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Title: An Historical Review of the Royal Marine Corps, from its Original Institution down to the Present Era, 1803
Author: Gillespie, Alexander
Language: English
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  Historical Review




















[Illustration: _St. Jean d'Acre in Syria._

_Memorable for its Gallant Defence by a Body of Seamen, and Marines
under Sr. Sidney Smith, & Colonel, now Sr. John Douglas Knt.
&c. &c. against BUONOPARTE, & the Flower of the French Egyptian


_Most Gracious Prince_,

With mixed sentiments of Loyalty and Gratitude, I now lay the
following Work under your Royal Shelter.

In having deigned to become its Patron your Royal Highness
has placed me under a double tie, as it is a precious mark of
condescension bestowed upon myself, enhanced in value from its
being a sure earnest of predilection for my Corps.

To cherish Patriotism, Subordination and Allegiance, is the bounden
duty of every subject; but more peculiarly so, during times of
public danger, and of general convulsion. This has been my leading
aim, not by the displays of Theory, but of Facts.

Conscious that such were my predominant motives, and anxious to
maintain consistency throughout, I looked around for a Protector
who united within himself all those exalted endowments which I have
laboured to establish. My eyes turned towards your Royal Highness,
and my pen did not solicit in vain.

With talents filled for an honorable discharge of the most
important trusts; early trained in the hardy employs of a
profession which has long been the prop of the British Empire;
and a Prince of the greatest Realm on earth, your Royal Highness
has nobly foregone all those pre-eminent claims, and with a
manly humility, you have associated yourself, in arms, with the
Volunteers of your Country.

Although the field of glory may not be so wide as on that element
for which your Royal Highness was destined from your youth, and
where you are so well qualified to shine, still you have exhibited
the brightest example to Englishmen, and by it alone, you have
already rendered the most signal services.

The deed, august Prince, will be reviewed by Posterity with all the
generous feelings of Britons; and it must convince the collected
hosts of a rapacious enemy, now arrayed for the avowed purpose of
overturning our Religion, our Liberties, and our Laws, of the many
serious dangers which they must encounter, ere they can subdue
those Isles, where but one spirit pervades, and animates every
rank, from the Palace to the Cottage.

Were I allowed to penetrate into futurity, and were your energies
to be ever called forth, I should then behold your Royal Highness
emulating the recognized valour of your illustrious Ancestors, by
deeds of heroic gallantry against the foes of your revered Father,
and of his Throne; but I will forbear to dwell upon the issues of
an after day.

Whether it shall be your lot to wave your banner or your flag in
combat against the enemies of our land, may victory and success
ever follow in your train, and may your Royal Highness enjoy the
honorary recompence of a Brave Nation, annexed to its habitual
respect for your public virtue, and your private worth!

Such, Most Gracious Prince, are the cordial wishes of one, who
has the distinguished privilege of attesting that fidelity and
devotion, with which he remains,

  Your Royal Highness's,

  Very attached,

  And most obedient humble Servant,


BIRMINGHAM, 15th NOV. 1803.


There is no Fame so liable to decay as that which has been acquired
by the subordinate Soldier. The admiration and applause too, which
follow military deeds, however brilliant, are but fickle passions,
as they successively transfer their affections to every new
conqueror, and all are too often buried in the same grave, after
the trumpet of war has ceased to sound.

To drag from the land of forgetfulness, actions, long lain in
oblivion; to place the revolutions and the achievements of a
corps, endeared to its Country by a train of loyalty and valour,
in one connected and analysed point of view, were the leading
motives which urged the Author to essay a history of its origin
and progress. Whilst he laments that the undertaking has not been
allotted to superior talents, at the same time he will venture to
affirm that it could not have been prosecuted with a stronger zeal.

Never was military prowess more loudly called for, than at the
present crisis.--Ardour should be raised in every rank. It is a
plant, which, by fostering attention flourishes and grows; but if
neglected, soon droops and dies. Courage is the natural birth-right
of an Englishman, and it needs only a directing hand, under
Providence, to give it an invincible aim.

It is policy then, as well as justice, to stamp upon record the
feats of the meanest, anxiously to search for worthy examples in
every walk, and to proclaim them to their brethren, and to the
world, as merited tributes, and powerful incentives to achievement.

The Author regrets that his range has been so limited, and that, in
many instances, the adduced anecdotes have not been more specific;
but the foundation stone is laid, upon which a structure may yet
be reared. He trusts, therefore, that the following request may
not be unavailing, which is,--That his brother Officers will have
the goodness to preserve, in written memorial, the names of those
gallant fellows who may hereafter distinguish themselves, as well
as a minute description of the circumstances.

As error is a bye path to knowledge, he anticipates from the
members of his own household, corrections of the many defects which
have unavoidably crept into a work of such miscellaneous detail.

A Soldier from his infancy, he begs that the public, and _those who
controul its opinions_, may be tender with the lash! It would be a
pity to bring a veteran, for his first offence, to the halberts,
and that too for grammatical inaccuracies.--He has taken up the pen
merely to be useful, not in the pursuit of literary fame.

The arrangement of his subject will appear classed under distinct
chapters, which engross the events of each separate year, excepting
such as comprehend the intervals of peace; a season that yields
little interesting matter, and what is uniformly comprized in one

An Appendix is added, which contains the essence of every Act of
Parliament now in force, so far as they affect the interests of the
families, the widows, or representatives of the forlorn orphans of
Seamen and Marines. A reference to it, will enable the Clergyman
or private Gentleman, to become the immediate and solid friend of
these meritorious and destitute objects, as the regular mode of
transaction and correspondence is clearly pointed out, by which, to
realize their little properties.

The Author takes this public method of tendering his warmest
thanks to the many respectable characters in this loyal spot, who
have befriended his labours, and to that wide circle of Royalty,
Nobility, and Gentry, who, although strangers to him, have yet
deigned to countenance the humble individual, from affection to his

BIRMINGHAM, 15th Nov. 1803.



Introductory remarks--The original design of Marine
Soldiers--Established in the year 1684--A detail of the first
established Corps--Disbanded at the peace of Ryswick--Interesting
events to the military--A digression respecting half-pay.--Page 1
to 8.

CHAP. II.--The revival of Marine Corps in the reign of Queen
Anne--Expences incurred by them--Marines no longer considered as
a nursery for the Navy--Rules for their future government and
conduct--Under the controul of the Lord High Admiral--Independent
Companies also raised and embodied.--P. 9 to 15.

CHAP. III.--The high estimation in which the Marines were held as
Soldiers--Their various enterprizes in favour of King Charles III.
in his views upon the Spanish monarchy.--P. 16 to 25.

CHAP. IV.--The reduction of Port Royal, now named Annapolis Royal,
in honour of Queen Anne.--P. 26 to 27.

CHAP. V.--Reflections on the views of King Charles of Spain
respecting the Spanish monarchy--The heroic perseverance exhibited
by the Marines when besieged in the town of Alicant--Expedition
against Cette, in the province of Languedoc--Taken, but afterwards
recovered.--P. 28 to 30.

CHAP. VI.--An unsuccessful attempt on the town of Quebec.--P. 31.

CHAP. VII.--Death of the Emperor of Germany--King Charles called
to fill the Austrian throne--Peace restored by the treaty of
Utrecht--Moderate expences of this long war.--P. 32 to 33.

CHAP. VIII.--A retrospect of arrangements as to the allowances to
Officers of the Army and the Marines--Reforms in the constitution
of Marine regiments--George I. commenced his reign with a signal
mark of royal favour to the Marine Corps--Marines disbanded.
Again embodied. Considerably augmented--Admiral Vernon's encomium
on the subject of Marine Soldiers--War with Spain detailed, by
the taking of Porto Bello, the bombardment of Carthagena, and an
attack on Chagre--A disastrous expedition against Carthagena--Heavy
losses.--P. 34 to 57.

CHAP. IX.--Marine regiments augmented--Indulgencies granted
them--Established regulations for them--Hardships experienced by
the Officers in drawing their arrears of pay.--P. 58 to 60.

CHAP. X.--Renewal of operations against the Spaniards--The
evacuation of Cuba.--P. 61 to 64.

CHAP. XI.--Unsuccessful expedition--Rattan possessed by the
British--Mutiny there suppressed by the energies of the Marine
Soldier--Heavy casualties of the troops in the West Indies.--P. 65
to 68.

CHAP. XII.--A spirited attack on the town of La Guira--An
unsuccessful attempt on the coast of Terra Firma.--P. 69 to 71.

CHAP. XIII.--France declares war against England--Property of
naval prizes granted to the captors--The Marine force considerably
augmented.--P. 72 to 75.

CHAP. XIV.--The attack and fall of Cape Breton--A digression to
a train of important domestic events--Effective strength of the
Marine regiments in 1745.--P. 76 to 84.

CHAP. XV.--An investigation into the grievances of the land forces
and Marines--Expedients suggested to redress the grievances
complained of--Statement of them--Definition of terms--Meditated
expeditions against the French coast--Marines incorporated with
the line--Taking precedence from the 44th regiment--A short detail
of each--A curious occurrence of a recruiting party in London,
authenticated by Major Donkin.--P. 85 to 102.

CHAP. XVI.--Two important naval victories, gained by Admirals
Warren and Hawke--Marines placed under the controul of the Board of
Admiralty.--P. 103 to 105.

CHAP. XVII.--The conquest of Pondicherry meditated--Anecdote
of Hannah Snell, a female Marine Soldier--The expedition to
Pondicherry abandoned--The attack against St. Jago frustrated
and diverted against Port Lewis--A serious mutiny on board the
Chesterfield--A striking anecdote in consequence of it--Peace
proclaimed.--P. 106 to 115.

CHAP. XVIII.--Grants of land, and the cultivation of Nova
Scotia--50 companies of Marines levied--Detail of appointments to
them, and an act passed for their regulation on shore when they
were formed into three divisions--Preparations for war.--P. 116 to

CHAP. XIX.--Marine Corps further augmented--War declared against
France--A Marine detachment shares in the gallant defence of
Minorca--A new ministry formed.--P. 121 to 123.

CHAP. XX.--20 companies added to complete the corps of Marines--A
coalition of parties.--P. 124.

CHAP. XXI.--Further augmentation of the Marine Corps--The Militia
established--A memorable action at sea--The works on the Isle of
Aix destroyed by a party of Marines--The capitulation of Fort
Lewis, Cape Breton, and St. John's--The surrender of Goree, in all
of which the Marine corps bore a part--A bill framed to enable
Seamen to assist their suffering families.--P. 125 to 130.

CHAP. XXII.--A gallant action recorded, in which Captain Troy and
his detachment were distinguished--Various expeditions in the
West Indies--A ludicrous anecdote of some Seamen near Quebec--A
naval victory in the Mediterranean--Havre de Grace bombarded--The
spirited zeal of Captain Harvey on repeated occasions--Defeat
of Conflans by Admiral Hawke--New establishment in the Marine
Corps--Remarks upon it.--P. 131 to 144.

CHAP. XXIII.--The Marine forces augmented--Important services
effected at home and in the East--The death of George II.--His
present Majesty proclaimed King--Magnanimous instances of
liberality shewn to distressed French prisoners in England.--P. 145
to 151.

CHAP. XXIV.--An expedition against Belleisle--Disasters at its
outset--The town and citadel of Palais reduced--Examples of Marine
gallantry--The island of Dominica reduced--Gallant single actions
at sea recorded--The union between the King and Queen--Mr. Pitt's
resignation--Field Officers upon the Marine list at the close of
1761.--P. 152 to 163.

CHAP. XXV.--War declared against Spain--The reduction of Martinico,
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada--A plan of operations meditated
against the Spanish colonies--Havannah surrenders--An attempt
against Newfoundland frustrated--An expedition against the Spanish
Philippine Islands--Distinguished operations there--Rich captures
at sea--Wretched state of the enemy--Preliminaries of peace
ratified.--P. 164 to 179.

CHAP. XXVI.--A heavy reduction in the Marine forces--A proposal for
increasing the number of Marine Field Officers--Partial grants of
land to his Majesty's servants in the Province of Canada.--P. 180
to 182.

CHAP. XXVII.--The hostile disposition of the American Provinces
towards their mother Country appears early--Considerate reforms in
the Corps adopted by Earl Sandwich.--P. 183 to 184.

CHAP. XXVIII.--The American war commences in New England--Affair at
Lexington--Judicious measures of Lord Percy in effecting a masterly
retreat to Boston--A Marine battalion reaches America--Formed
into two battalions--Detail of the Officers--Battle of Bunker's
Hill--Farther particulars in Canada and Virginia.--P. 185 to 208.

CHAP. XXIX.--Sufferings of the troops in Boston--That town
evacuated, after which the Army proceeds for Halifax--Various
transactions in North America.--P. 209 to 214.

CHAP. XXX.--The Grenadier Marine Companies accompany Sir William
Howe--Detail of military operations throughout the American
continent.--P. 215 to 220.

CHAP. XXXI.--Treaty between France and America--Rapid and gallant
successes of Colonel Maitland--Hostilities with France--Single
encounters at sea--Warlike events in America and the West
Indies.--P. 221 to 225.

CHAP. XXXII.--A retrospective view of the uniform good conduct and
discipline of the Marine battalion at Halifax--Honours rendered to
all in consequence.--P. 226 to 238.

CHAP. XXXIII.--Pondicherry taken--D'Estaing's success in the West
Indies--Drawn battle at sea--His attempt upon Savannah--Is repulsed
with loss--Marine gallantry there--Colonel Maitland dies--Spanish
war--Omoa taken--Anecdote there--Subordinate details at sea.--P.
239 to 247.

CHAP. XXXIV.--Admiral Rodney's successes--Political
digressions--Operations in America--Admiral Rodney's battles in
the West Indies--Undaunted conduct of Commodore Cornwallis--Single
actions between ships.--P. 248 to 255.

CHAP. XXXV.--War with Holland--Dutch losses in the West
Indies--Unequal contest off Martinique--French successes in
that quarter--Reduction of West Florida by the Spaniards--Naval
engagements--Transactions in India, in which the Marines were
peculiarly active--Disasters in America--Single actions during
1801--Admiral Kempenfelt's bold attack on a French convoy.--P. 256
to 271.

CHAP. XXXVI.--Admiral Hood's brave conduct at St. Kitt's--Victory
of the 12th of April--Anecdote of Lieutenant Mounier--Engagement
in the East Indies--Signal repulse of the combined forces from
Gibraltar--Subordinate actions at sea--Peace negociated.--P. 272 to

CHAP. XXXVII.--A general peace--Instances of mutiny--Conduct of
the Marines--A heavy reduction in that establishment--Striking
anecdote respecting the Duke of Clarence--Detachments to New South
Wales.--P. 277 to 280.

CHAP. XXXVIII.--War with France--Inadequate augmentation--Remarks
upon it--Noble patriotism of the town of Manchester--Successful
operations--The surrender of Toulon to Lord Hood--A detail of
events there--Military anecdotes of Lieutenants Nailor and
Burdwood of Marines--Zeal of Sir Sidney Smith--Evacuation of
Toulon--Judicious conduct of Capt. Robinson, of Marines, while
commanding the garrison of Cape Nicola Mole at St. Domingo--Single
actions at sea.--P. 281 to 294.

CHAP. XXXIX.--Additional Companies raised--St. Fiorenzo and Bastia
surrender to Lord Hood--Rapid conquests in the West Indies by the
Fleet and Army under Sir John Jervis and Sir Charles Grey--Lord
Howe's memorable victory--Action at sea--Lieutenant Craigie
killed.--P. 295 to 300.

CHAP. XL.--A treaty between France and Holland--Reduction
of the Cape of Good Hope, and of the Dutch territories in
Hindostan--Defeat of the French fleet by Admiral Hotham--Single
actions--Lieutenant Crebbin distinguished--Admiral Cornwallis's
masterly retreat from a very superior force--Lord Bridport takes
three sail of the line--Lieutenant Jephcote slain--Bravery of
Lieutenant Richardson and Serjeant Dice on board La Blanche.--P.
301 to 307.

CHAP. XLI.--St. Lucia conquered--Various military incidents
in which Lieutenant Carter was mortally wounded, and Captain
Strangeways, after feats of valour, died from a severe
wound--Lieutenants Williams and Hart also noticed for spirit--The
French foiled in their aim to invade Ireland.--P. 308 to 312.

CHAP. XLII.--Hostilities against Spain--Trinidad and ships of
war surrender or are burnt--Brilliant victory of Sir John Jarvis
over a superior Spanish fleet--Digression upon the subject of
achievement--Lieutenant Bulkeley's good conduct--Unsuccessful
attack on Teneriffe--Lieutenants Robinson and Basham slain--A
mutiny on board the Hermione--Reflections--Mutiny in our
fleets--Remarks on it--Lieutenants Wilson, O'Connor, Carruthers,
Campbell, and Stewart, Serjeant Sweet, and Private Cubit,
signalized by courage and fidelity--Admiral Duncan's victory--Royal
procession to St. Paul's.--P. 313 to 324.

CHAP. XLIII.--Political reflections--French expedition to
Egypt--The fall of Malta, Alexandria, and Cairo--Glorious battle
of the Nile--Captain Faddy killed--The gallantry of Lieutenant
Perry stated, and Serjeant Dair's valour and death on board
the Leander--James Harding's intrepidity--Operations in the
Mediterranean--Marine courage displayed on board the Mars, and
in the defence of St. Marcou--Lieutenants Maughan, Ensor, Symes,
Macdonald, Hole, Gerrard, Bell, Derring, and Sinclair distinguished
through the year 1798.--P. 325 to 334.

CHAP. XLIV.--The noble defence of St. Jean d'Acre, by the
Seamen and Marines under Sir Sidney Smith and Colonel
Douglas--Lieutenant Burton noticed--Bold sortie--Major
Oldfield's fall--Eulogiums to his memory--Lieutenant Beattie
wounded--Repulse of Buonaparte--Farther services of Sir Sidney and
Colonel Douglas--Short and brilliant campaign in the Neapolitan
territory--Momentous results and prompt conduct of Captain
Trowbridge, as well as discipline evinced by the Marines under
Colonel Strickland--Lieutenants Vivion, Davison, Private Needham,
Lieutenants M'Gee, Wybourn, Howell, Higginson, and Gardner,
honorably mentioned amongst the mixed transactions of 1799.--P. 335
to 355.

CHAP. XLV.--Malta surrenders--Marine Officers
there--Captures--Lieutenants Campbell, Jewell, Captain M'Leverty,
Mr. Macdonald, Lieutenants Owen, Gerrard, Thompson, Ballingham,
Hutton, M'Cullen, Alexander, Montgomerie, Mitchell, and Jordan
appear most respectably on the records of 1800.--P. 356 to 362.

CHAP. XLVI.--Northern confederacy--Unexampled increase
to the Marine Corps--Victory at Copenhagen--Subsequent
details upon it--Lieutenants Tate, Sinclair, Rose, Gerrard,
distinguished--Bombardment of Boulogne--Mutiny in Bantry
Bay--Honorable testimonies of Marine loyalty--Egyptian
campaign--Encomiums bestowed upon the Corps, for their
gallantry and discipline--Bright achievements of Sir James
Saumarez--Individual Officers named during the military operations
of 1801--Lieutenant Smith's decisive conduct, and a heroic instance
of zeal in a Private Marine in quelling a mutiny on board the
Castor--Testimonials in consequence--Lieutenant Vyvion's fall.--P.
363 to 390.

CHAP. XLVII.--A general peace--Marine Corps honoured with the
title of _Royal_--Terms in which the boon was bestowed--Other
marks of recompence--The distinguished perseverance evinced by a
Marine detachment in quelling a mutiny at Dominique--Particulars
of it--High encomiums rendered to the Marine parties on board the
Gibraltar and Excellent.--P. 391 to 399.

CHAP. XLVIII.--Earl St. Vincent's reforms--War with France--His
Lordship's attention to the Corps of Royal Marines--Subordinate
exploits.----P. 400 to 402.


Privileges of the Marine Soldier and the progressive indulgencies
granted to him stated and discussed--Useful instructions for
recovering wages and prize-money due to the heirs of deceased
Marines--Forms of procedure, the prescribed fees attending every
claim, and some hints as to the execution of wills and letters of
attorney, with sundry other particulars, of general benefit to the
relatives of Seamen as well as Marines.


Page 52, for _duies_ read _duties_.--60, for _sytem_ read
_system_.--74, for a force of 11,556 _were_ read _was_.--82,
for _strived_ to subvert read _striven_.--95, for _The_
afterwards destined against L'Orient read _They_; and same
page, for _exquinox_ read _equinox_.--121, for _compleat_ read
_complete_.--125, for _Selfs_ read _Self_.--129, for _Maines_
read _Marines_.--190, for _dare_ not, read _durst_ not.--210, for
_resolved_ upon dislodging read _He_ resolved, &c.--222, for But
_their_ leader read _its_ leader.--230, for _after_ formed into
one Battalion read _each Company to consist of_, &c.--233, for
top detail of _Light Infantry_ and _Grenadiers_ read downwards
2d, 3d, and 4th Companies.--250, for _friendly_ passion read
_fiendly_.--326, instead of revived under the republic _who_ read
_which_; and for _their_ faithless purposes read _such_.--357,
for He _with_ Mr. Beaufort read He _and_ Mr. Beaufort.--373, for
_the following was the order of battle_ read _and by the order
of battle_ given out, the Marines were attached, &c.--378, for
_tenable_ in the field read _terrible_, &c. &c. &c.





_&c. &c._



At a period when the commerce of this Country bore no proportion
to its present state, the supplies of Seamen, under a system of
impress, were extremely precarious, and often inadequate to the
public emergencies. Experience had also shewn, that raw landsmen
were most improper substitutes for this want, as the sudden
change of life rendered them subject to immediate disease, and
sea-sickness, at a time when their active services were required.

These united causes originally suggested the expediency of forming
an establishment of Marines, who were raised and embodied with the
sole view of being a nursery to man our fleets. They were always
quartered in the vicinity of our principal sea-ports, where they
were regularly trained to the different methods of ship fighting,
and to these various manœuvres of a vessel, in which numbers were
necessary. Being thus locally placed, their value was early felt
by their exertions in equipping the squadrons fitted out, when
but little confidence could be placed in the sailor, perhaps just
impressed into the service.

The general principles and regulations that were instituted for
the conduct of the Marine regiments, from their formation, to the
close of the reign of King William III. evidently shew that they
were entirely devoted to naval purposes. As each individual became
properly qualified to act on board of ship as a foremast-man, which
was uniformly encouraged, he was discharged from his regiment,
entered upon the books as such, and levy-money was granted to the
officers of his corps, in order to supply the vacancy of him who
was thus transferred.

The first authentic instance of any regiment of this description
appears in the Army List of 1684, and from the return of the
general review on Putney Heath, upon the first day of October in
that year. Neither the exact æra of its establishment, or that of
the other maritime forces, is clearly ascertained; and it would be
absurd to speculate upon dates which can yield no material result.

The return which I have mentioned runs thus, and is annexed at
large: "The Lord High Admiral of England, his Royal Highness the
Duke of York and Albany's _Maritime Regiment of Foot_, commanded
by the Honourable Sir Charles Littleton, called also the Admiral

  Sir Charles Littleton, Colonel.
  Oliver Niclas, Lieutenant Colonel.
  Richard Bagett, Major.

         CAPTAINS.                 LIEUTENANTS.           ENSIGNS.

  Col's. Co. commanded by
        Capt. Lt.            Robt. Crawford, Capt. Lt.  Philom. Powell
  Lt. Colonel's Co.
        commanded by         Lieut. Edm. Yarborough     Arthur Townshend
  Major's Co. commanded by   Lieut. Theoph. Bleehenden  William Pearson
  Geo. Littleton, Captain    Lieut. Edmund Wilson       James Man
  Sir Thomas Cutler          Robert Lloyd               John Hill
  Edward Nott                Francis Hobblin            Alexander Erwin
  Francis Ezod               Francis Butler             Thomas Man
  Edward Harris              John Thorn                 William Somers
  Samuel Scudamore           George Rooke               Gilbert Simons
  Chichester Wray            Henry Hewys                Geo. Littleton
  Charles Herbert            Thomas Whaley              Francis Ezord
  Edmund Plowden             William Oglethorpe         Jo. Whaley

  State Major, or the Staff Officers of the Admiral Regiment,

  Richard Beauvoir, Adjutant.
  Tobias Legross, Quarter-Master.
  Samuel Tatham, Chirurgeon.
  John Tatham, Chirurgeon's Mate.

This regiment consisted of twelve companies, without any
grenadiers, had yellow coats lined with red, and their colours
were a red cross, with rays of the sun issuing from each of its
angles. It stood the third in seniority in the line of that day;
and it may be presumed, from its subsequent reduction, that a step
was obtained in it by the 4th, _then_ the Regiment of Holland,
commanded by John, the second Lord Mulgrave, and now entitled The
Old Buffs.

Betwixt 1687 and 1698, there were several maritime regiments raised
for the purposes, and under the regulations I have stated. They
were Colonels Mordaunt, Colt, Seymour, and Brudenell's; also, Sir
Cloudesley Shovel's, my Lord Torrington's, and the Marquis of
Carmarthen's; all of which were disbanded during the currency of
1697 and 1698.

The expences incurred by the maintenance of the maritime troops
were classed with the estimates of the navy, and money was issued
from time to time, by warrant from the Lord High Treasurer to the
Treasurer of the Navy, who placed it in the hands of a person
especially appointed to receive and pay it. Under this system,
the Admiralty and Navy Boards were subjected to much trouble, in
forming and directing its different arrangements.

From the nature of the marine service, at this period, few or no
achievements occur which can be peculiarly attached to it as a
corps. We find them honourably mentioned in the operations against
St. Christopher's, and the successful attack upon Cork, under the
æra of 1690. The detail of loss upon the former occasion is thus
described, and evinces that their energies also, as soldiers, were
called forth when occasion might require them. "In this action we
had killed and wounded upwards of 130 men, and Captain Keigwin, _a
sea commander_, who was appointed _Colonel of the Marine Regiment_,
(which consisted of about 230 _seamen_) was shot through the thigh,
of which wound he died, before he could be carried on board, and
Captain Brisbane, who _acted as First Captain to the Marines_,
receiving a shot through the body, expired that night on board the

Embodied under similar circumstances, they of course partook in
the various services of debarkation, which the emergency of those
times might have demanded, until the peace of Ryswick, which, for a
while, closed the existence of marine forces.

The expences of King William's war, upwards of eight years'
duration, are so moderate when contrasted with these of later days,
that they merit a place in any retrospect which treats of that
period; and it is to be remarked that 40,000 seamen were maintained
during the last years of it.

  Total navy estimates allowed        £16,303,713 15  0
  Total army  do.       do.           £18,487,671 17 10
                                      £34,764,385 12 10

In all, thirty-four millions seven hundred sixty-four thousand
three hundred eighty-five pounds, twelve shillings and ten pence!

I cannot bid adieu to the transactions of this auspicious reign,
which has established the happiness and the liberties of my
country, without commenting upon two events of it, that must be
materially interesting to every military man--I mean the code of
laws for the good order and discipline of our armies, and the grant
of half-pay bestowed upon disbanded officers.

The first was adopted in an hour of urgent expediency, in order
to restrain the uncontrouled outrages of a discontented soldiery,
on account of arrears due to them. This act was passed in great
haste upon the 12th day of April, 1689, and has progressively
experienced these various improvements that arise out of occasions.
It undergoes annually a legislative sanction, under the title of
the Mutiny Bill.

Half-pay was a gift decreed upon the 18th of January, 1697, and has
subsequently involved many a doubt, whether as having been intended
in the light of a retaining fee, or as a reward for past services.
Opposite decisions have authorised different constructions, while
the lapse of more than one hundred years has not yet explicitly
brought the point to an issue.

The manly and independent spirit of our judges, pure as these laws
that controul their opinions, has not been able to adjust the

In the case of General Ross, which was submitted to their enquiry
and determination--they resolved that he could not be amenable, _as
a half-pay officer_, to military jurisdiction; but the discussion
extended no farther.

In 1715 a number of officers, however, who drew this recompence
from the public, most ingloriously joined the Pretender. The issue
being unfortunate for them, they were all taken prisoners, and
afterwards tried and executed by _martial_ law; although they might
have been capitally convicted _as rebels, by the common law of the

In having adduced these opposite examples, I cannot withhold a
remark, that under no one head of the articles of war is this
description of men noticed; and I can readily anticipate the answer
of an Englishman, were I to ask him if any laws should affect such
an object as I have defined, in which he is not expressly specified?

In this flourishing country, where industry and enterprize are open
to all, it often happens that an officer, when the State no longer
wants his services, turns his attention and the little capital he
may possess, to commercial pursuits. In this new profession he very
probably advances the public interests more essentially than were
he recalled to his former duties, upon every fresh emergency.

_That_ patriotism and loyalty, which I am convinced in those days
influence every soldier, who, in the smallest portion, tastes
of the bread of his King, will enforce through each quarter of
Britain a local activity, and when necessary, a military zeal. As
volunteer companies in the present, and very probably under the
future political circumstances of our country, must form a branch
of our force, who are there more capable of animating them than men
who have been trained to arms, whose allegiance is undisputed, and
whose early sentiments and ideas no change of life can extinguish?
Some legislative assurances of exemption in favour of officers of
this description, and who engage to discharge the obligations of
general association when required, would be politic and gratifying.
Half-pay might also very properly be no longer considered as a
retainder of those who have served any marked number of years; for
I would discriminate between the veteran and the stripling, who are
alike entitled to the same remuneration; though, I should humbly
conceive, to separate indulgencies. Having made this digression,
suited, I trust, to the present topic and the present times, I
return to the train of my narrative.


Upon the death of King William III. whose royal memory must long
be dear to Englishmen, Queen Anne ascended the British throne.
Previous to this event, the seeds of a new war had been forming,
which was proclaimed against France and Spain, upon the 4th day of
May, 1702.

The French King having advanced his grandson, the Duke of Anjou to
the vacant Spanish monarchy, her Majesty espoused the interests
and claims of the Archduke of Austria upon that sovereignty, and
resolved upon sending a strong fleet into the Mediterranean, which
was to become the theatre of their hostile efforts.

One of the first acts of her reign was a revival of the corps of
Marines, but they were placed upon a different footing from these
that existed under her royal predecessor. Destined for the mingled
and active services of co-operation with the well-trained forces
of our allies, along with a new establishment, a new constitution
was also requisite. Their meritorious conduct, as soldiers, in
the subsequent duties that were allotted them, reflected honour
upon their discipline and their country, and they shared in the
royal thanks of Him whose cause they maintained, by their frequent
debarkations upon the sea-coasts of France, Spain, and Italy.

Her Majesty's order for levying this body of men was issued upon
the first day of June, 1702, and runs thus:

    ANNE R.

    "Our pleasure is, that this establishment of six regiments
    of Marines, and six other regiments, for _sea service_, do
    commence and take place from the respective times of raising.
    And our farther pleasure is, That the order given by our
    dearest Brother the late King deceased, and such orders as
    are or shall be given by us touching the pay or entertainment
    of our said forces, or any of them, or any charges thereunto
    belonging, shall be duly complied with, and that no new charge
    be added to this establishment, without being communicated to
    our High Treasurer, or Commissioners of our Treasury for the
    time being.

    "Given at our Court at St. James's, first day of June in the
    first year of our reign.

    "By her Majesty's command,


I annex, also, the expences incurred by one regiment of this
description, which will be a guide to the total charge for the
whole of them.

  One Company,                   _per day._     _per year._
  Colonel as Colonel              £0 12  0       £219  0  0
  Lieut. Col. as Lieut. Col.       0  7  0        127 15  0
  Major as Major                   0  5  0         91  5  0
  Chaplain                         0  6  8        121 13  4
  Adjutant                         0  4  0         73  0  0
  Quartermaster                    0  4  0         73  0  0
  Chirurgeon                       0  4  0         73  0  0
  One Mate to ditto                0  2  6         45 12  6
                                  --------       ----------
                                  £2  5  2       £824  5 10
                                  ========       ==========

  One Company,                   _per day._     _per year._
  Captain                         £0  8  0       £146  0  0
  First Lieutenant                 0  4  0         73  3  0
  Second Lieutenant                0  3  0         54 15  0
  2 Serjeants, each 1_s_ 6_d_      0  3  0         54 15  0
  3 Corporals, each 1_s_           0  3  0         54 15  0
  2 Drummers, each 1_s_            0  2  0         36 10  0
  59 Privates, each 8_d_           1 19  4        717 16  8
                                  --------     ------------
                                  £3  2  4     £1,137 11  8
                                  ========     ============
  Pay of 10 Comp. more of the }
  like number and same rates  }   31  3  4     11,375 16  8
                                 ---------    -------------
                                  34  5  8    £12,513  8  4
                                 =========    =============

One Company of Grenadiers to complete this Regiment, as follows:

  1 Captain                       £0  8  0       £146  0  0
  1 First Lieutenant               0  4  0         73  0  0
  1 Second Lieutenant              0  4  0         73  0  0
  3 Serjeants, each 1_s_ 6_d_      0  4  6         82  2  6
  3 Corporals, each 1_s_           0  3  0         54 15  0
  59 Grenadiers, each 8_d_         1 19  4        717 16  8
                                ----------    -------------
  Total this Regiment             39 15  8    £14,520 18  4
                                ==========    =============
  Pay 5 Regiments more, at }
  the same rates, &c.      }     198 18  4     72,604 11  8
                                ----------    -------------
  Total for Marines             £238 14  0    £87,125 10  0
                                ==========    =============

The six regiments of Foot for _sea service_ were exactly the same
numbers and same denominations, excepting as to officers, who
among these corps, were detailed as Ensigns instead of Second
Lieutenants. Classed under one general head, the twelve regiments
cost the public £238 14 0 _per day_, and £174,251 0 0 _per year_.

The idea of this class of men being raised with a view of becoming
a nursery for the Navy, seems to have been now relinquished, and
the following articles for their government and conduct were
framed, and adopted, by her Majesty in council, upon the 1st of
July, 1702.

1st. They were to be employed on board her Majesty's ships as there
should be occasion, and quartered at, or as near as might be to the
dock-yards, when on shore, to guard them from embezzlements, or any
attempts of an enemy.

2d. In all matters relating to their subsistence and clearings,
when on board and on shore, they were to be paid in like manner as
the land forces, and the same deductions to be made from them for
clothing, and one day's pay, once a year, from each officer and
soldier for the hospital.

3d. They were to be allowed an equal proportion of provisions with
the seamen, without any deductions from their pay for the same.

4th. And to have the same allowance for short provisions (when
circumstances render the issue of full allowance imprudent) as the
seamen, to be paid to themselves, or their assigns.

5th. Such regiments, or parts of them as should be on shore, were
to be mustered by a commissary or commissaries in the same manner
as the land forces, excepting in this case, that they, the said
commissaries, were obliged to allow at each muster on his or their
rolls, all such officers and soldiers as should appear to him or
them by authentic vouchers, or certificates, to be put on board
any of her Majesty's ships or vessels, and that such part of the
aforesaid regiments as should be at sea, might be paid while they
were so, it was directed, That the commanding Marine Officer with
them should, every two months, return to the Commissary General
of the Musters a perfect list of all the officers and soldiers on
board each ship, signed by himself, and all the Marine Officers,
expressing the times of entry, death, and discharge of each man,
that so the Commissary might compare the said lists with the
monthly books sent to the Navy Office, and allow such of the
officers and soldiers as should appear to him fit to be so allowed.

6th. To prevent confusion, not less than fifteen Marine Soldiers,
and with them an Officer, were to be put on board a ship, at any
one time, unless in cases of necessity.

7th. And for the ease of the whole a particular Pay-master was
appointed, with power to solicit the arrears of the regiments,
and to receive all sums of money from the Treasurer of the Navy;
and immediately upon the receipt thereof, to issue the same to
the respective Colonels, or their Agents; he was also required,
diligently and carefully to adjust all accounts relating to the
regiments, according to such muster rolls as should be delivered to
him by the Commissary, or Commissaries; and those muster rolls were
to be allowed of, as sufficient vouchers for the charges in the
accounts, and for making out debentures and warrants.

8th. To enable the aforesaid Pay-master to keep an Office, and to
defray the charge thereof, and of Clerks and other contingencies,
he was allowed sixpence in the pound, pursuant to the subscription
of the respective Colonels, which he had power to deduct out of
all monies issued to him, in the same manner as the poundage was
deducted from the land forces.

9th. For rendering such parts of the regiments as should be on
shore the more useful, her Majesty declared it should be left
to herself, or the High Admiral, to dispose of them at such
places nearest to the several dock yards, as might be judged most
convenient: And since there might be occasion for Labourers to
dispatch necessary works, her Majesty empowered her High Admiral,
or the Commissioners for executing that office, to cause to be
employed in the aforesaid dock yards, so many of the Marine
Soldiers as might be judged fitting, and to make them such daily
allowance for the same, besides their ordinary pay, as to him or
them should seem reasonable.

Thus placed under the controul of the Lord High Admiral, he was
pleased to nominate Brigadier General Seymour to superintend the
whole; whose peculiar duties were to observe, that the men were
comfortably quartered, that the officers were attentive in their
respective departments, and that the Marine Soldiers, when embarked
on board of ship, were supplied with proper sea clothes, and other
suitable necessaries.

During this reign also, a number of independent companies of
Marines was raised for the express purpose of defending our
different West India possessions, to which quarter they were sent,
were embodied into three regiments, and where they remained many


In order to pave the way for the cordial reception of King Charles
the III. orders were sent to Sir Cloudesley Shovel, then commanding
the British Fleet in the Mediterranean, to effect what he could by
conciliation, or by conquest, amongst the different dependencies
of the French and Spanish monarchies, previous to the arrival
of the Royal Claimant. Throughout the whole of that Admiral's
instructions, much dependence was placed upon the energies of the
Marine Forces under his command, and they subsequently bore a
conspicuous share of the mingled services that ensued, in the cause
of the House of Austria. This circumstance may evince the very high
estimation in which they were held as Soldiers, although nothing
materially occurred either under the command of Sir Cloudesley
Shovel, or during the currency of 1703.

After many delays the Archduke arrived at Lisbon, with Sir George
Rooke, upon the 25th day of February 1704, in order to concert a
plan of future operations with his ally, the King of Portugal. The
Admiral was enjoined to attempt nothing without the suggestion and
assent of Both.

The first enterprize was against Barcelona, whither they were
invited by some deputies from Catalonia, and a few leading men
in the city, who gave assurances that it would declare for
Charles the III. if a shew of attack only was made. Here 1600
Marines were landed, at the request and under the command of the
Prince of Hesse, upon the noon of the 19th of May. This force
being inadequate for the purpose, it was next day re-embarked at
the instance of his Highness. Listening to the wishes of their
Majesties, in conformity with his instructions, the Admiral would
have attempted Cadiz; but, upon deliberation, and that there was no
army to co-operate, this idea was given up.

They accordingly turned their thoughts to Gibraltar, where the
Prince of Hesse was landed in the afternoon of the 21st of July,
with 1800 British and Dutch Marines. Proceeding upon the decision
of a Council of War, his Highness was to cut off all communication
with the main land, to bombard and cannonade the place, and to
reduce it to the obedience of the King of Spain.

Having established his post at some mills then near the town, he
sent a summons for the Governor to surrender; who answered, that
all his garrison had taken an oath of allegiance to their lawful
Sovereign, King Philip the V. and that as loyal and faithful
subjects, they would die in its defence.

The Admiral having directed a strong force to proceed against
the south mole, the enemy were driven from their guns.--A number
of boats manned and armed, were then detached under the gallant
conduct of Capt. Whitaker, of the Navy, who soon obtained
possession of the great platform; but about one hundred, whose
impetuous bravery had carried them within the effects of a mine
connected with the fort, were killed and wounded by its explosion.
The rest, however, advancing most rapidly, gained a redoubt,
half-way between the mole and the town.

This attack being made upon a Sunday, almost the whole of the women
belonging to the garrison, were performing their devotions in a
chapel about four miles distant; so that the besieging forces were
between them and their husbands and families.

This circumstance hastened the fall of the place, for the citizens
within strongly urged the Governor to capitulate; who being thus
almost compelled to it, the Prince of Hesse, at the head of the
Marines, marched in upon the evening of the 24th.--The garrison,
indeed, was only composed of two skeleton regiments; but the
strength of the fortifications, the number of cannon mounted being
upwards of 100 pieces towards the sea, and the two narrow passes
of approach from the land, would have rendered it formidable to an
enemy who possessed not the dash of enterprize. Our loss, in the
attempt, was 61 killed, and 206 wounded.

In October of the same year, the Garrison, composed of Marines
under the Prince of Hesse, sustained a siege by 7000 men. The
purpose of the enemy was to have stormed from the south mole,
united with the desperate attempt of a Spanish forlorn hope
climbing the rock, and a general attack from the main land. Against
very superior forces Gibraltar was maintained, until relieved by
Sir John Leake, who reinforced the place with 2000 men.

This Fortress, seated upon the territories of our natural foe, has
long stood a monument of our naval power, which has oftener than
once been especially devoted to relieve its wants; and has also
afforded to the world, a brilliant instance of military defence
under the late Lord Heathfield.

Nothing worthy of notice occurred until the month of September
1705, when it was deemed essential by the Earl of Peterborough
Commander in Chief, to attempt something worthy of our arms, and
the service of the King.

At the desire of his Lordship, a large body of Seamen and Marines
were landed at Barcelona, who were auxiliary in the reduction of
that important place, at which his Majesty was present.

This city was destined to an attack from the enemy, early in 1706,
whither Sir John Leake, having the Earl of Peterborough on board,
proceeded in April.

His Majesty, King Charles, who was then within its walls, very
strongly urged the immediate debarkation of all our forces; upon
which, 1400 land troops, and the Marines of the fleet, were on the
9th of April, sent to his aid. Their appearance was well timed,
as the French had made a practicable breach, which they would
otherwise have stormed upon the following day.--After repeated
attempts they relaxed in their efforts, and many volunteers from
the city, as well as peasants from the mountains pouring down in
numbers, obliged them to raise the siege precipitately, upon the
11th.--After ten at night the enemy began to retreat; but first
setting fire to their magazines, and placing matches to their
mines. Many of the former, however, were preserved by the natives,
and a number of the latter were extinguished by the soldiery. The
morning's dawn presented their army retreating in disorder, and
grievously harassed by our troops, and the enraged Catalans.

An eclipse of the sun, followed by a total darkness about nine,
suspended for a while every operation, which, when dissipated,
the slaughter was renewed, till prudence recalled them from the
carnage. The enemy's camp, with 100 brass cannon, and stores of
every description, were the fruits of our efforts.

Having thus relieved this important place, the fleet sailed upon
the 18th of May, and landed the forces of every description, upon
the coast of Valencia on the 25th.

This was preparatory to the attack of Alicant, which was deemed
almost impregnable.--Having been apprized that it was reinforced,
and that a regular siege alone could reduce it, the idea was
dropped for a time, and they proceeded against Carthagena, which
immediately submitted; and where a garrison of 600 Marines under
Major Hedges, _who was appointed Governor of it_, was established
for its defence.

An attempt upon Alicant was then resolved upon; but Brigadier
Gorge having upon a close review of the place, and learning the
resolute spirit of its Governor, Major General Mahoni, represented
that not less than 3000 men were necessary to reduce it.--Having
with him not more than 1450 troops, and he being of opinion that
no dependence could be placed in the Spanish Militia, it was
determined to withdraw the garrison of Marines from Carthagena, in
order to assist in these active operations, and to put another in
its stead.

The fleet arrived off Alicant, upon the 26th of June, when a
summons was forwarded to General Mahoni, who, like an Officer,
answered, that he would hold out to the last. His force consisted
of more than 1000 Soldiers, and many inhabitants of the town, who
had volunteered in its defence.

Brigadier Gorge having moved from Elche upon the 21st of July,
where he had remained waiting for reinforcements, to within a
mile of Alicant, all the Marines of the fleet, with 800 Seamen,
were landed upon that day, and the following morning, and the
bombardment commenced in the evening of the 22d. A detachment of
the Naval force under Sir George Byng, rendered very essential
service, by dismounting many of the enemy's guns opposed to the
sea, and driving the men from them.

Upon the 24th of July, the Marines arrived from Carthagena, and
were immediately landed. Four days after, when the troops had
gained possession of the suburbs, all the boats were manned and
armed, in order to attack the town. On the 29th, the ships having
made a practicable breach in the round tower, at the west end of
the place, and another at the middle of the curtain, between
the mole and the easternmost bastion, the Soldiers advanced to
storm them. An Officer with fifteen Grenadiers rashly pushed on
against the breach in the town, but were repulsed before they
could be supported. Upon this occasion there were particularly
distinguished, Captains Evans, Passenger, and Watkins, of the Royal
Navy. Capt. Evans, at the head of a few of the boats crews, was the
first to mount into the breach, and they were rapidly seconded by
the whole forces, who, upon reaching the town, secured every post,
with but little loss; there being only 30 killed, and 80 wounded,
although the Spaniards had prepared for this event, by forcing
temporary loop holes in their houses, from which they kept up a
sharp fire upon our men as they approached.

General Mahoni now retired into the Castle, and was again summoned
by Brigadier Gorge; his answer was such as became him, and what
might have been expected from his character. At this time the
detached squadron had dismounted many of his guns, beat down a part
of the walls, and his Garrison was extremely annoyed by shells from
the bomb vessels. Composed chiefly of Neapolitans, they at last
compelled the brave Mahoni to yield, who, from this cause alone,
surrendered his charge, after a heavy loss, upon the 25th of August.

Having adjusted every thing, the fleet proceeded to the Island
of Ivica, where it arrived upon the 9th day of September. The
Governor instantly saluted, and tendered submission and obedience
to King Charles the III. It was afterwards resolved to attack
Majorca, to the Viceroy of which a summons was sent in, upon the
14th of September. He, with some others in the interest of the
Duke of Anjou, appeared resolute to defend themselves; but when a
few shells were thrown into Palma, the capital, the inhabitants
obliged him to retire to his palace, and there enter into terms. A
Garrison of one Captain, one Lieutenant, and 100 Marines was placed
here, and all the disaffected to our cause, were withdrawn from the

Nothing farther, connected with my subject, appears on the face of
the military transactions of this year. In the month of June, 1707,
an opportunity presented of co-operating with the Duke of Savoy
and Prince Eugene in an intended attack upon Toulon. Towards the
close of it, the fleet proceeded for the coast of Italy, where it
anchored upon the 28th, between Nice and Antibes, about a league
from the Var.--A conference took place on the following day betwixt
the Commanders in Chief, when it was decided, that a joint attack
should be made upon a part of the enemy's army then entrenched upon
that river, before they could be reinforced.

These works being exposed to the fire of the ships, as they
could stand within little more than musket shot, were hastily
evacuated, and in less than an hour they were occupied by 600
Seamen and Marines. The passage was now open for the Duke of Savoy
to prosecute his destination, while frigates were stationed along
the different parts of the sea coast, in order to keep up a mutual

Having reached Toulon, every aid was afforded by the fleet both as
to men and cannon, but the enemy daily augmenting his forces, and
having made a successful sally, induced the raising of this siege
upon the 10th of August, after a loss of more than a thousand men.

One happy result arose from this attempt however, which was, that
the French, under a sudden dread of consequences, sunk a number of
their largest men of war, which were ever after unfit for service.

King Charles having often urged the reduction of Sardinia, with a
view to open a passage for his troops in Naples to attack Sicily,
as well as on account of its sources of supply of all kinds of
provisions for his armies, of which they were much in want, a
body of Marines was drawn from Tarragona, a strong sea port and
Garrison in Catalonia, to assist in this enterprize. Upon the
1st day of August, 1708, the whole arrived before Cagliari, the
capital. Upon receiving a very equivocal answer to a summons sent
in, the bombardment commenced that evening, and continued without
intermission until next morning, when at the break of day, Major
General Wills, and the whole of the Marines, with one Spanish
regiment were landed. The place, in consequence, almost instantly

The whole having been re-embarked, the fleet again set sail, upon
the 18th of August, for Minorca, and arrived at Port Mahon upon the

At this period, two of the Marine Regiments were drafted, and
both officers and men were incorporated with the other four, now
employed upon this service. The measure was necessary, in order to
supply the casualties that had occurred, and to render these corps
effective.--For this purpose, all the Marines capable of duty, were
drawn from a number of the fleet about to return home, as well
as to assist in the reduction of an island, which, every officer
conceived, would make a spirited and tedious defence.

The first attack was against Fort Fornelle, which was cannonaded by
two of the ships, and fell after a contest of four hours.

A detachment having been pushed to Cittadello, the capital, it
surrendered without resistance.

The batteries were opened on the works defending the town of Port
Mahon, upon the 17th of September, when, after a short but brisk
fire, and the loss of only six men, a lodgment was effected under
the very walls of St. Philip's Castle; and next day the enemy

Thus was this strong fortress, and important island, gained by
a force of only 2400 men, while the garrison consisted of more
than one thousand Soldiers, with upwards of 100 pieces of cannon
mounted, and having every thing requisite for sustaining a long

Sir George Byng arrived at Lisbon upon the 14th of October, having
her Majesty the Queen of Portugal on board, but, although many
other objects of service were in contemplation, nothing farther was
attempted during 1708.


Early in 1709, a plan was formed to attack Port Royal in the
province of Nova Scotia, at that time in possession of the
French.--For this purpose a body of 400 Marines was embarked,
and the expedition was entrusted to the joint conduct of Colonel
Nicholson of the land forces, and Captain Martin of the navy.--The
squadron proceeded for Boston, where they were to be reinforced by
some ships, and such provincial auxiliaries, as might be ready, or
were necessary for this intended conquest.

Here a Council of War was held, which arranged the future
operations of a body, now consisting of 2000 men.--They reached
their destination upon the 24th of September, and the proper ground
for landing having been reconnoitred, the debarkation took place on
the following day.--The enemy opened a heavy fire upon the boats
from their guns and mortars, but with little effect. A bomb-vessel
drifting up with the tide of flood within reach of the Fort,
rendered important service during the two first days, which was
spiritedly aided by the military exertions on shore.

Upon the first day of October, the Governor of the Fortress having
expressed an inclination to surrender upon terms, they were taken
into consideration and agreed to. Here a Garrison of Marines was
left. Having thus reduced the place, it was now named Annapolis
Royal, in honor of her Majesty, under whose auspices it was


The British Nation, ever true to its Allies, often has had cause
to complain of a want of this reciprocal honour. Limited in my
scope, it belongs not to me to develope errors, and far less to
expose such as have arisen from high causes. But, in vindication
of the military fame of my country and my corps, I have to regret,
that the zealous and gallant services of both should have been
unavailingly exerted in the unprosperous views of King Charles upon
the Spanish monarchy.

To the want of co-operation and unanimity must be ascribed the
many chequered events, and reverses, that marked his royal
efforts during this contest. Unsupported by his family, or his
nation, whose immediate interests it must have been to place
him effectively on that throne, he was exposed to many fatal
disappointments when he could not remedy them, and was thus often
obliged to adopt the measures of necessitous expediency, when he
should have been enabled to prosecute the objects of an arranged

Early in 1709, the town of Alicant became hard pressed, having
sustained a long and obstinate siege against a very powerful
force of the combined enemy. The garrison, composed in a great
proportion of Marines, exhibited the most heroic perseverance
in maintaining the place. Unable to reduce it, the besiegers
attempted to undermine the rock upon which the Castle stood, of
which they apprized its defenders; but this had no effect upon
their resolution. A partial shock, which buried above twenty in its
effects, did not intimidate them, and they bravely continued to
defend themselves till the fleet, under Sir George Byng, appeared
(I believe) on the 4th of April.

General Stanhope, with the troops on board, were to have attempted
its relief, under cover of a squadron that was at the same time to
have attacked the enemy's lines along the sea shore; but a heavy
gale coming on, and many of the ships being in shallow water, it
was judged proper to stand farther out into the road.

The weather continuing severe, and being unable to gain any
intelligence as to the state of the garrison, the Commanders in
Chief dreading the worst, and in pity to their sufferings, by a
flag of truce, proposed terms of surrender, which being agreed to,
the brave remnants were embarked on board of the fleet, which now
proceeded to Tarragona, Port Mahon, and afterwards to Barcelona.

During the remainder of this year, nothing farther was attempted
by our squadrons, which, in their attached duties, were employed
to harass the commerce of our foes, and to protect the convoys of
provisions destined wherever necessary.

Upon the 13th of March, 1710, Sir John Norris arrived at Port
Mahon, as Commander in Chief of the Naval Forces. After having
arranged every thing, transporting troops to the different
quarters, where required, and some inferior attacks upon the enemy,
he reached Barcelona upon the 18th of June, in order to concert
future operations with his Majesty.

An expedition was meditated against Cette, in the province of
Languedoc, where the Troops and Marines were landed upon the 13th
of July. The place made but a feeble resistance; and the fort,
upon which eighteen pieces of cannon were mounted, surrendered the
same day. Major General Seissau, then advancing against Adge with
the regiment of Stanhope, and three hundred Marines, that town was
delivered up without resistance.

The Isle of Cette, however, was shortly afterwards recovered by the
French army stationed in the province under the Duke de Roquelaure;
but all our soldiers were previously re-embarked.

Nothing further occurred in 1710, which is in any respect connected
with my subject.


Early in 1711 it was resolved to attempt the town of Quebec, the
capital of the French dominions in Canada, for which service Sir
Hovenden Walker and General Hill were nominated as Commanders in
Chief. A respectable force was appointed, and they were directed
to proceed for Boston, in New England, there to arrange every
thing necessary for this undertaking. They reached Nantasket, near
Boston, upon the 24th of June, and having prepared the Provincial
Corps, and withdrawn the Marines who garrisoned Annapolis
Royal since its surrender, they sailed for the object of their
destination, after many delays, upon the 30th of July.

This attempt was rashly adopted, without examining the difficulties
it involved. The urgent suggestions of the American Provinces first
gave the idea, in order to get rid of a hostile and dangerous
neighbour, but their energies were by no means adequate to the
extent of their designs. A general ignorance of the navigation
of the river St. Laurence very early exposed us to the loss of
more than 800 brave men, who perished from this fatal cause,
and these sad examples put a period to an expedition formed in
misrepresentation, and conducted by incapacity.

The whole squadron and forces returned to England on the 9th of
October, after having left the provincial auxiliaries upon their
own coast.


Sir John Jennings arrived at Barcelona upon the 20th of March,
1711, in order to assume the command of the British Fleet.

To watch the enemies ports, to distress their trade, and to keep
open the communication of intelligence and supplies for the
detached forces of our Allies, were all that he could now attempt
in the tottering cause of King Charles the Third.

About this time died Joseph, Emperor of Germany, whose bequeath
of all his dominions to our Royal Competitor compensated for past
struggles, and averted that blow to his pride which must soon
have ensued from the desperate state of his affairs, by a total
dereliction of his object.

That event called upon him to fill the throne of his country; to
obey which, his Majesty soon after embarked on board the English
fleet, and was escorted to Italy.

His Royal Consort still remained behind, with a view to inspire
a motive for farther efforts, but the suspension of arms between
Great Britain and France put a period to every active co-operation.
The Empress, with her retinue, embarked at Barcelona, early in
1712, and landed at Genoa upon the 26th of March, from whence she
prosecuted her journey towards the destined seat of her power.

After a tedious negociation, the stages, or the detailed terms,
of which it is not my task to retrace, peace was restored by
the Treaty of Utrecht, on the 31st of March, 1713. We retained
possession of Gibraltar, Minorca, and Nova Scotia; each conquered
by our arms during the war, and in effecting all of which the
Marine forces, established during the reign of Queen Anne, very
essentially contributed.

The extraordinary expences of this long war, notwithstanding
its duration, did not much exceed forty-four millions, which,
considering the immense forces kept on foot, and the subsidies
granted to so many of the Continental Powers, appear but a small


The allowances made to the respective ranks on the Staff of the
Army, which was employed in Spain and Portugal, and in which
officers of Marines shared, when upon this service, and when acting
in any one of the undermentioned capacities, were arranged by her
Majesty in Council, previous to the expedition.

  General of the Horse and Commander in Chief _per day_  £10  0  0
  Three Aids de Camp, each 10_s_                           1 10  0
  Lieutenant General                                       4  0  0
  Two Aids de Camp, each 10_s_                             1  0  0
  Two Major Generals, 2_l_ each                            4  0  0
  One Aid de Camp to each, 10_s_                           1  0  0
  Three Brigadiers, each 1_l_ 10_s_                        4 10  0
  Three Majors of Brigade, each 10_s_                      1 10  0
  Quarter-master General                                   0 10  0
  Adjutant General                                         0 10  0
  Judge Advocate                                           0 10  0
  Pay-master                                               0  5  6
  Secretary to Commander in Chief                          0 10  0
  Chaplain to Commander in Chief                           0  6  8
  Physician to Commander in Chief                          0 10  0
  Chirurgeon to Commander in Chief                         0 10  0
  Provost Marshall 5_s_ and 6 men, each 3_s_               1  3  0
  Waggon Master                                            0  3  0
                                          Daily amount   £32  8  2

And for Contingencies upon Account, the

  sum of £6000.

  "By her Majesty's command,


  Established 1st June, 1702.

The death of the Lord High Admiral, in a retrospective view, also
produced some trivial reforms in the constitution of the Marine
Regiments, which were accomplished under the auspices of the same
ministry that had framed their original regulations. Some existing
abuses were, I believe, the pretext for this change, as the
Commissaries, after the decease of the Royal Consort, were enjoined
to transmit their accounts, and otherwise correspond with the
Secretary at War, upon the subject of these establishments. Many
omissions seem to have prevailed in making regular returns from the
different detachments, necessarily extended over every quarter of
the globe, which first arising from individual neglect, ultimately
retarded the proceedings of the Commissioners, who were appointed
to investigate the national expenditure, at the close of the war.
The following is their report upon this head:

"Soon after the commencement of our Commission, we required Mr.
Whitfield, late Pay-master of the Marines, to lay the accompts of
these Regiments before us; which after many delays he did, but in a
very imperfect manner.

"We insisted upon a more distinct accompt, whereupon he, (being
very ill) sent his chief Clerk Mr. Sizer to us, who deposed, that
the accompts could not be made more perfect without muster rolls,
which Mr. Lynn the Commissary had not returned.

"In answer to this, Mr. Lynn hath declared, that he could not
make up the muster rolls farther than the 24th of December,
1709, for want of the ships books, and the certificates from the
Agents of the Commissioners of the sick and wounded: which books
and certificates could not be had from the distant parts of the
service, till those employed there came to England.

"These difficulties prevent our stating the accompts of the
Marines, but it is obvious, that the expence of the Navy is
increased by them.

"For the Pay of 8000 Marines, according to the establishment,
amounts to £128,133 5 0 _per annum_.

"The Pay of 8000 _ordinary_ Seamen, is £98,800 0 0 _per annum_.

"The extraordinary charge therefore, is £29,333 5 0--and how far it
may be thought necessary to continue Marines in time of peace, is
humbly left to the judgment and determination of Parliament.--The
next great expence to the public, is that of the Navy, &c."

After the work of peace was accomplished, a great reduction of
the forces took place, and the half-pay list for the year 1714,
exhibits upon it the following Regiments of Marines:--The whole
having been disbanded, and the officers thus remunerated.

Lieutenant General Holl's, &c.

    [Here is a detailed list of Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel,
    Majors, Captains, 1st Lieutenants, 2d Lieutenants, Chaplain,
    Adjutant, Quarter-master, and Surgeon.]

  Major General Wills's              do.
  Brigadier Borr's                   do.
  Lord Viscount Shannon's            do.
  One Muster-master General, and
  Three Deputies.

Tranquillity was scarcely restored to the nation, when it had to
lament the loss of its Sovereign, who closed an amiable and a
virtuous life upon the 1st day of August, 1714.

The eyes and hearts of every Briton, who was capable of
appreciating, and solicitous to maintain the blessings he enjoyed,
naturally turned towards a successor, the recognized virtues of
whose illustrious House, were the surest pledge of a continuance of
their religious and civil liberties.

Accordingly, the Crown was tendered to, and accepted by King
George the First, whose wise and mild reign, amidst subsequent
convulsions, fully realized every hope which the nation had formed.

He had scarcely been seated on his throne, when a rival appeared,
the unfortunate dupe of the hostile and ambitious designs of
France, against his kingdoms.

But the loyalty of his subjects, and the courage of his troops,
defeated an attempt that must have renewed the evils which urged on
a recent and a glorious Revolution.

In the first year of his Majesty's Government, it was judged
proper to grant a signal mark of royal favour, in consideration
of the extensive and gallant services of the Marine Regiments.
Accordingly, all the officers attached to those of Lieutenant
General Holl, Major General Wills, and Brigadier Barr were restored
to their rank and full pay, and were generally incorporated with
the different corps of the line. Four invalid companies were also

A spirit of public œconomy, as well as of public jealousy against
the very idea of a standing army, that existed during the æra of
which I treat, preclude any retrospective details from me within
the periods of 1715 and 1739--During those days the very name of a
_Marine Soldier_ carried within it hostility to British liberty.
It was a term which the most enlightened could not comprehend, and
afforded a handle of discussion to the leaders of parliamentary
debates, and of popular prejudices.

During the above interval, the nation encountered a short war, and
was also placed in the attitude of preparation for a second--but
the events of neither fall within my limited scope; as no force,
except the nominal and unattached title of General of Marines
existed, with four independent companies of invalids.

It was not until 1739, upon the repetition of Spanish cruelties
and aggression towards the industrious and defenceless subjects of
Britain, that the system of Marine Regiments was renewed. The sword
was again drawn upon the 19th of October of that year, and an Order
of Council of the 12th of December, determined upon the immediate
levy of six of this description. The Colonels who were nominated to
command them were as follow:

1st. Edward Wolfe, esq. from 3d Foot Guards.

2d. William Robinson, esq. Lieutenant Colonel from Handyside's
Regiment of Foot.

3d. Anthony Lowther, esq. from 2d. Foot Guards.

4th. John Wynyard, esq. from Colonel Tyrrel's Regiment of Foot.

5th. Charles Douglas, esq. from Colonel Howard's Regiment of Foot.

6th. Lewis Ducie Morton, esq. from 3d. Foot Guards.

In order to render them immediately effective, and with a view
to discipline them, five men from each company of the Regiments
of Foot Guards, were appointed as Serjeants and Corporals, and
mingled with the whole.--That they might also be rapidly completed,
a bounty of one pound ten shillings was tendered to the first
1800 men of our regular army who should volunteer this transition
of service. It was not long, by the use of such energies, before
the whole were raised, and no part of the royal speech was more
generally applauded than that which proposed this levy. The notion
of their being an appendage to the standing army, seems to have
been, at this time, considerably effaced, though the phantom was
still kept alive by those who studiously search into and proclaim
every apparent grievance. Early in the year 1740, three additional
regiments were raised in America, and the Royal Standard was
erected at New York, as the signal-post to which every volunteer
Marine was to repair.

It was supposed, that from climate, the natives of that Continent
were better calculated for the service to which they were
destined than the Europeans, and they were clothed in a manner
well adapted for the future scene of their duties. The Colonels,
Lieutenant-Colonels, Majors, and Subalterns, were appointed by
the Crown, and the Captains of Companies were nominated by the
American Provinces. Their uniform was camblet coats, brown linen
waist-coats, and canvas trowsers. Colonel Spotiswood, of Virginia
was Colonel Commandant of the whole.

In January, 1740, the six Marine Regiments received an effective
augmentation of 2040 men, and one Lieutenant to each Company.
An addition also of twenty men was granted to each of the four
Companies of Invalids, and another allowed to the retired Marine

Previous to the sailing of Admiral Vernon for the West Indies,
he, in an Address to the Duke of Newcastle, and in terms of an
honest zeal for the public service, thus expresses himself upon the
subject of Marine Soldiers:

"I could wish, indeed, we had each of us a company of regular
troops sent on board of us, which would have strengthened us in
numbers, as well as had their expertness in handling their arms, to
have incited our Seamen to the imitation of them. If we should come
to a general war with France as well as Spain, I believe your Grace
will have already perceived, from the difficulty of manning these
ships as they are, the necessity there may be of converting most of
our marching regiments into Marines; and if, as they become Seamen,
they were admitted to be discharged as such, that would make a good
nursery for breeding them, at a time we might probably find such a
necessity for them.

"As I have always looked upon our fleet as what must not only
protect our trade, but secure us the blessings of a Protestant
succession, your Grace will be so good as to excuse the overflowing
of a sincere, though it may be an imprudent zeal; being strongly
convinced in my own judgment, that preserving a superiority at sea
is the best security of his Majesty's government, as well as the
trade and prosperity of this kingdom."

The above ideas seem principally drawn from that system which
existed as to the Marine previous to the reign of Queen Anne, and
what has been already noticed. The arguments also bear a similarity
to those subsequently adopted by General Lloyd, whose Treatise I
shall have a future occasion to quote.

If the subordinate arrangements of a ship could allow of it, much
benefit would ensue to the public service by a greater number of
Marine Soldiers being added to the complement of each, instead of
a set of men denominated _wasters_, who are partly composed of
criminals that have compromised with the injured laws of their
country, who rarely, even upon a stretch of years, become real
seamen, and who, from their former habits of life, are too often
the leaders of discord and insubordination.

On the contrary, if the plan which is suggested were generally
adopted, with such an additional force on board, capable of
striking terror upon either element, not a British squadron would
put to sea that must not be viewed by our enemies with a jealous
eye; but what would keep their extensive coasts for ever on the
alert, and by that rapidity and secrecy which are peculiar to all
naval movements, objects might be effected, and conquests achieved
that never were anticipated by the political surmises of our
countrymen, or the intelligence of our foes. Many other weighty
considerations might also be adduced to enforce this expedient,
which more properly fall within discussion under a future detail of

At no period of time was ever the voice of the nation more
unanimous for war. The evidence of Captain Jenkins, before the
House of Commons, stating his sufferings from Spanish cruelty,
aroused the indignation of every member, and notwithstanding the
pacific temper of the Minister of that day, and his powerful
influence, all were anxious to vindicate the insulted honour of the

Before the declaration of hostilities, Admiral Vernon sailed for
the West Indies, and arrived at Jamaica in the month of October,
1739. The aspect of public affairs previous to his leaving Europe,
fully sanctioned immediate enterprize against the enemy.

After taking in refreshments at Jamaica, and having embarked 200
Soldiers under Captain Newton, to serve as Marines, he shaped his
course for Porto Bello, the destined object of his attack, and at
that time the great mart for the wealthy commerce of Chili and Peru.

The attempt was fraught with many apparent obstacles, but it was
undertaken and performed with an unexampled spirit and promptitude,
which are the surest means of success in military enterprize; but
more particularly when it is aimed against the distant territories
of an enemy.

Upon the 21st of November, the attack was commenced by the ships
in line of battle, against the Iron Castle, a strong fort of 22
guns, at the north point of the entrance into the harbour. The
Spaniards flying from several parts of it, an instant debarkation
of the Seamen and Marines was resolved on, from the Burford,
Norwich, and Worcester, under cover of these ships. With the loss
of only two killed, they effected a landing, when they compensated
for the want of scaling ladders, by each man mounting upon the
shoulders of another, and thus entering the embrazures.--This Fort
was carried although no breach had been made, which indeed was
almost impossible, against walls of 9 feet in thickness, and such
as afterwards withstood for a while, the explosions of those mines
that were used to raze them.

This gallant beginning struck terror into the Garrison of Gloria
Castle, and Jeronimo Fort, both which defended the town; the former
had two regular bastions, and a curtain between them mounted with
22 guns, besides many more pointing towards the mouth of the

Upon the 22d, an attack was intended against the whole, but the
enemy hung out the white flag, a signal of surrender. Upon this
occasion, Captain Downing of the Navy led the attack on the Iron
Castle. After having landed, he very properly wished to form
his men into some order for it. One brave but impetuous Sailor,
disdaining such precautions, pushed on, who, on being ordered to
halt, answered with an ingenuous oath, "Don't let us halt, Captain,
till we are lamed."

In this operation we sustained a loss of only twenty killed
and wounded, while the enemy were lessened in their numbers by
desertions into the country, and by action, nearly three hundred

After destroying the fortifications, which from their strength
required some time, the Admiral with his squadron sailed for
Jamaica upon the 13th of December, and previously received from the
Governor and inhabitants of the place the warmest acknowledgments
for the humanity and generous treatment they had experienced.

The bombardment of Carthagena, in February, 1740, and the attack
upon Chagre (a fort situate upon the mouth of a river of that
name, a little to the north-west of the Gulf of Darien), were all
that could be performed before the arrival of reinforcements and
supplies from Europe, now much wanted. The latter, surrendered,
after a contest with the men of war and bomb-ketches, upon the 24th
of March, when the Castle situated on a rock, and the Custom-house,
under its protection, were demolished and burnt. The fleet
afterwards returned to Porto Bello, and from thence to Jamaica.

At this period considerable exertions were making at home, with a
view to attack more effectually the Spanish possessions in South
America, as well as their own coasts.

A large number of men of war was assembled at Spithead, and
Lord Cathcart, with six regiments of Marines, now considerably
strengthened, with other forces, were encamped in the Isle of
Wight, and continued in readiness for these intended services.

It was not until the 26th of October that the fleet set sail
from St. Helens for Jamaica, where they arrived in the month of
January, 1741. The united forces which were embarked on board were
Wentworth's, Harrison's, and Cavendish's regiments of Foot, with
the six regiments of Marines already detailed.

Unfortunately for his country, and that profession of which he
was so bright an ornament, Lord Cathcart very early fell a victim
to the climate, when the command devolved upon the Honourable
Brigadier General Wentworth.

The whole force sailed from Irish Bay, in Hispaniola, upon the 25th
of February, 1741, consisting in all of one hundred and twenty-four
sail, having been reinforced by two of the Marine regiments raised
within the American provinces, and other levies which had been
previously formed in those colonies.

Upon the 4th of March, in the evening, the whole anchored in the
Grand Playa, to windward of the town of Carthagena, the intended
object of their attack.

After the necessary arrangements, the fleet moved forward in
two divisions, upon the 9th, to silence the different forts,
as preparatory to the landing of the troops. After little more
than one hour's cannonade, those of St. Jago and St. Philip were
deserted by the enemy, when five hundred grenadiers made a descent
under their walls, and took possession of them. Against the 15th,
every soldier, with the tents, tools, artillery, and ordnance
stores were landed, the ground was cleared, and an encampment

About this time, the Admiral being informed by General Wentworth
that the army was much incommoded by a strong fascine battery on
the opposite side of the harbour, called the Barradera side, he
detached a number of boats, full of men, under the conduct of
Captain Boscawen, having under him Captains Laws and Coats, of the

Upon no occasion was intrepidity ever more conspicuous, and
that great man at this time gave an earnest of what his country
might expect from him. In their approach they did not observe
from its situation a small battery of five guns, but they soon
remedied their error, by resolutely pushing on shore, and gaining
possession, after a slight resistance.

The enemy rousing a little from their surprise at the other,
consisting of fifteen 24-pounders, opened their fire from two guns;
but following up the same spirited course, the seamen, headed by
their gallant leaders, advanced most rapidly, and carried this
strong battery also.

Here they spiked up all the guns, destroyed the platforms, and
completely effected this important object with but little loss. The
enemy, well knowing the value of this position, soon mounted two
heavy cannon, which were again silenced by a ship ordered for that
purpose. A third opportunity--and the same scene of action afforded
a display of Naval courage, when six other guns were once more
destroyed, with every appendage to them.

These repeated efforts much aided the operations of the Army now
employed in the reduction of the Castle of Bocca Chica. Upon the
25th of March, a practicable breach having been made in it, the
general communicated his determination to storm it. Accordingly
Admiral Vernon assembled all the boats, in order to co-operate,
having landed their men within view of the enemy, where the fascine
battery was fixed. This was a well-judged diversion; for when the
grenadiers advanced to storm, at the hour appointed, they met no
resistance, as the Spaniards fled without firing a shot.

A panic had now seized the enemy, who set fire to one of their
ships. Taking advantage of this state, the boats resolved to
attempt the fort of St. Joseph, which was immediately evacuated.

Being now within the boom thrown across the harbour, and the Dons,
seeming determined to sink their ships, they judged it proper to
row on, and soon boarded the Galicia, carrying the flag of the
Spanish Admiral.--These obstructions being removed, the Admiral
and the squadron, still with much difficulty, moved into the

After various services, the Castle of Grande Castillo having
been gained, and the enemy sunk all their men of war, farther
preparations were made for landing the troops nearer the town, in
order to cut off all communication with the main land. Our loss,
up to the beginning of April, was two Colonels of Foot, one of
Marines, with one Captain of the Royal Navy, besides other Officers
slain, and upwards of four hundred of different descriptions killed
and wounded.

That mortality, which is the never-failing result of protracted
operations in this inhospitable clime, now began its ravages.
Matters were pushed on--the bomb-ketches on the 2d of April
began to play upon the town, and the other passages of approach
cleared from the ships sunk by the enemy, as being necessary
for the disembarkation of the forces near the city. After these
difficulties were removed, they were landed at the dawn of the
5th, under the command of General Wentworth, who, after a spirited
contest, established his encampment within a mile of the fort
of St. Lazar.--Things now drawing to extremities, it became
necessary to forego the ceremonies of a regular siege, and, however
hazardous, to rest the issue upon a storm.

Accordingly, before day-break on the 9th, five hundred Grenadiers,
supported by a thousand Marines, and some Jamaican levies, advanced
against the enemy's lines in front of the fort. These were
distantly followed by a body of Americans, with wool-packs, scaling
ladders, and hand grenades.

The Spaniards were entrenched to the shoulders, and their works
over-awed by St. Lazar; but neither intimidated the gallant
progress of our men, who, led by Brigadier General Guise, were
much annoyed, suffering extremely from flanking fires, which they
had not foreseen, and enduring a heavy loss before they could
reach the object of their attack. The persevering and undaunted
bravery of British Soldiers was never more displayed than on this
day. They at last gained their point by intrepidly leaping into
the entrenchments, and driving their enemies into the fort, which
communicated by a draw-bridge with the lines.

It was now those gallant fellows felt the precipitate errors of
their superiors. The unarmed Americans in their rear, many of whom
were killed without possessing the powers of resistance, dispersed,
and threw away the charges committed to them. Three only did their
duty, and with these scanty supplies, a bold effort to scale
the walls of St. Lazar, was made by ten grenadiers, headed by a
serjeant.--They mounted them, but being unsupported, were all cut
to pieces, except him who saved himself by trusting his destinies
to a headlong adventure.

Cooped up within a narrow spot, exposed to the grapeshot and
marksmen of the enemy above them, the situation of these brave
remnants became desperate after the break of day.

A retreat was now the only expedient left, which was accomplished
under the countenance of a strong reinforcement from the camp, but
under the effects of a galling fire from the fort. The Spaniards,
however, did not dare to pursue a body of men, now weakened by
loss, but covered with glory. Nearly seven hundred composed the
list of killed and wounded upon this occasion.

The future operations of the army ceased to be offensive, and their
exertions necessarily became precautionary. Dissentions, with their
arising results, delay and disease, accomplished what the enemy
durst not attempt.

It belongs not to me to enlarge upon either causes or effects in my
limited detail, excepting where in either there may seem a tendency
to involve the military character of those men whose memoirs and
services I have undertaken to record. The Soldier may appear as
often distinguished amidst misfortune, as the Citizen, though his
country will render honours to the victorious alone, like the
world, which, too often, confines its incense to the prosperous.

It is a tribute due to the gallant subordinates of the fleet and
land force to say, that, throughout their arduous duties, they
evinced a courage and perseverance worthy of their country and
their cause. While history is bound to publish truths, it never
ought to extenuate the errors of any branches of its subject.

By the 16th of April some hundreds became sick from exposure to
the weather, the heavy rains that periodically set in about this
time, and the scanty supplies of water; among whom were many of the
principal officers.

Upon the 23d and 24th, Councils of War were held, which decided
upon an immediate re-embarkation. Captain Knowles of the Navy,
who had throughout bore a distinguished part in the duties of an
Engineer, was now entrusted with the demolition of Castillo Grande,
which was with much labour completed on the 25th, and all the guns
rendered unserviceable. The same was effected at Bocca Chica. Upon
the whole, the Spaniards sustained a heavy loss, as appears from
the following detail:

  Bocca Chica Castle                        80
  Fort St. Joseph                           20
  Fort St. Philip                           15
  Fort St. Jago                              6
  Fascine batteries on Barradera side       20
  Four men of war at Bocca Chica           332
  Two batteries at Passe Cavalla            13
  Castillo Grande                           63
  Port Mazinello                            12
  Seven galleons                           128
  Conqesadon and Dragon men of war         134

Such events to the enemy were for some time irretrievable, and long
felt. The charges of repairing the different fortifications must
have been prodigious, when we consider the strength with which they
were constructed.

Our loss upon the whole was undoubtedly great, being in all nearly
two thousand men, and I annex a detail of the Officers of European
Corps who were killed, died of the diseases incident to the
climate, or of the wounds they received:

WENTWORTH'S Regiment of Foot.

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Lieut. Colonel (Sandford)      1         0
  Major                          0         1
  Captain                        0         1
  Lieutenants                    9         5
  Ensigns                        0         2
                               ----      ----
                                10         9
                               ====      ====


                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Lieut. Colonel (Daniel)        0         1
  Captains                       1         4
  Capt. Lieutenant               0         1
  Lieutenant                     2         5
  Ensigns                        0         2
                               ----      ----
                                 3        13
                               ====      ====


                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Lieut. Colonel (Grant)         1         1 (Hely)
  Captains                       1         2
  Lieutenants                    1         2
  Ensign                         1         0
                               ----      ----
                                 4         5
                               ====      ====

WOLFE'S Marines.

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Major                          0         1 (Watson)
  Captains                       0         5
  First Lieutenant               1         0
  Second Lieutenant              0         1
                               ----      ----
                                 1         7
                               ====      ====

DOUGLAS'S Marines, (succeeded by Lt. Col. COCHRAN.)

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Colonel (Douglas)              1         0
  Captains                       1         1
  First Lieutenants              1         2
  Second Lieutenants             0         1
                               ----      ----
                                 3         4
                               ====      ====

LOWTHER'S Marines.

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Captains                       1         3
  First Lieutenants              0         3
  Second Lieutenants             1         1
                               ----      ----
                                 2         7
                               ====      ====


                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Lieut. Colonel (Thompson)      1         0
  Captains                       0         2
  First Lieutenants              0         2
  Second Lieutenants             1         0
                               ----      ----
                                 2         4
                               ====      ====

WYNYARD'S Marines.

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Major (Hall)                   0         1
  Captains                       1         2
  Captain Lieutenant             0         1
  First Lieutenants              0         6
  Second Lieutenants             1         3
                               ----      ----
                                 2        13
                               ====      ====

MORTON'S Marines.

                              _Killed_   _Died_
  Colonel (Morton)               0         1
  Lieut. Colonel (Blagrave)      0         1
  Major (Macloed)                0         1
  Captains                       0         2
  First Lieutenants              1         8
  Second Lieutenants             0         2
                               ----      ----
                                 1        15
                               ====      ====

Being a total loss of nineteen Officers killed, and seventy-seven
who died from disease or their wounds.

The casualties of the other auxiliaries which were drawn from
America, were not proportionate to the above, as they were better
calculated for the climate; but the regiments of Marines were
newly-raised levies, and by an erroneous policy, they were too
early destined for a country, the air of which alone will always
outdo the works of the sword.

It is remarked, that young formed Corps are the worst adapted
for it, as it is too sudden a transition of life with many who
compose them, and are often strangers to that regulated system of
discipline which, in establishing their comforts, secures their
health. Upon no service, however, were men ever more distinguished
for bravery, but all who ever visited these quarters of the globe
well know, that its diseases will conquer and control the boldest

Every thing having been arranged, the fleet sailed for Jamaica upon
the 6th of May, where they arrived upon the 19th, and found their
reinforcements and supplies, of which they now stood in much need.


During 1741, the number of Marine Regiments was augmented to ten,
and the sums voted to maintain them were £201,752 13 0. If the same
force had been established before the peace of Utrecht, they would
not have exceeded the estimate of £186,666 1 8, as the following
indulgences were granted, and annual allowances made subsequent to
that period:

  For servants allowed to Officers               £7,786 13  4
  Allowance to the Widows of Officers             2,433  6  8
  To Colonels, for clothing lost by deserters     2,129  3  4
  To Captains, for recruiting their Companies     1,825  0  0
  To Agents of different Regiments                  912 10  0
                                                £15,086 13  4

At this time the whole Half-pay Establishment of Great Britain,
including Horse, Dragoons, Foot, Invalids, and Marines, consisted
of only five hundred and fifty-one Officers, and the annual
expenditure upon the whole was £34,492 10 0, being at the rate of
£94 10 0 per day, and so considerate and œconomical were the public
measures, that the House of Commons addressed his Majesty, praying,
that those upon this list, if fit for service, might be appointed
to the first vacant commissions which occurred in the different
Regiments. But an ill-judged parsimony, as to the _number_ of
Officers attached to Corps, seemed also to exist, and the same
spirit was constantly urging the conversion of the Land Forces into
bodies of Marines.

The regulation for this establishment were nearly similar in their
principles to those framed for the line. The Colonels of Marine
Regiments clothed their respective Corps, and had the liberty of
recommending for commissions--Excepting that the whole battalion
was destined for a particular service, none of the Field Officers
were embarked. The greatest number of men on board the largest
ships did not exceed one hundred under a Captain, three Subalterns,
and the smallest was not less than twenty under an Officer.

The Commanders of Marine detachments were enjoined to forward
_effective_ returns of them every two months to the Commissary
General of Marines, attested by the Captains and Pursers of
each. This was necessary, in order to conduct the musters of the
Regimental Companies, and to guide the recruiting service on shore.
The same deductions were made from them as the Army, for clothing
and Chelsea Hospital, whether embarked or not.

When attached to any ship, their indulgencies were equal to
those of the Seamen, as to the receiving provisions without any
deductions from their pay on that account, they had short allowance
money, and the benefit of Naval Hospitals. When sent thither,
either sick or wounded, they were deemed effective in the musters
ashore, if producing a certificate from the Surgeon of the Ship
to which they belonged, and another from the Commanding Officer at
head-quarters, when in Great Britain.

The Paymaster General of Marines issued the pay, upon receiving it,
to the Colonels of Regiments, or their Agents, and the Paymaster of
each settled all their accounts agreeably to the muster-rolls they
had from the Commissary General.

These muster-rolls, with the receipts of the different Colonels or
their Agents, were esteemed sufficient vouchers for passing the
Paymaster's accounts, and for making out warrants or debentures for
clearings; which terms shall undergo a more particular discussion,
under the head of Examples.

When brigaded abroad, they were paid exactly in the same manner
as the Army; but the arrears of Marine Officers were much longer
withheld, and the Captains of Companies were exposed to very
peculiar hardships, which will be stated more at length in a
subsequent stage of the narrative.--It is enough at present to
remark, that the Officers of these Regiments, when abroad, were
often obliged to assign that branch of their pay, at fifty per
cent. discount, in order to answer their temporary exigencies.

What a contrast does this system present to the reforms, which have
been recently established, in favour of this class of men.


In consequence of the heavy losses sustained at Carthagena, and
the mortality which still continued to rage after their arrival at
Jamaica, the transit between the Regiments of Foot and Marines was
rapid and immediate. Upon this service promotions were established
by rotation in the whole line. Within the short period of five
weeks, the Corps, originally Douglas's, numbered amongst its
casualties, three Colonels, two Lieutenant Colonels, and two Majors.

It was not until the beginning of July that the fleet and army were
in a state of readiness to renew their operations, when it was
resolved to proceed against the Island of Cuba, where they anchored
upon the 18th of July, in Walthenham Bay, immediately named Port
Cumberland, in honor of his Royal Highness the Duke, about eighteen
leagues to windward of St. Jago, the first object of their intended
attack, and properly speaking, the Capital, although it was not
then the seat of the Governor. The troops were all landed upon
the 24th, consisting nearly of four thousand men, including one
thousand chosen negroes, levied by the Island of Jamaica, with
a view to sustain the laborious duties of this service. Having
established a position upon the side of the river, nearly three
leagues from the mouth of the harbour, the General on the 25th
pushed some detachments into the country, which every where beat
back the outposts of the enemy, and in a few days returned to the
Camp, with plentiful supplies of provisions.

It was originally the intention of the Commanders in Chief to have
made a joint attack upon St. Jago, but the want of unanimity which
had sometime past, and now existed to a fatal degree, ruined every
purpose.--Contentious debates, and dilatory measures, took place of
cordial co-operation and pushing enterprize, while the Country's
interests and the lives of the Soldiery were daily sacrificed to
the bitterest feuds.

About the middle of August the General stated the impracticability
of advancing into the interior country with his present force, and
expressed a wish to await the arrival of fresh levies from America,
and the expected reinforcements from Europe, which now became
essential to complete the skeleton Corps of his Army. The first
resource was planned at the outset of the West India expedition,
and instructions had been early given to the Commander in Chief to
avail himself of it, when compelled by emergency.

Accordingly, recruiting parties were sent to New England to raise
volunteers, and General Wentworth, by a personal appeal to the
Governor of that province, urged the necessity of their being
seconded with public spirit and public liberality. Similar steps
were adopted in the State of New York, to fill up the American
Regiments of Marines; and the Governors, by an impressive address
to the Legislative Houses of both, strongly recommended their
energies, not only on the ground of patriotism, but of political
expediency. Bounties of forty shillings were offered to volunteers,
and the alluring inducements of conquered territory.--America then
saw her interests in the subjugation of the Spanish dependencies in
that quarter of the globe.

During a long interval nothing was attempted, even towards a
partial reduction of Cuba, at the close of which, sickness, the
never-failing result of total inactivity in these climes, began his
ravages. It was therefore determined to evacuate the island, which
was effected upon the 20th of November, when the regimental returns
were as follow:

                                       _Serj._ _Corp._ _Drum._ _Priv._
  General Harrison's Foot                22      23       8      172
          Wentworth's ditto              22      17       8      172
  Colonel Wolfe's (Marines)              20      23       6      132
          Frazer's                       22      21       6      109
          Lowther's                      22      24       8      183
          Wynyard's                      23      20      11      123
          Cochran's                      15      11       7      158
          Cotterell's                    24      26      10      151
  First Battalion, Gooch's (American)    16      11       3      129
  Second ditto                           10       7       3       90
  Third ditto                            10       7       3       79
  Fourth ditto                            6       7       1      107
                                        212     197      74     1610
  Sick in all                            39      47      15      465
                                        251     244      89     2073

The total loss of Officers, at the close of 1741, amounted to one
Commander in Chief, five Colonels, ten Lieutenant Colonels, seven
Majors, fifty-five Captains, one hundred and sixteen Subalterns,
and fourteen Staff Officers.

The heavy casualties in the Marine Regiments may easily be known,
when it is recollected, that upon their leaving Europe each
consisted of more than one thousand men.

The transports, under a proper escort, returned to Jamaica upon the
29th of November, while the squadron continued at sea to meet the
anxiously looked-for reinforcements.


It was not until the 15th of January, 1742, that nearly three
thousand men, including two thousand Marines, arrived at Jamaica.
Another expedition was now meditated, which put to sea early in
March, but adverse winds, the separation of transports having on
board the working negroes, and the expectation of the periodical
rains now nearly setting in, suggested to a Council of War held
at Porto Bello, at the close of that month, the immediate return
of the whole armament, to the port they had left. This afforded
another instance of unfortunate discord. The fleet arrived at
Jamaica upon the 15th of May.

In order to give a specious appearance to things, and to compensate
for the national expenditures and past miscarriages, it was now
judged proper to detach a force to take possession of Rattan, an
island in the Bay of Honduras, and a situation highly proper for
maintaining a commercial intercourse with South America, as well as
the trade in logwood.

An establishment there having been formed early in the year, it was
determined in a Council of War to send a force of fifty Marines and
two hundred Americans, under Major Caulfield, in order to place the
island in a state of military defence.

On the 23d of August, they reached Port Royal, on the south side
of it, where they formed a camp and erected Fort George to defend
the harbour, as well Fort Frederick, on the western part of it.
A great proportion of the American soldiers being papists, they
formed a plot to render the settlement abortive, and to rise upon
the Marines and the well-affected of their countrymen.

His Majesty's ship, Litchfield, then in the harbour, hearing the
alarm guns, instantly landed her party of Marines, who with those
on shore soon checked this daring mutiny, secured the delinquents,
and preserved the settlement to his Majesty.

Nothing farther was done during the inauspicious commands of
Admiral Vernon or General Wentworth, who both soon afterwards
returned to Great Britain, excepting the detaching five hundred
men of different descriptions to the aid of General Oglethorpe, in
South Carolina, and repelling the menaces of the Spaniards against
the infant colony of Georgia.

Orders of recall for both arrived at Jamaica upon the 23d of
September, and the General was directed to provide the fleet with
a number of commissioned Officers, and men, from the Marines,
sufficient to supply its wants; also to fill up the vacancies in
the eight Independent Companies raised for the defence of Jamaica.
For the former purpose, eleven hundred were required, which were
nearly all that were now left and fit for duty. The supernumerary
Officers and sick were sent home, and the American troops were
invited to become volunteers for both.

Government, under the experience of past disasters, now vested
the controul of the Marines in Sir Chaloner Ogle, upon whom the
naval command devolved after the departure of Admiral Vernon.
Notwithstanding the personal animosities that had existed, this
Officer bore his testimony to the zeal and distinguished bravery of
the Soldiery, whose gallant efforts and patient endurance under the
greatest privations, were uniformly conspicuous throughout a series
of misfortunes.

Upwards of seven thousand Marines and nearly four thousand of other
troops were the lamentable victims to pestilence and disunion,
but not to defeat. The objects which were accomplished, although
not adequate to their country's hopes, were still distressing to
the enemy. Their principal harbours were in a manner rendered
defenceless, and the Spanish government experienced much
embarrassment from nearly a total suspension of these pecuniary
supplies, which could alone enable it to maintain the war with
vigour and effect, while the distress pervaded every class of its

Our forces were ever after too feeble to undertake any enterprize
of importance against the enemy in that quarter of the
world.--Self-defence was now the system adopted by Sir Chaloner
Ogle, as the Spanish squadron at the Havannah was superior to his
own, since the departure of Admiral Vernon.

The supplies which were voted for the year 1743 provided for a
large levy of Marines to fill up their casualties--eleven thousand
five hundred and fifty being the number decreed, and forty thousand

Nothing further, consistent with my subject, appears on the face of
the public transactions of the year 1742.


Early in 1743, an impression upon some part of the continent of
South America being resolved on, the conduct of these operations
was entrusted to Captain Knowles, of the Navy, having on board his
squadron four hundred of the regiment of Dalzell, and about six
hundred Marines. They were first ordered to rendezvous at Antigua,
from which island they sailed upon the 12th of February, with a
view upon La Guira, a town in the district of the Caraccas, in
Terra Firma. The attack against it was commenced on the 18th, but
owing to a very heavy swell, the men of war could not approach
the shore, and in consequence, the troops were not landed.--After
a very heavy cannonade, which was only ended by the night, the
ships withdrew from the combat. The town suffered extremely, many
breaches were made in the fortifications, and the enemy sustained a
loss of more than seven hundred men.

The Spaniards behaved well, as the squadron suffered very
considerable damages, besides having nearly four hundred killed and

It proceeded to Curaccoa to refit, where they prepared for another
attempt upon the sea-coast of Terra Firma. Having been reinforced
by some Dutch Volunteers, Commodore Knowles sailed from this island
upon the 20th of March, and shaped a course for Porto Cavallo,
where there was a respectable force, and a town in the best state
of defence.

Owing to strong lee currents, it was not until the 15th of April
that the ships anchored under the keys of Barbarat, to the
eastward of the place. Having reconnoitred the different points
of opposition, which were every where formidable, two ships were
ordered upon the 16th of April against Ponta Brava, to commence
upon it a flanking fire, which its low situation, and the
injudicious construction of the works, evidently permitted.

After they were silenced, it was agreed to land the troops of
every description, in order to take possession, and to turn the
guns against the Castle; their retreat being secured by a man of
war within pistol shot of the shore.--By sunset the ships had
accomplished their object, and by dark a force of twelve hundred
sailors, soldiers, and Dutch Volunteers were disembarked under the
command of Major Lucas.

About eleven at night the Van gained one of the fascine batteries
upon Ponta Brava, when a Spanish centinel discharged his musquet,
and gave a general alarm.

Two guns being fired from the other battery, which was the next for
capture, put into an unaccountable confusion nearly the whole of
this mixed detachment, when under the influence of a panic they
retreated to the ships with precipitation.

Upon the 21st it was resolved to wipe away the disgrace of the late
miscarriage, by an attack of the squadron and forces against the
Castle and fascine batteries.--Four ships were destined to batter
the former upon the 24th, while three others were placed against
the latter. The cannonading began at eleven on the noon of that
day, and was maintained with a mutual obstinacy till nine at night,
when after a short interval the firing was renewed. Some of the
ships having now expended all their ammunition, and others being
damaged, they were ordered to slip, and to anchor without the reach
of the enemy's shot.

This attack being fruitless in its object, which was to land the
troops, and fatal in its consequences, by a loss of more than two
hundred men, it was now deemed impracticable to push any farther
enterprize, and upon the 28th, in a general consultation, it was
resolved to return to Jamaica.

The extended operations of our fleets in other quarters being
marked with no events in which his Majesty's Marine forces were
particularly called forth, no farther details connected with my
narrative appear within the annals of 1743.


Although Great Britain, as a guarantee of the balance of
continental power, had, during a past period, exerted her resources
in the cause of her Allies, opposed to the interests of France,
although his Majesty King George the Second, in quality of Elector
of Hanover, had been highly distinguished in the field at the head
of these armies, still a specious cordiality continued to exist
between the two nations.

Since the declaration of hostilities against Spain, our restless
and intriguing neighbours enjoyed all the advantages of war,
without experiencing any of its evils.

At the outset of this year, however, their projects were developed
by the equipment of powerful naval armaments in their ports, and
the assembling of armies upon their sea-coasts; the avowed aim of
which was against the Crown and Liberties of the British Empire.

A Prince, delegated by his Father, and drawn from his retreat in
another country, mild in his temper, and amiable in his manners,
was induced to renew their almost forgotten claims upon our
monarchy, and to revive the quickly decaying prejudices within our
land, in favour of his family and himself.

Unable now no longer to restrain her views, France declared war
upon the 20th day of March, which was answered by a similar
proclamation of the 31st, on the part of England.--That Providence
which has often so signally interposed for our country was now
conspicuous.--The elements were employed in the destruction of
many of their transports and troops at Dunkirk, while our floating
bulwarks chased their covering fleet from our coasts.

At this time the whole property of naval prizes was vested in the
captors, his Majesty having generously relinquished that share
which hitherto had pertained to the Crown.

The arrival of Commodore Anson from his expedition, which was
originally intended to co-operate across the isthmus of Darien,
with the fatal one conducted by Admiral Vernon, diffused a joy into
the nation.

The specie which was gained by his enterprize, courage, and
perseverance was immense; and although it was obtained antecedent
to the royal grant, still it was divided amongst his squadron,
unimpaired by claims.

About three hundred and thirty marines shared in the toils, and the
many debarkations which took place in his tedious progress; having
been drafted from the different regiments to fill up the complement
of his ships, and to supply the place of a number of Invalids
under Lieutenant Colonel Cracherode, who dreading their approaching
hardships, deserted from the service.

Fleets were now detached to every quarter of the globe, and a force
of eleven thousand five hundred and fifty-six Marines, was again
the establishment of 1744.

It falls not within my scope to enlarge upon the wide and mingled
events of this year. A partial affair in the month of May, occurred
in the Mediterranean, in which the party of Marines disembarked
from the Essex signalized themselves. That ship being on a cruize,
gained sight of twenty-six Xebeques and Settees, bound to Antibes,
from whence they were to carry troops to Italy. The former were
a convoy to the latter, which were laden with powder, cannon,
ordnance stores, and provisions. Thirteen having taken refuge in
the Creek of Cassi, the Marines were landed in order to co-operate
with the boats, and to repel any enemy that might appear to retard
their progress. They were soon attacked by a body of Spaniards,
whom they beat back, and thus effected the object on which they
were employed. Eleven vessels were burnt and two captured, which
was a material loss in its consequences.

Nothing further, that properly falls within my notice, appears
within the period of this year: our numerous cruizers were
peculiarly successful, and although few traits of achievement
appear on the face of our public transactions during this limited
era, still both the nation and the individual felt the benefit and
the incitement that resulted from the liberal sacrifice recently
made by their Sovereign, which, while it promoted a general
activity and zeal amongst every class of his subjects, struck deep
also into the commercial vitals of our enemies.

The ten Regiments of Marines, by order of the Secretary at War,
were directed to recruit with expedition, and in order to render
them speedily effective, a number of impressed men were allotted to
each. This expedient was also adopted with regard to many Regiments
of Infantry.

In the Bill for the more easily recruiting his Majesty's Land
Forces and Marines, a clause was inserted, that every one who
should enter voluntarily would be entitled to a bounty of four
pounds, and might require his discharge from the service at the
expiration of three years.

The Parliament met upon the 27th of November, and granted a vote of
£206,253 15 0 to support an establishment of eleven thousand five
hundred and fifty Marines during the ensuing twelve months.


Some inferior attacks having been made, during the last year, by
the Governor of Cape Breton upon Canso and Annapolis, in Nova
Scotia, the former of which places was burnt by the French, the
Northern Colonies of British America became alarmed for their
safety. Roused by the representations and the united patriotism
of Mr. Achmuty, Judge of the Admiralty Court, in New England, and
Mr. Vaughan, an individual of great fortune and public spirit,
they commenced preparations for an expedition against Louisburg.
Accordingly considerable levies were begun, and a co-operating
naval force was requested by Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts
Bay, from his Majesty's Ministers.

At this time Commodore Warren commanded upon the West India
station, who was ordered to repair to Canso with that view. A
meritorious secrecy prevailed throughout, which half secured the
success of an attempt that, considering the strong means of defence
possessed by the enemy, and the inexperienced troops employed
against them, was extremely doubtful. The activity of the Americans
upon this occasion, was fully equal to the important interests they
had at stake.

Upon the 4th of April the levies from New England reached Canso,
and were encamped there, where they were improved in their
discipline until the arrival of the other troops from the different
Provinces, while the ships of war upon the coast, and some stout
privateers, continued off the harbour of Louisburg, in order to
cut off all supplies, as well as intelligence of the projected

Upon the 23d of April, Commodore Warren arrived at Canso, and
against the 29th all the land forces were embarked, when they
proceeded for Gabarus Bay, about four miles from the capital of
Cape Breton.

Upon the 30th two thousand men were landed at noon, who beat back a
respectable force which was detached to prevent their descent. Upon
that and the following day the rest were disembarked along with
nearly three hundred Seamen, and five hundred Marines, under cover
of the privateers and some smaller vessels ranged along the shore.
The whole was under the command of General Pepperel, a native of

The French, proudly conscious of their strength, were exposed to
surprise from this cause. It is but justice to an enemy, and it
affords an impressive example to the military servants of every
State, to remark an instance of fidelity in the private Soldiery of
the garrison, at this critical moment. Long employed in carrying on
the extensive works of Louisburg, without any recompence, which,
however, was granted by their Government, but alienated from them
by their Officers, they had been in a state of insubordination and
discontent, little short of mutiny, nearly six months, until the
appearance of our forces, when Patriotism cancelled all inferior
grievances, and these brave men now only recognized the duties of
zeal and allegiance to their Sovereign and their Country. In a body
they requested to be led against the invaders, but suspicion and
distrust restrained their superiors from availing themselves of the
tender. The spirit was allowed to subside, and perhaps an occasion
was lost of averting their approaching destinies.

After the disembarkation of our troops, they were pushed on and
formed two separate encampments; one on the southern part of the
harbour to attack the City, and the other upon the northern side
against the Grand Battery.

Upon the night of the 1st of May our outscouts, in the latter
direction, set fire to some storehouses full of combustibles,
which burnt so awfully that the French within this important post
became panic struck, and conceiving that the whole British force
was advancing, retreated precipitately into the City. The works
were possessed in the morning by only thirteen men, who were soon
reinforced, when an unavailing attack was made by the enemy to
recover them.

They had done their utmost to render all the cannon unserviceable,
which required some time before they could be drilled and fit for
use; during which a most tremendous fire was opened upon this spot
from the guns and mortars upon the Island Battery, and the Town,
but with little success. Within a few days they both experienced
the effects of this post being in our hands, in the loss of men,
and the demolition of houses.

The force on the north side of the harbour were not idle, but had
pushed their approaches within two hundred yards of the City, by
the 12th of May, which they continued to cannonade, with great
vigour and success, from some heavy guns planted on an eminence
called the Green Hill, and a fascine battery of twenty eight.

The business of the siege was carried on under the greatest
difficulties, with an unsurpassed alacrity by all. No class could
here claim any pre-eminent merit, for every one was guided by one
uniform impulse.

The walls and embrasures of what the French entitled the Circular
Battery, were soon destroyed, and every thing went on well. Some
important captures, which accelerated the fall of Cape Breton, were
made by our blockading squadron.

It being necessary to push matters as quickly as possible, an
attempt upon the Island Battery was ordered, as it very materially
incommoded our operations on the north side, and prevented the
entrance of our ships into the harbour.

A force of two hundred Marines, and three hundred Americans, was
appointed for this service, and about twelve at night, on the 23d
of May, the whole proceeded on that duty. Soon after a heavy fog
came on that prevented their landing from the whale boats, and
which obliged them to draw off; although they were not unheard by
the enemy's garrison, which then consisted of only fourteen men, to
whom this afforded a timely hint for their reinforcing so material
a post with three hundred and fifty.

Upon the 27th, at two in the morning, this enterprize was
renewed by one hundred and fifty Marines and nearly two hundred
Provincials. The French, discovering their approach, fired
grapeshot from their heavy guns, which destroyed some boats with
the soldiers, when our troops gallantly pushed ashore.

Until sunrise they persevered in the daring but unequal contest;
when at last, reduced numbers, and walls which they in vain
attempted to scale, obliged them to call for quarter.

By indefatigable labour, however, on the night of the 1st of June,
a commanding situation upon the cliff, which swept the platform
of the Island Battery, and the entrance into the harbour, was
completed, and cannon were planted in it. Things now drew to a
crisis; every subordinate event combined to prosper an undertaking
founded in a judicious policy, and conducted with an unanimous
zeal. After forty-nine days of unrelaxed exertion, Louisburg
capitulated, and with it the whole Dependency of Cape Breton.--This
object was accomplished with the loss of little more than one
hundred men, while that of the French exceeded three hundred. The
greater part fell on the Marines in the attempt upon the Island
Battery, who shared in the success and glory of that expedition,
and in the general tribute of applause which was so justly
conferred upon all--by their Country.

The domestic events of the present year were marked by so peculiar
an interest, that I cannot pass them without notice.--The adverse
circumstances which occurred early in 1744 had only suspended, but
did not annihilate the hopes of Prince Charles Edward, the eldest
son of the Pretender, to re-ascend the throne of his ancestors.

Guided by desperate and designing men, urged on by the wily
politics of France, which wished him success, but would not afford
the means of it, and personally sanguine in his disposition, he
readily listened to every representation that flattered his views.
He accordingly embarked his destinies in a stile little adequate
to the extent of his designs, which were to dethrone a beloved
Sovereign, and to overturn the Constitution of a brave and a free

It is not for me to follow him in the range of his efforts, or to
detail the successes which for a while attended his steps.

Britons, little accustomed to hear the sound of war at their own
gates, were at first alarmed at the novelty, but they soon evinced
both loyalty and union in sustaining the fixed rights of their
Monarch, and in defending their own liberties.--Party became dumb,
while addresses, backed by associations were the tenders daily
made to their King.

It was reserved for a branch of that House which he came to
destroy, to vindicate its claims and its honor. His Royal Highness
the Duke of Cumberland, by the Battle of Culloden, not only put a
close to the Rebellion, but for ever ended the aspiring hopes of
the family of the Stuarts; the remains of which have survived to
exist upon the bounty of a Prince whose throne they had striven to

The events of a short day transformed Charles from an imaginary
Monarch to a humble beggar, and he would fain have quickly retraced
his steps to that shore, upon which he had landed with such elated
prospects. But many sufferings and hardships were yet in store; an
interval which has immortalized the character of those poor but
virtuous natives amongst whom he flew for refuge.

Although a reward £30,000 was the boon offered for his person, and
he constantly within the power of the meanest, still an Iscariot,
was not to be found. Adversity, that hour in which true friends can
best be recognized, shewed him human nature in its most exalted
form, in a people, though depressed by penury, that would not
sacrifice either him or his cause.--Every loyal man, while he must
deprecate _the aim_, will still applaud _the principle_ of their
actions. The illiterate tenants of the Hebrides have transmitted
an example of fidelity and allegiance worthy of being known and
imitated by the subjects of every realm. The unfortunate Prince
found his way to France, and while time has extinguished his
family, it has also subverted prejudices, and has incorporated all
his adherents with the united strength of the Empire.

Although the incidents to which I have thus recurred have no
connexion with my subject, still the _inferences_ that arise from
them, as well as the critical occasion, I trust, will sanction
their insertion and this digression.

The following was the list and effective strength of the Marine
Regiments in 1745:

  _Regiments._  _Number of effective Men._  _Wanting to complete._
  Churchill's             878                         122
  Frazer's                864                         136
  Lowther's               848                         152
  Byng's                  797                         203
  Cochran's               945                          55
  Cotterell's             843                         157
  Cornwall's              845                         155
  Duncombe's              784                         216
  Powlett's               916                          84
  Jeffrey's               882                          11
                        -----                       -----
                        8,602                       1,398
                        =====                       =====

Besides 1,550 Commissioned and Non-commissioned Officers.

At this time, and indeed since their institution in 1739,
Commissions were purchased and sold in the Regiments of Marines,
although they always bore an inferior value to these in Old Corps.
A perquisite frequently arose to the Colonels from the disposal
of Second Lieutenancies, when his Majesty was pleased to accept
of their recommendation. Such usually produced from £250 to £280,
while Ensigncies in the Line sometimes yielded £400.

Nothing worthy of further notice occurred within the transactions
of this year.


Early in 1746, a Committee was appointed to investigate the state
and grievances of the Land Forces and Marines. A considerable
increase of expence had accrued in the maintenance of both,
which was one of the objects of this inquiry. Such as affected
the Marine Regiments I have already detailed, and assigned the
causes of the additional charges in this establishment since the
peace of Utrecht. The same are applicable to the Army at large,
in the allowance which was made to Commission-Officers in lieu
of servants, in 1713, in a similar indulgence granted to the
Quartermasters in marching Regiments in 1718, and the annuities to
Officers Widows, to Colonels for clothing lost by deserters, to
Captains for recruiting, and to the Agents of Corps, which were all
the newly-adopted establishments of the latter year.

These additional grants, while they meliorated the situation of the
Officer, cost the Nation but little.

It appears, in the course of this inquiry, that the perquisites of
a Colonel, in clothing a Marine Regiment, exceeded those of the
Foot, from the comparative superiority in their numbers, and the
articles being of an inferior quality.

The grievances which had existed, and were _peculiar_ to those
Regiments, appeared conspicuous in the course of this public

"Upon the whole business, witnesses were examined by the Committee
who deposed that the Marines, while on the West India expedition,
were paid according to the returns of effective men made monthly
to the Commander in Chief, and the account of the _off-reckonings_
was kept by the Pay-Office; and that the Officers _clearings_ of
the first raised six Regiments had been paid _only_ to the 25th
of December, 1740, and of the other four to the 24th of June,
1741, _of which_ the Pay-Master cannot _now_ make any demand,
till muster-rolls are delivered into his office, which he must
compute, and then certify a state of the Regiment's account to the
Secretary at War, who lays it before the King; in consequence of
which, _warrants_ for _clearing_ the Regiment are issued to the
Pay-master, who then makes out _debentures_, pursuant to which a
_warrant_ is drawn for the payment of the money, and that by this
was to be understood _clearing_ the Regiment. It further appeared,
that by the usage of the Army, Regiments could not be _cleared_
with till muster-rolls were made out, but that the Marines had
never been regularly mustered, (owing to their being detached and
employed in every quarter of the globe) to which circumstance is
owing their not having been cleared with, which has been a sad
inconvenience to many of the Officers who were obliged to assign
their arrears at a prodigious discount."

One of the Agents, upon his evidence, suggested to the Committee
an expedient, by which to remedy this evil, which was, that
muster-rolls might be made up from the books of the Men of War
already come home, and from the muster-rolls of the men now at
quarters. He additionally submitted it as his opinion, that it was
the _duty_ of the _Commissary_ to make up this account, and _within
his instructions_, to accept of such books as immediate vouchers.
This Gentleman farther certified, that the _off reckonings_ were
regularly paid, but that the _clearings_ were not, and that the
Colonel usually saved near £1,000 out the _off reckonings_, after
clothing a Marine Regiment; and he conceived, that the Officers
_clearings_ might also be paid by a _warrant_ from the King to the
Secretary at War; more particularly as there was no deficiency
of Officers, though there might be of Private men; and the
returns made being strictly upon honor, might supply the want of

From another witness it was obvious, that no account had ever
been settled with the Captains of Marines for their Companies,
the Agents always alleging, that it could not be done without
muster-rolls; and that though the Marines, when in the West Indies,
were mustered and paid in the same manner as the marching Regiments
were; and though the latter were cleared when they came home, _yet
the former were not_.

That in the summer of 1745, indeed, a warranty countersigned by the
Secretary at War, was sent to the Pay-Master for _clearing_ the
four last raised Regiments of Marines, notwithstanding the want of
muster-rolls; but not being signed by the Lords of the Treasury, it
was not attended to.

This hardship was _peculiar_ to the Marine Regiments, as it became
evident to the Gentlemen forming the Committee of Inquiry, that the
different Corps of Foot employed upon the same service had been
_cleared_ by such authority countersigned by the Secretary at War
alone, without any objection, though the pay had been issued in the
same manner to them, and the want of muster-rolls equally their

Marine Officers, it appeared, were not allowed to take their
servants, when ordered to embark.

At this period, there was a sum of £101,551 3 4 in the hands of the
Pay-Master of Marines; the amount of the above-mentioned claims,
whose character and motives, however, were clearly exculpated
from any blame; but it was not so with his Deputy or Cashier, who
had appropriated near £90,000, bearing interest upon land-tax
tallies, East India Bonds, and clothing assignments, _without the
knowledge of his Superior_, who had been informed, and till this
investigation took place, always understood that the whole had been
deposited in the Bank of England.

Another Subordinate, the Accountant of the Pay-Master, shared in
the annual profits of these investments, which were derived from
the invaded rights of the injured Officer.--After having divided
the spoils during some years, and having made a restitution of the
principal, they were both deprived of their situations.

Such a scene of grievance appeared through the whole of this
scrutiny, that the Committee emphatically closed their report, by
the ingenuous avowal, that the _facts_ which appeared called for
public notice, and highly deserved the attention of Parliament.

It ought to be related, to the honour of these suffering Corps,
that during the long period of nearly six years they suppressed
their feelings until the present occasion, of which they very
properly availed themselves.

They now submitted their wrongs to a Board, instituted by
legislative sanction, and for the express purpose of redress,
as well as of inquiry; the following are the terms in which the
Memorial of one of the Marine Regiments were couched:

    To the Gentlemen of the Committee, and which may be considered
    as engrossing the general sentiments of the whole that were
    employed in the Expedition to the West Indies.

1st. "That in the month of August, 1740, when _this_ regiment
was one of those embarked for the expedition to the West Indies,
the Captains were obliged by _order_, out of their own pockets,
to provide and lay in a stock of sugar, tobacco, snuff, shirts,
shoes, stockings, jackets, trowzers, and other sea stores, for the
use of their Companies; and were considerable losers in the waste
and weighing, and in the division of the several species to the
men; that farther, if any man died (which was frequently the case,)
who had not lived long enough to pay the charge of their slops, the
Captain was the only sufferer, as he received his mens' subsistence
_according to the effective monthly returns only_, by order of the
General; nay, the ordinary allowance of the two Warrant Men, paid
in Great Britain and Ireland monthly to the Captains, with their
subsistence, was here deducted, notwithstanding they embarked

2dly. "The exchange of money between England and Jamaica, at that
time was 40 per cent. and money enough to be had at that exchange
for the payment of the Army; nevertheless the Officers and Private
Men on that expedition were obliged to receive their pay at 20 per
cent. for some time: indeed, upon a general murmur made by the army
upon that occasion, there was 5 per cent. more added; so here was
still a deduction of 15 per cent. A noted instance of this severity
at the end.

3dly. "The Agents _now_ deny making up their accounts with the
Captains of Marines, in the same manner that other Captains are
accounted with; and in short deny giving any accounts at all. By
this means a good deal of that martial dependence a Soldier ought
to have on his Officer is withdrawn, as he finds the Agent is his
factotum in affairs of money, and his executor in case he dies.
The Agents, in order to support these their unjust proceedings,
endeavour to screen themselves under some wrested paragraphs in the
Mutiny Act; for (as we apprehend), from the Legislatures designed
intent, and quite contrary to the King's Order in his Articles of
War, _which must always be consequent to the above act_, as by the
said act it is, that his Majesty is empowered to make such orders
or articles.

4thly. "The Officers of Marines are by the same terms of
chicanery kept from receiving their arrears, there being five
years and a half due the 24th of June of the present year
(1746), notwithstanding the other parts of the Army receive them
punctually, though in no part of the service ought the arrears to
be quicker paid than in the Marines, where Officers are put to
certain and immediate necessary expences on every embarkation.

5thly. "It is plainly evident that no Officer in the Marine service
(whilst dealt and accounted with in this manner), enjoys the same
privileges with the other Officers of the Army, which must of
consequence create heart-burnings, to the detriment of the service.
Seeing, therefore, that these Officers have (notwithstanding their
cruel usage) on all occasions and at all times been most ready with
their lives and abilities to devote themselves to the service of
their King and Country, we humbly beg that this their situation may
be inquired into."

The instance which was referred to from the 2d article is as follow:

"A Pay-Master, while the Marines were employed in the Island of
Cuba, by order of his Commanding Officer, did receive between 3 and
£400 of the deceased Officers money, for which he gave bills upon
the Agent of the Regiment in London, and issued out this money to
the Officers, on account of their subsistence at the full exchange,
which they were in great need of.

"When this Pay-Master was in the course of passing his accounts
with the Agent of the Regiment, he was told that the Pay-Master
General would not allow him this money, because all money on
account of the Regiment (a scheme of which the Pay-Master knew
nothing) _was to be drawn from the Contractors_, that is, the
Marines were to receive their subsistence at 15 per cent. less than
the currency of the country; though God knows, and the world are
competent judges of the hardships and severities of campaigning in
such a climate with sea provisions only, and bad water; besides,
it was utterly impossible for men thus curtailed of their small
subsistence, to purchase the least refreshments, when it is
considered that a poor sheep was sold for £4, a turkey at £1 3 9,
and so in proportion for every thing that could be termed fresh

"In return for such sufferings, the few who remained alive
to revisit their native country, with the entail of broken
constitutions scarcely worth the enjoying, which they still
dragged on in the solacing hope of all their sorrows being closed,
and all their claims adjusted, in order to restore their health,
and to render them once more fit for the service of their King and
Country, to their great disappointment, are to this very day kept
(we believe) by the juggling tricks of the Pay-Master General, and
the Agents, from their arrears, _and the small benefits allowed to
other parts of the Army_.

"From the beginning of this example it is plain, that no
charitable regard was to be paid to the executors of deceased
Officers receiving their money at par in Great Britain, nor to the
sufferings of Officers in America, who received this small sum on
the same terms there for subsistence. We therefore most humbly pray
your goodness to intercede with his Majesty for the relief of these
our grievances."

Such are the details of privation which this meritorious body had
long continued to endure in silent loyalty. Thus early did they
afford the brightest examples of steady allegiance, which has
transcended to their posterity under every change of constitution
they have undergone, and what, I trust, will ever be the
distinguishing characteristic of a British Marine, under all the
destinies of himself or his country.

One resulting and immediate consequence of this public inquiry was,
that the Pay-Master made good the balance in his hands, which was
lodged in the bank of England for the future benefit of those who
were so justly entitled to it.

Having introduced, in the preceding part of this inquiry, some
terms which may not be understood by all, I shall take a retrospect
of each, and define them in rotation.

The first that occurs is _off-reckonings_--of these there are two
kinds, _gross_ and _nett_ off-reckonings; the former consisted of
all the pay of the Non-commission Officers and Private Men _above_
their subsistence: for instance, during the period to which I
allude, the _full pay_ of a common Soldier was 8_d._ per day, out
of which 2_d._ was stopped for clothes, &c. and 6_d._ remained for
his subsistence. From this too, 6_d._ per week was deducted to
furnish stockings and shoes when the regimental articles were worn

The Captain of each Company always settled with his men for the
balance, if any, every two months. _Nett off-reckonings_ were the
amount of the _gross off-reckonings_, reserved for the purpose
of clothing the men, _after_ the deductions of 1_s._ in the
pound, and one day's pay from each Regiment, for the benefit of
Chelsea Hospital, with 2_d._ in the pound for the agent of each
Corps.--Such stoppages were always made at the Pay-Office.

_Clearings_ were the balance of each Officer's pay _above_ his
subsistence, after the deductions stated were made, which ought to
have been regularly paid by the Pay-Master General to the different
Marine Agents.

_Warrants_ were documents with the sign-manual attached to each
which authorized the receipt, and disbursements of money from the
Treasury. They may be considered as the _sanctions_ of any Board.
_Debentures_ were commonly made up at the Pay-Office, by virtue
of warrants from the War-Office, annexing a general statement of
the charges of each Regiment, upon which proceeded a _final_ or
clearing warrant. Debentures originated in 1649, and they were a
mode in the form of a bond, or bill, by which Government obliged
itself to render payments of such monies as might be due to the
Soldier, or his assigns, upon examining and closing the account of
his arrears.

Nearly twelve thousand Marines was the vote of 1746. Early in
this year, an expedition was meditated against Quebec, and
a considerable force assembled at Spithead for that intent,
amongst which was Colonel Powlet's Regiment of Marines; but from
unaccountable delays, there the whole remained until the season was
too late for such an attempt.

They were afterwards destined against Port L'Orient, with a view
to distress the French East India Company, as well as to create a
diversion in favour of the Austrian operations in Provence. The
Commanders appointed were Admiral Lestock and Lieutenant General

The long detention of so respectable a force, until the period of
Equinox not only gave time for the enemy to ascertain its object,
but endangered its progress along a hostile coast, at so very
critical a season.

At last, having assembled at Plymouth, the whole set sail upon
the 14th of September, steering directly for the coast of
Britanny.--Five thousand Infantry to be strengthened, if necessary,
by the Marines of sixteen Sail of the Line, and eight Frigates,
were the number employed on this occasion.

They made the coast upon the 18th; but from adverse circumstances,
a debarkation was not effected until the 20th. The interval was
advantageous for the enemy, who by alarm guns during the day, and
lighted fire-beacons upon the tops of corresponding hills during
the night, soon apprised their distant countrymen of an invader's

It was in vain that opposition was attempted against the descent of
our troops, by a body of undisciplined Militia. After having landed
the cannon, with the ammunition and stores, in Quimparley-Bay, the
whole were left under the charge of a small party of the Royal
Artillery, and a body of one hundred Marines.

On the 21st the army advanced in two columns against Plymeur,
which they reached after some slight skirmishing. The place having
agreed to surrender, but afterwards treacherously firing upon a
detachment, it was given up to plunder. On the following day, the
whole moved on to a rising ground within a mile of Port L'Orient,
the ultimate object of their views. After a fruitless parley, which
the French had established, in order to gain time and to collect
their scattered means of defence, hostilities commenced on the 24th.

Some affairs took place between that and the 26th, when after a
cannonade, which did considerable damage to the town, a retreat was
commenced under cover of the night.

The French were now pouring from all quarters, and the situation
of our forces became critical. The fatigues endured by our men of
every description were excessive. The opportunity of conquest seems
to have been lost in the want of early energies, which allowed a
valuable interval to the enemy for defence.

After a loss of about one hundred and fifty killed, wounded, and
missing, and some Artillery, the re-embarkation was effected,
when the fleet set sail upon the 1st of October, for the Bay of
Borneuff, off Quiberon, and to the South of Quimperlay.

The body of Marines I have mentioned, were intrenched at
Quimperlay, to guard the landing-place, and the rest, under Colonel
Holmes, were united with the Army.

Upon the 4th of October, some troops were landed on the peninsula
of Quiberon, without opposition, from whence the natives had fled
with all their effects. After remaining ashore some days, the whole
returned to England, without having effected any thing during that
time, worthy of remark.

Nothing of moment appears farther on the face of the military
operations of the present year, in which the Marines had a share.

In the gradual increase to the Establishment of the Army during
the present war, the Marines became incorporated with the Line,
and their numerical precedence commenced with the 44th Regiment,
entitled, The First Marines.

The following is the detail of the Field Officers and Agents of
each Corps, all of which were quartered in Great Britain, and
in the vicinity of the principal sea-ports, at the close of the
present year.

  44th Regiment, or First Marines.

  George Churchill, Colonel.
  N. Mitchell, Lieutenant Colonel.
  James Macdonald, Major.
  J. Winter, Dartmouth-street, Westminster, Agent.

  45th Regiment, or Second Marines.

  Robert Frazer, Colonel.
  J. Leighton, Lieutenant Colonel.
  T. Mathews, Major.
  T. Paterson, Conduit-street, Agent.

  46th Regiment, or Third Marines.

  C. H. Holmes, Colonel.
  P. Damar, Lieutenant Colonel.
  W. Brown, Major.
  T. Fisher, Privy-gardens, Whitehall, Agent.

  47th Regiment, or Fourth Marines.

  C. George Byng, Colonel.
  B. Hutchison, Lieutenant Colonel.
  J. Read, Major.
  T. Paterson, Conduit-street, Agent.

  48th Regiment, or Fifth Marines.

  C. James Cochran, Colonel.
  C. Whiteford, Lieutenant Colonel.
  J. Stuart, Major.
  Maynard Guering, St. James's-park, Agent.

  49th Regiment, or Sixth Marines.

  ------------, vacant, Colonel.
  C. Gordon, Lieutenant Colonel.
  C. Leighton, Major.
  William Adair, Pall-mall, Agent.

  50th Regiment, or Seventh Marines.

  H. Cornwall, Colonel.
  J. Paterson, Lieutenant Colonel.
  R. Bendish, Major.
  T. Fisher, Privy-gardens, Whitehall, Agent.

  51st Regiment, or Eighth Marines.

  J. Duncombe, Colonel.
  J. Cunningham, Lieutenant Colonel.
  J. Brewse, Major.
  Maynard Guering, St. James's-park, Agent.

  52d Regiment, or Ninth Marines.

  C. Pawlett, Colonel.
  G. Walsh, Lieutenant Colonel.
  --------, Major, _vacant_.
  Mr. Guering, Agent.

  53d Regiment, or Tenth Marines.

  Sir Andrew Agnew, Colonel.
  C. Pawlett, Lieutenant Colonel.
  C. Durand, Major.
  Mr. Guering, Agent.

These Regiments, when complete, were supposed to consist of one
thousand Rank and File each, and every battalion of ten Companies.

At this period the whole forces upon the British Establishment
amounted to eighty-five thousand six hundred and eleven men.

As institutions of honor, and distinctions of merit, are necessary
incentives for animating the zeal both of Corps and individuals,
as like every other inheritance, peculiar privileges ought to be
transmitted, unimpaired, to the lineal successors of Public Bodies,
if not forfeited by misconduct, or abused by wantonness, I am thus
led to remark an occurrence that took place in London, and which
is authenticated by Major Donkin, in his "Military Collections,"
who was a cotemporary and intimate with the Officer to whom the
circumstance happened. It is thus expressed:

"_The 3d Regiment of Foot, raised in_ 1665, known by the ancient
title of The Old Buffs, have the privilege of marching through
London with drums beating, colours flying! which the city disputes
not only with all other Corps, but even with the King's Guards
going on duty to the Tower! It happened in the year 1746, that as
a detachment of Marines were beating along Cheapside, one of the
Magistrates came up to the Officer, requiring him to cease the
drum, as no Soldiers were allowed to interrupt the civil repose.
The Captain commanding (an intimate friend of mine) immediately
said, Sir, we are Marines.--Oh, Sir! replied the Alderman, I beg
pardon; I did not know it! Pray continue your route as you please."

It has been already noticed in the early part of this retrospect,
that the Corps of Marines was originally engrafted upon _that
Regiment_ to which the Major alludes--that the _Old Buffs_ of
the present day gained one numerical step in the Line, from the
extinction of its predecessor, previous to which circumstance it
had no claim to the privilege in question, and could establish no
subsequent one from merely a sameness in name.

The conclusion which naturally arises must be, that after having
ascertained _our First Parent, as children_, we should enjoy
unalienated the honors of our forefathers.--Whether or not, in
authenticating the fact he has stated, the Major means to advance
a similar inference by a like train of analogy, I know not, but it
appears to carry a feasible construction.

Although the metropolis is but rarely the scene of our service,
except that of recruiting, still no one can anticipate the
reforms which may be judged necessary in the different military
establishments of our Country. In adducing one example of
undisputed right, it must certainly fix it as a recognized
principle under all future contingencies, excepting that the laws
of police shall have utterly abolished the practice.


Eleven thousand one hundred and fifty Marines constituted the vote
for 1747.

Notwithstanding the disasters of the last year in a projected
expedition under Duke D'Anville, against Cape Breton, still the
ministry of France persevered in their designs upon that important
possession. Another object, more extensive in its nature and
more fatal in its aim, formed also a part of their plan in the
subsequent operations of the war, which was directed against the
British dependencies upon the Coast of Coromandel.

These armaments equipped, under different destinations, set sail
from France in united force, under the fond persuasion that no
hostile interruption could stop their progress.

A happy genius appeared at this time to guide our Naval Councils.
Early intelligence was obtained of the enemy's views, and adequate
measures were soon taken to counteract them. The occasion afforded
a fresh display of the zeal and intrepidity of Vice Admiral Anson,
and Rear Admiral Warren, who with a superior force fell in with and
captured, upon the 3d day of May, five sail of the line of battle,
a large frigate, and four stout armed ships freighted on account of
the French East India Company, with troops and stores.

Above £300,000 in money, which was intended to answer the
contingencies of these expeditions, was found on board the Men of
War, which altered its course to the Bank of England, and whither
it was escorted by a party of Marines, in military procession,
amidst the acclamations of the populace.

For this achievement the Vice Admiral was created a Peer of Great
Britain, and Rear Admiral Warren was invested with the Order of
the Bath.--The whole Fleet received the cordial thanks of their
Sovereign, through its Commander, in these words, and who became
the organ of the Royal wish:

"Sir, you have done me a great service--I thank you, and desire you
to thank, in my name, _all the Officers and Private Men_, for their
bravery and conduct, with which I am well pleased."

Soon after the enemy sustained a heavy commercial loss in
forty-eight sail of homeward bound West Indiamen.

The 14th of October, in this year, memorable for our naval
successes, was another day of triumph.

Rear Admiral Hawke, whom the vigilance of our Ministry detached
early in August to intercept a numerous convoy then collecting
for the West Indies, continued upon his cruizing ground until
that morning, when their wished-for object was espied. After the
most gallant defence, six ships of the line struck their colours,
and were carried into Portsmouth. The Order of the Bath was the
well-earned laurel of this victory to the Commander, and the
legislative thanks of a grateful country were rendered to the
subordinate Officers, Seamen, and Marines of the Squadron.

While victory thus crowned the British Flag, its Commerce also
continued protected by the same guardian care. A few short months
accomplished the conquest of the flower of the French Navy, the
consequences of which were soon felt in the security of our trade
and the increase of public credit. Those of the enemy were both
fast on the decline, and a general despondency prevailed throughout
their country, from which all their boasted victories upon the
Continent could not revive the nation.

Towards the close of this year, Rear Admiral Boscawen sailed
for the East Indies with a powerful squadron, having nearly two
thousand troops on board, in order to reinforce our ships then
inferior to the enemy upon that station, and to retrieve our
affairs in that quarter of the globe. All our exertions during this
era were employed on our proper element, in which the Marines bore
a share, and they leave not to me a single detached incident for

In the early part of this year, his Majesty directed that the
several Regiments of Marines which were then existing, or might
afterwards be raised, should for the future obey such orders as
they, from time to time, might receive from the Lords Commissioners
of the Admiralty, from which period our present Constitution may,
in some degree, be dated.


The distresses of France had now reached their height in the
destruction of her navy, and the annihilation of her commerce.
Spain also, cut off from her resources by the vigilance of our
fleets, was equally poor, and her subjects still more wretched;
while Britain, now directed by unanimity and wisdom, seemed as if
invigorated by the struggle.

Great must have been the sufferings of his people, when Louis XV.
condescended to express his ardent wish for the return of peace to
an individual who was then his prisoner. That Sovereign ingenuously
avowed to Sir John Ligonier the pressures which had induced him
to urge the topic; and it was a hint too interesting for humanity
to pass unnoticed. Accordingly, a Congress was soon after held at
Aix-la-Chapelle, in order to arrange the terms of negociation.
The prospect however, did not relax our efforts, which were still
greater than ever.

Eleven thousand five hundred and fifty Marines were the
establishment of 1748.

Admiral Boscawen, who had sailed from England in November of the
last year, got sight of the Mauritius upon the 23d day of June.
His orders were to make an attack upon it, but this object was
subordinate to the conquest of Pondicherry, which was the chief
view of the expedition. The enemy had long been aware of his
destination, and were well prepared to receive him. After having
reconnoitred the coast, and sounded where a probability appeared
of effecting a disembarkation, it was at last ascertained, that
the powerful means of defence which presented every where,
and the dangers of approaching the land in many places, must
necessarily involve a great sacrifice of men, and render success
even ultimately doubtful. The coming on of the autumnal monsoons
had also an influence in the decision of a Council, which was to
relinquish this attempt, and to proceed without delay for the Coast
of Coromandel, the enjoined scene of operations.

Upon the 27th of June, the Admiral bid adieu to the island, and
arrived at Fort St. David on the 29th of July. Here the troops
were landed and encamped, with all the necessary stores. At no
period could the Nation ever boast of a more zealous or faithful
servant than Admiral Boscawen. It was now but a short interval ere
he proceeded to carry his instructions into effect, under his own
auspices; having entrusted the Fleet to Captain Lisle, the next in
command, who had orders to co-operate to the utmost.

Previous to the departure of Vice Admiral Griffin, with four
ships intended for Europe, the Marines were drafted from them,
and added to the battalion, which upon this service consisted of
eight hundred and eighty rank and file. The whole amounting to
four thousand one hundred and twenty British and Country troops to
be afterwards reinforced by two thousand native auxiliaries, and
one thousand one hundred sailors, trained to small arms, were to
form the besieging army. The battering cannon, mortars, and every
implement were conveyed by the squadron within two miles of the
town, while the land forces began their march towards Pondicherry,
on the 8th of August, about thirty miles distant. They were
uninterrupted till the 11th, when a shew of opposition was made by
an intrenched force of the enemy on the banks of a river. These
gave way, however, upon the advance of a detachment to attack
them. On the other side stood the fort of Arian-Coupan, which it
was essential to carry previous to opening the siege. A force of
seven hundred men, composed of grenadiers, and the piquets of the
Army were deemed adequate to this attempt by the Engineers who
reconnoitred the works. In this service they had been unhappily
deceived, from the peculiarity of the ground in front of the fort,
the real strength of which was hid from their view.

Unprepared for the assault, our brave men, when too late, found
its formidable state, but with a persevering though an unfortunate
spirit, they continued an attack which afforded no hope of success.

The enemy now galling them extremely by flanking fires from two
batteries on the opposite side of the river, a retreat was made
after the loss of 150 men killed and wounded, and amongst them some
of our best officers. The fall of Major Goodere of the Artillery,
upon this occasion, was peculiarly lamented, and from his high
professional talents, was considered as an event inauspicious to
the future operations of the army.

The detachment being repulsed, retired towards the sea, in order to
preserve a communication with the ships, and thus to disembark the
cannon and stores. Here they slept all night upon their arms, and
on the following day, the 13th of August, were joined by the army.
In the afternoon the 1100 Seamen were landed under Captain Lloyd.

It was now determined to carry on approaches in regular form.
Upon the 17th a battery of four guns was opened, but being
injudiciously placed it produced no effect. The Artillery Officers
having volunteered to construct another, it began on the following
morning with such success, that a desperate attempt was made by
the enemy to destroy it. This at first succeeded, but our men soon
rallying from a temporary panic, the French were beat back and
their Commanding Officer taken prisoner. Major Lawrence, however,
and some officers scorning to participate in the early terror which
seized the troops, became captives.

Upon the 20th some gunpowder taking fire within the Fort, the
principal Battery blew up, by which explosion upwards of 100 of
the enemy perished. They then, by putting matches to the different
mines, demolished all the fortifications, and the remains retreated
to Pondicherry.

The ruins were soon occupied by our troops, who were employed,
until the 25th in rendering this post tenable. They afterwards
crossed the river of Arian-Coupan, and got possession of a strong
situation within a mile of the place, without a shew of contest.
This being to the north west of the town, a communication was from
thence maintained with the ships to the northward of it, and all
the implements necessary for the siege were now landed.

Early in the morning of the 1st of September the Advanced Guard of
100 men, consisting principally of Marines, was attacked by very
superior forces, which were headed by Mons. Portalis, the principal
Engineer of the enemy; who was mortally wounded, besides four other
Officers, and the whole were repulsed with a loss of upwards of 120

Upon this occasion a woman fought in the Marine Ranks of the name
of Hannah Snell, a native of Worcester, who, after many chequered
destinies, inlisted at Portsmouth in Colonel Frazer's regiment,
from whence she was embarked with a detachment on board the Swallow
sloop, one of Admiral Boscawen's squadron. In this affair she
behaved with distinguished courage, having fired 37 rounds, and
received a ball in the groin, which, two days afterwards, she
herself extracted, and likewise dressed the wound. Eleven others in
both legs, but of inferior consequence also, rendered her removal
to the Hospital, at Cuddalore, absolutely necessary, where she
continued three months.

When recovered she was ordered on board the Eltham frigate, in
which she continued till that ship returned home and was paid
off. After receiving her discharge from the Marine Service, in
company with many of her companions, she set out for London. The
time arrived when they were to bid each other a long adieu; this
moment she chose to discover her sex, in order to attest the truth
of her adventures. One of her friends tendered his hand, which
was declined. She afterwards wore the Marine Dress, and having
presented a petition to his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland,
he, with a princely spirit, attended to her prayer, and placed
her on the King's list for a pension of thirty pounds a year for
life. This she enjoyed until a few years ago, when, after a long
residence at Walsall, in Staffordshire, her days were closed.

It was not until the 25th of September that the batteries were
completed, when they began to play. Owing to a general ignorance
of the plan of Pondicherry, our first attack was directed against
its strongest quarter, and after different approaches, it was
discovered that a deep and intervening morass prevented their
being carried within a distance near enough to produce effect.
Notwithstanding a combined cannonade on the part of the squadron,
against the town, it was found that the enemy's fire rather gained
an ascendency. Sickness becoming prevalent, from the fatigues
endured by the troops, often up to the middle in water; the rainy
season being daily expected, which would inundate the country
and cut off their retreat to Fort St. David's, and the army
rapidly diminishing in its numbers, afforded strong grounds for
immediately abandoning the siege. A Council of War, held on the
30th of September, determined upon this measure, after which period
the only objects to be accomplished were reimbarking the men and
stores, and setting fire to the batteries, all which were effected
upon the 5th of October, and the whole were in motion upon the
morning of the 6th.

They had happily chosen the critical moment for retreat, as the
rains which fell upon the same evening, had nearly rendered the
rivers impassible; however they reached Fort St. David's upon
the evening of the 7th, after having demolished the Fort of
Arian-Coupan on their way.

The want of Engineers was bitterly felt throughout the whole, and
though it was in many instances amply compensated by the handsome
and voluntary tenders of service, from the Officers of the Corps of
Royal Artillery, still these were of too subordinate a nature to
remedy the errors committed in the leading plan of operations.

We had also to combat a garrison nearly equal to our own army,
which was but little aided by the Native Auxiliaries, whose chief
use lay in guarding the skirts of our Camp from surprize, or
harassing parties; for they would never defend any post without
being supported by European troops.

This disaster involved a loss of 1065 Whites of every description,
while that of the enemy did not exceed 500.

In the West Indies an attack was again intended against St. Jago,
in Cuba, by some land forces embarked at Jamaica and the Marines of
the squadron, with which design the whole put to sea, but after a
long perseverance against strong northerly winds, which prevented
their approaching that coast, it was given up, and diverted to an
enterprize against Port Louis on the south side of Hispaniola. This
service was performed by the ships in line of battle, which, after
three hours heavy cannonade, compelled its Governor to surrender
upon terms, when Major Scott, with a detachment of Governor
Trelawney's regiment, and the Marines, were landed, and took
possession of the Fort in the name of his Majesty.

After having shipped or destroyed upwards of 80 heavy cannon, and
blown up the works, the whole were re-embarked.

Towards the close of the present year a very serious mutiny
occurred on board his Majesty's ship Chesterfield, upon the coast
of Africa, but like all attempts of so diabolical a nature, it was
suppressed by the spirited efforts of a few well disposed of her
crew. This leads me to the reflection, that, however brave and
intrepid the character of a British Seaman is, still his valour
becomes palsied the moment it is exerted in a wrong cause. Such
indeed must ever be the consequence of such ill aimed combinations.
The wretch who is capable of subverting his country's interests
cares but little for those of his friends. In principle a villain,
he never fails being the first to desert and betray the unfortunate
men, who are the dupes of his counsels, particularly when his own
life appears in danger.

In order to exhibit how dangerous it is even to _conceal_ the
existence of a mutiny, I will state an instance which arose out of
the above occasion:--After the Chesterfield was recovered from
those daring insurgents, she was carried into Barbadoes, when all
the culprits were put on board the Richmond, excepting two. Some of
them were indulged with their liberty and to mess with that ship's
company; so liberal are our laws even to the criminal, before trial
and condemnation.

Having, by their protestations of innocence, interested some of the
people in their favour, T. Ferriman, the ship's Steward, I believe
from pure motives, and wishing to discover those who had united
in planning their escape, drew out a paper for the signature of
all who wished well to the scheme. Within two hours he was himself
informed against, by one who had subscribed to it, and being found
in his pocket, it was too powerful an evidence to resist that
article of War which holds him equally guilty with the perpetrator,
who _knowingly conceals_ any gathering mutiny even for a moment.

Every detail of active operation closes with the peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle, now a second time rendered memorable by the growth
of the Olive.

After more than nine years hostility, all the powers agreed to
a general restitution of conquests. France and Spain were left
to lament a ruined Navy, and an impoverished people, while Great
Britain felt an accession of more than four millions of circulating
specie, which concealed from the public view a large addition to
her national debt.

At this time the respective rank between the sea and land Officers
was decreed by his Majesty, and an order issued for an exact
uniformity of dress throughout the naval service.

Amongst the many reductions which now progressively took place,
during 1748, and the early part of the ensuing year, may be
remarked the total extinction of the Marine establishment, the
Officers of which, at these successive periods, were placed on half


Peace having been proclaimed upon the 2d of February, 1749, the
liberal policy of Government was soon after conspicuous towards its
disbanded servants.

The settlement of Nova Scotia, hitherto a neglected spot, presented
itself to the enlightened mind of the Earl of Halifax as a proper
field for improvement, and it readily occurred to him, as a fit
occasion, for rendering useful to the State a body of men, that
might have otherwise been let loose upon society.

Accordingly grants of land in that Province, were tendered to
every rank of his Majesty's land and sea forces, and as a spur to
immediate population, an extension of privilege and property was
allowed to him, who should embark his family, in proportion to its

Some of the liberal professions, and mechanicks of different
descriptions were also invited to become adventurers, under similar
inducements, and the plan of a happy Civil Government emanating
from a British fountain, was early framed for the permanent
happiness of these military colonists.

Under such assurances above 4000 bid adieu to their native shore,
and upon the 21st of June the whole anchored in the bay of
Chebucto, upon the southern coast of the Province, where a town
was quickly raised, fortified, and divided into lots, which was
named Halifax; a monument of the liberal and humane views of its
noble patron. The occasion merits many a reflection which I am not
allowed to indulge.

While it is the wisdom, it is also the interest of every Country
to frame employ for those who have served it faithfully in war. A
distinction between the industrious and the profligate would soon
be marked by Society, and the worthless wanderer roaming about
unpitied, would be compelled to contribute to his own support, and
thus promote the general good.

Every circumstance after the peace tended to shew that it was only
a temporary expedient on the part of France.

Alternately they continued to inflame and negociate during nearly
the whole interval of public repose, and by their extensive Naval
preparations, which were not confined to their own Country, they
obviously evinced the intention of renewing hostilities when they
felt themselves in sufficient power.

Upwards of six years provocation and remonstrance had elapsed,
when repeated insults aroused the Nation. Early in 1755 our
armaments began, at which time a levy of 50 Companies of Marines,
was ordered, and the following appointments of Officers to them
appeared in the Gazette of the 5th of April:

  Lieutenant Colonels.

  James Patterson,
  Thomas Drury,
  Charles Gordon,


  Richard Bendyshe,
  Charles Leighton,
  James Burleigh.


  Hector Boisrond,
  Gabriel Sediere,
  John M'Kenzie,
  Charles Repington,
  Alexander Cumming,
  Sir Robert Abercrombie,
  Alexander Douglass,
  Edward Rycaut,
  John Wright,
  Thomas Dawes,
  John Tufton Mason,
  Thomas Sheldon,
  Thomas Moore,
  John Gordon,
  Richard Baker,
  James Dundas,
  George Maxwell,
  James Robertson.

  First Lieutenants.

  Daniel Campbell,
  Dudley Crofts,
  George Langley,
  James Hill,
  Alexander Cathcart,
  Francis Hay,
  Donald M'Donald,
  John Shuttie,
  Edward Howarth,
  Robert Duglass,
  John Phillips,
  John Brown,
  Colin Campbell,
  Robert Ewer,
  Archibald Campbell,
  George Ord,
  Laucelor Willan,
  William Fraizer,


  John Campbell,
  Claud Hamilton,
  John Bell,
  John Dennis,
  Thomas Dalton,
  Thomas Whitwick,
  James Hamilton,
  Robert Barker,
  John Groeme,
  John Beaghan,
  Samuel Prosser,
  Patrick M'Donal,
  Alexander Irons,
  Charles Webb,
  William Stacy,
  Richard Brough,
  Henry Smith,
  John Johnston,
  Leathes Johnston,
  Christopher Gauntlett,
  Tooker Collins,
  Walter Canuthers,
  John Vere,
  William Picton,
  Richard Shuckburgh,
  Richard Hawkins,

  First Lieutenants.

  James Short,
  George Bossuque,
  James Mercer,
  John Frazer,
  W. Ayton Douglas,
  Dennis Bond,
  Thomas Backhouse,
  Gerard Dennet,
  Thomas Troy,
  Edward Shyffin,
  George Gulston,
  Richard Dennison,
  William Thompson,
  John Elliot,
  John Pitcairne,
  James Perkins,
  William Dennis,
  Ralph Teasdale,
  Pierce Deut,
  Robert Shirley,
  Daniel Campbell,
  John Blinkhan,
  William Lutman,
  Thomas Wright,
  William Rowley,
  Thomas Stamper,


  George Maddison,
  Charles Grey,
  Robert Burdet,
  John Yeo,
  Robert Packhurst,
  Alexander Leslie,

  First Lieutenants.

  Thomas Airy,
  Thomas Smith,
  ---- Waller,
  Charles Fletcher,
  Benjamin Edwards,
  Enoch Markham.

These, formed into three divisions, were placed at Chatham,
Portsmouth, and Plymouth, under the controul of the Board of
Admiralty, and an Act was passed for their regulation while on

Some of the names detailed, still live, while others, like them,
survived to hold distinguished rank, and to prove ornaments to
their profession, and the British Army.

From this era the Marine Corps has ever constituted a branch of
the peace establishment, the sale of Commissions was abolished,
although a transit between the Army and it, was still kept up,
which, from the casual introduction of men of influence, animated
promotion. But this system was soon changed, by which reform all
Officers rose in regular rotation, and what is the regulation of
the present day. Every appointment in the Marine Corps was notified
from the Admiralty, and appeared in the London Gazette; a practice
for reasons I know not, has been since discontinued.

Although no declaration of war had taken place, still hostilities
of a serious nature had been committed in America, and captures to
an immense amount were made by our cruizers during 1755. Even since
the signature of peace, indeed, the French maintained a spirit
of inveteracy in the East, which aimed at universal dominion.
Preparations were at last commenced, and the country at large began
to feel their wrongs.


An unaccountable dread pervaded the nation, which the public
measures certainly tended to heighten. In the early part of 1756
the enemy had collected immense forces upon their coasts with the
avowed object of invading England. Foreign auxiliaries were called
in, measures of precaution and defence were adopted, while the real
objects of attack from all their mighty threats, were entirely
forgotten and neglected. Amongst the additional forces voted during
the present year, 9138 Marines were decreed by Parliament; in
order to complete which 30 additional companies were ordered to be
raised. The expedient of a land impress was resorted to, in the
form of an "Act for the more speedy and effectual recruiting his
Majesty's Land Forces and Marines," but which was suspended by a
Royal Order upon the 1st of May, in consequence of the zealous and
patriotic co-operations of the nobility and gentry, who, by their
purses and their energies, rendered it unnecessary.

The real designs of the French having been developed in an
expedition against Minorca, while they continued to amuse the
nation by the terrors of an invasion, produced a declaration of
war upon the 18th of May, against that power. Admiral Byng had
been detached for its relief, and had previously been ordered to
disembark all the Marines from his ships, in order to take on board
a number of land forces destined for the relief of that garrison.

Commodore Edgcumbe, who commanded the British squadron in the
Mediterranean, foreseeing an attack upon the island, had landed
1 Captain, 2 Subalterns, 4 Serjeants, 4 Corporals, 3 Drummers,
and 104 Rank and File, being nearly the whole of his Marines, to
strengthen its defence, who shared in the fatigues and the glory of
that distinguished siege under Lieutenant General Blakeney. Much
spirit and determined bravery was evinced in the course of it.

After more than two months tedious approaches, the enemy stormed,
upon the 25th of June, in different points, but with partial
success. The firing had continued from ten at night until four
upon the following morning, when Marshall Richelieu beat a parley
in order to bury his dead. But he shamefully invaded the interval
of suspension, by reinforcing the lodgments he had gained, which
communicating by subterraneous passages, afforded easy access into
the body of the place itself.

This led to its immediate fall, by capitulation, after seventy days
contest, and is an instance of what little confidence should be
placed in the French character, under every similar occasion.

The Nation, always too apt to despond from slight causes, most
bitterly lamented this event, which was preceded by the very
unwelcome tidings of a drawn battle between the hostile fleets.
Sir Edward Hawke succeeded the unfortunate Admiral, who became a
victim to the strict letter of the law, and the general prejudices
of his Country. From a vast superiority our commerce in those seas
was well protected, while that of the enemy suffered extremely. The
constant threats of descent appeared to paralyse every exertion
but that of domestic security; while the enemy were carrying on
their schemes of distant conquest under the panic which these had

Towards the close of the year a new Ministry was formed, to which
the Nation looked with confidence and hope.

In this administration that great and manly character, Mr. Pitt,
was one.--No farther details occur under the era of 1756.--The
Marines, in common with their brethren in the British Fleet, shared
in the credit which was gained by some partial actions during the


An addition of twenty companies was ordered early in the year 1757,
to complete the parliamentary vote of eleven thousand four hundred
and nineteen marines.

The happy change which had taken place in the councils of the
nation seemed to extend its effects through every department.--That
vigor and unanimity was, however, again suspended by intrigue and
faction, of which the enemy availed themselves, by detaching with
impunity, reinforcements to their distant dominions.

A coalition of parties having been accomplished, re-animated the
country, but nothing peculiarly interesting or falling within my
scope, can be remarked within the current incidents of this year.
Some partial naval actions, which did honor to the leaders, and
which reflected credit upon all the subordinates who had a share,
were fought within this period. They evinced that our spirit was
not extinguished, but that it only awaited the auspices of some
guiding hand, and a higher occasion, to render it of substantial
benefit to the public.


The fears of an invasion began now to subside, and these warlike
preparations which had hitherto been made with a view to self
defence, were, under the bold and enterprizing genius of Mr. Pitt,
soon to be turned against the enemy's coasts. This was necessary
to animate the people, as well as politic in forcing the French
to withdraw a part of their immense forces upon the Continent.
A farther augmentation of thirty Companies was granted to the
Corps of Marines, to keep pace with the general energies, which
completed their establishment to fourteen thousand eight hundred
and forty-five, being the vote for the service of 1758. At this
period too, that highly useful body of men, the National Militia,
was ordered to be raised and organized for domestic security, while
our regular armies were employed in retaliating the terrors of
invasion, and in carrying the war into the foreign possessions of
our enemies.

Early in this year was fought the memorable action between the
Monmouth and Foudroyant, which must ever be considered as one of
the most distinguished events upon our Naval Annals. Monsieur
De Quesne, with a nobleness that did him the highest honour, in
delivering his sword to Lieutenant Carkett, the representative of
the gallant Captain Gardiner who fell, was not ashamed to avow
that he had surrendered only to the force of the Monmouth. The
great inequality in this contest confers a lasting credit upon the
meanest individual who bore a part in it.

Sir Edward Hawke, commanding a squadron of seven sail of the line,
observing a number of the enemy's ships, with forty transports
full of troops, at anchor off the Isle of Aix, he pushed on with a
view to attack them; but they slipped their cables, and were run
ashore upon the mud, after having thrown their guns and stores over
board, by which means they escaped. The enemy had been employed
in repairing the works upon the island that were destroyed in our
expedition of last year. The Admiral disembarked Captain Ewer,
with a party of one hundred and forty Marines, upon the 5th of
April, with orders to demolish them. This service was effected with
discipline and humanity, as it was accomplished most completely,
and without the smallest molestation to the inhabitants.

An expedition having been meditated to the Coast of Africa,
consisting of two hundred Marines, under Major Mason, and a
detachment of Artillery, it sailed from Plymouth on the 9th of
March. Upon the 24th of April, this squadron, under the command
of Captain Marsh, arrived off the river Senegal, and against the
29th, the small craft got over the shallow bar, being opposed by
some vessels of force, which were, however, obliged to retire,
when a landing was made. Early on the following day, being about
to advance against Fort Lewis, situated upon a small island about
twelve miles farther up the river, a deputation from the Superior
Council of Senegal arrived, with articles of capitulation, which
were accepted. In consequence, Major Mason, with his Marines, took
possession of the Fort upon the 2d of May, in which was a garrison
of two hundred and forty soldiers and ninety pieces of cannon,
with treasure and merchandize to a great amount. During this short
service, the sufferings of the men were great, as many of the boats
having the tents, cannon, and ammunition, were overset upon the
bar, which circumstance exposed them to the nightly dews and the
scorching sun upon that inclement coast, without a shelter. Being a
key to their grand Establishment at Goree, this acquisition was of
much importance.

It falls a second time to my lot to mention the active services
of my Corps in the conquest of Cape Breton, and its Capital, now
rendered more formidable by experience. A violent surf prevented
the landing of our forces, under the conduct of Sir Jeffrey
Amherst, seconded by the Brigadier Generals Whitmore, Laurence,
and Wolfe, from the 2d until the 8th of June, during which the
ships were exposed to a cannonade from cannon and mortars. Upon
that day, the debarkation took place in different points, amidst
the greatest difficulties, during which Gen. Wolfe was very highly
distinguished. Some lives, and about one hundred boats were lost
in the attempt. After different preparations and approaches,
which would be too wide a field for my detail, the Marines of the
Fleet were landed, on the 26th of June, when being formed into a
battalion, they took post at Kennington-cove, and afforded a vast
relief to the Army then occupied in very extensive duties. Upon
the 30th, they were engaged at this post, and repulsed the enemy.
Their ships in the harbour continuing to incommode our troops, an
enterprize was formed against them during the night of the 25th
of July, which occasion very much signalized Captains Laforey and
Macbride of the Royal Navy, who took and destroyed the Beinfaisant
and Prudent. Upon the 26th, the French proposed terms, by which
five thousand six hundred and thirty-seven soldiers and sailors
became prisoners of war, and in the capitulation was included
the surrender of the islands of Cape Breton and St. John's. Gen.
Amherst, in public orders, desired the Commanders of every Corps
to acquaint the Officers and Men with the high satisfaction which
he felt from the bravery and good conduct of the troops--a conduct
that had, and always must insure success, and what he would take
the liberty of reporting to his Sovereign. A severe blow to
the navy of France, was one of the happy circumstances of this

Considering the many detached enterprizes with which the year 1758
was marked, the most sanguine could not hope that all would succeed
without loss, where the chief objects were to land upon, to harass,
and keep in alarm the widely extended coasts of France.

Although the affair at St. Cas, in the month of September, was
unfortunate in its issue, still no incident occurred that tarnished
the honour of our arms. More impetuous courage was never shewn,
than by the handful of men which formed the rear guard of the
British Army upon that service, who had to combat very superior
numbers. Previous to this, an opportunity offered to signalize the
parties of Marines belonging to three ships of Commodore Howe's
Squadron, in an attack upon the Castle of Latte, situated on a
peninsula in the entrance to St. Maloes' harbour. A joint attempt
had been concerted between a Naval force and a detachment from
the Army upon the heights above Arborough Bay, upon the 4th of
September, but the ships could not stand near enough to produce
effect without an imminent risk; when after a short contest, it
was relinquished, by the co-operating troops. These parties of
Marines having been landed upon the night of the 9th, attacked
and carried it without loss. In consequence of the success which
had attended the expedition against the coast of Africa, another
was formed against Goree, which sailed from Cork upon the 11th
of November, under the joint conduct of Commodore Keppel and
Lieutenant Colonel Worge, the newly-appointed Governor of Senegal.
A body of land forces, and the Marines of the squadron were the
forces intended to carry this service into effect. After a very
dangerous passage, the whole gained sight of Goree, upon the
28th of December, excepting the Lichfield of fifty guns, and
a transport, that were wrecked upon the inhospitable shore of
Barbary. About two o'clock the squadron reached abreast of the
island, then four miles distant, while the transports were ordered
to a bay between Point Goree and Point Barabbas, to be in readiness
to land the troops on a signal being made. Every disposition being
arranged for an immediate attack, early in the morning of the 29th,
the troops were embarked in the flat-bottomed boats, in order
to push ashore upon the island when adviseable, while a general
cannonade was opened by the ships against the different points of
defence. After a most tremendous firing of some hours continuance,
the enemy struck their colours, in order to establish a parley,
that ended in an almost immediate renewal of hostilities, which
soon obliged Monsieur de St. Jean to surrender at discretion.
Commodore Keppel instantly landed all the Marines, who took
possession and occupied the fort until every arrangement was made.
The loss upon this service was extremely trifling.

Many were the occasions that distinguished the Naval and Military
Forces of his Majesty during the present active year, which, from
their number, cannot fall within my detail. Both Corps seemed
animated with a spirit of unsurpassed zeal and enterprize, which
the Marine of France, her Commerce, and her coasts most bitterly
felt. This era exhibited many early specimens of the courage and
talents of some individuals, whose merits and great abilities very
justly placed them in high commands during the subsequent stages
of their lives, and whose names can never be mentioned but with

The amphibious duties of the Marine Soldier necessarily placed him
in many of these active scenes, and from that close connection in
which he now stood towards the Naval Establishment of his country,
he may be said to have always been a sharer in the honours that
arose from the brilliant single actions at sea, with which the year

A bill framed in wisdom, policy, and humanity, originated and
passed in 1758, under the able and enlightened auspices of the
Honourable Mr. George Grenville. This was for the encouragement
of Seamen in the Royal Navy, by which these well-meaning, but
unthinking men, were enabled to cast an eye of compassion and
relief towards their suffering families. By this institution they
might allot such a part of their pay as they did not choose to
receive, to their wives, parents, or others, to which amount they
had tickets from the Commissioners, which on being remitted to any
part of the country, were payable on demand by the Collectors of
Customs and Excise within Great Britain. Its liberal tendency is
too obvious for remark; and it is only singular, that from its
acknowledged influence, such was not earlier extended to the Marine
Soldier, who constantly participated in the dangers, the glory, and
the duties of our Fleets.--The man who has resolution and virtue
to forfeit his own comforts, and to alienate a great part of them
towards the subsistence of his distant relatives, affords the
strongest test of his genuine character. He who is true to domestic
ties, will never, by insubordination, dissolve those that unite him
to his country.


Fourteen thousand eight hundred and forty-five Marines formed the
Establishment of 1759.

The manly, daring, and enlightened mind of him who guided the
public measures, was never more conspicuous than in the extensive
plans which directed the operations of the present year. Superior
to the menaces of invasion, though still not despising them, he
did not limit the national energies to a system of self-defence,
but resolved upon carrying war and conquest against the distant
territories of our enemy. The spirit of Englishmen, thus roused,
kept pace with the bold views of Mr. Pitt, and while it has
convinced the world how invincible we are when knit together in the
bonds of union, let us imitate the examples of this happy period,
upon every return of public danger!

One of the most gallant single actions with which this contest was
marked, occurred in the West Indies, towards the close of 1758. It
is narrated by Captain Tyrrell, of the Buckingham, who fought it,
in all the honest simplicity of a British Seaman, and bears high
testimony to the gallant conduct of those under his command. This
gratifying tribute, when merited, should never be withheld from
the meanest, and it must ever honourably characterize the man who
bestows it. Falling in with the Florissant, of 74 guns, and two
heavy frigates, in his Majesty's Ship Buckingham, of 70, he bravely
engaged them and obliged the first to strike; but night coming on,
she availed herself of its darkness, made sail, and escaped from
her disabled antagonist. Speaking of my Corps, Capt. Tyrrell's
words are, "Capt. Troy, at the head of his Marines, performed
the service of a brave and gallant Officer, cleared the poop and
quarter-deck of the enemy, and drove her men like sheep down the
main deck."

The defenceless state of the French Carribee Islands, induced an
expedition against them, which sailed from Europe towards the end
of November, 1758, under General Hopson and Commodore Hughes,
and arrived at Barbadoes upon the 3d of January following. This
Squadron, consisting of seven sail of the line, one of fifty guns,
besides frigates, had on board nearly eight hundred Marines, headed
by Brevet Col. Rycaut, of the Portsmouth Division, which were
intended to form a battalion, to co-operate with the army; but
Commodore Moore assuming the command of our Naval Forces in these
seas, after this junction, cancelled that plan, and adopted the
idea of landing each party in detachment, when necessary. By this
measure the public character of Colonel Rycaut was suspended, and
that regular system of discipline, which must ever result from the
union of many under one form, was sacrificed. This leads me to
notice, that the Marine Soldier is peculiarly exposed to a great
disadvantage upon every service of combined operation. Constantly
employed in small detachments, it is frequently his lot, at a short
notice, to enter the field against the well-trained legions of his
enemies, and to unite his energies with the Regular and Brigaded
Forces of his country. He, in this new scene, perhaps, knows not
his file leader, and is probably a stranger to his officer.

As the predominant duties of this class of men are on board our
navy, where military evolutions can only be performed upon a narrow
scale; considering that a sudden and unforeseen emergency may place
them in the situation I have described, it might be a means of
rousing an emulous zeal between each, and of fixing that intimacy
which is requisite to promote a mutual confidence, to form the
detachments in every Fleet, or Squadron, into one battalion, or
more; which being constantly maintained in a state of arrangement,
would be better prepared for these momentary calls. The benefit
which must arise would far counterbalance any trifling expence
that might be incurred in the different necessary appendages to
such establishments, and would afford opportunities by which to
recompence the meritorious individuals of a Corps, whose hopes
cannot now aspire above one uniform level.

The whole of this armament sailed against Martinico on the 13th day
of January; the land forces, having been already reduced by the
fever and small pox.

During the night of the 15th the squadron beat up into the Bay
of Port Royal, and on the following morning his Majesty's ship
Bristol attacked and silenced Fort Negro, a strong battery of
seven guns. Her Marines, as well as those of the Rippon, were
immediately landed, who, with fixed bayonets, climbed up the rocks
and entered the embrazures, without resistance, as the enemy had
abandoned the works. The British colours were hoisted at ten, and
the army was afterwards disembarked in the neighbourhood of that
post, where they slept on their arms.

Next day a Council of War determined to change the attack against
St. Pierre's, when the troops returned on board, and the guns
were destroyed. After some consideration this idea was also
relinquished, and it was resolved to proceed against Guadaloupe.
Having made that island upon the morning of the 23d, a disposition
of attack, against Basseterre and the Forts, was given out, which
commenced at nine, and continued, without an interval, until night,
when the whole were silenced.

The loss was confined in this long and heavy cannonade, to
Lieutenant Roberts, of Marines, in the Norfolk, killed; Captain
Trelawney, of the Lyon, Lieutenants Curle and Chaudy, of Marines,
on board that ship and the Rippon, wounded; with 30 of different
descriptions killed and 60 wounded. The town was unhappily set on
fire, which irritated the flying inhabitants to a more vigorous
defence of the island.

Upon the 24th the troops were landed, when the French abandoned
the works they had began on the rising ground behind Basseterre,
without opposition. Our army took possession of them and halted
there during the night. Next morning the enemy also deserted the
citadel, retiring towards the mountains with the resolution of
resting their future defence upon the chance of sickness gaining
ground amongst our troops, and of succours from Europe. The 61st
regiment, under Major Teesdale, was directed to occupy the town
and citadel. This detachment owed their salvation to a Genoese
deserter, who informed the Commanding Officer, when on the eve of
entering the latter, of their impending danger from the explosion
of a mine to which the train had been laid, and that was to have
been fired by a Negro, who, unaware of the hazard to himself, was
bribed to this duty. By pushing rapidly into the citadel, the train
was found, and timely swept away, as the dark coloured emissary was
advancing, with drunken and staggering steps, to have executed the
diabolical design.

Upon the 25th the field pieces, and every necessary implement were
landed, and the ground marked out for the different regiments, in
such a manner as to co-operate instantly when required. A corps of
Light Infantry, drawn from the several Battalions, was also formed
and placed under the command of Major (now General) Melville, which
rendered very essential services.

The French Commandant, Mons. Nadau, took post in a deep cleft of
the mountains, which commanded his supplies from Cape Terres, by
far the best cultivated quarter of the island. Every approach to
this recess was also guarded by intrenchments. Upon the 26th a
summons was sent him, which he modestly but firmly rejected.

Some trifling skirmishes, that involved nothing except a loss of
men took place, instead of that active system of enterprize, which
should, if possible, be ever followed in a West India warfare.
The enemy gathered spirit from our inactivity, and in their
turn harassed and insulted the Citadel itself, and the relief
of our Guards. This error, however, afforded an opportunity of
distinguishing the 61st Regiment, which was successfully employed
in dislodging the enemy from the grounds they occupied.

An attack being meditated against Fort Louis, upon the Grande
Terre, or North East side of the Island, a Squadron was ordered,
under Captain Harman, of the Berwick, with some Companies of
the Highland Regiment, under Major Campbell, of the Marines;
he having also a considerable detachment of his own Corps. The
whole proceeded to execute this service upon the 6th of February,
from which day, till the 13th, the ketches continued a brisk
bombardment. The Squadron advanced to the contest early on that
morning, and after five hours cannonade, silenced the Fort and its
numerous dependant batteries. During this attack, the Highlanders
and Marines were in the flat-bottomed boats, ready to seize upon
the first favourable moment for debarkation; and on this signal
being made they bravely pushed ashore, under a heavy resumed fire
from every point of the enemy's defence. Major Campbell, upon this
occasion, allowed them no breathing time; for finding that the
ammunition was generally injured by landing at an improper place,
he resolutely pushed on with fixed bayonets, and after a severe
action carried the Fort, with, all the batteries. This was not
accomplished without a considerable loss.

An unhappy plan of procrastinated operation continued to mark
our progress in the neighbourhood of Basseterre, which assumed,
however, a more active form under Gen. Barrington, who succeeded
to the command of the Army, after the death of General Hopson, on
the 27th of February.--Resolving to change the plan of operation,
he withdrew his forces from Basseterre, leaving a garrison in Fort
Royal, and blowing up the other works.

The whole now directed their course to Fort Louis on the 7th of
March, where the transports did not arrive until the 20th, owing
to the prevalence of strong lee currents. Intelligence being
received of a powerful French Squadron having reached Martinique,
induced the Commodore to leave the Army at this critical period
to their own energies, and to proceed whither he might be enabled
to counteract its future schemes. Accordingly the Marines were
withdrawn from the shore, and distributed amongst their proper
ships; but such was their reduced state in consequence of this
service, that detachments were also necessarily solicited from the
General to supply the heavy casualties which had occurred to them.

After a tedious, fatiguing, and spirited train of operation, upon
which I am now precluded from remark, General Barrington effected
the conquest of Guadaloupe on the 2d of May, and with it the
neighbouring islands of Marigalante, Deseada, and The Saintes.
Every one conversant in the military obstacles which present in
that inhospitable country, cannot restrain his applause of the
distinguished perseverance of the Commander in Chief, and the
gallant Subordinates during the whole course of their arduous
duties. It exhibits a powerful example of what may be achieved by
the talents and active spirit of one man; but they are inherent in
that noble family, whose virtues I cannot enhance by any panegyric
of mine.

Wherever we cast an eye the most glorious achievements appear
before us. The conquest of Canada and its Capital, was a most
conspicuous event, but it was dearly purchased with the life of
one man whose exalted genius and patriotic soul were fitted to
turn the scale of Empires. The Plains of Abraham will be a lasting
memorial of the superior steadiness and valour of British Soldiers,
when led by courage and ability. The fatigues and services of the
navy throughout the whole of this campaign were severe and highly

This leads me to notice a very ludicrous circumstance that occurred
on the morning of the 13th of September, previous to that battle
which decided the fate of Quebec.--A number of Tars who had been
employed in dragging the cannon to the heights upon which they were
planted, when returning to their ships, observed the army drawn up
in battle array, instead of continuing their route, they fell into
the ranks with the Soldiers, some having cutlasses, others sticks,
and a few having nothing in their hands. General Wolfe remarking
their zeal, addressed them with that complacency which was so
familiar to him, thanked them for their well meant spirit, urged
them to go on board, and pointed out the probable bad consequences
from their mingling with the soldiery at so critical a moment. To
this request some of them answered, "God bless your Honour, pray
let us stay and see fair play between the English and French."
The General could not help smiling at these brave but thoughtless
fellows, and again repeated his wish for them to withdraw. With
this some complied, but others swore, immediately on turning his
back, "that the Soldiers should not have all the fighting to
themselves, but that they would come in for a share of it some way
or other."

It appears that a number actually continued in the ranks during
the progress of the day, and whenever a Soldier dropped they
alternately put on his accoutrements, charged, and fired with
perfect coolness.

Nothing peculiarly active fell to the lot of the Marines, excepting
an affair of diversion on the 12th of September, with a view to aid
the more material operations of the army.

Upon the evening of that day the Admiral ordered the flat bottomed
boats, below the town, to assemble astern of one of the frigates.
Into these all the Marines which could consistently be spared, were
embarked, and at the break of day of the 13th stood over towards
the Beaufort shore as if to make a descent, while the ships of war
that escorted them were ordered to cannonade the French lines. This
feint obliged the enemy to retain a greater force at those works,
than they would otherwise have done, and it was in some degree
instrumental towards the success of that glorious day.

In the summer of the present year orders were given for each ship
of the line, upon the home station, to take on board a double
complement of Marines, to co-operate in the descents which might be
attempted by the army.

Discomfited in every quarter, the enemy now confined their designs
to domestic preparations, which aimed at a general but connected
invasion of this island. Of these our Cabinet was fully apprized,
and well knew how to frustrate them. Admiral De La Clue, with a
considerable force, having put to sea from Toulon, in order to
effect a junction with their grand armament at Brest, was soon
after observed by Admiral Boscawen, and defeated with a loss of
five of his ships, while the remains took shelter in the port of
Cadiz, where they were blocked up by an English squadron. This
reverse was little expected by the French Ministry, who could not
conceive that our energies were every where.

The enemy defended themselves with bravery, and they had set them,
by their Chief, a most heroic example. Such as might have been
expected was given by Admiral Boscawen to his fleet.

Rear Admiral Rodney destroyed a link of that chain of preparation
by the bombardment of Havre de Grace, where a large collection
of boats had been formed, denominated Prames. These were flat
bottomed, were about 100 feet long, 24 broad, and 10 in depth, each
mounted two heavy cannon, had one mast, could sail or row when most
convenient, and was capable of transporting 280 troops, or nearly
50 cavalry complete. Our good friends, the Dutch, ever ready to
supply all parties, suffered a heavy loss during the blockade of
Havre, in naval and military stores, with which their avarice had
prompted them to supply our purposed invaders.

The honour of our arms was this year most gallantly supported by
Vice Admiral Pocock, in the East Indies, who was opposed to very
superior forces, but still afforded that general protection to
our territory and our commerce, which must ever constitute the
most predominant objects of our naval efforts. A sharp action was
fought, which, as might have been anticipated, ended in a drawn

At this moment of public danger, the protection of our coasts was
confided to Sir Edward Hawke, who shewed himself worthy of the
trust. Taking his station off Brest he detached to every quarter
within his limits, to reconnoitre and to destroy. Captain Harvey
very highly distinguished himself by a train of activity upon his
post, which was close to the mouth of that harbour. Some boats,
seconded by his flying squadron, achieved the capture of several
neutral vessels laden with naval stores, in the Bay of Camaret,
which Mons. Conflans determined to resent. He accordingly employed
a very superior force to gratify his spleen, which, however, did
not stagger Captain Harvey's resolution, who, on the contrary,
advanced to meet them. In turn he became the pursuer, which ended
with the exchange of some distant shot, and the French ships taking
shelter under their batteries.

The consequences that were averted by this seemingly unimportant
affair, were great, as the enemy had in view, after driving this
squadron from its ground, to have proceeded to the Morbihan,
another part of the coast of Britanny, where we had a small
blockading force stationed; after destroying which, they were to
return to Brest with the numerous land forces that were then ready
for embarkation. With such material objects before them, it is a
stigma upon their naval spirit, in not having persevered.

The repeated enterprizes of this vigilant Officer derive a peculiar
merit from the _time_ and _manner_ in which they were performed.
When the enemy were every where proclaiming their threats, Capt.
Harvey landed his Marines from the Monmouth, upon the little island
of Molines, and exacted from its inhabitants a small supply of
cattle, stock, and vegetables.

The priest upon this spot stepped forth, as the organ of his flock,
who, he said, were poor. Captain Harvey's reply was, "that he
regretted to distress the wretched; but what he now did was merely
to shew the enemy and all Europe, that the French could not protect
their people within their own sight, much less dare the invasion
of England!" He afterwards, in his own barge, being seconded by
some other boats, brought off the tender of Admiral Conflans, from
a small bay close to the harbour of Brest, within sight of their
fleet, under a prodigious cannonade of guns and mortars, and an
extensive line of musquetry. This brave man felt for the dignity of
his country, and he maintained it.

The enemy, every where ready to catch a favourable moment, only
awaited the time when our blockading Fleets should be driven from
their coasts, in order to carry their long-boasted threats into
effect. A heavy gale upon the 9th of November not only forced Sir
Edward Hawke from his station, but brought into Brest Monsieur
Bompart and his Squadron from the West Indies in safety. This
circumstance very much strengthened the ships of Conflans with
prime seamen, who sailed on the 14th, and steered for Quiberon Bay,
with a view to annihilate Commodore Duff's detachment, to bring out
his transports with troops, and finally to attempt the invasion of
our isles.

But Sir Edward Hawke anticipating his schemes, also put to sea;
and notwithstanding that contending elements, for a while, opposed
his wishes, still, by perseverance, he arrived in time to save our
Flying Squadron, just on the eve of being captured, and to give a
death blow to all their mighty hopes.

The victory of the 20th of November must ever stand as one of the
most brilliant upon our naval annals, not so much from the extent
of its success in captured ships, as the dangerous circumstances
under which it was achieved, and the happy consequences that were
its immediate results. Our loss upon this signal occasion was only
fifty killed, and two hundred and forty-eight Seaman and Marines

Thus foiled in every quarter, their commerce cut off by the
conquest of their most valuable colonies, expensive preparations
sacrificed, without the attainment of a single object, a partial
bankruptcy took place in the national funds of France. At this
trying period, however, the sufferings of its monarch, and of the
public, were alleviated by the substantial tenders of loyalty and
patriotism. Numerous were the individuals who manfully stepped
forth to heal the wounded pride of their Sovereign, and to revive
the drooping cause of their country. It is grateful to record such
instances of public virtue from whatever source they flow.

In the greater part of these events, so productive of glory and
good, the Corps of Marines bore a share, as well as in the many
inferior but distinguished Naval contests that took place in
1759. During its progress, the Fleet of our enemy acknowledges a
diminution of thirty-five Ships of the Line and an equal number of
Frigates. There are many names which still survive, and others that
have not long since closed useful and honourable lives, who were at
this period familiar to the public ear, by their gallant deeds. To
particularize all, would carry me beyond my limits, and I would not
be partial to survivors alone.

His Majesty, in consideration of the very signal services rendered
by Admirals Boscawen and Sir Charles Saunders, towards the close
of this year, instituted a new Establishment of Marine Officers,
intituled, "General and Lieutenant-General of Marines," to which
soon after there were added three Colonels, nominated from
Post-Captains in the Royal Navy, who had been conspicuous by their
good conduct.

The Gentlemen who first occupied these appointments were,

  Admiral Boscawen,            General of Marines,          £2,000
  Sir Charles Saunders, K. B.  Lieutenant-General           £1,200
  Sir Piercy Brett, Bart.      Col. of Portsmouth Division  £  800
  Hon. Augustus Keppel,        Col. of Plymouth Division    £  800
  Lord Viscount Howe           Col. of Chatham Division     £  800

This establishment has subsequently been enlarged by the attachment
of a Major-General, and in this form it now exists.

Disclaiming every prejudice, I am led to ask how far either policy
or justice can sanction the transmission of such an institution to
posterity? They were originally the benevolent grants of a grateful
Monarch, to distinguished individuals. As such, indeed, they have
continued to be; but experience has shewn, that Field Officers are
the very life of discipline, and that if so respectable an addition
were unalienated from the _active members_ of the Corps, this
principle would be still more animated.--_A man_ who suppresses
his feelings upon any occasion that demands them, is unworthy of
the name.--How degrading is the thought, that the Marine Veteran,
who ascends by the rules of slow gradation, can never reach the
summit of his profession! God forbid that any reform should affect
the living. Those who now enjoy this mark of favor are highly
worthy of it. But confining such appointments _to the corps_ would
be gratifying to all, for I am sure that the Naval and Marine
Officer are so united in their interests and their duties, that an
accession of consequence, or benefit to either, would be warmly
felt by both.


A large augmentation to the Marine corps was voted for the year
1760, which amounted to 130 companies, comprizing in all 18,355;
being more than one fourth of our naval forces.

Their merits and usefulness became conspicuous by the most zealous
and spirited services, on either element, to which their mingled
duties called them.

It was the happy destiny of Captain Elliot to deliver his country
from the remaining terrors of invasion, kept alive by the
adventurous and enterprizing squadron of Thurot.

After having accomplished every thing within the power of a mortal,
for the good of his Nation, this Commander outlived not his defeat,
but fell gloriously; leaving behind him a name equally revered for
humanity as valour.

The enfeebled state of France, unable to extend support to
the distant members of her Empire, exposed them as easy and
alternate conquests to our successful arms. Although but few naval
achievements occur through this year, still the spirit of our
seamen continued the same, in every instance that presented for
their efforts.

This era first brought into public and deserved notice, the great
military talents of Colonel, afterwards General Sir Eyre Coote.
To him may be chiefly attributed the recovery of our drooping
interests in the East, at one time nearly annihilated by the bold
and vindictive genius of Monsieur Lally.

Soon after the decisive battle obtained by Colonel Coote over
that General at Wandewash, Admiral Cornish reached Madras with a
reinforcement of six ships of the line. The French squadron not
appearing on the coast, enabled our joint forces to prosecute
future schemes of conquest. The first step was the advance
of Colonel Coote against Waldour, and the united blockade of
Pondicherry by sea and land. Major Monson, the second in command,
was destined to attack Carical, and accordingly embarked on board
the squadron with that view. The forces which he was to head
consisted of 300 Marines, to be afterwards joined by a small body
of Artillery, some Europeans, and a considerable number of Seapoys
from Trichinopoly.

Admiral Cornish having arrived in the road of Carical upon the
28th of March, Major Monson was landed with the Marines and some
native pioneers, at five in the evening, where they halted during
the night, and advanced against the town early on the following
morning, which they gained with a trifling loss. Being annoyed by
Fort Dauphin, the enemy were also driven from it into Fort Louis,
by a few shells.

Upon the 3d of April all the expected reinforcements arrived, by
which the latter was immediately invested.

Learning on the 5th that the garrison had a prospect of relief, and
having already done considerable damage to the enemy's works, the
Commandant was summoned to surrender, to which he agreed; the whole
being considered as prisoners of war. The Seamen were meritoriously
active in landing the necessary stores during the night-time.

By the successive operations of this force, the French were
deprived of many important possessions, and Monsieur Lally, with
an army, which a little while ago were the dread of that quarter,
became shut up in Pondicherry, at the commencement of May.

These material services having been effected, the Marines were
reimbarked on board their respective ships, and honoured by the
thanks of him who had led them. In the mean time, Colonel Coote
had carried his object, and had advanced within four miles of
Pondicherry, towards which he threw up redoubts.

Rear-Admiral Stevens having assumed the command of the British
Fleet, proceeded off that place, and at the instance of the
Governor and Council of Madras, as well as of Colonel Coote,
landed the Marines at Cuddalore, upon the 29th of August, in order
to accelerate matters before the setting in of the rains. They
immediately joined the Army, and were materially assisting in the
many active and tedious services that ensued.

Major Monson having received a superior commission to that of
Colonel Coote, this respectable Officer, for a while, relinquished
these bustling scenes; but the former being wounded most severely
in a successful enterprize, which he conducted with great gallantry
against the enemy's batteries, was in turn compelled to resign the
command of the Army. Recent experience had convinced the public of
the value of him who had been superseded, and the highest testimony
that could have been yielded to an Officer, was recalling him to
fill the important situation he had held.

The high-spirited Lally, jealous only of his own honor, but
unfeeling towards the unsurpassed sufferings of those beneath
him, persevered in defending Pondicherry, while a glimpse of hope
remained. A dreadful disaster to our Fleet had nearly realized his
deliverance; but the steady seamanship of our Officers, amidst one
of the greatest hurricanes that ever blew, preserved a valuable
remains for the service of their Country, which soon resumed the
blockade of that important Capital.

It was not until the middle of January of the ensuing year that it
fell, and with its conquest became involved the ruin of the French
East India Company, with all their dependencies on the coast of

Such were the happy commercial results, as well as territorial
acquisitions, that were obtained by our successful arms; in
accomplishing which the Corps of Marines was in some degree

On a retrospective view, a great share of credit is justly due
to Vice-Admiral Pocock, who, with very inferior numbers, was in
three battles opposed to Monsieur D'Ache; in every one of which he
supported the honor of the British Flag, while he afforded both a
countenance and co-operation to the enterprizes of our Army.

The plan of completely conquering the province of Canada was this
year carried into effect; it was well arranged, was executed with
spirit, and exhibited high military talents in Sir Jeffery Amherst,
who commanded in Chief.

Some of our Naval Officers contributed much to the general success,
from their intimate knowledge of the local navigation, and their
active zeal in conducting the necessary and numberless duties of
landing and re-embarking the troops.

The reduced state of the French Marine did not allow of many
opportunities to signalize our Fleet during this year; but whenever
they occurred, our superiority was uniformly conspicuous. From the
protection which it gave to an important branch of our commerce,
the gallant action between the Flamborough and Biddeford, both 20
gun ships, with two heavy French frigates, deserves notice.--These
had been detached on purpose to intercept our outward-bound for
Oporto and Lisbon, which they learnt was under convoy of a small
sloop of war. Fortunately for this valuable Fleet, our ships got
sight of La Malicieuse and L'Opale, of 36 guns each, upon the
morning of the 4th of April, and gave them chace. It was not until
seven in the evening, when observing our vast inferiority, the
enemy seemed willing for the combat. At this hour they closed, and
continued engaging till nine, when a short respite enabled both to
renew the battle, which continued till midnight.

That intrepid perseverance which so strongly marks the British
character, and in a comparative sense so peculiarly distinguishes
the British Seaman, at last prevailed, and compelled this very
superior enemy to seek safety in flight; while the disabled state
of our little ships, from the heavy metal to which they had been
exposed, precluded the idea of pursuit.

Captain Skinner and the Hon. Lieutenant Knollis, of the Biddeford,
fell upon this occasion; but their loss was nobly compensated
by the unremitting good example of Mr. Stacey, the Master, who
succeeded to the command.

Lieutenant Price, of the Marines, was also killed on board the

The events of this action were of much greater moment than such as
frequently arise from the vindictive conflicts of greater numbers,
as it preserved a large convoy from falling into the hands of the
enemy, which would have otherwise been its fate, upon the very day
it was fought.

Admiral Rodney was very active with his flying squadron, while our
Grand Fleet, by its vigilance and occasional descents, entirely cut
up the enemy's commerce, and kept their sea-coasts in a state of
constant alarm, under the successive commands of Admirals Boscawen
and Hawke.

The nation had to deplore the loss of its Sovereign on the morning
of the 25th of October, who died alike beloved and regretted by
every class of his subjects.

Upon the noon of the following day, his present Majesty was
proclaimed King of these Realms, and very early afforded the most
impressive earnests of predilection for his native Land, its glory,
and its happiness.

The magnanimous benevolence of Englishmen was at this period highly
conspicuous to their distressed fellow-countrymen, who were
prisoners in France, and whose sufferings from penury and nakedness
were of a kind the most extreme.

Sympathizing with their distresses, subscriptions were set on foot,
and it was not long ere they were relieved by the most liberal
supplies. The public generosity was not confined within the pale of
its own kindred, but was stretched forth even towards our captive
foes, whose wants were most imperious, but from which their nation
was unable to deliver them.

When we reflect upon such noble acts of fellow-feeling, the
man who is insensible to the reciprocal duties of fidelity and
gratitude, deserves not the virtuous title of a Briton. The world
also must cease to wonder at the many signal instances of Divine
interposition in favor of this little island, when it considers
that Providence is thus vindicating his own ways, in behalf of
a people, who are uniformly guided by the sacred precepts, and
godlike impulse, "of forgiving, and doing good to their enemies."


Eighteen thousand three hundred and fifty-five Marines were again
voted as the establishment for 1761.

A secret expedition was prepared early in this year, which was
committed to the joint conduct of Major-General Hodgson and
Commodore Keppel, and was subsequently directed against the island
of Belleisle.

Eleven battalions of Foot, four troops of the 16th Light Dragoons,
under Lieutenant-Colonel Burgoyne, a detachment of the Royal
Artillery, and a corps of 1000 Marines formed into two battalions,
commanded by Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel John Mackenzie, amounting
nearly to 10,000 men, composed the strength of the Army upon this
service. The whole were escorted and spiritedly seconded by ten
ships of the line, eight frigates, three bomb ketches, and two
fire ships; which set sail upon the 29th of March from St. Helens,
but did not gain sight of their wished for object until the 6th of
April. This force was afterwards augmented by troops and men of war.

In addition to the natural strength of this island, no means of
defence had been neglected by the enemy, who, aware of the attack,
had constructed works, and placed guns on every spot, that afforded
a possibility of descent.

Upon the 7th the Fleet stood along the South end of Belleisle,
with a view to reconnoitre its strength, and to ascertain a proper
quarter for debarkation. Coming to anchor in the road of Palais
on the noon of that day, the principal Officers of both services,
accompanied by some of the Engineers, proceeded to the Northward,
in order to finish their observations upon the general state of the
coast. The final result convinced all, that great obstacles were to
be surmounted every where, and that the sacrifice of many lives was
unavoidable in attaining the first object of their views.

After mature deliberation, it was resolved to effect a landing
early in the morning of the 8th of April, for which purpose the
flat-bottomed boats were hoisted out, and the troops placed in them
ready to advance towards Port Andro, on a signal being made. They
were preceded by his Majesty's ships Dragon and Achilles, commanded
by the Hon. Captains Harvey and Barrington, whose orders were to
silence the battery, which protected the entrance into this Bay.
These gallant Officers soon accomplished the duty, and intimated
that no opposition to the landing of our forces was to be dreaded
from that point of defence.

The boats having proceeded under the immediate superintendance of
Commodore Keppel, who had shifted his pennant from the Valiant into
the Prince of Orange, were then ordered to row towards the shore,
arranged in three divisions, under the direction of Captain Barton,
of the Royal Navy. Notwithstanding a prodigious fire of musquetry,
our brave Soldiers made good their landing, and evinced a series of
valour that must have conquered any thing within the power of man.

The French were intrenched to the chin on a steep hill, the base of
which they had cut into a perpendicular form, which prevented our
gallant fellows from ascending their works without scaling-ladders,
of which there were unfortunately none. After a heavy loss, and a
contest which did them honor, a retreat became the only alternative.

On this trying occasion, the distinguished courage and coolness of
Generals Crawford and Carleton, were very highly conspicuous; the
latter was wounded.

One boat landed sixty of Erskine's Grenadiers, under Captain
Osborne, who were unobserved by the rest of our force, and not
being supported, fell victims, excepting twenty, to very superior
numbers, after the most noble resistance. Their brave leader was
classed among the unfortunate. The fire from the ships was opened
to cover the return of our troops, who sustained a loss of nearly
500 men.

A diversion was carrying on in another quarter during these
operations, in order to aid them, by attracting the enemy's force
from the real object of attack, towards Saucon. This was composed
of the 96th and 97th Regiments, and the Marines; but nothing could
avert the disaster.

A dreadful gale coming on after the return of the boats, occasioned
the loss of many of them, which was felt extremely; and the
transports were also very considerably damaged. After it ceased,
the attention of the whole Fleet was turned to repair these

Having obtained some reinforcements, and after a second very minute
review of the island, it was determined to make another descent at
Fort D'Arsic, to be supported by two separate attacks, in order to
distract the enemy, near St. Foy, and at Saucon.

The last, which was intended merely as a feint, was composed of the
four troops of Light Dragoons under Lieutenant-Colonel Burgoyne;
which being distributed amongst a number of transports, and
escorted by a large Naval Force, appeared the most formidable of
the whole. Ships of war were allotted to co-operate with the other
two, headed by Major-General Crawford and Brigadier Lambert, in
covering their debarkation and silencing the different batteries.

Early on the morning of the 22d of April, the men of war having
accomplished this latter object, the troops were ordered by signal
to advance, in two divisions, in close order, till abreast of their
respective points of attack.

The enemy, suspecting that the principal impression would be
directed against Fort D'Arsic, overlooked the defence of these
stupendous rocks, which offered natural obstacles, sufficient to
deter the most daring invader.

Brigadier Lambert's division to which the Marines under Colonel
Mackenzie were attached, approached under this high coast, when
it appeared to this gallant Officer, that a fit opportunity
for enterprize presented itself. He accordingly moved onwards
unperceived, and with a rapid resolution, Captain Paterson, at the
head of the Grenadiers of the 19th Regiment, quickly supported
by Captain Murray, with a company of Marines, landed and climbed
the rocks. Soon afterwards other troops followed their intrepid
example, when having reached the summit, the whole formed upon it.
The French were amazed at the attempt, but pushed on a veteran
Corps of 300 men to atone for their want of precaution.

Contiguous to the ground occupied by our troops, there was a wall,
which suggested itself as an eligible post of defence. This enabled
our inadequate numbers to oppose the enemy, until they were farther
reinforced by Brigadier Lambert, at the head of the Grenadiers of
the 30th, and the rest of the Marines under Colonel Mackenzie. The
tables were now turned, when the Regiment of Bigorre was beat back
to the rising ground from which it had advanced.

Captain Sir Thomas Stanhope, whose duty it was to co-operate with
this brigade, had watched these spirited efforts with an anxious
zeal. He instantly manned and armed all the boats of his squadron,
which rowed ashore as a farther support, while the force that had
proceeded against Fort D'Arsic, observing this unexpected success,
also pushed on to unite with Brigadier Lambert. Thus strengthened,
that active Officer allowed no interval, but moved against the
enemy upon the hill, whom he drove to their main body, taking their
field-pieces, and some prisoners.

Captain Paterson, of Beauclerck's regiment, Colonel Mackenzie and
Captain Murray of the Marines, were wounded; all of whom were much
distinguished during the whole course of this short, but sharp
service, which did not exceed the space of two hours. About five
in the evening the debarkation was completed, the Army was pushed
upwards of three miles into the country, and took post upon an
eminence through the night.

The enemy, during the day, had withdrawn all their detachments from
their extensive batteries on the coast, blown up their magazines,
and united all their forces under the command of General de St.

On the morning of the 23d, the British Army was in motion
against the town and citadel of Palais, while that of the French
occasionally seeming determined to dispute our progress, at last
retired without a conflict, into that strong fortress, and its
dependant works.

Some days of boisterous weather prevented the landing of our
battering cannon and other necessary stores, that were essential
for commencing operations against Palais, of which General St.
Croix availed himself, by constructing six different redoubts; all
of which were to be carried before breaking ground in front of the
town and citadel.

The English Commander also profited himself of this interval,
by dispersing assurances of protection to the laws, religion,
and property of the natives, who should submit themselves; which
were not without their effect. A short time, however, enabled
General Hodgson to employ more convincing arguments, by opening
his batteries upon the 2d of May. The brave St. Croix answer to a
summons was, that he would defend his charge to the last extremity.

The enemy attempted a sortie on the night of the 3d against our
most advanced works, which they carried, killing a number of our
troops, and making General Crawford and both his Aids-de-Camp
prisoners. Following up this success, they advanced against the
trenches, when a sharp action commenced that remained doubtful,
until a party of Marines, under Captain Hepburn, arrived, who
charged the enemy, and forced them to retire with considerable loss.

In order to facilitate our approaches, the Engineers pronounced
that it was absolutely necessary to carry one of the intervening
redoubts. Accordingly a detachment of 200 men composed of a part
of Loudon's regiment, and Marines, under Captain Carruthers, of
the latter corps, were warned, upon the evening of the 12th, for
this duty. A heavy fire, of shot and shells, was kept up during
the night upon that object, with a view to make some breach, and
to harass the enemy. Soon after the dawn of day, those assailants
advanced against the works with fixed bayonets, when, after a very
spirited contest, they soon carried the redoubt, and maintained it.
Captain Carruthers, with a ready promptitude, observing the panic
amongst the French, did not permit it to subside, but instantly
pushed on against two others, which were successively evacuated by
their defenders, who retreated with precipitation into the Citadel.
This party becoming reinforced by 370 of the 69th Regiment, under
Major Nesbit, achieved the conquest of the whole of the French
Redoubts, and with an impetuous persevering ardor entered the town
of Palais, pell mell, with the flying enemy.

The gallantry exhibited by all who fought on this memorable day,
very justly immortalized the military fame of every individual,
which extended its honorable influence to those corps at large,
from whom they were detached.

Very distinguished encomiums were bestowed by the enemy upon "Les
Petites Grenadiers;" a title derived from the caps worn by the
Marine Soldiers.

Thus was every obstacle removed, which prevented the close
investment of the Citadel of Palais; a fortress that had been
planned and raised under the superintending genius of the
celebrated Vauban.

During this period the fleet rendered very material services, by
their stopping supplies from the Continent; and their vigilance
during the subsequent continuance of the siege was highly

The conduct of the French Commander reflected honour upon himself
and the French arms. From the 16th of May until the 7th of June he
persevered in maintaining his post against an unceasing fire from
44 heavy cannon, 50 mortars and howitzers, besides field pieces,
which, in many places, ruined the works, killed numbers, and from
which there was no safe retreat but within the casemates.

This interval afforded the display of many instances of bold
intrepidity, amongst the individuals of the line and of my corps,
from the many sallies which were attempted by the active St.
Croix, during the course of it. One of these being aimed against
a post occupied by Captain Wright, of Marines, having under him
three Companies of his Corps, which was of peculiar importance,
this brave Officer, notwithstanding orders were given to retreat
from it, assumed a personal responsibility, and, well knowing its
consequence in the future operations of the Army, determined to
maintain it. He repulsed the enemy, and received the flattering
sanction of Brigadier General Howe, who, in the course of duty,
afterwards visited it, for has very resolute conduct.

Another conspicuous instance of this kind occurred in Lieutenant
Lachlan Cuthbert, of the Army, who evinced the greatest personal
courage, and though abandoned by his men, pointed and fired the
guns of a battery at which he commanded. Being soon supported, the
enemy were forced to retire with loss.

After an incessant cannonade, which had effected a large breach
sufficiently practicable to encourage a storm, preparations for it
were accordingly made; observing which, General St. Croix proposed
to capitulate, after a loss of 922 men within the walls of the
Citadel, upon the 7th of June.

In consequence of their gallant defence, honorable terms were
granted to the garrison, which was immediately shipped for France.

During the whole of this service, so highly creditable to our Army,
and to the corps of Marines, we have to recount 34 Officers, 30
Serjeants, 8 Drummers, and 710 Rank and File killed and wounded.

General Howe was amongst the latter, as well as Brigadier Carleton,
already mentioned.

Much unanimity between the naval and land forces prevailed, and the
nation had to look with equal gratitude, to both, for the happy

Major General Crawford being appointed Governor, and every thing
arranged, the troops that could be spared were afterwards embarked
for more distant duties.

The following orders were given out by the Commander in Chief to
the Army, sometime after the complete surrender of Belleisle:
"General Hodgson has the greatest pleasure to acquaint the Officers
and Soldiers under his command, with his Majesty's satisfaction
in the spirit, patience, and cheerfulness with which they have
sustained the fatigues of this siege."

Commodore Keppel in his public letter to the Right Honorable Mr.
Pitt, says, respecting the corps of Marines, "Major General Hodgson
by his constant approbation of the battalion of Marines landed
from the ships, and put under his command, gives me the pleasing
satisfaction of acquainting you of it, that his Majesty may be
informed of the goodness and spirited behaviour of that corps."

During the summer of this year, the Fleet and Army, under Sir
James Douglas, and Lord Rollo, reduced the island of Dominica,
which had maintained the assumed name of neutral, but had evinced
the most marked partiality for France; after a conference between
these joint Commanders, and the principal Natives, who at first
appeared much inclined to capitulate, the islanders, urged on by
the artifices of Mons. Longprie, the Governor, seemed resolved to
defend themselves.

The Ships soon moved close to the land, and, after a heavy
cannonade, silenced all the batteries, when the troops were pushed

A successful and uninterrupted train of attack continued through
the whole day of the 6th of June, with but little loss on our part,
in which Lieutenant Colonel Melville, who led the grenadiers of
the Army, was much distinguished for promptitude and spirit. The
capture of the entire island, upon the 7th, was the effect of such
active energies.

Nothing farther was achieved during this year, that falls properly
under my review, in the light of conquests.

Numerous were the gallant single actions that were fought at
sea. One of the most prominent for daring spirit, and steady
perseverance occurred upon the 23d of January, between the Minerva,
commanded by Captain Alexander Hood, (now Lord Bridport), of 32
guns, and the Warwick, formerly a British ship of 60, but with only
34 mounted.

Military exploits often derive their chief merit from the bold
ideas in which they originate. Such an application may well be
advanced on the present occasion, for the immense superiority of
the enemy, must have been early apparent to a seaman's eye. Captain
Hood was not intimidated at the view of a two decker, but continued
the chace, until he got close alongside. The Frenchman soon
sustained damage, which was succeeded by a much greater on the part
of the Minerva, in the serious loss of her bowsprit and foremast.
These being quickly cleared away, this zealous Officer moved once
more against the Warwick, and towards the close of day renewed the
combat. His brave exertions were crowned with success and with
honor; a share of which his modest recital, diffused amongst his
Officers, his Seamen, and Marines.

Another instance endeared to their Country, Captains Faulkener and
Logie, by a well fought engagement, which terminated in the capture
of the Courageux of 74 guns. The Bellona and Brilliant putting into
Lisbon to land the wounded, and to discharge their prisoners, these
unfortunate men applied to the Consul of France for relief, but he
would grant them none. The occasion called forth British humanity,
and they were relieved by those who had conquered them.

It would not have been so with the Seamen of England, who kindly
anticipates, and provides for the wants of those her valuable
servants, in every port, and in every clime.

Our Commerce was also well protected, when we consider its vast
extent in every quarter of the globe.

This year carried within it a happy event, by the espousal of
our beloved Monarch to our most gracious Queen. It has fixed a
long train of succession to his throne, in a numerous and amiable
family, who yield to none of his Majesty's subjects in patriotism,
and high talents for the mingled duties of the Cabinet, the Ocean,
and the Camp.

France had shewn, apparently, a cordial wish for peace, but it
appeared principally from a motive to distract our Councils, and to
involve their Spanish Allies in the sad calamities of war. In both
she succeeded, for the Country lost one of her most faithful and
zealous servants in the Right Honourable Mr. Pitt, who resigned all
his employments, and early in the following year we had to combat
an additional foe.

At the close of 1761 the Field Officers upon the Marine
Establishment were Lieutenant Colonels Theo. Drury, Richard
Bendyshe, James Burleigh; Majors, Hector Boisrond, John Mackenzie,
John Pincell Kempe, Samuel Boucher, Edward Rycaut, John Tufton
Mason. There were also Majors by Brevet, John Campbell, Claud
Hamilton, John Bell, Thomas Weightwick, Arthur Tooker Collins.


On the 4th day of January, 1762, War was declared against Spain,
which was reciprocal on the part of that Power on the 18th, and
realized the acute forebodings of Mr. Pitt.

A treaty framed for consolidating the interests and ambitious
views of the House of Bourbon, and evidently levelled against the
existence of our Empire, accelerated this event. So accustomed had
the Nation been to victory, however, that it beheld this mighty
Family Compact without dismay.

The public energies kept pace with the imperious occasion,
and 70,000 Seamen, including 19,061 Marines, comprized in 135
companies, formed the naval establishment of the year.

A plan for the reduction of Martinico, digested by the late
Minister, was now carried into effect by the forces from North
America, who had finished a successful career upon that Continent,
by four battalions drawn from Belleisle, with strong detachments of
Seamen and Marines from the Fleet.

Sixteen sail of the line, and many ships of an inferior rate,
composed the escort which set sail from Barbadoes on the 5th of
January, and anchored in St. Anne's Bay on the 8th. The batteries
here were soon silenced by the ships, when Rear-Admiral Rodney
detached a squadron, with two brigades, to the Bay of Petite Ance,
having orders to debark and take post there, under the direction
of Generals Haviland and Grant; they were afterwards reinforced by
Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, with a Corps of Light Infantry.

Captain Harvey, in the Dragon, proceeded against the Grande Ance,
landed a few Seamen and all his Marines, who, by a combined attack,
carried the battery, and occupied it, till relieved by a body of
800 men, under Lieutenant-Colonel Melville.

After destroying the works in St. Anne's Bay, the Admiral
and General Monckton, seeing the difficulties of extending
their operations from that quarter, followed to leeward, and
reconnoitring the coast, resolved upon landing the whole forces
between Point Negro and the Cas de Pilote. A squadron having
cannonaded the line of batteries, secured this object, when the
Army was disembarked upon the evening and morning of the 16th and
17th of January.

Nine hundred Marines, formed into two battalions, were united with
the troops attached to the Brigade of General Rufane, and had an
active share in the subsequent duties allotted to all.

The whole encamped on the heights above the Case de Navires, from
which the General employed detachments to throw up such works as
were necessary for covering the passage of the troops over some
intervening gullies, between them and the enemy on Morne Tartenson.

The disposition of attack being made, Brigadier Grant began it with
the French advanced posts, at dawn on the morning of the 24th,
while Brigadier Rufane advanced against their redoubts along the
sea coast upon the right, seconded by 1000 Seamen in flat-bottomed
boats, keeping pace with it.

Lord Rollo's Brigade supported the Grenadiers, and General Walsh
with his, the Corps of Light Infantry, under Colonel Scott, who was
ordered to make a circuit, with a view to flank or get behind the
enemy. This essentially contributed to the success of the day, as
that body gained their left, and continued to incommode it, while
the Grenadiers were carrying every thing before them.

Brigadier Rufane performed his part with rapid and impetuous
success, being aided most spiritedly by the Seamen.

The final result of the day was gaining Morne Tartenson, other
subordinate works having many cannon, and driving the fugitive
enemy across a deep ravine, into the town of Fort Royal and Morne

General Haviland, with his Brigade, and two Battalions of
Highlanders, with a few Light Infantry, under Major Leland, were
directed to effect a passage over this gully, considerably to
the left, and cut off a detached force of the French from their
main body. Insurmountable difficulties, however, prevented this
well-designed combination; but they did not check their reaching in
time to support the Light Infantry, under Colonel Scott, in a very
important post which they had gained opposite to Morne Garnier;
while an upper plantation of consequence was occupied by Walsh's
brigade, and the Grenadiers. The space between these two was filled
by the Marines.

Batteries were opened on the 25th against the Citadel of Fort
Royal, which being much annoyed by the guns from Morne Garnier,
it was judged expedient to attack it on the left, where the Light
Infantry and Haviland's brigade were. Here cannon were opened
against it, in order to harass the enemy, and to ensure the future
passage of the ravine.

An attempt of the French on the evening of the 27th, signalized
this British outpost, which drove them back, not only across the
gully, but followed them and gained possession of their batteries,
where they established themselves; having been gallantly seconded
by the brigades of Walsh and Grant. Before nine at night the enemy
had abandoned this strong ground, and so precipitate was their
retreat, that they left behind them some serviceable ordnance and
ammunition, which were felt by the Citadel early next morning.

General Monckton, finding his batteries on Morne Tartenson at too
great a distance to produce material effect, resolved to push on
to Morne Capuchin, little more than 400 yards from the Citadel.
Observing this meditated essay, the enemy beat the chamade on the
evening of the 3d of February, and terms were signed on the 4th.

The testimonies of the Commanders in Chief to the respective Corps
were strong and animated. As usual, the services of the Seamen were
arduous in transporting cannon, and fearless amidst dangers.

Monsieur De La Touche, the Governor General, who had fallen
back upon St. Pierre, with an intent of holding out, soon after
surrendered, and the extensive dependencies of that valuable
island, very early availed themselves of the benign and faithful
tenders of British protection.

The final consent of La Touche was much hastened by the detaching
Captain Harvey, in the Dragon, to the harbour of La Trinité, where
he landed some Seamen and his Marines, who maintained their
ground, and convinced the enemy how unavailing would be their
farther obstinacy.

This conquest, which added so much to the lustre of our arms, was
obtained at the expence of 7 Officers, 3 Serjeants, and 86 rank and
file killed, and 32 Officers, 20 Serjeants, and 337 rank and file

The enemy experienced a loss of nearly 1000 men.

St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada, fell soon after, under our
dominion, and added to the commercial wealth of the Nation.

Solid were the results that accrued from the repeated triumphs of
our Fleets and Armies, during this active year. The Revenue was
improved, while the individual became enriched by the conquered
territory, and the spoils of our enemies.

The rupture with Spain suggested immediate enterprize against her
distant and wealthy Colonies. In this plan, no little or inferior
views controuled our Councils, which boldly directed our force at
once, against the vitals, and the strong hold of her South American

Lord Anson having submitted his ideas upon the accomplishment of
this great object, they were readily embraced upon the present
occasion, and adopted throughout.

The Fleet and Army which were destined to execute these designs,
were committed to Admiral Pococke, and the Earl of Albemarle, who
sailed from Portsmouth on the 5th day of March. They took only a
small force from England, as they were to be joined by those troops
who had achieved the conquest of the French Caribbee Islands,
to be reinforced by auxiliaries from Jamaica and North America;
which, with the Marines of the Fleet that were subsequently landed,
constituted an Army little short of 15,000 men.

Admiral Pococke reached Martinique on the 26th of April, where
every thing was arranged, fascines made, the troops brigaded, and
500 Negroes collected to perform the rough parts of these laborious
duties that were before them.

On the 6th of May the whole put to sea, and, on their passage to
leeward, were successively joined by the squadrons under Captain
Harvey and Sir James Douglas.

It was now that the superior talents and solicitous zeal of Admiral
Pococke appeared conspicuous. From the very advanced season of the
year no time could be sacrificed in fulfilling his instructions,
as dilatory measures might have proved ruinous, from the setting
in of the rains. Two alternatives were before him--a tedious and
circuitous navigation round the Island of Cuba, or a dangerous
passage through the Old Straits of Bahama, hitherto avoided by
single ships, and at no period of the world explored by so large a
Fleet. The latter he chose, and it was crowned with success.

On the 6th of June the Admiral brought to about five leagues
to the Eastward of the Havannah, to issue instructions; when
having confided the superintendance of disembarking the troops to
Commodore Keppel, he bore away for the mouth of the harbour.

The Marines were ordered into the boats early on the morning of
the 7th, as a feint, while the whole Army, under the Earl of
Albemarle, landed without opposition between the rivers Boca Nao
and Coximar, the latter of which was also passed, after Captain
Harvey, in the Dragon, had silenced a castle, that commanded it.

Having a large garrison, headed by the most gallant Officers, the
enemy, though but recently apprized of this expedition, prepared
for the most vigorous defence.

Lord Albemarle, after some skirmishing in his progress, having
intimated, on the 10th, to the Admiral, his purpose of attacking
the Cavannos, situated on the east side of the harbour, and
commanding part of the Moro Fort, as well as the whole of the
north east of the City, with the strong works in that vicinity,
Captain Knight, in the Belleisle, was ordered against the Castle
of Chorera, to facilitate the enterprize, while the Marines were
embarked in boats to attract the enemy's attention towards the
Havannah quarter.

This service was ably performed by Colonel Carleton, on the noon of
the 11th, at the head of the Grenadiers and Light Infantry.

The Spaniards were not only driven into the Moro, but they also
abandoned the Castle of Chorera; which allowed our immediately
breaking ground on the advantageous site of the Cavannos. Never
were greater obstacles encountered and overcome, than through
the whole series of this siege. The Seamen were highly active
in landing the cannon, manning the batteries, and supplying the
Army with water, on a spot that yielded not a drop. Much harmony
prevailed throughout these fatigues between the services.

On the 13th, 800 Marines were landed, formed into two Battalions,
under Majors Campbell and Collins, and attached to the command of
Colonel and Adjutant General William Howe, upon the Chorera side.

Owing to the thinness of soil upon the Cavannos it was not until
the 29th of June that our batteries could open against the Moro.

In order to obtain a superiority of fire on shore, Captain Harvey,
in the Dragon, having under him two other ships, volunteered to
place them against that Castle, which he did, in the most gallant
stile, upon the morning of the 1st of July. By this diversion the
object was gained, but with the loss of Captain Coostrey of the
Cambridge, and 161 killed and wounded.

The labour of many days was destroyed by a fire that broke out from
the dryness of the fascines, and the cannonade kept up, upon the
2d, which was not extinguished until the night of the 5th.

Such an unfortunate casualty depressed, but did not conquer
the spirits of our men, who were additionally exposed to the
most extreme fatigue, a scanty supply of water, and unwholesome
provisions.--They had also to encounter an enemy in Don Velasco,
worthy of his important trust.

Fortunately Sir James Douglas arrived from Jamaica with some
reinforcements, which were soon followed by others from North

It falls not within my scope to enter minutely into the protracted
events of this siege, which was carried on and sustained by both
sides, with unexampled perseverance, and steady valour.

About one o'clock in the afternoon of the 30th of July, by the
explosion of one of our advanced mines, a practicable breach for
one file in front was effected, which was soon noticed, and
assaulted by our troops, at the head of which was Lieutenant
Forbes, of the Royal Scotch. Many of the Spanish Soldiers were
within the casemates, and little anticipated so bold an attempt,
but they were soon under arms, and encouraged to their duty by
their brave Chiefs Don Velasco, and the Marquis Gonzales. Both
these Gentlemen fell on the occasion; the former surviving only
for a short time, the effects of a mortal wound. The Moro was soon
carried, which led to the final conquest of the Havannah, and its
dependencies upon the 13th of August. Twelve sail of the line, and
a large treasure, were its immediate fruits.

Although nothing peculiarly brilliant fell to the lot of the corps
of Marines co-operating in the fatigues of this arduous campaign,
still their zeal and discipline kept pace with the other classes of
his Majesty's servants, and justly entitled them to a share of that
gratitude, bestowed in general terms to all, by their Leaders and
their Country.

A predatory attempt against Newfoundland, by a squadron that stole
out of Brest, under Mons. Ternay, having on board two regiments,
was the only offensive operation on the part of the French during
the year 1762.

This Officer might have tried his fortune in a manner far more
suitable to the interests and dignity of his Country by aiming
a blow at our East, West India, and North American convoys,
protected by a very inferior force to his, instead of prosecuting
a relentless fury against the insignificant garrison of St. John,
and the tackle and stages of our poor, but industrious fishermen.
Captain (afterwards Vice Admiral) Joshua Rowley, in the Superbe
of 74 guns, the Gosport of 44, Captain Jervis, (now Earl St.
Vincent), and the Danae of 38, Captain Henry Martin, having charge
of these valuable fleets, were chaced by Mons. Ternay, on the
11th of May, having under him two line of battleships, two heavy
frigates, and a bomb-ketch. The steady countenance of Commodore
Rowley, who formed into order of battle, convinced the Frenchman
that he must wade through a bloody and perhaps a successless
conflict, before he could reach his object. The precarious issue
induced Mons. Ternay to be off, and to pursue his course for less
dangerous game.

As might have been expected, the garrison of St. John, with a
number of contiguous posts in no state to make resistance--fell
without a contest on the 25th of June. Captain (afterwards Lord),
Greaves who was then at Placentia, on the South East part of the
island, landed his Marines from the Antelope and prepared for
defence; at the same time he apprized our Commanders at Halifax and
New York of his situation, and solicited immediate support.

Lord Colville soon joined him, when, after disembarking a number
of Marines as a farther reinforcement, with his very inferior
squadron, he went out to meet the enemy on the 22d of August, and
proceeded off St. John's to give him battle.

The French having adopted a system of plunder and destruction along
the coast, wherever they could with impunity, his Lordship detached
an Officer and 30 Marines to the Island of Boys, which spot, that
party had the honor to defend for his Majesty. During this period
the works at St. John's had been much strengthened.

In consequence of the invasion and intelligence of it reaching
North America, a force was detached under Lieutenant Colonel
Amherst, which reached the coast of Newfoundland upon the 11th of

After a train of sharp and active services, on the part of the
Army, in which the Navy co-operated, St. John's was recovered upon
the 18th, and the whole island was freed from those freebooters,
who, in turn, became prisoners.

A friendly fog which had covered Mons. Ternay's departure from
France, was also auspicious in his escape from that harbour. His
conduct through the whole of this expedition was marked alike by
cautious timidity, in the sight of his enemies, as by oppressive
inhumanity over those he had conquered.

The acute observations, and active talents of Sir William Draper,
not only laid the foundation, but were highly conducive towards the
success of one of the boldest designs, that was ever patronized
by a British Ministry. That Officer, after the most approved good
conduct, during the siege of Madrass, had leave to retire to Canton
in China, on account of extreme bad health. It was here that his
enquiries commenced about the state of the Spanish Philippine
Islands, and he had complete intelligence both as to their
commercial importance, and military defence. This he treasured up
for his Country, against the day of emergency, by whom he was amply
recompenced for such early zeal, by his suggestions being eagerly
embraced, and he employed to execute them.

A disclosure of such a nature, however, would not have been
received, but spurned at, by our Cabinet during a period of
tranquillity with Spain. The whole continued dormant within the
breast of Sir William Draper, till hostilities were inevitable,
when he was dispatched in the Argo, for the East Indies, with the
most liberal powers to carry this object into effect.

Arriving towards the close of June, he lost not a moment in
arranging every thing for the expedition against Manilla. The
whole set sail on the 1st of August, consisting of a mixed force
of nearly 1330 men. As so small a number could only look for
success in the unprepared state of the enemy, hitherto confident in
their security, and in the promptest measures, a ship of war was
detached into the entrance of the Chinese Sea, in order to stop all
communication of our project.

The Fleet reached Malacca on the 27th of August, where they
watered, finished a number of gabions for the future operations of
the Army, and finally anchored in Manilla Bay on the 23d of Sept.

Admiral Cornish had appointed 550 Seamen, and 300 Marines, to
co-operate with the Land Forces, which were formed into separate

After an ineffectual summons sent to the town, and the coast
reconnoitred, no time was to be lost in keeping up that surprize
which had apparently struck the enemy.

A proper spot, two miles to the southward of Manilla, having been
selected for the debarkation, the 79th Regiment, all the Marines,
and the Artillery, with some field pieces, and one howitzer, were
formed into three divisions, under the sterns of three frigates,
which were ordered to cover the landing.

Captains Parker, Kempenfelt, and Brereton, of the Royal Navy, were
entrusted with the conduct of each of them, who discharged the duty
with much ability.

Numbers of the Spanish Indians having assembled to dispute our
descent, the ships of war opened their fire, which compelled them
to retire. A violent surf dashed many of the boats to pieces, and
injured the musquets, but the troops established themselves at a
village named Malata, little more than a mile from the enemy's
works, during the night of the 24th.

On the 25th a detachment was advanced to occupy a fort which was
abandoned, called Polverista, and Major Monson was pushed forward
to take possession of Hermita Church, a small distance from the
City, of much local consequence, both as to natural strength, and
as a shelter from the heavy rains that had already set in. The 79th
Regiment was farther ordered to reinforce this post.

Much praise was due to the Seamen for their unparalleled exertions
in landing the remaining troops, cannon, and stores, amidst a most
dreadful surf, and the heaviest rains.

The Marines were left at the first posts, the Malata and the
Polverista, with a view to secure the retreat of the advanced
forces, if necessary; to preserve a mutual communication with the
ships, and to guard the stores and heavy artillery. "_They_,"
says Sir William Draper, "from the good conduct and example of
their Officers, behaved very well, and were of great use upon all

Considering the strength of Manilla, and the numbers employed
against it, no regular siege could be undertaken, or could an
observance of the systematic rules of approach be followed. The
Spaniards were extremely languid in every effort of defence, while
our united forces evinced the most undaunted spirit and unshaken
perseverance, during a series of attacks from the native Indians,
and of laborious toils amidst winds and rain.

After having made a practicable breach, it was resolved to storm
the place upon the 6th of October, and it was executed with that
bold ardour which is the native birth-right of Englishmen.

Were my limits to allow, with pleasure would I particularize such
exertions, and the gallant actors in them. I can only say, that
through the whole the Soldier and Sailor felt no jealousy but that
of being foremost in danger and in discipline.

Humanity mingled with policy, influenced the Commanders in Chief
to avert from the City the calamity of promiscuous plunder, by a
pecuniary compromise for its protection. The laws of war sanctioned
this vengeance, from its having fallen by storm. The conquerors
here, became ennobled by compassion, and they stipulated to save
the property of unoffending individuals, while they at the same
time consulted their Country's honor and her interests.

To the eternal disgrace of the Spanish Nation, this generous
compact continues unfulfilled.

The Port of Cavite, with the other dependencies of Manilla, were
included in the capitulation, and Captain Champion, with 100
Marines, and some Seapoys, were detached as a garrison to the

Our total loss upon this brilliant service was 4 Officers, 1
Serjeant, and 29 Privates killed; 1 Lieutenant drowned; and 6
Officers, 3 Serjeants, and 102 rank and file wounded. Among the
first were 5 Marines, and the latter, Lieutenant Spearing, besides
6 Privates.

The East India Company, in consequence of the aids they had
afforded, was entitled to one third of the settled ransom, which
was four millions of dollars; and the acquired conquest was given
up to its servants in trust for his Majesty.

Such united harmony existed between the naval and land services,
that they agreed to share their fortunes mutually, afloat and

From the intelligence gained at Manilla, the Admiral detached
a force to intercept the annual galleon. The Panther and Argo
overtook the ship which had sailed from that place, on the 1st of
August, much to their surprize, instead of the one that had been
expected there. Nearly three millions of dollars were on board the
Sanctissima Trinidad, which were defended with much obstinacy, but
she was at last compelled to strike.

Both Commanders, upon the Manilla expedition, very meritedly
received the public thanks of their Country, and the honorable
marks of a Sovereign's gratitude.

Immense captures were made at sea, and repeated were the occasions
which displayed the British naval character during this year, so
fertile in momentous events.

Amongst these may be reckoned the Hermione, worth one million
sterling, the treasure of which enriched the crews of two sloops
of war, and was carried in proud triumph through the streets of
London, the very hour in which the Heir Apparent to the British
Throne was ushered into the world. A Marine shared upwards of
500_l_. from this capture.

The enemy, discomfited in every quarter, were not ashamed to own
their weakness, and they were the first to sue for peace.

A few short months had alienated or destroyed a great portion
of the Spanish Navy, had given a deep wound to their Commerce,
which would have been most sensibly felt under a continuance of
hostilities, and had convinced Europe and the World, that the
resources of Britain could only be estimated amidst accumulating
dangers, and that her native spirit could only be known amidst
increasing difficulties.

During the whole of this memorable war, the Marine Soldier not only
shared in the everlasting glory of our Fleets, but carried with
him, through all the mingled destinies of his profession, a steady
discipline, combined with a well-regulated valour. Excepting the
drawn battle off Minorca, not a naval action was fought in which he
did not bear a part, and there were but few of our widely-extended
conquests that do not, in their detail, recognize his name.

The preliminaries of a peace, which are not my business to discuss,
upon the 3d of November, and ratified in February of the following
year, closed the military services of the Marine Corps for a
long period, until they were again drawn forth into action by an
enlightened patron, who had marked their conduct, and who resolved
to avail himself of their animated zeal and spirit, upon the
earliest emergency that his Country required them.


The era of peace was marked, as usual, by a general reduction of
his Majesty's servants.

In the course of the year 1763, a very considerable and impolitic
diminution took place in the effective force of Marines; but as it
is a narrow system, which experience and their acknowledged utility
have subverted, at the period I now write, any discussion upon its
erroneous principle would be superfluous and unbecoming.

As I have already noticed that the Field Officers of my Corps are
peculiarly calculated for maintaining discipline and good order
throughout, it is a matter of surprize that the establishment
should have been so very low at this time, and that their
situations should have been more generally considered as posts of
sinecure than of active duty.

The meritorious services of the Marine Corps, during the late
brilliant contest, well entitled it to _some solid_ marks of public
recompence, as well as of public applause.

With this view, and striking home to the national gratitude, as
yet unallayed by time, the following proposals for increasing the
number of established Marine Field Officers were ushered in to the
Board of Admiralty in 1763:--

"Proposals for increasing the number of established Marine Field
Officers from six to fifteen, at a very inconsiderable additional
expence to the public. The Field Officers to have Companies, and to
serve on their present pay until six Companies become vacant; those
Companies to be given to the six senior Field Officers; the nine
_junior_ Field Officers have Companies already. The fifteen senior
First Lieutenants to have Brevets as Captains, or to be appointed
Captain Lieutenants, and to do all duties as Captains on their
present pay.

"This plan will cause no _present_ additional expence, and but a
very trifling one after the whole is completed, as will appear from
the following scheme:

  Present Establishment.                 Proposed Establishment.
                        PER DIEM.                             PER DIEM.
  3 Lieut. Colonels  a  £2 11  0         3 Colonels         a  £3 12  0
  3 Majors           a   2  5  0         6 Lieut. Colonels  a   5  2  0
  9 Brevet Captains  a   4 10  0         6 Majors           a   4 10  0
                         -------                               --------
                Total    9  6  0                       Total   13  4  0
                         =======                               ========

                        Difference                  £3 18  0

  Deducted pay of six Captains fewer on the      }
                 proposed establishment,         }  £3  0  0

  Additional expence when the establishment is   }
                        completed,               }  £0 18  0

The above would have been a moderate number of Field Officers to
regulate the divisional duties, and to superintend the discipline
of 70 Companies, consisting of 4287 men; to which the corps was
reduced by a legislative vote at the close of 1763. Whether
from dissent as to the expediency, or a non-compliance with
the object of these suggestions, is immaterial, but they were
unnoticed, although their propriety and justice did not escape
the discriminating and liberal mind of Earl Sandwich, whose
distinguished talents introduced him to the naval councils of his
Country, and whose elevated rank in them, enabled him to controul
those necessary reforms at a subsequent era.

A commendable but limited policy, in providing for the discharged
servants of the state, prevailed at the close of this war, by
holding out the inducements of land in the ceded province of
Canada, to such Officers, Sailors, and Soldiers _only_ who had
aided in its subjection.

When we contemplate the _connection_ that exists, in the events
of war, how much local conquests are often promoted by the use
of extraordinary energies in quarters distant from the scene of
good fortune, like the judicious diversions and stratagems of an
active Officer, to promote his real designs, no principle ought to
restrain such national grants to the partial few who have been the
happy agents of success.

It is an old axiom--_that America was subdued in Germany_.


The genius of discovery, and commerce, began to supersede that of
war in 1764 and many ensuing years.

Circumstances, however, very early occurred within the North
American Provinces, which developed the genuine spirit of the
people, and afforded the presage of future broils.

Gratitude to a Mother Country, who had delivered those Colonists
from the terrors of a hostile and restless neighbour, had scarcely
cooled throughout that Continent, when the example of New England,
long famed for a bias to republican principles, began to evince an
opposition to the laws of a parent, by whom they had been so long
protected, and under which they continued to flourish.

Happy had it been for Britain, if, at this period of lurking
danger, her councils had been guided by a purer consistency, and
a more elevated dignity; but a fatal irritation, succeeded by
concession, were but injudicious means to subdue, or to appease a
spirit that began to cherish the ideas of future emancipation.

Political discussions fall not within my province, but as being
introductory to that issue which compels an appeal to the sword.
The events of 1765, led to the American rebellion, and as but very
few incidents appear at all connected with my subject, my review,
upon this interval of time being uninteresting, must of course be

The Marine Soldier was naturally a companion in these dangers
and hardships which marked the progress of those scientific
characters, who were employed by an enlightened Country, in fixing
the intercourse between man and man, in exploring regions hitherto
unknown, and in extending the dominions and the commerce of their
native island.

Sometimes, indeed, he was obliged reluctantly to draw the trigger
against the uncivilized savage--but it was his duty, and only in

It was not until the year 1771 that the Corps of Marines felt the
fostering influence of a patron and a friend.

Earl Sandwich, placed at the head of the Admiralty, was now enabled
to realize a system he had long entertained in his thoughts; he
beheld us orphans, and he adopted us as his children.

From him originated the _Colonels Commandant_ of Divisions, and
many of these interior regulations, which, for their œconomy and
wisdom, do honor to the establishment.

His Lordship, by a Memorial to the Throne, soon after his accession
to power, obtained an order of Council to enlarge the number of
Field Officers.

These happy reforms held out a hope to the veteran, from which
he had till now been precluded, that of being at the head of a

By a train of considerate attentions the Corps was placed on a
respectable footing, its discipline became much improved, and his
Lordship soon saw those objects of his tender care, surpassed by
no troops in the world, for subordination, intrepidity, and cool

Nothing farther which attaches to my detail appears on the face of
public events, until Britain again unsheathed the sword, to assert
the rights of supremacy over her North American Colonies.


From the era of 1764, we may date the fatal American rebellion, and
those revolutionary principles which have long continued, and what
still menace the quiet and independence of Europe, and the World.

Political topics, from that period, were predominant amongst
the Colonists, and all who know how easy it is to sway popular
prejudices, will readily allow it is as little difficult to give
them action.

Grievances, whether real or imaginary, which is not my business to
decide, unceasingly agitated the public mind, weaned by degrees
every filial affection, and from their tedious speculative
existence, they implanted within the breasts of many, the lurking
sentiments of jealous rancour. Such in their progress became
principles, and those men, very early, either filled the Armies of
North America, or guided her Councils.

A public character, much respected for his private as well as
military virtues, was placed at Boston. General Gage, from a
long residence upon the Continent, was well qualified to allay
the general ferment; but it was too deeply rooted, and the duty
he owed his King, was soon necessarily paramount to every other

In the year 1774 an assemblage of troops, under that Officer,
gave umbrage not only to the Bostonians, but to their surrounding
neighbours, and the placing of a guard at the Neck, which is the
narrow isthmus that joins the Peninsula to the Continent, afforded
an additional cause of suspicion.

At this time, and from a very trifling circumstance, a spirit of
military union, and also of hostility, was peculiarly apparent
among the New Englanders. A report, very industriously propagated,
and seemingly with a view to probe the general feelings, gained
ground, that the British had occupied the Neck, had cut off
all communication with the Continent, in order to compel the
inhabitants of Boston into the unlimited assent of every measure.
This being spread abroad, the adjacent country assembled, intimated
to the people within the town their readiness to assist them; but
that if they should sacrifice _their_ liberties, such an inglorious
compact would extend no farther.

They moreover avowed their intentions of combining together in what
manner and form they chose for mutual security.

Every thing foreboding hostile events, General Gage fortified the
Neck at Boston, and as precautionary steps he also seized upon
the provincial arsenal at Cambridge, and the powder lodged in the
magazines of Charlestown.

These measures were sufficient to rouse the popular indignation,
in no want of inflammatory materials; but although they might not
have been political, they were still, however, expedient, under
existing circumstances.

To ascertain the views and opinions of so many provinces, different
in their manners, and in some respects opposite in their interests,
a general Congress was held at Philadelphia, on the 5th of
September, 1774, by deputies from the whole. Their proceedings were
marked by moderation, but by firmness.

The terms of conciliation arising from them having been rejected
by the mother country, his Majesty communicated a message,
recommending the augmentation of his forces, by sea and land.

The union which pervaded America, sufficiently proves how widely
popular had been the resolves of their deputies. These were almost
every where the political creed of the Colonies, and the crowd.

Things arrived at such a crisis early in 1775, that the die could
not be long suspended. A trivial affair, upon the 26th of February,
shewed by what a slender thread the tranquillity of the Empire
hung, and although it was not accompanied by any act of hostility,
still it tended to ground a mutual antipathy between the Soldier
and the Native.

General Gage having learned that some brass guns had been collected
in the town of Salem, sent a detachment in order to bring them to
Boston. Landing at Marblehead, they continued their march towards
the place of destination, but not finding the cannon, which had
been removed, they penetrated farther into the country in quest of

In the course of their route there was a draw-bridge, which the
numerous populace on the other side had taken up, on purpose to
stop the passage of the troops. An order from the Commanding
Officer to let it down was disobeyed, who attempted to seize on a
boat, in order to get possession of the bridge. A scuffle ensued,
but nothing occurred which could be denominated sanguinary force.
This was owing to the address of a neighbouring Clergyman, who,
while he consulted the feelings of an Officer in prosecuting his
instructions, also expostulated with him who headed the detachment,
upon the endless and calamitous results if blood was spilt.
Appealing to the people also, he invoked them to concede their
point, which, for a short time, delayed the awful quarrel.

This party returned without success, but without mischief.

A body of Marines was at Boston, under Major Pitcairne, whose
personal destiny it was to be employed in the first hostile act,
which eventually involved the separation of Britain and America.

At the town of Concord, where the provincial Congress was held, a
quantity of military stores having been collected, the Commander in
Chief ordered the Grenadiers and Light Infantry of the Army, under
Lieut. Col. Smith, and Major Pitcairne, to destroy them.

They embarked during the night of the 18th of April, and proceeding
up Charles River, landed at Phipp's Farm, from whence they
advanced, with silent rapidity, towards Concord. The country,
however, was alarmed before the dawn of day, and on the arrival of
the British at Lexington, the Militia of that town was assembled,
under arms, at five in the morning.

An English Officer, in the van, called out, "Disperse, you rebels;"
when our soldiery, firing a few partial shots, a general discharge
followed, by which some were both killed and wounded. A mutual
recrimination upon the score of first aggression, was afterwards
agitated, which, instead of staying, only tended to stimulate the
spirit of war.

Colonel Smith having pushed forward some Companies of Light
Infantry, before his arrival at Concord, in order to secure two
bridges, by which the Provincials might carry off the stores,
another body of Militia that appeared on a hill in their route,
retired at the approach of the British troops, across one of them,
who soon after possessed themselves of both.

The main body were, in the mean time, employed in destroying every
military article within the town.

The American Militia, observing some conflagration of houses in
Concord, immediately returned to one of the bridges they had
recently passed, when the Light Infantry occupied the side of the
river towards that place. On the approach of the Provincials the
former fired, which was soon returned.

After a skirmish, the English detachment fell back, with the loss
of some killed and wounded, besides one Lieutenant and a few other

About this time the whole country was in one state of alarm, which
compelled an immediate retreat to Lexington. This was effected
under the disagreeable circumstances of a hot day, and an incessant
fire from the hourly collecting numbers in the rear of the troops,
and from houses, walls, and every hidden place of defence, in their
front and flanks.

Lord Percy had most judiciously been detached from Boston very
early in the morning of the 19th, with a reinforcement of sixteen
Companies, and a body of Marines. This force arrived at Lexington
just in time to afford a respite to Colonel Smith's detachment, now
much harassed by fatigue, and overpowered by very superior numbers.

Having two field pieces, they kept the rebels in awe, until the
British resumed their march towards Boston. Major Pitcairne's horse
was twice wounded very severely, and he made some narrow escapes
during these tumultuous attacks.

Lord Percy, who had advanced to Lexington, by the way of Cambridge,
with a penetration and foresight that reflected high honour upon
his military talents, determined upon returning to Boston by a
different route. The numerous hordes of Americans who had collected
on the expected line of his retrograde march, were by this foiled
in their hopes of blood, as his Lordship most judiciously turned
off towards Charlestown, where he was not looked for, and gained
the heights of Bunker's Hill, whither they durst not follow him. To
this happy manœuvre the whole detachment owed its salvation, and
Boston also may acknowledge his Lordship as its preserver at that
early and important crisis.

Throughout the whole of this toilsome service, our loss was by
no means equal to the seeming dangers, being only 65 killed, 2
Lieutenants and 20 men taken prisoners, and Colonel Smith, besides
some other Officers, and about 174 wounded. Thus was the fatal
torch lighted, and it never was extinguished but with American

The whole Country was now roused to arms, and General Gage, with
his little army, became invested, within the works of Boston.

Earl Sandwich, who presided at the Board of Admiralty, sensible of
the high state of discipline, to which the corps of Marines had
reached, pushed them early into the American War. Their conduct
upon every duty, reflected credit upon his Lordship's discernment.

In addition to those under Major Pitcairne, who were attached to
Lord Percy's Brigade, a farther reinforcement arrived at Boston in
the month of May, commanded by Major Short.

It is a tribute justly due to those Officers who so very gallantly
supported their Country's honor, and their own, to detail their
names, and battalions, agreeably to the arrangement issued in
public orders, at Boston, upon the 20th of May.

Battalion orders,

"The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty
having directed a reinforcement of Marines to serve under Major
Pitcairne, in General Gage's Army, consisting of the following
number: 2 Majors, 10 Captains, 27 Subalterns, 2 Adjutants, 1
Surgeon, 2 Surgeon's Mates, 28 Serjeants, 25 Corporals, 20
Drummers, 600 Privates.

"The Commanding Officer finds it necessary, for the good of the
service, to form the whole under his command, into two Battalions.

  Officers in 1st Battalion.         Officers in 2d Battalion.

      GRENADIERS                         GRENADIERS.

  Thos. Avarne, Capt.                Geo. Logan, Capt.
  Wm. Finney, 1st Lieut.             Alex. Brisbane, 1st Lieut.
  Geo. Vevers, 1st Lieut.            Francis Gardner, 1st Lieut.

      1st COMPANY.                       1st COMPANY.

  Stawel Chudleigh, Capt.            Hon. John Maitland, Capt.
  Rich. Shea, 1st Lieut.             Jesse Adair, 1st Lieut.
  ---- Hewes, 1st Lieut.             Roland Carter, 1st Lieut.

      2d COMPANY.                        2d COMPANY.

  Stephen Ellis, Capt.               Chas. Chandless, Capt.
  James Robertson, 1st Lieut.        Fenton Griffiths, 1st Lieut.
  P. D. Robertson, 2d Lieut.         Henry D'Oyley, 2d Lieut.

      3d COMPANY.                        3d COMPANY.

  Thos. Lindsay, Capt.                Thos. Groves, Capt.
  Wm. Lycett, 1st Lieut.              John Hadden, 1st Lieut.
  David Collins, 2d Lieut.            Titus Conyers, 1st Lieut.

      4th COMPANY.                       4th COMPANY.

  Wm. Forster, Capt.                  Samuel Davys, Capt.
  Wm. Graham, 1st Lieut.              Walter Nugent, 1st Lieut.
  Isaac Potter, 2d Lieut.             Robt. Carey, 2d. Lieut.

      5th COMPANY.                       5th COMPANY.

  Robt. Ross, Capt.                   Edw. Henvill, Capt.
  Chas. Steward, 1st Lieut.           Thos. Biggs, 1st Lieut.
  Jonas Mathews, 1st Lieut.           James Lewis, 2d Lieut.

      6th COMPANY.                       6th COMPANY.

  Wm. Sabine, Capt.                   Geo. Elliott, Capt.
  B. M'Donald, 2d Lieut.              Alex. M'Donald, 1st Lieut.
  Henry Tantum, 2d Lieut.             John France, 1st Lieut.

      7th COMPANY.                       7th COMPANY.

  J. H. Branson, Capt.                 Arthur Walker, Capt.
  Wm. Creswell, 1st Lieut.             James Anderson, 1st Lieut.
  Thos. Trollope, 2d Lieut.            Robt. Moore, 2d Lieut.

      8th COMPANY.                       8th COMPANY.

  John Perceval, Capt.                 John M'Fie, Capt.
  Aaron Eustace, 1st Lieut.            Sir John Dalston, Bart. 1st Lieut.
  Thos. Woodcock, 2d Lieut.            Francis Dogherty, 1st Lieut.

      LIGHT INFANTRY.                    LIGHT INFANTRY.

  Wm. Souter, Capt.                    Arch. Campbell, Capt.
  Wm. Pitcairne, 1st Lieut.            John Dyer, 2d Lieut.
  Philip Howe, 2d Lieut.               N. Harris Nicholas, 2d Lieut.
  1st Lieut. John Waller, Adjutant.    1st Lieut. John Fielding, Adjut.
  1st Lieut. J. Pitcairne, Qr. Master.  Thos. Smith, Quarter Master.

Captain David Johnston, Superintendant Adjutant, and Deputy
Paymaster to the 2d Battalion.

Hill, Surgeon to the 2d Battalion, Wm. Tervant, Surgeon's Mate,
Silver, Surgeon's Mate.

Thus united with the Army in garrison at Boston, these Battalions
continued to contribute their proportion to its incidental duties;
in discharging which, they received the uniform commendation
of their superiors, for their regularity, discipline, and
subordination. In the _Battalion_ orders, of the 3d of June, the
following regulations for the payment of Companies were notified.

"The Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty
having directed, by their letter to Major Pitcairne of the 2d of
March last, that the Captains of Marines commanding Companies on
shore at Boston, should pay their Companies in the same manner
as practised by the Land Forces, the Captains or commanding
Officers of Companies, will receive from Captain Johnstone,
Deputy Paymaster, one month's subsistence for the non-commissioned
Officers and private men of their respective Companies, deducting
£0 1s. 5½d. per week each, for provisions and the usual stoppages
as directed by the Admiralty, viz.

  For one Serjeant per week                £0  0  2
  For one Corporal or Drummer               0  0  1½
  For one Private Man                       0  0  1
                 Dollars to be taken at     0  4  8

"Captains are to give the Deputy Paymaster compleat monthly
Pay Rolls; accounting for the subsistence distributed to their
Companies, and specifying every particular casualty that has
happened in each Company during the preceding month, and to
commence this day."

A few trivial affairs occurred in the Bay of Boston, which only
tended to excite a mutual irritation, and led to no important
consequences. Many resolutions and measures were adopted by the
Colonists, that aimed at the dissolution of every united tie, and
even at independance.

General Gage, also, issued a Proclamation in his Majesty's name,
extending the offers of pardon to all who should return to their
allegiance, excepting Messrs. Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Little
hope of reconciliation being entertained, both sides began to
prepare in right earnest, for hostilities.

The rebels wishing to anticipate the Royal troops, in the
possession of Charlestown,[1] hitherto unoccupied by either,
pushed a large body of men, on the evening of the 16th of
June, to erect works upon Bunker's Hill. During the night they
raised entrenchments, and a breast work, with a strong redoubt,
sufficiently formidable to excite the jealousy of General Gage. A
heavy fire opened upon their working parties early on the morning
of the 17th of June, who, however, persevered in their labours with
much firmness.

It appearing highly necessary to dislodge the Americans from so
very important a post, the Commander in Chief, at noon, detached
ten Companies of Grenadiers, an equal number of Light Infantry,
with the 5th, 38th, 43d, and 52d regiments, under Major Gen. Howe
and Brigadier Pigot, with that view, which being embarked, landed
and formed on the Peninsula, without opposition, under cover of the
ships of war.

The position of the rebels was strong indeed. A small but well
contrived redoubt, besides some other works full of soldiers, and
defended with cannon, as well as numbers of rifle men placed in
the houses of Charlestown, covered their right flank; their centre
and left were protected by a breast work, partly gun proof, which
reached from the redoubt, to the Medford River.

Major General Howe, upon examining this powerful state of defence,
and observing fresh columns pouring in to the enemy's works,
solicited a reinforcement, which soon joined him, consisting of
some Companies of Grenadiers and Light Infantry, the 47th regiment,
and the first battalion of Marines.

Having been formed in two lines, they advanced with slow but steady
steps to the conflict. Majors Pitcairne, Tupper, and Short, led my
corps upon this distinguished day.

The roar of cannon and howitzers, on the part of the British,
occasionally halting to yield them effect, marked their progress
towards the rebel works. Not a shot was returned by the enemy,
until our troops had nearly reached their entrenchments, when a
tremendous and destructive fire was opened, which, it must be
confessed, somewhat staggered our men. The awful occasion exhibited
General Howe most conspicuously for the valuable resources of
coolness and reflection amidst danger. It also afforded an
opportunity of signalizing the discipline and intrepidity of the
Battalion of Marines, which dealt destruction and carnage around

Brigadier General Pigot, who was destined to attack the redoubt and
lines, that covered the American right flank, was likewise exposed
to a hot fire from the houses in Charlestown. His loss was severe,
but his exertions were animated, and displayed the most brilliant
courage, as well as talents.

General Clinton, who had crossed from Boston during the action,
attached to himself the merit of rallying the troops, whom he led
against the rebel works with fixed bayonets, and with that daring
impetuosity which so strongly characterizes the British Soldier.

They soon forced them, and drove the Provincials across the neck
of Charlestown, who were also much harassed by the cannon of his
Majesty's ship Glasgow, in their retreat.

The Glory of the Army, upon this day, was great, but it was dearly
earned. Their total loss amounted to 1 Lieutenant Colonel, 2
Majors, 7 Captains, and 9 Subalterns of the land forces and Marines
killed; besides 70, of different descriptions in both, wounded.
Two hundred and seven Non-commissioned and rank and file also
fell, and 828 were wounded.

Amongst the slain was Major Pitcairne, of the Marines, whose death
was alike deplored by his Corps and his Country. Major Short also
left behind him a reputation sufficiently worthy of deep regret.

The Marine Battalion sustained fully more than its proportional
share of casualties, and its gallant conduct upon the 17th of June,
demands, from the whole of our Establishment, its commemorative and
indelible gratitude, when each of us casts an eye upon that laurel
which now encircles his button, and reflects that it was purchased
_by their valour_.

The following appeared in the General Orders of the 19th of June,

"The Commander in Chief returns his most grateful thanks to
Major-General Howe, for the extraordinary exertion of his military
abilities on the 17th instant. He returns his thanks also to
Major-General Clinton, and Brigadier Pigot, for the share they
took in the success of the day, as well as to Lieutenant-Colonels
Nesbitt, Abercromby, Gunning, and Clarke; Majors Butler, Williams,
Bruce, _Tupper_, Spenlove, Small, and Mitchel, and the rest of the
Officers and Soldiers, who, by remarkable efforts of courage and
gallantry, overcame every disadvantage, and drove the rebels from
the redoubt and strong holds on the heights of Charlestown, and
gained a complete victory."

By the return of Major Tupper to Europe, and the fatal events of
the 17th of June, the command of the Marines soon after devolved
upon Major (now Lieutenant-General) Souter.

Bunker's Hill was fortified, and our troops retained the Peninsula,
which rendered their duties very severe. The Americans prevented
every supply from the interior, and compelled our Army to subsist
upon salt, and indifferent provisions. Cut off from the Continent,
their sufferings were great, when sickness became prevalent.

The Provincials having constructed works upon a hill opposite
Bunker's, completed the blockade of the Peninsula, which they
gradually extended close to the fortifications on Boston Neck.

Some predatory enterprizes were attempted by them, by no means
deficient in spirit or success. In one of these they burnt the
light-house at the entrance of the harbour, communicating with
it by some whale boats from which they carried off, or killed,
the whole of a small detachment of Marines, who protected the
carpenters in erecting a new one. Thus matters continued for some
time, and the situation of a brave Army, cooped up and unable to
act, was rendered both distressing and degrading.

In the orders of the 27th of September, the Royal thanks were
tendered to the forces, for their intrepid conduct upon the 17th of
June, in the following terms:--

"The King has been pleased to order the Commander in Chief, to
express his Majesty's thanks, both to the Officers and Soldiers,
for the resolution and gallantry with which they attacked and
defeated the rebels on the 17th of June last, who had every
advantage of numbers and situation; and more especially expressed
to the Generals Howe and Clinton, and to Brigadier General Pigot,
the sense his Majesty entertains of the spirit, resolution, and
conduct by which they distinguished themselves, to their honor,
upon that day."

The _Battalion Orders_ of that day, also contained the annexed

"The King has been pleased to make the following promotions in his
Marine Forces, serving in North America:--

  Captain William Souter, Major        _vice_ Short, killed.
  Capt. Lieut. Francis Lindsay, Capt.    --   Campbell, ditto.
  ----  ----   Robert Ross, Captain      --   Ellis, ditto.
  ----  ----   David Johnson, Capt.      --   Souter, promoted.
  1st Lieut. Jesse Adair, Capt. Lieut.   --   Lindsay, ditto.
  -- ----    Sir John Dalston, Ditto     --   Walker, returned home.
  -- ----    Sir John Hadden, Ditto      --   Ross, promoted.
  -- ----    Wm. Pitcairne,   Ditto      --   Johnstone, ditto.
  2d Lieut.  James Lewis, 1st Lieut.     --   Shea, killed.
  -- ----    Robert Moore,   Ditto       --   Finnie, ditto.
  -- ----    Thos. Woodcock, Ditto       --   Gardener, ditto.
  -- ----    Isaac Polder,   Ditto       --   Adair, promoted.
  -- ----    Robert Carey,    Ditto      --   Dalston, ditto.
  -- ----    Ronald M'Donald, Ditto      --   Hadden, ditto.
  -- ----    Philip Howe, Ditto          --   ----
  -- ----    Henry Tantum, Ditto         --   Pitcairne, ditto.
  -- ----    David Collins,   Ditto      --   Spencer, dead.
  Volunteer  Samuel Davys Bowman         --   Lewis, promoted."

In consequence of these new arrangements a change took place, in
the 2d Battalion, which became commanded by the undermentioned

  1st COMPANY.            Captain M'Fie,
                          1st Lieut. Griffiths.

  2d COMPANY.             Captain Henvill,
                          1st Lieut. Lewis,
                          2d Lieut. Hale.

  3d COMPANY.             Captain Elliott,
                          1st Lieut. France,
                          2d Lieut. Walker.

  4th COMPANY.            Captain Dalston,
                          1st Lieut. Moore.

  5th COMPANY.            Captain Stretch,
                          1st Lieut. Nugent,
                          2d Lieut. D'Oyley.

  6th COMPANY.            Captain Davys,
                          1st Lieut. Carey,
                          2d Lieut. Bowman.

  7th COMPANY.            Captain Adair,
                          1st Lieut. Carter,
                          2d Lieut. Ellis.

  8th COMPANY.            Captain Groves,
                          1st Lieut. Dogherty,
                          2d Lieut. F. Lewis.

  GRENADIERS.             Captain Logan,
                          1st Lieut. Brisbane,
                          2d Lieut. Ragg.

  LIGHT INFANTRY.         Captain Pitcairne,
                          2d. Lieut. Dyer,
                          2d. Lieut. Nicholas.

It was farther intimated upon the same day, "That in consequence
of the application of Major Pitcairne to have the same allowance
for paying the Companies of the 1st and 2d Battalions of Marines,
serving on shore in North America, as the Army have, and that the
Captains should be answerable for the debts, &c.

"The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, ever ready to give every
reasonable mark of their indulgence, were pleased to consent that
each Captain, commanding a Company, should be allowed after the
rate of 1s. per day; being equal to the pay of two men per Company,
during their continuance on shore, as is practised in the Army; and
the Deputy Paymaster is authorized to issue the same.

"The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have been pleased to
approve Major Pitcairne's appointing Mr. Smith Quarter-Master to
the 2d Battalion of Marines."

General Washington having been appointed to command the Armies of
America, he, in company with Major General Lee, reached the camp
before Boston, in order to animate them in the general pursuit of
continental independence.

Their military spirit had arrived at such a height, that the
younger branches of Quaker families at Philadelphia, waiving their
principles, associated themselves in arms.

Boston continued to be blockaded during the year, with but little

The rebels did not confine their hostile views to this object
alone. A number of partizan adventurers sprung up, whose rapid
motions and unknown existence under Colonels Easton, and Ethan
Allen, were the means of achieving some conquests of much
importance to their infant cause. Their intermediate object was
to seize upon the passes on the great lakes, which command the
intercourse between Canada and the British Colonies, until their
Government, (for so I now call it,) was enabled to advance a force
sufficiently adequate to conquer that Province. This they effected
by surprizing the garrisons of Ticonderoga and Crown Point.

The American Congress, with the notes of conciliation and peace
ever sounding within the walls of their House, had taken early
pains to interest the Canadians in the destinies of their
neighbours, by inflammatory addresses, and by artful and apposite
inferences drawn from the immortal writings of Montesquieu,
their Countryman, suited to their prejudices and their political
feelings. Having thus placed the train to a deep design, those wily
Continentals trusted to time in accomplishing its intended effects.

America soon availed herself of that enthusiasm which pervaded her
Citizens, to turn it to a purpose. Already had she disseminated her
doctrines over Canada, which she was determined to follow up with
her arms. Generals Montgomery and Schuyler headed the troops which
were destined to invade that Colony, who found many of the natives
either wavering or friendly to the infatuating name of Liberty.
After a series of successes in the capture of Forts Chamblee and
St. John's, the defeat of General Carleton, at Longueil, and the
surrender of Montreal, all in the Upper Province, the only hope
that remained of preserving Canada for the British Crown, centered
in the town of Quebec.

Within the defenceless walls of Montreal, was that brave and
valuable Officer, General Carleton, now Lord Dorchester. Feeling
the weight of his duties, and also conscious of his own importance,
at so perilous a crisis, he resolved upon escaping from its
impending surrender, which would have deprived his Country of his
services. The impulse was patriotically great, and the event was
happy. Committing himself, in the night, to a boat, with muffled
paddles, he escaped the vigilance of the rebel guards, and reached
the seat of his Government. Here he arrived in the hour of danger.

A co-operating expedition, under Mr. Arnold, against the Lower
Province of Canada, unequalled in military annals, for the
originality of plan, and boldness of execution, had threatened the
Capital, in the absence of its Governor. Without a distinct object
of reference, it would be useless attempting to delineate the
progressive advances of these daring invaders, from New England.

It is enough to say, that a body of Soldiers, ultimately
formidable, with their arms and other necessaries, traversed a
path, in many places hitherto untrodden by human steps, of upwards
170 miles, interspersed with thickets, precipices, and swamps, and
often obliged to carry, on their shoulders, the numerous batteaux
attached to their little Army. Such were their sufferings, that
many returned, but those, whom constancy supported in following
their Chief up to the walls of Quebec, merit the highest encomiums
which can be rendered to man for undaunted perseverance and steady

We may often derive the most impressive examples from our enemy,
and they ought never to be rejected. A British Soldier only needs
the recital of any deed, in order to rival it.

Self interest obtained what patriotism and natural duty could
not stimulate in the souls of the inhabitants within the town
of Quebec. For some time, discord, and even disaffection were
prevalent, both of which fiendly passions were absorbed in the
venal virtue of defending their property, now threatened by the
approach of General Arnold and his magic troops. All united in the
cause of their King, and some Sailors and Marines, were landed from
the ships in the river, to second their energies. Feeling himself
unequal to a siege or a storm, Arnold fell back, and awaited the
cast of better fortune.

It was soon after this that General Carleton arrived, who quickly
adopted those measures which were worthy of himself and the
imperious emergency.

One company of the 7th regiment, might be termed the only regular
force under his command, his chief strength being in M'Lean's newly
raised corps of Scotch Emigrants, and the associated bodies of
English and French Volunteers.

To these a valuable addition was given of all the Marines belonging
to the ships of war, and upwards of 400 Seamen, who had claims to
a great share of merit for their steadiness and spirit through the
whole train of this defensive service.

The works had scarcely been repaired, in the best manner that
was possible, when General Montgomery, united to Arnold, having
subdued, with little difficulty, the other fortresses of Canada,
appeared in the sanguine and immediate hope of consummating his
glory by also carrying its Capital.

His personal zeal, and the endurance of his troops during the
bitter frosts of winter, were only equalled by a similar vigour in
their comparative opponents.

Temporizing measures being but ill adapted for the season, or the
occasion, and little suited to the intrepid genius of Montgomery,
he followed its dictates, which were to rest the issue upon a
general assault.

It was the last day of the year 1775, and the last of his life,
that this brave man, ambitious of fame, and true to the interests
he had espoused, advanced against Quebec, in four divisions, to
execute his daring purpose; reserving to himself the chief post of
honour and of danger, which was directed against the Lower Town at
Aunce de Mere, while another, almost equally bold, was allotted to
Arnold and his hardy followers, which was aimed at another part
named "the Saut au Matelot." The two others were devoted to puzzle
the garrison by false attempts upon their very extensive lines, and
to succour where necessary.

Under cover of a snow storm, the whole moved towards the towns.
The British were alarmed, and at their stations. Montgomery had
to encounter many natural difficulties, but success for a while
attended him. Having gained the first barrier, he pushed on to the
second, from which issued forth a tremendous fire of grape shot and
musquetry, which closed his days, and the hopes of his detachment;
who, strange to say, under the conduct of _A Campbell_, retreated
without making one effort to avenge his fall.

Soldiers who have been conspicuous for discipline, will most
assuredly be ever distinguished by courage when it is called forth.
Those faithful fellows who had accompanied Arnold through the
desert, without a murmur, followed him to battle and through all
its reverses with an unsurpassed bravery.

They, too, were early deprived of their leader, by a shot which
shattered his leg; when he was carried from the field.

But this did not appal them. The garrison, now freed from their
distracted duties, levelled their united force against this
impetuous detachment, who had advanced too far to retreat with
safety, and which became endangered by accumulating difficulties
on every side. Their dilemma did not escape the keen eye of the
Governor, who pushed a considerable force in their rear. Upwards of
three hours did they withstand the unequal combat, when they were
at last compelled to surrender prisoners of war.

That tribute which justice stretches forth to an enemy must reflect
its rays upon those who have had the honor to contend with them.
I cannot superadd a higher testimony to the British General and
his Garrison, than by thus appreciating the foe whom they had
to encounter. It yields me a proud retrospect that the corps of
Marines had their proportion of desert in defending Quebec, and by
it, maintaining this remnant of America to our Empire.

United by the feelings of sympathy, I would remark the spirit of
Mr. Vivion, then Purser, I believe, of a small sloop, and now of
his Majesty's ship Robust, who most patriotically stepped into
the ranks, and served as a private during the whole siege. He too
produced a son who yielded not to his father in honourable deeds,
whose subsequent fall in the cause of his country and in bravely
advancing the glory of his corps, was sensibly deplored by my
brethren, and by me.

General Carleton sealed and ennobled his gallant defence, by acts
of humanity and mercy to the vanquished. A cool prudence in not
hazarding his acquired success to the contingencies of fortune,
enabled him to preserve the fruits of it for the solid interests of
his King.

The besiegers retired, but he did not follow them; after which, all
their attention was devoted to the interception of supplies for

Arnold, who now succeeded to the command of the rebels, evinced
that resolute mind and ready expediency by which his conduct had
been hitherto marked.

During the course of this year may be noticed the active duties of
some small parties of Marines, in supporting the legal authority
of Lord Dunmore in the Province of Virginia, which had not yet
disavowed its allegiance. The spirit of rebellion beginning to shew
itself, the Governor, after having sent off his family, entrusted
his personal safety to the detachment from his Majesty's sloop
Fowey, who fortified his house at Williamsburgh, planted artillery,
and from which he issued all his proclamations, and, as long as was
prudent, continued to exercise in it, his official functions. It
was at last judged proper, under this escort of Marines, to proceed
on board the Fowey, from whence his Lordship still corresponded
with the Province.

The political discussions that ensued, are foreign to my review.
His Lordship's military exertions to reclaim or to conquer the
disaffected, were fatal in their issue, from being impotent in the
means. By the combined attack, however, of a few ships of war, and
two parties of Sailors and Marines which were disembarked, the town
of Norfolk, first in rank for commercial wealth, was set on fire
and reduced to ashes, upon the New Year's Day of 1776.

Many other hostile measures against the sea coasts of America, and
her different interior Provinces, spread widely the calamities of
war and the mutual desire of retaliation.

Amongst the augmentation to his Majesty's forces, 6665 Marines were
voted for the year 1776; being an additional number of 2378.


[1] Charlestown is separated from Boston by Charles River; a
distance little more than that which divides London and the
Borough, between which there is also a similar connexion. Bunker's
Hill is situated just within the neck of land that joins the
Peninsula of Charlestown to the Continent.


The sufferings of the troops in cantonments at Boston were
uncommonly great, from the want of fuel and other supplies, while
these of the regiments and Marines upon Bunker's Hill, exposed in
tents to all the storms of winter, and necessarily for ever on the
alert, in the vicinity of a superior enemy, were proportionally
still more severe. Military enterprize, however, fell asleep on
both sides, and it did not awaken but with the return of spring. A
dread of famine floating in the minds of many, superadded to their
temporary evils.

During these existing hardships, a detachment of Marines, under the
escort of an armed ship, was sent to Savannah, in Georgia, with a
view to procure provisions, either by purchase or by force.

The Militia assembled to oppose their landing, and after some
unpleasant discussions, erected batteries along the shores of the
river so named. Proceeding to extremities, a short contest ensued,
which terminated in burning seven vessels deeply laden, and the
loss of a few lives; after which the party returned to Boston.

A few arrivals from Europe tended to alleviate the wants of the
garrison, who often beheld the humiliating sight of the triumphs of
little rebel privateers, in capturing their most important aids,
without our ships of war having in their power either to retaliate
or to prevent them.

Some Parliamentary decrees, which left but little hope of the
renewal of friendship, having reached America, its Congress
strongly urged General Washington to push the siege of Boston with
vigour, in order that their forces might be enabled to oppose those
dangers, which they anticipated in other quarters of the Continent.
Accordingly a cannonade and bombardment began from Phipp's Farm
on the evening of the 2d of March, that continued during some
successive nights, and, on the morning of the 5th, another battery
from the heights of Dorchester Point, on the other side of the
town, which had been constructed with unexampled secrecy and
dispatch, also opened. These fired some houses, and occasioned
other losses.

General Howe felt indignant in being thus cooped up.

His communication with the other part of his Army, at Boston Neck,
becoming endangered, and foreseeing that the rebels would still
extend their works to those heights which command the town and
harbour, he resolved upon dislodging them from such as they held.

Hazardous was the attempt, and it was only prevented by an
intervening storm on the night of the 5th of March, when the troops
destined for the attack were on the eve of embarkation. All who
know how to appreciate the military character of that gallant
officer, will readily sympathize with him in his feelings upon so
degrading an occasion, when his high talents could avail nothing,
and the energies of as fine a body as ever entered the field
were stayed by the hand of prudence. Thus situated, he lamented
in common with the meanest Soldier, a total suspension of their

An instant alternative of engaging a very superior Army strongly
entrenched, or evacuating the place, became hourly more and more
imperiously urgent. The former expedient held out but little hope
of surmounting their difficulties, in balance with many disastrous
consequences in the event of defeat; while the latter let loose an
inactive corps against a more vulnerable, or in co-operation with a
more loyal Province of America.

This the Commander in Chief adopted, but it teemed with many
obstacles and dangers, calculated to try the strongest soul.

He had not the safety of his Army alone to consider, in this
retreat, but the lives and property of numerous followers, whose
allegiance to their King no misfortunes could subdue.

The duty was sacred, and it was discharged with that humane care
which characterizes our nation, and him who performed it.

Upon the 17th of March the rear-guard of the British troops
embarked without molestation, when General Washington marched in
proud triumph into the town of Boston.

The Army reached Halifax, after some delays, early in April, but
it was now diminished, by hardships, to about 9000 effective men.
The battalions of Marines were landed, and did duty under the
command of Major Tupper[2], in garrison there, with much credit
to themselves and their corps. These testimonials, which were the
honorable results of their uniform good conduct, more usefully fall
under a future detail.

In the early part of 1776, General Arnold continued the blockade
of Quebec, under the greatest pressures, while its garrison, cut
off from every supply, and exposed to many bitter privations, was
equally conspicuous for a resolute firmness.

Some attempts to burn the British ships of war in the harbour,
in order to favour an escalade of the town during the existing
confusion, worthy of the inventive resources of Arnold, were made,
but they were counteracted by the vigilance and spirit of General
Carleton. Small Pox, dreaded, by the Americans, as the most fatal
plague, began to make its appearance, and dispirited their troops.
Discipline and good order were soon supplanted by imaginary fears,
and the precautionary cares of all to ward off that contaminating
evil. Murmurs succeeded, which, as must ever be the case, paralyzed
every noble effort.

By the indefatigible zeal and activity of that highly respected
name, Sir Charles Douglas, his Majesty's ship Isis, with two
frigates, having penetrated the ice, hove in sight, and reached
Quebec on the 5th of May. The situation of the enemy's investing
force was now critical. Having landed the few troops brought from
Europe, these ships also disembarked their Marines, with which, in
addition to those of the garrison, the General instantly advanced
against the American camp.

A very precipitate flight ensued, which ended in a trifling
carnage, taking some prisoners, and all the rebel artillery and
stores. Many of their sick and wounded took refuge in the woods,
or concealed themselves in the hamlets, towards whom General
Carleton extended, not only the generous tender of oblivion, but
of protection. This benevolent act which proceeded from the
instantaneous impulse of his own breast, casts a bright lustre upon
the military virtues of that great man, and is alone sufficient to
immortalize his character.

Having been afterwards reinforced, a train of successful operation,
extraneous from my subject, soon took place, which expelled the
rebels from the Province.

Thus, a second time, were the partial efforts of the Marine corps
exerted most usefully upon Canadian ground.

A naval and military expedition, against the Southern Colonies,
having sailed from England, they did not reach the first object
of their instructions until the beginning of June. The squadron
under Sir Peter Parker, after passing the bar, moved against a
newly raised Fort on the South West point of Sullivan's island,
which was deemed the key to Charlestown, while the Army, under
Sir Henry Clinton, advancing against it by land, and crossing a
supposed shallow creek on the North Eastern extremity, was to make
a combined attack.

Upon the noon of the 28th of June the ships took their stations,
and commenced a furious cannonade, which was returned with equal
spirit and much effect from the fort.

Erroneous intelligence, as to the depth of water, it appears,
prevented General Clinton from approaching, as well as the
very formidable state of the provincial redoubts at the end of
Sullivan's island.

After one of the hottest conflicts that almost ever occurred, in
which the cool valour of British Seamen was eminently conspicuous,
the squadron withdrew with the loss of a frigate, and upwards of
200 Seamen and Marines killed and wounded.

Captains Morris and Scott, of the Bristol and Experiment, were
both considered as mortally wounded, after extraordinary displays
of personal courage. Commodore Sir Peter Parker approved himself a
brave man upon this trying service.

During the summer of 1776, the Congress of America, unwilling to
attach to itself the responsibility of an arbitrary declaration
of independance, published a circular address to every Colony, in
order to ascertain their general sentiments, upon so eventful a

The 4th of July must long stand as a memorable day on our political
epochs, as having been marked by their formal renunciation of
allegiance to the British Crown.

General Howe continued at Halifax upwards of two months waiting
farther reinforcements, which was but ill suited to his
disposition, or his military opinions. Wearied out, he at last put
to sea, under the escort of Lord Shuldham's fleet, and arrived at
Sandy-hook at the close of June. After gaining information of the
strength of New York and Long Islands, he judged it most advisable
to occupy Staten Island, where he landed without opposition, and
was soon joined by a number of loyalists.

It was a considerable time before the different reinforcements
from England reached Halifax, which immediately proceeded to join
the main Army, and enabled General Howe to undertake duties more
extensive in their aim, and more congenial to his wishes.

Upon that range of continental services which followed, I am
precluded from remark, as the battalions of my corps were
restrained from much active participation in them, by their having
been allotted for the defence of Nova Scotia.

A Parliamentary Vote of 10,129 Marines passed in November, which
involved an augmentation of many companies to the Establishment for
the service of 1777.


[2] An error occurred under the details of 1775, which mentions,
that in consequence of the casualties of Bunker's Hill, and _the
return of Major Tupper to Europe_, the command of the Marines
devolved on Major Souter, instead _of suppressing entirely the
departure of Major Tupper_, which did not happen till some time
after their arrival at Halifax. The command at Boston was in Major
Tupper after Major Pitcairne's fall.


Lord Howe, who had arrived in America during the last year as
Commander in Chief of his Majesty's Naval Forces, was united with
his brother in a civil, as well as a military commission. Exerting
the conciliatory influence of the former, they proclaimed to the
deluded, these tenders of forgiveness which emanated from their
power. The term "guilty," however, was not understood by the
Americans, who, from the era of general independance, qualified
every individual action as proceeding under the sanction of a Free
Government. Of course these well meant offers produced but little

After many battles and skirmishes between the contending parties,
in which British valour was ever conspicuous, and the resources
of General Washington uniformly great, Long Island, New York, and
Rhode Island, were subjected to the Royal dominion, and the Jerseys
over run by our forces. They in turn, however, met with reverses,
which must always be expected in war. To follow all those movements
is not within my range.

General Howe having used every means of the most consummate Officer
to bring the enemy to a decisive battle, was as often eluded by

He accordingly aimed a blow at another quarter, and with this view
embarked a very powerful force, headed by himself. This eventually
proved against Philadelphia, which fell, after several conflicts of
the most brilliant kind, but particularly that of Brandy-wine.

Soon after, having gained that place, the rebels moved the Delaware
frigate of 32 guns, a number of gallies, gondolas, and other armed
vessels, to incommode the construction of the different batteries
that were carrying on for the protection of the town. That ship
anchored within 500 yards, but the tide falling she grounded,
when the British troops brought their field pieces against her,
which compelled her to strike. Captain, now General Averne, a
gallant Officer, and one of the worthiest of men, at the head of
his company, immediately took possession of her. The Grenadiers
of both the Marine Battalions had been incorporated with those of
the Army, previous to leaving Halifax, had hitherto been united in
their duties, and formed a part of that force, which, under Lord
Cornwallis, entered Philadelphia.

Lord Howe, upon learning these successes, judged it proper to move
his fleet and the transports, to concur in any future operations,
and to give the supplies of which the Army stood in need, by means
of the river Delaware. The progress of such a number of shipping
through so dangerous a navigation, was highly difficult, but it
was carried on under his Lordship's immediate auspices, and with
superior ability as well as skill. Owing to the numerous batteries
constructed by the rebels, the passage to Philadelphia could not
be attempted, which obliged the whole fleet to anchor from Reedy
Island to Newcastle, along the Pennsylvania shore. Independent
of the most formidable works, they had sunk within the reach of
their guns, machines of the strongest kind, similar to _chevaux de
frize_, as pointing in every direction, and those headed with iron.
No attempt, however, could be made to remove them, until their
batteries were gained on both shores of the river.

At the urgency of Captain, now Sir Andrew Snape Hammond, who had
reached the Delaware before Lord Howe, the Provincials were driven
from Billing's Fort, where they were raising works, and preparing
obstacles against the passage of the squadron. Captain Hammond was
peculiarly active in removing every hindrance, though opposed by
the enemy's Marine force.

As the supplies of the Army depended upon an intercourse with the
fleet, it became incumbent to carry Mud Fort Island, properly so
called, from its having been an accumulated mass of mud and sand, a
flat marshy spot, near to the junction of the river Schuylkill.

It was necessary also to attack Red Bank, on the opposite shore of
New Jersey, where the enemy had constructed a very strong redoubt,
filled with heavy artillery.

In co-operation with a powerful fire against Mud Fort, from some
guns planted on the Western, or Pennsylvania side, an attack upon
it and the rebel craft was resolved on. For this service, the
Augusta, of 64 guns, and Merlin sloop were allotted.

Owing to the navigation of the Channel being altered by the sunken
obstacles which every where presented in deep water, both ran
aground, as the bed of the river was also affected by them. This
did not restrain Captain Reynolds, now Lord Ducie, from maintaining
a heavy cannonade against the American works and vessels, or
from successfully combating the effects of some fire-ships that
approached for his destruction.

The Augusta, either from a red hot shot, or her own wadding, was,
after a warm contest, in flames, which suspended every hostile
effort, and turned the attention of most to their own preservation.

Amidst the awful conflagration, and an incessant discharge from the
rebels, Captain Reynolds retained his intrinsic coolness. After
each had consulted his own safety, and no hope remained of stifling
the flames, he continued alone, alternately took off his coat,
waistcoat, and stock, placed them on the gangway, and committed
himself to the deep. Heaven interposed at this perilous moment,
and preserved a life, which was subsequently marked by the most
gallant deeds, and is still prolonged to justify the goodness of
Providence, by the display of every virtue that can adorn human
nature. Captain, at present Major General Barclay, of Marines, was
a companion in this trying scene, and was much distinguished for
his steady conduct. The Merlin was also destroyed.

This fatal attempt by sea, was alike disastrous on the part of
the Army. A well-concerted and bold attack upon Red Bank, by a
large Corps of Hessians, terminated in repulse and a heavy loss.
Unfortunate as was the issue of both, still each department well
merited a sprig of the laurel.

From the importance of the object, the views of our Commanders were
renewed against these strong posts. The exertions of the Officers
and Seamen of the Fleet were great, and toilsome in transporting
cannon and stores to a small morassy spot, named Province Island,
which would effectually disturb the enemy. Having opened fire from
it, and a fair breeze springing up, a well-digested plan of naval
attack was carried into effect.

Proceeding by different channels, the ships were brought against
various points of Mud Fort, and other branches of defence, upon the
15th of November, when, after a long destructive cannonade, the
rebels deserted it in the night. Captain Cornwallis, in the Isis,
shewed much judgment and spirit upon this occasion.

A detachment from the Army having been also directed against Red
Bank, the Americans hastily withdrew, after partly destroying the
works, but leaving their artillery and stores. They also set fire
to many of their vessels on the river.

Thus was a way, in some degree, opened for supplies to the troops
in Philadelphia.

General Washington, who had followed the Royal Army, remained in
its vicinity, but constantly resisted every effort in bringing him
to a general action.

The unhappy issue of the expedition under Lieutenant General
Burgoyne, previous to this era, threw a general damp, and
accelerated the decision of France in entering the list against
us. By apparent and occasional concessions, that insidious Power
observed a temporizing system, until she had attained the means of
following up her hostile views. So suspicious were her designs,
however, that considerable armaments continued to be carried on in
our ports.

During this period of national despondency, the towns of Liverpool
and Manchester nobly stepped forth in aid of their Country. Each
tendered 1000 men, which was accepted, and their patriotic example
was diffused throughout the land.

Involved in a civil contest, the natural energies of Britain
were paralyzed by the floating hopes of reconciliation, and an
enfeebling compassion towards her American fellow-subjects.

An unhappy faction continued also to oppose our ill-guided
councils, at this awful crisis, from which the rebels derived a
fatal, but animating spirit. No true Englishman can throw an eye
upon the transactions of that momentous era, without the most
poignant reflections for his suffering country.

Long may the sad precedent, and its baneful results, be stamped on
every heart! May the imperious obligations of fidelity to our King,
and general union amidst public danger, be coeval with the age at
which every Briton is taught his duties to his God!


Eleven thousand Marines constituted the establishment of 1778.

Until the close of the last year France stood in awe, and continued
to cherish the flames of rebellion by assurances only of support.
Remarking the humbled spirit of our nation, at all times too prone
to over-rate its calamities, that Power became less cautious, and
in a little time avowed her inimical purposes. This was accelerated
by a meditated plan of reconciliation, which had undergone the
sanction of Parliament, and was about being submitted to the
American revolters.

To circumvent its effects, our natural enemy closed with these
States a treaty of commerce and defensive alliance upon the 6th
of February, which inspired them with a well-timed hope of rising
superior to all their pressures. Never did Mercy appear in such
odious colours, as when she went forth to the Colonists. Her good
offices were every where rejected with contempt and disdain, of
which the American Congress gave a conspicuous example. The British
Army too, could not recognize Her, and doubted much whether She was
of true English origin.

Winter had suspended every active essay on the part of both armies,
excepting in the case of some detachments that were from necessity
pushed into the country for supplying our numerous forces in
Philadelphia; to afford a protection to the suffering Loyalists,
and to annihilate the ships and vessels of the rebels, which still
remained higher up the Delaware river.

One of these was entrusted to the Hon. Major Maitland, who had long
served with distinguished credit in the Corps of Marines, whose
high military talents had recently paved the way for his transit
into the line, and which placed him, at this time, at the head of a
Battalion of Light Infantry.

In conjunction with Captain Henry, of the Royal Navy, who commanded
a force of three gallies and other armed small craft, the Major
embarked in some flat-bottomed boats, with the 2d Battalion of
Light troops, upon the 7th of May. Agreeably to his instructions,
he proceeded to destroy the rebel Marine between Philadelphia and

At ten on the noon of the 8th, he landed at White-hill, where a
superior force of the enemy, chiefly Cavalry, seemed determined to
oppose his progress. After having got ashore some field-pieces,
Major Maitland pushed on towards Bordentown with great alacrity,
driving before him the rebels, and surmounting, with much spirit,
many local obstacles. Here he took five guns that commanded the
river, and burnt a large quantity of provisions, tobacco, military
stores, and camp equipage.

The enemy began to collect in great numbers at Trenton, where
they looked for this flying detachment; but its leader, after
indulging them in this idea, suddenly struck off towards the river,
re-embarked, and took post on the Pennsylvania shore.

Early on the morning of the 9th, he advanced to Biles-island Creek,
burnt some valuable vessels, moved on to Bristol, thirteen miles
distant, in the afternoon destroyed every ship there, and returned,
with his active followers, on board the boats at sun-set. Never was
the distinguishing motto of "_hilariter et celeriter_," more truly
exemplified than throughout these rapid duties. The manner in which
this service was performed, was highly characteristic of the genius
of that man who so completely achieved it.

The rebel loss amounted to 2 frigates, 9 large ships, 6 privateers,
23 brigs, and many schooners; besides an immensity of goods and

The Navy very justly were entitled to their share in these
honourable transactions.

General Howe soon after resigned his command to Sir Henry Clinton,
whose first measure was the evacuation of Philadelphia, upon the
morning of the 18th of June. In this retreat they were materially
aided by the ships of war, as the whole Army, by the admirable
dispositions of Lord Howe, were conveyed and encamped on the
Jersey shore before ten at noon. Their retrograde progress to New
York, with its attending incidents, are events unconnected with my

The preparations of France had preceded her hostile avowals.

Count D'Estaing, putting to sea from Toulon in April, made the
Virginia coast early in the month of July. His hopes were to
have found the British Fleet and Army, in the Delaware, and at
Philadelphia, and by an united attack with General Washington
on both, to have struck a blow at once decisive of the fate of
America. Disappointed in these, he proceeded off New York, and
after a few menaces he again disappeared, at first shaping his
course to the Southward. But this was merely to cover his design
against Rhode Island, in concert with a rebel force under General
Sullivan. The French Admiral entered that harbour upon the 8th of
August, anchoring his fleet between Newport and Conanicut.

Advice having been sent to Lord Howe, at New York, of the enemy's
motions, his Lordship hastened to relieve the Garrison, and arrived
in sight of it on the morning of the 9th.

D'Estaing, seizing a favourable wind, pushed out again, and formed
in line, with the evident resolution of hazarding a battle. After
two days of able manœuvring on the part of Lord Howe to gain the
wind, which was thwarted by adverse circumstances, he quietly
awaited the enemy's attack. Just on the eve of conflict, Neptune
interposed, and scattered the hostile fleets.

This produced some single actions, in which English valour
uniformly triumphed against powerful superiority, but was rendered
unavailing in every instance, by the contingencies of fortune.
The gallantry of Dawson, Hotham, and Raynor will appear indelible
upon our Naval annals, as well as the bravery of those Seamen and
Marines who so nobly seconded them.

The French Fleet, after recovering from the storm, again peeped
into Rhode Island, from whence the rebels had retreated in
confusion. It gladly took refuge in Boston, whither Lord Howe
followed it, but durst not attempt so strong a position.

Thus D'Estaing gained but little from his system of surprize. He
was a fit agent to have executed the insidious schemes of his
Court, when we recollect his breach of parole in the East, which
would have made him the sanctioned victim to a halter, if he had
fallen within our power.

The appearance of a new and natural foe seemed to revive in every
breast the flame of patriotism. At no period of our national
existence did the English character appear more great. The
Commercial Sailor vied with his Majesty's servants in the Fleet and
Army in this noble and emulous zeal.

Admiral Byron having sailed from England in the beginning of June,
reached the American coast with his fleet, but in a detached
and shattered state. An evil planet seemed to rule over all his
destinies, and his good fortune fell much short of his merit.
Lord Howe having resigned the Naval command to that Officer, he
proceeded off Boston, after having repaired all damages, from which
he was driven to Rhode Island by a heavy gale that proved fatal to
some of his ships. Of this D'Estaing took occasion to slip out, and
with a powerful force aimed his future efforts against our West
India islands.

Thither Commodore Hotham was detached with ten regiments, under
General Grant, who joined Admiral Barrington at Barbadoes on the
10th of December, and on the 12th proceeded against St. Lucia. Here
the army landed, while the squadron anchored in the Cul de Sac,
where some Seamen and Marines were disembarked to man the batteries
on each side of the harbour.

D'Estaing, who had reached Martinique, sailed also to realize his
plans of conquest; but hearing of the descent upon St. Lucia, he
resolved upon relieving it. The attempt was fruitless, but it
yielded the display of much obstinate valour on both sides. The
French were completely beaten, and the island fell.

It would carry me beyond my purposed bounds to dwell upon the many
events of this year. The Marine Soldier was almost entirely limited
to Naval duties, which were, in a detached sense, both numerous and
brilliant upon the coasts of America.

In the indecisive battle of the 27th of July, between the grand
Fleets of Britain and France, Lieutenant John M'Donald, of Marines,
on board the Prince George, was wounded.


It is a tribute meritedly due to the Battalions of Marines who
acted so gallantly in the field, to take a retrospective view of
their general good conduct at Halifax, and the series of events
connected with them.

As it has already been stated, they accompanied General Howe from
Boston to that place. The active exertions of the subordinate ranks
on board of the transports, not half manned, and encumbered besides
with the persons and property of the faithful Loyalists while on
the passage, were such, that a pecuniary recompence was given to
many of them, on their reaching Nova Scotia.

Soon after their arrival, both Corps were reviewed by that
distinguished Officer, Lord Percy, whose testimony, in consequence,
was couched in the following terms:--

"Lord Percy being well pleased with the appearance and performance
of the Marine Battalions yesterday (April 30, 1776), desires his
thanks to the Officers (in particular) and the men, for their
steadiness and attention in their several movements."

Lieutenant Colonel (afterward General) Collins had assumed the
command of them soon after their reaching Halifax, and retained it
until his health obliged him to return to Europe, when it devolved
upon Major Souter, by orders from the Board of Admiralty. Both
Battalions were extremely solicitous to have united with the Army
under Sir William Howe, when on the eve of leaving Halifax for
more active services; but the defence of Nova Scotia being at that
period a very important object, it was partly entrusted to them,
and the Grenadier Companies alone were permitted the honour. On the
1st of June the notice of an additional indulgence to the Captains
of Marine Companies was published to both Corps.

"The Lords of the Admiralty are pleased to allow the Captains
of Marines the pay of an additional man per Company, which will
increase their present allowance to 1s. 6d. per day, for paying
their Companies, providing necessaries, repairing arms, and burying
their dead, in like manner as is practised in the Army, and still
on shore in North America. The Deputy Paymaster will issue the
same. The additional man per day to commence from the time the Army
in America was allowed the same."

In order to inspire emulation, and to foster in the memories of all
the glorious 17th of June, Colonel Collins issued the following
Battalion-orders upon that day:--

"In consequence of this day being the anniversary of the 17th of
June, when the _Marines_ behaved in a brave gallant manner at the
attack of the rebel redoubt on the heights of Charlestown, Colonel
Collins extends pardon to all offenders to this day."

If the enemy had attempted Halifax, the line of battle directed
by Major General Massey was, "That Lieutenant Colonel Collins,
with the 1st Battalion of Marines, should draw up his right at the
house this side of Pedley's Hill. The Royal Highland Emigrants,
Royal Americans, Loyal Nova Scotia Volunteers, and 2d Battalion
of Marines, under Major Tupper, on the left; the whole to form
on the road. Lieutenant Gillespie, with the field-pieces, in the
centre; Captain Ramsay, with his detachment of the 14th Regiment,
to form on the grand parade, and wait for orders from the Governor
or General. The faithful well-tried old Soldiers left here for
garrison-duty, under command of Lieutenant Needham, and the other
Overseers of the works to form on the Citadel Hill. Lieutenant
Lindsay, with his troops, to form at the Dutch Church, where
General Massey will have two mortars, with two howitzers fixed for
his Corps; and he makes not the least doubt of their readiness to
assist in crushing rebellion."

Lieutenant Colonel Collins having obtained leave to return to
England for his health, bid farewell to his Corps in these words,
upon the 16th of September:--

"The Commanding Officer begs leave to assure the two Battalions
of Marines, that it is necessity, not inclination, which forces
him from hence. His highest ambition would have been to have
conducted them to England, when this distempered state of America
was settled. He begs leave to return the Officers thanks for their
constant attention, and flatters himself the service will be
carried on in the same uniform line it has hitherto been, and if
the change of climate permits the re-establishment of his health,
he will join them as soon after as possible."

As a just compliment to the discipline established by Lieutenant
Colonel Collins, Major Souter, who succeeded him, gave out these
orders, to both battalions of Marines, on the 18th of September.

"Major Souter desiring that the orders Lieut. Colonel Collins
has issued for the regulation and management of both battalions
be uniformly and invariably pursued; particularly those of an
Officer of a Company seeing that the men are properly dressed and
appointed, when ordered on duty, _before_ they are brought to
the parade, and that no drunken men are allowed to fall into the
ranks at roll-calling. The Captains are likewise to keep up the
necessaries and appointments that have been ordered."

The gallant conduct of the Light Infantry Companies of Marines on
a preceding occasion, drew forth the encomium of Major General
Massey, upon the 19th of December, in these handsome words:

"His Honor the Lieutenant Governor having made application to Major
General Massey, that the two Light Infantry Companies of Marines
should continue at Fort Cumberland, the General has consented to
it, and takes this opportunity to inform their Brother Soldiers
that Major Bald, (who commanded there in a late skirmish with the
banditti rebels), in his report to Major General Massey, tells him
"that the two Light Companies run at the rebels like lions, and
behaved most bravely," which General Massey communicates to the
garrison with vast pleasure."

That gallant and good Officer, now Lord Clarina, ever ready to
attend to suppliant merit, and the Soldiers wants, in general
orders of the 24th of February, 1777, thus answers the Petition of
the 1st Battalion of Marines:--

"Major General Massey often receiving a petition from the 1st
Battalion of Marines (signed Launcelot Poverty), is happy to comply
with their request, as their _uniform_ good behaviour, during the
winter, well merits that indulgence. It is therefore his orders,
that Major Souter permits the men to work as he shall judge proper,
but that no substitutes must be allowed in their public duty."

In the month of March, the Commander in Chief expecting some actual
service, was pleased to nominate Lieutenant (now Colonel) Trollope,
with a party of Marines, to be trained under Lieutenant Gillespie,
of the Royal Artillery, to practice quick firing and traversing the
great guns.

Early in April the two Battalions were consolidated into one, by
orders of the Board of Admiralty, addressed to Major Souter, to the
following effect:--

"By the Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral
of Great Britain and Ireland, &c.

"Whereas the Earl of Sandwich has signified to us his Majesty's
pleasure, that the two Battalions of Marines, serving under your
command, shall be formed into one Battalion, each Company to
consist of one Captain, four Subalterns, five Serjeants, five
Corporals, four drummers, and 100 private men each, conformable
_to the present establishment_ of the Corps, together with the
following Field and Staff Officers, viz. two Majors, one Adjutant,
one Chaplain, one Quarter Master, one Surgeon, and one Surgeon's
Mate; you are hereby required and directed to form the said two
Battalions into one Battalion accordingly, with the Field and
Staff Officers as before mentioned, and having so done, you are
to cause the non-commissioned Officers and private men which may
remain after this Battalion is formed, to be embarked in such of
his Majesty's ships serving in North America under the command of
Vice Admiral Viscount Howe, as may be in want of them, agreeable to
the requisition which will be made to you by his Lordship for that
purpose; but with respect to the commissioned Officers, over and
above the number necessary for completing the said Battalion, you
are to send them to England by the first opportunity that offers,
in order to join their respective Divisions, unless Lord Howe
shall apply to you, for any of them to serve in the ships of his
squadron, in which case you are to supply them accordingly.

"Given under our hands, 1st January, 1777.


  "To Major Souter or Commanding Officer
  Marines, Halifax."

  "By command of their Lordships,


"In consequence of the above arrangement, such Officers as choose
to return to England are desired to give in their names to the
Commanding Officer."

Pursuant to this order from the Board, the following Officers,
non-commissioned Officers, and drummers, were appointed to compose
the new Battalion--

  FIELD OFFICERS--Majors Souter, Hon. John Maitland.


  Capt. Averne             Markhole          Daffey        Sweeton
  Lieut. Ragg              Sargent           Martin        Saul
  ---- Vevers              Pollock           Blake         Pichen
  ---- Stewart             West              Pike          Sidway
  ---- Cunningham          Saul--Wallace     Bryald


  Capt. Pitcairne          Davis             Ross          Edwards
  Lieut. Dyer              Hill              Turtle        Maclean
  ---- Short               Collier           Sutherland    Cook
  ---- Howe                Pritchard         Wilkinson     Leeson
  ---- Simms               Jarvis            Baker

  Capt. Elliot             Edwards           Davis         Wm. Cumine
  Lieut. Ewing             Gallaghar         Flinn         Grant
  ---- Moore               Pugh              Allen         Isgrove
  ---- J. Lewis            Bible             Gurney        Wood
  ---- Bowman              Pulford--Watkins  Smith

  Capt. D. Johnson         Pitches           Wheeler       J. Cumine
  Lieut. Kempe             Fitzimons         Jones         Foliard
  ---- M'Donald            Hillman           Cooper        Flanagan
  ---- Tantum              Newman            Almint        Lane
  ---- Trollope            Franklin--Perry   Coxan--Tooze

  Capt. Macdonald          Bowden            Crea          Breffeld
  Lieut. F. Lewis          Higgins           Williamson    Morris
  ---- Jacobs              Southway          Long          Birmingham
  ---- Shea                Bottey            Pithrick      Higgins
  ---- Gilbert             Hardy--Carey      Styles

  Capt. Griffiths          Hayward           Silby         Parker
  Lieut. Eustace           Woodhouse         Handford      Robinson
  ---- Carey               Poole             Norraway      Shuter
  ---- Meredith            Traffles          Brookes       Roper
  ---- Creswell            Campbell--Rowe    Hill          Miles


  Doctor Boyles         Chaplain.
  John Waller           Adjutant.
  Thomas Smith          Quarter Master.
  Charles Hill          Surgeon.
  James Silven          Surgeon's Mate.

An order, upon the 29th of April, to the Marine Battalion, extended
the allowances of six contingent men to Captains of Companies,
until the pleasure of the Admiralty Board was known.

In consequence of a review of the Battalion by the Commander in
Chief at Halifax, the following after-orders were given out on the
9th of June:--

"Major General Massey approves so very highly of the steadiness
as well as the appearance of the Corps of Marines which he had
the honour to review this day, that he returns Major Souter,
the Officers, and Soldiers, his most grateful thanks for their
performance in the field."

Lieutenant Trollope, of Marines, was appointed to the duty of
attending the Commander in Chief; and Lieut. Waller as Brigade
Major to the Provincial forces, during 1777.

In December of that year, Lieutenant John Oldfield, who had lately
received a Marine commission, after having served with much credit
as a Volunteer, was directed by General Massey to accompany Colonel
Goreham to Fort Cumberland, in these handsome terms:--

"Lieutenant Oldfield, of the Battalion of Marines, is to return
with Lieut. Colonel Goreham to join the Light Infantry of that
Corps, Lieut. Oldfield having acquired so thorough a knowledge of
that country, which the General hopes will recommend him to farther
notice and future promotion."

His Majesty's ship Milford having run on shore, was nearly lost in
the beginning of December. Such were the exertions of the Marines
upon the occasion, that Sir William Burnaby, her Commander, felt it
his incumbent duty to tender them his thanks in these words--"Sir
William Burnaby desires his thanks may be given to the Officers and
men of the Battalion, who so actively assisted in getting off his
Majesty's ship Milford." This was read to the Companies at evening

Lieutenant Trollope having been appointed Secretary to Major
General Massey, Lieut. Tantum, a respectable young Officer (who
was afterwards unfortunately drowned in the Ville de Paris), was
attached as an assistant Artillery Officer in his stead; a party
of Marines was trained to the great guns, and the command of the
Half-moon Battery, as well as of the Citadel, was allotted him
under the event of an alarm.

Although neither the circumstances of the action, or name of the
achiever, are alluded to in the following detail, still it carries
in it that zealous anxiety to promote discipline, by recompencing
merit, that I cannot omit its insertion.

"General Orders, Halifax, February 27, 1778.

"That good Marine Soldier who was yesterday with General Massey,
and who now forgets his name and Company, the General wishes to see
to-morrow morning at nine o'clock, as he wants to reward him for
his loyalty. General Massey will be much obliged to Major Souter
to order this to be read by an Officer, at roll-calling, to the
different Companies."

In April, Lieutenant Jacobs who was an ornament to his Corps,
(subsequently drowned at St. Lucia) was appointed to act as
Overseer to the King's Works, which were carrying on.

No occasion seemed to have been lost by General Massey in calling
forth talents wherever they were to be found, and applying them
to the public good. Such precedents, if generally adopted upon
service, would stimulate the Marine Officer to the early study of
every branch of military education. It is but rarely that we are
inclined to devote our attention to sciences which may never be
called into action, and what our professional views seem almost to
render unnecessary. This knowledge may adorn the man, but it is too
often restrained from being useful to our Country.

Upon the 25th of August the Marine Battalion was struck off
the roster of duty in the garrison of Halifax, previous to its
embarkation for Europe.

Major General Massey delivered, in Public Orders of the 30th, his
testimony of the general conduct of both Officers and men to this

"The Commander in Chief cannot part with the Marine Corps, without
telling them he was pleased with their soldier-like appearance at
the review of yesterday, and now has the pleasing satisfaction to
say, that he has had the honour to command that Corps for above
two years, _without ever hearing of a Court Martial in it, or ever
rebuking an Officer or Soldier_.

"He will therefore make such a report of that respectable body of
men as they merit, and now wishes Officers and Soldiers plenty of
prize-money, and makes not a doubt but they will always contribute
to the glory of his Majesty, King George's arms."

On the 1st day of September the whole embarked, but in consequence
of a petition from the Lieutenant Governor and Council of the
Province of Nova Scotia, intreating their continuance, in order to
yield their tribute of respect, the Commander in Chief was pleased
to intimate the following notice, in Public Orders of the 7th:--

"The Lieutenant Governor and Council, having made application to
Major General Massey, praying the Marine Corps may be detained
here, and Lord Viscount Howe having left the determination to him,
the Major General is happy to comply with the Lieutenant Governor's
request; they, therefore, are to continue in the harbour till
further orders, and Major Souter will please to land the men on
board the transports, at either Dartmouth or the Eastern Battery,
in order to give them an airing, at such times as he may choose to

Notwithstanding that the result of this liberal indulgence produced
a constant intercourse between the town and transports during their
stay, still the same harmony reigned during their social hours;
and to the eternal honour of the meanest Marine Soldier, neither
the merchant, the fatherless, the widow, or the orphan, could
cast an eye after him for an unliquidated shilling. Such conduct
necessarily drew the grateful sentiments of the Constituted Powers,
which were expressed to Major Souter by a letter from Mr. Bulkeley,
of which the following is a copy:--

  "HALIFAX, Sept. 10, 1778.


"I have singular pleasure in obeying the request of the Members of
his Majesty's Council, by conveying to you, and the rest of the
Officers, our acknowledgments and thanks for the good order and
discipline observed by the Battalion of Marines under your command,
during the whole time they have been on duty in this town. I have
the honour to be, Sir,

  "Your most obedient humble servant,


  Major Souter.

Those steady Soldiers soon after sailed for England, and they
continued to preserve the same conduct through all their subsequent

I have thus placed this train of honourable retrospect under one
connected view. To have interspersed the incidents amongst the
successive and fleeting periods in which they occurred, and what
have been already discussed, would have been uninteresting and
less impressive. I have peculiarly addressed myself to my Corps
throughout this domestic narrative; and while I have exhibited a
bright pattern of valour, combined with steady discipline, in the
Marine Battalions that were employed upon the soil of America, I am
sanguine to hope, that after having viewed the picture, _not one_
amongst our numerous ranks will ever deface its beauties.


The public emergencies called for a very considerable addition to
the Corps of Marines in 1779. Seventeen thousand three hundred and
eighty-nine were voted, being an effective augmentation of 5560.

Early in the year accounts were received of the capture of
Pondicherry, by the united efforts of the Navy under Sir Edward
Vernon, and a large force of European and Company's troops under
Sir Hector Monro. After more than two months of very fatiguing
duties, owing to the heavy rains, the siege was brought to that
issue, which invited a general assault.

The works having been much battered in every quarter of approach,
three different attacks were meditated; against L'Hospital Bastion
to the southward, the East face of the North West Bastion, and from
the sea to the northward.

These arrangements having been made, nearly 200 Seamen, and all the
Marines of the squadron were landed on the 15th of October 1778, in
order to have joined in the storm, which was to have taken place
on the 17th. But Monsieur Bellecomb, who had hitherto defended
himself with much obstinacy, dreading this event, proposed terms
of surrender, which were accepted. Many were of opinion, that had
he withstood the onset, its result would have been fatal to the
British Army, from the extensive mines that he might have sprung.

Admiral Byron, who arrived in the West Indies in the beginning of
1779, rendered our Naval force in that country superior to the
enemy. He was foiled in every attempt to bring D'Estaing to an
action, who kept close in Martinique.

The English Admiral having gone to leeward, with a view to
collect the homeward-bound at St. Kitt's, and to escort them, a
small detachment of French troops took St. Vincent, after a very
inadequate resistance; and the conquest of Grenada soon after
followed, but under circumstances highly honourable to Lord
Macartney and our arms. At this, D'Estaing, who united in himself
the character of the Soldier and the Seaman, was present, and led
a French column in storming the British lines upon Hospital Hill.
These were carried, after a gallant defence, which led to the
immediate surrender of the Island.

Scarcely was this accomplished, when he was called to act upon
another element by the approach of Admiral Byron, who, deceived by
intelligence as to the French force, hastened down under a press
of sail and in a scattered order. A general ardour pervaded all
to close with the enemy, whose numbers could only be gradually
perceived as they stretched out from the land. They were at last
discovered to be far superior to the chacing fleet, when the
advanced ships of it, led by Admiral Barrington, nobly seconded
by Captain, now Lord Gardiner, in the Sultan, and Sawyer in the
Boyne, had begun the battle. To these names may be added Captains
Collingwood, Edwards, and Cornwallis, as having been highly
distinguished on the 6th of July. Lieut. Jonah Veale, of Marines,
was killed in this action, and Lieut. Richards wounded.

D'Estaing evinced a total want of Naval enterprize through the day.
He returned to Grenada during the following night, while Admiral
Byron proceeded to St. Kitt's to repair his damages.

The approach of the hurricane season determined the French Admiral
to take refuge, with his fleet, at Hispaniola, where he received
an urgent call to unite with the Armies of America in recovering
the Province of Georgia. Elated with his success at Grenada, he
anticipated to himself the glory, not only of driving the British
from this Colony, but of exterminating them from every post which
they occupied along the sea-coasts of that Continent. There was
not, to appearance, a force sufficient to stem his ambitious views;
but they were opposed and frustrated by a spirit which often
compensates the want of numbers.

D'Estaing's arrival on the coast of Georgia, early in September,
was marked with a partial success by capturing the Experiment,
of 50 guns, after a gallant defence on the part of Sir James
Wallace. Unaccustomed to such an event as the capture of an English
two-decker, it was considered as a favourable omen, and swelled his
presumptuous hopes.

The appearance of such an armament struck wonder into General
Prevost and the Garrison of Savannah, which were intended as the
first victims to its power.

General Lincoln, with the Rebel Army from South Carolina, hearing
of their new allies, moved towards Georgia, to combine in the

General Prevost issued orders to concentrate his detachments,
and began to add to his works. Captain Henry, of the Royal Navy,
commanded that force in the river Savannah with much zeal.

It became expedient, upon the nearer advance of the French Fleet,
to move the ships of war close to the town, to land the guns and
Seamen, and to incorporate their Marines with the Grenadiers of the
60th Regiment.

After D'Estaing had debarked his army of 5000 men, he instantly
marched against Savannah, without waiting for Lincoln, and desired
the Garrison to surrender, on the 16th of September. General
Prevost solicited delay in answering his summons; in order to give
time for his outposts to join him.

During the critical interval of 24 hours, which were allowed, that
brave and active Officer, Lieut. Colonel Maitland, whom I have
formerly mentioned, reached Savannah with a force of 800 men, after
having encountered obstacles and difficulties of the most trying
kind. Already, during the campaign of 1779, had he shewn himself
most consummate in all the requisites of a Soldier, by the stand he
made at John's Island with a handful of men, against ten times his
numbers, under General Lincoln. That deed alone was enough to fix
his military fame, which acquired additional glory by his _wading
march_ from Beaufort, to the relief of Prevost. In this, few men
could have equalled, and none surpassed his undaunted fortitude and
steady perseverance. It was the means of saving Georgia and its

Such were his personal fatigues and anxieties to reach the scene
of his future duties, that both struck at the vitals of his
existence, which afterwards closed a life long valuable to mankind
by habitual exercises of the most amiable benevolence, and happy
to himself by the approving consciousness of its having never been
stained by dishonour. The activity of his spirit, however, buoyed
him up under every bodily suffering, while Savannah was besieged by
the enemy.

My limits will not allow me the extent of detail, which was very
creditable to the courage and exertions of all.

Count D'Estaing, little looking for such protracted operations,
and growing impatient under them, determined to storm early on the
morning of the 9th of October.

Two feigned attacks by the American Militia, were planned against
the Garrison, to attract its attention to the centre and left,
and it was also resolved that, whilst D'Estaing and Lincoln moved
against Spring-hill redoubt in front, Count Dillon, with another
column, should advance along the edge of a swamp which communicates
with the river above the town, silently pass the redoubts and
batteries, and thus gain the rear of the British lines. This column
losing its way, was embarrassed in the morasses, and after the dawn
was exposed to a heavy fire, that threw it into a disorder from
which it could not recover.

D'Estaing, under the cover of darkness, got near the redoubt just
as the day began to break; but he was received with incessant
volleys and heavy discharges, which committed a dreadful carnage.
This part of defence was entrusted to Captain Tawse and his
little Corps of Provincial Dragoons, who maintained it with
enthusiastic bravery. Alternately had the French and American
standard been planted on the parapet, when that gallant Chief,
defending in person the gate of his redoubt, and his sword still
unentangled from the body of an impetuous Frenchman, received his
own death-wound. Here there still continued a doubtful contest for
possession, when Lieut. Colonel Maitland, commanding the force
upon the right of our lines, pushed on the 60th Regiment and the
Marines, who, with charged bayonets, soon decided the struggle. The
assailants were driven from the ditch, and retreated quickly, with
the loss of 901 killed and wounded.

It was with difficulty the British could be restrained from
following their superior forces, whose future operations were
limited to the re-embarkation of their troops and stores, and the
retreat of the Rebel Army into South Carolina.

The Count D'Estaing, with a part of his fleet, returned to France,
after having achieved nothing worthy of notice, and his other ships
proceeded for the West Indies.

Throughout this service the Navy were justly entitled to a great
share of merit. Never were the exertions of the Sailors at the
great guns more animated or useful.

Captain, afterwards Colonel Moncrieffe, of the Engineers, exhibited
symptoms of the highest talents in his profession; and a share of
honour truly falls to the lot of Captain Charlton, of the Corps of
Royal Artillery, which has been eminently and uniformly great upon
every service allotted them.

Lieut. Colonel Glazier, who led the Grenadiers and Marines in
the charge which decided the fate of every thing, attracted much

Soon after the raising of the siege, Lieut. Colonel Maitland fell
a sacrifice to his fatigues, which, producing a bilious fever,
deprived his Country of a faithful servant, and the Soldier of a
true friend.

Sir George Collier was most usefully active during the period of
his command in North America. He undertook nothing in which he did
not succeed, and in every instance of service exhibited a prompt
and decisive mind. The enemy's Commerce and Naval Power suffered
much by his spirited measures, in which I cannot follow him.

In the month of June, Spain, after having received her treasures in
safety, entered the lists against Great Britain, whose situation
now seemed desperate to all the surrounding Powers. But the hour
of danger is the only occasion in which the native spirit of
Englishmen can best be known or appreciated. It called forth that
union which should ever constitute the pride, as it can alone
secure the independence of a nation.

Notwithstanding the immense superiority gained by this accession,
still the vigour of our combined enemies was by no means in an
adequate proportion. Their fleets soon after appeared on our
coasts, in numbers we were unable to oppose; but their exertions
against them were at first repressed by discord, and finally
averted by disease.

The only service upon which the Corps of Marines was employed
during the remainder of the present year, was in the capture of
Omoa, effected by parties from the Charon, Lowestoff, and Pomona
frigates, in conjunction with the Seamen of these ships, who were
trained to small arms, and a number of baymen and logwood cutters
that were embodied at Truxillo. Commodore Luttrell conducted the
naval part of the expedition, and Captain Dalrymple the land force.
Disembarking at Porto Cavallo, they sustained great fatigue in a
night's march toward the fort, with a view to surprize it, on the
16th of October. Such were their obstacles from morasses filled by
the rains, and intervening precipices, that they found themselves
nearly six miles distant in the morning, and that they were
discovered by the enemy. After giving the men a little respite,
Captain Dalrymple pushed on, drove the Spaniards from an ambuscade,
secured and established posts on the heights round the town and
fort, and having been incommoded by musquetry from the place, he
set it in flames, at which time Commodore Luttrell entered the
harbour and completed the blockade by sea.

After cannon being landed, and the batteries opened during some
days, they had produced but little effect upon the enemy's works;
on which it was resolved to storm them with 150 Seamen and Marines,
united with some loyal Irish, who were to be aided in their
approach by a fire from the ships and the heights. Under this cover
the assailants advanced at four in the morning, against walls 28
feet in height. To these they applied their scaling ladders, when
the storming party, headed by two British Seamen, gained the top,
and being instantly seconded, the Spaniards, paralysed at the
daring act, begged for quarter.

It is to be regretted that the name and local origin of _one_
intrepid Sailor, upon this occasion, should have been lost.
Ascending with two cutlasses, he soon found an enemy almost asleep,
whom he disdained to sacrifice: rousing him from his slumbers, he
put one into the Spaniard's hand, telling him they were now equal.
Whether from a dislike to the combat, or in gratitude for such
generous conduct, the tender, however, was not accepted.

The Commanders declined some offers of ransom made by the enemy
which would have been highly advantageous to themselves; but they
militated against their Country's interest. This conquest was
obtained with a very trifling loss.

Some valuable captures were brought into our ports during the year,
and our Commerce was well protected.

Sir James Wallace, by an exploit in Cancalle Bay, recalled to
the public mind the deeds of former times, by the capture or
destruction of three frigates under the French batteries.

Lieutenant A. J. Field, of the Marines, still lives an instance of
Providence, by an escape from the melancholy fate of too many of
his shipmates in the Quebec frigate, which blew up in action with
La Surveillante.

In this, British valour would have ultimately triumphed; but it was
obliged to yield to destiny. The most amiable manners, in union
with a cool courage, were the predominant features of Captain
Farmer's character.

Captain Pearson, of the Serapis, ennobled himself by a brave
defence against a much greater force, which assumes an historical
importance, from its happy consequences in saving a large and
valuable convoy entrusted to his care.

An action was fought between his Majesty's ship Pearl and the
Spanish frigate St. Ammonica, which very much signalized Captain,
now Admiral George Montague, and in which Lieutenant Fowke, of
Marines, was also distinguished.

Nothing of attached moment farther, appears within the review of


In every war it has been evident that state necessity has required
an annual increase to the establishment of Marines. Eighteen
thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine were the number decreed for
the service of 1780.

It was at this period, and has since been too prevalent a custom,
to embark recruits not only unscienced in discipline, but utterly
untrained to arms. Such deficiencies could only be compensated by
native valour, aided by the care of Officers in rendering them
good marksmen, and by that punctual system which prevails in
our ships of war. A few _regular-built Soldiers_ should always
be intermingled with every detachment; a rule that can only be
observed by maintaining a sufficient strength during peace, or by a
prompt levy on the commencement of hostilities.

The year of 1780 was ushered in by some well-timed successes of
Admiral Rodney. While nature has so clearly pointed out our means
of defence, she has also taught our islanders to greet, with
tenfold joy, every victory that is gained upon their favourite

After eighteen months of war against an inveterate foe, nothing
had been achieved worthy of being considered as a balance in the
scale; of course the taking of Langara in the Phœnix, with three
other ships of the line, the explosion of the St. Domingo, and the
destruction of the St. Julian and St. Eugenio, of 70 guns, added
to the recent capture of one 64, escorting a valuable convoy, so
crouded together, filled the Country with general exultation.

Admiral Rodney exhibited much enterprize, although he possessed
superior numbers, by pursuing and vanquishing an enemy upon his own
coasts, during a most dreadful gale, and on a lee shore, which had
nearly proved fatal to many of his fleet, who, from their ardour,
became entangled amongst the dangerous shoals of St. Lucar.

Sir George Rodney was most ably seconded by the vigour and counsel
of his Captain, Young, whose talents as an Officer stood meritedly

Although the Spaniards fought bravely, still they plainly shewed
that they were no adepts in the most essential branches of
discipline; as the blowing up of the St. Domingo, and a partial
explosion in the Princessa, proceeded entirely from a want of
internal system.

Lieut. Strachan, of Marines, brother to the present Sir Richard,
was killed upon the forecastle of the Edgar in this action.

The immediate and happy effects of it were the relief of Gibraltar
and Minorca, besides convincing the coasts of the Mediterranean
that Britain was still able to assert her former dominion on the
seas. The Admiral prosecuted his course for the West Indies, while
the bulk of the Fleet returned to England under a continuance of
the same good fortune.

Our enemies lost nine sail of the line upon the whole of this
expedition, which was suggested by necessity, but terminated with
the most signal consequences.

Accounts were received early in this year of the death of the
celebrated Captain Cooke, at the Island of O'why'he; in defending
whose valuable life, threatened by a horde of savages, four out of
nine of my Corps shared his destiny.

Long had our avaricious neighbours, the Dutch, continued to foment
the spirit of rebellion in the Western World, by various supplies,
without which its virulence, nay its existence must have ceased.
With one uniform character for punctuality in dealing, to an extent
and nicety rarely known but in our own land, these moral virtues,
which can alone give joy to the wealthy, are absorbed in the
Hollander by an unceasing pursuit of the same object. The bonds of
nature, and all the ties of honour which unite nation to nation,
are sacrificed by him to the call of self-interest. This fiendly
passion, and the repeated injuries sustained by England, brought
on a rupture between the two countries, friends by alliance, but
enemies in their principles of action.

The detention of Count Byland added fuel to the flame, by
furnishing means to the emissaries of France, in Holland, who were
active in working upon the popular mind. From the beginning of
1780, the cause of these hostilities, which commenced towards the
close of the year, may be dated.

The conduct of the neutral Powers, at this crisis of accumulating
difficulties, was equally ungrateful. At the head of them was
Russia, whom we had nurtured in Naval tactics and the arts of
civilization, by a long train of friendly good offices. But her
early energies were levelled against the life of her Patroness,
and in defiance, too, of that maritime code of laws, which had
been long recognized by Europe as the fixed standard of commercial

If ever there was a period of our existence that urged general
union it was this. Our Country seemed doomed to destruction,
and, like vultures hurried on by instinct to the spot of animal
dissolution, every nation crouded against our island to lay claim
for its share of our tottering Empire. To prevent the repetition
of such a period in our history, a fostering care of our Navy, and
every branch attached to it, appears the wisest system, and the
most incumbent duty.

Sir Henry Clinton having been freed from every fear by the glorious
repulse of D'Estaing from Savannah, had it in his power to carry
the British arms to any part of the American coast. His first
essay was aimed against the province of South Carolina, and his
operations commenced on the 1st of April against Charleston, its
Capital, after having landed upon John's Island, and from thence
advancing by slow steps; which afforded time to the Rebels of
fortifying every point of defence.

Admiral Arbuthnot, with the squadron, soon after passed Fort
Moultrie with trifling loss, and anchored just without the range of
shot from the town, which completed its investment towards the sea,
though a communication was unavoidably open between the Garrison
and the Country, by means of Cooper's River to the North-east.
This was soon cut off by a large detachment under Colonel Webster,
which General Clinton was enabled to spare, from his access to the
sea being kept up by the ships of war. A very brilliant affair
took place between the advanced guard of that force and a body
of Americans, at Monk's Corner, which reflected much honour upon
Colonel Tarleton and Major Fergusson, the former of whom, soon
after, very justly secured permanent fame, by beating a Rebel Corps
of Cavalry upon the banks of the Santee.

Early in May, the besiegers having completed their third parallel,
Captain Hudson, of the Navy, was landed with 200 Seamen and Marines
on Sullivan's Island, in order to have stormed the important post
of Fort Moultrie, at the same time the ships were to attack by sea.
The garrison surrendered to that party on the 6th of May. This had
a strong effect upon our subsequent operations, as the town fell by
capitulation on the 12th.

Very high commendations were bestowed upon Generals Earl
Cornwallis, Leslie, and Paterson; Lieut. Colonels Webster and
Tarleton, and Major Moncrieffe, also had their share of applause in
Sir Henry Clinton's detail. The services of Captain Elphinstone,
now Lord Keith, were also very signal. Much good was anticipated
from this happy event, which was not, however, eventually realized.

The gallant exertions of Lord Cornwallis in the subsequent progress
of the campaign, upon a minute retrospect, must rank him as a great
and a zealous Officer. Colonel Tarleton also stands high upon its
annals, which will be recognized in terms of eulogium by posterity.

Admiral Rodney, who had proceeded to the West Indies from
Gibraltar, found himself opposed to a superior force of the
enemy. Confiding in the long-tried valour of a British Fleet, he
was determined, however, to dispute the palm with them. Monsieur
Guichen, previous to his arrival, had paraded before St. Lucia,
seemingly with a view of attempting something; but Rear-Admiral
Hyde Parker and General Vaughan had evidently made such judicious
dispositions, as deterred him from even a partial trial of force.
Sir George Rodney soon returned the visit, and offered battle,
which was not accepted. Leaving some coppered frigates to watch
their motions, he returned to Gros Islet Bay.

In the night of the 15th of April, De Guichen put to sea, and was
quickly followed, when a general chace ensued. At the close of day
on the 16th, the English formed into line, and a series of able
manœuvring on both sides took place next morning. At eleven the
conflict began, which ended after four, when the enemy bore away.
The English Fleet, obliged to repair its damages, could not pursue.

Most tremendous was the fire of the Sandwich, Admiral Rodney's
ship, upon that day, and so visible were its effects, that it is
impossible to calculate what can be achieved by Britons, when their
valour is let loose, against any force, however great. Captain
Carey, of Marines, was wounded in the Grafton, and Lieut. Herriot,
who now so ably conducts a well-known paper entitled _The Sun_, in
the Elizabeth.

Regaining sight of the French Fleet, they run for shelter under the
guns of Guadaloupe upon the 20th. The talents of Captain Young, of
the Sandwich, were peculiarly displayed upon this occasion, and
were most auxiliary to the Commander in Chief. Thus was the Empire
of these Seas recovered by an inferior Fleet, which was productive,
however, only of a flimsy triumph, as there were no English troops
to follow it up by an attack upon their islands. English commerce,
however, was protected, while that of the French suffered much. Two
other actions of lesser note were fought on the 15th and 19th of
May, but equally indecisive.

The spirited countenance of Captain, now Admiral Cornwallis, off
Monte Christi, in the Lion, of 64 guns, having under him the
Bristol of 50, and Janus of 44, which were opposed by Monsieur La
Motte Picquet, reputed one of the best Officers in the French Navy,
with four 74 gun-ships and two frigates, must ever be noticed as
one of the most brilliant incidents of the American war.

It has been the lot of that brave man, to have saved to his
Country, in two instances, a respectable portion of her Naval
forces, when apparently doomed to fall and overwhelmed by numbers.
With his little squadron he resisted, successfully, this united
attack, through the night of the 20th of March, and on the
following day maintained the unequal combat nearly three hours. On
the 22d the English Ruby, of 64 guns, and two frigates appeared,
with which he, in turn, became the pursuer of La Motte Picquet,
who, by his own account, and in the true spirit of a Frenchman,
asserted his claim _to two hearts_, as being emblematical of his

Some single actions were fought during 1780, that would have done
honour to any period of our maritime greatness.

Amongst these may be noticed the capture of La Capricieuse, of
44 guns, by La Prudente frigate. Captain Waldegrave, now Lord
Radsdale. Speaking of the conduct of his Marines on this occasion,
he says, "In justice to Lieutenant Banks of the Marines, I must
beg leave to observe to their Lordships, that his party behaved
with the utmost steadiness and bravery, keeping up a regular and
constant fire from the beginning of the action, till necessity
called them to the great guns, when they shewed an equal share of
spirit and good order."

Another terminated in the taking of La Nymphe by the Flora, Captain
Peere Williams, which was manned principally by landsmen, and a
raw party of Marines. Soon after the conflict began, the Flora's
wheel was shot away, when both ships fell on board each other. This
afforded some instances of individual gallantry, by repelling the
enemy's boarders, and by the British returning the compliment, and
eventually striking the flag of La Nymphe. Although complete adepts
in the small sword, still it proved unavailing against the cutlass
and the axe.

Lieutenant, now Captain Busigny of Marines, very much distinguished
himself, and his sword bore marks of his valour.

Although not properly within my scope, still the bravery of Captain
Moore in the Fame privateer of Dublin, cannot pass unnoticed. It
reflected honour upon his Country. In his little ship of 24 guns
and 108 men, he attacked five sail of the enemy formed into line,
carrying 54 guns and 167 sailors. Four out of that number were
taken, and recompensed his courage by their wealth.

The alertness of a British Seaman, whose name cannot be retraced,
was the means of developing sufficient matter for reprisals against
the Dutch, upon the 20th of December. Never did there appear
such a scene of low intrigue, and selfish cunning as in these
papers which were saved from the ocean. They betrayed a treaty
of commerce, which had existed, in secret, ever since 1778, with
the rebel states, which would have been soon cemented by one of
alliance, under the same dark cover, if this disaster had not
discovered all, and brought down the vengeance of Britain for such


Twenty thousand three hundred and seventeen Marines were voted for
the service of 1781.

The widely extended commerce of Holland now lay open to general
enterprize, which was soon successfully exerted. As avarice was
the predominant cause of hostilities, so it was the object of

Gibraltar attracted the early attention of our Ministry, by an
effort to relieve it, which was accomplished by Admiral Darby, with
the Grand Fleet, under circumstances of apparent difficulty, but
of eventual good fortune. If the Combined Forces had been united,
which was their annual policy and within their power, such an
attempt must have been abortive, or performed at an unwarrantable

That fortress persevered in a system of defence, peculiarly
destructive to the enemy, and of a kind the most honorable to
General Elliot and his garrison. Captain Hervey in the Panther,
with his small squadron, also gave proofs of wonderful courage, in
frustrating the aim of some fire vessels that were employed to burn

France always intent upon her own interests, embraced this occasion
of reinforcing her West India fleets by a powerful detachment under
the Compte De Grasse. This became necessary, from the return of De
Guichen to Europe, who, after having joined Don Solano's fleet,
went down to Hispaniola, with an evident purpose of attacking
Jamaica, but from whom he separated without a stroke. Although
the battles of Admiral Rodney afforded no signal marks of victory
in captures, still _their effects_ had a strong influence in the
conduct of De Guichen for proceeding homewards with those shattered
ships, from amongst his fleet, that could be refitted only in

Holland soon felt the consequences of its baseness, by the loss of
all its West India possessions, and some valuable convoys. The free
port of St. Eustatius, hitherto the depot of America, and of every
adventurer who had money, fell early in February without firing a
gun. Demerara, Issequibo, and the Dutch Settlements on the Spanish
main were successively taken, together with the Mars of 60 guns,
Admiral Krowl, with 28 sail of merchantmen under his protection,
who was killed by a musquet ball, in a short action with the
Monarch, Captain Reynolds.

Sir Samuel, now Lord Hood, having been soon after sent to windward
to cruize for De Grasse, was limited to a station, which gave
little hope of ultimate success.

Three sail of the line were unfortunately retained at St.
Eustatius, which would have been a valuable addition to his force,
thus inferior to the expected arrivals from France.

The British Admiral continued off Fort Royal, Martinique, until the
28th of April, when a signal was made for the enemy's approach.
Every effort was used to close with the land, and of course with
them, who, in line of battle, on the morning of the 29th, afforded
protection to a numerous convoy that soon reached a safe anchorage.
De Grasse was immediately strengthened by 4 ships of the line, from
the Bay, which authorized him to have followed up the most decisive
views. Sir Samuel Hood formed his fleet into close order, and was
joined by the Prince William of 64 guns, Captain Stair Douglas,
who then watered at St. Lucia, but had weighed with an unexampled
dispatch to share in the conflict, and who continued to cheer along
the British Line, until he fell into his station.

De Grasse opened his fire, but at a distance little calculated to
balance the scale of victory. He had the option of it though he
never availed himself of his fortune. Three hours cannonade was
kept up, during which it appeared that the French powder was much
stronger than ours, when the British Admiral seeing the unavailing
expenditure ceased to waste it.

This period could not boast of that liberal attention to the
seaman's wants, which has characterized our Country, during the
late war, towards her naval servants. Scurvy, at that time, was the
prevalent disease in our fleet, and this had reached an alarming
height in many of the ships attached to Sir Samuel Hood.

The world too generally ground their opinions upon external
circumstances, without examining minutely into inferior details,
which, when known, will be considered, by the judicious, as
often constituting the solid merits of human action. To a great
superiority of fresh ships and healthy crews, as yet unbraced by
the climate, Admiral Hood was opposed with 7 sail less in number,
reduced in effective strength by scurvy, and against an enemy,
whose naval confidence had never arrived at a greater summit. That
steady countenance which he evinced in their presence, was yet
surpassed by a noble effort, on the following day, which shewed
the invincible spirit of his mind, and these resources so usually
annexed to magnanimity and talents.

Observing the scattered order of the French, and catching a change
of wind in his favor, not common in that Country, he directed
a general chace, and levelled all his force against their most
vulnerable point.

But the elements were fickle, and disappointed his manly views,
after which he bore up for Antigua to refit, and land his wounded.
The interval was seized by De Bouillé and De Grasse to carry St.
Lucia, who were happily resisted by the united energies of Captain
Campbell of the 87th Regiment, and Lieutenant, afterwards the
unfortunate but amiable Captain Miller of the Theseus. Improving
the same occasion, another, but more prosperous expedition, was
undertaken against Tobago, which was finally seconded by the whole
French fleet and army.

Sir George Rodney, having assumed the command, reached Barbadoes
on the 23d of May, where he learned the attack upon that island.
Lieutenant Johnstone of Marines was sent in an Advice Boat in order
to gain intelligence, and other information of a secret nature.
His ability and zeal fully qualified him for the task, but nothing
could avert its surrender, after two fruitless attempts to relieve
it. This may be said to have ended the campaign of 1781, in the
West Indies.

In this summer the total reduction of West Florida was effected
by the Spaniards, who persevered in recovering the possessions,
formerly wrested from them. The combined fleets, after covering a
debarkation at Minorca, towards the close of August, proceeded in
triumph to the mouth of the British Channel, while Admiral Darby
retired to Torbay. Discord and sickness were again the agents of
heaven to counteract their menaces, and a kind Providence wafted
home our commerce in safety, soon after those powerful enemies had
each returned to his own ports.

The 5th of August exhibited a display of obstinate bravery not
unworthy of former times, when the Empire of the Seas was so
strenuously disputed by Great Britain and Holland. Two squadrons
headed by Officers, who were animated by the same stern spirit, met
on the Dogger Bank, each with a convoy under his protection. Having
secured their safety, Admiral Parker bore down against his rival,
Zoutman, who coolly awaited his approach until he reached the good
old measure for deciding their Country's differences and prowess.
After a close conflict of three hours and a half, the Dutch
resigned the palm by bearing up for the Texel. Captain Campbell
of Marines, in the Berwick, and Lieut. Stewart of the same ship,
besides Lieut. Cuthbert of the Dolphin, were the Officers that
fall under my review of casualties in wounded on that occasion.
The sinking of one of their 74's after the action, the safe return
of a valuable and important fleet into our ports, while that of the
enemy flew for shelter into their own, were the consequent fruits,
and must be undisputed evidences of victory.

During this unfortunate war, the similarity of language and of
manners, had introduced into the bosom of our Country many an
American Incendiary, who, without suspicion, were either the
immediate Emissaries or maintained a correspondence with those
of France. Inviolable secrecy must ever be the life of foreign
expeditions, but it unhappily did not exist at this era, and more
particularly in that which was set on foot against the Dutch
Settlement at the Cape of Good Hope.

This was undertaken under the joint auspices of Commodore Johnstone
and General Meadowes, who departed from England on the 13th of
March, and reached Port Praya Bay, in St. Jago, one of the Cape de
Verd islands, on the 10th of April.

During war there ought never be too confident a security. Vigilance
and alertness are the essence of discipline, and they never should
be relinquished even within the bosom of a friendly country. A
surprize can find no palliation.

Anchored in a scattered form, which a little time could not
entirely remedy, our squadron was unexpectedly assailed by Admiral
Suffrein, one of the few of his countrymen who met Englishmen
on their favourite plan of close fighting, and whom the early
intelligence of his court had detached with a force sufficient
to counteract the schemes of our Cabinet. After a most spirited
attack which strongly attested his enterprize and courage, he was
repulsed by British valour, and his ships so much shattered as to
hold out to the Commodore the prospect of an ultimate triumph.

The enemy were afterwards chaced, but more imperious and future
views put an end to the pursuit. That good and gallant Officer
Capt. now Sir Thomas Pasley, of the Jupiter, Capt. Alms, of the
Monmouth, and Captain Hawker, of the Hero, were particularly
noticed by their Chief, for their conduct through the day. Great
and animated were the exertions of some of the East Indiamen,
and the steady countenance of Capt. Jenkinson and his detachment
of the 98th Regiment, in repelling the enemy's boarders from
the Fortitude, attracted much deserved praise. Suffrein having
anticipated Commodore Johnstone, in reaching the Cape, threw into
the garrison every necessary supply, which precluded all hopes
of succeeding against it, and changed the future plan of the
expedition. Having received notice of five Dutch East Indiamen
being in Saldahna Bay, forty miles north from the Cape, the
squadron shaped its course thither, and made prizes of four,
the other having been set on fire. This was a deep cut upon our
avaricious foe. The French Admiral went on to India, and General
Meadows proceeded under a proper escort to the same quarter, while
the Commodore returned to England.

Notwithstanding the diminished territories of France in the East,
still the zeal and ability of her Agents, well versed in intrigue,
had the address, not only to reconcile the existing contentions
between Hyder Ally and the Mahrattas, but to direct their united
power against our wide possessions in that part of the world.
These were to be supported by promised aids from Bourbon and the
Mauritius, as well as auxiliaries from many of the petty Princes
of Hindostan, who eagerly acceded to the coalition.

The apathy of the Presidency at Madras, at this momentous crisis,
was highly criminal. No steps were taken to concentrate their
troops, although they were long apprized of Hyder's views, who,
like a torrent, came down from the mountains and entered the
Carnatic with an army of 100,000 men. Sir Hector Monro, at last,
took the field against this host, and having raised the siege of
Arcot, fixed his post at Conjeverane, where he awaited his expected
reinforcements from the Tanjore Country in the South, and those
from the Guntaz Circar in the North.

This being merely introductory matter to future discussion, in
which my corps was called forth, my detail of these movements must
be concise.

The world well knows the sad disaster of Colonel Baillie's
detachment from the latter Country, in which was also involved that
of Colonel Fletcher from the Main Army, after having exhibited the
most extraordinary feats of European valour. From unaccountable
causes, no effort, worthy of the occasion, was made to alienate
the doom of those brave, but unfortunate men. The immediate
consequences were the retreat of General Monro to the Mount, and
the Carnatic being overrun by Hyder and his savage legions. Rapid
were his successes, and Madras itself anticipated the horrors of a
siege from this relentless invader.

The energies of the Council of Bengal were patriotically great
under these perilous events. Casting an eye towards that
distinguished Veteran, Sir Eyre Coote, he was with one general
voice called forth to retrieve these calamities. He accordingly
embarked from Calcutta, with a force, while some seapoy battalions
marched from Bengal to the Carnatic. General Goddard was directed
to transport a detachment from his army acting against the
Mahrattas, and Sir Edward Hughes, with his fleet, was solicited
to block up the ports of Hyder, on the coast of Malabar. The
Government of Bombay was likewise ordered to alarm his dominions.

Sir Eyre Coote quickly restored its wonted lustre to the British
arms by a series of brilliant efforts, during 1781, that enabled
him, after the destruction of Hyder's naval force at Calicut and
Mangalore, by Sir Edward Hughes, to send an adequate detachment
for the reduction of Negapatam, which was committed to Sir Hector
Monro, who assumed the command of the troops in the Tanjore
Country, and who was enjoined to co-operate in the attempt with
Admiral Hughes and his squadron. Hyder Ally had placed a strong
garrison in the Fort, and occupied many strong holds within that
Province and on its borders.

Preparatory for this object a number of the Company's troops
reached Nagore on the 21st of October, which were soon headed by
General Monro, who landed from the Superbe. Sir Edward Hughes
disembarked his Marines, consisting of 443, on the same day, and
a battalion of 827 seamen upon the 22d. The looked for shift of
the Monsoon, and lateness of the season prompted the most active
measures. Owing to a heavy surf the cannon and all necessary
implements were conveyed by rafts to the shore, in which the zeal
of our Sailors, under the superintendance of Captain Ball, was most

The enemy having thrown up strong lines flanked by redoubts, to
defend the approaches to Negapatam, they were stormed and carried
on the night of the 29th; much of the success and glory of which
very justly attached to the Seamen and Marines, whose intrepidity
was never more conspicuous. They also evinced an unrelaxed zeal in
prosecuting the necessary works of labour. During the siege two
sorties were attempted by the garrison, which originally consisted
of 8000 men, but in each they were quickly repulsed. After a severe
and well aimed fire, from the 3d to the 12th of November, the Dutch
proposed terms which were accepted.

During the whole course of this fatiguing service, 17 Seamen fell,
and 27 were wounded, and the detail of Marines was 13 killed, and
29 casualties, most of whom died; besides a number of both who
became victims to sudden cramps, the effects of hard duty amidst
the rains.

The happy results of this conquest were the immediate evacuation
of every post in the Tanjore by Hyder's troops, and the return to
allegiance of all those petty Princes who had been seduced, by him,
from their obedience to the Nabob of the Carnatic.

On the 25th of October the Seamen and Marines were re-embarked;
when, following up his farther plans, the Admiral set sail for
Trincomale upon the 2d of December, where he arrived the 4th.
Early in the succeeding morning the Marines, to whom two field
pieces were attached, were again put on shore, and they were
soon joined by a body of Seamen, who, with some Seapoy pioneers,
instantly formed and marched towards the fort of Trincomale. While
its Governor was employed in framing terms of capitulation,
Lieut. Samuel Orr, at the head of the Marine Grenadier Company,
intrepidly rushed through the gateway, and saved him the trouble
of such a discussion--taking prisoners three Officers and 40 men.
This bold exploit led to the most important consequences, as the
fort commanded, with 10 pieces of cannon, the only place where the
requisite stores could be landed for the Army. The enemy's defences
now became limited to Fort Ostenburgh, situated on the top of a
hill which swept the harbour, and on the summit of another above
it, where there was posted an Officer's guard. From this they
were driven by a detachment of Seamen and Marines, who in every
essay were entrusted to execute those hazardous and honorable
duties. A summons was then tendered to the Governor, whose reply
was firm. Finding that he was not to be intimidated by threats, a
general storm was planned and executed on the 11th by 450 Seamen
and Marines, who, in column, and their flanks covered by pioneers,
followed by 20 Sailors with scaling ladders, and supported by a
reserve of six companies of both descriptions, advanced against
the fort early on the morning of that day. These were farther
strengthened by some native troops in the rear.

A Serjeant's party of Marines, in front of the whole, most promptly
got into the embrasures, unperceived by the enemy, who, being
seconded with much alacrity, the Dutch were finally driven from
their works, the fort gained, and with it all the ships in the
harbour. Much do I regret in not being able to give the name of
this gallant Serjeant, who seemed to have combined talents with
spirit. To commemorate the worthy deeds of the meanest Soldier, is
a tribute justly due to him. The extensive observance of it would
tend to rouse emulation, and the jealous pride of character. He
who knows that he stands on the page of record, will be loth to
forfeit so honorable a distinction. It is a conscious dignity
which will accompany him into society, when his Country no longer
wants his services; would diffuse its loyal influence amongst
the private walks of life, and reanimate the possessor to become
a ready Volunteer under every public emergency. If disabled by
years, he may, perhaps, have an offspring, whom he cheerfully sends
forth to battle, not the obdurate and callous victims to injured
laws, not the mercenary and wretched auxiliaries of necessitous
expedient, but the manly and independent assertors of Britain's
rights and freedom. In resigned confidence, most willingly would he
entrust their destinies to a corps, where courage and conduct never
remain unnoticed, and are neither forgotten or pass away without

Fort Ostenburgh was not gained, however, without a contest and
loss; Lieutenant Long, who commanded a company of Seamen, was
slain, besides 20 non-commissioned and private Sailors and Marines;
Lieutenant Wolseley, of the Royal Navy, and Lieutenant Orr, of the
Marine Grenadier Company, who officiated as Brigade Major with
much credit to himself throughout this service, were wounded, as
well as 40 of both descriptions.--Humanity, the brightest gem in
the cap of a Soldier, became the property of each assaulter; who,
when resistance ceased, spared, in every instance, his suppliant
foe. Thus were our unnatural enemies expelled from the coast of
Coromandel. Unanimity, the sure presage of success, was early
apparent, and uniformly prevailed.

I cannot yield a higher testimony, as to the merits of my Corps,
than that which was bestowed by Sir Edward Hughes, in these words:
"The whole of the Officers, who have been landed from the squadron
for the attack of Negapatam, and this place, (Trincomale), have, on
all occasions, manifested much honor, courage, and good conduct,
and the private Seamen and Marines have acted with great steadiness
and bravery." Major Geils, of the East India Company's Engineers,
evinced great professional knowledge in his department.

After a most active campaign to the southward, during the progress
of which Earl Cornwallis appeared in his wonted attitudes of a
great and zealous Officer, the affairs of America were much on
the decline, and it was not from their own energies alone they
could now hope for that independence which had been their sanguine
avowal, and the summit of all their aims. Every military resource
began to fail in the summer of 1781, and it was only by one bold
effort, or an instantaneous appeal for foreign aid, that their
desponding troops could be longer kept together, or their expiring
prospects be rekindled.

At this awful period the genius of Washington was exerted as a
Politician as well as a General. Mons. Barras had arrived at Rhode
Island to assume the command of the French squadron there, whither
the Rebel Chief hastened to impart the secrets of his anxious
heart. In a conference with General Rochambeau a joint attack upon
New York was designed; for which future purpose, Washington in a
formal demand urged the immediate completion of every battalion in
his Army, as well as a strong levy from New England. The bearer
of these dispatches, with all his papers, fell into the hands
of the British, under Sir H. Clinton, who considered it his duty
to prepare against the meditated blow. Orders were accordingly
transmitted to Earl Cornwallis to detach from his Army in Virginia,
when mutual discussions betwixt those distinguished Commanders
ensued, upon which I feel no authority to enlarge, that finally
limited his Lordship to the defence of York Town and Gloucester, in
the River Chesapeak, upon the 22d of August.

The French and American Armies united at the close of June, but
they could attempt nothing against the formidable position occupied
by General Clinton, at Kingsbridge, or could they strike at any
other quarter without the support of a superior fleet. After a
tedious suspence, news reached them of the approach of Admiral De
Grasse, who intimated his intention of entering the Chesapeak.
After having indicated views upon New York, the combined force
suddenly struck across the Jerseys, in order to co-operate and
level all their power against the defenceless posts of York Town
and Gloucester.

Sir Samuel Hood reached Sandy Hook on the 28th of August, when the
command devolving upon Rear Admiral Greaves, he put to sea on the
31st with 19 sail of the line, the day after De Grasse had anchored
in the Chesapeak with 28. The French Admiral immediately commenced
the blockade of York River, having detached four of these to carry
on different services in James River, and with the rest bringing up
in Lynn-haven-bay.

The British fleet got sight of the Capes of Virginia on the morning
of the 5th of September, and in a few hours observed the French
working out in a very confused manner, forming their line as they
best could, after clearing Cape Henry. Sir Samuel Hood then led
the van with his division, whose acute eye, noticing the moment
of striking a decisive blow, he resolved to seize the occasion by
soliciting his second, Captain Reynolds (the present Lord Ducie)
in the Monarch, to lead him down within point blank shot of the
scattered enemy. To this order Capt. Reynolds's reply was, "That I
will, Sir Samuel, with a most sincere pleasure." In an instant his
ship obeyed the summons, and was advancing with hasty strides to
victory, but her signal was made to haul the wind, and to resume
her station in the line.--An action afterwards commenced, in no
respect worthy of notice, but that of rendering the gallantry of
Captains Robinson and Molloy, of the Shrewsbury and Intrepid, very
highly conspicuous.

This was followed by the return of each fleet to the anchorage it
had left. De Grasse preferred the emancipation of America, to a
precarious combat on the sea.

Sir Henry Clinton attempted a diversion in Connecticut, but nothing
could attract General Washington from his main object. United to
Rochambeau they pushed on to the head of Elk River, where their
troops were received on board of French transports, and soon joined
those at Williamsburgh under Generals La Fayette and St. Simon.

Moving forward to York Town, Earl Cornwallis withdrew within its
works on the 29th of September, with the resolve of preserving
it, until relieved by promised succours from the northward. Some
parties of Marines, from frigates in the river, were incorporated
with his garrison, of whom his Lordship was pleased to make
honourable mention in the public details of his persevering
defence. Speaking of a redoubt which was advanced over a creek
upon the right of the British Lines, he says, that it was
maintained against the fire of several batteries, with _uncommon_
gallantry, by about 120 men of the 23d Regiment and Marines. This
body, under the command of Captain Apthorpe, and subsequently
strengthened by detachments under Lieutenant Colonel Johnstone,
received his Lordship's most grateful encomiums at the unfortunate
close of all their operations. The post at Gloucester fell
with that of York Town, whose garrison met with those soothing
attentions and sympathy, which a brave enemy ever extends to a
worthy opponent.

Admiral Kempenfelt, in December, achieved the capture of some
transports and store ships, protected by a very superior force,
which demonstrated that his great nautical abilities were not
confined to theory alone. His exploit, in sight of De Guichen, with
nearly double his own strength, was much enhanced, when we remember
that it occurred in days too barren of such examples.

Some brilliant single actions, at sea, occurred during the year,
amongst the foremost of which was that fought between the Nonsuch,
of 64, Sir James Wallace, and a French 80 gun ship. After a loss
of 90 Seamen and Marines killed and wounded, Sir James could
not follow his flying foe. Lieutenant Fowke, of Marines, a most
promising Officer, was killed in the Pearl, Captain Montague, in
an action which terminated in the capture of L'Esperance Letter of
Marque, on the coast of America.


Twenty-one thousand three hundred and five Marines were voted for
the year 1782.

Accounts were received in March of the fall of Minorca, after
sustaining a siege which immortalized its defender, General Murray,
and his brave garrison. It was scurvy alone that conquered it,
which a body of Seamen, formed into a _Marine Corps_, withstood.
Many were the honourable traits of patience and zeal shewn by the
Soldiery of every description, through sufferings under disease and
fatiguing duties. The Royal Artillery was, as usual, conspicuous
for their courage and exertions.

The disasters of the last year, and a change of Administration,
whose views and sentiments, as to the future conduct of the war,
were very opposite to those of their predecessors, produced a
suspension of every offensive attempt upon the American Continent.

The West Indies was doomed to become the theatre of our Naval
efforts, and the scene on which to revive our drooping glory. Sir
Samuel Hood commanded the English Fleet, in that quarter, after
his return from America; but was opposed to De Grasse at the head
of overpowering numbers. No example of our history can afford a
brighter instance of daring enterprize, with practical science,
than was evinced by the British Chief in attempting the relief of
St. Kitts. Although it was not succeeded by fortunate events,
still that does not shade its merit. His able plan of attacking
an immense superiority at anchor in the road of Basseterre,
was superseded by the French Admiral, who, decoyed by his able
manœuvres, relinquished that advantage, which was quickly seized by
his acute opponent.

In the different actions that followed, Captain, now Col.
Strickland, and Lieuts. Forster and Griffiths, of Marines, were

A want of troops placed not within Sir Samuel's power to raise the
siege of Brimstone Hill, which held out as long as possible, but at
last capitulated on honourable terms.

My bounds will not allow me to extend these details, in which the
Marine Corps bore always a zealous, though a subordinate share.

Rear-Admiral Hood soon after joined Sir George Rodney, who brought
out a powerful reinforcement of ships, that was most judiciously
augmented by the single arrivals of others; by which method the
West India Fleet became superior to the enemy, without their being
apprized of it.

A train of success had elated De Grasse, who, with a mighty force,
put to sea from Martinique on the 8th of April, in the certain
confidence of adding Jamaica to his other conquests. The British
Fleet soon followed him, and a partial affair took place on the
9th; when an opportunity was lost by the French, of making a
serious impression on the English van, under Sir Samuel Hood,
unsupported by the centre and rear, from a casual failure of wind,
under the island of Dominique.

Little hope of bringing the enemy to a decisive battle continued
from that day, until the 11th, when a general chace was directed
against two ships, whose recent damages had forced to leeward of
their fleet, and exposed them to capture. Observing their danger,
De Grasse, who might have weathered Guadaloupe, sacrificing that
object, bore up to save them.

The Zelé falling on board the Ville de Paris during the night, by
which she lost her main-mast, was chaced in the morning by the
Monarch, to support which ship the French Admiral hazarded all,
with his united force. Captain Reynolds was then recalled to his
station in the line, and the conflict began at seven, on the 12th
of April. That glorious day, with its important consequences, at so
critical a period of our history, must be recognized by the latest
posterity. To particularize any belongs not to me on so great an
occasion, where all were entitled to praise. The high talents of
Sir Charles Douglas afforded his gallant superior much useful aid
through the day.

De Grasse being carried a captive to that island which he had but
a little while ago viewed the certain spot of his triumphs as a
conqueror, is an impressive example of the vicissitudes of fortune.
He had the mortification to witness those grateful effusions of its
natives, poured forth to their saviours, which, under different
circumstances, would have been offered to him under the constrained
forms of political adulation.

In this long-contested action four Captains of Marines were
wounded, but only two were named in the public dispatch--Bell
and Bagg. Lieut. Mounier was killed, and the Subalterns Breedon,
Buchan, Harris, and Laban were wounded.

Respecting Lieut. Mounier, of the Torbay, I am led to notice the
following anecdote, as having been narrated to me by Lieut. Collins
of that ship. In the morning, after the two hostile fleets had
formed the line and were approaching each other, Mounier, whose
spirit in single combat had previously been fatally experienced by
his antagonist, expressed a sensation of an immediate change in his
destiny. Under this impression he requested Lieut. Collins to play
a game at picquet to divert the time, until they opened fire. This
they continued to do, when each went to his respective station. The
sad presentiment was soon realized to poor Mounier, who was early
in the battle cut in two, and the greater part of his remains were
scattered on the sea.

Sir Edward Hughes encountered, in four different actions, Monsieur
Suffrein, one of the bravest Officers in the Naval service of
France. Possessing, in each, a great advantage in numbers, the
utmost height of valour, but productive of no immediate effects,
was exhibited in all by the British Fleet. The French Admiral
shewed himself worthy of the trust confided in him by his Sovereign.

In one of these battles, fought on the 12th of April, the
Monmouth, Captain Alms, suffered extremely, and was particularly
distinguished. All the Marines on her poop were either killed or
wounded, excepting Captain Pearce and Lieut. Mounier, who nobly
volunteered to assist in fighting her guns on the main deck, after
they had lost all the brave men under their own command.

The discomfiture of the combined armaments before Gibraltar in
September of this year, must ever stand as a memorable event upon
our annals. Humanity and victory walked hand in hand, and, as
usual, adorned the national character, on that grand occasion. The
long-tried valour of General Elliot, and the spirited services of
Sir Roger Curtis, with those under their controul, were sealed and
consummated by deeds of mercy, which will never be forgotten by
our enemies. That fortress was soon after relieved by Lord Howe,
under circumstances most honourable to his Lordship, the Officers,
Seamen, and Marines who seconded him.

In every incidental combat at sea, during the currency of 1782,
our wonted prowess was at all times conspicuous. The short, but
well-contested fight of Captain Jervis (now Earl St. Vincent) in
the Foudroyant, with Le Pegase, afforded a powerful evidence how
much success is dependent on seamanship and discipline. While a
dreadful carnage was the Frenchman's lot, the English loss was
confined to a few slightly wounded, among whom was numbered her
Commander, whose professional address obtained a bloodless victory.

The names of Pole, Luttrell, and Salter, were destined to be
conspicuous, and their encomiums transcended to Lieuts. Pownol and
Rankine, of my Corps, for their steady co-operation and bravery in
the Success and Mediator.

The year closed with negociations for a general peace, the
provisionary articles of which were mutually signed at Paris by
Commissioners from Britain and America, on the 22d of November.
These were soon after followed by the exchange of preliminary
articles with France and Spain, on the 20th of January, 1783.


The public measures during 1783, were more precautionary than
hostile, tending chiefly to guard against contingencies, and to
be ready to resume our arms, if necessary, with effect, in every
quarter of the world.

Peace was most ardently desired by all the contending Powers, and
its attainment was marked by sincerity and cool discussion. America
foresaw a disorganized army and impoverished resources, while
France and Spain, feeling their quickly decaying finances, most
cordially united to accelerate the happy event. The decisive battle
of the 12th of April, and their signal repulse from Gibraltar, had
also due weight in the scale of consideration and expediency.

Amidst the awful storm, Britain began to emerge, by degrees,
from under the heavy cloud which had long overcast her political
horizon, and to reclaim her ancient seat amongst the nations. Every
subordinate occasion that called forth her Naval energies, seemed
to display a spirit worthy of the brightest periods of her Maritime

However delicate the topic, I am still induced to notice the
reiterated instances of baneful mutiny in our Fleet, during this
year of returning tranquillity. It is a lamentable truth that
examples of indiscipline were as common as they were successful,
and to the plan of compromise which was _then_ pursued, may be
traced, in part, that predilection for revolt which agitated the
minds of our Seamen during the late contest--crimes, for which
their unparalleled achievements have amply atoned to their Country,
but such as never can find a palliative within their own breasts,
or an extenuation from any pen that is guided by an impartial

The demonstrations of loyalty and zeal, in every Marine Detachment,
during this turbulent era, although not realized by deeds, still
evinced a readiness to seal them with their lives, in the support
of good order. These fatal means which were used to appease the
spirit, hushed his murmurs indeed, but they invigorated the growth
of the untamed monster. After the various and meritorious services
of the Marine corps, during two successive wars, at a time when
their loyal zeal was conspicuous to their Country, when their
utility and subordination were in every mouth, a heavy reduction
in its establishment took place. It was with equal surprize, and
general regret, that this faithful body of men became limited to
4495, and to 70 companies, with a parsimonious allowance of Field
Officers. Such a popular branch of the public force was evidently
small for supplying the ships of war in commission, and for the
important duties of guarding our naval arsenals. But as the
judicious policy of the present day, has adopted a more liberal and
patriotic system respecting the corps of Marines, I deem myself
precluded from that range of comment upon the method of anterior
times, which I should have otherwise felt an authority to claim.

Another vindictive conflict occurred in the East, but without any
important consequences; in which Sir Edward Hughes, as hitherto,
nobly maintained the honor of the British flag, against Admiral
Suffrein and superior numbers. The sound of peace soon after
reached their ears, and closed all their differences.

Acts of generous hospitality, and works of mercy in the western
world, superseded stratagem in war, and the thirst of fame.

Prince William Henry, now his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence,
whom professional zeal had carried to that quarter, was at the
cessation of hostilities, under that able master, Lord Hood. Since
his entry into the Navy he had shewn a peculiar attention to every
branch of its duties, and had afforded the earliest presage of the
most distinguished talents upon its hazardous, but popular element.
A princely wish to qualify himself for this honourable calling,
had urged him to forego all the luxuries of his station, and to
risk a life naturally dear to his august family, and deservedly
valued by all who had the privilege of his intercourse, in a clime,
where no one can count upon to-morrow. It was not his lot, indeed,
to wage war in it, but to behold the refined manners of a gallant
enemy tranquillized into a cordial friend, and to be the Agent of
Providence in rescuing, from a seemingly irrevocable doom, some of
his condemned countrymen, whose misguided patriotism had stimulated
disaffection within the Spanish Province of Louisiana.

The elegant attentions of Mons. de Bellecomb, at Cape Francois,
were still outdone by the noble humanity of Governor Don Galvez.
This brave Spaniard placed the forfeited lives of those unfortunate
delinquents, at his Royal disposal. It was the most precious
gift that could have been tendered to a British Prince--who was
recognized under this great and solemn offering as sharing in all
the generous sympathies of an Englishman. The hour which permitted
him to restore those wretched victims, in a foreign land, to their
native society, must be reviewed as the happiest of his life. It
must still yield many a consoling reflection in his retirement,
and although restrained from adding to the triumphs of our Realm,
by deeds of carnage, he may yet rejoice that he stands upon the
records of mercy and benevolence by the most exalted displays of
fellow feeling.

By the definitive articles of peace America found herself an
Independent Empire. Recent injuries alienated her citizens from
our Country; but similarity of manners, the dictates of interest,
and allayed prejudices must, ere long, re-unite us in the bonds
of friendship. The retreat of Washington from the head of her
Armies, unambitious of recompense or power, forms one of the
grandest examples of human virtue ever given to the world, and must
immortalize his name through every stage of its existence.

Holland was compelled to suppress her phlegm, and to mourn over her
degraded character, and commercial losses.

Few incidents of moment occurred within the intervals of 1783 and
1792, connected with my retrospect. A voluntary embarkation of
Officers and men, for our distant settlement in New South Wales,
occurred in 1785 which has eventually afforded scope for the able
pen of Lieutenant Colonel Tench, and has hitherto given grounds
for asserting the untarnished discipline of the Marine corps, when
mingled even with the contaminating orders of vice and infamy. In
other respects the same dull routine of detached services took
place from year to year. During this period also many were the
suppliant petitions of our establishment for its melioration,
but sorry I am that, on casting an eye upon the details of each
revolving season, they are unmarked by any auspicious results,
excepting the institution of a retired establishment, and the
addition of 5 companies in 1791.

It was found that farther exertions were still necessary to place
them on the high list of public recompence, and that the faithful
discharge of ten years duty in peace, had but little influence in
strengthening their claims for favor.


Within the womb of American liberty, was partly contained that
revolution in France, which, after a long and sanguinary struggle,
has not as yet accomplished any permanent system. It is not my
task to retrace its extensive causes, and it would be presumptuous
to anticipate its final issue. In this, reason, unguided by
precedents, is soon lost in the labyrinths of speculation.

Confining myself to such points alone as affect the dignity of
my Country, or the honor of my corps, fancy shall not assume the
reins, but I will strike at once to that momentous day which again
involved those arbiters of Europe in all the horrors of war.

A conventional decree of 19th November, 1792, circulated through
every Country, _and translated into every language_, seemed to
represent the French Nation as the encouragers and protectors
of reform in every State. At this period Britain was recovering
fast from her late disastrous efforts. An unexampled influx of
wealth, added to her native joys of contentment and freedom. An
edict so much militating against the internal peace of every
society, therefore, naturally roused the watchful jealousy of
our Government. Discussions ensued, which were agitated with
temper, until those libertines in the cause of emancipation,
brought their amiable Monarch to the scaffold. I blush to say that
there were even Englishmen who were capable of extenuating the
bloody deed, while there were others, but under a more generous
impulse, who, tasting pure freedom themselves, wished that the
blessing might also flow through all the channels of mankind. A
set of free thinkers in politics, and Philanthropists in theory,
also started up, who, with all the enthusiasm of laudable zeal
worshipped a statue erected by an American Stay-Maker, on which
were inscribed "The Rights of Man." The mania of that day, thank
God, is extinguished, and an Englishman has now only to contrast
the fawning attitude of the French People, under the present yoke
of a foreign and unprincipled Usurper, with their uncontroled and
licentious barbarity towards a good but fallen King, in order to
form his opinions, and to suppress his sympathies in behalf of a
nation, which, to gain its own ideal liberties, has uniformly aimed
to desolate and enslave the world. He must also cease to admire the
boasted victories and conquests of its soldiery, few of whom but
do not now feel those chains which their triumphs have forged, and
what all these once brave legions dare not now wrest from the hands
of _one man_.--But to resume my narrative--

Towards the close of 1792 a small addition was granted to the
corps of Marines, and a much greater took place early in 93, in
consequence of the intermeddling policy of France, and the war
which followed it.

The narrow views that had influenced so great a reduction at the
peace of 1783, were bitterly apparent at the commencement of
hostilities. In every contest our enemies begin with superior
advantages, from their despotic means. Impress is precarious and
slow--compulsive registration enforced by terror, brings forth
a host at once. It is to the faithful Marine Soldier who knows
not the meaning of desertion, that the nation, under such sudden
emergencies, is often obliged to have recourse, in equipping as
well as manning her fleets; for it is not in human nature to place
confidence in that man who has been constrained to serve, and who
recognises not either a voluntary will, or a sacred obligation to
discharge his allotted duties.

It has always been remarked, that the corps of Marines recruit
more successfully in every part of our isles, where their nature
is ascertained, than any other under his Majesty. From this
circumstance must have originated the motive of low bounties being
given by its parties in 1793, while those of the line, and other
departments were considerably higher.

This restriction upon our increase loaded our service with
difficulties, and presented almost insurmountable barriers to
the attainment of that knowledge of tactics, in which every
Marine Officer and Soldier should be conversant previous to his
embarkation. For a time there seemed but little disposition to
remedy the former errors, until the imperious demands of an
increasing Navy urged the adoption of more active measures.

At this period of surrounding danger the liberal patriotism of the
town of Manchester was highly conspicuous, and gave a local spur to
access in strengthening the neglected ranks of the Marine corps.
What enhanced its manly and honest zeal, was, that the expression
of it was almost coeval with that day, on which our Gracious
Sovereign unbosomed his insulted feelings, and the perils that
hovered round his Country, to a convened Legislature.

A sum of £5501 4_s._ 9_d._ was soon subscribed by that Loyal
Society, which was applied to the auxiliary purpose of raising and
sending forth to battle 1085 recruits, between the 19th of February
and 3d of October, when a General Meeting, to inspect and close the
accounts of their acting Committee, was dissolved, and their thanks
were tendered to William Douglas, Esq. its Chairman.

These volunteers were levied under the endearing and uniting name
of "_The Manchester Marine Corps_." My feelings lead me to diverge
more extensively upon this meritorious theme, which my bounds,
however, compel me to close with an earnest hope, that while the
virtuous action shall long stand registered on our annals, its
imitative influence may also be felt by the present, and transcend
to the latest generations of my countrymen.

Owing to an inadequate establishment, from the cause assigned,
many ships put to sea with only half a complement of Marines,
while others had none at all. What prevented Capt. Faulkener, in
the Venus, from consummating a gallant action by victory, but this
deficiency? In many cases, regiments of the line were substituted;
an alternative which can only be the offspring of necessity, but
not the suggestion of public good.

The British arms were very early triumphant in the West, under the
joint auspices of Major General Cuyler and Sir John Laforey.

Their force which included Major (now Colonel) Bright, 1
Lieutenant, 2 Serjeants, 1 Drummer, and 27 private Marines, not
amounting to 400 men, carried Fort Castries by storm, and with
it the island of Tobago, garrisoned by greater numbers. Some
untoward circumstances arising from the cowardice or treachery of
a guide, added to a dark night, occasioned a small derangement in
our approach to the attack, but it was amply attoned by a general
intrepidity in the troops; the main body of which pushed boldly
towards the barrier, who attracted the whole attention of the
enemy, while the flank companies of the 9th and 60th regiments
entered their works. This affair was achieved by the bayonet, with
little loss on either side; for mercy, as usual, was shewn by
Englishmen to the vanquished.

St. Pierre and Micquelon also soon became easy conquests. Such are
the crouded and brilliant instances of this war, that I cannot
venture upon a minute detail of any, or render justice to their

Lord Hood, who had been recently called forth by his Country,
in the hour of threatened danger, and who, upon its having been
dispelled, had again become the citizen, was once more placed at
the head of a powerful fleet. This he destined to carry to the
Mediterranean, where it was his lot to perform very important
services, throughout which, he approved himself an accomplished
adept in the schools of a Sully and a Marlborough. Never since
our existence before, have the talents of a _Naval Officer_ been
exerted on so wide a field.

Untrained to the courtly habits of life, uninstructed in the arts
of diplomacy, the world usually attaches _to him_ no embellishments
of character, but professional bravery, uncorruptible zeal,
impressive unadorned manners. The Nation, however, could not have
had a more dignified representative, a cooler agent, or a more
indefatigable servant than Lord Hood upon so trying an occasion,
and amidst such mingled and arduous duties. His intercourse with
the deputies from different departments in the South of France, was
guided by wisdom and led to success, while his appeals to their
community breathed a well timed humanity towards that oppressed

After an interchange of terms, the Honourable Capt. Elphinstone
(now Lord Keith) took possession of Fort La Malgue with 1800 troops
and Marines upon the 28th of August. The fleet of Spain hove in
sight, anchored, and reinforced that post with 1000 men. At first
the inhabitants of Toulon, though royalists, were still jealous
of the issue of things, but they were tranquillized in all their
fears, by a solemn assurance, that the place and ships were held
in trust for Louis the 17th, their lawful Sovereign. The approach
of a part of Carteaux army, to Ollioules, produced a very spirited
attack from La Malgue, headed by Capt. Elphinstone, and consisting
of 600 Spaniards, British troops and Marines, who drove a superior
enemy from that village, and took their cannon, ammunition, and
some prisoners. The dispositions of the English commander were
masterly, and attested his abilities to wage war on either element.

Lord Mulgrave arrived at Toulon early in September, and assumed
the command of the combined detachments, with the local rank of
Brigadier General.

The Marines of the fleet were dispersed over the different posts
of defence, some of which were cannonaded by the enemy, daily
increasing in numbers.

All the military talents of Lord Mulgrave were requisite at this
trying juncture. They were soon displayed in the most active
measures, by occupying situations essential for checking the
enemy's attacks, and affording a temporary security to many
extensive objects, until reinforcements should arrive.

His Lordship had to guard against the insults of the Army of Le
Poype on the East, as well as that of Carteaux on the West, in
which he was materially aided also by the activity and steady
bravery of the Officers and Seamen of the fleet. At this time too,
the Spaniards were actuated by a spirit of cordial union.

On the 28th of September, a seasonable supply of 2800 Sardinian and
Neapolitan troops arrived, who, in three days after, in conjunction
with the other allied corps, of which the British Marines formed
one, had an opportunity of signalizing themselves, led by Lord
Mulgrave himself, in recovering the important heights of Pharon,
which had been surprized and carried under cover of a fog, upon the

To the rapid enterprize of his Lordship, as much as the seconding
valour of every subordinate Soldier and Seaman, may justly be
ascribed the glory and success of the 1st of October. Very
honorable mention was made of Serjeant Moreno, and three privates
of the Spanish Marine Corps, who, with a daring and judicious zeal,
traced out the line of march for the allied column on the right, to
within pistol shot of the works.

Directed by genius, the laurel was obtained, and its value enhanced
by a very trifling loss, while that of the French exceeded 1400
killed and wounded; Lieutenant Carter, of Marines, was amongst the
English wounded.

A very bold sortie, from Fort Mulgrave, took place on the 8th of
October, against the enemy's batteries, opposite the Hauteur de
Grasse, evidently constructed with a view to incommode the fleet.
In this, 50 British Marines co-operated, and shared in the honor of
destroying their guns on the Hauteur de Reinier; a service which
was peculiarly allotted to the seamen under Lieutenant Serocold.
Fort Pomet, partly garrisoned by my corps, had been exposed to a
severe cannonade; particularly from 2 guns and 1 mortar above it,
which allowed no tests but of steady courage.

Captain Elphinstone bore testimony of Marine spirit, in an attack
from Fort Pharon upon the French forces to the eastward, when
Captain Dexter was distinguished for his services.

Much am I inclined to diverge upon the meritorious acts of all, but
my scope is necessarily limited.

Lord Mulgrave resigned the command of the combined troops to Major
General O'Hara, upon the 27th of October, after the most creditable
discharge of his trust.

The British posts were extremely wide, and the duties of all were
of the most fatiguing kind; but they were supported with the
fortitude of Soldiers.

One of the most brilliant events of this checquered warfare,
although unnoticed in any of the official details of it, and
generally unknown, was meritedly attached to Lieutenant (afterwards
Captain) Thomas Nailor, who was entrusted with the defence of a
fort, having under him a little garrison of 120 men, principally
Marines. A body of 2000 French moved on to attack him upon the
morning of a day, with which I am uninformed as to date, under
cover of a fog, and sanguine in the hope of surprising him. But he
was on the alert, and prepared to receive them. With a thoughtful
but unshaken valour he awaited the onset, ordering his little band
to reserve their fire, until the republicans were close, and to
maintain it by platoons; but by no means in a scattered form. A
Neapolitan Lieutenant Colonel had thrown himself into the fort
when on the eve of its being attempted, but he fell early in the
conflict. After repeated essays to carry it with those superior
numbers, the French relinquished the field with the loss of nearly
400 killed and wounded; casting back an eye of disappointment,
mingled with admiration, of their undaunted opponents.

That young man is now no more. Owing to bad health, he retreated
from public to private life, both of which he adorned by modest
merit, the mildest manners, and most intrinsic worth. The final
destiny of man, but recently closed his life unstained by dishonor.

During the progress of this siege too, a very flattering occasion
intervened of testifying the personal zeal of Lieutenant (now
Captain) Burdwood, in one of the sorties from Toulon. Embarking in
it originally as a Volunteer with the Light Company of the Royals,
his talents were decreed to conduct the retreat of its remains,
after having been deprived of its Officers. So much were his merits
appreciated by that gallant corps, that a deputation of Serjeants
waited on him the following day, to solicit that, if a similar
opportunity should again offer, he would give a preference by
attaching himself to the First Regiment of Foot. The Officers of
it also, anxious to express their feelings, voted him a _perpetual
member_ of their mess; upon which books, his name now stands in
record of their gratitude.

Jealous feuds were apparent in the breast of the Spanish Commander,
Don Langara, early in October. It has since appeared that he spoke
the sentiments of his court, which was basely negociating with the
authorized agents of the diabolical Robespierre. Every trifling
incident was seized as a subject far contention, and the subsequent
conduct of the Spanish troops warrants the suspicion that this
influence was general. The address of Lord Hood, under this
dilemma, was great and manly.

The Enemy, from constant reinforcements, became daring in their
attacks. On the 15th of November they attempted Fort Mulgrave on
the Hauteur de Grasse, with a large force.

This post was occupied by the Spaniards on the right, who soon gave
way, and retreated, firing their musquets in the air. To Capt. D.
Campbell of the 2d battalion of Royals, and Lieut. Lemoine of the
corps of Artillery, was owing the repulse of the enemy, and saving
that very important post.

Towards the close of November, the French having opened against
Fort Malbousket, and their shells also reaching the town, it was
requisite to dislodge them from the ground they held. A body of
2300, under Gen. Dundas, of which the Marines composed a part,
advanced against it, under many obstructions, on the 30th, drove
the enemy from it, but, under an ill judged impetuosity, rushed
onwards, instead of maintaining the post they had gained. The
republicans gathering in numbers, in turn recovered all, and took
Gen. O'Hara prisoner, after he was wounded, and had used the
utmost endeavours to rally our Soldiers. This Officer foresaw not
the unfortunate ardency, but had arrived at the post in order
to arrange its defence. He unhappily fell a sacrifice to his
overstrained zeal.

Little hope now remained of preserving Toulon; the enemy, from his
numbers, pushing matters to a close. Sickness began its ravages;
and no reinforcements were at hand to supply them.

The very material post of Fort Mulgrave, partly garrisoned by
British Marines, was much annoyed by shells, without having the
means of retreat from their effects. On the 17th of December, at
two in the morning, the French advanced to storm it. Here again the
Spaniards gave way, and it was in vain that English courage alone
was exerted in supporting their quarter of it. From hence our men
retreated to Fort Balaguier, under cover of the different posts on
the heights. After dawn, one unceasing fire against the different
posts on Pharon, commenced, which ended in the republicans gaining
possession of the mountain that overlooks Toulon. These reiterated
disasters could not now be retrieved. To withdraw every detachment
within the town of Toulon, for re-embarkation, became the only
alternative. On the 18th it was directed that the whole combined
forces should assemble near Fort La Malgue with secrecy, and about
ten at night they began their march and the evacuation of Toulon.
Avoiding the Fort of St. Catharine, which had been shamefully
quitted during the day, without orders, the whole struck through
a sally post, by which they gained an advanced part of the road,
and arrived at Fort Malgue, where they formed on the rising ground
above the shore. The Army reached the ships by day break, without

General Dundas says, "it was impossible for him to express, but in
general terms, the high approbation due to the Officers and men of
the Regiments and Marines, for their exertions during a service
the most harassing, distressing, and severe, seldom experienced by
troops, for so long a time." The Royal Artillery was included in
this encomium, as well as the Sardinian, Spanish, and French loyal

It was supposed that Lieutenants John Williams, Barry, and Lynn,
with 71 Marines, besides other gallant companions of the British
Army, had fallen sacrifices in defending the posts of Mulgrave and
Fort Pharon, but all the former and many of the latter rejoined,
after having been prisoners, who now live ornaments to their corps.

Towards this seat of perilous duty Sir Sidney Smith had repaired
in a private character, which, however, did not restrain him from
tendering his services to Lord Hood. He was accordingly employed to
carry into execution the destruction of the ships in the inner road
of Toulon, the arsenals and magazines. Short was the time allowed
him, and many were the attending dangers. It called forth all the
resources of his ample mind, and all the courage of his intrepid
followers. Besides an open enemy, he had to counteract the schemes
of a treacherous friend, which had well nigh overwhelmed him and
his seamen, by the precipitate explosion of two powder ships, to
which the Spaniards set fire, instead of sinking them. The conduct
of Langara, throughout, but ill accorded with the reputed honor of
his nation. It is not the calling of an Officer, and a brave man,
to be the hidden agent of perfidy. Although the plan laid down by
Lord Hood was well entitled to success, it still was not to that
extent he wished. From the conflagration at Toulon, however, may be
dated the wide triumphs of the British flag through the subsequent
stages of the war, an achievement which can never be forgotten
by a grateful nation, which must recognize its safety, and its
commercial prosperity, in that early event.

In whatever quarter of the globe we cast an eye each continued to
witness the exertions of the Marine Soldier. The convulsions at St.
Domingo called aloud for British protection, whither an expedition
sailed from Jamaica, under Commodore Ford. Proceeding first to
Jeremie, it entered into terms; after which the Europa, carrying
his broad pendant, went to Cape Nicola Mole, where she arrived on
the 22d of September. On the following day, matters having been
arranged, Captain Robinson, an Officer of distinguished merit
and abilities, was landed with 50 Marines, to whom the Commodore
granted the Brevet rank of Major, and invested him with the command
of its garrison. This gentleman acquitted himself with so much
credit to himself that, when superseded in this important key to
St. Domingo by Lieutenant Colonel Dansey, every thing had been so
properly conducted, that no trouble accrued to his successor, in
the adjustments usually consequent upon such events. Commodore
Ford gave his cordial approbation of the firm and regular conduct
of the Seamen and Marines of his squadron, in the most unequivocal
language, and their steadiness through every allotted duty, in that
destructive clime, was uniformly observed.

The operations of the squadron and army, in the East, were most
active and early. Pondicherry, and many subordinate places
surrendered without much resistance, owing to the zealous
intelligence conveyed by Mr. Baldwin, British Consul, in Egypt, of
the commencement of hostilities.

Some gallant single actions were fought during 1793. That between
La Nymphe and La Cleopatra was well contested, and in which Lieut.
John Whitaker, of Marines, is mentioned, as having ably seconded
Sir Edward Pellew on the quarter deck. The former was wounded in
the course of it, besides 10 of his party killed or maimed. Another
equally brave, but not alike fortunate, happened on the coast of
America, betwixt the Boston, Captain Courtenay, and L'Ambuscade,
French frigate. That promising Officer, ever anxiously in search
of an occasion to distinguish himself, decoyed his antagonist from
Sandy Hook. They met and fought; during the heat of the combat,
one fatal shot decided the fate both of Captain Courtenay, and
Lieutenant Butler, of Marines. A sincere friendship existed between
them, and as they had been united in their lives, so were they
also united in their deaths. Those amiable young men were hand in
hand chanting every loyal Briton's anthem, "God save the King," at
the moment their golden pitchers were broken. Adored by the crew,
they unhappily left their guns to bid their departed father a long
adieu, but he was no more, and to this circumstance alone was owing
the Frenchman's escape, whom the Boston was unable to follow.

The capture of La Reunion, by the Crescent, Captain Saumarez, was a
proof of English discipline, as the republican frigate sustained a
loss of 120 killed and wounded, without one accident on our side.
The Honorable Captain Yorke, in the Circe, hastened to share in the
glory, but was prevented by light winds.

This closes my details for 1793.


A number of additional Companies were deemed necessary to the corps
of Marines, which was composed of 12,115 for the service of 1794.
During this year a number of First Lieutenants were appointed to
Companies in Black Regiments; a transit which many embraced.

A correspondence with General Paoli having been opened by Lord
Hood, relative to the state of Corsica, that active Officer
determined, in consequence, upon driving the French from all their
ports in the island.

Throughout the whole of this arduous business, the constancy and
persevering valour of the Naval Officers and Seamen were never
more conspicuous. To their scientific and laborious exertions in
dragging cannon to the top of a hill which commanded the Fort of
La Convention, must be ascribed the success against that important
key to St. Fiorenzo itself. The storm which was consequent upon
it, reflects high honor upon that shining Officer Col. (now Gen.)

The Naval Chief was not contented with possession of the Gulf and
Fortress of St. Fiorenzo alone, but followed up his views also
against Bastia, the capital. This he resolved to attempt with the
skeletons of four regiments, serving in his fleet as Marines, and
a brigade of Seamen. The final surrender of that town and citadel,
garrisoned by 4000 French and Corsican Soldiers, to a besieging
force of 1248, and of mingled descriptions, must ever stand as one
of the most brilliant events that adorn our military history. His
Lordship was lavish in praise of all his brave coadjutors, which
was repeated on the reduction of Calvi and with it the fall of
Corsica. This closed his meritorious career.

The defenceless and disaffected state of the French West India
islands had prompted an enterprize against them, which sailed from
England towards the close of 1793. These objects were confided
to Sir John Jervis (now Earl St. Vincent) and Lieutenant General
Sir Charles Grey. The rapidity and success of all their movements
convinced their Country that the trust could not have been reposed
in more able hands.

Soon after their arrival at Barbadoes little time was lost, when
their first efforts were levelled against the strong and valuable
island of Martinique. My bounds will not authorize me to enlarge
upon the train of operations, which preceded its surrender, so
very honorable to the talents and zeal of those distinguished
Commanders, in most of which, the corps of Marines appears to have
had but a trifling share. The chief duty, of an active nature,
which fell to their lot was against Fort St. Louis, upon which
a combined attack was planned, by a brigade of 1000 Seamen and
Marines, under Commodore Thompson, and supported by Captains
Riou, Rogers, and Baynton of the Royal Navy, approaching from
Point Negro towards its western side, while it was assailed by the
Asia and Zebra sloops in front, and harassed by the enfilading
fire of two batteries on shore. A body of Grenadiers and Light
Infantry, from the camps of La Coste and Sourriere, were also to
advance, on the land side, under the cover of a hill. This joint
attack was, however, anticipated by the unparalleled enterprize
and courage of Captain Faulkener, of the Zebra sloop, who dashed
close to the walls of the Fort, and carried it, at the head of his
ship's company of Seamen and Marines, at the very moment when the
republicans were in consultation about its defence.

Mons. Rochambeau, instead of turning the guns of Fort Bourbon
against the town, afterwards occupied by Colonel Symes and the
flank corps, as well as Fort Louis, both of which it commands,
immediately stipulated for its surrender, and the whole island,
which took place on the following day being the 21st of March. His
Royal Highness Prince Edward, (now Duke of Kent), who had lately
arrived from Canada, commanded at the Camp of La Coste, with
deserved credit.

No time was lost in proceeding against St. Lucia, which became an
easy conquest. The islands of the Saintes were likewise carried by
the Seamen and Marines of the Quebec, Blanche, Ceres, and Rose. The
reduction of Guadaloupe immediately followed, where a landing was
effected in the Ance de Gosier, of some infantry and a body of 500
Seamen and Marines, under cover of the Winchelsea, Lord Garlies,
who, carrying his ship close to the enemy's batteries, quickly
silenced them.

The assault of the Fort of La Fleur d'Epée, was attempted in
three divisions, headed by Prince Edward, Major General Dundas,
and Colonel Symes; to each of which was attached a part of the
Naval battalion. The storm was most decisively conducted with the
bayonet, but, amidst the heat of the contest, a great part of the
garrison was put to the sword. Having thus obtained possession of
the quarter of Grande Terre, from the republicans also abandoning
Fort Louis, the town of Point a Petre, and the battery upon the
islet à Couchon, the 43d Regiment was left at D'Epée, and the
rest of the forces were re-embarked. Two divisions of the Army
under Prince Edward, and Colonel Symes, were again landed on the
evening and morning of the 14th and 15th of April, at Petit Bourg,
who seized the evacuated redoubt of D'Arbond, carrying Arret by
assault, in which was involved the material post of Palmiste, by
day break of the 20th; while Major General Dundas, having been put
ashore near the town of Basseterre, led his division against Morne
Magdaline, which he also gained.

General Collot being now cooped up within the town, and Fort
Charles, both of which were commanded by the heights in possession
of the British, he proposed terms for the surrender of Guadaloupe,
which were discussed, and subscribed.

Sir Charles Grey says, "that to the unanimity and extraordinary
exertions of the Navy and Army, under fatigues never exceeded, his
Majesty and their Country, are indebted for the rapid success in
extending the British Empire, by adding to it the valuable islands
of Martinique, St. Lucia, Guadaloupe, the Saintes, Marigalante,
and Descada." Sir John Jervis remarked, "that the unabated
exertions of the Officers and men, _under his command_, could never
be surpassed, and that keeping constant pace with the troops no
difficulty or danger arrested, for an instant, their career of

A kind of forlorn detachment from France, which escaped all our
cruizers, achieved the recovery of Guadaloupe, after a series of
hardy contests, in which the Marines bore a part--Lieutenant John
Mercer, of my corps, was wounded in one of them, and became a
victim to fever, lamented by his friends, and his corps. Fruitless
would have been all the enemy's efforts, if fascinating liberty had
not erected her standard, whither numbers repaired, in the sanguine
hope of sharing in her gifts.

The 1st of June, 1794, presents one of the best fought actions that
appears on our Naval records. France had continued to molest our
commerce by her cruizing squadrons, but her internal necessities,
during this year of general scarcity, obliged her to concentrate
her ships, and, with all her united forces, to cover the safety of
an immense convoy from America. This was the main object, for which
nothing too much could be risqued.

From the instances of defection which had so often occurred in her
military leaders, that republic, jealous of its baneful extension,
combined Mons. St. Andre, an approved democrat, in the public
character of a Commissioner, with their Chief Vice Admiral Villaret
Joyeuse, on board the Montagne.

During three preceding days the fleets were in sight, two partial
affairs took place, and some very able manœuvring. The wind having
been gained by Lord Howe, on the evening of the 31st of May, at
seven in the morning of the following day, he bore up to battle,
while the French coolly awaited his approach to so close a distance
that little more than an hour decided the victory. The republican
Chief gave the first example of flight, in which St. Andre,
doubtless, coalesced, in spite of all his popular enthusiasm. Seven
captured ships were amongst the fruits of that glorious day, which
enervated all the subsequent exertions of a vindictive foe, during
the war.

Many of the fleet having been supplied with acting Marines, from
different regiments, the loss which befell our establishment was,
on that account, proportionally less. Captains (now. Colonel)
Smith, and C. Money, besides Lieutenant S. Mitchell, were among the
wounded, and comprized the total of our casualties in Officers.

The carnage amongst the French was dreadful, and in the ships alone
that were taken, it far exceeded the whole sustained by the British

The united thanks of a grateful Country were conveyed to the
Officers, Seamen, and Marines, for their faithful services on this
proud day.

Few single actions appear on the face of this year. One which was
fought betwixt the Artois and La Revolutionaire French frigate, did
honor to Captain Nagle in achieving her capture; but it deprived
his King of a brave and good soldier, his family of a promising
member, and his corps of one of its most shining ornaments, in
Lieut. Peter Craigie, of Marines, who was severely wounded, and
died soon after amputation.


Fifteen thousand Marines were voted for the service of 1795.

In consequence of the reverses of France at Toulon, and in the
battle of the 1st of June, her commerce was neglected, and her
Sailors became dispirited. Limiting nearly the whole of her
energies to one element, she was thus enabled in every quarter, to
pour from her frontiers a host of Soldiers and of Conquerors.

Holland, hitherto our ally, was over-run by her legions, who,
wherever they directed their steps, found the success of their
arms already ensured by the delusive power of their principles.
Although, in reality, a province, still a shew of acknowledged
independence was maintained, and the Dutch were admitted as
principals in a treaty of alliance which was concluded between the
two republics. Thus fraternized, Great Britain had to reckon a new
and decided enemy in a recent friend.

Accordingly, orders were issued in February 1795, for the detention
of vessels and property belonging to the subjects of Holland,
an expedition was framed against the Cape of Good Hope, and an
authority to subdue her settlements in the East, were transmitted
to our Commanders in that quarter of the world.

In those distant services the Corps of Marines bore a partial, but
an active share.

The attempt against the Cape was entrusted to the immediate conduct
of Sir George Elphinstone and Major General Craig, who arrived in
Simon's Bay early in July. A fruitless summons to surrender it
having been forwarded to its Governor, a debarkation of 450 of the
78th Regiment, and 350 Marines, under Major, now Colonel Hill, was
effected upon the 14th, in time to save that town from devoted

Our troops had been expressly restrained from hostility against
the Dutch forces, but such was their conduct that it soon provoked
retaliation. It being necessary to dislodge them from the strong
post of Mysenburgh, which was fortified with heavy guns, and
secured from approach both by land and sea, by a steep mountain
on the right, and shallow water, constantly agitated by surf, on
its left, 800 Seamen were landed under the Captains Spranger and
Hardy, which constituted a total strength of 1600 men. As they
were without cannon, the whole awaited the fortune of a wind that
would allow the ships of war to unite in the attack. This occurred
on the 7th of August, when Commodore Blankett got under weigh
with the America, Stately, Echo, and Rattlesnake; while General
Craig advanced with his little army. So judicious was the Naval
disposition, that the Dutch were driven by the fire of those ships,
and some launches armed with carronades, from one post to another,
which the troops successively occupied.

Retiring to a ridge of rocky heights beyond their camp, which
they had abandoned, the enemy were very spiritedly assaulted by
Major Moneypenny, at the head of the advanced guard, supported by
the whole of the gallant 78th. Although seconded by some heavy
guns that over-awed it from across the lagoon towards Cape-town,
and possessing a hold almost impregnable from its situation, they
were still forced from it, after a contest which closed only with
the day. In the course of it, the Dutch left behind them some
artillery, which were drilled, and once more rendered serviceable
by Lieutenant Coffin and his company of pikemen, from the

On the morning of the 8th of August, the enemy having drawn their
whole force from Cape-town, aimed it to recover the posts they had
lost. Observing, however, the strength of the British positions,
they desisted from any attempt, and the day was chiefly spent in
skirmishing with the 1st battalion of Seamen, under Captain Hardy,
and the Marines under Major Hill, who had passed the lagoon.
General Craig says, that both Corps were distinguished throughout
by regularity in manœuvre, and the most steady resolution. Major
Hill was very ably assisted by the valuable advice of Captain,
now Lieut. Colonel Sir John Douglas, during the whole of these
fatiguing and combined duties.

A small reinforcement arrived on the 9th from St. Helena, but
the pressures of the army daily increased to such a degree, that
it became expedient, in order to alleviate them, to risque the
storm of one of the enemy's principal out-posts on the 27th of
August, which unfortunately failed. So critically were matters
circumstanced, that it was determined between the Commanders in
Chief to try the fortune of another assault in six days, if Sir
Allured Clarke should not appear with the expected reinforcements.
The Dutch had resolved, however, to anticipate this issue, which
was, in event, to decide the fate of the Colony.

A disastrous affair on the 1st of September, in which the picquet
was driven in with loss, and Major Moneypenny most severely
wounded, encouraged them to this daring effort on the 3d. With a
train of eighteen field-pieces, and all the strength they could
muster, they appeared after break of day, but were stayed in their
progress by the signal for a fleet having hove in sight.

On the 4th, Major General Craig resigned the command to Sir Allured
Clarke, not without expressing his high sense of the animated
exertions of _all_, in the face of a superior enemy, as well as
for their cheerful resignation under the greatest hardships and

From the powerful aids which had arrived, matters were pushed on
most briskly, and the Army moved against the post of Wyneberg on
the 14th. Here the Dutch demonstrated a shew of resistance; but
Commodore Blanket appearing in Table Bay with three ships, in
order to create a diversion, the enemy retreated, and early on the
morning of the 16th, proposed terms of surrender. By these, the
whole settlement was added to the British dominions.

Sir Allured Clarke united his cordial testimony with that of
Sir George Elphinstone, of the very meritorious conduct of the
Officers, Seamen, and Marines of the squadron, during a tedious
service of labour and even privation of necessary food. Only nine
Marines were wounded throughout.

In the East, the Islands of Ceylon and Manar, the Peninsula of
Malacca, Cochin, a seaport on the coast of Malabar, and, in fine,
most of the valuable settlements of the Dutch in Hindostan, fell
successively under the combined efforts of our Naval and Military
forces; in all of which, however, intrigue was more conspicuous
than active hostility.

It falls not within my scope to enlarge upon the many disastrous
events that took place in the West. There Victor Hughes, a man of
the most consummate talents, but which were stained by inhumanity,
acted both as the agent and the organ of republican France. He
perfectly assimilated himself to the temper of his employers;
recognizing only the rules of expediency, he was ever the ready
advocate for the most sanguinary works, and felt not the controul
of principle where it opposed his interests. His incendiary
attempts will long be reviewed with horror by those islands which
were the theatres of his plots.

This year abounded with Naval achievements.--In the Mediterranean
the French suffered a defeat, on the 8th of March, from an inferior
force, when on their way to recover Corsica. Admiral Hotham's loss,
in killed and wounded, upon this partial occasion, was 315 Seamen
and Marines.

Another action was fought on the 12th of July, which terminated in
the capture of one ship. Captains Towry and Middleton, the Seamen
and Marines of the Dido and Lowestoffe, were eminently noticed for
their gallantry in a successful contest with two of the heaviest
frigates from France, which terminated in the surrender of one;
while the other found refuge in flight.

On the coast of America the Hon. Captain Cochrane, with Captain
Beresford, were equally conspicuous in subduing their superior
antagonists; in which the former says, that the carronades on
the quarter deck of the Thetis, were very ably served by Lieut.
(afterward Captain) Paul Crebbin, and the Marines under his command.

The masterly retreat of Vice-Admiral Cornwallis, in the face of
an enemy nearly thrice his force, exhibited such a display of
cool valour, as not to produce a parallel upon our annals. The
energies of his pen bespoke the feelings of his invincible mind;
and although the merit was exclusively his own, yet he generously
shared it amongst his faithful associates, in these words:--

  "Royal Sovereign, June 18, 1795.

"Vice Admiral Cornwallis returns his sincere thanks to the
Captains, Officers, Seamen, and Marines of the Fleet under his
orders, for their steady and gallant conduct in the presence of
the French Fleet yesterday; which firmness, he has no doubt,
deterred the enemy from making a more serious attack. It would
give the Vice Admiral pleasure to put the whole of their exertions
in effect by meeting a more equal force, when the Country would
receive advantage, as it now does honour, from the spirit so truly
manifested by its brave men."

This gratifying tribute was followed up to each, by the most
precious tender which can be offered to a Briton--that of the
legislative thanks of his Country.

The Marine Soldier can often be retraced upon those proud records.

It was reserved for Lord Bridport to convince the enemy of the
decisive weight of an equal force. On the 23d of June they owed
the salvation of all their Fleet to their formidable batteries,
and the strong Naval port of L'Orient. Lieut. William Jephcote, of
Marines, fell upon that day, which augmented our Fleet with three
sail of the line.

The engagement betwixt La Blanche, Captain Faulkner, and the
French frigate La Pique, fought early in 1795, off the island of
Guadaloupe, affords a lasting test of the superiority of English
discipline and courage. While our loss was confined to 29 killed
and wounded, that of the republicans exceeded a total of 212. After
exhibiting every quality of a judicious and brave Officer, Captain
Faulkner was shot through the heart, who left not behind him a
brighter example of true heroism.

The Marines of La Blanche behaved nobly, and maintained a constant
fire under Lieut. Richardson, who, with Serjeant George Dice, did
honour to their Corps.


Eighteen thousand Marines was the establishment of 1796.

The extensive and lamentable casualties which had befallen our
troops in the West Indies, with the enterprizing successes of
Victor Hughes, demanded auxiliary aids from Europe, not only to
remedy misfortunes, but to fill up their exhausted ranks.

After a train of unprecedented bad weather, which was combated
by Rear Admiral Christian with an uncommon perseverance, this
squadron and army, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, reached Barbadoes
early in 1796. An expedition was instantly undertaken against the
Dutch settlements in Guiana, to which Demerara, with Issequibo,
capitulated on the 22d of April, as did Berbice on the 2d of May,
without resistance.

The first object of the main Army was against St. Lucia, upon which
island, a debarkation was made on the 27th of April. A series of
attacks took place against the enemy's posts, in which Brigadier
General Moore, and the 27th Regiment, were particularly noticed.

On the 2d of May 800 Seamen and 320 Marines were landed, who
co-operated on shore with much credit, until the total subjection
of St. Lucia, upon the 26th. I cannot express their good conduct
in stronger terms, than in these which proceeded from Sir Ralph
Abercromby, in General Orders of May 27th:--

"During the services which have been carried on in the island of
St, Lucia, all the courage and every exertion of the Army, would
have proved ineffectual, if Rear Admiral Sir H. C. Christian, and
the Royal Navy, had not stepped forward with the alacrity which
had been so conspicuous in forwarding the most arduous part of
the public service; to their skill and unremitting labour is,
in a great measure, owing the success which has attended his
Majesty's arms. It will afford the Commander in Chief the greatest
satisfaction to be able to lay before his Majesty the eminent
services which have, on this occasion, been performed by the Royal
Navy; and Admiral Sir H. C. Christian will confer a particular
obligation on Lieut. General Sir R. Abercromby and the Army at
large, if he will communicate to the Royal Navy, and particularly
to Captains Lane, Ryves, and Stephenson, and the other Officers who
acted on shore; and to the Corps of Marines, the great obligation
which they consider themselves under to them.

  "T. BUSBY, Adjutant General."

St. Vincents and Grenada, disorganized by the bustling Victor
Hughes, were again restored to order; in effecting which objects,
the Marines were also auxiliary, in union with their brethren of
the Navy.

Early in this year the Dutch possessions of Amboyna and Banda were
taken by the exertions of the squadron under Admiral Rainier, and
the reduction of Columbo in the isle of Ceylon, with an immense
booty, also occurred, by the joint forces under Colonel J. Stuart,
and Captain Gardner of the Heroine. Although devoid of much
military interest, still those settlements were of high importance
in a commercial view, and I reflect with a mixture of pleasure
and of pride, upon every instance in which my Corps has been
instrumental in promoting the solid interests of their Country.

An expedition, that was destined for the recovery of the Cape
of Good Hope, under Admiral Lucas, became a prey to the active
vigilance of Sir George Elphinstone, who, with a cool judgment,
and anxious to spare the effusion of blood, proposed terms of
surrendering his squadron. By this exemplary address, eight ships
of war were gained without a shot, or the loss of a man.

The French settlement of Foul Point, on the island of Madagascar,
on the coast of Africa, was destroyed by the Seamen and Marines of
the Crescent, Brave, and Sphynx, in the month of December.

Captain, now Lord Nelson, gave crouded displays of his zeal and
courage upon various services in the Mediterranean during this
year, by the cutting out some vessels from under the batteries
of Loano, the capture of a Spanish frigate in La Minerve, and in
obtaining possession of the Isle of Elba, without any loss. Porto
Ferrajo, afterwards noted for its distinguished defence by a few
Marines and some mixed troops, likewise capitulated to him, on the
Captain, of 74 guns, having been placed against the grand Bastion.

The able valour of Captain Macnamara, of the Southampton, in
boarding and bringing off, from under a heavy fire of the batteries
on Porquerollos, one of the Hieres islands, the corvette Utile, is
beyond praise. Lieut. Lydiard behaved most spiritedly, and William
Oirton, private Marine, was the only man killed on this brilliant

The conduct of Captain Bowen, his Seamen and Marines, in the
Terpsichore, was twice most gallantly evinced by the capture of El
Mahonesa and La Vertale, in the months of October and December.

Returning homewards, the Naval incidents of the year were repeated
and animated.

On the 17th of March, Sir Sidney Smith, with that intrepidity in
hazard so natural to him, destroyed a small convoy within the port
of Herqui; which was not accomplished however, without landing some
Seamen, under Lieut. Pine, and the Marines of the Diamond, under
Lieut. Carter, who, in spite of a body of troops, pushed ashore,
climbed the precipice in front of their batteries, and re-embarked,
after having spiked the guns. Lieut. Pine was wounded, and Lieut.
Carter mortally, of which he soon died, leaving behind him the
merited character of a most excellent Officer and amiable man.

On the 20th, Sir John Warren, with his little squadron, engaged a
very superior force, taking one frigate and four of a convoy.

Lieut. Williams, of Marines, appears mentioned by Sir Edward Pellew
as having rendered essential service on board the Indefatigable, in
capturing La Virginie upon the 21st of April.

The fortunate contest between the Unicorn, Captain Sir Thomas
Williams, and La Tribune, began under an obvious disadvantage, and
while it has fully established the fame of that Officer, it was
likewise most honourable to Lieut. Hart of my Corps. The Seamen
and Marines of La Margaretta were also much distinguished in
Captain Martin's official dispatch, announcing the capture of La

Captain Trollope, in the Glatton, of 54, armed with heavy
carronades, stands most highly on the records of this year, by
his having encountered and beat a squadron carrying upwards of
200 guns, and in every respect nearly thrice his force. While the
circumstances of the battle reflect a lustre upon all who fought,
the unsubdued spirit of Captain Strangeways, of Marines, was
truly heroic, and demands the grateful sympathy of his Country
and his Corps. After having received a ball in his thigh, he was
necessarily carried below, and on a tourniquet having been applied
by the Surgeon, he insisted upon going again to his quarters,
where he continued to animate his men until he fainted from loss
of blood, when Captain Trollope was obliged to interpose his
authority for his removal from danger. He afterwards fevered and
died, forsaking by destiny a distressed widow and family to deplore
his fall, to the tutelar care of Providence and the British nation.
William Hall, Corporal of Marines, was, besides, the only one
wounded in this memorable action.

Sir John Warren, by his reiterated exploits through the year, has
very meritedly founded a name for spirit and zeal.

Towards the close of 1796 the French fleet put to sea from Brest,
with the direct aim of invading the sister kingdom of Ireland. To
it an army of 15,000 men was united under General Hoche. Heaven
again stepped forth to thwart their schemes, whose elementary
agents were employed to overthrow them. Scarcely had they set sail,
when the winds began to blow with violence, which burst into a
storm after gaining sight of the wished for land. Their armament
was finally scattered, and while a part of it, was buried in the
ocean, others were doomed to augment the British Navy, and the
remains to hasten back, in disappointment and in terror, towards
their own ports.

Judging, from external evidences, their reception would have been
worthy of Irishmen, had their invaders reached their shores.

Patriotism shone forth in every rank of society, and one godlike
churchman[3] exerted those powerful energies, which must always be
attached to every reputable member of his honorable calling, in
keeping alive the sacred flame.


[3] Dr. Moylan, Titular Bishop of Cork.


Spain having become a compulsory ally of France, during the last
year, an expedition took place against the valuable island of
Trinidad, on the North East coast of Terra Firma, in South America,
which surrendered after a very trifling resistance, to the joint
forces under Sir Ralph Abercrombie and Rear Admiral Hervey. Blended
with this capture, were 4 sail of the line and one frigate, which
offered no opposition to our fleet, but were destroyed by the
enemy, excepting the St. Damaso of 70 guns.

Another but less fortunate attempt was made upon Porto Rico, but it
was relinquished from the inadequacy of means to carry it, after
some loss. On both occasions the Marines were placed in readiness
to act, but were not required to land.

Sir John Jervis (now Earl St. Vincent) had the honourable
distinction of standing foremost in the list of Naval Heroes,
who, unappalled by very superior numbers, dashed at every thing.
His masterly manœuvres, upon the 14th of February, rendered this
encouraging advantage unavailing to the Spanish Fleet, which, by a
bold and decisive push, he separated, and defeated. This immortal
action was not only crowned with the glory of capturing 4 sail of
the line, but it had also its influence upon the spirits of our
enemy, in every subsequent combat on the sea. An uncommon display
of personal intrepidity was evinced by Commodore Nelson, Captain
Miller, and Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Berry, who at the
head of the boarders from his Majesty's ship Captain, assaulted
and carried, sword in hand, the San Joseff and St. Nicholas. The
battle raged from 10 in the morning, until the close of day, which
screened this powerful armament from destruction. Major William
Norris, Lieut. G. A. Livingstone, and Serjeant Watson, of Marines,
finished their lives, and 6 privates were killed, besides 21
wounded, in a contest where all were distinguished. The Legislative
thanks were bestowed upon every class of our victorious fleet,
and all these honours which a grateful Country could give, were
conferred upon her meritorious servants. The port of Cadiz was
afterwards most effectually blockaded, and was twice bombarded, in
one of which Captain John Oldfield, of Marines, was wounded.

No war, in which England was ever engaged, has produced so many
high examples of subordinate enterprize, as that of which I treat.
Like the gymnastick games, it is a spirit which should always be
kept up, and although similar to petty skirmishing, it is as a drop
in the bucket in the scale of importance, it still has a tendency
to animate an emulous zeal, and the love of glory. It is the school
in which greater deeds are taught, and to which all should be

While I thus appear the humble advocate in recommending an ardency
for early achievement, I would at the same time urge a gradation
of recompence, or of honorary grants, suited to the feelings of
every description of its agents. These have been of old standing,
and have undergone many a change, alternately adapted to the
fluctuating manners of society. Many a useful hint might be
gleaned from the institutions of the Greeks and the Romans, and
as _human nature never alters_, they might well be applied to
ourselves. The French have studied and practised these doctrines
with success. Louis the 11th rewarded the prowess and bravery of
one of his soldiers, Launay Morvillier, by publicly taking the
collar of a military order, from his own neck, and putting it
on his. Under the republican system, this has been invariably
observed, towards the meanest, by every convention, of whatever
stuff it has been composed, and it has been one of the engines
by which their numerous armies have been worked into enthusiasm.
Medals, descriptive of those merits that have acquired them, would
be estimable even to the poor man. While they adorned the cottage,
they would also be viewed by every one of its tenants as monumental
emblems of loyal valour; a title which each of its members would
not only be loth to forfeit, but inclined to rival.

These remarks are introductory to one of the many exploits by which
this contest was marked.

The boats of the Lively and La Minerve under Lieut. Hardy, in
which, Lieut. Bulkeley, of Marines, most handsomely volunteered,
boarded, and carried La Mutine brig of 12 six pounders and 2
thirty-six pound corronades, having 113 men, in the bay of Sancta
Cruz, amidst the fire of all the Spanish batteries, and a sharp
discharge from the French corvette. Only 15 were wounded in this
hot affair. Lieut. Hardy was deservedly promoted, but his brave
companions have no traces of the deed, but in their own minds.

An unsuccessful essay upon Teneriffe on the 25th of July, under
Commodore Nelson, fraught with many feats of unsurpassed bravery,
ended in the re-embarkation of the seamen and Marines, by consent
of the enemy, who were threatened by Captain Trowbridge, with the
vengeance of our squadron, in the event of molestation. Owing to
the judicious proposals made by that excellent Officer, boats
were supplied by the Spanish Governor, to remedy the loss of our
own from the violence of the surf; the wounded were kindly taken
into the hospitals, and that generous foe even tendered such
refreshments as his invaders might request. Commodore Nelson here
lost his arm, which happily did not deprive his Country of the
services of one of its most valuable subjects.

Lieut. Robinson and Basham, and 16 of my corps fell, 15 were
wounded, and 102 Seamen and Marines were drowned or missing.
Although the event was unpropitious, still our arms were not

Partaking of the diabolical spirit of the times, one of the most
daring and sanguinary mutinies broke out in the Hermione, on the
22d of September, that ever disgraced the Christian world. After
the most shocking barbarities exercised upon Captain Pigot, the
Officers, Marines, and loyal Seamen, who were unsuspicious of their
hellish plot, they carried the ship into the Spanish port of La
Guira, whose Governor most ingloriously refused to give her up.

An avenging power, in numberless examples, too striking to be
overlooked, has followed those traitorous murderers, and has
vindicated the justice of his injured laws. Contempt embittered
by remorse have been the inseparable companions of all those
guilty individuals. Driven from the shores where they sanguinely
anticipated nothing but recompence and applause, many of those
wretched outcasts, by retracing their steps towards their native
land, have met a certain and disgraceful doom, others unable to
bear the stings of a wounded conscience, and abhorring existence,
have precipitated their own dissolution, while the remains of
those unhappy wanderers still throw a wishful eye from, their
lurking spots, back on the soil which gave them birth, but where
a vigilant Police, that vicegerent of heaven's purposes, is ever
awake to their crimes. Even the very ship which was the theatre of
their lawless outrage, has also been involved in their accursed
destinies, for she was sometime after gallantly cut out of Porto
Cavallo, by Sir Edward Hamilton, at the head of a body of Seamen
and Marines from the Surprize, although protected by 200 heavy
cannon, and under circumstances of incredible carnage, with the
loss of only one Englishman.

A peculiar spirit of activity seemed to pervade our squadron upon
the Jamaica station, during the year 1797. Above 60 vessels of
different descriptions were taken or destroyed, under batteries
where they rode in confident security, but which were uniformly
inadequate to shelter them from determined valour. The zeal and
directing genius of Captains W. H. Ricketts, and the unfortunate
Pigot, were always well seconded by their Officers, their Sailors
and Marines.

At the eventful period when Britain was contending for the general
liberties of mankind against the most vindictive and powerful
enemies she had ever encountered, when our islands were menaced
with invasion, and treason stalked throughout our streets, she
suddenly found herself deserted by her long tried and guardian

The turbulent demon first appeared in the garb of justice, but
after having gained its ends, he soon threw away the mask which
covered his mutinous and corrupt heart. Those liberal concessions
made by a considerate and grateful Country, appeared to stimulate,
instead of suppressing revolt, and its contaminating principles
diffused themselves over every quarter of the world.

Many were the individual instances of fidelity in my corps, at this
awful crisis. Many were the gallant fellows in it who preferred
the honorable distinction of allegiance to their King, to the
mercenary attainments of self interest. The partial support of the
party of Marines on board the London, given to Admiral Colpoys and
his Officers, at a time when they were surrounded by thousands of
disaffected comrades, afforded a faint display of what would have
been their general energies had such been called forth. They were
indeed overpowered by numbers, after a contest, in which Lieutenant
(now Captain) W. Sims was severely wounded. The loyal conduct of
Serjeant Sweet, on board the Pompee, was evident to the members
of a Court Martial which sat upon the trial of some misguided
mutineers of that ship.

An instance of true heroism appeared in Charles Cubitt, private
Marine, (in the Royal Sovereign I think,) who, after having been
stabbed in the belly, by a Sailor, with a pike, pursued him with a
loaded musket at his ear, but on the fellow begging for life, he
nobly spared him.

The steady faithfulness of all those Marine Soldiers who had served
during the American war, and had survived the heavy reduction
at its close, was uniformly conspicuous. At the outset of these
lamentable events, an unshaken resolve to stand or fall with their
Officers, inspired every breast, which, had it been accepted,
might have led to the sacrifice of those brave men who would have
been opposed to uneven numbers, in the Seamen and many of their
fellows, whom public emergency had embarked, untrained even to
the common duties of their profession, and unhabituated to that
strict obedience, which is the essence of every military virtue.
Unconscious of that dignity which belongs to his character, the raw
recruit readily gives in to any scheme urged by the designing; of
which there were too many drawn from the dregs of society, amongst
those provincial conscripts who had previously been levied at the
most enormous bounties, to man the fleet.

This fiendly spirit soon found its way to the Mediterranean, where
all the achievements of Earl St. Vincent's life were yet, I may
say, surpassed, by the evidences of that manly vigour with which he
subdued it. In this, his Lordship was zealously seconded by all the
Officers and the Marines of his fleet, and by one uniform system of
subordination which emanated from his high example. The conduct of
Admiral Duncan, at Yarmouth, and Admiral Pringle, at the Cape of
Good Hope, was alike energetic.

Subsequent events have shewn that this flame was only stifled,
but not extinguished, and it would have yielded me the highest
gratification to have here bidden an adieu to the hateful topic.

It is an occasion, worthy of the gratitude of Britons, to notice
the relative situations of our republican foes at this alarming
juncture. France would have eagerly embraced such an hour of
calamity to consummate her ambitious views upon our happy Country,
but she was paralyzed by similar principles in her own Navy, while
the meditated expedition against Ireland, was detained in the ports
of Holland by unabating and contrary winds.

This year was remarkable by an increase of pay to his Majesty's
subaltern Officers, the abolition of arrears to them, to Captains
of the Army, as well as Marines, besides a very handsome addition
to the wages of Seamen, and to inferiors in all the other
departments of our military forces. That liberal allowance of
provisions which was also granted to the Sailors and Marines of
the fleet, has rendered their situations truly enviable, as upon
a general aggregate they are more than they can possibly consume.
The overplus being converted into money is nearly adequate to the
purchase of those cordials of which they stand in need, and, in
consequence, a prudent man is under little necessity to encroach
upon his pecuniary gains. No class of his Majesty's servants is
more independent, or might be more happy.

The gallantry of our Navy in the face of an enemy, notwithstanding
these outrageous scenes, was uniformly apparent. That expert Seaman
and intrepid Officer, Sir Edward Pellew, stands first on the list,
accompanied by his brave supporter Captain R. C. Reynolds, of the
Amazon, who nobly seconded the Indefatigable, in a contest, with
but few intervals, of ten hours. Their opponent, Les Droits de
L'Homme, of 74 guns, had been attached to the squadron destined for
Ireland, and was on her return to France when attacked by those
daring Officers. She had 1600 men on board, by which she fought
her cannon on both sides, and thus enjoyed her great superiority.
The winds blew a storm, and all their animosities subsided at last
in the predominant duty of self-preservation; for a glimpse of the
moon providentially penetrating the sullen clouds, pointed out the
breakers on a near shore, and the gloomy presage of instantaneous
destruction. They were fatal to the unhappy Frenchman, who merited
a better doom, as well as to the Amazon, after all her efforts. Sir
Edward Pellew expressed his grateful feelings to Lieuts. O'Connor
and Wilson, of Marines, for their conduct under these trying

A disastrous fate seems to have always pursued every modern aim
at the conquest of our isles. A petty attempt on Wales, by means
of a set of wretched criminals, terminated with their immediate
surrender to Lord Cawdor; and the capture of the frigates that had
transported them, by Sir H. Neal and Captain J. Cooke, of the St.
Fiorenzo and Nymphe, in sight of their own fleet in the road of
Brest. Lieut. (afterwards Capt.) Carruthers, who was subsequently
drowned in the Invincible, and Lieut. Campbell, of Marines, were
distinguished in this spirited affair.

Sir John Warren and his squadron were highly active in annoying the
enemy's Naval force and coasting trade during this year.

It is needless to enlarge upon the merits of the brilliant
victory of the 11th of October, achieved under the most hazardous
circumstances, and signally productive of the most important
consequences. The very modest recital of Admiral, now Lord Duncan,
of the proceedings of that day, adds a lustre to his well-earned
glory. Long baulked in the hopes of meeting his cautious enemy, no
wonder his joy kept pace with his zeal to close with them when he
had them in his power. The Dutch Marine has not yet recovered the
blow, and the services of the North Sea fleet have, experimentally,
transcended in their effects to enervate the Naval exertions of
that province of France, in two wars.

During the very able and vigilant administration of Earl Spencer,
reward was the rapid follower of desert, and the British Commander,
after not many hours absence from his Country, found himself, on
return to it, elevated, from a commoner, to a Peer of the Realm. A
suitable tribute was bestowed upon his brave second Vice Admiral,
now Sir Richard Onslow, and Captain H. Trollope, who was bearer of
the glad tidings, as well as W. G. Fairfax, the Admiral's Captain;
both of whom were created Knights Banneret[4], by a benevolent and
grateful Sovereign. The Thanks of the Nation were also conveyed to
the Officers, Seamen, and Marines, through its representatives.

The generous contributions of the patriotic and the wealthy of
our land, were likewise extended to many a disconsolate widow, a
fatherless offspring, and a helpless orphan. The sufferings of
the wounded and indigent Officer too were alleviated by public
kindness, which sought for objects upon which to exercise its
benevolence amongst the lowest ranks of those brave defenders. How
criminal it is in any to violate the duties of fidelity to such a

In this well-fought battle 751 Seamen and Marines were killed
and wounded, amongst the latter of which were numbered Captains
Cuthbert and Cassel, Lieuts. Chambers, Smith, Walker, Charles Rea,
and Sandys.

A dash at the Brutus, of 74 guns, by Sir Thomas Williams, after the
battle, was ineffectual; but did honour to himself, his Officers,
Seamen, and Marines, in the Endymion.

The capture of La Nereide, by Captain, now Sir Robert Barlow, in a
night action, displayed the courage and talents of that Officer,
and was highly honourable to Lieut. Stewart and his detachment.

On the 19th of December, one of the most delightful scenes ever
witnessed in the metropolis of any Empire, was exhibited in ours.
It was the procession of the best of Kings, his amiable consort,
every branch of the Royal Family, and the representatives of the
greatest Nation on earth, towards the altars of their God. Never
did prayers ascend on high with a greater fervor of devotion,
which was heightened by every surrounding object. The occasion was
well calculated to convert the heedless infidel, and to excite a
military enthusiasm _not_ to be easily effaced.

Bodies of Marines, drawn from Portsmouth and from Chatham, chiefly
formed from those who had so often contributed to the Naval
victories of the State, in union with their brethren the Seamen,
were allotted for the protection of these trophies which their
valour had conquered, and what moved along towards the spot, where
all were to pour forth their solemn thanksgivings. Their Majesties
were greeted on the way by thousands of their affectionate
subjects, and the Prime Minister of the day, who had presided over
the Councils of his Country with such ability during its unexampled
difficulties, was received with that unconstrained applause, which
attested that Englishmen knew how to appreciate his transcendent


[4] They take precedence next to Knights of the Bath, and are
creations exclusively granted to military men, who have performed
any feats of valour. They are always understood to take place on
the field of battle, for though Sir William Erskine was invested
with the order by his present Majesty, in Hyde Park, for his
bravery in the battle of Emsdorff, at the head of the 15th Light
Dragoons, still he was not acknowledged as such in this country.


Twenty thousand Marines constituted the force of 1798.

No occurrences worthy of particular remark happened this year
either in Asia or America; but few opportunities presented to
signalize our Navy, and these were of an inferior rate, while the
diminished territory of our enemies in both, left but a limited
range for further conquest.

The possession of Port-au-Prince, and its dependencies in the
island of St. Domingo was relinquished, after a struggle truly
honourable to our soldiery and squadrons; but in which the loss of
many lives, and an immense expenditure, were unhappily involved.

It is to the shores of the Mediterranean and the coasts of Africa,
the eye is called to witness scenes of insatiable ambition, but of
unrivalled glory.

At this era France had overcome her numerous foes by the
enchantments of her principles, the charms of her gold, or the
terror of her arms. Hitherto she had almost supported her immense
armies within those provinces she had subdued, or the countries she
had invaded. Peace shut the channel of such resources, as there
were now but scanty gleanings from an unabating rapacity, which had
desolated every soil that had been visited by her citizens.

An army, long inured to plunder and to victory, became a natural
object of jealousy within the bosom of their Country. One enemy,
manly in politics, unexhausted in wealth, and unbended in attitude,
continued to oppose this insinuating monster, too long arrayed in
the borrowed garb of freedom. The riches of our island, and the
virtues of its natives, had each their effects in stimulating this
mass of men to farther dangers, and in attracting the hatred of a
Government, which, consciously, derived all its temporary energies
from that infidelity to God, and annihilation of every moral
principle which, by pervading France, had reconciled Frenchmen to
the commission of any act.

The title of "Invading Army of England" was bestowed upon these
extended corps, who were diverted from employing their speculative
ideas as subjects, by pointing out to them future duties as
soldiers. We may judge of this mighty force when we reflect that
its right wing alone, posted on the coasts of the Mediterranean
exceeded 40,000. At the head of it was Buonaparte, denominated the
Conqueror of Italy, and deservedly standing high as a General;
but his exploits had rendered him an object of suspicion to the
rulers of France, who were well aware of his popularity amongst the
soldiery, and his thirst for power.

An expedition to Egypt, with a view to overthrow the British power
in the East, had long been a favourite scheme of the Monarchy, and
it was revived under the Republic, which was anxious to get rid
of its legionary troops. It was well suited to the ambition of
Buonaparte, and he was an admirable agent to execute such faithless

My limits will not allow me to indulge in farther theories, nor
can I accompany him in his unprincipled progress. Malta, that
key to all his hopes, soon fell under his intrigues; after which
he proceeded, with an unexampled secrecy, to the friendly and
unsuspecting sea-coasts of the Turkish Empire. Alexandria and Cairo
became easy and alternate conquests to his delusive promises. The
covering fleet, under De Bruix, in the mean time anchored, and
formed into order of battle, in the Bay of Aboukir, protected by
flanking batteries, and seemingly impregnable by any force.

Rear Admiral Nelson, long distinguished for the most gallant and
active zeal, was destined to oppose this formidable combination,
and to achieve one of the most brilliant Naval victories that
stands upon the annals of the world. I will forbear to dwell on an
event which is so generally appreciated, and what must be immortal
as time itself.

Captain Faddy, of Marines, fell on the memorable 1st of August,
whose widow and family recognized a protector and a friend in Lord

Captains J. Cresswell, John Hopkins, and Lieut. John Jewell, were
wounded; 46 Marine Soldiers were killed, and 78 were wounded.

As usual, the honorary and pecuniary gratitude of the Nation was
stretched forth to every rank amongst the conquerors, and its
Legislative Bodies conveyed their sense of such splendid deeds, in
adequate and animated terms, to all.

Upon the following day a general thanksgiving was offered up to
heaven, which made not a greater impression upon ourselves, than on
the captive Frenchmen, who could not but express their admiration
of so solemn an assemblage, at a time of seeming confusion, and
when every heart felt all the elations of success.

The Admiral also tendered his acknowledgments to all the Officers,
Seamen, and Marines, for their gallant behaviour, and for a victory
that had been gained by their discipline and good order.

No battle on the sea ever produced more signal consequences.--It
stimulated Austria to resume her arms, and aroused the effeminate
States of Italy to a sense of their glory and their danger.

Although eclipsed in comparison, still the subordinate Naval
transactions in the Mediterranean were guided by a similar spirit.
Lieut. Perry, of Marines, distinguished himself upon a voluntary
dash at the corvette Mendovi, which was carried by the boats of the
Flora, under a heavy fire from the batteries of Corigo, that brig,
and the vessels in the harbour. John Perks, private Marine, was the
only brave fellow killed in this daring attempt, and Lieut. Perry
was slightly wounded.

Captain Digby, and the crew of the Aurora, were likewise noticed
for a train of enterprize; and Captain Foote, with all his
coadjutors, in the Seahorse, by the capture of La Sensible French

The action of Captain Manley Dixon, in the Lion, of 64, with four
heavy Spanish frigates, one of which he took, was a most brilliant
affair, in which all under his command were alike deserving.

The combat between Le Genereaux, of 74, full of men, and the
Leander, of 50, upon the 18th of August, though unfortunate in its
issue, was yet highly honourable to our arms, when the circumstance
of her diminished crew is considered. Captain Thompson, whose
conduct in the battle of the Nile had been most conspicuous, says,
that "his antagonist run the Leander on board the larboard bow,
with a view to carry her, and continued along-side for some time;
a most spirited and well-directed fire, however, from our small
party of Marines (commanded by a Serjeant) on the poop, and from
the quarter-deck, prevented the enemy from taking advantage of his
good fortune, and he was repulsed, in all his efforts to make an
impression on us."

The Leander, afterwards reduced to a wreck, surrendered to her
superior foe; but not without killing or wounding one-third of
their number. The brave Serjeant Dair and seven Marines were slain,
and nine wounded; being nearly a half of their little party.

The capture of La Legere gun-boat, by the Alemene, Captain Hope,
afforded a striking instance of intrepidity in James Harding,
Marine Drummer, and John Taylor, Seaman, on board the British
frigate. Although going through the water more than five miles an
hour, yet, observing a packet of dispatches to have been thrown
overboard from the republican vessel, they dashed into the sea and
recovered them, at the imminent risk of their lives; those fine
fellows were, however, picked up by a boat, and each of them was
rewarded by a pension of 20_l_. a year, from the Corporation of
London. The contents were of much importance, as being from the
National Convention to their General Buonaparte, in Egypt. Harding
afterwards shared upwards of 200_l_. from the galleons taken on the
16th of October, by the Alemene and others.

So sensible was the Common Council of London of their merits, and
so anxious to recompence them, that they made special enquiry,
through their clerk, to the Board of Admiralty, in order to
ascertain the circumstances and families of those brave men, and
the above annuity was consequent upon that investigation.

On the 28th of October the fortified island of Goza, about five
miles to the North-west of Malta, belonging to the Knights of that
Order, surrendered to Captain Ball, of the Alexander; when Captain,
now Major Cresswell, with a party of Marines, took possession of it.

The detachments from the Leviathan and Centaur had the honour of
being attached to the Army, under General Stuart, to whom, and the
squadron under Commodore Duckworth, the important island of Minorca
capitulated, on the 15th of November, after a trifling resistance,
and without the loss of one British Soldier.

His Sicilian Majesty took refuge on board of Lord Nelson's ship,
and retired to Sicily on the 21st of December, as the French had
possessed themselves of Naples. It fell to the lot of a branch
of my Corps, under Lieut. Colonel Strickland, to be highly
instrumental in restoring that Prince to the Neapolitan throne, in
a short but brilliant campaign, during the summer of the ensuing

Few periods of our Naval history have presented so many instances
of achievement on the home station, as that under discussion.

On the 21st of March a desperate action was fought between the
Mars and La Hercule, of nearly equal force, both ships touching
during the space of one hour and a half. English valour at last
prevailed, but with a heavy loss. Captain Alexander Hood, who
blended in himself all the talents and virtues of his ancestors,
fell in the moment of victory; and Captain Joseph White, of
Marines, shared his fate, while discharging the duty of a gallant

Much do I lament in not being able to commemorate the _names_ of
five brave privates of my Corps, who, with an habitual intrepidity,
attempted to board the enemy, but dropping into the sea, were
crushed between the sides of the contending ships.

The defence of the little islands of St. Marcou, against an
immense flotilla of the enemy, manned with nearly 8000 Soldiers,
is inferior to none of the many exploits of our arms. Garrisoned
chiefly by Marines, I am well assured that their cool courage on
the 7th of May was never surpassed, and it was indeed evidenced
by a scene of carnage amongst their enemies, while their own
casualties were limited to Thomas Hall, private, killed; Richard
Dunn and Thomas Williamson, privates, and Thomas Banks, Seaman,
wounded. The attack having been levelled against the westernmost
island, although both were in the line of shot, prevented any
efforts on the part of Lieut. Bourne, who commanded on the eastern
battery. Much might have been otherwise expected from the abilities
of that Officer, and the system of discipline he invariably
maintained. He would have also been well seconded by Lieut.
Lawrence, of my Corps, whose gallantry upon an ulterior occasion
fully justifies my assertion.

Nothing could exceed the steadiness of Lieuts. Maughan and Ensor,
of Marines. It was worthy of the Country and the service, whose
honour was in their hands.

Lieutenant (now Captain) Charles P. Price also mentioned the
conduct of Serjeant Henderson, of the Royal Artillery, in handsome
terms. Indeed that body is outdone by none in the world, wherever
it is called forth.

The capture of La Seine, French frigate, on the 29th of June, drew
forth the encomiums of Captains Stirling and Milne, of the Jason
and Pique, upon the spirit of Lieutenants Symes and Macdonald. The
former of these amiable young men has now paid the debt of nature,
but he will long be remembered by his friends. Lieutenant Ross was
much distinguished in a very daring affair in the port of Corigiou,
upon the morning of the 4th of August. After having carried the
corvette Adventurier, a contrary wind sprung up, which exposed her,
nearly two hours, to the fire of all the batteries, working out in
a narrow passage which was at last effected. That Officer is also
now no more.

Notwithstanding all the boasts of invasion, still the French dared
not any thing upon a scale of consequence. A few frigates landed
General Humbert, who, with his followers, were made prisoners in
Ireland; but not without making a respectable opposition.

It was reserved for our naval bulwarks to render abortive another
attempt, and to give some creditable earnests of their Officers'
talents and courage. On the 12th of October, Le Hoche of 80, the
frigates Bellone, Coquille, and Ambuscade were taken by Sir John
Warren's squadron. The decisive spirit of that gallant and rising
character Captain Graham Moore, was fully shewn in the prompt
attack of La Resolue of 40 guns, and taking her before she could be
supported by her consort. They were both superior in force to the
Melampus. The conduct of Lieutenant Hole, and his party of Marines
was mentioned in gratifying terms.

On the 20th of October another action, alike brilliant, was fought
between the Fishguard, Captain Martin, and L'Immortalité, which,
after a spirited contest of more than two hours, ended in the
Frenchman's surrender.

Lieutenant Gerrard, of Marines, was wounded upon that occasion.
So uniformly respectable, was the course of that Officer's life,
and so creditable his services, that it may not be amiss to state
here, a very honorable testimony subsequently bestowed upon him,
from the Officers, Seamen, and Marines of the Fishguard. The gift
of a sabre and belt was accompanied to him, with the following
very flattering eulogium: "This sabre and belt are presented to
1st Lieut. Gerrard, of Marines, by those who served with him on
board his Majesty's ship Fishguard, in memory of the action with
L'Immortalité, the 20th October, 1798, the boarding expeditions
at the Saintes, Penmarks, Quimper, Noirmoutier, St. Matthew, St.
Andero, and Corrunna; on which he served as a volunteer, and bore
so distinguished a part." He has recently been appointed to an
Adjutancy at Plymouth vacated by the promotion of Captain Perceval.

La Loire frigate was engaged by the Mermaid, of 32, Captain Newman,
who, after the most persevering courage, was obliged to relinquish
the unequal combat, which afforded an additional test of the
zealous intrepidity of Captain Durham, in the Anson, who, although
much disabled by the prevailing gales, attacked and carried her
after an hour and one quarter's dispute. First Lieut. W. A.
Bell, of Marines, was wounded, and Captain Durham acknowledges
the services he derived from him, as well as Lieutenant Derring,
who superintended the carronades of the Anson, during the fight.
The privates James Cummings and Robert Dillon were also wounded.
Captain Countess, in the Ethalion, likewise took his bird.

By such successive exploits, was the invasion of Ireland averted,
and so important were they deemed by the Nation, that its public
thanks were expressed to Sir J. Warren, his Officers, Seamen, and

An unfortunate meeting between the Ambuscade and La Bayonnaire,
of equal force, closed the transactions of 1798. So habituated
are Englishmen to conquer on the sea, that they never reckon upon
many accidents to which contests, on that element, are subject.
The courage of Captain Jenkins could not compensate for his want
of fortune. He and Lieutenant Sinclair, of Marines, were badly
wounded, before the colours were struck, and the enemy, for once,
successfully availed themselves of a panic, occasioned by the
bursting of a gun, to gain her by boarding.


Twenty thousand Marines formed the establishment of 1799.

An event truly brilliant in itself, and most important in its
results, claim a merited precedence in my narrative of the
transactions of this year. I mean, the noble defence of St.
Jean d'Acre, in the land of Palestine. Yielding to the habitual
sentiments of my mind, I am always led to exult in any occasion,
upon which the energies of the Soldier, but more especially of my
corps, have been conducive to the protection, or the aggrandisement
of commerce. It constitutes the very vitals of our Country, and
demands the fostering care of every member of it. The world is well
apprized of the ambitious views which directed the expedition of
Bonaparte to Egypt. Although his army had been cut off from all
intercourse with France ever since the decisive battle of Aboukir,
still the inventive resources of his genius had established
within a few months, a little independent Empire guided by social
institutes, and a regulated police. Versatile and accommodating in
his principles, they always veered with his interests, and he knew
human nature too well not to make them subservient to the religious
prejudices of these superstitious natives, over whom he had usurped
a government. Wherever hostility appeared, it was successively
overcome, and his dominion over Lower Egypt might be said to have
been complete at the opening of 1799.

This solid position, on the high road to our valuable possessions
in the East, soon awakened all the active jealousy of the British
Nation. Although secrecy had marked the steps of this unprincipled
and hypocritical crusader, still they were guessed at, and traced
by an enlightened Cabinet.

Sir Sidney Smith was selected to arrange and animate a plan for
chacing this encroacher from his strong holds, who sailed from
England for Constantinople, vested both with diplomatic as well as
military powers, in the Autumn of 1798.

Having reached the Ottoman Capital, he, in union with his brother,
discussed and signed a treaty of triple alliance between Great
Britain, Russia, and the Turk. The outlines of future operations
were also framed, which suggested an attack by the Pacha Djezzar
from the deserts of Syria, upon the frontiers of Lower Egypt, who
was to be seconded by an Army, penetrating across Asia Minor,
while a maritime diversion took place at the different mouths of
the Nile, and the remnants of Mourad Bey's forces, already twice
defeated, should adopt a harassing system from the Upper Province.

Bonaparte having learned the active views of Djezzar, and the
arrival of Sir Sidney, which foreboded instantaneous hostility,
resolved to anticipate their schemes, and to march into Syria.
After having adjusted all his measures in Lower Egypt, he put
his Army in motion early in February, consisting nearly of 12000
men.--To detail his progress across the deserts would exceed my

Upon the 10th of that month Bonaparte, in person, left Cairo to
head his troops, whom he joined at El Arisch on the 17th; which
village and its castle, were completely gained on the 25th. Ghazah
likewise surrendered, and Jaffa, that theatre of his indelible
crimes, was carried by storm upon the 7th of March. After the
most incredible hardships, and many a harassing contest with the
numerous Mamelukes, the French Army ascended the heights which
command St. Jean d'Acre, upon the morning of the 18th of March, and
commenced its investment.

Sir Sidney had employed this momentous interval, in a train of
judicious measures. Leaving Constantinople on the 19th of February,
he arrived off Alexandria upon the 3d of March, where he relieved
Commodore Trowbridge, and assumed the command of the Naval Forces.
That city had been long closely blockaded by Capt. Hood, and Sir
Sidney, anxious to divert the French from their purposes against
Syria, commenced its bombardment, but perceiving it fruitless, he
proceeded for that coast in order to rally its affrightened Pacha,
and to intercept the battering cannon destined for the siege of St.
Acre, which he well knew must be transported by sea.

His conceptions were most prophetic, and all his plans were
executed in a masterly stile. Reaching Caiffe upon the 11th of
March, he afterwards steered for St. Jean d'Acre, where he arrived
on the 15th, and concerted a system of defence with Djezzar.

On the 18th he chaced and captured the looked for flotilla off
Cape Carmel, afterwards landed the ammunition it contained, and
mounted the heavy cannon upon the ramparts of the Syrian bulwark
and capital. Its works were much strengthened under the able eye
of Colonel Philippeaux, and never were a few critical hours better
applied than those which preceded the investment of St. Acre. The
greater part of the Marines of the Tygre, Theseus, and Alliance
were disembarked, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel (now
Sir John) Douglas, who was vested by Sir Sidney with the Brevet
Commission of Colonel, in order that the Turkish Forces, and the
Seamen, who were also landed, might be under his orders.

From the 17th to the 23d of March the boats of the Tygre and
Theseus were constantly employed in union with some gun vessels,
in harassing the enemy's posts, checking his approaches, and
cutting off his coasting supplies, upon which services Lieutenant
Burton and the Marines under his command were distinguished for
persevering gallantry.

Upon the 20th the French opened their trenches against the front
of the salient angle, on the East side of the town, and within 900
yards. Between that and the 1st of April, they kept up a cannonade,
when it appearing to the enemy that a breach had been made in the
tower, against which their fire had been levelled, and conceiving
also that the counterscarp had suffered from a mine they had
sprung, the republicans advanced to storm it. In both, however,
they were deceived; and though the Turks were at first panic
struck, yet stimulated by the heroic examples of the Seamen and
Marines, they returned to their post, and continued to pour down
a shower of stones and grenades upon the assailants, until they
retired with a heavy loss.

The squadron having been driven from its anchorage in the
Bay, encouraged the French to push on their approaches to the
counterscarp, a part of which they destroyed, and also made a
lodgment in the North East angle of the wall, whence they began
to undermine the tower. To avert its effects a sortie was deemed,
advisable on the 7th of April, in which the British Seamen and
Marines were to dash into the mine, while the Turks were to attempt
the republican trenches to the right and left. Colonel Douglas
led this attack, in three columns, at the head of each of which
were the Marines, just before the break of day, and it would, most
probably, have been a surprize, if the undisciplined clamour of
their Mahometan Allies, had not proclaimed their approach to the

This handful of Seamen and Marines carried the first and second
lines of the French trenches, parallel to the mine, although
defended by the flower of Buonaparte's Army, and maintained them,
until the mine was destroyed by the gallant exertions of Lieutenant
White and his Sailor pioneers. That Officer very much distinguished
himself, and with many others, who were badly wounded, was indebted
for an escape from captivity to the cool intrepidity of Sir John
Douglas and the remains of his little detachment, who bore them off
into the garrison amidst a tremendous fire from the enemy.

I must here pause to render justice to the memory of one of the
mildest and bravest of men, who unfortunately fell upon that day.
I mean Major Thomas Oldfield of the corps of Marines. No eulogy
of mine is necessary to adorn his tomb. I go to the records of a
brave foe, where his epitaph is written, and who witnessed and
recognized his valour. It is the honest testimony of a Soldier--of
Gen. Berthier, whose own name has often been conspicuous amongst
the splendid details of the Armies of France. He speaks in these
emphatic terms: "On the 18th Germinal (7th April) the enemy, at
break of day, came on with an attack on our left and our centre;
each column was headed by British Marines belonging to the ships,
and their colours were seen waving with those of Djezzar, and the
batteries were all manned by English troops. The enemy made an
attempt to surprize our advanced posts; but their design was seen
through. We received them with a brisk fire from our parallels,
and all that appeared were either killed or wounded. The enemy
ultimately retired without gaining an inch towards destroying our
works. The central column acted with more obstinacy. Their object
was to penetrate to the entrance of our mine; they were commanded
by Major Thomas Oldfield. He advanced boldly towards the entrance
of the mine, at the head of some of his intrepid countrymen; they
attacked like heroes, and were received by heroes; death only
checked their bold career; the remainder retreated, and took refuge
in the fortress. The approaches of our parallels remained covered
with the dead bodies of English and of Turks. The corpse of Major
Thomas Oldfield was carried off by our Grenadiers, they brought
him to our Head Quarters, he was on the point of death, but on his
arrival he was no more. His sword, to which he had done so much
honour, was also honoured after his fall--it remains in the hands
of one of our Grenadiers; he was buried amongst us, and has carried
with him the esteem of the whole French Army."

This was the effusion of a brave enemy. I will superadd the
animated address of Sir Sidney Smith to a meeting of the
Anniversary of the Naval Asylum, on the 2d of June, 1802, and with
it shall close this tributary theme.

After having spoken of the many virtues of the amiable Captain
Miller, Sir Sidney thus enlarges upon the merits of his departed
friend, Major Oldfield:--"The next is Major Oldfield, of the
Marines. I will tell the company where the body of this brave man
was contended for, and they will judge where and how he died; it
was a sortie of the garrison of St. John D'Acre, when attacked by
General Buonaparte, that Major Oldfield, who commanded a column,
was missing. On our troops advancing he was found--his body was
found at the mouth of one of the enemy's mines, and at the foot of
their works. Our brave men hooked him by the neckcloth as he lay
dead, to draw him off; the enemy at the same time pierced him in
the side with a halbert, and each party struggled for the body. The
neckcloth gave way, and the enemy succeeded in dragging to their
works this brave man; and here I must do them justice, which such
gallant foes are justly entitled to, they buried him with all the
honours of war."

Lieut. Beattie, of Marines, was wounded in this ever-memorable
sortie, which reflected a bright lustre upon all that composed it.

The personal attention of Buonaparte to the operations of the siege
was soon after diverted to another object, in repelling the bold
attacks of the Samaritan Arabs, whom, by a train of able measures,
he beat in every part of an extended line, and drove them across
the Jordan.

My bounds will not allow me to detail the many incidents of this
brilliant siege, where perseverance was constantly opposed to
vigorous effort.

On the 1st of May, the French having cannonaded and made a breach,
they a fourth time risqued a storm, but they were repulsed with
heavy loss. The flanking fire from two ravelins run out on each
side of the enemy's nearest approach, and in which the Marines
of the Tigre and Theseus, to the admiration and gratitude of the
Turkish garrison, worked and fought, though exposed to an incessant
discharge upon them, contributed chiefly to the salvation of the
place upon that day. The disposition of those ships, and of the
inferior craft, was so judicious, that the republican trenches were
unceasingly annoyed. These progressive duties afforded many tests
of Naval zeal and courage. The early fall of Captain Wilmot, of
that Corps, was felt a heavy loss, as he was an excellent Officer
and a worthy man. The unfortunate death of Colonel Philippeaux
would have been considered as an irretrievable disaster, if it had
not been compensated by the active talents of Sir John Douglas,
upon whom devolved the additional cares of an Engineer. These were
much lessened by the co-operating abilities of Sir Sidney Smith,
whose scientific and comprehensive mind promptly embraces a wide
scope of knowledge, and its dictates are ever quickly pushed into
action by the energies of a resolute soul.

The ravelins upon which the Marines worked, within ten yards of
the enemy's approaches, were in a progress of completion between
the 2d and 8th of May, and were each night assailed by the French,
who were as often repulsed, in nine different attempts to storm,
with immense slaughter. The gallantry of my Corps, in all, exceeds
praise. Many sorties were made to incommode their covering works,
and most unprecedented were the bodily fatigues and mental anxiety
of all.

The republicans had some time past opened with heavy guns,
which they had received from Jaffa, and from which a serious
impression was made upon the works of the garrison. Resorting to
fresh expedients, Buonaparte tried to effect a new breach in the
eastern curtain, by a sap and mine; but the unremitting activity
of the brave defenders of Acre, by making approaches under ground,
destroyed the frame-work and his hopes. Again directing his attacks
upon the Tower, an effort to establish a lodgment in the glacis was
once more unavailing.

Fifty-one days of vindictive and unceasing contest, save those
short intervals necessary to recruit exhausted nature, had elapsed,
when the garrison beheld their long-expected reinforcements under
Hassan Bey.

Foiled in every essay to carry the place, Buonaparte saw with
grief and disappointment this flotilla, which was to blast all
his ambitious schemes, and to relieve his now almost worn-out
opponents. With a desperate ardour, impelled by wounded pride,
he lost not a moment to prepare and advance to the assault, in
the sanguine idea that by one bold effort he might consummate his
ardent wishes before Hassan's troops could land. At ten, on the
night of the 7th of May, the carnage began. Mr. Scroder, Master's
Mate of the Theseus, from an 18 pounder in the Light House Castle;
a 24, under Mr. Jones, Midshipman of the Theseus, mounted in the
north ravelin, and two 68 pound carronades, under the direction
of Mr. Bray, carpenter of the latter ship, which threw shells
from two germes in the Mole, added to the Turkish musquetry,
committed dreadful havoc amongst the French columns in moving on
to the attack. Much might be said were I to diverge upon the many
chequered events of the night and the following day. The morning's
dawn displayed the enemy's standard flying on the outer angle of
the Tower, which their intrepidity had carried, having ascended on
its ruins. Here they made a lodgment by two traverses across the
ditch, constructed and filled with sand bags, and the bodies of
their dead.

Feeble is my panegyric of the unsurpassed heroism, the decisive
resources, the conciliating address, and bold expedients of Sir
Sidney Smith, during 25 hours of almost constant action. They have
been but rarely equalled, and will never be outdone. He was well
seconded by his able coadjutor Sir John Douglas, who combines a
natural perseverance of character with the most manly judgment.
Their virtues transcended to every subordinate rank, and animated

The British uniform was every where, even in the individual, a
rallying point, and my Countrymen and my Corps, through this
unrivalled defence, lay claim to the pre-eminent glory of having
fixed a barrier to the boundless ambition of Buonaparte, and
of republican France. Egypt was conquered at Acre, and India
preserved. The Turks, aroused by the daring examples of a few
British Seamen and Marines, performed feats of enthusiastic valour,
and the French were driven, with immense slaughter, from every hold.

The dispirited and reduced state of the Army before Acre, in
consequence of these heavy losses, urged Buonaparte to withdraw
the division of Kleber, from the fords of the Jordan. Much was
anticipated from this Corps, from its recent good conduct near to
Nazareth. It was early destined to ascend that breach, in which
so many of their countrymen had fallen victims. But the gallant
sortie of a Turkish regiment, anxious to wipe away the stigma
of indiscipline, cut out sufficient work for them, and carried
the third parallel of the enemy. Their forward zeal exposed them
to some loss in pushing on to the second trench; but they found
sufficient employ for Kleber, who, instead of proceeding against
the breach, was obliged to devote all his efforts to regain his

The attacks upon the 10th of May, were the last vigorous essays of
the French to carry St. Acre. Hitherto, lavish of blood, Buonaparte
saw its ineffectual waste, and the Soldiery perceiving themselves
offered up as daily sacrifices to his insatiable ambition, lost
all their ardour. Unrestrained by the principles of honour, he
resorted to the blackest treachery, and the unexampled refuge of a
Soldier--that of poisoning his opponent, and demanding a cessation
of arms, in order to break it. His vain attempt to subdue a brave
garrison during this sacred interval, in one day withered all his
laurels, most impressively delineated his genuine character, and
will one day be numbered amongst his crimes, by the historian of
that country which he now rules with tyrannic despotism.

Precluded from every hope of success, Buonaparte retreated in
disorder from before the walls of Acre, during the night of the
20th of May, Sir Sidney and his brave associates did not fail to
pursue him, and to annoy his flying columns along the sea beach,
while the Arabs, assembled by his counsels, harassed their rear.

Thus ended this memorable siege, during which, 53 British Seamen
and Marines were killed, 13 drowned, 113 wounded, and 32 taken
prisoners. It has immortalized every gallant fellow who bore a part
in it.

The services of Sir Sidney Smith and Colonel Douglas did not
terminate here. Although in many instances they were unfortunate,
through Turkish indiscipline, they were still splendid in their
nature, and momentous in their consequences.

Sir Sidney, returning to Cyprus, by his zeal and the general esteem
in which he was held, raised an army of 13,000 men, which, being
united to the Turkish fleet, and some English Seamen and Marines,
proceeded to Aboukir, were landed, and headed by Colonel Douglas,
who volunteered to lead them against Buonaparte in person. The
Turks taking flight, were all either killed or taken, and their
Chief, with Colonel Bromley, a French Emigrant Officer, owed their
preservation from the sabres of the republican cavalry by riding
into the sea, where they were picked up by Sir Sidney, who bravely
rowed in shore, and kept their pursuers in awe, with a field-piece
in the bow of his boat.

A second army, collected from Rhodes and other islands, attacked
the French at Damietta, under Sir Sidney and Colonel Douglas,
destroyed their magazines there, and had erected cannon against
the French redoubt; but Turkish disobedience and insubordination
subjected this mass to a disaster similar to that of Aboukir.
Sensible of Colonel Douglas's professional talents, the Grand
Vizier entreated Sir Sidney to permit his repairing to Jaffa, in
order to organize his army there; he accordingly went thither.

Colonel Douglas, during four months, shared in the scanty
allowances of the Ottoman army, subsisting upon two ounces of rice
daily, sent from the Vizier's table, at which no Christian can
sit; drinking brackish water, and constantly sleeping in the open
air of the desert. Under all these pressures and privations, the
energies of that Officer were, however, so great, that he gained
possession of the wells of El-Arisch; seized a supply of provisions
there, of which the troops were in utter need, carried the place,
and by that means kept together the Ottoman army, on the eve of

Monsieur Cazel, the French Commandant, who delivered up his sword
to the Colonel, avowed that its conquest was almost solely achieved
by the gallant British detachment which he led.

This important key to the Syrian desert, again restored to its
proper owners, facilitated the convention of El-Arisch, by which
the whole French army was to evacuate Egypt, and return home. This
having been subsequently cancelled, afforded a fresh field for the
valour of my Corps upon its shores.

The following letter from the Grand Vizier to Sir Sidney Smith,
fully identifies his grateful sense of the merits of Colonel, now
Sir John Douglas, of Marines.

"To the Commander of his Britannic Majesty's Fleet, to our
much-esteemed and beloved friend Sir Sidney Smith, our best
greeting. May your destiny be ever prosperous, and your health

"We send you by the present our friendly advice and information
concerning his Britannic Majesty's Officer, Colonel Douglas, to
make known unto you, that, during his stay at, and co-operation
with the army under our command, he has evinced not only the
greatest activity and skill, but also the most undaunted courage
and bravery. As his glorious and faithful services have afforded
us the highest satisfaction, so do we wish the same may prove to
him most honourable and advantageous; and as we think it just and
expedient for all Powers and Sovereigns nobly to reward eminent
merit, so have we written this letter, for the express purpose,
to beg you to transmit to our dear, most respected, and great
friend and ally, the King of Great Britain, a faithful narrative
of Colonel Douglas's gallant behaviour, that accordingly he may be
raised to the rank he so well deserves. We hope and trust, that at
the receipt of our letter, you will act in conformity with this
sincere desire.

  "L. S.

  "Given at our camp, before El-Arisch,

  "Feb. 2, 1800."

Sir John Douglas has lately received a solid mark of his country's
approbation, in a pension of 400_l_. a year, commencing from that
day upon which Buonaparte retreated from the walls of St. Acre.

It was the destiny of my Corps to participate in a short, but
brilliant campaign, which drove the French out of the Neapolitan
kingdom, and restored its Monarch to the throne.

Amongst the followers of the fallen fortunes of his Sicilian
Majesty, in his retreat to Palermo, was Cardinal Ruffo, whose
enterprizing genius planned the loyal design of paving the way
for the return of his self-exiled King, to the former seat of his
power. Repairing to Calabria, he quickly collected a large army, by
rekindling a spirit of royalism, exerting his clerical influence
amongst people alike fanatical and ignorant, and by alternately
exercising the functions of the Soldier and of the Cardinal.

Captain, now Sir William D'Arley, of Marines, landed singly in the
Neapolitan territory, in order to acquire a knowledge of the state,
strength, and views of the Royal party; during which period he made
many a hair-breadth escape. So judiciously did he discharge this
important mission, that the command of a district was assigned
him; he was entrusted with a high military post, in which he
continued to animate the motley army of Ruffo, by his counsels and
his energies. In a variety of actions they fought, and beat the
united French and rebel troops, who had possessed themselves of the
kingdom of Naples, and had organized it into a republic; taking
also Cotrona and Cantanzaro.

Introductory to their principal operations, the British squadron
was extremely active. In April, Captain Hallowell, with some
Seamen and Marines, obtained Procita and its castle, in the Gulf
of Naples; while Captain Knox, of my Corps, was detached to the
Isle of Ischia, which, with its strong fortress, was delivered up
without resistance.

The robberies, murders, and rapine committed by their French
friends in Italy had alienated almost every heart, and wherever an
Englishman appeared, he was greeted as the deliverer of a country
groaning under the bitterest sufferings.

A partial debarkation of some Marines and Sailors at Salerno, after
having effected its capture, was obliged to retreat, before very
superior numbers of the enemy. The cool gallantry of Lieutenant
Vyvion, of Marines, upon that occasion, gave a strong earnest of
future eminence. He was a young man of the most promising talents,
but his country and his brethren have now to deplore his subsequent

Cardinal Ruffo, learning the evacuation of Naples, and the defeats
of the French armies by the Russian General Suwarrow, put in motion
his army towards that Capital; part of which he gained upon the day
of St. Anthony's feast. Exceeding his powers, a treaty which he
had concluded with the Members of the Republican Government, and
the Patriots in the Forts, was cancelled by his Sicilian Majesty,
and the transports in which they were embarked for Toulon, were
blockaded by the British squadron.

Many of the rebel party, united with their allies the French,
retiring to the strong holds of St. Elmo, Ovo, and Nuova, it was
judged expedient to land the Marines, who, with other auxiliaries,
were destined to reduce them. On the 27th of June they were
disembarked, to the number of 800 men, under the following
Officers, who had the honour of accomplishing the important
services that ensued, with much credit.

  Lieut. Colonel Strickland, Commanding Officer.

  Captain Creswell (Brevet Major, _pro tempore_.)

  Capt. Weir
  ---- Dunsmuire
  ---- Minto
  ---- Knox
  ---- Wolfe
  ---- Torkington
  ---- Williams.

  Lieut. Noble
  ---- Hare
  ---- M'Carthey
  ---- Pearce
  ---- Burford
  ---- Short
  ---- Wills
  ---- Harvey
  ---- Scobill
  ---- Adair
  ---- Burne
  ---- Jones
  ---- Walker

  Lieut. Hart
  ---- Collins
  ---- Jewell
  ---- Toomer
  ---- Perroll
  ---- Millar
  ---- Buzon
  ---- Wright
  ---- Wheeler
  ---- Ross
  ---- Wyemyss   }  Adjutants
  ---- Tyldsley  }
  ---- Vyvion, Quarter-master.

Four hundred Portugueze Marines were also landed, which, joined to
500 Swiss, 450 Russians, and 70 Greeks, formed a total of 2170,
besides Officers.

Captain Hood took possession of the Castles of Ovo and Nuovo, in
which he was placed with a garrison of Seamen, and in his public
character preserved the peace of that turbulent Capital, during the
whole series of that trying duty.

Captain Trowbridge, of the Royal Navy, conducted with much ability
those military operations, which may be said to have reinstated the
Neapolitan King upon his throne.

At five on the morning of the 30th of June, he marched from
Castle Nuovo, with the British and Portugueze Marines, was joined
by the Russians in Naples, and proceeded instantly against St.
Elmo, whose Commandant he summoned to surrender. Being answered
in the negative, that zealous and spirited Officer lost no time
in erecting batteries against the Castle. Between the 3d and 5th
of July, nine heavy cannon and eight mortars were opened on its
garrison and works, which played incessantly, in the hope of
effecting a breach sufficient to storm. On the 6th, four mortars
were added, and by the indefatigable labours of the Seamen, six
36-pounders were dragged to the summit of an almost inaccessible
precipice, which soon compelled Monsieur Mejan to capitulate. The
Marine Grenadiers marched into the Castle on the 12th, and the
enemy, upwards of 1500, were allowed the honours of war.

On the 13th, the main body of the army returned to Castle Nuovo,
from whence they advanced against Capua, that key to Naples, upon
the 19th, where they arrived on the 21st, pitched their tents near
to its walls, and in a short time opened batteries, which continued
to play against the town until the 27th, when terms were discussed
and agreed on.

On the 29th, the French, to the number of 1500, marched out, and
were conveyed to Naples, under an escort of 400 Marines, and two
squadrons of General Acton's Cavalry.

The conduct of Captain Trowbridge was prompt and animated, and he
spoke highly of the unremitting attention and discipline of Colonel
Strickland, Major Creswell, the Officers and men. The exertions of
those of the allied troops were also highly meritorious.

Returning to Naples, an embarkation took place against Gaieta
on the 30th of July, where they landed on the 3d of August,
gained possession of its gates on the next day, and upon the 5th,
delivered up the town to the loyal subjects of his Majesty the King
of Naples.

The retreat of the French armies was felt throughout Italy, and
their disasters roused the Tuscans to arms, who drove them from
their bosom. Florence was abandoned, and Leghorn was evacuated;
but Rome was unsubdued. Its besiegers had been driven from its
walls, and every effort to reduce it was ineffectual. It did
not, however, resist against the tenders of British honour; for
on Captain Trowbridge appearing off the mouth of the Tiber, and
a summons being sent to General Garnier, he agreed to surrender
Rome, Civita Vechia, and every dependency within the state, to that

Some Seamen, and the Marines of the Culloden and Minotaur, occupied
Corneto and Tolsa, as well as Civita Vechia, during the 29th and
30th of September, while the enemy, amounting to 5000, were sent
off, agreeable to the terms of capitulation.

Captain Trowbridge maintained the acknowledged faith of his
Country, in every article, with a dignity becoming the high
character in which he stood. Colonel Strickland supported that
discipline in his Corps, which must have ensured success against
a contending enemy. This train of important services, derives a
double merit, from that rapidity with which they were performed.

During the present year Earl St. Vincent resigned the command of
the Mediterranean Fleet. The system by which he maintained its good
order, is worthy of being adopted by every Officer in the British

One of the most gallant boarding contests took place upon that
station, during the day of the 9th of June, which appears on the
face of this war. It was cutting out a Spanish polacre of 10 guns
and 113 men, from the port of La Selva, supported by a heavy
battery, and a large body of men under arms on the shore, by the
boats of the Success, carrying only 42 men.

Lieuts. Facey and Stupart, of the Navy, and Lieut. Davison, of my
Corps, headed this daring enterprize. They were all distinguished;
but limiting the detail of it to my peculiar province, I am led to
notice the cool courage of that promising brother Officer, who,
taking a steady aim with a pistol amidst this confused scene, shot
a Swiss Soldier in the mouth, who had levelled his musket at Mr.
Pomeroy Peter, a brave young Midshipman, in the act of boarding
over a high close netting. Mr. Peter did the rest with a pike. A
gallant Marine, Thomas Needham, having his right arm broken by
a grape shot, on being asked by Lieutenant Facey, if it was not
disabled? answered "Yes, but, thank God, I can pull a trigger with
my right, and with my left hand I can still manage a cutlass." In
this state he continued to fight until the vessel was carried.

In the West Indies the Dutch Colony of Surinam was taken without
opposition. Lieutenant M'Gee, of Marines, and his party from the
Trent, behaved most handsomely, in union with their brethren
the Seamen, by storming a battery in a bay near Cape Roso, and
afterwards bringing from under it a large Spanish ship and schooner.

It was on the morning of the 25th of October that Captain (now Sir
Edward) Hamilton, at the head of 100 Seamen and Marines, attacked
and carried the Hermione, of 44 guns, after having killed and
wounded 216 men, with the single loss of Lieutenant J. Busey,
acting Lieutenant of the Surprize. After the greatest feats of
valour in all, he brought her out from under the formidable
batteries of Porto Cavallo. John Ingram and Joseph Titley,
private Marines, were wounded upon this honorable occasion, which
sufficiently speaks its own praise.

In the East, La Forte, of 50 guns, was captured by the British
Sybille, after a desperate resistance, during which Captain Cooke
unfortunately fell.

Every domestic event of this year sinks, in consequence, when
compared to the expedition against Holland. Its details, however,
do not properly fall within my narrative. After having gained
possession of the Helder, the duties allotted to the Marines,
were to garrison its forts, while the Army, under Sir Ralph
Abercrombie, penetrated into the Country. These my corps performed
with their usual alertness and zeal, and much to the satisfaction
of their superiors. Unfortunate as was the issue of the attempt,
originally undertaken at a late season of the year, and against a
dangerous coast, still the very important capture of the remains
of the Batavian Navy, amply compensated for its final miscarriage.
An unsurpassed unanimity between the land and naval services
prevailed, and English valour was conspicuous throughout.

A garrison of Seamen and Marines having been placed at Limmen Town,
in West Friezland, under Captain Boorder, of the Navy, consisting
of only 157 men, was attacked at five on the morning of the 11th
of October by more than 700 of the enemy, in four quarters. Their
advanced party against the North battery was surrounded and taken
by the seamen, and after a long contest, the whole gave way. The
Marines immediately pursued, killed and wounded more than 40, and
would have taken their colours and cannon if they had not, in the
rout, broken down a bridge, which checked our progress. Captain
Boorder says, "that Lieutenants Wyburn, Howel, Higginson, and
Gardner, of Marines, behaved with honour to themselves, and credit
to their Country, and that their men distinguished themselves
in a most gallant manner." The names of Captains Mortlock, Sir
Harry Neale, Winthorp, Bolton, Macnamara, and Cuninghame, with
their Officers, Seamen, and Marines, stand meritedly high in the
subordinate catalogue of this year's naval deeds.


Twenty thousand Marines were voted for the service of 1800.

Every revolving year seemed to add to the naval superiority of
Great Britain. In each quarter the enemy's fleets were blockaded
within their ports; the happy result of our reiterated victories.

In the Mediterranean, Lord Keith, by his cruizers, was highly
instrumental in producing the fall of Genoa, to the Austrian
General Melas, by cutting off its supplies, and occasional

Early in 1800 a battalion of Marines was landed at Malta, which
had withstood a tedious blockade, and still held out with
uncommon perseverance. The occasion presented no opportunities of
signalizing themselves, but by the most exemplary good conduct,
under the following Officers:

  Captain Weir, (Major Commandant.)

  Capt. Knox,
  ---- Wolfe,
  ---- Torkinton,
  ---- Williams,

  Lieut. Burford,
  ---- Bunce,
  ---- Adair,
  ---- Miller,
  ---- Davison,
  ---- M'Carthy,

  Lieut. Jones,
  ---- Pearce,
  ---- Pogson,
  ---- Hodgkins,
  ---- Tyldesley, Adjutant,
  ---- Scobell, Quarter-Master.

On the 5th of September La Valette capitulated, of which the
Marines took possession. The indefatigable exertions of Captain
(now Sir A.) Ball, of the Royal Navy, did him much honor, and it
was partly owing to the seasonable arrival of Major General Pigott
with a reinforcement, as well as to the debarkation of the Marines,
that this important key to Egypt was so soon added to our dominion.
The steady vigilance of the Navy, during a blockade of two years,
had a pre-eminent share in this final event. The fortress of
Savona, reduced to famine, by the activity of Captain Downman and
his little squadron, surrendered also to him and the Austrian
General St. Julien, on the 16th of May.

The Genereux and Guillaume Tell, of 74 and 84 guns, were captured
by our cruizers in February and March. They were the only remnants
of the French fleet after the memorable battle of Aboukir.

This year abounds with many examples of inferior enterprize, in
which the subalterns of my corps gave very handsome pledges of what
may be expected from them upon every allotted opportunity.

The attack and bringing out the Spanish corvette, San Josef,
protected also by a heavy battery of five guns, from under the
fortress of Fangerolle, reflected the highest credit upon the
spirit of Lieutenants Beaufort and Huish, of the Pheaton, and
Duncan Campbell, of Marines. He and Mr. Beaufort were wounded.

The Seamen and Marines of the Mermaid, under Captain Oliver, merit
notice in having cut out and destroyed 9 vessels, under a fort near
Cape Corsette.

The conduct of Lieut. Yeo and his brave followers in the port of
Cecenatico, where they rendered 13 merchantmen unserviceable, was
most distinguished. Lieut. Jewell, of Marines, in a detachment of
this nature under Captain Hillyer, which gallantly brought out two
large corvettes from the road of Barcelona, amidst a shower of
shot and shells, behaved with much courage and conduct throughout
that service. These detailed exploits were performed on the
Mediterranean station during this year.

The Dutch island of Curacoa, in South America, when on the eve
of being possessed by a French force, claimed the protection of
Captain Watkins, of his Majesty's frigate Nereide, who landed his
Marines and some Seamen, who had the honor of deterring the enemy
from his attempt, and securing that settlement.

Goree, on the coast of Africa, surrendered to Sir Charles Hamilton,
of La Melpomene, when Captain M'Cleverty, with the Marines of the
squadron, were landed to garrison it.

A very gallant single action was fought off St. Domingo, between
La Seine, Captain Milne, and La Vengeance French frigate, which
terminated in the republican ship striking her flag. Captain Milne,
who had oftener than once approved himself a brave Officer, thus
speaks of Lieutenant Macdonald, who commanded the Marines of La
Seine: "I am indebted to the services of Mr. Macdonald, of Marines,
who was taken down wounded, and came up again when dressed, but was
obliged, from a second wound, to be taken below; but I am happy to
state, the life of this valuable Officer will be saved, to render
further services to his Majesty. The behaviour of the Marines was
such as does them the highest credit."

In the East, Lieutenant Owen, of my corps, volunteered from the
Adamant to assist in destroying the French frigate La Precieuse,
which had been run on shore by that ship and the Tremendous near
Fort Louis, on the Isle of France; a service that was spiritedly
executed under a heavy fire from the batteries, and they brought
off some of the Officers and men prisoners.

The achievements upon the home station in this style of warfare,
were both crouded and brilliant, and it is with a mixture of
exultation and of pride, that so many amongst the rising generation
of my brethren, appear upon those honorable annals.

Amongst the foremost stands the name of Lieutenant (now Adjutant)
Gerrard, of Marines, who volunteered from the Fisguard, to attack
a convoy at St. Croix, laden with provisions and stores for the
French fleet at Brest; which material object was in part effected,
in opposition to the fire from a strong battery, three armed
vessels they took, and a line of musquetry on the shore. Eight of
inferior note were captured, and twenty were run on the rocks.
Lieutenants Burke, Dean, Stamp, and Price, of the Royal Navy, also
gave shining patterns of valour.

Another attempt upon some of the enemy's vessels at the mouth
of the river Quimper on the 23d of June, although not equally
prosperous, was still alike glorious to Lieutenants Burke of the
Renown, and Parker of the Defence, as well as Lieutenant Gerrard.
After reaching the mouth of that river, the Marines were landed on
both its sides, under the command of Lieutenants Burke and Gerrard,
who were to protect the boats under Mr. Parker, in their approach
to the vessels of war and small craft. But the enemy had removed
them to an inaccessible distance, and this bold essay terminated in
the destruction of three strong batteries with their guns, by these

The cutting out La Desiree, from the roads of Dunkirk, will be long
remembered, and must for ever establish the personal intrepidity of
Lieutenants M'Dermitt and Pierce, of the Royal Navy.

The vigilance of Sir John Warren and his flying squadron, afforded
another display of subordinate zeal on the 1st and 2d of July.

The scene of action was within the island of Noirmoutier, and
in the bay of Bourneuf, and the object was to attack some armed
vessels and a convoy bound for Brest, covered by 6 heavy batteries
on the South East part of the former, besides flanking guns on
every point. By 12 on the night of the 1st of July, they carried
5 armed ships, and 15 merchantmen, but on finding it impossible
to bring them out over the sand banks, they were all burnt. This
dashing business was achieved by 113 Seamen, and 61 Marines,
headed by Lieutenants Burke, Dean, and Garrett, of the Navy, 11
petty Officers, and Lieutenants Thompson, Ballingham, Gerrard, and
Hutton, of my corps. All the boats upon returning, grounded, and
in this situation they were exposed to an unceasing fire from the
forts, and from the platoons of 400 troops in their rear.

It was under this trying circumstance, that, with true British
intrepidity, they resolutely dragged their boats upwards of two
miles over the sands, until they floated, when they levelled all
their efforts against one vessel, sufficiently large to accomplish
their retreat. Four Officers and eighty-eight men, however, became
prisoners, while more than 100 secured their safety by unrelaxing

The capture of Le Cerbere gun-brig, made under the batteries
of Port Louis, the fire of some small craft, within a mile of
three French men of war, and against four times their numbers,
has immortalized the fame of Lieut. Coghlan, and Mr. Paddon, of
the Royal Navy, and all their associates. It can scarcely find a
parallel upon the registers of history.

Lieut. Burke, of the Renown, the Seamen and Marines under his
auspices, were again conspicuous in the assault of La Guipe French
privateer, of 22 guns and 161 men, which they took, after a
desperate resistance, near the Narrows of Rendonella, in the bay
of Vigo. That valuable Officer, Lieut. Burke, was badly wounded,
besides twelve Seamen and five Marines, and four of both classes
were killed.

It was in testimony of those repeated deeds that the Officers
and ship's company of the Fisguard, presented Lieut. Gerrard,
of Marines, with a sword, accompanied by the flattering tribute
I have already described. His Country, as I have said, has
recently attested her gratitude, by conferring upon him one of the
Adjutancies of his Corps, for which he is eminently qualified.

The determined spirit of Lieut. M'Cullen, of Marines, and his
little party of twenty-four men, in following up Captain Price's
orders, against the Victoire privateer, of Boulogne, near to
Issigny, is worthy of much commendation. He towed her off from the
shore under the discharge of some hundred musquetry, and brought
her a prize to the island of St. Marcou. Lieut. Steevens covered
him most gallantly in his gun-brig, the Sparkler.

Imitating this brilliant system, another blow to the enemy's
commerce was given by the boats of the Montague and Magnificent,
conducted by Lieuts. Blissett, Knight, Griffiths, and Dunlop,
of the Royal Navy, and in which Lieuts. Alexander, Montgomerie,
Mitchell, and Jordan, of Marines, bravely volunteered. The whole
proceeded against a convoy of fourteen sail in Port Danenne, near
to L'Orient, all of which were grounded under a battery, that fired
round and grape shot, as well as two of the vessels which were
armed, upon the boats as they approached.

This service was most completely executed, as they took eleven, and
burnt one; leaving only two behind which they were unable to bring
out. Captain Knight acknowledged the conduct of all to have been
most regular and bold.

These little details are powerful evidences of the spirit of the
times. Upon an aggregate scale they are certainly of national
moment, and sufficiently prove how much may be accomplished by
English intrepidity, when happily seconded by a well-regulated


At no period of her existence as a Nation, did Britain portend a
speedier dissolution, although at none did she ever appear in a
more dignified attitude, than at the commencement of 1801.

Alternately deserted by every Ally, she was not only engaged in an
arduous contest with some of the most powerful States of Europe,
but was threatened by the revival of a Maritime discussion, backed
by an armed neutrality amongst its Northern Powers, evidently
levelled against her existence. A confederacy so hostile to our
very being, could not but arouse the land to assert their long
established rights; and, however hazardous an appeal to arms might
be under the existing crisis, it was still deemed a better, and
more glorious alternative, than tacitly to allow any innovators,
however powerful, to undermine those commercial pillars, upon which
the Empire had so long flourished, and stood. Temporizing measures
being but ill suited to the occasion, and little congenial to the
spirit of the times, a general embargo was laid upon all Russian,
Swedish, and Danish vessels within our ports, while a fleet was
equipped for the Baltic, whose cannon were destined to become the
interpreters of our injured privileges, as well as the delegated
agents for the salutary restoration of peace.

Keeping pace with such Naval exertions, to which the Country looked
for its salvation, the Marine corps experienced an effective
augmentation unprecedented on its historic annals. A vote of 22,696
men passed for the three first lunar months of 1801, which was
subsequently enlarged to 30,000 for the future services of the year.

I am naturally led to follow the progress of those gallant fellows
to the coasts of the Baltic, by whose great achievements those
impending dangers which seemed ready to erase their devoted Country
from amongst the list of nations, were so quickly dispelled.

The object of this armament having been publicly avowed and
known, the occasion evinced the spirited zeal of Lieutenant
Colonel Winter, of my corps, by his stepping out of the routine
of divisional service, and volunteering to head a battalion of
Marines, upon these more perilous duties. The handsome tender of
that able Officer, was not, however, accepted.

Upon the 12th of March the British fleet set sail, and passed
the Sound on the 30th, encountering, in its way, an incessant
but bloodless discharge from the cannon of Cronenburgh, when it
anchored near to the isle of Huin. The battle of the 2d of April,
fought under the superintending example and auspices of Lord
Nelson, needs no description to add to its splendour. Its merits
can best be appreciated by its immediate effects. Upon that great
man's brow was placed the laurel, entwined with the olive, and
both were the growth of a single day. It led to peace with our
old friends, the Danes, and overthrew a Confederacy, upon the
consequences of which speculation is set at bay.

The gallant Sir Thomas Graves nobly seconded his superior, and it
is to be remembered, in honor to his name, that he volunteered to
complete the final destruction of those Northern Opponents, if a
cessation of arms had not healed every difference.

Eight hundred and seventy five Seamen and Marine Soldiers were
killed and wounded upon that momentous day. Lieutenant Benjamin
Spencer, of my corps, son to the Rev. Dr. Spencer near Birmingham,
a youth of the most promising hopes, and the sweetest manners,
fell on board the Edgar, a ship that was peculiarly distinguished,
as did Lieutenant Henry Long, in the Isis, who was likewise much
esteemed for a benignity of temper; Lieutenants Charles Meredith
and James Marrie were also wounded.

In consequence of this signal victory, a merited testimony was
conferred upon Captain Lambrecht, of Marines, by the brevet rank
of Major, which could not have been bestowed upon a more worthy
or meritorious member. It was his fortune to be Senior Officer on
board that part of the grand force which was engaged, and to serve
in the Defiance, under the flag of Rear Admiral Graves.

Every man in the English fleet was honored with the Thanks of his
Country, its intrepid leaders received suitable distinctions, and
all stand registered upon the memorials of indelible fame. The
noble Society of Lloyd's stretched forth, likewise, their liberal
aids to the unfortunate sufferers at Copenhagen. Other incidents
tended to accelerate the dissolution of this formidable league;
in which a guardian Providence may be clearly retraced, and our
natural bulwarks as having been the secondary agents of his will.

Early in this year Earl St. Vincent, who had commanded in the
Mediterranean and the Channel, with so much advantage to the
public, and with such éclat to himself, was placed at the helm of
Naval affairs. My corps looked up to him as a father and a friend,
and those endearing titles have been fully realized towards us
in every arrangement that has emanated from his intelligent and
comprehensive mind. As we never forsook him in the day of trial, so
we never shall forget him when he is laid low in the dust.

The same spirit for dashing at every thing within the enemy's
ports, and on their coasts still continued to prevail. Three boats
from the Trent, led on by Lieutenants Chamberlayne, Scallion,
Bellamy, Tate, of Marines, and Mr. Hoskins, on the 3d of April, in
opposition to numerous batteries on the shore, the constant fire of
a lugger and cutter, and the aid of a number of small craft, boldly
attacked and drove the lugger amongst the rocks, besides some of
the boats.

Lieutenants Chamberlayne and Tate afterwards boarded and carried
off a large ship which was under their convoy, and what was their
main object, on her way from Brehat to Plampoul. In that service
Lieutenant Tate, of my corps, unfortunately lost a leg.

One of the most daring attempts, ever conceived, was originally
undertaken by Lieutenant Losack, but finally executed by Lieutenant
Maxwell, against the French corvette La Chevrette, in presence of
the combined fleets in the road of Brest, under protection of the
batteries of Camerat, and in spite of nearly 400 men of which her
crew was composed, all ready to oppose the assailants. Upon this
perilous duty Lieutenants Sinclair and Rose, of Marines, spiritedly
volunteered. From the strong position of the enemy, who set every
attack at defiance, no better contested affair occurred through
the whole of this glorious war. Lieutenant Sinclair who had been
formerly wounded upon a similar enterprize, was slain in the act of
warding off a like destiny from a Midshipman of the Doris. He would
have done honor to any rank in life.

The carnage was great on the side of the republicans, being above
150 killed and wounded, while that of the British exceeded 66.
Lieutenant W. Burke, an Officer of the highest hopes, received a
mortal wound, and Lieutenant Neville was hurt.

Mr. (now Captain) Maxwell, with all his intrepid companions, will
long appear conspicuous on the records of fame. Capt. Charles
Brisbane says, "Any comments of mine would fall far short of
the merits due to those gallant Officers, Seamen, and Marines
employed on this service." Such examples of irresistible heroism
in subordinate warfare, must have a permanent influence on the
feelings of our enemies upon whatever scale they may be opposed to

On the 4th of August a successful bombardment took place against
the French flotilla off Boulogne, and the attack was renewed
upon the 13th by the boats of Lord Nelson's squadron. Although
assembled for the avowed purpose of invading our isles, still the
event of that night plainly shewed that their preparations had
been distinguished much more by steps for self preservation, than
for offensive measures, for our brave fellows, after the strongest
feats of valour, were obliged to abandon their hard earned prizes,
from their having been fastened by chains, or hard on the shore.
The issue was unfortunate, but it added to the glory of the British
arms. One hundred and seventy two Officers, Seamen, and Marines
were killed and wounded in this patriotic attempt. Such were the
exertions of all that the thanks of Earl St. Vincent, and of their
brave Chief, were expressed to every class in the squadron. The
service was deprived of a gallant Officer in Captain Parker of the
Navy, and Captain Young, of my corps, was badly wounded.

Lieutenant Gerrard, of Marines, was again a volunteer in cutting
out some vessels of force, from the port of Corunna, happily
without loss.

Admiral Cornwallis, with that perseverance so peculiar to his
character, continued to block up the combined fleets in Brest, who
continued a useless load of expenditure to France and Spain, until
a cessation of arms gave them freedom.

I bitterly lament that I cannot bid farewell to the domestic events
of the present year without diverging upon that baneful spirit of
mutiny, which again broke forth in a detachment of our fleet on the
coast of Ireland.

It first burst out on board the Temeraire, a ship hitherto noted
for good order, and commanded by men who yielded to none in the
British Navy, for talents or humanity. It was a renewal of the same
foul game that was played at the close of the American war, but
it was subverted in a different manner, and with a manly energy,
which bids fair to advance the future interests of discipline. The
party of Marines, under Captain Vallock, after resisting all the
efforts of seduction from their duty, behaved with the fidelity of
good Soldiers, and nobly seconded the firm resolution of Admiral
Campbell and the Officers under his command. As must ever be the
case, this little phalanx, inspired with all the consciousness
of a good cause, quickly overcame their guilty opponents, whose
ringleaders expiated their crimes by an untimely death.

The address which those unfortunate men left behind them to their
misguided ship-mates, bespoke the deepest contrition, and affords
the most impressive lesson to the wretch who may ever be so
unguarded as to admit the inroads of discord or disobedience.

In justice to those parties of Marines who loyally avowed their
principles during such commotions, which, indeed, were general, and
the same amongst every detachment in the squadron, I annex copies
of letters from two under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Tench,
and Captain Forshall, directed to those Officers.


"We, the Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates, serving as
Marines, under your command, on board his Majesty's ship Princess
Royal, _having heard with pleasure_, the gallant conduct of our
brother Soldiers on board the Temeraire, and, therefore, beg leave
to express alike with them, our determination to oppose, with all
our might and power, all unlawful combinations and our readiness to
obey our Officers night and day.

  "Signed by the Whole Party.

  "Lieut.-Col. Tench, his Majesty's
  ship Princess Royal."

  "Resolution, Bantry Bay, 15th Dec. 1801.


"I hope you will pardon the liberty we take in addressing you, but
as we understand that some ships companies have disobeyed the just
commands of their Officers, and knowing the dreadful consequences
that formerly attended similar practices. For our parts we abhor
the idea, and we hope you will inform Captain Gardiner, likewise
the Admiral, that it is our firm resolution, to support and
maintain our Officers in any thing which they may think proper, and
in that which is best calculated to promote the interest of our
King and Country. I have the honor of subscribing myself, in behalf
of the detachment of Marines,

  "Your most obedient humble servant,

  "William Heans, Serjeant.

  "Captain Forshall, Marines."

The steady allegiance of my corps was such, throughout this period
of indiscipline, that the following testimonies were the honorable
result: "The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having expressed
their high satisfaction of the good conduct of the Marines of
several ships, under my command with you at Beerhaven, in declaring
their abhorrence of the mutinous proceedings which had lately taken
place at the anchorage, and of their having come forth on that
occasion, so much to the honor of their Corps, and interests of
their Country, I am to desire you will be pleased to communicate
the same to them, and assure them that I feel highly gratified on
the present occasion.

  "(Signed) William Cornwallis.

  "Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mitchell, &c. &c."

In consequence of the above very handsome communication from
Admiral Cornwallis, Commander in Chief of the Channel Fleet, Sir
Andrew Mitchell issued the following order:

"It is my directions to the Captains of the ships, named in the
margin,[5] under my orders, to communicate to the Marines, serving
on board the respective ships under their command, the above
letter from the Commander in Chief, and I feel equally happy their
good conduct has merited such a mark of approbation from him and
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

  "(Signed) A. Mitchell.

  "29th December, 1801."

Much to the credit of the Formidable, Captain Grindall, that ship
was totally exempt from the diabolical spirit, and it is proper to
be remarked that the thanks of the Board of Admiralty were withheld
from the parties of Marines in the Vengeance and Resolution,
entirely through mistake, as both were truly entitled to them, for
a similar zeal, with the rest of their brother Soldiers.

I now bid adieu to the domestic transactions of 1801, and hasten to
those quarters of the world, where the British character appears
in all its manly and native vigour, not palsied by murmurs, but
invincible by discipline.

After the desertion of Buonaparte from his Egyptian Army, and the
annulment of the Treaty of El Arisch, the genius of Kleber, his
successor, retrieved every thing. By the battle of Heliopolis he
eventually drove the Turks across the desert to seek refuge in
Gaza, recaptured Cairo, which had been formerly evacuated, and by
a train of good policy as well as a system of judicious defence,
rendered the French power in Egypt more firm than ever. But a dark
assassin deprived their Army of this distinguished leader, after
whose tragical death, the chief command devolved upon General
Menou, who following the footsteps of his predecessors, and by a
peculiar assimilation to the tenets and manners of the Mahometans,
seemed to have resolved upon fixing a permanent Empire in Lower
Egypt. He rejected, with disdain, every overture towards a renewal
of the Treaty of El Arisch, and, excepting a number of Greeks
embodied under the auspices of Kleber, who were trained in European
tactics, rested all his hopes of defence against native inroads, or
foreign invaders, in the remnants of his countrymen.

It was reserved for a branch of my corps, combined with a British
Army, to assist in rooting out this powerful force, to restore
those conquered dominions to their rightful Lord, and thus to close
a war by subduing those motives of ambition which had continued to
cherish it.

A very considerable armament, which had been employed on other
services during the last year, had entered the Mediterranean,
and the troops who formed a part of it, were landed at Malta and
Minorca. These were destined to expel the French from Egypt, in
co-operation with an Army, under General Baird, from the regions of
India, and an Ottoman force, under the Grand Vizier, which was to
cross the deserts of Syria.

Lord Keith, with the English fleet, rendezvoused early in January
1801, in the Bay of Marmorice, on the coast of Caramania,[6] where
preparations, necessary for the intended expedition, were carried
on. Two days previous to their sailing for Egypt, his Lordship
signified his directions to Lieutenant Colonel Smith, who commanded
the Marines, to hold himself in readiness to disembark with the
Officers and men from the different ships, and to place himself
under the orders of General Sir Ralph Abercrombie; at the same time
vesting him with a power of issuing such preparatory instructions
as he might deem proper for the future regulations of his battalion.

Upon the 23d of February the fleet steered for the coast of
Egypt, conveying an army of 15,330 Soldiers, and anchored in
the auspicious Bay of Aboukir, on the 2d of March. An incessant
gale prevented any debarkation until the 8th, when a landing was
effected by the greater part of the Army, under circumstances that
very signally attested their discipline and their valour. The
Officers and Seamen of the fleet had likewise their share of these
attached merits. This important object having been accomplished,
Sir Ralph Abercrombie advanced to within six miles of Alexandria,
and three of the enemy, who were strongly posted on a ridge, with
the canal of that city on their right flank and the sea on their

Agreeably to the arrangement that had been made in the Bay of
Marmorice, and by the order of battle given out, the Marines were
attached to the 3d brigade under Lord Cavan, and united in it with
the 50th and 79th Regiments.

Previous to the landing of the Marines, Lord Keith addressed the
following letter to Lieutenant Colonel Smith:

  "Foudroyant, in Bay of Aboukir, 9th March, 1801.


"If it shall be requisite to land the Marines from some of the
ships for a short time, I beg you will furnish me with the
arrangements you have made, and the temporary ranks necessary to be
given, so that I may furnish the Officers with authority.

  "I am, Sir, your most obedient and humble servant,

  "(Signed,) Keith.

  "Lieut.-Col. Smith, Marine Forces,
  his Majesty's ship Kent."

In consequence, many Officers obtained brevet rank, in the course
of the Egyptian campaign, and received additional pay according to
the proportions of each.

An institution alike liberal and just was adopted by Lord Keith
towards the Marine Corps, that while its Officers and Soldiers were
employed on shore, in advancing the interests of their Country,
their claims for prize-money were considered as valid during the
whole period of their absence.

It was on the morning of the 12th of March, that the Marines of
the fleet were landed in the Bay of Aboukir, consisting of 35
serjeants, 32 corporals, 22 drummers, and 500 privates, besides
Officers. It may be well conceived how difficult, yet how honorable
was the duty of fitting, for immediate service, this heterogeneous
body, drawn from 30 different ships, unknown to one another, and a
great many of them totally ignorant of every military evolution.
The battalion, however, was formed between the hours of 12 and
3 upon that day, under a scorching sun, and on a burning sand,
after which one half was detached to fill bags for the batteries,
whilst the other was marched a considerable distance, all the while
nearly knee-deep in sand, and laden with their comrades musquets
and knapsacks. After such labours, during the day, orders arrived
at seven in the evening for the whole to join the main body of
the Army, then 15 miles distant, which they effected, after much
fatigue, at one on the morning of the 13th of March. At five they
were again under arms, with a view to have attacked the enemy,
advancing towards him in two lines by the left, in order to have
turned his right flank. But anticipating the movements of the
British, he descended from the heights which he had occupied, and
struck at the leading brigades of both our lines. The battle began
on the right at seven, and those on the left instantly formed.

It cannot be supposed that this detachment of my corps, hitherto
untrained to military tactics, could evince that regularity and
precision in manœuvre which so much distinguished those veteran
Soldiers with whom they served. But if they failed in the minutiæ
of discipline, they were not behind them in valour. The engagement
becoming warm and general, they were somewhat crouded in their
ranks by the alignment of the regiments on their right and left,
owing to the narrowing of the Peninsula upon which they acted, and
at the moment when they sustained their severest loss. Although
not perfectly regular to command, they still, under a gallant
impulse, rushed forward in charge towards the enemy, and acquired,
for their conspicuous bravery, the appellation of the _Bull Dogs_
of the Army. The French were driven at last, with an irresistible
impetuosity, to take shelter under the fortified heights, that
constitute the chief defence of Alexandria.

The details of loss were fully proportionate to those of their
brethren in arms, being 2 Officers and 22 rank and file killed, 4
Officers, 2 Serjeants, 2 Drummers, and 27 rank and file wounded.
Amongst the former were Lieutenants Paul Hussey, and Linzee Shea,
holding rank as Captains in the Marine battalion, and Captain
Minto, with that of brevet as Major, besides Captain Robert
Torkington, 1st Lieutenant John Parry, and 2d Lieutenant George

Upon the day after the battle the following were the public orders
issued by the Commander in Chief, who had intimated to Lord Keith
the gallantry of the Marines upon that occasion:

  "Camp, 4 miles from Alexandria, 14 March, 1801.

"Sir Ralph Abercrombie desires that Lieutenant Colonel Smith and
the battalion of Marines, will accept his Thanks for their conduct,
in the course of the service of yesterday; at the request of Lord

"The Commander in Chief has the greatest satisfaction in thanking
the troops for their soldier-like conduct in the action of

In the afternoon the battalion marched to Aboukir, where they were
placed under the command of Earl Dalhousie, and remained there some
time after the surrender of its Castle.

Those brave fellows were truly sensible of their defect in point of
discipline, but a generous spirit of emulation pervaded the whole
of them, and under the able superintendance of Lieutenant Colonel
Smith, and Major Minto, this mixed body of men, in a very few days,
might have vied with any regiment in the field. They meritedly
gained, and repeatedly obtained from the Commander in Chief and
Major General Coote, under whom they were brigaded, the highest
encomiums for their soldier like appearance, steady conduct, and
the good order of their encampment, when in front of Alexandria.
It was their destiny to be entrusted with the defence of Aboukir
Castle, and its vicinity, which precluded them from displaying
their rapid improvement in evolution, or of sharing in the laurels
acquired by the Army, on the glorious 21st of March; a day upon
which every British Soldier may well exult, but not without
mingling with his proud joy, an unfeigned sigh over the memory
of that great and good man who led, and whose honorable life was
sacrificed at the shrine of victory.

The Marines, as constituting a material proportion of the strength
of Lord Keith's fleet, formed no part of these detachments which
penetrated the interior, but their duties were confined to the
blockade of Alexandria, where they might be ready to re-embark in
case of emergency, at the shortest notice.

The brilliant details of the Egyptian Campaign, are well known to
the world. They have been given in a stile highly adapted to yield
general information, and to rouse, within our Armies, an emulous

If it was not the lot of my corps to stand on the annals of
splendor by an active co-operation with those bodies who conquered
Rosetta, Rhamanich, and Cairo, still their effective presence
tended to enable the Commander in Chief to achieve these distant
and important objects. Attached to the brigade of Major General
Coote, they were withdrawn from the defence of Aboukir, and
continued to discharge, with an unrelaxed discipline, the duties of
investment, with but little variety, until the 5th day of August,
when the previous arrival of reinforcements from England and India,
the return of the forces from the recovery of the internal posts
in Lower Egypt, and at the express desire of Lord Keith, they were
struck off the shore details, and next day were re-embarked on
board their respective ships.

With such an accumulated Army General (now Lord) Hutchinson was
empowered to push the siege of Alexandria, which was carried on
with so great ability and success, that it surrendered on the 30th
of August.

It would be a wide attempt for me to embrace a discussion of those
movements that led to the expulsion of the French from Egypt, and I
am too humble by any panegyric of mine, to add a single mite to the
well earned fame of those distinguished Officers, those intrepid
Soldiers and Seamen, by whose united talents and valour, such
momentous results were obtained. Every individual is registered
upon the grateful records of his Country, carries about with him a
memorial of his own deeds, which reminds him and every one of his
military comrades, that an Englishman is as terrible in the field,
as he is upon the ocean.

The solid merits of my corps were such that I cannot omit the
following high testimonials, which bespeak them in much more
forcible terms, than any I can advance:

  "Foudroyant, Bay of Aboukir, 5th July, 1801.


"I have had much satisfaction in receiving the commands of the
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to make known to you, their
Lordships approbation of your conduct, and of that of the Officers,
Non-Commissioned Officers, and Privates of the Marine battalion,
landed from the ships in the squadron, to co-operate with the Army
on the coast of Egypt, and I have to request that you will, with
the permission of Major General Coote, communicate the approbation
which their Lordships have been pleased to express to the Officers
and men serving under your command.

  "I have the honor to be, Sir,

  "Your very obedient and humble servant,


  "Lieut.-Col. Smith, &c. &c. &c."

Major General Coote having received a similar letter from his
Lordship, enclosed it to Colonel Smith, at the same time giving his
sanction for its contents being published to the Officers and men
of the Marine battalion.

Three days previous to their embarkation the Major General thus
expressed himself:

  "Camp, near Alexandria, 3d August, 1801.


"At the request of Admiral Lord Keith, it is Lieut.-Gen. Sir John
Hely Hutchinson's directions, that the battalion of Marines, under
your command, is to hold itself in readiness to return on board
their respective ships. I cannot, however, suffer you to leave the
division of the Army, without assuring you how perfectly satisfied
I am, with the attention you have always paid to the Marines. The
good conduct of your corps, whilst under my orders, does them the
greatest credit, and I beg you will be so obliging as to signify
the same both to your Officers and men.

  "I have the honor to be, &c.

  "EYRE COOTE, Major General.

  "Lieutenant Colonel Smith, &c. &c."

They having done duty under Major General Finch, during a time, in
the 1st Brigade, that Officer, in consequence, thus conveys his

  "Brigade Orders, August 5, 1801.

"Major General Finch, on taking leave of Lieutenant Colonel Smith
and the Marines under his command, requests him to accept his
warmest thanks for the order, regularity, zeal, and attention
that have uniformly marked their conduct during the period he had
the honor of commanding the 1st Brigade, and he shall be happy
on all occasions to bear testimony to their merit in the correct
performance of their duty, in every respect, which has come under
his observation."

Although ulterior in date still, for the sake of connection, I am
led to insert the very flattering encomiums of Lord Hutchinson, the
Commander in Chief.

  "Jermyn Street, June 28, 1802.


"Your sudden departure from Egypt rendered it impossible for me
to desire that you would communicate my thanks to the Marines who
served under your command during the campaign. May I now beg that
you will assure the Officers and men, how highly sensible I am of
their meritorious services, and of the zeal and exertion which
ever marked their conduct. The order and discipline preserved by
the battalion does great credit to your military character, and is
equally honorable to the respectable corps which you had the good
fortune to command.

  "I have the honor to be, &c. &c.

  "(Signed)      HUTCHINSON, Major General.

  "Lieut.-Col. Smith, Royal Marines."

Owing to some omission, the medals which were bestowed by the Grand
Signior upon every Officer of the Army, as commemorative of his
gratitude, and of their services during the Egyptian campaign, were
for a time withheld from those of the corps of Royal Marines, but
in consequence of Lord Keith's representation of it to the Earl of
Elgin, our Ambassador at the Ottoman Porte, his Sublime Highness
most readily compensated for this error, and these honorable marks
were conveyed to Sir Richard Bickerton, commanding the British
Naval Forces at Malta, who transmitted them along with a letter
couched in the following elegant terms:

  "Kent, at Malta, March 18th, 1803.


"I have the honor of forwarding to you some Turkish medals, to be
distributed among the Officers of Marines who served on shore, and
in the squadron employed in the blockade of Alexandria, during the
Egyptian campaign.

"The accompanying letter and list,[7] will explain every thing; it
therefore only remains for me to add, that I feel a pleasure in
having been made a medium in conveying what may be acceptable to a
small part of your corps; and I should be much more gratified if
it was in my power to congratulate you _on the acquisition of more
substantial advantages for the whole_, being every day more fully
convinced of its services and utility.

  "I have the honor to be, Sir, &c. &c.


  "Lieut.-Col. Smith, Royal Marines."

Our victorious armies and fleet, which were destined for other
services, were suddenly stayed by the tidings of a cessation of

The feats of our squadrons and ships in the Mediterranean lost
none of their wonted splendor. Sir James Saumarez's attack upon
the French squadron, under the numerous batteries of Algeziras,
yields to no one upon record, for boldness of design or spirit in
execution. Although the event of the 6th of July was unprosperous,
still the gallantry exhibited on that day was productive of the
most signal consequences, and it, no doubt, had its effect upon a
superior force, who, panic struck, felt the retaliating vengeance
of Sir James and his little detachment, on the 12th. In the first
action 375 Seamen and Marines were killed, wounded, and missing;
amongst the former detail was 1st Lieutenant J. D. Williams, on
board the Hannibal, who behaved with true British courage, and with
the latter were numbered Lieutenants George Dunford and J. W. Day,
of Marines.

Sir James Saumarez, after speaking of the bravery of the men under
his command, says, "that Captain Maxwell and the Officers of my
corps on board the Cesar, were entitled to much praise." Captain
Keates of the Superbe, whose personal intrepidity and zeal were
highly instrumental in gaining the victory of the 12th of July, by
capturing the St. Antonio, thus acknowledges the merits of his crew
to the Commander in Chief: "It is my duty to represent to you, that
the Officers of all descriptions, Seamen, and Marines, conducted
themselves with the greatest steadiness and gallantry."

The bravery of Captain Hood, his Officers, Seamen, and Marines
was also highly conspicuous. A branch of my corps was again
included in the legislative thanks of a grateful Country, and Sir
James Saumarez, whose name is superior to panegyric, deservedly
was crowned with honorary, as well as pecuniary marks of his
Sovereign's favor.

The action of the Phœbe, Captain Barlow, with L'Africaine French
frigate was marked by an immense carnage, and afforded an evident
display of superior discipline in the Sailors and Marines under his
orders. That Officer was deservedly knighted after her capture.

Lord Cochrane in the Speedy, who was nobly supported by all his
followers, gave early hopes of what may yet be expected from him by
his Country, by boarding and carrying the frigate Gamo of 32 guns
and 319 men, while his own force was only 14 guns and 54 men.

Lieutenant Wilson, of Marines, with his party from the Mercury,
was noticed by Captain Rogers, for their courage and good conduct,
first in boarding a French Pirate amongst the rocks in the Tremite
Islands, and afterwards driving her renegado crew from the hills
which they occupied, with a four pounder gun and musquetry.
Lieutenant Wilson covered Lieutenant Mather and the Seamen while
heaving the vessel off the rocks, and then re-embarked with some

Those Officers had been highly distinguished upon a former occasion
in bringing his Majesty's late sloop, the Bull Dog, from the port
of Ancona under a heavy fire of cannon and musquetry from the Mole,
but they were obliged to abandon her to the enemy from an insetting
current, and a calm, after all their gallant efforts. This ship was
reserved for a future but more successful attempt by the Seamen and
Marines of the Champion, who bravely assaulted her, and brought her
out from under the guns of Gallipoli, guided by the daring zeal of
Lord William Stuart.

The Swiftsure of 74 guns fell into the hands of Admiral
Gantheaume's squadron; after a resistance which reflected honor
upon Captain Hallowell, his subordinates, and the British Navy.

Lord Cochrane, in union with Captain Pulling, again gave a test of
intrepidity, by striking at a Spanish convoy in the Bay of Orepeso,
protected by a castle, a xebeck, and gunboats. These they destroyed
with little loss.

In August Captain Halsted's squadron took La Caniere of 44 guns,
after a short action. Lieutenant Douglas, of Marines, was wounded,
but died after amputation on board La Pomone. This frigate was on
her way with a convoy, having stores and ammunition on board, for
the French Army then carrying on the siege of Porto Ferrajo, in the
Isle of Elba.

This little fortress disdaining to participate in that terror
which had disgraced the continent of Italy, afforded refuge to Mr.
Isaac Grant, English Vice Consul at Leghorn, and others of his
countrymen, who fled from our rapacious enemies on their entrance
into Tuscany. His example and precepts roused the natives to arms,
while the very females shared in the patriotic impulse of defending
their families and their Country, from those universal spoilers.
Mingled with its garrison, were Lieutenant Lawrence and his party
of Marines from the Pearl, whose animated efforts, during a long
series of six months fatigue and danger, are little known, but
were such as to entitle the whole to the highest praise. This
little force, by their constancy and courage, ever set the best of
examples, were always foremost on service, and stood to their post
and guns when the Tuscan and other foreign troops gave way. They
were likewise unremittingly useful in preparing shells, mounting
and transporting cannon, and in repairing their carriages, as well
as constructing works. Their knowledge of gunnery, acquired by
experience in a long siege, and their ambition to gain honor to
their corps and themselves, induced them to live in the batteries,
and the little sleep which they enjoyed, was by their cannon. Such
zealous perseverance impaired the healths of this brave detachment,
and if the place had not been relieved by other troops, Lieutenant
Lawrence and his faithful companions must have fallen victims to
incessant toil.

The merits of Colonel Airey, in the defence of Porto Ferrajo, were
great indeed. Nothing could surpass his cool judgment and spirited
exertions in foiling a very superior enemy in all their attempts.
The bravery and good conduct of Mr. Isaac Grant, in repeated
sallies, were eminently conspicuous. Few occasions have exhibited a
more manly patience, or a nobler stand.

Upon the 12th of September Sir John Warren appeared with his
squadron to relieve this brave garrison. He had previously given
an order to Captain John Richardson, of Marines, to act as Brigade
Major to Lieutenant Colonel Airey, and he was disembarked, as
well as Captain Johnstone, from the Gibraltar, 12 Subalterns, 17
Serjeants, 18 Corporals, 11 Drummers, and 390 Privates. A force of
240 Seamen was also landed under Captain Long of the Royal Navy.
Captain James Weir, (now on retirement), who commanded the Marines
at Malta, served in Porto Ferrajo at the head of a Maltese corps,
with distinguished reputation.

It having been resolved to destroy the enemy's works, a debarkation
of upwards of 1000 men took place early on the morning of the
14th of September, while a sortie from the garrison was attempted
against the battery which overawed the harbour. Captain Long, with
his division of Seamen, Marines, and Swiss, proceeded to demolish
the batteries on the right side of the bay, which he performed in
a gallant stile. That Officer was shot through the shoulder very
early in the action, but persevered in the attack, until his little
advanced party, consisting of 26 Seamen and Marines, reached a spot
where the enemy had a field piece, and were in considerable force.
It was within 18 yards of their position that this brave young
man received a mortal wound, when he was carried from the field.
He lingered and died, and so strongly impressed was the foe with
admiration of his valor, that a suspension of arms was maintained,
while his remains were borne, with military honors, to the grave.
Lieutenant Campbell, of Marines, after this mishap, instantly
charged, drove the republicans to a narrow pass, where, being
reinforced, he was held in check; but having accomplished the chief
object which was intended, he effected a retreat to the garrison.

Captains Johnstone and Richardson, who headed the division against
the enemy's works on the left side of the harbour, did every thing
that could have been expected from brave and experienced Officers.
After having ruined the batteries of Punta Pina, the grottoes, and
giovanni, a vast quantity of ammunition, and having carried off
150 barrels of powder, the British and Allied troops were attacked
by very superior numbers in different quarters. Under existing
circumstances a retreat was the only expedient, which, after a
spirited contest, was made to the boats and within the walls of
the fortress. Lieut. Clarke, of Marines, was wounded and made
prisoner. The general loss was by no means equal to the nature
of this service. Colonel Airey expressed himself highly indebted
for the support and assistance given by the Seamen and Marines.
Although the inadequacy of numbers prevented the completion of
every object, still this diversion afforded a temporary aid to the
brave defenders of Porto Ferrajo.

Major Weir signalized himself in a subsequent sortie on the night
of the 10th of October, and the garrison never relaxed in the
most animated perseverance, until peace threw open its gates to a
new sovereign. Captain Halsted, previous to the appearance of Sir
John Warren, had captured or destroyed the whole of the French
blockading squadron.

Those Northern Powers, against whom Britain had reluctantly drawn
the sword, experienced a severe and early chastisement in the loss
of all their West India Colonies, which successively yielded to the
prompt and vigorous measures of Admiral Duckworth and Sir Thomas
Trigge. St. Bartholomew's, St. Martin's, which alone offered any
resistance, St. Thomas, and Santa Cruz submitted to the Army and
Fleet during the month of March, and the islands of St. Eustatius
and Saba were occupied by our forces in April. These conquests
afforded no field for achievement, but they gave opportunities for
the display of much united zeal.

Captains Manby and Butcher, their Officers, Seamen, and Marines
were noticed for gallant single actions, and Lieutenant Mackenzie,
with those under him, for much intrepidity in cutting out a
schooner from under the batteries at Guadaloupe.

It is with a heartfelt pain that I am constrained to blend
with these honorable details, another instance of baneful
insubordination which occurred on board the Castor frigate, upon
Sunday the 13th of December. The trying hour produced another
example of steady fidelity in Lieutenant J. S. Smith and his
loyal party of Marines. Captain Fanshawe upon observing the first
symptoms of revolt, ordered the detachment under arms, which
was obeyed with an unsurpassed alacrity. The young but spirited
Officer, who headed them, needed no prompter to a decisive conduct.
He, with an unlooked for rapidity, charged bayonets, drove the
guilty criminals to the larboard side of the lower deck, where,
cooped up, they were forced to surrender their ringleaders.

The heroic feelings of a private Marine, who was confined to his
hammock at the outset of this commotion, would have done honor
to any age of the world. Though depressed with fever, still he
arose, put on his accoutrements, took his musquet and his post in
the ranks. On being questioned why he was there, he nobly replied
to his Officer, "Oh, Sir, this is not a time to be sick." This
action obtained for him a subsequent promotion, and on retrospect,
it still merits a pecuniary tribute. It is under the impulse of
cordial esteem, as well as of public justice, that I annex the very
flattering testimony of the Court Martial, which sat upon those
deluded mutineers, respecting the firm conduct of Lieutenant Smith
and his party. Captain Western, the President, addressed him in
these words: "I have it in command from this Court to express to
you the high sense they entertain of your very Officer like conduct
on the evening of the 13th of December, and the good and steady
conduct of the party of Marines embarked under your orders. Your
prompt and spirited execution of Captain Fanshawe's orders appears
to the Court to have stopped a very dangerous mutiny, and the
token of their approbation of your conduct will be transmitted to
the Commander in Chief, and inserted in the minutes of the Court
Martial." This became much enhanced by the following very judicious
and handsome order from Admiral Duckworth:

  "Southampton, Fort Royal Bay, 26th December, 1801.

"Memorandum--Whereas the members of the Court Martial on the
mutineers of his Majesty's ship Castor, have felt called upon, in
justice to the exemplary and meritorious conduct of Lieutenant
J. S. Smith, of the Marines, and the party under his command, to
express their high sense of such spirited behaviour.

"It is my directions that these sentiments of the Court are read on
board his Majesty's ship under my orders, to testify how fully I
accord with the Court in the commendation so deservedly bestowed.

  "(Signed) J. S. DUCKWORTH."

Early in 1801 Lieut. Vyvian, of my corps, fell in a gallant
attempt to bring out two vessels, at anchor, within the bar of
Senegal, protected by heavy batteries on the shore. Nothing could
exceed the obstinate courage of all under Lieutenant Dick, who
commanded in the attack. After twenty minutes contest they carried
his Majesty's late sloop the Senegal, which they were obliged to
destroy, and with much difficulty the boats effected a retreat
across a tremendous surf, and exposed to a dreadful discharge
of grape shot. This success was dearly purchased with the lives
of Lieutenant Palmer, 1 Midshipman, and 8 Seamen and Marines.
Lieutenant Vyvian left not behind him his superior for promising
talents, or correct manners.

Two very gallant actions were fought in the East, which did honor
to Captains Adam, of La Sybille, and G. R. Collier, of the Victor.
La Chiffone and La Fleche yielded to the discipline and valour of
British Seamen and Marines, which were exemplified in a striking
degree, by each ship having been opposed to batteries on the shore,
intricate shoals during the battle, and to an equal force in those
antagonists which they combated.

Nothing occurred upon the station of Jamaica. Society had to
deplore the loss of one of its most valuable members, and the Royal
Navy one of its brightest ornaments, in Lord Hugh Seymour, the
Commander in Chief.


[5] Windsor Castle, Princess Royal, Malta, Glory.

[6] Caramania is a Province of Turkey, in Asia, in the South part
of Natolia.--Satalia is its Capital.

[7] The letter of Earl Elgin corrected the mistake which had
delayed the delivery of the medals, and transmitted to Sir Richard
a list of those Officers who were entitled to them, agreeably to a
detail given by Lord Keith.


The wide and important interests to be discussed, necessarily
protracted the desirable event of a Definitive Peace, during which
anxious interval both nations rested on their arms.

The powerful detachments of our republican neighbours, to the
western world, could not be viewed by a vigilant Ministry, but
with a jealous eye, whom it behoved to push a force adequate to
counteract their schemes, if directed against our Colonies. Such
mighty armaments taking their departure for a distant quarter,
during pending negociations, had doubtless an influence in spinning
them out, and it was not until the 27th of March, 1802, that this
salutary work was consummated; a day which diffused a general joy
through each rival land.

Public gratitude did not cool after the return of tranquillity,
but with an enlightened policy, as well as a liberal justice, it
embraced and anticipated the wants and feelings of those brave
men who had vindicated their Country's honor, her glory, and

Many revolving years had witnessed the distinguished gallantry,
the unimpaired loyalty of the corps of Marines; the records of a
British Legislature had long teemed with grateful memorials of
their merits upon the shores, and the ocean of every clime, but
with scarcely one solid mark of recompence for all their brilliant

It was reserved for the year 1802, and the ministerial auspices of
Earl St. Vincent, to draw this body of faithful Soldiers into a
close alliance with a family and a throne, for which they had so
often bled, and round whom they will rally to the latest period of
their existence. The title of _Royal_ was not the acquirement of
influence. No! it was the gain of more than one hundred years of
undiminished zeal; a Monarch's tributary sacrifice at the altar
of honor! It is a sacred appellation which, I trust, we will not
sully, and what we never will surrender into any hands, without a
glorious struggle, but into those of a branch of that Illustrious
House, from which we received it. A Sovereign's favor cheers the
Soldier, soothes all his past sufferings, and cares, and turns his
eyes to future glory alone.

The boon was accepted by the Marine Corps with all the manliness of
conscious desert, and with a thankful exultation.

It was conveyed, in the following terms, from Sir Evan Nepean, to
Lieutenant General Souter Johnstone, Commandant in Chief:

  "Admiralty Office, April 29, 1802.


"The Earl St. Vincent having signified, to my Lords Commissioners
of the Admiralty, that his Majesty, in order to mark his Royal
approbation of the very meritorious conduct of the corps of
Marines, during the late war, has been graciously pleased to direct
that, in future, the corps shall be styled "The Royal Marines."

"I have great satisfaction in obeying their Lordships commands
to communicate this intelligence to you; and in offering their
Lordships congratulations on this testimony of the opinion his
Majesty entertains of the very distinguished services of that part
of his forces to which you belong.

  "I am, Sir, &c. &c.

  (Signed)      "EVAN NEPEAN."

  "Lieut.-Gen. Souter Johnstone, Commandant
  of the Marines."

A respectable and effective force of 100 companies, was the peace
establishment, and subsequent events have realized the wisdom of
that measure.

The retired list was also considerably augmented, which yielded
a retreat, not only to the worn out veteran, but likewise to
those who could identify an incapacity for future service. Every
necessary reference as to the former and present details of the
corps, may be had to that list which is annually issued from the
Board of Admiralty, upon the 1st of January, and is in the hands of
almost every Officer.

Although hostility had ceased in every quarter, still the Marine
Soldier was oftener than once conspicuous upon the annals of the
year, by a steady fidelity and valour.

A very dangerous insurrection of the 8th West India regiment in the
island of Dominica, marked by circumstances of the most shocking
barbarity, was checked in its immediate effects, in part, by his
firm countenance. It fortunately occurred, when those murderous
revolters first shewed their spirit, that his Majesty's ship
Magnificent was at anchor in Prince Rupert's Bay. Some shot, from
the Lower Cabareta, which went over her, was the first symptom
of mutiny on the shore, and it was soon confirmed by intelligence
that the Blacks had risen in arms, and had assassinated a number
of their Officers. Captain Gifford tendered his services to the
President of the island, who, conceiving it only the prelude to a
general commotion, gladly accepted the offer. Lieutenant O. Neale
volunteered the duty of disembarkation, and he felt it a difficult
task to restrain the ardor of the whole party of Marines, to follow
him. But his number was confined to 2 Serjeants, 2 Corporals, and
36 Privates, with which he put off from the ship just at dawn on
the morning of the 10th of April. Observing the rebels advancing
rapidly to the beach, he anticipated their object, quickly
effected a landing, and took post on a hill, after the exchange
of some scattering shots. Opposed to nearly 500 Blacks, whom he
kept at bay during the day, reinforcements became necessary, and
he was farther strengthened by two successive detachments of
Marines under Lieutenants Lambert and Hawkins. Upon this rising
ground, those brave fellows, not exceeding 66, gave refuge to
many Officers who flew from the ferocious hands of the mutineers.
They were afterwards joined by some Colonial Militia, who were
little calculated, from the mixed nature of their arms, to oppose
a resolute enemy. The dispositions of Lieutenant Lambert through
the night, aided by the counsels of Mr. O. Neale, were like a
good Officer. The native troops gave way to slumber. His outposts
were, therefore, confided to his faithful companions, and all his
energies were derived from his own brethren. Incessant rains had
nearly rendered useless all their ammunition.

On the following day the Marines were ordered to Grand Ance, in
order to protect the inhabitants, and through that night were
posted in the swamps to prevent the escape of the Blacks from
Fort Shirley. Many of our men had been 56 hours on shore amidst
the greatest privations; having had nothing to eat but raw salt
beef and biscuit. The stagnated smell from their position, pointed
out the necessity of obtaining some other refreshment to recruit
nature, and to avert disease. A Marine of the party, overhearing
the discussion amongst his Officers, nobly said, "I will go to the
village and bring them--I know I must go and repass the enemy's
fire, but my life is not mine, it is at the constant command of his
Majesty's service." He accordingly performed his duty, and escaped

Bread was distributed, and brandy administered, in scanty portions,
through the night, by the Officers, who exhorted the men to keep
up their spirits. The feelings of the brave are ever reciprocal
in acts of kindness. One and all they exclaimed "We wish to add
another laurel to our corps, we will follow you where ever you go."
The mud collected by the rains, had, in the course of marching,
deprived many of their shoes, which could not be remedied but
from the ship. Frequent flags of truce had passed between General
Johnstone and the fort. Mr. Roberts, an Officer of Engineers,
requested to storm it, if the mutineers would not surrender the
barrier, providing the Marines accompanied him, who, to a man,
volunteered, saying, "We don't mind shoes, we can fight without
them." The Governor applauded their gallant zeal, and assured them
of a preference, if their services should be wanted.

The Marines united with detachments from the Royal Scotch, and
68th Regiments, marched into the fort upon the 12th, and drew up
in front of the Black Corps, which presented arms to the troops;
having three of their own Officers, as prisoners, placed between
their colours. General Johnstone was obeyed by them in his orders
to shoulder, order, and ground their arms; but on being commanded
to step three paces in front, the cry was "No," they instantly
resumed them and fired a volley: this was returned, and was
followed up with a charge of bayonets, which broke their ranks,
and dispersed the mutineers in every direction. The greater part
fled up the Outer Cabaret, keeping up a fire until they reached the
rocks, down which many precipitated themselves, and those who could
afterwards crawl from the bottom were exposed to a discharge of
grape and cannister from the Magnificent.

John Budd, private Marine, distinguished himself most signally
during the pursuit. He was attacked singly by four black
grenadiers, one of whom he killed with his first fire, wounded
another, when coolly awaiting a return from the other two, reloaded
his musquet, with which he shot a third, and bayoneted the fourth.
Afterwards turning to him who was wounded, he closed his destinies,
and throwing the remains of the whole over the rocks finished his
exploit by saying "This is the way I shall serve all traitors." The
conduct of John Lamswood, and Alexander Livingstone is also worthy
of notice; both were severely wounded, but they persevered in their
duty until the loss of blood, brought them to the ground. The
former received a ball in his mouth, which lodging in his throat,
was afterwards extracted by an able operation of Mr. Veitch,
Surgeon of the Saturn. I am authorized likewise to detail the
name of John Batt, private, whose alacrity, during these arduous
services, cheered his associates. As my scope is limited, I would
not detract from the merits of these corps, with which mine was
united. Theirs were such as to maintain their long established
reputation. Upon their return to Martinique, the whole detachment
met a mark of public recompence in those necessaries which they
had expended, and the Officers received the thanks of General
Johnstone, and of the Presidency of Dominique, which they had
probably saved from general revolt.

I wish I could close the year with a more gratifying topic than
that of insubordination, which first shewed its lurking spirit
in the Mediterranean, by the most daring acts. It broke out on
board the Gibraltar, whose crew chose to decide the propriety of
fulfilling or disobeying the orders for their future destination.
Attempts of violence were opposed by the noblest firmness in
Captain Johnstone and his gallant party on board, by whose
spirited and prompt exertions, with those of the Officers, good
order was restored, the flame stifled from spreading farther, and
the services of a brave squadron preserved to their Country at a
momentous crisis.

Two of the ringleaders suffered death; upon whose trials the
distinguished merits of the Marine detachment were apparent to the
Court, who gave testimony of their gratitude by inserting them upon
their records. The following communication bespoke, in suitable
terms, the very high sense which the Commander in Chief entertained
of their meritorious conduct, which was read throughout his fleet.

  "Kent, Oristagni Bay, 4th November, 1802.

"Memorandum--Whereas it appears in the minutes of the late Court
Martial, on the mutineers of the Gibraltar, that the detachment
of Marines, serving on board that ship, bore no part in the
disgraceful proceedings of the 6th of October last, but much to the
credit of the Officers and themselves, maintained the character
of the loyal and respectable corps to which they belong, by a
steady adherance to their duty. The Rear Admiral takes this public
method of expressing his approbation of their good and soldier like
conduct, and requests Captain Johnstone to accept his thanks.

  (Signed)      "RICHARD BICKERTON."

  "To the respective Captains, &c."

A similar instance of indiscipline occurred on board the Excellent
upon Christmas Day, which was subdued by the firmness of her
Officers, aided by the undaunted allegiance of her party of
Marines. Nothing from me can superadd to their honor. I annex the
result which proceeded from Commodore Hood, and is such as carries
a powerful evidence of their fidelity.

  "Blenheim, Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, 30th Dec. 1802.

"Memorandum--The Commander in Chief had flattered himself in the
hope, that all those ill disposed acts of mutinous conduct were
at an end in the Royal Navy, and that Seamen would endeavour to
heighten their characters in the eyes of the rest of his Majesty's
subjects; but he trusts the punishment he has been obliged to
order to be carried into execution on those unfortunate men may
be sufficient example to deter a few evil minded persons from
disturbing the repose and good order amongst the Seamen in future.

"The Commander in Chief (as well as the members of the Court
Martial) is highly sensible of the active exertions of the Officers
of his Majesty's ship Excellent, in quelling the late mutiny on
board her, and also the Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and
Private Marines belonging to the said ship, who, by their firmness
in resisting the attempt to seduce them from their duty, and in
opposing men in actual mutiny, have increased, if possible, the
high character the corps has so justly acquired; and begs to
assure _the whole of them_, they have his best thanks, and he
shall not fail to represent their meritorious conduct to the Lords
Commissioners of the Admiralty.

  (Signed)      "SAMUEL HOOD."

  "To Captain Maxwell, Blenheim."


Besides the many useful reforms adopted by Earl St. Vincent, for
the internal œconomy of the British Navy, his Lordship also turned
his attention to the corps of Royal Marines. Upon the 18th of
March, 1803, a new code of instructions was published for their
regulation when on shore, which vests in the four Senior Captains
of each division, the management and superintendance of many
concerns that had formerly been placed under separate departments.
It would exceed my bounds to attempt the discussion of arrangements
which are obviously well designed to promote the interests of the
public and the individual, as well as to establish a facility in
subordinate transactions. Experience, doubtless, will attest their
wisdom, and posterity recognize with gratitude their enlightened

The joyous work of peace had scarcely been fulfilled, when
disappointed ambition began to wreak its rancour, through the low
channels of a venal press. Hitherto the organs of knowledge, and
sometimes of liberal opinion, the papers of republican France,
under the controul of its First Consul, became the contemptible
interpreters of degrading scurrility and the most inflammatory
philippics against the English Government. Like the noise of
the rattlesnake, they proclaimed a latent danger, while all the
public institutes of Buonaparte were levelled at the foundations
of our commercial greatness. A banditti of unauthorized agents
also set themselves down in our seaports, who, under the specious
pretexts of trade, were commissioned to explore our coasts and to
contaminate our principles. By such subtle means had the courage
and the energies of almost every State which had fallen under the
French yoke, been previously undermined, and they well merited the
instant and retaliating vengeance of a great kingdom. But war is a
serious evil, and every expedient to avert it should be tried by
a commercial Country, ere it has recourse to arms. There can be
no compromise, however, where national security and honor are at
stake. Ours were involved, and we again took up arms in defence of
our dearest birthrights.

My corps very soon met an increase of 43 companies to complete the
legislative vote for 1803. This has introduced to actual service,
all who were upon the half pay list, and produced many vacancies
upon the establishment, which, to the perpetual honor of Earl
St. Vincent, have been filled by the offspring or kindred of the
veteran Marine Officer, who have uniformly met a preference from
his Lordship, to the adopted sons of power.

A detachment under Lieutenant Colonel Collins embarked for Port
Phillips, in the Southern part of New Holland, who was nominated
Lieutenant Governor of it. His personal knowledge of the Country,
and the habitual discipline of my corps, will, I trust, unitedly
render that fertile spot, of future public benefit, and its society
of unfortunate criminals conspicuous by a reform of manners.

Few occasions, during the present war, have offered to signalize
Marine valour. Wherever they have occurred, the most powerful
incentives to the human mind, have been held out to every hero who
shall imitate such examples. The gallantry of Charles O'Reilly,
private, on board the Loire, who assisted in carrying the national
brig Venteux, and bringing her out from under the heavy batteries
of the Isle of Bas, was condescendingly noticed by the Board of
Admiralty, and he was immediately promoted, by General Averne, to
the rank of Serjeant, at the request of their Lordships. This was
likewise followed by a pecuniary recompence from the society of
Lloyd's; an institution founded in the most noble munificence, the
purest benevolence, and the most exalted patriotism.

Lieutenant Irvin, of Marines, also shewed his zeal in a detached
enterprize from the Naiad, against a French schooner at anchor in
the Saintes, which was achieved without loss.

My narrative here reaches its close, and I will not dive into
futurity. Thus much I will venture to anticipate, that whether in
union with his gallant brethren of the fleet, or blended with our
disciplined Armies on the shore, the Marine Soldier will never
forfeit that distinguished name which he now holds, of loyalty to
his King, fidelity to his Country, and unshaken valour against the
enemies of both.

If such continues to be his virtues, may he never want a patron and
a guardian! and when the Nobleman, who now so ably guides the Naval
counsels of the Nation, shall be removed from the seat of power,
either by a mortal or a political decree, may his successor, like
him, possess the disposition to recompence our merits, although
unbefriended by influence!


The very important services of the fleets of Britain, through
successive generations, have justly entitled her Seamen to public
recompence and protection. Every means, therefore, which good
policy or expediency could suggest, have been adopted at different
times, for their comforts and welfare.

Whether from an illiberal distinction, or a faulty omission, I know
not, still the Marine Soldier, habitually a sharer in the dangers
and the glory of our Navy, notwithstanding such natural claims
to notice, was, for a long while, excluded from a participation
in these humane regulations which afforded independence to the
destitute families of our Sailors when afar off in their Country's
service. It was reserved for a recent and a more enlightened era to
extend also to the Marine, a privilege which must constitute the
sweetest joy of every good man--that of allotting a part of his
pay, when embarked, and distant from his home, for the constant
support of a wife and family otherwise doomed to want, an aged
parent weighed down by poverty and years, or a dependant friend
struggling hard against adversity.

I shall state the nature of those rights which have progressively
been granted to the Marine Soldier, and point out the mode by
which they can be practically adopted. It is a tribute, however,
meritedly due to the Right Honorable Mr. Dundas, to remark, that
from his intelligent and generous conceptions, first emanated
all these estimable privileges to the subordinates in the Royal
Corps of Marines, which were eagerly discussed and sanctioned by a
grateful Legislature.

Without recurring to the express Acts of Parliament, upon which
those indulgencies are founded, I will simply digest their spirit,
and detail the necessary steps to be observed, under every possible
contingency. It will be proper to mention, in the first place,
that every Marine Recruit should intimate to his wife or kindred,
immediately after his joining Head Quarters at Chatham, Portsmouth,
or Plymouth, the number _of the divisional Company_ to which he has
been attached. Young men too frequently name only _their parade
Companies_ which is of no use after they are embarked on board,
as such often undergo a change while they continue on shore. By
particularizing the former, it serves as a certain clue to their
friends in every enquiry concerning their destinies, and will
correct mistakes when two, or more, of a similar name shall happen
to belong to the same ship or division.

In April, 1763, Marine Soldiers obtained the right of following
their trades in any town of Great Britain (except those having
Universities) after their discharge from the service. This remains
the same.

It is to be observed, for the guidance of legal heirs to
prize-money, which may be due to any deceased Marine Soldier,
that if they do not exhibit their claims _within_ three years
after notice has been given by the Agent or Agents, of its being
in course of payment, such goes into the funds of Greenwich
Hospital. This shews the absolute necessity of every family or
kindred maintaining a constant correspondence with their distant
military friends, and as the life of a Soldier is ever precarious,
_he_ should not fail to report, by letter, the circumstantial
particulars of each fortunate capture at sea, in which he may have
an interest, in order that his legal or designed heirs may meet
with little difficulty in tracing out where his property lays, in
the event of death.

As the Country wisely permits the Marine, in common with all the
subordinate servants of his Majesty, an œconomical communication
with his dear and remote friends, by the abolition of every postage
excepting the payment of one penny, no occasion should be lost
of availing himself of this valuable privilege. From this item
being lodged with each letter into the office from whence it is
dispatched, I am afraid, however, it often happens, when on the
eve of putting to sea, that those poor fellows, in the hurry of the
occasion, entrust their money and their secrets to unprincipled
watermen, who may be tempted to pocket the one, and destroy the
other without a chance of detection. _Were the receivers_ of each
letter obliged to pay this little impost, correspondence might
be more regular, such frauds prevented, and the revenue continue

By the benevolent Act of 1792 Non-Commissioned Officers and Private
Marines were allowed the privilege of allotting a portion of their
pay (usually a moiety) to their wives, families, or others, which,
till that period, was confined to the Seamen alone.

Immediately after embarkation, he who has a relative or a friend
to whom he inclines to allot such a part, should execute this
instrument, which the Captain of the ship he may belong to, will
forward to the Navy Board; the Treasurer of which, authenticates
the ticket and transmits it to the person for whose benefit it is

The Receiver General of Land Tax, Collectors of Customs or Excise,
and Clerks of the Checque, are _officially_ obliged to pay these
allowances to the holder of it, every four weeks, and should no
money be in hand for the purpose, one or other must name _a day of
recall within a fortnight_, under a penalty, as likewise if any
deduction shall be made from the net sum. Tickets of allotment are
irrevocable by the grantor, while he lives and is in public pay,
unless he shews a very solid cause for cancelling them. If a wife
who holds one, having children _under fourteen_, shall die, the
fact must be attested by the Minister and Church Wardens of the
parish, a person named who undertakes to receive _their_ future
allowances, and all the circumstances thus established must be
remitted to the Navy Board for its sanction. He who becomes the
representative ought to appear in person to receive such monies,
unless prevented by sickness. But should a wife die (leaving
children of the above description) and if no steps are taken or any
claims made for their benefit, _within six months_, such allotments
become void, and they will in future be paid either to the grantor
himself, or his heirs and executors after his decease.

Those who hold such tickets may always be assured of the friends
who gave them being alive, up to the date of the latest payment, as
the Navy Board never fails to acquaint those Agents who have been
accustomed to issue the money for allotments, with every death that
happens; each of whom is bound, under a penalty, to acknowledge the
receipt of such an intimation within two days. The same forms are
observed in Ireland, where allotments are paid by the Collectors or
Commissioners of Revenue.

All enquiries concerning the situation or destinies of distant
relatives serving in the Royal Marines when embarked on board
of ship, should be preferred to the Navy Board, Somerset Place,
London, and through its present Secretary, (R. A. Nelson,) or
whoever may succeed him, as the returns of ships are transmitted
to that office, in which the Marines are included. In order to
identify the Soldier, about whom an enquiry is made it is necessary
to hand, at the same time, the _number_ of his divisional company,
as well as that of his allotment ticket, if he has granted one.
Successful reference may also be had to the division, where he is
attached, by addressing a letter, "On his Majesty's service," to
the Adjutant of it; _always_ remarking the _number_ of his Company.

In the year 1792 Marines were placed on the same footing, and
became sharers in the benefit of an Act "To prevent frauds and
abuses in payment of wages, prize-money, and other allowances."
Wills, or letters of Attorney, when executed on board of ship,
must be attested by the Captain, and one or more of the _signing
Officers_. They are not valid unless they are _revocable_. The
Captain acquaints the Navy Board in his ship's return when any
Seaman or Marine under his command has made his testament, which is
an evidence of the justice of future claims on his property in case
of decease. Any will made by either, after his discharge from the
service, or any power of Attorney affecting _pay_, _prize-money_,
or other property acquired by him, _while on board his Majesty's
fleet, if executed within the bills of London or Westminster_, must
be attested by an Officer appointed by the Treasurer of the Navy,
_where wages are paid_. If either a will or power of Attorney, as
above, is made in England or Ireland, it must be witnessed by the
Minister and Church Wardens; if in Scotland, by the Clergyman
and two Elders of that parish in which the executor of such an
instrument may reside.

Any Marine dying on board _intestate_ upon information of his
decease reaching his friends, he who is entitled to his effects
must give in a petition to the Inspector of Wills, (J. Bedingfield,
Esq.) Somerset Place, London, or whoever may be his successor,
_stating_ the name of such Marine, to what part of the King's
dominions he belonged, the name of the ship or ships in which he
served, the applicant's own name, _at full length_, his relation
to, or connexion with the defunct, what other kindred the deceased
may have alive to the best of the petitioner's knowledge, and where
resident. This must be certified by two respectable housekeepers
of the parish, town, or place where the applicant dwells, who must
aver that they believe such account to be true, _which_ is also
to be attested by the Minister and Church Wardens, that _those_
subscribing witnesses live in the parish, and are of honest repute.
Upon a petition and a certificate, executed agreeable to such
prescribed forms, being transmitted to the Inspector of Wills, he
will enquire into the truth of all, and when satisfied that no
will of the deceased remains with him, he will send or deliver to
the claimants an abstract of his petition, with a note or ticket
signed by himself and subjoined, marked by his stamp, representing
that such statement of the claimant appears just, and that the
person so petitioning may have letters of administration to the
deceased, _provided_ he is otherwise entitled by law, _which_ will
be addressed to a Proctor in Doctor's Commons, that letters may
pass in favour of the applicant, while the original petition and
certificate are preserved on the records of the Treasurer of the
Navy and kept by him, and the letters of administration must be
lodged and registered in the same manner as the probates of wills,
with the Inspector, who must give a cheque signed and stamped
by him, or his representative, to the Administrators or their
Attorneys, which will be sufficient for either to demand payment
of all sums due to them on account of the deceased. Proctors are
liable to a penalty of 500_l_. if aiding to procure probates
or letters of administration to empower any to receive pay,
prize-money, &c. for service in the fleet, without having first
obtained a certificate from the Inspector of Wills and powers of
Attorney, and they will, moreover, be incapacitated from acting in
any Ecclesiastical Court of Great Britain or Ireland.

Non-Commissioned Officers and Private Marines should be cautious
to execute latter wills and powers exactly conformable to the
prescribed rules, for if not attended to, they will be of no
effect, besides the testator or executor being subject to a penalty.

The stated fees of Proctors are as follow, and with them I shall
close an Appendix, which, I humbly trust, will prove of general
benefit. Every remark which it contains is alike applicable in
pursuing the interests of the heirs of Seamen as well as of Marines.

  For seal, parchment, writing, and suing forth the probate granted to
  the Executors of any Marine whose property is 20_l_.           £0 15  2
  To Proctor on letters of administration on do. when 20_l_.      1  4  2
  To Proctor for probate when property is 40_l_.                 £1  8  8
  Do. letters of administration when do. do.                      1 17  8
  To Proctor for probate when property is 60_l_.                 £1 11  2
  To do. letters of administration when do. do.                   2  8  6
  To Proctors for probate when property is 100_l_.               £1 13  8
  Do. letters of administration when do. do.                      2 11  0

If the funds exceed my statements, the charges progressively become
augmented, of which any Proctor can inform, as they are uniformly


  M. Swinney, Printer,


  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  All changes noted in the ERRATA (pg xvi) have been applied to the

  The heading and signature lines of letters have been made consistent
  in style; the printer sometimes combined them to save space on a page.

  Three occurrences of the character ſ (long-form s) have been replaced
  by the normal s. (Pg 1 also; pg 5 Brisbane; pg 383 sloop.)

  Sometimes the currency symbol l (for libra, pounds) was used instead
  of £. This has been changed to _l_ for clarity. For example, 50l is
  represented as 50_l_.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspelling in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example:
  crouded, crowd; chaced, chased; stile, style; control, controul.

  Pg x. 'requst' replaced by 'request'.
  Pg xi. 'hononr' replaced by 'honour'.
  Pg xii. 'sharers' replaced by 'shares'.
  Pg xiv. 'establisment' replaced by 'establishment'.
  Pg xv. 'Trinadad' replaced by 'Trinidad'.
  Pg xvi. 'proccedure' replaced by 'procedure'.
  Pg 11. '11,375 16  ' replaced by '11,375 16  8'.
  Pg 16. 'Cloudesly' replaced by 'Cloudesley' (twice).
  Pg 20. 'harrassed' replaced by 'harassed'.
  Pg 22. 'eastermost' replaced by 'easternmost'.
  Pg 23. 'capitol' replaced by 'capital'.
  Pg 30. 'inorder to' replaced by 'in order to'.
  Pg 38. "Holl's" replaced by "Holl"; "Barr's" replaced by "Barr".
  Pg 43. 'peformed' replaced by 'performed'.
  Pg 52. 'Barriadera' replaced by 'Barradera'.
  Pg 52. 'Castilio' replaced by 'Castillo'.
  Pg 66. 'recal' replaced by 'recall'.
  Pg 67. 'embarassment' replaced by 'embarrassment'.
  Pg 71. 'amunition' replaced by 'ammunition'.
  Pg 76. 'Massachusets' replaced by 'Massachusetts'.
  Pg 76. 'secresy' replaced by 'secrecy'.
  Pg 77. 'Louisburgh' replaced by 'Louisburg'.
  Pg 81. 'usged' replaced by 'urged'.
  Pg 87. 'alledging' replaced by 'alleging'.
  Pg 87. 'notwithsanding' replaced by 'notwithstanding'.
  Pg 90. 'fac totum' replaced by 'factotum'.
  Pg 91. 'endeavonr' replaced by 'endeavour'.
  Pg 91. 'notwithsanding' replaced by 'notwithstanding'.
  Pg 93. 'wihich' replaced by 'which'.
  Pg 97. 'groud' replaced by 'ground'.
  Pg 109. 'datachment' replaced by 'detachment'.
  Pg 111. 'compleated' replaced by 'completed'. (For consistency
          with ERRATA ref. pg 121.)
  Pg 114. 'Aix La Chapelle' replaced by 'Aix-la-Chapelle'.
  Pg 122. 'parly' replaced by 'parley'.
  Pg 125. 'Foudryant' replaced by 'Foudroyant'.
  Pg 128. 'accquaint' replaced by 'acquaint'.
  Pg 132. 'Divison' replaced by 'Division'.
  Pg 140. 'compleat' replaced by 'complete'.
  Pg 144. 'Keppell' replaced by 'Keppel'.
  Pg 150. 'predeliction' replaced by 'predilection'.
  Pg 152. 'Keppell' replaced by 'Keppel'.
  Pg 160. 'chearfulness' replaced by 'cheerfulness'.
  Pg 166. 'Battlions of a' replaced by 'Battalions of'.
  Pg 231. 'compleating' replaced by 'completing'.
  Pg 170. 'scite' replaced by 'site'.
  Pg 176. 'unparelelled' replaced by 'unparalleled'.
  Pg 178. 'momentuous' replaced by 'momentous'.
  Pg 186. 'rouze' replaced by 'rouse'.
  Pg 190. 'mœnuvre' replaced by 'manœuvre'.
  Pg 201. 'waving' replaced by 'waiving'.
  Pg 202. 'Ticonderago' replaced by 'Ticonderoga'.
  Pg 202. 'wiley' replaced by 'wily'.
  Pg 206. 'desart' replaced by 'desert'.
  Pg 217. 'Pensylvania' replaced by 'Pennsylvania'.
  Pg 223. 'retrogade' replaced by 'retrograde'.
  Pg 224. 'mœnuvring' replaced by 'manœuvring'.
  Pg 232. 'Pitcaim' replaced by 'Pitcairne'.
  Pg 243. 'vollies' replaced by 'volleys'.
  Pg 251. 'Charlestown' replaced by 'Charleston'.
  Pg 255. 'developeing' replaced by 'developing'.
  Pg 263. 'distingushed' replaced by 'distinguished'.
  Pg 266. 'sweeped' replaced by 'swept'.
  Pg 266. 'hazarduous' replaced by 'hazardous'.
  Pg 267. 'chearfully' replaced by 'cheerfully'.
  Pg 276. 'nogociations' replaced by 'negociations'.
  Pg 279. 'hazarduous' replaced by 'hazardous'.
  Pg 281. 'momentuous' replaced by 'momentous'.
  Pg 297. 'unparelleled' replaced by 'unparalleled'.
  Pg 300. 'cooly' replaced by 'coolly'.
  Pg 300. 'befel' replaced by 'befell'.
  Pg 310. 'Braave' replaced by 'Brave'.
  Pg 317. 'traiterous' replaced by 'traitorous'.
  Pg 325. 'dependancies' replaced by 'dependencies'.
  Pg 335. 'independant' replaced by 'independent'.
  Pg 335. 'compleat' replaced by 'complete'.
  Pg 338. 'saliant' replaced by 'salient'.
  Pg 338. 'adviseable' replaced by 'advisable'.
  Pg 347. 'desart' replaced by 'desert' (twice).
  Pg 352. 'precipiece' replaced by 'precipice'.
  Pg 352. 'unremitted' replaced by 'unremitting'.
  Pg 353. 'dependancy' replaced by 'dependency'.
  Pg 359. 'Tremenduous' replaced by 'Tremendous'.
  Pg 359. 'achievments' replaced by 'achievements'.
  Pg 363. 'commencment' replaced by 'commencement'.
  Pg 378. 'panegyrick' replaced by 'panegyric'.
  Pg 381 Footnote [7]. 'given in by' replaced by 'given by'.
  Pg 384. 'intepidity' replaced by 'intrepidity'.
  Pg 384. 'unremitedly' replaced by 'unremittingly'.
  Pg 386. 'occomplished' replaced by 'accomplished'.
  Pg 387. 'achievment' replaced by 'achievement'.
  Pg 389. 'tremenduous' replaced by 'tremendous'.
  Pg 390. 'purchaced' replaced by 'purchased'.
  Pg 396. 'cooly' replaced by 'coolly'.
  Pg 398. 'respectsble' replaced by 'respectable'.
  Pg 400. 'scurrillity' replaced by 'scurrility'.
  Pg 400. 'philipics' replaced by 'philippics'.
  Pg 402. 'succeessor' replaced by 'successor'.
  Pg 405. 'allottment' replaced by 'allotment'.
  Pg 407. 'Attornies' replaced by 'Attorneys'.

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