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Title: A Guide to the Exhibition of English Medals
Author: Grueber, Herbert A.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  BRITISH MUSEUM.

  DEPARTMENT OF

  COINS AND MEDALS.

  A GUIDE

  TO THE

  EXHIBITION OF

  ENGLISH MEDALS.

  BY

  HERBERT A. GRUEBER, F.S.A.

  _SECOND EDITION._

  LONDON:
  PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

  LONGMANS & CO., Paternoster Row; B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly;
  A. ASHER & CO., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, and at Berlin;
  KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRÜBNER & CO., 57 and 59, Ludgate Hill;
  C. ROLLIN & FEUARDENT, 19, Bloomsbury Street, & 4, Place Louvois, Paris.

  1891.

  LONDON:

  PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

  STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.


The medals described in this Guide have been selected for their
historical interest from the larger series in the Medal Room, and
are exhibited in the Cases marked E, F, G, H. The specimens in gold
are represented by electrotypes, and those in lead by plaster casts,
coloured so as to resemble the originals. Each medal is separately
labelled and numbered, the numbers referring to the descriptions in the
Guide.

The Introduction gives as much information as could be admitted in
the limits, and each medal is described and explained on the same
principle. The metal is also stated, and the sizes in inches and
tenths, with other particulars necessary for identification.

The first illustrated edition of this work being exhausted, a second is
now issued, with a new set of eight plates, executed by the Autotype
Process from casts in plaster.

  REGINALD STUART POOLE.



CONTENTS.


                                                              PAGE

  EDITOR'S PREFACE                                    iii

  INTRODUCTION                                        vii

  HISTORICAL MEDALS:—
       EDWARD IV.                                       1
       HENRY VIII.                                      1
       EDWARD VI.                                       3
       MARY                                             4
       ELIZABETH                                        4
       JAMES I.                                         9
       CHARLES I.                                      14
       COMMONWEALTH                                    28
       CHARLES II.                                     36
       JAMES II.                                       52
       STUART FAMILY                                   60
       TOUCH-PIECES                                    64
       WILLIAM AND MARY                                65
       WILLIAM III.                                    84
       ANNE                                            88
       GEORGE I.                                      104
       GEORGE II.                                     106
       GEORGE III.                                    113

  MILITARY AND NAVAL MEDALS                           130

  HON. EAST INDIA COMPANY'S SERVICE MEDALS            139

  INDEXES:—
        I. ARTISTS                                    143
       II. INSCRIPTIONS                               146
      III. GENERAL                                    158



INTRODUCTION.


[Sidenote: ARRANGEMENT.]

MEDALS serve for two purposes, for the illustration of history and
as records of the contemporary state of art. Some series, like that
of Italy, have more interest for their artistic merit than their
historical import. This may also be said in a great degree of the
French medals; but in the English and Dutch series the interest
lies rather in the historical value than in the artistic qualities,
the medallic art of neither country attaining at any time any high
degree of excellence. The medals which are described in this Guide,
although to some extent examples of contemporary art, must therefore
be considered interesting chiefly as records and illustrations of
the history of England for a period of over three hundred years.
For this reason a classification of the medals by artists has not
been attempted, and a simple chronological order has been preferred.
This, however, has been relaxed in a few instances, as in that of the
personal medals, which for the most part are placed at the end of the
reign in which the persons portrayed flourished; and in a few cases
where it has been considered advisable to class together the medals
of a particular artist, in order that the merit of his work could be
better studied and compared. This has been done in the case of the
medals by Stephen of Holland, Simon Passe, and some of those by Thomas
and Abraham Simon. The military and naval decorations form a separate
series, and are therefore described at the end of the Guide; by this
means making the arrangement more useful to those who take special
interest in this particular branch. A small selection could, however,
only be made from the series in the Museum collection, on account of
the limited space for exhibition. In many cases where English medals
fail to illustrate important events, selections have been made from
the Dutch and other series in order to render the historical record as
complete as possible.

[Sidenote: HISTORICAL SERIES.]

With very few exceptions, there are no medals of interest in the
English series dating before the reign of Henry VIII. During the
fifteenth century a few counters were struck, which directly or
indirectly refer to events in English history; but these are for the
most part of French work, and the medal which is placed first in this
Guide, although bearing the portrait of an Englishman, John Kendal, is
undoubtedly of Italian work, and was probably executed at Venice. The
Dassier series of the early sovereigns, being a production of the last
century, cannot be said to have a place in the early medallic records
of this country, and is not included in this exhibition. The series
of English medals may therefore be said to commence with the reign of
Henry VIII., of which period, besides a number of interesting jetons
and medalets, there are some well-executed medals of the King himself,
such as No. 3, his portrait evidently after a painting by Holbein,
another recording his supremacy over the Church (Nos. 4—5), and several
remarkable badges. There are also other medals, chiefly personal, which
bear the portraits of Sir Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell Earl of Essex,
Anne Boleyn, and Michael Mercator, himself a medallist as well as a
diplomatist. The short reign of Edward VI. gives but few examples, of
which two are exhibited, one bearing only a portrait of the king, which
appears to be a cast in lead from a silver plate; and the other, his
coronation medal, the type of which was taken from the "Head of the
Church" medal of Henry VIII. The only other interesting works of this
reign are the Christ's Hospital badges and medalets, the School having
been founded by Edward in 1553. Of Mary there is also little worthy
of note beyond some excellent portraits of herself and Philip, and a
medal which refers to the condition of England during her reign. These
were executed by Trezzo at Madrid, and are the first signed medals of
the English series. The illness of Elizabeth in 1572, her struggle
with the Papal party, as well as her acceptance of the protection
of the Netherlands, and the defeat and destruction of the Spanish
Armada, afforded subjects for commemoration. The medals relating to the
destruction of the Armada are certainly among the finest pieces ever
produced in England, and are good examples of the art of the time. The
period of Elizabeth ends with a series of medallic portraits by Stephen
of Holland, most of which bear the date 1562, and all apparently
executed about that year.

The undisputed accession of the House of Stuart to the English throne
and the peaceable reign of its first king limit the subjects for
medallic illustration. The medals of the reign of James are purely
personal, with few exceptions, such as the Gunpowder Plot (No. 45), and
the alliance between England, France, and the United Provinces, for
the protection of the latter against the power of Spain (Nos. 46—47).
The rest present us with several portraits of the King and of various
members of the royal family, and of leading personages, of whom are
the Marquis (afterwards Duke) of Buckingham, Richard Sackville Earl of
Dorset, Sir Thomas Bodley, founder of the public library at Oxford, and
others. There is also a series of royal badges, a species of memorial
which becomes much more general in the next reign. These are followed
by a selection of engraved portraits of royal personages and others by
Simon Passe, who excelled in this style of work.

There are no medals which indicate the early contest between Charles
I. and the Parliament, those which are issued before 1640 referring
for the most part to the royal family and to eminent persons, with
the exception of the Scottish coronation medals of 1633 and those
commemorating the settlement of the Dutch Fishery question in 1636.
After the Declaration of Parliament in 1642, when the country was
divided into two parties, a new era in its medallic history begins,
and medals are struck in extraordinary numbers. This continues during
the period of the Civil War, and, besides medals which record the
successes of both parties, there is a large number of Royalist and
Parliamentarian badges, with portraits of the generals and statesmen
on both sides. Fortunately, England at this time produced several
artists, whose works are fitted to take the first rank in the national
series. These artists were Thomas and Abraham Simon, who worked for the
Parliament, and Thomas Rawlins, who was in the service of the King.
The series of this reign ends with several examples of the badges worn
by those who sympathised with the royal cause and with a few medals
recording the King's death. With the period of the Commonwealth the
issue of royalist badges ceases, and for the next ten years the medals
are of the parliamentarian class. These consist of portrait medals
of the Protector, of his family, and of the leading statesmen and
generals, and also of military and naval rewards, for the most part
executed by the two Simons. The Dunbar medal (Nos. 149—150), which was
issued for distribution among those engaged in that battle, is the
first authorized military decoration known. It was struck by order of
the Parliament immediately after the engagement. Naval medals were also
issued on several occasions, the most important being those for Blake's
victories over the Dutch in 1653 (Nos. 155—158). The Commonwealth
series closes with several medals, English and Dutch, commemorating the
death of the Protector, and also with a few personal medals, chiefly by
the Simons.

The Restoration of Charles II. was an occasion not to be passed by
unnoticed by medallists, and of no event are there more medals, except
perhaps of the accession of William III. and Mary. Some anticipate the
restoration of the King, and others trace step by step his return from
Holland, his landing at Dover, the joy expressed by the people at his
return, and his coronation at Westminster. The unpopular cession of
Dunkirk is only recorded on medals issued in France by Louis XIV. or
on Dutch satirical medalets; but the well-contested engagements of the
subsequent struggle between England and Holland for the dominion of the
sea, and the close of the war by the Peace of Breda, are numerously
illustrated. Those which refer to the Peace of Breda were for the
most part executed in Holland, and are remarkable examples of the
Dutch medallic style of that time. Of the next war with Holland from
1672—1674, there are no English medals, and those relating to it which
are exhibited are French and Dutch. The alarm created by the growing
strength of the Catholic party and the discovery of the pretended
Popish Plot, with the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey and also the
Rye House Plot, form the subjects of the next group of medals (Nos.
233—238, 240). Of those of the 'Popish Plot' there is a remarkable
medal, which appears to be Dutch, and which gives in detail the
supposed circumstances connected with the murder of Godfrey. Many of
the portraits of the illustrious men who flourished during this reign
are the work of the two Simons, and were mostly executed soon after
the Restoration. The important events of the short reign of James II.
give much scope to engravers. Medals are shown recording the rebellion
of Monmouth and Argyll and its suppression, the attempt of James to
re-establish the Roman Catholic religion by the repeal of the Test
Act, the imprisonment of the Seven Bishops, and lastly the invitation
to William of Orange, with the abdication and flight of James, his
queen and son. On these latter medals frequent allusions are made to
the supposed illegitimacy of the young Prince. The series of plots
and rebellions which followed the flight of James are for the most
part recorded by medals struck by the Stuarts abroad (Nos. 292—319):
these were issued for distribution among those who sympathised with
the exiled house. The medals which bear the portraits of James II. and
his son are supposed to have been presented to those who visited them
in their exile. No. 311, on which the rule of the House of Hanover is
satirized, is one of the medals struck for the purpose of rousing the
adherents of the House of Stuart into action; whilst No. 315 refers
to the rebellion of 1745, and the next medal to the secret visit of
the Younger Pretender to London in 1752, when he was again planning
an invasion. The series ends with a medal setting forth the claims of
Henry Duke of York as Henry IX. to the throne of his grandfather.

With the Stuart family are specially connected the medalets which are
called touch-pieces (Nos. 320—324). The custom of touching by the
sovereigns of this country for the cure of scrofula or 'the King's
evil' appears to have existed since the reign of Edward the Confessor.
At first the practice was rare, but in course of time it increased to
such an extent that it is said Elizabeth's 'healings,' which were at
first monthly, became of daily occurrence, and many thousands were
touched. The power was not claimed by Cromwell; but at the Restoration
it was revived, and Charles touched during his reign over 90,000
applicants. It was also much practised by James II., but repudiated
by William III. It was again revived by Anne, who was the latest
sovereign to perform the ceremony, and among the last of those whom she
touched was the afterwards celebrated Dr. Johnson. The Elder Pretender
claimed the power, and so did his sons Charles and Henry, the former
having exercised it in the name of his father at Edinburgh during the
rebellion of 1745. It was during the reign of Henry VII. that the
presentation to each applicant of a small piece of gold attached to a
band of white ribbon was first generally introduced. The angel was the
piece given, partly because it was the smallest gold coin struck and
partly on account of a certain fitness of type and inscription, having
on one side the archangel Michael overcoming the dragon, and on the
other side a ship in the sea and the inscription 'Per crucem tuam salva
nos Christe Redemptor.' The coin remained of the same type during the
reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I.; but the inscription in
each case was changed. At the Restoration, when the angel was no longer
issued as a current coin, Charles II. ordered medalets of similar type
to be struck, bearing the inscription 'Soli Deo gloria.' On account of
the attendance at the 'healings' having so largely increased, these
medalets are much less in weight and size than the angel. James II. was
the first king to strike the medalets in silver as well as in gold;
which were scarcely half the size of Charles II.'s. The Elder Pretender
as James III. also struck them in gold and silver. There are no pieces
known of Charles Edward; but of his brother the Cardinal, as Henry IX.
there are specimens in silver. The medalet given by Anne is of gold and
somewhat larger than that of James II.

The medals of William and Mary and of Anne are the most numerous
and historically the most complete of the English series. This may
be attributed to the stirring events due to the connection of the
interests of England and Holland and to the number of active medallists
of Holland and Germany.

The journey of William to England, his landing at Torbay, his
subsequent coronation and the flight of James, are illustrated by a
number of medals of which interesting examples are described in this
Guide. The rebellion in Ireland, with the battles of the Boyne and
of Aghrim, and the capture of towns, next follow. The events of the
war with France, concluded in 1697 by the Peace of Ryswick, produced
medals, English, Dutch, and French, recording the naval battle of La
Hogue, the taking of Namur by the French and the retaking of that city
by William, the defeats of William at Steinkirk and Landen, for which
his own countrymen held him up to ridicule (No. 390), the unsuccessful
attempt on Brest, the bombardment of Havre and Dunkirk, and the taking
of Huy. The other events commemorated by the medals are the passing of
the Toleration Act in 1689, the regency of Mary, the return of William
to Holland, the death of Mary, the Darien expedition, and lastly the
death of William.

The War of the Spanish Succession, which had begun shortly before the
death of William, was even more fruitful in medals than the previous
conflict with France. For the events of the campaigns of the Duke
of Marlborough and of Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Netherlands and
Germany, and of that in Spain, as well as for the naval victories,
the reader must be referred to the descriptions given at pp. 89—104.
A few other events, which happened during the reign of Anne and to
which medals refer, are the establishment of the Queen Anne's Bounty,
the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, the attempted invasion of
Scotland by the Elder Pretender in 1708, and the trial of Sacheverell.

With the accession of the House of Hanover the medallic series of
England loses much of its interest. The affairs of England and Holland
being no longer so closely united, the Dutch artists ceased to execute
medals for England, and at that time there were few medallists in this
country. The series therefore from this period is far less complete and
of very inferior style and work. The only important events recorded by
the medals of George I. are the Jacobite rebellion in Scotland in 1715,
the war of the Quadruple Alliance, and the siege of Gibraltar.

The first ten years of George II. are also devoid of medallic interest,
and it is not until the outbreak of the war of the Austrian Succession
that we have a piece of any merit. The best medals of this period
are those of the battle of Dettingen executed by Haesling and of the
battle of Minden by Holtzhey, a native of Amsterdam. Other recorded
events of this reign are the taking of Porto Bello and the attempt
on Carthagena by Admiral Vernon (of these events there are more than
a hundred different medalets), and the Jacobite rebellion under the
Younger Pretender, 1745—6. There is also a series of medals issued by
the Society for the Promotion of Arts and Commerce, commemorating the
conquest of Canada and the successes of the forces of England in India.
In portrait-medals the most important are the works of Dassier, of whom
mention has already been made.

The medals which illustrate the long reign of George III. down to the
battle of Waterloo in 1815, at which point this exhibition closes,
will be found to record all that is of importance during that period.
The events are so numerous and varied that the reader must be referred
to the descriptions, which will be found at pp. 113—130. The greater
portion of the medals relate to the struggle of England with her
American colonists, and to the subsequent wars with France, Spain,
and Holland, by sea and land. Following these are several pieces
commemorating some of the battles of the Peninsular War, and bearing
portraits of the principal generals, and a few personal medals of
statesmen and others, among whom may be noted Washington and Benjamin
Franklin. The series of historical medals closes with one of the finest
productions of the art of modern times, the Waterloo medal, designed
and executed by Pistrucci, a work of 'surpassing size and beauty,' on
which the artist spent a great portion of his life.

[Sidenote: MILITARY AND NAVAL MEDALS.]

The selection of military and naval medals commences with that struck
for the battle of Culloden, those which were issued before that period
being included in the general series. The earliest pieces which belong
to this class are probably the Armada medals; their variety, their oval
form, as well as the circumstance that most have rings for suspension,
and some have still chains attached to them, leaving little doubt but
that they were intended as decorations. There is, however, no record
that they were issued by authority. Charles I. is said to have granted
in 1643 medals to soldiers who distinguished themselves in forlorn
hopes; and the numerous badges issued during the Civil War by the
King, and the Royalist and the Parliamentary generals were undoubtedly
intended as military rewards and distributed among the soldiers who
fought under them. No. 106, which was issued by Fairfax after the
battle of Naseby, could only have served for such a purpose. During the
Commonwealth the practice of bestowing decorative medals, both military
and naval, became more frequent, and on several occasions was ordered
by the Parliament. Of such medals is that distributed to all engaged
at the battle of Dunbar (Nos. 149—150), and also those for Blake's
victories over the Dutch, as well as several others.

Occasionally during the reigns of Charles II. and James II. military
rewards were issued; but as none of these have rings for suspension,
they cannot be considered as decorative medals. After the Commonwealth
the medal for Culloden seems to be the first decorative piece: but even
of this medal there is no record of its having been distributed by
authority. Of that battle there is also a circular medal with loop in
copper, the type being the Duke of Cumberland on horseback, which might
also have served for distribution.

Again a long period elapses during which no decorative medals appear;
and the victories of the Nile and Trafalgar would have remained
unrewarded, but for the munificence and patriotism of two Englishmen,
Alexander Davison and Matthew Boulton (see Nos. 539 and 544). In 1784
the East India Company acknowledged the services of its troops by
awarding a medal for the campaign in the West of India, an example
which originated a custom; and from that time, as long as India
remained under the control of the Company, medals were awarded for all
subsequent wars. The first medal issued by authority in England in this
century is that given for the battle of Waterloo. It was conferred
by order of the Prince Regent upon every officer and private present
at that battle; but no acknowledgment was made of all the brilliant
engagements in the Peninsular War till 1847, when a medal was issued
for military services between the years 1793—1814 (No. 592). At the
same time a corresponding medal for naval services was ordered to be
struck for all naval engagements during the same period.

Since the accession of her Majesty medals have been awarded for every
campaign, as well as others for 'meritorious service,' 'long service,'
&c. Besides the medals issued by the authority of the Crown and those
of the East India Company, there are a number of Regimental medals,
of which some are exhibited. These were struck at the expense of the
officers of the regiments for distribution among those who served under
them; but this custom ceased when a public acknowledgment was paid to
the services of the army.

The medals issued by the East India Company, being mostly of Indian
work, have been classed separately, and will be found at the end of the
series. As they were generally awarded only to Native troops, they are
for the most part very scarce.

[Sidenote: METHOD OF PRODUCTION.]

Before proceeding to give some account of the medallists[1] themselves,
it may be useful to state shortly in what manner they accomplished
their work. This was done in four different ways, by casting, by the
repoussé process, by engraving, and by striking. Specimens of all kinds
of work will be found in this exhibition.

[1] Biographical notices of the medallists, whose works are exhibited,
are given with the descriptions of the medals. These can be found by
reference to the Index of Artists at p. 143.

In the case of casting, a method which was first adopted in Italy in
the fourteenth century, the mode was sometimes elaborate. A model
having been made in wax, it was painted over several times with layers
of cement made of fine earth or charcoal stiffened with some kind of
lye, until this dried and hardened upon the wax, and the foundation
of a mould was formed. When the mould was finished and completely
hardened, the wax was melted out, and the medal was then cast in some
hard metal, gold, silver, or copper, or in lead. By this process the
first mould was destroyed, and all subsequent ones had to be taken from
the medals themselves; consequently in time, with each fresh casting,
they became less sharp and perfect. Another method of casting was,
after executing a model in wax, to make moulds from it in sand, in
which the medal was then cast. By this means the original mould was
not destroyed, and would serve for use any number of times. But these
casts were not so successful as those made after the Italian method;
and in order to remove from the surface the roughness of the casting,
the medals were then submitted to the medallist's or goldsmith's hands
to be chased. In this manner a smooth and sharp surface was obtained;
but the chasing required to be very skilfully done. The castings in
lead on account of the softness of the material took a much more even
surface than in the case of the harder metals, and rarely required any
after-chasing.

The process of repoussé work in its first stage was somewhat similar to
casting. A model was made in wax, from which a mould in a hard metal
was cast, and on this hard mould was placed a thin silver or copper
plate, which was then beaten into the mould with a hammer till it
received its final form. This process was a long and difficult one, and
required much skill; consequently the number of repoussé medals is very
small as compared with those which were cast. Repoussé work had one
great advantage, that of obtaining a high relief, and on good medals, a
striking effect. Not unfrequently, especially in Germany, the mould was
made of wood, and the plate then hammered into it; but this method was
not so satisfactory, as the degree of sharpness was much lessened.

The process of engraving was more simple; but perhaps not less
difficult. The medals were executed by direct incision with the graver
or dry point on a plate of silver or steel, and thus every line told,
and the excellence of the work depended upon the accuracy and sharpness
of the outline.

In the case of struck medals, the die was engraved or cut in steel,
which was hardened, and from which proofs were struck in gold, silver,
copper, &c. This process was not at first successful, as the mode of
striking was simply by the hammer, by which means sufficient force
could not be obtained. This was, however, obviated by the invention of
the screw, which was first adopted in the sixteenth century, but did
not entirely supersede the use of the hammer until the middle of the
seventeenth century. Medals are now as a rule produced by striking.

[Sidenote: MEDALLIC ART.]

Of the medallists who worked during the reign of Henry VIII. we know
nothing, and none of the medals bear the artists' signatures. The
process employed was that of casting; but this was often done with
little skill, and in consequence all the medals are highly chased. The
medals of the reign of Edward VI. show no improvement in the art; but
those of Mary and Philip, which are exhibited, being executed by the
Italian artist Trezzo, are of far superior work. It is scarcely fair
to class these among English medals, as they were executed in Madrid
under the orders of Philip II., in whose service Trezzo was retained
during the greater part of his life. That the works of this artist were
much esteemed in his own time we learn from Vasari, who says, 'This
master has no equal for portraits from life, and is an artist of the
highest merit in other respects.' During the reign of Elizabeth, a
great improvement is manifest in medallic art, which may be seen in the
medals commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada, all of which, so
far as it is known, were produced by native artists. There are other
fine medals of this reign; but these are the work of foreign artists.
Of such is the remarkable one with the portrait of Mary Queen of Scots
by Primavera, and also a number of Dutch medals, among which are the
splendid life-like portraits by Stephen of Holland. These medals are
all cast and afterwards chased, and are certainly very fine examples
of Dutch art. It is not improbable that this artist first studied at
Nuremberg, which was the great school for medallists in Germany, and in
which Albert Dürer himself had worked.

The medals of James I. are for the most part of Dutch work; and as
few are signed, we are unable to ascertain by whom the majority were
executed. As at this period the new invention of the screw for striking
coins and medals was coming into general use, there are in consequence
a number of struck medals. The engraved portraits of the royal family
and others, classed at the end of the series of James I., are by Simon
Passe. This artist worked chiefly with the graver in a neat clear
style, which possesses much originality. His works have great merit in
their class, especially his portraits, many of which were taken from
life, and are remarkable for their precision and sharpness of outline.
Besides these medals Passe executed frontispieces and bookplates, which
are also well engraved. The abundant medals of the reign of Charles I.
and of the Commonwealth were chiefly produced by three artists, Thomas
Simon, his brother Abraham, and Thomas Rawlins. We must add to these
the works of Nicholas Briot, who by his new invention of the balance
for striking coins and medals had rendered great service to medallic
art. His medals as well as his coins are all remarkable for their
clearness of design and sharpness of execution. Briot did not reside in
England after 1633, so that all his works date from the early part of
Charles's reign. There are also a few medals by Jean Varin or Warin,
who with George Dupré ranks first among French medallists. His medals
are always cast, and generally in high relief. Of the two Simons it
may be truly said that they stand first as English medallists, the
beauty of their work having never been equalled in this country. As
portraits the personal medals are faithful and expressive. The brothers
produced joint as well as separate medals: in the case of a joint work
Abraham appears to have made the model, whilst Thomas, who was a more
skilful engraver, did the after-chasing. From an example in the British
Museum, it is evident that the Simons first made their models in wax,
and from these or from moulds in sand then cast their medals. The work
of Thomas Simon was not confined to medals, for he executed all the
Seals for the Commonwealth and for Charles II., as well as a fine set
of coins which bear the portrait of the Protector. His last work of
this kind, the Petition Crown of Charles II., has never been equalled
in technical delicacy of execution, and is certainly the finest coin
of modern times. Thomas Rawlins cannot be mentioned in such high terms
as the Simons. His work was far above the average; but it failed to
attain the sharpness and high finish which characterise that of his
two rivals. Some of his coins are perhaps superior to his medals.
Mention may be made here of the work of two other artists, specimens of
whose medals will be found exhibited among those of Charles II. These
are Pieter van Abeele and Müller, whom Bolzenthal calls 'der Meister
Müller,' two Dutch medallists who worked in the repoussé style before
and during the reign of Charles II. The medals of these artists are
in high relief, and are executed with marked skill. Some of them are
chased.

At the Restoration Rawlins was reinstated in the place of Chief
Engraver to the Mint which he had held before the Commonwealth; and as
his attention appears to have been chiefly directed to the coinage,
there are very few medals by him after this time. It was not so with
Thomas Simon, who was specially engaged to prepare dies for the new
Seals, for he continued to work at his medals and produced a large
number, including several for the coronation. There are some medals
(Nos. 182—183), executed by him in anticipation of the Restoration,
which were probably made with the object of retaining through the merit
of his work the post of Chief Engraver, to which he had been appointed
by Cromwell. In this he did not succeed, but was transferred from the
Mint to the Office of Seals. Abraham Simon also continued to work for
some time after the Restoration; but he held no official post. In the
meanwhile a new set of artists had sprung up in England, who with few
exceptions monopolised the medallic work in this country during the
reign of Charles II. These are the Roettiers, who had been introduced
to Charles during his stay in Holland, and of whom there were three
brothers, John, Joseph, and Philip. It is of the eldest brother, John,
that we have the most numerous and finest works. The character of the
medals of this period differs very much from those of the Commonwealth.
They are always struck, as the new invention of Briot had now quite
superseded the hammer, and are in low relief. The execution of the work
is good, the medals being very sharply cut and the portraits full of
expression, whilst the reverses have a more picturesque style, somewhat
approaching that of the Italian medals of the sixteenth century, but
in lower relief. The only other medallist of this period who calls for
notice is George Bower or Bowers, the style of whose work is similar to
that of the Roettiers, although not of such good execution and finish.
John Roettier and Bower still continued to work during the reign of
James II., and during a portion of that of William and Mary; but with
the accession of William, the Dutch period of medallic art in England
began and continued till the death of Anne. The artists of this time
are very numerous, but only the chief ones need be here enumerated, who
are Jan and Martin Smeltzing, brothers, Jan Luder, Jan Boskam, Georg
Hautsch, and Jan Crocker or Croker. This last artist not only executed
a large series of medals, but he also cut all the dies for the coinage
of Anne as well as many of that of George I. and George II. The style
of the medals of the Dutch period is somewhat similar to that of the
Roettiers, the relief being still lower. The reverse designs are also
often picturesque, and, although minute in design, are usually distinct
and in good perspective.

The accession of the House of Hanover introduced into England some
German artists; but few of them are of any note. Of the medallists
who worked in England from the accession of George I. to the end of
the last century, are J. A. Dassier, who executed the large series of
medals of English Sovereigns from William I. to George II.; Richard
Yeo, who made the Culloden medal; Thomas Pingo, who made the Gibraltar
medal of 1782, and several medals for societies; C. H. Küchler, who
executed the Nile and Trafalgar medals; and J. G. Hancock, whose works
are very numerous.

Medallic art of the present century in England owes all its merit to
the work of Pistrucci, an Italian who came to this country in 1815
and remained here till his death in 1855, and to the work of the Wyon
Family. To Pistrucci we are indebted for the famous Waterloo Medal,
for many medals of learned societies, and for some of our finest
coin-dies; and to the Wyons, for the military and naval medals as well
as for a most extensive series of academical and other pieces. Since
the resignation by Pistrucci of the office of Engraver to the Mint, the
Wyons have held that post and have produced the greater portion of the
dies for coins.

In concluding this sketch of medallic art in England, some mention
should be made of the efforts of several public-spirited firms, which
at the beginning of the present century produced series of medals
commemorating some of the great events of English history at that time.
The most important of these is the series of National Medals of James
Mudie, on which work a number of foreign as well as native artists were
employed; and it is remarkable that these engravers include eminent
French medallists who commemorated the English successes in the wars
with France.

My acknowledgments are due to Mr. A. W. Franks, F.R.S., for much
assistance, and for the use of his valuable notes on Mr. Edward
Hawkins' unpublished work referred to in the Preface; and also to the
Hon. C. W. Fremantle, C.B., Deputy-Master of the Mint, to Mr. L. C.
Wyon, and to Mr. A. B. Wyon, for important information and suggestions.

  HERBERT A. GRUEBER.



GUIDE TO ENGLISH MEDALS EXHIBITED.


EDWARD IV. 1461—1483.

    1. John Kendal, 1480. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour, wearing cross
    of order of St. John. IO. KENDAL RHODI TVRCVPELLERIVS. _Rev._
    Shield, arms of Kendal, the cross of St. John in chief. TEMPORE
    OBSIDIONIS TVRCHORVM. MCCCCLXXX. Bronze. Size 2·2. Cast and
    chased. Italian.

John Kendal was Prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in
London in 1491 and 1501 (Willis's Mit. Abb.). He was Lieutenant of the
Grand Master in Italy, England, Flanders, and Ireland, and in virtue of
that office was engaged in 1480 in raising recruits for the defence of
Rhodes against the Turks.


HENRY VIII. 1509—1547.

    2. Badge of Rose. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing hat, cloak,
    &c. HENRICVS VIII. DEI GRA. REX ANGL. FRANC. DOM. HYB. _Rev._
    Tudor rose; above, ODOR EIVS VT LIBANI; below, DEFENSOR FIDEI.
    Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

This medal is without date; but the title of Lord of Ireland (DOM.
HYB.) shows that it was executed before 1541.

    3. Medallic Portrait. Bust of King, nearly full face, towards
    r., wearing hat with feather and ermine cloak; around neck,
    collar and medal, cross of St. George. Copper gilt. Size 3·9.
    Cast.

This portrait is after a painting by Holbein.

    4—5. Portrait with title of "Head of the Church," 1545. _Obv._
    Bust of King r., wearing cap, ermine cloak, and collar.
    HENRICVS OCTA. &c. FIDEI DEFENSOR ET IN TERR. ECCLE. ANGLI. ET
    HIBE. SVB CHRIST. CAPVT SVPREMVM. _Rev._ Two inscriptions of
    same import as that on the obverse; one in Hebrew, the other in
    Greek; above H. R.; below, _Londini_, 1545. Gold and silver.
    Size 2·05. Cast and chased.

Henry's supremacy over the church was acknowledged by the clergy 1531,
and confirmed by Parliament 1534. This medal was not struck till 1545.

    6. Badge. Half-length figure of King, full face, wearing hat,
    robes trimmed with fur, &c. HENRIC. OCT. REX ANGL. Z. FRANC.
    Laurel-border. Silver. Oval. Size 2·3. Cast and chased.

This may have been worn as a badge of some society.

    7. Anne Boleyn, 1534. _Obv._ Bust of Queen, nearly full face,
    towards l., wearing coif with veil, &c., in field, A. R. THE
    MOOST HAPPI. ANNO 1534. Reverse plain. Lead. Size 1·5. Cast.

Anne Boleyn, daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, and second wife of Henry
VIII., married 1535, and beheaded 19th May, 1536.

    8. Sir Thomas More, 1535. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing biretta and
    fur cloak. THOMAS MORVS ANGLIÆ CANCEL. _Rev._ A cypress felled,
    the axe in the trunk. SVAVIVS OLET. Copper. Size 2·3. Cast and
    chased.

Sir Thomas More, born 1480, was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal
1529; beheaded 6 July, 1535. The reverse typifies More under the form
of a cypress, which has fallen under the stroke of the axe, but whose
odour has thus become more fragrant.

    9. Another. _Obv._ Bust of More, three quarters l., wearing
    biretta, fur cloak, &c. EFFIGIES THOMÆ MORI MARTIRIS ANGLI.
    _Rev._ Bust of St. Thomas à Becket, three quarters r., in
    archiepiscopal dress, holding cross and book. S. THOMAS
    ARCHIEP. CANTVAR. MART. AN. 1171. Silver. Size 1·45. All
    engraved.

This medal draws a parallel between the death of St. Thomas à Becket
and Sir Thomas More, both champions of their faith, and both put to
death under royal displeasure.

    10. Thomas Cromwell, 1538. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing cap and
    gown trimmed with fur. IMAGO D. THOMÆ CRVMVELLI REG'. SECRET'.
    AN^o. 38. _Rev._ Within garter, armorial shield of Cromwell,
    two coats quarterly: coronet attached to rim for suspension.
    Silver-gilt. Size 2·05. Cast and chased.

Thomas Cromwell, born 1490, was secretary to Wolsey, and afterwards
promoted by Henry VIII. to the highest offices of the State; created
Earl of Essex April 1540 and beheaded in July of same year.

    11. Michael Mercator, 1539. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters l.,
    wearing cap, fur cloak, &c. A REGE ANGLORVM PRIMI MILITIS
    CREATI EX VENLO EFFIGIES. _Rev._ MICHAEL MERCATOR ÆTATIS SVÆ
    XLVIII. GRATIA DEO ET REGI. MDXXXIX.; _Engraved._ Silver. Size
    1·8. Cast and chased.

In 1528 Michael Mercator, or, as Sir Thomas More in writing to Wolsey
calls him, Michael the Gueldrois, was sent to Henry VIII. by Mons. de
Ysselstein, on a confidential mission respecting the affairs of the
Low Countries. Again in 1538 in two letters of Floris d'Egmont, Count
of Buren and Lord of Ysselstein, one to Henry VIII. and the other
to Cromwell, we find him requesting the kind reception of Michael
Mercator. These letters also refer to Mercator's artistic skill, and we
learn from Puteanus or Du Puy that he excelled in medallic portraits,
and that this medal, which is of contemporary workmanship, was executed
by himself. It was on this second visit to England that he received the
order of Knighthood from the King.

    12. Another. Similar: bust in profile l., and reverse
    inscription in relief. Lead. Size 1·8. Cast.


EDWARD VI. 1547—1553.

    13. Portrait, 1547. _Obv._ Half-length figure of King l.,
    wearing cap with feather, doublet, chain, &c.; in r. hand,
    scroll. EDVARDVS V. (sic) DEI GRA. AN. REX; _incuse_. No
    reverse. Lead. Size 2·9. Cast and chased.

A contemporary cast in lead, possibly a proof from a silver plate. This
medal is unique, and was obtained by exchange from the Museum at Geneva.

    14. Coronation, 1547. _Obv._ Half-length figure of King r.,
    crowned, in armour, holding sword and orb. Inscription in Latin
    in three circles giving his titles, date of coronation MDXLVII.
    XX. FEBRVA. &c. _Rev._ Two inscriptions, one in Hebrew, the
    other in Greek of the same import as that on obverse; above,
    _Lambhith_, i.e. Lambeth. Gold. Size 2·35. Cast and chased.

The first coronation medal executed in England. The inscriptions are
similar to those on the medals of Henry VIII., struck to commemorate
his supremacy over the church. (Nos. 4-5.)


MARY. 1553—1558.

(Medals by Giacomo da Trezzo.[2])

[2] Giacomo da Trezzo, sculptor, engraver and medallist, born at
Milan at the beginning of the sixteenth century, first worked in the
execution of medals for the Gonzaga family. He afterwards entered the
service of Phillip II. of Spain, went to Madrid and was engaged in the
decoration of the Escurial. He died at Madrid in 1589.

    15. Condition of England, 1554? _Obv._ Half-length figure
    of Queen l., wearing coif with veil, embroidered gown,
    pendant pearl, &c. MARIA I. REG. ANGL. FRANC. ET HIB. FIDEI
    DEFENSATRIX. IAC. TREZ. _Rev._ Mary, as Peace, seated r.,
    holding olive branch and palm, and burning instruments of war;
    behind, group of suppliants; in distance, circular temple.
    CECIS VISVS TIMIDIS QVIES. Copper. Size 2·6. Cast and chased.

The design on the reverse of this medal is probably emblematic of the
condition of England. By Evelyn and others it was supposed to refer to
the suppression of Wyat's rebellion, and to the encouragement given
to the Papal party. It was probably executed by Trezzo during his
residence at Madrid.

    16. Portraits of Mary and Philip, 1555. _Obv._ Half-length
    figure of Queen l., same as preceding. _Rev._ Half-length
    figure of Philip II., king of Spain r., in armour. PHILIPPVS
    REX, &c., IAC. TREZZO F. 1555. Copper-gilt. Size 2·6. Cast and
    chased.

This medal was executed some little time after the marriage of Mary and
Philip in 1554.

    17—18. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., wearing coif with veil
    and embroidered gown. MARIA I. REG. ANGL. &c. _Rev._ Bust of
    Philip r., in armour. PHILIP. D. G. HISP. REX. Gold and silver.
    Size 1·45. Cast and chased.

The portraits are similar to those on the previous medals.


ELIZABETH. 1558—1603.

    19. Badge of Garter. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., wearing coronet
    of pearls, large ruff, &c. Inscr. of Garter. _Rev._ Ornamented
    shield, royal arms supported by angel. Inscr. of Garter.
    Silver. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased.

Probably executed for presentation on special occasions.

    20. "Phœnix Badge," 1574. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., wearing
    pearls in hair, ruff, &c. ELIZABETHA D. G. ANG. &c. Around—

    "Hei mihi quod tanto virtus perfusa decore"
    "Non habet eternos inviolata dies."

    _Rev._ Phœnix amid flames: above, monogram of Queen, crowned,
    and 1574 engraved roughly; around,

    "Felices Arabes, mundi quibus unica phœnix"
    "Phoenicem reparat depereundo novam"
    "O miseros Anglos, mundi quibus unica phœnix"
    "Ultima fit nostro, tristia fata, solo."

    Silver. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

The legends may indicate the apprehension for the Queen's life
occasioned by the severe plague, which visited London in 1574.

    21. Defeat of the Spanish Armada, &c., 1588—9. _Obv._ Bust
    of Queen in high relief, facing, crowned, wearing high ruff,
    &c., and holding sceptre; and orb. DITIOR IN TOTO NON ALTER
    CIRCVLVS ORBE. _Rev._ Bay-tree uninjured by lightning on
    inhabited island inscribed, NON IPSA PERICVLA TANGVNT: border
    of leaves. Gold. Oval. Size 2·35. Cast and chased; with ring
    for suspension.

This medal records not only the defeat of the Spanish Armada, but
also the averting of other dangers which at that time threatened both
England and her Sovereign. The Queen of Scots was dead; James of
Scotland had been conciliated; the Duke of Guise was dead, and France
and the Vatican were baffled. The bay-tree was deemed incapable of
injury from lightning.

    22—23. Another. Similar: on obverse, bust of Queen, three
    quarters l., without sceptre and orb, and on reverse, E. R.
    in field, and no buildings on island. Gold and silver (with
    original chain). Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with ring for
    suspension.

    24. Another. _Obv._ Similar: bust of Queen l., with pearls in
    hair, ELIZABETH. D. G. ANGLIE, &c. _Rev._ Ark in waves; above,
    sun. SEVAS (sic) TRANQVILLA PER VNDAS. Silver. Size 2. Cast and
    chased; with ring for suspension.

This medal refers only to the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The English
flag-ship was called the "Royal Ark," which may have suggested the
reverse type.

    25. Another. _Obv._ Pope, kings and others seated in council,
    with eyes bandaged; floor covered with spikes; above, O COECAS
    HOMINVM MENTES, O PECTORA COECA; around, DVRVM EST CONTRA
    STIMVLOS CALCITRARE. (Acts ix. 5.) _Rev._ Fleet driven on
    rocks; above, VENI VIDE VIVE. 1588; around, TV DEVS MAGNVS ET
    MAGNA FACIS TV SOLVS DEVS. (Ps. lxxxvi. 10.) Silver. Size 2.
    Struck. Dutch.

The obverse satirizes the confederation formed against Elizabeth by
the Pope, the King of Spain, the Emperor, and others; the reverse
represents the defeat of the Armada.

    26. Another. _Obv._ Naval engagement, destruction of Spanish
    fleet. FLAVIT ET DISSIPATI SVNT. 1588; above, Jehovah, in
    Hebrew. _Rev._ Church on rock amid stormy waves; beneath,
    shield, arms of Prince Maurice crowned. ALLIDOR NON LÆDOR.
    Silver. Size 2. Struck. Dutch.

The destruction of the Armada was due in great measure to the violence
of a storm. As this medal bears the shield of Prince Maurice, it is
probable that it was struck by his direction in Holland.

    27. Mary, Queen of Scots, 1567? _Obv._ Bust r., wearing
    cap with veil, ruff, &c. MARIA STOVVAR REGI. SCOTI. ANGLI.
    IA. PRIMAVE. Reverse plain. Copper. Size 2·5. Cast. By G.
    Primavera.[3]

[3] Very little is known of Giacomo Primavera beyond what information
is supplied by his medals. He was of Italian origin, perhaps Milanese,
and was born before the middle of the sixteenth century. He appears to
have worked chiefly in France and the Netherlands, as nearly all his
medals bear portraits of personages of those two countries. The above
medal was probably executed from a portrait, as it does not appear he
was ever in Scotland. He died about the beginning of the 17th century.

This medal presents us with a remarkable portrait of Mary Queen of
Scots, and is the work of Giacomo Primavera. Its date is uncertain, but
judging from other existing portraits of Mary, it was probably executed
about the same time as the Morton portrait, which was painted by order
of Mary during her imprisonment in Lochleven Castle, 1566—67. There are
modern casts of this medal, to which a reverse has been added. (See
guide to Italian medals, No. 181.)

    28. Richard Shelley, 1577. _Obv._ Half-length figure r., in
    armour with cross of Knights of St. John on breastplate.
    RICARDVS SCELLEIVS PRIOR ANGLIAE AN. A. LXIIII. _Rev._ Arm
    issuing from clouds holding shield with crest, arms of Shelley.
    PRO FIDE SPOLIATI CLYPEVS OBSES. Copper. Size 2·75. Cast and
    chased. Italian work.

Sir Richard Shelley born in 1514 was a Knight of Malta, Grand Prior of
England, and as Turcopelier, took part in the defence of Malta against
the Turks in 1565. He died abroad, probably at Venice, where this medal
appears to have been executed.

    29. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1587. _Obv._ Bust,
    three-quarters l., wearing cap and armour much ornamented.
    ROBE. CO. LEIC. ET IN BELG. GVBER. 1587. _Rev._ Sheep in flat
    country, dog leaving them; under dog, INVITVS DESERO; around,
    NON GREGEM SED INGRATOS. Silver. Size 1·85. Cast and chased.
    Dutch.

Leicester, being superseded in the command of the combined armies of
the English and Protestants of the United Provinces by Maurice second
son of the Prince of Orange, left the country in disgust. This and
the following medals were probably executed for Leicester before his
departure from Holland.

    30. Another. Similar: type varied, sheep in hilly country, &c.
    Silver. Size 1·85. Cast and chased. Dutch.


MEDALS BY STEPHEN OF HOLLAND.[4]

[4] Stephen of Holland, like Primavera, is only known by his medals.
From these we gather that he worked at first in Holland, executing many
medallic portraits of his countrymen. He was also in the employ of
Sigismund, King of Poland. He resided for a short period in England,
where he produced a large number of portrait-medals of private persons.
These are for the most part dated 1562.

    31. William, Earl of Pembroke, 1562. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour,
    head bare. GVILI. COMES PENNEBROCK. A^o. 1562. STE. H. _Rev._
    Dragon, beside which, allegorical female figure pointing at
    temple of Virtue. DRACO HIC VER'. VIRTVTVV̄. CVSTOS. Silver.
    Size 1·75. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

William Herbert, statesman and soldier, son of Sir Richard Herbert,
elected K.G. in 1548, and created Earl of Pembroke in 1551. He died in
1570. The Earl's badge was a green dragon, which may have suggested the
reverse.

    32. Edmund Withipoll, 1562. Bust r., in toga, head bare. EDMVND
    WITHIPOLL. ÆT. 48. 1562. Silver. Size 1·7. Cast and chased. A
    plaque.

Edmund Withipoll with his father? Paul Withipoll received in 1545 the
great tithes of Walthamstow with the manor and rectory, and also the
manor of Marks in Essex upon the dissolution of the monastery of St.
Helen's.

    33. Another. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters l., wearing bonnet,
    doublet, &c. EDMVND WITHIPOLL. Æ. 48. STE. H. F. Silver. Size
    1·7. Cast and chased. A plaque.

    34. Sir Thomas Stanley, 1562. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing bonnet,
    doublet, &c. THOMAS STANLEY. ÆT. 50. STE. H. _Rev._ Shield,
    arms of Stanley, surmounted by crest, a stag. Silver. Size 1·7.
    Cast and chased.

Sir Thomas Stanley, third son of Thomas Stanley of Dalgarth in
Cumberland, was one of the assay masters of the mint during the reigns
of Henry VIII. and Edward VI., appointed controller by Elizabeth, and
Master 1573. He died 1576.

    35. Richard Martin and his wife Dorcas Eglestone, 1562. _Obv._
    Bust of Martin r., wearing bonnet, cloak, &c. RICHARD MARTIN.
    ÆT. 28. A^o. 1562. STE. H. _Rev._ Bust of Mistress Martin
    l., wearing cap, fur cloak, &c. DORCAS EGLESTONE VX. RICHARD
    MARTIN. ÆT. 25. Silver. Size 2·25. Cast and chased.

Richard Martin was Lord Mayor of London, 1589, and at various times
Warden and Master of the Mint. Died 1617. His wife Dorcas died 1599.

    36. Elizabeth, Marchioness of Northampton, 1562. _Obv._ Bust
    l., wearing cap, gown, &c. ELIZABET. MARQVI. NORTHAMPTON. STE.
    H. F. _Rev._ Faith holding book, and supporting cross. SOLA
    TVTA FIDES. A^o. 1562. Silver. Size 1·55. Cast and chased.

Elizabeth, daughter of George Lord Cobham, was the second wife of
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton.

    37. Maria Newce, wife of John Dymock, 1562. _Obv._ Bust l.,
    wearing cap, gown, &c. MARIA NEWCE VX. IOH̄S DIMOCK. STE. H.
    _Rev._ Allegorical female figure holding stag by the horns near
    a fountain. SICVT CERV'. AD FŌTES AQVARV̄. (cf. Ps. 41. 2.)
    Silver. Size 1·5. Cast and chased.

From the 'visitation' of Hertfordshire 1579 it would appear that this
lady was one of the daughters of Clement Newce of Much Hadham, citizen
and mercer of London, who died in 1579.


JAMES I. 1603—1625.

    38. James, as King of Scotland. Marriage, 1590. _Obv._ Bust
    of King r., laureate, in armour. IACOBVS 6. D. G., &c. _Rev._
    Between I.R. crowned and 6 beneath, thistles surmounted by
    crown, &c. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET. 1590. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast
    and chased.

James married in 1590 Anne daughter of Frederick II. King of Denmark.

    39. Accession to English Throne, 1603. _Obv._ Bust of King,
    three quarters r., laureate, wearing armour, cloak, &c. IAC.
    I. TOTIVS INS. BRYT. IMP. ET FRANC. ET HIB. REX. _Rev._ Royal
    shield, garnished and crowned. IVGI CONCORDIA FLORENT. Silver.
    Size 1·7. Struck.

On this medal James styles himself Emperor. This is the first instance
of an English sovereign assuming the title.

    40. Queen Anne (of Denmark): coronation, 1603. Bust of Queen,
    three quarters l., hair arranged high, wearing lace collar,
    jewels, &c. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. A plaque.

The coronation of James and Anne was celebrated on the 25th July 1603.

    41. Queen Anne (of Denmark), 1619? _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    wearing necklace, embroidered gown, &c. ANNA D. G. ANGL. &c.
    _Rev._ Pine tree crowned; above, name of Jehovah in clouds:
    across tree, scroll inscribed, LA MIA GRANDEZZA DALL ECCELSO.
    Silver. Size 2. Cast and chased.

This medal was probably struck upon the death of the Queen in 1619. The
device is an illustration of her motto.

    42. Peace with Spain, 1604. _Obv._ Bust of King, three quarters
    r., wearing hat crowned, doublet, &c. IACOBVS D. G. ANG. &c.
    _Rev._ Peace and Religion with emblems, &c. HINC PAX COPIA
    CLARAQ. RELIGIO; in ex., A. 1604. Gold. Size 1·45. Struck, with
    ring for suspension.

This medal was struck to commemorate the peace concluded with Spain in
1604.

    43. Another. Similar: with ornamental border and loop for
    suspension. Silver. Size 1·9. Cast and chased.

    44. Another. Similar: bust of King r., laureate, wearing
    armour, &c. Legend varied. Silver. Size 1·5. Cast and chased.

    45. Gunpowder Plot, 1650. _Obv._ Snake gliding amongst lilies
    and roses. DETECTVS QVI LATVIT. S. C. _Rev._ Radiate name of
    Jehovah within crown of thorns. NON DORMITASTI ANTISTES IACOBI;
    _chronogrammatic_. Silver. Size 1·15. Struck. Dutch.

This medal was struck in Holland by order of the Senate to commemorate
the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot.

    46—47. Alliance of England, France and the United Provinces,
    1609. _Obv._ Radiate name of Jehovah above three hearts united.
    IVNCTA CORDA FIDELIVM. _Rev._ Rose of England, Lily of France,
    both crowned, and Belgic Lion. CONTRA VIM TIRANNORVM. 1609.
    Gold and silver. Size 2. Struck. Dutch.

Struck by order of the Government of the United Provinces upon the
occasion of the alliance of the three powers after the delivery of the
Provinces from the Spaniards.

    48. Henry, Prince of Wales, 1612? _Obv._ Bust of Prince,
    three-quarters l., in armour, &c. HENRICVS PRINCEPS. _Rev._
    Royal shield with label in chief, crowned. FAX MENTIS HONESTÆ
    GLORIA. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck.

Henry Prince of Wales died 6th Nov. 1612, when this medalet was
probably struck.

    49. Frederick, Count Palatine, King of Bohemia, &c., 1627.
    _Obv._ Bust r., laureate, wearing deep collar, armour, &c.
    FRIDERICVS D. G. REX BOHE. &c. S. D. R. F. 1627. _Rev._ Lion
    sejant gardant crowned, holding sceptre and orb; above, five
    hands from clouds supporting crown. Gold. Oval. Size 2·15. Cast
    and chased; with ring for suspension. German work.

Frederick, Count Palatine, Elector, &c., married, 1613, Elizabeth,
daughter of James I., elected King of Bohemia, 1619. The five hands
which support the crown represent Bohemia and the four Protestant
provinces, Moravia, Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia, which favoured
his election. The lion is the crest of the Counts Palatine.

    50. Marriage of Frederick, Count Palatine, and Princess
    Elizabeth, 1613. _Obv._ Bust of Frederick r., in armour, &c.,
    FRIDERICVS D. G. COM. PAL. R. &c. _Rev._ Bust of Elizabeth,
    three quarters l., wearing high ruff, embroidered gown,
    &c. ELISABETHA D. G. COM. PAL. R. &c.; ornamental border.
    Silver-gilt. Size 1·65. Cast.

The marriage of the Elector Frederick with the Princess Elizabeth took
place 11th Feb. 1612—13.

    51. Coronation of Frederick, King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth,
    1619. _Obv._ Busts r., of King laureate, and in armour, &c.;
    of Queen draped; above, VIVANT FLOREANT; below, C. PRIVIL.
    S. R. M.; around, FRIDERICVS ET ELISABETHA D. G. CORON. R.
    R. BOEMIAE. _Rev._ Within inscription of Garter, lion sejant
    gardant, holding sword, before rose-tree bearing roses, and
    orb, inscribed M. D. I. V. Æ.; in background, thorns; below,
    serpent; above, VT ROSA INTER SPINAS. Silver. Oval. Size 2·05.
    Cast and chased. German work.

Frederick was elected Knight of the Garter Feb. 1613.

    52. Maurice, Prince of Orange, &c., 1613. _obv._ Bust,
    three-quarters r., in armour, &c. MAVRITIVS AVR. PRINC. &c.,
    1613. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Maurice with the Garter; above,
    crown. Silver. Oval. Size 2·35. Cast; with ring for suspension.

Maurice, Prince of Orange, was elected Knight of the Garter, 4th
February, 1613.

    53. Another, 1624. _Obv._ Within border of shields of the
    United Provinces, &c., bust, three quarters r., in armour.
    MAVRITIVS D. G. PRINCEPS AVRIACÆ, &c., J. M. BYLAER _f. Rev._
    Within laurel-wreath, crowned shield, arms of Maurice with
    inscr. of Garter; beneath, le Maintiendray, and, 16 _cum
    Privil._ 24. Silver. Size 2·6. Struck. Dutch, by J. M. Bylaer.

Vanloon (II. 55) thinks that this medal was struck in commemoration of
the victories gained in 1624 by the Dutch fleet over that of Spain off
Peru and Brazil.

    54. Badge. _Obv._ Bust of King, three quarters r., wearing hat
    with feather, &c. IACOBVS D. G. MAG. BRITA. &c. _Rev._ Ark in
    sea; above, clouds raining. STET SALVVS IN VNDIS. Silver. Oval.
    Size 1·9. Cast.

The ark probably symbolizes the Church, and is emblematic of England
after the disturbances of the Reformation.

    55. Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, 1618? _Obv._ Bust of Nicholas
    Wadham, three quarters r., wearing cloak, &c. WHEN CHRIST
    WHO IS OUR LIFE SHAL APPEARE. _Rev._ Bust of Dorothy Wadham
    three-quarters l., wearing hat, embroidered gown, &c. WE SHAL
    APPEARE WITH HIM IN GLORY: on either side, border, floral
    wreath united by skulls. Silver. Oval. Size 2·1. Cast and
    chased.

Nicholas Wadham, founder of the college named after him at Oxford, died
1609. His wife died 1618. This medal is supposed to have been then
struck.

    56. Richard Harington, 1609. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing cloak and
    armour. RIC. DE HARINGTŌ. _Rev._ Cupid with club and bow before
    a tree from which fall leaves, which he has beaten down: the
    tree is on a mound inscribed, 1609. AMOR NON FLORE SED FRVCTV.
    Silver-gilt. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

Unknown.

    57. Sir Thomas Bodley, 1612. _Obv._ Bust r., in academical
    dress TH. BODLY EQ. AVR. PVBL. BIBLIOTH. OXON. FVNDATOR.
    WARIN. _Rev._ Aeternitas holding heads of Sun and Moon. R. P.
    LITERARIAE AETERNITAS. Lead. Size 2. Struck.

Sir Thomas Bodley, the founder of the public library at Oxford, died in
1612. This medal, the work of Varin, was not executed till some years
after his death.[5]

[5] Jean Warm or Varin, born at Liege 1604, studied at a very early age
painting, especially portraiture, and the art of engraving, placing
himself under the direction of the French medallist Dupré. His talents
attracting the notice of Cardinal de Richelieu, he was appointed
engraver to the royal mint at Paris. This appointment Varin held till
his death, adding at a later period those of Superintendent-General
of the Coinage, and Guardian of the Dies. Varin visited England and
Sweden, receiving many commissions in both countries. In painting he
has left little of note; but of medals some of the finest productions
of the seventeenth century were executed by him. He died in 1672.


ENGRAVED PORTRAITS BY SIMON PASSE.[6]

[6] Simon Passe, the youngest son of Crispin Passe, the eminent artist
of Utrecht, born circ. A.D. 1574, received his first instruction in the
art of engraving from his father. About 1613 he came to England, where
he resided for some 10 years, and engraved a large number of prints,
portraits, &c. He was employed by Nicholas Hillard to engrave counters
of the Royal Family of England. After quitting England, he entered the
service of the King of Denmark, under whose protection he remained till
his death circ. 1644.

    58. Elizabeth. _Obv._ Bust of Queen, three quarters r.,
    crowned, wearing high ruff, &c.; above, _Si. Passe_. _Rev._
    Royal shield within Garter, crowned, supporters, lion and
    griffin; above, DIEV ET MON DROIT; beneath, on tablet:

      QVI LEO DE IVDA EST
    ET FLOS DE IESSE LEONES
      PROTEGAT ET FLORES
        ELIZABETHA TVOS.

    Silver. Oval. Size 2·4.

This plate was not engraved till some years after the death of
Elizabeth. It is copied from a miniature by Isaac Oliver. The
inscription is said to have been the extempore production of a
Westminster scholar, Elizabeth herself having proposed her armorial
bearing as the subject of an epigram.

    59. James I., 1616. _Obv._ Bust of King, three quarters r.,
    head bare, wearing ruff, collar of Garter, &c., above, crown
    dividing I. R., at sides _SP fe. Jacobus D. G. Mag. Britt.
    &c. Rev._ Royal shield within Garter, supporters, &c.; below,
    motto, BEATI PACIFICI. IACOBUS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ, &c.
    Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

    60. Another. _Obv._ Varied; King wears hat; below, _Simon
    Passæus sculp._: no legend. _Rev._ Similar. Silver. Oval. Size
    2·2.

    61. Queen Anne (of Denmark), 1616. _Obv._ Bust of Queen, three
    quarters l., wearing high collar, &c.; above, crown dividing A.
    R.; at sides _SP fe. Anna D. G. Mag. Britt._ &c. _Rev._ Danish
    shield of Queen crowned, with supporters; below, her motto, _La
    mia Grandezza dal Eccelso_. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ,
    &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

    62. Charles, Prince of Wales, 1616. _Obv._ Bust of Prince,
    three quarters r., head bare, wearing ruff, armour, &c.
    _Carolus Princeps Walliæ_. _Rev._ Shield of Prince crowned
    within Garter: below, _Anno D. 1616_. _Si. Pa. fec._
    ILLUSTRISS. ET POTEN. PR. CAROLUS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ DUX CORN. YOR
    ET ALB. ETC. Silver. Oval. Size 2·2.

    63. Another, 1616. _Obv._ Bust of Prince, three quarters r.,
    head bare, wearing ruff, doublet, &c. ILLUSTRISS. ET POTEN.
    PRINC. CAROLUS, &c.: below, _Simon Passæus sculp_. _Rev._
    Prince on horseback r.; in the distance, view of London: below,
    Prince's plumes between CAROLUS PRINCEPS. _S. P. sc._ Silver.
    Oval. Size 2·4.

    64. James. I., Anne of Denmark, and Prince Charles, 1616.
    _Obv._ Busts of King, Queen and Prince similar to those on
    Nos. 60—62. _Rev._ Two shields, arms of King and Queen with
    supporters, &c., below, Prince's plumes and mottoes of King and
    Queen. POTENTISS. IACOBVS D. G. MAG. BRITT. &c. Silver. Oval.
    Size 2·5.

    65. Frederick, Count Palatine, Elizabeth, and Prince Frederick,
    1616. _Obv._ Portraits, facing, of Frederick, Elizabeth his
    wife, and their eldest son Prince Frederick. _Rev._ Two
    shields, arms of Frederick and Elizabeth supported by two
    lions: above, his helmet and crest; below, his motto, SVPERATA
    TELLVS SYDERA _Donat._ EFFIG. ILLVST. PR. FREDERICI D. G. CO.
    PAL. &c. Silver. Oval. Size 2·5.

The young prince here represented with his parents was Prince
Frederick, who was drowned on a journey from Amsterdam to Utrecht 1626.

    66. George Villiers, Marquis of Buckingham, 1618. _Obv._ Bust,
    three quarters r., wearing ruff, embroidered doublet, &c.
    NOBILISS. DN'. GEORGIUS VILL. MARCHIO BUCKINGHAMIÆ, &c. _Rev._
    Shield, arms of the Marquis within Garter, supporters, helmet,
    crest, and motto, _Fidei Coticula Crux_; behind, two anchors.
    Silver. Oval. Size 2·4.

George Villiers was created Marquis of Buckingham in 1618, and Duke in
1623, so that this piece must have been executed between those dates.
He was assassinated in 1628.

    67. Richard Sackville, Earl of Dorset, Lord Buckhurst. _Obv._
    Half-length figure, three quarters l., wearing high collar,
    &c. _Rev._ Shield, arms of the Earl with supporters, &c., and
    motto, TOVSIOVR LOYAL. CLARISSIMVS D'. RICHARD'. SACKVILE BARO
    BVCKHVRSTIÆ COM^{ES} DORCESTRIÆ. Silver. Oval. Size 2·15.

Richard Sackville, third Earl of Dorset, born 1589, died 1624.


CHARLES I. 1625—1649.

    68. Coronation, 1626. _Obv._ Bust of King r., crowned, &c.,
    CAROLVS I. D. G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. N.B. _Rev._ Arm issuing from
    cloud brandishing sword. DONEC PAX REDDITA TERRIS: in ex.,
    CORON. 2. FEBRV. 1626. Gold. Size 1·2. Struck. By Nicholas
    Briot.[7]

[7] Nicholas Briot, the chief engraver to the Paris mint during the
reign of Louis XIII., was the inventor of the balance for striking
coins. Before his invention all coins were struck by the hammer.
Briot first submitted his new invention to the authorities at Paris
in 1615; but it was not adopted till 1623, and then only temporarily,
when he was placed at the head of the coinage in France for that
year. The opposition experienced by Briot in his own country induced
him to submit his invention to the authorities at the London Mint,
where it was at once favourably received, and he was appointed chief
engraver from 1628—1633, when he returned to France and again received
employment at the Paris Mint. During his residence in England Briot
executed a large number of dies for coins as well as dies and moulds
for medals, all of which are gems of medallic work.

The reverse inscription refers to the determination of Charles to
assist the United Provinces in establishing their independence, and to
restore Frederick Count Palatine to the throne of Bohemia.

    69. Dominion of the sea, 1630. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing
    ruff, armour, &c. CAROLVS I. D. G. MAG. BRITAN̄IÆ, &c. N.
    BRIOT. _Rev._ Man-of-war in full sail. NEC META MIHI QVÆ
    TERMINVS ORBI. Gold. Size 2·4. Cast and chased. By Nicholas
    Briot.

This medal was executed in assertion of the claims of England to the
dominion of the sea.

    70. Another. Similar. Silver. Size 2·2. Cast and chased.

    71. Another. Similar: on obverse, portrait much varied, bust
    with collar, &c.; legend and signature varied; on arm, 1639.
    Silver. Size 2·35. Cast and chased.

This is a reproduction of the previous medal with an older portrait.

    72. Birth of Prince Charles, 1630. _Obv._ Bust of King l.,
    crowned &c. CAROLVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. _Rev._ Prince on couch
    between Mercury and Mars, holding wreaths over his head. REDDAT
    AVOS. MAII 29. 1630. Gold. Size 1·2. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.

    73. Reverses of Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia, 1632.
    _Obv._ Busts of Frederick and Elizabeth r.; King laur., &c.
    FRID. ET ELIZ. D. G. RR. BOH. &c. _Rev._ Setting sun. SOL
    OCCIDENS RENASCITVR. EC. I. 1632. Silver. Size 2·05. Cast and
    chased.

The successes of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, who was assisted
by the English, revived for a short time the hopes of Frederick of
regaining the throne of Bohemia, from which he had been driven by
Ferdinand II., the Emperor, in 1620. This medal, which is of coarse
work, was executed in Germany. The artist is unknown.

    74. Scottish Coronation, 1633. _Obv._ Bust of King l., crowned,
    &c. CAROLVS D. G. SCOTIÆ ANGLIÆ, &c. _Rev._ Thistle and
    rose-tree combined. HINC NOSTRÆ CREVERE ROSÆ; in ex., CORON.
    18. IVNII. 1633. B.; on edge, EX AVRO VT IN SCOTIA REPERITVR.
    BRIOT FECIT EDINBVRGI 1633. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck. By Nicholas
    Briot.

This medalet was struck upon the coronation of Charles at Edinburgh.
The gold of which these medals were made was found in the mines
situated in Niddesdale and Clydesdale. There are specimens in silver of
this medal with the same inscription on the edge.

    75. Another. Similar: varied and thin: no inscr. on edge. Gold.
    Size 1·1. Struck.

    76—77. Return from Scottish Coronation to London, 1633. _Obv._
    King on horse prancing l., &c.; above, eye of Providence; on
    the ground, plumed helmet, 1633, &c. CAROLVS AVGVSTISS. ET
    INVICTISS. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. ET HIB. MONARCHA. _Rev._ View
    of London; above, sun in clouds. SOL ORBEM REDIENS SIC REX
    ILLVMINAT VRBEM. E. (Edinburgh). Gold and silver. Size 1·65.
    Struck.

Issued upon the return of the King to London after his coronation at
Edinburgh in 1633.

    78. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing laced collar, &c.
    CAR. D. G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. _Rev._ Same. Silver. Size 1·6. Cast
    and chased.

    79. Dutch Fishery, 1636. _Obv._ Busts of King towards r., and
    Queen r., &c. CAR. ET MAR. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.; in field,
    1636. _Rev._ Justice and Peace seated kissing each other,
    scales and olive-branch held by genii on either side. IVSTITIA
    ET PAX OSCVLATÆ SVNT. PSAL. 84. Silver. Size 3·05. Cast and
    chased. By Heinrich Reitz.

By a treaty between England and Holland it was stipulated that the
Dutch should pay £30,000 for the permission to fish in British waters.
This medal was executed in Germany by Heinrich Reitz the younger, a
medallist of some note, who flourished during the early part of the
seventeenth century, and who worked principally for Christian I. of
Saxony and the Princes of the Houses of Brandenburg and Brunswick.

    80. Charles, Prince of Wales, 1638. _Obv._ Bust of King l.,
    crowned, &c. CAROLVS I. D. G. ANGL. &c. B. _Rev._ Prince
    Charles on horseback r., &c., behind, plumes with motto.
    ILLVST. CAROLVS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ: in ex., two C's interlinked.
    Silver. Size 1·25. Struck. By Nicholas Briot.

Charles was first styled Prince of Wales in 1638, at which time he also
received the whole profits of the principality and earldom of Chester,
and held his court apart from his father.

    81. Betrothal of William, Prince of Orange, and Princess Mary,
    1641. _Obv._ William and Mary, joining hands beneath rays
    proceeding from dove; above each, cherub in clouds holding
    wreath, distant view of palace: behind each, and in ex.,
    inscriptions referring to their births and betrothal, with
    _Anō_ 1641. _12 Mai_. _Rev._ William as Pallas trampling on
    Bellona and receiving olive-branch from Mary in character of
    Peace; around them, Victory, Plenty, and genius of Holland with
    emblems; above, and in ex., inscriptions: below, _J. Blum.
    Fe._ Silver. Size 2·85. Struck. By Johann Blum.

William, son of Henry, Prince of Orange, mar. in 1641, Mary, dau. of
Charles I. They were the parents of William III., King of England. This
medal is the work of Johann Blum, of Bremen, who also executed a large
number of dies for Christian IV. and Frederick III. of Denmark.

    82. Marriage of William, Prince of Orange and Princess Mary,
    1641. _Obv._ Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, seated on
    throne with sword in r. hand and band with seven shields of the
    United Provinces in l., his feet on prostrate foes; distant
    view of fortified city, with Prince at the head of his troops,
    &c. LIBERTAS PATRIÆ, ME DEFENSORE, TRIVMPHAT, &c. _Rev._ Palace
    garden within enclosure, at the entrance William receives
    Mary; above them, Belgic Lion, and on either side, figures of
    Fœcunditas and Mars: above, cherubs in clouds, and, in Hebrew,
    Jehovah. QVO TE MARS ET AMOR VOCAT INTRA DIVA, &c. S. D.
    Silver. Size 2·85. Struck. Dutch. By Sebastian Dadler.

This medal commemorates the arrival of William and Mary in Holland
after their marriage. It was executed by Sebastian Dadler, a native
of Strasburg and chief goldsmith at the Imperial Court. Dadler worked
also for George William, Elector of Brandenburg, Gustavus Adolphus of
Sweden, and for the House of Orange. Died circ. 1654.

    83. Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Knight of the Garter,
    1626. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour, &c. FREDER. HENR. D.G.
    PRINCEPS AVRIAC. COM. NASS: around, seven shields, arms of the
    United Provinces, connected by bands held by two hands with
    sheaf of arrows. _Rev._ Within Garter, crowned shield, arms of
    Prince. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck. Dutch.

The Garter was conferred upon the Prince of Orange in 1626, the
ceremony of investment taking place at the Hague.

    84. Cecil, Lord Baltimore and his wife, 1632. _Obv._ Bust of
    Lord Baltimore, three quarters r., in armour. DM̄S CÆCILIVS
    BARO DE BALTEMORE ABSOLV. DM̄S TERRÆMARIÆ ET AVALONIÆ &c.
    _Rev._ Bust of Lady Baltimore three quarters r. D̄N̄A ANNA
    ARVNDELIA PVLCHERRIMA ET OPTIMA CONIVX CÆCILII PREDICTI.
    Silver. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

Cecil, Lord Baltimore mar. Anne Arundel, dau. of the first Lord
Wardour. In 1632 the king granted him the province of Maryland in
America, which remained in the possession of his descendants till the
establishment of the American Independence in 1783.

    85. Richard Weston, Earl of Portland, 1633. Bust r., wearing
    ruff, medal of George, &c. DO. RICH. WESTON CO. DE PORTLAND,
    &c. VARIN. Lead. Size 3·55. Cast and chased. Plaque in high
    relief by J. Varin.

Richard Weston, Earl of Portland, filled the offices of High Treasurer
of England, Captain and Governor of the Isle of Wight, &c. Died in 1634.

    86. Thomas Cary, 1633. Bust r., wearing deep collar, armour,
    &c. THO. CARY R. CAROL. CVBICVLAR. ÆTATIS SVE 35. 1633. Copper.
    Size 3·3. Cast and chased. Plaque in high relief.

Thomas Cary, son of Sir Robert Cary, warden of the Marches of the
North, died in 1649. This plaque is not signed, but it is the work of
Varin: some specimens bear the artist's signature.

    87. Margaret Cary, 1633. Bust r., wearing low dress, &c.
    MARGARITA VXOR THO. CARY ÆTATIS SVE 25. 1633. VARIN. Copper.
    Size 3·3. Cast and chased. Plaque in high relief by J. Varin.

After the death of Cary, Margaret his widow mar. Sir Edward Herbert,
Attorney-General to Charles I., and Lord Chief Justice to Charles II.
during his exile.

    88. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, 1641. Bust, three
    quarters r., in armour. Gold. Size 1. Repoussé work and chased.
    Plaque in high relief.

Thomas Wentworth, born 1593, was President of the North 1628, Lord
Deputy of Ireland 1633, and created Earl of Strafford 1639. Beheaded
1641.

    89. Declaration of Parliament, 1642. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    crowned, wearing laced collar, order of George, &c. _Should
    hear both houses of parliamant for true Religion and subiects
    fredom stand_; engraved. _Rev._ The two Houses of Parliament
    with the King and Speaker; the whole within wreath-border.
    Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; with loop for
    suspension. By T. Rawlins.[8]

[8] The date of Thomas Rawlins's first engagement at the Mint is
uncertain. We find him, however, associated with Briot as engraver
before 1642. Upon the breaking out of the Civil War, Rawlins attached
himself to the person of the King, for whom he executed many of the
dies used at the local mints. Amongst these the most remarkable is
that of the Oxford crown. After the death of Charles, Rawlins executed
several commemorative medals, which were distributed amongst those who
were true to the royal cause. He was also employed by the corporations
of certain provincial towns, of which were Oxford, Bristol, and
Gloucester, in the manufacture of tokens. After the Restoration, Simon
being removed from his post at the mint, and being appointed "one of
His Majesty's Chief Engravers," &c., Rawlins was reinstated with the
title of "Chief Engraver." This situation he filled till his death,
which occurred in 1670, at which time he was engaged on new dies for a
sovereign.

This medal was probably executed by order of the Parliament, the legend
being in accordance with their declaration of 19th May, 1642.

    90. Another. _Obv._ Ship in full sail l., with flags of
    England. _Rev._ The two Houses of Parliament with the King
    and Speaker. PRO RELIGIONE GREGE ET REGE: the whole within
    wreath-border. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. Dutch.

This medal appears to have been struck upon a piece of cast metal and
from copper dies, which are known to have existed and are considered to
be the matrices of a seal.

    91. Battle of Edgehill? 1642. _Obv._ Half-length figure of King
    l., wearing robes of the order of the Garter, &c. CAR. D. G.
    MAG. BRI. &c.; engraved. _Rev._ King on horseback r.; above,
    genius with palm and wreath, &c.; blundered inscr. of Garter,
    engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with loop
    for suspension.

Probably executed by T. Rawlins after the battle of Edgehill, to which
the palm and wreath allude.

    92. Outbreak of Civil War and surrender of Bristol? 1643.
    _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS D.
    G. ANG. &c. R. _Rev._ Sword and olive-branch crossed, between
    C.R. crowned. IN VTRVMQVE PARATVS. 1643. Silver. Size 1·15.
    Struck. By T. Rawlins.

This medalet may have been struck upon the surrender of Bristol to the
forces of Prince Rupert in 1643.

    93. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 1642. _Obv._ Half-length
    figure towards l., in armour holding sword; above SX. Outer
    legend. _Should hear both houses of parliamant for true
    Religion and subiects fredom stand._ Inner legend. _Pro
    Religione Lege Rege et Parliamento_: legends engraved.
    _Rev._ The two Houses of Parliament with King and Speaker:
    wreath-border. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·8. Cast and chased;
    with loop for suspension. Military reward.

The reverse type may refer to the declaration of Essex, in which he
promised to maintain the Protestant religion, the security of the
King's person, and the first privileges of Parliament and the liberty
and property of the subject. Essex, born in 1582, was appointed general
of the parliamentary army upon the breaking out of the Civil War in
1642. He died in 1646.

    94. Another. Battle of Edgehill? 1642. _Obv._ The Earl of Essex
    on horse galloping r.; battle in the distance, &c. ROBERTVS
    COMES ESSEX. _Rev._ Shield, coronet, arms of Essex; beneath,
    motto, BASIS VIRTVTVM CONSTANTIA; wreath-border; legends
    engraved. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·9. Cast and chased; has had
    ring for suspension.

The battle represented on the obverse may be that of Edgehill, when
victory was claimed by both sides.

    95. Another. Death of Essex, 1646. _Obv._ Bust, facing, in
    armour, &c. ROBERTVS COMES ESSEXIÆ, &c. PRO REGE ET PARLIAMENTO
    GENERALIS. _Rev._ Shield and coronet, arms of Essex; beneath,
    skull and crossbones. OBIIT DECIMO QVARTO DIE SEPTEMBRIS ANNO
    DIN (sic) 1646; legends engraved. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·65.
    Cast and chased; with rings for suspension.

A memorial of the Earl of Essex upon his death.

    96. Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, 1643. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters
    r., in armour. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Fairfax between palm and
    laurel branches: wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·75. Cast
    and chased; with ring for suspension. Military reward.

Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, at the outbreak of the civil war, was
appointed commander-in-chief of the parliamentary forces of the North.
He gained the battle of Marston Moor in 1644. Died 1648.

    97. Another, 1643. _Obv._ Bust, facing, wearing armour and
    scarf. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Fairfax. Silver. Oval. Size 1·5.
    Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. Military reward.

    98. Lord Kimbolton, aft. Earl of Manchester, 1643. _Obv._
    Half-length figure, three quarters l., in armour, _Pro
    Religione Lege Rege et Parliamento_; engraved. _Rev._ The two
    Houses of Parliament, with King and Speaker; wreath-border.
    Silver. Oval. Size 1·7. Cast and chased; with ring for
    suspension. Military reward.

Edward Montague, Lord Mandeville, was the eldest son of the first
Earl of Manchester, and was raised to the peerage in the lifetime
of his father under the title of Lord Kimbolton. He served in the
parliamentary army, and held a command at Edgehill. In 1643 he received
the command of the forces maintained by the seven associated counties
of Essex, &c., and was present at the battle of Marston Moor. It was
probably about that time that this medal was struck. He took a leading
part in bringing about the Restoration, and was Lord Chamberlain to
Charles II. Died in 1671.

    99. John Hampden. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters r., wearing
    armour. _Rev._ An axe. _Inimica Tyrannis._ Gold. Size .8. An
    engraved plate of good work probably of the 18th century.

John Hampden, statesman and parliamentary leader, was killed at
Chalgrove, 18th June, 1643.

    100. Archbishop Laud, 1645. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing academical
    robes, biretta, &c. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·45. Cast and
    chased.

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, born in 1573, obtained in 1621
the see of St. David's, in 1625 was translated to Bath and Wells, in
1628 to London, and in 1633 to the see of Canterbury. Beheaded 10th
Jan. 1645.

    101—102. Another. _Obv._ Bust r., similar to previous medal.
    GVIL. LAVD ARCHIEPISC. CANTVAR. X. IAN. 1644. _Rotier f. Rev._
    Infant angel carrying mitre and crozier of Laud towards the
    skies, followed by two others bearing the crown, sceptre, and
    orb of Charles; below, view of London. SANCTI CAROLI PRÆCVRSOR.
    Gold and silver. 2·25. Struck.

This medal was executed by John Roettier soon after the Restoration,
circ. 1600.

    103. Sir William Parkhurst, 1644. Within ornamented oval frame,
    half-length figure, facing, wearing cloak, &c., and holding
    medal of Charles I. GVILIEL. PARKHVRST EQV. AVRA. CVSTOS CAMB.
    ET MONET. TOT. ANGL. 1623; beneath, _T. Rawlins Sculps._ OXON.
    1644. Silver. Size 3. Cast; a thin plate. By T. Rawlins.

Sir William Parkhurst, Warden of the Mint under James I. and Charles
I., whom he accompanied to Oxford at the outbreak of the Civil War. He
was reinstated in his office by Charles II., and died about 1671.

    104. Sir William Waller, 1643. _Obv._ Bust three quarters
    r., wearing armour, &c. Inner legend. _The valiant commander
    Sir William Waller._ Outer legend. _Should hear both houses
    of parliamant for true Religion and subiects fredom stand_:
    legends engraved. _Rev._ The two Houses of Parliament with
    King and Speaker. Silver. Oval. Size 1·35. Cast and chased.
    Military reward.

Sir William Waller, parliamentary general, born in 1597, knighted in
1622, was second in command under the Earl of Essex; but was removed by
the Self-denying Ordinance, and becoming an object of suspicion, he was
twice imprisoned. He afterwards assisted at the Restoration, and died
in 1668.

    105. Sir Richard Brown, 1644. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters l.,
    in armour, &c. NON VIR SED VIRTVS. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Sir
    R. Brown. FOR KING AND PARLIAMENT. 1644; wreath-border. Silver.
    Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. Military reward.

Sir Richard Brown, parliamentary general, afterwards attached himself
to the royal cause and at the Restoration was created a baronet and
elected Lord Mayor of London.

    106—107. Sir Thomas Fairfax, 1645. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing
    armour, &c. THO. FAIRFAX MILES MILIT. PARL. DVX GEN. _Rev._
    MERVISTI. POST HAC MELIORA. 1645. Silver-gilt and silver. Oval.
    Size 1·3. Cast and chased. Military reward. By T. Simon.[9]

[9] Thomas Simon, the artist, whose birthplace and date of birth are
uncertain, was first noticed by Nicholas Briot about 1633, and through
him was engaged at the Royal Mint in 1636, to engrave the great seal
of the Admiralty. In 1645 Simon received his first appointment under
Parliament as "Joint Chief Engraver" with Edward Wade, and producing
several seals of State remarkable for their artistic skill, he was
rewarded by promotion to the post of "Chief Engraver to the Mint and
Seals." From this time till the Restoration, Simon produced a large
number of medals, many of which are of great beauty both in design and
execution, and also the coins with the effigy of the Protector, by
whom he was appointed "Sole Chief Engraver and Medal-maker." At the
Restoration a fresh patent having been granted to Simon as one of His
Majesty's Chief Engravers, he was ordered to prepare the necessary
Great Seals, those of the Protector having been broken up. The
appointment of John Roettier as one of the Engravers to the Mint led to
a quarrel between him and Simon, which resulted in the resignation of
the latter. Simon died in 1665 of the plague. Some little time before
his death, he produced his masterpiece "The Petition Crown."

Sir Thomas (Lord) Fairfax, parliamentary general, commanded at Marston
Moor, was appointed general in chief of the parliamentary army to
succeed Essex, 1645, and was victorious at Naseby, Colchester, &c. He
resigned his post in 1650, and after assisting in bringing about the
Restoration, died in 1671.

    108. Prince Rupert, 1645. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters l.,
    wearing armour, &c., and holding Marshal's baton. _Rev._
    Armorial bearings of the Prince on three shields, with
    supporters, crest, &c.: above, R. P. Silver. Oval. Size 1·45.
    Cast and chased. Military reward.

Prince Rupert, son of Frederick, Elector Palatine, and Elizabeth, dau.
of James I., born 1619, commanded the cavalry of Charles I. during the
Civil War till the surrender of Bristol in 1645. After the Restoration
he commanded in the English fleet in the war against the Dutch. Died in
1682.

    109. Sir Robert Heath, 1645. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing cap,
    robes of office, &c. EFFIG. R. HEATH. &c. ÆTAT. SVÆ 71. 1645.
    R. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Heath, between two laurel-branches;
    engraved. Silver. Oval. Size 1·5. Cast and chased. By T.
    Rawlins.

Sir Robert Heath, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, dismissed by the
Parliament in 1645, died in 1649.

    110. Baron de Reede, 1645. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing cap,
    doublet, &c. _Rev._ 1645. IO. DE REEDE D. DE RENSWOVDE, &c.
    ÆTAT 52. Silver. Oval. Size 1·35. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

John de Reede, Lord of Renswode, Ambassador Extraordinary of the United
Provinces to the Court of Charles I., by whom he was created Baron de
Reede.

    111. Sir John Hotham, 1645. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour; behind,
    skull, crowned. MORS MIHI VITA. _Rev._ Shield, arms of Hotham
    impaling Anlaby. Silver. Size 1·25. Cast and chased.

Sir John Hotham, Parliamentary-general, was the Governor of Hull, who
closed the gates of that city against Charles I. Being suspected of
treason, he was executed together with his son on Tower Hill, 2nd June,
1645.

    112. Simon Beal, 1645. Half-length figure, three quarters r.,
    in doublet and scarf, with trumpet in r. hand, &c. SIMON BEAL
    ÆT. SVE 28. A. 1645; wreath-border. Silver. Size 2·4. Embossed
    plate in high relief, chased.

Simon Beal is said to have been Sergeant-Trumpeter to the King. This
medal has been attributed to T. Rawlins.

    113. Earl of Loudon, 1645. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing cap,
    doublet, &c.; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ IOHAN. COM. LOVDOVN SVMMVS
    SCOTIÆ CANCELLARIVS. 1645. Silver. Size 1·45. Cast and chased.
    By A. Simon.[10]

[10] Of Abraham Simon, the brother of Thomas Simon, our information
is very limited. At an early age he studied theology, but with tastes
similar to those of his brother, he soon left these studies and went
to Sweden, where his reputation as a modeller in wax speedily raised
him to public notice. He entered the service of Queen Christina, and
became one of her suite in her travels. Before the outbreak of the
Civil War he returned to England, where his portraits became famous.
That he left England during the Commonwealth, as stated by some, is
very doubtful, as there are many medals executed by him during that
period, and chiefly of leading parliamentarians. It is certain, that at
the Restoration he stood high in favour with the King, and received 100
guineas for a portrait of him in wax. In disgust at the treatment he
received from the Duke of York, he ceased to work altogether, and died
shortly afterwards in great poverty.

Sir John Campbell, born 1598, elected Earl of Loudon 1633, was
appointed High Chancellor of Scotland in 1641, and in 1649 President
of the Session which ordered the proclamation of Charles II. Being
deprived of his office he was specially exempted from the indemnity
granted by Cromwell to the people of Scotland. Died 1663.

    114. William Pope, 1645. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing armour and
    scarf; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ 1645. GVLIELMVS POPE ARMIG. ÆTATIS
    21. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

William Pope, a royalist and grandson of Sir William Pope, first Baron
of Belturbet and Earl of Downe, died before 1660 without issue.

    115. Lord Inchiquin, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour and
    scarf; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ 1646. HON. D. MOR. BAR. D'INCHIQVIN
    D. PRÆSES PROV. MOMONIÆ ÆT. 30. Silver-gilt. Size 1·4. Cast and
    chased. By A. Simon.

Lord Murrough, Baron Inchiquin, created Earl of Inchiquin 1654,
commanded in Munster, of which province he was appointed Lord
President. He was at first a parliamentarian, but afterwards joined the
royalist party. Died 1674.

    116. Albert Joachim, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing official
    robes, &c.; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ 1646. ALB. IOACHIMI EQ.
    FÆDERAT. BELG. &c. ÆT. 86. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased.
    By A. Simon.

Albert Joachim was Ambassador Extraordinary of the United Provinces to
congratulate Charles I. upon his marriage. He remained in England as
Ambassador in ordinary.

    117. Sidney Poyntz, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour and
    scarf; on arm, A. S. _Rev._ 1646. SIDEN. POINTZ 10000 EQVIT. ET
    PED. ASSOCIAT. SEPTENT. DVX SVM. EBOR. GVBER. Silver. Size 1·4.
    Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Sidney Poyntz, parliamentary general, defeated the King's forces at
Rowton Heath near Chester, commanded with Rossiter in the North, and
was Governor of York.

    118. Earl of Dunfermline, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour
    and scarf; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ CAR. SETONIVS FERMELINODVNI COM.
    1646. Lead. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Charles Seton, second Earl of Dunfermline, was frequently employed in
negotiations between the King and the Parliament of Scotland. After
the Restoration he was appointed extraordinary Lord of the Session and
Keeper of the Privy Seal. Died in 1673.

    119. Earl of Lauderdale, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour,
    &c. IO. METALLANVS LAVDERIÆ CO.; on arm, A.S. _Rev._ Crest
    and motto of Lauderdale, lion sejant, holding sword and lis.
    CONSILIO ET ANIMIS. 1646. Silver. Size 1·4. Cast and chased. By
    A. Simon.

John Maitland, second Earl of Lauderdale, born 1616, created Duke 1672,
was taken prisoner at the battle of Worcester: appointed in 1661 Sec.
of State and High Commissioner of Scotland: aft. one of the famous
Cabal Ministry. Died 1682.

    120. General Rossiter, 1646. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour.
    Reverse plain. Gold. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased. By A. ?
    Simon.

Edward Rossiter, parliamentary general, commanded in the North with
Sidney Poyntz: concurred with Monk and Fairfax in the Restoration, and
was knighted.

    121. Robert Kyrle, 1646. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour, &c. _Rev._
    Shield, arms of Kyrle and Money, and crest of Kyrle, hedgehog.
    Silver. Oval. Size 1·25. Cast and chased. By A. Simon?

Robert Kyrle of Walford Court, nephew of John Hampden was a
distinguished officer under Cromwell and Captain of the Troopers, who
plundered Master Swift's house at Goodrich. Died 1669.

    122. Martinay, 1647. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour: on arm,
    A.S. _Rev._ IE NE VIS QV'A REGRET. 1647. Lead. Size 1·5. Cast
    and chased. By A. Simon.

In the Med. Hist., p. 74, we find that Martinay was a French gentleman,
who had taken refuge in England.

    123. Uncertain Portrait. Bust r., wearing doublet. No reverse.
    Size 1·45. Cast and chased. By A. Simon.

Perhaps a portrait of Algernon Sidney.

    124. Thomas Harper, 1647. Bust l., wearing cloak, &c. VERA EFF.
    T. HARPER D. ALVETON LODGE IN C. STAF. 1647; on arm, T.R. Gold.
    Oval. Size 1·4. Struck on a thin gold plate. By T. Rawlins.

During the civil war a parliamentary garrison was stationed at Alveton,
perhaps in Harper's own house, who appears to have been a royalist, as
this medal is by the royalist artist, Rawlins.

    125. Memorial badge of Charles I., 1649. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.; engraved.
    _Rev._ Shield, royal arms within Garter, crowned; engraved.
    Silver. Oval. Size 2·3. Cast and chased; with ring for
    suspension.

This and the following medals (Nos. 126—134) are badges evidently worn
by the friends and partisans of Charles I., openly, or in secret.

    126. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing decorated armour,
    &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BR. &c. Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size
    1·5. Cast and chased; with rings for suspension.

This medal is probably by T. Rawlins.

    127. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing robes and
    star of the Garter, &c.; in his hand, crown of thorns and
    scroll inscribed, CHRISTI TRACTO IANII. 30. 1648. CAROLVS
    PRIMVS MORITVR ET VIVIT. EST NOBILE VICENDI GENVS PATIENTIA;
    wreath-border. _Rev._ Rock, buffeted by winds and waves; on
    scroll, IMMOTA TRIUMPHANS. Silver. Size 1·1. Cast and chased;
    with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

The reverse is an imitation of engraving: some specimens are plain.
There is a great variety of these badges.

    128—129. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing deep lace
    collar, doublet, &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB. RX;
    engraved. _Rev._ Bust of Queen l., wearing coronet, low bodice,
    &c. HENRETTA MARIA D.G. MAG. BRITAN. &c. T. RAWLINS. F. Gold
    and silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with rings for
    suspension. By T. Rawlins.

    130. Another. Similar: bust of King crowned, wearing robes,
    collar of the Garter, &c., legend in relief and varied.
    Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and chased; with rings for
    suspension. By T. Rawlins.

    131. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing deep lace collar,
    &c. CAROLVS D.G. MAG. BRI. FRA. ET HI. REX, engraved. _Rev._
    ORTV MAGNVS CONIVGIO ET PROLE MAIOR VIRTVTE MAXIMVS; engraved;
    wreath border. Copper-gilt. Oval. Size 2. Cast and chased; with
    ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

    132. Another. Bust of King r., as on preceding: within
    wreath-border; crown above. Silver. Oval. Size 2. Cast and
    chased. By T. Rawlins.

On this badge all the plain ground has been removed leaving only
the portrait, border, and crown. It was probably an ornament for a
book-cover.

    133. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing doublet, &c.
    _Rev._ Shield, royal arms within the Garter, crowned: engraved.
    Gold. Oval. Size 1·1. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

    134. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King, three quarters l., crowned,
    wearing robes and collar of the Garter, &c. _Carolus Rex._
    Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 2·35. An engraved plate
    similar to those executed by Simon Passe: but not by that
    artist, and of later date.

    135. Death of Charles I., 1649. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing
    decorated armour, &c. DIVVS CAROLVS BRT. PIVS; two roses; in
    field, C. R., beneath which, H. M. engraved (later). _Rev._
    Hammer striking diamond on anvil. INEXPVGNABILIS.

                                   R  N
  1648: in field, engraved (later) W  R Silver. Size 1·65. Cast
                                   I  K

    and burnished. By T. Rawlins.

This medal is emblematic of the king's fortitude.

    136. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King as on preceding. SVCCESSOR
    VERVS VTRIVSQVE: two roses. _Rev._ Salamander amid flames.
    CONSTANTIA CÆSARIS. IAN. 30. 1648. Silver. Size 1·65. Cast and
    chased; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

The Salamander was frequently adopted as an emblem of fortitude and
patience under sufferings.

    137. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing armour, &c.
    _Inner legend._ CAROLVS REX. _Outer legend._ POPVLE MEVS QVID
    FECI TIBI. 1649. (_Micah_ vi. 3.) _Rev._ Head of Medusa,
    surrounded by legend in three circles, the two outer divided
    by flaming sword, arms, and thunderbolt. CONCILIABVLVM ANGLIÆ.
    BLASFEMANT DEVM. NECANT REGEM. SPERNVNT LEGEM. Silver. Size
    2·25. Cast and chased. Dutch.

The head of Medusa is emblematic of rebellion, sedition and anarchy.

    138. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing armour. CAROL. I.
    D. G. M. B. &c. N. R. F. _Rev._ REX PACIFICVS VICTVS VINCEBAT
    HOSTES VICTOR TRIVMPHAT IN CŒLIS. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck.

This medal was executed some time after the Restoration by Norbert
Roettier, the son of John Roettier.

    139. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., in armour and cloak.
    CAROL. D. G. M. B. &c. _Rev._ Hand from cloud holding celestial
    crown; below, landscape with sheep without shepherd. VIRTVT.
    EX ME FORTVNAM EX ALIJS Silver. Size 1·35. Struck. By Norbert
    Roettier.

This medal is not signed; but some specimens bear the artist's
signature.

    140. Giles Strangeways, 1648. _Obv._ Bust r., in Roman dress.
    ÆGIDIVS STRANGWAYS DE MELBVRY IN COM. DORCESTR. ARMIGER. IAN.
    R. F. _Rev._ The White Tower of London, with Royal standard;
    above, sun. DECVSQVE ADVERSA DEDERVNT: in ex., INCARCERATVS
    SEPT. 1645. LIBERATVS APR. 1648. Silver. Size 2·4. Struck. By
    John Roettier.

Giles Strangways, born at Melbury 1615, commanded a regiment of horse
in the king's service in the West; was afterwards imprisoned in
the Tower with his father and heavily fined. At the Restoration he
represented Dorsetshire in Parliament, about which time this medal was
struck.


COMMONWEALTH. 1649—1660.

    141. Cromwell, "Lord General," 1650. _Obv._ Bust,
    three-quarters r., wearing armour and cloak. OLI. CROMWEL
    MILIT. PARL. DVX GEN. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck.
    By T. Simon.

On the 26th June, 1650, Fairfax having resigned the command of the
army, Cromwell, then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was appointed
Captain-General and Commander-in-Chief of all the forces of Parliament
within the Commonwealth of England.

    142—143. Cromwell, "Lord Protector," 1653. _Obv._ Bust l.,
    wearing decorated armour and cloak. OLIVERVS DEI GRA. REIPVB.
    ANGLIÆ SCO. ET HIB. & PROTECTOR. THO. SIMON. F. _Rev._ Lion,
    sejant, laureate, supporting shield of the Protectorate. PAX
    QVÆRITVR BELLO. Gold and silver. Size 1·5. Struck. By T. Simon.

Cromwell was created Lord Protector on the 16th Dec. 1653. This
portrait was copied from a miniature by Cooper now in the collection of
the Duke of Devonshire.

    144. Elizabeth, wife of Cromwell, 1641. _Obv._ Bust l., draped,
    &c. ELIZABETH WIFE OF O. C. L. P. 1641. _Rev._ ELIZEBETH
    DAUGHTER OF S^R. JAMES BOUCHER. 1641. Lead. Size 1·45. Cast.
    Unique.

Elizabeth, dau. of Sir James Boucher of Felstead, Essex, born 1598,
mar. 1620, died 1672. This medal is of the time: but the date is an
anachronism, as Cromwell was not Lord Protector till 1653.

    145. Henry Cromwell, 1654. _Obv._ Bust, facing, wearing armour,
    &c.: on arm, A. S. _Rev._ HEN. CROMWELL GVB. HIB. 1654;
    wreath-border. Lead. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased; with
    ring for suspension. By A. Simon.

Henry Cromwell, fourth son of the Protector, born 1627, commanded in
Ireland 1649; appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland 1654; died 1673.

    146. Elizabeth Cromwell, wife of John Claypole, 1658. _Obv._
    Bust r., wearing necklace and slightly draped. Reverse plain.
    Silver. Oval. Size 1·3. Cast and chased from a model by A.
    Simon.

Elizabeth, second dau. of Cromwell, born 1630, mar. John Claypole, died
at Hampton Court 6th Aug. 1658; was buried at Westminster Abbey.

    147. John Claypole, 1658. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing doublet.
    Reverse plain. Silver. Oval. Size 1·1. Cast and chased; with
    ring for suspension; from a model by A. Simon.

John Claypole, husband of Elizabeth Cromwell, died 1688.

    148. Henry Ireton, 1650. _Obv._ Head l. QVID TIBI RETRIBVAM.
    T. S. 1650. _Rev._ Soldier climbing rock and firing cottage,
    distant view of battle, &c. IVSTITIA NECESSITASQ. IVBET.
    Copper. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast and chased; with silver rim and
    ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Henry Ireton, born 1610, was educated at Oxford, joined the
parliamentarians and fought at Naseby, mar. Bridget, dau. of Cromwell,
1646, was appointed deputy of the Protector in Ireland 1650. Died
1651. The reverse is intended as an excuse for his conduct in Ireland.

    149—150. Battle of Dunbar, 1650. _Obv._ Bust of Cromwell l.,
    wearing armour and scarf; in the distance, battle. THE LORD OF
    HOSTS. WORD AT DVNBAR SEPTEM. Y. 3. 1650; on arm, THO. SIMON
    FE. _Rev._ Parliament assembled in one house with Speaker.
    Silver and copper. Oval. Size 1·3. Struck. By T. Simon.

Executed by order of Parliament for distribution amongst the officers
and soldiers engaged in the battle of Dunbar. The dies of this medal
were discovered at Hursly, Hants, the seat of Sir Thomas Heathcote, but
once the residence of Richard Cromwell.

    151. Another. Similar: on arm, T. SIMON F., and ring for
    suspension. Gold. Oval. Size .95. By T. Simon.

    152. Another. Similar: with plain reverse and no ring. Silver.
    Oval. Size .95. Struck. By T. Simon.

    153. Naval Reward. Service against Six Ships, 1650. _Obv._
    Anchor, from which are suspended two shields, arms of England
    and Ireland, the whole encircled by cable. MERUISTI. _Rev._
    Ship in close action with two others, four more in the
    distance. SERVICE DON AGAINST SIX SHIPS JVLY Y. XXXI. & AVGUST
    Y. I. 1650. Silver. Oval. Size 1·6. Struck.

Captain Wyard, in a Ship of twenty-two guns, when convoying four
merchant vessels from Hull to Amsterdam, was attacked by six Irish
frigates, which after a long conflict he beat off. This medal was
struck for distribution amongst Captain Wyard and his crew.

Although this medal has the same obverse type as the following one, it
seems somewhat doubtful whether it was executed by T. Simon.

    154. Naval Reward, 1650. _Obv._ Similar to preceding; on the
    beam of the anchor, T.S. _Rev._ Parliament assembled in one
    house with Speaker. Gold. Oval. Size .95. Struck; with ring for
    suspension. By T. Simon.

Executed in 1650 by order of Parliament, and bestowed for naval service.

    155. Naval Reward, 1653. Blake's victories over the Dutch.
    _Obv._ Anchor, from which are suspended three shields, arms of
    England, Scotland and Ireland; the whole encircled by cable.
    _Rev._ Naval engagement; the stern of one vessel inscribed,
    SIMON; on the prow of another, T.S.; broad border of trophies
    from the Dutch. Lead. Oval. Size 2·2. Struck. By T. Simon.

Four of these medals were ordered by the Parliament to be struck in
commemoration of naval victories over the Dutch. Two with chains of
£300 value each were presented to Blake and Monk; two with chains of
£100 value each, to Admirals Penn and Lawson. Of these medals three are
extant. In 1651, when Scotland was incorporated with the Commonwealth,
a third shield was introduced, in the arms of Great Britain. The shield
of Scotland is not on the naval reward of 1650. (See No. 153.)

    156. Another. Similar: with border of laurel leaves. Gold.
    Oval. Size 2. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Four of these medals were struck for presentation with chains of the
value of £40 each to the four flag officers. Of these one is in the
possession of C. D. Holworthy, who inherited it from his maternal
ancestor, Capt. Haddock.

    157. Another. Similar: without border. Gold. Size 1·6. Struck;
    with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

The medals of the class were probably distributed amongst the Captains
of the vessels engaged.

    158. Saving the Triumph, 1653. Same medal with inscription
    engraved on the reverse, FOR EMINENT SERVICE IN SAVING Y
    TRIVMPH FIERED IN FIGHT W^[H]. Y. DVCH IN IVLY 1653. Gold.
    Oval. Size 1·6. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

The Triumph was Blake's flag-ship, and in the battle of 31st July,
1653, in the absence of her commander, she took fire and was abandoned
by the greater part of the crew. Those who remained, redoubling their
efforts, succeeded in saving her, and were rewarded with the above
medal bearing a special inscription.

    159. Admiral Blake, 1653. _Obv._ Bust, three quarters r.,
    wearing armour, ruff, &c. ROB^Ṭ. BLAKE. _Born_ 1598. _Died_
    1657. _He fought at once with Ships & Castles. He dared the
    Fury of all the Elements, & left an Example to Posterity
    which is incredible; to be imitated._ _Rev._ Naval engagement
    with broad trophy border as No. 155. Silver. Oval. Size 2·3.
    Engraved and struck. By T. Simon.

Robert Blake, born 1598, commanded in the West for Parliament during
the Civil War, entered the Naval Service in 1649 and obtained several
victories over the Dutch during the years 1652—1654. Died 1657. The
obverse of this medal is engraved, and the reverse is struck, each on a
thin plate. The portrait is not as it professes to be of Blake, but is
a coarse copy of one of Maurice, Prince of Orange.

    160. Peace with Holland, 1654. _Obv._ Britain and Holland
    armed, holding spears, each surmounted with cap of Liberty, and
    bearing national flag, Peace uniting spears with olive-wreath.
    HIER BINT DE HEIL'GE VREEDEN BRIT. EN BATAVIER, &c. _Rev._
    Ship in full sail r., driven by winds; above, Fame; beneath,
    Tritons; A^O 1654. WAAROM ZEILT T. VREDESCHIP OPT. SILVER IN DE
    ZEE, &c. Silver-gilt. Size 3·15. Repoussé and chased.

Holland, defeated in a series of naval actions, sued for peace and
submitted to terms favourable to England. This medal is Dutch, and
is composed of two plates united by rim. It was probably executed by
Pieter van Abeele, (see note, p. 37).

    161. Another, 1654. _Obv._ Cromwell delivering treaty of Peace
    to the representative of the United Provinces. VREDE GESLOTEN
    TUSSCHEN DEN HEER HEERE PROTECTEVR CROMWEL, &c. IN DEN IARE
    1654. _Rev._ Shield, arms and crest of the town of Sluys.
    PIETER LIPS ENDE FERDINANDE DE BACKERE BVRGEMEESTERS DER STADT
    SLVYS ANNO 1654. Silver. Size 3·4. Engraved.

This medal was probably executed by order of the Burgomasters of Sluys
mentioned in the reverse inscription.

    162. Another, 1654. _Obv._ Britannia with harp on her knees,
    and Holland with Belgic lion at her feet, seated, facing,
    holding between them cap of Liberty: beneath, CONCL. XV/XXV D.
    APRIL A^o. MDCLIV. MENTIBUS UNITIS PRISCUS PROCUL ABSIT AMAROR,
    &c. _Rev._ A British and a Dutch ship sailing together on calm
    sea; on stern of each, S.D. LUXURIAT GEMINO NEXU TRANQVILLA
    SALO RES, &c. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By Sebastian Dadler.

This medal, besides commemorating the peace, refers also to the treaty
of commerce and alliance between England and Holland.

    163. Another, 1654. _Obv._ Neptune in sea-chariot, facing;
    on his knees two shields, arms of England with Ireland and
    Holland; car attended by two Tritons; behind, sun, whose
    rays fill field. AMANTIVM IRA AMICITIÆ REDINTEGRATIO EST; on
    car and beneath, _Jerian Pool fecit Amsterdami_. _Rev._ Long
    inscription in Dutch relating to the Treaty between the Lord
    Protector and the States General concluded 15th April, ratified
    2nd May, and proclaimed 27th May, 1654. Silver. Size 2·35.
    Struck. By Jerian Pool.[11]

[11] Jerian Pool or Juriaen van Pool was a medallist of some note at
Amsterdam, whose works date from the middle to the second half of
the 17th century. The most important of his medals are a portrait of
Admiral Martin van Tromp, 1653, another of William, Prince of Orange,
of the following year, and the inauguration-medal of the Guildhall of
Amsterdam, 1655.

    164—165. Death of Cromwell, 1658. _Obv._ Bust l., laureate,
    in armour. OLIVAR. D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIB. &c. PROTECTOR; on
    arm, T. SIMON. _Rev._ Landscape, with young olive tree growing
    up at side of the stump of an old one; shepherds tending their
    flocks. NON DEFITIENT OLIVA. SEP. 3. 1658. Gold and copper.
    Oval. Size .85. Struck; with ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

Oliver Cromwell, born 2nd April, 1599, commanded for Parliament in the
Civil War, appointed Lord-Lieutenant and Commander-in-Chief in Ireland
1649, Lord-General 1650, and Lord Protector 1653, died Sept. 3rd, 1658.
The reverse of this medal refers to the succession of the Protectorate
passing to Richard Cromwell.

    166—167. Another. _Obv._ Bust l., laureate, in armour. OLIVAR.
    D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIBERNIÆ PROTECTOR. _Rev._ Landscape with
    young olive tree and shepherd with sheep; in the distance,
    trees and buildings. NON DEFITIENT OLIVA. SEP. 3. 1658. Gold
    and silver. Size 1·85. Struck.

This and the next medal of smaller size were struck in Holland to be
supplied to those who were unable to procure the one executed by T.
Simon.

    168. Another. _Obv._ Bust l., laureate, mantle over shoulders.
    OLIVAR. D. G. RP. ANG. SCO. HIB. PRO. _Rev._ Similar to
    preceding. Gold. Size 1·1. Struck. Dutch.

    169. Trial of John Lilburne, 1649. _Obv._ Bust l., with high
    collar, &c. Legend in three concentric circles, IOHN LILBORNE
    SAVED BY THE POWER OF THE LORD AND THE INTEGRITY OF HIS IVRY
    WHO ARE IVGES OF LAW AS WEL AS FACT. OCT. 26. 1649. _Rev._ Rose
    in centre of four concentric circles inscribed with the names
    of the twelve jurymen and date of trial as above. Silver. Size
    1·3. Struck.

John Lilburn, an ardent agitator born 1618, was several times
prosecuted and imprisoned for seditious libels, first against Charles
I., and afterwards against Cromwell. This medal was struck upon his
acquittal in 1649, when he was accused of high treason for libelling
Cromwell. He died 1657.

    170. General Lambert, 1653. Head l., bare; behind, I. LAMBERT.
    Lead. Oval. Size 1·15. Cast. This medalet is made after the
    manner of an antique gem.

John Lambert, parliamentary general and statesman, born 1619,
distinguished himself at Marston Moor and Naseby; was the leader of the
"Fifty monarchy men," and opposed the Restoration; aft. banished to
Guernsey, where he died 1692.

    171. Sir Robert Bolles, 1655. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing armour
    and scarf; on arm, T. RAWLINS F., 1655. ROB. BOLLES DE SCAMPTON
    IN COM. LINCOL. BARONET. No reverse. Wreath-border. Lead. Size
    1·75. Cast and partly chased. By T. Rawlins.

Sir Robert Bolles, born 1619, was one of the Grand Jury for the trial
of the Regicides, and represented Lincoln in Parliament; mar. 1637 the
dau. of Sir Edward Hussey, of Hannington, Linc.; died 1663.

    172—172. Sir Henry B. Slingesby, 1658. _Obv._ Half-length
    figure, facing, in armour. _Inner legend._ AN EARNEST PENNY FOR
    MY CHILDREN. THO. H. B. SLINGESBY OXON. 1644. _Outer legend._
    EX RESIDVIS NVMMI SVB HASTA PIMMIANA LEGE PRÆDATI IVXTA
    DAVENTRIAM. _Rev._ Shield, arms and crest of Slingesby impaling
    Belasyse. _Beheaded June ye 8: by O: C: 1657._ Engraved.
    Silver-gilt; and silver, with 1658 correct date. Oval. Size
    1·85. Cast; with ring for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

Sir Henry Slingesby, Bart., commanded in the North for the King, and
after the surrender of York made his way to Oxford with a portion of
his army; but being attacked on the road near Daventry by a company
of rebel horse, he lost all that he had. Shortly afterwards, being
made prisoner he was confined at Hull, and being brought up to London
was executed on Tower Hill 8th June, 1658. At Oxford he resided with
Sir William Parkhurst, Master of the Mint, which may account for the
execution of this medal intended as an "earnest penny" for his three
children.

    173. Henry Scobell, 1649. _Obv._ Bust l., in doublet. _Rev.
    Hen. Scobell_, engraved. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By
    T. Simon.

Henry Scobell appointed Clerk of Parliament in 1649, again in 1653,
and for the third time in 1654: and Clerk of the Council 1656.

    174. John Thurloe, 1653. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing cap and
    doublet; on arm, T. S. _Rev._ Double florid monogram of _J.T._:
    beneath, _Secr. Thurloe_. Gold. Size 1·3. Cast and chased; with
    ring for suspension. By T. Simon.

John Thurloe, born 1616, filled numerous offices of State; appointed
Secretary of the Council 1652, and Secretary to Cromwell 1653;
suspected of treason, was imprisoned, but released at the Restoration.
Died 1668.

    175. Sir James Harrington, 1653. _Obv._ Bust l., in armour and
    cloak; on arm, T.S. _Rev._ Inscription with name and offices of
    Harrington Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By T. Simon.

The Reverse inscription states that Sir James Harrington of Sweakley
was general of the forces of London and Westminster at the battle of
Newbury 1644, and member of Parliament for Rutlandshire, and one of
the Council of State, 1653. Harrington, born in 1609, was a strong
supporter of the Parliament, by which he was much employed; was
pardoned at the Restoration and retired into private life.

    176. Bulstrode Whitelock, 1653. _Obv._ Bust l., in robes of
    office; on arm, T.S. _Rev._ Inscription in Latin with name and
    offices of Whitelock. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased. By T.
    Simon.

The Reverse inscription relates that in 1653 Bulstrode Whitelock was
keeper of the Great Seal of England, Constable of Windsor Castle,
and High Steward of Oxford. He filled many other offices during the
protectorate, and was a commissioner of the Great Seal in 1659. Died
1676.

    177. Unknown portrait, 1653. _Obv._ Bust l., in cap, doublet,
    and deep collar; on arm, T.S. Reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·35.
    Cast and chased. Unique. By Thomas Simon.

    178. Solicitor General Coke. _Obv._ Bust of Coke l., in doublet
    with double row of buttons, &c.; wreath-border. _Rev. Sol. Gen.
    J. Cooke._ Engraved. Silver. Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

J. Coke, distinguished lawyer, was made Solicitor-General by the High
Court of Justice to conduct the trial of the King; afterwards appointed
a judge in Ireland, executed as a Regicide in 1660.


CHARLES II. 1649—1684.

    179. Badge, 1649. _Obv._ Jugate busts of Charles I. and Charles
    Prince of Wales r., in armour, &c.; the King crowned. CAR. REX
    M.B.F. ET H. CAR. PRINCEPS. T.R. (in monogram). _Rev._ Same as
    obverse. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with
    rings for suspension. By T. Rawlins.

Probably worn by the partisans of the King and Prince. Extremely rough
work.

    180. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Prince Charles I., in decorated
    armour, &c. _Rev._ Royal shield within Garter; above, crown.
    Silver. Oval. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with rings for
    suspension.

    181. Coronation at Scone, 1651. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    crowned, in collar and robes of the Garter. CAROLVS 2. D. G.
    SCO. ANG. FRA. & HI. REX FI. DE. _cor. 1. ia. scon. 1651._
    _Rev._ Lion rampant gardant holding thistle. NEMO ME IMPVNE
    LACESSET. Gold. Size 1·2. Cast and chased.

Charles II. was crowned by the Scots at Scone 1 Jan. 1651.

    182. Restoration expected, 1660. _Obv._ Bust of King r., hair
    long, wearing armour, &c. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAGNÆ BRIT. &c.
    _Rev._ Sun rising out of sea: above, on scroll, ORIAR. Lead.
    Size 1·3. Struck. By T. Simon.

This medal expresses the hopes and expectations of the Royalists that
the Sun of the Stuarts would again rise.

    183. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Three crowns on branches of
    leafless oak: above, sun dispersing clouds. TANDEM REVIRESCET.
    Silver. Size 1·35. Struck: hollow. By T. Simon.

    184. Badge, 1660. _Obv._ Similar. CAROLVS SECVNDVS; _engraved_.
    _Rev._ Similar to preceding, but entirely engraved. Silver.
    Oval. Size 1·4. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

A cheap badge probably worn by the Royalists at the Restoration.

    185. Another. Similar: bust of King, crowned. Silver. Oval.
    Size 1·35. Cast and chased.

    186. Another. _Obv._ Similar to No. 184. _Rev._ Royal shield
    within Garter; above, crown between C.R. Silver-gilt. Oval.
    Size ·95. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

The reverse is in imitation of engraving.

    187. Another. Similar: bust of King, crowned. Silver-gilt.
    Oval. Size ·95. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

    188. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King, three quarters l., head
    bare, wearing medal, &c. CAROLVS SECVNDVS; _engraved_. _Rev._
    Similar to No. 186. Silver. Oval. Size .95. Cast and chased;
    with ring for suspension.

    189. Charles I. and II., 1660. _Obv._ Bust of Charles I., three
    quarters r., in doublet and lace collar. CAROLVS D. I. _Rev._
    Bust of Charles II. facing, in doublet and wearing medal,
    &c. CAROLVS D. II.; field on both sides damasked with roses.
    Silver. Size 2·7. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter van Abeele.[12]

[12] Pieter van Abeele lived at Amsterdam, and was probably a pupil of
Jerian Pool. Van Abeele's most famous work is a medal in commemoration
of the granting of arms to the city of Amsterdam in 1342 and 1488.
He also executed medals for William II. and III. of Orange, Gustavus
Adolphus, &c. His medals are of repoussé work and chased, the two sides
being united by a rim.

This medal consists of two plates united by rim, and was executed by
Peter van Abeele, during the residence of Charles in Holland.

    190. Charles II. and William III. of Orange, 1660? _Obv._
    Bust of King, three quarters r., hair long, in armour, &c.,
    and wearing George. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAGNÆ BRIT. &c. _Rev._
    William III. of Orange, on horseback r.; distant view of river
    and city. WILHELMVS III. D. G. PRINC. AVRAICÆ COM. NASS. E^{C}.
    Silver. Size 2·7. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter van Abeele.

In the same style as the previous medal. From the youthful appearance
of William this medal could not have been executed after 1660. It
was probably issued, like the following one, upon the King's leaving
Holland.

    191. Reward for services, 1660. _Obv._ Bust of King, facing
    r., wearing armour, &c. CAROLUS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. ET
    HIB. REX. _Rev._ Three crowns within branches of laurel and
    palm. PROPTER STRENVITATEM ET FIDELITATEM REBVS IN ADVERSIS;
    chain-border. Gold. Size 2·9. Cast and chased; has had ring for
    suspension. Dutch.

This medal is unique, and was evidently given by Charles to some
faithful adherent.

    192. Embarkation at Scheveningen, 1660. _Obv._ Same as No. 190.
    _Rev._ Fleet under sail: above, Fame with trumpet and scroll
    inscribed, SOLI DEO GLORIA; beneath, inscription in Dutch
    giving date of departure from Scheveningen, 2nd June 1660, and
    around, IN NOMINE MEO EXALTABITUR CORNU EIUS. PSAL. 89; on
    edge, PA. F. Silver. Size 2·75. Repoussé and chased. By Pieter
    van Abeele, whose monogram is on the edge.

Of the same fabric as No. 190. Charles sailed from Scheveningen for
England 2nd June 1660 (N. S.), with his court, on board the Naseby, the
name of which ship was then changed to that of the Royal Charles.

    193. Landing at Dover, 1660. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing
    armour, &c., within branches of laurel; around, legend with
    date of arrival in London, "1660 DIE 29 MAII." _Outer legend._
    CAROLUS II. D. G. MAGN. BRITANN. &c.: _I.R._ (Monogram.)
    _Rev._ Ship approaching shore, on which England, Scotland and
    Ireland, personified, with three crowns, sceptre, and sword,
    await its arrival: above ship, star and eye of Providence, in
    the distance, Dover Castle. SI DEUS EST CUSTOS QUIS MEUS HOSTIS
    ERIT. Silver. Size 2·25. Struck. By John Roettier.[13] It may
    be considered the first of the large series of medals executed
    by him.

[13] The head of the Roettier family "the family of Medallists" was
one John Roettier a native of Antwerp and a goldsmith by profession,
who had three sons, John, Joseph, and Philip. During the residence of
Charles II. in Holland, John the eldest brother was presented to him
as an eminent medallist, and upon his coming to England soon after the
Restoration he was appointed one of the engravers to the Mint having
Thomas Simon as his colleague, who retired from his post in 1664. John
Roettier then became one of the Chief Engravers to the Mint, and with
him was associated his brother Joseph, and somewhat later his younger
brother Philip, as in 1669 we find that by letters patent July 3rd,
1669, John, Joseph, and Philip Roettier were appointed His Majesty's
Engravers at the Mint with a yearly allowance of £450 during their
natural lives. In 1672, through the death of Varin, Joseph Roettier by
Colbert's influence, obtained the appointment of Chief Engraver at the
Mint at Paris, and in 1678 Philip Roettier quitted England and went
to reside in Flanders, the coinage of that country during that period
showing many traces of his work, which is inferior in style to that
of his elder brothers. In 1690 upon the death of G. Bower, James, the
eldest son of John Roettier, was associated with his father at the
Mint; but in 1694 having played tricks with a portrait of William III.,
which he was executing for a new copper coinage, he was dismissed,
and going to France found employment at the Paris Mint. Norbert his
brother, who does not appear to have been regularly employed at
the London Mint, having abstracted some of the dies for fraudulent
purposes, fled in the following year also to France, and like his
brother obtained an appointment at the Paris Mint. He also executed a
large number of medals for the Stuart family (v. Stuart Medals, p. 60).
The inquiry which followed this scandal resulted in the dismissal of
John Roettier, who died in 1703, and was buried in the Tower.

The King landed at Dover on the 26th of May 1660 (O. S.) and on the
29th following made his public entry into London.

    194. Restoration, 1660. "Gigantomachia." _Obv._ Bust of King
    l., wearing robes and collar of the Garter. CAROLVS II. DEI
    GRATIA MAG. BR. &c. _Rev._ Jupiter, in clouds, carried by
    eagle, destroying with thunderbolt prostrate giants: _G.
    Bower F._; ornamented border. Silver. Size 2·5. Struck. By G.
    Bower.[14]

[14] George Bower, or Bowers, as he signs himself on his later medals,
was appointed one of the engravers to the Mint after the Restoration, a
post which he filled till his death in 1690. He executed a large number
of medals for the Royal Family, and also for private individuals, which
are characterized by skill and execution.

Charles is here represented as Jupiter demolishing his foes, a probable
allusion to the execution of the Regicides.

    195. Another "Felicitas Britanniæ," 1660. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., wearing armour and cloak. CAROLVS SECVNDUS D. G., MAG.
    BRIT. &c. _Rev._ Peace laureate, with scales and fasces, and
    accompanied by Minerva and Hercules presenting olive-branch to
    Britannia seated on sea-shore; behind, Fame: above, Genius with
    palm. FELICITAS BRITANNIÆ. 29 MAII. 1660; _incuse_. Silver.
    Size 3·3. Struck. By John Roettier.

The intention of the medallist is to show that the Restoration was
effected under Providence by wisdom and fortitude, and that it produced
to Britain justice, plenty and peace. (See also No. 197.)

    196. Another. _Obv._ Head of King r., laureate. CAROLVS
    SECVNDVS DEI GRATIA MAG. BRI. &c. _Rev._ Britannia holding
    spear and shield, seated on sea-shore, and contemplating her
    navies. FAVENTE DEO; in ex., BRITANNIA; on edge, CAROLVS
    SECVNDVS PACIS ET IMPERII RESTITVTOR AVGVSTVS. Gold. Size 2·2.
    Struck. By John Roettier.

This and the next medal are without date. They appear, however, to
commemorate the Restoration, but were not executed till several years
afterwards. It is generally supposed that they were struck at the
conclusion of the treaty of Breda, 31st July, 1667; but that is not
possible, for Pepys in his diary under date 26th Feb. 1667, in speaking
of this medal, says: "At my goldsmith's did observe the King's new
medal where in little there is Mrs. Stewart's face as well done as
ever I saw any thing in my whole life, I think: and a pretty thing it
is that he should choose her face to represent Brittannia by." Mrs.
Stuart, afterwards Duchess of Richmond, was one of the beauties at the
court of Charles II. (See No. 245.)

    197. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., wearing armour and cloak.
    AVGVSTISS. CAROLO SECVNDO P. P. _I. R._ (monogram). _Rev._
    Hercules, Minerva, Peace, and Mercury (with features of the
    King) assembled around altar, behind which stands Prudence,
    leaning on shield with figure of Britannia, &c.: Plenty reposes
    in the foreground. NVLLVM NVMEN ABEST. (_Juv. Sat._ x. 365.)
    BRITANNIÆ. Gold. Size 2·4. Struck. By John Roettier.

For explanation of reverse see note to No. 195. The shield held by
Prudence being ornamented with a very rough copy of the reverse type of
the previous medal, it may be therefore concluded that this medal was
executed at the same time or shortly after that one.

    198—199. Coronation, 1661. _Obv._ Bust of King r., crowned,
    wearing robes and collar of Garter. CAROLVS II. D. G. ANG. SCO.
    &c. on shoulder, T. S. _Rev._ King seated l., holding sceptre,
    crowned by Peace. EVERSO MISSVS SVCCVRRERE SECLO. XXIII. APR.
    1661. Gold and silver. Size 1·1. Struck. By T. Simon.

This medal was made for distribution among those attending at the
coronation.

    200—201. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., laureate, wearing
    robes and collar of Garter. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.
    _Rev._ Oak-tree in full leaf, with three crowns among the
    branches; above, sun. IAM FLORESCIT. 23 APR. 1661. Gold and
    silver. Size 1·65. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension.

This medal is by T. Simon, and must have been hastily produced. It was
probably issued for distribution to the King's servants, as there is an
item in one of Simon's accounts for two in gold supplied to the King's
cooks. As No. 182 expressed an expectation that the royal oak would
revive, so this declares that it has.

    202. Marriage, 1662. _Obv._ Bust of Catherine of Braganza
    l., hair drawn back, and wearing coronet, &c. INFANTA DONA
    CATHERINA; _engraved_. _Rev._ Two orange trees, their stems
    intertwined. Silver. Oval. Size 1. Cast and chased; with ring
    for suspension.

As Catharine here wears the Portuguese dress, which before her marriage
she changed for that of the English Court, this badge must have been
produced soon after her arrival in England.

    203. Another. _Obv._ Busts of King and Queen facing each other;
    the King laureate; the Queen wearing coronet. CAROLVS II. ET
    CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. G. B. _Rev._ Fame with trumpet
    and olive-branch. QVANTVM SAT ERIT HIS DICERE DIGNVM. ANO
    1662. G. B. Silver-gilt. Size 2·05. Struck. By G. Bower.

Struck on the marriage of Charles with Catharine of Braganza, dau. of
John IV., King of Portugal, 29th May, 1662.

    204. Another. _Obv._ Busts of King and Queen jugate r.; Queen
    slightly draped. CAROLVS II. ET CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c.
    _Rev._ Jupiter with eagle, and Venus, behind whom Cupid; all in
    clouds. MAIESTAS ET AMOR. Silver. Size 1. Struck. By G. Bower.

    205. Marriage Badge, 1662. _Obv._ Bust of King r., crowned, in
    armour, cloak, &c. CAROLVS II. D. G., MAG. BRIT. &c. _Rev._
    Bust of Queen l., draped, wearing coronet, &c. CATHARINA D. G.,
    MAG. BRIT. &c. Silver. Oval. Size 1·7. Struck. By G. Bower.

    206. Charles II. and Catharine, 1662, "The Golden Medal."
    _Obv._ Bust of King r., laureate, in armour and cloak. CAROLVS
    II. DEI G. MAG. BRI. &c. _Rev._ Bust of Queen r., draped, hair
    ornamented with pearls. CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Silver.
    Size 1·65. Struck.

This fine medal was executed by J. Roettier, and is probably the
"Golden Medal" commemorated by the poet Waller.

    Our guard upon the royal side
    On the reverse, our beauty's pride!
    Here we discern the frown and smile
    The force and glory of our isle.

    207. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laureate, in armour and
    cloak. CAROLVS II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. &c. G. B. _Rev._ Bust of
    Queen r., draped, wearing coronet. CATHARINA D. G. MAG. BRIT.
    &c. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. By G. Bower.

    208. Cession of Dunkirk, 1662. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r.
    LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. _Rev._
    Female figure (Dunkirk) kneeling and presenting keys of the
    city to Louis in Roman military dress; behind, galley and
    shield, arms of Dunkirk, &c. DUNKERCA ACQUISITA. XXVII.
    OCTOBRIS. MDCLXII. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By J. Mauger.

Dunkirk was sold by Charles II. to Louis XIV. for the sum of four
millions of livres. This is one of a large series of historical medals
of the French King.

    209—210. Naval Reward, 1665. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laureate,
    in mantle. CAROLVS SECVNDVS D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. _Rev._ King
    in Roman military dress viewing naval action from shore.
    PRO TALIBVS AVSIS. Gold and silver. Size 2·4. Struck. By J.
    Roettier.

This medal was specially struck to commemorate the naval victory over
the Dutch, 3rd June 1665, for presentation to the officers engaged: but
bearing no date it was used for a reward for other victories during the
war of 1665—1667.

    211. James, Duke of York. (Victory over the Dutch, 3rd June
    1665.) _Obv._ Bust of the Duke of York r., in armour and cloak.
    IACOBVS DVX EBOR. ET ALBAN. DOM. MAGN. ADMIRALLVS ANGLIÆ, &c.
    _J. Roetti._ F. _Rev._ Naval engagement, English High Admiral's
    ship in foreground. NEC MINOR IN TERRIS. 3. IVNII. 1665.
    Silver. Size 3. Struck. By J. Roettier.

James, Duke of York, encountered the Dutch fleet, under Admiral Opdam
off Lowestoft on 3rd June, 1665, and after a terrible battle, in which
Opdam was killed, the Dutch were compelled to retreat.

    212. Dominion of the Sea, 1665. _Obv._ Bust of King r., draped
    and laureate. CAROLVS II. D. G. M. BR. &c. _Simon._ _Rev._ King
    as Neptune holding trident in naval chariot l., drawn by four
    sea-horses: fleet in the distance. ET PONTUS SERVIET. 1665.
    Silver. Size 1·05. Struck.

This beautiful medal is supposed to be the last work of Thomas Simon.
It commemorates the dominion of the sea obtained by England by the
victory of 3rd June, 1665, over the Dutch.

    213. Action at Bergen, 1665. _Obv._ View of Bergen: naval
    action in harbour: in foreground, G. POOL. _Rev._ Inscription
    in Dutch within oak-wreath. Silver. Size 2·1. Struck. By Jerian
    Pool.

The reverse inscription narrates that the Earl of Sandwich having
entered Bergen harbour on 10th August, 1665, with 15 men of war, &c.,
was compelled, under the fire of the Dutch, to cut his cables and take
to flight.

    214. Proposed Commercial Treaty with Spain, 1666. _Obv._ Bust
    of King r., laureate, in fringed mantle. CAROLVS SECVNDVS
    DEI GRATIA MAG. BRIT. &c. _Rev._ Statue of King in Roman
    military dress on pedestal near sea crowded with ships. REDEANT
    COMMERCIA FLANDRIS. 1666. Silver. Size 2·2. Struck. By J.
    Roettier.

This medal expresses a wish that the preliminaries of a commercial
treaty, which was being negotiated with Spain for the free passage of
the Scheldt, might be brought to a successful termination.

    215. Naval engagement, 11—14 June, 1666. _Obv._ Naval
    engagement. PVGNANDO. _Rev._ Inscription in Latin within
    laurel-wreath, to which are attached the shields of the Seven
    United Provinces alternately with their bundles of seven
    arrows. Silver. Size 2·75. Struck. By Jerian Pool.

The Reverse inscription states that this medal is a memorial of the
successful engagement of four days, 11—14 June (N. S.), 1666, between
the Dutch and English fleets, the latter being defeated with heavy
losses. The engagement took place off the North Foreland, and is
memorable for its long duration and the desperate courage with which it
was fought on both sides. The English fleet was commanded by Monk and
Prince Rupert and the Dutch by De Ruyter.

    216. Plague and Fire of London, 1666. _Obv._ Shrine with
    crucifix between vineyard and cornfield; above, radiate name
    of Jehovah; in the midst, shepherd feeding sheep, a tranquil
    river, and in front, St. Paul shaking viper from his hand.
    MERA BONITAS. _Rev._ City, one half in flames, the other under
    storm of rain; in front, disturbed river and Death and warrior
    contending on horseback: above, eye of Providence, comets and
    wind. SIC PVNIT. MDCLXVI. Silver. Size 1·35. Struck.

On the obverse are symbolized peace and plenty, the reward of goodness,
with St. Paul removing the venomous scourge of the plague by fire; and
on the reverse are seen pestilence and fire, the punishment of the
wicked.

    217. Ships burnt in the Medway and Peace of Breda, 1667. _Obv._
    Burning of ships in the Medway. Legend in Dutch stating that by
    order, Sir Michael, son of Adrian Ruyter, attacked the ships
    of war in the river near Chatham, burnt and sank them, &c.
    _Rev._ Peace with olive-branch and cornucopiae seated on arms
    between shields, arms of United Kingdom, France, Denmark, and
    Sweden on one side, and those of the United Provinces on the
    other: beneath shields, genii: above, scroll inscribed, SOLI
    DEO GLORIA; below, another with date of proclamation of Peace,
    6 Sep., 1667, &c.: on edge, PA. Silver. Size 2·8. Repoussé. By
    Pieter van Abeele, whose monogram is on the edge.

In spite of conferences having been opened at Breda to negotiate a
treaty of peace, De Witte despatched a fleet to the Nore, which,
after burning Sheerness, advanced as far as Chatham and destroyed the
shipping. Shortly afterwards a treaty with the Dutch was signed at
Breda on 31st July, 1667, and proclaimed on 6th September following.

    218. Peace of Breda, 1667. _Obv._ Belgia with sceptre
    terminating in an open eye and spear with the sheaf of arrows
    attached, trampling upon Discord; at her feet, lion and lamb:
    in the distance, ships burning, &c. MITIS ET FORTIS: in ex.,
    PROCVL HINC MALA BESTIA REGNIS. IUN. 22. 1667. C. A. _Rev._
    Peace holding sword and wreath, caduceus and cornucopiae,
    trampling on arms and crown: above, hand from cloud holding
    shields of Great Britain and Holland: in the distance, merchant
    vessels: on scroll, IRATO BELLUM PLACATO NUMINE PAX EST; in
    ex., REDIIT CONCORDIA MATER BREDÆ. IUL. 31. A^o. 1667: shield,
    arms of Breda: edge with inscription stating that this medal
    was struck by permission of the States of Holland and West
    Friesland, &c. Silver. Size 2·8. Struck. By C. Adolfszoon.[15]

[15] Christoffel Adolfszoon, a Dutch medallist who worked during the
second half of the 17th century, is best known by a medal, which he
executed of Michael de Ruyter. His work is coarse, but characteristic
of Dutch medallic art of that period.

The issue of this medal by authority of the States gave great offence
to Charles, who took the motto HINC MALA BESTIA to apply to himself.
Remonstrances were made, a formal apology received, and the dies
destroyed. This medal was however one of the grounds of offence in the
declaration of War against the Dutch in 1672.

    219. Another. _Obv._ Peace, holding olive-branch and
    cornucopiae, burning implements of war; under her feet,
    prostrate soldier; behind, Cupid with arrow. BELLO AB ANGLIS
    ILLATO A BELGIS FORTITER GESTO, &c.; with date, XXXI. IULII.
    CIϽDCLXVII. _Rev._ Bird's-eye view of Breda; around, inscr.
    commemorating treaty. Silver. Size 3·45. Cast and chased. Dutch.

    220. Another. _Obv._ View of Breda from river covered with
    pleasure barges; above, Fame, surrounded by genii and holding
    scroll inscribed, SOLI DEO GLORIA. HET OUD BREDAAS KASTEEL,
    &c. _Rev._ Ship of Peace r., propelled by favouring gales and
    accompanied by Fame and Tritons: her sails decorated with the
    shields of contracting parties: beneath, A^o. 1667. HIER ZEIILT
    HET VREDESCHIP OP'T ZILUER IN DE ZEE, &c. Silver. Size 3·2.
    Repoussé and chased; hollow. By Müller.[16]

[16] Müller, whom Bolzenthal calls "der Meister Müller," worked in
Holland during the middle of the 17th century, and executed medals of
repoussé work of the same style as Pieter van Abeele.

    221. Another. _Obv._ An English and Dutch ship sailing side by
    side with wreaths on main mastheads. _Rev._ Festoon of fruit
    and flowers and wreath, to which are suspended two shields,
    arms of Great Britain and Holland, &c. BRITAN. BATAV. PAX.
    1667. C. A. Silver. Size 1·75. Struck. By C. Adolfszoon.

The arms of Great Britain are wrongly quartered, those of Scotland
being in the 1st and 4th quarters. The same mistake occurs on No. 218.

    222. Proclamation of Treaty of Breda, 1667. _Obv._ Neptune,
    in sea-chariot drawn by horses, staying with his trident the
    progress of a naval engagement. SIC CVNCTUS PELAGI CECIDIT
    FRAGOR. (Virg. Aen. I, 158.) _Rev._ View of Breda: above, genii
    with shields of Denmark, France, England and Holland, with
    Sweden in centre; beneath, BREDA Den 17 Sept. 1667, G. POOL.
    NULLA SALUS BELLO, PACEM TE POSCIMUS OMNES. Silver. Size 2·05.
    Struck. By Jerian Pool.

In the negotiations of peace between England and Holland, Sweden acted
as mediator, consequently her shield is placed in the centre as uniting
those of the belligerents.

    223—224. British Colonization, 1670. _Obv._ Jugate busts of
    King in armour, and Queen draped, r. CAROLVS ET CATHARINA
    REX ET REGINA. _Rev._ Globe with portions of all the four
    continents. DIFFVSVS IN ORBE BRITANNVS. 1670. Gold and silver.
    Size 1·6. Struck. By one of the Roettiers.

This medal alludes to the remarkable growth of British colonization,
which as early as 1670 extended over all the four quarters of the
Globe. It may however specially refer to the dowry of Queen Catharine,
which laid the foundation of the British Empire in India.

The reverse inscription is a play on Virgil's line, "Penitus toto
divisos orbe Britannos."

  (Ecl. I. 67.)

    225. Charles XI. of Sweden, Knight of the Garter, 1671. _Obv._
    St. George and the dragon, r. CAROLVS XI. REX SVE. EQ. NOB.
    ORD. PERISC. INAVG. 29 MAII. 1671. _Rev._ Within collar Garter
    passing through two pairs of Cs crowned; in centre, star of
    order. CONCORDIA REGVM SALVS POPVLORVM. Silver. Size 1·7.
    Struck.

Charles XI., King of Sweden, was invested with the Order of the Garter
at Stockholm, 29th July, 1668, but not installed till 29th May, 1671.

    226. Battle of Solebay, 1672. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r.
    LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. I. MAVGER F. _Rev._
    Neptune in sea-chariot threatening Holland with his trident.
    VICTORIA NAVALIS. MDCLXXII. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By J.
    Mauger.

One of the series of medals of Louis XIV. The Battle of Solebay was
fought on the 28th May, 1672, between the combined fleets of England
and France under the Duke of York and D'Estrées, and the Dutch under
De Ruyter. The battle was indecisive, but the Dutch retired.

    227. Christ's Hospital, Foundation of Nautical School, 1673.
    _Obv._ Bust of King r., in decorated armour and cloak. CAROLVS
    SECVNDVS D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. Blue-coat boy, surrounded by
    Arithmetic, Astronomy, Mathematics and Mercury with their
    attributes; above, genii and winds; in the distance, ships.
    INSTITVTOR AVGVSTVS. 1673. Silver. Size 2·8. Struck. By J.
    Roettier. This is described by Evelyn as a "glorious medallion."

In 1672, Charles II. founded a nautical school at Christ's Hospital to
provide for the education of forty boys, ten of whom were annually to
be placed in the sea-service. Each of them still wears the following
badge.

    228. Christ's Hospital Badge, 1673. Badge (plaque) with device
    similar to reverse of preceding medal. Student is surrounded
    by Arithmetic, Astronomy wearing petasus of Mercury, and
    Mathematics with their attributes; above, two genii. AVSPICIO
    CAROL. SECVNDI REGIS. 1673. Silver. Size 3·2. Struck. See
    preceding.

    229. Naval engagement with the Dutch, 1673. Memorial of Captain
    Van Gelder. _Obv._ Shield, arms of Van Gelder and crest, &c.;
    beneath, in compartment, inscr. in Dutch, "In memory of Jan
    Paulz van Gelder, Captain, dead in the bed of honour, 21st Aug.
    1673, aged 26 years." VAN GELDERS ZEEVOOGDS SOON, &c. _Rev._
    Naval engagement: in ex., PVGNANDO. DE VADER WON DE SLAG DE
    ZOON VERLOOR ZYN BLOED, &c. Silver. Size 3·05. Cast and chased;
    hollow. By Jerian Pool.

A memorial of Captain van Gelder, son-in-law of Admiral de Ruyter, who
was killed in the action of the 21st Aug., 1673, between the combined
English and French fleets, and the Dutch.

    230. Peace of London, 1674. _Obv._ William III., Prince of
    Orange on horseback l.: in the distance, troops bombarding town
    on the sea-shore; above, scroll entwined with orange-branch and
    inscribed, VIRES ULTRA SORTEMQUE IUVENTÆ. _Rev._ Dove with palm
    and olive-branch flying l., over tranquil sea; in the distance,
    ships and rising sun. A DOMINO VENIT PAX ET VICTORIA LÆTA;
    _chronogrammatic_. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. Dutch.

Peace between England and Holland was concluded in London in 1674.
The obverse alludes to the appointment at a very early age of William
as Commander-in-Chief of the army of the United Provinces and
Stadtholder, and also to the capture of Naerden in 1674.

    231. Marriage of William III., Prince of Orange, and Princess
    Mary, 1677. _Obv._ Bust of William r., in armour, &c. GVILH.
    III. D. G. PRIN. AVR. HOL. ET WES. GV. _Rev._ Bust of Mary l.,
    draped, wearing pearls in hair. MARIA D. G. AVR. PRIN. NAT. DE
    IORC. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck.

William III., Prince of Orange, married Mary, elder dau. of James,
Duke of York, 4th Nov. 1677. This medal is supposed to be the work of
Nicholas Chevalier.

    232. Peace of Nimeguen, 1678. _Obv._ Gallia and Belgium, their
    hands united through serpent-ring, standing before altar
    decorated with imperial eagle, and inscribed, 1678. O. 20.
    NEOMAGI; above, eye of Providence. GALLIA CUM BELGIO PACATA
    PER ANGEIAM. _Rev._ Peace, with attributes, standing on globe
    between Mercury and genii supporting shields of Spain, France,
    and Holland; beneath, lie Discord and War bound; the whole
    within wreath of olive-branches. Silver. Size 2·7. Struck.
    Dutch.

The treaty of Nimeguen, negotiated by England between France and
Holland, was concluded Aug. 1678, but not proclaimed till 20th Oct.
following. Extremely coarse work.

    233. Popish Plot, 1678. Details of murder of Sir Edmund Berry
    Godfrey. _Obv._ Three divisions; in centre one, two monks
    strangling Godfrey, above whom 1678, and two men carrying him
    in sedan chair; above, their names GREENE. KELY. HILL. & BERY;
    below, IVSTICE KILLERS TO HIS HO(liness); in lower division
    Godfrey lying on his face, his sword passed through his body;
    in upper division the Pope prompted by the Devil. ROMES REVENGE
    OR S^{R}. EDMVNDBERY GODFREY MVRTHERED IN THE POPES SLAVGHTER
    HOVS. Reverse plain. Pewter. Size 2·8. Cast and chased.

Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, after being strangled near the watergate at
Somerset-house, was carried by his murderers in a sedan chair to Soho
Square, and from thence on horseback to Primrose Hill, where they left
him in a ditch with his own sword run through his body, in the position
of one who had committed suicide.

    234. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Godfrey r., in doublet, &c., two
    hands strangling him with his cravat. MORIENDO RESTITVIT REM
    E. GODFREY. _Rev._ Green strangling Godfrey in the presence of
    the Pope, who holds papal bull and blesses the murderer. TANTVM
    RELLIGIO POTVIT; (Lucret. Lib. I. 102); on edge, CERVICE FRACTA
    FIDEM SVSTVLIT ATLAS XNS. 1678. Silver. Size 1·5. Struck. By G.
    Bower.

The inscr. on the edge compares Godfrey to Atlas, who required all his
strength to sustain the world, whilst Godfrey sustained the faith with
a broken neck.

    235. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Hill on horseback supporting
    before him the dead body of Godfrey, and accompanied by another
    murderer feigning drunkenness and carrying sword; in the
    distance, Primrose Hill; stars shew that it is night. EQVO
    CREDITE TVCRI (sic). (Virg. Aen. II. 48.) Edge as preceding.
    Silver. Size 1·55. Struck. By G. Bower.

In conveying the body of Godfrey from Soho to Primrose Hill the
murderers agreed that, if stopped on the road, they should pretend that
they were taking home a drunken companion.

    236. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ The Pope's head and the
    Devil's joined in one face. ECCLESIA PERVERSA TENET FACIEM
    DIABOLI. Edge as on No. 234. Silver-gilt. Size 1·45. Struck.

This reverse design was a very common one at the time of the
Reformation.

    237. Another. _Obv._ Godfrey walking after his murder. GODFREY
    WALKS VP HIL AFTER HEE IS DEAD. ERGO PARES (SVMVS on rev.);
    in ex., PRO. (Protestant). _Rev._ St. Denis after martyrdom
    carrying his head. DENNYS WALKS DOWNE HIL CARRYING HIS HEAD.
    SVMVS (PARES, &c., on obv.) in ex., PA. (Papist). Silver. Size
    1·5. Struck. By G. Bower.

Like St. Denis, who after his martyrdom picked up his head and carried
it under his arm, Godfrey is represented walking after his murder,
because it was asserted by some of the accused party that they had seen
him walking about Primrose Hill after the stated time of his murder.
The "Protestant" Saint was thus equal to the "Papist."

    238. Another. _Obv._ A Janus head; Jesuit's face with cap, and
    Monk's with cowl. O WHY SO FICKLE. _Rev._ Cluster of seven
    heads. BIRDS OF A FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER. Silver. Size 1·4.
    Struck. By G. Bower.

Great uncertainty exists in the identification of the heads on this
medal. Evelyn supposes the double head to represent Titus Oates and
Bedloe, and the cluster the heads of the supposed detectors of the
Plot. It is quite as probable that the heads may be those of Charles,
James and the five Cabal Ministers.

    239. Duke of York wrecked, 1682. _Obv._ Bust of the Duke of
    York r., wearing mantle. IACOBUS DUX EBORACENSIS ET ALBANENSIS.
    G.B.F. _Rev._ Ship in distress off a rocky shore. IMPAVIDUM
    FERIUNT. (Hor. Car. III. 3. 8.) Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By G.
    Bower.

When the Duke of York was returning from Scotland with several noblemen
and friends, the vessel struck on the Lemon and Oar Sandbank, off the
Norfolk coast, and the Duke and all his companions narrowly escaped
drowning.

    240. Rye House Plot, 1683. _Obv._ King as Hercules warding off
    with his hand Hydra with seven human heads; above, hand with
    thunder; distant view of Windsor Castle. PERIBVNT FVLMINIS
    ICTV. 1683. G.B.F. _Rev._ Shepherd seated on mound watching
    flock, near which two wolves hanging on gibbet; London in the
    distance; above, dove with olive-branch. DEVS NOBIS HÆC OTIA
    FECIT. (Virg. Ecl. 1. 6.) Silver. Size 1·75. Struck. By G.
    Bower.

Struck to commemorate the Rye House Plot. The Hydra represents the
committee of six, who associated themselves for the redress of
grievances, Monmouth, Lord W. Russell, Hampden, Algernon Sidney, the
Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard, the seventh is the devil. The two
wolves are Sidney and Russell.

    241. Death of Charles II., 1685. _Obv._ Head of King r.,
    wearing lion's skin. CAROLUS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. _Rev._
    Setting sun. OMNIA ORTA OCCIDUNT. (Sall. Jugur. II.) MDCLXXXV.
    Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. Dutch.

Charles died on the 6 Feb., 1685, at the age of 55.

    242. Duke and Duchess of York, 1680. _Obv._ Bust of Duke of
    York r., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS DVX EBORACENSIS. G.B.F.
    _Rev._ Bust of Duchess of York l., draped, &c. MARIA DVCISSA
    EBORACENSIS. 1680. Silver. Size 2. Struck. By G. Bower.

James Duke of York mar. 21 Nov. 1673 Mary d'Este sister of the Duke of
Modena.

    243. Marriage of Prince George of Denmark and Princess Anne,
    1683. _Obv._ Busts of George, in armour, and Anne, draped,
    facing each other. GEORGIVS CIMBRORVM PRINCEPS ET ANNA IACOBI
    DVCIS EBORACENSIS FILIA. G.B.F. _Rev._ An oak tree; on ground,
    acorns. FACTVRA NEPOTIBVS VMBRAM. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By
    G. Bower.

Prince George of Denmark mar. 17 Aug. 1683 Princess, afterwards Queen
Anne, dau. of James (II.) then Duke of York.

    244. Lucie de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. _Obv._ Bust
    r., loosely draped. LVCIA DVCISSA PORTSMOVTHENSIS. _Rev._ Cupid
    seated upon globe. OMNIA VINCIT. Silver. Size 1·1. Struck. By
    G. Bower.

Louisa Renée de Pennecourt de Querouaille, mistress of Charles II.,
received from him in 1673 the title of Duchess of Portsmouth.

    245. Frances Stuart, Duchess of Richmond. _Obv._ Bust l., in
    classical dress. Reverse plain. Copper. Size 2·75. Struck. This
    medal appears to be the work of J. Roettier.

Frances Terese, eldest dau. of Walter Stuart, third son of the first
Lord Blantyre, one of the greatest beauties at the court of Charles
II., mar. 1667 Charles Lennox, fourth duke of Richmond. Died 1702.

    246. Duke of Albemarle, 1660. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour. _Rev._
    GEORGIVS MONKE OMNIVM COPIARVM IN ANGLIA SCOTIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ DVX
    SVPREMVS ET THALASSIARCHA. ÆTA. 52. 1660. Gold. Size 1·35. Cast
    and chased. By A. and T. Simon. A. Simon executed the model of
    this medal and the following (Nos. 248—250), and his brother
    Thomas chased them.

George Monk, born 1608, commanded in Ireland and Scotland for
Parliament, was Commander-in-Chief of all the forces and High Admiral
at the Restoration, when he was created Duke of Albemarle. Died 1670.

    247. Another (Badge). _Obv._ Bust l., in armour and cloak.
    GEORGE DVKE OF ALBEMARLE; engraved. _Rev._ Within the
    Garter, shield, arms of Monk surmounted by ducal coronet;
    wreath-border. Silver. Oval. Size 1·4. Cast and chased; with
    ring for suspension.

    248. Earl of Clarendon, 1662. _Obv._ Bust r., in Chancellor's
    robes; on arm, _Th. Simon F._ _Rev._ EDOARDVS COMMES
    CLARENDONIÆ SVMMVS ANGLIÆ CANCELLARIVS, &c., MDCLXII. Silver.
    Size 1·7. Cast and chased. By A. and T. Simon.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, born 1608, was Chancellor of the
Exchequer to Charles I.; at the Restoration appointed Lord Chancellor
with the title of Earl of Clarendon; banished in 1667. Died 1674 at
Rouen, where he wrote his "History of the Rebellion."

    249. Earl of Southampton, 1664. _Obv._ Bust l., in cloak; on
    arm, _Tho. Simon_. _Rev._ THOMAS COMES SOVTHAMPTONIÆ SVMMVS
    ANGLIÆ THESAVRARIVS, &c. MDCLXIIII. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast and
    chased. By A. and T. Simon.

Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, was much employed by the King
in negotiating with the Parliament during the civil war; appointed at
the Restoration Lord High Treasurer. Died 1667.

    250. Another. Similar: bust with cap. Gold. Size 1·6. Cast and
    chased. By A. and T. Simon.

    251. Unknown Portrait, 1662 (?) _Obv._ Bust l., wearing mantle,
    &c. Reverse plain. Silver-gilt. Oval. Size 1·6. Cast and
    chased. Probably by A. Simon.

    252. Thomas Simon, circ. 1660. _Obv._ Half-length figure, three
    quarters l., wearing doublet. No reverse. Silver. Oval. Size
    1·75. Cast and chased.

A chasing by Stuart: the original is unknown, but was probably executed
by A. Simon.

    253. Abraham Simon, circ. 1660. _Obv._ Bust r., bearded,
    wearing doublet and chain with medal of Christina, Queen of
    Sweden. No reverse. Silver. Size 1·75. Cast and chased.

A chasing by Stuart executed about the middle of the eighteenth century
from a wax model in the British Museum by A. Simon himself. Abraham
Simon always wore a medal of Christina of Sweden, it having been given
him by the Queen during his residence at her court.

    254. Lord Berkeley, 1666. _Obv._ Bust of Berkeley r., wearing
    cloak. GEORGE DE BERKELEY PAIR D'ANGLETERRE. 1666. DV FOVR.
    _Rev._ Tree, around stem crown inscr. CIMBRIA; in branches,
    shield arms of Berkeley with supporters; above, baronial
    coronet. REGIBVS ATAVIS. (cf. Hor. Car. I. 1.) VIRTVTE NON VI.
    Silver. Size 2. Struck. French by Du Four.

George, Lord (Earl) Berkeley, descended from Robert Fitzharding of the
Royal House of Denmark, was 13th Lord Berkeley, succeeded to the title
1658, was privy councillor in the reigns of Charles II. and James II.,
and was one of those who invited William III. of Orange to England:
created Viscount Dursley and Earl Berkeley 1679. Died 1698.

    255. Duke of Lauderdale, 1672. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour and
    cloak. _Rev._ Minerva seated r., resting her arm on shield,
    arms of Lauderdale, whose helmet and crest she holds in her
    left hand. Motto, CONSILIO ET ANIMIS. 1672. _Joan Rott. F._
    Silver. Size 2·45. Struck. By J. Roettier.

This medal was executed when Lauderdale was created Duke in 1672. (See
also No. 119.)

    256. Earl of Shaftesbury, 1681. _Obv._ Bust r., in cloak.
    ANTONIO COMITI DE SHAFTESBVRY. G. B. F. _Rev._ View of London,
    Sun appearing from behind cloud. LÆTAMVR. 24. NOV. 1681.
    Silver. Size 1·55. Struck. By G. Bower.

Anthony Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury, born 1621, created Baron Ashley
1660 and Earl of Shaftesbury 1672, was, after the Restoration,
Chancellor of the Exchequer, a member of the Cabal Ministry and in 1672
Lord Chancellor. Died 1683. This medal was struck to commemorate the
acquittal of Shaftesbury on the charge of high treason, 24 Nov. 1681.

    257. Duke of Ormond, 1682. _Obv._ Bust r., wearing armour, &c.
    IACOBVS DVX ORMONIÆ. G. BOWERS F. _Rev._ Sword and olive-branch
    within ducal coronet. PRÆSIDIVM ET DVLCE DECVS. (Hor. Car. I.
    2.) 1682. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

James Butler, Duke of Ormond, general and statesman, born 1610,
succeeded to Earldom, 1633, created Marquis 1642 for services in
Ireland, and after Restoration advanced to a Dukedom: he was twice
appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Died 1688.


JAMES II. 1685—1688.

    258—259. Accession, 1685. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in
    cloak. IACOBUS II. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. ET HI. REX. _I. R._
    (monogram). _Rev._ Bust of Queen r., laur., draped. MARIA D.
    G. ANG. SCO. FR. ET HI. REGINA. _I. R._ (monogram). Gold and
    silver. Size 1·35. Struck. By John Roettier.

The Accession of James II. took place on 6 Feb. 1685.

    260. Coronation, 1685. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Laurel-wreath on
    cushion: above, hand from cloud holding crown. A MILITARI AD
    REGIAM. INAVGVRAT. 23. AP. 1685. Gold. Size 1·35. Struck. By J.
    Roettier.

This medal was the official one distributed among those present at the
coronation 23 April, 1685.

    261. Another. _Obv._ Same as Rev. of No. 258. _Rev._ The Queen
    as Venus seated on a mound. O DEA CERTE. (Virg. Aen. I. 332.)
    Gold. Size 1·25. Struck. By J. Roettier.

Like the previous medal struck and distributed at the coronation.

    262. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., wearing cloak.
    IACOBVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. G. B. F. _Rev._ Victory with
    flaming sword and branch guarding crown on chair. TUTAMEN AB
    ALTO. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck. By G. Bower.

    263. Opening of Scottish Parliament, 1685. _Obv._ Head of King
    r., laur. IACOBUS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c. _Rev._ Lion couchant
    crowned holding sceptre and orb. NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET.
    MDCLXXXV. I. S. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.[17]

[17] Jan Smeltzing, born at Nimeguen, worked principally at Leyden,
where he incurred such blame by his satirical medals that he was
compelled to seek refuge for a while in France. He was, however,
allowed to return to Leyden, where he died at the end of the 17th
century. Smeltzing worked for the Emperor Leopold I., Louis XIV. of
France, and James II. and William III. of England, besides others. His
medals were much esteemed.

The Scottish Parliament, summoned by the King, assembled on St.
George's day, 23 April 1685, the day of the King's coronation. The
English Parliament did not meet till 22 May following.

    264—265. James and Mary, 1685. _Obv._ Busts jugate r. of King
    laur., and Queen both draped. IACOBUS II. ET MARIA D. G. MAG.
    BRI. &c. G. B. F. _Rev._ Sun radiate. FORTES RADII SED BENIGNI.
    1685. Silver-gilt and silver. Size 2·05. Struck. By G. Bower.

This medal was probably struck about the time of the coronation.

    266. Duke of Monmouth, 1685. Rebellion. _Obv._ Head of Monmouth
    r., in armour. IACOBUS DUX MONUMET. FID. ET LIBERT. DEFENSOR.
    _Rev._ Roman soldier attempting to tear open lion's jaw. PARUM
    SUCCESSIT, FECI SEDULO. MDCLXXXV. Silver. Size 1·9. Struck. By
    J. Smeltzing.

This medal was struck after Monmouth's defeat at Sedgemoor.

    267. Another. Defeat, 1685. _Obv._ Bust of Monmouth r., in
    armour and cloak, G. BOWERS F. _Rev._ Monmouth falling from
    rock in the ocean, on summit of which are three crowns, palm
    and laurel branches. SVPERI RISERE. (Ovid. Met. IV. 188.) IVLY
    6^o. 1685. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

This medal was issued after the failure of Monmouth's rebellion.

    268. Monmouth beheaded, 1685. _Obv._ Bust, similar to
    preceding. IACOBVS DVX MONVMETHENSIS. G. BOWERS F. _Rev._ Two
    genii in clouds supporting ducal coronet, above cipher _J. E.
    D. M._ (James Edward, Duke of Monmouth). CAPVT INTER NVBILA.
    Silver. Size 1·95. Struck. By G. Bower.

Monmouth was executed on Tower Hill 15 July, 1685.

    269. Another. _Obv._ Head of Monmouth r. IACOBUS INFELIX DUX
    MONUMETHENSIS. _Rev._ Decapitated head of Monmouth on ground
    spouting blood. HUNC SANGUINEM LIBO DEO LIBERATORI. CÆSA
    CERVIX. LON. IULY. 15/25 1685. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. By J.
    Smeltzing.

    270. Monmouth and Argyll, beheaded, 1685. _Obv._ Bust of King
    l., laur., on pedestal, and resting on the four sceptres of
    England, Scotland, Ireland and France, pedestal ornamented with
    royal shield in Garter, crowned, and inscribed, ARAS ET SCEPTRA
    TUEMUR. 1685. R. A. FEC.; in the distance, sea with ships
    and Neptune in sea-chariot. IACOBVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. &c.
    _Rev._ On pedestal inscribed, AMBITIO MALESUADA RUIT, Justice
    holding sword and weighing three crowns against sword, torch
    and serpent; at her feet, bodies of Monmouth and Argyll, their
    heads on blocks inscribed with their names: distant view of
    troops destroyed by lightning, and Tower of London with heads
    on spears. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By R. Arondeaux.[18]

[18] R. Arondeaux, French medallist of the second half of the 17th
century, worked in the Netherlands, and was afterwards much employed by
William III.

This medal commemorates the unsuccessful invasions of Monmouth and
Argyll, both of whom were defeated, captured and beheaded, Monmouth in
London, 15 July, 1685, and Argyll in Edinburgh 30 July following.

    271. Naval or Military Reward, 1685. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    wearing mantle. IACOBVS II. DEI GRA. ANG. SCOT, &c. J. R.
    (monogram). _Rev._ Trophy of arms; in the distance, naval
    engagement. GENVS ANTIQVVM. Silver. Size 2·5. Struck. By J.
    Roettier.

Struck for a naval or military reward and distributed after the defeats
of Monmouth and Argyll.

    272. King's conduct towards the Church, 1688. _Obv._ Pedestal
    inscribed BRITANNIA; on it, dove, chalice, wafer, rosary
    and mitre, and in centre, Bible surmounted by cap inscribed,
    LIBERT.: above, hand from cloud with scroll, inscribed, C.
    FAGELII EPISTOLA EFFLAGITATA A I. STEWARDO. 1687. _Leg._
    LIBERTAS CONSCIENTIÆ HOC MONILI ORNATA. _Rev._ Dog wearing
    rosary swallowing book with M. I. (Magnum Juramentum) trampling
    on another with L. C. (Libertas Conscientiae) and throwing down
    from column ornamented with serpent-band a third with S. R. P.
    (Salus Religionis Protestantis) and seals T. P. (Test and Penal
    Laws). RES IMMODERATA CUPIDO EST. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size
    2·3. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

Tho Obverse represents the religious toleration of Britain; the Mitre
of the Church of England, the chalice, wafer, and rosary of Rome, and
the dove of the Nonconformists having the free Bible in their centre.
The inscribed scroll refers to the engagement by James of James
Steward, a Scottish lawyer, to write letters to the Pensionary Fagel
with a view to induce William and Mary to approve the abolition of
the Test and Penal Laws. The Reverse symbolizes James devouring his
coronation oath, trampling on the liberty of conscience, and removing
the Test and Penal Laws, which sealed the safety of the state.

    273. Trial of the Seven Bishops, 1688. _Obv._ Bust of Sancroft
    r., in robes and skull cap. GVIL. SANCROFT ARCHIEPISC. CANTVAR.
    1688. _Rev._ Medallions with portraits of the six Bishops; in
    centre, another of Bishop of London: stars in field. G. B. F.;
    on edge, SI FRACTUS ILLABATVR ORBIS IMPAUIDOS FERIENT RUINÆ.
    (Hor. Car. III. 3. 8.) Silver. Size 2. Struck. By G. Bower.

The Bishops who were committed to the Tower for opposing the
declaration of indulgence issued by James, were Sancroft of Canterbury,
Lloyd of St. Asaph, Ken of Bath and Wells, Turner of Ely, Lake of
Chichester, White of Peterborough and Trelawny of Bristol; to these
is added the portrait of Compton of London, who on account of his
opposition to James had been suspended and removed from the Council
table and Deanery of the Chapel Royal.

    274. Another. Sancroft and Pleiades, 1688. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._
    Seven stars, Pleiades in the midst of the starry heavens. QVIS
    RESTRINGET PLEIADVM DELICIAS. IOB. C. 38. Silver. Size 2.
    Struck. By G. Bower.

The seven Bishops are likened to the beneficent Pleiades.

    275. Another. _Obv._ Jesuit and Monk undermining Church founded
    on a rock supported by hand from heaven. THE GATES OF HELL
    SHALL NOT PREVAILE. (Mat. xvi. 18.) _Rev._ Seven Medallions of
    Sancroft and the six Bishops with Eng. inscr. L. AB. CAN. &c.;
    over each, mitre. WISDOM HATH BVILDED HER HOVS SHE HATH HEWEN
    OVT HER 7 PILLERS. (_Prov._ ix. 1.) Silver. Size 2·25. Cast and
    chased. Dutch, and of very coarse work.

The Church is the Church of England undermined by the Jesuits and
Monks, but protected by Heaven.

    276. Another. The Bishops imprisoned, 1688. _Obv._ The White
    Tower of London; in the distance, Bishops approaching, under
    a guard; populace on the other side. PROBIS HONORI INFAMIÆQVE
    MALIS: and in ex., names of seven Bishops with date of
    imprisonment 8/18 June and liberation 15/25 June, 1688. _Rev._
    Sun and moon equally balanced in scales suspended from clouds.
    SIC SOL LUNAQUE IN LIBRA. Silver. Size 2·3. Struck. By J.
    Smeltzing ?

The sun and moon are said to represent the King and the people equally
balanced.

    277. Another. Sancroft and Church, 1688. _Obv._ Bust of
    Sancroft l., in robes and skull cap. GVIL. SANCROFT ARCHIEP^S.
    CANT. Rev. Church on rock amidst sea, buffeted by four winds.
    IMMOTA TRIVMPHANS. Silver. Size 1·2. Struck. By G. Bower.

    278. Birth of Prince James, 1688. _Obv._ Royal shield and crown
    supported by four genii, two of whom hold shield of Cornwall
    and Prince's plume. HONOR. PRIN. MAG. BRIT. FRA. ET HIB. NAT.
    10. IVN. 1688. _Rev._ Infant Prince on cushion; above, genii
    with trumpets and holding scroll, inscribed, VENIAT CENTESIMVS
    HÆRES: in the distance, ships, &c. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck.
    By G. Bower.

Prince James (Elder Pretender) was born 10 June, 1688.

    279. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., laur., draped. IACOBUS
    II. D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERATOR. _Rev._ Queen in bed holding
    infant. FELICITAS PUBLICA; in ex., inscription giving date of
    Prince's birth, 20 June (N.S.) and stating that this medal was
    struck by order of Ignatius White, Marq. d'Albeville, &c.,
    Ambassador in Holland. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. Dutch.

Ignatius White, Marquis d'Albeville was Ambassador Extraordinary
for England in Holland at the time of the Prince's birth, which he
celebrated with much pomp and with splendid entertainments.

    280. Another. _Obv._ Truth opening door of cabinet and
    revealing Jesuit thrusting through trap child with pyx and
    crown; door inscribed, IAC. FRANC. EDUARD. SUPPOSIT. 20. IUNII
    1688; in distance, sea with ships. SIC NON HEREDE DEERUNT.
    _Rev._ Trojan horse wearing saddle-cloth, inscribed, LIBERT.
    CON^Ṣ. SINE IURAM. ET LEG. P.; on girth, ASTU; in distance,
    Troy in flames. EQUO NUNQUAM TU CREDE BRITANNE. (Cf. Virg. Aen.
    II. 48.) Silver. Size 2·25. Struck.

This medal was struck in Holland at the instigation of those who
asserted that the Prince was a supposititious child, and that Father
Petre and the Jesuits were the contrivers of the plot.

    281. Another. _Obv._ Aglauros opening basket, from which
    escapes Ericthonius, in distance two frightened women.
    INFANTEMQUE VIDENT, APORRECTUMQUE DRACONEM. _Rev._ Drooping
    withered rose-bush with two flowers; at small distance, young
    sucker. TAMEN NASCATUR OPORTET. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 1·9.
    Struck. Dutch.

The Prince is here likened to Ericthonius. As the Queen was by certain
persons held to be incapable of bearing a child, they considered the
Prince not to be of royal blood but a pretender, or as Ericthonius, to
have been produced without a mother. The rosebush with two roses is
symbolical of the King and Queen, and the sucker of the Prince, which
springs up at such a distance that its parent stock is doubtful.

    282. Antichristian Confederacy, 1688. _Obv._ Soliman III.,
    Louis XIV., the Dey of Algiers, and James swearing alliance at
    lighted altar, on side of which crescent above ☧; on the altar
    snake. SOLIMAN III. LVDOV. XIIII. MEZOMORTO. IACOBVS II. CONTRA
    CHRISTI ANIMVM. _Rev._ Three lilies supporting crescent; above,
    imp in Jesuit's cap with sword and thunderbolt. IN FŒDERE
    QUINTUS. 1688. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck. Dutch.

It was rumoured in Holland that a secret treaty had been concluded
between James and Louis XIV. called "The French league to cut
Protestants' throats in England," and also that James had allowed
some Algerine Corsairs to carry Dutch prizes into English ports.
Like-wise Louis was accused of exciting the Turks against the Germans.
As illustrating these rumours these four potentates are represented
as leaguing together against Christianity, the devil being a fifth
conspirator.

    283. Invitation to William of Orange, 1688. _Obv._ Busts
    of William and Mary jugate r., draped. _Beneath_, M. WILH.
    HENR. ET MARIA D. G. AUR. PRINC. ETC. REFORMATIONIS VINDICES;
    _above_, ATAVUM PRO LIBERTATE FIDEQUE. _Rev._ Religion under
    eye of Providence trampling upon emblems of Romanism and
    resting her l. hand on cap of liberty, placed upon open Bible
    lying on altar inscribed, SS. FIDES; in r. hand, scroll
    inscribed, LITTERÆ FAGELII. _Leg._ IAM MIHI ROMA MINAX FISTULA
    DULCE CANIT; in ex., REFORMATIO ANGLIÆ. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver.
    Size 2·45. Struck. Dutch.

When Zuleistein, who had been sent by William to congratulate James on
the birth of the Prince, returned to Holland, he brought back with him
an invitation to William numerously signed to place himself at the head
of the Protestant party in England. The reverse refers to the mistrust
of the Protestant party of the declaration of Liberty of Conscience,
and to Religion, who, claiming an open and free Bible, appeals to the
letters of Fagel as setting forth the principles of William. (See No.
272.)

    284. Flight of James, 1689. _Obv._ Bust of King l., wearing
    bag-wig, and draped. IACOBUS II. BRITAN. REX FUGITIV. _Rev._
    Column shattered by lightning; distant view of London. NON ICTV
    HVMANO SED FLATV DIVINO; in ex., SPONTE FUGIT IACOB. II. ANG.
    REX L. 20. DEC. CAPTUS 23. D. 1688. ITERUM FUGIT 2. IAN. 1689.
    S.N. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

James fled from London 20 Dec. for France, but driven back by contrary
winds, and being seized by the inhabitants of Faversham, he returned to
London, but at the desire of William of Orange, he again left 2 Jan.,
and from the Medway sailed to France.

    285. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ An oak and an orange tree,
    the former broken; behind, sea with ships and rising sun. PRO
    GLANDIBVS AVREA POMA; in ex., POST FUGAM REGIS DELATA REGNI
    ADMINISTRATIO PRINCIPI AURIA. 3. JAN. 1689. S.N. Silver. Size
    1·4. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The abdication of James is symbolized by the broken oak, and the
accession of William by the orange tree and rising sun.

    286. Another. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS
    REX. _Rev._ Belgic lion carrying flag with Christian monogram
    and staff with cap of Liberty, driving before him James with
    broken sword, and Father Petre bearing infant Prince holding
    toy-windmill; in the distance, French ship. AVT REX AVT NIHIL;
    in ex., REGIFVGIVM IAC. AD LVD. XIV. Lead. Size 1·5. Struck.
    Dutch.

Father Petre was the King's confessor and chief adviser. The Prince is
represented with a windmill, because those who disputed his legitimacy
said he was the son of a miller.

    287. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., laur. and draped.
    IACOBUS II. D. G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERATOR. _Rev._ Vixen with
    torch firing tree, in which eagle and eaglet in nest; in
    the distance, eagle carrying off fox's cub. 4. IAN. 1689.
    S.N. MAGNIS INTERDUM PARVA NOCENT. REGNO ABDICATO IN GALLIAM
    APPULIT. Silver. Size 2·35. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The intended application of the reverse design is uncertain. The vixen
may represent England driving out the King, who had deprived her of her
religious liberty.

    288. Flight of Prince James, 1688. _Obv._ Father Petre mounted
    on lobster, and holding in his arms the young Prince, on
    whose head is a windmill; in distance, ship with French flag.
    ALLONS MON PRINCE NOUS SOMMES EN BON CHEMIN; in ex., IAC.
    FRANC. EDUARD SUPPOSEE. 20. JUIN. 1688. _Rev._ Shield bearing
    windmill, surmounted by Jesuit's cap, and surrounded by rosary
    with inscription, HONI SOIT QUI NON Y PENSE; and badge, a
    lobster. LES ARMES ET L'ORDRE DU PRETENDU PRINCE DE GALLES.
    Silver. Size 1·25. Struck.

Executed in Holland and a satire on the birth of Prince James. The
lobster is a satirical allusion to the order of the Jesuits, of which
body Father Petre was a member, and whose founder having accidentally
dropped his Bible into the sea, was presented with it the next morning
by a lobster. The arms on the reverse refer to the disputed legitimacy
of the prince. (See No. 286.)

    289. Reception of James by Louis XIV., 1689. _Obv._ Head of
    Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS XIIII. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. I. MAVGER
    F. _Rev._ Gallia receiving James, his Queen and son. PERFUGIUM
    REGIBUS: in ex., IAC. II. M. BR. REX CUM REG. CONI. ET PR.
    WALLIAE IN GALL. RECEPTUS. MDCLXXXIX. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck.
    By J. Mauger.

One of the historical series of medals of Louis XIV.

    290. Another. _Obv._ Same as No. 287. _Rev._ Sun partially
    eclipsed by moon; below, landscape and sea with ships. ORBATA
    LUCE LUCIDUM OBSCURAT; in ex., LUD. XIV. GALL. REX ADMITTIT
    IAC. II. BRIT. REGEM FUG. VII. IAN. MDCLXXXIX. S.N. Silver.
    Size 2·25. Struck. By J. Smeltzing.

The sun was the emblem of Louis XIV., which is here represented as
eclipsed by the fortunes of James, the moon.

    291. Memorial of James II., 1701. Bust of King r., laur.,
    wearing armour and cloak; on shoulder, 88 (1688). IACOBVS II.
    D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX NAT. OCT. 17. 33. OB. SEP. 4.
    1701. ÆTAT. 67. Lead. Oval. Size 3·65. Cast. A plaque.

This thin plate of lead may have been intended for the lid of a box. It
was executed after the death of James probably during the reign of Anne.


STUART FAMILY.

    292. James (Elder Pretender) Prince of Wales, 1697. _Obv._ Bust
    of Prince l., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS WALLIÆ PRINCEPS.
    N.R. _Rev._ Ship, with flag of England, in distress. 1697.
    IACTATVR NON MERGITVR VNDIS. Copper. Size 1·75. Struck. By N.
    Roettier.

This and the following medals, Nos. 293—296 are supposed to have been
struck at the time of the treaty of Ryswick, when James II. in vain
attempted to have his cause advocated.

    293—294. Another. _Obv._ Head of Prince l. IAC. WALLIÆ
    PRINCEPS. N. R. _Rev._ Dove with olive-branch flying r., over
    tranquil sea. MANSVRÆ NVNTIA PACIS. 1697. Copper-gilt and
    copper. Size .95. Struck. By N. Roettier.

    295—296. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Mine exploding in a
    bastion. QVO COMPRESSA MAGIS. 1697. Copper-gilt and copper.
    Size .95. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal foretells the future success of the cause of the Stuarts.

    297. James II. and the Elder Pretender, 1699. _Obv._ Head of
    James II. r., laur. IACOBVS II. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. 1699.
    N. R. _Rev._ Bust of Prince James l., in armour and cloak. IAC.
    WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. Silver. Size 1·4. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal and the following one were struck for presentation to the
adherents of the King and Prince of Wales, who visited them in their
exile.

    298. Another. _Obv._ Bust of James II. r., laur., in armour.
    IACOBVS II. D. G. M. B. R. N. R. _Rev._ Bust of Prince James
    1., in armour. IAC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. N. R. Silver. Size 1·05.
    Struck. By N. Roettier.

    299. James, Elder Pretender and Princess Louisa, 1699? Busts
    of Prince James, in armour, and his sister, Princess Louisa,
    draped, facing each other in separate oval compartments; above
    and below, scroll work. Silver. Size 2. Embossed. A thin plaque
    of silver which may have served for the lid of a box.

    300. James (III.), Elder Pretender, 1704. Protection of Louis
    XIV. _Obv._ Bust of James l. IAC. III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. REX.
    N. R. _Rev._ Sun dispersing clouds; below, landscape and sea
    with ships. VIRTUS MOX NUBILA PELLET. 1704. Silver. Size 1·1.
    Struck. By N. Roettier.

James was under the protection of Louis XIV., who in the form of
the sun, his emblem, may be said to be dispelling the clouds, which
obscured James's prospects.

    301—302. Another. Restoration of Kingdom, 1709? _Obv._ Bust of
    James l., in armour and cloak. CVIVS EST. N. R. _Rev._ Map of
    Great Britain and Ireland with their capitals marked by initial
    letters; ships in sea. REDDITE IGITVR. Silver and copper. Size
    2. Struck. By N. Roettier.

This medal is addressed to the adherents of the House of Stuart calling
upon them to restore the kingdom to him to whom it belongs.

    303. Another. _Obv._ Similar; bust of James r., laur. N. R.
    (monogram). _Rev._ Similar. REDDITE. Silver. Size 1·45. Struck.
    By N. Roettier.

    304. Claim of Elder Pretender, 1710. _Obv._ Head of James l.,
    laur. IACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. REX. _Rev._ Sheep in
    field. COGNOSCUNT ME MEÆ. 1710. Silver. Size 1·2. Struck. By N.
    Roettier.

This medal is specially addressed to those who still supported the
Pretender's claim to the English throne.

    305. James (III.), Elder Pretender, and Princess Louisa, 1712.
    _Obv._ Bust of James l., in armour and cloak. IACOBVS III.
    D. G. M. B. &c. _Rev._ Bust of Princess Louisa l., draped.
    PRINCEPS LVD. SER. M. B. REGIS SOROR. Copper-gilt. Size 2. Cast
    and chased.

Issued for circulation amongst the partisans of the Stuarts in England.
This medal is a copy executed in England from an original by N.
Roettier.

    306. Attempts of James (III.) to recover English throne in 1708
    & 1716. _Obv._ Bust of James r., in armour and cloak. NIHIL
    EFFICIENS. _Rev._ Map of Great Britain and Ireland and ships
    in sea; dates of expeditions on Scotland. BIS VENIT VIDIT NON
    VICIT FLENSQVE RECESSIT. Silver. Size 1·3. Struck.

This medal ridicules the two ineffectual attempts of James to place
himself upon the throne of England in March, 1708, and in February,
1716.

    307—308. James (III.), Elder Pretender, and Princess
    Clementina, 1719. _Obv._ Bust of James r., in armour and cloak.
    IACOBVS III. D. G. M. B. F. &c. _Rev._ Bust of Clementina l.,
    draped, hair with jewels. CLEMENTINA MAGNAE BRITANNIAE ETC.
    REG.; on arm, OTTO HAMERANI. Silver and copper. Size 1·9.
    Struck. By O. Hamerani.[19]

[19] Otto Hamerani, younger son of Giovanni Hamerani, was, like his
father and brother Ermenegildo attached as medallist to the Papal
Court, and executed a large number of medals for Clement XII., Benedict
XIV., and Clement XIII. He also received many commissions from the
Stuart Family, especially from the Elder Pretender, who rewarded him
with handsome presents. He died 1768.

A memorial of the marriage of James with Maria Clementina,
granddaughter of John (III.), Sobieski, King of Poland.

    309. Clementina Sobieski. Escape from Innsprück, 1719. _Obv._
    Bust l., in gown and mantle, hair with jewels. CLEMENTINA M.
    BRITAN. FR. &c. OTTO HAMERANI F. _Rev._ Clementina in car drawn
    by two horses at full speed l., distant view of city, ships,
    sun rising, &c. FORTVNAM CAVSAM QVE SEQVOR; in ex., DECEPTIS
    CVSTODIBVS. MDCCXIX. Silver. Size 1·85. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The Emperor Charles VI. disapproving of the marriage of James with
Clementina, seized the latter on her way through the Tyrol and placed
her in confinement in Innsprück, from whence she escaped in male attire
and fled to Bologna, where she was married by proxy to James, who was
at that time in Spain.

    310. Birth of Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, 1720. _Obv._
    Jugate busts of James in armour, and Clementina, draped, r.
    IACOB. III. R. CLEMENTINA R. HAMERAN. _Rev._ Female figure
    (Providence) facing, holding infant on l. arm, which rests upon
    column, and with r. pointing at globe with map of Great Britain
    and Ireland. PROVIDENTIA OBSTETRIX; in ex., CAROLO PRINC.
    VALLIÆ NAT. DIE VLTIMA A. MDCCXX. Silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By
    O. Hamerani.

Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, born 31 Dec. 1720. The child's
attention is directed to the globe, on which are represented the
kingdoms, which it would be his future object to attain.

    311. Rule of the House of Hanover, 1721. _Obv._ Bust of James
    r., in armour and cloak. VNICA SALVS. _Rev._ Hanoverian horse
    trampling on British lion and unicorn: Britannia weeping, and
    fugitives carrying off their goods; in the distance, London.
    QVID GRAVIVS CAPTA. MDCCXXI. Silver. Size 1·95. Struck.

This medal satirizes the accession of the House of Hanover to the
throne of England. In the year 1721 great efforts were made to rouse
the adherents of the Stuarts into action.

    312—313. Prince Charles, Younger Pretender, and Prince Henry,
    circ. 1730. _Obv._ Bust of Prince Charles r., in armour and
    cloak; before, star. MICAT INTER OMNES. (Hor. Car. I. 12. 46.)
    _Rev._ Bust of Prince Henry l., wearing armour and ribbon.
    ALTER AB ILLO; on arm, H.; on edge, DIE XXXI. DECEMBR. MDCCXX.
    EXTVLIT OS SACRVM COELO. (Virg., Aen. VIII. 591.) Gold and
    silver. Size 1·6. Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The two Princes here represented are Prince Charles, afterwards called
the Younger Pretender, Charles III., &c., and Prince Henry, afterwards
Cardinal of York, and styled Henry IX. This medal commemorates the
birth of Prince Charles.

    314. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Prince Charles r., in armour and
    cloak; on shoulder, wolf and twins. HVNC SALTEM EVERSO IVVENEM.
    (Virg., Geo. I. 500.) _Rev._ Bust of Prince Henry r., in armour
    and cloak. TRIPLICIS SPES TERTIA GENTIS. Copper. Size 1·75.
    Struck. By O. Hamerani.

The obverse legend expresses the hopes of the adherents of the Stuarts,
that the Prince may not be prevented from restoring his family to their
rights, and that on the reverse shews the relationship of Prince Henry,
the third claimant to the triple kingdom.

    315. Arrival of Younger Pretender expected, 1745. _Obv._ Head
    of Prince Charles r. CAROLUS WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. 1745. _Rev._
    Britannia, with spear and shield, l., on shore watching
    approach of fleet. AMOR ET SPES; in ex., BRITANNIA. Copper.
    Size 1·6. Struck.

This medal was probably struck in France, when Prince Charles was
preparing for the invasion of 1745.

    316. Visit of Prince Charles to England, 1752. _Obv._ Head of
    Prince Charles r. REDEAT MAGNUS ILLE GENIUS BRITANNIÆ. _Rev._
    Similar to preceding. O DIU DESIDERATA NAVIS; in ex., LÆTAMINI
    CIVES. SEPT. XXIII. MDCCLII. Silver. Size 1·7. Struck.

Prince Charles secretly visited London in 1750, and again in 1752, when
a scheme for another invasion was planned. These visits were known to
the English court. This medal was struck by the partisans of the Prince
in France.

    317. Louisa, Countess of Stolberg, wife of Younger Pretender,
    1772. Bust of Countess of Stolberg l., draped. Silver-Oval.
    Size 1·3. Cast and chased.

Prince Charles mar. by proxy at Paris, 28 Mar. 1772, Louisa dau. of
Gustavus Adolphus, Prince of Stolberg-Goedern.

    318—319. Henry (IX.), Duke of York, Cardinal, 1788. _Obv._ Bust
    of Prince Henry in cardinal's robes and skull cap. HEN. IX.
    MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX FID. DEF. CARD. EP. TVSC. G. HAM. F.
    _Rev._ Religion holding Bible and cross; at her feet, British
    lion, &c., distant view of Rome. NON DESIDERIIS HOMINVM, SED
    VOLVNTATE DEI. AN. MDCCLXXXVIII. Silver and copper. Size 2·05.
    Struck. By G. Hamerani.[20]

[20] Giacomo Hamerani, who executed this medal, was the last of that
famous family of medallists. He worked chiefly at Rome, where he was
chief medallist to Pius VI., and where this medal was struck.

On the death of the Younger Pretender in 1788 his brother Henry assumed
the title of Henry IX., and caused this and other medals to be struck.


TOUCH-PIECES.

    320. Charles II., 1661. _Obv._ Ship in full sail l. CAR. II.
    D. G. M. B. FR. ET HI. REX. _Rev._ St. Michael and the dragon.
    SOLI DEO GLORIA. Gold. Size .85. Struck.

When the king performed the ceremony of "touching" those, who were
afflicted with scrofulous complaints, he put about the neck of each
person a white ribbon with one of these pieces on it.

    321. James II., 1685. _Obv._ Similar. IACO. II. D. G. M. B. &c.
    _Rev._ Similar. Gold. Size .75. Struck.

    322. Another. Similar: ship r., and leg. varied on obverse.
    Silver. Size .75. Struck.

James II. was the first to strike these touch-pieces in silver.

    323. James (III.), Elder Pretender, circ. 1710. _Obv._ Similar;
    type varied. IAC. III. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. R. _Rev._ Similar.
    Gold. Size .85. Struck.

This piece is of better work than those preceding. It was probably
executed at Rome, when the Stuart family was residing in that city.

    324. Henry (IX.), Duke of York, Cardinal, 1788. _Obv._ Similar.
    H. IX. D. G. M. B. F. ET H. R. C. EP. TVSC. _Rev._ Similar.
    Size .8. Struck.

The power of healing for the king's evil appears to have been claimed
by all the Stuarts. It was abandoned by George I., who, on being
applied to by a staunch adherent of the House of Hanover to touch
his son, declined to do so, and referred the applicant to the Elder
Pretender.


WILLIAM AND MARY. 1688—1695.

    325. Expedition to England, 1688. _Obv._ William in Roman dress
    r., and Britannia wearing triple crown, joining hands over
    lighted altar: behind her, orange and rose trees intertwined,
    with shield of Britain; in the distance, flight of James II.
    and Father Petre carrying Prince with toy-windmill. DEO VINDICE
    IUSTITIA COMITE. R. A. F. _Rev._ Troops landing from boats in
    fortified harbour (Torbay); in the distance, fleet. CONTRA
    INFANTEM PERDITIONIS; in ex., EXPEDITIO NAUALIS PRO LIBERTATE
    ANGLIÆ. MDCLXXXVIII. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

This medal commemorates the arrival of William of Orange at Torbay, the
expedition being undertaken to defend the liberties of England against
the Pope, who is here styled "the Son of Perdition." (See also No.
286.)[21]

[21] From this period the medals, with very few exceptions, are
_struck_, those only which are _cast_ will therefore be noticed.

    326. Landing at Torbay, 1688. _Obv._ Bust of William r., laur.,
    in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS MAGNUS; on arm, I. L. _Rev._
    William standing on cliff and superintending the disembarkation
    of troops; near him, but with flag inscribed, FOR THES (sic)
    RELIGI. AND LIBERTY. _Leg._ GUIL. NAS. IN TORBAY BRIT. Silver.
    Size 1·8. By J. Luder.[22]

[22] Jan Luder, a Dutch medallist of no special merit, executed a large
number of medals for William and also for George III., Elector of
Saxony.

This medal was struck to commemorate the landing of William at Torbay,
5 Nov. 1688. The flag on the hut was that borne by the vessel in which
William sailed.

    327. Another. _Obv._ Bust of William r., in armour, scarf, &c.;
    on arm, 1688. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. PRIN. AVR. HOL. ET WES.
    GVB. G. B. F. _Rev._ Prince on horseback at head of army drawn
    up on seashore: in the distance, fleet; and in foreground, Mars
    supporting fainting Justice. TERRAS ASTRÆA REUISIT: on edge,
    NON RAPIT IMPERIUM UIS TUA SED RECIPIT. Silver. Size 1·9. By G.
    Bower.

This medal asserts that William restored justice to England, and that
he did not seize the empire by violence, but was invited to accept it.

    328. Arrival of William. Liberty restored to England, 1688.
    _Obv._ Britannia r., welcoming Belgia armed, bearing shield of
    William; in the distance, fleet. M. BRIT. EXP. NAV. BAT. LIB.
    REST. ASSERTA. _Rev._ Eagle r., casting gosling out of nest
    on rock, in which two eaglets remain: above, another eagle,
    watching fleet in the distance. INDIGNUM EIICIT. Orange-wreath.
    Silver. Size 2·3. Dutch.

Britain retained the two daughters of James II., Mary and Anne, but
rejected the Prince, who was thought to be supposititious.

    329. Destruction of Roman Catholic Chapels in London, 1688.
    _Obv._ Busts jugate r. of William, laur., and Mary, both
    draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. ANG. FRA. ET HIB. REX ET
    REGINA FIDEI DEFENSORES, &c. G. B. F. _Rev._ Papal emblems
    burnt in Lincoln's Inn Fields; the west side is seen, with the
    Portuguese chapel in Duke Street in ruins. NEC LEX EST IUSTIOR
    ULLA. Silver. Size 2·05. By G. Bower.

The populace, enraged with the Roman Catholics, pulled down their
houses and destroyed their chapels. The Lincoln's Inn Fields' chapel
was burnt 10 Dec. 1688.

    330. Flight of James and Declaration of Parliament, 1689.
    _Obv._ Bear, wearing rosary, stung by bees from three
    overturned hives. PŒNA COMES SCELERIS; in ex., SIC LIBERTATEM
    RELIGIONEMQ. BRITANNI A SPOLIANTIBUS VINDICANT. MDCLXXXVIII.
    S. N. _Rev._ Bear wearing rosary and Jesuit's cap, driven by
    hands from heaven holding staff and cord with ring passing
    through his nose; in the distance, the Sorbonne. FORTEM VIS
    FORTIOR URGET; in ex., BRITANNIA A DUPLICI ARBITRAR. PAPALIQ.
    OPPRESSIONE LIBERATA. 1689. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

The bear on the obverse is James II., and the hives are the three
kingdoms; whilst the sting of the bees is the vote of the House of
Commons, 28 Jan. 1689, which excluded Roman Catholics from holding any
office and declared the throne vacant. The reverse type is emblematic
of the rejection of the authority of Rome by England.

    331. Liberty and Religion restored to England, 1689. _Obv._
    Bust of William r., laur., in armour and cloak. GUILLEL. III.
    D. G. PRINC. AURA. RELI. LIBER. QUE. RESTI. _Rev._ Ark of the
    Covenant, near which English and Dutch soldiers with shields of
    their countries praying, and on the other side French and Irish
    soldiers dispersed by lightnings and by warrior in clouds armed
    with shield of Nassau and thunderbolt, above whom, EMANUEL; in
    foreground, flight of Father Petre with Romanist insignia and
    the Pope carrying young Prince. Silver. Size 2·1. By J. Luder.

This medal was probably executed in 1689, a little before William's
coronation. The French king had espoused the cause of James, and
Ireland was already in a state of revolt against the Protestants, the
civil and military power having been placed by James in the hands of
the Roman Catholics.

    332. Coronation, 1689. _Obv._ Busts jugate r. of King, laur.,
    and Queen, both draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. ANG. FRA. &c.
    G. B. F. _Rev._ Perseus delivering Andromeda. PRETIVMQ. ET
    CAVSA LABORIS. 1689. Gold. Size 1·45. By G. Bower.

William and Mary were crowned 11 April, 1689. William is represented as
Perseus and England as Andromeda.

    333. Another. _Obv._ Similar. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA REX ET
    REGINA. _Rev._ Jupiter in clouds hurling thunderbolt against
    Phaethon, who falls from his chariot; earth in flames. NE TOTVS
    ABSVMATVR; in ex., INAVGVRAT. 11 AP. 1689. Gold. Size 1·45. By
    G. Bower.

Phaethon typifies James, who, unable to manage the reins of the
government, is displaced, that "the whole empire may not be destroyed."

    334. Another. _Obv._ Heads jugate r. of King and Queen, laur.
    GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA F. D. P. A. I. S. _Rev._ Papal emblems
    destroyed by lightning. HÆC SUMMA DIES; in ex., INAVGUR.
    MAIEST. 11/21 APR. 1689. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

Commemorative of the coronation of William and Mary, as destructive of
Papal power in England.

    335. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Eagle on rock casting young
    bird out of nest, in which remain two eaglets; midday sun, and
    fleet in the distance. NON PATITUR SUPPOSITITIOS; in ex., IURE
    REGNI VINDIC. MDCLXXXIX. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.
    (See also No. 328.)

    336. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r. laur., draped. WILH. III.
    D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. _Rev._ Bust of Queen l., draped,
    wearing necklace, &c. MARIA D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c.; on edge,
    CORONAT. WEST-MONAST. D. XI. APRIL. ANNO MDCLXXXIX. Silver.
    Size 1·55.

By G. Hautsch, who was a native of Nuremberg, but worked in Cologne as
well as in Holland. He died circ. 1711.

    337. Another. _Obv._ Busts jugate r. of King, laur., in armour
    and cloak, and Queen draped. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA D. G. MAG.
    BR. FR. &c. G. B. F. _Rev._ Archbishop and bishop supporting
    crown over heads of King and Queen, seated beneath canopy, each
    holding sceptre and orb; beneath, 1689. IDOLOLATRIA SERVITVTE
    PROFLIGATIS RELIGIONE LEGIB. LIBERTAT. RESTITVTIS. Silver. Size
    2·15. By G. Bower.

This medal is the official coronation-medal of William and Mary. It
was struck in gold and presented to those who had taken part in the
ceremony.

    338. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., wearing
    breastplate with name of Jehovah in Hebrew. WILHELMVs TERTIVs
    ANGLIÆ VINDEX (chronogrammatic). _I. S._ (monogram) _FECIT_.
    _Rev._ King crowned and holding sceptre and orb, kneeling
    facing on globe and looking l. towards Eye of Providence in
    clouds. DEO JUDICE; in ex., PRÆSAGIUM ARAUSIONENSE. 1665. MAG.
    BRITANNIA IMPLEVIT 11/21 APRIL. 1689. Silver. Size 2·25. By J.
    Smeltzing.

The reverse alludes to an extraordinary prodigy, which happened on 6
May, 1665. The Parliament and people of Orange being assembled in the
Circus to hear a proclamation from the Prince upon their delivery from
the oppressions of France, a crown was seen to form itself gradually
in the air, and to settle immediately over the throne which had been
prepared for the Prince. This phenomenon was witnessed by over 8000
persons.

    339. Another. _Obv._ Busts jugate r. of King, in armour, and
    Queen draped, both laur. GULIELM. REX MARIA REGINA F. D. P.
    A. I. SMELTZING. _Rev._ Orange tree intertwined with rose and
    thistle, and bearing shield, arms of Britain; on either side,
    are James and Father Petre, driven out in different directions
    by lightning from clouds, each accompanied by snake of discord.
    James drops his crown and sceptre, and Father Petre carries
    infant Prince with toy-windmill and pyx; above, ITE MISSA
    EST; in ex., INAUGURATIS MAIESTATIBUS. EIECTO PAPATU. EXPULSA
    TYRANNIDE. BRITANNIA FELIX. 1689. Silver. Size 1·9. By J.
    Smeltzing.

ITE MISSA EST are the words used in the Church of Rome at the dismissal
of the communicants after the celebration of the Mass. They here refer
to the dismissal of James and the Roman Catholics. (See also No. 286.)

    340. Another. _Obv._ Busts jugate r. crowned of King, in
    armour, and Queen draped. GVLIELM. ET MARIA D. G. M. B. F.
    &c. _Rev._ Belgic lion resting one foot on Bible, and with
    the other trampling on serpent; on ground, prostrate column
    inscribed, MAG. CART.; fleet approaching TORBAY; above,
    BRITANNIA. IN TVITIONEM RELIG. PROTES. Silver. Size 1·7. Dutch.

The reverse symbolises Holland defending the Protestant religion and
the Magna Charta of England, and indicates the arrival of William as
the means employed for that purpose.

    341. Another. _Obv._ Busts, face to face, of King laur., in
    armour and cloak, and Queen draped. MAIUS PAR NOBILE SCEPTRIS;
    in ex., G. HENR. ET MAR. PR. AUR. M. BRIT. R. 1689. _Rev._
    Britannia welcoming Belgia; same as obverse type of No. 328.
    Silver. Size 2·3. Dutch.

    342. Another. Festival at Amsterdam, 1689. _Obv._ King and
    Queen seated facing, crowned, and in royal robes: each holds
    sceptre and orb. GVILHELMVS ET MARIA REX ET REGINA. CORON.
    APR. 11/21 1689. _Rev._ The Captain, Lieutenant, and Ensign of
    the City Guard of Amsterdam standing facing; above, arms of
    city; around, inscription in Dutch, stating that "on the day of
    the coronation the guard was kept by the company of Barnard
    Muikens." Silver. Size 2·35. Cast and chased. Dutch.

During the celebration of the coronation festivities at Amsterdam, the
protection of that city was committed to the company of the City Guard
under the command of Capt. Barnard Muikens, Lieut. John Althusius, and
Ensign Sylvester van Tongeren.

    343. Peace restored to Britain, 1689. _Obv._ Busts jugate r.
    of King, laur. and in armour, and Queen draped. GVILIELMVS
    ET MARIA REX ET REGINA BRITANNIÆ. P. H. M. _Rev._ Britannia
    holding scales and cross, cap of Liberty on pole and
    cornucopiae, seated beside prow of ship, beneath rose and
    orange trees intertwined within crown. AVREA FLORIGERIS
    SUCCRESCUNT POMA ROSETIS; in ex., SECURITAS BRITANNIÆ
    RESTITUTA. 1689. P. H. M.; on edge, EXTERNO MALE PRESSA IUGO
    BRITANNIA PRIDEM IN PRISCAS ITERUM RESPIRAT LIBERA LEGES. (F.
    K.) Silver. Size 2·15. By P. H. Müller.[23]

[23] Philip Heinrich Müller, born at Augsburg 1653, was by trade a
goldsmith. At an early age he practised die-cutting, and was employed
by F. Kleinert and K. G. Lauffer of Nuremberg to execute medals. He
appears to have worked for several years at Nuremberg, and afterwards
to have returned to his native city, where he died in 1718.

This medal represents England at peace, reposing under the protection
of William and Mary, symbolised by the rose and orange trees.

One of the series of medals issued at Nuremberg by F. Kleinert and K.
G. Lauffer, the Chief Warden of the Mint of that city. In this work a
large number of foreign as well as native medallists was employed.

    344. William and Mary, 1689. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur.,
    in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. _B. K._
    (monogram) _F._ _Rev._ Bust of Queen l., draped. MARIA D. G.
    MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J.
    Boskam.

Probably struck in Holland about the time of the coronation. Jan
Boskam, the artist, executed a large number of medals for William. He
subsequently worked at Berlin, where from information supplied by his
medals he was still residing in 1705.

    345. Another. _Obv._ Similar; type varied; bust not laur.
    GVLIELMVS D. G. ANGLOR. SCOT. FRANC. &c. _Rev._ Similar; type
    varied. MARIA D. G. ANGLOR. SCOTOR. FRANCOR. &c. Silver. Size
    2·45. Dutch.

    346. Fortunes of Rebellion, 1689. _Obv._ Hydra, one head
    crowned, trampling on sword and scales. NUMERO NON IURE
    VALEBAT; below, ANNO NOVI DOMINI PRIMO. _Rev._ Female figure,
    with two heads, standing on globe perforated by serpent: one
    side of figure, with boar's head, holds axe and looks towards
    the Tower, dated 1684; the other, with human face (William),
    holds crown and looks towards Whitehall, dated 1689. ILLE
    CRUCEM, HIC DIADEMA TULIT. Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

The Hydra represents the promoters of revolution trampling on Justice
and authority. On the reverse are compared the fates of Monmouth and
William: the former executed in 1684; the latter crowned in 1689. A
boar's head langued is the crest of the Argyll family.

    347. Toleration Act, 1689. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in
    armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS REX ANGL. SCOT. FRANC. ET HYBERN.
    PATRIÆ DECVS ANGLIÆ PRÆSIDIVM. P. H. M. _Rev._ Britannia
    crowned and trampling on chains, grasping r. hand of William,
    and accompanied by Religion with Bible and cross, and Liberty
    with scroll, inscribed _Test_, &c.; near William, Belgic lion.
    TE SERVATORE NON SERVIMVS; in ex., RESTITUTORI BRITANNIÆ. 1689;
    on edge, REGIA, CREDE MIHI, RES EST, SUCCURRERE LAPSIS. (F. K.)
    Silver. Size, 1·9. By P. H. Müller.

Executed at Nuremberg to commemorate the passing of the Toleration Act,
24 May, 1689, establishing a complete freedom of worship in England to
all religious sects except the Roman Catholic. (See also No. 343.)

    348. Rebellion in Ireland. Relief of Londonderry, &c., 1689.
    _Obv._ On pedestal, bust of William r., crowned by Pallas and
    Plenty; distant view of Londonderry and ships advancing to
    relief of city: pedestal inscribed, WILHELM. MAXIMUS IN BELGICA
    LIBERATOR IN BRITANNIA RESTAURATOR. _Lib: Londonderry_ 1689.
    _Rev._ On pedestal, bust of Louis XIV., crowned by Gallia
    and Germany, who holds burning city: in the distance, towns
    besieged: pedestal inscribed, LUDOVIC. MAGNUS IN GERMANIA
    BARBARUS IN GALLIA TYRANNUS. _Obs. Mogunt. et bona._ Silver.
    Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

Commemorative of the relief of Londonderry, July 1689, and the loss to
Louis XIV. in the same year of the cities of Mayence and Bonn.

    349. Another. Danish Auxiliaries, 1689. _Obv._ Fleet at sea. B.
    M. _Rev._ A CHRISTIANO V. MISSVM WILHELMO III. AVXILIVM VII.M.
    MILITVM. MDCLXXXIX. B. M. Silver. Size, 1·7. By B. Meier.

Commemorative of a compact, 25 Aug. 1689, between William and Christian
V. of Denmark, by which the latter agreed to furnish William with 6000
foot and 1000 horse, who were to receive the same pay as like soldiers
of the English army. These were despatched to Ireland and rendered good
service to William. This medal was executed in Denmark by Barthold
Meier, the chief medallist of Christian V.

    350. William called to Ireland, 1690. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c.
    IAN LUDER FECIT. _Rev._ Neptune rising from sea, and Ireland
    with nymph on rock supplicating Jupiter to overthrow Phaethon.
    NISI TU QUIS TEMPERET IGNES. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

William, in consequence of earnest petitions, left London 4 June, 1690,
to take the chief command of the army in Ireland to oppose James.

    351. Departure of William for Ireland, 1690. _Obv._ Bust of
    King r., laur., in cloak. GULIELM. III. D. G. BRIT. REX, &c. I.
    S. _Rev._ Eagle flying towards land, bearing olive and orange
    branches and sceptre, fleet approaching shore. ALIS NON ARMIS;
    in ex., TRAIECTUS IN HIBERNI. LOND. 4/14 IUN. 1690. Silver.
    Size 1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

William landed at Belfast 14 June, 1690, with a small but
well-disciplined army.

    352—353. Mary, Regent, 1690. _Obv._ Bust of Queen r., draped.
    MARIA II. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. _Rev._ Full moon above
    landscape. EX NOCTE DIEM. Silver and copper. Size 1·9. By J.
    Croker.[24]

[24] Johann Crocker or Croker, a native of Dresden, born 1670, was
first apprenticed to a jeweller, but, having a desire to travel,
he visited Holland, and afterwards England, where he practised
die-sinking. He made such progress in his art, that in 1704 he was
appointed chief engraver to the Mint, a post which he held till his
death in 1741. His medallic portraits of the Royal family of England
during that period are very numerous.

On 7 May, 1690, Parliament passed the Regency Bill, providing that
whenever William should go out of England, it should be lawful for Mary
to administer the affairs of the kingdom in his name and her own.

    354. Another, and Action off Beachy Head, 1690. _Obv._ Heads of
    King and Queen jugate r., laur. GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA F. D.
    P. A. I. S. _Rev._ Mary l., crowned and holding trident and
    cornucopiae: in the distance, ships under repair and prisoner
    conducted to the Tower. DISSIPAT ET REFICIT; in ex., REGINÆ
    REGENTI. MDCXC. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

This medal was struck after the battle off Beachy Head, 10 July, 1690,
when Mary ordered the repairing and refitting of the English and Dutch
fleets, and committed Admiral Lord Torrington to the Tower. (See next
medal.)

    355. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Louis XIV. r., in armour and
    cloak. INVICTISSIMVS LVDOVICVS MAGNVS. _Rev._ Naval engagement;
    in front, Louis XIV., as Neptune, in naval chariot, brandishing
    trident; on car, I. S. (monogram). MATVRATE FVGAM: ILLI
    IMPERIVM PELAGI. (cf. Virg. Aen. i. 141—142); in ex., PVGNA AD
    BEVES ANG. BAT. Q. VNA FVG. D. X. IVL. 1690. Silver. Size 2·85.
    French.

Commemorative of the naval action off Beachy Head, 10 July, 1690,
in which the combined English and Dutch fleets under Admiral Lord
Torrington were defeated by the French under Tourville. For this defeat
Lord Torrington was committed to the Tower; but with a severe censure
acquitted.

    356. Battle of the Boyne, 1690. _Obv._ Bust of King r., in
    armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN.
    &c. IAN LUDER FECIT. _Rev._ Bellona, with spear and shield,
    watching battle in the distance; cavalry pursuing enemy; to r.,
    city, above which DVBLINS VICTIS AC FVGATIS HIBERNIS. Silver.
    Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

Commemorative of the battle of the Boyne, 11 July, 1690. The cavalry
charge represented on the reverse was led by William himself and
decided the fate of the engagement.

    357. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ King on horseback l.,
    commanding; in background, battle. IACOB (James II.) and LAUSUN
    are fleeing. WALKER dead in the midst of the fight on one
    side, and SCHOMBERG dead on the field on the other. APPARUIT
    ET DISSIPAVIT; in ex., LIBERATA HIBERNIA. MDCLXXXX. I. LUDER
    FECIT. Silver. Size 2·25. By J. Luder.

Incidents of the battle of the Boyne. Lausun commanded the French
auxiliaries, and when he saw the day was lost counselled James to fly.
Marshal Schomberg, and Walker the defender of Londonderry, were both
killed.

    358. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and
    cloak. GVILH. III. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRAN. &c. R. A. F. _Rev._
    William on horseback r., fording river at the head of his
    cavalry; enemy flying. ET VULNERA ET INVIA SPERNIT; in ex.,
    EIICIT IACOBUM; RESTITUIT HIBERNIAM. MDCXC. Silver. Size 1·9.
    By R. Arondeaux.

This medal commemorates William's charge at the head of his cavalry: in
the attack he had to ford the river Boyne, which was deep and dangerous.

    359. Entry of William into Dublin, &c., 1690. _Obv._ King on
    horseback l., commanding at battle, &c.; same as reverse of
    No. 357. _Rev._ King standing r., near tripod, and presenting
    cap of Liberty to Hibernia, kneeling; in the distance, James
    flying, &c. FOCOS SERVAVIT ET ARAS; in ex., EXPULS. GAL. ET
    REBEL. DUBLIN. TRIUMPHANS INTRAVIT. Silver. Size 2·25. By J.
    Luder.

Commemorative of William's triumphal entry into Dublin after the battle
of the Boyne, 16 July, 1690. This medal, by calling the Irish rebels,
gave great offence even to the partisans of William.

    360. Flight of James II. from Ireland, 1690. _Obv._ Bust
    of James l., draped, with bag-wig. IACOBUS II. BRITAN. REX
    FUGITIV. _Rev._ Stag with winged feet running l., and looking
    back. PEDIBUS TIMOR ADDIDIT ALAS. (Virg. Aen. viii. 224); in
    ex., FUGIT EX HIBERNIA. D. 12. IULII. 1690. S. N. Silver. Size
    1·9. By J. Smeltzing.

From the field of the battle of the Boyne, James fled first to Dublin,
and from thence to Waterford and Kinsale, where he embarked for France.

    361—362. Amnesty in Ireland, 1690. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    laur., draped. WILH. III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. _Rev._
    King, crowned by Victory, presents olive-branch to Hibernia
    kneeling. HIBERNIA RESTITVTA. MDCXC; on edge, ARMIS IVNGIT AMOR
    NVNC TERTIA REGNA DVOBVS. Silver-gilt and silver. Size 1·55. By
    G. Hautsch.

Commemorative of the declaration of amnesty, which William issued upon
his arrival in Dublin.

    363. Mary Regent, 1691. _Obv._ Heads jugate r., of King and
    Queen laur. GULIELM. R. MARIA REGINA. F. D. P. A. I. S. _Rev._
    Lioness l., trampling on snakes, near cave occupied by three
    cubs; lion departing. TE ABSENTE TUEBOR; in ex., REGI REDUCI.
    Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Smeltzing.

In Jan. 1691 William quitted England for Holland, leaving the Queen
Regent. The three kingdoms are represented by the cubs.

    364. William's Return to Holland, 1691. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., laur., in armour and cloak. GULIELM. III. D. G. BRIT. R.
    AR. PR. BELG. GUB. _J. S._ (monogram). _Rev._ Sun rising on
    coast of Holland; sea covered with shipping. RECREO DUM REDEO.
    MDCXCI. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Smeltzing.

William's return to Holland revived the spirit of the Dutch.

    365. Return to Holland and Rejoicings at the Hague, 1691.
    _Obv._ King and suite in open boat r.; horseman approaching it.
    QUID METUAS CÆSAREM VEHIS; in ex., REGI GUILHELMO PER GLACIEM
    NUBILA ET SYRTES REDUCI. _Rev._ Belgia and Muse witnessing
    fireworks; in the distance, triumphal arch, &c. IO TRIUMPHE;
    in ex., D. F. A. REGE RECCRTO (sic) 5 _feb^r._ 1691. D. KOENE.
    Silver. Size 1·8. By D. Koene.

After a very stormy passage, William landed on the coast of Holland
in an open boat. On approaching the shore, a countryman rode into the
water to inquire who they were, but the horseman, being an old servant
of the King, at once recognised his master. Great rejoicings and
displays of fireworks took place upon William's entry into the Hague.

    366. Triumphal Entry into the Hague, 1691. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. MAGNUS FID.
    STAT. _Rev._ Triumphal arch, with semicircular advancing wings,
    enclosing two obelisks. REG. GUILELMO ET ATAVIS PRINC.; in ex.,
    TRIUMFHOS (sic) REGIOS ET PATRIOS, &c. COSS. HAGIENSES IN FORO
    POSUERUNT. M.S. Silver. Size 2·85. By M. Smeltzing.

This triumphal arch was erected in the market-place at the Hague.
Martin Smeltzing was the younger brother of J. Smeltzing. He lived at
Amsterdam, and executed medals for William III. of England, Charles
III. of Spain, and Augustus II. of Poland.

    367. William III. and Louis XIV. contrasted, 1691. _Obv._
    William in Roman dress, holding sword and standard with
    Christian monogram and cap of Liberty resting on globe: on l.,
    shields of England, Scotland, and Ireland, arms, &c.; on r.,
    harpies flying. HIS ARMIS TRIA REGNA PARAT; in ex., GUILELMUS
    III. LIBERATOR FLORENS. _Rev._ Louis XIV. in Roman dress,
    decrepit, leaning on sword composed of coins, which rests on
    bomb-shell; above, lightnings; in the distance, Mons in flames
    and state carriage of Louis, followed by women. UNAM SIC
    OCCUPAT URBEM; in ex., LUDOVICUS XIIII. OPPRESSOR DECREPITUS.
    Silver. Size 2·05. Dutch.

William is represented as the successful protector of Religion and
Liberty, and as expelling the Harpies of Discord from the British
Isles; Louis as a decrepit oppressor, leaning on the emblems of
bribery, returning from Mons, and followed by his mistresses. Louis is
said to have obtained possession of Mons by bribery.

    368. Congress of the Allies, 1691. _Obv._ Jupiter seated in
    the midst of the Gods, in council. INGENTES ANIMO DIGNAS IOVE
    CONCIPIT IRAS CONCILIUMQVE VOCAT; in ex., CONVENTUS FŒDERAT.
    PRINCIP. PRÆSIDE GUILIELMO III. R. BRIT. HAGÆ COMIT. CELEBR.
    1691. P. H. M. _Rev._ Mars and Concordia joining hands over
    lighted altar, inscribed SAL. PVBL.; behind, Salus. CONSILIO
    CONCORDIA ET FORTITVDINE. P. H. M.; on edge, REX REGVM CONSVLTA
    DEVS FORTVNET VBIQVE (chronogrammatic). F. K. Silver. Size
    1·95. By P. H. Müller.

During William's visit to Holland a congress of Princes of the chief
States of Germany was held at the Hague, to arrange plans for resisting
France. William presided at the meetings. (See No. 343.)

    369. Rebellion in Ireland: Battle of Aghrim, 1691. _Obv._ Busts
    jugate r., laur., of King in armour and cloak, and of Queen
    draped. GULI. ET MARIA D. G. M. BRIT. FR. &c. I. SMELTZING.
    F. _Rev._ Battle-scene, cavalry engaged. HIBERNIS GALLISQ.
    DEVICTIS; below, on pedestal, PUGNA AD AGHRIM. XXII. IUL.
    MDCXCI. S. N. Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

On 22 July, 1691, General Ginckel attacked and defeated the Irish and
French troops under St. Ruth near the Castle of Aghrim. St. Ruth was
among the slain.

    370. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and
    cloak. WILHEM. (sic) III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FRANC. &c. F. D. W.
    N. C. A. P. _Rev._ Lion r., trampling on prostrate dog, and
    clawing fugitive cock. SIC UNO FERIT UNGUE DUOS; in ex., IACOBO
    ET LUDOVICO HIBERNIA PVLSIS AD AGRIM. 1691. Silver. Size 2. By
    F. D. Winter.

The Lion (England) overthrows the Irish dog and drives from Ireland the
French cock, much damaged.

This medal is the work of F. D. Winter, who was one of the engravers
of the Mint during the reign of William, for whom he executed several
medals. The letters N. C. A. P. may be the initial letters of Neale
Custos Artifex Primus, the chief official of the Mint receiving the
titles of Master and Worker. This office was filled by Thomas Neale
from 1688—1698.

    371. Taking of Athlone, Galway, and Sligo, 1691. _Obv._ Busts
    jugate r., laur., of King in armour, and Queen draped. GULIELM.
    REX MARIA REGINA. F. D. P. A. I. SMELTZING. _Rev._ Shield of
    Ireland and three medallions murally crowned, &c., of ATHLON.
    XXX. IUN: X. IUL.; GALLOWAY D. XXVI. IUL: V. AUG.; SLEGO D.
    XV. XXV. SEPT., all attached to lance, surmounted by cap of
    Liberty. ARMIS NOMINISQ. TERRORE; in ex., MDCXCI. Silver. Size
    1·95. By J. Smeltzing.

This medal commemorates the successful sieges of Athlone, Galway, and
Sligo, all three cities falling into the hands of General Ginckel, who
commanded for William in Ireland. The double dates are of the old and
new styles.

    372. Taking of Limerick, 1691. _Obv._ Busts of King and Queen
    jugate r., laur., same as No. 369. _Rev._ Fame flying r.,
    bearing wreath, palm, and mural crown; on ground, cannon,
    flags, &c.; in the distance, Limerick bombarded. NON HÆC SINE
    NUMINE DIVUM. (Virg. Aen. ii. 777); in ex., LIMR. CAPT. HIB.
    SUBACT. M. OCT. MDCXCI. Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

The surrender of Sligo was followed by that of Limerick, 2 Oct. 1791,
after a siege of nearly a month.

    373. Suppression of Rebellion in Ireland, 1691. _Obv._ Bust of
    King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG.
    BRIT. FRAN. &c. IAN LUDER FECIT. _Rev._ Hercules destroying the
    Hydra. FOECUNDAM VETUIT REPARARI MORTIBUS HYDRAM. Silver. Size
    2·8. By J. Luder.

After the battle of the Boyne one stronghold after another fell so fast
into the hands of William and his generals, that before the end of the
year Ireland was subdued. William is here likened to Hercules, who
destroyed the heads of the Hydra so rapidly that they could not recover
themselves.

    374. Pacification of Ireland, 1691. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    laur., draped. WILH. III. D. G. ANG. SCO. FR. &c. G. H. _Rev._
    Fame flying r., accompanied by genii bearing six shields, with
    plans or views of the captured cities, WATERFORT, ATHLONE,
    LIMRICH, KINSAL, LONDONDERY, and GALOWAY; beneath, William
    commanding at a battle; beyond, views of DROGHEDA and DVBLIN;
    in ex., RESTITVTORI HIBERNIÆ. MDCXCI; on edge, ANNORVM GESTA
    DVORVM CERNIS QVID PLVRES FACIENT. Silver. Size 1·6. By G.
    Hautsch.

The Pacification of Limerick, which immediately followed the surrender
of that city, terminated the Irish war.

    375. Another. _Obv._ Busts jugate r., laur., of King, in armour
    and cloak, and Queen draped. GULI. ET MARIA D. G. M. BRIT. FR.
    &c. _D. Trapentier f._ _Rev._ Lion l., trampling on Hydra;
    spaniel fawning at feet of lioness; distant view of city,
    and sea with ships. PARCERE SVBIECTIS ET DEBELLARE SVPERBOS.
    (Virg. Aen. vi. 854); in ex., HIB. PACATA CIϽϽCXCI; on edge,
    ET REGNARE PARES ET MIRÈ SE INTER AMARE. Gold. Size 2·1. By D.
    Trapentier.

This medal alludes to the attitude of the Jacobite party in England and
Ireland; the lion and lioness representing the King and Queen. It was
executed in Holland by D. Trapentier or Drapentier, who resided chiefly
at Dordrecht.

    376. William's throne established, 1691. _Obv._ England,
    Scotland, Ireland, and Orange, the two first crossing sceptres,
    standing around obelisk, decorated with medallion of William
    and crowned shield, arms of King. GUILEL. IIII. (sic) REGN. R.
    _Rev._ King in Roman dress, holding out sword, from the handle
    of which are suspended four crowns. QUATUOR EX UNO. Silver.
    Size 1·8. Dutch.

Commemorative of the conclusion of the war in Ireland, when William's
sword established his dominion over the three kingdoms, and the
Principality of Orange.

    377. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and
    cloak; above, rays; beneath, shield, arms of William, with
    supporters, crowned between laurel-branches. WILHELMUS III. D.
    G. BRITANNIARUM IMPERAT. D. K. _Rev._ Four warriors, England,
    Scotland, Ireland, and Holland, defending orange-tree; defeated
    enemies flying, and distant fleets engaged. CAUSA DEI EST; on
    edge, REGNA MARI TERRAQUE TEGIT TEGITURQUE VICISSIM. Silver.
    Size 1·45. By D. Koene.

Tranquillity being secured in Ireland, the power of William was now
supported by the four countries protecting the orange-tree.

    378. Literary Prize-medal, 1691. _Obv._ Busts jugate r., of
    King, laur., in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GVL. &
    MARIA D. G. M. BR. FR. &c. D. DRAP. _Rev._ King in Roman
    dress, seated, holding labarum; before him, Minerva, presenting
    medals to poets; behind, Fame, with shield inscr., EXP. BRIT.;
    in the background, rostral column. LIBERAL. REG. IN ERUDITOS;
    on edge, GLORIA ET FELICITAS NOVI SÆCULI. Gold. Size 1·8. By D.
    Trapentier.

These medals were presented by William to the poets, who distinguished
themselves in celebrating the expedition to Britain.

    379. War with France: Battle of La Hogue, 1692. _Obv._ Busts of
    King and Queen jugate r., laur., same as No. 369. _Rev._ Naval
    action, French ship sinking. ASSERTA MARIS IMPERII GLORIA;
    in ex., GALLORUM CLASSE DELETA D. XIX. XXIX. MAJI. MDCXCII.
    Silver. Size 2·2. By J. Smeltzing.

The battle of La Hogue extended over five days, 19—24 May, 1692.
Admirals Russell and Almonde commanded the combined English and Dutch
fleets, and Admiral Tourville the French. In this action the French
fleet was utterly defeated. Few ships were taken; but those which fled
were pursued into their ports and completely destroyed.

    380. Another. _Obv._ Busts jugate r., of King, laur., in armour
    and cloak, and Queen draped. GULI. ET MARIA. D. G. M. BRIT.
    FR. &c. R. ARONDEAUX F. _Rev._ Warrior l., holding trident
    surmounted by wreath, and leaning on shield bearing united
    hands; he is seated on lion and unicorn; shield of France
    lying at his feet; naval action in the distance. GALLIS OCEANO
    EXPULSIS A CLASSE BRITANNO-BATAVICA. MDCXCII. Gold. Size 1·9.
    By R. Arondeaux.

    381. Another. _Obv._ Admirals Russell and Almonde in naval
    car r., inscribed with their names, one holding trident with
    broom attached, the other, sword; in the distance, view of
    BARFLEUR, naval action, and LOUIS XIIII, with trident escaping
    on sea-shell drawn by frogs. PSEUDO NEPTUNO MARI EIECTO. _Rev._
    Same as preceding medal. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

The English and Dutch admirals are here represented as sweeping Louis
XIV. and his fleet off the sea.

    382. Another. _Obv._ Similar to preceding; view of Barfleur
    omitted and Louis dropping his trident. DIVUMQ. SIBI POSCEBAT
    HONOREM. (Virg. Aen. vi. 589); in ex., PSEUDO NEPT. OCEAN. EXP.
    PUGN. AD BARFL. MDCXCII. _Rev._ The blowing up of "Le Soleil
    Royal;" on stern of it, Sun and NEC PLURIB. IMP. _Leg._ NVNC
    PLVRIBVS IMPAR; in ex., BRIT. BATQ. VIRTVTE. MDCXCII. Silver.
    Size 1·4. By R. Arondeaux.

The "Soleil Royal," so called because it was decorated with the emblem
and motto of Louis XIV., bore Admiral Tourville's flag at the battle
of La Hogue; it was so much damaged in the engagement that it was run
on shore at Cherbourg and afterwards burnt to the water by Admiral
Delaval. It was the finest war-ship in Europe. The reverse legend is a
retort upon Louis's motto NEC PLVRIBVS IMPAR.

    383. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., in armour and cloak.
    GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRITT. FR. &c. _B. K._ (monogram)
    _F. Rev._ Naval action; in foreground, French cock flying
    before lion and unicorn. IMPERIVM PELAGI NOBIS; in ex., INCENSA
    GALL. CLASSE ANG. ET BAT. VICTORES. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·1.
    By J. Boskam.

This medal is a retort upon Louis XIV., who in July 1690, after the
battle off Beachy Head, claimed the empire of the sea. (See No. 355.)


    384. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., in armour and cloak.
    GULIELMUS III. D. G. M. BRIT. FRANC. &c. _Rev._ Neptune l.
    in car, striking with his trident one who has assumed his
    appearance and equipage. SIMILI PŒNA COMMISSA LUUNTUR. (cf.
    Virg. Aen. i. 140); in ex., MIHI SORTE DATUM. (Virg. Aen. i.
    143.) Silver. Size 2·85. By J. Luder.

William is here represented as Neptune, punishing Louis, who had
claimed the empire of the sea.

    385. Taking of Namur by the French, 1692. _Obv._ Bust of Louis
    XIV. r., laur., in armour and cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGN. GALL. REX
    PIVS AVG. S. _Rev._ Louis XIV. on horseback r., accompanied by
    his staff, receiving the surrender of the garrison of Namur;
    city and army of the Allies in the distance. AMAT VICTORIA
    TESTES; in ex., NAMVRCVM EXPVGNAT. SPECTANTE AVRIACO ET BAVARO
    CVM CENT. ARMATOR. MILLIB. XXX. IVN. MDCXCII. Silver. Size
    2·35. French.

Namur surrendered to Louis XIV. 30 June, 1692, in the sight of William
and the Duke of Bavaria, who arrived at the head of an army of 100,000
men too late to relieve the city. This medal is one of the historical
series of Louis XIV. (See No. 401.)

    386. Battle of Steinkirk, 1692. _Obv._ Bust of Louis XIV. r.,
    laur., in armour and cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX CHRISTIANISS.
    R. _Rev._ French soldier striking prostrate foe, whom he holds
    by cravat amid standards, &c. on field of battle. VIRTVS
    PEDITVM FRANCORVM; in cx., PVGNA AD STENKERCAM. MDCLXXXXII.
    MOLART F. Copper. Size 2·85. By Joseph Roettier and Molart.

On 3 August, 1692, by means of false information, William hoped to
surprise the French under Luxembourg and to drive them from their
position at Steinkirk. The project miscarried chiefly through the
misconduct of Count Solmes, who failed to support the English guards,
and the Allies were compelled to retreat with the loss of 7000 men.

    387. Execution of Grandval, 1692. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    laur., in armour and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. _B.
    K._ (monogram) _F. Rev._ Monument, on which executioner gives
    the _coup de grâce_ to malefactor; on either side, poles and
    gallows with quarters and head of offender: monument inscribed,
    BARTHELEMI DE GRAND VAL. AVRO LVDOVICÆO PERCVSSOR EMTVS
    GVILELM. III. M. BRIT. REGVM (sic) FRVSTRA PERFODER. CONATUS,
    &c.; in ex., XIII. AVG. MDCXCII. Silver. Size 2·35. By J.
    Boskam.

Grandval, a French captain of dragoons, was engaged to shoot William
with the knowledge and sanction of James and Louis. He was caught in
the camp of the Allies and executed.

    388. Battle of Landen, 1693. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Falcon
    pouncing upon a heron, who receives it upon its beak: in the
    distance, view of towns and battle. FORTI SIC VICTOR VINCITVR
    ART.; in ex., XXIX. IVL. MDCXCIII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size
    2·3. By J. Boskam.

The heron when hard-pressed receives the falcon on its beak: so
William, attacked by Luxembourg at Landen, resisted the onslaught so
successfully that although victorious the French general was compelled
to abandon the original plan of the campaign.

    389. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Louis XIV. r., in armour and
    cloak. LVDOVICVS MAGNVS REX CHRISTIANISSIMVS. R. _Rev._ Trophy
    of flags and arms, surmounted by laurel-wreath. CAESA HOST. XX.
    MILL. TORMENTA BELL. CAPT. LXXVI. SIGNA RELATA XC.; in ex., DE
    FOEDERATIS AD NERVINDAM. MDCXCIII. MOLART F. Copper. Size 2·7.
    By Joseph Roettier and Molart.

The French commemorative medal of the battle of Landen.

    390. Defeats of William, 1693. _Obv._ Bust of King l., in
    bag-wig, wearing armour. GVLIELMVS III. D. G. BRITANN REX.
    _Rev._ Arm from heaven, sleeve ornamented with fleurs de lis,
    beating drum; horsemen flying l. MON SORT EST D'ESTRE BATTV.
    Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

Satirical of the defeats of William at Namur, Steinkirk, Landen, &c.
The headdress (bag-wig) of William is similar to that of the portraits
of James II., on medals recording his flight. (See No. 360.)

    391. Expedition to Brest, 1694. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r.
    LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. _Rev._
    Minerva armed, facing, head r., on seashore; to left, naval
    trophy. CUSTOS ORAE AREMORICAE; in ex., BATAV. ET ANGL. AD
    LITTUS AREMORICUM CAESIS. MDCXCIV. Silver. Size 1·6. By J.
    Mauger.

Commemorative of the failure of the attempt upon the coast of France,
near Brest, under Admiral Earl of Berkeley and General Talmash, in June
1694. The plan of the expedition was revealed to James by Marlborough
and Godolphin. This medal is one of the historical series of Louis XIV.

    392. Prince of Baden in London, and Bombardment of Dieppe,
    1694. _Obv._ William l., receiving Prince of Baden at his
    palace-gates: in foreground, Silence seated r., near shields
    of Germany and England, surmounted by cap of Liberty. REC.
    P. BADENS. LOND.; in ex., IUNXIT LIBERTAS AUXIT SECRETUM. X.
    IAN. MDCXCIV. _Rev._ Neptune in sea-chariot l. before Dieppe,
    bombarded by fleet. ET PROXIMVS ARDET VCALEGON. (Virg. Aen. ii.
    311); in ex., DIEPPA AB ANGLIS & HOLLANDIS INCENTA. D. XXII.
    XXIII. IVL. 1694. Silver. Size 2. By J. Boskam.

In order to counteract the intrigues of Louis XIV., the Emperor of
Germany sent the Prince of Baden to England, Jan. 1694, to take counsel
with William. In July 1694 Dieppe was bombarded by the combined English
and Dutch fleets. This medal is composed of the reverses of two
separate medals.

    393. Bombardment of Havre, 1694. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur.,
    in armour and cloak. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c.
    I. BOSKAM F. _Rev._ Bull of Perillus being heated over flames;
    in the distance, Havre burning and boats advancing. SVIS PERIT
    IGNIBVS AVCTOR; in ex., PORTVS GRATIÆ EXVSTVS ET EVERSVS
    BOMBARD. ANGLO. BATAV. MDCXCIIII. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·35.
    By J. Boskam.

Havre was bombarded by the English and Dutch fleets from 26 to 28 July,
1694. The bombardment of this and other places, in retaliation for
that of Genoa, Charleroy, and Liège by the French, is compared to the
destruction of Perillus, who perished in his own brazen bull, which
he had invented for the burning of the victims of Phalaris, tyrant of
Agrigentum.

    394. Bombardment of Dunkirk, &c., 1694. _Obv._ King in Roman
    dress r., holding thunderbolt. IOVI TONANTI; in ex., GUILIELMO
    III. D. G. M. BRITANN. REGI. _Rev._ Ships bombarding towns
    on sea-coast; above, sun. URBES ASPICIT ACCENSAS, NEC TANTOS
    SUSTINET ÆSTUS. (cf. Ovid. Met. ii. 228); in ex., VIBRATA IN
    MARITIMAS GALLIÆ URBES FULMINA. 1694. Gold Size 1·7.

This medal records the bombardment of Dunkirk, Calais, and other places
on the French coast, by the English fleet under Sir Cloudesley Shovel,
in Sept. 1694.

    395. Huy taken, 1694. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour
    and cloak. INVICTISSIMVS GVILLELMVS MAG. _Rev._ Duke of
    Holstein on horseback l., commanding at siege of Huy. FVGITE
    HINC TESTES A LIMINE BELLI; in ex., HVYA CVM ARCE ET FORT.
    PICARD. ET RVBEO EXP. A. D. HOLSAT. PLEVN D. EXERC. FOED.
    XXVIII. SEPT. MDCXCIIII. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J.
    Boskam.

The capitulation of Huy (Belgium), 28 Sep. 1694, was followed by
the capture of the Picart and Red Forts. The Duke of Holstein Pleun
commanded at the siege.

    396. Death of Mary, 1695. _Obv._ Bust of Queen r., draped,
    wearing tiara. MARIA II. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. I. BOSKAM
    F. _Rev._ Monument, on which are seated the three Fates,
    decorated with medallion of Queen and reliefs representing
    funeral procession. VNICA DIGNA DEO; in ex., VIVIT POST FVNERA
    VIRTVS. MDCXCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J. Boskam.

Mary died on the 7th Jan. 1695.

    397. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Monument of two small
    obelisks and larger one in centre, decorated with medallion
    of Queen, inscription, &c.; pedestal ornamented with reliefs
    representing sacrifice. COELITVS DATA. COELITVS RECEPTA.
    MDCXCV. I. B. F. Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

    398. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Unicorn springing r., up
    steep rock; beneath, dead snake, scorpion, toads, &c. EX OCVLIS
    EREPTA POST DELETA VENENA; in ex., MARIA ORBIS BRITANNICI
    DELICIAE ET SOLATIVM DESIDERATA. VII. IAN. MDCXCV. I. B. F.
    Silver. Size 2·35. By J. Boskam.

The apotheosis of Mary is represented under the form of a unicorn
springing up to heaven. This animal, by thrusting its horn into the
water which it was about to drink, was supposed to destroy all venomous
and noxious matter.

    399. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen r., draped, wearing tiara,
    &c. MARIA D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRANC. &c. R. ARONDEAUX F. _Rev._
    Queen lying in state; King seated at foot of couch weeping,
    surrounded by bishops and nobles. POPULIS LIBERATIS EREPTA
    OBIIT. VII. IAN. MDCXCV. Silver. Size 1·9. By R. Arondeaux.

In her last moments Mary was attended by Archbishop Tenison and other
divines.


WILLIAM III. 1695—1702.

    400. War with France: Unsuccessful attempt on Dunkirk,
    1695. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX
    CHRISTIANISSIMUS. J. MAVGER F. _Rev._ Dunkirk bombarded; vessel
    sinking, &c. DUNKERCA ILLÆSA. MDCXCV. Silver. Size 1·6. By J.
    Mauger.

In August 1695 the combined English and Dutch fleets made an
unsuccessful attempt to bombard Dunkirk. This medal is one of the
historical series of Louis XIV.

    401. Retaking of Namur, 1695. _Obv._ Bust of King r., same as
    No. 395; below, _B. K._ (monogram) _F. Rev._ King on horseback,
    commanding at siege of Namur. CORAM C.M. HOST. REPRES.; in ex.,
    NAMURC. URBS ARX CAST. INVIA VI EXPUGN. 1. SEPT. MDCXCV. I. B.
    F. By J. Boskam.

Namur, taken by the French in 1692, was retaken by William in Sept.
1695. The city surrendered in the sight of a French reinforcement of
100,000 men, which arrived just too late. (See the converse event, No.
385.)

    402. Another. _Obv._ King radiate as the sun, on horseback,
    galloping r.; beneath, view of city, NAMVRCVM.----Q. GALLOS
    EIECIT HISPANOS RESTITVIT HOSTES TERRVIT SOCIOS FIRMAVIT
    ASSERTVS ORBIS. _Rev._ Fame flying r., her trumpet decorated
    with flag, on which arms of William; below, GVILIELMO III.
    MAXIMO, &c. Gold. Size 2·2.

A complimentary medal to William on the taking of Namur.

    403. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., laur., in armour and
    cloak. GVILIELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT. FRAN. &c. L. _Rev._
    River-god (the Meuse), reclining r., near Namur, bombarded.
    NAMVRC. RECEPT.; in ex., IN SOLIDO RVRSVS FORTVNA LOCAVIT.
    CIϽIϽCXCV. Copper. Size 1·95. By J. Luder.

    404. Plot to assassinate the King, 1696. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., laur., armed with shield, inscribed with name of Jehovah
    in Hebrew and NON LÆDITVR QVEM TEGO. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG.
    BRIT. FRANC. &c. _Rev._ Six furies holding daggers, torches,
    and snakes, restrained by cords from heaven. DEXTRA LATENS
    COERCET. MDCXCVI. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·5. By J. Boskam.

This medal commemorates the conspiracy of Sir George Barclay, who, with
about forty accomplices, formed a plot to murder the King, on 3 March,
1696, on his return to Kensington from the hunt at Richmond.

    405. Another. _Obv._ Jugate heads of Louis XIV. and James
    II. r. HERODES ATQVE PILATVS. ACTOR, IV. 26. _Rev._ Within
    enclosure, Louis and James holding purse and daggers, Father
    Petre with pyx, and the young Prince riding on lobster; outside
    enclosure, conspirators in wood and 40; in the distance, fleet;
    beneath, GENESIS XLIX. 5, 6. IRRITA CONSPIRATIO; in ex.,
    ADVERS. GVILIELMVM III. ANGLIAE REGEM. 3. MART. 1696. Silver.
    Size 1·65.

The conduct of James II. and Louis XIV. is likened to the
reconciliation of Herod and Pilate. The reverse refers to the bribery
of the conspirators, and the figures 40 to the number of those engaged
in the plot, the whole scene being explained by a reference to Genesis
xlix. 5, 6, where the conduct and characters of Simeon and Levi are set
forth. (See also No. 288.)

    406. Peace of Ryswick, 1697. _Obv._ Belgic lion crowned r.,
    holding olive-branch, sword and scales, and resting on globe.
    HINC PAX VNDE ÆQVITAS; in ex., ANGLORVM GLORIA REGE WILHELMO
    III. MDCXCVII. I. B. F. _Rev._ Palace of Ryswick. PAX HVIC
    DOMVI; in ex., PAX GENER. IN ARCE RYSWYK DOMO PRINCIP. ARAVS.
    MAG. BRIT. REGIS. MDCXCVII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·35. By
    J. Boskam.

The war with France was terminated by the Treaty of Ryswick, concluded
between England, Holland, Spain and France, 30 Sept. 1697, Germany
assenting 31 Oct. following. The treaty was mediated by Charles XII.
of Sweden, at the palace of Ryswick, and by it France acknowledged
William's claim to the English throne, &c.

    407. Another. _Obv._ Head of King r., laur. INVICTISSIMVS
    GVILLELMVS MAG. I. BOSKAM F. _Rev._ Four right hands from
    clouds united to form a cross. COEVNT IN FOEDERA DEXTRAE. I.
    BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 1·45. By J. Boskam.

The four hands represent the chief contracting Powers, Germany, France,
England, and Holland.

    408. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Corn growing within helmet.
    PACIS ALVMNA CERES; in ex., MDCXCVII. Silver. Size 1·45. By J.
    Boskam.

The corn growing from the helmet is meant to signify its disuse for
military purposes.

    409. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., wearing armour
    and cloak. GVLIELMVS III. DEI GRA. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. _Rev._
    Britannia wearing naval crown, seated l., holding trident and
    resting on shield of St. George; beside her, olive-branch
    on Bible and broken yoke. RESTITVTORI; in ex., BRITANNIA.
    MDCXCVII. Silver. Size 2·7. By J. Croker.

This medal is symbolical of the state of England after the Peace of
Ryswick. Empress of the sea, victorious on land, she throws off the
yoke of Popery, and gives freedom of worship to her subjects.

    410. Another. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r., laur. LVDOVICVS
    MAGNVS R. CHRIST. F. P. SEMP. VICT. _Rev._ Obelisk inscribed by
    Fame, Janus-headed, and decorated with medallion of Louis, held
    by armed female figure, who also restrains Pegasus; on each
    side, flags, &c.; on base, HILARITAS P. G. PACE PUB. RYSWIK AD
    NUT. REGIS STABILITA MDCIIIC; on moulding, BARCELONNE and ATH.;
    around, FINITA TROPHŒIS BELLA. Silver. Size 2·75. French.

One of the French commemorative medals of the Peace of Ryswick. The
names on the moulding record two of the successes obtained by French
arms during the negotiations at Ryswick; these were the capitulation of
Ath, near Brussels, to Marshal Boufflers, 7 June, 1697, and also that
of Barcelona to the Duc de Vendôme, 10 Aug. following.

    411. New Collar presented to Dublin, 1698. _Obv._ Bust of King
    r., in armour and cloak. GVLIELMVS TERTIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT.
    FRAN. &c.; on arm, _James R. F._ _Rev._ GVLIELMVS III. ANTIQVAM
    ET FIDELEM HIBERNIÆ METROPOLIN. HOC INDVLGENTIÆ SVÆ MVNERE
    ORNAVIT. BARTH. VAN HOMRIGH ARM. VRB. PRÆTORE. MDCXCVIII.
    Silver. Size 3·3. By James Roettier.

The collar which Charles II. had presented to the Lord Mayor of
Dublin having been carried off by Sir Michael Creagh, William in 1698
presented a new one to the city, Bartholomew van Homrigh being the Lord
Mayor for that year.

    412. Darien Expedition, 1700. _Obv._ Highlander (Capt.
    Campbell) in helmet and scale armour, advancing towards the
    storming of fort seen in the distance; above, on ribbon
    ornamented with compass, QUID NON PRO PATRIA; in ex.,
    TOUBOCANTI UBI 1600 HISPAN. FUDIT DUX ALEXANDER CAMPBELL. MDCC.
    8. FEBR. M. S. _Rev._ Shield, arms of the East African Company,
    with supporters and crest; above, on scroll, QUA PANDITUR
    ORBIS; below, VIS UNITA FORTIOR. Silver-gilt. Size 2·2. By M.
    Smeltzing.

This medal records the storming of Toubican by Captain Alexander
Campbell, who, with a small force of volunteers, assisted the colonists
on the Isthmus of Darien against the attacks of the Spaniards. This
medal, struck in gold, was presented to Capt. Campbell by the East
African Company.

    413. Death of William III., 1702. _Obv._ Bust of King r.,
    laur., in armour and cloak. WILHELMVS III. D. G. MAG. BRIT.
    FRANC. &c. I. BOSKAM F. _Rev._ Eagle flying to mountains; sun
    setting. NON NISI SOLE OCCIDVO REVOLAT; in ex., MORITVR ANNO
    MDCCII. XIX. MARTII. I. BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 2·3. By J.
    Boskam.

William died 19 March, 1702. He is here likened to the eagle, who at
sunset returns to its native mountains.

    414. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and
    cloak. GULIELM. III. TRISTI DOLENDUS IN ÆVO. M. SMELTZING.
    _Rev._ Eagle flying r. from Temple of Janus with open doors; on
    r., military standards held by hands. INVICTA VIRTUTE RESURGET
    NAT. HAGAE COMITIS D. XIV. NOV. 1650. DENAT. KENSINGTON D. XIX.
    MARTII. 1702. M. S. F. Silver. Size 1·9. By M. Smeltzing.

The open doors of the temple are indicative of the war which, owing to
the encroachments of Louis XIV., threatened Europe at the time of the
King's death.

    415. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and
    cloak. DIV. GVIL. III. BRIT. CÆS. BATAV. GVB. R. A. _Rev._
    Britannia and Holland, with their shields, seated before
    funeral pyre, with commemorative inscription; above, three
    signs of the zodiac,—Scorpio, Leo (as Lion of Nassau), and
    Libra. REDII IAM VOS VIGILATE. Silver. Size 1·9. By R.
    Arondeaux.

    416. Memorial of William III. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur.,
    in armour and cloak. IN PIAM MEMORIAM GVLIELMI REGIS 3. _Rev._
    Within border composed of arms, flags, &c., crowned harp. Gold.
    Size 2·45. Cast and chased; with ring for suspension. By J.
    Croker.

This medal was presented, with a grant of land, to Jeremiah Scott of
Scots Hall, Kent, for services rendered at the battle of the Boyne. The
portrait is the same as on No. 409.

    417. Frederick, Marshal Schomberg, 1690. _Obv._ Bust, three
    quarters r., in armour. FRIDERICUS MARESCHALCUS SCHOMBERG,
    &c.; on arm, P. H. M. _Rev._ Schomberg in Roman dress,
    holding shield with Christian monogram, planting his club,
    which takes root and flourishes; at his feet, cornucopiae
    with money, and ducal coronet; behind, pyramid, against which
    five shields,—France, Empire, Scotland, Spain, and Ireland,
    the scenes of his career. PLANTAVIT UBIQUE FERACEM; in
    ex., CONTINVATIS TRIVMPHIS OBDVRATA IN DEVM FIDE IN HIBER.
    MILITANTI. 1690. Edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·95. By P. H.
    Müller.

Marshal Schomberg, who commanded for William in Ireland, was killed
at the battle of the Boyne, 11 July, 1690. (See No. 357.) Schomberg
is here represented as Hercules, who at the conclusion of his labours
planted his club, which was transformed into an olive-tree.

One of the series of medals issued at Nuremberg by Kleinert and
Lauffer. (See No. 343.)


ANNE. 1702—1714.

    418. Accession, 1702. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., crowned, draped,
    wearing collar of Garter and George. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAG.
    BRITAN. FRA. &c. _Rev._ Statue of Anne as Pallas, armed with
    spear and shield. NOVÆ PALLADIVM TROIÆ. Silver. Size 2·7. By J.
    Croker.

Anne succeeded to the throne 8 March, 1702. This medal refers to the
promise made by Anne to the States General, that she would assist
Holland in resisting the encroachments of France.

    419—420. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., crowned and draped.
    ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. _Rev._ Heart crowned, within
    branches of laurel and oak, resting on pedestal inscribed,
    ATAVIS REGIBVS: ENTIRELY ENGLISH. Gold and silver. Size 1·35.
    By J. Boskam.

On receiving an address of congratulation from both Houses, Anne
declared that she would prosecute the measures concerted by the late
King.

    421. Prince George of Denmark. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour and
    cloak. GEO. DAN. PR. M. ADM. ET DVX SVP. ANGLIAE; in ex., NAT.
    21. APRIL. 1655. DENAT. 8. NOVEMB. 1708; on arm, RÖG. _Rev._
    CELSISSIMUS PRINCEPS GEORGIUS, MAGNI REGIS FILIUS, &c. Silver.
    Size 1·9. By M. Rög.

Prince George of Denmark, consort of Anne, born 1655, died 1708, was on
the accession of Anne made Commander-in-chief of the army and Lord High
Admiral. This medal was executed in Denmark by Michael Rög, who worked
at Copenhagen till 1715, about which time he went to Paris, where he
earned considerable reputation as a medallist.

    422. Coronation, 1702. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D.
    G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. _Rev._ Pallas r., hurling thunderbolt at
    two-headed monster, armed with clubs and stones. VICEM GERIT
    ILLA TONANTIS; in ex., INAVGVRAT. XXIII. AP. MDCCII. Gold. Size
    1·35. By J. Boskam.

Anne was crowned 23 Apr. 1702. This medal was struck for distribution
to those present at the coronation.

    423. War of the Spanish Succession: Capitulations of towns On
    the Meuse, &c., 1702. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., crowned and
    draped. ANNA DEI GRA. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. _Rev._ Liège bombarded.
    VIRES ANIMVMQVE MINISTRAT; in ex., CAPTIS COLONIA TRAJANA,
    VENLOA, RVREMVNDA, STEPHANOVERDA, LEODIO. MDCCII. Silver. Size
    1·45. By J. Boskam.

At the opening of the campaign in 1702, Marlborough in a very short
time captured Kaiserwerth, Venloo, Ruremonde, Stevenswart, and Liège.

    424. Expedition to Vigo Bay, 1702. _Obv._ Neptune in
    sea-chariot r., and Victory holding scroll inscribed with
    names and list of French and Spanish ships taken or destroyed;
    below, three sea-genii, with shields of England, Germany, and
    Holland. HIS MILITAT AETHER; in ex., OB CLASSEM HOSTIVM DELEDAM
    (sic) GAZASQVE INDICAS EREPTAS IN PORTV AD VIGOS. D. 22. OCT.
    CIϽIϽCCII. G. F. N.; and on car, G. H. _Rev._ Vigo harbour;
    within, French and Spanish fleets; outside, those of England
    and Holland; on land, troops and fortifications. ET CONIVRATI
    VENIVNT AD CLASSICA VENTI. Silver. Size 1·85. By G. Hautsch
    and G. F. Nürnberger.[25]

[25] G. F. Nürnberger, the medallist, lived at Nuremberg and was
engaged on the series of medals issued by Kleinert and Lauffer. (See
No. 343.)

On 22 Oct. 1702 the combined English and Dutch fleets, under Sir George
Rooke, with 12,000 troops, commanded by the Duke of Ormond, attacked
and destroyed the French and Spanish fleets in Vigo Bay, capturing a
large booty.

Gold and silver coins struck from bullion taken in the engagement bear
under the bust of the Queen the inscription VIGO.

    425. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG.
    BR. FR. &c. I. BOSKAM F. _Rev._ French and Spanish fleets
    within harbour, attacked by those of England and Holland. GALL.
    HISP. Q. CLASS. EXPUG. COMB. CAPT.; in ex., BRIT. BATAV. Q.
    EXPEO. (sic) AD VIGOS. MDCCII. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The previous medal represents the position of the belligerents before
the battle, this one during the engagement.

    426. Capitulation of Bonn, 1703. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Bonn
    besieged; Marlborough in foreground on horseback l.,
    commanding. BONA A MALIS EREPTA; in ex., COCIALIBUS (sic) ARMIS
    IDIB. MAII. MDCCIII. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

Bonn surrendered to Marlborough on the 14 May, 1703, after a siege of
less than a fortnight.

    427. Another: Baron de Cohorn, 1703. _Obv._ Bust of Cohorn,
    three quarters r., in armour. MENNO BARO DE COEHOORN SVMMVS
    APVD BATAVOS ARMORVM PRÆFECTVS, &c.; on arm, _H. Rev._ View
    of Bonn besieged. SIC IGNE DOMATA FEROCI (chronogrammatic);
    in ex., UT TONUS EVERTIT TUBARUM MOENIA QUONDAM, SICQ. TONANS
    COEHORN, MOENIA, BONNA TUA. G. F. N.; on edge, E MALA BONNA
    DIU, SIC BONA FACTA BREVI. Silver. Size 1·85. By G. Hautsch and
    G. F. Nürnberger.

Baron Menno de Cohorn, the celebrated engineer, commanded the Dutch
troops at the siege of Bonn, and superintended the operations of the
attack. Died 1704.

    428. Capture of Gibraltar, 1704. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. _Rev._ Neptune in
    sea-chariot l., presenting trident with crown, and mural crown
    to Britannia on rock. VICTORIÆ NAVALES; in ex., CALPE EXPVG. ET
    GALL. VICT. MDCCIV. Gold. Size 1·55. By J. Croker.

Sir George Rooke and the Prince of Hesse, with a small force of sailors
and marines, captured Gibraltar 3 Aug. 1704.

    429. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG.
    BR. FR. &c. P. H. M. _Rev._ Neptune stepping l. from shell,
    presenting shell and trident to Britannia, seated on arms,
    holding Victory; above, Victory, with wreaths; on r., inscribed
    trophy. MARIS IMPERIVM ASSERT. PORTV GIBRALTAR CAPTO CLASSE
    GALL. FVGATA; in ex., VIRTVS ANGLORVM VICTRIX PERPETVA. 1704.
    Edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·75. By P. H. Müller.

Sir G. Rooke was under the impression that the French fleet had sought
safety in flight; such was not the case, as the Count de Toulouse, who
commanded the Brest fleet, in proceeding to Toulon had actually passed
the English fleet, the circumstance being unknown to both Admirals. One
of Kleinert and Lauffer's series of medals. (See No. 343.)

    430. Victory of Blenheim, 1704. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.;
    same as No. 425. _Rev._ View of battle-field, Marlborough on
    horseback r., commanding. DE GALL. ET BAV. ITERVM AD DANVB.
    MARLB. DVCE; in ex., DELETO HOST. ING. EXERC. MDCCIIII. Silver.
    Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The battle of Blenheim was fought 13 Aug. 1704. The Allies were
commanded by Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and the French and
Bavarians by Marshals Tallard and Marsin, and the Elector.

    431. Another. _Obv._ Busts of Prince Eugene and Marlborough
    in armour, face to face. EUGENIUS D. SABAUDIAE. IOH. D.
    MARLEBOROW; beneath, HIC POLLUX, HIC CASTOR ADEST, &c. _Rev._
    Battle-scene; in foreground, Eugene and Marlborough driving
    enemy into the Danube, DONAV, and Marshal Tallard giving up
    his sword; above, Fame with two trumpets. PIACULA TEMERITATIS
    GALLICAE; in ex., inscr. giving date of battle, XIII. AUG.
    MDCCIIII, &c. Silver. Size 2·2. Executed in Holland.

    432. Duke of Marlborough, 1706. _Obv._ Bust towards r., head
    facing, wearing armour and collar of Garter and George. IOH.
    D. G. S. R. I. PR. D. MARL. EXERC. ANGL. C. G. _Rev._ Soldier
    running l., bearing captured arms and shields of Brabant,
    Flanders, and the Marquisate of the Empire; around, prostrate
    foes. PRETIVM NON VILE LABORVM; in ex., GALLIS ACIE DEVICTIS
    BRABANTIA FLANDR. ET ANTWERP. XV. DIER. SP. EREPT. 1706; on
    edge, MARTE FEROX ET VINCI NESCIVS ARMIS. VIRG. (Ovid. II. Ep.
    ex P. ix. 45.) Silver. Size 1·45.

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, the celebrated general, born 1650,
created Earl 1689, Duke 1702, died 1722. This medal was struck in 1706,
after the conquest of Brabant and of Spanish Flanders, and after the
capture of Antwerp. It is placed out of chronological order, being
selected for the portrait of Marlborough.

    433. Prince Eugene of Savoy, 1704. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour
    and collar of Golden Fleece. EVGENIVS FRANC. DVX SAB. CÆS.
    EXER. GENER. COMM. _Rev._ Angel with flaming sword destroying
    the army of Sennacherib. GENII VIRTVTE BONI. II. REG. 19; in
    ex., GALLIS BAVARISQ. CÆSIS TALLARDO CUM X. MILI. AD HOCHSTAD
    CAPT. 1704; edge inscribed. Silver. Size 1·45.

Francis Eugene, Duke of Savoy, the distinguished general, born 1663,
died 1736; commanded with Marlborough in the war of the Spanish
Succession. This medal was struck after the victory of Blenheim, 1704.

    434. Naval engagement off Malaga, 1704. _Obv._ Head of Toulouse
    r. LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE BOURBON COMTE DE TOULOUSE AMIRAL DE
    FRANCE, GAYRARD F. _Rev._ Victory in galley l., inscribing
    shield attached to mast; at her feet, arms and flags. BRITANNIS
    BATAVIS QUE DEVICTIS; in ex., XXIV. AOUST. MDCCIV. DE PUYMAURIN
    D. GAYRARD F. Copper. Size 2·65. By De Puymaurin and R. Gayrard.

After the capture of Gibraltar, Sir G. Rooke proceeded to the coast of
Malaga, where he attacked, 14 Aug. 1704 (old style), the French fleet
under the command of the Count de Toulouse. On the third day the French
retired, the affair ending in a drawn battle; the French, however,
claimed a victory. The Count de Toulouse was a natural son of Louis
XIV., b. 1678, d. 1737. This is probably a centenary medal.

    435—436. Queen Anne's Bounty, 1704. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    laur. and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c. I. C. _Rev._
    Anne seated r., on throne, presenting charter to bishops
    kneeling. PIETAS AVGVSTÆ; in ex., PRIMITIIS ET DECIMIS ECCLESIÆ
    CONCESSIS. MDCCIV. Gold and silver. Size 1·7. By J. Croker.

By letters patent, 3 Nov. 1703, Anne restored to the Church such
portion of the "First Fruits" and "Tenths" of the larger benefices as
still formed part of the revenues of the Crown. A Bill was subsequently
passed, authorizing this alienation of the royal revenue, and
empowering the Queen to create a corporation, in which she could invest
the fund for the augmentation of poor livings and for the erection of
parsonage-houses.

    437. War of the Spanish Succession: Projects of Peace, 1705.
    _Obv._ Three short pillars encircled by chain and surmounted
    by wreath, mural crown, and naval crown, and inscribed
    with the victories of the Allies during 1704; below, ANNVS
    MDCCIV; around, GERMANIS ANGLIS BATAVIS FELICISSM. ? GALLIS
    HISPANIS BAVARIS INFELICISS. _Rev._ LVDOVICO MAGNO QVI BAVARIS
    DEBELLATIS, &c. PACEM EXPECTAT PETIT. ANNO MDCCV. Silver. Size
    2. Dutch.

The armies of France and her allies having suffered many severe defeats
during 1704, Louis XIV. early in 1705 made proposals of peace, to be
submitted by Switzerland to the Allies. The attempt was unsuccessful on
account of the jealousy existing between the Protestant and Catholic
cantons.

    438. French lines forced at Neerhespen, &c., 1705. _Obv._
    Bust of Queen l.; same as No. 425. _Rev._ The French lines at
    Neerhespen attacked by the Allies; in foreground, Marlborough
    on horseback l., commanding. FORTES FORTVNA IVVAT. (Virg. Aen.
    x. 284); in ex., FOSSIS FALLISQ. (sic) HOST. SVPERATIS IN BR.
    ET FL. CIϽIϽCV. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

This medal commemorates the forcing of the French lines at Neerhespen,
by Marlborough, 17 July, 1705, and those at Fort St. Philip, in
Flanders, by Baron Spar, 4 Aug. 1705.

    439. Capitulation of Barcelona, 1705. _Obv._ Bust of Charles
    III. of Spain r., laur., in armour and cloak, and collar of
    "Golden Fleece." CAROLVS III. D. G. HISPANIARVM REX. _Rev._
    Barcelona bombarded by sea and land. MAGNORVM HAEC PORTA
    LABORVM; in ex., BARCINO CAPTA PRID. EID. OCT. CIϽIϽCCV. I. B.
    F. Silver. Size 1·7. By J. Boskam.

The Earl of Peterborough uniting his fleet with a Dutch squadron
under Allemonde, and accompanied by the Archduke Charles, took the
fortresses of Lerida and Tortosa and forced Barcelona to capitulate.
In consequence of this victory, the whole of Valencia and Catalonia
declared for the Archduke, who took the title of Charles III.

    440. Battle of Ramillies, 1706. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. CROKER. _Rev._ Two Fames
    holding map of Low Countries. GALLIS AD RAMELLIES VICTIS. XII.
    MAII. MDCCVI; in ex., FLANDR. ET BRABANT. RECEPT. Silver. Size
    1·3. By J. Croker.

In this battle the Allies, commanded by Marlborough, routed the French
and Bavarians under Villeroy and the Elector. This victory resulted in
the conquest of Brabant and nearly the whole of Spanish Flanders.

    441. Flight of Philip V. from Madrid, and Conquest of Brabant,
    1706. _Obv._ Philip on horseback l., dropping his crown and
    flying before Genius, who covers sun with shield of Austria;
    distant view of Barcelona. SOLIS ECLIPSIS. D. 12. MAI.; in
    ex., BARCELLONA OBSIDIONE LIBERATA PHILIPPO ANDEGAV. EX HISP.
    FVGATO. _Rev._ Marlborough on horseback galloping towards =r.=,
    over fallen enemies; cities, as women, surrendering keys.
    VICTORIARVM IMPETVS; in ex., inscription recording the conquest
    of Brabant and Flanders by Marlborough, MDCCVI; on edge, SIC
    SOL CRESCENTES DECEDENS DVPLICAT VMBRAS. VIRG. (F. K.) (Cf.
    Virg. Ec. ii. 67.) Silver. Size 1·75.

Philip V. having raised the siege of Barcelona returned to Madrid,
11 May, 1706; but fearing the approach of the Earl of Galway and the
Archduke Charles, he quitted the city on the following day. The reverse
refers to the victories of Marlborough in Brabant and Flanders. One of
the series of medals issued by Kleinert and Lauffer at Nuremberg. (See
No. 343.)

    442. Victories of the Allies in Spain and the Low Countries,
    1706. _Obv._ Segment of a globe, inscribed EUROPÆ; above,
    clouds concealing sun (emblem of Louis XIV.). SIC OBSCURATUR
    GLORIA MAGNI REGIS. MDCCVI. _Rev._ Attached to trophy of flags,
    medallion of Charles III., surrounded by three others murally
    crowned, with views of bombardment of Barcelona XII. MAY,
    battle of Ramillies XIIII. MAY, and entry into Madrid XXVI.
    IVNY. DOMINUMQUE IN REGNA TULERE. Silver. Size 1·7. By J.
    Smeltzing.

The Earl of Galway, who commanded the allied forces in Portugal,
advanced into Spain, and after capturing Alcantara, Ciudad Rodrigo, and
Salamanca, entered Madrid in triumph, 26 June, 1706, and proclaimed
the Archduke Charles king. This medal refers also to the raising of the
siege of Barcelona and the battle of Ramillies.

    443. Victories of Anne over Louis XIV., 1706. _Obv._ Anne as
    Pallas overwhelming Louis XIV. in dress of ancient warrior.
    LVDOVICVS MAGNVS ANNA MAIOR. _Rev._ Abimelech struck by
    millstone at the siege of Thebez. PERCVTE ME NE DICATVR QVOD A
    FEMINA INTERFECTVS SIM. IVDIC. C. 9.; on edge, DOMINVS TRADIDIT
    EVM IN MANVS FŒMINÆ. IVDITH XVI. C. Silver. Size 1·65. Dutch.

The fate of Louis is here likened to that of Abimelech (Judges ix.
50—52).

    444—445. Union of England and Scotland, 1707. _Obv._ Bust of
    Queen l., crowned, draped, wearing collar of Garter and George.
    ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. ET HIB. REG. I. C. _Rev._ Royal
    shield crowned, between palm and olive branches and resting on
    pedestal with royal monogram; on either side, supporters, lion
    and unicorn, with shields of Scotland and England; below, two
    sceptres crossed and collar of Garter. MAII I. MDCCVII. Gold
    and silver. Size 1·8. By J. Croker.

The Act of Union between England and Scotland received the royal assent
6 March, 1707, and came into operation on 1 May following.

    446. Another: Union celebrated at Leipsic, 1707. _Obv._ Bust of
    Queen l., draped and crowned. ANNA D. G. MAG. ET UNITÆ BRITA.
    FRA. &c. C. W. _Rev._ Britannia and Scotia, holding between
    them two wreaths crossed; distant view of Leipsic. ET EXTERIS
    ETIAM GRATA; in ex., IN ACTVM LIPSIENSEM D. 26 IVLII ANNO
    MDCCVII. 6 AVGVST. IN HONOREM MAGNÆ UNIONIS AC CELEBRATION.
    D. NOMINALIS ANNAE M. B. R. HABITVM. CVRARE FECIT C. WERMUTH;
    on edge, QVAE BELLO PACEQVE MAIOR. Silver. Size 1·7. By C.
    Wermuth.[26]

[26] Christian Wermuth, a native of Altenburg, born 1661, studied the
art of engraving at Dresden. After a few years he set up as a medallist
at Gotha, and from there he subsequently removed to Leipsic. He died
1739.

The Act of Union between England and Scotland was celebrated with much
festivity at Leipsic on the 26th July, which day was also the feast of
St. Anne.

    447. War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Almanza,
    1707. _Obv._ Head of Louis XIV. r. LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX
    CHRISTIANISSIMUS. _T. B._ (monogram). _Rev._ Spain seated r.,
    holding shield of France; around her, arms. ADSERTUM PHILIPPO
    V. HISPANIARUM IMPERIUM; in ex., HOSTIBUS AD ALMANZAM CÆSIS.
    XXV. APRIL. MDCCVII. Copper. Size 1·6. By Thomas Bernard.

At the battle of Almanza, 25 April, 1707, the English and Portuguese,
under the Earl of Galway and Las Minas, were routed by the French and
Spaniards under the Duke of Berwick, and Aragon was again reduced under
the authority of Philip V. This medal is one of the historical series
of Louis XIV.

    448. Capitulation of Lerida, 1707. _Obv._ Similar: no
    engraver's initials. _Rev._ Soldier with French flag l.,
    scaling rock, from which falls woman, who clings to broken
    pillar. NOVA GLORIA; in ex., ILERDA EXPUGNATA. XI. NOV.
    MDCCVII. D. V. Copper. Size 1·6. By J. Du Vivier.[27]

[27] Jean Du Vivier, born in 1687 at Liège, removed at an early age to
Paris, where he studied drawing and modelling. The merit of his work
soon brought him into public notice, and he was appointed medallist to
the King, with a residence in the Louvre. He was also a member of the
French Academy. Died 1761.

The defeat of the Allies at Almanza was followed by the capture of
Lerida. The town was taken on 12 Oct. 1707, and the castle on 11 Nov.
following. This medal is of the same series as the previous one.

    449. Swedish troops withdrawn from Silesia, &c., 1707. _Obv._
    Busts, face to face, of Anne crowned, and Charles XII. of
    Sweden, in armour and cloak; on their arms, C. W. ANNA D. G. M.
    BRIT. REGINA. CAROL. XII. D. G. REX SVEC.; below, IN SPONSION.
    PACIF. RELIG. SILES. _Rev._ Religion and Justice seated,
    holding hands; distant views of towns of M'BERG. (Munsterberg),
    WOHLAU, BRESLAU, BRIEG, and LIGNITZ; above, SILESIA, and three
    r. hands from clouds, joined; around, TRES REGVM SCHLESIAM
    DECORANT DVM LVMINE DEXTRAE IVNGERE QVIS DVBITET IVSQVE
    FIDEMQVE MANVS; in ex., FELICITER PERACT. AO. MDCCVIII. Silver.
    Size 1·7. By C. Wermuth.

The alarm caused by the defeat at Almanza was increased by the
appearance of Charles XII. of Sweden on the borders of the Empire
with a large army, which it was apprehended he would use in support
of France. Through the diplomacy of Marlborough, Charles was induced
to withdraw his troops from Silesia and to turn his forces against
Russia, but not before he had obtained from the Emperor a promise of a
free exercise of religion to the Protestants in Silesia. This medal was
not issued till the following year.


    450. Attempted invasion of Scotland by the Elder Pretender,
    1708. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BR.
    FR. &c. H. _Rev._ French fleet chased by that of England
    off the coast of Scotland. FVGERE NON FALLERE TRIVMPHVS; in
    ex., GALLORVM CONATVS IN SCOTIAM ANNAE M. VIGILANTIA. ELVSI.
    CIϽIϽCCIIX; on edge, SIC PVERI NASVM RHINOCEROTIS HABENT. (Cf.
    Mart. i. 4.) Silver. Size 1·55. By G. Hautsch.

The Elder Pretender, having made a descent upon the coast of Scotland
with a small squadron of frigates and transports carrying a force of
5000 men, was compelled to beat a hasty retreat without effecting a
landing, being intercepted off the coast near Montrose by an English
fleet under Sir George Byng. The Pretender left Dunkirk 6 March, 1708,
and returned to that place 7 April following.

    451. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG.
    BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. _Rev._ Britannia, armed with spear and
    shield, defending Scotland, kneeling at her feet; French fleet
    retreating. CLASSE GAL. FVG.; in ex., AD FRETVM EDENBVRG. XIV.
    MARTII. MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·65. By J. Croker.

    452. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped.
    ANNA D. G. MAGN. BRIT. FRANC. &c. S. _Rev._ Rose and thistle
    intertwined around sceptre surmounted by eye; in the distance,
    prisoners led to the Tower and ships in river; above one,
    SALISBURI. QUIS NOS IMPUNE LACESSET UNITAS; in ex., IRRITO
    SPURII IACOBI REDITU IN SCOTOS, CLASSE GALLICA EXTERNATA.
    MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·85. By M. Smeltzing.

In the expedition the Pretender lost one ship, the Salisbury, which
Admiral Byng captured after a sharp chase. Among those on board this
ship were Lord Griffin and the two sons of Lord Middleton, who were
conveyed to the Tower.

    453. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., laur. and draped. ANNA
    D. G. MAG. BR. FRA. &c. M. B. (monogram). _Rev._ Ass r.,
    about to devour thistle, driven back by smell of rose held by
    woman. INIMICVS ODOR APPETITV FORTIOR; in ex., GALLI SCOTIAM
    AGGRESSVRI SOLO ANGLORVM ASPECTV FVGANTVR. 1708; on edge, IN
    FELIX OPERAM PERDAS, VT SI QVIS ASELLVM IN CAMPVM DOCEAT. HOR.
    SERM. L. I. Silver. Size 1·65. By M. Brunner.[28]

[28] Martin Brunner, the pupil of Wolrab and colleague of Hautsch,
was a native of Nuremberg. In the early part of his life he worked at
Breslau and Prague, but returned subsequently to Nuremberg, where he
died in 1725.

On this medal the Pretender is represented by the ass, Scotland by the
thistle, and Anne, or Britain, by the woman who holds the rose.

    454. War of the Spanish Succession: Victory of Oudenarde,
    1708. _Obv._ Castor and Pollux (Eugene and Marlborough) on
    horseback, charging r. SALVTARIVM SIDERVM APPARITIO; in ex.,
    EVGENII ET MARLEBORVGII FELIX CONIVNCTIO. _Rev._ View of battle
    of Oudenarde; town in the distance. VANDOM. IN FLANDR. SICVT
    IN ITAL. EVNDEM FVGIT ET VT FVGIENDVS DOCET; in ex., MVLT.
    MILL. GALLORVM CLADES AD ALDENAR. MDCCIIX. D. XI. IVL. Edge
    inscribed. Silver. Size, 1·65.

At the battle of Oudenarde, 11 July, 1708, the Allies under Eugene,
Marlborough, and Ouverkirk routed the French under the Dukes of
Burgundy and Vendôme, the latter having been recalled from Italy to
supersede Villeroy after the battle of Ramillies. The obverse refers to
the legend of the appearance of the Dioscuri at the battle of the Lake
Regillus.

    455. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG.
    BR. FR. &c. I. BOSKAM F. _Rev._ Attached to trophy of French
    flags, &c., three medallions with busts of Eugene, Marlborough,
    and Ouverkirk, with fourth of Victory in centre. HÆC FECERVNT
    HI TRES ARMI POTENTES DEI. 2 SAM. 23. (chronogrammatic). I.
    BOSKAM F. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

Ouverkirk, who commanded the Dutch troops in the Low Countries, died
during the siege of Lille, 22 Oct. 1708, worn out with the fatigue of
the war and the infirmities of premature age.

    456. Victory of Oudenarde and capture of Lille, 1708. _Obv._
    Bird's-eye view of battle-field of Oudenarde. IN GALLOS
    VARIAS DABIT ADENARDA CORONAS (chronogrammatic); in ex.,
    FVGIEN. EX VATACINIO GALLIS VICTORIA PARTA. 11. IVL. 1708. C.
    W. _Rev._ Bird's-eye view of town and fortress of Lille. IN
    ODENARDER SIEG BESTEHT DASS RYSSEL FORT NOCH VIEL WEG GEHT
    (chronogrammatic); in ex., SPECTANT HORTVLANIS LILIVM DECERPT.
    23. OCT. & 9. DEC. 1708. Silver. Size 1·7. By C. Wermuth.

The victory of Oudenarde was followed by the capture of Lille 9 Dec.
1708.


    457. Taking of Sardinia and Minorca, 1708. _Obv._ Bust of
    Queen l., draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. _Rev._
    Victory, with palm and English flag, on shell in sea; Sardinia
    and Minorca in the distance. SARDINIA ET BALEARIS MINOR CAPTÆ.
    MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·5. By J. Croker.

The island of Sardinia was taken by Admiral Leake Aug. 1708, and in the
next month he captured Minorca, in conjunction with General Stanhope,
who commanded the land forces.


    458. Capitulation of Lille, 1708. _Obv._ Same as reverse of
    No. 455. _Rev._ Eugene on horseback l., commanding at siege
    of Lille. VI FACTA VIA EST. (Virg. Aen. ii. 494); in ex.,
    MDCCVIII. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Boskam.

The siege of Lille was opened by Eugene 22 Aug., Marlborough commanding
the covering army. The city surrendered 22 Oct.; but the citadel, which
was defended by the French general Marshal Boufflers, held out till 9
Dec.


    459. Another. _Obv._ Building of the Tower of Babel and the
    Confusion of Tongues. CONFVNDAMVS LINGVAM EORVM, VT NON AVDIAT
    VNVSQVISQVE VOCEM PROXIMI SVI. (cf. Genesis xi. 7); in ex.,
    RYSSEL VEL INSVLÆ PER PRINCIPEM EVGENIVM OBSESSA. 22. AVG. ET
    23. OCT. RECEPTA. 1708. _Rev._ The citadel of Lille besieged;
    above, sun and moon. SISTE SOL IN GIBEON ET LVNA IN VALLE
    AIALON. (Joshua x. 12); in ex., CASTELLVM RYSEL OBSESSVM.
    XXVII. OCT. RECEPTVM VERO. IX. DEC.; on edge, VNITA VIRTVS
    VALET. Silver. Size 1·9. Dutch.

The building of the Tower of Babel and the Confusion of Tongues denote
the useless efforts of the French to defend Lille and the discord which
existed among their generals.


    460. Another. _Obv._ Victory flying l., with wreath and
    flag of Holland; below, captured arms, and Oudenarde in the
    distance. ADVERSA ET AVERSA GLORIOSA; in ex., FLANDRIA UTRINQUE
    TROPÆIFERA CÆSI EX ITINERE GALLI AD AUDENARDAM. XII. IUL.
    MDCCVIII. M. S. _Rev._ Deputies l., followed by soldiers
    surrendering town of Lille to Eugene; Marlborough and his
    army in the distance. VICIT PERVICAX VIRTUS; in ex., INSULÆ
    VISCERIBUS LUDOVICI XIV. EREPTÆ NEPOTIBUS ET EXERCITU FRUSTRA
    RELUCTANT. IX. DEC. MDCCVIII. M. S. Silver. Size 1·85. By M.
    Smeltzing.

This medal commemorates the battle of Oudenarde as well as the capture
of Lille.

    461. Another. _Obv._ Lille l., presenting key of city to Eugene
    and Marlborough, each holding lily. LILIIS DISCERPTIS LILIVM
    CAPTVM; in ex., EVGENIO OBSIDENTE, MARLBORVG. PROTEGENTE, GALLO
    SPECTANTE, INSVLÆ CAPTÆ. MDCCIIX. XXIII OCT. M. B. (monogram).
    _Rev._ Plan of Lille. VRBS ANTIQVA REDIT MVLTOS DOMINATA PER
    ANNOS. Virg. (Aen. ii. 363); on edge, NEC MINOR EST VIRTVS,
    QVAM QVÆRERE FACTA TVERI. Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

This medal indicates the parts taken by Eugene and Marlborough at
the siege of Lille, the former superintending the attack, the latter
commanding the army, which covered the besiegers.

    462. Capitulation of Tournay, 1709. _Obv._ Bombardment of
    Tournay. SOLVTA CATENIS INSVRGIT. (Ovid. Metam. iv. 738); in
    ex., TORNACVM CAPTVM. MDCCIX. _Rev._ French ship in storm,
    with broken mainmast, sailors casting cargo into sea; one bale
    inscribed, DORNIK.—NE PEREAT PERDIT; on edge, REGNI COLLAPSA
    RVVNT IMMANIA MEMBRA. VIRGIL. (Cf. Aen. ix. 708.) C. G. L.
    Silver. Size 1·75.

Tournay was invested by Eugene and Marlborough, 7 July, 1709, and it
capitulated on the 30th of the same month. The French nation is here
likened to a ship in a storm, the broken mainmast denoting the loss of
Lille, and the abandoned cargo the capitulation of Tournay. This medal
was struck at Nuremberg, and was issued by K. G. Lauffer. (See No. 343.)

    463. Another. _Obv._ Tournay besieged; above, shields of
    Flanders and Tournay united by ribbon. QVID NVNC TE TVA, TORNE,
    POTEST ANTIQVA IVVARE GLORIA, (cf. Virg. Aen. xii. 872); in
    ex., CESSIT INVICTIS FOEDERATORVM ARMIS. M. IVL. 30. MDCCIX. N.
    _Rev._ France seated, facing, her hands clasped in attitude of
    despair, at her feet olive-branches and masks; in the distance,
    tower struck by lightnings. DOMINE, DIXERVNT: PAX ERIT VOBIS,
    ET ECCE PERVENIT GLADIVS VSQ. AD ANIMAM. (Cf. Jer. iv. 10.) M.
    B. (monogram); on edge, NON ASSVMES NOMEN PACIS IN VANVM. (Cf.
    Exod. xx. 7.) Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

The olive-branches and masks at feet of France refer to the
unsuccessful proposals of peace made by Louis to the Allies in June
1709, through the Marquis de Torcy.

    464. Battle of Malplaquet, 1709. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    crowned and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c. I. C. _Rev._
    Battle in forest; above, Victory flying r., with two wreaths.
    CONCORDIA ET VIRTVTE; in ex., GALLIS AD TAISNIERE DEVICTIS.
    AVG. XXXI. MDCCIX. Silver. Size 1·85. By J. Croker.

At the battle of Malplaquet, 11 Sept. 1709, the Allies, who were
victorious, were commanded by Eugene and Marlborough, and the French by
Marshals Villars and Boufflers. The engaged armies fought within the
woods of Lanières, Tasnières, and Sars.

    465. Capitulation of Mons, 1709. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA. &c. I. C. _Rev._ View of
    Mons; above, Victory flying l., with wreath and palm. MONTIBVS
    IN HANNONIA CAPTIS. MDCCIX. Silver. Size 1·55. By J. Croker.

Mons was the prize of Malplaquet, and surrendered to Eugene 20 Oct.
1709. This was the last success of the Allies in the campaign of 1709
in the Low Countries.

    466. Capitulation of Douay, 1710. _Obv._ Plan of town and
    fortress of Douay. HÆC REQVIEM REBVS FINEMQVE LABORI ALLATVRA.
    (Claud. Lib. II., Carm. v. 331); in ex., DVACVM CAPT. D. 29.
    IVN. MDCCX. N. _Rev._ Pallas l., snatching from Jupiter half
    his thunderbolt. BREVI TEMPORE INERMIS ERIT. (Ovid. Trist.
    Eleg. ii. 33); in ex., VIRTVTE FOEDERATORVM. M. B. (monogram);
    on edge, INVENIT TAM LONGA POTENTIA FINEM. (Lucan, i. 333.)
    Silver. Size 1·7. By M. Brunner.

The campaign of 1710 in Holland opened with the occupation by the
Allies of the French lines at Pont-à-Vendin and Courrières, and with
the siege of Douay, which capitulated 29 June, 1710.

    467. Capitulation of Bethune, &c., 1710. _Obv._ Bust of Queen
    l., laur. and draped. ANNA AVGVSTA. I. C. _Rev._ Trophy of
    arms, flags, and mural crowns on pedestal. BETHVNIA FANO.
    S^[TI]. VENANTII ET ARIA CAPTIS; in ex., INSPECTANT GALL. CENT
    MILL. MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.

The capitulation of Douay was followed by that of Bethune, 30 July; of
St. Venant, 29 Sept.; and Aire, 11 Nov.

    468. Eugene and Marlborough, 1710. _Obv._ Busts of Eugene and
    Marlborough, face to face, in armour, &c. EVGENIVS FRANC.
    DVX SABAVD. IOHANNES DVX D. MARLB. S. R. I. P. _Rev._ Within
    five ornamented borders, views of battle (occupation of lines
    of Pont-à-Vendin and Courrières), MVNIMENTA OCCVPATA, DOVAY,
    BETHVNE, S. VENANT, and ARIEN; the first is surmounted by crown
    of chevaux de frise, the others each by mural crown; in ex.,
    MDCCX.; on edge, ARMORVM FOEDERATORVM FRVCTVS. Silver. Size
    1·75.

The reverse type records the successes of the Allies under Eugene and
Marlborough in the Low Countries during the year 1710.

    469. Victory of Almenara, 1710. _Obv._ Same as No. 467. _Rev._
    Battle scene; fight between English and Spanish cavalry. PVGNA
    EQVESTRIS; in ex., HISPANIS AD ALMENARAM VICT. IVLII. XVI.
    MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. Croker.

On 27 July, 1710, General Stanhope and Marshal Staremberg, who
commanded the Allies in Spain, brought Philip to action near Almenara,
and routed his whole army in less than half an hour. In consequence of
his defeat Philip was compelled to retreat to Saragoza.

    470. Victory of Saragoza, 1710. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Victory
    laying French flags at feet of Anne, enthroned r.; near her,
    Britannia. HISPANIS PROFLIGATIS; in ex., AD CÆSARIAM AVGVSTAM
    AVG. IX. MDCCX. Silver. Size 1·85. By J. Croker.

The battle of Almenara was followed by another under the walls of
Saragoza, in which the army of Philip was again defeated, 20 Aug.
1710. On the same day as the battle, Colonel Harrison was despatched
to England with the news of the victory, taking with him the captured
standards.

    471. Victories over Louis XIV., 1710. _Obv._ Anne as Delilah
    r., cutting off hair of Louis XIV., seated asleep within tent;
    in the distance, town bombarded, &c. PHILISTER ÜBER DIR SIMSON;
    in ex., POST VARIAS VRBES ET DVAVAM GALLIS EREPTVM (sic). D.
    27. IVN. 1710. _Rev._ Louis XIV. as a decrepit and gouty old
    man, dancing to Anne playing harp. _Il sait s'accommoder aux
    Dames_; in ex., LUDOVIC. MAGN. ANNA ILLO MAIOR. Silver. Size
    1·7.

This medal was executed in Holland, and is a satire on the fortunes of
Louis XIV., whose armies had suffered such severe defeats in the Low
Countries and in Spain.

    472. Dr. Henry Sacheverell, 1710. _Obv._ Bust three-quarters
    r., in canonicals. H. SACH. D.D. _Rev._ Bishop's mitre. IS FIRM
    TO THEE. Silver. Size 1·35. Cast.

Dr. Henry Sacheverell, English divine, was impeached in 1710 for two
sermons preached at Derby, in which he advocated the doctrines of
non-resistance and passive obedience, and attacked the Dissenters and
the toleration of the "Genevan discipline," and at the same time the
Ministry. He was suspended for three years.

    473. Another. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Bust of Pope Innocent XI. r.,
    wearing mitre and robes. IS FIRM TO THEE. Silver. Size 1·35.
    Cast.

The reverse type refers to a resolution appended to the sentence of
Sacheverell, that the famous decree issued by the University of Oxford
1683, on the occasion of the Rye House Plot, maintaining the doctrine
of passive obedience to the authority of Princes, should be burnt by
the hangman. Innocent XI. was at that time Pope (1676—1689).

    474. Peace of Utrecht: Preliminaries discussed, 1712. _Obv._
    France, Spain, England, Austria, and Belgia seated at table,
    discussing treaty. AUDIT UIDET TACET RIDET. _Rev._ View of
    Utrecht; above, radiate name of Jehovah in Hebrew (incorrectly
    spelt); beneath, arms of city. BELLI FUGAT NUBES SOLEMQ.
    REDUCIT PACIS. (cf. Virg. Aen. i. 147); in ex., CONGRESSUS
    PACIFER. INCHOAT. 29. IANUAR. MDCCXII. Silver. Size 2·85. Cast
    and chased. Dutch.

The Peace of Utrecht, which put an end to the war of the Spanish
Succession, was not signed till April and July 1713; but conferences
for negotiations of peace were opened at Utrecht as early as January
1712.

    475. Peace of Utrecht, 1713. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., laur.
    and draped. ANNA D. G. MAG. BRI. FR. &c.; on arm, I. C. _Rev._
    Anne as Britannia, head bare, standing towards l., holding
    olive-branch, spear, and shield; in the distance, labourers at
    work in fields and merchant-ships on sea. COMPOSITIS VENERANTVR
    ARMIS. (Hor. iv. Od. 15, 52.) MDCCXIII. Gold. Size 1·35. By J.
    Croker.

The series of treaties which together formed the Peace of Utrecht
was a treaty between England and France, another between England and
Spain, and a third between France and the States-General. The articles
of this treaty chiefly affecting England were the recognition of
the Protestant succession of the House of Hanover and the cession of
Gibraltar and Minorca.

    476. Another. _Obv._ Similar. _Rev._ Similar: figure of Anne
    as Britannia, helmeted, holds olive-branch and spear. BELLO ET
    PACE; in ex., ANNO MDCCXIII. PAX RESTITVTA. Silver. Size 1·9.
    By J. Croker.

    477—478. Another. _Obv._ Peace r., crowned, locking door of
    Temple of Janus, inscribed ANNO MDCCXIII; near, two chained
    figures, one armed; on l., globe, &c. and Mercury holding
    scroll inscribed, EUROPÆ PAX REDDITA; in ex., TRAIECTUM. _Rev._
    Europe seated l. on rock, holding olive-branch and cornucopiae;
    in the distance, fleet. EUROPA. Gold and silver. Size 1·85.
    Dutch.


GEORGE I. 1714—1727.

    479. Proclamation medal, 1714. _Obv._ Bust of King r., in
    armour and cloak. GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. ET HIB. REX.
    E. HANNIBAL. _Rev._ King in electoral cap r., accompanied by
    Religion and Liberty, who crowns him with wreath, and receiving
    crown and sceptre from Britannia trampling on monster; on r.,
    shield of kingdom held by Lion. PRINC. OPT. RELIGIONIS ET
    LIBERTATIS CVSTODI; in ex., PVBLICA AVCTORITATE PROCLAMATO 1/12
    AVG. ANNO MDCCXIIII. Gold. Size 2·6. By E. Hannibal.[29]

[29] Ehrenreich Hannibal, born at Stockholm 1678, was a pupil of
Arwed Karlsteen. In 1705 he was appointed medallist to the Court at
Brunswick, and was in the service of the Elector of Hanover at the
time of his accession to the English throne. Although he executed
several medals for George I. and George II., he was never employed at
the English Mint, nor is there any evidence of his having resided in
England. He afterwards worked for the Archbishops of Cologne, the kings
of Prussia, and the Landgraves of Hesse; his work being much esteemed.
He died 1741.

George, Elector of Hanover, was proclaimed King of England 12 Aug.
1714, but he did not arrive in England till 18 Sept. The monster, on
which Britannia tramples, is emblematic of the Pretender and his party.

    480. Coronation, 1714. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour
    and cloak. GEORGIVS D. G. MAG. BRIT. FR. &c. E. HANNIBAL.
    _Rev._ King enthroned r. beneath canopy, crowned by Britannia
    holding shield. INAVGVRAT. 31/20 OCT. MDCCXIIII. Gold. Size 2.
    By E. Hannibal.

George I. was crowned at Westminster, 20 Oct. 1714 (O. S.).

    481. Jacobite Rebellion in Scotland. Battle of Preston, 1715.
    _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS D.
    G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. C. _Rev._ Trophy of arms on pedestal; at
    base of which are seated two naked captives. FIDES MILITVM; in
    ex., REBELL. AD PRESTON CAPT. 13. NOV. 1715. I. C. Silver. Size
    1·8. By J. Croker.

The Earl of Mar having raised the standard of the Pretender in
Scotland, a large army under MacIntosh and Forster crossed the Cheviots
and advanced as far as Preston, Lancashire, where, being attacked by
a force under General Carpenter, 13 Nov. 1715, it surrendered after a
very feeble resistance.

    482. Battle of Sheriff-Muir, 1715. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Victory
    r., with sword and palm, driving before her the cavalry of the
    rebels. PERJURII ULTRIX; in ex., AD DVNBLAINVM. 13 NOV. 1715.
    I. C. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. Croker.

On the same day that the rebel army surrendered at Preston, the Earl of
Mar was defeated by the Duke of Argyll at Sheriff-Muir (Dunblane), near
Stirling.

    483. War of the Quadruple Alliance: Defeat of Spanish Fleet
    off Cape Passaro, 1718. _Obv._ Similar. _Rev._ Rostral column,
    surmounted by figure of King holding trident; at base, arms
    and trophies of war. SOCIORVM PROTECTOR; in ex., CLASSE HISP.
    DELETA AD ORAS SICILIÆ. 1718. Gold. Size 1·75. By J. Croker.

After the forming of the Quadruple Alliance between England, France,
Holland, and Austria, to oppose Spain, who had broken the Treaty of
Utrecht by seizing Sardinia, the British fleet under Admiral Byng
attacked and defeated the Spanish fleet off Cape Passaro, 11 Aug. 1718,
destroying a large number of the enemy's ships.

    484. Quadruple Alliance: Indecision of the United Provinces,
    1720. _Obv._ France, Austria, and England in chariot on three
    wheels, drawn by two horses; the fourth wheel is held by
    Holland, seated l. on lioness, and grasping staff surmounted
    by cap of Liberty; England invites her to enter the chariot.
    SISTIT ADHVC QVARTA DEFICIENTE ROTA. _Rev._ FOEDVS QVADRVPLEX
    IMPERFECTVM REPVBLICA BATAVA FORTITER PRVDENTERQ. CVNCTANTE.
    MDCCXX. Silver. Size 2·2. Dutch.

This medal refers to the reluctance on the part of Holland to support
the other Powers in their effort to carry out the policy of their
alliance.

    485. Gibraltar attacked, 1727. _Obv._ Gibraltar besieged by
    Spanish fleet. VINCERE AVT MORI; in ex., GIBRALTAR OBSESSA.
    D. XXII. FEBR. MDCCXXVII. _Rev._ SED DATVR TERTIVM MINVS
    PERICVLOSVM ABIRE. Silver. Size 1·7.

The alliance concluded between England, France, and Prussia at Hanover,
1725, to obviate the effects of the secret Treaty of Vienna formed by
the Emperor and the King of Spain, led to hostilities between England
and Spain, which were begun by an unsuccessful attack on Gibraltar, 22
Feb. 1727.

    486. Dean Swift, 1716. Bust three-quarters r., in wig and
    canonicals. IONAT. SWIFT ST. P. ET D. S^{T}. P. IN H_ib_;
    below, NON PAREIL. On reverse, I. P. F. (engraved). Enamelled
    steel. Size 3. Cast. Plaque.

Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, the celebrated political and
satirical writer, born 1667, died 1745. This plaque may have served as
a cover of a box.


GEORGE II. 1727—1760.

    487. Accession to Electorate, &c., 1727. _Obv._ Bust of King
    l., laur., wearing armour and cloak. GEORGIVS II. D. G.
    MAG. BRIT. FR. &c. E. HANNIBAL F. _Rev._ Horse of Brunswick
    galloping l. over rocks. NEC ASPERA TERRENT (motto); in ex.,
    SVCCESSIO ELECTORALIS. MDCCXXVII. E. H. Silver. Size 2·5. By E.
    Hannibal.

George I. died at Osnaburg, 11 June, 1727, and his son, George II., was
proclaimed King four days afterwards, 15 June.

    488. Coronation, 1727. _Obv._ Bust of King l., laur., wearing
    armour and cloak. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAG. BR. FR. ET HIB. REX.
    I. C. _Rev._ King enthroned r., crowned by Britannia, holding
    cornucopiae and resting on fasces. PER POPULOS VOLENTES; in
    ex., CORON. XI. OCTOB. MDCCXXVII. Gold. Size 1·35. By J. Croker.

George II. was crowned 11 Oct. 1727.

    489. Coronation of Queen, 1727. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l.,
    draped. CAROLINA D. G. MAG. BR. FR. &c. I. C. _Rev._ Queen
    facing between Religion holding book and Britannia with spear
    and shield. HIC AMOR HÆC PATRIA; in ex., CORON. XI. OCTOB.
    MDCCXXVII. Gold. Size 1·3. By J. Croker.

Caroline, wife of George II., dau. of John Frederic, Margrave of
Brandenburg-Ansbach, born 1683, mar. 1705, died 1737.

    490. The Royal Family of England, 1732. _Obv._ Busts, face to
    face, of King in armour and cloak, and Queen draped. GEORGIVS
    II. REX ET CAROLINA REGINA; below, MDCCXXXII; on arm of King,
    I. C. _Rev._ Seven busts in profile of the Royal children, the
    Prince of Wales in centre l., on his arm T. FELICITAS IMPERII;
    in ex., names of the two Princes and five Princesses. Gold.
    Size 2·7. By J. Croker and J. Sigmund Tanner.[30]

[30] Johann Sigmund Tanner, who executed the reverse of this medal, was
a native of Saxe-Gotha. He came to England about 1730, and was shortly
afterwards appointed one of the engravers to the Mint. Upon the death
of Croker in 1741, Tanner was promoted to the office of Chief Engraver,
which he filled till his death in 1773.

The Royal children were Frederic Prince of Wales, William Duke of
Cumberland, and the Princesses, Anne, Amelia, Caroline, Mary, and
Louisa.

    491. Frederic Prince of Wales. _Obv._ Bust of Prince l., in
    armour. FREDERIC. WALLIÆ PRINCEPS. J. A. DASSIER. _Rev._
    Coronet, plumes, and motto of Prince of Wales, supported by two
    infant angels in clouds. Copper. Size 2·1. By J. A. Dassier.[31]

[31] James Anthony Dassier, medallist, born at Geneva 1715, was
educated under Germain, the goldsmith, at Paris. He worked first at
Rome for Clement XII., and, coming to London, was appointed Assistant
Engraver to the Mint and Chief Engraver in 1740. In 1731 he executed a
continuous series of portrait medals of English Sovereigns from William
I. to George II. He died in 1759 at Copenhagen, on his way from St.
Petersburg to London.

Frederic, Prince of Wales, born 1707; mar. 1736 Augusta, dau. of
Frederic II., Duke of Saxe-Gotha; died 1751.

    492. War of Spanish Succession: Second Treaty of Vienna, 1731.
    _Obv._ Head of King l.,laur. GEORGIVS II. D. G. MAG. BRI. FRA.
    &c. I. C. _Rev._ Neptune in sea-chariot r., contending with the
    four winds. PRÆSTAT COMPONERE. (Virg. Aen. i. 139); in ex.,
    FOEDVS VIENNENSE. MDCCXXXI. Gold. Size 1·8. By J. Croker.

The second Treaty of Vienna, between England, France, Spain, Holland,
and the Emperor, signed 5 Mar. 1731, terminated the disputes which
arose out of the Spanish Succession.

    493. War with Spain: Taking of Porto Bello, 1739. _Obv._
    Admiral Vernon towards l., in naval uniform; in background,
    ship, and Fort Chagree; above which, A VIEW OF FORT CHAGRE. THE
    BRITISH GLORY REVIV.D (sic) BY ADMIRAL VERNON. _Rev._ English
    fleet in Porto Bello harbour. HE TOOK PORTO BELLO WITH SIX
    SHIPS ONLY; in ex., NOV. 22. 1739. Brass. Size 1·45.

Immediately after the declaration of war against Spain, 19 Oct. 1739,
Commodore Anson was sent to blockade the coast of Peru, and Admiral
Vernon to attack Porto Bello, which he captured 22 Nov. 1739 with the
small force of six men-of-war.

    494. Attempt on Carthagena, 1741. _Obv._ Admiral Vernon towards
    l., in naval uniform; in the distance, Carthagena. ADM^L VERNON
    VIEWING THE TOWN OF CARTHAGENA. _Rev._ View of harbour of
    Carthagena; outside, English ships; within, boat, over which
    DON BLASS.—HE DESTROYD THE FORTS OF CARTHAGENA; in ex., APRIL
    1741. Pewter. Size 1·4.

Admiral Vernon attacked Carthagena 4 Mar. 1741, but only succeeded in
destroying a portion of its defences. Of this and the previous medal
there are a large number of varieties.

    495—496. War of the Austrian Succession: Victory of Dettingen,
    1743. _Obv._ Bust of King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIVS
    II. D. G. MAGN. BRIT. FR. &c. D. HAESLING F. _Rev._ The King
    on horseback l., commanding at battle of Dettingen: distant
    view of engagement. LIBERTAS FAVORE DEI ET VIRTVTE MILITIS
    RESTITVTA; in ex., AD DETTINGAM. D. XXVII. IVN. MDCCXLIII. Gold
    and silver. Size 2·6. By D. Haesling.

At Dettingen, George II., with an army of 40,000 English and
Hanoverians, defeated the French under the Duc de Noailles and the Duc
de Grammont. In consequence of this defeat, the French were compelled
to evacuate Germany. This medal was executed by Daniel Haesling, a
native of East Gothland and pupil of Hedlinger. He worked chiefly for
the kings of Poland and Denmark.

    497. Battle of Fontenoy, 1745. _Obv._ Head of Louis XV. r.,
    bound with diadem. LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS. F. M. _Rev._
    Louis XV. with the Dauphin in triumphal quadriga r., crowned
    by Victory. DECUS IMPERII GALLICI; in ex., HOSTES AB IPSOMET
    REGE FUSI AD FONTENOIUM. XI. MAII. MDCCXLV. Copper. Size 1·6.
    By F. Marteau.

The defeat of the Allies at Fontenoy was mainly due to the flight of
the Dutch. The Allies were commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, and
the French by Louis XV. and Marshal Saxe. F. Marteau was one of the
engravers to Louis XV.

    498. Jacobite Rebellion: Battle of Culloden, 1746. _Obv._
    Bust of Duke of Cumberland r., wearing armour and lion's
    skin. GULIELMUS GEOR. II. R. FIL. DUX CUMBRIÆ; on arm, R.
    YEO F. _Rev._ Hercules raising Britannia l., and trampling
    on Rebellion holding serpents. PERDVELLIB. EX ANG. FVGAT. AD
    CULLOD. DEBELLAT. 16. APR. 1746. Gold. Size 2. By R. Yeo.

By the battle of Culloden, 16 Apr. 1746, in which the Scots, under
Prince Charles Edward and Lord G. Murray, were defeated by the Duke of
Cumberland, the cause of the Jacobites was hopelessly crushed. This
medal is by Richard Yeo, who for many years during the reign of George
II. was employed as one of the assistant engravers at the Royal Mint.

    499. War of the Austrian Succession: Naval engagement off Cape
    Finisterre, 1747. _Obv._ Head of Admiral Anson l., crowned
    by Victory, standing on prow. GEORGE LORD ANSON. VICT. MAY
    III. MDCCXLVII. T. PINGO F. _Rev._ Victory with wreath and
    trophy towards l., standing on sea-monster above globe.
    CIRCVMNAVIGATION; around, each within laurel-wreath, names of
    SAVNDERS, BRETT, DENNIS, CAMPBELL, KEPPEL, SAVMAREZ. MDCCXL.
    MDCCXLIV. Gold. Size 1·65. By T. Pingo.[32]

[32] Thomas Pingo was an assistant engraver at the Royal Mint during
the early part of the reign of George III. He also executed a large
number of medals for Frederic II. of Prussia, as well as the coronation
medal for Stanislaus Augustus, King of Poland.

This medal commemorates the defeat of the French fleet off Cape
Finisterre, 3 May, 1747, by Admiral Lord Anson.

    500. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748. _Obv._ Priestess l.,
    sacrificing at altar; above, in clouds, female figure holding
    cornucopiae, olive-branch, and scales; on l., lion of Holland
    resting on Bible and holding staff with cap of Liberty.
    E SVPERIS ASTRÆA REDVX BONA SÆCVLA REDDENS; in ex., PAX
    AQVISGRANI SANCITA ANNO LIB. IVBILÆO. MDCCXLVIII. _Rev._ Eight
    shields crowned, attached to orange-branches and lilies—arms
    of England, France, Empire, Spain, Holland, Sardinia, Italy,
    and Prussia; in centre, burning heart, pierced with arrows.
    REDUNIVNTVR. Silver. Size 1·7.

By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the war of the Austrian Succession
was brought to an end. The treaty was signed by all the belligerent
parties, in October 1748, Sardinia excepted. This medal was executed in
Holland.

    501. Conquest of Canada: Louisburg taken, 1758. _Obv._ Globe,
    inscribed CANADA. AMERICA, resting on prostrate fury at edge
    of rock, who drops fleur-de-lis and points to boats in sea; on
    either side of globe, Grenadier and Canadian; above, Fame l.,
    English flag and scroll inscribed, PARITER IN BELLA. T. PINGO
    F. _Rev._ Louisburg bombarded. LOVISBOVRG TAKEN. MDCCLVIII:
    edge engraved with names of Boscawen, Amherst, and Pitt.
    Silver. Size 1·7. By T. Pingo.

Louisburg was captured from the French, 27 July, 1758. Generals Amherst
and Wolfe commanded the land forces, and Admiral Boscawen the fleet.

    502. Taking of Quebec, 1759. _Obv._ Head of Britannia l.,
    bound with fillet; above, BRITANNIA; below, laurel-wreath,
    uniting trident and standard. SAVNDERS. WOLFE. _Rev._ Victory
    l., crowning trophy; at base, captive seated bound, and prow
    of ship. QVEBEC TAKEN. MDCCLIX.; in ex., SOC. P. A. C. Silver.
    Size 1·5.

On 13 Sep. 1759, the heights of Abraham above Quebec were captured by
Wolfe, who was killed in the action. The town of Quebec surrendered
five days afterwards. Admiral Saunders commanded the fleet. This medal
and the following (Nos. 503—5) were issued by the Society for the
Promotion of Arts and Commerce.

    503. Canada Subdued, 1760. _Obv._ Head of King l., laur. GEORGE
    II. KING. _Rev._ Weeping female figure seated r. beneath
    pine-tree; on the other side, beaver. CANADA SUBDUED; in ex.,
    MDCCLX. S. P. A. C. Silver. Size 1·5.

After the capture of Quebec, it was arranged that the garrison should
be conveyed to the nearest French port. In the following year the
conquest of the whole of Canada was completed. The reverse type of this
medal is suggested by the well-known "Judaea Capta" on Roman coins.

    504. War of East India Company: Victory of Plassy, 1757. _Obv._
    Victory, with trophy and palm, on elephant l. VICTORY AT
    PLASSY CLIVE COMMANDER; in ex., MDCCLVIII. SOC. P. A. C. _Rev._
    Clive in dress of Roman warrior l., holding standard in l.
    hand and presenting sceptre of Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal to Meer
    Jaafar (Jaffier); between them, globe, cornucopiae, and rudder.
    INIVRIES ATTONED PRIVILEGE AVGMENTED TERRITORY ACQVIRED. A
    SOVBAH GIVEN TO BENGAL. MDCCLVIII. Silver. Size 1·5.

This medal records the defeat of Siraj-ed-dawleh (Surajah Dowlah) at
Plassy by Clive, 23 June, 1757, and the appointment of Meer Jaafar to
be his successor as Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal, &c.

    505. War in Africa: Taking of Goree, 1758. _Obv._ Head of
    Britannia, l.; behind, trident. O FAIR BRITANNIA HAIL.
    _Rev._ Victory with wreath and palm on prow, r. GOREE TAKEN.
    MDCCLVIII. Silver. Size 1·55.

The island of Goree was captured from the French by Commodore Keppel,
28 Dec. 1758.

    506. Seven Years' War: Battle of Minden, 1759. _Obv._ Mars
    with scourge and shield, surrounded by French arms and flags,
    dispersing enemy, who are seen flying in the distance. VIRTVTI
    CEDIT NVMERVS; in ex., PRŒLIVM MINDENSE. I. AVG. MDCCLIX. I.
    G. HOLTZHEY FEC. _Rev._ View of the valley of the Weser; in
    foreground, olive-tree entwined with vine; at base, keys in
    mural crowns and wheat-sheaves. POST TOT DISCRIMINA RERVM.
    (Virg. Aen. i. 408); in ex., FERD. PR. BRVNSV. EXERC. FOED.
    DVX. Silver. Size 1·9. By J. G. Holtzhey.[33]

[33] Johann Georg Holtzhey, a native of Amsterdam, where he resided
during the greater part of his life, worked chiefly for Frederic the
Great of Prussia and the other sovereigns of Germany. He was also
employed occasionally by Louis XV. and Louis XVI. of France. Although
residing at Amsterdam, he does not appear to have executed any medals
for the House of Orange.

At the battle of Minden, 31 July, 1759, the French, under Marshal
Contades and the Duke de Broglie, were defeated by the Hanoverians and
English, commanded by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick and Lord George
Sackville. Nothing but the refusal of Lord Sackville to complete the
victory by a charge of Ferdinand's horse saved the French from utter
rout.

    507. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick r.,
    in armour and cloak. FERD. OF BRVNSWICK; on arm, KIRK. _Rev._
    View of battle; Prince Ferdinand in foreground commanding.
    PROTESTANTS REIOICING; in ex., THE FRENCH BEATEN AT MINDEN.
    MDCCLIX. Silver. Size 1·4. By John Kirk.

John Kirk's work dates from the second half of the 18th cent. He
executed a large number of medalets.

    508. Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, 1744. _Obv._ Bust l.,
    wearing star and ribbon of Garter. ROBERTUS WALPOLE. A. DASSIER
    F. _Rev._ Within ornamented border, COMES DE ORFORD. MDCCXLIV.
    Copper. Size 2·15. By J. A. Dassier.

Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, statesman, b. 1676, Secretary for
War 1708, Treasurer of the Navy 1709, Chancellor of the Exchequer and
First Lord of the Treasury 1715—17, Paymaster of the Forces 1720, Prime
Minister 1721—1742; d. 1745.

    509. Lord Carteret, 1744. _Obv._ Bust r., in civilian's dress.
    IOHANNES CARTERET. A. DASSIER F. _Rev._ Within ornamented
    border, BARO DE CARTERET. MDCCXLIV. Copper. Size 2·1. By J. A.
    Dassier.

Lord John Carteret, aft. Earl Granville, statesman, b. 1690, Second
Sec. of State 1721, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1724—26 and again
1729—30, First Secretary of State 1742—1744; d. 1763.

    510. Earl of Chesterfield, 1743. _Obv._ Bust l., wearing star
    and ribbon. PHILIPPUS STANHOPE, I. A. DASSIER F. _Rev._ Within
    ornamented border, COMES DE CHESTERFIELD. MDCCXLIII. Copper.
    Size 2·1. By J. A. Dassier.

Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, statesman and writer, b.
1694, Ambassador at the Hague 1728 and 1745, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1745, Second Sec. of State 1746: assisted in the Reformation of the
Calendar 1752; d. 1773.

    511. Earl of Chatham. _Obv._ Bust l., in tie-wig and civilian's
    dress. GVLIELMVS PITT; on arm, T. PINGO F. _Rev._ THE MAN WHO
    HAVING SAVED THE PARENT PLEADED WITH SUCCESS FOR HER CHILDREN.
    Silver. Size 1·55. By T. Pingo.

William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, statesman, b. 1708, Vice-Treasurer for
Ireland 1746, Paymaster-General of the Army 1747—55, First Secretary
of State 1756 and again 1757—1761, Lord Privy Seal and Prime Minister
1766—68; d. 1778.

This medal refers to Chatham's foreign policy and desire to stop
England's contest with her colonies.

    512. General Wolfe, 1759. _Obv._ Bust l., in armour and cloak.
    IACOBUS WOLFE ANGLUS. GOSSET M. KIRK F. _Rev._ Urn on pedestal,
    inscribed, PRO PATRIA; above, laurel-wreath; around, arms and
    flags. IN VICTORIA CÆSVS; in ex., QVEBECÆ. SEPT. XIII. MDCCLIX.
    Silver. Size 1·4. By C. Gosset and J. Kirk.

Major-General James Wolfe, b. 1726, served at Dettingen, Fontenoy,
Falkirk, and Culloden; commanded in Canada, and was killed in the
attack on Quebec, 13 Sept. 1759.

    513. Lord Clive, 1766. _Obv._ Bust, three-quarters l., wearing
    embroidered coat and ribbon and star. ROBERT CLIVE BARON OF
    PLASSEY. I. U. N. F. _Rev._ Fame facing, pointing at obelisk,
    inscribed with achievements of Clive. HONOUR THE REWARD OF
    MERIT; in ex., ANNO 1766. C. G. Copper. Size 1·6. By C. Gosset.

Robert Lord Clive, b. 1725, in service of the East India Company,
defeated Siraj-ed-dawleh (Surajah Dowlah), Nawab (Nabob) of Bengal,
at Plassey, 23 June, 1757; Governor and Commander-in-chief in Bengal
1764—67; d. 1774.


GEORGE III 1760—1820.

    514. Marriage, 1761. _Obv._ Busts of King and Queen, as Greek
    Sovereigns, jugate r. GEORG. III. SOPH. CAROL. M. B. F. ET H.
    REX ET REGINA; on shoulder, A. _Rev._ Britannia burning incense
    at tripod, and holding staff with cap of Liberty; in the
    distance, ship. VOTA BRITANNIÆ; in ex., FELICI VINCULO IUNCTI.
    D. X. SEPT. MDCCLXI. Gold. Size 1·65. By J. Abraham.[34]

[34] Jakob Abraham, b. 1723, at Strelitz, was appointed Engraver to the
Prussian Mint, an office which he held for over 50 years. He died about
the year 1800.

George III. married, 8 Sep. 1761, Sophia Charlotte, dau. of the Duke of
Mecklenburg Strelitz. The date is incorrectly given on the medal.

    515. Coronation, 1761. _Obv._ Bust of King r., laur., in
    armour, and cloak. GEORGIVS III. D. G. M. BRI. FRA. ET HIB.
    REX F. D.; on arm, L. N. _Rev._ King in Roman dress, laur.,
    seated l., crowned by Britannia; at her side, shield and
    trident; on r., lion with orb. PATRIAE OVANTI; in ex., CORON.
    XXII. SEPT. MDCCLXI. L. N. Gold. Size 1·3. By J. L. Natter.[35]

[35] Johann Lorenz Natter, a native of Biberach, Württemberg, settled
early at Florence, where he worked for the Grand Duke, and also under
the patronage of Baron Stosch, a famous collector of ancient gems, for
whom he executed intagli in imitation of the antique. It is also said
that he interpolated names on antique gems. From Florence he emigrated
to London, where he was liberally patronised by the Duke of Devonshire
and the Duke of Marlborough, and was appointed Assistant Engraver to
the Mint. Soon after the coronation of George III. he went to St.
Petersburg, where he died in 1763.

George III., eldest son of Frederic Prince of Wales, succeeded to the
throne 22 Oct. 1760. He was crowned 22 Sep. 1761.

    516. Another. _Obv._ Bust of King l., in armour and cloak.
    GEORGIVS TERTIVS REX. _Rev._ Bust of Queen r., draped.
    CHARLOTTA BRITANNIÆ REGINA. NUPT. SEP. VIII. CORO. XXII.
    MDCCLXI. Silver. Size 1·6. By J. Kirk.

    517. Seven Years' War: Peace of Paris, &c., 1763. _Obv._
    Two military figures (Mars and Austria) conducting Prussia
    helmeted to Temple of Janus, surmounted by arms of Russia and
    ornamented with various shields; within temple, Neptune and Sol
    sacrificing; on step of temple, SVVM CVIQVE. ADES PAX ET TOTO
    MITIS IN ORBE MANE. MDCCLXIII. I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. _Rev._ Latin
    inscription detailing treaties entered upon by the different
    Powers at the end of the Seven Years' War. Silver. Size 1·9. By
    J. G. Holtzhey.

The treaties which terminated the Seven Years' War were a compact
between Russia and Prussia, 5 May, 1762; another between Prussia and
Sweden, 22 May, 1762; another, called the Peace of Paris, between
England, France, Spain, and Portugal, 10/16 Feb. 1763; and the last,
called the Peace of Hubertsburg, between Austria, Prussia, and Saxony,
18 Feb. 1763.

    518. Prosecution of the "North Briton," No. 45, 1763. _Obv._
    Bust of Wilkes, three-quarters l., wearing robes of Lord Mayor.
    I. WILKES ESQ^R LORD MAYOR. 1774. _Rev._ Axe and jack-boot with
    head of Lord Bute. BRITONS STRIKE HOME. Copper. Size 1·7. Cast.

John Wilkes, Alderman of London and M.P. for Aylesbury, was imprisoned
under a general warrant for a libel on the King's Speech published in
the "North Briton," No. 45, 1763. General warrants being declared
illegal, Wilkes was released. The head in the jack-boot was a rustic
pun on the name of John Earl of Bute, Prime Minister 1762—3. The axe
suggests treason. This medal was executed when Wilkes became Lord Mayor
of London, 1774.

    519. Captain Cook's Second Voyage, 1772. _Obv._ Head of King
    r., laur. GEORGE III. KING OF GR. BRITAIN FRANCE AND IRELAND
    ETC. B. F. _Rev._ Two ships on sea. RESOLVTION ADVENTVRE—SAILED
    FROM ENGLAND. MARCH. MDCCLXXII. Gold. Size 1·7. By Barnett.

In his second voyage round the world, Captain James Cook, the navigator
(b. 1728; d. 1779), commanded the Resolution, and was accompanied by
the Adventure. He left in March 1772, and, after visiting New Zealand
and passing Cape Horne, returned in July 1774.

    520. Another. _Obv._ Bust l., in naval uniform. IAC. COOK
    OCEANI INVESTIGATOR ACERRIMVS. REG. SOC. LOND. SOCIO SVO. L. P.
    F. _Rev._ Fortune l., leaning on rostral column, holding rudder
    on globe, and spear; near her, shield. NIL INTENTATVM NOSTRI
    LIQVERE. (Hor. Ep. ad Pis. 285); in ex., AVSPICIIS GEORGII III.
    Gold. Size 1·65. By L. Pingo.

On his return from his second voyage in 1774, Captain Cook was elected
a member of the Royal Society, and in 1776 he received its Copley medal
in gold for brilliant discoveries. This medal is by Lewis Pingo, who
for many years during the reign of George III. was Chief Engraver to
the Royal Mint.

    521. No Popery Riots, 1779—80. _Obv._ Bust of Lord George
    Gordon l., in broad-brimmed hat and coat. _Rev._ LORD GEORGE
    GORDON. 1780. Copper. Size 1·15.

In consequence of a Bill before Parliament to relieve Roman Catholics
of certain penalties and disabilities, serious riots took place in
Scotland and England, 1779—80. These riots were stimulated by the
Protestant Association, of which Lord George Gordon was president.

    522. American War: Paul Jones: Attacks on Scottish Coast, 1779.
    _Obv._ Bust of Paul Jones r., in naval uniform. JOANNI PAVLO
    JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO. COMITIA AMERICANA. DUPRÉ F. _Rev._
    Naval engagement. HOSTIVM NAVIBVS CAPTIS AVT FVGATIS; in ex.,
    AD ORAM SCOTIAE. XXIII. SEPT. MDCCLXXVIIII. DUPRÉ F. Copper.
    Size 2·2. By A. Dupré.[36]

[36] Augustin Dupré, a medallist of some note, was for some time chief
engraver at the Paris mint.

In the autumn of 1779 Scotland was much alarmed by the daring exploits
of Captain John Paul Jones, who in command of an American squadron
attacked her coasts, captured numerous prizes, and even threatened
Edinburgh. This medal records the capture, on 13 Sep. 1779, of the
English frigate Serapis, Captain Pearson, by the Bon Homme Richard,
commanded by Captain Paul Jones, to whom it was awarded, in gold.

    523. Defeat of Royal Forces at Cowpens, 1781. _Obv._ English
    cavalry flying before American; Lieut.-Colonel Washington on
    horseback l., commanding; above, Victory with wreath and palms.
    GULIELMO WASHINGTON LEGIONIS EQUIT. PRÆFECTO; in ex., COMITIA
    AMERICAN, DU V. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, inscription in
    Latin, giving date of battle of Cowpens, XVII. JAN. MDCCLXXXI.
    &c. Copper. Size 2·8. By B. Du Vivier.[37]

[37] Benjamin Du Vivier, son of J. Du Vivier, the medallist, b. at
Paris, 1730, was chief engraver to Louis XVI. He was afterwards
employed by the French Republican Government. Died 1795.

On 17 Jan. 1781, Colonel Tarleton, who commanded the British troops,
was defeated at a place called Cowpens by a force under General Morgan
and Lieut.-Colonel Washington, nephew of the Commander-in-chief.

    524. Prosecution of the War with America, 1781. _Obv._ Bust of
    King l., laur., in armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. REX ANG.
    _Rev._ Lion l., bursting his bonds. INDOCILIS PATI; in ex., IN
    PERPET. MEMOR. MDCCLXXXI. Silver. Size 2·1.

This medal illustrates the determination of England to prosecute the
war with America to the "bitter end." The independence of the Colonies
was, however, acknowledged in the following year, 30 Nov. 1782, by the
Treaty of Paris.

    525. War with Holland: Capture of the Island of St. Eustatius,
    1781. _Obv._ Bust of Admiral Rodney r., in naval uniform. G.
    B. RODNEY. _Rev._ Within oak-wreath, IN MEMORY OF THE GLORIOUS
    3^{RD.} FEB^{RY.} 1781 WHEN S^R GEORGE PUNISH'D THE DUTCH &c.
    &c. Silver. Size 1·35.

Holland having formed a secret treaty with the United States, a
declaration of war was proclaimed in London, and on 3 Feb. 1781
Admiral Sir George Rodney captured from the Dutch the rich Island of
St. Eustatius, in the West Indies. It was recaptured by the French in
the following year.

    526. Action off Cadiz, 1781: Capture of the Castor. _Obv._
    Ships on sea; one sinking. VIS VI FORTITER REPULSA; in ex.,
    PROPE GADES. XXX. MAY. MDCCLXXXI. _Rev._ Trophy of three
    shields, arms of Holland and of the Dutch ships the Castor
    and Brill? surmounted by naval crown, anchors, and two flags
    inscribed, P. MELVILL NAVARCHUS, and G. OORTHUIS NAVARCH.; sun
    rising. ANTIQVA VIRTVTE DVVMVIRI; below, festoons with lion's
    head in centre. I. G. HOLTZHEY FEC. Silver. Size 1·75. By J. G.
    Holtzhey.

This medal commemorates the action on 30 May, 1781, between the English
ships, the Flora and Crescent, and the Dutch ships, the Castor and
Brill. The fight ended in the capture of the Castor, commanded by Capt.
Melvill. Capt. Oorthuis commanded the Brill.

    527. Action off Dogger Bank, 1781. _Obv._ Victory r., holding
    wreath and palm, on prow inscribed, DOGGERS BANK—PAX QVAERITVR
    BELLO. V. AVG. MDCCLXXXI. S. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath,
    EXIMIAE VIRTVTIS PRAEMIVM; around, MVNIFICENTIA PRINCIPIS
    AVRIACI. Gold. Size 1·4; with ring for suspension.

This medal was executed by order of the Prince of Orange to commemorate
the action off Dogger Bank, 5 Aug. 1781, between the English fleet
under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and the Dutch under Admiral Zoutman.
Both sides fought with the determination of former days, but neither
obtained any actual advantage.

    528. War with Spain: Siege of Gibraltar, 1782. _Obv._ View of
    Gibraltar besieged. PER TOT DISCRIMINA RERUM. (Virg. Aen. i.
    208); XIII. SEPT. MDCCLXXXII. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath,
    REDEN, LAMOTTE, SYDOW, ELIOTT; around, BRUDERSCHAFT. L. PINGO
    F. Gold. Size 1·9. By L. Pingo.

Gibraltar had suffered a siege of three years, when the Spaniards
determined to make a supreme effort to capture the place by means of
floating batteries constructed by the French engineer D'Arcon. The
great attack was made 13 Sep. 1782, but failed, the batteries being
totally destroyed by red-hot cannon balls. The fortress was defended by
General Elliot, who ordered this medal to be struck for presentation to
the Hanoverian Brigade, which took part in the defence.

    529. General Elliot. Defender of Gibraltar, 1782. _Obv._ Bust
    l., in military uniform, wearing order of Garter. GEORGE
    AUGUSTUS ELIOTT GOVERNOR OF GIBRALTAR. J. P. DROZ F. _Rev._
    Hercules, with apples of the Hesperides and club, facing;
    beside him, pillar, another beyond, the sea between; in the
    distance, Gibraltar. FORTITER ET RECTE; in ex., XIII. SEPT.
    MDCCLXXXII. DROZ F. Copper. Size 2·35. By J. P. Droz.[38]

[38] Jean Pierre Droz, b. at Chaux de Fonds 1746, was a pupil of Du
Vivier. He came to England about 1790, and was engaged by Boulton of
Birmingham on a new copper coinage. Returning to Paris about 1807, he
was appointed Director of the Mint, which post he resigned in 1814.
Afterwards, under the direction of Vivant-Denon and Jeuffroy, he issued
a large series of medals illustrating the great events of the Empire.
In this work he employed a number of engravers. He died 1823.

General George Augustus Elliot, Lord Heathfield, born 1718, entered the
army 1735; was present at Dettingen 1743; appointed Commander-in-chief
in Ireland 1775, and soon afterwards Governor of Gibraltar, which
he defended in the long siege from 1779 to 1783; created 1787 Lord
Heathfield, Baron Gibraltar; died 1790. The rock of Calpe (Gibraltar)
on the Spanish coast, with the opposite one of Abyla on the African
coast, formed the renowned "Pillars of Hercules," so called from the
myth that he tore asunder the mountain which closed the Straits.

    530. Recovery of the King, 1789. _Obv._ Head of King r., laur.
    GEORGIVS III. MAGN. BR. FR. &c. _Rev._ West front of St. Paul's
    Cathedral. LÆTITIA CVM PIETATE.—DEO OPT. MAX. REX. PIENTISS.
    PRO SALVTE REST. V.S.L. M. AP. 23. 1789; edge inscribed. Gold.
    Size 2·1.

In 1788 the King was attacked with a violent illness, which terminated
in symptoms of lunacy. He recovered in the following year, and a
public thanksgiving was held at St. Paul's, 23 April, 1789. This medal
was "struck by order of the Patrons of the anniversary meeting, who
assembled with 5000 children on the happy event."

    531. War with France: "Victory of the 1st June," 1794. _Obv._
    Bust of Admiral Howe l., in naval uniform and cloak. RIC.
    COMES HOWE VICE-ADMIRALLUS ANGLIÆ &c. BARNETT. _Rev._ Neptune
    in sea-chariot l., presenting trident to Britannia, seated l.
    on rock; in background, Victory r. inscribing obelisk with
    names of Howe and the other commanders; ships in action. NON
    NOBIS SED PATRIÆ; in ex., MDCCXCIIII. 1^{ST.} JUNE. _Barnett._
    Silver. Size 2·2. By Barnett.

On the 1st June, 1794, Admiral Lord Howe, who commanded the Channel
Fleet, fell in with the French fleet off Brest, under Jean Bon St.
André. After an hour's hard fighting Howe broke the enemy's line,
capturing seven ships and sinking another. For this victory the Admiral
received the thanks of Parliament, &c.

    532. Marriage of George Prince of Wales with Caroline of
    Brunswick, 1795. _Obv._ Bust of Prince, three quarters r., in
    civilian's dress, wearing star of Garter; around, border of
    oak-leaves and ribbon inscribed, GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES, &c.
    _Rev._ Inscription with dates of birth of Prince, 12 Aug. 1762,
    and his marriage, 8 Apr. 1795. Silver. Size 1·8. By Whitley of
    Old Bond Street.

George (IV.) Prince of Wales mar. 8 April, 1795, Princess Caroline
Amelia Elizabeth, dau. of the Duke of Brunswick.

    533. Another. _Obv._ Busts of Prince and Princess jugate r.
    GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES ET CAROLINE PRINC.; on arm of Prince, C.
    H. K. _Rev._ FROGMORE. MAY 19^{TH} 1795; beneath, oak-branches
    crossing. SOHO. Silver. Size 1·85. By C. H. Küchler.

This medal was struck upon the occasion of the visit of the Prince and
Princess to Frogmore after their marriage. C. H. Küchler, a native of
Flanders, was employed by Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham.

    534. War with France: Defeat of French fleet off Port d'Orient
    by Admiral Hood, Lord Bridport, 1795. _Obv._ Bust of Hood r.,
    in naval uniform. A. A. HOOD LORD BRIDPORT ADMIRAL OF THE
    WHITE, P. K; on arm, HANCOCK. _Rev._ Victory facing, holding
    naval crown and French flags, alighting on rock; in the
    distance, ships. Inscription giving number of ships engaged and
    captured; and in ex., 23^D JUNE 1795. Copper. Size 1·9. By J.
    G. Hancock.

On 23 June, 1795, a portion of the Channel fleet under Admiral Hood
attacked a part of the Brest fleet under Vice-Admiral Villaret, off
Port d'Orient. The enemy was obliged to seek shelter in their port,
with the loss of three ships and 228 guns.

    535. French Expedition to Bantry Bay, 1797. _Obv._ Within
    wreath, FRIENDLY ASSOCIATION. BANTRY GARRISON; in centre,
    crown. _Rev._ Ships in storm. AFFLAVIT DEUS ET DISSIPANTUR; in
    ex., JAN. MDCCXCVII. MOSSOP. Copper. Size 1·55. By W. Mossop.

After the successes of Bonaparte, the Directory determined to make a
descent upon Ireland. The expedition, consisting of 17 sail of the line
and 13 frigates and transports, conveying 20,000 men, set sail from
Brest 19 Dec. 1796. The fleet was scattered by a severe storm, and only
a few ships reached Bantry Bay 24 Dec., and these returned without
making any attempt to land.

    536. Engagement off Cape St. Vincent, 1797. _Obv._ Bust of
    Jervis l., in naval uniform, &c. JOHN JERVIS EARL OF S^T
    VINCENT ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE. BORN JANUARY 26 1735; on arm,
    HANCOCK. _Rev._ Spain seated r. on rock, weeping, leaning on
    shield; in the distance, naval battle. Inscription giving
    number of ships engaged and captured; and in ex., FEBRUARY 14.
    1797. P. K. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

An alliance having been entered into between France, Spain, and
Holland, a joint invasion of England was projected, and fleets were
equipped at Brest, Cadiz, and the Texel. The attempt was fruitless in
each case: the French fleet was dispersed at Bantry Bay (see No. 535);
the Spanish fleet was defeated by Admiral Jervis off Cape St. Vincent,
14 Feb. 1797; and that of the Dutch by Admiral Duncan off Camperdown,
11 Oct. 1797. (See No. 537.) For the victory off Cape St. Vincent,
Jervis was created Earl St. Vincent, &c.

    537. Engagement off Camperdown, 1797. _Obv._ Bust of Duncan r.,
    in naval uniform, wearing medal, &c. ADAM LORD VISCOUNT DUNCAN
    ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE. BORN JULY 1, 1731; on arm, HANCOCK;
    below, P. K. _Rev._ Sailor nailing English flag to mast-head.
    Inscription with date of engagement, OCTOBER 11. 1797, and
    number of ships engaged; in ex., HEROIC COURAGE PROTECTS THE
    BRITISH FLAG. HANCOCK. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

In this engagement with the Dutch fleet the English captured 12 ships
of the line, three of which immediately sank. Admiral Duncan was
created Viscount Duncan of Camperdown.

    538. Another. _Obv._ Bust of Onslow, three-quarters l., in
    naval uniform and wearing medal. SIR RICHARD ONSLOW BART.
    ADMIRAL OF THE BLUE. BORN 23 JUNE 1741; on arm, HANCOCK. _Rev._
    View of engagement, the fleets contending in line. SECOND IN
    COMMAND OCTO. 11. 1797; in ex., IN THE MONARCH OF 74 GUNS BROKE
    THE REAR OF THE DUTCH LINE & TOOK THE ADMIRALS SHIP. Copper.
    Size 1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

Admiral Sir Richard Onslow was second in command at the battle off
Camperdown.

    539. Victory of the Nile, 1798. _Obv._ Medallion with portrait
    of Nelson, held by Britannia l., standing on rock near sea; in
    her r. hand, laurel-branch; at her side, anchor. REAR ADMIRAL
    LORD NELSON OF THE NILE. C. H. K. _Rev._ English and French
    fleets drawn up in semicircle in Aboukir Bay. ALMIGHTY GOD HAS
    BLESSED HIS MAJESTY'S ARMS; in ex., VICTORY OF THE NILE. AUGUST
    1. 1798. M. B. SOHO. C. H. KÜCHLER FEC. Edge engraved, FROM
    ALEX^Ṛ DAVISON ESQ^Ṛ S^Ṭ JAMES'S SQUARE. A TRIBUTE OF REGARD.
    Gold. Size 1·95. By C. H. Küchler.

In the battle of the Nile, which was fought in Aboukir Bay, 1 Aug.
1798, the French fleet which had conveyed Napoleon and his troops
to Egypt was, with the exception of four vessels, either taken or
destroyed by Admiral Nelson, who for this victory was raised to the
peerage. This medal was presented by Mr. Davison to every officer and
seaman engaged in the battle: in gold, to the admirals, commanders,
and captains: in silver, to lieutenants and warrant officers; in
bronze-gilt, to petty officers; and in bronze, to seamen and marines.

    540. Attempted Assassination of the King, 1800. _Obv._ Bust of
    King l., in armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. D. G. MAGN. BRIT.
    FR. &c. C. H. KÜCHLER F. _Rev._ Lighted altar, inscribed D. O.
    M.; above, radiate Eye. REGE INCOLUMI POPULUS LAETUS; in ex.,
    A SICARIO SERVATUS. MAI. XV. MDCCC. Silver. Size 1·9. By C. H.
    Küchler.

On 15 May, 1800, an unsuccessful attempt was made by a discharged
soldier, James Hadfield, to shoot the King, as he was entering his box
at Drury Lane Theatre.

    541. Union with Ireland, 1801. _Obv._ Bust of King l., in
    armour and cloak. GEORGIUS III. D. G. BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI
    DEF. &c. C. H. K. _Rev._ Britannia and Hibernia, with their
    shields, &c., grasping right hands. JUNGUNTUR OPES FIRMATUR
    IMPERIUM; in ex., I. JAN. MDCCCI. C. H. KÜCHLER FC. Silver.
    Size 1·9. By C. H. Küchler.

By the Act of Union, 1 Jan. 1801, the parliaments and churches of
England and Ireland were united, and freedom of trade was established.

    542. War with France: Battle of Alexandria, 1801. _Obv._
    Bust of Abercrombie facing, head l., in uniform. SIR RALPH
    ABERCROMBIE K.B. LIEUTENANT GENERAL. _Rev._ Britannia
    reclining, weeping at base of monument inscribed, WOUNDED
    MAR. 21. DIED MAR. 28. 1801; in the distance, battle. FRENCH
    DEFEATED. MAR. 21. 1801. Copper. Size 1·55.

At the battle of Alexandria, 21 March, 1801, the French under Menon
were defeated by the English, who were commanded by Sir Ralph
Abercrombie. Abercrombie was wounded in the action and expired seven
days afterwards.

    543. Peace of Amiens, 1802. _Obv._ King r., holding trident
    and shield, crowned by Victory with palm. REGNO PACEM OBTULIT;
    in ex., SUPER PACE RATA DIE 27. MARTII. HANCOCK. _Rev._ View
    of St. Paul's. DEO GLORIAM REFERT; in ex., PAX CELEBRATA DIE
    I. JUNII. MDCCCII.: K. & K. H. Silver-gilt. Size 1·9. By J. G.
    Hancock.

The Treaty of Amiens, concluded 27 Mar. 1802, between England, France,
Spain, and Holland, restored peace to Europe. A public thanksgiving was
held in England, 1st June following.

    544. War with France and Spain: Victory of Trafalgar, 1805.
    _Obv._ Bust of Nelson l., in naval uniform. HORATIO VISCOUNT
    NELSON K.B. DUKE OF BRONTE &c.; on arm, C. H. K. _Rev._ Naval
    engagement. ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY; in
    ex., TRAFALGAR OCT^Ṛ 21. 1805. Edge engraved, TO THE HEROES OF
    TRAFALGAR. FROM M. BOULTON. Silver-gilt. Size 1·85. By C. H.
    Küchler.

At the battle of Trafalgar the French and Spanish fleets under
Villeneuve and Gravina were defeated by the English under Nelson, who
was killed in the action. Twenty of the enemy's ships struck, and
Villeneuve and the two Spanish admirals and 20,000 prisoners fell into
the hands of the victors. This medal was presented by Mr. Boulton
to every officer and seaman engaged in the battle. It was issued in
silver, bronze-gilt, bronze, and white metal.

    545. Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera, 1809. _Obv._ Bust of
    Wellington r., in military uniform. ARTHUR DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
    MILLS F. MUDIE. _Rev._ Victory facing, head l., giving wreath
    to lion, but withholding another from eagle. BATTLE OF
    TALAVERA. 1809. LA FITTE. MUDIE D. Copper. Size 1·6. By Mills
    and Lafitte.

The battle of Talavera, 27 July, 1809, was the first of the great
victories of Wellington in the Peninsula. The French were commanded
by Joseph Bonaparte, Victor and Sebastiani, and the Allies by
Wellington and Cuesta. For this victory Wellington, then Sir Arthur
Wellesley, was raised to the peerage. This is one of the series of
National Medals issued under the direction of James Mudie in 1820, "to
commemorate the succession of victories achieved by British arms over
Napoleon." A number of English and foreign artists were employed in the
accomplishment of this work.

    546. Lines of Torres Vedras, 1810—1811. _Obv._ Wellington
    in military dress, seated l. within tent, and studying map.
    FABIUS CUNCTATOR. PETIT F. _Rev._ Tagus reclining l.; behind,
    orange-tree and tents. LINES OF TORRES VEDRAS—THE ENGLISH ARMY
    ON THE TAGUS. 1810—1811. MUDIE D. DUBOIS F. Copper. Size 1·6.
    By Petit and Dubois.

After the battle of Busaco, Wellington retired for winter-quarters into
the Lines of Torres Vedras, which he entered 8 Oct. 1810; a position
which Massena, who commanded the "army of Portugal," found impregnable.
Wellington is naturally compared to Fabius Cunctator, whose delays
baffled Hannibal.

    547. Battle of Salamanca and Entry into Madrid, 1812. _Obv._
    Soldiers advancing r., towards mountains, up which ascend
    horsemen and military train, against whom Victory l. hurls
    lightnings. JULY XXII. MDCCCXII. SALAMANCA. MUDIE D. _Rev._
    Wellington on horseback l., receiving garland from Spaniards.
    THE BRITISH ARMY ENTERS MADRID. AVG. XII. MDCCCXII. BRENET F.
    Copper. Size 1·6. By Brenet.

After the battle of Salamanca, in which Marmont was defeated by
Wellington, the latter, hearing that Joseph Bonaparte was threatening
his rear, turned upon him and pursued him to Madrid, which he entered
12 Aug. 1812. The French garrison surrendered, and 180 guns with 20,000
stand of arms were captured.

    548. Victories up to Salamanca and Entry into Madrid, 1812.
    _Obv._ Head of Wellington l., bare. LIEUT. GEN. MARQUIS
    WELLINGTON K.B. &c. &c. MDCCCXII. T. WYON F. _Rev._ Column
    inscribed with names of victories, and ornamented with shields
    of England, Portugal, and Spain; around base, French arms and
    standard. ENTER'D MADRID AUGUST XII. P. W. F. Copper. Size
    1·75. By T. and P. Wyon.[39]

[39] The place occupied in medallic art in the 17th century by the
Roettier family has been filled during the present century by the
family of the Wyons. This family is of German origin, George Wyon,
the first member who visited England, being a native of Cologne, and
forming one of the suite of George I., to whose person he was attached
as Chief Goldsmith. He is said to have died in the West Indies. His
son George was apprenticed to Hemmings, the goldsmith of George II.,
and in 1772 executed for the City of London a silver cup which was
presented to John Wilkes, the "Patriot." In 1775 he was engaged at
the Soho mint near Birmingham, and died in 1796, leaving four sons,
the two eldest being Thomas and Peter, who acted together as a firm
of general die-engravers in Birmingham till 1800. In this year Thomas
came to London, and was employed in the Dept. of the Engraver of His
Majesty's Seals, and of which Dept. he became chief in 1816. He died
in 1830, surviving by many years his son, Thomas Wyon, jun., who at
the early age of 23 in 1815 was appointed Chief Engraver to the Mint,
and who in that capacity executed, among numerous medals, that for the
battle of Waterloo (No. 576) and also the great recoinage of 1816. T.
Wyon, jun., died in 1817. His brother Benjamin was appointed Chief
Engraver of His Majesty's Seals in 1831, and executed among other
works the Crimea medal (No. 597). He died in 1858, and was succeeded
in his appointment by his son, J. S. Wyon, who in conjunction with his
brother, A. B. Wyon, engraved the New Zealand (No. 603) and Abyssinian
(No. 605) medals. J. S. Wyon died in 1873, and the appointment which he
held was given to his brother, A. B. Wyon. Peter Wyon, the second son
of George Wyon, after the departure of his brother to London remained
at Birmingham, where he displayed great taste in his designs and models
for ornamental brass-work. Before his death he had the satisfaction
of seeing his son William enjoying greater reputation than himself.
William Wyon, the R.A., was born at Birmingham 1795, and in 1815 he
came to London. In the following year he was appointed Assistant
Engraver to the Mint, and in 1828 succeeded Pistrucci as Chief
Engraver. In 1832 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy,
and in 1838 Academician, this being the first instance of a medallist
receiving such distinction. Besides the numerous coinages which W.
Wyon executed, he produced a large series of military, academical,
and private medals. He died in 1851, and was succeeded in his post by
his son, L. C. Wyon, the present Engraver to the Mint, who, besides
engraving a large series of national, colonial, and foreign coinages,
has executed the medals for the Second Burmese War (No. 595), for
Campaigns in South Africa (No. 596), for Service in the Baltic (No.
598), for the Indian Mutiny (No. 601), for Arctic Discoveries (No.
602), for the Ashantee War (No. 606), &c.

The victories in the Peninsula were Vimiera, 21 Aug. 1808; Talavera,
26—28 July, 1809; Busaco, 27 Sep. 1810; Ciudad Rodrigo captured 19 Jan.
1812; Badajoz captured 7 Apr. 1812; and Salamanca, 22 July, 1812.

    549. War with America: Action between "Wasp" and "Frolic,"
    1812. _Obv._ Bust of Capt. James Jones r., in naval uniform.
    JACOBUS JONES VIRTUS IN ARDUA TENDIT. FURST F. _Rev._
    Engagement between the "Wasp" and "Frolic." VICTORIAM HOSTI
    MAJORI CELERRIME RAPUIT; in ex., INTER WASP NAV. AMERI. ET
    FROLIC NAV. ANG. DIE XVIII. OCT. MDCCCXII. FURST F. Silver.
    Size 2·55. By—Furst.

On 18 Oct. 1812, after a short resistance the British ship "Frolic,"
commanded by Capt. Whingates, surrendered to the American ship "Wasp,"
under the command of Capt. James Jones, to whom this medal in gold
was awarded. Silver medals were presented to the other commissioned
officers.

    550. George (IV.) Prince of Wales, Regent, 1814. Head of Prince
    r., laur. GEORGIVS PRINCEPS WALLIÆ PATRIAM PRO PATRE REGENS.
    MDCCCXIIII; on arm, I. BARBER F. &c. No reverse. Silver-gilt.
    Size 2·75. Plaque by J. Barber.

On account of the ill-health of George III., the Prince of Wales was
appointed Regent by a Bill passed 5 Feb. 1811.

    551. Peace of Paris, 1814. _Obv._ Head of Britannia l.,
    wearing crested helmet ornamented with lion and olive-wreath.
    BRITANNIA. J. MUDIE DT. _Rev._ Hercules facing, wearing lion's
    skin, trampling on French standard and resting on club. THE
    REPOSE OF HERCULES. MDCCCXIIII. DROZ F. MUDIE D. Silver. Size
    1·6. By J. P. Droz.

The defeat and abdication of Napoleon was followed by the Peace of
Paris, signed 23 Apr. and confirmed 30 May, 1814, between Louis XVIII.
and the Allies, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.


    552. The Waterloo Medal designed by Pistrucci. _Obv._ Jugate
    busts l., laur., of the Prince Regent, Francis II., Emperor of
    Austria, Alexander I., Emperor of Russia, and Frederick William
    III., King of Prussia; on either side, Justice l., and Hercules
    r., seated; above, the Sun in quadriga l., preceded by Castor
    and Pollux, and followed by Iris and Zephyrus; beneath, Night
    in Biga r.; before her, the Furies; behind her, the Fates,
    PISTRUCCI. _Rev._ Wellington and Blucher on horseback l.,
    guided by Victory between them; Wellington gallops in advance,
    and Blucher rushes to his aid; above, Jupiter in quadriga,
    facing, hurling thunderbolt at giants arranged in circle,
    PISTRUCCI. Copper. Size 5·3. By B. Pistrucci.[40]

[40] Benedetto Pistrucci, born at Rome 1784 of good family, his father
being Judge of the High Criminal Court at Rome, began at the early age
of twelve to study the art of gem and cameo cutting, and acquired such
proficiency that before he was sixteen his works were often disposed
of by dealers as antiques. In 1815 Pistrucci came to England, and two
years later, upon the death of T. Wyon, was appointed Chief Engraver to
the Mint, being immediately engaged on the new silver and gold coinage,
having for the reverse type the St. George and Dragon. For some time
after the accession of George IV., Pistrucci was engaged on a coinage
for the new reign, which, having finished, he was promoted in 1828 to
the post of Chief Medallist to the Mint, W. Wyon being appointed his
successor as Chief Engraver. From this period till 1849 Pistrucci was
engaged on the dies of the Waterloo medal, occasionally relieving the
monotony of the work by the production of a large number of gems and
medals, among the latter being the Coronation Medal of Victoria, a
medal of the Duke of Wellington, one for the Royal Humane Society, &c.
&c. He died in 1855.

This medal was executed in pursuance of an order given by the Prince
Regent in 1819, who desired to commemorate the battle of Waterloo by
the production of a medal of surpassing magnitude and beauty. It was
intended for presentation to each of the allied sovereigns as well as
to the two commanders, Wellington and Blucher; but this object failed,
as Pistrucci, who was directed to execute the work, did not accomplish
the task till 1st January, 1849, and Wellington then alone survived.
This medal has not been issued, as the dies have never been hardened;
but it has been reproduced by the electro process, of which the above
is an example.

    553. Duke of Wellington, 1810. _Obv._ Head r., bare. LIEUT.
    GEN. LORD VISCOUNT WELLINGTON K.B. MDCCCX. T. WYON JU^{R.} F.
    _Rev._ Victory r., on mountain, holding wreath and palm; at her
    side, shield, arms of St. George and Portugal impaled; at her
    feet, broken French standard. T. WYON JU^Ṛ FECIT. Copper. Size
    1·95. By T. Wyon, jun.

Arthur, Duke of Wellington, general and statesman, b. 1769, raised to
the peerage as Viscount 1809, created Marquis 1812, Duke 1814, d. 14
Sep. 1852. This medal was struck about the time of the battle of Busaco
and of Wellington's famous defence in the lines of Torres Vedras,
1810—11.

    554. Sir John Moore, 1809. _Obv._ Head l., bare. LIEUT.
    GENERAL SIR J. MOORE K.B. MILLS F. _Rev._ Soldiers defending
    wounded comrade against attack of eagle with thunderbolt; in
    background, prow of ship. DEATH OF SIR JOHN MOORE; in ex.,
    CORUNNA. 16 JANUARY 1809. MUDIE D. COURIGUER SC. Copper. Size
    1·6. By Mills and Couriguer.

Sir John Moore, general, b. 1761, served in the West Indies 1795, in
Egypt at the battle of Alexandria 21 Mar. 1801, and afterwards in the
Peninsular War 1808—9; killed at the battle of Corunna, 16 Jan. 1809.

    555. Lord Hill, 1812. _Obv._ Head l., bare. LIEUT. GENERAL
    LORD HILL, MILLS F. H. _Rev._ The river Tagus, over which
    broken bridge; above, Victory flying r., conducting Britannia.
    ALMARAZ. MAY XIX. MDCCCXII. MUDIE D. GAYRARD F. Copper. Size
    1·6. By Mills and Gayrard.

Rowland, Viscount Hill, general, b. 1772, served in the Egyptian
Campaign 1801, in the Peninsular War 1809—1814, raised to the peerage
1814, commanded at Waterloo 1815, appointed Commander-in-chief 1828—42;
d. 1842. This medal records the destruction by Hill, 19 May, 1812, of
the French fortifications which covered the bridge of boats over the
Tagus at Almaraz, the only means of communication between the armies of
Soult and Marmont.

    556. Sir Thomas Picton, 1812. _Obv._ Bust, three-quarters l.,
    in uniform, wearing star of the Bath. LIEUT. GEN. SIR T. PICTON
    K.B. _Webb._ _Rev._ General Picton l., planting English flag
    on battlement. BADAJOZ. APR^Ḷ VI. MDCCCXII. MUDIE D. MILLS F.
    Copper. Size 1·6. By Webb and Mills.

Sir Thomas Picton, general, b. 1758, commanded in the West Indies
1794—1797, where he was appointed Gov. of Trinidad; commanded in
Holland 1809, and in the Peninsular War, being present at the battles
of Ciudad Rodrigo, Badajoz, Vittoria, &c.; killed at Waterloo 1815.
This medal commemorates the capture of Badajoz, Picton and his division
leading the assault on the citadel.

    557. Lord Lynedoch, 1813. _Obv._ Head r., bare. LIEUT. GENERAL
    LORD LYNEDOCH. MODELED BY P. ROUW. MUDIE DIR. WEBB F. _Rev._
    Greek warrior facing, head r., standing on battlements, holding
    sword and crown; in background, city in flames; before which,
    ships. S. SEBASTIAN. AUG. XXXI. MDCCCXIII. MUDIE D. MILLS F.
    Copper. Size 1·6. By P. Rouw, Webb, and Mills.

Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, general, b. 1750, served in the
Peninsular War 1809—1814, raised to the peerage 1814, d. 1843. This
medal refers to the capture of the town and citadel of St. Sebastian,
21 Aug. 1813.

    558. Lord Thurlow, d. 1806. Bust l., in hat and official robes.
    Copper. Size 3·1. Cast and chased. A Plaque.

Edward, Lord Thurlow, b. 1732, appointed Solicitor-General 1770,
Attorney-General 1771, Lord Chancellor 1778; d. 1806.

    559. William Pitt. _Obv._ Head l. R^{T.} HON^{BLE.} WILLIAM
    PITT. 1814. T. WYON JUN. S. _Rev._ Inscription giving date of
    birth and death and recording public services. Copper. Size
    2·1. By T. Wyon, jun.

William Pitt, statesman, b. 28 May, 1759, appointed Chancellor of the
Exchequer 1782, Prime Minister 1784—1801, and again in 1804—1806; d. 23
Jan. 1806.

    560. Charles James Fox, 1806. _Obv._ Bust l., draped. CHARLES
    JA^Ṣ FOX. THIS ILLUSTRIOUS PATRIOT DEPARTED THIS LIFE SEPTEMBER
    13. A.D. 1806. ÆT^Ṭ 57. P. W. F. _Rev._ INTREPID CHAMPION OF
    FREEDOM, &c. Silver. Size 2·05. By P. Wyon.

Charles James Fox, statesman, b. 1748, appointed Secretary of State
1782, Foreign Secretary 1783, and again 1806; d. 13 Sep. 1806.

    561. Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, 1803. _Obv._ Bust r.,
    in court dress. HENRY ADDINGTON. CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER &
    FIRST LORD OF THE TREASURY. I. G. HANCOCK. _Rev._ Female figure
    holding scroll, inscribed, STATE OF THE NATION, and kneeling l.
    before pedestal, surmounted by figures of Britannia, Justice,
    and Time; in the distance, Westminster Abbey. WHO CAN WITHHOLD
    APPLAUSE; in ex., MDCCCIII. K. & K. Copper. Size 1·9. By J. G.
    Hancock.

Henry Addington, Viscount Sidmouth, statesman, b. 1757, appointed
Speaker of the House of Commons 1789, Prime Minister 1801—1804,
President of the Council 1805, Home Secretary 1812—1822; d. 1844. This
medal refers to the peaceable state of England as well as of Europe in
1803, brought about by the Peace of Amiens, 27 March, 1802.

    562. Earl of Liverpool (Lord Hawkesbury), 1803. _Obv._ Bust
    l. ROBERT BANKS LORD HAWKESBURY. SECRETARY OF STATE. HANCOCK.
    _Rev._ Female figure seated l., despatching Mercury, who holds
    scroll; at her side, shield; sea and ship in the distance.
    INTEGRITY AIDS DISPATCH; in ex., MDCCCIII. K. & K. Copper. Size
    1·9. By J. G. Hancock.

Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool, b. 1770, became Lord
Hawkesbury 1796, appointed Foreign Secretary in the Addington Ministry
1801, Home Secretary 1804 and again in 1807, Earl of Liverpool 1808,
Prime Minister 1812—1827; d. 1828. Like the previous medal, this one
refers to the Addington administration.

    563. William Wilberforce, 1807. _Obv._ Head r. WILLIAM
    WILBERFORCE M.P. THE FRIEND OF AFRICA. _Webb._ _Rev._ Britannia
    seated l., accompanied by Minerva and Justice, delivering
    message to Peace; above, angel in clouds with cross and
    wreath. I HAVE HEARD THEIR CRY; in ex., SLAVE TRADE ABOLISHED.
    MDCCCVII. Silver. Size 2·1. By Webb.

William Wilberforce, philanthropist, b. 1759, M.P. for Hull 1780 and
York county 1783, procured a bill for the abolition of the trade in
slaves by British subjects 25 March, 1807, and survived the second
reading of the Emancipation Act 1833; d. same year. This medal
commemorates the Act of 1807.

    564. Lord Brougham and Vaux, 1812. _Obv._ Head r. HENRY
    BROUGHAM ESQ^{RE}, M.P. MDCCCXII. HALLIDAY F. _Rev._
    Panegyrical inscription. Copper. Size 1·9. By Halliday.

Henry Lord Brougham and Vaux, statesman and orator, b. 1779; M.P. for
Camelford 1810, for Winchelsea 1816; appointed Attorney-General to
Queen Caroline, 1820; M.P. for York county, 1830; Lord Chancellor,
1830—1834; d. 1868.

    565. Adam Smith, 1787. _Obv._ Head r. ADAM SMITH. 1787. _Rev._
    Minerva l., holding cornucopiae and spear. Silver. Size 1·6.
    Cast and chased.

Adam Smith, political economist, b. 1723, d. 1787, author of "Inquiry
into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," "Theory of Moral
Sentiments," &c.

    566. George Washington, First President of the United States,
    1805. _Obv._ Bust r., in armour and ermine cloak. GENERAL
    WASHINGTON. INSCRIBED TO HIS MEMORY BY D. ECCLESTON. LANCASTER.
    MDCCCV; on arm, WEBB. _Rev._ American Indian l., with bow and
    spear. THE LAND WAS OURS; around, panegyrical inscription in
    three circles. Copper. Size 3. By Webb.

George Washington, Founder and First President of the United States, b.
1732, Commander-in-chief of the Continental army 1775, President 1789,
re-elected 1793, d. 1799.

    567. Benjamin Franklin, 1786. _Obv._ Bust l. BENJ. FRANKLIN
    NATUS BOSTON XVII. JAN. MDCCVI: on arm, DUPRÉ F. _Rev._ Within
    oak-wreath, ERIPUIT CŒLO FULMEN SCEPTRUM QUE TYRANNIS. SCULPSIT
    ET DICAVIT AUG. DUPRE ANNO MDCCLXXXVI. Copper. Size 1·8. By A.
    Dupré.

Benjamin Franklin, American statesman, philosopher, &c., b. 1706, was
at first a compositor and printer, appointed postmaster of Philadelphia
1737, agent for England 1757 and again in 1764, signed at Paris the
treaty between England and America 1783, President of the Supreme
Council 1785, d. 1790.



MILITARY AND NAVAL MEDALS.


    568. Battle of Culloden, 1746. _Obv._ Head of Duke of
    Cumberland r. CUMBERLAND. YEO F. _Rev._ Apollo l., leaning on
    bow and pointing at dragon pierced by arrow. ACTUM EST ILICET
    PERIIT. (cf. Ter. Eun. I. i. 9); in ex., PRŒL. COLOD. AP. XVI.
    MDCCXLVI: ornamental border. Gold. Oval. Size 1·85: loop for
    suspension. By R. Yeo.

Struck to commemorate the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden,
16 Ap. 1746, by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland.

    569. Naval Victory of 1st June, 1794. _Obv._ Britannia with
    spear standing on prow l., crowned by Victory; at her side,
    shield. _Rev._ Wreath of laurel and oak branches. Silver. Size
    2.

Copy in silver of the gold medal presented by the Lords of the
Admiralty to Lord Howe and the other admirals who commanded in the
action with the French, 1st June, 1794, off Brest. On the reverse was
inscribed the recipient's name. Smaller medals, also in gold, were
presented to the Captains. (See next medal.)

    570. Another. Similar, but reverse plain. Silver. Size 1·25.

    571. Campaign in Egypt: Battle of Alexandria, 1801. _Obv._
    Sphinx l., displaying Union Jack above French tricolour on the
    same staff. EGYPT; _engraved_; in ex., XXI. MARCH, MDCCCI. I.
    G. H. K. & K. _Rev._ Within wreath of palm, QUEEN'S GERMAN
    REGIMENT; on edge, FRENCH DEFEATED; _engraved_. Silver. Size
    1·85. By J. G. Hancock.

This is a regimental medal and was struck by order of the officers of
the 97th or Queen's German Regiment, for presentation to the men of the
regiment who were engaged in the battle of Alexandria, 21 Mar. 1801.

    572. Another. Turkish Award, 1801. _Obv._ Crescent and star;
    ornamental border. _Rev._ Cypher of Sultán Selim III.;
    ornamental border, in which 1801. Gold. Size 1·6. Loop for
    suspension. Ribbon, dark orange.

After the defeat of the French in Egypt 1801, the Sultán instituted an
order of Knighthood designated the Crescent, which he conferred on the
general officers of the English forces. At the same time he presented
gold medals of three sizes: the largest (size 2.) to the Generals and
Admirals; the middle size (as above) to Field Officers and Captains
R.N.; and the smallest (see next medal) to Captains and Subalterns and
Lieutenants R.N.

    573. Another. Same, but smaller. Gold. Size 1·4. This is a
    medal of the smallest size.

    574. Campaign in Southern Italy and Sicily: Battle of Maida,
    1806. _Obv._ Head of George III. l., laur. GEORGIVS TERTIVS
    REX; on neck, G. F. P. _Rev._ Britannia l., as Pallas,
    brandishing spear; on l. arm, shield; above, Victory r. with
    wreath; behind, triquetra, symbol of Sicily. MAIDA. IVL. IV.
    MDCCCVI. PIDGEON F. Gold. Size 1·4. By G. F. Pidgeon. The whole
    within gold band. Ribbon, red with blue edges.

This medal commemorates the battle of Maida, 4 July, 1806, in which
the French under Regnier were defeated by the English under Sir
John Stuart. It was only given to the Commander-in-chief of the
forces engaged; to officers in command of brigades, of battalions
or of corps equivalent to a battalion, or to the officers who
succeeded when the original commander was disabled; and to the Deputy
Quartermaster-General.

    575. Peninsular War: Battles of the Pyrenees, 1813—1814. _Obv._
    Hibernia seated l., holding wreath; at her side, harp. _Rev._
    Within laurel-wreath, ORTHES. TOULOUSE. PYRENEES. NIVELLE.
    NIVE; _engraved_: above, 88; wearer's name on edge. Silver.
    Size 1·2. Clasp: PENINSULA. Ribbon, red with blue edges.

There were medals of three distinct classes for the Peninsular War
struck at the expense of the officers of the 88th Regiment, Connaught
Rangers. That of the first class was in the form of a Maltese cross,
and was bestowed upon those of the regiment who had been engaged in
twelve actions. The second class medal, of the type above described,
was given to those who had served in from seven to eleven actions; and
the third class, of the same type as the second, to such as had served
in any number less than seven. The above is an example of the third
class.

    576. Waterloo Medal, 1815. _Obv._ Head of Prince Regent l.,
    laur. GEORGE P. REGENT. T. WYON JUN. S. _Rev._ Victory, holding
    palm and olive-branch, seated l., on pedestal inscribed,
    WATERLOO; beneath, JUNE 18. 1815; above, WELLINGTON. T. WYON S.
    Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By T. Wyon and T. Wyon
    Junior. Ribbon, crimson edged with blue.

By order of the Prince Regent, 10 Mar. 1816, this medal was conferred
upon every officer and soldier present at the battle of Waterloo. The
reverse type is adapted from an ancient coin of Elis. (Guide to Greek
Coins, p. 28, No. 31.)

    577. Service in India, 1799—1826. _Obv._ Head of Queen l.,
    wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA; on neck, W. WYON R.A.
    _Rev._ Victory seated l., holding olive-branch and wreath;
    at her side, lotus; in the distance, trophy of arms at base
    of palm-tree. TO THE ARMY OF INDIA; in ex., 1799—1826. W. W.
    Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasp:
    BHURTPOOR. Ribbon, pale blue.

On 21 March, 1851, a general order was issued announcing that the
Queen had signified her assent to a measure proposed by the East India
Company, of granting a medal to the surviving officers and soldiers of
the Crown who had served in India between 1799—1826. This medal carries
21 clasps, and with it were worn those of Mysore and Seringapatam (Nos.
609—611), previously given by the East India Company.

    578. Campaign in Syria, 1840: Turkish Award. _Obv._ Fortress
    of Acre, from which floats Turkish ensign; above, six stars;
    beneath, Arabic inscription, "The country of Syria and the
    fortress of Acre, 1256." _Rev._ Cypher of Sultán Abd-el-Mejeed
    surrounded by laurel-wreath. Silver. Size 1·15. Ribbon, red
    edged with white.

This medal was bestowed by the Sultán upon the English naval forces
engaged in the war in Syria, 1840: in gold, to officers ranking with
field-officers; in silver, to quarter-deck and warrant officers; and in
copper, to petty officers, seamen, marines, and boys.

    579. Afghan War, 1839—42. Ghuznee, 1839. _Obv._ View of
    fortress; beneath, GHUZNEE. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, mural
    crown; above, 23^Ḍ JULY; below, 1839; wearer's name in field
    and regiment on border. Silver. Size 1·45. Ribbon, crimson and
    green.

This medal was presented by the Shah Shuja'a el-Mulk, Sovereign of
Afghanistan, to the officers and soldiers present at the storming
of Ghuznee, 22—23 July, 1839, Sir John Keane commanding. The Queen
sanctioned the wearing of this medal, 22 Mar. 1841.

    580—581. Another. Khelat-i-Ghilzee, 1841—2. _Obv._ Within
    laurel-wreath, shield inscribed, KELAT I GHILZIE; above, mural
    crown. _Rev._ Trophy of arms on tablet inscribed, INVICTA.
    MDCCCXLII. Silver and copper. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon,
    military ribbon of India, rainbow-pattern.

Presented by the Governor-General of India, Lord Ellenborough, to
the defenders of the fortress of Khelát-i-Ghilzee, who 21 May, 1842,
repulsed the attack of 4000 Ghazees. The defenders were natives, with
the exception of Captain J. H. Craigie commanding and a few English
artillerymen in the service of the Shah, so that no Queen's regiment
received this medal. This is a proof.

    582. Another: Candahar, Ghuznee, and Cabul, 1842. _Obv._ Head
    of Queen l., wearing coronet. VICTORIA VINDEX. W. WYON R.A.
    _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, CANDAHAR GHUZNEE CABUL. 1842;
    above, crown; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W.
    Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was given to the soldiers who served under General Nott
during the whole of the campaign, and accompanied him from Candahar to
Cabul, viz. from 1 Jan. to 17 Sept. 1842.

    583. Another: Ghuznee and Cabul, 1842. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._
    GHUZNEE CABUL, each within laurel-wreath; above, crown; below,
    1842; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon.
    Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

The soldiers who accompanied General Nott from Ghuznee to Cabul, viz.
from 6 to 17 Sep., received this medal.

    584. Another. Cabul, 1842. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Within
    laurel-wreath, CABUL. 1842; above, crown. Silver. Size 1·4. By
    W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

Those who reached Cabul subsequent to 16 Sept. 1842 were awarded the
above medal. This is a proof.

    585—586. First Chinese War, 1840—2. _Obv._ Head of Queen
    l., wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA. W. WYON. R.A. _Rev._
    Palm-tree, against which are placed shield, arms of Great
    Britain, cannon, anchor, flags, &c. ARMIS EXPOSCERE PACEM.
    CHINA. 1842; wearer's name on edge. Silver and copper (proof).
    Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, crimson with yellow edges.

This medal was awarded to the army and navy which served in the First
Chinese War, Sir Hugh Gough and Adm. Sir William Parker commanding.

    587. Another: Design for Medal. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ British
    lion r., crowned, trampling on Chinese dragon. ARMIS EXPOSCERE
    PACEM. NANKING. 1842. Copper. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. A pattern.

This was Wyon's first design for the Chinese medal, but it was not
adopted, as it was thought that the reverse type might be displeasing
to the Chinese.

    588. Sinde Campaign, 1843: Meeanee and Hyderabad. _Obv._ Same.
    _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, MEEANEE HYDERABAD. 1843; above,
    crown; wearer's name on edge. Silver, Size 1·4. By W. Wyon.
    Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

Given to those who served at Meeanee, 17 Feb., and Hyderabad, 22
Mar. 1843. The expedition was commanded by Sir Charles Napier, and
both victories were mainly due to the bravery of the men of the 22nd
Regiment, who were authorized to place MEEANEE, HYDERABAD, and SCINDE
on their colours.

    589. Another. Hyderabad, 1842. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Similar; but
    HYDERABAD. 1843; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4, By W.
    Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was awarded to those who were engaged in the battle of
Hyderabad; a similar medal being struck for those who served at Meeanee
only. It was also given to officers and men of the Indian Navy.

    590. First Sikh War, 1845—6: Moodkee, Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal, and
    Sobraon. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._ Victory l., holding wreath and
    palm; at her feet, arms. ARMY OF THE SUTLEJ; in ex., MOODKEE.
    1845. W. WYON. R.A. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps:
    FEROZESHUHUR, ALIWAL, and SOBRAON. Ribbon, blue edged with
    crimson.

The great battles of this campaign, Sir Hugh Gough and Sir Henry
Hardinge commanding, were Moodkee, 18 Dec. 1845; Ferozeshuhur, 21 Dec.
1845; Aliwal, 28 Jun. 1846; and Sobraon, 10 Feb. 1846. If a soldier was
present at only one of the four actions, the decoration was awarded to
him without a clasp, the name of such action being inscribed in the
exergue on the reverse; but if the recipient served in more battles
than one, then for each engagement he received an additional clasp.
(See next medal.) This is a proof.

    591. Another: Aliwal and Sobraon, 1846. Same: but on reverse
    ALIWAL. 1846; wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W.
    Wyon. Clasp: SOBRAON. Ribbon, as previous.

This medal shows that the recipient was present at two engagements,
Aliwal and Sobraon.

    592. Military Services, 1793—1814: Peninsular War. _Obv._ Same:
    but beneath head, 1848. _Rev._ Queen on pedestal r., placing
    wreath on head of Duke of Wellington, who kneels before her;
    at her feet, recumbent lion. TO THE BRITISH ARMY 1793—1814.
    _W. W._ Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: ROLEIA, VIMIERA,
    CORUNNA, TALAVERA, BUSACO, FUENTES D'ONOR, CIUDAD RODRIGO,
    BADAJOZ, SALAMANCA, VITTORIA, PYRENEES, NIVELLE, NIVE, ORTHES,
    and TOULOUSE. Ribbon, crimson edged with blue.

Great disappointment having been expressed that no medal had been
awarded either to the army or navy for the numerous victories achieved
between 1793—1814, the Queen, 1st June, 1847, ordered that a medal
should be struck and bestowed upon any surviving officer or private
present at any battle or siege between those dates. For this purpose,
the above medal was struck. It carries 28 clasps, and the earliest
military service thus decorated is the campaign in Egypt 1801, which
was, however, not included in the general order, but was afterwards
granted under an order 12 Feb. 1850. A similar order was issued
regarding naval services, commencing with the capture of the French
frigate "Cleopatra," 18 June, 1793, and for which a separate medal was
struck, having on the reverse, Britannia seated on sea-horse, holding
trident and olive-branch. The medal above described is a proof, and has
only the clasps given for the principal engagements in the Peninsular
War.

    593. Indian General Service, 1848. "For Meritorious Service."
    _Obv._ Same: but no date. _Rev._ Shields, arms, and flags of
    East India Company; above, crest; beneath, motto on scroll,
    AUSPICIO REGIS ET SENATUS ANGLIÆ; around, FOR MERITORIOUS
    SERVICE. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, dark crimson.

This medal was given by the East India Co. for "meritorious service" in
India before 1848. This is a proof.

    594. Second Sikh War, 1848—1849: Punjab Medal. _Obv._ Same.
    _Rev._ Surrender of the Sikh army: Lord Gough on horseback l.,
    before the British army drawn up in line; before him, the enemy
    laying down their arms. TO THE ARMY OF THE PUNJAB. MDCCCXLIX;
    wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps:
    CHILIANWALA and GOOJERAT. Ribbon, blue with narrow stripes of
    yellow.

This medal carries three clasps: Mooltan, 7 Sept. 1848—2 Jan. 1849;
Chilianwala, 13 Jan. 1849; and Goojerat, 21 Feb. 1849: Lord Gough
Comm.-in-chief.

    595. Second Burmese War, 1852: Pegu. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._
    Victory r., crowning warrior seated on arms, holding sword
    and sheath; beneath, lotus; wearer's name on edge. Silver.
    Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasp, PEGU. Ribbon, alternate
    stripes of scarlet and blue.

Only one clasp was given for this war, which was for the defence of
Pegu, Major Hill commanding.

    596. Campaigns in South Africa, 1834—1853. _Obv._ Same. _Rev._
    Lion crouching l. under bush. SOUTH AFRICA; in ex., 1853. L. C.
    WYON. Wearer's name on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C.
    Wyon. Ribbon, orange with dark blue stripes.

On 22 Nov. 1854 the Queen ordered that a medal should be struck and
awarded to the surviving officers and privates of the regular forces
who served in South Africa in the years 1834—5, Sir Benjamin D'Urban
Comm.-in-chief; in 1846—7, Colonel Robert Richardson and Colonel H.
Somerset commanding; and in 1850—1853, Sir Harry Smith and aft. Sir G.
Cathcart commanding. This medal has no clasp.

    597. War with Russia, 1854—1855: Crimea. _Obv._ Same: beneath
    head, 1854. _Rev._ Ancient warrior facing, holding sword and
    shield, and crowned by Victory. CRIMEA. B. WYON SC. Silver.
    Size 1·4. By W. & B. Wyon. Clasps formed of oak-leaves with
    acorns: ALMA, BALAKLAVA, INKERMANN, AZOFF, and SEBASTOPOL.
    Ribbon, pale blue edged with yellow.

In Dec. 1854 the Queen ordered that a medal should be struck to be
awarded, with clasps for ALMA and INKERMANN, to all such as were
present in either of those battles; that of BALAKLAVA was added in Feb.
1855; and that of SEBASTOPOL was given to all who served at the siege
between Oct. 1854 and Sep. 1855. The clasp for AZOFF is naval, and was
given to those who served under Sir Edmund Lyons and took part in the
capture of Kertch, Yenikale, &c. This is a proof.

    598. Another: Service in the Baltic, 1854—1855. _Obv._ Same:
    but no date. _Rev._ Britannia seated l. on low pedestal,
    looking back, holding trident; in the distance, sea and forts
    Sveaborg and Bomarsund. BALTIC; in ex., 1854—1855. L. C. WYON.
    Silver. Size 1·4. By W. & L. C. Wyon. Ribbon, yellow with blue
    edges.

Awarded to those who served in the Baltic fleet during 1854—1855. It
has no clasp.

    599. Another: Anglo-Turkish Award, 1855. _Obv._ Trophy of
    arms, with flags of Turkey, England, France, and Sardinia; on
    gun, map of Crimea. CRIMEA. 1855. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath,
    cypher of Sultán Abd-el-Mejeed; beneath in Turkish, CRIMEA.
    1271. Silver. Size 1·4. Ribbon, pink with green edges.

This medal was distributed by the Sultán to all the forces of the
Allies, but varied for France and Sardinia, by their flags being placed
to r. of that of Turkey instead of the English one.

    600. Persian War, 1856—1857. Same as No. 595, but on rev. L. C.
    WYON. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasp: PERSIA.
    Ribbon, alternate stripes of scarlet and blue.

For the Persian War 1856—7, Sir J. Outram Comm.-in-chief, the same
medal was used as for the Second Burmese War (No. 595), but with a
different clasp.

    601. Indian Mutiny, 1857—1858. _Obv._ Same as No. 585. _Rev._
    Britannia standing l., holding wreath in each hand; on l. arm,
    shield; at her side, lion. INDIA; in ex., 1857—1858. L. C.
    WYON. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. and L. C. Wyon. Clasps: DELHI,
    DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW, RELIEF OF LUCKNOW, LUCKNOW, and CENTRAL
    INDIA Ribbon, alternate stripes of scarlet and white.

This medal was awarded to all engaged in the operations during the
Mutiny in India 1857—8, and was also conferred on non-military persons
who had borne arms as volunteers. It carries only the five clasps above
given. This specimen is a proof.

    602. Arctic Discoveries, 1818—1855. _Obv._ Head of Queen l.,
    wearing diadem. VICTORIA REGINA. L. C. WYON F. _Rev._ Ship l.,
    in the ice; icebergs on either side; in foreground, sailors
    drawing sledge r. FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES; in ex., 1818—1855.
    Silver. Size 1·3. By L. C. Wyon. An octagonal medal surmounted
    by star with ribbon, white.

This medal was given to all engaged in the Arctic expeditions between
1818—1855. This is a proof.

    603. New Zealand, 1846—1866. _Obv._ Bust of Queen l., crowned
    and veiled. VICTORIA D. G. BRITT. REG. F. D. J. S. & A. B. WYON
    SC. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, 1846 TO 1866; around, NEW
    ZEALAND. VIRTUTIS HONOR. Silver. Size 1·4. By J. S. and A. B.
    Wyon. Ribbon, blue with red stripe in centre.

Given to those who had served in the wars in New Zealand between
1846—1866. It was awarded to both services.

    604. Second Chinese War, 1855—1860. Same as No. 585, but no
    date on reverse. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Clasps: CHINA
    1842, FATSHAN 1857, CANTON 1857, TAKU FORTS 1858, TAKU FORTS
    1860 and PEKIN 1860. Ribbon, crimson with yellow edges.

This medal is the same, with the exception of the omission of the date,
as the one given for the First Chinese War (No. 585). It was given
for services in the campaign of 1856—8, Major-Gen. Van Straubenzee
and Adm. Sir M. Seymour commanding; and of 1860, Sir James Hope-Grant
commanding. The clasps for FATSHAN 1857 and TAKU FORTS 1858 were
awarded to the navy and marines, and that of CHINA 1842 to recipients
of the first medal who were engaged in the Second Chinese War. This is
a proof.

    605. Abyssinian War, 1867—1868. _Obv._ Within ornamented
    star of nine points, bust of Queen l., veiled and crowned.
    ABYSSINIA, (letter in each angle formed by points of star). J.
    S. & A. B. WYON SC. _Rev._ Laurel-wreath with inner circle.
    Silver. Size 1·3. By J. S. and A. B. Wyon. Surmounted by crown.
    Ribbon, crimson with white edges.

Awarded to those who served in the Abyssinian War 1867—8, Sir Robert
Napier (Lord Napier of Magdala) commanding. It was given to both
services. The reverse of the medal is inscribed BRITISH MUSEUM.

    606. Ashantee War, 1873—1874. _Obv._ Head of Queen l., veiled,
    wearing coronet. VICTORIA REGINA. L. C. WYON. _Rev._ Battle
    scene in bush; in centre, tree, on right of which are negroes
    fighting or wounded; on left, British soldiers advancing
    firing, one fallen. Silver. Size 1·4. By L. C. Wyon. Ribbon,
    alternate stripes of yellow and black.

This medal carries a clasp for COOMASSIE, and was issued to both
services. The obverse is the work of Leonard C. Wyon, and the reverse
from a design by E. J. Poynter, R.A. It was given for services in the
Ashantee War 1873—4, Sir Garnet Wolseley Commander-in-chief. This is a
proof.



HON. EAST INDIA COMPANY'S SERVICE MEDALS.


    607. Campaign in West of India, 1784. _Obv._ Britannia seated
    r., on arms, holding wreath and spear; fortress in the
    distance; at her side, shield. _Rev._ Inscription in Persian:
    "Presented by the Calcutta Government in memory of good service
    and intrepid valour A.D. 1784. Mahommedan Era 1199;" and "Like
    this coin, may it endure long in the world, and the exertions
    of those lion-hearted Englishmen of great name, victorious from
    Hindostan to the Deccan, become exalted." Silver. Size 1·6.

This medal was awarded to the Company's troops for services performed
in the First Mahratta War, and the Second Mysore War with Hyder 'Alee
1778—1784. It was struck in two sizes, the larger having been awarded
to officers only.

    608. Another. Same: but of smaller size. Silver. Size 1·25.

Awarded to the non-commissioned officers and privates.

    609. Mysore: War with Tippoo Sahib, 1791—1792. _Obv._ Sepoy
    in uniform, facing, holding in r. hand English flag, and
    in l. Mysore banner reversed; in the distance, fortress of
    Seringapatam. _Rev._ Within laurel-wreath, FOR SERVICES IN
    MYSORE. A.D. 1791—1792; around, Persian inscription, "A
    memorial of devoted services to the English Government at
    the war of Mysore, Christian Era 1791—1792, equivalent to
    Mahommedan Era 1205—1206." Silver. Size 1·7.

This medal was presented to the successful forces under Lord
Cornwallis, who so completely paralysed the power of Tippoo Sahib that
he was compelled to submit to the terms of a treaty which deprived
him of half of his dominions. This medal was struck in two sizes, the
larger having been awarded to officers only. On 21 Mar. 1851 the Queen
authorized this medal to be worn by survivors.

    610. Another. Same: but of smaller size. Silver. Size 1·45.

Given to the non-commissioned officers and privates.

    611. Mysore: Second War with Tippoo Sahib: Taking of
    Seringapatam, 1799. _Obv._ Lion r., subduing Tiger; above,
    banner with Arabic inscription, "The lion of God is the
    conqueror;" in ex., IV. MAY. MDCCXCIX. C. H. K. _Rev._ View of
    the storming of Seringapatam, soldiers mounting the breach;
    above, mid-day sun; in ex., Persian inscription, "The Fort of
    Seringapatam the gift of God, 28 Zulkaadeh, 1213 Mahommedan
    Era" (4 May, 1799). Gold. Size 1·9. Ribbon, deep yellow. By C.
    H. Küchler.

The second war with Tippoo Sahib, which was terminated by the taking
of Seringapatam, lasted only from Feb. to May 1799, Lord Harris and
General Baird commanding. The Tiger was the favourite emblem of
Tippoo Sahib. This medal was struck in gold, silver-gilt, silver,
copper-bronzed, and tin. The gold ones were given to the King, the
Governor-General, and various princes, the Commander-in-chief and
the general officers on the staff; those in silver-gilt, to the
field-officers and the general staff, the members of the Council of
the three Presidencies, the Residents at Hyderabad and Poonah; those
in silver, to the captains and subalterns; those in copper-bronzed,
to the non-commissioned officers; and those in pure grain tin, to the
privates. By an order of the Prince Regent, 29 Aug. 1815, officers were
authorized to wear these medals in any part of his Majesty's dominions.
This order was confirmed 21 Mar. 1851, when the Army of India medal
(No. 577) was issued.

    612. Egyptian Campaign, 1801. _Obv._ Sepoy facing, holding
    English flag in r. hand; in the distance, battle and tents;
    in ex., Persian inscription, "This medal has been granted as
    a memorial of the defeat of the French army in Egypt by the
    victorious and brave English army." _Rev._ Ship towards r. on
    sea; in the distance, sea-shore with pyramids and obelisk.
    MDCCCI. Silver. Size 1·9.

Given by the East India Company to the seven thousand English and
Native troops commanded by Major-General Baird, who landed at Kosseyr,
marched across the Desert, and from Kinè descended the Nile to Rosetta,
1800—1801.

    613. Capture of Rodriguez, Bourbon, and Mauritius, 1809—1810.
    _Obv._ Sepoy holding English flag and musket, trampling on
    French standard; behind, cannon; and in the distance, sea
    with ships, &c. _Rev._ RODRIGUES VI. JULY. MDCCCIX. BOURBON
    VIII. JULY. & ISLE OF FRANCE III. DEC. MDCCCX; in field within
    laurel-wreath, Persian inscription, "This medal has been
    granted as a memorial of the bravery and devotion shown by the
    Sepoys of the Honourable East India Company, in the conquest
    of the Islands of Rodrigues, Bourbon and Mauritius, in the
    Mahommedan Era 1226." Silver. Size 1·9.

This medal was awarded to the Sepoy regiments who took part in the
above expeditions.

    614. Conquest of Java, 1811: Capture of Port Cornelis. _Obv._
    Sepoy regiment carrying Fort Cornelis by storm: on the fort
    is the British flag over the Dutch; above, CORNELIS. _Rev._
    JAVA CONQUERED. XXVI. AUGUST. MDCCCXI; in field, Persian
    inscription, "This medal is presented in commemoration of the
    valour and courage displayed by the Sepoys of the Honourable
    East India Company in the conquest of Java, 1228 Mahommedan
    Era." Silver. Size 1·9.

Presented by the East India Company to the native troops under Sir
Samuel Achmuty for their assistance in capturing the Island of Java,
1811, from the Dutch and French troops. The capture of Fort Cornelis
decided the success of the campaign. For this campaign the European
regiments afterwards received the medal for Military Services (No.
592), with clasp for Java.

    615. First Burmese War, 1824—1826. Taking of Ava. _Obv._
    Elephant in attitude of submission l., crouching before lion,
    behind whom English flag unfurled; behind elephant, flag of
    Burmah drooping; in ex., Persian inscription, "The Elephant of
    Ava submits to the Lion of England year 1826." W. DANIELL. R.A.
    DES. _Rev._ Troops advancing towards a pagoda within stockade;
    in foreground, general commanding, steamer, and boats in river
    bombarding; in ex., Persian inscription, "The victorious
    standard of the English army upon Ava." W. WYON. Gold. Size
    1·45. By W. Daniell and W. Wyon. Ribbon, crimson with blue
    edges.

This medal in silver was bestowed upon the native troops which at any
period during the war were employed under the command of General Sir
Archibald Campbell, including the officers and men of the gunboats
serving on the river Irrawaddy. The regiments of the Crown as well as
the navy received for this war the Army of India medal (No. 577), with
clasp for Ava.

    616. Afghan War, 1839—1842. Defence of Jelálábád. _Obv._ Mural
    crown; above, JELLALABAD. _Rev._ VII. APRIL 1842. Wearer's name
    on edge. Silver. Size 1·5. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

This medal was struck by order of the Governor-General, Lord
Ellenborough, who distributed it to every officer, non-commissioned
officer, and private, European and native, of the garrison of
Jelálábád, 7 April, 1842, on which day the besieging army of Akbar Khán
was defeated by a general sortie, Colonel Dennie and others commanding.
Sir Robert Sale commanded the defence. The 13th Light Infantry, the
only Queen's regiment engaged in the defence, was authorized to wear
this medal 22 Aug. 1842; but it was subsequently replaced by the
following one.

    617. Second Jelálábád medal. _Obv._ Head of Queen l., wearing
    crown. VICTORIA VINDEX. W. WYON. _Rev._ Victory with wreaths
    and English flag, flying r. over fortress of Jelálábád.
    JELLALABAD VII. APRIL; in ex., MDCCCXLII. W. W. Wearer's name
    on edge. Silver. Size 1·4. By W. Wyon. Ribbon, rainbow-pattern.

It may be inferred from the great scarcity of this medal that but few
availed themselves of the offer of exchange.



I. INDEX OF ARTISTS.


  Abeele, Pieter van;
    notice, p. 37;
    medals, 160, 189, 190, 192, 217.

  Abraham, Jakob;
    notice, p. 113;
    medal, 514.

  Adolfszoon, Christoffel;
    notice, p. 44;
    medals, 218, 221.

  Arondeaux, R.;
    notice, p. 54;
    medals, 270, 325, 358, 380—382, 399, 415.


  Barber, J.;
    medal, 550.

  Barnett, —;
    medals, 519, 531.

  Bernard, Thomas;
    medal, 447.

  Blum, Johann;
    notice, p. 17;
    medal, 81.

  Boskam, Jan;
    notice, p. 70;
    medals, 344, 348, 383, 387, 388, 392, 393, 395—398, 401, 404,
      406—408, 413, 419, 420, 422, 423, 425, 426, 430, 438, 439, 455,
      458.

  Bower or Bowers, George;
    notice, p. 39;
    medals, 194, 203—205, 207, 234—240, 242—244, 256, 257, 262, 264,
      265, 267, 268, 273, 274, 277, 278, 327, 329, 332, 333, 337.

  Brenet, —;
    medal, 547.

  Briot, Nicholas;
    notice, p. 14;
    medals, 68—72, 74, 75, 80, 85—87.

  Brunner, Martin;
    notice, p. 98;
    medals, 453, 461, 463, 466.

  Bylaer, J. M.;
    medal, 53.


  Chevalier, Nicholas;
    medal, 231.

  Couriguer, —;
    medal, 554.

  Crocker or Croker, Johann;
    notice, p. 72;
    medals, 352, 353, 409, 416, 418, 428, 435, 436, 440, 444, 445, 451,
      457, 464, 465, 467, 469, 470, 475, 476, 481—483, 488—490, 492.


  Dadler, Sebastian;
    notice, p. 17;
    medals, 82, 162.

  Daniell, W.;
    medal, 615.

  Dassier, James Anthony;
    notice, p. 107;
    medals, 491, 508—510.

  Drapentier, D.: _see_ Trapentier.

  Droz, Jean Pierre;
    notice, p. 118;
    medals, 529, 551.

  Du Four, —;
    medal, 254.

  Du Vivier, Benjamin;
    notice, p. 116;
    medal, 523.

  Du Vivier, Jean;
    notice, p. 96;
    medal, 448.

  Dubois, —;
    medal, 546.

  Dupré, Augustin;
    notice, p. 116;
    medals, 522, 567.


  Furst, —;
    medal, 549.


  Gayrard, R.;
    medal, 434.

  Gayrard, —;
    medal, 555.

  Gosset, C.;
    medals, 512, 513.


  Haesling, Daniel;
    notice, p. 108;
    medals, 495, 496.

  Halliday, —;
    medal, 564.

  Hamerani, Giacomo;
    notice, p. 64;
    medals, 318, 319.

  Hamerani, Otto;
    notice, p. 62;
    medals, 309, 310, 312—314.

  Hancock, J. G.;
    medals, 534, 536—538, 543, 561, 562, 571.

  Hannibal, Ehrenreich;
    notice, p. 104;
    medals, 479, 480, 487.

  Hautsch, G.;
    notice, p. 68;
    medals, 336, 361, 374, 424, 427, 450.

  Holtzhey, Johann Georg;
    notice, p. 111;
    medals, 506, 517, 526.


  Kirk, John;
    notice, p. 112;
    medals, 507, 512, 516.

  Kleinert, F.;
    notice, p. 70;
    medals, 343, 347, 368, 417, 429, 441.

  Koene, D.;
    medals, 365, 377.

  Küchler, C. H.;
    notice, p. 119;
    medals, 533, 539—541, 544, 611.


  Lafitte, —;
    medal, 545.

  Lauffer, K. G.;
    notice, p. 70;
    medals, 343, 347, 368, 417, 429, 441, 462.

  Luder, Jan;
    notice, p. 66;
    medals, 326, 331, 350, 356, 357, 373, 384, 403.


  Marteau, F.;
    notice, p. 109;
    medal, 497.

  Mauger, J.;
    medals, 208, 226, 289, 391, 400.

  Meier, Barthold;
    notice, p. 72;
    medal, 349.

  Mills, —;
    medals, 545, 554—557.

  Molart, —;
    medals, 386, 389.

  Mossop, W.;
    medal, 535.

  Mudie, James;
    notice, p. 123;
    medals, 545—547, 551, 554—557.

  Müller, "Der Meister";
    notice, p. 44;
    medal, 220.

  Müller, Philip Heinrich;
    notice, p. 70;
    medals, 343, 347, 368, 417, 429.


  Natter, Johann Lorenz;
    notice, p. 114;
    medal, 515.

  Nürnberger, G. F.;
    notice, p. 90;
    medals, 424, 427.


  Passe, Simon;
    notice, p. 12;
    medals, 58—67.

  Pidgeon, G. F.;
    medal, 574.

  Pingo, Lewis;
    notice, p. 115;
    medals, 520, 528.

  Pingo, Thomas;
    notice, p. 109;
    medals, 499, 501, 511.

  Pistrucci, Benedetto;
    notice, p. 125;
    medal, 552.

  Pool, Jerian, or Juriaen van;
    notice, p. 33;
    medals, 163, 213, 215, 222, 229.

  Primavera, Giacomo;
    notice, p. 6;
    medal, 27.

  Puymaurin, De;
    medal, 434.


  Rawlins, Thomas;
    notice, p. 18;
    medals, 89, 92, 103, 109, 112, 124, 127—132, 135, 136, 171—172,
      179.

  Reitz, Heinrich;
    notice, p. 16;
    medal, 79.

  Roettier Family, notice of the, p. 38.

  Roettier James;
    medal, 411.

  Roettier, John;
    medals, 101, 102, 140, 193, 195—197, 206, 209—211, 214, 223, 224,
      227, 228, 245, 255, 258—261, 271.

  Roettier, Joseph;
    medals, 386, 389.

  Roettier, Norbert;
    medals, 139, 292—298, 300—304.

  Rög, Michael,
    notice, p. 89;
    medal, 421.

  Rouw, P.;
    medal, 557.


  Simon, Abraham;
    notice, p. 23;
    medals, 113, 114—123, 145—147, 246, 248—253.

  Simon, Thomas;
    notice, p. 22;
    medals, 106, 107, 110, 141—143, 148—159, 164, 165, 173—177, 182,
      183, 198—201, 212, 246, 248—250.

  Smeltzing, Jan;
    notice, p. 53;
    medals, 266, 269, 272, 276, 284, 285, 287, 290, 330, 334, 335, 338,
      339, 351, 354, 360, 362—364, 369, 371, 372, 379, 442.

  Smeltzing, Martin;
    notice, p. 75;
    medals, 366, 412, 414, 452, 460.

  Stephen of Holland;
    notice, p. 7;
    medals, 31—37.


  Tanner, Johann Sigmund;
    notice, p. 107;
    medal, 490.

  Trapentier, D.;
    notice, p. 78;
    medals, 375, 378.

  Trezzo, Giacomo da;
    notice, p. 4;
    medals, 15—18.


  Varin or Warin, Jean;
    notice, p. 12;
    medals, 57, 85—87.


  Warin: _see_ above.

  Webb, —;
    medals, 556, 557, 563, 566.

  Wermuth, Christian;
    notice, p. 95;
    medals, 446, 449, 456.

  Whitley, —;
    medal, 532.

  Winter, F. D.;
    notice, p. 76;
    medal, 370.

  Wyon Family, notice of the, p. 124.

  Wyon, A. B.;
    medals, 603, 605.

  Wyon, Benjamin;
    medal, 597.

  Wyon, J. S.;
    medals, 603, 605.

  Wyon, Leonard C.;
    medals, 595, 596, 598, 600—602, 606.

  Wyon, Peter;
    medals, 548, 560.

  Wyon, Thomas;
    medals, 548, 576.

  Wyon, Thomas, Junr.;
    medals, 553, 559, 576.

  Wyon, William;
    medals, 577, 580—598, 600, 601, 604, 615, 617.


  Yeo, Richard;
    notice, p. 109;
    medals, 498, 568.



II. INDEX OF INSCRIPTIONS.[41]

[41] Inscriptions of the persons represented on the medals are not
given in this Index.

_The Numbers given are those of the Medals._


A Christiano V. missum Wilhelmo III. auxilium, &c., 349.

A Domino venit pax et victoria læta, 260.

A militari ad regiam, 260.

A rege Anglorum primi militis creati, &c., 11.

A sicario servatus, &c., 540.

A Soubah given to Bengal, 504.

A view of Fort Chagre, 493.

Abyssinia, 605.

Actum est, ilicet, periit, 568.

Ad Cæsariam Augustam, &c., 470.

Ad Dettingam, &c., 495, 496.

Ad Dunblainum, &c., 482.

Ad fretum Edenburg., &c., 451.

Ad oram Scotiæ, &c., 522.

Ades pax et toto mitis in orbe mane, 517.

Adml. Vernon viewing the town of Carthagena, 494.

Adsertum Philippo V. Hispaniarum imperium, 447.

Advers. Gulielmum III. Angliae regem, &c., 405.

Adversa et aversa gloriosa, 460.

Affavit Deus et dissipantur, 535.

Alis non armis, 351.

Aliwal, 591.

Allidor non laedor, 26.

Allons, mon Prince, nous sommes en bon chemin, 288.

Alma, Balaclava, Inkermann, &c. (clasps), 597.

Almaraz, 555.

Almighty God has blessed His Majesty's arms, 539.

Alter ab illo, 312, 313.

Amantium ira amicitiæ redintegratio est, 163.

Amat victoria testes, 385.

Ambitio malesuada ruit, 270.

America, 501.

Amor et spes, 315.

Amor non flore sed fructu, 56.

An earnest penny for my children, &c., 172.

Anglorum gloria rege Wilhelmo III., &c., 406.

Anno MDCCXIIII., 476—478.

Anno 1766, 513.

Anno novi Domini primo, 346.

Annorum gesta duorum cernis, &c., 374.

Annus MDCCIV., 437.

Antiqua virtute duumviri, 526.

Apparuit et dissipavit, 357.

Aras et sceptra tucmur, 270.

Armis exposcere pacem, 585—587.

Armis jungit amor nunc tertia regna duobus, 361, 362.

Armis nominisq. terrore, 371.

Armorum foederatorum fructus, 468.

Army of the Sutlej, 590.

Asserta maris imperii gloria, 379.

Astu, 280.

Atavis regibus, 419.

Atavum pro libertate fideque, 283.

Ath, 410.

Athlon, xxx. Jun. x. Jul., Galloway d. xxvi. Jul. v. Aug., &c., 371.

Audit videt tacet ridet, 474.

Auspiciis Georgii III., 520.

Auspicio Carol.Secundi regis, 228.

Aurea florigeris succrescunt poma rosetis, 343.

Auspicio regis et senatus Angliæ, 593.

Aut rex aut nihil, 286.


Badajoz, 556.

Baltic, 598.

Bantry garrison, 535.

Barcellona obsidione liberata Philippo Andegav., &c., 441.

Barcelonne, 410.

Barcino capta prid. eid. Oct., &c., 439.

Barfleur, 381.

Barthelemi de Grand Val auro Ludovicæo, &c., 387.

Basis virtutum constantia, 94.

Batav. et Angl. ad littus Aremoricum caesis, 391.

Battle of Talavera, 545.

Beati pacifici, 59.

Beheaded June ye 8. by O. C. 1657, 172.

Belli fugat nubes solemq. reducit pacis, 474.

Bello ab Anglis illato a Belgis fortiter gesto, &c., 219.

Bello et pace, 476.

Bethunia fano Sti. Venantii et Aria captis, 467.

Bhurtpoor, 577.

Birds of a feather flock together, 238.

Bis venit vidit non vicit flensque recessit, 306.

Blasfemant Deum, necant regem, &c., 137.

Bona a malis erepta, 426.

Breda den 17 Sept. 1667, &c., 222.

Breslau, 449.

Brevi tempore inermis erit, 466.

Brieg, 449.

Brit. Batavq. exped. ad Vigo, &c., 425.

Brit. Batq. virtute, 382.

Britan. Batav. pax, 221.

Britannia, 196, 272, 315, 340, 409, 502, 551.

Britannia a duplici arbitrar. papaliq., &c., 330.

Britanniæ, 197.

Britannis Batavisque devictis, 434.

Britons strike home, 518.

Brüderschaft, 528.


C. Fagelii epistola efflagitata, &c., 272.

C. privil. S. R. M., 51.

Cabul, 584.

Cæsa cervix Lon., &c., 269.

Caesa host. xx. mill. tormenta bell., &c., 389.

Calpe expug. et Gall. vict., &c., 428.

Canada, 501.

Canada subdued, 503.

Candahar Ghuznee Cabul, 582.

Capta Colonia Trajana Venloa Ruremunda, &c., 423.

Caput inter nubila, 268.

Carolo Prine. Valliæ nat. die ultima A.MDCCXX., 310.

Carolus primus moritur et vivit, 127.

Carolus Princeps, 63.

Carolus Secundus pacis et imperii restitutor augustus, 196.

Castellum Rysel obsessum, &c., 459.

Causa Dei est, 377.

Cecis visus timidis quies, 15.

Celsissimus Princeps Georgius, magni regis filius, &c., 421.

Cervice fracta fidem sustulit Atlas Xns., 234.

Cessit invictis foederatorum armis, &c., 463.

Chilianwala, Goojerat (clasps), 594.

China, 585, 586.

China 1842, Fatshan 1857, Canton 1857, &c. (clasps), 604.

Christi tracto, &c., 127.

Cimbria, 254.

Circumnavigation, 499.

Classe Gal. fug., 451.

Classe Hisp. deleta ad oras Siciliæ, 483.

Cocialibus armis idib., &c., 426.

Coelitus data, coelitus recepta, 397.

Coeunt in foedera dextrae, 407.

Cognoseunt me meæ, 304.

Comitia American., 523.

Compositis venerantur armis, 475.

Conciliabulum Angliæ, 137.

Concl. xv/xxv d. April., &c., 162.

Concordia et virtute, 464.

Concordia regum salus populorum, 225.

Confundamus linguam eorum ut non audiat, &c., 459.

Congressus pacifer. inchoat., &c., 474.

Consilio concordia et fortitudine, 368.

Consilio et animis, 119, 225.

Constantia Cæsaris, &c., 136.

Continuatis triumphis obdurata in Deum fide, &c., 417.

Contra Christi animum, 282.

Contra infantem perditionis, 325.

Contra vim tirannorum, 46, 47.

Conventus fœderat. Princip. præside, &c., 368.

Coram c.m. host. repres., 401.

Cornelis, 614.

Coron. 2 Febru. 1626, 68.

Coron. 18 Junii 1633, 74.

Coron. xi. Octob. MDCCXXVII., 488, 489.

Coron. xxii. Sept. MDCCLXI., 515.

Coronat. West-Monast. d. xi. April., &c., 336.

Corunna, &c., 554.

Crimea, 597, 599.

Cujus est, 301, 302.

Custos orae Aremoricae, 391.


D. F. A. rege recerto, &c., 365.

D. O. M., 540.

De foederatia ad Nervindam, 389.

De Gall, et Bav. iterum ad Danub. Marlb. duce, 430.

De vader won de slag de zoon verloor zyn bloed, &c., 229.

Death of Sir John Moore, 554.

Deceptis custodibus, 309.

Decus imperii Gallici, 497.

Decusque adversa dederunt, 140.

Defensor fidei, 2.

Deleto host. Ing. exere., 430.

Delhi, Defence of Lucknow, Relief of Lucknow, &c. (clasps), 601.

Dennys walks downe hil carrying his head, 237.

Deo gloriam refert, 543.

Deo judice, 338.

Deo opt. max. rex pientiss. pro salute rest., &c., 530.

Deo vindice justitia comite, 325.

Detectus qui latuit, 45.

Deus nobis hæc otia fecit, 240.

Dextra latens coercet, 401.

Die xxxi. Decembr. MDCCXX. extulit os sacrum coelo, 312, 313.

Dieppa ab Anglis & Hollandis incenta, &c., 392.

Dieu et mon droit, 58.

Diffusus in orbe Britannus, 223, 224.

Dissipat et reficit, 354.

Ditior in toto non alter circulus orbe, 21.

Divumq. sibi poscebat honorem, 382.

Doggers Bank, 527.

Domine dixerunt: pax erit vobis, &c., 463.

Dominus tradidit eum in manus fœminæ, 443.

Dominumque in regna tulere, 442.

Don Blass, 494.

Donau, 431.

Donec pax reddita terris, 68.

Dornick, 462.

Draco hic ver. virtutu. custos, 31.

Drogheda, 374.

Duacum capt., 466.

Dublin, 374.

Dublins, 356.

Dunkerca acquisita, &c., 208.

Dunkerca illæsa, 400.

Durum est contra stimulos calcitrare, 25.


E mala Bonna diu, sic bona facta brevi, 427.

E superis astræa redux bona sæcula reddens, 500.

Ecclesia perversa tenet faciam diaboli, 236.

Effig. illust. Pr. Frederici, D. G. Co. Pal., &c., 65.

Egypt, 571.

Ejicit Jacobum: restituit Hiberniam, 358.

Emanuel, 331.

England expects every man will do his duty, 544.

Enter'd Madrid, &c., 548.

Entirely English, 419.

Equo credite Tucri, 235.

Equo nunquam tu crede Britanne, 280.

Ergo pares sumus, 237.

Eripuit cœlo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannis, 567.

Est nobile vicendi genus patientia, 127.

Et conjurati veniunt ad classica venti, 424.

Et exteris etiam grata, 446.

Et pontus serviet, 212.

Et proximus ardet Ucalegon, 392.

Et regnare pares et mirè se inter amare, 375.

Et vulnera et invia spernit, 358.

Eugenii et Marleborugii felix conjunctio, 454.

Eugenio obsidente Marlborug.
  protegente, &c., 461.

Europa, 477, 478.

Europæ, 442.

Europæ pax reddita, 477, 478.

Everso missus succurrere seclo, &c., 198, 199.

Ex auro ut in Scotia reperitur, 74.

Ex nocte diem, 352, 353.

Ex oculis erepta post deleta venena, 398.

Ex residuis nummi sub hasta Pimmiana, &c., 172.

Eximiae virtutis praemium, 527.

Exp. Brit., 378.

Expeditio navalis pro libertate Angliæ, &c., 325.

Expuls. Gal. et rebel. Dublin. triumphans intravit, 359.

Externo male pressa jugo Britannia pridem, &c., 343.


Fabius Cunctator, 546.

Factura nepotibus umbram, 243.

Favente Deo, 196.

Fax mentis honestae gloria, 48.

Felices Arabes mundi quibus unica phoenix, &c., 20.

Felici vinculo juncti, &c., 514.

Felicitas Britanniae, &c., 195.

Felicitas imperii, 490.

Felicitas publica, 279.

Feliciter peract., &c., 449.

Ferd. Pr. Brunsu. exerc. foed. dux, 506.

Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal, Sobraon (clasps), 590.

Fidei defensatrix, 15.

Fidei defensor et in terr., &c., 4, 5.

Fides militum, 481.

Finita trophæis bella, 410.

Flandr. et Brabant, recept., 440.

Flandria utrinque tropæifera cæsi ex itinere Galli ad Audenardam, &c.,
460.

Flavit et dissipati sunt, 26.

Focos servavit et aras, 359.

Foecundam vetuit reparari mortibus hydram, 373.

Foedus quadruplex imperfectum republica Batava, &c., 484.

Foedus Viennense, 492.

For Arctic discoveries, 602.

For eminent service in saving y Triumph, &c., 158.

For king and parliament, 105.

For meritorious service, 593.

For services in Mysore, 609.

For thes religi. and liberty, 326.

Fortem vis fortior urget, 330.

Fortes fortuna juvat, 438.

Fortes radii sed benigni, 264, 265.

Forti sic victor vincitur art., 388.

Fortiter et recte, 529.

Fortunam causamque sequor, 309.

Fossis fallisq. host. superatis in Br. et Fl., 438.

French defeated, &c., 542, 571.

Friendly Association, 535.

Frogmore, 533.

From Alexr. Davison, St. James's Square, a tribute of regard, 539.

Fugere non fallere triumphus, 450.

Fugien. ex vatacinio Gallis victoria parta, &c., 456.

Fugit ex Hibernia, &c., 360.

Fugite hine testes a limine belli, 395.


G. Oorthuis nauarch., 526.

Gall. Hispq. class. expug. comb. capt., 425.

Galli Scotiam aggressuri solo Anglorom aspectu fuguntur, 453.

Gallia cum Belgio pacata per Angeiam, 232.

Gallis acie devictis Brabantia Flandr., &c., 432.

Gallis ad Ramellies victis, &c., 440.

Gallis ad Taisniere devictis, &c., 464.

Gallis Bavarisq. cæsis Tallardo, &c., 433.

Gallis oceano expulsis a classe Britanno-Batavica, 380.

Gallorum classe deleta, &c., 379.

Gallorum conatus in Scotiam Annae M., &c., 450.

Genii virtute boni, &c., 433.

Genus antiquum, 271.

Germanis Anglis Batavis felicissm. &c., 437.

Ghuznee, 579.

Ghuznee Cabul, 583.

Gibraltar obsessa, &c., 485.

Gloria et felicitas novi sæculi, 378.

Godfrey walks up hil after hee is dead, 237.

Goree taken, 505.

Greene Kely Hill & Bery, 233.

Guil. Nas. in Torbay Brit., 326.

Guilelmus III. liberator florens, 367.

Gulielm. III. tristi dolendus in avo, 414.

Gulielmo III. Maximo, 402.

Gulielmo Washington legionis equit. præfecto, 523.

Gulielmus III. antiquam et fidelem Hiberniæ Metropolin., &c., 411.


Hæc fecerunt hi tres armi potentes Dei, &c., 455.

Hæc requiem rebus finemque labori allatura, 466.

Hæc summa dies, 334.

He dared the fury of all the elements, &c., 159.

He destroyed the Forts of Carthagena, 494.

He fought at once with ships & castles, 159.

He took Porto Bello with six ships only, 493.

Hei mihi quod tanto virtus perfusa decore, &c., 20.

Herodes atque Pilatus, 405.

Heroic courage protects the British flag, 537.

Het oud Bredaas Kasteel, &c., 220.

Hib. pacata, 375.

Hibernia restituta, 361, 362.

Hibernis Gallisq. devictis, 369.

Hic amor hæc patria, 489.

Hic Pollux, hic Castor adest, &c., 431.

Hier bint de heil'ge vreeden Brit. en Batavier, &c., 160.

Hier zeiilt het vredeschip op't zilver in de Zee, &c., 220.

Hilaritas P. G. pace publ. Ryswik ad nut. regis, &c., 410.

Hinc nostræ crevere rosæ, 74.

Hinc pax copia claraq. religio, 42.

Hinc pax unde æquitas, 406.

His armis tria regna parat, 367.

His militat aether, 424.

Hispanis ad Almenaram vict., &c., 469.

Hispanis profligatis, 470.

Honi soit qui non y pense, 288.

Honor. Prin. Mag. Brit. Fra. et Hib. nat., &c., 278.

Honour the reward of merit, 513.

Hostes ab ipsomet rege fusi ad Fontenoium, &c., 497.

Hostibus ad Almanzam cæsis, &c., 447.

Hostium navibus captis aut fugatis, 522.

Hunc saltem everso juvenem, 314.

Hunc sanguinem libo Deo liberatori, 269.

Huya cum arce et Fort Picard et Rubeo exp., &c., 395.

Hyderabad, 589.


I have heard their cry, 563.

Idolatria servitute profligatis religione, &c., 337.

Il sait s'accommoder aux dames, 471.

Ilerda expugnata, &c., 448.

Ille crucem hic diadema tulit, 346.

Illustriss. et poten. Pr. Carolus Princeps Walliæ, &c., 62.

Illustriss. et poten. Princ. Carolus, &c., 63.

Immota triumphans, 127, 277.

Impavidum ferunt, 239.

Imperium pelagi nobis, 383.

In actum Lipsiensem d. 26 Julii/6 August. anno, &c., 446.

In fœdere quintus, 282.

In Gallos varias dabit Adenarda coronas, 456.

In memory of the glorious 3rd February 1781, &c., 525.

In nomine meo exaltabitur cornu ejus, &c., 192.

In Odenarder sieg besteht dass Ryssel, &c., 456.

In perpet. memor., 524.

In piam memoriam Gulielmi regis 3, 416.

In solido rursus fortuna locavit, 403.

In sponsion. pacif. relig. Siles., 449.

In the Monarch of 74 guns broke the rear of the Dutch, &c., 538.

In tuitionem relig. protes., 340.

In utrumque paratus, 92.

In victoria cæsus, 512.

Inaugurat. 11. Ap. 1689, 333.

Inaugurat. 23 Ap. 1685, 260.

Inaugurat. 31/20 Oct. MDCCXIIII., 480.

Inaugurat. xxiii. Ap. MDCCII., 422.

Inaugurat. majest. 11/21 Apr. 1689, 334.

Inauguratis majestatibus ejecto papatu, &c., 339.

Incarceratus Sept. 1645, liberatus Apr. 1648, 140.

Incensa Gall. classe Ang. et Bat. victores, 383.

India, 601.

Indignum ejecit, 328.

Indocilis pati, 524.

Inexpugnabilis, 135.

Infantemque vident aporrectumque draconem, 281.

Infelix operam perdas, ut si quis asellum in campum doceat, 453.

Ingentes animo dignas Jove concipit iras, &c., 368.

Inimica tyrannis, 99.

Inimicus odor appetitu fortior, 453.

Injuries attoned privilege augmented, &c., 504.

Inspectant Gall, cent mill., 467.

Institutor augustus, 227.

Insulæ visceribus Ludovici XIV. ereptæ, &c., 460.

Integrity aids dispatch, 562.

Intentatum nostri liquere, 520.

Inter Wasp nav. Ameri. et Frolic nav. Ang., &c., 549.

Intrepid champion of Freedom, &c., 560.

Invenit tam longa potentia finem, 466.

Invicta, 580, 581.

Invicta virtute resurget nat. Hagae comitis, &c., 414.

Invitus desero, 29.

Io triumphe, 365.

Irato bellum placato numine pax est, 218.

Irrita conspiratio, 405.

Irrito spurii Jacobi reditu in Scotos, &c., 452.

Is firm to Thee, 472, 473.

Ite missum est, 339.


Jac. II. M. Br. rex cum reg. conj. et Pr. Walliæ, &c., 289.

Jac. Franc. Eduard supposée, &c., 288.

Jacob., 357.

Jacobo et Ludovico Hibernia pulsis ad Agrim, 370.

Jactatur non mergitur undis, 292.

Jam florescit, &c., 200, 201.

Jam mihi Roma minax fistula dulce canit, 283.

Java conquered, 614.

Je ne vis qu'à regret, 122.

Jellalabad, 616, 617.

Jovi tonanti, 394.

Jugi concordia florent, 39.

Juncta corda fidelium, 46, 47.

Junguntur opes firmatur imperium, 541.

Junxit libertas auxit secretum, &c., 392.

Jure regni vindic, &c., 335.

Justice killers to his Ho(liness), 233.

Justitia et pax osculatae sunt, 79.

Justitia necessitasque jubet, 148.


Kelat i Ghilzie, 580, 581.


L. C. (Libertas conscientiae), 272.

La mia grandezza dall eccelso, 41, 61.

Lætamini cives, &c., 316.

Lætamur, 256.

Lætitia cum pietate, 530.

Lausun, 357.

Les armes et l'ordre du prétendu Prince de Galles, 288.

Lib. Londonderry 1689, 348.

Liberal. reg. in eruditos, 378.

Liberata Hibernia, 357.

Libert., 272.

Libert. cons. sine juram et leg. p., 280.

Libertas conscientiæ hoc monili ornata, 272.

Libertas favore Dei et virtute militis restituta, 495, 496.

Libertas patriae me defensore triumphat, &c., 82.

Lignitz, 449.

Liliis discerptis lilium captum, 461.

Limr. capt. Hib. subact., &c., 372.

Lines of Torres Vedras, 546.

Literæ Fagelii, 283.

Louis XIIII., 381.

Louisbourg taken, 501.

Lud. XIV. Gall, rex admittit Jac. II. Brit., &c., 290.

Ludovic. Magn. Anna illo major, 471.

Ludovic. Magnus in Germania barbarus, &c., 348.

Ludovico Magno qui Bavaris debellatis, &c., 437.

Ludovicus XIIII. oppressor decrepitus, 367.

Ludovicus Magnus, Anna Major, 443.

Luxuriat gemino nexu tranquilla salo res, &c., 162.


M. Brit. exp. nav. Bat. lib. rest. asserta, 328.

M. D. I. V. Æ., 51.

M. I. (Magnum Juramentum), 272.

Mag. Cart., 340.

Magnis interdum parva nocent, 287.

Magnorum haec porta laborum, 439.

Maida, &c., 574.

Maii I. MDCCVII., 444, 445.

Majestas et amor, 204.

Majus par nobile sceptris, 341.

Mansuræ nuntia pacis, 293, 294.

Maria orbis Britannici deliciae et solatium desiderata, &c., 398.

Maris imperium assert. portu Gibraltar capto, &c., 429.

Marte ferox et vinci nescius armis, 432.

Maturate fugam, illi imperium pelagi, 355.

M'Berg, 449.

Meeanee Hyderabad, 588.

Mentibus unitis priscus procul absit amaror, &c., 162.

Mera bonitas, 216.

Meruisti, 106, 107, 153.

Micat inter omnes, 312, 313.

Mihi sorte datum, 384.

Mitis et fortis, 218.

Mon sort est d'estre battu, 390.

Montibus in Hannonia captis, 465.

Moodkee, 590.

Moriendo restituit rem E. Godfrey, 234.

Moritur anno MDCCII., &c., 413.

Mors mihi vita, 111.

Mult. mill. Gallorum clades ad Aldenar., &c., 454.

Munificentia Principis Auriaci, 527.

Munimenta occupata Douay Bethune, &c., 468.


Namurc. recept., 403.

Namurc. urbs arx cast. invia vi expugn., &c., 401.

Namurcum, 402.

Namurcum expugnat. spectante Auriaco, &c., 385.

Nanking, 587.

Ne pereat perdit, 462.

Ne totus absumatur, 333.

Nec aspera terrent, 487.

Nec lex est justior ulla, 329.

Nec meta mihi quæ terminus orbi, 69.

Nec minor est virtus, &c., 461.

Nec minor in terris, &c., 211.

Nec plurib. imp., 382.

Nemo me impune lacesset, 38, 181, 263.

Neomagi, 232.

New Zealand, 603.

Nihil efficiens, 306.

Nisi tu quis temperet ignes, 350.

Non assumes nomen pacis in vanum, 463.

Non defitient oliva, &c., 164—167.

Non desideriis hominum, sed voluntate Dei, &c., 318, 319.

Non dormitasti antistes Jacobi, 45.

Non gregem sed ingratos, 29.

Non hæc sine numine divum, 372.

Non ictu humano sed flatu divino, 284.

Non ipsa pericula tangunt, 21.

Non læditur quem tego, 404.

Non nisi sole occiduo revolat, 413.

Non nobis sed patriæ, 531.

Nonpareil, 486.

Non patitur supposititios, 335.

Non rapit imperium vis tua sed recipit, 327.

Non vir sed virtus, 105.

Nova gloria, 448.

Novæ palladium Trojæ, 418.

Nulla salus bello, pacem te poscimus omnes, 222.

Nullum numen abest, 197.

Numero non jure valebat, 346.

Nunc pluribus impar, 382.

Nupt. Sep. viii. coro. xxii. MDCCLXI., 516.


O coecas hominum mentes, &c., 25.

O dea certe, 261.

O diu desiderata navis, 316.

O fair Britannia hail, 505.

O why so fickle, 238.

Ob classem hostium deledam gazasque indicas, &c., 424.

Obiit decimo quarto die Septembris, &c., 95.

Obs. Mogunt. et Bona, 348.

Odor ejus ut Libani, 2.

Omnia ortu occidunt, 241.

Omnia vincit, 244.

Orbata luce lucidum obscurat, 290.

Oriar, 182.

Ortu magnus conjugio et prole major, &c., 131.

Orthes Toulouse Pyrenees Nivelle Nive, 575.


P. Melvill nauarchus, 526.

Pa. (Papist), 237.

Pacis alumna Ceres, 408.

Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos, 375.

Pariter in bella, 501.

Parum successit, feci sedulo, 266.

Patriæ decus Angliæ præidium, 347.

Patriæ ovanti, 515.

Pax Aquisgrani sancita anno lib. jubilæo, 500.

Pax celebrata, &c., 543.

Pax gener. in arce Ryswyk domo Princip. Araus, &c., 406.

Pax huic domui, 406.

Pax quæritur bello, 142, 143, 527.

Pax restituta, 476.

Pedibus timor addidit alas, 360.

Pegu (clasp), 595.

Peninsula, 575.

Per populos volentes, 488.

Per tot discrimina rerum, &c., 528.

Percute me ne dicatur quod a femina interfectus sim, 443.

Perduellib. ex Ang. fugat. ad Cullod. debellat., &c., 498.

Perfugium regibus, 289.

Peribunt fulminis ictu, 240.

Perjurii ultrix, 482.

Persia (clasp), 600.

Philister über dir Simson, 471.

Piacula temeritatis Gallicae, 431.

Pietas Augustæ, 435, 436.

Pieter Lips ende Ferdinande de Backere, &c., 161.

Plantavit ubique feracem, 417.

Pœna comes sceleris, 330.

Popule meus, quid feci tibi, 137.

Populis liberatis erepta obiit, &c., 399.

Portus Gratiæ exustus et eversus, &c., 393.

Post fugam regis delata regni, &c., 285.

Post hac meliora, 106, 107.

Post tot discrimina rerum, 506.

Post varias urbes et Duavam Gallis ereptum, &c., 471.

Potentiss. Jacobus D. G. Mag. Brit., 64.

Præsagium Arausionense, &c., 338.

Præsidium et dulce decus, 257.

Præstat componere, 492.

Pretium non vile laborum, 432.

Pretiumq. et causa laboris, 332.

Princ. opt. religionis et libertatis custodi, 479.

Primitiis et decimis ecclesiæ concessis, 435, 436.

Pro. (Protestant), 237.

Pro fide spoliati clypeus obses, 28.

Pro glandibus aurea poma, 285.

Pro patria, 512.

Pro rege et parliamento generalis, 95.

Pro religione grege et rege, 90.

Pro religione lege rege et parliamento, 93, 98.

Pro talibus ausis, 209, 210.

Probis honori infamiæque malis, 276.

Procul hinc mala bestia regnis, &c., 218.

Prœl. Colod. &c., 568.

Prœlium Mindense, &c., 506.

Prope Gades, &c., 526.

Propter strenuitatem et fidelitatem rebus in adversis, 191.

Protestants rejoicing, 507.

Providentia obstetrix, 310.

Pseudo Nept. ocean, exp. pugn. ad Barfl., 382.

Pseudo Neptuno mari ejecto, 381.

Publica auctoritate proclamato, &c., 479.

Pugna ad Aghrim, &c., 369.

Pugna ad Beves Ang. Bat., &c., 355.

Pugna ad Stenkercam, 386.

Pugna equestris, 469.

Pugnando, 215, 229.


Q. Gallos ejecit Hispanos restituit hostes terruit, &c., 402.

Qua panditur orbis, 412.

Quae bello paceque major, 446.

Quantum sat erit his dicere dignum, &c., 203.

Quatuor ex uno, 376.

Quebec taken, 502.

Quebecæ, &c., 512.

Queen's German regiment, 571.

Qui leo de Juda est, &c., 58.

Quid gravius capta, 311.

Quid metuas Cæsarem vehis, 365.

Quid non pro patria, 412.

Quid nunc te tua Torne, &c., 463.

Quid tibi retribuam, 148.

Quis nos impune lacesset unitas, 452.

Quis restringet pleiadum delicias, &c., 274.

Quo compressa magis, 295, 296.

Quo te Mars et Amor vocat intra diva, &c., 82.


R. P. literariae aeternitas, 57.

Rebell. ad Preston capt., &c., 481.

Rec. P. Badens Lond., 392.

Recreo dum redeo, 364.

Reddat avos, &c., 72.

Reddite, 303.

Reddite igitur, 301, 302.

Redeant commercia Flandris, 214.

Redeat magnus ille genius Britanniæ, 316.

Reden Lamotte Sydow Eliott, 528.

Redii jam vos vigilate, 415.

Rediit concordia mater Bredæ, &c., 218.

Reduniuntur, 500.

Reformatio Angliæ, 283.

Reg. Guilelmo et atavis princ., 366.

Rege incolumi populus laetus, 540.

Regifugium Jac. ad Lud. XIV., 286.

Regi Guilhelmo per glaciem nubila, &c., 365.

Regi reduci, 363.

Regia, crede mihi, res est succurrere lapsis, 347.

Regibus atavis, 254.

Reginæ regenti, &c., 354.

Regna mari terraque tegit, &c., 377.

Regui collapsa ruunt immania membra, &c., 462.

Regno abdicato in Galliam appulit, 287.

Regno pacem obtulit, 543.

Res immoderata cupido est, 272.

Resolution—Adventure sailed from England, &c., 519.

Restitutori, 409.

Restitutori Britanniæ, &c., 347.

Restitutori Hiberniæ, 374.

Rex pacificus victus vincebat hostes, &c., 138.

Rex regum consulta Deus fortunet ubique, 368.

Rodrigues vi. July MDCCCIX., Bourbon viii. July, &c., 613.

Roleia, Vimiera, Corunna, Talavera, &c. (clasps), 592.

Romes revenge or Sr. Edmundbery Godfrey murthered, &c., 233.

Ryssel vel Insulæ per Principem Eugenium obsessa, &c., 459.


S. P. A. C., 503.

S. R. P., 272.

S. Sebastian, &c., 557.

Sal. publ., 368.

Salamanca, 547.

Salisburi, 452.

Salutarium siderum apparitio, 454.

Sancti Caroli præcursor, 101, 102.

Sardinia et Balcaris minor captæ, 457.

Saunders, 502.

Saunders Brett Dennis Campbell, &c., 499.

Schomberg, 357.

Second in command, &c., 538.

Securitas Britanniæ restituta, 343.

Sed datur tertium minus periculosum abire, 485.

Service don against six ships, &c., 153.

Sevas tranquilla per undas, 24.

Should hear both houses of parliamant for true religion, &c., 89, 93,
104.

Si Deus est custos quis meus hostis erit, 193.

Si fractus illabatur orbis impavidos ferient ruinæ, 273.

Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, 222.

Sic igne domata feroci, 427.

Sic libertatem religionemq. Britanni, &c., 330.

Sic non herede deerunt, 280.

Sic obscuratur gloria magni regis, 442.

Sic pueri nasum rhinocerotis habent, 450.

Sic punit, 216.

Sic sol crescentes decedens duplicat umbras, 441.

Sic sol lunaque in libra, 276.

Sic uno ferit ungue duos, 370.

Sicut cerv. ad fōtes aquarū., 37.

Silesia, 449.

Simili pœna commissa luuntur, 384.

Siste sol in Gibeon et luna in valle Ajalon, 459.

Sistit adhue quarta deficiente rota, 484.

Slave trade abolished, 563.

Sobraon (clasp), 591.

Soc. P. A. C., 502, 504.

Sociorum protector, 483.

Sol occidens renascitur, &c., 73.

Sol orbem rediens sic rex illuminat urbem, 76, 77.

Sola tuta fides, 36.

Soli Deo gloria, 192, 217, 220, 320.

Soliman III. Ludov. XIIII. Mezomorto Jacobus II., 282.

Solis eclipsis, &c., 441.

Soluta catenis insurgit, 462.

South Africa, 596.

Spectant hortulanis lilium decerpt., &c., 456.

Sponte fugit Jacob. II. Ang. rex, &c., 284.

Ss. fides, 283.

State of the nation, 561.

Stet salvus in undis, 54.

Suavius olet, 8.

Successio electoralis, 487.

Successor verus utriusque, 136.

Suis perit ignibus auctor, 393.

Sumus pares, 237.

Super pace rata, &c., 543.

Superata tellus sydera donat, 65.

Superi risere, 267.

Suum cuique, 517.


T. P., 272.

Tamen nascatur oportet, 281.

Tandem revirescet, 183.

Tantum relligio potuit, 234.

Te absente tuebor, 363.

Te servatore non servimus, 347.

Tempore obsidionis Turchorum, 1.

Terras astræa revisit, 327.

The British army enters Madrid, &c., 547.

The British glory reviv'd by Admiral Vernon, 493.

The English army on the Tagus, 546.

The French beaten at Minden, 507.

The gates of hell shall not prevaile, 275.

The land was ours, 566.

The Lord of Hosts. Word at Dunbar, &c., 149, 150.

The man who having saved the parent pleaded, &c., 511.

The moost happi, 7.

The repose of Hercules, 551.

The valiant commander Sir William Waller, 104.

To the army of India, 577.

To the army of the Punjab, 594.

To the British army, 592.

To the heroes of Trafalgar, &c., 544.

Torbay, 340.

Tornacum captum, 462.

Toubocauti ubi 1600 Hispan. fudit, &c., 412.

Tousiour loyal, 67.

Trafalgar, &c., 544.

Trajectum, 477, 478.

Trajectus in Hiberni. Lond., &c., 351.

Tres regum Schlesiam decorant dum lumine, &c., 449.

Triplicis spes tertia gentis, 314.

Triumfhos regios et patrios, &c., 366.

Tu Deus magnus et magna facis, &c., 25.

Tutamen ab alto, 262.


Unam sic occupat urbem, 367.

Unica digna Deo, 396.

Unica salus, 311.

Unita virtus valet, 459.

Urbes aspicit aceensas nec tautos sustinet æstus, 394.

Urbs antiqua redit multos dominata per annos, 461.

Ut rosa inter spinas, 51.

Ut tonus evertit tubarum moenia quondam, &c., 427.


Van Gelders zeevoogds soon, &c., 229.

Vandom in Flandr. sicut in Italeundem fugit, &c., 454.

Veni vide vive, 25.

Veniat centesimus hæres, 278.

Vi facta via est, 458.

Vibrata in maritimas Galliæ urbes fulmina, 394.

Vicem gerit illa tonantis, 422.

Vicit pervicax virtus, 460.

Victis ac fugatis Hibernis, 356.

Victoria navalis, 226.

Victoriæ navales, 428.

Victoriam hosti majori celerrime rapuit, 549.

Victoriam impetus, 441.

Victory at Plassy Clive commander, 504.

Victory of the Nile, &c., 539.

Vincere aut mori, 485.

Vires animumque ministrat, 423.

Vires ultra sortemque juventæ, 230.

Virtus Anglorum victrix perpetua, 429.

Virtus mox nubila pellet, 300.

Virtus peditum Francorum, 386.

Virtut. ex me fortunam ex alijs, 139.

Virtute foederatorum, 466.

Virtute non vi, 254.

Virtuti cedit numerus, 506.

Virtutis honor, 603.

Vis unita fortior, 412.

Vis vi fortiter repulsa, 526.

Vivant floreant, 51.

Vivit post funera virtus, 396.

Vota Britanniæ, 514.

Vrede gesloten tusschen den Heer Heere Protecteur Cromwel, &c., 161.


Waarom zeilt t' vredeschip opt. silver in de Zee, &c., 160.

Walker, 357.

Waterfort Athlone Limerick, &c., 374.

Waterloo, 576.

We shal appeare with him in glory, 55.

Wellington, 576.

When Christ who is our life shal appeare, 55.

Who can withhold applause, 561.

Wilhelm. Maximus in Belgica liberator, &c., 348.

Wisdom hath builded her hous she hath hewen out her 7 pillers, 275.

Wohlau, 449.

Wolfe, 502.

Wounded Mar. 21: died Mar. 28, 1801, 542.



III. GENERAL INDEX.

_The Numbers given are those of the Medals._


  Abercrombie, Sir Ralph;
    death, 542.

  Abyssinia, war in (1867—8);
    medal, 605.

  Addington, Henry: _see_ Sidmouth, Viscount.

  Afghan war (1839—42);
    medals, 579—584;
    E. I. C. medal, 616.

  Africa, medal for: _see_ South Africa, &c., war in (1758), 505.

  Aghrim, battle of, 369, 370.

  Aix-la-Chapelle, Peace of, 500.

  Albemarle, George Monk, Duke of, 246, 247.

  Alexander I. of Russia;
    portrait on Waterloo medal, 552.

  Alexandria, battle of, 542:
    medal awarded by Queen's German regiment, 571;
    Turkish award, 571, 572.

  Aliwal and Sobraon, medal for, 591:
    _see also_ Moodkee, &c.

  Alliance of England, France, and United Provinces, 46, 47.

  Allies, Congress of, 368.

  Allies, victories of, in Low Countries (1710), 468.

  Alma, clasp for: _see_ Crimean campaign, medal for, 597.

  Almanza, battle of, 447.

  Almaraz, destruction of bridge at, by Lord Hill, 555.

  Almenara, victory of, 469.

  Almonde, Admiral, commands at battle of La Hogue, 381, 382.

  America, war with (1779—81), 522—524;
    (1812), 549.

  Amiens, Peace of, 543.

  Amsterdam, festival of coronation of William and Mary, 342.

  Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I.;
    coronation, 40;
    death, 41;
    portrait by Passe, 61.

  Anne of Denmark, James I., and Prince Charles;
    portraits by Passe, 64.

  Anne, Queen;
    marriage, 243;
    accession, 418—420;
    coronation, 422;
    capitulation of towns on the Meuse, 423;
    expedition to Vigo Bay, 425;
    capitulation of Bonn, 426;
    capture of Gibraltar, 428, 429;
    victory of Blenheim, 430;
    Queen Anne's Bounty, 435, 436;
    French lines forced at Neerhespen, 438;
    battle of Ramillies, 440;
    victories over Louis XIV. (1706), 443;
      (1710), 471;
    Union of England and Scotland, 444, 445;
    celebrated at Leipsic, 446;
    Swedish troops withdrawn from Silesia, 449;
    attempted invasion of Scotland by Elder Pretender (1708), 450—453;
    victory of Oudenarde, 455;
    taking of Sardinia and Minorca, 457;
    capitulation of Lille, 458;
    battle of Malplaquet, 464;
    capitulation of Mons, 465;
    and of Bethune, 467;
    victory of Almenara, 469;
    and of Saragoza, 470;
    Peace of Utrecht, 475, 476.

  Anson, Admiral Lord;
    victory off Cape Finisterre, 499.

  Antichristian Confederacy (1688), 282.

  Arctic discoveries, medal for, 602.

  Argyll, Duke of;
    beheaded, 270.

  Armada, Spanish;
    defeat of, 21—26.

  Ashantee, war in;
    medal for, 606.

  Assassination plot (1696), 404, 405.

  Ath, capitulation of, 410.

  Athlone taken, 371.

  Austrian succession, war of, 495—497, 499, 500.

  Ava, taking of;
    E. I. C. medal, 615.

  Azoff, clasp for: _see_ Crimean campaign, medal for, 597.


  Badajoz, capture of, 556;
    clasp for, _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Baden, Prince of, in London, and bombardment of Dieppe, 392.

  Badges, memorial, of Charles I., 125—134.

  Badges, memorial, of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, 128—130.

  Balaclava, clasp for: _see_ Crimean campaign, medal for, 597.

  Baltic, service in the;
    medal for, 598.

  Baltimore, Cecil Lord, and his wife, 84.

  Bantry Bay, expedition to, 535.

  Barcelona, capitulation of, 410, 439.

  Beachy Head, action off, 354, 355.

  Beal, Simon, 112.

  Bear overturning beehives, symbolical of James II., 330.

  Becket, St. Thomas à, and Sir Thomas More;
    deaths compared, 9.

  Bergen, action at, 213.

  Berkeley, George Earl, 254.

  Bethune, capitulation of, 467.

  Bishops imprisoned, 273—276;
    symbolized by Pleiades, 274.

  Blake, Admiral Robert;
    medal presented to, 155;
    portrait, 159.

  Blake's victories over the Dutch, 155—158.

  Blenheim, victory of, 430, 431.

  Bodley, Sir Thomas, 57.

  Boleyn, Anne, wife of Henry VIII., 7.

  Bolles, Sir Robert, 171.

  Bonn, capitulation of, 426, 427.

  Bourbon, Island of, capture of;
    E. I. C. medal, 613.

  Boyne, battle of the, 356—358.

  Brabaut, conquest of, 441.

  Breda, Peace of, 217—221;
    proclamation of, 222.

  Brest, expedition to, 391.

  Bridport, Admiral Hood, Lord, defeats French fleet off Port d'Orient,
      534.

  Bristol, surrender of, and outbreak of Civil War, 92.

  Brougham and Vaux, Henry Lord, 564.

  Brown, Sir Richard, 105.

  Buckingham, George Villiers, Marquis of;
    portrait by Passe, 66.

  Burmese War, First (1824—26);
    E. I. C. medal, 615.

  Burmese War, Second (1852);
    medal for, 595.

  Busaco, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.


  Cabal Ministers, 238.

  Cabul, taking of;
    medals for, 582—584.

  Cadiz, action off, with Dutch ships, 526.

  Campbell, Capt. Alexander, storms Toubican, 412.

  Camperdown, engagement off, 537, 538.

  Canada, conquest of, 501—503.

  Candahar, Ghuznee and Cabul;
    medal for, 582.

  Canton 1857, clasp for: _see_ Chinese War, Second, medal for, 604.

  Caroline, Queen of George II.;
    coronation, 489.

  Caroline of Brunswick, Queen of George IV.;
    marriage, 532, 533.

  Carteret, John, Lord, 509.

  Carthagena, attempt on, 494.

  Cary, Margaret, 87.

  Cary, Thomas, 86.

  Castor, capture of the, 526.

  Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II.;
    marriage, 202—207.

  Central India, clasp for: _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Charles I.;
    Prince of Wales, portraits by Passe, 62, 63;
    coronation, 68;
    dominion of the sea, 69—71;
    birth of Prince Charles, 72;
    Scottish coronation, 74, 75;
    return from, 76—78;
    Dutch fishery regulated, 79;
    declaration of Parliament, 89, 90;
    battle of Edgehill, 91;
    outbreak of Civil War and surrender of Bristol, 92;
    death commemorated on medal of Laud, 101, 102;
    memorial badges, 125—134
      (rev. shield within Garter, 125, 133;
      rock buffeted by winds, 127;
      inscription and wreath, 131, 132);
    death, 135—139
      (rev. hammer and anvil, 135;
      Salamander in flames, 136;
      head of Medusa, 137;
      inscription, 138;
      hand holding crown, 139).

  Charles I., Prince of Wales, James I. and Anne of Denmark;
    portraits by Passe, 64.

  Charles I. and Charles II.;
    Dutch medallion, 189.

  Charles I. and Henrietta Maria;
    memorial badges, 128—130.

  Charles II.;
    Prince of Wales, birth, 72;
    styled Prince of Wales, 80;
    badges, 179, 180;
    coronation at Scone, 181;
    restoration expected, 182, 183;
    royalist badges, 184—188;
    reward for services, 191;
    embarkation at Scheveningen, 192;
    landing at Dover, 193;
    restoration, 194—197
      (rev. Gigantomachia, 194;
      "Felicitas Britanniae," 195;
      "Favente Deo," 196;
      "Nullum numen abest," 197);
    coronation, 198—201;
    naval reward, 209, 210;
    dominion of the sea (1665), 212;
    commercial treaty with Spain (1666), 214;
    British colonization, 223, 224;
    Christ's Hospital, foundation of Nautical School, 227;
    Christ's Hospital badge, 228;
    death, 241;
    touch-piece, 320.

  Charles II. and Catherine;
    marriage, 202—207.

  Charles II. and Charles I.;
    Dutch medallion, 189.

  Charles II. and William of Orange, 190.

  Charles III., King of Spain;
    capitulation of Barcelona, 439.

  Charles XI. of Sweden, Knight of the Garter, 225.

  Charles XII. of Sweden;
    troops withdrawn from Silesia, 449.

  Charles, Prince, Younger Pretender;
    birth, 310;
    and Prince Henry, Duke of York, 312—314;
    arrival in England expected, 315;
    visit to England, 316.

  Charlotte of Mecklenburgh, Queen of George III.;
    marriage, 514;
    coronation, 516.

  Chatham, William Pitt, Earl of, 511.

  Chesterfield, Philip Stanhope, Earl of, 510.

  Chilianwala, clasp for: _see_ Punjab medal, 594.

  China, 1842, clasp for: _see_ Chinese War, Second, medal for, 604.

  Chinese War, First (1840—2);
    medal for, 585, 586;
    pattern, 587.

  Chinese War, Second (1855—60);
    medal for, 604.

  Christ's Hospital, foundation of Nautical School, 227;
    badge, 228.

  Church, conduct of James II. towards, 272.

  Church, headship of, claimed by Henry VIII., 4, 5;
    by Edward VI., 14.

  Civil War, outbreak of, and surrender of Bristol, 92.

  Ciudad Rodrigo, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, 248.

  Claypole, Elizabeth, 146.

  Claypole, John, 147.

  Clementina Sobieski, Princess;
    escape from Innsprück, 309;
    birth of Younger Pretender, 310.

  Clementina Sobieski, Princess, and Elder Pretender, 307, 308.

  Clive, Robert, Lord, 513.

  Cohorn, Baron de, Dutch engineer, 427.

  Coke, Solicitor-Gen. J., 178.

  Colonization by Britain, 223, 224.

  Connaught Rangers, medal awarded to, for battles of the Pyrenees, 575.

  Copley medal given to Captain J. Cook, 520.

  Cook, Captain James;
    voyage (1772), 519;
    receives Copley medal, 520.

  Cornelis, Fort, capture of;
    E. I, C. medal, 614.

  Coronation medals: Edward VI., 14;
    Anne of Denmark, 40;
    Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia, 51;
    Charles I., 68;
      and in Scotland, 74—78;
    Charles II. at Scone, 181;
      and in London, 198—201;
    James II., 260—262, 264, 265;
    William and Mary, 332—342;
    Anne, 422;
    George I., 480;
    George II., 488;
    Caroline, 489;
    George III. and Charlotte, 515, 516.

  Corunna, battle of, 554;
    clasp for, _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Cowpens, battle of, 523.

  Crimean campaign, medal for, 597;
    Turkish award, 599.

  Cromwell, Elizabeth, wife of Protector, 144.

  Cromwell, Henry, 145.

  Cromwell, Oliver;
    Lord General, 141;
    Lord Protector, 142, 143;
    battle of Dunbar, 149—152;
    death, 164—168.

  Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex, 10.

  Culloden, battle of, 498;
    medal for, 568.

  Cumberland, William Duke of, commands at Culloden, 498;
    medal for battle of Culloden, 568.


  Danish auxiliaries (1689), 349.

  Darien expedition, 412.

  Declaration of Parliament (1642), 89, 90;
    (1689), 330.

  Delhi, clasp for: _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Dettingen, victory of, 495, 496.

  Dieppe, bombardment of, 392.

  Dogger Bank, action off, 527.

  Dominion of the Sea, asserted by Charles I., 69—71;
    by Charles II., 212;
    by Louis XIV., 355;
    by William III., 383, 384.

  Dorset, Richard Sackville, Earl of, Lord Buckhurst, 67.

  Douay, capitulation of, 466.

  Dover, landing of Charles II. at, 193.

  Dublin, collar presented to Corporation, 411.

  Dublin, entry of William III., 359.

  Dunbar, battle of, 149—152.

  Duncan, Admiral Adam, Lord, engagement off Camperdown, 537.

  Dunfermline, Charles Seton, Earl of, 118.

  Dunkirk, cession of, 208;
    bombardment of, 394;
    unsuccessful attempt on, 400.

  Dutch Fishery regulated, 79.

  Dutch, victory over (1665), 211.

  Dymock, John, and his wife Maria Newce, 37.


  Eagle ejects bird from nest, 328, 335.

  East India Co.;
    war of (1757), 504;
    medals of, 607—616.

  Edgehill, battle of, 91, 94.

  Edward IV.;
    medal of John Kendal, Turcopelier, 1.

  Edward VI.;
    portrait, 13;
    coronation and headship of Church, 14.

  Eglestone, Dorcas, wife of Richard Martin, 35.

  Egypt, campaign in (1801);
    medals, 571—573
      (Queen's German Regiment, 571;
      Turkish award, 573);
    E. I. C. medal, 612.

  Elder Pretender: _see_ James, Prince, &c.

  Elizabeth;
    badge of Garter, 19;
    phœnix badge, 20;
    defeat of Spanish Armada;
    21—26;
    portrait by Passe, 58.

  Elizabeth, Princess, and Frederick Count Palatine, King of Bohemia;
    coronation, 49, 51;
    marriage, 50;
    reverses, 73.

  Elizabeth, Princess, Frederick Count Palatine, and Prince Frederick;
    portraits by Passe, 65.

  Elizabeth, Princess, and William Prince of Orange;
    betrothal, 81;
    marriage, 82.

  Elliott, General, defends Gibraltar, 529.

  England and Ireland, union of, 541.

  England and Scotland, union of, 444, 445;
    celebrated at Leipsic, 446.

  England, France, and United Provinces, alliance of, 46, 47.

  England, state of, under Mary, 15.

  Essex, Earl of: _see_ Cromwell, Thomas.

  Essex, Robert Devereux, Earl of, 93;
    battle of Edgehill, 94;
    death, 95.

  Eugene of Savoy, Prince;
    battle of Blenheim, 431, 433.

  Eugene and Marlborough;
    battle of Blenheim, 431;
    as Castor and Pollux, 454;
    victories in Low Countries (1710), 468.


  Fagel, letters of, our liberty of conscience, 272, 283.

  Fairfax, Ferdinand, Lord, 96, 97.

  Fairfax, Sir Thomas, 106, 107.

  Fatshan 1857, clasp for: _see_ Chinese War, Second, medal for, 604.

  Ferdinand of Brunswick, Prince, commands at Minden, 506, 507.

  Ferozeshuhur, medal for: _see_ Moodkee, &c.

  Finisterre, Cape, naval engagement off, 499.

  Fire and plague of London, 216.

  First of June, victory of: _see_ June 1st, victory of.

  Fontenoy, battle of, 497.

  Fox, Charles James, 560.

  France, England, and United Provinces, alliance of, 46, 47.

  France, war with (1794—1802), 531, 534—539, 542, 543;
    (1805—1814), 544—548, 551.

  Francis II., Emperor of Austria;
    portrait on Waterloo medal, 552.

  Franklin, Benjamin, 567.

  Frederic, Prince of Wales;
    death, 491.

  Frederick, Count Palatine, King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth;
    marriage, 49, 50;
    coronation, 51;
    reverses, 73.

  Frederick, Count Palatine, Elizabeth, and Prince Frederick;
    portraits by Passe, 65.

  Frederick, Henry, Prince of Orange, Knight of the Garter, 83.

  Frederick, Prince, Frederick Count Palatine, and Elizabeth;
    portraits by Passe, 65.

  Frederick William III. of Prussia;
    portrait on Waterloo medal, 552.

  Frolic and Wasp, action between, 549.

  Fuentes d'Onor, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.


  Galway taken, 371.

  Garter, badge of, 19.

  Garter, order of, conferred, 83, 225.

  George I.;
    proclaimed king, 479;
    coronation, 480;
    battle of Preston, 481;
    battle of Sheriff-Muir, 482.

  George II.;
    accession to Electorate, &c., 487;
    coronation, 488;
    second Treaty of Vienna, 492;
    victory of Dettingen, 495, 496;
    conquest of Canada, 503.

  George II., Caroline, and royal family;
    portraits, 490.

  George III.;
    coronation, 515, 516;
    second voyage of Captain Cook, 519;
    prosecution of war with America, 524;
    recovery of, 530;
    attempted assassination, 540;
    Peace of Amiens, 543;
    medal for battle of Maida, 574.

  George III. and Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburgh;
    marriage, 514.

  George (IV.), Prince of Wales;
    marriage with Caroline of Brunswick, 532, 533;
    Regent, 550;
    Waterloo medal, 552;
    medal for battle of Waterloo, 579.

  George, Prince of Denmark, consort of Anne;
    death, 421.

  George Prince of Denmark and Princess Anne (Queen);
    marriage, 243.

  Ghuznee, storming of;
    medals for, 579—582, 583.

  Ghuznee and Cabul, medal, 583.

  Gibraltar, capture of, 428, 429;
    besieged (1727), 485;
      (1782), 528, 529.

  Gigantomachia, restoration of Charles II., 194.

  Godfrey, Sir Edmund Berry;
    murder of, 233—237.

  Golden medal recorded by Waller, 206.

  Goojerat, clasp for: _see_ Punjab medal, 594.

  Gordon, Lord George;
    no popery riots, 521.

  Goree, taking of, 505.

  Grandval, execution of, 387.

  Gunpowder plot, 45.


  Hague, rejoicings at the, and entry of William III., 365, 366.

  Hammer striking diamond on anvil, 135.

  Hampden, John, 99.

  Hand with celestial crown, 139.

  Hanoverian succession satirized, 311.

  Harington, Richard, 56.

  Harper, Thomas, 124.

  Harrington, Sir James, 175.

  Havre, bombardment of, 393.

  Hawkesbury, Lord: _see_ Liverpool, Earl of, &c.

  Heath, Sir Robert, Chief Justice, 109.

  Henrietta Maria and Charles I.;
    memorial badges, 128—130.

  Henry VIII.;
    badge of rose, 2;
    portrait, 3;
    headship of the Church, 4, 5;
    badge, 6.

  Henry (IX.) Duke of York, Cardinal, 318, 319;
    touch-piece, 324.

  Henry (IX.) Duke of York, Cardinal, and Prince Charles, Younger
      Pretender, 312—314.

  Henry, Prince of Wales;
    death, 48.

  Hill, Rowland, Lord, destroys bridge at Almaraz, 555.

  Holland, peace with (1654), 160—163;
    war with (1781), 525—527;
      (1797), 535—538.

  Holland, Stephen of, medals by, 31—37.

  Hood, Admiral: _see_ Bridport, Lord, &c.

  Hotham, Sir John, 111.

  Howe, Admiral Lord Richard, victory of 1st of June, 531.

  Huy, taking of, 395.

  Hyderabad, medals for, 588, 589.


  Inchiquin, Earl of, Baron Burrough, 115.

  India, service in (1799—1826);
    medal for, 577;
    general service medal (1848) "for meritorious conduct," 593;
    campaign in west of, E. I. C. medal, 607, 608.

  Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Inkermann, clasp for: _see_ Crimean campaign, medal for, 597.

  Innocent XI. on medal of Sacheverell, 473.

  Innsprück, escape of Princess Clementina from, 309.

  Ireland and England, union of, 541.

  Ireland, rebellion in (1689—1691), 348—351, 356—362, 369—375;
    (relief of Londonderry, 348;
    Danish auxiliaries, 349;
    William called to Ireland, 350;
    departure of William for Ireland, 351;
    battle of the Boyne, 356—358;
    entry of William into Dublin, 359;
    flight of James, 360;
    amnesty granted, 361, 362;
    battle of Aghrim, 369, 370;
    taking of Athlone, Galway and Sligo, 371;
    taking of Limerick, 372;
    suppression of rebellion, 373;
    pacification of Ireland, 374, 375).

  Ireton, Henry, 148.

  Italy and Sicily, campaign in;
    medal for battle of Maida, 574.


  Jacobite rebellions (1715), 481, 482;
    (1745), 315, 498.

  James I.;
    marriage, 38;
    accession to English throne, 39;
    peace with Spain (1604), 42—44;
    badge with ark, 54;
    portraits by Passe, 59, 60.

  James I., Anne of Denmark, and Prince Charles;
    portraits by Passe, 64.

  James II., Duke of York;
    victory over the Dutch (1665), 211;
    wrecked, 239;
    accession, 258, 259;
    coronation, 260, 262, 264, 265;
    opening of Scottish parliament, 263;
    naval or military reward, 271;
    conduct towards the Church, 272;
    birth of Prince James, 279;
    flight, 284—287, 325, 339
      (column shattered by lightning, 284;
      oak and orange-tree, 285;
      Belgic lion, James, Father Petre, &c., 286;
      vixen firing tree, 287;
      Britannia greeting William, &c., 325;
      flees from orange-tree, 339);
    received by Louis XIV., 288, 289;
    memorial, 290;
    touch-pieces, 321, 322;
    flight and declaration of Parliament, 330;
    flight from Ireland, 359, 360;
    plot to assassinate William, 405.

  James II., Duke of York, and Mary d'Este, 242;
    accession, 258, 259;
    coronation, 264, 265.

  James II. and Elder Pretender, 297, 298.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender;
    birth, 278—281
      (celebrated in Holland, 279;
      supposititious birth, 280;
      typified as Ericthonius, 281);
    flight, 286, 288, 325, 339;
    medals struck during exile, 292—311
      (ship in distress, 292;
      dove with olive-branch, 293;
      mine exploding, 295, 296;
      and James II., 297, 298;
      and Princess Louisa, 299, 305;
      protection of Louis XIV., 300;
      restoration of kingdom, map, 301—303;
      claim to throne, sheep in field, 304;
      attempts to recover throne, map, 306;
      and Princess Clementina, 307, 308;
      birth of Prince Charles, 310;
      rule of the House of Hanover, 311);
    touch-piece, 323;
    attempted invasion of Scotland (1708), 450—453;
    rebellion in Scotland (1715), 481, 482;
      (1746), 498.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender, on lobster, 405.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender, with windmill, 286, 288, 325, 339.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender, and James II., 297, 298.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender, and Princess Clementina, 307, 308.

  James, Prince, Elder Pretender, and Princess Louisa, 299, 305.

  Java, conquest of;
    E. I. C. medal, 614.

  Jelálábád, defence of;
    E. I. C. medals, 616, 617.

  Jervis, Admiral John: _see_ St. Vincent, Earl of, &c.

  Joachim, Albert, 116.

  Jones, Captain James, commands the Wasp, 549.

  Jones, Captain John Paul, commands American fleet, 522.

  June, victory of the  1st of (1794), 531;
    medal for, 569, 570.


  Kendal, John, Turcopelier, 1.

  Khelat-i-Ghilzie, defence of;
    medal for, 580, 581.

  Kimbolton, Lord, Earl of Manchester, 98.

  Kyrle, Robert, 121.


  La Hogue, battle of, 379—383.

  Lambert, General John, 170.

  Landen, battle of, 388, 389.

  Laud, Archbishop, 100;
    death, 101, 102.

  Lauderdale, John Maitland, Earl of, 119;
    Duke of, 255.

  Leicester, Robert Earl of;
    departure from Holland, 29, 30.

  Leipsic, celebration of union of England and Scotland at, 446.

  Lerida, capitulation of, 448.

  Lilburne, John, trial of, 169.

  Lille, capitulation of, 456, 458—461.

  Limerick taken, 372.

  Literary prize-medal, 378.

  Liverpool, Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of (Lord Hawkesbury), 561.

  Lobster, symbol of the Jesuits, 288, 405.

  London, Peace of, 230.

  Londonderry, relief of, 348.

  Loudon, Earl of, 113.

  Louis XIV.;
    cession of Dunkirk, 208;
    battle of Solebay, 226;
    receives James II., 288, 289;
    protects Elder Pretender, 300;
    loses Mayence and Bonn, 348;
    action off Beachy Head, and dominion of the sea, 355;
    and William III. contrasted, 367;
    taking of Namur, 385;
    battle of Steinkirk, 386;
    battle of Landen, 389;
    expedition to Brest, 391;
    attempt on Dunkirk, 400;
    plot to assassinate William III., 405;
    Peace of Ryswick, 410;
    defeated by Anne (1706), 443;
      (1710), 471;
    battle of Almanza, 447;
    capitulation of Lerida, 448.

  Louis XV.;
    battle of Fontenoy, 497.

  Louisa of Stolberg, wife of Younger Pretender, 317.

  Louisa, Princess, and Elder Pretender, 299, 305.

  Louisburg, taking of, 501.

  Low Countries, victories of the Allies in (1706), 442.

  Lucknow, clasp for: _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Lucknow, defence of, clasp for: _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Lucknow, relief of, clasp for: _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Lynedoch, Thomas Graham, Lord, captures St. Sebastian, 557.


  Madrid, entry of Wellington into, 547, 548.

  Maida, battle of, medal for, 574.

  Malaga, naval engagement off, 434.

  Malplaquet, battle of, 464.

  Manchester, Earl of: _see_ Kimbolton, Lord.

  Marlborough, Duke of, 431, 432.

  Marlborough and Eugene, as Castor and Pollux, 454;
    victories in Low Countries (1710), 468.

  Martin, Richard, and Dorcas Eglestone, 35.

  Martinay, 122.

  Mary, condition of England, 15.

  Mary and Philip, portraits by Trezzo, 16—18.

  Mary, Queen of Scots, portrait by Primavera, 27.

  Mary d'Este and James II., 242;
    accession, 258, 259;
    coronation, 261, 264, 265.

  Mary II.;
    regent (1690), 352, 353;
      (1691), 363;
    action off Beachy Head, 354;
    death, 396—399.

  Mary II. and William III. of Orange;
    marriage, 231;
    destruction of Roman Catholic chapels, 329;
    coronation, 332—337, 340—342, 344—345;
    peace restored to Britain, 343;
    regency, 354, 363;
    battle of Aghrim, 369;
    taking of Athlone, Galway, and Sligo, 371;
    taking of Limerick, 372;
    pacification of Ireland, 375;
    battle of La Hogue, 379, 380.

  Maurice, Prince of Orange, Knight of the Garter, 52, 53.

  Mauritius, Island of, capture, E. I. C. medal, 613.

  Medusa's head, 137.

  Medway, ships burnt in, 217.

  Meeanee and Hyderabad, medal for, 588.

  Mercator, Michael, 11, 12.

  Meuse, capitulation of towns on the, 423.

  Military and naval medals, 568—617.

  Military or naval reward, defeat of Monmouth and Argyll, 271.

  Military service medal (1793, 1814), 592.

  Minden, battle of, 506, 507.

  Minorca, taking of, 457.

  Monk, George: _see_ Albemarle, Duke of.

  Monmouth, James  Duke of;
    rebellion, 266;
    defeat, 267;
    beheaded, 268, 269;
    and Argyll executed, 270.

  Monmouth, James Duke of, and William III.;
    fortunes compared, 346.

  Mons, capitulation of, 465.

  Moodkee, Ferozeshuhur, Aliwal, and Sobraon;
    medal for, 590.

  Moore, Sir John;
    death, 554.

  More, Sir Thomas;
    death, 8, 9.

  Mudie's series of historical medals, 545—547, 551, 554—557.

  Mutiny in India, modal for;
    _see_ Indian Mutiny medal, 601.

  Mysore War, E. I. C. medals for, 609.


  Namur, taken by French, 385;
    retaken by William III., 401—403.

  Naval action (11—14 June 1666), 215;
    with the Dutch (1673), 229.

  Naval and military medals, 568—617.

  Naval or military reward, defeat of Monmouth and Argyll, 271.

  Naval reward medals, Commonwealth, 153—158;
    Charles II., 209, 210.

  Neerhespen, French lines forced at, 438.

  Nelson, Admiral Lord, commands at battle of the Nile, 539;
    at Trafalgar, 544.

  New Zealand, wars in (1846—1866), medal for, 603.

  Newce, Maria, wife of John Dymock, 37.

  Nile, victory of the, 539.

  Nimeguen, Peace of, 232.

  Nive, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Nivelle, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  No Popery riots, 521.

  North Briton, prosecution of, 518.

  Northampton, Elizabeth, Marchioness of, 36.


  Onslow, Admiral Sir Richard, engagement off Camperdown, 538.

  Orford, Earl of: _see_ Walpole, Sir Robert.

  Ormond, James Butler, Duke of, 257.

  Orthes, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Oudenarde, victory of, 454—456.


  Pacification of Ireland, 374, 375.

  Paris, peace of (1763), 517;
    (1814), 551.

  Parkhurst, Sir William, warden of the Mint, 103.

  Passaro, Cape, defeat of Spanish fleet off, 483.

  Passe, Simon, engraved medals, 58—67.

  Pegu, clasp for: _see_ Burmese War, Second, medal for, 595.

  Pekin 1860, clasp for: _see_ Chinese War, Second, medal for, 604.

  Pembroke, William, Earl of, 31.

  Peninsular War, 545—548;
    medals for, 575 (88th Regiment or Connaught Rangers);
    for military services in, 592.

  Perseus symbolical of William III., 332.

  Persian War medal and clasp, 600.

  Petre, Father, flight of;
    carries Prince James, 286, 288, 325, 339;
    with pyx, 405.

  Phaethon symbolical of James II., 333.

  Philip II. of Spain and Mary;
    portraits by Trezzo, 16—18.

  Philip V. of Spain;
    flight from Madrid, 441.

  Phœnix badge, 20.

  Picton, Sir Thomas;
    capture of Badajoz, 556.

  Pistrucci, B., his Waterloo medal, 552.

  Pitt, William: _see_ Chatham, Earl of.

  Pitt, William, 559.

  Plague and Fire of London, 216.

  Plassy, victory of, 504.

  Pleiades, emblem  of  Seven Bishops, 274.

  Pope, William, 114.

  Popish Plot, 233—238.

  Port d'Orient, defeat of French fleet off, 534.

  Portland, Richard Weston, Earl of, 85.

  Porto Bello, taking of, 493.

  Portsmouth, Lucie de Querouaille, Duchess of, 244.

  Poyntz, Sidney, 117.

  Preston, battle of, 481.

  Punjab medal, 594.

  Pyrenees, battles of;
    medal awarded to 88th Regiment, Connaught Rangers, 575;
    clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.


  Quadruple Alliance, war of the, 483, 484.

  Quebec taken, 502.

  Queen Anne's bounty, 435, 436.

  Queen's German Regiment or 97th;
    medal awarded for battle of Alexandria, 571.


  Ramillies, battle of, 440.

  Rebellion, fortunes of, 346.

  Reede, Baron de, 110.

  Regiment, 88th: _see_ Connaught Rangers.

  Regiment, 99th: _see_ Queen's German Regiment.

  Restoration of Charles II., 182, 183, 194—197;
    badges, 184—188.

  Richmond, Frances Stuart, Duchess of, as Britannia, 196;
    portrait, 245.

  Rodney, Admiral Sir George, captures Island of St. Eustatius, 525.

  Rodriguez, Island of, capture;
    E. I. C. medal, 613.

  Roleia, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Roman Catholic Chapels destroyed, 329.

  Rose, badge of, 2.

  Rossiter, Edward, General, 120.

  Royal family of England, 490.

  Rupert, Prince, 108.

  Russell, Admiral, commands at battle of La Hogue, 381, 382.

  Russia, war with;
    medals, 597—599.

  Rye House Plot, 240.

  Ryswick, Peace of, 406—410.


  Sacheverell, Dr. Henry, 472, 473.

  Sackville, Richard, Earl of Dorset, Lord Buckhurst;
    portrait by Passe, 67.

  St. Eustatius, Island of;
    capture, 525.

  St. Sebastian, capture of, 557.

  St. Vincent, Admiral John Jervis, Earl of;
    engagement off Cape St. Vincent, 536.

  St. Vincent, Cape of;
    engagement off, 536.

  Salamanca, battle of, 547;
    victories up to, 548;
    clasp for;
    _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Salamander, emblem of fortitude, 136.

  Sancroft, Archbishop and Bishops, 273, 275, 276;
    and Pleiades, 274;
    and Church, 277.

  Saragoza, victory of, 470.

  Sardinia taken, 457.

  Scheveningen, embarkation  of Charles II. at, 192.

  Schomberg, Marshal;
    death of, 357;
    memorial, 417.

  Scobell, Henry, 173.

  Scone, coronation of Charles II. at, 181.

  Scotland, attempted invasion by Elder Pretender (1708), 450—453;
    rebellion of Elder Pretender (1715), 481, 482;
      (1746), 498.

  Scotland and England, union of, 444, 445;
    celebrated at Leipsic, 446.

  Scottish coast attacked by American fleet, 522.

  Scottish coronation of Charles I., 74, 75;
    return from, 76—78.

  Scottish Parliament, opening of (1685), 263.

  Sebastopol, clasp for: _see_ Crimean campaign, medal for, 597.

  Sedgemoor, battle of, and defeat of Monmouth, 266.

  Seringapatam, taking of, E. I. C. medal, 611.

  Service against six ships, 153.

  Services acknowledged by Charles II., 191.

  Seven Bishops, trial of, 273—277.

  Seven Years' War, 506, 507, 517.

  Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley, Earl of, 256.

  Shelley, Richard, Grand Prior of England, 28.

  Sheriff-Muir, battle of, 482.

  Sidmouth, Henry Addington, Viscount, 561.

  Sikh War, First (1845—6), medals for, 590, 591;
    Second (1848—9), medal for, 594.

  Simon, Abraham, portrait, 253.

  Simon, Thomas, portrait, 252.

  Sinde campaign (1843), medals for, 588, 589.

  Sligo taken, 371.

  Slingesby, Sir Henry B., 172.

  Smith, Adam, 565.

  Sobraon and Aliwal, medal for, 591;
    _see also_ Moodkee, &c.

  Solebay, battle of, 226.

  "Soleil Royal" burnt at battle of La Hogue, 382.

  South Africa, campaigns in, medal for, 596.

  Southampton, Thomas Wriothesly, Earl of, 249, 250.

  Spain, Peace with (1604), 42—44;
    proposed commercial treaty with (1666), 214;
    victories of the Allies in (1706), 442;
    war with (1739—41), 493, 494;
      (1782), 528, 592;
      (1797), 535—538;
      (1850), 544.

  Spanish Succession, war of, 423—434, 437—443, 447—449, 454—471,
      474—478, 492.

  Stanley, Thomas, Master of the Mint, 34.

  Steinkirk, battle of, 386.

  Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of, 88.

  Strangeways, Giles, 140.

  Swedish troops withdrawn from Silesia, 449.

  Swift, Dr. Jonathan, Dean of St. Patrick's, 486.

  Syria, campaign in (1840), Turkish medal for, 578.


  Taku Forts 1858, and Taku Forts 1860, clasps for:
    _see_ Chinese War,
    Second, medal for, 604.

  Talavera, battle of, 545;
    clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Throne of England established (1691), 376, 377.

  Thurloe, John, 174.

  Thurlow, Edward Lord, Lord Chancellor, 558.

  Tippoo Sahib, wars with;
    E. I. C. medals, 609—611.

  Toleration Act, 347.

  Torbay, landing of William III., 325—327.

  Torres Vedras, lines of, 546.

  Touch-pieces, 320—324.

  Toulouse, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Toulouse, Louis Alexander, Count of, commands at Malaga, 434.

  Tournay, capitulation of, 462, 463.

  Tower of London, 140;
    bishops imprisoned in, 276.

  Trafalgar, battle of, 544.

  Trezzo, Giacomo, medals by, 15—18.

  Triumph, saving of the, 158.

  Turkey, medals granted by, for Egyptian campaign  (1801), 572, 573;
    naval award for Syrian campaign, 578;
    Crimean medal, 599.


  Uncertain portraits by A. Simon, 123, 251;
    another by T. Simon, 177.

  Union of England and Ireland, 541.

  Union of England and Scotland, 444, 445;
    celebrated at Leipsic, 446.

  United Provinces, action of, in Quadruple Alliance, 484.

  United Provinces, England and France, alliance of, 46, 47.

  Utrecht, Peace of, 474—478
    (preliminaries discussed, 474).


  Van Gelder, Captain, memorial of, 229.

  Vernon, Admiral, taking of Porto Bello, 493;
    attempt on Carthagena, 494.

  Victoria, military and naval medals;
    service in India, 577;
    Afghan war, 582—584;
    first Chinese war, 585—587;
    Sinde campaign, 588, 589;
    first Sikh war, 590, 591;
    military services (1793—1814), 592;
    Indian general service, 593;
    second Sikh war, 594;
    second Burmese war, 595;
    war in South Africa, 596;
    war with Russia, 597, 598;
    Persian war, 600;
    Indian Mutiny, 601;
    Arctic discoveries, 602;
    war in New Zealand, 603;
    second Chinese war, 604;
    Abyssinian war, 605;
    Ashantee war, 606.

  Vienna, second treaty of, 492.

  Vigo Bay, expedition to, 424, 425.

  Vimiera, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.

  Vittoria, clasp for: _see_ Peninsular War medal, 592.


  Wadham, Nicholas and Dorothy, 55.

  Walker, defender of Londonderry;
    death, 357.

  Waller, Sir William, 104.

  Walpole, Sir Robert, Earl of Orford, 508.

  Washington, George, President of the United States, 566.

  Washington, Lieut-Colonel, commands at battle of Cowpens, 523.

  Wasp and Frolic, action between, 549.

  Waterloo, battle of;
    medal by Pistrucci, 552;
    medal for, 576.

  Wellington, Arthur, Duke of;
    battle of Talavera, 545;
    lines of Torres Vedras, 546;
    battle of Salamanca and entry into Madrid, 547;
    victories up to Salamanca and entry into Madrid, 548;
    battle of Busaco, 553.

  Whitelock, Bulstrode, 176.

  Wilberforce, William, 563.

  Wilkes, John, prosecuted for libel in "North Briton," 518.

  William (II.) Prince of Orange and Princess Mary;
    betrothal, 81;
    marriage, 82.

  William III.;
    peace of London, 230;
    invited to England, 283;
    expedition to England and landing at Torbay, 325—327;
    arrival in England, 328;
    liberty and religion restored to England, 331;
    coronation, king on globe, 338;
    Toleration Act, 347;
    rebellion in Ireland (1690), 348—351, 356—362
      (relief of Londonderry, 348;
      called to Ireland, 350;
      departure for Ireland, 351;
      battle of the Boyne, 356—358;
      enters Dublin, 359;
      amnesty to Ireland, 361, 362);
    return to Holland, 364;
    rejoicings at the Hague, 365;
    entry into the Hague, 366;
    and Louis XIV. contrasted, 367;
    presides at Congress of Allies, 368;
    rebellion in Ireland (1691), 370, 373, 374
      (battle of Aghrim, 370;
      suppression of rebellion, 373;
      pacification of Ireland, 374);
    throne established, 376, 377;
    literary prize-medal, 378;
    battle of La Hogue and dominion of the sea, 383, 384;
    execution of Grandval, 387;
    battle of Landen, 388;
    defeats in Low Countries, 390;
    Prince of Baden in London and bombardment of Dieppe, 392;
    bombardment of Havre, 393;
    and of Dunkirk, 394;
    taking of Huy, 395;
    retaking of Namur, 401—403;
    assassination plot, 404, 405;
    Peace of Ryswick, 407—409;
    presents new collar to Dublin, 411;
    death, 413—415;
    memorial, 416.

  William (III.) of Orange and Charles II., 190.

  William III. and Mary, marriage, 231;
    Roman Catholic chapels destroyed, 329;
    coronation, 332—342, 344, 345
      (Perseus and Andromeda, 332;
      Jupiter and Phaethon, 333;
      Papal emblems destroyed, 334;
      bird ejected from nest, 335;
      crowned by Archbishop, 337;
      James and Father Petre flying from orange-tree, 339;
      Belgic Lion with Bible, 340;
      Britannia welcoming Belgia, 341;
      festival at Amsterdam, 342);
    peace restored to Britain, 343;
    action off Beachy Head, and regency, 354, 363;
    rebellion in Ireland (1691), 369, 371, 372, 375
      (battle of Aghrim, 369;
      taking of Athlone, Galway, and Sligo, 371;
      taking of Limerick, 372;
      pacification of Ireland, 375);
    battle of La Hogue, 379, 380.

  William III. and Monmouth;
    fortunes contrasted, 346.

  Withipoll, Edmund, 32, 33.

  Wolfe, Major-General James, 512.


  LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
  STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

[Illustration: Pl. I.

EDWARD IV—ELIZABETH.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. II.

JAMES I—CHARLES I.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. III.

CHARLES I—COMMONWEALTH.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. IV.

CHARLES II-STUART FAMILY.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. V.

WILLIAM & MARY—ANNE.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. VI.

GEORGE I—GEORGE IV.

(_4/7 of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. VII.

THE WATERLOO MEDAL N^o. 552.

(_⅝ of the actual size._)]

[Illustration: Pl. VIII.

MILITARY & NAVAL MEDALS.

(_¾ of the actual size._)]


[Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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