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Title: Health - How to get it and keep it. The hygiene of dress, food, - exercise, rest, bathing, breathing, and ventilation.
Author: Woods, Walter V.
Language: English
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                  How to get and keep it. The hygiene
               of dress, food, exercise, rest, bathing,
                            breathing, and

                       by Walter V. Woods, M.D.

                      The Penn Publishing Company




  INTRODUCTION          3

  AIR                   6

  WATER                20

  FOOD                 28

  CLOTHING             62

  BATHING              89

  EXERCISE            112

  REST                168

  DWELLINGS           172


How to Get, and How to Keep It


The injunction “Know thyself” was inscribed in letters of gold over
the portico of the temple of Delphi. We can know ourselves only by
thoughtful observation and reflection. General forms of exercise may be
presented, but we must consider whether our present health and physical
condition will not require some modification of the prescribed forms.
Certain modes of bathing and specific rules for diet and sleep may be
good for the multitude and yet unsuited to particular individuals.
Any marked change from our accustomed manner of life should begin
gradually. For one who, in winter, has never taken any other than a
warm or tepid bath, to plunge suddenly and without preparation into
a tub of cold water might be attended with serious results, while by
gradual stages the same point may be reached with positive advantage to
health and comfort.

The popular error still prevails that a well equipped gymnasium and
costly apparatus are necessary to healthful physical development. It is
an important part of the object of this work to show that with little
or no outlay for apparatus, and with the expenditure of very little
time, both health and vigor may be secured and preserved, and the
success and happiness of life be greatly promoted.

The hindrances to a more general adoption of a course of physical
training as a means of promoting health and strength are:

1. Ignorance of the advantages to be secured.

2. Distrust of the efficiency of the methods.

3. Mistaken notions concerning cost of appliances.

4. The fear that too much time will be required to make the exercise

5. The belief that the old way is the best--to take your chances while
you are well, and send for the doctor when you are ill.

The long lists of clergymen, comparatively young in years, but broken
down in health, their usefulness gone, and themselves a burden upon
the community, have taught the aspiring candidate for the ministry a
useful lesson. The pulpit of to-day includes some of the most prominent
college athletes, and all professional men acknowledge the benefits to
be derived from physical training.

Who can fully estimate the value of health? It affects not only the
happiness, but also the usefulness of every life. Without it, no
substantial success can be achieved. By due attention to the simple
laws of health, involving fresh air, pure water, wholesome food,
sensible clothing, proper exercise, rest, and sleep, nine-tenths of
all the ailments that afflict mankind, and the largest amount of human
misery resulting therefrom, would be prevented.


=Essentials of Life.=--Air, water, and food are the great essentials of
life. A man may go for days without food, and for hours without water,
but deprive him of air, even for a few minutes, and he ceases to live.
In quantity, the daily consumption of air far outmeasures the other
two; in purity, it receives the least consideration. The city and the
State alike exercise some oversight of the food and water supply of the
people. Impurities in these often appeal to the sense of sight or smell
or taste, and the individual is put on his guard. The intangible air is
laden with the foulest and most poisonous substances, and is as freely
inhaled as if it could make no difference to the health.

=Lung Capacity.=--The quantity of the air we breathe is also important.
We may eat too much food, even though it be absolutely pure and
wholesome, but we cannot consume too much pure air. The larger the lung
space, therefore, the better for health and strength.

The full lung capacity of the average adult is about 330 cubic inches,
but an ordinary inspiration does not take in more than one-eleventh
part of that volume. The value of full, deep breathing, and of large
lung capacity becomes at once apparent. The larger the quantity of air
consumed, the greater the amount of life-giving oxygen conveyed through
the blood to all parts of the body. No form of physical exercise,
therefore, can exceed in value the breathing exercises described in
another chapter.

=Rate of Breathing.=--It is estimated that we breathe once during every
four beats of the heart, or about eighteen times a minute. The relation
between the heart and lungs is so close that whatever modifies the
pulse affects the breathing. When the heart action is hurried, more
blood is sent to the lungs, requiring more rapid action on their part.
About every fifth breath the inspiration is longer and fuller, the
effect being to change more completely the air of the lungs.

=Holding the Breath.=--While respiration is, for the most part,
involuntary, we may arrest the breathing for the space of twenty to
thirty seconds. If we first fortify the lungs by taking several deep
inspirations and expelling the impure air as fully as possible, we may
hold the breath for a minute or two. This power will prove of advantage
if we have occasion to pass through a room or hallway filled with
smoke, or to remain under water for a brief time. The pearl-fishers, as
a result of training, remain under water from three to four minutes.

=Importance of Pure Air.=--Pure air means pure blood. The air of the
mountain tops or by the sea fills us with life, while that of narrow
streets, crowded rooms, unventilated dwellings, schools, churches, and
theatres is depressing, weakening, and death-dealing.

So far from the aristocracy having a monopoly of blue blood, it flows
through the veins of high and low alike. It goes out from the lungs
bright and rich with oxygen; it comes back to the heart dark with the
waste and poisonous matters which it has gathered in its course.

Atmospheric air is composed of several gases, the principal elements
being oxygen, nitrogen, and watery vapor. All animal life requires
oxygen for the combustion of the material supplied through the blood.
The blood makes its circuit through the body three times a minute.
It comes to the lungs laden with poisonous matter. Nearly one-third
of the excretions of the body are eliminated through the lungs. The
average adult contaminates about five thousand cubic inches of air with
every breath. The importance of having an abundant supply of pure air
at all times is obvious.

In ordinary respiration an adult abstracts sixteen cubic feet of oxygen
from the atmosphere every twenty-four hours, and adds to it fourteen
cubic feet of carbonic acid in the same time. If the individual were
confined in a close apartment, in which the air could not mingle
with the atmosphere without, the processes of life could not long be

History furnishes many instances of the direful effects of crowding
a number of human beings into a limited space without ventilation.
One hundred and fifty passengers were confined in the small cabin of
a steamship one stormy night, and when morning came only eighty were
found alive. Three hundred prisoners, after the battle of Austerlitz,
were crowded into a close prison, and within a few hours two hundred
and sixty of them had died.

The effects of foul air are not usually so sudden nor so striking.
More frequently they consist of a general deficiency of nutrition,
loss of vigor of body and mind, and of the power of resistance to
disease. Consumptive patients, in a large majority of cases, come from
the classes whose occupations confine them to ill-ventilated rooms. A
cramped position of the body while at work, and want of good wholesome
food, contribute to the mortality from this cause.

Absolutely pure air is rarely found in nature. Even in the open country
there are three parts of carbonic acid in ten thousand parts of air. In
cities and towns, the out-door air contains from four to five parts of
carbonic acid. When, in dwellings and churches and halls, it reaches
six to seven parts, its impurity is detected by the nose, the lungs
suffer from a lack of oxygen, and the room feels close and stuffy.

The amount of carbonic acid in the breath is about five per cent.
Air once used is therefore unfit for purposes of animal combustion.
If breathed into a jar containing a short lighted candle, it will at
once extinguish the flame. It would also prove fatal to small birds or
mice. When the carbonic acid reaches one part in ten of common air, it
becomes fatal to man.

Headaches, dullness, drowsiness, and labored respiration are the
first symptoms of this lung poison. Faintness, convulsions, and
unconsciousness are a later stage. School-houses, churches, theatres,
and factories should be so well ventilated that the proportion of
carbonic acid would not exceed two parts in one thousand.

=Effects of Breathing Impure Air.=--Air which is only slightly
vitiated, if breathed day after day, for a considerable time, produces
most serious results. Its effects are seen in pale faces, loss of
appetite, depressed spirits, and a lack of muscular vigor.

An investigation made some years ago showed 86 deaths per 1,000 in
a badly ventilated prison, and of these, 51.4 per 1,000 were due to
phthisis, or consumption. In the House of Correction, in the same
city, which was well ventilated, the death rate was 14 per 1,000, and
of these only 7.9 were occasioned by phthisis. The organic particles
thrown off from the lungs of diseased persons are responsible for the
prevalence of phthisis and other lung diseases. It is also a well
established fact that a bad atmosphere promotes the rapid spread of
such specific diseases as small-pox, typhus, and scarlet fever.

=Constant Supply.=--Of so great importance is the matter of having a
constant supply of unvitiated air that sanitariums for consumptives
are now becoming common in which the principal feature is to have the
patients enjoy a continuous out-door existence, day and night, being
wrapped up and otherwise protected from cold and dampness. Consumptive
symptoms often yield to this treatment.

=Individual Habit.=--Habit has much to do with our appreciation of
pure air. If we recognize its value to health and to all the mental
and physical activities, and insist upon a plentiful supply of pure
oxygen, the habit soon becomes a second nature, and we instinctively
feel uncomfortable upon entering an ill-ventilated room. In northern
climates, economic considerations often interfere with the highest
sanitary regulations. Householders, school boards, and church trustees
frequently save fuel at the expense of health.

We may, however, by spending much time in poorly ventilated rooms,
become so accustomed to the depressing influence of the impoverished
atmosphere that we suffer a sort of semi-stupor without being conscious
of the fact. How great a wrong is inflicted upon children in the
school-room and in the crowded factory, by subjecting them, day after
day, for months and years, to a vitiated atmosphere, laden with the
poisonous exhalations from lungs and skin! Their growing bodies are
stunted and their awakening intellects dulled, and the seeds of disease
and weakness are implanted to develop into a harvest of wretchedness
and misery in later life.

=Sea Air.=--When the breeze is off the ocean, the air is practically
free from the exhalations of animals, the smoke and soot of chimneys,
and the gases of sewers. The curative value of sea-air is well known.
It comes richly laden with ozone, and its effect upon sojourners at the
sea-side is very stimulating. Many persons are not strong enough to
endure sea-bathing, yet gain much benefit from the sea-air.

=Mountain Air.=--The air of the mountains is pure. It is usually still,
and seldom foggy. Being more rarefied than that of the low-lying
valleys, it contains less oxygen in proportion to volume, but its
lesser density gives to the oxygen greater activity.

The body loses heat less rapidly in rarefied atmospheres, so that there
is probably less need of heat-production on the mountain than on the
plain, combustion being less active. The rapid and great variations of
temperature of the mountain regions stimulate the vital processes and
contribute to the curative agencies of those altitudes.

=Night Air.=--There is a prevailing prejudice against night air. By
many persons out-door air is shut out of the sleeping room as if it
were pestilential. Analysis as well as experience shows that the most
vitiated and unwholesome night air is that which has been breathed
over and over again in a close sleeping apartment. Admit the outside
air freely if you desire health. Guard against draughts, and use just
enough bed covering for comfort.

=Air of the School-Room.=--A plentiful supply of pure air is desirable
wherever there are people to breathe it. In no place is it more
important than in the school-room. Confined for six hours each day
during the period of life when the best health conditions are required
for the proper growth of mind and body, the child thus robbed of the
needed oxygen is wronged. The adult who voluntarily subjects himself
once or twice a week for two hours to the poisonous atmosphere of
church, lecture hall, or theatre, may experience a temporary headache,
but is soon revived after reaching the fresh air. The child, ignorant
of the wrong he is made to suffer, and incapable of providing better
conditions, breathes the poisonous exhalations from fifty pairs of
lungs, day after day, and thus has sown in his system the seeds of

=Illuminating Gas.=--Many persons die every year by inhaling
illuminating gas. People unacquainted with the use of gas fixtures
often blow out the light instead of turning the key. A prevailing
custom in some families is to keep the light burning low during the
night. A variation of pressure in the pipes, or a sudden draught of
air, extinguishes the slender flame, and gas escapes into the room,
often with fatal results.

Leaky pipes or faulty fixtures may have the same effect. If the key be
loose, tighten the screw that holds it in place. If there is a leak
in the pipe or joint, which may be determined by applying a match, a
gas-fitter should at once be summoned. Delay is dangerous and may prove

If a room be heavily charged with gas, get the windows and doors open
as soon as possible. Do not go near with a light, lest an explosion
follow. Naphtha and benzine are also highly explosive. When either is
used to clean clothing, the work should be done in the open air, and
never where the fumes may come in contact with the fire of stove or
range, or with the flame of candle or lamp.

Gas burners, oil lamps, sperm candles, all forms of illuminants,
consume the oxygen of a room and increase the carbonic acid. An oil
lamp of ordinary dimensions gives off as much carbonic acid as an adult
person. A man, seated in a room of moderate dimensions and using a
good oil lamp, will require 6,000 cubic feet of fresh air every hour
in order to keep the air from becoming vitiated beyond the point of
wholesomeness. Gas from coal, coke, or charcoal fires is as dangerous
as illuminating gas.

Heaters, ranges, stoves, and furnaces should be kept in complete order,
so that no gas shall escape. Its entrance into a bedroom is often so
stealthy as to stupefy the unconscious sleeper and destroy life without
awakening him.

=Sewer Gas.=--Of all forms of vitiated air in cities, none is
responsible for such serious derangement of health as that which is
polluted by the air or gas from sewers and waste pipes. Some physicians
and sanitarians hold that sewer air is often the direct cause of
typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, and cholera. Others maintain
that the sewers and pipes furnish favorable breeding places for the
germs of these diseases, which germs are carried through the air and
produce their effects. The important matter is to keep the waste
pipes flushed and well trapped. Some precautions against sewer gas are
treated in the chapter on Dwellings.

=Influence of Climate and Temperature.=--Diarrhœal diseases, both of
adults and children, are most frequent during hot weather. In July,
August, and September there are from ten to twelve times as many cases
as at other seasons of the year. Proper diet and suitable clothing will
go far toward protecting the individual from the ill effects of climate
and season.

The mortality from consumption and other forms of lung diseases is
greatest in March and April, and least in August and September.
September and October claim the greatest number of deaths from typhoid
fever, followed closely by August and November. The mortality from
diphtheria and croup is highest in November and December, and lowest in
August and September. Of suicides, the largest number occur in May, and
the fewest in February.

=Hygienic Value of Winds.=--Prof. Dexter, of the University of
Illinois, has made a careful study of the effects of calms on
the records of the public schools, the police courts, and the
penitentiaries. All air movements not exceeding four miles an hour
are regarded as calms. Over 497,000 observations were considered
and tabulated. These show that during calm weather the absence from
school on account of illness is three times as great as that during
all other kinds of weather, including the very cold, wet, and windy.
During calms, the criminal records show less disorder and violence,
more policemen are laid off, more errors are made by clerks in banks,
and more deaths are reported. This is in accordance with the principle
that oxygen is the great source of mental and physical energy. When
oxygen is deficient, we are less capable of action, either for good
or evil. The slowly-moving air-currents of a large city are robbed of
their oxygen, and vitiated by the exhalations of thousands of men and
animals. A brisk wind brings in a fresh supply of vitalized air to take
the place of the old, and to promote physical and mental energy. Old
Boreas is a better friend than we have been wont to believe.

=Nature’s Balance.=--By a wise provision of nature, the carbonic acid,
which is so destructive to all animal life, constitutes the chief food
of plants. These absorb the carbon and give out oxygen, and in this
way the animal and vegetable kingdoms tend to preserve the balance of
nature. Except for this wonderful provision, the human family would be
threatened with annihilation.


=Water in the Human Body.=--Taken as a whole, the human body consists
of about seventy-one parts of water in the hundred. When we consider
how large a quantity of water is given off daily, not only through
the kidneys and intestines, but through perspiration, sensible and
insensible, and through the vapor breathed out from the lungs, it
becomes clear that the food must contain a large proportion of water to
supply the daily loss.

The proportions of water are not always quite the same, nor does the
identical water present in any part of the body at any given moment
remain there. There is a constant movement, a continual renewal going
on in the body, and water helps to accomplish this renewal. By means
of the watery substances, the saliva, the bile, and other juices of
the stomach and intestines, the solid nutritive parts of the food are
dissolved, and pass into the blood to renew the waste, and to keep up
that continual current called life. Water is also useful in carrying
off the worn out and useless materials which pass out through the
fluid excretions and through the vapors from the lungs and skin.

=Water in Food.=--The amount of water contained in many articles
of food that appear quite solid is generally surprising to those
unacquainted with the chemistry of foods. In one hundred pounds by
weight, fresh oatmeal contains 5 pounds of water. Corn and barley meal,
wheat flour, peas, and beans contain 14 pounds; rice 15; bread 40;
potatoes 75; grapes 80; parsnips 81; beets 82; apples 83; carrots and
cabbages 89; onions 91; lettuce 96.

Of the animal foods, butter contains 10 pounds of water in one hundred;
bacon 22; cheese 34; eggs 72; lean meat 73; fish 74; milk 86. By
cooking, most foods lose a part of their natural moisture. The eatable
part of a mutton chop contains 70 per cent of water before cooking, and
54 per cent after.

=Daily Requirement.=--Scientific sanitarians have estimated the
daily requirement of water for a person at from twelve to sixteen
gallons. The British War Department aims to provide each soldier with
fifteen gallons daily. In cities the daily allowance per capita is
fifty gallons and upwards, which provides for animals, manufacturing
purposes, fires, sewerage, etc., as well as for drinking, cooking,
bathing, and other wants of man.

=Sources of Supply.=--The importance of an abundant supply of pure
water is becoming more and more apparent each year. The numerous and
serious epidemics throughout the country whose sources have been traced
to the use of impure water leave no room for question on this point.
Most cities draw their supplies from rivers and lakes. If these sources
are kept free from sewage and the waste of manufacturing establishments
the water is likely to be pure and wholesome. Subsiding reservoirs
and filtration beds are needed to take out the mud occasioned by
rains, and to catch up whatever floating matter may be carried into
the basins. Muddiness is not always an indication of unwholesomeness,
nor is clearness a proof of purity. Germs of disease have been found
in the clearest water. Whenever there is the least suspicion of
unwholesomeness, all water used for cooking and drinking should be
boiled. It is not safe to trust to the theory, held by some, that a
running stream, even if polluted, will in flowing a distance of twelve
or fifteen miles purify itself.

Wells, which are the chief source of supply in the country, should
be kept away from barnyards, stables, cesspools, and the waste waters
from dairy and kitchen, to preserve them from pollution. Many cases of
typhoid fever and other serious diseases have been directly traced to
a violation of this rule. The ground surrounding the well should be
raised so as to throw all surface water twelve or fifteen feet away
from the well. See also what is said on this subject in the chapter on

Springs usually furnish the purest and best water. Coming from a
considerable depth, spring-water loses, in its passage through the
earth, most if not all its organic matter, and rises to the surface
clear, cool, pure, and sparkling. The spring should be walled and
covered, and otherwise protected from surface drainage.

=Cisterns.=--Rain-water collected in the country, and under favorable
conditions, is comparatively pure and wholesome. In the cities, it
contains such a large amount of organic matter and other impurities,
washed out of the air and off the roofs by the rain and snow, that it
is generally unfit for drinking without being filtered. On account
of its softness, rain-water is very desirable for washing and other
domestic purposes, but owing to the absence of mineral constituents
it is flat and insipid to the taste. In New Orleans and other southern
cities, where cisterns are largely used, the water is rendered cool and
palatable by the use of large quantities of artificial ice.

=Ice.=--It was formerly supposed that in the process of freezing
all deleterious matter contained in the water was excluded. Several
outbreaks of disease in New England led to an investigation, which
showed that the ice used had been taken from ponds whose waters
contained large quantities of sewage and other impurities. A change
in the source of the ice supply resulted in an immediate check of the
disease. Recent research has shown that typhoid bacilli, after being
frozen in a block of ice for 103 days, may still be alive when released.

=Diseases Caused by Drinking Polluted Water.=--A polluted water supply
affects not one, but usually many persons, and notable epidemics have
resulted. In consequence, more diligent inquiry has been instituted
by Municipal, State, and National Boards of Health, and the evidence
adduced is of the most positive character. Typhoid fever, cholera,
dysentery, and diarrhœa have been clearly traced to the use of impure
drinking water, and other related diseases are suspected of having a
similar origin, although the evidence is not so conclusive.

=Appearance.=--A drinking water should be clear and bright. When
shaken in a glass or bottle, bubbles should rise quickly and break
immediately. If the bubbles move slowly, or seem to hang for some time
in the water, they are probably due to the presence of decaying organic
matter, and the water is of questionable purity. A slight cloudiness
in the appearance of the water, following a rain, may be due to the
presence of a small quantity of earthy matter, and not seriously affect
its wholesomeness, but if the discoloration looks like that occasioned
by a drop of milk the water should be avoided until carefully tested.

=Smell.=--A good water should have no smell. To this end, the cisterns
or other receptacles must be kept perfectly clean. The purest and best
waters will soon become foul if stored in unclean vessels.

=Taste.=--Water having a disagreeable taste is apt to be unwholesome.
In order that we may derive from it proper nourishment, water, like
other parts of our food, should be pleasant to the taste. And yet,
the taste is by no means a satisfactory test of purity. The purest of
all water is distilled water, which, by reason of the absence of all
mineral matter and air, has a flat and insipid taste. The cleanest
rain-water is also insipid. Boiled water is not much better, for while
the boiling process may have destroyed all poisonous or noxious germs,
and rendered the water absolutely wholesome, it also drove off the
natural gases which gave to the water a pleasant taste. Boiled water
may be re-aerated by pouring from an ordinary sprinkling can several

=Hard Water.=--Hardness is a serious drawback, whether the water be
used for cooking, bathing, or for washing clothes. Food cooked by
boiling in hard water is, as a rule, not so well prepared. Greens
take on a gray color. Tea is never so good made from hard water. For
cleaning the skin, hard water is not nearly so efficient as soft.
Linens are never of a good color when washed in hard water.

Boiling hard water before using it improves it. A pinch or two of
carbonate of soda, or of borax, is helpful in washing. A little table
salt improves it for cooking most vegetables.

=Filtration.=--The following is a simple home-made filter. Take a
large flower-pot, and soak it thoroughly in clean water. Stop up the
hole in the bottom with a cork, in which insert a glass tube about
three or four inches long. The top of the cork and tube should be
nearly flat with the inside bottom of the pot. Put in a layer of sharp,
clean sand about two inches deep, then two inches of small gravel, and
three inches of well-burnt animal charcoal. On the top of this another
layer of sand, and then another layer of gravel. The gravel, sand, and
charcoal should be thoroughly washed before using. If the flow of water
is too rapid, it may be checked by laying several flat pieces of glass
upon the layers of sand. At reasonable intervals, the sand, gravel,
and charcoal must be taken out, washed thoroughly, heated in the oven,
and replaced in the pot, which must also be soaked in boiling water.
This filter will remove nearly or quite all of the inorganic matter
held in suspension in the water, but it is not to be depended upon to
remove dangerous microbes and other germs of disease. If the water be
thoroughly boiled for half an hour and cooled before being filtered,
all danger will be removed.

There are many inexpensive filters on the market. They all become
clogged, in a little while, and need to be cleaned or renewed. The
cleaning of the one described above is so simple that any housekeeper
could do it satisfactorily.


=Why We Eat.=--During the early period of life, and until we reach
maturity, food is necessary not only to repair the daily waste, but
for the nurture and growth of the body. The intense bodily activity of
childhood is attended with a large consumption of material and a great
amount of waste. The food is converted into blood, which circulates
through the arteries of the body, carrying the nutritive particles to
the remotest parts, and returns through the veins, conveying the waste
and worn out matter to be expelled from the system.

=Quantity of Food.=--Placing the average weight of an adult man at one
hundred and forty-four pounds, the average daily amount of food and
drink needed would be six pounds, or about one-twenty-fourth the weight
of his body. Food should be taken in sufficient quantity to repair the
waste, and no more. Most persons habitually eat and drink more than
they need, while a few eat less than they should. Those who lead very
active lives, or live much in the open air, require more food than the
old, the inactive, and the sedentary. Habit, too, has much to do with
the quantity of food taken. Over-indulgence in eating is the fruitful
cause of a long train of evils. The appetite is pampered by tempting
viands, and the stomach is overtaxed with work. The sensation of hunger
is Nature’s demand for food; the lack of such sensation should suggest

=Mixed Diet.=--In infancy the digestive powers are weak and
undeveloped, and food must be taken in its simplest form. Milk alone,
at this period of life, seems best adapted to sustain life and growth.
After this period has been passed, no single article of food furnishes
all the principles necessary to support the growth, repair the waste,
sustain the strength, and preserve the health. A mixed diet, therefore,
becomes necessary.

=Feeding Children.=--There is no greater error in the management of
children than that of giving them animal diet too early. That portion
of the digestive apparatus intended to dispose of this kind of diet is
in an embryonic condition up to a certain age, and in the efforts of
digestion, inflammation, possibly convulsions and death, may follow as
the immediate result.

Impaired digestion acquired in childhood is apt to continue through
life. The structure of the human body being so largely dependent upon
good, wholesome food taken at proper intervals, the importance of
laying a good foundation in childhood needs no argument.

The practice of allowing children to eat at short intervals through
the day is exceedingly deleterious. Cakes, nuts, fruit and other good
things, in carefully regulated quantities, should form a part of the
regular meal, when the children are old enough to have them, and should
not be eaten between meals. When it is remembered that one-half of
all the children born into the world die before reaching the age of
sixteen, the importance of children’s diet becomes apparent.

=Selection.=--In the selection of food, reference should be had
to climate, season, occupation, and suitability. The races of the
far North subsist largely on the blubber of seals and other fatty
substances. In the winter season, persons living in the temperate
zones require more of the heat-producing foods, and in summer, fruits
and vegetables are more largely used. The man who leads an active
out-door life consumes more oxygen, and requires not only more food,
but of a kind that will rapidly build up muscle and impart strength.
And not the least consideration, in the selection of food, is that of
suitability or adaptation to the individual’s condition or peculiarity.
“What is one man’s meat is another man’s poison,” says the old proverb.
Most persons have found that certain fruits or vegetables or other
articles of diet, which are generally considered wholesome, do not
agree with them. It is important that each individual should study his
peculiarities, in this respect, and abstain from eating or drinking
those things which experience has shown will produce discomfort.

Happy is the man whose digestion is so perfect that he is never
reminded that he has a stomach. But even those who cannot boast of such
enviable powers of digestion, may yet, by a proper amount of exercise
and the regulation of their diet, build up health and strength, and
lead lives of usefulness and happiness, free from the many ills growing
out of improper eating.

=Proper Food.=--Life is conditioned upon the proper supply of food. Men
may, and do, exist upon very unsuitable food. To be able to do a good
day’s work within the hours of a reasonable working day is every man’s
birthright. Many men, like Esau of old, sell their birthright for a
mess of pottage. Unlike him, however, they are not pressed by stress of
hunger, but, merely to please the palate for five minutes, they burden
the digestive organs for five hours, and repeat the process day after
day. The comparison, therefore, is rather complimentary to Esau.

=Constituents of the Body.=--As already remarked, a large part of the
human body is water. The body of a man weighing one hundred and fifty
pounds contains less than fifty pounds of solid matter. The blood,
brain, and nerves are about eighty per cent water; the muscles, nearly
eighty per cent; and even the bones and the teeth contain a large
percentage of water. Man may be deprived of solid food for a day or
more without suffering, and, in some instances, persons have subsisted
for several weeks on water alone, but to be deprived of water for ten
or twelve hours causes much suffering.

The animal and vegetable kingdoms supply the organic substances which
constitute a large part of the material commonly known as food, and
which sustain the body in life and strength.

In addition, various inorganic substances enter into the human
structure, prominent among which are salt, lime and iron. Salt is so
important to animal life that herds of wild animals have been known to
travel many miles to the salt-licks, or springs, in search of it. Some
persons, from habit, use it to excess in seasoning their food. Lime and
iron are taken into the body through the food. Iron forms about one
part in a thousand of human blood.

=Classification of Foods.=--For increasing weight and producing heat,
the fatty portions of meat, butter, and lard, together with wheat,
Indian corn, and sugar, are best adapted; for muscle-making, lean meat,
peas, beans, oatmeal; for brain and nerves, shell-fish, lean meats,
peas, and beans. Those who lead an active, bustling life, especially
if they take an abundance of out-door exercise, will naturally crave
strong food in unstinted supply. The busy brain-worker, who is housed
all day, and scarcely rises from his chair, needs to be much more
careful in his diet. Coarse bread, lean meats, and fruits should
constitute his chief dependence, with very limited use of butter, oils,
and sugar.

Proper digestion depends upon the power of appropriating the food
supplied, and this, in turn, upon the needs of the system. The best
of food cannot be properly digested when it is not needed. All that
the system requires will be used, and the rest will be cast out by the
organs of excretion, which are often overtaxed, and the vital forces
wasted, in the effort. The liver especially is burdened in its effort
to carry off the excess of carbonaceous matter from the blood, and
biliousness is the result. On the approach of warm weather, when the
air has less oxygen to consume the food, this is particularly true.

=Quantity.=--We should eat to live, not live to eat. More people
suffer from over-eating than from eating too little. Many thin people
are large eaters, and stout people are often small eaters. The young
generally eat more than the old. Not only are their powers of digestion
better, due in part to the great amount of exercise they take, but
they need food for growth, as well as to repair the waste. Franklin’s
prudent rule was to leave off eating with a good appetite.

Economy of the life forces requires that each person should strive to
find out just how much food he requires to support his strength and
repair the waste. One ounce more than is required is a triple waste,--a
waste in the original cost, a waste of muscular force in digesting it,
and a waste of nerve and vital force in getting rid of it.

=Cereals and Their Food Value.=--Dr. H. W. Wiley, Chief of the
Bureau of Chemistry in the United States Department of Agriculture,
in speaking of the substitutes for meat, says: “In so far as actual
nourishment is concerned, the very cheapest and best that can be
secured is presented by the cereals, viz., Indian corn, wheat, oats,
rye, rice, etc. These contain all the nourishment necessary to supply
the waste of the body and the energy and heat necessary to all animal
functions and hard labor, in a form well suited to digestion, and
capable not only of maintaining the body in a perfect condition, but
also of furnishing the energy necessary to the hardest kind of manual
labor. The waste material in cereals is very small, and, as compared
with that in meats, practically none at all. In fact, the ordinary
wastes, such as the bran and germ, are among the most nutritive
components of the cereals, and both health and economy would be
conserved, as a rule, by their consumption, instead of rejecting them
as in the ordinary process of milling. The ordinary cereals of commerce
contain only about ten per cent of waste, and this is an exceedingly
small proportion, as compared with the percentage in meats.

“If meats should be used more for condimental purposes, as in the
making of soups, stews, etc., and not more than once a day, as one of
the staple articles of the table, it would be better, in my opinion,
for the health and strength of the consumer, and especially would it be
a saving in the matter of household expenses.

“It is well known that men who are nourished very extensively on
cereals are capable of the hardest and most enduring manual labor.
Meats are quickly digested, furnish an abundance of energy soon after
consumption, but are not retained in the digestive organism long enough
to sustain permanent muscular exertion. On the other hand, cereal foods
are more slowly digested, furnish the energy necessary to digestion
and the vital functions in a more uniform manner, and thus are better
suited to sustain hard manual labor for a long period of time.

“The cereals contain all the elements necessary to the nutrition of the
body, having in themselves the types of food which are represented by
the fats, the nitrogenous or protein bodies, and the carbohydrates.
In addition to these, they contain those mineral elements of which the
bony structure of the body is composed, viz., lime and phosphoric acid.
If, therefore, man were confined to a single article of diet, there is
nothing which would be so suitable for his use as the cereals. Starch
and sugar are primarily the foods which furnish animal heat and energy,
and hence should be used in great abundance by those who are engaged
in manual labor. The workingmen of our country, especially, should
consider this point, and accustom themselves more and more to the use
of cereals in their foods. When properly prepared and properly served
they are palatable, as well as nutritious, and their judicious use in
this way would tend to diminish the craving for flesh, which, however,
it is not advisable to exclude entirely from the diet. By persons whose
habits of life are sedentary, requiring but little physical exertion,
starch and sugar should be eaten more sparingly.”

=Preparation of Foods.=--No country equals our own in the abundance
and quality of materials for the table, and probably no other compares
with it in the ignorance and carelessness displayed in its cooking. A
large part of the sickness, discomfort, and unhappiness of life finds
its source just here. In many well-to-do families the whole matter is
relegated to ignorant and incompetent servants whose only interest
in the household is of a financial character, and that is entirely
one-sided. The mistress is often more ignorant on this subject than the
servant, and the “queen of the kitchen” reigns supreme.

Among the middle and lower classes, where the mistress is herself the
cook, the results are no better. Being without proper early training,
or growing up with the idea that it is not genteel to work, she comes
to her task wholly unprepared, and an ill-fed, sickly family is the
result. In many cities and towns, cooking schools are found, but the
graduates do not compare with those who graduated from their mothers’
kitchens, in the days when domestic labor was respected. The mind of
the ambitious cooking-school graduate is too often concerned with the
pretty pastries and dainty desserts that please the eye and pamper the
appetite, instead of mastering the art of properly preparing the bread,
meat, and vegetables, and the other substantial things.

=Bread.=--So important a part does bread play in the physical economy
that it is often called the staff of life. In cities and towns and in
many country villages the baker supplies the general need. Yielding
to the popular demand for white bread, he uses flour that has been
robbed of its most nutritious properties, and introduces unwholesome
substances to make it light and white. The best bread is that in which
the starch cells are most completely burst. The making of wholesome,
palatable, home-made bread is becoming a “lost art” even among farmers’
wives and daughters. The corner grocery and the baker’s wagon furnish
the freshly-baked loaf, the housewife is spared some trouble, and the
household loses what should be one of the most healthful, nutritious,
and appetizing elements of the daily supply of food. In parts of
the South and West, the large use of hot bread is the cause of much
indigestion and ill health.

=Meats.=--Broadly speaking, there are two methods of treating meats.
By the first, it is the aim to keep the juices within the meat, as in
baking, broiling, and frying. By the second, the object is to extract
the juices and dissolve the fiber, as in the making of soups and stews.
In order to imprison the juices and thus develop the flavor, the meat
must be subjected to intense heat for a short time, so as to coagulate
the outer layers of albumen, and afterward a more moderate heat should
be employed to complete the cooking. To extract the juices, meat should
be cut into small pieces, put into cold water, and slowly raised to the
boiling point.

Roasting is probably the best method of cooking meats, especially
large, thick pieces. Frying is the worst method, as the heated fat
penetrates the meat, dries and hardens it, and renders it indigestible.
The American frying-pan is, beyond question, the most deadly instrument
that can be named. The sword may claim its thousands, or even its
tens of thousands, but the frying-pan numbers its victims by the
millions. And yet the skilled French cook robs even this destructive
implement of its terror, and furnishes the table not only with meats
but with whatever else has been fried, free from soaking grease,
finely flavored, and above all, thoroughly digestible. The fault must
therefore be ascribed to the cook, and not to the frying-pan.

In an address on “Home Economies Among the Poor People of New York,”
the Rev. Dr. William S. Rainsford declares that living expenses are
entirely too high. “The poor families of New York are in a tight place.
Food is not so cheap as it should be. Fish, for instance, should be
sold in New York for half its present price.

“Because of these things it is growing more and more difficult for
young persons to marry. You have no idea how dangerous this is.

“Another reason for suffering among the poor is that the girls don’t
know how to cook. One of the best ways to hold even a fairly good
man--not a blackguard, but an average man--is to know how to cook.

“This whole country is cursed by bad cooking. It is worse in the rural
districts. It makes my heart sick to see the beautiful children, up to
ten years, of the Tennessee and Carolina regions, with the shade of
frying-pans spreading over their faces, killed by grease--vicious and
expensive grease.”

In commenting upon the above, a prominent daily says: “Dr. Rainsford is
by no means the first man to hold that bad cooking is responsible for
many of the sins that men commit. It is well known that a disordered
stomach has a corresponding effect upon the brain, causing men to hold
views and commit deeds which they would think of only with horror under
normal conditions; but this class of missionary work, as it really
is, has been much neglected by reformers in the past. They are giving
it more attention now, and the cooking-schools, despite the ridicule
heaped upon them by the comic writers, are doing good work toward
raising the standard of American cooking.”

=Veal and Pork.=--These are regarded as less wholesome than beef or
mutton. Both should be well cooked, and ham, sausages, and other forms
of pork should never be eaten raw or imperfectly cooked, on account of
the danger of introducing the animal parasite which produces in the
human body a serious and painful disease known as trichiniasis.

=Superfine Flour.=--Chemists tell us that the process of bolting
removes from the flour not only the outer woody fiber, but also the
lime needed for the bones; the silica for hair, nails and teeth; the
iron for the blood; and most of the nitrogen and phosphorus required
for muscles, brain and nerves; and leaves only the starch which
supplies fat and fuel.

Experiments made upon animals show that fine flour alone, which is
chiefly carbon, will not sustain life for more than a month, while
unbolted flour supplies all that is needed for every part of the body.
Wholesomeness and nutrition are sacrificed to that which pleases the
eye, alike by the baker and the housewife, so that the fragrant,
appetizing bread of our grandmothers is almost unknown.

=Potatoes.=--Potatoes are largely composed of starch, which supplies
only fuel for the capillaries. Analysis shows that they contain only
one part in one hundred of muscle-making material, and less than that
of phosphorus for brain and nerves.

=Animal Food.=--Many vegetarians denounce the use of all animal food
as constituting an unnatural diet, oppose the slaughter of animals on
moral grounds, and declare that vegetables, fruits, and nuts furnish
all the elements necessary to the growth, strength, and health of the

That a person may subsist, and even be strong and healthy, without the
use of animal food is proven by the lives of many vegetarians in all
ranks of society. It is recorded of Louis Cornaro, a Venetian nobleman,
that for fifty-eight years his daily allowance was twelve ounces of
vegetable food and a pint of light wine. In many countries the low
wages paid for labor and the high price of meat compel the working
classes to depend largely upon a vegetable diet. The Spanish peasant
is happy on coarse bread, onions, olives, and grapes. The Italian
fares sumptuously on macaroni, polenta, olives, and fruits. Over two
millions of people in France and other parts of Southern Europe subsist
chiefly on bread made from chestnuts, the annual crop being estimated
at fifteen million dollars.

In England and other countries in Northern Europe, the eating of meat
is largely a question of wages. With the increase of prosperity, it has
been observed, there is a corresponding increase in the use of animal
food. In Spain, France, Italy, and the warmer portions of Europe,
the cooling acids of the fruits and the less-heating elements of the
vegetable kingdom are better suited to the climatic needs of the people.

Probably in no other country is so much meat eaten as in America.
The supply here is greater, and wages, as a rule, are better. Many
physicians and others interested in domestic science are of the opinion
that the health of the people generally, and of those leading inactive
or sedentary lives in particular, would be better if less animal food
were eaten.

Salted meats are not as nutritious as fresh. The brine absorbs the
rich juices of the meat and hardens its fibers. Long-continued use of
salt meats, without fresh vegetables, produces scurvy, formerly very
prevalent on shipboard, in prisons, and in the army.

=Nutrition.=--The conversion of food into flesh, bone, brain, and nerve
matter, and the other parts of the human body, is comprised in four
somewhat distinct processes: Digestion, Absorption, Circulation, and
Assimilation. We are apt to think of digestion as a process belonging
only to the stomach, but it begins when food is put into the mouth,
and continues until the waste is finally excreted from the bowels.
The alimentary canal, or food passage, including the mouth, gullet,
stomach, small and large intestines, is a tortuous passage, some thirty
feet in length.

=Mastication.=--The first step is that of mastication, or chewing.
There are sixteen teeth in each jaw. The front teeth are designed for
cutting, and the rough, broad surfaces of the back teeth adapt them
for grinding. The structure of the teeth would indicate that man was
intended to eat both animal and vegetable food.

=The Teeth.=--The proper mastication of the food demands that the teeth
be kept in good order. After eating, they should be brushed with a soft
brush and tepid water in order to remove the particles of food that may
be wedged between them or lodged in the crevices. By reason of the heat
and moisture of the mouth, these particles soon putrefy, which not
only renders the breath unpleasant, but promotes the decay of the teeth.

The enamel, or outer covering of the teeth, if destroyed, is not formed
anew. Sharp acids corrode it. Gritty tooth powders, metal tooth picks,
and other hard substances scratch or crack it. Sudden changes from hot
to cold, in food or drink, tend to destroy it. Do not attempt to crack
nuts or hard grains with the teeth.

=The Saliva.=--The food should not be swallowed until it is thoroughly
ground with the teeth. While mastication is in progress, the salivary
glands moisten the food and fit it for admission to the stomach. This
saliva is the first chemical solvent, and is an important factor in
the process of digestion. If the food is not retained in the mouth
long enough to become thoroughly ground and properly mingled with
the saliva, the work of the stomach will be increased. Persons who
bolt their food, and wash it down with water or other liquid, thereby
dilute the natural juices of the mouth and stomach, impose upon the
latter organ a task for which it is not adapted, and throw the entire
digestive machinery out of gear.

The sense of taste being largely dependent upon the saliva, the natural
flavors of the food are not fully developed, the food seems insipid,
and there is created a taste for pungent sauces and spices which
over-excites the digestive organs. Poisonous substances are often
swallowed in mistake, which, if retained in the mouth long enough to
determine their taste, would be rejected without injury.

=The Stomach.=--The most important organ of digestion is the stomach.
This is a pear-shaped pouch, having a capacity of about three pints.
The walls are thin and yielding, and often become unnaturally distended
by those who habitually gormandize. Its construction clearly shows that
the work of grinding and mashing the food was intended to be performed
before it entered the stomach.

The gastric juice, another chemical solvent, is here poured upon
the food, which, as rapidly as it is prepared, is passed into the
intestines. The time required for the stomach to perform its work
varies from one to five hours, according to the quantity and character
of the food and the digestive power of the individual. The delicate
network of blood vessels which underlies the mucous membrane of the
stomach takes up all those elements of the food that are ready to be

=The Intestines.=--The small intestines are continuous with the
stomach, and, though very different in shape, are like it in general
structure. The bile, which is secreted by the liver, unites with the
pancreatic juice, and enters the intestines through a duct about three
inches below the stomach. By the joint action of these two fluids, the
fatty elements of the food are prepared for absorption. From the mucous
membrane, or inner lining of the small intestines, still another juice
or fluid flows, whose office is to supplement the work, first, of the
saliva in converting starch into sugar; next, of the gastric juice in
digesting the albuminoids; and, lastly, of the pancreatic juice and
bile in emulsifying the fats. The work of digestion is completed in the
small intestines. The indigestible parts of the food are passed into
the large intestines, and expelled from the body.

=Absorption.=--The liquefied food, in its passage through the stomach
and small intestines, has been prepared by the various juices for its
absorption by the blood vessels and the lacteals, whose minute mouths
throng this part of the alimentary canal. The food elements thus
absorbed are conveyed to the right auricle, or first chamber of the

=Conditions Affecting Digestion.=--The quality, quantity, and
temperature of the food, and the condition of mind and body, all have
an influence upon digestion. In the selection of food, only such
articles should be allowed as are fresh, pure, and wholesome. Bread
should not be eaten warm. It is more easily digested after being
baked a day or two. Flesh of animals recently slaughtered should be
thoroughly cooled, and never cooked while yet warm and quivering with

Cooking renders many articles of food not only more wholesome and
palatable, but also more digestible by reason of the increased
temperature. The natural heat of the stomach is about ninety-nine and
one-half degrees, at which temperature the operations of digestion are
best promoted. Hot soups are therefore a good introduction to the meal.
A small glass of ice-water will retard digestion for half an hour.

Sudden joy, anger, grief, or other strong emotion or excitement checks
digestion. If the tongue is parched and the mouth dry, the flow of
saliva is restrained and the first step in the process of digestion
is hindered. The coating of the tongue reflects the condition of the
stomach, hence the frequent request of the physician to see the tongue
of the patient.

Bodily fatigue destroys appetite and hinders digestion. The expression
“I am too tired to eat” is not uncommon.

=Intervals for Meals.=--Frequent eating is as bad as rapid eating or
over-eating. The organs of digestion require periods of rest, in order
to renew their strength and restore the juices essential to their
perfect operation. No person, except infants and the sick, should
require food oftener than once in four hours. If the stomach is in good
working order, it will usually complete its task in two hours, unless
the food is too great in quantity or too indigestible.

No one should take more than three meals a day, and, to insure sound
refreshing sleep and allow the stomach to recover its tone, the last
meal should be the lightest and easiest to digest. Dyspeptics and
others affected with stomach troubles will find benefit in restricting
themselves to two moderate meals a day. Numerous cases are cited of
notable cures effected by adopting a regimen of only one meal each day.

=Regularity.=--Whatever the interval between meals, be it four, five,
or six hours, there should be regularity. The stomach, like the mind,
forms habits, and the habit of regularity in eating will beget the
habit of regularity in digesting and recuperating. The practice of
parents in giving children cakes, fruits, and sweetmeats between meals
is reprehensible. As a result of habit, many persons grow to feel that
a dinner is not complete without a substantial dessert. The mistake
consists, not always in the dessert, for that may be as wholesome and
nourishing as any part of the meal, but in first fully satisfying the
demands of hunger, and afterwards imposing upon the stomach the extra
burden of digesting the dessert.

=Rest.=--For every disease of every organ the first condition is rest.
Broken bones and lacerated muscles must have release from active duty
or there can be no cure. The vital organs, when diseased, must have all
the repose consistent with the operations of life. For affections of
the heart, the circulation should be reduced, and all excitement and
stimulation to over-action be removed.

Excessive physical or mental exertion, whether immediately before or
after meals, interferes with digestion. If before, the energies of the
blood will be directed to the part of the body in most active exercise,
and cannot suddenly be withdrawn. If after, they will be diverted
before having performed their legitimate part in the process of
digestion. A short period of relaxation before, and of absolute repose
after meals, is most favorable to the proper action of the stomach. The
repose should not be carried to the extent of sleeping, for in sleep
the stomach, as well as the rest of the body, seeks release from duty.

=Drink.=--Thirst warns us that the blood is too thick, or that
it contains some acrid matter which should be eliminated. Free
perspiration makes large demands upon the fluids of the body, and
copious draughts of water are required to supply the lack. In this way
the system is flushed, the clogged pipes and pores are opened, the
waste matter removed, and the system made healthy. In cities the water
is usually introduced into houses through lead pipes. Herein lies a
danger, and the purer the water and the newer the pipe, the greater
the danger. The water gradually corrodes the metal and holds a small
quantity of it in solution. After a few months of service, an insoluble
coating forms upon the inner surface of the pipe, and protects it from
further corrosion. It is a wise precaution to run off the water that
has lain in the pipes over night, or during the temporary absence of
the family, before using.

=Coffee and Tea.=--The Americans drink more coffee and the English
more tea, _per capita_, than any other nation. As to the wholesomeness
of these beverages opinions are greatly at variance. Used in moderate
quantities, and especially by persons who lead an active out-door life,
no harm is likely to ensue. Many persons drink them for the taste,
which is often heightened by the use of cream and sugar, and never
stop to question whether they are injurious or otherwise. Such persons
usually drink too much. If either produces wakefulness, it should
not be used before retiring at night, and if the nerves are unduly
stimulated, at any time, its use should be discontinued. Tea should be
steeped, not boiled. It contains a certain proportion of tannic acid
which is dissolved by boiling, and when drunk, produces a deleterious
effect upon the mucous membrane of the stomach, causing dyspepsia with
its attendant evils. Children should not be permitted to drink either
tea or coffee.

=Intoxicants.=--While alcoholic preparations may, in rare cases, be
prescribed by the physician, their use as a beverage finds no support
in science or in experience. There are many who use liquors and tobacco
and who yet live to an old age. It is also true that many reach old age
without their use. Comparing the lives of a thousand persons who drink
and smoke, with a thousand others under the same conditions who do not
use liquors or tobacco, it will be found that the latter are not only
longer-lived, but are also more healthy. Probably no better test of the
question of health and longevity can be found than the experience of
the life insurance companies. By them, all intoxicants and tobacco are
looked upon with disfavor.

=Circulation.=--The blood is the most important and the most abundant
fluid of the body. It constitutes about one-twelfth of the entire
weight of the person. To the eye it appears as a simple fluid, varying
in color from a bright scarlet to a dark purple. Under the microscope,
it is seen to consist of a clear, colorless fluid in which float a
multitude of corpuscles, or solid discs. These corpuscles are so minute
that thirty-five hundred, arranged side by side, will extend only one
inch, and fourteen thousand, placed one upon the other, would not
exceed one inch in height. There are also white corpuscles which are
fewer in number, larger, and globular in form.

The size and shape of the blood corpuscles in man differ from those
in animals. So important and well-defined is this difference in point
of law that the guilt or innocence of criminals has often hung upon
the results of a scientific examination of the blood found upon the
garments of the suspected person.

=Coagulation.=--The coagulation, or thickening of the blood, when it
leaves the living tissues, is a principle of the greatest importance
to life. Without it, the slightest injury might prove fatal. In minor
injuries, the blood coagulates, thus closing the mouths of the injured
blood vessels, and bleeding ceases spontaneously.

=The Heart.=--The great center of the circulatory system is the heart.
With ceaseless energy it drives the blood through the arteries to every
part of the body, laden with the life-giving elements absorbed from the
food and vitalized by the oxygen in the lungs. In the outward flow of
the blood each part of the body appropriates the particular elements
which it requires. The return of the blood through the veins brings
with it the waste and cast-off particles of the bones, muscles, and
tissues, to be expelled through the lungs, except such elements as
exude through the pores of the skin. By this unceasing round of waste
and repair, the entire body, it is believed, is renewed every seven
years, and some parts are replaced several times within that period.
From the moment a human being begins to live, he begins to die.

=Action of the Heart.=--The alternate contraction and dilation of
the muscles of the heart constitute the heart-beats or throbs of the
pulse. These vary with the individual. In the average adult, the number
of beats is seventy-two per minute. In the cases of Bonaparte and
Wellington the number was less than fifty. Heat, food, and exercise
increase its action, as cold, fasting, and sleep diminish it. Emotion
of joy, grief, and fear also exert a modifying influence.

It is a matter of wonder how the silent forces within a tree can lift
from the soil, through its minute pipes, and extract from the air,
through the small pores of the leaves, the many tons of material that
go to make up the giant of the forest. The tons of physical energy
bound up in that small organ, the human heart, is a matter no less
marvelous. Estimating the amount of blood expelled by each contraction
of the ventricles of the heart at four ounces, we have a total of
twelve tons a day, or over four thousand tons in a year.

=Assimilation.=--The crowning act in the conversion of lifeless food
into living tissue takes place in the meshes of the capillary network,
and is called assimilation. This process is alike mysterious and
wonderful. By a peculiar power of selection, each bone and muscle and
tissue appropriates that portion of the blood which it needs for its
own development or for the repair of the waste, and applies it in such
a manner as to preserve the form and size and strength of the part,
ever maintaining a proper balance of the two sides of the body, unless
thwarted in its operation by some act of the individual.

=Adulteration of Food Products.=--National, State, and Municipal Boards
of Health, and food inspectors may do much to preserve health, but
when they have done all that it is possible for them to do, much will
still remain for the individual. With the products of the world exposed
for sale in our markets, with the advertising pages of our magazines
and newspapers filled with irresistible arguments in favor of some
newly-discovered breakfast food or new preparation of canned goods, the
need of individual knowledge and caution daily increases.

There is cause for congratulation in the fact that those articles
which constitute the larger portion of our food are but little
adulterated. In the States that impose legal penalties the proportion
of adulterated products is quite low. The value of a stringent law is
seen in the decrease of the adulteration of cream of tartar, which,
in Massachusetts, fell from forty-two per cent in samples examined in
1879, to five per cent in 1898. Spices, flavoring extracts, and canned
goods afford the most promising field for adulteration.

The substitution of ingredients is prompted wholly by a desire for
gain, and consists in the substitution of a cheaper for a more
expensive article. It is, therefore, a question of ethics rather than
of health. If the horse-radish is largely turnip, and the apple-butter
chiefly pumpkin, if the currant or raspberry jelly is made of the
rich juices of the parings and cores of apples, strained, colored and
delicately flavored, who will say that the cheaper fraud is not as
wholesome as the more expensive genuine article? In some instances
there is an actual advantage to health in the substitution, but this
does not justify the deception. Pure, fresh oleomargarine, however
wholesome, should not be sold for butter, any more than shoddy cloth
should be sold for pure wool.

=Dangers to Health.=--The contents of tin cans are sometimes affected
by the action of the acids upon the tin or the solder. Food should not
be allowed to stand in a tin can after being opened. Milk, cream, and
butter are quick to take up germs of disease. Scarlet fever and typhoid
fever have, in many instances, been traced to this source. The utmost
cleanliness and care should be exercised in their handling.

=The Diet Cure.=--Over-indulgence in eating is the source of many
disorders of the system. It is well, at all times, to keep within the
limit of the powers of digestion. The way to give the stomach rest is
to eat less food and at longer intervals.

Obesity is the result of the accumulation of the fatty properties
of the blood in excess of what is needed to repair the waste of the
system. The fattening process will be stopped by cutting off the
supplies. A restricted diet, the avoidance of fat-producing foods,
vigorous perspiration as the result of exercise, and frequent bathing,
followed by friction, will be attended by a decided reduction of the
superfluous fat. A merchant in England who had reached the enormous
weight of four hundred and fifty-seven pounds put himself upon a
diet of four ounces of animal food, six ounces of bread, and two
pounds of liquid in twenty-four hours. In one week he had reduced his
weight thirty pounds, and in six months he had lost one hundred and
thirty-four pounds.

In France, there is a method of treatment known as “The Grape Cure.”
Persons in Paris, broken down by the excitements and dissipations of
the city, go off among the vineyards, breathe the pure country air,
and live on grapes. From eight to twelve ounces of bread, with grapes
at discretion, constitute their daily allowance of food and drink. By
this treatment the impurities of the system soon pass off through the
kidneys, the bowels, the lungs, and the pores of the skin, and pure,
wholesome blood takes the place of that which was diseased.

=The Water Cure.=--The importance of water can hardly be overrated. No
life, whether animal or vegetable, is possible without it. By water
all food is dissolved, and so penetrates the system and nourishes
the tissues. By water the waste particles of matter are carried off
through the skin, the lungs, and the other secreting or excreting

While the waters of many of the spas contain medicinal properties, a
large part of the virtue claimed for the springs is due to the free
flushing of the system. It is the fad, while sojourning there, to drink
frequently and copiously. Any other pure, wholesome water would be
nearly, if not quite, as beneficial, if used in the same quantities and
under the same conditions.


=Influence of Dress on Health.=--While this aspect of the subject of
dress receives far less consideration than it deserves, its importance
is to be measured only by the importance of human life and by the value
that attaches to a state of perfect health. Like fresh air, pure water,
and bright sunshine, health is only appreciated when it is gone. The
behests of fashion often make sad inroads upon it, but the seductive
siren lures us on until we can no longer follow. With scanty strength
we then worship at the shrine of Hygeia, but this queenly goddess
governs with stern rule, and is often unresponsive to our petitions.

=Temperature.=--There is a constant interchange between bodies or
substances of different temperatures when they are in touch one with
the other. The warmer give off heat which is absorbed by the colder,
and in this way they tend toward equalization. The normal heat of the
average human body is 98.4 degrees, Fahrenheit. When it is exposed
to a temperature lower than this, it must be protected by clothing
to retard radiation of the body-heat, and thus prevent not only the
chilling of the surface but also more serious disorders of the internal
organs. In very hot countries, clothing is worn as a protection against
heat. The head, especially, needs protection from the sun’s rays.

=Warmth.=--From the standpoint of health, no other property of dress is
so important as that of warmth. While certain garments are described
as being warm and others as being cool, it is a well-known fact that
articles of clothing possess neither warmth nor coolness in themselves.
By reason of certain chemical processes constantly going on within
the body, there is produced a degree of natural heat, commonly called
animal heat.

The body in health seldom varies more than one or two degrees from the
normal standard. Conditions of climate, season, exercise, age, or sex
have but slight influence upon the average temperature of the body. By
conduction, radiation, and evaporation, any excess of heat is quickly
reduced. More than seventy per cent of the whole amount of animal heat
lost passes through the skin.

Evaporation from the skin is very rapid, and may lead to too sudden
cooling of the body. A person who, after exercise that has produced
free perspiration, stands in a current of cool air, is apt to take
cold. The dryer the atmosphere, the more rapid is the cooling process.
The most uncomfortable and oppressive atmospheric condition is that in
which the air is heavily laden with moisture and the temperature high.
Evaporation from the body is then slow, and the sensation of heat is

It is a mistaken notion that clothing keeps the cold out. Its purpose
is to keep the heat in, or, in other words, to prevent the rapid
radiation of heat. We speak of warm clothing and of cool clothing. That
clothing is warm which retards the giving off of heat from the body.
The Indian wraps a blanket about his body to keep it warm; we wrap a
blanket around a piece of ice to keep it from melting.

Any clothing that prevents the rapid escape of heat from the body is
said to be a bad conductor, and is called warm. Woolen textures rank
first among dress materials as poor conductors, and are therefore best
adapted for winter clothing. Silk and cotton come next. Linen is a good
conductor of heat; that is, it carries off the heat from the surface of
the body very rapidly, and produces a sensation of coolness; therefore,
all dress materials made from flax are said to be cool.

=Materials.=--The principal materials used for clothing are wool,
cotton, linen, and silk. These differ greatly in weight, texture,
warmth, porosity, power to absorb moisture, and in other less important

In a climate so changeable as that which prevails in most parts of
the United States, the body, and especially the trunk, should be
protected at all seasons from sudden chill by the use of under garments
containing wool. Even in the warmest weather it will be found that a
light woolen fabric absorbs the perspiration, and is more agreeable
to the skin than cotton. The wearing of a flannel band, eight to ten
inches in width, buttoned around the waist next to the skin, will prove
an excellent protection to the kidneys and the abdominal region. Silk
is light and soft, and as it retards the giving out of heat from the
body, is worn for under garments, especially by those to whom wool is
irritating or otherwise unpleasant. Rubber cloth is useful for rain
coats, but as it prevents evaporation of the perspiration, it increases
the liability to chill, and renders the wearer uncomfortable except in
cold weather.

=Animal Heat.=--The bird is warmer than the air in which it moves;
the fish possesses a higher temperature than the water. As before
remarked, chemical changes are constantly going on in the system which
give rise to this result. Even plant life is subject to this law. A
delicate thermometer placed among a cluster of geraniums about to burst
into flower will show a temperature a degree or two higher than the
surrounding air.

=Warm-Blooded Animals.=--Those animals possessing well-developed
lungs and large breathing capacity are usually active in movement,
and are classed among the warm-blooded animals. They comprise birds,
quadrupeds, and man. The animals possessing small lung development are
for the most part inactive, and are cold to the touch, indicating a low
temperature. Such are the frog, toad, lizard, snake, and tortoise.

These facts show the connection between respiration and animal heat,
the temperature being in proportion to the amount of oxygen consumed.
Birds have the largest lung development in proportion to size, are most
active in movement, and indicate the largest amount of animal heat.

=Adaptation to Climatic Conditions.=--The Polar bear suffers from the
heat of the Temperate zone, and would not survive a week in the Torrid.
The African lion would fare no better were he suddenly transported
to the Frigid zone. Man alone, of all the animal creation, is able
to adapt himself to the extremes of heat and cold. By changing his
clothing, shelter, and food, he is able to create for himself an
artificial climate wherever he may choose to reside. No Arctic winter
has been found too cold for a Peary, Nansen, or Greely to withstand,
and no African plain or jungle too hot for a Livingstone or Stanley to

=Evaporation.=--The temperature of the body is regulated by means of
perspiration. Heat induces perspiration, and its evaporation lowers
the temperature of the body. Cold retards perspiration, and the heat
is retained within. The principle of evaporation is illustrated in
the manufacture of artificial ice. Men who labor in glass works, iron
and steel foundries, and in the engine rooms of large steam vessels
are exposed to great heat, yet enjoy as good health as those who are
engaged in other occupations. Persons have been known to remain several
minutes in an atmosphere heated above the boiling point, without
materially increasing the temperature of their own bodies.

Perspiration goes on continually, night and day. This fact emphasizes
the importance of a complete change of clothing upon retiring at night,
so that the clothing worn during the day may be thoroughly aired. In
like manner, the clothing worn at night, together with the sheets,
blankets, and pillows, should be aired, and, if possible, exposed to
the sun for a time, before the bed is made up.

=Color of Clothing.=--The color of our dress is not wholly a matter of
pleasure to the eye. In general, it is known that white is cool and
black is warm. Scientific experiment has shown that cloth of the same
material, when exposed to the rays of the sun, absorbs heat in the
following proportions: white, 100 heat units; light yellow, 102; dark
yellow, 140; light green, 155; Turkey red, 165; dark green, 168; light
blue, 198; dark blue, 206; black, 208. When not exposed to the sun, the
color has little or no influence upon the absorption of heat.

The color of underclothing has practically but little influence upon
the amount of heat radiated from the body, but the color of the outer
dress has much to do with regard to the amount of heat absorbed from
the sun’s rays.

=Absorption of Moisture.=--The property of absorbing moisture is of
much importance in the hygiene of clothing. The best material for
clothing to be worn next to the skin is that which, while retaining the
natural heat, or giving it off very slowly, absorbs the moisture from
the body, and diffuses it through its meshes. The skin is thus relieved
of the cooling effect of this evaporation, which might prove harmful.

=Porosity.=--The ventilating property of clothing, or the ease with
which air passes through its meshes, is called porosity. The most
porous of dress fabrics is flannel, which is, at the same time, the
warmest. Its porosity, as compared with that of linen, is as 100 to 58.

=Impermeability to Water.=--As a protection against rain, the simple
mackintosh, or the mackintosh cloth, is the best. The latter is more
pleasing to the eye, but the outer wool covering absorbs enough
moisture to add somewhat to the weight of the garment, which is a
slight disadvantage.

All waterproofs present this serious evil, that while they exclude
the outer moisture, they prevent the escape of the natural moisture
from the surface of the body. This, however, is, generally speaking,
a lesser evil than to expose the body to storm and cold, with the
risk of serious illness. It is not unusual to add to the waterproof
the further protection of an umbrella. In such case, the discomfort
of excessive perspiration may be relieved by occasionally loosening a
button or two about the neck and chest.

=Underclothing.=--Taking all things into consideration, wool is,
without doubt, the best material for garments worn next to the skin. In
cold weather it maintains the natural heat of the body. In warm weather
it quickly absorbs the free perspiration, giving off the moisture
through its meshes, and thus preventing the too rapid evaporation
from the surface of the body, which tends to produce chill and other
resulting disorders. It also serves to protect the body from the hot
rays of the sun, and from the heat of boilers and furnaces. No other
substance so effectually modifies the evil effects of sudden and rapid
changes of temperature. In the extreme cold of the polar regions and
in the oppressive heat of the tropics, it is alike satisfactory.
The thickness of the texture and the closeness of the weave must be
determined by the climate and the season.

=Disadvantages of Woolen Undergarments.=--With all their advantages,
woolen undergarments are not wholly free from disadvantages. The most
common criticisms are that they are heavy, less cleanly than linen, and
they sometimes produce irritation. For an equal weight, wool is the
warmest of all dress materials. For summer wear, only that which is
thin, light, and loose in web is usually chosen. Light flannel suits
have become very fashionable for summer outing, both for men and women.

Woolen undergarments rapidly absorb the excretions from the skin. The
water soon evaporates, but the more solid portions are held in the
fibers of the garment. Woolen underwear should be washed as frequently
as that of cotton, linen, or silk. Unfortunately for the health of the
individual, it does not show dirt so quickly as the other materials,
and, by the lower classes, is often washed less frequently than it
should be.

The therapeutic value of flannel depends in no small degree upon its
power to stimulate the skin. It is this that makes it popular with the
old, and with those whose circulation is sluggish. For the delicate,
the scrofulous, and the rheumatic, flannel undergarments are especially

Another objection might be urged to the use of woolen underwear, in
that it so often shrinks and becomes hard when washed. It is possible,
however, to have flannels and other woolen goods come from the wash
as soft and light as when they went in. Care should be taken not to
subject them to sudden and extreme changes of temperature while washing
and drying.

=Effects of Tight-Fitting Underwear.=--A woolen shirt or undervest,
quite loose, will be much warmer than a like garment of the same
material, close-fitting. In the loose garment, there is a constant
stratum of air between the body and the clothing. This air has almost
the same effect as an additional garment. It acts as a non-conducting
medium between the surface of the body and the external atmosphere.

Material loosely woven is warmer than the same material closely woven.
Clothing worn in successive layers is warmer than the same quantity of
material woven in a single layer. Two shirts worn, the one over the
other, will afford more warmth than the same quantity of wool or cotton
or silk woven into one garment.

Underwear should be light and porous, and permeable to air. Very fine
materials densely woven are not so healthful as those that are more

=Night Attire.=--Night is the time for rest, not only from mental toil
and physical labor, but also rest for the functions of the body, so far
as possible. To this end, it has been recommended that the evening meal
be eaten long enough before retiring to enable the digestive apparatus
to have completed its work.

For many persons, cotton and linen are found to be more restful, for
night wear, than garments made of wool. Even when woolen underclothing
is worn with comfort and satisfaction during the day, there is, to some
persons, a pricking sensation, a slight surface irritation, in the use
of woolen night wear which is destructive of rest. The activities of
the skin, as well as the other bodily functions, require a measure of

The old, the delicate, and the very young may use a light woolen
night-dress outside that of linen or cotton. If comfort demands the use
of wool next to the skin, it should be light in weight, finely woven,
and with a smooth surface.

Cleanliness and health alike demand that no part of the clothing worn
during the day should be worn while sleeping. The garments worn in
the day should be thoroughly aired and dried during the night, and
the moisture absorbed by the night clothing should be allowed to
evaporate, and the garments ventilated during the day. In cold climates
and in cases of sickness, weakness, or of delicate constitution,
the dress of the night as well as of the day must be adapted to the
requirements of the case.

=Hats.=--In the advancement from barbarism to civilization, the
head was the last part of the body to be covered. Nature originally
furnished, in the form of a thick mat of hair, all the covering that
was necessary for the head. Baldness was then unknown. While the
demands of modern society must be complied with, and hats must be worn,
the nearer we can approach to Nature’s plan the better.

A hat should be light, loose, and well ventilated. A heavy hat presses
with undue weight upon the scalp. A tight-fitting hat interferes with
the free circulation of the blood. A hat that is close in its texture,
prevents the escape of the heated air within, and not only produces
a sense of oppression but is believed to be the most fertile cause
of baldness. Silk hats for men are especially objectionable on this
ground. All close hats should be supplied with efficient means of
ventilation. The head, like any other part of the body, perspires, and
if the hat is removed in a cooler atmosphere or in a current of wind,
a cold in the head is apt to follow.

The chief cause of baldness is pressure of the hat, which constricts
the blood vessels and so interferes with the nutrition of the hair
bulbs. It is probable, also, that the shutting off of air and light by
the hat promotes baldness. An unhealthy condition of the scalp results,
the sign of which is an excess of dandruff.

Baldness is almost unknown among savages, who wear no hats, and is
comparatively rare with men in the tropics where very light hats are
worn. Laborers are less prone to baldness than business or professional
men. They generally wear soft hats or caps, which are often pushed to
the back of the head, so that the scalp gets plenty of light and air.
There is no good reason why, if properly treated, the hair should not
last as long as the man. Wear a soft, loose, well-ventilated hat, and
wear it as little as possible, and never keep it on in the office or

In hot weather and in tropical climates hats should be of a light
color, with a considerable crown and ample brim. In the United States,
the ordinary straw hats, if not too closely made, answer every
requirement. For the intense heat of Africa or India, more elaborate
head-gear is found necessary. The ill effects of special exposure to
the sun’s heat may be reduced by wearing, in the crown of the hat, a
thin sponge, or even a handful of grass or leaves, or other light,
porous substance.

From the standpoint of health, but little criticism can be made against
the head-gear of women. Nature has provided them with a splendid
covering of hair for warmth and protection. The woman’s hat, or bonnet,
is largely an object of adornment. Fashion, at times, dictates an
unequal distribution of its weight, or an over-burden of ornament, or
a lack of protection to the eyes, but, for the most part, it is light,
loose, and admits of free ventilation. Veils are more or less injurious
to the eyes, and if worn so as to cover the nose and mouth, prevent the
free escape of the exhalations from the lungs. The dyes used in veils
have, in some instances, been productive of face eruptions and other

=The Neck.=--The improper clothing of the neck is responsible for much
ill-health. The high collars for men, the tight-fitting high collars
and neck bands for women, the scarfs, handkerchiefs, and other neck
apparel in winter produce an excess of heat. Cold air is inhaled, and
the result is some form of sore throat.

Fashion makes greater demands upon the powers of endurance, or
resistance, of women than of men. To go warmly clad through the day,
and then to put on a ball or party dress, exposing the neck and
shoulders to repeated currents of cold air, requires a degree of
vitality that many do not possess, and the physician’s and undertaker’s
labors are increased by the victims of fashion.

The neck should be comfortably clad, and kept at the normal temperature
as nearly as possible. It is the sudden change from an over-heated neck
and chest to that of the opposite extreme that causes the trouble. The
boy who, with scarf tightly wrapped about his neck, fights his mimic
battle with snowballs until the perspiration flows from every pore, and
then throws aside jacket and scarf while he rests, and the girl who, in
furs and tippet, skates until she becomes thoroughly heated, and takes
off her wraps while she stops to breathe, have many imitators among the
older boys and girls in the world.

As to the proper amount of covering for the neck, much depends upon
habit, and not a little upon individual requirement. The important
point is to preserve uniformity, and to guard against sudden changes.
The sailor with neck freely exposed is fully as exempt from colds as
is the soldier whose neck is more warmly clad. If they should suddenly
exchange their manner of dress, the result would be disastrous to both.

The important blood-vessels that supply the face, head, and brain, and
the jugular veins which return the blood to the heart, all pass through
the neck. The clothing about the neck should therefore be loose, so as
to allow the freest passage of the food, breath, and blood, and the
fullest movement of the head.

=Male Attire.=--While appearance demands that the outer clothing
should be neat-fitting, comfort and health require that it should be
sufficiently loose to admit of the freest movements of the body. It
should be as light as possible to insure proper protection from the
cold. Weight does not always count for warmth. Many persons prefer
light flannels as outer garments for warm weather.

The trousers should be supported from the shoulders by suspenders.
Belts involve more or less constriction of the abdomen, and are
injurious. Men suffer greater disadvantage from their use than women.
The practice of wearing a belt during the summer months is especially

=Female Attire.=--Healthful and proper clothing implies, (1), the
protection of the body against extremes of heat and cold, and the
maintaining of an equable temperature in every part; (2), the absence
of all superfluous material and needless weight; and (3), the
non-interference with the normal functions of the body.

Mrs. Woolson, a writer on Dress and Health, says: The limbs have not
half the amount of covering which is put upon the trunk of the body.
Many garments have no sleeves, or sleeves that terminate a few inches
below the shoulders. As to the legs, the clothing which should increase
in direct ratio to the distance from the body to the feet, diminishes
in the same ratio. Thin drawers, thinner stockings, and wind-blown
skirts which keep up constant currents of air supply little warmth to
the limbs beneath. The feet, half-clad and pinched in tight shoes, are
chilled in consequence.

The trunk of the body has as many zones of temperature as the planet it
inhabits. Its frigid zone is above, on the shoulders and chest; for,
although the dress-body extends from the neck to the waist, most, if
not all, of the garments worn beneath it are low-necked. The temperate
zone lies between the shoulders and the belt, for that region receives
the additional covering of undervest, corset, and chemise. The torrid
zone begins with the belt and bands, and extends to the limbs below;
for all the upper garments are continued below the belt, and all the
lower garments come up as far as the belt, so that the clothing over
the whole hip region must be at least double what it is over any other
section. But it is more than double; it is quadruple, for the tops of
all these lower garments have a superfluous fullness of material which
is brought into the binding by gathers and plaits.

It will be observed from the above that the three rules laid down for
a perfect dress are all violated. First, the unequal preservation of
heat; second, the excessive weight, largely supported by the waist;
and, third, the constriction of the waist and pressure upon the abdomen
caused by the gathering of so many garments at this point.

=The Petticoat.=--Petticoats are objectionable in several ways. They
seriously impede movement. They involve an unnecessary expenditure of
muscular force by hampering the action of the lower limbs. They stir
up and accumulate the dirt of the streets, or drag through mud and
slush, often occasioning wet ankles and engendering disease. Thick
woolen drawers reaching to the feet, or, better still, the one-piece
underwear which covers the entire body except the head, hands, and
feet, would furnish more warmth and distribute it more equally than the
“many petticoat” plan, and save the weight and secure freer movement by
enabling the wearer to dispense with one or more of these objectionable
garments. This would add greatly to the comfort of the wearer, reduce
the weight of the nether garments, prevent in large measure the undue
heat of the abdominal region, and would not materially change the
appearance of the outer dress.

=Tight Lacing.=--It is said that Hippocrates earnestly reproached the
ladies of his time for too tightly compressing their ribs, and thus
interfering with their breathing powers. Fashion and Health must be
sworn enemies, for they have not come much nearer together since. We
smile at the Chinese lady who cramps her foot until it is neither fit
to look upon nor to walk upon. Yet, the tortures she endures are no
greater than those voluntarily assumed by many American women at the
behest of the same tyrant, Fashion.

The unnatural constriction about the waist and abdomen involves every
vital function. It compresses the lower part of the lungs, diminishes
their capacity, and thus interrupts the proper oxidizing of the blood.
It cramps the heart, and often results in fainting and swooning, to
say nothing of the more permanent results of impeded heart action. It
forces out of shape and place the liver and stomach, restricts the
flow of the bile and other stomachic juices, and seriously interferes
with the important function of digestion. It restricts the action of
the intestines, producing constipation, with all its attendant evils.
It presses upon the blood vessels leading to the bowels and the lower
extremities, diminishes the circulation, produces cold feet, and
often causes varicose veins. And, worst of all, those delicate organs
peculiar to women are so crushed by the unnatural pressure, and so
obstructed in their normal action, that the function of motherhood is
most seriously impaired, the poor deformed woman becomes the victim
of untold suffering, and the wretchedness entailed upon the race is
widespread and far reaching.

=A Deformity.=--The devotee of feminine fashion will doubtless resent
the intimation that she is deformed, or is likely to become so. A
missing finger or hand, a shortened arm or leg, an inverted foot
or curved spine--these are set down as deformities. In short, any
wide departure from the normal human structure must be classed as a

The bony framework of the thoracic cavity in its natural shape is an
irregular cone, whose apex is at the neck, and whose widest part,
or base, is formed by the spread of the lower ribs. By constantly
compressing the waist, the flexible lower ribs yield to the pressure,
and after a time become fixed in this unnatural position, and that
which was the base of the cone becomes the apex, and the widest part is
now near the top. From the standpoint of anatomy, the latter condition
can be nothing less than a deformity.

=Are Corsets Ever Necessary?=--For any unnatural or unhealthy
conditions, the physician or specialist alone must prescribe. There is
no reason why the bones and muscles of a woman, as well as a man’s,
should not support the upper part of the body without artificial aid.
As remarked in another chapter, the body acquires habits. After wearing
corsets or stays for a time, their absence will doubtless suggest a
lack of support, for the muscles have become weakened from a lack of

The skirts and other garments should be supported from the shoulders,
and not from the waist. To this end, an under jacket, close-fitting,
but in no sense compressing the body, loose in texture so as to be
permeable to the air, with straps over the shoulders, should be
worn. To this, by means of buttons, all the lower garments should be
attached. No steel or other stiff supports should be tolerated. With
this system in general use for a generation, the amount of suffering
saved would be incalculable, and the advantage to the race would be
beyond compute.

=The Feet.=--In so far as the health is affected by the dress, next
to the evils of tight lacing come the evils of tight shoes. The feet
being remote from the heart, the circulation of the blood at this point
is not as free as in other parts of the body. This in itself tends to
beget cold feet, and at once suggests the advantage of warm stockings
and stout shoes in order to keep out the cold and wet, and to induce a
freer current of warmth-producing blood.

The small foot is almost as much an object of worship as the small
waist. The temptation to cramp it by tight and ill-fitting shoes is
great, and is not wholly confined to the weaker sex. Large shoes may
be ill-fitting and injurious, as well as small ones, often rubbing the
skin and producing blisters and sores.

The shoes should be close-fitting but not tight, thus allowing free
circulation of air as well as of blood, and also the freest action of
the bones and muscles. Like other parts of the dress, the shoes must
be adapted to the season. In cold and wet weather the soles should be
thick so as to keep out the dampness. The maxim, “Keep the feet warm
and the head cool,” is none the less good because it is old.

=Rubbers.=--Tight-fitting rubbers impede circulation, and, on this
score, are objectionable. But the disadvantages of wet or damp feet
are far greater. Through the winter and spring months the streets and
pavements are rarely free from dampness, and light rubbers or sandals
should be worn. Persons who are exceptionally susceptible to colds need
to be doubly careful to keep the feet dry and warm.

=Stockings.=--The stockings, too, should be stout and warm. For
most persons, wool is the best material. If the rough surface is
uncomfortable to the skin, those of a smoother surface may be tried.
A thin silk stocking with a woolen one of moderate thickness outside
will make no more bulk than a single heavy woolen stocking, and will be
found equally warm.

Some persons when about to undergo extreme exposure to cold wrap the
feet with a thickness or two of tissue paper, either under or outside
of the stocking. Being impervious to the air, paper is not to be
recommended for general use.

The physical annoyances and discomforts growing out of ill-clad feet
are such as to demand that great care be given to this part of the
dress. Corns, bunions, and in-growing nails are so common that it is a
rare thing to find a person who is free from these afflictions.

=Heels.=--Heels of moderate height are desirable. High heels throw
the foot into the front of the shoe, cramp the toes, and destroy the
natural action of the foot. The French heel, so coveted by many ladies,
is an abomination. It is not only too high, but, being placed under the
arch of the foot, defeats Nature’s purpose in the construction of the
arch. Children under twelve years should not wear heels.

=Wide Soles.=--The width of the sole should always be greater than
the width of the foot. With the foot clad in a close-fitting, stout
stocking, stand upon a cardboard or piece of stiff paper, bearing the
weight of the body upon this foot. With a pencil held in a vertical
position, have some one draw the outline of the foot upon the paper.
When purchasing a pair of shoes, apply this outline to the soles, and
see to it that they are larger at every point than the outline. This
will go far toward securing comfort.

Infants require to be warmly clad. The heat-producing powers of the
organism are feeble. Clothing should be of a kind and of sufficient
quantity to prevent the undue waste of natural heat. Children are often
clad too thinly, and exposed to cold before they are strong enough
to bear it. The “hardening” process to which some foolish mothers
resort is accountable for no small amount of infant mortality. The
other extreme is equally reprehensible. Aim to maintain an equable
temperature of the room as well as of the body; avoid sudden changes,
and keep the child out of draughts. Clothing of fine soft wool, as a
rule, is the best.

=Evenly Distributed.=--The body of the child usually is too warmly
clad, while the arms and neck are often insufficiently covered. The
long skirts of infants are objectionable because they keep the legs too
warm and hamper them in their movements, so essential to their growth
and development.

=Weight.=--The weight of the clothing of all persons, of whatever age,
should be as light as is compatible with comfortable warmth, but it is
a matter of double importance to infants and young children.

=Constriction.=--Many young mothers have done their infant children
incalculable injury by tightly pinning about their tender bodies
the swathing band and the upper parts of the skirts. The heart and
lungs, stomach and liver, as well as the rest of the body, need room
for growth. Instances are recorded of infants having died from being
deprived of sufficient room to breathe properly. Here again, the
opposite extreme must be avoided. Socks that come well up on the legs
should be provided. The dress should not be so loose about the neck
as to admit cold draughts of air to the chest or spine. As with older
persons, the petticoats and nether garments should be suspended from
the shoulders as soon as the child is old enough to walk. The increase
in the average life of the American is largely due to the better care
of the children.


=Why We Bathe.=--The first object of bathing is cleanliness. The
importance of this object is so widely recognized as to have passed
into a proverb, “Cleanliness is next to godliness.” A second object of
the bath is to stimulate the functions of the skin. A large amount of
waste matter is thrown off through the pores, and unless removed by
frequent bathing, soon becomes clogged, and sickness ensues. A third
object is the pleasurable exhilaration which attends a plunge into the
swimming pool, stream, or surf. The street urchin, with no ungovernable
desire for cleanliness, and with little thought of the importance of
keeping his cuticle in good working condition, plunges into the nearest
stream long before the summer days have tempered the water to such a
degree as to beguile his older brother.

=The Skin.=--In order that the advantages of bathing may be fully
understood, it is necessary that we have some knowledge of the nature
and structure of the outer covering of the body. This garment is soft,
pliable, close-fitting, and quite thin, yet sufficiently strong to
resist the ordinary contact with surrounding objects.

The skin is composed of two layers, the outer, called the epidermis, or
cuticle, and the inner, called the cutis, or true skin. The two layers
are closely united. When, from a burn or other cause, a blister is
formed, a watery fluid separates the cuticle from the true skin.

The cuticle is very thin, and is composed of minute flat cells,
arranged layer upon layer. These, as they are worn out, fall from the
body in the form of fine scales. When the cuticle in the palms of the
hands or other parts of the body is subjected to severe pressure, or
friction, it becomes thick and hard, and better adapted to manual labor.

The cutis, or true skin, is firm, elastic, and very sensitive. Its
surface is covered with minute elevations called _papillæ_. These
contain the blood vessels which supply the waste of the skin, and also
the nerves which are largely concerned in the sense of touch.

=Its uses.=--The skin, which seems like a very simple membrane in
structure, is, in reality, a very complex and elaborate organ. With
its numerous blood-vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves; its millions
of _papillæ_ and pores and sweat ducts; its innumerable hair-follicles
with their sebaceous glands and muscles; its odoriferous glands and
special pigment-bearing cells, it is well equipped to perform the
various duties assigned it.

First, it serves to protect the softer parts of the body which lie
underneath it. Secondly, it regulates the temperature of the body
by preventing, on the one hand, the too rapid radiation of natural
heat, and, on the other hand, by reducing the temperature through the
process of perspiration. Thirdly, through its millions of pores, it is
constantly throwing off the useless materials found in the excretions
of the perspiration and the sebaceous glands.

In order that the skin may perform its functions properly, it must be
perfectly clean, the pores must be kept open, and the sweat glands
free to throw off all the effete matter and prevent its accumulation
within the system. While soap and water are necessary and helpful, free
perspiration induced by vigorous bodily exercise or artificial heat
will also enable the glands to cast off the more solid substances which
accumulate at the bottom.

An eminent French physician has discovered that the annoying odors
from the skin which characterize certain persons have their seat in
the bottom of the sweat sack, and can be successfully removed by free
perspiration followed by a bath.

In addition to the general benefits to the health, of systematic,
vigorous exercise and the bath, they will give freshness of color to
the skin, prevent the coming of wrinkles, and give to the face a beauty
such as no paint or powder can approximate. If ladies with sallow
complexions and shrunken countenances would substitute exercise and
bathing for facial massage, the benefits of which last only so long as
its use is continued, the results would be much more satisfactory.

Many of the common diseases of the skin which destroy the beauty of the
complexion are believed to be due to certain microbes. If the skin were
kept, by exercise and bathing, in a thoroughly healthy condition, these
microbes would find no lodgment, or, gaining a temporary foothold,
would readily yield to judicious hygienic treatment.

=The Hair and Nails.=--These, properly considered, are appendages of
the skin. The hair follicles are hollow receptacles, from the bottom
of which the hair grows. Alongside each hair follicle are two glands,
called the sebaceous glands, which provide the hair with a natural
oil or grease, and prevent excessive dryness. This sebaceous matter
tends to keep the skin flexible, and serves to protect both skin and
hair from the acridity arising from perspiration. The hair serves as
a protection, shielding the brain from extremes of heat and cold, and
moderating the force of blows upon the head.

The nails not only serve as a protection to the ends of the fingers,
but also enable us to grasp more firmly, and to pick up small objects.
Well-kept nails contribute much to the beauty of the hand. They are not
only an indication of cleanliness but also a mark of refinement.

=The Perspiratory Glands.=--The skin is provided with numerous
sweat-glands which consist of very small tubes with globe-like coils at
their deeper extremity. It is estimated that there are 2,800 of these
glands to the square inch of the surface of the body.

These glands or pores of the skin are, day and night, constantly
excreting a watery fluid. Ordinarily this evaporates as rapidly as it
is formed, and the process is called insensible perspiration. Under the
influence of heat or exercise the flow is more abundant, and appears
upon the surface of the body in the form of minute, colorless drops.
This is known as sensible perspiration.

This excretion consists of about ninety-eight parts of water and two
parts of solid matter. The quantity of perspiration varies with the
temperature, the occupation of the individual, and other circumstances.
In an adult, the daily amount is about thirty ounces, or more than nine
grains a minute.

=Benefit of Perspiration.=--Besides freeing the blood of a large amount
of water, with the effete matter it contains, perspiration serves to
reduce the temperature of the body. This function is most active in hot
weather, and the cooling process is proportionally increased, thereby
contributing to the comfort of the individual. A partial or temporary
check of this excretion is usually attended with headache, fever, and
other unpleasant symptoms, and its total interruption is fatal. For
the purposes of experiment, rabbits and other small animals have been
covered with a coating of varnish, and death invariably ensued in from
six to twelve hours.

=Importance of Bathing.=--As the watery portion of the perspiration
evaporates, the solid matter is left on the surface of the skin, and
soon clogs the mouths of the pores. The scales of the worn-out cuticle
also accumulate, and further impede the action of the skin. These
impurities must be removed, not only from motives of cleanliness but
also from considerations of health.

=General Effects of the Bath.=--Bathing, in every form, increases
the activity of the internal machinery. It increases the rate
of respiration, the activity of the heart, the rapidity of the
circulation, the combustion in the tissues, and the perspiration
through the skin. This increased activity causes a degree of
exhaustion, and makes demand upon the vital forces. The reaction that
follows more than restores the depleted vitality, and the bath serves
as a tonic to the system.

=A Satisfactory Experiment.=--A prominent Philadelphia merchant gives
the following as a result of his experience: “For a number of years I
was troubled with indigestion, and a feeling of general depression. My
muscles were soft and flabby, and I was easily fatigued. I was seldom
free from colds and their many discomforts. Although there were several
gymnasiums near my place of business, I felt that I could not take the
time for practice. My condition gradually grew worse, and the drugs
and medicines I took did me no good. In sheer desperation, I concluded
to see what a little exercise and bathing would do. I chose the early
morning and the late evening, as interfering least with business. Upon
rising in the morning, and with slight encumbrance of clothing, I
devote fifteen minutes to such simple body movements as give exercise
to the muscles of the arms, legs, upper and lower trunk, and expand the
chest. Then I stand in the bath tub, and with a large sponge filled
with cold water, I quickly drench the head, neck, chest, and every
part of the body, and, after drying with a soft towel, I give myself a
vigorous rubbing with a coarse towel, which produces a delightful glow
that lasts for several hours. At night, just before retiring, I again
devote ten or fifteen minutes to exercise, and enjoy sound refreshing

“Since I began this plan of exercise and bathing, some five years ago,
my digestion has been excellent, and I enjoy my meals, and seldom ask
myself whether it is safe for me to eat this or that, as I used to do.
I accomplish much more labor, with less fatigue than formerly, and
with none of the old-time languor and depression. My mind is clear and
alert, and to my cold sponge bath I ascribe the fact that I rarely have
a cold.”

=Temperature of the Body.=--By a wonderful provision of nature, the
temperature of the surface of the body is preserved at about 98.4
degrees Fahrenheit, whether the individual resides in the arctic
regions or within the limits of the torrid zone. The range of the
internal heat of the body is not very great. A deviation of seven
degrees from the normal is dangerous. If the temperature of the body
rises to 109 degrees or falls to 76, death is almost sure to follow.

=Temperature and Kinds of Baths.=--From the standpoint of temperature,
baths may be classed as hot, warm, tepid, cool, and cold. A hot bath
has a temperature ranging from 98 degrees to 112 degrees Fahrenheit; a
warm bath from 92 degrees to 98 degrees; a tepid, from 85 degrees to
92 degrees; a cool bath from 60 degrees to 75 degrees; and a cold bath
from 60 degrees down to the freezing point of water.

Tepid, warm, and hot baths are employed, not only for cleansing
the body, but to diminish blood pressure and to reduce nervous
excitability. The hot bath is used in restoring warmth to the body in
certain cases of shock, and to remove the effects of exposure to a low

When the water is of about the same temperature as the body, the
effects are neither stimulating nor depressing. In some forms of
sleeplessness, a tepid bath taken just before retiring has been found
to be effective. In such cases, the body should be covered by the
water for ten or fifteen minutes, and quietly dried with a soft towel,
without vigorous rubbing or friction.

=Hot Bath.=--The cold bath stimulates, the hot bath facilitates
function. Both hot and cold baths increase the combustion going on
within the body. The immediate effect of a cold bath is to chill the
surface of the body. This sensation is promptly conveyed by the nerves
of the skin, through the spinal cord, to the brain. Respiration and
circulation are at once increased, and the temperature of the interior
of the body is raised.

The effect of a hot bath is to raise the temperature of the surface
of the body and the temperature of the blood. As in the case of a
cold bath, the respiration and pulse are quickened, and the escape of
carbonic acid from the lungs is increased.

Warm baths can be borne for a longer time than cold baths, but if
the temperature be very high they deplete the system rapidly, and
faintness is apt to occur. The warm or hot bath leaves the skin in a
very delicate condition, susceptible to chill from exposure followed by
internal congestion. The bather should dress quickly after a warm or
hot bath, and spend a half hour or more in a warm room so as to allow
the body to assume its normal temperature, or he may go from the bath
to bed, and cover up well.

=Popular Error.=--The belief is current that it is extremely dangerous
to enter a cold bath when the body is heated or perspiring. The bracing
effects of the bath are most manifest if taken while the individual
is warm. The clothing should be removed quickly, the plunge or douche
boldly taken, and immediately followed by a vigorous rubbing with a
coarse towel.

Some years ago, an eminent physician, desiring to test the effects of
the cold bath when the body is warm, made a series of observations
upon himself. The following is his statement: “Every afternoon a free
perspiration was produced by a brisk walk in the sun. As soon as
the clothing could be cast off, and while the body was still freely
perspiring, a plunge was taken into a fresh water bath of about 60
degrees Fahrenheit. No ill result followed. On the contrary, the
sensation which immediately followed the bath, and which continued for
six or eight hours afterward, was exceedingly pleasant. The health
remained perfect, and the weight decidedly increased during the two
months the practice was continued. There is probably no danger to a
healthy person in this practice, but it is considered advisable to
immerse the head first, to avoid increasing the blood pressure in
the brain too greatly, which might result if the body were gradually
immersed from the feet upward.”

The douche consists of a stream of water, hot or cold, which is made to
strike the body with force. Its value consists partly in the impact of
the water, and partly upon its temperature. It is an exhaustive method
of treatment, and must be used with caution.

The Scottish Douche consists in the use of alternating streams of hot
and cold water, which produces a powerfully stimulating action. Hot and
cold affusion are mild forms of the douche.

The Shower Bath differs from the douche in the division of the streams
of water, causing it to strike the body with less force. This method,
too, should be used with caution, especially by persons who are not

The Needle Bath is a form of fine shower bath. The bather stands within
a coil of pipes perforated with very small holes through which the
finely divided streams of water impinge upon every part of the body.

The Vapor Bath combines the two agents, warmth and moisture. The
patient sits in a small cabinet or other confined space, into which
steam from a boiler or kettle is conducted. In some instances, the head
is enclosed so that the vapor may be breathed, but more frequently the
head and face are shut out from the vapor-inclosed chamber. The vapor
bath can be borne much better than the water bath, the temperature
often ranging from 120 degrees to 150 degrees Fahrenheit. Various forms
of steam or vapor cabinets are advertised in the popular magazines at
small prices. The Russian Vapor Bath consists of a vapor bath of high
temperature, followed by a cold douche, and is useful where a quick
reaction is desired. The Galvanic Bath and the Electro-magnetic Bath
consist merely of a bath of water through which a gentle current from a
battery is passed. This is so arranged that the current passes from the
water through the body, and affords a powerful stimulant to the skin.

Various forms of medicated baths are employed for specific purposes,
but these should not be used except upon the advice of a physician.

=Air Bath.=--The Hot Air Bath, since the days of ancient Rome, has been
not only a popular luxury but also a means of treating disease. Unclad,
the bather sits in a room heated to a temperature of 120 degrees to 150
degrees. A glass of cold water is sometimes taken to stimulate free
perspiration, after which the bather reclines on a marble slab and is
shampooed by an attendant. The body is then thoroughly washed with hot
water, and rubbed down with a horse-hair glove. This is followed by a
cold shower-bath or douche, after which one is rubbed dry, dresses, and
reclines for half an hour on bed or couch.

=Sun Bath.=--The value of sunshine to animal and vegetable life is
apparent to all. Plants become blanched and tender, and lack hardihood,
if left without sunlight. Fishes in the subterranean lakes are dwarfed,
and have no eyes. Tadpoles kept in the dark never develop into
full-grown frogs. Men, growing up in mines or in dark prison cells, are
sallow and ill-formed. When Fashion smiles upon brown arms and a tanned
face, health is improved, and the darker skin is rendered more hardy
and better able to resist exposure.

Sand Baths have, at different times, been held in high esteem. The
patient is buried in sand, except his head, and exposed to the full
rays of the sun. The surface irritation caused by the sand, combined
with the effect of the heat, produces a copious perspiration.

Mud Baths and Pine Baths are popular in parts of Germany. In the
former, the body of the patient is imbedded, for a time, in the thick
paste or mud deposited by some of the mineral springs, or formed of a
mixture of moor-earth and water. In the Pine Baths, a strong decoction
is made of the fragrant limbs and tops of the resinous pine trees,
which, blended with water, has a stimulating action on the skin.

=Surf Bathing.=--Sea bathing is more invigorating than fresh water
bathing. Persons who cannot bathe in fresh water are often benefited by
surf bathing. The stimulating action of the salt water, the impact of
the waves, the exhilaration and excitement occasioned by the incoming
breakers, and the wholesome exercise which usually attends a sea bath,
all contribute to the benefit of surf bathing.

While the danger of chilling and taking cold are less in sea bathing,
yet the usual precautions should be observed. If warm, do not wait
to cool off before going into the water. This is always hazardous.
Plunge boldly in, taking care to wet the head, neck, and face as
quickly as possible. Exercise to keep up the circulation. Dive through
the rollers, or jump up to prevent being overwhelmed by them. If,
after being in the water a few minutes, there is a growing sense of
chilliness which cannot be overcome by exercise, the bather, for his
own safety, should withdraw at once, however enjoyable the occasion,
and seek comfort in dry, warm clothing. A prolonged stay at the
sea-shore will enable him to renew his bath daily, and gradually
increase its length. At most, it should not exceed thirty minutes.
Persons of vigorous constitution may take two dips a day with
advantage. A short rest should follow the bath, whenever possible. But
if reaction is not established by rubbing and putting on dry clothing,
it should be restored by taking a short brisk walk before the rest.

=Salt-Water Bath at Home.=--Aside from the tonic effects of the
sea-air, and the absence of business anxiety and the change in food and
habits which a temporary residence at the sea-side involves, a good
substitute for the sea-bath may be had by the use of an inexpensive
preparation of salt which may be found at almost any drug store.

=Reaction.=--The phenomenon commonly known as reaction, which
accompanies both hot and cold bathing, is quite remarkable. Experiments
have shown that if the temperature of a healthy person be raised
or lowered by bathing, the subsequent reaction will restore the
equilibrium by supplying the loss or withdrawing the excess. Thus
nature seems to resent any interference with her normal functions. A
German scientist subjected a robust patient to a series of baths of a
temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit, each lasting twenty-five minutes.
The rapid abstraction of heat produced chilliness and shivering, which
lasted for several hours after each bath, but this was followed,
after an interval, with such an increase of temperature as precisely
compensated for the previous loss, and thus the average normal
temperature was maintained.

The chronically ill may be divided into two general classes, the one
made up of those individuals whose vitality suggests the possession
of strong powers of reaction, and for whom the system of heroic
treatment, vigorous exercise, cold baths, surf bathing, and sea air are
best adapted; the other requiring gentle treatment, much indulgence,
mild climate, warm baths, and mountain air.

=Frequency of the Bath.=--The physical condition of the bather must
always be regarded as an important factor in determining the kind of
bath, the length of time it should consume, and the frequency with
which it should be repeated.

A brisk, cold bath to tone up the system, prevent colds, stimulate
digestion, and promote circulation may be taken daily. For many
persons, the most convenient time is just after rising in the morning.
Fifteen minutes of vigorous exercise before the bath will add to its

Hot baths, if prolonged, are debilitating and should be taken less
frequently. To clean out the pores and remove the excretions and dead
cuticle from the surface of the body, two thorough hot baths a week
will, for most persons, be sufficient. Some persons get on very well
with only one, especially in the winter season when perspiration is
less active. The dust, grime, and soil, resulting from one’s daily
toil, must be removed from hands, face, and body, as often as occasion
requires. For this purpose, a basin of warm water and soap will be
found sufficient.

Many weakly babes have been sacrificed to their mothers’ vanity by
subjecting the little ones to the exhausting process of two or three
elaborate baths and costly toilets each day. Boys living near ponds,
creeks, or rivers often waste their physical forces by spending a large
part of the warm summer days in the water. They go in too frequently
and remain too long. A morning swim of half an hour, or two dips, one
in the forenoon and another in the afternoon, of twenty minutes each,
is as much as the strongest boy should take.

=Regularity.=--In bathing, as in exercise, regularity and system should
control, if any physical advantage is expected to follow. A bath now
and then, when it happens to suit the convenience of the bather, will
not tone up the system nor fortify it against colds. A daily cold bath
is best. If that is impossible, it should be taken at least three or
four times a week.

=Best Time for Bathing.=--As remarked elsewhere, every form of bath
makes greater or less demand upon the vital forces, and some forms are
quite exhausting. It is therefore proper to consider the most suitable
times for bathing. It is best not to take a bath when the body is
much exhausted, nor to engage in intense physical or mental exercise
immediately after a bath.

Under no circumstances should a bath be taken directly after a full
meal. Generally speaking the most appropriate time is from two to three
and a half hours after a meal, preferably near the noon hour.

For the cold bath, taken quickly, no time is better than just after
rising. A warm bath just before retiring will quiet the nerves and
assist in producing sleep.

=The Value of Soap.=--The eminent chemist, Liebig, asserts that the
civilization of a nation is high in proportion to the amount of soap it
consumes, and that it is low in proportion to its use of perfumes. The
cleanliness and refinement of an individual may be measured by the same
test. Soap removes impurity; perfume is often employed to conceal it.

Many soaps are positively injurious to the skin. In this, as in other
matters, judgment and caution must be exercised. A free use of a good
skin soap, with warm or hot water, may be recommended for the weekly
or semi-weekly bath when the primary object is cleanliness. The soapy
lather should be vigorously rubbed over the body, by the hand or a
small coarse towel, so as to remove all excretions from the pores, all
greasy deposits of the sebaceous glands, and all dead scales from the

This lather must be carefully rinsed off before rubbing with the
towels. For the cold tonic and other baths, it is better not to use

=Cosmetics.=--The use of cosmetics for the complexion is a fertile
source of disease. Many of these preparations contain lead and other
poisonous mineral substances. The skin readily absorbs these, and the
most distressing conditions often ensue.

Hair-dyes also contain lead and other objectionable ingredients.
Although less harmful than cosmetics, being generally kept away from
the skin, they rob the hair of its lustre and vitality, and should be

=Caution.=--Bathing, whether for cleanliness or for recreation, is a
most healthful exercise, yet certain precautions are necessary.

1. Avoid bathing within two and a half hours after a meal. The sudden
interruption of the process of digestion, especially by a cold bath, is
apt to produce nausea. Cases of drowning, usually ascribed to cramps,
have been due, in some instances, to interrupted digestion.

2. Avoid bathing when exhausted by fatigue, or from any other cause.

3. Avoid bathing when the body is cooling after perspiration.

4. Avoid bathing in stream or surf if experience proves that after
being a short time in the water, there is a sense of chilliness, with
numbness of the hands or feet.

5. Avoid chilling the body by sitting or standing undressed, either
before going into or coming out of the water.

6. Avoid remaining too long in the water. Rub briskly and dress quickly
upon the first sensation of chilliness.

7. The best time for bathing is two or three hours after breakfast. The
vigorous and strong may safely take a cold bath before breakfast; the
weakly and the young should not attempt it.

8. Those who are subject to dizziness or faintness, should not bathe in
stream or surf without first consulting a physician.

9. Avoid a warm or hot bath, if liable to be exposed to a low
temperature within two or three hours after the bath.

10. Women should carefully consult their physical condition before
venturing to take a cold bath.

11. All persons suffering from organic heart disease should avoid surf


Physical exercise is necessary to the preservation of the health and
the cultivation of the strength of the body. By the contraction of
a muscle, the circulation of the blood is stimulated, and demand is
made upon the supply of food material to replace that which has been
consumed. The action of the respiratory process is accelerated, a
larger quantity of air is taken into the lungs, more oxygen is absorbed
by the blood, and greater tone is imparted to the system. Perspiration
is also promoted, effete matters are expelled through the pores of the
skin, and the general health is improved.

=Definiteness of Purpose.=--The person who doesn’t know where he is
going, never gets there. Know what you are going to do, then do it.
There are about four hundred muscles in the human body. It is clearly
evident that they cannot all be trained at the same time, nor is it
necessary or even desirable that they should be. Those exercises having
the most direct bearing upon the specific needs of the individual will
naturally come first. If he is troubled with indigestion, two-thirds
of the time that he allows himself for daily exercise should be
given to remedying that defect, and the rest to supplying some other
important need which will bring into play a different set of muscles.
If his lung capacity is inadequate, the larger share of time should be
given to the correction of this weakness. If shortness of breath and
interference with heart action are occasioned by increasing fleshiness,
the reduction of his superfluous fat must receive first consideration.

The important thing is to determine what is most needed at any stage
of the work, and to strike directly at that point. As, one after
another, the special points of weakness are covered, the exercises will
gradually take on more and more of an all-round character. As so many
of the infirmities of the flesh have their rise in impaired digestion,
imperfect respiration, or sluggish circulation, the exercises having
relation to these three subjects will always claim attention, not only
to secure but also to preserve health.

=Mind Engaging.=--While those whose mental energies have been on a
strain may find relief in exercises somewhat automatic, the most
beneficial and satisfactory results, as a rule, are obtained when the
mind is kept on the alert and the eye is brought into active play,
as in fencing and sparring, or when the exercise contributes to the
enjoyment of the individual, and is not self-imposed as an irksome task
or an unpleasant duty. The presence and co-operation of a congenial
friend adds much to the value of the exercise. Where this is not
convenient, the drill should be so varied in kind and in degree, from
day to day, as to sustain the interest. Without this, the exercises are
apt to be abandoned, or, if continued, they will not be attended with
the best results.

=Intensity.=--Much valuable time is wasted by persons who engage in
a certain kind of exercise, not because they are interested in it,
but because it happens to be the fad. Whether it be walking, running,
swimming, golf, tennis or croquet, they go at it in such a feeble,
listless manner as to excite pity rather than enthusiasm.

It is said of President Roosevelt that the only exercise he really
enjoys is of that strenuous character which, to most men, would be hard
work. Gladstone could give him no points in felling trees, and the
cowboys of the plains, after numerous tests, were satisfied that he
wore the title of “Rough Rider” by right. It was on one of his western
hunting trips that he went two days with two ribs broken, not deigning
to mention the circumstance lest it might offend cowboy etiquette to
speak of such insignificant matters amid the excitement of the final

Few men carry the burden of a weightier responsibility than the
President, or have more exacting demands made upon their time. No one
would have a better right to plead pressure of business as an excuse
for taking no physical exercise. On the other hand, no one has greater
need of a strong body and a clear brain. Appreciating this fact, his
vigorous ride on horseback becomes almost as indispensable as his meals
or his sleep, and it is rumored that this is often supplemented by a
quiet bout with the gloves. Remembering that, as a child, his body was
rather frail, his present rugged health bears strong testimony to the
value of persistent vigorous exercise.

=Walking.=--Rapid walking is one of the best methods of physical
exercise. It not only develops the muscles of the legs and thighs, but
increases the capacity of the chest. One of its chief advantages is
that it is an out-door exercise. Running is still more stimulating, and
gives increased activity to the muscles of the limbs and body, and to
the organs of respiration.

By combining walking and running with some simple form of in-door
exercise, as dumb-bells, Indian-clubs, or pulley weights, a person will
have nearly all the advantages of a fully-equipped gymnasium.

=Over Exertion.=--Severe labor and violent exercise should be avoided.
Many cases of broken-down health are due to excessive strain, the
result of track races on wheel or foot, and similar indiscretions.

=Age, Occupation, and Habit.=--Physical exercises must be chosen with
reference to the age, occupation, and habit of the individual. The
young, the middle-aged, and the old will each, as a rule, require some
direction as to kind, and some modification as to length and intensity,
of the exercise.

=Childhood and Youth.=--Healthy children are never at rest except
when asleep. This is the prompting of their nature. Their games and
plays should therefore be directed, but not too much restrained. If,
however, the natural increase in size and weight of a child’s body
does not keep pace with its years, it would be well for the parent to
inquire whether that result is due to excessive exercise, or to some
other cause.

Proper habits of sitting, standing, and walking, if not attained
during youth, are rarely acquired afterward. The habit of a graceful
carriage and a manly or womanly bearing should be established before
the age of sixteen. But the exercises that most closely affect the
health are those which relate to the expansion of the chest. The lungs
vitalize and purify the blood. The larger their capacity, the more
satisfactorily will they accomplish their work. With a good supply of
pure blood, the growth and health and vigor of the body will be largely
provided for.

=Middle Life.=--While judgment and discretion in the kinds of
exercises, and in the manner of doing them, are, at every period
of life, desirable, persons from 20 to 35 years of age are able to
undertake severer tasks and to withstand greater shocks to the system
than the young or the old. Persons from 35 to 50 years of age may take
long walks but should be cautious about rapid running. At this age
exercises requiring endurance and persistence are better than those
demanding intensity or violence. This is especially applicable to those
whose occupation is sedentary. Any hereditary tendency to disease is
apt to show itself during this period, and should be carefully watched
by the individual and by his physician, for by it the kind and degree
of the exercise should be determined.

=Old Age.=--Unless the habit of taking physical exercise has been
pursued more or less constantly through life, persons in advanced
years, especially if feeble, need to observe great caution in beginning
it, on account of the unusual strain upon the heart and blood-vessels.
Their native power of resistance being small, any severe shock or
strain upon the system may be attended with serious results. William
Cullen Bryant, at eighty years of age, took an hour of severe exercise,
followed by a cold bath, before breakfast, then walked three miles to
his office and back again, in all states of weather, but he had kept up
his physical training through life, and found in it a pleasure as well
as a benefit to health.

With increasing years, the duties and responsibilities of the busy man
increase. Instead of the walk or the ride on horseback, the stately
coach, which more fittingly represents his growing wealth, is now used
for his afternoon recreation, the coachman relieving him of even the
mental and physical stimulus of driving. Wealth is a menace to health,
so far as it tends to discourage the simple living upon which health

A much wiser course would be to keep the human machinery oiled and in
good condition, by systematic exercise. Hinges of iron and steel must
be oiled and used to keep them from creaking and rusting. The membrane
that secretes the lubricating fluid and supplies it to the opposing
surfaces of the bones and to the ligaments which surround them is
stimulated to activity by the motion of the joint itself. Stiffening
joints, sluggish circulation, and torpid liver are the sure penalties
of inactivity.

Some years ago, two prominent business men, one sixty-four, the other
sixty-three years of age, engaged in a walking contest. The younger
walked 209 miles, the older 211 miles in three and one-half days, an
average of sixty miles a day. James Russell Lowell was unwilling to
ride when he could possibly walk. Gladstone was famous as an ax-man
as well as a statesman, and continued this exercise nearly to the end
of his life. Instances of great mental activity after seventy are
almost invariably those of men who have kept up since early manhood
a constant habit of vigorous daily exercise. It is only in this way
that the arteries are kept from hardening, and that the brain is kept
supplied with the blood to renew its cells.

=Physical Culture for School Children.=--In childhood and youth, bad
habits are easily corrected and good ones established. If the chest is
weak and flat, this is the time to remove the defect. If one shoulder
is a trifle higher than the other, correct the default before it
becomes confirmed. Build up the arms and shoulders and chest to be
strong and well shaped. It is in youth, while the bones are elastic,
that the perfect frame must be built. Accustom the muscles of the
trunk and limbs to healthy and graceful action. This becomes easy and
natural, when given proper direction, and will result in making a
vigorous, well-built man or woman, capable of meeting the difficulties
and discharging the duties that come alike to all.

=Over-Study.=--A prominent magazine recently devoted a page to brief
statements of parents, teachers, and physicians, testifying in eloquent
but most pathetic terms to the crying evils of over-study and the lack
of physical recreation. In reply to the questions asked, one physician
says, “Twelve children are under my professional care from over-study.”

Another writes, “During the last school year I treated over forty
children suffering from over-study. In more than thirty of the cases I
had to advise withdrawal from school.”

A parent says, “We have four daughters, and had to take all of them out
of school.”

From the sufferers themselves we have, “At seventeen I broke down.
Today, at thirty, I am still an invalid.”

“For twelve years I, a young woman, have tried to overcome nervous
prostration, directly brought on by over-study.”

“Pushed beyond my endurance as a child, I am to-day a nervous mother
with children so nervous that it is pitiable.”

“An ambitious father caused me to be shattered in nerves before I was
sixteen. My bed has ever since been almost my constant companion.”

=The Remedy.=--In the face of the above deplorable facts, it is evident
that, with all our boasted improvement in the system of education,
there is something sadly lacking. Proper attention given to physical
exercise and recreation, with sufficient time for sleep, would have
saved the lives and established the health, not only of the few cases
above cited, but of thousands of others as well.

=Physical Education Compulsory.=--Physical culture should be made
compulsory in every school in the land. The teacher should be as fully
equipped in this as in any other department of his work. In cities and
in towns of considerable size the matter should be under the direction
of a competent specialist, who would infuse life and energy into
the work, and hold the teachers to their duty. Shirking, whether by
teachers or scholars, should be strictly prevented. Fifteen minutes,
twice a day, in the lower grades, and thirty minutes, once a day, in
the upper grades, would serve to put the children in good physical

=Caution.=--The enthusiasm and alacrity with which children take hold
of physical training afford encouragement to the doubting teacher, and,
at the same time, prove the need of constant watchfulness. Suppose,
in a class of forty, one-fourth of them have flat, weak chests. These
should be formed into a special class, and ten minutes a day devoted to
the one purpose of enlarging the chest. Begin very mildly, so that the
weakest chest will experience neither pain nor ache from the exercise.
Repeat this work daily for a week, without increase, and do not miss
a stroke. Miss any other drill rather than this. The second week, the
exercises may be made a trifle harder, or longer, or both. If apparatus
is used, see to it that the pupils do not get hold of heavy pieces, or
attempt more difficult exercises than they are prepared for. Overdoing
here is as bad as over-study. Strict discipline must be preserved, and
the same thoughtful attention given to this as to any other department
of study.

=Illustrations of the Results of Physical Training.=--Wherever physical
education has been tested in the schools, of whatever grade, and in
whatever country, the results have furnished the most abundant proof
of its value. Doctor Sargent, one of the most eminent instructors in
physical education in this country, gives the results of six months’
training with a class of two hundred young college men, devoting to it
only one-half hour a day, four times a week. The only apparatus used
was light dumb-bells, Indian-clubs, and pulley-weights. The average age
was 18.3 years. The average increase in height was one-fourth of an
inch; in weight, two pounds; in chest (contracted), ¾ inch; in chest
(inflated), 1¾ inches; in girth of forearm, ¾ of an inch; of upper arm,
1 inch; in width of shoulders, ¾ inch; in girth of hips, 2¼ inches; of
thigh, 1½ inches; of calf, ¾ inch.

Prof. Maclaren, of England, gives the results of four and one-half
months’ training, with a class of boys from the Royal Military Academy,
ranging in years from sixteen to nineteen. The increase in height was
from 1 to 1¾ inches; in weight, from 1 to 8 pounds; in girth of chest,
from ½ to 5¼ inches; forearm, from ⅛ to ½ inch; upper arm, from ½ to 1⅝
inches. With a class of older persons, nineteen to twenty-eight years,
he reports the largest gain in weight, 16 pounds, with an average
gain of 10 pounds; in girth of chest, 5 inches, with an average of 2⅞
inches; of forearm, 1¼ inches, with an average of ¾ inch; upper arm, 1¾
inches, with an average of 1¹/₁₆ inches. These gains were made in 7⅔

Prof. Maclaren gives a humorous account of twelve non-commissioned
officers who had been selected from different branches of the service,
and sent to him to qualify as instructors in the British Army. These
men ranged in years from nineteen to twenty-nine; in height, from five
feet five inches to six feet; in weight, from 128 to 174 pounds, and
all had seen service. He says, “The muscular additions to the arms and
shoulders, and the expansion of the chest were so great as to have
absolutely a ludicrous and embarrassing result. Before the fourth
month, several of the men could not get into their uniforms without
assistance, and when they had got them on, they could not get them to
meet by a hand’s breath. In a month more, they could not get into them
at all, and new clothes had to be procured, pending the arrival of
which the men had to go to and from the gymnasium in their great coats.
One of these men had gained five inches in actual girth of chest.” In
the case of the youngest, he reports “a readjustment and expansion of
the osseous framework upon which the muscles are distributed.”

This case is important as proving that proper physical exercise
will materially change even the bony structure of the body. What a
source of comfort and encouragement to the young man or woman who is
hollow-chested, and who considers himself or herself a marked victim of
that dread disease, consumption.

=Need of Exercise for Girls.=--If it be conceded that there is need
of physical exercise for boys, what must be said of the need of it
for girls? Observe the young girls of cities and towns as they pass
to and from school. Instead of the high chests, plump arms, comely
figures, and graceful and handsome carriage, what do we constantly
see? Flat chests, angular and warped shoulders, scrawny necks, slender
arms and waists, and a weak and tired gait. Scarcely one in a dozen is
thoroughly erect, whether walking, standing, or sitting. There is no
elasticity in their steps, and a fresh, blooming complexion is so rare
as to attract attention.

The girls of the most favored families often show the poorest physical
development. The tyranny of fashion begins at a very early period in
life. The quality and fit of the clothing worn by girls from ten to
thirteen years of age prevent them from engaging in active, hearty
play. The nurse or governess finds a large share of her duty in
repressing that superabundance of spirits which should belong to every
healthy girl.

As the years increase, the studies multiply, and by the time she
is ready to leave school and assume the duties of life, we find
a brain-weary, nerve-exhausted, pale creature, with no physical
development, no power of endurance, and no ambition to undertake her
share of life’s duties.

When the importance of physical culture is as well understood as it
should be, there will be a course of training for pupils of all ages
in every girls’ school in the land. In the larger cities and towns,
provision is now made for physical instruction in many of the High
Schools, but in the middle and lower grades, where the foundation
should be laid and the work begun, the subject is almost wholly
neglected. Bad habits of sitting, standing, walking, and breathing are
acquired, and many forms of structural weakness developed which not
only unfit the mind for the best work, but which later either become
ineradicably fixed, or require much time and labor to correct. The
schoolgirl, if systematically trained from early childhood, would show
similar fruits of drill, and would develop into a shapely, graceful,
well rounded, healthy girl, and would escape much of the weakness and
suffering so common to women.

Herbert Spencer, speaking of the effects of the intellectual cramming
system upon the women in England, and of the disadvantages of
neglecting physical culture, says: “On women the effects of this
forcing system are, if possible, even more injurious than on men.
Being in a great measure debarred from those vigorous and enjoyable
exercises of the body by which boys mitigate the evils of excessive
study, girls feel these evils in their full intensity. Mothers, anxious
to make their daughters attractive, could scarcely choose a course more
fatal than this which sacrifices the body to the mind. Either they
disregard the tastes of the opposite sex, or else their conception of
those tastes is erroneous. Men care comparatively little for erudition
in women, but very much for physical beauty and good nature and sound

=Symmetrical Development of Women.=--The common argument of the busy
housewife, when urged to take exercise, is, that she gets enough of
it in the course of her daily duties, and even more than enough, for
she finds herself thoroughly exhausted by the necessary labors of the
day. The argument is not so convincing as it might seem. Doubtless,
some of her muscles are overtaxed. They lack the support which the idle
muscles should give. A few minutes, several times a day, devoted to
strengthening the unused muscles, would not only afford relaxation to
the tired ones, but, by developing the general strength, would prevent
fatigue on the part of those most used.

=Amount of Exercise Necessary for Women.=--The amount of daily exercise
necessary to regain health and develop strength depends upon the
woman’s present condition. If she is weak, generally, the exercise
for the first fortnight, while comprehensive enough to bring all the
muscles into play, must be light and easy. As strength is gained, the
exercise may be gradually increased. As soon as a sufficient basis of
vigor is reached, the essential thing to do is to adapt the exercise
mainly to the weaker muscles so that they may catch up.

The right arm is usually stronger than the left. For the first month or
two, give the left arm nearly all the exercise, gradually increasing
the amount until it is able to do its share equally with the right. If
the chest is small and the muscles of the back are weak, select the
exercise specially suited to the case. The greatest care must be taken
not to overdo the matter. For two or three weeks, only the mildest form
of exercise should be employed, but the drill must be persistently
kept up and gradually increased in difficulty. If the instruction or
counsel of a specialist can be obtained, it would be well to secure
it. If not, the wide range of valuable exercises given in this volume
will be helpful in selecting and practicing those best adapted to the
individual case.

If her work is of a sedentary or confining kind, there is the greater
need of special exercise. Such work demands a strong constitution,
and many break down under it annually. If long hours in shop, or
store, or office are required of her, still it will be possible to
find some time for exercise. Five or ten minutes may be secured upon
rising in the morning. Clad in a loose robe, throw up the window and
engage in vigorous, free hand gymnastics to expand the chest, increase
the respiration, stimulate the circulation, and afford a healthy
exhilaration to the muscles. After breakfast, walk to the place of
business, or, if the distance be too great, walk part of the way. At
noon, from five to ten minutes can again be secured for a breath of
fresh air and a little exercise. A brisk walk with a cheerful companion
will banish the dull routine of labor, and impart new energy for
the duties of the afternoon. Even without the companion, the freer
respiration induced by the walk, together with change of scene and
thought, will prove beneficial.

In the middle of the forenoon, and again in the afternoon, three
minutes can be found in which to stretch the cramped muscles and
relieve the weary back. Stand erect, and with hands on hips and
shoulders thrown back, take four or five full inhalations. Throw the
hands over the head, and stretch them towards the ceiling, at the same
time raise the heels, stand on the toes for a few seconds, and repeat
about five times. This simple exercise, which need not occupy more than
three minutes, will impart new energy, and result in the accomplishment
of more work.

If an evening walk cannot be had every day, at least three or four
might be enjoyed in a week, and would be productive of untold benefit.
Let the motion be energetic and the step elastic. The distance should
be moderate at first, and gradually increased. To this should be added
five to ten minutes’ exercise for the arms and chest before retiring.

This simple programme, involving no expense for apparatus, and
requiring only so much time as even the busiest of men or women can
find, will, in a short time, if persistently pursued, improve the
digestion, stimulate the circulation, banish sleeplessness, transform
dullness into cheerfulness, prevent weakness, impart tone and vigor to
the nervous as well as to the muscular system, and contribute largely
to the prolongation of a life of happiness and success.

=Women of Leisure.=--The daughters of wealthy or well-to-do parents and
the wives of prosperous husbands should be the healthiest and happiest
of women. Between graduation day and the wedding day, the young woman
is frequently a lady of leisure. At least, she can usually control
her time, and secure an hour or more each day for those healthful
recreations which will fortify her against the various forms of
physical weakness that are so common among women.

=Out-Door Exercises.=--Being free to enjoy the many out-door exercises,
she should spend much time in the open air, making such choice of games
and recreations as will bring into play the largest number of muscles,
and afford the best all-round development, having in view, not only the
securing of health and strength, but also the acquisition of grace and

=Gymnasiums.=--If a capable instructor and a gymnasium are at hand,
she should avail herself of both. Supplementing her out-door sports
with these, she will, in a year’s time, unless already afflicted with
some organic ailment or serious constitutional weakness, be so healthy,
strong, and well developed, as to give promise of a long life, free
from the infirmities that so commonly affect the sex.

=Occupations of Men.=--The vital statistics, preserved by many
progressive states and communities, afford opportunity for fruitful
study and comparison. Of all occupations, that of the farmer or
gardener conduces most to health and long life. His independent manner
of living, the pure country air he breathes, the abundant sunshine he
enjoys, the plain, wholesome food he eats, his restful, quiet sleep,
and his freedom from the demands of fashionable life, all combine to
give him health. But this occupation, in itself, probably brings into
play a larger number of muscles than any other single employment.

We cannot all be farmers, but whatever our occupation, there is much
we can do to promote health, and to secure that happiness which is
so largely dependent thereon. Many occupations afford exercise to a
limited number of muscles, and those engaged therein should strive
to find their recreation in the exercise of other muscles, so as to
promote a well-rounded development. Persons who labor in-doors, and
especially those who are confined to close workshops, stores, and
schoolrooms, should have out-door recreation, with pure air and

=Unbalanced Bodies.=--Many lines of mechanical trade afford sufficient
exercise to keep the workman in fairly good health, yet few, if any,
give a symmetrical physical development. The blacksmith and stone mason
usually have strong right hands and arms, while the left are less fully
developed. Nine-tenths of all machinists are right-handed. In nearly
all mechanical industries, the right arm and the back have the larger
share of the work, while the chest and leg muscles and the left arm are

=Indifference.=--Some workmen are so indifferent to physical symmetry
that they are not willing to do anything to avert the one-sidedness
resulting from their daily toil, even when convinced that a slight
effort would correct the fault. The argument of increased health and
vigor, and prolonged life, scarcely appeals to them.

Few persons are ambidextrous. Many more might use the hands with equal
skill, if they would. Even so simple an operation as putting on a coat,
using the wrong arm first, or buttoning a vest with the other hand, is
awkward for most persons, and quite difficult to many. The best time
to begin is in childhood, but, even if, when first learning the use of
tools, the left hand is often made to do the work of the right, the
exchange will prove restful to the overworked hand, and the symmetrical
development of both sides of the body will be preserved.

A skillful teacher of music, in a private school near Philadelphia,
suffered a partial paralysis of his right arm, which prevented its use
for several years. This necessitated the increased use of the left
hand, which resulted in its increased skill and power. Several years
later, he removed to the South, where the warmer climate gradually
restored the use of the right arm. By this time, the left hand had
become almost as skillful as the right had been, and the severe
affliction proved to be a blessing in disguise.

=Brain Workers.=--The brain workers are usually men of sedentary
habits. To no class is exercise so important. Without it, some part
of the human machinery is almost certain to get out of order. It may
be the stomach or lungs, the liver or kidneys, the head, or eyes, or
throat. There is a lack of perfect action of one or more of the parts,
a clogging of the organs of digestion, or circulation, or respiration.
This physical clogging at once affects the mental work, dulling the
thinking powers, and often rendering their efforts futile, and making
the complete cessation of labor necessary.

Headaches and indigestion are among the first ailments resulting from
a lack of exercise. A brisk walk of twenty minutes or half an hour is
often sufficient to dispel a headache. The exercise flushes the parts
most actively engaged, and so depletes the brain. The same exercise
stimulates the action of the lungs, makes better blood, quickens the
activity of the other organs, and so tones up the whole man.

A young man, whose Christian zeal prompted him to devote all his
spare time to religious work, ignoring the demands of health, broke
down, and after a prolonged sickness, followed by a slow and tedious
convalescence, was heard to remark, “Well, this experience has taught
me one thing; the Lord has no use for a sick man.” Had this young man
taken a reasonable amount of exercise, he would have lost no time
from his business, would have accomplished vastly more work for the
religious organizations to which he belonged, and would have saved
himself the pain, suffering, and expense of his sickness.

If the man who has eight or ten hours of busy brain work in-doors
daily, and who, when his duties are ended, has no heart for physical
exercise, would, every hour or two, turn aside from his work, and
take even two minutes’ vigorous exercise, in his office or in the
adjoining hallway, he would return to his labor with brain considerably
refreshed, and at the close of the day, he would enter upon his half
hour’s walk with spirit and alacrity, and welcome his sleep at the end
of the day.

=Business Men.=--Who does not know, among his business acquaintances,
men whose faces show that they are continually overworked? They have no
time for systematic physical exercise, but go dragging through their
duties as well as their low physical condition and tired brains will
permit. The noonday lunch is bolted, or is omitted entirely, for want
of time.

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, a specialist in nervous disorders, speaks of
the numerous instances of nervous exhaustion among merchants and
manufacturers. He says: “My note books seem to show that manufacturers
and certain classes of railway officials are the most liable to suffer
from neural exhaustion. Next to these come merchants in general,
brokers, etc.; then, less frequently, clergymen; still less often,
lawyers; and, more rarely, doctors; while distressing cases are apt to
occur among the over-schooled young of both sexes.”

Few business or professional men do anything to secure and preserve
health and strength, and they go through life far less efficient and
useful than they might be.

Pre-eminent business success can be achieved only by turning over to
subordinates the numerous details which occupy so much time, and which
any trustworthy and experienced secretary or assistant might do. By
this arrangement, time would be saved for necessary recreation and
rest, thus keeping the physical systems of the employers and managers
in the best possible condition, and securing to the mind that alertness
and vigor which the sharp competition of the times demands.

=Professional Men.=--Looking over a list of eminent divines, it is
surprising how many of them were men of rugged frames and sturdy
physique. It required a man with the physical vigor of Luther to
declare he would attend the Diet of Worms “though the devils there
were as numerous as the tiles on the houses.” How much of the success
of Spurgeon, and Beecher, and Dr. John Hall may be fairly ascribed to
their splendid outfit of vital organs, and to the glowing health which
each enjoyed. Nor were Phillips Brooks, and Joseph Cook, and Dwight L.
Moody lacking in these physical qualities which count for so much in
influencing the minds and hearts of men. These knew nothing of “blue
Mondays” or “ministers’ sore throat,” and needed not to be sent abroad
by their congregations, every summer or two, in order to recruit their
health, and keep them up to their work.

By virtue of his profession and because of its onerous and responsible
duties, no one stands more in need of robust health than the physician.
Called from his bed at all hours of the night, brought in daily contact
with disease, and that often of a contagious character, the largest
demands are made upon his vital forces. He is expected, not only to
dispense the necessary medicines, but also to carry comfort and cheer
to the bedside of the sick. The very countenance of a healthy, cheerful
physician acts like a medicine.

The country practitioner who rides or drives long distances, over
rough roads, and who often attends to his horse himself, needs but
little further exercise, and that little should be applied to the
least-used muscles, in order to preserve a well-rounded development.
The city physician, whose coachman relieves him of the exercise of
driving and of the care of the horses, will find a half hour daily,
with pulley-weights, clubs, or dumb-bells, and an occasional visit to a
gymnasium conducive to his best physical condition. As a dentist should
himself have the best of teeth, the doctor also should enjoy the most
robust health.

And what of the legal profession? Rufus Choate inherited a strong,
healthy body, but took so little care of it, that, towards the close
of his life, he was accustomed to say of himself that “latterly he had
worn out his constitution, and was living on the by-laws.” He died at
fifty-five, while his contemporary, Daniel Webster, who appreciated the
importance of keeping his body well toned-up, and who, with fishing
rod in hand, found recreation among the streams of his native State,
preserved his robust physique and imperial bearing to the allotted
three score and ten. Lord Brougham, as a boy, was the swiftest runner
in his neighborhood. His physical strength and endurance were such
that upon one occasion he spoke in Parliament seven days consecutively.
He kept up his activity to the end of his life, and died at the age of

President Eliot, of Harvard College, who has enjoyed exceptional
opportunities for observing the effects of exercise upon young men,
says: “A singular notion prevails, especially in the country, that
it is the feeble, sickly children who should be sent to school and
college, since they are apparently unfit for hard work. The fact that,
in the history of literature, a few cases can be pointed out in which
genius was lodged in a weak or diseased body, is sometimes adduced in
support of the strange proposition that physical vigor is not necessary
for professional men. But all experience contradicts these notions. To
attain success and length of service in any of the learned professions,
a vigorous body is well-nigh essential. A busy lawyer, editor,
minister, physician, or teacher has need of greater physical endurance
than a farmer, trader, manufacturer, or mechanic. All professional
biography teaches that to win lasting distinction in sedentary, in-door
occupations, which task the brain and the nervous system, extraordinary
toughness of body must accompany extraordinary mental powers.”

=Heredity.=--In the matter of bodily health and vigor, the sins of
the parents are visited upon the children. What narrow-mindedness the
father displays, therefore, in devoting himself so assiduously to
business as to neglect his health, and to entail upon his sons and
daughters such a low standard of vitality as to impair their usefulness
in life, and to deprive them of the power to enjoy, as they should, the
inheritance he hopes to leave them.

=Exercise for the Stout, the Thin, and the Old.=--It may seem somewhat
paradoxical that the same means that are employed to increase flesh
and weight should also be recommended to reduce obesity. There is a
difference, however, between superfluous fat and solid, healthy, active

=The Stout.=--It is a well known fact that persons of moderate weight,
in preparing for some unusual or extraordinary test of strength, reduce
their flesh and toughen their muscles by a course of severe training.
It is not an uncommon thing for college crews to reduce their weights,
by a month’s training, twelve pounds per man. A prize fighter will
often come down thirty or forty pounds in preparing for a contest. An
instance is cited of a student, who, after carefully weighing himself,
sat down to a fifty-five pound rowing-weight, pulled forty-five full
strokes a minute for twenty minutes, then, with the same clothing as
before, weighed himself, and found he had lost one pound.

Many men, and women, too, if persuaded that there was, at hand, a
convenient and comparatively easy method of ridding themselves of
their burden of flesh, would doubtless avail themselves of it. The
following well authenticated cases may be suggestive and helpful. A
young lady, inclined to fleshiness, by vigorous horseback riding,
reduced her weight twenty-five pounds in one year. A policeman, whose
weight was three hundred and fifteen pounds, took a position as stoker
on a war vessel. The exercise, coupled with the free perspiration
induced by labor in the heated quarters, lowered his weight to one
hundred and eighty-four pounds. A man in middle life, whose occupation
was a sedentary one, and whose weight, over three hundred pounds, was
a source of great discomfort, resolved to try what exercise would
do. Being much engrossed through the day, he began by taking long,
brisk walks in the evening. Soon he was able to cover five miles at
a fairly good pace. Whatever the state of the weather, and however
tired he might be with the day’s exacting duties, he suffered nothing
to interfere with his evening walk. He gradually increased the pace
and the distance, and, with little or no change in his diet, in five
months he had taken off ninety pounds. He says that he often perspired
so freely that, in cold weather, small icicles were formed on the ends
of his hair. Free perspiration is a necessary element in the rapid
reduction of flesh. The fat-producing foods should be avoided as far as

While exercise is one of the best means of reducing superfluous fat,
there is no class of persons more loath to take exercise than the
obese. The reasons are largely physiological. The greater weight is
a burden to carry. The muscular tissues have in part changed to fat,
and are therefore less able to do their work. The action of the lungs
and the heart is interfered with by the pressure of the fat, and the
individual quickly becomes exhausted and short of breath. There is the
greater demand, therefore, on the part of those who incline to obesity,
to exercise with determined persistency and regularity, in order to
reduce their weight. Exercises involving quickness of movement, and a
degree of mental activity, are the best.

=The Thin.=--The old proverb says: “It is a poor rule that will not
work both ways.” Judged by this standard, the rule of exercise must be
a good one, for the instances of lean arms and legs filled out, and of
scrawny necks and hollow shoulders made round and plump by exercise,
outnumber the other ten to one.

Many lean persons, impressed with the apparent discomfort and
inconvenience of obesity, are content with their slender measure of
flesh. This is especially true of men, who, as a rule, have less regard
for beauty of form than those of the other sex. They overlook the fact
that the man whose bony structure is well overlaid with thick layers of
healthy muscular tissue is able not only to accomplish more work, but
to stand greater exposure and endure more hardships than the lean man.
His stronger, heavier muscles will not only carry his greater weight
with less effort, but his larger body will possess a momentum that the
other man does not have.

In the severe training preceding the inter-collegiate boat races, while
the over fleshy lose their superfluous fat, the thin gain as rapidly in
weight. Many lean people whose occupations are of a physical nature do
too much, daily, in proportion to their strength. Mind and body are
kept in such a constant state of activity that their energies become
exhausted. If such persons will take an occasional rest through the
day, when it is possible so to do, and will add an hour or more to the
period of sleep, their weight will soon begin to increase. Then, by
special exercises aimed at the weak points, and persistently sustained,
the gain in weight will be that of solid, healthy, muscular tissue,
which will not only fill out their leanness, but will give them power
to do more work with less fatigue.

A short rest after meals, with the practice of deep abdominal
breathing, begun, if need be, as a special drill, but ultimately
established as a habit, will go far toward improving the digestion and
converting the food into good, healthy blood, so indispensable to the
growth of every part of the human body.

=Exercises for Gouty and Rheumatic Persons.=--Gout and other uric
acid conditions, whether hereditary or acquired, frequently yield to
systematic physical exercises. These conditions are generally the
result of indigestion or overfeeding. By exercise, more oxygen is
brought into the circulation of the blood, and the chemical process is
promoted. By free perspiration, the action of the skin is stimulated,
and the work of the kidneys is lightened. In the case of those
afflicted with gout, special care is needed for a time. A mild form of
exercise should be employed at first, and gradually increased. A free
perspiration should be induced daily, followed by a bath and vigorous

=Exercises for the Dyspeptic.=--If the system has become much
weakened by dyspepsia or indigestion, begin with mild forms of
exercise--walking, bicycling, golf, and other out-door sports. For a
lack of tone of the abdominal muscles, swimming in warm weather is
found useful. The in-door tank is not quite so good as the stream or
surf. If the liver is chiefly at fault, horseback riding is a capital
remedy. Gradually introduce more vigorous exercises. Daily bathing and
rubbing must not be neglected.

=Exercises for the Development of Special Muscles.=--Few persons, even
among those who have given considerable attention to physical culture
and have spent much time in a gymnasium, could, if asked, tell what
special forms of exercise were best calculated to fill out a hollow
shoulder or flat chest, or strengthen weak loins or back. The following
suggestions will therefore prove helpful.

The different muscles of the human body are so closely interwoven that
it is impossible to exercise one without, at the same time, giving
exercise to another lying contiguous to or co-operating with it.

=The Chest.=--While it is important that all the muscles of the body
should be exercised, those that are most closely allied to the vital
functions of respiration, circulation, and digestion claim the first

=Breathing Exercises.=--For the purpose of chest expansion, nothing
can take the place of regular breathing exercises. While respiration
is an involuntary act, yet the manner is, to some extent, subject to
the control of the will. There are three commonly recognized forms of
breathing--the clavicular, the costal, and the abdominal. These are not
wholly independent, but overlap each other.

=Clavicular Breathing.=--Place the palms of the hands on the chest,
with the tip of the middle finger resting on the clavicle, or collar
bone. Inhale slowly, directing the breath toward the upper chest. Hold
the breath a few seconds, then exhale slowly. Repeat ten to fifty times.

=Costal Breathing.=--This is a fuller and better form of breathing
than the clavicular. The lower ribs are more flexible than the upper,
and, supplemented by the action of the intercostal muscles, admit of
freer movement of the lungs. Press the hands against the sides. Inhale
through the nose, and inflate the lungs to the fullest. Hold the breath
as long as convenient. Exhale forcibly through the open mouth. Repeat
five to ten times. Repeat, exhaling slowly through the nostrils.
Repeat, exhaling through a small glass or other tube, with an aperture
about the size of an ordinary knitting needle. While the lungs are
inflated, strike the chest gently with closed hands. This will drive
the air into the remotest cells. With the lungs filled, and the arms
akimbo, bend the body at the waist, forwards, backwards, and from side
to side, and return to erect position before exhaling.

=Abdominal Breathing.=--This is the best method of breathing, and
should be cultivated by all. Singers and speakers find in this the
fulcrum of their vocal power. The contraction and expansion of the
diaphragm, that wonderful muscular partition, which separates the
thoracic from the abdominal cavity, affords the largest and freest
movement of the lungs, and, by its pressure upon the viscera, repeated
with every breath, it aids greatly in promoting digestion. Many
persons, especially women, do not employ abdominal breathing to the
extent they should. Some, indeed, hardly know its meaning.

Upon retiring at night, remove all constricting bands about the waist,
lie upon the back, and rest the hands upon the abdomen. Direct the
breath so as to raise the hands. Fill the lungs full as possible,
and hold the breath for several seconds. Exhale, letting the hands
fall with the outgoing breath. Take two or three ordinary breaths,
then repeat, drawing in the breath slowly through the nostrils,
lock in the breath for a few seconds, and exhale slowly as before.
A better position of the body would probably be secured by folding
a comfortable, spreading it upon the floor, and lying flat upon the
back. Heavy pillows and yielding bed-springs crook the body, and often
prevent the best results. The abdominal movement, in breathing, is not
quite so apparent when standing or sitting, but if the exercise be
taken as frequently as possible, with the mind directed to the freest
diaphragmatic movement, the habit of full, deep, abdominal breathing,
with its numerous attendant advantages, will soon become established.

=Chest Muscles.=--Not only should the lung cavity be enlarged by
breathing exercises, and by any physical exercise that stimulates
respiration, as steady and protracted running, but the front chest
should be well covered by the pectoral muscles. With the arms at right
angles to the body, and with head thrown back, so as to face the
ceiling, raise and lower the dumb-bells from twelve to eighteen inches.
As strength increases, increase the weight of the bells and the number
of lifts. Swinging with the hands upon the horizontal bar is another
good exercise. The “dips” exercise, elsewhere referred to, is also
good for the pectorals, but must not be attempted until after strength
has been gained by lighter exercises. The relation of the biceps and
triceps to the pectoral muscles is so close that any exercise for the
former will be helpful to the latter.

=Respiratory Exercise, No. 1.=--With arms at sides and elbows stiff,
raise the hands as high as possible above the head. Rise upon the toes
at the same time, so as to give the body the longest possible upward
reach. Inhale slowly through the nostrils while the arms ascend, and
hold the breath a moment or two, then exhale, lower the arms, and rest
back upon the heels. Repeat ten to twenty times. It is needless to
say that in the in-door exercises, and especially in the breathing
exercises and those which stimulate respiration, the room should be
well ventilated. The head and neck should be held erect, except where a
different position is required.

=Respiratory Exercise, No. 2.=--Lie flat upon the floor, face downward,
hands folded upon the back. Inflate the lungs and lift the head and
shoulders as high as possible, giving out the breath slowly. Repeat
several times, and as strength increases, oftener.

=Abdominal Exercise, No. 1.=--Several good exercises for the abdominal
muscles are here given, which can be taken upon rising in the morning
and upon retiring at night. With just enough clothing to keep the body
from chilling, lie flat on the back upon a folded comfortable spread
upon the floor. Without bending the knee, raise the foot toward the
ceiling as far as possible, then the other foot, so alternating ten
times or oftener. Next raise both feet together. While these movements
should be brisk, the limbs should not be allowed to drop back upon the
floor, but the muscles should be kept tense. Next, from the vertical
position of the leg, bend the knee and press it closely upon the
abdomen for a moment, then restore to the vertical position and lower
to the floor. Alternate the limbs as before, then take them together.

By means of a loop, or other simple arrangement, to keep the feet from
rising, lift the head and trunk to a vertical position by contracting
the abdominal muscles. This is a severe exercise, and should not
be attempted by those who have any special abdominal weakness. The
strain may be relieved, however, by propping the head and shoulders
with pillows, so as to make, with the lower limbs, an angle of about
forty-five degrees. Gradually, as the abdominal muscles increase in
strength, take out one pillow after another, until able to raise the
body from the horizontal position. The latter exercise may be still
further graduated by first resting the arms at the sides; next cross
them on the chest, and then clasp the hands behind the neck before
lifting the trunk. In gymnasiums it is not an uncommon thing to see a
person with well developed abdominal muscles lift another person lying
prostrate across his chest, and weighing anywhere from one hundred and
fifty to two hundred pounds, by the sheer force of these muscles.

=Abdominal Exercise, No. 2.=--Sit on a bench or stool, and with feet
under a couch, or hooked into a strap fastened to the base-board of the
room, with arms folded upon the chest, bend forward and backward, as
far as possible, without strain. Repeat ten to twenty times. After a
few weeks, increase the bend.

=Abdominal, Side, and Back Muscles.=--Stand erect with hands on hips.
Keep head, neck, and legs rigid, and lungs well filled. Bend slowly
backward and forward several times. Bend from side to side. With feet
firmly planted, bend forward, and revolve the head and trunk to the
right, back, left, front, and assume an erect position. Bend forward
again, and reverse the order of movement. Repeat several times. Next,
stand erect, with hands firmly planted on hips, and twist the body from
the waist upward, first to the right as far as possible, then to the
left, and repeat ten to twenty times.

=The Loins.=--The muscles in the small of the back, running up and
down on each side of the spine, come into play in many forms of manual
labor, and should therefore possess strength and endurance. Working
with the shovel, or fork, or bar, or saw, or any exercise requiring a
stooping posture, brings them into action. Several of the exercises
recommended for the abdominal muscles will prove of advantage here.
Raising dumb-bells above the head, first with the left hand, then with
the right, then with both, beginning with bells weighing a pound or
two, and each month, with daily practice, adding a pound to the weight
until it reaches about one-twentieth the weight of the person, will
bring the desired results. Running or rapid walking, with the body
erect, will prove helpful. Hopping straight ahead for from five to ten
steps on one foot, then on the other, and thus alternating for from
twenty to one hundred steps, or more, will soon beget strength, and
give a firm, steady carriage.

=The Back.=--The muscles of the back, above the waist line, participate
in nearly all the movements recommended for the chest, shoulders, and
upper arm, and do not require special exercises.

=The Shoulders.=--To round out hollow shoulders and put muscle on the
upper back, stand erect, with light dumb-bells, arms hanging at the
sides. Without bending the elbow, keep the arms parallel, and carry the
bells backward and forward as far as possible. Hold for a few moments,
and slowly return to the sides. Repeat five to ten times. As strength
increases, gradually add to the weight of the bells and the number of
lifts, also endeavor to carry the arms a trifle higher. For developing
the muscles of the shoulders, back, and wrist, few exercises are better
than light Indian-clubs.

For the outside of the shoulder, bring the arms to the horizontal,
elbows rigid, and move the bells up and down through a space of twenty
inches. Repeat five to ten times. Carry to the front and repeat. A
few weeks of daily practice should show noticeable results, and a
year of persistent drill will produce a shapely shoulder, and make it
unnecessary for the tailor to pad the coat in order to make it fit.

=The Neck.=--The muscles of the neck may best be developed by the use
of a strong rubber strap, about two feet long. Attach one end to the
door frame, about the height of the head when standing, and fasten
the other end to a band which loosely encircles the head. The front,
back, and sides of the neck may all be strengthened and filled out with
firm, shapely muscles, by changing the position of the body for each
change of exercise desired. Keep the head firm to resist the pull of
the strap. Increase the length of the movement and the strength of the
pull, as the muscles grow strong to bear it.

=The Upper Arm.=--The biceps is the large front muscle of the upper
arm. It bends the arm and brings the hand toward the shoulder. A large
biceps is the envy of many young men who regard it as the criterion
of physical strength, and who often develop it out of all proportion
to the rest of the body. It is, however, an important muscle, and
should receive due consideration. Most persons will find that one arm
or one leg or one side is weaker than the other. Give to the weaker
member much the larger practice until the equilibrium is restored, then
exercise them equally.

With dumb-bells, flat-irons, window-weights, or other objects in
hand, slowly bend the arm until the hand almost touches the shoulder,
then slowly lower to position. Repeat ten to twenty times. Gradually
increase the weight and the number of lifts. If pulley-weights are
used, stand so that the outstretched hand barely reaches the handle of
the rope. With palms upward, draw the hand toward the shoulder. Slowly
relax and repeat.

When away from home, and having no access to anything that may serve as
apparatus, in this, as in many exercises, one arm may serve as lever
and the other as weight. With the right hand, grasp firmly the wrist of
the left. Press down vigorously with the left, but use enough force to
overcome the resistance, and with the right raise it to the shoulder.
After several repetitions, reverse the hands.

Some persons ignore the use of all apparatus, preferring what is known
as free gymnastics. This extreme is greatly to be preferred to that
of using heavy, and often dangerous, appliances. In many exercises,
the weight of the body or its parts affords sufficient resistance to
develop the muscles. In other cases, the imagination supplies the want
of resistance, and, by due concentration of will, making one set of
muscles pull against another, the muscles may be given as much work as
though actual weight were present. To children and young persons, light
and suitable apparatus will furnish added stimulus and interest.

Climbing a ladder or rope, hand over hand, or lifting the body so that
the chin may touch a horizontal bar overhead, are exercises better
suited to later stages of biceps development. To be able to lift the
body to the bar with one hand, three to five times, should satisfy any
reasonable ambition.

The triceps are the back and inside muscles of the upper arm,
and contribute much to the shapeliness as well as usefulness of
that member. Instead of stopping at the shoulder, as in the biceps
exercises, push the dumb-bells high overhead. Any exercise of pushing
with the arms is of advantage. Stand back about two feet from the door,
grasp the sides of the frame a trifle higher than the shoulders, and,
rising on the toes, with head erect, thrust the body forward. Press
back until the body again assumes an erect attitude, and repeat ten to
twenty times.

=The Forearm.=--Many of the exercises for the upper arm and shoulder
have a very direct bearing upon the forearm. Most of the mechanical
occupations requiring the use of axe, saw, plane, hammer, shovel, plow,
or any tool or instrument requiring a firm grasp of the hand, develop
these muscles. The lifting of a heavy weight suspended from a bar or
handle, to be grasped by the hands, produces speedy results, but must
not be attempted until the muscles of the back, abdomen, and shoulders
have had preparatory training.

=The Hand.=--In the exercises already described, the hand and wrist
will have received much valuable training for strength of hold or grip.
A firm grasp of the oar, the bat, the bar, or the heavy hammer is
apt to leave the hand with an ungainly hook when at rest. Counteract
by pressing the fingers forcibly against the wall, or, in lifting the
body from the floor in the triceps exercise, use only the fingers and
thumbs instead of the palm. The wrists may be exercised by twisting the
dumb-bells at arm’s length in front, at the side, and overhead.

If the fingers are weak, train them individually, beginning with the
weakest. Always bring up the weakest part first, and aim to secure and
preserve proper symmetry throughout. The pulley-weights are excellent
for the purpose. Attach a small strap to the handle, and begin with
such weight as will afford exercise but will not overtax the finger.
Pull ten to thirty times. In the absence of pulley-weights, lifting, by
a strap, a box of sand or bricks or any weight that can be gradually
increased will serve the purpose. Drive a stout nail or screw into the
upper part of the door frame. Throw the strap over the nail, and lift
the body, first using two fingers, then one. Trained gymnasts lift the
entire weight of the body several times by the little finger alone.

=The Thigh.=--Fast walking, running, jumping, hopping, skating, and
dancing are all good for developing the front of the thigh. More rapid
development will be secured by standing erect, slowly bending the knees
as if about to sit in a chair. Hold the body in that position for
several moments, and slowly rise to an erect posture. Repeat ten to
twenty times. After two weeks of daily practice, lower the body until
the back part of the thigh rests on the calf. Rise slowly as before.
Repeat ten to twenty times. After a month, increase the weight by
carrying dumb-bells, bricks, or other objects in the hands. When this
has become easy, hold one foot front or back, and have the other leg do
the lifting.

The under part of the thigh, in the ordinary occupations and
recreations of life, does not get as much exercise as the front
muscles. A slovenly, shambling gait is characterized by a feebleness
of this muscle, while a strong, elastic step is accompanied by a well
developed under thigh. With knees unbent, stoop over and try to touch
the floor with the fingers, making five or ten thrusts before assuming
an erect attitude. Walking or jumping up and down on a plank elevated
at an angle of forty-five or fifty degrees with the floor, with the
toes toward the higher end, is a good exercise for the calves and the
under thigh. Stand on one foot, weight the other, and swing it backward
and forward as high as possible.

=The Calf.=--Climbing up hill, running on the toes, hopping long
distances on one foot-any one of them, if persistently followed, will,
in a short time, result in strengthening the calf and increasing
its size. Professor Maclaren declares that in four months of Alpine
climbing his calves increased from sixteen inches to seventeen and
one-quarter, and his thighs from twenty-three and one-half inches to

Another exercise, very simple, has been found productive of great good.
Stand erect, chest out, shoulders down, knees stiff, feet slightly
apart, toes turned outward. Raise the heels as high as possible,
throwing the weight of the body upon the toes. Repeat at the rate
of fifty to seventy times a minute. One minute’s work will prove
sufficient for the exercise. Increase to two, three, or four minutes
a day for a month. A gentleman, approaching middle life, who was not
satisfied with a calf that girthed fourteen and one-quarter inches, in
four months, by this exercise, added another inch. He devoted fifteen
minutes to it, morning and evening, and after a time carried a twelve
pound weight in each hand.

=Pulley-Weight.=--The uses of the pulley-weight are so numerous and so
varied that it constitutes almost a complete gymnasium in itself. One
of its prime advantages is, that by gradually multiplying the number
of weights, it adapts itself nicely to the increasing strength of the
individual, and to the varying powers of the different members of the
family. It reaches directly every muscle of the hand, wrist, arm,
shoulder, chest, abdomen, back, and neck. By the use of an extra pulley
near the floor, necessitating a longer rope, excellent drill of the leg
muscles is afforded. By sitting on the floor, the latter arrangement is
converted into a rowing machine, affording exercise for the arms, back,
and legs.

=Dumb-Bells.=--These are less expensive but scarcely less valuable
than the pulley-weight in the scope and variety of the exercises they
afford. They may be of wood or iron, and should not be heavy. For the
average person, one and one-half pounds, each, is a good weight. For
children, one pound is sufficient.

=A Home-Made Gymnasium.=--By a home-made gymnasium is meant the use of
such appliances as the ordinary home will furnish, or as a person, with
a little mechanical skill, can supply.

=Chair Exercises.=--A light chair, grasped firmly by the outer upright
supports of the back, with the two hands, and swung vigorously around
the head ten to twenty times, first in one direction, then in the
other, will afford one of the best simple exercises known. It brings
into play the muscles of the hands, arms, legs, and many parts of the
body, and if repeated at short intervals will not only increase the
respiration and stimulate the circulation, but will also start the
perspiration. The intervals should be occupied with exercises that
bring into play other muscles, as rising on the toes, stretching the
legs, breathing exercises, etc.

Another valuable chair exercise consists in placing two chairs, front
to front or side to side, with a space between them of about six inches
more than the width of the body. Place the hands flat on the chairs,
then slip the feet back, and with the toes resting on the floor and
the limbs and body rigid, lower and raise the body several times. For
deepening the chest and strengthening the arms and shoulders, this will
be found an excellent exercise.

Unless the chair feet are spread, care must be taken to place the hands
well within the edge of the seat, to prevent the chairs from tipping
over. One chair may be used instead of two, by grasping the sides of
the seat firmly and bringing the chest nearly or quite to the front of
the seat.

=Door-Jamb Exercise, No. 1.=--A light form of chest and arm exercise
may be had by grasping the side jambs of a door-frame, about as high as
the shoulders, and planting the feet a short distance back. Keep the
lower limbs and trunk rigid, the head thrown well back, and thrust the
body backward and forward from ten to twenty times.

=Door-Jamb Exercise, No. 2.=--For those having weak chests and weak
arms there is no better exercise than that known as the “dips,” for
which the parallel bars of the regular gymnasium are largely used.
An excellent substitute for the bars may be made by boring a hole
about two inches in diameter into each side of the door-frame, about
waist high, and fitting to each hole a strong wooden handle or peg.
These should project into the doorway with a space of eighteen to
twenty inches between their inner ends in which to stand. The exercise
consists in placing the hands on the pegs, and slowly raising and
lowering the body a number of times by the muscles of the arms alone.
At first, some assistance from the toes may be necessary. Soon the
arms will be able to do the work alone. Beginning with five lifts, the
number may be gradually increased to fifty. It is understood that the
pegs may be removed when not in use.

If the disfigurement of the door-frame between two rooms, or room and
hallway, is a serious objection, the jambs of a roomy closet door may
be used, in which case the closing of the door shuts the holes from
sight. Two high tables, or a foot rail of a bed and a table, or box
placed firmly upon two chairs--in short, any two pieces that will
afford a lift of the body, such as that described, will serve the
purpose nearly as well.

=Door-Jamb Exercise, No. 3.=--By fastening two cleats or supports on
the inner faces of the door-frame, with a niche or slot in each, to
support a horizontal bar, extending across the doorway near the top,
just within reach, a simple but very valuable piece of apparatus is
ready for use. For strengthening the fingers and the grasp of the
hands, as in swinging back and forth by the arms, and in developing
certain arm, back, and abdominal muscles, as in lifting the body so
as to touch the chin to the bar, few exercises are better. The latter
was a favorite exercise of William Cullen Bryant, and one to which
he attached much value. It is attended with some danger, however,
and should not be attempted without preparatory drill. The sides of
the bar, at the ends where it enters the cleats, should be slightly
flattened, so as not to turn with the swinging motion of the body. Two
or three sets of cleats may be used, adapting the height to different
members of the family.


=Its Necessity.=--Rest is as necessary as exercise. We cannot be active
continually. Repose must succeed labor. Alfred the Great is credited
with the recommendation that each day be divided into three parts,
eight hours for labor, eight hours for recreation, and eight hours for

=Change of Employment.=--A change of occupation affords rest. The wood
chopper finds relief from his ax by using his saw. A different set of
muscles is brought into play. Persons might often save themselves from
excessive fatigue by the adoption of this principle. When physical
labor is made to alternate with mental activity, the sense of rest is
more apparent.

=Sleep.=--The best form of rest is found in sleep. All voluntary
activity then ceases. Even the involuntary processes of circulation
and respiration seem to share in the general restfulness, for during
sleep their action is more tardy, and, as a result, the temperature of
the body is somewhat lower. More covering is needed during sleep than
during the waking hours.

While the body is in action, the process of pulling down predominates,
but during sleep nutrition goes on, the wasted tissues are built up,
and we rise refreshed and prepared for the new day’s duties.

=Amount of Sleep.=--All persons do not require the same amount of
sleep. It is said that Frederick the Great slept only five hours each
night. Napoleon Bonaparte could pass days with only a few hours’ rest.
Persons whose labors are mental require more sleep than those who work
with their hands.

The average person in good health requires eight hours’ sleep.
Children, invalids, and the aged need more. Those who take less
should make a careful study of themselves to ascertain whether they
get all the refreshment of mind and body that they need. If sleep is
insufficient, it will show itself sooner or later in general lassitude
and weakness. The imperative demands of Nature are shown in the
recorded instances of sailors on war vessels falling asleep on the
gun-deck while their ships were in action, of soldiers falling asleep
on the march, and even persons falling asleep on the rack in the
intervals of their torture.

=Position While Sleeping.=--An active, healthy child will sleep well
in almost any position, but a nervous, wakeful person, who is obliged
night after night to woo sleep, must study what conditions are most
conducive to its attainment.

Most persons sleep best on the right side. In this position the
stomach is easily emptied, and the liver does not press upon the heart
and stomach. Those affected with heart trouble will experience less
oppression and distress in this position than by sleeping on either the
back or on the left side.

=The Pillow.=--A high pillow, especially if firm and unyielding, cramps
the neck and interferes with respiration and circulation. Some writers
upon health advocate the use of no pillow, but most persons, either
from habit or for more substantial reasons, find a pillow of moderate
size to be of advantage.

=The Mattress.=--The old-time bed-ticking filled with clean oats straw,
thoroughly shaken up each day, and renewed once or twice a year, made a
thoroughly comfortable and wholesome bed. In these modern days, hair,
cotton, felt, and corn husk are the substances most commonly employed.
A good mattress is neither too soft nor too hard, but yields to the
exterior bony processes of the body without engulfing the sleeper.
Feathers, once very widely used, are now generally condemned by
physicians and sanitarians.

=Rest During the Day.=--Almost everyone has experienced the
invigorating influence of an after-dinner nap during the long days of
summer. Many persons would accomplish more work by taking a rest of ten
or fifteen minutes once or twice a day at all seasons of the year. To
women in poor health, and to those who are overworked, this suggestion
has special application. It not only rests the tired muscles but it
soothes the nerves, and serves as a most refreshing tonic. Instead
of being a loss of time, it will prove to be time saved. More actual
work, both of hands and brain, will be accomplished, and with less
expenditure of vital force. Dr. William Pepper accomplished an immense
amount of work with but very little sleep. It was not unusual for him,
when sorely in need of rest, to break off in the midst of his work, lie
down and immediately go to sleep, and after five or ten minutes wake up


=Site.=--In the selection of a home, due regard should be had to the
site. High ground is more healthful than that which is low; a loose,
dry, sandy, or gravelly soil is better than one that is wet and clayey.
Made ground, as a rule, is unhealthful, as it is usually low to begin
with, and is commonly filled up with earth which contains more or less
organic matter.

=Soil.=--The interstices of the soil are occupied by air, or water,
or both. The impurities of the soil mingle with the ground air, and
render it unfit for breathing. When this ground air is forced above the
surface by an influx of water or by the pressure of the heavier air
above, much danger lurks in the surface atmosphere. Damp cellars and
basements should be avoided, and the upper rooms of the house selected
for living and sleeping rooms. Careful scientific investigation has
established a close connection between cholera, typhoid fever, malarial
fevers, and the rise and fall of the water in the soil.

Dr. Henry I. Bowditch, of Boston, some years ago, formulated these two

First, A residence in or near a damp soil, whether that dampness be
inherent in the soil itself or caused by percolation from adjacent
ponds, rivers, meadows, or springy soils, is one of the principal
causes of consumption in Massachusetts, probably in New England, and
possibly in other portions of the globe.

Second, Consumption can be checked in its career, and possibly--nay,
probably--prevented in some instances by attention to this law.

The truth of these propositions was, later, corroborated by Dr. William
Pepper, of Philadelphia, and by Dr. Buchanan, of England. It is even
suspected by certain physicians that some of the prevalent diseases
among horses and cattle are due to dampness of the soil.

=Drainage of the Soil.=--In view of the above facts, the importance of
draining wet soil is obvious. A noted scientist states that ground in
which the water is sixteen or more feet below the surface is uniformly
healthy; when it is less than five feet, it is always unhealthy; and
that a fluctuating level, especially if the changes are sudden, is very
unhealthy. Certain trees and plants, such as the eucalyptus and the
sun-flower, whose roots absorb a prodigious quantity of water which is
given off through the leaves, are useful in drying wet soils.

The close connection between various forms of disease and the condition
of the soil has many times been pointed out. Some years ago, the
British government instituted an examination of the effects of drainage
in twenty-four towns. While the results indicate a general diminution
of the death-rate, the deaths from consumption show the greatest
reduction. All forms of malarial disease, fever and ague, neuralgia,
influenza, dysentery and other diseases of the bowels are also greatly
reduced by draining wet soils.

=Duty of the Householder.=--It should be the first duty of every
householder to secure perfect means for conveying beyond the walls of
his domicile everything of a dangerous character that is generated
within it, and to secure his home against the entrance of foul air,
impure water, or unusual dampness. While the responsibilities of the
dweller in the city are shared by the city officials, in that the city
supplies the water and provides the sewer to carry off the waste from
the kitchen, lavatory, and toilet, yet the householder needs to see
that absolute cleanliness is observed, that the pipes are regularly
flushed, and the traps kept in good working order, that no decomposing
substances are permitted to give off their poisonous gases in cellar,
alley, or yard, and that the cellar and foundation walls are free from
excessive moisture. The dweller in the country has the additional
responsibility of securing and preserving a pure water supply, and of
providing proper means for the disposal of the waste of the household.

=Dry Cellars.=--The floor of the cellar should be covered with an
impervious concrete. The foundation walls, especially if built of soft
stone, should be furnished with a course of hydraulic cement or other
impervious material, and the inside surface thoroughly coated with the
same. Where there is a heater or furnace in the cellar, the evils of
dampness are somewhat reduced during the winter months while the fires
are kept going. If the soil is wet or springy, a drain of ordinary
field tile of small size should be laid all around the inside of the
cellar walls, and, together with the rest of the cellar floor, should
be covered with concrete.

=Kitchen Drains.=--In many country houses this is the only drain, and
it is often the source of incalculable mischief, due in most cases to
sheer carelessness. The drain pipe need not be large--four inches in
diameter is sufficient--but it must be kept free of obstruction, so
that the waste from the kitchen may pass off rapidly, and no part of it
be suffered to lodge, to decompose, and to send its death-distilling
gases back to the kitchen, and thence through the other rooms of
the house. Not only should the outlet of the kitchen drain be kept
away from the well or cistern, but no part of the drain pipe should
come within twenty feet of it. The best of pipes and joints, unless
frequently renewed, are apt to break, and a very small aperture leading
from the drain pipe into the source of supply of drinking water may
endanger not only the single household but the entire community. A well
of infected water in London, spoken of as “the Broad Street pump,” and
famous in the annals of epidemics, is known to have caused the death of
over five hundred people in a single week.

=Drinking Water.=--So large an amount of sickness has been directly
traced to an impure water supply that too much emphasis cannot be
placed upon the need of proper precaution. Not only should the ground
about the top of the well be banked to throw off surface water, but the
upper wall of the well, for a distance of five or six feet from the
surface of the ground, should be laid in cement, and the space between
the wall and the ground filled in with wet clay well puddled around the

If a gravel seam or loose porous rock lies between the well and the
cess-pool, even when these are a considerable distance apart, there is
absolute danger, unless the receptacle for the waste products of the
household be made thoroughly water-tight. Without this precaution, the
well may be safe for a few months or even a year or more, but sooner
or later the foul fecal matter will reach the source of water supply,
carrying with it disease and death. No odor or taste may mark the
inflow of polluted matter. Some of the most dangerous well-waters are
sparkling in appearance and refreshing to the taste.

=Sewage.=--Few subjects relating to health are of greater importance
than the proper disposal of the refuse and waste matter of the
household. Even if free from the specific germs of disease, the organic
matters contained in sewage give rise to noxious emanations, which,
when inhaled, lower the tone of the system and render it an easy prey
to disease.

=Dangers of the Soil Pipe.=--It is chiefly through the soil pipe that
cess-pool and sewer gas finds its way into the house. The return
of these foul emanations is often caused by the force of their own
expansion and sometimes by the pressure of the sewer air behind them.
The water-traps afford but a slight barrier to their progress. Every
drain pipe leading to cess-pool or sewer should be connected with a
ventilating shaft which will carry the foul vapors above the roof of
the house, and as far away from the windows as possible.

The Medical Officer for Edinburgh, in a recent report, declared that
wherever water-closets had been introduced, in the course of one year
there were double the number of deaths from typhoid and scarlet-fever,
and that any epidemic fever occurring in these houses assumed a
character of malignant mortality.

=Disinfectants.=--Chemical disinfectants are used by many good
housewives, and are helpful, but they cannot be wholly relied upon.
Cleanliness, ventilation, and dryness are the natural disinfectants.
Artificial disinfectants can no more be substituted for them than
perfumes can be made to take the place of soap and water.

=Sewer Gas.=--This poisonous gas is known chiefly by its effect. It
frequently passes the water-traps and enters our sleeping and living
rooms, there to do its fatal work. The alternate floods of hot and
cold water open the joints of iron pipes, and allow the gas to escape.
Leaden gas pipes decay and become perforated, with the same result. Dr.
Fergus, in his pamphlet “The Sewage Question,” says: “For some years
I have insisted on a careful examination of the soil pipes wherever I
have cases of typhoid or diphtheria, and in every case where I could
get this carefully carried out I have detected perforated pipes, or
have found sewer air getting into the houses in some other way. In many
cases the plumbers have declared pipes to be all right, which turned
out to be very defective when uncovered.”

=Water-Traps.=--These are not so effective in preventing the escape of
sewer gas as they are considered to be. Experiments with glass tubes
shaped and arranged just as the ordinary water-traps in sinks and
closets are arranged have shown that the light gases pass through by
the top of the bend, and the heavy gases by the bottom. A rush of wind
up the mouth of a sewer, or a heavy dash of rain which fills the sewer
and reduces the air space, so increases the pressure of the gas within
the sewer and soil pipe that the ordinary water-traps are not able to
resist it.

Water-traps that are not used for a time become death-traps. The water
soon evaporates, and affords an unobstructed channel for the conveyance
of foul gases from cess-pool or sewer to the rooms of the house. Houses
that are vacated for the summer, and that are without tenants for a
time, should be thoroughly cleaned and ventilated, and have all pipes
and drains flushed with water before being occupied.

=Size, Flow, and Fall of Drain Pipes.=--The efficiency of a drain or
sewer depends upon its capacity, its slope or incline, and the velocity
of its flow. If the amount of water flowing is proportionate to the
size of the conduit, sewers of different sizes give the same velocity
at different inclinations. A ten-foot sewer with a fall of two feet per
mile, a five-foot sewer with a fall of four feet per mile, a two-foot
sewer with a fall of ten feet per mile, and a one-foot sewer with a
fall of twenty feet per mile will have the same velocity provided they
are filled in proportion to their capacity. The ten-foot sewer will
require one hundred times as much sewage as will the one-foot sewer.
If it has less, the velocity of its stream will be correspondingly
diminished. It is especially important, therefore, that the size of the
conduit be adapted to the volume of the stream, as well as to the slope
or inclination.

An experienced engineer gives a velocity of three feet per second as
the least that should be allowed for the outlet drain of a house. To
secure this flow a four-inch drain should have a minimum inclination
of one inch in ninety-two; a six-inch drain, one in one hundred
and thirty-seven; a nine-inch drain, one in two hundred and six;
and to attain the above velocity of three feet per second at these
inclinations they must run not less than half full. The great purpose
of all modern sewage systems is to carry off all waste matters before
they have time to decompose.

=Joints of Drain Pipes.=--These should be made so smooth within as not
to impede the flow of sewage, nor become obstructed by catching thread,
strings, hair, and other floating substances. They should be so tight
as absolutely to prevent any leakage of either fluid or gaseous matter,
and render impossible the entrance of the small filaments of the roots
of trees growing along their course. They should be supported on solid
pillars of brick or stone, and not spiked to cellar walls where a
slight settling will force the joints and cause a leak. They should
be so firmly supported at every point that after the joints have been
cemented no possible change of direction or slope of pipe can occur.
Any such change is sure to work disaster.

=Sewer Ventilation.=--No sewer is safe that does not have a free
current of air passing through it. Motion and aeration are the
safeguards against infection. Sewers should be constructed so as to
secure a constant flow, with no sharp angles or short turns to impede
its progress, and with frequent vents leading to the surface of the
street. Thus diluted, the sewer gas becomes harmless, the pressure in
the conduits is relieved, and the danger of the gas forcing its way
through the water-traps into the living and sleeping rooms of our homes
is avoided.

=Location of Closet.=--The water closet should be so placed as to have
an exterior window, by means of which it may be fully ventilated.
Under no circumstances should the closet open directly into the
bedroom. When entered from the hallway or landing, the conditions may
be improved by cutting off half of the space as a vestibule or outer
apartment, thus preventing any foul odors from reaching the sleeping
rooms. For reasons of convenience as well as of health the bath-room
and lavatory should be separate from the water closet.

=Disposal of Garbage.=--In cities, the public authorities collect
and dispose of the solid waste of the kitchen. In the country, and
wherever chickens, cows, or pigs are kept, these waste substances may
be utilized. Some private families burn them. Where this cannot be done
they should be removed from the dwelling far enough to prevent their
decomposition from giving rise to any unpleasant or unwholesome odors.
No compost heap should be maintained within one hundred yards of a

=Dry Earth Closet.=--This system of disposing of the waste matter of
the household is not so well known in the United States as it is in
England, where it has been in successful use for many years. The best
apparatus is that invented by Rev. Henry Moule, an English clergyman.

The following claims are made for it, and they are supported by the
best authorities:

1. It furnishes a comfortable closet on any floor of the house, and it
may be supplied with earth and cleaned of its deposits by the servants
without the intervention or knowledge of any member of the household.

2. It furnishes a portable commode in any dressing-room, bedroom, or
closet, the care of which is no more disagreeable than that of an
ordinary fireplace.

3. It affords appliances for the use of immovable invalids which
entirely remove the distressing accompaniments of their care.

4. It provides for the complete and effectual removal of all liquid
waste of sleeping-rooms and kitchen.

5. It completely suppresses the odors which, despite the comfort and
elegance of modern living, still hang about cesspools and privy-vaults,
and attend the removal of their contents.

The expense is trifling as compared with that of water sewerage. The
care and attention needed is somewhat greater, and this probably
accounts for the limited use of the system in this country. In country
houses, and in small towns and villages where the facilities of a
system of public sewerage are not to be had, it would seem that the
advantages of the earth-closet system would commend it to general favor.

The earth-closet is a mechanical contrivance attached to the ordinary
seat, for measuring out and discharging into the vault or pan below a
sufficient quantity of sifted dry earth to entirely cover the solid
ordure and to absorb the urine. The earth is discharged by an ordinary
chain or wire-pull, similar to that used in the water-closet. The
vault or pan beneath the seat is so arranged that the accumulation may
be readily removed. In a small family once in two or three weeks is
often enough to empty the pan or drawer unless it is small. The entire
apparatus need not cover more than two feet square by three feet high.

It is estimated that our present wasteful method of disposing of the
night-soil occasions an annual money loss to the country of over
$100,000,000. When the economic value of human excreta becomes as well
known in the United States as it is in China and Japan we will cease to
cast it into the sea.

=A Truthful Picture.=--Any one who has lived among or mingled much
with people in the country and in hamlets and villages will recognize
the truthfulness of the following picture as presented by George E.
Waring, Jr., in “How to Drain a House.” He says:

“Let us see what chance a woman living in the country has to escape the
direst evils that ‘delicate health’ has in store for its victims. The
privy stands perhaps at the bottom of the garden, fifty yards from the
house, approached by a walk bordered by long grass, which is always
wet except during the sunny part of the day, overhung by shrubbery and
vines, which are often dripping with wet. In winter, snow-drifts block
the way, and during rain there is no shelter from any side. The house
itself is fearfully cold, if not drifted half-full with snow or flooded
with rain.

“A woman who is comfortably housed during stormy weather will, if
it is possible, postpone for days together the dreadful necessity
for exposure that such conditions imply. If the walk is exposed to a
neighboring workshop window, the visit will probably be put off until
dark. In either case, no amount of reasoning will convince a woman that
it is her duty, for the sake of preventing troubles of which she is yet
ignorant, to expose herself to the danger, the discomfort, and the
annoyance that regularity under such circumstances implies.

“I pass over now the barbarous foulness and the stifling odor of the
privy-vault. It is only as an unavoidable evil that these have been
tolerated; but I cannot too strongly urge attention to the point taken
above, and insist on the fact that every consideration of humanity,
and of the welfare not only of your own families, but of the whole
community, demands a speedy reform of this abuse. * * * I make no
apology for calling the attention of women themselves to this important
matter, believing that they will universally concede that, however
much of elegance and comfort may surround them in the appointments of
their homes, their mode of life is neither decent, civilized, nor safe,
unless they are provided with the conveniences that the water-closet
and the earth-closet alone make possible.”

=Woman’s Part in Sanitation.=--Some years ago, Dr. B. W. Richardson,
then president of the British Medical Association, said: “I want
strongly to enforce that it is the women on whom full sanitary light
requires to fall. Health in the home is health everywhere; elsewhere
it has no abiding place. I have been brought indeed by experience
to the conclusion that the whole future progress of the sanitary
movement rests for permanent and executive support on the women of
the country. When, as a physician, I enter a house where there is a
contagious disease, I am, of course, primarily impressed by the type
of the disease, and the age, strength, and condition of the sick
person. From the observations made on these points, I form a judgment
of the possible course and termination of the disease; and, at one
time, I should have thought such observations sufficient. A glance at
the appointments and arrangements and management of the house is now
necessary to make perfect the judgment. The men of the house come and
go; know little of the ins and outs of anything domestic; are guided by
what they are told; and are practically of no assistance whatever. The
women are conversant with every nook of the dwelling, from basement to
roof; and on their knowledge, wisdom, and skill, the physician rests
his hopes.”

=Materials of the Dwelling.=--No material is so dry and healthful as
wood. Where the dangers of fire preclude the use of this material, as
in close and compact cities and towns, and where brick and stone must
be employed, such houses may, with very slight additional expense,
be rendered comparatively dry. Ordinary bricks absorb a great deal of
moisture, and carry dampness from cellar to attic. Soft building stone
is nearly as bad. The use of a double course of vitrified brick on
a thick layer of the best cement just above the foundation wall, or
ground line, will prevent the dampness of the soil from being carried
up through the walls. The outside dampness from rains and sleet may
also be corrected by the use of thick studding against the walls on
the inside to support the plastering. This leaves an inch or two of
space between the outer wall and the plastering, through which the air
can circulate, and thus preserve the inner walls of the dwelling from

=Lighting.=--The Italians have a proverb, “When you let the sunshine in
you drive the doctor out.” A house should be constructed so as to admit
an abundance of light. Architects, and builders, too, often undervalue
the health-giving properties of sunshine, or sacrifice them to other
considerations. Even the mistress of the house, whose first thought
should be the health of herself and that of her children, frequently
shuts out the sunshine to save her carpets and furniture. It is better
to have the roses on the children’s cheeks than on the carpets.

Trees should not be planted so close to a house as to obstruct the
free ingress of light and air. If the walls are damp, the tree’s shade
will help to preserve the dampness. Numerous instances are recorded of
the deaths of persons clearly traced to the damp walls, moss-covered
roofs, and general unhealthfulness arising from the close proximity of
dense trees which overhung the dwelling and shut out the sunlight. When
the sad truth was at last discovered, and the trees were removed, the
houses which, before, were seldom free from sickness and sorrow, became
wholesome and cheerful.

=Warming.=--The subjects of warmth and ventilation are so closely
related that they will necessarily overlap in their treatment. In point
of importance probably no two subjects have a larger bearing upon
health. No scheme has yet been devised by which satisfactory means of
heating and ventilation are combined with money-saving. For purposes of
ventilation, the old-time open hearth was without a rival. But while
the faces of our grandparents were roasted, successive chills chased up
their backs. In these days of scarcity of fuel, the open hearth is the
rich man’s luxury.

Most houses throughout the country are still warmed by stoves. In
cities and towns, dwelling houses are generally warmed by the hot-air
furnaces, while many of the larger establishments--stores, offices,
hotels, banks, apartment houses--are supplied with steam heat.

An important consideration in all cases of hot-air heating is that the
air be taken from the outside through a conduit instead of using the
air from the cellar, as is too frequently done. In some cities and
suburban towns, pure air is brought into the cellar through a conduit
where it passes through a box in which it is heated by steam pipes, the
steam being brought from a central plant which supplies several hundred
houses. The air when heated passes through flues to the several rooms
of the dwelling, and is turned on and off by registers in the usual
way. This system avoids all dirt of coal and ashes, and all care of
fires, and is much to be commended.

=Uniform Temperature.=--In all schemes for the warming of houses, it
is important to keep the entire building at a uniform, comfortable
temperature. In dwellings, the halls and living rooms should be so
evenly warmed that no sensation of chilliness is felt in passing from
one room into another. This, in itself, costs much fuel, and when
there is added the further cost of heating the fresh air which is
necessary to supply the place of that which has become vitiated by use,
the truth of the proposition that suitable heating and ventilation are
costly becomes apparent.

Those who live in warm, close, ill-ventilated rooms are much more
subject to colds from exposure to draughts and cold air than those who
dwell in a pure atmosphere of moderate temperature. This being the
case, persons should not accustom themselves to a higher temperature
than is barely necessary for comfort. Some persons are most comfortable
with a room temperature in winter of 68º or 69º Fahrenheit. Others
require a temperature of 70º or 71º. Invalids, infants, and old
persons, whose vitality is low, require a higher temperature than those
in the full vigor of life.

=Ventilation.=--The importance of breathing pure air was fully
discussed in a previous chapter. The best methods of securing it will
be considered here.

Air, when heated, becomes lighter and rises. Cool air, when it enters a
warm room, sinks to the bottom. The cooler and purer air of a room is,
therefore, always found nearest the floor. Although the carbonic acid
given out by the lungs is heavier than an equal quantity of atmospheric
air, yet, by the operation of the law of diffusion, it commingles with
the other gases, and is found in greatest quantity near the ceiling.
Doors and windows are the means commonly employed for ventilation;
transoms and special ventilating flues are used to some extent.

Where large numbers of people are congregated together for several
hours at a time, as in churches, theatres, and public halls, proper
ventilation becomes a matter of extreme importance. If, in such cases,
doors and windows alone are depended upon, the results are never
satisfactory. Those nearest the windows are made uncomfortable by the
chilling drafts, while the persons in the middle of the room experience
very little relief from the stifling atmosphere. In the construction of
such buildings suitable provision should be made in floor, side-wall,
and ceiling for an ample supply of pure air, without a conscious
current or other annoyance to the audience. In school houses, where
children are confined for long periods, and where their physical growth
and mental activity demand the purest air, neglect of proper means of
ventilation on the part of school directors and trustees is little
short of criminal.

In the home the subject of ventilation during the day time is a simple
matter. The frequent opening of outer doors and of inner doors, with
the occasional lowering of the upper sash of the window, will furnish
an abundant supply of pure air.

The ventilation of the sleeping room is not always so simple,
especially where privacy demands the bolting of the chamber door. The
diminished vitality of the individual during sleep requires that there
shall be no draft over his bed. If there be but a single window, place
the bed so as to escape the draft. Lower the upper sash about two
inches. If there be two sleepers in the room lower it three inches.
Raise the lower sash an inch or two. This gives three air spaces, top,
bottom, and in the middle where the two sashes overlap. A thin board
placed on edge in the window ledge, and fitting inside the window
strip, will throw the current of air upward, and when the wind is
strong, will prevent a draft. A transom over the door stimulates a
gentle current of air, and is of great advantage. In some families,
where privacy permits, the door is left slightly ajar at night.
This, with a slight opening of an outer window, will secure ample

=Air Currents.=--A current of two feet per second is scarcely
perceptible; of three feet is quite noticeable; of five feet is a
positive draft. In introducing fresh air into a room the current should
nowhere exceed two feet per second at the point of entrance.

=Individual Requirements of Air.=--Each adult person requires three
thousand cubic feet of air per hour. This will demand an opening or
place of entrance equal to twenty-four square inches, and an equal
amount of space for the foul air to escape. An opening four by six
inches will give much more air than one twelve by two inches by reason
of the smaller friction upon the sides. Ventilation through a single
pipe or aperture is more effective than that through several apertures
of equal aggregate area.

=Stairs.=--Many persons, especially women, who, as a rule, do more
stair climbing than men, find it very exhausting. Some stairs are
easier to mount than others. In the construction of stairways,
architects and builders should reduce the labor to the minimum. The
wants of a certain invalid necessitated a constant going up and down
stairs. The successive nurses were wont to remark, “I never saw,
before, such an easy flight of stairs.” The exact measurements of this
stairway are: seven and one-eighth inches rise; eleven and one-half
inches depth, or space from the front edge to the back part of each
step. There is a landing near the middle. A landing gives the climber
an opportunity to get a full breath, and greatly reduces the effort of



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  By Agnes H. Morton

There is no passport to good society like good manners. ¶ Even though
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stones,” but when they are tombstones there is many a smile mixed
with the moral. ¶ Usually churchyard humor is all the more delightful
because it is unconscious, but there are times when it is intentional
and none the less amusing. ¶ Of epitaphs, old and new, this book
contains the best. It is full of quaint bits of obituary fancy, with a
touch of the gruesome here and there for a relish.


  By John H. Bechtel

The genius, wit, and spirit of a nation are discovered in its proverbs,
and the condensed wisdom of all ages and all nations is embodied
in them. ¶ A good proverb that fits the case is often a convincing
argument. ¶ This volume contains a representative collection of
proverbs, old and new, and the indexes, topical and alphabetical,
enable one to find readily just what he requires.


  By John H. Bechtel

Can you name the coldest place in the United States or tell what year
had 445 days? Do you know how soon the coal fields of the world are
likely to be exhausted, or how the speed of a moving train may be told?
What should you do first if you got a cinder in your eye, or your
neighbor’s baby swallowed a pin? This unique, up-to-date book answers
thousands of just such interesting and useful questions.


  By John H. Bechtel

Most of us dislike to look up a mythological subject because of the
time required. ¶ This book remedies that difficulty because in it
can be found at a glance just what is wanted. ¶ It is comprehensive,
convenient, condensed, and the information is presented in such an
interesting manner that when once read it will always be remembered. ¶
A distinctive feature of the book is the pronunciation of the proper
names, something found in few other works.


  By John H. Bechtel

Who does not make them? The best of us do. ¶ Why not avoid them? Any
one inspired with the spirit of self-improvement may readily do so. ¶
No necessity for studying rules of grammar or rhetoric when this book
may be had. It teaches both without the study of either. ¶ It is a
counsellor, a critic, a companion, and a guide, and is written in a
most entertaining and chatty style.


  By John H. Bechtel

What is more disagreeable than a faulty pronunciation? No other defect
so clearly shows a lack of culture. ¶ This book contains over 5,000
words on which most of us are apt to trip. ¶ They are here pronounced
in the clearest and simplest manner, and according to the best
authority. ¶ It is more readily consulted than a dictionary, and is
just as reliable.


  By John H. Bechtel

A new word is a new tool. ¶ This book will not only enlarge your
vocabulary, but will show you how to express the exact shade of
meaning you have in mind, and will cultivate a more precise habit of
thought and speech. ¶ It will be found invaluable to busy journalists,
merchants, lawyers, or clergymen, and as an aid to teachers no less
than to the boys and girls under their care.


  By John Harrison

The dinner itself may be ever so good, and yet prove a failure if there
is no mirth to enliven the company. ¶ Nothing adds so much zest to an
occasion of this kind as a good story well told. ¶ Here are hundreds
of the latest, best, brightest, and most catchy stories, all of them
short and pithy, and so easy to remember that anyone can tell them
successfully. ¶ There are also a number of selected toasts suitable to
all occasions.


  By William Pittenger

Most men dread being called upon to respond to a toast or to make an
address. ¶ What would you not give for the ability to be rid of this
embarrassment? No need to give much when you can learn the art from
this little book. ¶ It will tell you how to do it; not only that, but
by example it will show the way. ¶ It is valuable not alone to the
novice, but to the experienced speaker, who will gather from it many


  By William Pittenger

There is no greater ability than the power of skillful and forcible
debate, and no accomplishment more readily acquired if the person
is properly directed. ¶ In this little volume are directions for
organizing and conducting debating societies and practical suggestions
for all who desire to discuss questions in public. ¶ There is also a
list of over 200 questions for debate, with arguments both affirmative
and negative.


  By Paul Allardyce

Few persons can punctuate properly; to avoid mistakes many do not
punctuate at all. ¶ A perusal of this book will remove all difficulties
and make all points clear. ¶ The rules are plainly stated and freely
illustrated, thus furnishing a most useful volume. ¶ The author is
everywhere recognized as the leading authority upon the subject, and
what he has to say is practical, concise, and comprehensive.


  By Henry Ward Beecher

Few men ever enjoyed a wider experience or achieved a higher reputation
in public speaking than Mr. Beecher. ¶ What he has to say on this
subject was born of experience, and his own inimitable style was at
once both statement and illustration of his theme. ¶ This volume is
a unique and masterly treatise on the fundamental principles of true


  By J. P. Mahaffy

Some people are accused of talking too much. But no one is ever taken
to task for talking too well. Of all the accomplishments of modern
society, that of being an agreeable conversationalist holds first
place. Nothing is more delightful or valuable. ¶ To suggest what to
say, just how and when to say it, is the general aim of this work, and
it succeeds most admirably in its purpose.


  By Ernest Legouvé

The ability to read aloud well, whether at the fireside or on the
public platform, is a fine art. ¶ The directions and suggestions
contained in this work of standard authority will go far toward the
attainment of this charming accomplishment. ¶ The work is especially
recommended to teachers and others interested in the instruction of
public school pupils.


  By Dean Rivers

Conundrums sharpen our wits and lead us to think quickly. ¶ They are
also a source of infinite amusement and pleasure, whiling away tedious
hours and putting everyone in good humor. ¶ This book contains an
excellent collection of over a thousand of the latest, brightest, and
most up-to-date conundrums, to which are added many Biblical, poetical,
and French conundrums.


  By Ellis Stanyon

There is no more delightful form of entertainment than that afforded
by the performances of a magician. ¶ Mysterious as these performances
appear, they may be very readily learned if carefully explained. ¶ This
book embraces full and detailed descriptions of all the well known
tricks with coins, handkerchiefs, hats, flowers, and cards, together
with a number of novelties not previously produced or explained. ¶
Fully illustrated.


  By Edward H. Eldridge, A. M.

There is no more popular or interesting form of entertainment than
hypnotic exhibitions, and everyone would like to know how to hypnotize.
¶ By following the simple and concise instructions contained in this
complete manual anyone may, with a little practice, readily learn how
to exercise this unique and strange power.


  By Cavendish
  Twenty-third Edition

“According to Cavendish” is now almost as familiar an expression as
“according to Hoyle.” ¶ No whist player, whether a novice or an expert,
can afford to be without the aid and support of Cavendish. No household
in which the game is played is complete without a copy of this book.
¶ This edition contains all of the matter found in the English
publication and at one-fourth the cost.


  By Helen E. Hollister

“What shall we do to amuse ourselves and our friends?” is a question
frequently propounded on rainy days and long winter evenings. ¶ This
volume most happily answers this question, as it contains a splendid
collection of all kinds of games for amusement, entertainment, and
instruction. ¶ The games are adapted to both old and young, and all
classes will find them both profitable and interesting.


  The Sun and His Family

  By Julia MacNair Wright

Can you tell what causes day and night, seasons and years, tides and
eclipses? Why is the sky blue and Mars red? What are meteors and
shooting stars? ¶ These and a thousand other questions are answered in
a most fascinating way in this highly interesting volume. Few books
contain as much valuable material so pleasantly packed in so small a
space. ¶ Illustrated.


  The Story of Plant Life

  By Julia MacNair Wright

The scientific study of Botany made as interesting as a fairy tale. ¶
It is better reading than such tales, because of the profit. ¶ Each
chapter is devoted to the month of the year in which plants of that
month are in evidence. Not only is the subject treated with accuracy,
but there is given much practical information as to the care and
treatment of plants and flowers. ¶ Illustrated.


  How to Grow Them

  By Eben E. Rexford

Every woman loves flowers, but few succeed in growing them. With the
help so clearly given in this book no one need fail. ¶ It treats mainly
of in-door flowers and plants--those for window gardening; all about
their selection, care, soil, air, light, warmth, etc. ¶ The chapter
on table decoration alone is worth the price of the book. While the
subject of flowers is quite thoroughly covered, the style used is
plain, simple, and free from all technicalities.


  By Marguerite Wilson

A complete instructor, beginning with the first positions and steps and
leading up to the square and round dances. ¶ It contains a full list of
calls for all of the square dances, and the appropriate music for each
figure, the etiquette of the dances, and 100 figures for the German.
¶ It is unusually well illustrated by a large number of original
drawings. ¶ Without doubt the best book on the subject.


  By M. M. Macgregor

If you wish to obtain a horoscope of your entire life, or if you would
like to know in what business or profession you will best succeed, what
friends you should make, whom you should marry, the kind of a person
to choose for a business partner, or the time of the month in which to
begin an enterprise, you will find these and hundreds of other vital
questions solved in this book by the science of Astrology.


  How to Read Character
  from Handwriting

  By Clifford Howard

Do you know that every time you write five or six lines your furnish a
complete record of your character? Anyone who understands Graphology
can tell by simply examining your handwriting just what sort of a
person you are. ¶ There is no method of character reading that is
more interesting, more trustworthy, and more valuable than that of
Graphology, and it is the aim of this volume to enable anyone to become
a master of this most fascinating art.


  By Henry Frith

The hand shows the man, but many who believe in palmistry have found no
ready access to its principles. ¶ This little guide to it is complete,
trustworthy, and yet simple in arrangement. ¶ With this book and a
little practice anyone may read character surely, recall past events,
and forecast the future. ¶ Fully illustrated.

  What Every Citizen
  Should Know

  By George Lewis

This book answers a multitude of questions of interest to everyone. ¶
It gives intelligent, concise, and complete information on such topics
as the Monroe Doctrine, Behring Sea Controversy, Extradition Treaties,
Basis of Taxation, and fully explains the meaning of Habeas Corpus,
Free Coinage, Civil Service, Australian Ballot, and a great number of
other equally interesting subjects.


  By Paschal H. Coggins, Esq.

Most legal difficulties arise from ignorance of the minor points of
law. ¶ This book furnishes to the busy man and woman knowledge of just
such points as are most likely to arise in every-day affairs, and thus
protects them against mental worry and financial loss. ¶ Not only is
this information liberally given, but every point is so explained and
illustrated that the reader will not only understand the law on the
subject, but cannot fail to remember it.


  By Edward S. Ellis, A. M.

All literature abounds in classical allusions, but many do not
understand their meaning. ¶ The force of an argument or the beauty of
an illustration is therefore often lost. ¶ To avoid this, everyone
should have at hand a complete dictionary such as this. ¶ It contains
all the classical allusions worth knowing, and they are so ready of
access as to require little or no time in looking up.


  By Edward S. Ellis, A. M.

Plutarch was the most famous biographer and one of the most delightful
essayists who ever lived. ¶ To him we are indebted for an intimate
acquaintance with many famous Greeks and Romans who made history
and who still live. ¶ This book is a condensed form of the original
“Lives.” ¶ All the personages likely to be inquired about are
mentioned, and what is told of them is just what one most wishes to

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.

The format of the chapter titles has been regularised.

Obvious printing mistakes have been corrected.

Variations in spelling remain as in the original unless noted below.

  Page 86, “with” changed to “With” (“With this system in general”).
  Page 125, “encouragment” changed to “encouragement.”
  Page 135, “skilful” changed do “skillful.”
  Popular Hand-books, page 8, “nteresting” changed to “interesting.”
  Popular Hand-books, page 10, “german” changed to “German.”

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