formation of sugar.

2619. This digestion consequently reduces the (animal) food to the
signification of the plant. Gastric digestion is a process of vegetable
germination. The salivary process is a reduction to the animal death,
digestion a reduction of this dead something itself to a lower kingdom.

2620. The gastric juice alone, like an acid, effects the solution of
the aliment; with this, the movement of the gastric walls, which only
tends to produce an easier mixture of the alimentary particles, having
nothing to do.


2621. Through the digestive process the gastric juice is consumed by
the food, and the stomach deoxydized. If there is a deficiency of
dephlegmatizing and deoxydizing aliments, then the peroxydation of
the stomach must produce a feeling--called appetite. If this be not
appeased, the oxygenic tension in the stomach is elevated or increased,
and then begins to become unpleasant; this is _Hunger_.

2622. Here the feeling of the stomach's peroxydation is an obstructed
process of fermentation, dependent upon want of food and alkaline


2623. The feeling of the reverse condition to the above is _Thirst_.
It originates through a too rapid deoxydation of the stomach, through
deglutition of the gastric juice on account of an excess of food. But
it may also originate from a deficiency of gastric juice, or from
an alkaline tendency in the latter; just as hunger resulted from a
superabundance of gastric juice, or a disposition to form acids.

2624. Thirst is the feeling of too powerful a digestion, or of too
rapid fermentation, whereby the product or leaven of the latter
becomes, as it were, bankrupt; upon this the blood flows in greater
quantity, in order to secrete the gastric juice; the arterial nature
becomes elevated, and finally, an inflammatory condition, associated
with a sense of dryness, originates, and is propagated as far as the

2625. Thirst and heat rank, like hunger and cold, parallel to each
other. The feeling of dryness appears as heat, that of moisture, as
cold. Cold therefore at once extinguishes or quenches the thirst; but
produces hunger, which again is mitigated by heat.

_Biliary Digestion._

2626. The stomach is the pulmonic intestine; the duodenum, through
its combination with the liver, is the vascular intestine, having a
predominant venous character; or the one is the arteriose, the other
the venous stomach.

2627. The gastric digestion has reduced the food to the state of a
vegetable; but this does not yet suffice for it to become a nutritive
matter, namely, a new organism. As the primary organism originates,
so also must the body originate in the process of nutrition, and thus
from the element of the Organic. Now, this primitive matter or element
is the mucus, the "infusorium." There is still therefore a process
necessary to redissolve the vegetable and convert it into protoplasma
or primary mucus.

2628. This, however, occurs only through the process of putrefaction
being wrought in the food. This process is not simple solution,
but decomposition, or separation of the constituent parts. The
acid vegetable parts, which had been active through the process of
fermentation, must be therefore decomposed, and in such wise, indeed,
that what is mucous shall be separated from them.

2629. This separation or analysis takes place by means of the _Bile_,
which combines with the acid of the chyme.

2630. The biliary digestion is an alkalizing or saponaceous process.
Through it the chyme becomes separated into nutritive juice or chyle,
and into excrement.

2631. The excrement is what is vegetable, or the product of
fermentation combined with the bile. The chyle is what is infusorial,
or the product of decomposition. Nutrition therefore begins anew. Its
process is a "generatio originaria."

2632. In digestion the processes of both organic kingdoms, namely, the
fermentative and putrefactive, are repeated.


In the intestine, not merely lung and vascular system, have been
represented, but also the integument or organ of absorption.

2633. After the animal food has been reduced to the vegetable, and this
again to the infusorial state, it can be taken up by the body. It now
becomes absorbed in the small intestine. The small intestine is the
tegumentary system, or the root-bark.

2634. The chyliferous or lacteal vessels stand in antagonism with
the lung, or the skin as being the original respiratory organ. It is
only, therefore, the infusorial chyle that has been absorbed, not the
excrement, because between the latter, as the product of oxydation,
and the lacteal vessels, repulsion takes place. The chyle, having been
absorbed, enters into the thoracic duct, and from thence into the lungs.


2635. Through the absorption of what is fluid, that which is
excrementitious becomes more solid, and is thus given over or
transferred into the vegetable, sexual, or large intestine.

2636. The excrement is now found in another, i. e. in a lower, or
vegetable animal. It therefore obtains the direction of all sexual
secretions; it is thrown out or ejected, and in a reverse direction,
because the anus is the sexual mouth.

2637. Digestion is thus through all predicaments, from its incipient
dealings with the highest life unto the plant, and from this to the
mucous globule, a thorough process of putting to death.

2638. The nutritive will be through all predicaments, from the
infusorium to the plant and to the animal, a thoroughly vivifying or
life-inspiring process. Digestion is descension, nutrition is ascension.

2. _Functions of the Respiratory System._

2639. The branchiæ and lungs are the air-organ of the animal, the
foliage. The animal, like the vegetable foliage, is oxydized from
water or air, by which means the animal sap, which hitherto is only a
root-sap, becomes differenced into an aerial sap.

2640. No animal can live without oxygen gas, because the air is the
condition of the galvanic process.

2641. The oxygen passes over materially into the blood or the chyle.
Beyond this it is an indifferent matter for physiology, whether the
blood simply derives the positive tension from the air, or combines
the positive oxygen materially with itself. In both cases the same
heterogeneity originates. Were oxygen, however, not to enter the body
through the lung, it could not then be seen, whence its ingress might
be effected. In other respects, every change of matters is established
with material combinations and separations.

2642. The carbonic acid of the respiratory process may originate
accidentally, as when it is formed on the integument. In so far is the
expiration one and the same with the evaporation.

2643. The chyle ascends directly from the small intestine into the
leaf-fabric, or into the lung. Both organs are to be compared with an
entire plant, whereof the intestine is the root, the lymphatic vessels
the stem, the lung the leaf-fabric or foliage.

2644. The chyle moves in the lymphatic vessels like the vegetable
sap, and thus by polar tension between lung and intestine. Lung and
intestine have been diametrically opposed. The conductors of the
antagonism are the lymphatic vessels.

2645. The lymphatic vessels do not absorb by virtue of their own
contractility, nor by open ends; but by physical pores like the cells
of plants.

2646. It is the chyle, which is oxydized in the lung; the venous blood
is a subordinate object.

2647. Through the oxydation it becomes coloured like the vegetable
sap does in a leaf. But the latter sap obtains only the colour of the
terrestrial oxydation, of the terrestrial oxyde or the water, and
becomes green; while the chyle gains the colour of the cosmic oxyde, or
the fire, and becomes red. The red, fire-coloured sap is the blood. The
function of the lungs is consequently a formation of blood.

2648. The blood is an infusorial, a green mucous sap, which has
been elevated to what is aerial. The blood consists of aerated
Infusoria--blood-globules. These are the red substance of the blood. In
the lower animals only, where the blood, like the body, contains but
few blood-globules, is it colourless.

2649. Through the respiration an electrical difference enters the
blood, whereby it becomes separated into several substances.

2650. The _water_ in the chyle is the inorganic menstruum, wherein the
mucus, as being a fundamental matter of the vegetable sap, has been
dissolved. Through the digestion the mucus becomes animal--_gelatine_.

2651. The gelatine is the basi-constituent part of the chyle, being a
product of the digestion or the root-process. Gelatine is the vegetable
mucus repeated and ennobled in an animal. This ennobling took place
through the digestion.

2652. "En route" too, the chyle mixes with the nervous blood, and
already undergoes a degree of oxydation, whereby the gelatine becomes
converted into albuminous matter.

2653. Through the respiration gelatine and albumen are elevated
to aerial importance, and still more oxydized; by this means the
albuminous matter becomes elevated, and passes over into _fibrine_. The
fibrine is the last product of respiration. Fibrine is the starch-meal
in an animal.

2654. The electric duplicity, induced in the blood by the process of
respiration, exists accordingly between fibrine and gelatine, while the
albumen constitutes or forms the indifference. The fibrine is repelled
from the lung, because they are both homonymous; it is the oxydized
gelatine. From its communicating its polarity to the whole mass of
blood, this also is repelled from the lungs.

3. _Functions of the Vascular System._

2655. The capillary vessels of the body range opposite to those of the
lungs, just as the biliary does to the splenic stomach, as alkali to
acid, as precipitant and secernent to what is non-separated.

2656. The capillary vessels therefore attract the pulmonary blood,
separate it, secrete and form new constituent parts; and then, after it
has become homonymous, they repel it back again towards the lungs.

2657. The circulation only subsists through the polarity which exists
between lung and capillary vessels, between lung and body, between
oxydation and reduction, combination and separation.

2658. If the intestine and body be the root, the lung the foliage,
so is the lymphatic and vascular system the stem, in which the most
perfect substances have been formed. In the circulation the matters for
the animal systems must have been fully formed, such as for the bones,
the lime; for the muscles, the iron; for the nerve, the albumen.

2659. The liver is the principal organ of the circulation. There also
must one principal preparation of the blood take place. On account of
its parallelism with the brain, the condition probably resides in it
that conduces to formation of the albumen, namely, of the Indifferent,
which is the nutritive matter of the nervous mass.

2660. In the vegetable sphere of life there are, in addition to
the liver, but two mutually distinct excretory organs, namely, the
intestine and the skin.

2661. In the mucous secretion of the intestine the condition, requisite
to the formation of phosphate of _lime_ for the bones, probably resides.

2662. In like manner in the formation of the carbonic acid and the
water in the integument, the basis for the formation of phosphate of
iron for the muscles may reside. In the circulation the intestine
would thus be the lime-, the skin the iron-, and the liver the
medulla-forming organ.

2663. The two extremes of the circulation, or intestine and lung, form
gelatine and fibrine; the circulation itself forms the purely animal
matter. Out of the integument and lung grows the muscle, from the
intestine the bone and gelatine, out of the liver the nerve. Muscle is
integument and air, bone is intestine and chyle, brain is liver and
blood. Thus each has a function that is peculiar to it; each organ has
its business to perform in the diffuse fabric of the animal body.

2664. Through this variety or change of the offices, the circulation
first becomes possible.

2665. If the secernent process be therefore suppressed, the animal then
dies as rapidly as if it had been suffocated. It is a suffocation of
the opposed pole. Query? does not many a fit of apoplexy depend upon

2666. The circulation has consequently two factors, the lung as
oxygen-pole, the capillary vessels of the body as hydrogen-pole, the
blood as the indifferent water. The circulation is a galvanic process.

2667. In all extremities of the body the arteriose blood becomes
deoxydized, decomposed; it is therefore basic and homonymous with the
capillary vessels, so that it is consequently repelled, and driven back
into the veins.

2668. It can, however, flow nowhere else than to the lung, because
there resides its opposite pole. Being again oxydized in, it becomes
homonymous to, the lung, is repelled by it, and again attracted by the
capillary vessels of the body.

2669. The circulation is therefore a result of dynamic forces, not of
mechanical functions. It would occur, were the vessels to be glass

2670. The pulsation of the heart is not a cause of the circulation, but
inversely rather, its consequence or effect.

2671. In the circulation the whole organism, or intestine, lung and
integument, is combined. It is therefore the fundamental system, which
includes the whole mass of the body.


1. _Of the Osseous System._

2672. The functions of the osseous system are simply mechanical
relations, such as solidity, form and motion.

2673. The motion of the joints presents to our notice interesting
relations, especially in reference to the motion of the vertebræ, ribs,
limbs and jaws upon each other, but these could not be here treated of
in detail.

2674. The acts of swimming, creeping, standing, walking, running,
leaping, climbing, and flying, do not exhibit simply mechanical, but
truly philosophical moments.

a. _Bodily Motion._

2675. Swimming can take place through simple contraction of the body,
without locomotive members. It is the continuation of the vesicle's
first process of origination; as in the Infusoria and Polyps. In the
Worms and Serpents it is effected by an undulating motion of the body,
whereby the water is struck with oblique surfaces; there it is fibrous
motion. In the Holothuriæ and many aquatic larvæ, it is a propulsion,
effected by expelling water from the anus, and thus by squirts, there
being consequently contraction of the body or arteriose straitening
of the sphincter muscles. In Fishes, swimming is a rowing or remigial
stroke, produced by lever-motion, together with the oblique slap made
by their tail.

2676. Creeping is either a shortening of the body by fibrous motion, as
in the Snails, or an undulatory motion, as in the Serpents.

b. _Pedal Motion._

2677. Standing is the position of a lever "in equilibrio," the creation
of the proper centre of gravity.

2678. Walking or running is an exchange or alternation of the
equilibrium, a combination of standing and creeping.

2679. Leaping or hopping is a flight with the feet.

2680. Climbing is an use of the feet as hands.

c. _Alary Motion._

2681. Flying is lever-swimming in the air. It takes place by means of
aerial branchiæ, namely, the wings in Insects, and by the thoracic
extremities in Birds, which are also none other than animal branchiæ.

2682. Soaring is creeping in the air.

2683. Hovering is standing in the air.

2684. Pouncing is hopping in the air.

2685. Diving is hopping in the water.

2. _Functions of the Muscular System._

2686. The muscular system performs, in an active sense, what the
osseous system does in a passive. The strength or power of the muscles,
and their leverage attachment, is here especially to be regarded. The
contraction of the fibres is a _charging_, by nerves and blood, of the
two fibre-poles.

2687. The fibres are charged by the air. It is, in the most general
sense, the respiratory vessels by which the muscle is charged. This
is strictly the case in Insects, where the tracheæ traverse all the
limbs, and directly conduct to the flesh the polarity of the air. In
animals, however, with a closed circulation, the arteries undertake the
conveyance of air upon the blood, and it is then the latter fluid which
streams into the muscles in order to charge them.

2688. Thus if an artery be ligatured, the limb is crippled or lamed.
The artery, however, imparts only the positive pole, and consequently
of itself produces no shortening or contraction of the fibres. The
oxydation takes place at the lower end of the muscle; here, therefore,
the latter passes over into tendon.

2689. The nerve is the second condition of the muscular contraction,
since it evokes in the fibre the negative pole. Thus if a nerve be
ligatured, the limb is likewise motionless.

2690. If the poles be brought by contraction into close approximation,
the fibres must re-extend, so soon as the influence of the blood or the
nerve ceases.

2691. Now since the blood is constantly streaming in, the reason for
the muscular rest must reside in the nerves. The rationale of voluntary
motion is consequently the nerve. The relaxation or extension is an
unloading of the fibres.

2692. The muscular motion is an electrical process, a motion of blood
in the Solid.

2693. Through the polarization of the fibres the muscle is formed from
the arteries. The muscle is therefore an individual biconical piece
of fibre, having unequal cones. Oxydation takes place at the muscular
extremity; here, therefore, originates the sinew or tendon.

2694. A fleshy cyst--or heart--which includes an osseous cyst, must
subdivide into several fibrous cones or muscles. One reason of this is
the "fore and aft," another is the quantity of the essential vascular

2695. The muscle contracts upon application only of a stimulus.

2696. Every stimulus induces motion only as a result of polar
excitation. Every stimulus polarizes; for even the gentlest contact is
like the friction, and produces electrical antagonism. It therefore
amounts to the same, whatever stimuli, whether mechanical, chemical, or
spiritual, have been applied to the muscle. One acts like the other.

2697. If no motion supervene upon, or is even suppressed by, the
contact of a body, the nature of the body must then be _indifferencing_.

2698. Relaxing, laming, life-destroying matters, are indifferencing, or
cause a suppression of the poles.

2699. Overcharging principles, e. g. lightning or strong electric
sparks may also produce relaxation. These destroy the function of the
fibres, and act therefore worse than the in differencing matters.

3. _Functions of the Nervous System._

2700. The function of the point-substance is also that of the nervous
system, for this is only the point-substance, fashioned and arranged
into stalk and branches.

2701. But even on this account the nervous tension proceeds only
according to a determinate line, while before it penetrated through the
whole mass.

2702. The nervous tension takes place in a nervous system only between
a special organ and the nervous centre.

2703. In itself the nervous system is an Indifference, and such then
are all the organs upon which it acts, when regarded in reference to
this operation; they might, through other functions, be polar.

2704. The nervous system becomes differential either through its two
kinds of substances, or through extraneous influence; in the first case
it thinks or moves, in the second it feels.

2705. Sensation is in the nervous what motion is in the fibrous system,
namely, a polar condition, in which the two ends have a tendency to
come together, in order to discharge or unload.

2706. In the sensation the extremity of the nerves strives to approach
that of the brain; it is therefore a contractile effort in the nerves,
like motion is in the muscular fibre. Juxta-posited granules could not,
however, shorten; therefore, the already calculated polarity courses
over them.

2707. All external stimuli act upon the nerves and polarize them, but
not the muscular fibres.

2708. The fibre becomes directly polarized only through the internal
stimuli, or by the blood, galvanic tension, &c.

2709. The most general function of the nervous system consists in its
assuming polarity from the world, and imparting this to other systems,
apart namely, from the alternate operation of its two substances.

_Nervous and Motor System._

2710. The first system is that of motion. The tranquil presence of the
nerve in the fibre produces indifference in the latter; so that it has
no susceptibility for the polarization that is effected by the artery.
Doubtless the arterial blood passes, for the most part, close by the
fibre through other capillary vessels.

2711. But if the nerve be polarized it is then basic, negative, and
enters into opposition with the arterial blood, which now streams into
the capillary vessels of the fibre, and renders the two ends of the
latter heterogeneous.

2712. Thus, if the nerve be cut across, it remains always indifferent,
and no motion can any longer ensue. But this does ensue so soon as the
nerve is galvanized. A proof that the nervous influence is homologous
to the galvanic tension.

2713. If the nerve becomes involuntarily negative, then originates

2714. If the nerve continue morbidly indifferent, then paralysis

_Nervous and Vegetative Systems._

2715. The second great system is the tegumentary formation. In this
too its ordinary functions occur, such as secretion, evaporation,
nutrition, elevation or depression of heat without nervous influence;
or they occur while the nerve only acts indifferently.

2716. But if it acts by polarizing, as in the muscular motion, then the
tegumentary processes are at once changed. What is material becomes
extinguished, and the simply Irritable is manifested in the cells,
capillary vessels, and so on.

2717. The process of temperature becomes thereby instantly changed,
because the decomposition is changed. The heat is increased by the
rapid suppression of the evaporation; it is diminished by the rapid
increase of the latter.

2718. The art and manner in which the nerves act upon what is
vegetable, is consequently an elevation of this Vegetable to what is
animal. It must resign its processes, and simply undertake those of
motion. Exactly the same takes place in the secernent organs. They
perform their offices themselves through the galvanic tension of the
vessels. But if the nerve act upon them they secrete more powerfully,
and exactly from the same cause whereby the muscle is self-moved. Thus,
if the nerve operate feebly, whereby it is in an irritable state, or if
its action be wholly withdrawn, then the secretion will become less.

2719. The more irritable the nerves are, by so much the more animal
does the vegetable organism, or the splanchnic system, therefore
become; so much the less is it produced on the mass.

2720. Irritable animals and men are therefore meagre or lean. The two
cases are uniformly related to each other. Lean men are irritable,
not perhaps because the nervous ends are not covered with fat, such
as there might be over the integument, the ear, the tongue, nose,
&c., but, because where the nutritive process is inactive, what is
animal necessarily preponderates. There are consequently three kinds
of nervous actions, or phenomena, though all nervous activity in
entire systems is similar, or but one. The difference is only derived
from the organ upon which the nerves act. There are, consequently, no
special nerves of sensation, motion and secretion; or such, forsooth,
as have only one of these offices to take care of. Thus, were a nerve
of sensation to be prolonged or drawn over a muscle, it would excite
motion, and in the case of the liver, secrete bile, &c.


2721. When the sensibility mounts to the highest degree, each
mass-function will then almost cease, and the organs of sense feel the
weakest operation of the stimulus.

2722. Since every stimulation is a polarizing act, and each body is
in polar activity towards the other at every conceivable distance, so
may an extremely irritable nervous system also perceive the feeblest

2723. The eye perceives the polarization at a remote distance from the
body whence it proceeds.

2724. In hearing the vibrating body still indeed acts directly upon the
ear through the vibrations of air. But a finer, i. e. more irritable
ear, hears farther than one that is more dull.

2725. With an elevated sensibility the other systems also may
therefore perceive the polarization of the bodies, without coming into
contact with them.

2726. To perceive objects in the distance, i. e. merely their polar
influence, is called _Mesmerism_, or animal magnetism.

2727. Now, if it is once possible for other senses besides that of
sight to extend their perception into remote space, it no longer
matters as to the magnitude of the latter. A feebly charged electrical
machine only attracts bodies that are near, one strongly loaded, those
which are more remote; such is the case too with weak and strong

2728. The integument at once perceives electrified surfaces at certain
distances; now, as every surface appears electric to the integument,
so must the latter, if its sensibility is very much elevated, perceive
something of that sort in every proportionate distance.

2729. But homologous polarities only act upon each other, and therefore
traverse thoroughly through heterologous bodies. Thus the magnet
attracts the iron filings through the table-board, unhindered by the
interposed wood, and without any regard being paid to this, or its
being even perceived.

2730. The senses may therefore perceive their homologous polarities
through other bodies, walls, and such like. By virtue of their
perception, they stand in relation to them.

2731. To the very sensible nervous system the vegetable system and
its impulse is a foreign object, which detaches itself from the above
system, just as the objects of sense have done from the sensorial
organs. The vegetable, or in general the material body, appears
therefore to the mesmerized like a strange world--they see their own
organs--are _clair-voyants_. Mesmerism therefore comprises nothing
which could contradict physiology.

_Vegetative Nerves._

2732. The splanchnic or visceral nerves are also distinguished from
the animal by their being in a constant state of tension, and hence
keeping the processes of their system in constant repair.

2733. The rationale of this resides in the two nervous substances
having separated into ganglia and plexuses.

2734. This also serves to explain another phenomenon, viz. that the
nerves indeed, but never the brain, attain to perfect rest; because
the former is without ganglionic or cortical substance, the latter is
throughout surrounded, and obviously interwoven, by it.

2735. Therein lies the reason why the viscera do not sleep.


2736. The condition of the nervous system, as hitherto represented, is
called that of being awake. It is the interlude played by the nerves
with the world, and with the animal body.

2737. When in a state of health the first interlude ceases, then the
other also is over or past. The world-nerves, however, operate only
upon the animal systems, upon the senses and the motion of the muscles;
it could therefore be these only wherein the nervous function, in
compliance with this cessation, is suppressed. Now, muscular rest
originates through suppression of the tension between nerve and muscle.
In sleep this rest is also derived from the same means.

2738. The tension between nerve and muscle can only cease, if the
tension also between the termination of the brain and nerves be
suppressed. We are now reduced simply to the consideration of the
nervous system, and may, in treating of sleep, pay no attention to the
muscular system.

2739. But whence comes the tension in the motor nerves? Obviously
only from the cerebral tension. This can originate only in two ways;
either through the special organization of the brain, one or the other
substance being preponderant, or through the influence of external

2740. The encephalic substance becomes more potent than usual, if by
rest the cortical substance becomes more arteriose in character. This
tension is communicated to all the nerves, sensitive as well as motor,
and continues in their interlude with the world and the motor system.

2741. If this encephalic tension is not too potent, it remains only in
the brain, without the ability to polarize the nerves also. It then
only produces cerebral phenomena, thoughts or _dreams_.

2742. Dreaming is an encephalic tension excited by the organization,
not by the world.

2743. Dreaming is the first step in the liberation of the animal from
the vegetable system--it is the first step towards mesmerism.

2744. In a perfect or middling state of health, where the nervous is
not very much separated from the tegumentary system, we do not dream.

2745. In a healthy condition an external stimulus would be,
consequently, the only cause of waking, did not the long repose
bestow a preponderating influence upon the cortical substance. Dreams
therefore happen in the morning.

2746. Waking is the intercourse with the world, not with self. If one
wakes also from intercourse with self, still the former is synchronous
and coexciting.

2747. Thus, if intercourse with the world ceases, sleep originates. If
the vegetable intercourse with it also ceases, then death originates.
Waking is "consensus" with the world.

2748. Sleep is a death of the _animal_ systems.

2749. Every awaking is a resurrection from death, a new sympathizing
with the vegetal body, from which the animal body again originates.

2750. As the animal originally took its rise from, and only through
the plant, so also is this repeated in an individual. The plant is the
ever-living, ever-verdant, or green, out of which the animal daily
sprouts forth as a blossom.

2751. The animal intercourse with the world is also interrupted in two
ways, and there are therefore two modes of falling asleep.

2752. The first cause resides in the want of stimulus. The nerves of
the senses are not polar, do not therefore excite the brain, nor does
this again affect the motor system. The muscle therefore arrives at a
state of non-tension; it becomes relaxed, and along with it necessarily
the organs of sense, which are thrown into activity by muscular motion.
The arms and fingers, whose business is to touch, sink down; the feet
which move, and thereby warm and animate the body, are slackened and
bent together; the body is in the recumbent posture; the eyelids drop,
the light no longer plays upon the visual organs, the external and
internal auditory muscles flag also, and the sound is no longer borne
upon the ear. Now also does the tension of the senses with the brain
cease, and with it the sensation--there is sleep.

2753. This sleep arising from want of stimulus is a faint sleep, and
rendered useless by dreams. For there is actually no cause present why
the encephalic tension should entirely cease. Men, who do not fall
asleep through fatigue, but from want of work, sleep restlessly, awake
easily, and again readily fall asleep. Their life is dreaming.

2754. The other cause of the polar suppression in the nerves is like
that of the extension of the muscles, or their falling to sleep; it is
thus the discharge of the too strongly excited poles. With too high a
degree of fibrous tension, which also originates through too long a
continuance of the tension, the fibre is placed in a state of activity,
which consists in the antagonism being balanced by approximation of the
ends. Were nerves, when greatly tensed, capable of being shortened,
they would also discharge themselves, and come at least for one instant
to rest--they would _sleep_.

2755. The falling asleep of the fibre is its sleep, though it also
does not last long. So is the expansion of the heart its sleep, so is
expiration the sleep of the thorax.

2756. In all polarizable organs there is a change or alternation of
waking and sleeping, which endures a longer and shorter time. This
periodicity depends upon the energy of the polar influence, and upon
the size and susceptibility of the substance.

2757. Every substance has its own periods of waking and sleeping, of
action and repose. The pulse sleeps shorter than the breathing; this
again shorter than being hungry; this again for a briefer time than the
sexual function.

2758. There are organs, or systems, which are nearly always in a state
of slumber, e. g. the osseous system, because in it the polarity is
extinguished. It is only in states of inflammation that it wakes up.
Others scarcely ever slumber, e. g. the cellular system, because in it
indeed no pole is yet fixed, and in the alternation of poles its life

2759. There is a similar change of poles in a nervous system, and it
indeed halts or stops for a middling time. Through the persistent
influence of the external world, the nerves of the senses are thrown
into such a state of tension with the brain, that blood cannot flow
thither in sufficient quantity, in order to maintain the two cerebral
substances in mutual antagonism. Brain and nerves become therefore
indifferent; muscles and sensorial organs lose their polarizability,
and their intercourse ceases with the nerves as well as the world. The
brain, and everything else, has now been discharged, and a deep sleep
without dreams, an animal death, ensues.

2760. It has been arbitrarily asserted, that no sleep is possible
without dreams, but for this statement there are no existing grounds.
Whence should the dream come if there is no tension in the brain, or if
it has previously undergone sufficient self-exhaustion?


2761. The sleep of the nerves ranges parallel with that of the planet.
It might be said that such was the case from habit or custom, but it
is, properly speaking, dependent upon a parallel process of organizing
that occurs at the origination of the animal. The matter stands thus:
the germ originates in the morning; until evening stimuli act upon and
polarize it: in the evening they cease, and with them the tension. The
muscles relax upon every movement, and rest necessarily follows in the
manner above delineated. With to-morrow's morn the world again acts
until evening upon the germ; it wakes up, and the same course of events
happens as on the first day. Finally the substance becomes organized
according to this periodicity; it becomes, forsooth, not more energetic
than is necessary in order to admit or receive a charge of one day;
towards evening it is exhausted, is neutral, and rejoices with the
relaxation of the muscles, that the world no longer acts upon its frame.

2762. Thus, we may attribute this phenomenon both to custom and
synchronous formation; nevertheless one ought not to forget that the
organic formation is a metatype, or has been imitated from something
that has gone before, and that consequently the law of periodicity has
not been bestowed upon both at the same time, but first of all unto
nature, and through this to the body, which is its image or likeness.

2763. The nervous periodicity ranges in accordance with the periodicity
of the light, or is thus parallel with its archetype, and consequently
with the day and night. Day is the waking, night the sleeping of
nature. But the animal has originated in and by this alternating change
of nature. It is spiritually, as well as corporeally, nature's likeness.

2764. The sexual function in a perfect animal, as in Man, has been
adapted to the periods of the year; in other animals other natural
periods exert their sway. Animals are commonly pregnant by the month,
e. g. for one, two, four, five months, &c. The human species requires
three quarters of a year for pregnancy, one quarter for giving suck to
the babe, and then it can again conceive. Pregnancy thus lasts a year,
and has been based in the sun.

2765. If the female does not become pregnant, the sexual passion, or
instinct, is repeated at the expiration of a month. It sleeps about one
month, and then awakes for some days. The periodicity may be divided
into vegetative and animal, thus,--

     a. Animal    = _World-periodicity._

  1. Sleep        = _Rotation of the Earth._
  2. Menstruation = _Lunar revolution._
  3. Pregnancy    = _Solar revolution._

     b. Vegetal   = _Earth-periodicity._

  1. Digestion    = _Water, Ebb and Flow._
  2. Respiration  = _Air, Electricity._
  3. Pulse        = _Earth, Magnetism._


2766. The awaking takes place of itself through the origination of
a new polarity in the brain during the afflux of arterial blood,
whereupon the dreams follow which precede the act of waking. During
sleep the plant continues to act, the unloaded cortical substance
becomes again oxydized and charged; tension arises between it and the
medulla, and with this come the dreams. This encephalic polarity is
imparted to the sensitive and motor nerves, and the organs open. If
external stimuli are superadded, all this happens somewhat earlier.
The act of awaking is invariably, however, a restoration effected, or
brought about, by the plant, and especially by the circulation.

2767. Man would therefore wake up had there also been no world of the
senses; but then he would not continue awake, but at once relapse into
slumber, and sleep the eternal death.

III. _Functions of the Organs._

2768. The functions of the organs are the functions of the system
associated or combined, just as the organs are but ultimate evolutions
of the systems existing under similar relations. The organic functions
are always therefore in a state of concatenation with other systems,
and there can be no organ which acts in an isolated manner.

2769. By this character a new field for sympathy has been opened. All
the organs operate through sympathy. Sympathy is therefore the result
of parallel systems, or also of antagonisms between the factors of a
_single_ system. Taken in a strict sense, there are no vegetative
organs. The organs are therefore limited to the _encephalic animal_,
such as are those of motion and the senses, and to the _sexual animal_.

1. _Functions of the Encephalic Animal._


2770. Just as the nerves have a function in themselves, and one
directed towards the subordinate organs, so also has the motor system.

2771. The motor system is in the first place doomed to serve the whole
body, since it flexes it, moves it forwards and backwards and upon all
sides. It is related principally to the movements of the vertebral
column, and serves in numberless animals to effect the act of crawling
or creeping.

2772. Then again it will serve individual parts of the body, such as
the belly in its evacuations, or the sexual animal in emitting urine,
&c. It ministers unto the thorax in the act of respiration, which is a
very complicated process. The thoracic muscles are to a certain degree
co-ordinated with the constantly polar nervous system, and become
thereby and in part involuntary. But one main reason of this appears to
be the air that is constantly renewed in their cavity.

2773. In the act of respiration two orders of muscles are active, the
proper-pectoral muscles, and the abdominal muscle, which has been
displaced from the thorax, or the _diaphragm_.

2774. As originally the thorax took its rise at the expense of the
abdomen, so also is every inspiration an elevation of the thorax and a
displacement of the abdomen. Every breath or in-draught of air expands
and produces the thorax, but narrows and arrests the abdomen. The
diaphragm expresses this contest. Its contraction being a result of
the respiratory tension, expresses consequently a preponderance of the
thorax, and in obedience to this, narrows and diminishes the abdomen.
It is supplied, in conformity with its origin, by nerves from the upper
cervical vertebræ, since prior to this the abdomen extended as far as
the head, and the branchiæ were appended to it as _lateral strips of
integument_--as in Fishes.

2775. As the thoracic cavity is drawn by the diaphragm's descent
towards the abdomen, so by the pectoral muscles is it raised upwards to
the head. The latter movements are what is animal in the respiratory
process, for they lift the thorax towards the head. Pectoral muscles
and diaphragm stand opposite to each other, like limbs and trunk;
the ribs are the limbs, the diaphragm the upper abdominal tunic or
covering. Through this antagonism what is limbed, as belonging to the
thoracic cavity, is drawn upwards, what is abdominal in its character,
downwards; the result is expansion, and through this pumping in of the

2776. The air is in part voluntarily swallowed like the food, as e. g.
by the movement of the ribs, in part involuntarily by the diaphragm.
The diaphragm may be termed the heart of the abdominal cavity.

2777. In the lower organized animals, where merely branchiæ are
present, the animal motion encroaches but little upon the act of
respiration. In Molluscs and Snails, the oxygen is almost always on the
branchiæ, as is the case also in Insects. In Fishes the water is still
taken in like the food through the mouth, and driven out or expelled by
the pharyngeal muscles from between the branchiæ. In them the air is
in both respects swallowed. In many Reptiles the air is indeed drawn
in through the nostrils, but conveyed into the lungs by a true act of
deglutition. These kinds of functions are necessary, because as yet
the whole trunk is abdomen, and the thoracic cavity has not as yet
separated from it; hence the diaphragm is wanting.

2778. The respiratory originates therefore from the digestive organ; it
is freely developed only from the abdomen, and is at length entirely
liberated from the latter as a self-substantial cavity, e. g. first
of all in the Mammalia. Respiration is originally but an act of
deglutition, which has gradually become perfected, by the animal trunk
being associated with it to a greater extent.

2779. The pumping in of air has therefore become in the highest degree
a process of suction, and in this resembles the digestive function when
it has become animal.

2780. Then also the air passes no longer through the mouth, but through
the nose, as being the peculiar opening of the thoracic cavity in the
head. Even the Fishes have as yet no nostrils opening into the mouth.

2781. The thoracic motion is a limb-motion, and would become
locomotion, were the ribs not conjoined. In many of the lower animals
the branchiæ are at once organs of motion, such as fins or rudders.

2782. Every inspiration is a self-manning towards the animal; every
expiration a retro-depression unto the plant; the abdomen in this
case regains the upper hand from the diaphragm reverting to its usual
position, and the thoracic cavity narrowing. Respiration is a becoming

2783. The motions in themselves, without reference to the trunk, are
the motions of the limbs, as standing, walking, &c. The movements of
the arms and feet are sympathetic, because their muscles are of equal


2784. These functions have relation only to the nervous system itself,
because all nerve-organs are elevated above the trunk, and live in
themselves. They are simply the functions of the sensorial organs.

a. _Functions of the Vegetable Sensorial Organs._

2785. These must be regarded as those that still encroach upon the
inferior organs. They are not, however, the inferior processes
themselves, but their ascensive formations into the nervous system.
This therefore works henceforward only in and by itself, but yet in
relation to the inferior processes.

1. _Function of the Sense of Feeling._

2786. To constitute the sense of feeling the integument, in other words
the nutritive or vascular system, has assumed a nervose character,
and consequently that which is in communication with the materiality
of the external world. The function of this sense will therefore have
materiality only for its object.

2787. The integument is the organ by whose means the animal is absolved
or liberated from the world. The sensation belonging to it, is none
other than the perception of this diversity subsisting between the two.

2788. Through the tegumentary sense, the world becomes a something
external in relation to the nervous function; while previously it was
such through the medium of the skin for the lower organs only, viz. as
an object of absorption. The discrimination of materiality is called
_Feeling_. The sense of feeling is the earth-sense.

2789. The sense of feeling perceives materiality, like the nerves
perceive all objects or all stimuli, through polar excitation. Every
pressure, every contact is polar excitation.

2790. The sense of feeling is characterized by poles only being excited
in it by absolute proximity or immediate contact. Just because it is
the first sense, through which the animal is set free, so must that
which is liberated be at once perceived in the moment of liberation,
and thus in immediate contact. The sense of feeling is a polarity of
contact, a polarity without distance. The stronger the contact, by so
much the stronger is the polar excitation--there is increased pressure.
The gravity acts simply by pressure. The perception is therefore
resolvable into one of pressure or contact.

2791. Different degrees of pressure necessarily impart different
amounts of feeling. Perception of the different degrees of pressure
made by an object betrays its inequalities of surface. The sense of
feeling is also the sense for determining inequalities, for the Soft
and Hard, for the Solid, Fluid, and Gaseous; all these feelings,
however, are referable to the contact.

2792. Through diseased conditions, the polarizability of the sensitive
nerves may become exceedingly elevated, and they then perceive the
polarity of contact prior to the contact having taken place. For
the two bodies invariably excite poles that are antagonized to each
other. Were other bodies not to approach them more closely, or else
act upon them more energetically and so extinguish the polarity; they
would remain at an infinite distance in a state of polar relation
towards each other. Feeling can therefore be extended to an indefinite
distance. Hysterical, mesmerized, and even healthy human beings, feel
further than they grasp or touch with the hand.

2793. Homogeneous polarities, or those of the same kind, are throughout
nature to be found also by means of others; e. g. electrical polarities
are not disturbed by the intervention of magnetic ones. Such is the
case also in feeling. That which is related to oneself is felt,
although it is more remote from us than other objects, upon which we do
not bestow any attention, or towards which we do not turn our poles.

2794. The sense of feeling differs according to the diversity of
certain points in the integument, and is thus nobler in character, the
higher the rank which these may hold. Thus it is most feebly developed
in vegetable situations, where hairs, nails, claws, and scales are
placed. It must attain the highest grade of perfection in the animal
organs, and thus in the limbs or their parallels, the lips.

2795. In the limbs, by reason of their mobility, the feeling becomes
voluntary. It is then wholly in our power to strengthen or weaken the
contact, to press gently or firmly, and allow these periods of feeling
to succeed each other rapidly or slowly.

2796. Feeling associated with motion is called _touch_; this condition
of the organ the _tactile sense_. The tactile sense is by no means
different from that of feeling; it is only the combination of feeling
with motion.

2797. The fingers are the most perfect organs of feeling, because they
are the most moveable parts of the body, and therefore they are _organs
of touch_.

2798. As simple feeling perceives the asperities of bodies, so does
touch the _forms_. The perception of forms is based upon the form that
resides in the _tactile organ_ itself.

2799. All possible forms reside in the motion of the fingers.

2800. Each hand is a semi-ellipse, in which the four fingers are the
periphery, the thumb the radius. Both hands together form a perfect
ellipse with two radii.

2801. Now, in the ellipse are involved all geometrical figures. The
hands include in their movements the whole of geometry.

2802. We can only perceive the forms of nature, because they all reside
in ourselves, because we can create them. This, and none other, is the
meaning or sense of the doctrine of pre-established harmony.

2803. The sense of touch is also the sense of form. The fingers
constitute so perfect an organ, that it is scarcely requisite for us
to estimate all its value. In it the whole body is repeated simply in
forms, in spiritual motions.

2804. Through the hand the whole planet becomes an object unto us. It
is the hand which instructs us how to know this terrestrial world.

2805. The greatest perfection is attained by the greatest variety or
multiplied diversity of the organs. The limbs are simply destined for
motion, yet feeling also resides in them, because they are invested
with integument. Could the limbs therefore divide into motor and
tactile members, the conceivable sum total of perfection must be
attained. This division is present alone in Man. The feet have become
simply locomotive members, because they are those of the sex; but
the hands have become tactile members, because they are those of the
encephalic animal.

2806. It is not, as has been imagined, the hands, as hands, which
confer nobility upon our species, for by their means an essential
half of the animality, or the power of locomotion, is lost; but it is
the preservation of all possible functions in an animal, and in such
a manner that each stands upon its highest grade of perfection. The
highest perfection cannot, however, be attained where two functions are
attached to one organ. Should both hands and feet exercise the sense
of touch, the motion is impaired; should both move the body, then the
sense suffers.

2807. The four hands of the Apes are therefore an imperfection, which
we have no need to envy them. They can, properly speaking, only climb
and grasp with them, but not run. Each gait of theirs becomes therefore
ungainly, the horizontal as well as the upright or perpendicular, and
they make use of both alternately; because too the act of handling,
i. e. of climbing, is their only proper movement. Now, in the act of
climbing all the limbs are brought into requisition, and consequently a
free voluntary touch and a free progression disappear.

2808. The feet support the body and stand in its service.

2809. The hands are, on the contrary, supported by the body, are free.

2810. The wings also support the body.

2811. Feet and hands define man. Through the two only does he become

_Tegumental Covering._

2812. The skin, as being originally a branchia, is provided also with
its branchial operculum. This is the epidermis.

2813. Scales are plications or folds of the epidermis, which accord
with the situation of the branchial vessels; they are therefore
arranged generally in a circular form around the body, and are
more definitely varied upon the dorsal than ventral aspect of the
body. Large scales, or those which may be regarded as formed by the
confluence of several scales, are called scutes.

2814. It is merely the epidermis which is concerned in the production
of the squamous covering; but if the former branchial vessels emerge
themselves so as to project above the integument and become dried, then
hairs originate.

2815. If these hairs ramify, then there are feathers.

2816. It is only therefore the Mammalia and Birds who possess a proper
external covering or garment.

2817. The claws or nails are scales upon the extremity of the branchial
arches, which have become animal in character, or in other words, are
digital scales; they are animal branchial opercula.

2818. The nails are demi-claws, and therefore leave the points of the
digits free. Free digital apices or points constitute the most perfect
organ of touch, because this is then divided into two parts and because
the nail increases the amount of resistance.

2819. The organs of defence are therefore an appendage of the sense of
feeling, as are the bones of the motor system.

_Splanchnic or Visceral Senses._

2820. These senses will not be found to disown their predecessors; and
just as the latter extracted the qualities from terrestrial matter, so
also do they. But while the former had to deal with the material, the
present set will have to transact business with the spiritual qualities.

2. _Function of the Gustatory Sense._

2821. Digestion is a chemical process, and one indeed wherein actual
mixture and decomposition take place; it is therefore also, and
"par excellence," an aqueous process. For matters that are actually
decomposible are alone submitted to digestion, since it is of too
coarse a character to perceive the proneness of such bodies to

2822. It belongs only to a higher grade of perfection, or to a nervose
condition of the digestive process, to perceive the rationale of the
decomposition, or the spiritual conflict, which prevails between the
matters, when they are about to separate.

2823. Now, the organ which only perceives the qualities of matters,
without reference to their actual separation, is a sense. Upon the
highest grade of perfection the digestive passes over into a sensorial

2824. _Tasting_ is the first commencement of the digestion in the
nervous system, where the aliments are felt just before the analysis
into their polar quantities has taken place. The gustatory is a

2825. For the exercise of the sense of taste the same conditions
are requisite as for digestion, viz. solution and capacity for
decomposition. Without the capacity for being dissolved, and without
the occurrence of actual solution, nothing can be tasted, any more than
digested. The saliva is the gastric juice for the tongue.

2826. If water be the basic element in the process of digestion, so
in gustation must the higher water, or the _salt_, be the basis of
taste. Salt alone is sapid, and every thing in order to be tasted, must
possess saline properties.

2827. The tongue, by means of the saliva, passes over gradually into
salt. Salt is the last extremity of the tongue. The salt-formation is a
member of the gustatory formation. Hence tasting is only an ascension
of the inorganic to the animal tongue. The salt is the gustatory sense
of the earth.

2828. The general object of taste is the salt of the sea. It alone can
and must be converted into a pleasing taste or relish. What is general
in nature, is the antetype of that which is equivalent in an organism.
Sea-salt and the tongue or saliva are one in kind.

2829. Every thing admits only of being tasted, in so far as it is salt;
every thing is but savoury, in so far as it is marine salt.

2830. As the component parts of sea-salt are acid and alkali, so also
are both these the extremes of tastes. Tastes are divisible accordingly
into acid and alkaline savours.

2831. As salt is a product of what is inorganic, so will the sapid
bodies of this kind be pleasant objects for gustation, provided they do
not act chemically nor in excess. Therefore, what is saline, or acid
and alkali combined, is agreeable to the taste, even if its action
should last a long time.

2832. On the contrary, the proper organic savours, which admit with
difficulty of being reduced to the former or inorganic kinds, if
they do not prove at once nauseous or unpleasant, yet become so by
lengthened operation, e. g. the Sweet, the Bitter.

2833. According to these savours has the organ of taste been regulated.
It hath in itself also polar relations. The point or tip of the tongue
tastes what is acid, its root more readily what is bitter, its dorsum
or back what is poignant or moist.

2834. The matters are not mechanically analyzed upon the tongue; it
does not therefore taste the several component parts, but only their
chemical behaviour or relation in the water, in other words, their

3. _Function of the Olfactory Sense._

2835. In the lungs the air is materially analyzed and deprived of its
oxygen; but, when these organs have assumed a nervose character, the
tension only of the air unto the analysis will be perceived. Now,
the action of the air is the electrism. The nose perceives only the
electrical condition of the air.

2836. The sensation of the electrical relations is called _Smelling_.
The olfactory sense is an air-sense. We smell nothing but the
electricity, and neither the contact, nor the impressions, &c. of the
particles that find their way into the nose. These particles would have
no effect upon the nasal organ, if they did not stand in an electrical
relation unto it.

2837. Now, the electrical bodies in nature are the resins or
Inflammables. What salt is for the gustatory, that is resin for the
olfactory sense. The nose is an electrical, a resinous organ.

2838. In like manner the solubility of bodies in the air is as
requisite for smell, as that in water is for taste. The water is the
menstruum of the sapid, as the air is of odorous, bodies; and this
indeed of necessity, because water and air are the antetypes of these
mineral classes.

2839. In order to be an odorous body or object of smell, the resin must
resolve itself into air, or become aeriform. Aeriform resin is æthereal
oil. Bodies such as those which part rapidly with their electricity,
substances containing hydrogen, æthereal oils and burnt spirits, are
the usual objects appreciated by the olfactory sense.

2840. The hydrogenous body is therefore provided with a sweet scent.
Most bodies which are evolved by fermentation, in so far as they are
electrical, are odoriferous. Most blossoms smell agreeably, because
they secrete aerial matters.

2841. The products of putrefaction emit a fetid odour, because they
indicate the presence not of aerial, but aqueous and terrestrial
matters. Nearly all animal bodies stink, besides many secretions of the
sexual parts, because they belong to the vegetable nature.

2842. The objects of taste have their residence in what is inorganic,
but those of smell, as being objects of a higher sense, have it in the
vegetable kingdom. The succeeding or auditory sense has the animal
kingdom for its object, while the eye scans the universe.

2843. The nose is in every respect an electrical organ; it is an
electrophore, or rather a battery consisting of numerous plates. Of the
truth of this, its numerous tortuous passages and laminated bones are
striking proofs.

2844. That the nose consists of a great number of blood-vessels, as
well as of arteriose olfactory nerves, is quite commensurate with its
character or signification, as being a higher pulmonary organ.

2845. The objects of the three vegetative senses are the three elements
of the planet, earth, water and air; in the first of these reside the
relation of the gravity, rest, and crystallization; in the last the
relation of the electricity; in the water that of the chemism. The
sense of feeling is an earth-sense, that of taste a salt-sense, that of
smell a resin-sense.

b. _Functions of the Animal Senses._

2846. The objects of the animal senses are no longer matter, nor its
chemical qualities, but the higher relations of the solar system,
and the highest organizations, the animals themselves. Throughout
the supra-planetary solar system there is naught to be conceived but
motion and light in action. Wherever there is æther, it is in motion;
the corresponding organs of sense must therefore perceive these two
relations. Now, since the animal is also motion and light, and this
alone, so by means of these senses will the innermost of animality
be at once perceived. Animals become acquainted with themselves only
through these senses, and by them only enter, in so far as they are
animals, into communication with each other. In so far as they are mere
masses of matter, they are capable of self-perception through other
senses. These senses may therefore also be called cosmical, while the
three former are terrestrial.

2847. They correspond thus with each other. The tactile sense is a
precursor of the sense of motion, and represents the motion, gravity,
and pressure, after a terrestrial manner; the two splanchnic senses are
the precursors of the light-sense, since they dwell upon the qualities
of the matter, while the light also is only a quality of the æther.
The sense of smell, being as it were an air-sense, will in particular
border most closely upon the light-sense.

2848. Through the two cosmic senses the universe is translated into the
animal, like the planet is through the terrestrial senses; through the
former also the animal spirit, which is a transcript of the universal
spirit, passes over into other animals. They are the senses of the
highest instruction, of freedom.

4. _Function of the Auditory Sense._

In the æther resides the movement of the world.

2849. To the motor system that only which is its equal, and thus the
movement of nature, can of necessity become an object. The motor system
represented as a sense, cannot, however, perceive the borrowed or
derived motion, not the planetary or massive motion, but the primary
motion of the æther. The planetary motion is related to the primary
motion as the oxydation is to the electrism, as chemical analysis to
chemical affinity, and consequently also as respiration to smelling,
as digestion to tasting, in short, as the material metatype to the
spiritual antetype.

2850. The limbs are the planetary motion organized, and therefore
perceive only this material motion--pressure. Touch is related to the
animal sense of motion, as digestion is to the tasting.

2851. Smell and taste no longer perceive the bodies in the very act of
decomposition, but their laws or their spiritual operations; so will
the motor sense not perceive, like the sense of touch, the mass when in
motion, but only the _motor laws of the mass_.

2852. These laws of motion are those of the primary motion. This is,
however, a product of the light in the æther, an effect of polarity,
and that indeed the first polarity which was manifested in the
universe. The motor sense therefore perceives only a motion which has
originated through primary polarity.

2853. Such motion is not relative in kind, i. e. it does not affect
several portions of the matter in reference to some other matter; but
it affects the whole matter internally, or its atoms, so that all
matter may remain in its place and yet every atom of it be moved.

2854. This motion is like the motion of heat in the matter. By it heat
is excited. For internal motion of the atoms, when aroused by polarity,
so that every atom enters into a state of motion against the other, is
a discharging of the poles, and consequently development of heat.

2855. This internal motion has, however, been produced by an external;
for the external motion acts by contact, and this is a process of
polarization. Now, the interior of a mass is only moved by repeated
contact, or through the restlessness of polarization and by a proper
amount of force, or one which is proportional to the mechanical
resistance of the mass to be excited. The last of these is the
stroke or blow, the first the vibration of the body. By vibration or
oscillation only can a body be internally polarized; for, if it does
not oscillate upon the shock being applied, it is still indeed set in
motion, but "en masse," so that the internal parts remain in a state of

2856. Oscillation is distinguished from continuous or progressive
motion by its affecting the _atoms_ of the body, while the latter acts
upon the body itself. Through the vibration heat is engendered, because
the poles are free and the matter passes over into æther.

2857. Vibration must endure the longest in solid bodies, and thus in
that which belongs to the earth. Among these the hard bodies must take
precedence, because the soft are of an aqueous nature. Among the hard
bodies again the heaviest must vibrate most effectually, because they
offer a longer resistance, and do not yield so soon as light bodies
to the effort made at separation. The purest representative of the
earth-element or the _metal_ is thus the best instrument or means of
vibration, and consequently the object of the motor sense.

2858. Thus as the salt of the earth-element is the object of taste, and
as the resin of the earth-element is the object of smell, so would the
metal be the object of this motor sense.

2859. But no sense-object is without its medium for transmission,
except in the case of the sense of feeling or touch. The salt is only
tasted by means of the water, the Inflammable only smelt by means of
the air; the metal's primary motion could not therefore be perceived
directly by the auditory sense. It must be propagated through the
medium which ranks next to the heat, and whose atoms insinuate
themselves most easily into those of the vibrating body--thus through
the air. Man perceives the primary motion, in which things tend to
resolve themselves into æther, through the air. By the metal, or by
every vibrating body, the vibration of the air is communicated.

2860. This vibration is not, however, a general movement to and fro,
but a dissolution of the material bands. This dissolution can only take
place according to the laws of the primary motion. They are rigidified
in the solid masses as crystalline forms. Every law of motion is a
crystalline form which has become free or spiritually manifested.
Through the vibration forms are engendered in bodies, which are
commensurate with the substance and form of the mass and the degree
of vibration. These forms, being as it were the ghosts or phantoms of
crystals, are called _sonorous figures_.

2861. If the air be displaced when in a state of covibration, it is
not thrown into undulatory circles or waves, like water into which a
stone has been cast, but in each of its parts the sonorous figure of
the rigid body is repeatedly represented. The vibration of air is a
progressive motion of sonorous figures.

2862. If the sonorous figures are not incommensurable, several may
be at one and the same time in a _single_ portion of air, without
interfering with each other. They harmonize, because they have
originated according to concordant laws. But if they are products
of different laws, they are then confused, and an indeterminate
_offensive_ vibration originates, just as savours become loathsome if
they depart from their laws.

2863. These figures of the air are only perceived by the _Ear_. The
ear is the only sense in which the motor system is represented in a
_pure_ state, devoid of any vegetal signification, and simply endowed
with nervose nobility. The ear is therefore the only organ which can
perceive the primary motion of the matter; for like acts only in or
upon its like.

2864. The metals are the ear of nature, the salt her tongue, the resin
her nose, the earth her hand.

2865. The power or capacity excited by sonorous figures of covibrating
according to the same laws, constitutes _Hearing_; the phenomenon is
called _Sound_. Hearing is a primary motion in the musculo-osseous
system of the ear, which is communicated to the auditory nerve. The
auditory sense is æther-sense, metal-sense. Hearing is magnetizing.

2866. The sonorous figures are formed in the auditory organ, and even
in the auditory nerves, just as they have been represented upon an
infinitely small scale in the air. The nerve becomes in hearing a
sonorous figure.

2867. It is not the mere motion in the auditory organs which produces
the sensation of sound; the nerve certainly perceives each movement
in the ears, because none is possible apart from or without primary
motion; only such a motion is no sound, but only a noise. What has been
written in the tingling metal according to eternal laws, is transcribed
or copied in the auditory nerve; it is only this writing, but no
massive motion of the air, which is legible by the nerve.

2868. Melody is a retrogression of the matter into æther, of the formed
world into the primary world; through melody is the spirit of the
world revealed. The ear is the first liberation of the animal from all
terrestrial matter; through the ear the animal becomes for the first
time spiritual.

2869. Melody is the voice of the universe, whereby it proclaims its
scheme, or its innermost essence. Hence the wondrous, mysterious
action of harmony, the secret sovereignty of music. Music is the
expression of the ardent desire to revert to the primary idea. It makes
man unconsciously yearn after a condition which he knoweth not; it
transports him unconsciously into this condition of divine repose and
godly bliss.


2870. That which melodizes proclaims its spirit: the melody of animals
displays their internal law.

2871. _The musical system of all animal laws is Speech._

2872. Speech is the representation of all nature's sonorous figures in
the human organ of sound.

2873. Through speech Man delineates himself in spiritual outlines
or sketches, which, devoid of matter (or body), he sets down before
himself. Such sketches are easily seen through, since to them every
material covering is wanting, and they lie purely before the sensation,
as the law, the will of nature.

2874. Through speech Man appears as a double essence. He is a corporeal
essence; and the spoken word appears before him in the same outlines,
but without body. When conversing, Man is a _self-manifestation unto

2875. Previous to speech no self-consciousness originates.

2876. Without an auditory organ there is no self-consciousness.

2877. To the organ of hearing, however, belongs also the auditory nerve
and the cerebellum. Without a cerebellum there is no self-consciousness.

2878. While Man appears unto himself, he appears also to change. Nature
is gloomy, incomprehensible; the spirit is clear, and enlightens her.

2879. Manifestation is only possible through self-manifestation;
through a doubling of itself, through its expression.

2880. Animals appear only, in so far as they are individual
self-manifestations of Man.

2881. With speech Man creates unto himself his world. Without
speech there is no world. For the Apes there is no world, but only
tree-fruits, female and male.

2882. Through speech Man becomes acquainted with or learns to know
himself; through it he becomes a self-substantial essence, which
resembles God, because it creates for itself its world, and recognizes
itself, i. e. speaks.

2883. Words are forms of our body mathematically laid down.

2884. A single world is dead, so also are many.

2885. Words, which are connected together according to organic laws,
form an organic system, are at once alive, and have a meaning.

2886. Speech originates gradually like the organs, like Man. Speech
grows like a plant; at first it is only root, next it puts forth
a stem, then leaves, and finally blossoms, when it is the perfect
expression of the animal body.

2887. The organ of speech is composed of the three terrestrial organs
of sense, the air-, water-, and earth-sense.

2888. The air-organs are the principal medium, because they must
produce the sonorous figures; the tongue imparts to them the specific
modification; but the lips and jaws, as being motor members, afford the
articulation or the _movement_ proper. The lungs and nose breathe out
the tones; the tongue digests them; the lips move them, and fashion
them into perfect bodies--words.

2889. A word is at once for itself a regularly inter-articulated body.
The sounds are its members, its organs or fundamental formations.

2890. Speaking is a gentle respiration, carried on by the mouth, nose,
and limbs or jaws.

2891. As respiration has a special thorax, so also has speaking. The
speech-(or voice-) thorax is the larynx.

2892. The larynx represents the ribs and arms, which all move in order
to form a sound. The tongue is, so to speak, the head upon this thorax.

2893. The nose imparts euphony to the sounds. It tests their fragrancy.
The tongue gives them a special quality, their chemical character or
taste; the teeth and lips furnish the cadence as a kind of joint to the
sounds, or in other terms the words.

2894. Four organs of sense belong to speech, viz:

  Touch in the Jaws.
  Taste in the Tongue.
  Smell in the Nose.
  Hearing in the Ear.

2895. The ear receives the products of the three vegetative organs of
sense. It is a synthetic sense.

2896. The tongue gives the vowels; the jaws the consonants.

2897. In accordance with this the vowels are the _body_ of speech, and
the consonants the _limbs_ or members, whereby it effects its movements.

2898. Vowels express time, consonants space; the one the chemical
import, the other the form.

2899. The vowel E expresses the present, A that which has just past, O
that which has quite passed, U that which has passed long ago, I the

2900. The more consonants there are in the words, so much the richer is
the language; the more vowels, the poorer it is. Such is the speech of
savages or wild men.

2901. The speech of animals is a vocal or vowel-speech.

5. _Function of the Optic Sense._

2902. As the primary motion of the world is manifested to the animal
through the ear; so does the primitive cause of the motion, that of
every activity and every phenomenon, i. e. light, appear unto the

2903. The light-sense is similarly formed or modelled according to the
light of nature, and kindles also the light within itself, just as the
light originated in the æther; viz. through primary antagonism taking
place in its own substance.

2904. Light is the binary division of the æther-mass, not an antagonism
between it and some other matter; in like manner sight is a binary
division of the nerve-mass in itself, without antagonism to other

2905. Sight is the tension of the æther directly continued into the
animal æther, just as taste was a chemical action continued into the
animal chemism, and smell an electrical process continued into the
animal electrism.

2906. In sight the nervous mass is completely self-antagonized, is a
phenomenon unto itself; the eye is the brain placed opposite to the

2907. Sight is thus a tension between optic and central brain; as
illumination is tension between planetary and solar æther.

2908. Illumination and vision are of one kind, only occurring in
two different sorts of worlds. The planet sees by means of the
illumination, the animal illuminates or gives out light by means of
seeing. Sight is a light-sense.

2909. Now, the illumination is a fixation of æther, a coloration, and
thus a descent of the æther into what is terrestrial. In seeing we
perceive the æther, as to how it becomes world; in hearing we perceived
the world, as to how it became æther.

2910. Seeing and hearing are opposite functions; the first indicates
the creation, the latter the return of the creation into chaos.

2911. Through sight we become acquainted with the universe, through
hearing with the miniature universe, or man. Sight passes out of us,
hearing into us; or through sight Man is posited in the world, through
hearing among his fellow-men. Sight is the speech of the world, hearing
that of the planet.

2912. Sight is the speech or language of the universe, hearing the
language of Man. Through sight the world reveals unto us its spirit or
its thoughts; but through hearing man only discloses what are his own.
As words are but the representations of the disintegrated body of Man,
so are the world-forms the representatives of the disintegrated body of
the primary spirit. The word is a rigidified, crystallized thought of
Man; a natural body is a rigidified, crystalline thought of the primary
act--a word of God.

2913. Through hearing self-consciousness originates; through sight
consciousness of the world, universal consciousness. By means of
the former we only become acquainted with human relations--which is
_understanding_; by the latter with those that are universal--this
being _reason_.

2914. Without the ear there would be no understanding, without the eye
no reason.

2915. Understanding is microcosm, reason macrocosm. From what is
intelligent we expect human wisdom, from what is rational world-wisdom.

2916. That the light also has a medium, whereby it acts upon us, is
at once evident from our existing in such a medium; but it could also
act directly upon us, were it not inevitably broken up beforehand into
colours in traversing the media. All terrestrial elements may be a
medium for the transmission of light, such as the gaseous, fluid, and
solid, i. e. if they are transparent.

2917. We perceive only coloured light, because our organ of light is
only a rigidified colour, a material light. There is no pure light for
us; there is none also in general.

2918. Sight is thus a terrestrial light-tension, a colour-becoming.

2919. This happens only through refraction. The eye is a refracting
medium. It is distinguished from the brain by being a translucent,
refractive, encephalic substance.

2920. Light does not stream into the eye like water into the sponge,
but it progresses gradually into and operates upon it.

2921. The eye, in order to experience the sensation of light, is placed
in a similar tension to the air, water, or crystal. This tension
between it and the brain is perceived by the latter as illumination.
The eye is a prism, in which the brain sees the world, in which the
brain observes its own tension, or the production of colour. Sight is a
deoxydation of the eye.

2922. The optic nerve is an organized ray of light, the brain an
organized sun, the eye an organized chromatic sun or rainbow.

2923. Just as the sonorous figures are delineated in the ears, and
as the nerve perceives these, but not any concussion of the air; so
also does the optic nerve perceive not the light in general, but its
terrestrial formation or the chromatic image, which has been propagated
into the eye.

2924. In an eye, while seeing, the world is depicted; as in the ear,
when hearing, the crystalline forms of the air are delineated.

2925. The eye does not on that account see two worlds. For the
chromatic image is nothing else than that which is external to or
without the eye. It is verily one and the same influence of light,
which acts continuously in a straight line between the chromatic image
and the object apparent or beheld.

2926. As a stick thrusts us from the side whither it comes; so does
the chromatic image from the side whence the light comes. The exit and
entrance of the light are not distinct from each other. The objects
could not therefore appear reversed, because we do not _see_ the image
in the eye, but _feel_ its process of deoxydation along with its

2927. The objects of the eye are colours. Like as they are related
in nature, so also must they be in sight; for they are only the eye
extended, or this again is only the formed colour.

2928. We see nothing else but colours, no bodies. For the eye there is
no material world. It directly perceives the spirit, and indeed its own
spirit, or the world of light.

2929. There is no pre-established harmony, but complete conformity
between the world and organ of sense. (Vid. Oken's Essays, "Ueber das
Universum als fort-gesetztes System der Sinne," and "Erste Ideen zur
Theorie des Lichts." Jena bei Fromann, 1808.)

II. _Functions of the Sexual Animal._


1. _Of the Sexual Intestine._

2930. As the sexual animal is in every respect the encephalic animal
reversed, so also is this the case in respect to its functions. The
sexual intestine gives out through its mouth or anus, while the other
or animal gut takes in. As being the intestine of the vegetal animal
it receives the fermented product of digestion, or the excrement, and
conveys it backwards towards the sexual orifice or mouth.

2931. The intestinal function of the sexual animal is an act of
vomition. The evacuation is an act of vomition, seeing that the
intestinal contents are moved backwards.

2932. The sexual stomach is the rectum. In it the excrementitious
matter is accumulated, so that it may be ready for being broken away in
the process of evacuation.

2933. The commencement of the sexual intestine is the cæcum, its
extremity the anus.

2. _Functions of the Sexual Lung._

2934. We may distinguish two circulations, the splanchnic or visceral,
which takes place between the lung, intestine, and liver, and the great
circulation, which instead of going to the viscera passes to the other
organs, and is called the bodily or systemic circulation. The liver
excretes the product which results from the splanchnic circulation; the
systemic circulation has its organ also, but one which does not secrete
a special, but general product.

2935. The general secernent organ of the whole body together with all
its systems is the sexual system, which having been elevated by virtue
of this general character to the rank even of an animal, is a true
sexual animal. That which is a general and not a partial excretion, is
imparted by the sexual animal. It is the animal reversed.

2936. Thus the secernent organ of the general circulation must belong
to the sexual system, and perform in it that which the liver, or in
other words the reverse of the lungs, has done in the splanchnic
circulation. The _kidneys_ are the lungs reversed.

2937. If the bile be an extract from the visceral blood, so is the
urine an extract from the body's blood, and is consequently the purest
reflex or pattern of the former.

2938. The urine is sexual blood, just as the excrement is a product of
the sexual digestion. The urine is reversed blood.

2939. The formation of urine is a retro-formation of the blood into
digestive fluid or sap. The urine is blood of the sexual animal which
has become chyle. It has both properties in itself. It is discoloured
blood, and consists for the greatest part of water and salts, all of
which are characters belonging unto chyle. It, however, contains urea,
which corresponds to the noblest parts of the blood. This substance,
like fibrine, consists for the greatest part of nitrogen; it may be
called dissolved or decomposed fibrine. It imparts colour to the
urine; it is converted by oxydation into lithic or uric acid, and is
precipitated of a red colour analogous to that of the blood-globules.
In addition to this, albumen, gelatine, carbonate of lime, and
phosphorus, consequently the whole blood, are present in the urine.

2940. In urea the muscle flows or runs out of the animal, in albumen
the nerve, in lime and phosphorus the bone, in gelatine the tegumentary
together with the visceral system, lastly, in water the menstruum of
the digestion and respiration.

2941. Thus the urine, just like the blood, is the whole body rendered
fluid, but only in a sexual manner, namely, as being half decomposed.

2942. So the bile, from its not representing the whole body, does not
contain the latter in itself. It properly contains only the excretion
of the intestinal process.

2943. The kidneys stand accordingly opposed without distinction to all
the organs, in so far as all of them are affected by the circulation.
Their remote sympathy, or if we please, their antagonism, is with the
animal systems, or with bone, muscle, and nerve. With the osseous,
as being the profoundest system, there is of necessity also a close
sympathy. In diseases of bone the bones, as well as the _morbid
matter_, flow away principally through the urine. Their most intimate
sympathy must be with the organs of circulation, with the lung, liver,
intestine, and skin. As the skin is also an organ of evaporation, so
is the antagonism between it and the kidneys of a direct or immediate
kind. The skin is the kidneys expanded into a large cyst. These are
in turn, just as the lung is, the inverted skin.

2944. A lung in the reversed animal can do nothing else but expire.
It only expels the evaporated matter of the sanguinary system, but
takes in none, so as to alter or support the blood. The sexual animal
aims at the destruction of the animal. The urinary cyst, as being
the remnant of the allantois, and of the primordial kidneys or sexual
branchiæ, is simply destined to purposes of expulsion. It is the larynx
reversed. Micturition takes place through contraction of the cyst,
as does expiration by that of the lungs in Reptilia. It is a cough.


2945. The sexual functions proper correspond to the sensorial
functions, though to these upon an inferior stage. They are sensorial
functions, which are simply occupied with the materials of the senses,
so that they are vegetative senses. They are a prefiguration of the
sense of feeling, taste, and smell.

1. _Functions of the Male Organs._

2946. The testes secrete semen in the same manner that the salivary
glands do their fluid or juice.

2947. The semen is sexual saliva, and is thus sexual virus or poison.
Like the saliva destroys that which is living, so does the semen. The
saliva, however, destroys it in order to form a new animal out of the
food; with the same motive the semen destroys it. But both differ in
this, that the saliva takes care of the body to which it belongs, while
the semen attends to another body, the foetus or fruit.

2948. The saliva is only the highest condition of the digestive fluid,
and is thus a totality merely of the intestinal system; the urine
is the total product of the vascular system in its antagonism with
the lung; but the semen is the product of the whole body. Through the
semen the whole body, rendered fluid or reduced to the primary form,
runs away. The semen is the chyle already prepared for all parts; but
because it is in a sexual animal, it thus takes the reverse direction
and passes out.

2949. A fluid, in which the whole animal has been dissolved, is
parallel to the nerve-or point-mass. The semen is a fluid point-or
nerve-mass, the fluid brain.

2950. Even what is spiritual directly resides in the semen; it need
only assume a form and the cerebral functions commence.

2951. The penis, as being the sexual tongue, has only retained the
sensibility of the sense of touch and the function of ingestion.

2. _Functions of the Female Parts._

2952. The female aperture is the pharynx for the ingestion.

2953. It is by means of the female parts that the whole sexual system
becomes for the first time equal to the perfected animal; through them
for the first time the male tongue obtains an oral cavity.

2954. In the total representation of the sexual animal the female parts
environ and include the male. This moment is called _copulation_.

2955. Copulation is the representation of the entire animal out
of two incomplete ones. The sexual animal is only an entire beast
in copulation, and is only then to be considered as equal to the
encephalic animal. Copulation is a representation of the hermaphrodite.

2956. This propensity for bringing about the sexual animal's completion
is sexual passion or lust.

2957. In copulation the male parts are "par excellence" the sensorial
organ, the female only the recipient mouth. Both are properly organs of
sense, but the one is operative or active, the other patient or passive.

2958. Previous to copulation the female parts are consequently
inactive, just as digestion is before taste. As digestion first
commences after taste has given up the food and excited the stomach
to activity, so also the sexual function first commences in female
animals, after the act of tasting is past.

2959. Through copulation what is female becomes masculine. It
now secretes for the first time self-substantial semen. Through
impregnation the female ovaria are first excited to secrete the saliva,
which the whole animal contains in a state of solution.

2960. As the chyle becomes what it is, or is derived from the saliva
and food; so from the semen and vitellus proceeds the foetus, but in
such a manner that the female substance gives it the mass, while upon
this the male only bestows the polarity.

2961. Thus, were the male semen to actually solidify into the foetus;
it is still not its mass which comes into consideration in the
latter, but only its polarizing strength. It supplies the place of
the nervous system. This power appears to reside principally in the
(seminal) Infusoria or animalcules, just as that of the blood does in
the blood-globules. Meanwhile both are only signs of the maturity of
their respective juices, as the Infusoria in sea-water are a proof
also that the sea can produce other animals from its mucus or slime.
The Infusoria are the primary mass of the Organic. Its life is only a
manifestation of the seminal polarity. The Infusoria are semen which
has been poured out over the earth. Propagation is only possible
through reduction taking place to the infusorial primary mass.

2962. The semen and the ovum first meet or come together in the uterus.

2963. The ovum is the mean between vegetable and animal semen. As the
former is distinctly formed and at once represents, upon a small scale
within itself, the principal parts of the future plant, so does the
ovum; but only in parts, from which the animal organs first of all grow
forth, upon which having commenced, the former or vegetal parts are
cast aside.

2964. The ovum is the entire animal in idea, or in design, but not yet
in structure; it is the thought unto the animal; it is related to the
animal as the thought is to the word.

2965. The ovum has therefore no organ of the animal preformed within
itself, but only the materials requisite thereunto. But the materials
are not so general in character, that like as from the infusorial mass,
everything could become or derive its existence from everything else.
But they are at once destined for definite organs, as the vitellus for
the intestine, the albumen probably for the integument.

2966. In an ovum therefore the animal resides preformed only in a
spectral or phantom-like manner. There are principal masses present in
it, from which the principal organs originate.


2967. In the oviparous animals the secretion of the vitellus is
distinct from that of the albumen; the one takes place in the ovarium,
the other in the oviduct or uterus.

2968. By degrees the albumen-secreting vessels advance further
outwards upon the orifice of the sexual parts, and are then called

2969. Mammæ are only the vascular bundles of the oviduct placed in the
direction outwards, or albumen-glands of the integument.

2970. Mammalia are those animals where the ovarium has completely
separated into albumen-and vitellus-organ.

2971. Those mammæ which have scarcely been detached from the oviduct,
and become free, are necessarily more incomplete, and are situated in
the neighbourhood of the sexual parts--as udders.

2972. As the separation of the substances composing the ovum is an
advancing-step towards their improvement, so also is the removal of the
albumen-glands from the vitelline sac a nobler condition. They cannot,
however, remove further off than to the thorax, because this is the
highest post or station of the vegetative parts.

2973. Milk is a vegetable product of the animal.

2974. Numerous mammæ are a lower development.

2975. The milk is albumen, which has been secreted by tegumentary
glands; it is animal albumen. The lacteal or milk-organs therefore
belong to the sexual system.

2976. As the male parts are only the female otherwise developed, it
is to be comprehended why the male animals also have mammæ. They are
probably the embryo's principal organ of absorption.

_Functions of the Uterus._

2977. Now, the uterus obtains the sexual food in a living state, and
from its being such is affected by it.

2978. The uterus must be thus a world for the living germ. Two
processes are, however, indispensable for the germ, namely _nutrition_
and _respiration_; both of which are furnished by the uterus.

2979. The uterus is to be regarded as the water, the sea in which the
germ or embryo is developed. The water decomposes into basic nutritive
matter and oxygenous matter of respiration. The water of the uterus is
the blood; this is separated through the antagonism of the foetus
into mucus and oxygen. The mucus penetrates into the amnion, the oxygen
into the chorion, or the placenta.

2980. The fundus of the uterus is more arteriose than the os uteri, and
stands therefore in opposition with it.

3. _Development of the Foetus._

a. _Anatomy._

2981. The germ may be regarded as a vesicle, full of nutritive matter
or albumen, situated within the cavity of the uterus, the walls of
which act upon it.

2982. As the fundus of the uterus is the arterial pole, so it oxydizes
the vesicle and repels that part which lies close upon it. Through
this originates a saccular inversion, as in the mesentery of the
peritoneum, and the vesicle separates into three divisions. In itself
it is amnion, the inverted part is the integument of the embryo, the
tube which unites these the umbilical cord.

2983. The amnion is thus the root or primary cyst of the integument.

2984. Through continuous oxydation blood-vessels are developed upon the
surface of the amnion, which finally withdraw to constitute a special
integument, which is called chorion. Its vessels are in like manner
repelled from the fundus uteri, and prolonged into the inversion of the
umbilical cord and the embryo. The chorion is thus the root or primary
cyst of the vascular system.

2985. These two bladders, sacs, or cysts are the only general ones
which circumscribe or invest the entire embryo, because there are only
two general vegetative systems, namely, the tegumentary and vascular.

2986. The embryo has not originated freely in these shut sacs, but only
through their introversion; it is itself a portion of these sacs.

2987. The embryo properly lies external to its envelopes, as the
intestine does in respect to the mesentery.

2988. Just as the two general vegetative systems have been developed
from primary cysts, so also are there sacs for the two special
vegetative systems, or the intestinal and sexual; but, on that very
account, these cannot be general sacs, nor any longer envelop the

2989. At the entrance of the inversion of the umbilical cord is
situated a small vesicle, which divides and is prolonged into the
two intestines. It is therefore the root or primary sac of the
intestinal system, and is called in Man the 'vesicula umbilicalis,' in
the Mammalia the 'tunica erythroides,' and in oviparous animals the

2990. In the same situation is placed another cyst, which is
prolonged into what has been called the 'urachus' and the urinary
cyst, and from which the primordial kidneys, the true kidneys, and
the sexual parts are developed by sacciform eversion. This sac is
called the 'allantois,' 'tunica allantoides,' and is consequently the
root or primary sac of the sexual system.

2991. These cysts or sacs are consequently not envelopes that serve for
the protection of the foetus, but its developmental organs, which
disappear, so soon as their prolongations into the foetus itself
enable them to exercise their functions.

2992. There are thus as many developmental sacs or cysts, as there are
vegetative systems present, viz.:

  a. Two General Cysts.
    1. The Vascular cyst--Chorion.
    2.     Tegumental cyst--Amnion.

  b. Two Special Cysts.
    3. The Intestinal cyst--Vitellus.
    4.     Sexual cyst--Allantois.

2993. It is only the vegetative systems which take root in the foetal
envelopes, but not the animal systems. There is no developmental cyst
for the nervous, muscular, and osseous systems.

2994. The persistent vegetative systems are the developmental organs
for the animal systems; as the intestine for the bones, the veins for
the muscles, the tegument or branchial sac for the nerves.

2995. The foetus consists of three floors or stories like a house,
whereof one has been based upon, or rather developed out of the other,

  a. Of the Developmental cysts.
  b.    "   Vegetative systems.
  c.    "   Animal systems.

2996. According to time the sacs are developed in the following
series. The first sac is that of the vitellus or the intestine,
which is also the first that is present in the development of the
animal kingdom. Upon this vitelline membrane the blood-vessels ('vasa
omphalomesenterica') are developed, are prolonged into the body with
the intestine, turn again outwards and form the chorion. From this the
amnion next separates into the envelopes, and the integument upon the
embryo. Lastly, the allantois appears, and in its prolongation the
sexual parts.

2997. Originally the whole chorion is replete all around with vessels;
but as the process of oxydation occurs most powerfully upon the fundus
uteri, so are the vessels developed most abundantly in that very
situation, and form the placenta.

2998. The placenta is no peculiar organ, but only the more energetic
part of the chorion.

2999. It must necessarily be placed around the insertion of the
umbilical cord, because at this spot the inversion takes place, on
account of the strong oxydation.

3000. The placenta is always situated upon the fundus uteri, because
it originates only through its influence. It cannot therefore begin to
suck, like the mouth of a leech, in a fortuitous or voluntary manner
anywhere. If it is found occupying some other situation, it is a proof
that the oxydizing process of the uterus has been displaced. This is
consequently an abnormal situation.

3001. Opposite to the foetal vascular system is first of all
developed the general system of animal life, namely, the nervous
system, and indeed the spinal chord, or what has been called the
'carina' or primary streak.

3002. The development of all other systems oscillates in this
antagonism of blood and nerves.

3003. In the antagonism of the placenta is formed the liver, which in
the embryo is one of the largest organs, and in its antagonism the
brain is developed.

3004. In the antagonism of the amnion the integument is evolved, and in
its antagonism the branchiæ and lungs.

3005. In obedience to the antagonism of the arteries and veins, the
vitelline sac divides into small and large intestine. The one pursues a
course towards the arterial extremity of the body, the brain, the other
towards the venous or sexual parts; mouth and anus.

3006. Finally, from the antagonism of the allantois the sexual parts
emerge at the very extremity of the body, which is placed opposite to
the mouth.

3007. The osseous and muscular system first makes its appearance, when
the vegetative parts are present.

3008. The intestines, the vessels, and the commencement of the sexual
parts are originally situated in the umbilical cord, which is itself
surrounded by the integument. The umbilical cord is therefore nothing
else than the posterior extremity of the body or abdomen, through which
the embryo respires and is nourished.

3009. The first respiration and deglutition is therefore a respiration
and deglutition effected by the sexual parts, as in the lowest animals.

b. _Functions of the Foetus._

1. _Nutrition._

3010. The juices which are contained in the developmental sacs are
nutritive juices or chyle; they contain principally albumen. The chyle
of the intestinal vesicle depends upon the vitellus.

3011. The foetal water in the amnion is derived from albumen in the
ovum; it is here secreted by the oviduct, but in the Mammalia by the
internal wall of the uterus, and absorbed by the general envelopes.

3012. The cause of this secretion resides in the decomposition of the
blood through the influence of the chorion. Thus if the maternal blood
become deoxydized, it must necessarily revert to the condition of
chyle. This chyle is the foetal water.

3013. The foetal water is absorbed by the embryo through the

3014. No blood is transferred from the mother directly to the foetus.

3015. The blood-vessels of the uterus and placenta do not open into or
communicate with each other.

3016. The foetal water corresponds to the albumen or the white of
eggs, not to the vitellus. This becomes also during incubation consumed
in the formation of the body of the chick, and not the vitelline mass,
which is first of all destined for the intestine.

3017. Towards the termination of pregnancy, when the foetus is
endowed with muscular motion, the foetal water is also absorbed.
Nutrition is therefore in the commencement an absorption carried on by
the integument, and lastly by the intestine.

2. _Respiration._

3018. The respiratory organ of the foetus is the chorion, and in
particular the placenta. Its tissue is like that of the branchiæ or

3019. The arterial blood transmitted through the umbilical vein is
conducted through the foramen ovale into the left ventricle of the
heart, and from thence directly to the principal organ of the foetus,
the brain and spinal cord. From hence it returns, venous in quality,
to the right side of the heart, and from thence through the ductus
arteriosus into the inferior or descending aorta, from which, pursuing
its course through the umbilical arteries, it again reaches the
placenta, in which it undergoes a renewed oxydation.

3020. If therefore the umbilical cord be compressed, the foetus
dies suddenly, as happens indeed accidentally in certain cases, which
completely resemble those of death produced by suffocation. The chick
when in the egg dies, if the egg-shell be coated over with varnish, or
if the egg be submitted to the noxious influence of gases which are
devoid of oxygen.

3021. The respiration effected through means of the placenta, admits
also of being proved by the sudden change which occurs in the
circulation after birth. No arterial blood being then any longer
brought to the heart through the umbilical vein, the left heart is
no longer stimulated, and the foramen ovale collapses and is closed.
Thus, all the blood enters the right side of the heart, and finding no
thoroughfare into the ductus arteriosus, it is driven forcibly into the
lungs, which now expand, and thereby leave an empty space between the
pulmonary vessels, into which the air rushes in.

3022. The first act of respiration is therefore the result of the
lungs being injected with venous blood, and thus of necessity ensues.
When, on the contrary, cases arise causing pulmonary suffocation, the
blood then regurgitates to the umbilical vessels, in order to reach the
original branchia or placenta.

3023. Another process of respiration is found to take place in the
vessels of the allantois. Its fluid becomes oxydized and penetrates
through the urinary cyst into what have been called primordial
kidneys. This kind of respiration through the anus is persistent in
many Worms and larvæ of Insects.

3024. Finally, there is a respiratory process on the body of the embryo
itself through the branchial apertures on its neck; these in the Frogs
and Salamanders still continue visible after their exclusion from the
egg. This oxygen must be derived from the foetal water.

3025. Without doubt also the vitelline vessels respire, and thus each
vegetative system has its own process of respiration. The intestine
respires through the vitelline vessels, the vascular system through
the vessels of the chorion, the sexual system through those of the
allantois, the integument through the branchial apertures. The lungs
belong to, and perform respiration for the whole body.

_Decay of the Developmental Organs._

3026. When all the organs are developed, the intestines are drawn
together with the vitellus into the abdomen. The chick is still
nourished several days after exclusion from the egg by the vitelline
mass, which passes through the vitelline canal into the intestine. The
vitelline membrane subsequently becomes flaccid, and finally disappears
through maceration. In the Mammalia the umbilical vesicle separates
at an earlier period from the intestine, and continues to lie in the
umbilical cord.

3027. The secernent point of the vitelline membrane or of the umbilical
vesicle is the coecum.

3028. There are therefore two intestinal systems, which branch off in
a bifurcated manner from the c