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Title: Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art, No. 706 - July 7, 1877
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art, No. 706 - July 7, 1877" ***

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Fourth Series


NO. 706.      SATURDAY, JULY 7, 1877.      PRICE 1½_d._]


Towards the end of last century, the family of Andrew Fairbairn
resided at the foot of the Woodmarket, Kelso. Andrew was a man in
humble circumstances, but was intelligent and industrious, and fond of
reading. He had spent his early life as a ploughboy, and afterwards as
a gardener; by which means, along with the perusal of books, he gained
a good knowledge of agriculture. Having in the course of pushing his
fortunes gone to reside near a seaport in England, he was, during the
exigences of the American war, pressed on board a frigate, from which
he was draughted into a ship of the line, and served under Lord Howe
at the destruction of the Spanish fleet off Gibraltar. At the close of
the war, he happened to be present at Spithead, when the _Royal George_
sank, August 29, 1782, and assisted in saving the survivors. Receiving
his discharge, he returned to Scotland, and settling in Kelso, married
Miss Henderson, daughter of a tradesman in Jedburgh, and in due time
had a family of sons and daughters. That may be called the beginning of
the Fairbairns.

Andrew did not return to sea-life. He had had enough of naval
adventure. Kelso, where he pitched his camp, is a pretty inland town
on the north bank of the Tweed, once celebrated for an abbey, of which
the ruins still exist, and having in its immediate neighbourhood the
palatial mansion of Fleurs, the seat of the Dukes of Roxburghe. All
around is a fine fertile country, where there is abundant scope for
agricultural pursuits. To these he addicted himself, though taking him
six days a week from home, and obliging him to devolve the upbringing
of his children in a great measure to his wife, who was eminently
suited for this important duty. She was far from robust, and her
poor state of health would have offered a good excuse for idleness;
but possessing a spirit of indefatigable industry, she toiled in a
way that reminds us of the singularly meritorious wife mentioned in
Scripture--'She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her
hands.... She looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth
not the bread of idleness.... Her children arise up, and call her
blessed.' The picture is accurate in every detail. According to the
economy of the period, when as yet the domestic spinning-wheel was in
operation, Mrs Fairbairn bought wool and flax, which she spun into
yarn, reeled into hanks, and gave out to a weaver to be manufactured.
From the varied materials so produced, she provided shirtings, sheets,
and blankets for the family. And not only so, but for some years she
made all the coats, trousers, and other garments for her husband and
sons, besides all the dresses required for her young daughters.

William Fairbairn, the eldest and most notable of her sons, was born
at Kelso, February 19, 1789. There he received a plain elementary
education at the parish school, paddled like other boys in the Tweed,
and acquired a proficiency in climbing the tall picturesque ruins of
the abbey. In 1799, the family were induced to remove to Moy, a farm
a few miles from Dingwall in Ross-shire. Here commenced a desperate
struggle to wring a subsistence out of a piece of land plentifully
dotted over with whins, stones, rocks, and other obstructions. Andrew,
the father, had an opportunity of exercising all the agricultural
knowledge he possessed. Like many Scotsmen in similar circumstances, he
did not despair. To remove the various impediments to the plough, he
adopted an ingenious method. Having managed to draw the large stones
and rocks into heaps, he laid over them quantities of dried whins,
which he set on fire. The stones and rocks became red-hot, and by the
pouring on them of cold water from a bottle, were fractured and blown
to shivers. By the wondering neighbours, this cheap and ready method of
ridding the land of whins and rocks at the same time was considered an
extraordinary performance. Next was instituted a system of draining;
and in two or three years, splendid crops of turnips and barley were
growing on land which had hitherto been little better than a wilderness.

While the family were at Moy, William received no addition to his
education, and had to occupy much of his time as a nurse to his
youngest brother, Peter, then a child of fifteen months old. To relieve
himself of the trouble of carrying the child on his back, he fell on
the device of making a little wagon with four wheels. It was a somewhat
difficult undertaking, for his only tools were a knife, a gimlet, and
an old saw. With these and a red-hot poker to burn holes in the wheels
for the axles, he was able to knock up a small wagon, which proved
quite a success. He dragged Peter about the farm, to the delight of the
infant and the satisfaction of his mother. Encouraged by the success
of the construction, he began to make small boats and mills with his
knife, that were the admiration of neighbouring boys; such performances
giving, as is believed, a bent to his mind as regards mechanical
construction. Some untoward circumstances led Andrew Fairbairn to quit
Moy and to become steward to a Highland laird at Mullochy. In this
situation he remained only two years; and now, disgusted with the
Highlands, he removed with his family, in 1803, back to Kelso. There he
left them while he occupied the position of farm-manager in Yorkshire.
This was a dark period in the history of the Fairbairns. The father
did his best to supply means by transmitting part of his wages, but
the wages were irregularly paid, and sometimes the family were on the
brink of want. Being now a tall lad of fourteen, William made an effort
to get an employment which would bring in a few shillings a week. He
considered himself fortunate in getting work as a mason's labourer
at the building of the new bridge across the Tweed at Kelso--one of
Rennie's handsome structures. When only a few days at this toilsome
employment, William suffered a dire misfortune. By the clumsy
management of a companion in carrying a hand-barrow, a heavy stone fell
on his leg, inflicting a deep wound, and throwing him off work for
nearly three months. When the family were in the depths of penury, the
father succeeded in getting an appointment at Percy Main Colliery, near
South Shields, as steward of a farm belonging to the coal-owners. There
was still the disadvantage of being absent from his family, but the pay
regularly administered put him in comfort, and he had an opportunity of
getting some employment for his eldest son.

The employment so secured was not much to speak of: it was only that
of driving a coal-cart, but nothing better cast up, and was dutifully
endured amidst a dissolute and contentious population, until, at the
instance of the owners of the colliery, William, in 1804, was bound
apprentice for seven years to Mr John Robinson, the engine-wright of
the establishment. Such was the start in life of William Fairbairn
as an engineer. At first, his wages were five, afterwards rising to
twelve, shillings a week; but there was extra work paid for separately,
by which his small wage was often doubled, and he was able to help his
parents, who were struggling with a very limited income.

As we all know, there are two ways of pursuing an industrial occupation
in youth. One is to do no more than what is immediately required,
caring little for the future; the other is to endeavour, by every
available means, to strike out a course of self-improvement, not only
for the pleasure of doing so, but it may be in the hope of reaping
some future advantage. William Fairbairn adopted the latter method
of getting through his apprenticeship. He laid down for himself a
programme of self-instruction, while most other lads about him spent
all their leisure time in coarse and profitless amusements. His weekly
programme is worth the attention of young men placed in similar
circumstances. Every day had its assigned work--Monday evenings, the
study of arithmetic and mensuration. Tuesday, reading history and
poetry. Wednesday, recreation, reading novels and romances. Thursday,
mathematics. Friday, Euclid, trigonometry. Saturday, recreation and
sundries. Sunday, church, reading Milton, &c. These several exercises
were facilitated by books procured from the North-Shields subscription
library, for which his father bought for him a ticket. Besides going
through a course of reading the best historical and other works, which
widened his knowledge and cultivated his feelings, he in a period
of three years went through a complete system of mensuration, and
as much algebra as enabled him to solve an equation; also a course
of trigonometry, navigation, and some other branches of science. At
times he devised pieces of machinery, which taught him the necessity
of arranging and concentrating his ideas in matters of mechanical
ingenuity. Having a taste for music, he made a violin, on which he
taught himself to play familiar Scotch airs, though never with any
degree of brilliance. His mind leaned towards more solid acquirements.
As a kind of promotion, he was removed from the workshop to take charge
of the steam-engine and pumps. Now, he was more his own master, and
had intervals of time at his disposal. No amount of leisure, however,
diverted him from his course of self-culture. His companions spent not
a little time and money in beer-drinking, which kept them in poverty,
and effectually stood in the way of their advancement. One of his early
contemporaries was happily superior to these debasing pursuits. This
was George Stephenson, with whom he became acquainted. George had the
charge of an engine at Willington Ballast Hill, only a mile or two
off, and being recently married, was somewhat pinched in the means of
livelihood. To enable him to earn a few shillings, Fairbairn frequently
took charge of his engine, while he took a turn at heaving ballast out
of the colliery vessels. It is interesting to hear of facts like this
of two men who rose to eminence through self-culture and unrelaxing

At the close of his apprenticeship, and now twenty-two years of
age, William Fairbairn went to London in search of employment as a
millwright or working engineer. At this time Rennie was engaged in
building Waterloo Bridge, and offered work to William Fairbairn.
But--and a sad 'but' it was--the Millwrights' Society, which assumed
the right of determining who should be employed, would not allow work
to be given to him; and for a time, along with a companion similarly
situated, he underwent serious privations. Unless for succour from some
hospitable relatives who gave him a dinner on Sunday, he would have
been well-nigh starved. A brighter day at length dawned. A number of
workmen had the fortitude to resist the monopoly of the Millwrights'
Society, and banding together, set up a Society of free and
independent labourers, under whose auspices Fairbairn got employment
at a patent Ropery at Shadwell. Here and elsewhere he wrought as a
journeyman two years in the metropolis, all the time realising good
wages of from two to three pounds a week, and as formerly occupying
his leisure hours mostly in reading. As he lived moderately, he saved
some money, with which he hoped to push his way forward. Unluckily, he
fell in with a crazy projector, who had devised a plan of delving land
by machinery. The thing was ingenious, but not practicable. Induced to
make a machine for the inventor, Fairbairn's small savings were swept
away. He was more fortunate in his next order. It was to make a machine
for chopping meat for sausages, for which he was promised thirty-three
pounds by a pork-butcher. The machine, constructed with a fly-wheel and
a double crank, with a dozen knives crossing each other, did its work
admirably. The pork-butcher was delighted, and paid handsomely for the

Put in pocket by this piece of business, Fairbairn proceeded to Dublin
in quest of work, and got employment in constructing nail-making
machinery. This lasted during a summer, and back he came to England,
the voyage by packet to Liverpool occupying two days. A lucky thought
directed him to try Manchester as a field of operations. Here he
received employment from Mr Adam Parkinson, for whom he worked two
years, and from his earnings was able to save twenty pounds, a sum
which he destined to set him up in married life. For several years he
had corresponded with Dorothy Mar, daughter of a farmer at Morpeth, and
for whom he entertained an ardent affection. Fortune, as he imagined,
being now propitious, marriage with Miss Mar could be discreetly
contemplated, and the marriage took place June 16, 1816. The young
pair commenced housekeeping in a very small and modest domicile at
Manchester. William Fairbairn had still to make his way in the world,
and blest with this good wife, set about doing it vigorously. For
certain spheres of usefulness, Manchester offers better scope than
even London. In partnership at first with Mr James Lillie, he began
an independent career as a millwright, or in fact, a contractor for
any large undertaking from a bridge to a spinning-factory. The two in
setting up business had hardly any money, but they had brains, which
had been pretty well exercised, and people were disposed to throw work
in the way of what seemed to be two eager and clever young men. A large
job executed for Mr Murray, a cotton-spinner, put them on their feet.
Well-doing needs only a beginning. Almost immediately followed the
works on a new cotton-mill for Mr John Kennedy, partner in the firm of
Messrs M'Connel and Kennedy, then the largest spinners in the kingdom.
The skilful manner in which improvements were introduced into the new
mill brought a press of orders. The business prospered so greatly,
that at the end of five years the two young men found themselves with
a stock and tools worth five thousand pounds. Large and commodious
premises were erected, and contracts for gigantic works were undertaken
in England, Scotland, and Switzerland.

Fairbairn lived at a time when the world was startled with the marvels
of steam-traction on railways, and he fancied that a similar means of
propulsion could be adopted on canals. In this, after several costly
experiments, he found himself mistaken, and the drainage of money was
so great as to lead to a dissolution of his partnership with Mr Lillie.
Now (1832), he rested entirely on his own energies and resources; but
strong in self-reliance, he had no fears of the result. He turned his
attention to a new branch of engineering manufacture, that of iron
ship-building. For a time he had two establishments, one in London,
the other in Manchester, and collectively employed two thousand hands.
In 1835 began his famous investigations into the strength of iron,
as regards girders, beams, pillars, and so forth; his experiments
being of much scientific and mechanical importance. This, indeed,
might be described as the great work of Fairbairn's life; for from
his discoveries has sprung that remarkable adaptation of cast-iron in
various forms--to house-building, the construction of bridges, and
other works. About the same time, owing to a strike of boiler-makers
at Manchester, he invented a method of riveting the plates of boilers
by machinery, which at once superseded hand-labour. No longer were
people assailed with the din of a hundred hammers riveting together
iron plates; the machine of Fairbairn's invention substituted a rapid,
noiseless, and comparatively cheap method of construction.

Until his fiftieth year, Mr Fairbairn wrote an autobiographical account
of his career, and the projects with which he was concerned, which has
been incorporated in the recently issued work, _The Life of Sir William
Fairbairn, Bart._, by W. Pole (Longmans, 1877). Mr Pole continues
the narrative, but in so fragmentary and meagre a form as to give us
little insight into the private life of the person to whom he refers,
or of the family to which he belonged. Happily we were honoured with
the friendship not only of Sir William, but of his brother, Sir Peter
Fairbairn of Leeds--the brother whom when a child he drew about in a
little wagon of his own making, long ago in the Highlands. Our last
interview with Sir William was shortly before his decease, when on what
we believe was his farewell visit to Scotland. From both brothers we
learned a variety of details relative to their respective professional
pursuits, and on all occasions were struck with the strong practical
common-sense and tact which had guided them through life. From the
humblest possible circumstances, each in his own way had attained
distinction by the exercise of sound judgment and persevering industry
connected with the manufacture of machinery. The lesson which their
lives afforded was this: that success in life is less generally due to
genius than to indomitable diligence along with integrity of character.

Sir William Fairbairn never, as we know, aimed at being a great man.
He wanted only to be useful in his day and generation. His habits of
industry were extraordinary. Besides devoting himself specially to
new mechanical contrivances and scientific researches, he spent much
time in his later years in writing papers for the British Association
and other public bodies. On one subject he fastened keenly. It was
the prevention of smoke from factory chimneys, which he shewed
could be effectually done by a more perfect combustion of fuel.
The paper appeared in the Transactions of the British Association
for 1844. It is doubtful if it made many converts. There seems to
be a determination among manufacturers to disregard all advice or
remonstrance on the subject. For more than thirty years we have used
a plan for consuming smoke with perfect success and considerable
economy of fuel, but our neighbours for the most part perversely go on
polluting the atmosphere as usual.

As is well known, Sir William Fairbairn distinguished himself by his
invention of the tubular iron bridge, sustained without stays, and,
which adopted by Stephenson, was employed in the construction of the
famous tubular iron bridge across the Menai Strait, which is entitled
to be called the mechanical wonder of England. We have never been shot
along in a railway train through that iron tube, formed by a succession
of square cells placed end to end, without thinking of Fairbairn's bold
ingenuity. The reputation he acquired by this and other inventions
of a useful kind brought him honours from numerous quarters. He had
declined to accept a knighthood, and was reserved for the higher
dignity of a baronetcy, which was conferred during Mr Gladstone's
tenure of office in 1869. Two years previously, he had the misfortune
to lose his eldest son, John, a blow which was severely felt by him.
Coming from a long-lived family--his father dying in 1844 at the age of
eighty-six--and tall, robust, and active, he enjoyed health till nearly
the end of his days. He died peacefully August 18, 1874, leaving three
sons and a daughter, also a widow, to mourn his loss. He was succeeded
in the baronetcy by his son Thomas. Though the family wished the
funeral to be private, it was, as a voluntary mark of respect, attended
by upwards of fifty thousand persons. Such was the end of one of the
greatest engineers of our day. His whole life pointed a valuable moral
which it is unnecessary to repeat. His brother, Sir Peter Fairbairn of
Leeds, predeceased him, leaving likewise descendants to perpetuate the
reputation of the Fairbairns.

    W. C.



When was I first conscious of it? When was the first faint shadow of
it perceived by the others? It would be difficult to say precisely
when; but as days went by, some subtle change was taking place and
making itself felt amongst us. Gradually an indefinable something was
extracting the sunshine out of our lives. None of us admitted so much
to each other; indeed I think we were all equally anxious to have it
thought that everything was going on in precisely the same way as
before. And yet--where was the frank confidence and ease which only a
short time previously had so marked our intercourse? It had given place
to constraint, and a restless anxiety to appear unconstrained.

I fancied that I could account for Lilian's nervousness and constraint;
but Philip's gaiety seemed to be growing less and less spontaneous;
and dear old Mrs Tipper looked depressed, not to say unhappy; whilst I
myself felt uncomfortable without being able to trace the cause, unless
it arose from sympathy with the others. In vain did I try to account
for the change. There was certainly no unkindly feeling betwixt us;
indeed I think we were each and all more carefully considerate of each
other's feelings than we had hitherto been, displaying a great deal
more anxiety to prove that the strength of our attachment to each other
was as undiminished as ever.

I felt no shade of difference in my own sentiments; I knew that I felt
towards them precisely the same as before, although I was gradually
adopting their tone. What troubled me most of all was the reserve
growing up between Lilian and me. I tried more than once to break
through it; but her real distress--her tears, as she clung to me,
entreating me to believe in her love, pained without enlightening
me. And when I a little impatiently replied that it rather seemed as
though she did not believe in _my_ love, it only brought more tears and

She now frequently excused herself from accompanying Philip and me in
our walks and excursions; and shut herself up in her own room many
hours during the day. The explanation that she had taken a fancy for
studying French history, was not a satisfactory one to me. True, there
was evidence that she was diligently plodding through a certain amount
of work; but why should that separate us? The studies she had hitherto
undertaken had not shut me out of her confidence. She had often
declared that the greater part of the enjoyment of such work was to
compare notes with me upon the subjects we were reading; and why should
French history be an exception?

I was beginning to lose patience--mystery has ever been and ever will
be provoking to me--and one evening, when Robert Wentworth asked me
some questions about our work, I irritably replied that he must ask
Lilian; I could only answer for myself now.

'I am only doing a little French history,' she faltered, becoming very
pale, and presently making an excuse for leaving the room.

'What is it? What has so changed her?' I asked, turning towards him.

'I do not observe any particular change,' he replied, lowering his eyes
before mine.

'Pray do not you become as mysterious as the rest,' I said angrily.

But he _was_ mysterious. Even Robert Wentworth, who had always been so
outspoken and unsparing, was becoming considerate even to politeness.
He made no reply, standing before the open window, apparently absorbed
in thought. I was about to add some little remark that I had hitherto
trusted to his friendship, in a tone meant to be caustic, when I caught
sight of his face, and shrank into my shell again. What made him look
like that? What did it mean? And why did he so hurriedly take his
departure the moment old Mrs Tipper came into the room, in a manner as
unlike the Robert Wentworth of the past as it was possible to be?

But it must not be supposed that I was going to succumb to this state
of things. Before I succumbed, I must know the reason why. It would
take a great deal yet to make me lose hope. I had too much respect
for them and belief in the power of my own love, to be without hope
of succeeding in dissipating the clouds which had gathered about us.
The one thing to be done was to find out _what_ it was that had come
between us. Could I once find out that, I should not despair of the
rest. After some anxious reflection, I fancied that I had discovered
the cause of the alteration in Lilian's bearing, and took Philip into
my confidence.

He listened gravely, I thought even anxiously, and yet he did not
appear to think it necessary for me to make any attempt to alter things.

'If--she prefers being more alone, I think--Wouldn't it be best not to
interfere, Mary?'--hesitatingly.

'If I did not care for her, perhaps it would be better not to
interfere, as you term it,' I hotly rejoined. 'But as it happens, I do
care for her, and therefore I cannot see her so changed without making
some effort to help her.'

'No one could doubt your love for her, Mary,' he replied in a low
voice, laying his hand gently upon mine.

'Then how can I help being anxious, especially when I see that it is
not good for her to be moping alone? Any one might see that it is
doing her harm. Cannot _you_ see the difference in her of late?' He
made no reply; and taking his assent for granted, I went on: 'Do you
know I am sadly afraid that she is fretting'---- I did not like to say
plainly about Arthur Trafford, but added: 'She is beginning to look
just as she did in the first shock of finding that she had lost Arthur
Trafford!--Ah, spare my roses!'

He was mercilessly, though I think unconsciously, tearing to pieces a
beautiful bunch of light and dark roses, which had been given to me by
one of the cottagers, scattering the leaves in all directions.

'I--beg your pardon.'

'I really think you ought, sir!' was my playful rejoinder. 'If my path
is to be strewed with roses, we need not be so extravagant as that
about it. I shall not trust you to carry flowers again.'

He remained so long silent, standing in the same position, that I was
about to ask him what he was thinking of, when he impetuously turned
towards me, and hurriedly said: 'Why should there be any longer delay,
Mary? Why cannot our marriage take place at once--next week? For God's
sake, do not let us go on like this!'

'Go on like this!' I repeated, looking up into his face. 'Go on like
this, Philip?'

'Say it shall be soon--say when?' catching my hands in both of his with
a grip which made me wince, as he hurriedly continued: 'Why do you wish
all this delay?'

Had it been spoken in a different tone--had he only _looked_
differently! I tried to believe that it was the eagerness of happiness
in his face; but alas! it looked terribly like misery! For a moment my
heart stood still in an agony of fear; then I put the disloyal doubt
aside, telling myself that it was my too exalted notions which had led
to disappointment. I had expected so much more than any woman has a
right to expect; and so forth. Then after a moment or two, I honestly
replied: 'I do _not_ wish it, Philip. Of course I will say next week,
if you wish it; and'--with a faint little attempt at a jest--'if you do
not mind about my having fewer furbelows to pack?'

'I do wish it; and--and--until then I must ask you to excuse my not
coming down quite so regularly. So much to arrange, you know,' he
hastily continued, 'in case we should take it into our heads to remain
abroad some time.'

'Yes; very well,' I murmured, as one in a dream. It was all so
different--so terribly different from anything I had expected.

But I soon persuaded myself that the fault, if fault there were, must
be mine. How could he be changed--or if he were, why should _he_ so
eagerly urge me to delay our marriage no longer?

As if to rebuke my doubt, he turned towards me and gently said: 'God
grant that I may be worthy of you, Mary! You are a good woman. I must
hope in time to be more worthy of you.'

I was conscious that just then I could have better borne a loving jest
at my imperfections than this little set speech of praise. I never
before cared so little about being a 'good woman' as I did at that
moment. But I told myself that I would not be critical--how horribly
critical I seemed to be growing! So I looked up into his face with a
smile, as I said something about his being perfect enough for me.

'You are good.'

'Oh, please do not say anything more about my goodness!'

There was another pause; and then he said: 'I think you mentioned that
you wished it to be a quiet affair, Mary, and at the little church in
the vale--St John's, isn't it called?'

'Yes, Philip.'

'And you must let me know what I ought to do besides procuring the
ring and license. I am sure you will give me credit for wishing not to
be remiss in any way, and will not mind giving me a hint if I appear
likely to fall short in any of the--proper observances.'

Proper observances! How coldly the words struck upon me!

'Shall you not come down _once_, Philip?' I murmured.

'Once? O yes, of course; and--you can give me any little commission by
letter, you know.'

Then looking at his watch, he found that he might catch the eight
o'clock train, and hastily bade me good-night; asking me to excuse him
at the cottage, and tell them about our plans.

'Eh bien, Philippe,' I returned, more disappointed than I should
have cared to acknowledge at his not asking me to accompany him the
remainder of the distance to the stile, to which I always walked with
him when Robert Wentworth was not with us. Moreover, I thought that the
parting kiss was to be forgotten. I believe that it _was_ forgotten for
a moment. But he turned back and pressed his lips for a moment upon my

'Good-night, Mary. God grant I may be worthy of you!'

'Good-night, Philip,' I faltered.

As in a dream I walked down the lane, entered the cottage, and turned
into the little parlour, not a little relieved to find no one there.

The heat was almost stifling, the swallows flying low beneath the
lowering sky, and there was the heavy stillness--the, so to speak,
pause in the atmosphere which presages a coming storm. The windows
and doors were flung wide open; and I could hear Mrs Tipper and Becky
talking to each other in their confidential way, as they bustled in and
out the back garden, fetching in the clothes, which the former always
put out to 'sweeten,' as she termed it, after they were returned from
the wash. Lilian was, I suppose, in her own room, as her habit was of

Throwing off my hat, I sat down, and with my hands tightly locked upon
my lap, I tried to think--to understand my own sensations, asking
myself over and over again what was wrong--what made me like this? half
conscious all the while of a discussion over a hole in a tablecloth,
that ought not to have been allowed to get to such a stage without
being darned.

'A stitch in time saves nine, you know, Becky; never you leave a thin
place, and you'll never have a hole to mend;' and so on.

Suddenly, as my eyes wandered aimlessly about the room, they fell upon
some documents on the table referring to the sale of Hill Side, which
Philip had brought down to shew us, and which I knew he had intended
to take away. Reflecting that he was very desirous of completing the
purchase, that the delay of a post might make a difference, and that
I might yet overtake him if I were quick, I hurriedly caught up the
papers in my hand and ran down the lane towards the stile. Have I
mentioned that there was a sharp curve in the lane before it reached
the stile, so that you came close upon the latter before it was in
sight? I had just arrived at the curve when the sound of voices reached
me; and recollecting that I had not waited to put my hat on, and not
wishing to be recognised by any one, I paused a moment to draw the hood
of my cloak over my head.

Robert Wentworth and Philip! I had time for a moment's surprise that
the former should be there when we had not seen him at the cottage,
before Philip's words reached me: 'And you have been waiting here to
say this to me. But I am not so base as that, Wentworth! I have just
begged her to be my wife at once, and she has consented. She suspects

'Thank God for that!' ejaculated Robert Wentworth.

I could not have moved now had my life depended upon it--though my
life _did_ seem to depend upon it. 'Suspect what? What was there to
suspect?' I asked myself in a bewildered kind of way.

'God grant that she may be always spared the knowledge!'

'She shall be, Wentworth, if it be in my power to spare her.'

'Great heavens! that it should be possible to love another woman after
knowing her! Man, you never can have known her as she is, or it would
be impossible for another woman to come between you. The other is no
more to be compared'----

'Respect her, Wentworth; blame me as you will, but respect Lilian.'

'Lilian!' I muttered--'Lilian!'

'She is, I think--I trust, utterly unconscious of my--madness. But if
she knew, and if she--cared for me, she would be loyal to the right.
You ought to be sure of that, knowing what her love for Mary is,

'Yes; she is true; she will try to be true. But it is quite time

I knew that the voices sounded fainter and fainter, and that the sense
of the words became lost to me, because they were walking on; I knew
that they were great drops of rain and _not_ tears pattering down upon
me where I lay prone upon the ground; and I could recollect that the
papers must not be lost; so I had kept my senses.


The recent acquisition of that curious medieval work of art called
the Quigrich or crosier of St Fillan by the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland, and its final deposit in their National Museum at Edinburgh,
is in itself an incident of more than ordinary interest. Apart from its
historical associations, the 'Cogerach,' 'Coygerach,' or 'Quigrich,'
as it is variously styled in writings of the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries, is unsurpassed in interest as a work of art of a class and
period of which no other Scottish specimen is now known to exist.
Briefly described, it is simply the massive silver head of a pastoral
staff of the form peculiar to the Celtic Church in very early times.
Its shape resembles that of the bent head of a walking-stick, with a
slanting prolongation of the outer end. The lower part of the crook
expands into a large bulbous socket, beautifully ornamented with
interlaced knot-work. A ridge or crest, pierced with quatrefoils,
rises from the socket, and is continued over the back of the crook,
terminating in the bust of an ecclesiastic, probably meant for St
Fillan. The slanting front of the staff-head is ornamented by a large
oval setting of cairngorm, and the terminal plate has an engraved
representation of the Crucifixion. The body of the crook is covered
with lozenge-shaped plaques of filigree-work in floral scrolls.

What may be termed the private history of the crosier commences in the
early part of the eighth century, when as the _bacul_ or walking-staff
of St Fillan, it accompanied him in his missionary journey to the wilds
of Glendochart. The saint came of a royal race. His mother, Kentigerna,
was a daughter of the king of Leinster; and both she and her brother
St Comgan are enrolled among the saints of Celtic Alba. Placed often
in the darkest and wildest districts of the country, solely with the
view of reclaiming the people from paganism and diffusing the benefits
of Christian civilisation, these monastic churches were truly centres
of light and progress. Such was the famous church of Columcille at
Hy. Such also was the monastery of St Mund at the Holy Loch, where St
Fillan spent part of his days, and in which he succeeded the founder as
abbot. Growing weary of its comparatively peaceful life, he sought a
desert for himself in the wilds of Glendochart, where he might reclaim
a new garden for the church, and close his days among an ecclesiastical
family of his own uprearing. As founder and first abbot of Glendochart
his memory would be fondly cherished by the community of clerics over
whom he had presided. Their veneration would increase with time, as the
traditions of his saintly life became fixed by constant repetition; and
there was no object around which that veneration and these legends
could more appropriately cluster than around the staff which was the
symbol of his abbatial office, and the lasting memorial of his presence
among them.

Not the least interesting of the many picturesque associations which
gather round the crosier of St Fillan is that which connects it with
Scotland's warrior-king, Robert Bruce, and assigns to it a prominent
part in the great struggle for Scottish independence that culminated
in the glorious victory of Bannockburn. There is no evidence on record
by which we can positively prove the presence of the crosier on the
eventful field; but it is the tradition of the Dewars, its hereditary
keepers, that it was there; and there is evidence that certain other
relics of St Fillan were brought to the battle-field by the abbot of
Inchaffray, the ecclesiastical superior of the church of Strathfillan,
who was the king's confessor; and that this was done, if not by the
king's express desire, at least in the knowledge that it would be
consonant with his personal feelings and belief in their efficacy. If
the narrative that was written by Boece is to be accepted at all, it
must be accepted to the extent of establishing that there _was_ a relic
of St Fillan at Bannockburn. He calls it the arm-bone of the saint, and
tells in his picturesque way that when the king, being sorely troubled
in mind on the evening before the battle, had retired into his tent,
and was engaged in prayer to God and St Fillan, suddenly the silver
case which contained the arm-bone of the saint opened of itself, and
shewed him the relic, and then 'clakkit to again.' The priest who had
charge of it immediately proclaimed a miracle, declaring that he had
brought into the field only the 'tume cais' (empty case), being fearful
lest the precious relic should fall into the hands of the English.

If we accept Boece's statement to the extent of believing on the
strength of it that any of the relics of St Fillan were brought to the
field, we may believe that they were all there, and that they were
carried round the army on the morning of the fight, when the abbot of
Inchaffray walked barefooted in front of the ranks bearing aloft 'the
croce in quhilk the crucifix wes hingin.' That such practices were not
uncommon is gleaned from other instances, such as that of the crosier
of St Columba--the _Cath Bhuaidh_ or 'Battle-Victory'--so named because
it used to give the victory to the men of Alba when carried to their
battles. If then the crosier of St Fillan was present at the battle of
Bannockburn, and the victory was ascribed to the saint's intervention,
this may have been the occasion of its being glorified with such a
magnificent silver shrine.

But if it had no public history and no picturesque associations, the
story of its transmission from age to age, linked as it was with
the chequered fortunes of the religious foundation to which it was
attached, and of the strange and varied circumstances in which it has
been preserved by a succession of hereditary keepers, through failing
fortunes and changes of faith, in poverty and exile, is sufficient to
invest it with surpassing interest.

Since its arrival at Edinburgh the singular discovery has been made
that the gilt silver casing of the crosier had been constructed for
the purpose of inclosing an older staff-head of cast bronze. This has
been taken out of its concealment, and is now exhibited alongside the
silver one. The surface of this older crosier is divided into panels
by raised ridges ornamented with niello. These panels correspond in
number, shape, and size to the silver plaques now on the external
casing, and they are pierced with rivet-holes which also correspond
with the position of the pins by which the plaques are fastened. It is
thus clear that when the old crosier was incased, it was first stripped
of its ornamental plaques of filigree-work, which were again used in
making up the external covering so far as they were available. Such of
them as had been either entirely absent, or so much worn as to require
redecoration, were renewed in a style so different from the original
workmanship, as to demonstrate that it is a mere imitation of an art
with which the workman was unfamiliar. This establishes two distinct
phases in the history of the crosier, and suggests that at some
particular period, a special occasion had arisen for thus glorifying
the old relic with a costly enshrinement. What that occasion was may be
inferred from some considerations connected with its public history.

We know nothing of the history of St Fillan's foundation during the
first five centuries, in which the founder's staff passed through
the hands of his various successors as the symbol of office of the
abbot of Glendochart. But in the time of King William the Lion, we
find that the office had become secularised, and the abbot appears
as a great lay lord, ranking after the Earl of Athole, and appointed
alternatively with him as the holder of the assize, in all cases of
stolen cattle in that district of Scotland. Whether he held the crosier
in virtue of his office we cannot tell; but the likelihood is that it
was when the office was first usurped by a layman, that the crosier
was placed by the last of the true successors of St Fillan in the
custody of a 'dewar' or hereditary keeper, with the dues and privileges
which we afterwards find attached to this office. Such an arrangement
was not uncommon in connection with similar relics of the ancient
Celtic church. We thus find the dewar of the Cogerach of St Fillan in
possession of the lands of Eyich in Glendochart in 1336. In process of
time the official title of dewar became the family surname of Dewar;
and we have a curious instance of the Celtic form of the patronymic in
a charter granted in 1575 by Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy to Donald Mac
in Deora vic Cogerach.

The inquiry is naturally suggested why a relic with such associations,
intrinsically so valuable, and always so highly venerated, should have
been allowed to remain in the possession of laymen, and to be kept in
their private dwellings, often no better than turf cottages in the
glen. The crosier was splendid enough to have graced the processional
ceremonials of the highest dignitary of the Church, and thus to have
been a coveted acquisition to the richest monastery in the land. That
it was so coveted may be fairly inferred from the fact that on the 22d
April 1428, John de Spens of Perth, Bailie of Glendochart, summoned an
inquest of the men of Glendochart to hold inquisition regarding the
authority and privileges of 'a certain relick of St Felane called the
Coygerach.' Of the fifteen summoned, three were Macnabs, deriving
their origin from the son of a former abbot; three were of the clan
Gregor; and one was named Felan, after the saint. Their verdict sets
forth that the Coygerach was in the rightful possession of the deoire,
because the office of bearing it had been given hereditarily by the
successor of St Fillan to a certain progenitor of Finlay, the deoire
at the time of the inquest; that the privileges pertaining to the
office had been enjoyed and in use since the days of King Robert Bruce;
and that when cattle or goods were stolen or taken by force from any
inhabitant of the glen, and they were unable to follow them from fear
or feud, the dewar was bound to follow the cattle or goods wherever
they might be found throughout the kingdom.

We hear no more of the rights of the Cogerach till 1487, when the dewar
sought the sanction of the royal prerogative to aid him in holding
his charge with all its ancient rights. In that year, King James III.
issued letters of confirmation under the Privy Seal, in favour of
Malice Doire, who, as the document sets forth, 'has had a relic of St
Felan called the Quigrich in keeping of us and our progenitors since
the time of King Robert Bruce, and of before, and has made no obedience
or answer to any person spiritual or temporal in any thing concerning
it, in any other way than is contained in the auld infeftment granted
by our progenitors.' The object was to establish the rights of the
Crown in the relic, as distinguished from the rights of the Church;
and we may presume that the royal infeftment to which it refers may
have been granted by Bruce on the occasion when the old crosier was
glorified by incasement in a silver shrine, in token of the king's
humble gratitude to God and St Fillan for the victory of Bannockburn.

We find traces of the dewars and their lands in charters down to the
time of Queen Mary. The Reformation deprived them of their living, and
converted the relic, of which they were the keepers, into a 'monument
of idolatry,' fit only to be consigned to the crucible. Still they were
faithful to their trust, although instead of emolument it could only
bring them trouble. In the succeeding centuries their fortunes fell to
a low ebb indeed. In 1782 a passing tourist saw the Quigrich in the
house of Malice Doire, a day-labourer in Killin. His son, a youth of
nineteen, lay in an outer apartment at the last gasp of consumption;
and the traveller was so moved by concern for the probable fate of
the Quigrich, in the prospect of the speedy death of the heir to this
inestimable possession, that he wrote an account of the circumstances,
and transmitted it, with a drawing of the crosier, to the Society
of Antiquaries of Scotland. At that time the Society could not have
acquired it; but fortunately their intervention was not necessary for
its preservation. On the failure of the older line, by the death of
this youth, the relic passed into the hands of a younger brother of
Malice Doire's. His son removed to Glenartney, where the Quigrich was
again seen by Dr Jamieson, and was described by him in his edition
of Barbour's _Bruce_. Archibald Dewar removed from Glenartney to
Balquhidder, where he rented a sheep-farm; but having suffered heavy
losses at the close of the French war in 1815, he emigrated to Canada,
where he died, aged seventy-five.

His son, Alexander Dewar, the last of the hereditary dewars of
the Crosier, is a hale old man of eighty-eight, in comfortable
circumstances, the patriarch of a new race of Dewars, rejoicing in
upwards of thirty grandchildren, and nephews and nieces innumerable.
It is in consequence of his desire to see the ancient relic returned
to Scotland before he dies, and placed in the National Museum at
Edinburgh, 'there to remain in all time coming for the use, benefit,
and enjoyment of the Scottish nation,' that the Society of Antiquaries
has been enabled, partly by purchase and partly by his donation, to
acquire the Quigrich, the most remarkable of all existing relics
associated with the early history of the Scottish nation.

It was five centuries old before the light of authentic record reveals
it in 1336 in possession of the dewar Cogerach, and since then it can
be traced uninterruptedly in the line of the Dewars for five hundred
and forty years. 'Its associations with the Scottish monarchy,' says
Dr Daniel Wilson, 'are older than the Regalia, so sacredly guarded in
the castle of Edinburgh; and its more sacred memories carry back the
fancy to the primitive missionaries of the Christian faith, when the
son of St Kentigerna, of the royal race of Leinster, withdrew to the
wilderness of Glendochart, and there initiated the good work which has
ever since made Strathfillan famous in the legendary history of the
Scottish Church.'


Mr and Mrs Woodford were enjoying a confidential matrimonial chat
over their _tête-à-tête_ dessert, and discussing at some length the
antecedents and probable future of a cousin, Mr Richard Broughton,
who had lately dropped down on them, not from the clouds, but from a
Liverpool express train. This gentleman had in his youth been 'crossed
in love.' Always a musical enthusiast, he had become attached to an
amiable girl, a young concert-singer, who was the main stay of her
mother--the widow of a captain in the army--and some younger sisters;
and having himself not yet made a fair start in life, the elders of
both families rose up in arms against the alliance.

Mrs Woodford, of nearly the same age as her Cousin Dick, had been his
confidante in their boy and girl days, had sympathised warmly with his
disappointment, without very precisely understanding how it had come
about, and was now assuring her husband that the attachment had been
a far more serious affair than very youthful fancies commonly are. It
was true the gentleman had so far consoled himself as to marry another
lady; though it was reported he had wedded a shrew, who had not made
him supremely happy. But he lost his wife some time before leaving
Australia; and now, after a sojourn of nearly twenty years in the
colonies, had returned to England with something more than competence.

'But what became of Miss Clifton?' asked Mr Woodford.

'That I do not know,' returned the lady. 'Clifton was only her
professional name; her real one I quite forget; therefore if from any
circumstances she passed into private life, it would not be easy to
track her. Dick only called her Alice to me.'

'Probably she also married,' said Mr Woodford.

'Possibly,' replied his wife; 'though women are more constant than men;
and though she ceased to answer Dick's letters, and really brought him
to a state of misery which drove him out of England, I never thought
the fault was quite her own.'

While Mrs Woodford was yet speaking, there was a knock at the door, and
Mr Broughton was announced.

'Why did you not come to dinner?' cried Mr Woodford, rising to greet
the visitor. 'But we can have the lamb brought back,' he added.

'Thanks, thanks,' said Mr Broughton; 'but I dined at the hotel. I am
sure I ought to apologise for calling at such a time, and for having
brought Dandy with me.'

Dandy was a terrier, and his master's almost inseparable companion.

'Now Dandy, behave!' continued his master; 'and go and beg pardon
for both of us. Say we know we are two unmannerly colonial boors, at
present unfit for good society.'

Very much as if the sagacious animal understood every word of this
address, he approached Mrs Woodford, and sat on his haunches in a
begging attitude.

'He means biscuit,' said the lady with a laugh, and suiting the action
to the word by giving him one, with a caressing pat into the bargain.

'Seriously, however,' said Mr Broughton, 'I would not have come at such
an hour, but I wanted so much to tell you that at last I have found
lodgings which I think will just suit me. Or rather I should say that
Dandy found them for me.'

'Dandy! Well, he _is_ a clever dog! He will talk next, I suppose. But,'
continued Mrs Woodford, 'at present his master must explain.'

'It sounds ridiculous perhaps to tell of such trifles,' replied
her cousin; 'but for the last three or four days--ever since the
hot weather set in, I have felt quite interested in a shop in your
neighbourhood--mainly, I think, from the humanity displayed by the
owner in setting a large bowl of sparkling water by the door for the
convenience of the poor panting dogs, for which Dandy has been grateful
more than once. It is a music warehouse on a small scale; but where
they also sell fire ornaments and ladies' Berlin work and so on'----

'I know the shop,' interrupted Mrs Woodford: 'it is kept by a widow and
her maiden sister, who seem very superior people.'

'Oh, I am glad you know the place,' continued Mr Broughton. 'Well,
this afternoon as usual I waited, looking in at the shop window, while
Dandy quenched his thirst, and wishing I could decide on something to
purchase, by way of liquidating my dog's debt, when I observed a card
which intimated there were apartments to let. There were directions
to knock at the private door; but seeing me linger on the spot longer
than usual, Dandy had entered the shop, and when I followed to look
after him, I saw him planted firmly near an inner door, and accepting
the caresses of a little girl of about seven years old as if he had
known her all his life. I made inquiries about the apartments, and
found they consisted of the first floor, a nice bedroom, and pleasant
sitting-room; attendance with good cooking guaranteed, and no other
lodgers taken. Of course I went upstairs to look at the rooms, Dandy
leading the way with the canine gravity which you remarked in him the
other day. He jumped on a chair to look out of the window, and then on
the sofa, as if to examine the softness of the cushions, and finally
gave a little yelp, which was only half a bark, and which seemed to
say: "Master, this will do; here we are quite at home." Even the
mistress of the house, Mrs Gray, laughed at the evident contentment
of the dog. But what charmed me was there was no rebuke for my poor
Dandy's jumping on the furniture; and remembering besides the bowl of
water, I felt inclined to believe that Dandy would be something more
than tolerated in the house. Accordingly it was with a good hope that I
intimated that my dog was my constant companion, and that I trusted his
presence would not be objectionable.'

'O sir,' said the widow, 'we have only lost a dear old dog within these
three months; and for our own poor pet's sake--if for nothing else--we
should be kind to a dog. As for my children, I believe they take after
their aunt; and my sister dotes upon dogs.'

'Ah, it was the maiden sister, I daresay, who was the mistress of the
lamented dog,' exclaimed Mrs Woodford. 'I have some recollection of
seeing a very old black retriever in the shop.'

'No doubt it was the same. I understand the sister gives music lessons;
though at present she is taking a little holiday, staying at the
seaside with friends. There is another advantage in these lodgings,'
continued Mr Broughton; 'the house being a music warehouse, and one of
the family evidently musical, I am in hopes they will not object to my
violin-practising any more than to Dandy for an inmate. What I want now
is comfort, to enjoy myself after my own fashion, and opportunity of
doing some little good in the world, when what seems to me the fitting
occasion offers. Five years more at the Antipodes and I might have come
home a richer man; but perhaps in that time health would have been
shattered by over-toil, and I should have been less able even than
now to turn into new grooves of life and resume habits of culture. As
it is, my means are ample for all I am likely to want. With books and
music and Dandy, I expect to get on capitally. Besides I mean to come
and see you pretty often.'

'Indeed I hope you will,' ejaculated husband and wife together.

'If we come too often, they must turn us out--must they not, Dandy?'
said Mr Broughton, speaking to and petting his dog; and then he added,
turning to his cousin: 'By-the-bye, I ventured to give you as a
reference as to my respectability, responsibility, &c.'

'And I will give you a good character, Dick, I promise you,' replied
Mrs Woodford; 'and what is more, I will recommend Dandy to Mrs Gray's
special regard. He certainly is the cleverest dog I ever saw. Look at
him now, wagging his tail at me, as if he understood every word I was

'Spoken just like the Cousin Maggie of early days,' said Mr Broughton,
with a certain tremor in his voice which proved that his feelings were
touched. 'Always full of sympathy and thoughtful kindness. Yet even you
can hardly tell what a friend Dandy has been to me through years of

'Yes, I can, Dick,' said Mrs Woodford; 'if I had not a pack of children
to think about, I am quite sure I should want dogs or four-footed pets
of some sort.'

       *       *       *       *       *

Only a fortnight has passed, but 'Cousin Dick' seems as completely
installed in his new lodgings as if he had occupied them for months.
His most cherished personal belongings were all unpacked and arranged
about his rooms according to his own taste and fancy. A few well-worn
books which he had taken from England in his youth, still held a
place of honour, though they were now flanked by many fresher-looking
volumes; and an old and cherished violin rested in one corner, and
helped to give the sitting-room its inhabited look, though writing
materials near the window and newspapers lying about, contributed to
the effect.

Over the mantel-piece in his bedroom he had arranged his store of
warlike weapons--a sword, which Richard Broughton had certainly never
used, but which he valued as the gift of a dead friend; pistols and
revolver which he had looked on as protectors in many a perilous
journey, and a boomerang, brought to England as a curiosity.

Mr Broughton had finished his breakfast, and was enjoying his morning
newspaper; but he had been to the opera the night before, and the
melody of an air which had delighted him still haunted his ear, and
even disturbed the rhythm of the very didactic leading article he was
reading. He was not much disturbed by Mrs Gray's knocking at the door;
she came, as she usually did every morning, to receive his orders for

'You manage my dinners so nicely for me,' said Mr Broughton in answer
to some suggestion of his landlady, 'that I think I cannot do better
than leave all arrangements to you. But do sit down; I want to thank
you for taking care of my dog last night. I hope he was not troublesome
to you?'

'Not in the least,' returned Mrs Gray: 'when once he ascertained that
you really were not in the house, he settled down quietly, and played
with the children till they went to bed.'

'I am so glad your children are not afraid of him,' observed Mr

'Oh, they are too well used to a dog and to pets in general to be
afraid of a gentle creature like your Dandy. In fact my difficulty is
keeping them out of your rooms. Ally--you remember how Dandy took to
her from the very first--Ally wanted to come in and see the dog just
now. I daresay she is near the door still.'

'Oh, pray let her in,' said Mr Broughton, himself rising to open the
door. 'I will not be jealous because it is my dog she wants to see--not
me;' and there was a little laugh at the idea of Dandy being such a

When the room-door opened, sure enough little Ally was found waiting,
but not alone; her brother, a curly-headed urchin two years her junior,
had hold of her hand; and both were evidently in expectation of being
allowed some little frolic with the dog.

'Come in, my dears--come in,' exclaimed Mr Broughton; 'Dandy will be
most happy to see you, and will shew you some of his accomplishments,
if you like.'

Though a little shy at first with the 'strange gentleman,' whom they
had been taught in a vague sort of way to reverence, and for whose
comfort they were told to refrain from noise, the shyness soon wore
off, when they found that Dandy's master was as willing to be their
playmate as Dandy himself. For their delectation the dog went through
his most admired tricks: he jumped over a stick, he allowed of mimic
shooting and acted the dead dog, he begged for a piece of bread, but
could not be induced to eat it till assured it was paid for. Moreover,
he howled a note in unison with one his master played on the violin;
but probably without meaning to imply admiration of the latter

A less keen observer than a fond and widowed mother was likely to
be, might, if contemplating this little scene, have felt pretty sure
that fond as Richard Broughton was of his dog, it had not exhausted
_all_ his capacity of loving. By people who have never had their
hearts thrill to the mystery of canine attachment he had often been
ridiculed for the intensity of his affection for Dandy, and when he
spoke of a 'dog's love' as being the only ideal of his life that had
ever been fully realised, few persons understood him. But Mrs Gray saw
at a glance that he had a natural love for children, and probably for
all helpless creatures, and considering all the circumstances of her
household, she thought herself most fortunate in her lodger.

It is astonishing how soon pleasant habits may be formed. Before the
next week had passed it became quite the custom of the children to
come into Mr Broughton's rooms at least once a day, ostensibly to
play with Dandy; but also they brought their toys to shew to Dandy's
master, and chattered away, as bright, eager, fresh-hearted children
are pretty sure to do with those whom, by some subtle instinct, they
at once recognise as friends. Dandy's canine predecessor in the house,
the much lamented Topsy, was a frequent subject of conversation. Her
accomplishments were described, though admitted to be fewer than
Dandy's, and her death and burial dwelt on with some pathos. And one
day little Ally came into the room hugging a thick photographic album
in her arms. She had brought it for the express purpose of shewing poor
Topsy's likeness.

Topsy had been photographed a number of times: once cosily curled up on
a mat; once occupying an easy-chair with something of the dignity of a
judge; another time as a conspicuous member of a group; and lastly by
the side of a lady who had her hand on its head.

'And who is the lady?' inquired Mr Broughton, trying to speak with a
calmness he did not quite feel. 'It does not look like your mother.'

'O no! Why, it is auntie!' exclaimed little Ally in a tone which
implied wonder that he could for a moment have taken it for Mrs Gray.

'Then Topsy was fond of auntie, and auntie was fond of Topsy, I
suppose?' said Mr Broughton wishing to discover all he could about this

The little girl nodded her head by way of reply, and then she said:
'Auntie did cry so much when Topsy died. She was auntie's own doggy.'

'And did _you_ cry?' asked Mr Broughton.

Another nod of the head; but the child exclaimed: 'Not so much as
auntie--auntie cried till her eyes were quite red.'

'And is this portrait very like auntie?' asked Mr Broughton.

'Yes; but she never wears such sleeves as those now. I'll shew you
her new photograph;' and the little fingers rapidly turned over leaves
and found a likeness taken only the other day. Mr Broughton recognised
the same sweet face, though it shewed that seven or eight years had
probably passed between the time the one photograph had been taken and
the other.

'And what is auntie's name?' inquired Mr Broughton with forced

'Auntie!' said the little girl, as if the word were quite sufficient;
but added a moment after, as if the thought of more information being
required had just come to her: 'She is Alice, and I am Alice; only they
call me Ally. Auntie is so good,' the child continued; 'mother says
she is the best auntie that ever lived. And I must try to be good too,
because I have got her name.'

'Quite right, my darling,' said Mr Broughton, giving the child a
fatherly kiss. 'But run away now, for I have letters to write. Will
you leave me the album; I should like to look at Topsy again--though I
don't think she was much like Dandy. Do you?'

'Not a bit!' cried the child, tripping off gleefully, and leaving Mr
Broughton with his heart stirred in a manner it had not been for many

It was true that he had letters to write, but it was half an hour
before he took pen in hand. The first thing he did was to draw forth a
powerful magnifying glass, and by its means to study the face of the
lady with the dog most narrowly. Yes; he had not a shadow of doubt that
this dear 'auntie,' the maiden sister of Mrs Gray of whom he had heard,
was the love of his youth, the Alice Clifton of the concert-room, the
Alice Croft of private life. Photography revealed some lines of care
and suffering that had not belonged to the fair young face he so well
remembered; but such footmarks of time must be expected in the course
of twenty years, even under happier circumstances than had probably
befallen the woman in question. That she should have relinquished her
professional career without having married, puzzled him. But he had
incidentally heard from the children that 'auntie' was coming home
to-morrow; and before many days should pass, he would certainly find
out a thing or two which must greatly influence his future.

As if to confirm his already strong belief beyond the power of even
momentary cavil, the next time he went down-stairs he observed a letter
on the hall table, which, on looking if it were intended for himself,
he saw was addressed 'Miss Croft.'

The next day Alice Croft returned home; and as Broughton was taking his
coffee, he could hear the children's merry shouts of welcome, at which,
by-the-bye, Dandy set up a short bark, as if he thought he too had a
right to join in the demonstration.

'I will do nothing hurriedly,' thought Mr Broughton to himself;
'after twenty years of separation I can wait for a few days surely.
After all, if we meet on the stairs she will not recognise in me
the slim smooth-faced boy I believe she remembers.' And thinking
thus, he glanced at himself in the chimney-glass, noting the bronzed
weather-beaten face and long thick beard streaked with white that
it reflected. 'I wonder, though, if my name will strike her?' he
continued, pondering. 'Perhaps not; and yet it may.'

Now the fact was, Alice Croft had not as yet heard the new lodger's
name; for her sister had at first misunderstood it, and had written
it 'Rawton' in communicating the news that the rooms were let. Three
or four days passed away before Alice had any inkling of the mistake.
Meanwhile Richard Broughton had seen her--unseen himself--more than
once; and had even heard her voice speaking caressingly to the
children. How it thrilled on his ear and confirmed his resolution!

It was the early twilight of a summer evening. The shop was closed, and
Mrs Gray had gone out after seeing the children in bed. Broughton felt
that the hour was come, and ringing his bell, asked the servant who
answered it if Miss Croft were at home and disengaged.

'Yes, sir,' said the maid; 'she is all alone in the parlour.'

'Then be so good as to give her my card, and ask if I may wait upon

But Mr Broughton followed the servant down-stairs, and was ready to
avail himself of the permission given, in a minute.

The servant thinking it her duty, lighted the gas before leaving the
room; but she left it burning low, so that the lingering daylight
prevailed over it. Though the reception-room was but a little parlour
behind a shop, there was an air of refinement about its appointments,
and the outlook into a mere yard was masked by a balcony full of
blooming and odorous plants. The door which led into the shop remained
open, probably for the sake of air; but to such a passionate lover of
music as the visitor was, the sight of two or three pianos and a harp
and guitar was rather suggestive of delightful ideas than of anything

Alice had risen from her chair, and advanced with outstretched hand to
meet her guest; but she did not seem able to find a word of greeting.

'Alice!' exclaimed Mr Broughton, 'if I may still call you so, do I seem
like one risen from the dead?'

'O no,' she replied; 'I never thought you were dead.' But as she spoke
there was a faltering of her voice which shewed that she was agitated.

By this time both were seated, though a little way apart. Mr Broughton
drew his chair nearer, and said softly: 'Alice, I come to ask you if it
is too late to mend our broken chain?'

'But you are married; I heard that long ago,' exclaimed Alice with
dignity. 'You have no right to allude to the past.'

'I have been a widower these two years,' was the rejoinder.

The explanations which followed need not be described in detail.

    Letters kept back, false messages,
      The tale so old and dark,

had separated the lovers; and when Alice Croft believed that she was
forsaken, a severe illness ensued; after her recovery from which, it
was found that her voice was seriously impaired. Instead of resting
it for a time, she was tempted by the exigences of her profession to
overstrain it; the result being such a deterioration in its quality
that it was no longer powerful and certain enough for the concert-room.
Then followed many years of arduous labour as a teacher of music;
during which time her mother's death and the death of other members of
the family reduced the little circle, till at last her youngest and
widowed sister Mrs Gray was the only one left.

Six weeks after the reunion just described, a quiet but well-omened
wedding took place, in which Richard Broughton and Alice Croft were
the principal actors. Meanwhile, the bridegroom and bride elect,
living under the same roof, had had abundant opportunities of riveting
the 'broken chain' to which allusion has been made; while Dandy, no
longer confined to one apartment, now ran about the house, as if
perpetually engaged in taking messages from one person to another. Mr
and Mrs Woodford, early apprised of all that was going on, had made the
acquaintance of Miss Croft and her sister, and being fond of children,
had frequently had the little Grays at their house. Mr Woodford even
consented to give the bride away, and his two young daughters were the
bridesmaids. But as Broughton said, his cousin Maggie was always a
'trump,' and her husband seemed worthy of her.

It was the evening before the wedding. The whole family had been
visiting the Woodfords, and it was evident that little Ally had
something on her mind to communicate. The young Woodfords as well as
their mother constantly called Mr Broughton 'Cousin Dick,' and the term
had evidently struck the child much.

'What is it, Ally?' said Mr Broughton, drawing the little girl on to
his knee. 'What is it you are wishing to say?'

'I should like to call you "Cousin Dick," like those young ladies. May
I? for I love you so much.' And as she spoke, Ally raised her face for
a kiss, and put her arms round his neck.

'Will not "Uncle Dick" do as well?' cried Broughton, giving the child
a warm hug. 'Don't you understand that I shall be really Uncle Dick

'Oh, how nice! Uncle Dick, dear Uncle Dick--yes, I like that better.'

       *       *       *       *       *

_N.B._--We are commissioned to add that Dandy accompanied the newly
married pair on their wedding journey. They considered they owed him
so much, that it would not be just to give him the pain of even a
temporary separation from his master--and mistress.


As many of our readers will doubtless recollect, Mr E. D. Young, R.N.,
left this country in May 1875, with a small party, for the purpose
of establishing the Livingstonia mission, and of placing a small
steamer on Lake Nyassa, in the interior of Africa; he and his friends
being moved thereto by an earnest determination to carry out one of
the dearest wishes of the late Dr Livingstone. Mr Young has recently
returned home; and on February 26th he delivered, before the Royal
Geographical Society, an interesting account of what he did and what he
saw on the Lake of Storms, from which we condense the following brief

We join Mr Young and his party at the Kongoné mouth of the Zambesi,
where the sections of the little steamer _Ilala_ were screwed together;
and although an extraordinary flood, early in 1875, had altered the
course of the rivers since her captain's previous visit, nothing
materially impeded her passage to the foot of the Shiré cataracts.
These falls extend for some seventy-five miles, and are a very
formidable obstacle to navigation. In the distance named, the waters
of Lake Nyassa leap down a staircase of rocks and boulders for some
eighteen hundred feet; and before the traveller can reach the higher
ground, he has to traverse a most rugged road. Want of porters, as
a rule, is the most grievous obstacle to be overcome; but thanks
to the kindly recollection existing among the natives of previous
missionaries, Mr Young experienced no difficulty on this score;
and in ten days the _Ilala_ was taken to pieces, and her sections,
boilers, machinery, and stores were conveyed to the upper end of the
cataracts. What, however, is thus told in a few brief words, involved
very great toil; and Mr Young himself says that the carriage of the
steel plates, &c., necessitated some of the most tremendous exertion he
ever witnessed, which was much aggravated by the intense heat, in some
places reaching one hundred and twenty degrees in the shade. We may
certainly admit with him, that the men who did this four days' work for
six yards of calico each (say one shilling and sixpence), finding their
own food too, without a grumble or a growl, were not to be despised.
The work of reconstruction was soon accomplished, and steam was up in a

The little steamer entered Lake Nyassa at 7 A.M. on the 12th of October
1875. After examining several beautiful bays and inlets, which did
not afford the necessary shelter for the vessel, Mr Young's party
resolved to settle, at anyrate temporarily, at Cape Maclear, whither,
accordingly, they transported all their stores. On November 19th Mr
Young set off on a voyage round the lake, in the course of which he
discovered a large extension of its waters, hitherto unknown. Making
his way northwards, he came in sight of the grand range which towers
over Chiloweela; in places the mountains run sheer down into the lake,
and no bottom could be got at one hundred fathoms. After weathering a
furious gale which raged for thirteen hours, the _Ilala_ pursued her
northward voyage, passing the islands of Likomo and Chusamoolo. On his
right, Mr Young reports an iron-bound coast stretching everywhere,
excepting only when some ravine came down to the shore. In one spot,
there were evident signs of a dreadful massacre having taken place--the
result of a slave-raid. Mr Young's account of what he saw here is
curious and interesting. Hardly any wood, he says, was to be procured,
in consequence of the forests being cleared, and the only remnant of a
large population was now to be found on rocky patches jutting up from
the water of the lake, and on singular 'pile villages.' It was found
that the poor creatures had conveyed earth in their canoes to these
rocks, and wherever a crevice afforded a hold, there would a little
patch of cassava or corn appear, grown with infinite labour.

The platform villages reached by Mr Young were exceedingly interesting;
for the most part they are built three or four hundred yards from the
shore, and in from eight to twelve feet of water. Poles are driven down
in rows, and on the top of them a wooden platform is constructed,
forming the foundation or floor of the village. To give some idea of
the extent of these, it may be mentioned that one of them consisted
of about one hundred huts. With an abundance of fish round them, the
islanders hold their own against starvation. Shortly after leaving
these strange villages, Mr Young met with some scenery, the description
of which is worth quoting. 'We were now abreast,' he says, 'of some
mountains that amongst the parallel ranges which virtually make a
mountain-basin of Lake Nyassa, exceed them all in stupendous grandeur.
In no part of the world have I seen anything to equal their peculiar
magnificence. With peaks apparently from ten to twelve thousand feet
high, they run perpendicularly down into the lake. The rain was pouring
upon them, and numberless waterfalls hung like threads of white
floss-silk from crevices which ran out upon their sides far up among
the clouds. Baffled by the raids of the Ma Viti in 1866, Livingstone
could not induce his men to go with him to the north end of Nyassa,
and thus he missed seeing that which would have struck him as the most
beautiful feature of "his old home," as he called the lake. There was
but one name to give to these mountains. At its northern end they stand
like portals to the lake, faced by the opposite mountains; and as
future travellers look upon the "Livingstone Range," it may aid them to
remember the man who during his life, more than any other, added to our
knowledge of the hitherto unknown beauties of the earth.'

A violent storm, more like what might be expected on the Atlantic than
on an inland sea, prevented Mr Young from doing much in the way of
exploring the unknown region at the end of the lake; but he saw there
what he believed to be the mouth of a wide river; and this opinion
was confirmed by what he learned from the natives when he next landed
after the storm referred to. They averred that a River Rovuma or Röoma
flows out at the extreme north; and he inclines to believe this to be
the case for the following reasons: In the first place, Dr Livingstone
heard the same story twenty years ago, when he discovered the lake,
and in quite a different quarter. It will be remembered by many how
sanguine he was that the Rovuma River, which debouches on the east
coast, was identical with the Nyassa River, and that it would prove to
be a second outlet. It may yet prove to be so; but the discovery can be
of little use, for the Rovuma ceases to be navigable a short distance
from the coast. The second reason for believing the native report is,
that in the stormy time, when Mr Young was there, it was very easy to
see where rivers ran into the lake. A long current of muddy water would
trail out on the dark-blue surface; in this case, however, there was
nothing of the kind; and it is consequently tolerably clear that no
inflow exists.

Cruising southwards along the western shore of the lake, Mr Young
observed, instead of the iron-bound coast on the opposite side,
exquisite park-like glades between the mountains and the water's edge;
the herds of game merely looked up as the steamer passed, just as sheep
raise their heads to gaze at a train, and then went on browsing. In one
place a remarkable detached perpendicular rock stands four thousand
feet high. The top is flat, and the sides give it the appearance of a
pyramid from which a large slice of the top has been removed in order
to place in position a perfectly square block of a greenish colour.
Beneath this singular summit there is a deep horizontal band of white
stone or quartz, succeeded by another of clay apparently; and then
comes one of intense black, possibly coal, for this mineral is known to
all the natives.

Mr Young's story of his cruise furnishes undeniable evidence of the
justness of the name Dr Livingstone gave to Nyassa, namely the Lake
of Storms, for he has constantly to record meeting with them--one
more terrible than the other. The last he mentions must have been
fearfully and awfully grand in its wildness. 'At one time,' he says,
'in the middle of a thunder-storm of great fury, no fewer than twelve
waterspouts appeared around us, and we had literally to steer hither
and thither to avoid them, for had one overtaken us, it would have sent
us to the bottom without a doubt.'

Such are the salient features in Mr Young's brief account of the first
trip made by a steamer on the stormy bosom of Lake Nyassa. It did not
come within the scope of his paper to describe the daily life of the
missionary party at Cape Maclear, the insight they got into the native
life, the intrigues of the slave-traders, nor the marvellous effect
which the presence of Europeans produced on all sides, more especially
in attracting to them from the four winds the scattered remnants of
villages swept away by slave-raids; but it will be interesting to our
readers to state in conclusion, that he hopes to preserve these details
for the public in another form, which we feel sure will meet with the
welcome it cannot fail to deserve, as the record of the establishment
of the first British colony on Lake Nyassa.


The pick-ups, the findings, from underground or under-sea, or in
hidden places above ground, comprise a strange medley of the odd and
the choice, appealing to the tastes or the pockets of persons filling
widely diverse positions in society.

The drains and sewers, for instance: can a more lowly and uncomfortable
treasure-house than these be found? Rat-killing by dogs, in an inclosed
space surrounded by the roughest of roughs, is a savage exhibition
unfortunately not yet quite died out from amongst us. The exhibiters
purchase the live rats at so much per dozen from men who grope along
the filthy sewers in search of them; and in Paris especially, dead
rats are brought up from the same unseemly regions, and placed in the
hands of skinners and tanners, who manage to get out of them strong and
good-looking pieces of leather suitable for the manufacture of gloves.
The great changes made in recent years in London by the extensive
Main Drainage Works have deprived the sewer-grubbers of much of their
chance; but in the old sewers the pick-ups were often strange enough.
Dead infants, a dead seal, cats and dogs both alive and dead, spoons,
tobacco-boxes, children's playthings, bad half-crowns and shillings,
sets of false teeth, washing-bowls, mops, human heads and limbs which
had been thus disposed of by body-snatchers or by anatomical and
medical students--all were met with by the sewer-flushers. One party of
these strangely employed men came on a certain occasion to a spot where
the brickwork between the sewer and a beer-cellar had broken through.
What did they do? They helped themselves.

On a former occasion, we presented a few illustrations of the curious
operation of the law concerning _Treasure-trove_, the rights and the
wrongs of ownership connected with property picked up from the ground
or from a small depth below the surface. Among the examples cited was
one relating to the finding of treasure near Stanmore in Middlesex, and
another connected with the locality of Mountfield in Sussex. Let us
present a few jottings of similar pick-ups in more recent years.

A labourer, digging a drain in a farm on the estate of the late Lord
Palmerston, found a golden torque or torgue, an ancient British
necklace. It was ascertained that the original grant of the estate gave
to the grantee, as lord of the manor, a right to all treasure-trove
found therein; the veteran statesman established his claim, but took
care that the finder should not go unrewarded. A ploughman, working
near Horndean in Hants, found more than a hundred old silver coins in
an earthen jar under the surface of the ground; the lord of the manor
gave to the finder the intrinsic value of the coins as mere silver, and
then had to fight a battle with the Crown as to who ought to possess
the coins themselves. One find near Highgate was very remarkable, on
account of the strange manner in which the veritable owner made his
appearance. Labourers, grubbing up a tree in a field, found two jars
containing nearly four hundred sovereigns; they divided the money
amongst themselves, and were then taken aback by the lord of the manor
claiming it. Before this claim could be investigated, a tradesman came
forward and stated that one night, under a temporary delusion, he
had gone out and buried the money; when he awoke, and for some time
afterwards, he tried in vain to recollect the locality he had selected,
and only obtained a clue when he heard a rumour of the finding of four
hundred sovereigns. He was able to bring forward sufficient evidence in
support of his singular story; and his claim was admitted.

On different occasions in 1864 the Crown put in claims for
treasure-trove--a gold coin found at Long Crendon in Buckinghamshire;
sixty-two gold coins found in an earthen jar in a field at Stockerston,
Leicestershire; no less than six thousand silver pennies of the time
of Henry III. found at Eccles near Manchester; and seven hundred and
sixty silver coins earthed up near Newark. The next following year gave
the Crown a claim to a hundred and eighty silver coins of the reigns
of Mary, Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I., found at Grantham; and
to a gold cross and chain brought to light at Castle Bailey, Clare, in
Suffolk. The years 1866 and 1867 were marked, among other instances,
by the finding of nearly seven thousand small gold and silver coins at
Highbury, near London; eighty guineas concealed in the wall of an old
house at East Parley, near Christchurch, Hants; and two hundred and
sixty old silver coins in a house at Lichfield. In other years there
were nine hundred silver coins found at Cumberford in Staffordshire;
and eleven rose nobles found in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey.
These several instances of treasure-trove were settled in various ways.
Some of the findings were returned by the Crown to the finders; some
were sold to the British Museum, in a manner to place an honorarium
in the finder's pocket; some were presented to museums, and the
money value given to the finders; some are retained by the Crown,
as antiquarian curiosities; while one has been handed over to the
descendants of a former owner.

Seven or eight years ago two labouring men found a very ancient gold
chain, which they sold to a dealer who knew the value better than they
did; the unlucky-lucky men fared badly in this instance, seeing that
they were punished for selling the 'find' without giving notice to the
authorities--rather hard lines for rustics, who are not likely to know
much about the law of treasure-trove. In another case a poor man found
a pair of ancient Irish silver bracelets; he sold them as old silver
to a silversmith, who melted them down at once--to the great regret
of an antiquary, who would have given much more than their intrinsic
value for such relics of former days. During the multifarious diggings
which have been going on for some years in and near Cannon Street and
its neighbourhood for the formation of new streets and the construction
of large commercial buildings, the workmen lighted upon twenty-nine
guineas and twenty shillings nearly two centuries old; the men got
into trouble because they did not voluntarily give them up. On one
occasion when the fusty and musty contents of a rag-dealer's heap were
being overhauled, somewhere in the neighbourhood of Houndsditch, a
diamond ring was espied. A contest arose as to who should possess it:
a woman engaged in sorting the rags claimed it because she had found
it; the rag-dealer disputed her claim; a pawnbroker who said he had
advanced money on the ring insisted on his prior right; a dealer in old
clothes who had sold a garment for that money, and one or two other
persons of somewhat doubtful antecedents--all came forward to shew
that, for some reason or other, the diamond ring ought to be considered
theirs. Whether the crown waived its claim, we are not certain; but a
magistrate eventually gave a decision in favour of the rag-sorter.

Bank-notes, as well as coins, jewellery, and articles in the precious
metals, sometimes make their appearance among the findings. A bundle
of notes was one day picked up outside the counter of a retail shop:
the finder claimed them because he _was_ the finder; while the
shopkeeper claimed them because it was on his premises that the notes
had been dropped. The real owner, whoever he may have been, did not
come forward, and the law decided in favour of the finder. But a
much more remarkable case occurred two or three years ago. A packet
containing no less than ten thousand pounds' worth of bank-notes
was picked up from the pavement in one of the busy streets near the
Bank of England; ten notes of one thousand pounds each. A young City
clerk picked up and pocketed the treasure. A friend advised him,
on consultation, to keep the notes until the following day, when a
handsome reward would possibly be offered by the luckless person who
had inadvertently dropped the notes. A firm of solicitors, in the names
of the real owners, speedily offered one hundred pounds to the finder.
The judicious friend overshot the mark here; he stipulated that he
should have nearly half the sum of one hundred pounds as his reward
for the advice given; and at the same time coaxed sixty pounds out of
the owners by a fabricated story concerning himself, the finder, and
the finding. A sheriff court had to decide the matter, and ordered the
'friend' to return part, at anyrate, of the money he had received.

A queer story has lately found its way into the newspapers, not exactly
touching on the discovery of treasure, but on a concealment which
might possibly lead to discovery if this or that were to occur. One
Adolfo de Garcilano (so runs the story), a prisoner in Madrid, and
lately a colonel in the Carlist army, was instructed by Don Carlos to
take six million pesetas (about one franc each) in English securities
and Spanish notes to London, inclosed in an iron box. This treasure
he was to bury in the earth in a particular locality, make a sketch
of the exact spot, and return to Spain. He was next captured by the
Alfonsists, thrust into prison, and told that he would not be set
free except on the payment of a large sum of money by way of ransom.
Thereupon he wrote to some one in England or Scotland, asking for the
transmission of a sufficient sum of money; this done, the secret of the
buried treasure would be communicated to the liberal ransomer, who was
to retain one-third of it as a grateful reward. If there had been only
one such letter, some person might possibly have been victimised; but
there were more than one, to different quarters, each requesting the
money to be sent to a third party at an address named. We may hereby
form a tolerably true estimate of Don Adolfo de Garcilano.

Undoubtedly the most interesting recent discoveries of small but
valuable works in the precious metals are those due to Dr Schliemann.
Archæologists have long recognised the probability that buried
beneath some of the ancient cities of the world, there are not only
architectural and sculptured fragments of much historical importance
still remaining to be discovered, but also jewels and other treasures
which have not seen the light for decades of centuries. Nineveh,
Babylon, Jerusalem, the more ancient parts of Rome, Pompeii,
Herculaneum, Egypt, Cyprus, the site of the famous Troy, and those
of the once important cities of Asia Minor--all may perchance have
something to shew which the present age would be prepared to welcome
and appreciate. Concerning Jerusalem, a conjecture has been brought
forward of a remarkable kind. After the rebuilding of the second
Temple, there were five occasions on which precious metals, treasures,
and artistic ornaments might have been concealed by the priests or
servitors of the sacred edifice--namely, during the abstraction and
sale of the temple furniture by the apostate high-priest Menelaus;
at the plunder and defilement of the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes;
during the plunder by Crassus; during that by Sabinus; and at the
total destruction by the Romans. On one or more of these occasions,
supposing the Jewish priests and servitors should have placed valuables
in the Temple, the place of concealment may not have been made known
to others, and the secret may have been carried with the priests to
the grave. Various facts have been adduced in support of this surmise,
sufficient to whet the curiosity of men who would value such treasures,
not for their intrinsic worth as precious metals or precious stones,
but for their historical and ecclesiastical connection with momentous
events nearly two thousand years ago.

Dr Schliemann, whose name we have just mentioned, when making
researches among mounds and heaps of rubbish at or near the supposed
site of Troy in Asia Minor, has lighted upon the foundations of cities
which he supposes to have been more ancient even than the Iliad.

But the discoveries more immediately connected with our present
subject are those which Dr Schliemann has since made in Greece. With
the permission of the king he made excavations near Mycenæ, on the
site of what is believed to be one of the most ancient cities in that
classic land--far more ancient than the renowned Athens. In treasuries
and tombs, which had not seen the light for an untold number of
centuries, he has disinterred beautifully painted vases, whole or in
fragments; terra-cotta statuettes and busts of Juno, horses' heads,
lions, rams, elephants; knives and keys of iron and bronze; fragments
of lyres, flutes, and crystal vases. But most striking of all is the
large quantity of gold vessels and ornaments, undoubtedly of precious
metal, and in many instances artistically wrought. Sceptres, bracelets,
girdles, necklaces, rings, vases, caps, &c. in plenty. One of the
Doctor's greatest triumphs was the unearthing of two vases of solid
gold, fourteen centimètres (about six inches) high, richly ornamented.
Many of these relics, as well as many inscriptions and bas-reliefs
on extremely ancient blocks of masonry, have excited the curiosity
of classical archæologists in a high degree. Their thoughts go back
to the epics and dramas which treat of Agamemnon king of Mycenæ; of
the expedition to Troy; of Clytemnestra, Electra, Ægisthus, Orestes;
of the stories of some of the Greek plays by Euripides, Sophocles,
and Æschylus. They think of these personages and these events;
and they lean strongly to the belief that the disinterred ancient
city near Mycenæ, and some of the treasures brought to light by Dr
Schliemann, may be veritable tokens of the days of Agamemnon. Some of
the articles found were in triangular cells, which he thinks may have
been treasuries or depositories for treasure and valuables. But his
principal 'finds' of wrought gold were in chambers which were probably
the tombs of Agamemnon, Cassandra, and Eurymedon. The vases, the cups,
the diadems, the signet rings, were mostly found in these tombs (if
tombs they were); as likewise were the bones of a man and a woman
covered with ornaments of pure gold. In short, the discoveries have
been of a most unusual, interesting, and valuable kind, well calculated
to attract the attention of the learned in Europe, whether learned in
classical history or in artistic archæology.

Of discovering or recovering of treasures lying beneath the waves of
the ocean, we do not intend to treat here. The reader will find some
curious notices on the subject in the article already referred to; also
in 'Submarine Treasure Ventures' (May 1, 1869); and in 'The Story of La
Lutine' (July 8, 1876).


If no difficulty, as yet unforeseen, bars the way, Mr Barff's plan
for rendering iron impenetrable by rust promises to be of the highest
practical importance. Iron is by far the most useful of metals, but
it has an unfortunate propensity when exposed to water or moist air
for attracting oxygen, and this oxygen eats into its substance, and
forms the familiar compound known as rust. The consequence is that
iron when exposed to the air, especially in so damp a climate as ours,
has to be coated with paint, varnish, or tin. But even this coating
does not afford entire protection; the slightest flaw in the armour
lets in the enemy oxygen, who often does his work all the more surely
because concealed from view. A vessel made of iron and coated with some
other substance, may look sound to the eye, and yet be a mere mass of
crumbling rust. Mr Barff's remedy for this state of things seems to be
after the doctrine of the homœopathists, that like is cured by like.
If a small degree of moisture affects iron with two distinct species
of oxide or rust, what will exposure to a very excessive degree of
moisture do? Well, it appears that if iron is placed in a hot chamber
and exposed to the action of superheated steam, a new kind of oxide,
called the magnetic or black oxide, forms on its surface. Not only does
this benevolent species of black rust refuse to penetrate any further
into the metal, but it forms an impervious coating against all other
influences; and articles thus prepared have been exposed out of doors
for weeks this winter without a particle of rust appearing on them. If
careful experiments shew that iron is lessened neither in strength nor
in durability by this process, its use will be greatly increased, as
for several purposes it will take the place of other and more costly
metals.--_The Graphic._



    The following touching verses (as nearly as possible a literal
    translation from the Gaelic) appeared in the _Scotsman_ of May
    17, and were accompanied by a note, which we have abridged,
    from the translator Mr Alexander Stewart of Nether Lochaber.
    He says: 'I beg to send you a translation of a Gaelic Elegy
    by Alastair MacDonald the celebrated Ardnamurchan bard, on a
    pet dove of his that was killed by a terrier dog. It is, in my
    judgment, a composition of singular tenderness, pathos, and
    beauty. Its quaint conceits and abrupt transitions, which the
    reader cannot fail to notice, though they may seem odd and out
    of place at first sight, form, in my estimation, no small part
    of its merit. My translation is about as literal as I could
    well make it, and I have endeavoured to imitate, with what
    success let others judge, the manner and measure, the rhyme and
    rhythm of the original. The pet dove was a female, and at the
    time of her death had under her care, as the poet fails not
    to notice with an exquisite touch of tenderness in the fourth
    line, the dove's usual brood of downy twins. The reference in
    the poem to the bird's habitat in a wild state shews that it
    was of the species known as the blue or rock pigeon, thousands
    of which inhabit the vast caves and precipitous crags of
    Ardnamurchan and Moidart.'

    Mournful my tale to tell,
      Though others heed not my sigh;
    My gentle, my beautiful pet dove dead--
      Must the callow twins too die?
    Alas, for the death of the gentlest dove
      That ever in woodland coo'd,
    Killed by a dog whose properer foe
    Were the otter that fights, and dies so slow
      In his cairny solitude.

    Of all the birds that cleave the air,
      Buoyant on rapid wing,
    I mourn thee most, my pet dove fair,
      Dear, darling thing!
    Noah loved thee, dove, full well,
      When a guilty world was drowned;
    With thy message of peace thou cam'st to tell
      Of solid ground;
    He knew thy truth as the waters fell
      Slowly around.

    The raven and dove good Noah sent
      Far over the heaving flood;
    The raven wist not the way he went,
    Nor back returned, for his strength was spent
      In the watery solitude;
    But cleaving the air with rapid wing,
    The dove returned, and back did bring
      His tale of the flood subdued.

    At first she found no spot whereon
      To rest her from weary flight;
    And onward she flew, and on, and on,
    Till now at length she gazed upon
      The mountain tops in sight;
    And the dove returned with her letter--a leaf
    (Of mickle meaning, I trow, though brief),
      Which Noah read with delight.

    Not easy to rob thy nest, thou dove,
      By cunning or strength of men;
    On a shelf of the beetling crag above
    Was thy castle of strength, thy home of love,
      Who dare come near thee then?
    Harmless and gentle ever wert thou,
      Dear, darling dove!
    In the ear of thy mate with a coo and a bow
      Still whispering love!

    Not in silver or gold didst thou delight,
      Nor of luxuries ever didst dream;
    Pulse and corn was thy sober bite--
      Thy drink was the purling stream!
    Never, dear dove, didst need to buy
      Linen or silk attire;
    Nor braided cloth, nor raiment fine
      Didst thou require.
    Thy coat, dressed neat with thy own sweet bill,
      Was of feathers bright green and blue,
    And closely fitting, impervious still
      To rain or dew!

    No creed or paternoster thou
      Didst sing or say;
    And yet thy soul is in bliss, I trow,
      Be 't where it may!
    That now withouten coffin or shroud
      In thy little grave thou dost lie,
    Makes me not sad; but oh, I am wae
      At the sad death thou didst die.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed and Published by W. & R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paternoster Row,
LONDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH.

       *       *       *       *       *

_All Rights Reserved._

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Note--the following changes have been made to this text:

Page 418: subsistance to subsistence.

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