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Title: Catlin's Historic Origin of the Playing Cards - Their original design and subsequent use
Author: Catlin, H. D.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                                CATLIN'S

                            HISTORIC ORIGIN

                                 OF THE

                             PLAYING CARDS.

               Their Original Design and Subsequent Use.

              =Full and Complete. Reliable and Authentic.=

                               —— AND ——

                                CATLIN'S

                  New, Original and Scientific Game of

                                 GUEST,


            The Superior Game of the Period, for the Society
                     and for all Home, Domestic and
                         Social Entertainments.

                  *       *       *       *       *


         =The TWO Complete, in Two Parts, in this One Volume.=

                             H. D. CATLIN,

                                AUTHOR,

                No. 817 Maine Street, Quincy, Illinois.

                                 1893.


       Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1893, by

                             H. D. CATLIN,

         in the office of Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.

                            (TO PART FIRST.)


The native genius inherent in man has ever been inspired and brought
into use by Divine Providence, seemingly, to gratify and encourage man's
ambitions to excel and progress in all of the many avenues opened in
nature, in art and in science for the development of the same. This
genius, guided by the "Law of Progress," knows "no such word as fail;"
and it is only a question of time when success will reward the effort.

Man was born with a native love for amusements and pastime recreations,
and hence the adage, "All work and no play made Jack a dull boy." All
great and durable enterprises have had their beginning with the ordinary
ignorance of the ordinary man. And when the _right time_ should come,
Providence has always transferred "nature's gift" to the more advanced
and better educated man to accomplish and make perfect the work of
genius. It is a truth in fact that "necessity is the mother of
invention," and that "ignorance is the mother of genius;" and to both
man may recognize his "birth-right"—so to speak—to the _honors_ due, for
the most, if not all, of the many enterprises which have rewarded his
labors in many of the past centuries of the Christian era.

The "playing cards" are the production of an ingenious human device,
derived from the divine origin of time; the history of which but little
has heretofore been known and understood by the world of card players
and the public in general. So far as the author is informed, no like
historic record has ever been published, and card players have,
seemingly, taken little or no interest to learn and know the historic
origin of the greatest enterprise known to the sixteenth century, the
period of their advent, so valuable and important to the present
generation. A thorough and studied perusal of this work is recommended,
and will convey much desirable information worth knowing, and will
advance its present popularity and aid its future general publication.

                                                             THE AUTHOR.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                CATLIN'S

                         HISTORIC ORIGIN OF THE

                             PLAYING CARDS.

            _Their Original Design and Subsequent Use. Full
                 and Complete. Reliable and Authentic._


The playing cards are of Egyptian origin and an ingenious human device,
derived from the divine origin of time. The time is indefinite when
Egyptian hieroglyphics were first carved on stone, representing four
numbers: the No. 4, No. 12, No. 13, No. 52; in recognition of their
Egyptian annual calendar of time. The number "four" representing the
four seasons of the year—spring, summer, autumn, winter. The number
"twelve" representing the twelve months of the year, January to
December, inclusive. The number "thirteen" representing the thirteen
weeks in each of the four seasons; and the number "fifty-two"
representing the fifty-two weeks composing the full year. The playing
cards represent the same identical four numbers, by the "four suits" of
the pack, the "twelve face cards" of the pack, the "thirteen cards" in
each of the "four suits," and the "fifty-two cards" composing the full
pack.

It was in an early part of the twelfth century when mongrel Egyptians
were first attracted by the same "four numbers," and with their native
love for games, sports and amusements, sought to gratify their eager
desires and bring them into use as the origin of future pastime
recreations and social enjoyment. The ambition to gratify their desire
continued and repeated itself through ten succeeding generations without
success, as they were wholly unable to cope with so great an
undertaking, by reason of their native ignorance, and thus did fail to
introduce and apply the science required. A like ambitious desire was
subsequently manifested by the more advanced, better learned and more
intelligent Egyptians, who struggled with the same four numbers, and for
the same gratification of their native love for sports and amusements as
a pastime enjoyment. They labored long and perseveringly, beginning with
the number 52 as of first importance. They were not long in recognizing
a like importance of the number 13 in sequence order. After giving due
and proper place to the number 4 in recognition of the four suits
required, and by applying the two red suits in recognition of spring and
summer and the two black suits in recognition of autumn and winter, they
could thus represent, in due and proper contrast, the four seasons of
the year. They could now have formulated and played their game in
sequence order, by leaving out of use the number 12, and thus to break
the complete chain of numbers required to make perfect their "annual
calendar of time," in recognition of its divine origin, knowing full
well that such omission could never be accepted as a popular and
ingenious human device, consistent with the original undertaking of
their boasted enterprise. This embarrassment continued long, fatiguing
and discouraging to their ambitious enterprise, which, in the past, has
ever been the experience of man in many of the progressive enterprises
of human genius which now contribute so largely to the growth of greater
facilities for a larger volume and better economy in many of the
departments of business. Their new and original game could not be made
durable and popular without the favorable recognition, sanction and
acceptance of their honored "king and queen."

With this important end in view they counseled together, long and
patient, without success, until one of their number broke the spell. "I
have it." And when explained, they mutually decided to add to each of
the four suits the figure-heads of the "King and Queen," and the king's
"page" in armor, with helmet, shield and spear, later known to euchre as
the "Knave" and now as the "Jack," thus bringing into use the much
needed number 12, required to complete and make perfect their game, by
making the four "Aces," alike in each of the four suits, the highest
commanding card. With this completion, thus perfected, the players
practiced long, making perfect their skill in the art and scientific use
of their game.

With such complete and perfected practice of their game, the four
players made personal application and asked permission to play their
game on the floor of the "king's court," for the edification, amusement
and enjoyment of their honored king and queen. They were granted the
audience they had asked, and played their first initial game—as yet
without name—in the early part of the sixteenth century; so still and
silent, with no word spoken above the sound of a still small voice,
until the full close of the play, when the king pronounced the name
"Whist," (a silent "whist of the wind,") which has endured without
change until the present time and will ever so continue. So elated with
the game, so amused, gratified and entertained were the crowned heads of
the king's court that the players were presented with a pecuniary
compensation, equal to $1,000 of our money. It must be recognized that
the players were the "subjects" of their king and queen, and could not
be their "guests." The king and queen could not, would not, be the
guests of their players; therefore, the _game_ was the "guest" of the
occasion and was so recognized.

The game of Euchre is of German origin, and was introduced to overcome
the long, tedious and fatiguing game of Whist, and bring into use a much
shorter, more jolly and more social game. The French copied from the
Germans, and brought into use the same identical game under their French
name of "Ecarte." The French are known to have introduced their game of
"Ecarte" into the United States in the early settlement of New Orleans
and the gulf coast of the present state of Louisiana. During the Crimean
war French soldiers, when held intrenched, as a reserve, and a present
safe keeping for future service, amused themselves by playing "Ecarte."

With the present introduction of the author's game of "Guest," the
historic origin of playing cards may be accepted as full and complete,
by the introduction of the three only original and legitimate games
known to the playing cards. All others are but substitutes of a cunning
device and without merit.

The game of Whist has been in use nearly four hundred years. The game of
Euchre has been in use nearly one hundred years. The game of Guest has
been in use nearly two years. It is already crowned as the superior game
of the period, and is expressed as "perfection perfected."

MORAL: The question of use and abuse? is one man must meet; the solution
of and the answer to which man must be individually responsible.

There is nothing from the hand of the Creator which man may make so
great, so good, so wise and profitable use as time. And there is nothing
from the same divine source which man may make so little, so evil, so
unwise and unprofitable use as time. There is nothing from the hand of
man which may be made to contribute so much of good, wise and moral
social enjoyment as the playing cards; and there is nothing from the
same human source which may be made to contribute so much of evil,
unwise and immoral social estrangement as the playing cards.

The question of good and evil is one which man must decide and establish
as the basis of his individual character. Of the two contending forces
in man, the final question is, "Which of the twain shall I release unto
myself, and which shall I crucify? If I release the good and crucify the
evil, then am I good. If I release the evil and crucify the good, then
am I evil."

Consider well. Consider, and elevate the moral standard of human
character in the mind and life of the individual man.

                                                   H. D. CATLIN, Author,

                                 No. 817 Maine Street, Quincy, Illinois.

                   "Oh, time, why thus abused?
                   And thou cards, why so misused?
                   Both, for good are given—
                   To guide man's thought to Heaven."
                                          THE AUTHOR.


Copyright, 1893, by H. D. CATLIN.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.

                           (TO PART SECOND.)


At the expense of time and study, of labor and cost, covering a period
over-reaching two full years, the author, who is a retired accountant,
book-keeper and cashier, of forty years practical experience, is now
competent and fully prepared to issue his revised, corrected and
perfected game of "Guest," for the purpose of copyright protection to
himself, in the use and general publication of same, as hereinafter
published and contained. It is now nearly four hundred years since the
playing cards were first introduced, and with the exception of material
and kind, of finish and design, there has been no change in the first
original, fifty-two card pack, and never will be. The first original
game of "Whist" could have had no previous history, no previous law and
no rule beyond that adopted and practiced by the first original players
for the edification, entertainment and amusement of their honored
Egyptian king and queen, by whom their game was named, and will so
remain, unchanged so long as playing cards continue in use. About one
hundred years ago the German game of "Euchre" was introduced to overcome
the long, tedious and fatiguing game of "Whist," but in doing so they
did but overreach their mark and drifted upon an opposite extreme,
making their game too short, too oft repeated and discouragingly
monotonous. Like "Whist," they have no history, no law, and only such
rules as they adopted and played at pleasure. Many changes have been
introduced by the modern players of both games to overcome the two
objectionable extremes peculiar to the two original games of "Whist" and
"Euchre."

After a thorough study had been made, and a thorough knowledge of the
origin of the playing cards had been acquired, the author of the present
game of "Guest" was not slow to realize the importance of a third game,
which could be introduced on the basis of an exact even divide between
the two previous games of "Whist" and "Euchre," in every particular, and
thus to meet the required want and supply the much-needed game, which
may be best expressed as "perfection perfected." Such is the game of
"Guest," and many old-time "Whist" and "Euchre" players have practiced
and participated in the use of this new third game, who unanimously
pronounce it to be the superior game of the period. When card players
have made a study of the game, and also the law and the rule, and have
familiarized themselves with the play of the same, they will then
recognize the game of "Guest" to be as simple as "A, B, C," and as
practical as "two and two make four;" a thoroughly scientific and
mathematical game with no complications.

                                                             THE AUTHOR.

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                CATLIN'S

                  NEW, ORIGINAL AND SCIENTIFIC GAME OF

                                "GUEST,"

            _The Superior Game of the Period for the Society
                     and for all Home, Domestic and
                        Social Entertainments._


The game of "Guest" is strictly a scientific and mathematical game, and
yet it is as simple as "A, B, C," and as practical as "two and two make
four." It is void of any and all complications, and therefore it is not
fatiguing, but on the contrary resting, giving the needed rest required
to overcome the mental and physical fatigue of the day and affording a
pleasant and enjoyable pastime, uniting the family and home society in a
common, mutual and congenial domestic interest. To this end the game has
never been equalled; it can never be excelled; it is "perfection
perfected."

There can be only three original and legitimate games:

                         "Whist; Euchre; Guest;
                         Good, better, best."

The three most popular games for all home, domestic and social
entertainments. The game of "Guest" is the latest and best of the three
games. It is played with a selection of thirty-six cards from the
original fifty-two card pack, leaving out of use the four 5 spots, the
four 4 spots, the four 3 spots, the four 2 spots; and with the
introduction of the "Joker" thirty-seven cards are used for the required
purpose of having "one odd card," which is, and _must_ be, the defined
"trump" with each and every deal of the cards. The deal is made as in
"Whist," and the cards are played as in "Euchre."

The design of this game is recognized as "practical business." The
"Guest" furnishes the capital by a system of irregular, alternate
deposits in the hands of _two_ contestants, business firms, with each
and every deal of the cards. Such is the business capital of the two
contestants, to gain and save to the end of the play, with success and
defeat ever changing. Nine cards are given by the "Guest" (through the
dealer,) to each of the four hands. The "Joker" must be held in one of
the four hands and not permitted to be exposed on the table. To this end
the two last cards, in hand of the dealer, should be consulted, when, if
possible, the dealer takes the first and gives the second to the table
as the gift of the "Guest" and decides the trump for each and every deal
of the cards. The indicating trump on the table is of no value to the
hand to be played, as it is the gift of the "Guest" and counts for
nothing in the game. Inasmuch as trumps will always predominate,
therefore, in honor of and complimentary to the "Guest," the first lead
_must_ be a trump card, if such is possible; otherwise the trump lead
_must_ pass to the next player; trump must lead; after which, any card
may be led at the option of the next leader, when the three players must
follow suit, if such is possible; otherwise trump may be played, at the
option of the player, as in "Whist" or "Euchre." It will be observed
that the trump suit will always be one card more than one-fourth of all
the cards in use, and the three side suits (not trump) will always be
one card less than three fourths of all the cards in use—ten trumps and
twenty-six suit cards. Thirteen points constitute the full game. The
counts are decided by subtracting the less number of tricks taken from
the greater number, placing the balance to the credit of the parties
showing the greater number of tricks taken in each and every hand
played. All counts will, of necessity, be one, three, five, seven, or
possibly nine, when a full march is made. The "Joker," with the use of
the right and left bowers, are of the same value as in "Euchre;"
otherwise all suit cards are played as in "Whist" and "Euchre" and of
like value.

There is no trump to be taken up, no trump to be ordered up, no trump to
be turned down, no alone hand to be played, no cards out of use, no idle
player, and no time to be lost. "Time is money." The foregoing
objections are more than overcome and compensated by the use and
application of a "lapse" of one or more points, in excess of the
thirteen points, and made to apply on the next succeeding game. If the
winning partners stand on an _even_ number of points they will "lapse"
an _even_ number; if they stand on an _odd_ number of points they will
"lapse" an _odd_ number. If the game is correctly kept, and the total
number of points to the credit of the two partnerships is correctly
footed, then by subtracting the smallest total from the largest total,
you may have a credit balance of points, showing a duplicate result of
the evening's play and a "trial balance" proof of same.

We have endeavored to cover, as briefly as possible, all the ground
required to make clear and concise the method of the game, and give the
reasons why, after a period of nearly four hundred years, a new,
improved and superior game is now demanded to meet the progress of
civilization, and give to the public a more modern and advanced game,
more in keeping with the spirit of the times, and more congenial to the
social enjoyment of the many modern entertainments of the present day
and generation.

The game of "Whist" is too lengthy, too fatiguing and too exhausting.
The game of "Euchre" is too short, repeats itself too often, and soon
becomes too monotonous and uninteresting. Catlin's game of "Guest"
continues with unabated interest, does not fatigue and never exhausts.
It is based on an exact even divide between the two games of "Whist" and
"Euchre" in every particular. In the original game of "Whist" the full
pack of fifty-two cards are used, and in the original game of "Euchre"
thirty-two cards are used, just twenty cards less than in "Whist," and
with the same number of twenty cards held in the four "Euchre" hands. In
the present game of "Guest" thirty-six cards are held in the four
hands—sixteen less than in "Whist" and sixteen more than in "Euchre."
Twenty-one points constitute the original "Whist" game, thirteen points
constitute the present "Guest" game, and five points constitute the
original "Euchre" game—a difference of eight points in each of the three
games. Thirteen cards are held in each of the four hands in "Whist,"
nine cards are held in each of the four hands in "Guest," and five cards
are held in each of the four hands in "Euchre"—a difference of four
cards in each of the three games.

      Four is one-half of eight.
      Eight is one-half of sixteen.
      Sixteen is one-half of thirty-two.

In recognition of the two numbers 20, and in remembrance of the twelve
idle cards on the table out of use, unknown and embarrassing to the
players of "Euchre," the fifty-two card pack, from which the game of
"Whist" derived its origin, may be accounted for with special favor on
the side of Catlin's new, ingenious and scientific game of "Guest." It
is a very genteel game, a very simple game, a very practical game;
strictly mathematical, educating mental culture as an accomplishment.

The law of the game of "Guest" is fixed, arbitrary, abiding and
unchangeable; otherwise it could not be the superior, scientific and
mathematical game designed by the author, and must of necessity be at
the mercy of many devices of many players, and soon would cease to be
the only law-abiding game known to the historic origin of the playing
cards, and sustained by the law of the game which prompted the basis of
its origin. The law is fully defined by the following sections:

_First_—The name "Guest" is fixed, arbitrary and unchangeable,
signifying its origin, as expressed in the published game.

_Second_—The peculiar selection of the thirty-six cards—from ace to six
spot, inclusive—as expressed.

_Third_—The introduction of the "Joker" as the required odd card and
commanding trump, as expressed.

_Fourth_—The thirteen points required to make and constitute the full
game, as expressed.

_Fifth_—The method of count, by subtracting the less number of tricks
from the greater number, giving credit, balance only, to the side of the
greater number, as expressed.

_Sixth_—The first lead _must_ be a trump card when possible; otherwise
pass the lead to the next player. Trump must lead.

_Seventh_—The lapse of all points, one or more, in excess of the
thirteen points, to apply on the next succeeding game.

_Eighth_—The position of the indicating trump on the table must be at
the left hand of the present dealer, at the right hand of the one who
_must_ deal next, under the eye of the four players, and no question to
ask or answer is required.

_Finale_—The game is sustained by the best and most modern law known to
the best and most modern system of "Double Entry Book-keeping," on the
basis of defined balances, with each and every business transaction, as
proved by the final balance sheet of the evening's play of the game of
"Guest."

Rules for the play of the game of "Guest" may be at the option of, and
sustained by the judgment of each player, so long as the law of the game
is fully understood, applied and sustained, with no deviation whatever.

The author would advise and recommend the lead of the "Joker," when such
is possible, for your first trump lead; otherwise lead your smallest
trump card, trusting the result to your partner's play.

For your second and subsequent leads play the ace, when such is
possible; otherwise play your smallest suit card, trusting the result to
your partner's play.

When the leader holds a single card of any one of the three side suits,
it is desirable for a second or third lead to reduce suit, and thus to
give an added opportunity for the subsequent play of trump, trusting the
result to your partner's play.

The three games may all alike be made "progressive," and conform to
modern custom, under the three popular names of—

      "Drive Whist."
      "Progressive Euchre."
      "Honored Guest."

The merit due to the game of "Guest" is its practicability, simplicity
and perfect harmony, overcoming the two objectionable extremes, alike
peculiar to the two games of "Whist" and "Euchre." The strength of this
present game is in the close attention and watchful observance of the
players, remembering the cards as played and to be played, which may be
known alike to each of the four players by a studied application to the
play of the game.

                                                   H. D. CATLIN, Author,

                                 No. 817 Maine Street, Quincy, Illinois.


Copyright, 1893, by H. D. CATLIN.


       Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1893, by

                             H. D. CATLIN,

         in the office of Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

1. The printers' error "entertain-tainments" was changed to
entertainments on line 382.





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