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Title: Literature of the Indian Languages - A Bibliographical Catalogue of Books, Translations of the - Scriptures, and Other Publications in the Indian Tongues - of the United States, With Brief Critical Notes
Author: Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe
Language: English
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                  LITERATURE OF THE INDIAN LANGUAGES.

A collection of all translations into the Indian languages is being
made in the Indian Bureau of the War Office.

The ensuing notices of elementary and other books, denote the progress
which has been made in this department of inquiry. The list is
necessarily incomplete, from the short time that has been devoted to
the object. It is issued in this form to apprise translators who have,
or may enter this field of labor, of the works received, that they may
avoid sending duplicates; at the same time, that they are requested to
aid in completing the plan by transmitting, under cover in all cases,
to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, original or revised works, of
every kind, including grammars and vocabularies, which are not embraced
in this incipient catalogue.

The true history of the Indian tribes and their international
relations, must rest, as a basis, upon the light obtained from their
languages. To group and classify them into families on philosophical
principles, will be to restore these ancient relations. Their
traditions and historical affinities, so far as they reach, will
generally attest the truth of the facts denoted by language. In our
future policy, they should be removed or colonized in reference to this
relationship, and foreign groups not be co-mingled with the cognate
tribes.

The true object of investigating the languages, is thus perceived, and
it is hoped that its practical, and well as historical importance, will
be appreciated in ready responses from persons receiving these sheets.

                                                               H. R. S.



                                   A
                       BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CATALOGUE
                                  OF
                BOOKS, TRANSLATIONS OF THE SCRIPTURES,
                     AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS IN THE
                            INDIAN TONGUES
                                OF THE
                            UNITED STATES,
                                 WITH
                        BRIEF CRITICAL NOTICES.

                              WASHINGTON:
                        C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER.
                                 1849.



                               SYNOPSIS.


                          CHAPTER I—IROQUOIS.

    SEC. 1.—Mohawk, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

    SEC. 2.—Oneida, No. 10.

    SEC. 3.—Seneca, Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.

                         CHAPTER II—ALGONQUIN.

    SEC. 1.—Chippewas, Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26,
            27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,
            41, 42, 43, 44.

    SEC. 2.—Ottawa, Nos. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55.

    SEC. 3.—Pottawattomie, Nos. 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62.

    SEC. 4.—Mohegan, No. 63.

    SEC. 5.—Montagnais, No. 64.

    SEC. 6.—Delawares, Nos. 65, 66, 67.

    SEC. 7.—Shawnees, Nos. 68, 69, 70.

    SEC. 8.—Abanakis, No. 71.

                       CHAPTER III—APPALACHIAN.

    SEC. 1.—Cherokee, Nos, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81,
            82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92.

    SEC. 2.—Choctaw, Nos. 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101,
            102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112.

    SEC. 3.—Creek, or Muscogee, Nos. 113, 114, 115, 116.

                          CHAPTER IV—DACOTA.

    SEC. 1.—Sioux, Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124,
            125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130.

    SEC. 2.—Winnebago, No. 131.

    SEC. 3.—Iowa, Nos. 132, 133, 134, 135, 136.

    SEC. 4.—Otoe, No. 137.

    SEC. 5.—Osage, No. 138.

                        CHAPTER V.—SA-APTINIC.

    SEC. 1.—Nez Percie, or Sa-aptin, No. 139.



                     A BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CATALOGUE.



                              CHAPTER I.

   BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE SEVERAL DIALECTS OF THE IROQUOIS.


The Iroquois tribes had acquired the highest reputation in war and
diplomacy, of all the Indian tribes of North America. At the time
of the discovery, they were in the ascendant, and were rapidly
consolidating their power under a system of confederacy, which had
some striking traits resembling our own. Their language, viewed in its
several dialects, was not so soft and flowing as that of their former
rivals, the Algonquins or Adirondacks; but impressed the listener
by its masculine and sonorous tone. It imparted a beauty to their
geographical terminology, and helped to spread the fame of their deeds
over Europe.

Translations into this groupe of languages, were commenced at an early
period. A part of the Service of the English Church was executed
under the late Bishop Stewart of Canada, during the reign of Queen
Anne. Sixteen separate works, all of modern date, however, have been
received, of which, nine are in the Mohawk dialect, one in the Oneida,
and six in the Seneca. Nothing has been received or is known to exist
in the Onondaga, Cayuga, or Tuscarora. Ziesberger’s Dictionary of
the Onondaga in MSS., is known to be deposited in the library of the
American Philosophical Society, at Philadelphia.


                          SECTION I.—MOHAWK.

No. 1.—NENE KARIGHYOSTON, Tsinihorighhoten ne Saint John. The Gospel
according to St. John. New York: D. Fanshaw, for the American Bible
Society. 1 vol. 18mo. 116 pages. A. D. 1818.

In this early version, the Greek word “Logos,” and the Hebrew
“Yehovah,” are engrafted on the Mohawk dialect. The version is
attributed to Norton, a Mohawk Chief. The translation is accompanied
with the parallel English passages.

2.—Ne Kaorihwadegenhti. The Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
according to St. Luke. New York: McElrath, Bangs & Herbert, for the
Young Men’s Bible Society, Methodist Church. 1 vol. 109 pages, 12mo. A.
D. 1833.

This translation is by A. Hill; corrected by J. A. Wilkes, Jr., Grand
River, C. W. This translation, like the preceding, contains the English
and Mohawk in parallel passages, and like that, is thus rendered a
valuable element in the study of language.

3.—Ne Ne Jinihodiyeren. The Acts of the Apostles, in the Mohawk
language. New York: Howe & Bates, for the Young Men’s (Methodist)
Auxiliary Bible Society. 1 vol. 12mo. 120 pages. A. D. 1835. Translated
by H. A. Hill, with corrections by William Hess and John A. Wilkes,
Jr. It is accompanied by a translation of the Epistle of Paul to the
Romans, in 56 pages, by the same translator and revisors.

4.—The Gospel according to St. Mark. New York: McElrath & Bangs, for
the New York District Bible Society. 1 vol. 239 pages, 12mo. A. D. 1829.

Of this translation, there exist earlier copies. It is from the pen
of the noted Chief, Captain Joseph Brant, called Tarenyawagon, by his
people. He employs the word Niyoh, for the Supreme Being. He gives
the English and Mohawk in opposite pages. The volume terminates with
a collection of sentences from the Scriptures, which are designed for
practical instruction. These are curious and valuable exemplifications
of the power of the two languages. In point of brevity and conciseness,
the English exceeds the Mohawk, as 25 to 38, (vide p. 192, et seq.)
The mind of that Chief would appear to have been well indoctrinated in
leading Scriptural truths, and exhibits no little power of appropriate
selection in these passages. If he became a savage in battle, and
exhibited the peculiar subtlety, cruelty, and power of Indian deception
while on the war path, he had the power to sink into a philosophic
calm, in his study. This translation is indeed, a better apology for
the alleged cruelty of his life, than the rather labored vindication in
the volumes of his ardent biographer, the late Colonel W. L. Stone.

5.—The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians, in the Mohawk language. New
York: Howe & Bates, for the Young Men’s Bible Society. 1 vol. 18 double
pages, 12mo., with the Epistle to the Ephesians, 18 double pages, 12mo.
A. D. 1835. Translated by H. A. Hill, with corrections by William Hess
and J. A. Wilkes, Jr.

6.—THE EPISTLES OF PAUL, in Mohawk, namely: To the Phillipians, p. 17;
To the Colossians, p. 16; To the Thessalonians, p. 22; To Timothy,
p. 31; To Titus, p. 11; To Philemon, p. 7. These six Epistles of the
Apostle, which are comprehended in 104 12mo. pages, are the translation
of William Hess, an educated Mohawk, with corrections by J. A. Wilkes,
jun. New York: Howe & Bates, for the Young Men’s auxiliary Bible
Society, Method. Epis. Church, A. D. 1836.

7.—Ne Yeriwanontonthæ ne ne Wesleyan Methodists. Lynn, Mass: Newhall &
Hathorne. 12 p. 18mo. A. D. 1834.

This is a translation of the Catechism of the Wesleyan Methodists,
published at New York in 1836 by Waugh & Mason, at the Conference
Office, 200 Mulberry street.

8.—Catechism of the Wesleyan Methodists, for children of tender years.
New York: Waugh & Mason. 16 p. 18mo. A. D. 1836. Compiled and published
by order of the British Conference.

9.—A collection of Hymns for the use of Native Christians, in the
Mohawk language. New York: D. Fanshaw. A. D. 1835. 147 p. 18mo.


                          SECTION II.—ONEIDA.

10.—A Prayer Book, comprising the morning and evening service, and
other forms used in the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United
States. New York: Swords, Stanford & Co: D. Fanshaw, printer. A. D.
1837. 1 vol. 12mo. 168 pages.

This is a compilation made from several sources, by Rev. Solomon
Davis, missionary to the Oneidas, at Duck Creek, Wisconsin. It is not
without some inaccuracy that it is set forth as being in the language
of the Six Nations, nor can it be strictly asserted to be in the Oneida
dialect, although understood by that nation. The vocabularies that have
been taken denote very considerable differences in the languages of the
several Iroquois cantons, greater indeed, by far, than might have been
expected, when it is known that these tribes understand each other. The
question is one, rather of philology, than practical teaching, which we
are informed is sufficiently well advanced by the present work. It is
here arranged under the head of the Oneida dialect, from the known fact
that Mr. Davis labors, and has long labored with that people, and the
observed prevalence of the Oneida dialect, in portions of the work.


                         SECTION III.—SENECA.

11.—Diahsawahgwah Gayadoshah—Reading lessons. Boston: Crocker &
Brewster. 1 vol. 42 p. 8vo. A. D. 1836.

The clear and neat type and white paper of this little volume, and the
exact system of notation in which the Seneca tongue appears, denote
the careful labors, in this branch, of Rev. A. Wright, who has been
for many years a missionary of the American Board at the Buffalo
Reservation, in Western New York. There is a vocabulary of 16 pages, of
concrete terms and conversational forms, at its close, which adds to
its practical and philosophical value.

12.—Ne Iaguhnigoagesgwathah—The mental Elevator. Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14. 8
pages each. Cattaraugus Reservation, Mission Press. A. D. 1846. 32 p.

13.—The Mental Elevator, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12,
13, 14. 8 pages 8vo. each.

This miscellany, being the first and only thing of the kind, which has,
so far as is known, ever been attempted in a native tongue in America,
was commenced by the Rev. A. Wright, missionary of the A. B. C. F.
Missions among the Senecas of Western New York, at Buffalo Reservation,
Nov. 30th, 1841, and continued, after the removal of the Band to
Cattaraugus, in the same State, to the 31st December, 1846, which is
the last number received. It embraces in 112 closely-printed pages,
an amount of useful and instructive matter, which must be invaluable
to those of the Senecas who can read. Besides biblical reading, and
pieces of moral instruction, it embraces some matters relating to their
government and business, obituary notices, statistics, &c. It appears
from it that the total population of all the Senecas of New York, in
1845, was 2,630; in 1846, 2,720, denoting an increase of births over
deaths in one year of 90 souls.

14.—The Gospel according to St. Luke, translated into the Seneca
tongue. By T. S. Harris. New York: Printed for the American Bible
Society, D. Fanshaw. A. D. 1829. 1 vol. 18mo. 149 pages.

15.—Gaa nah shoh ne Deowaahsaonyohgwah Na wen ni yuh. Hymns in the
Seneca. Dosyowa, (Buffalo Creek,) Mission Press. 1 vol. 136 pages,
18mo. A. D. 1843. This translation is prefaced with Mr. Wright’s system
of writing the Seneca, and terminates with a descriptive index.

16.—Sheet Ordinances, Seneca Chiefs, 4th December, 1847.



                              CHAPTER II.

  BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE VARIOUS DIALECTS OF THE ALGONQUIN.


Of all the groupes of the Indian language in America, the various
dialects of this stock have furnished the most inviting and best
cultivated field for the translator and philologist. The French, during
their early and long occupancy of the Canadas, gave great prominence
to the various tribes speaking dialects of this groupe. In proportion
as the principles of the languages have been investigated, the circle
of the affinities of the Algonquins has been found to be extended
wider and wider. It is to be traced from the ancient Powhatanic tribes
of Virginia, northward and eastward along the Atlantic coast to, and
beyond the Gulf of St. Lawrence, reaching to, and beyond the utmost
limits of this stream at the source of the Mississippi, and descending
its eastern or left bank to the junction of the Ohio, and thence to the
Atlantic. From this great circle of occupation, embracing the present
area of sixteen of the States, the several branches of the Iroquois,
embracing the Wyandot and the Winnebago dialect of the Dacota, are the
only exceptions of modern date.

In the investigation of the dialects of this important groupe,
fifty-five printed works have been received, of which, twenty-eight
are in the Odjibwa or Chippewa dialect, ten in the Ottawa, seven in
the Pottowattomie, one in the Mohegan, one in the Montagnais, three
in the Delaware, three in the Shawanoe, and one in the Abenaki. More
than three-fourths of the whole number of the numerous tribes of this
stock, are thus far, unrepresented by translations of the Scriptures; a
species of evidence of the affinity of tribes which, as it is founded
upon a fixed and accurately divided standard, affords one of the best
general means of comparison. It is desirable, therefore, to collect all
that has been, or may be done in this branch of literature, not only
respecting the Algonquin groupes, but also in relation to each of the
other groupes of our Aboriginal languages.


                   SECTION I.—CHIPPEWA, OR ODJIBWA.

17.—The Gospel of John, in Chippewa. 1 vol. 12mo. 280 pages. London:
British and Foreign Bible Society, A. D. 1831.

In point of mechanical execution, and binding, this work is by far
the best volume of Indian translation, which has been sent among the
Sons of the Forest. It is the well-known translation of the brothers
John and Peter Jones, of the River Credit, Canada West, which has been
extensively used by our missionaries in the United States, as well as
the Canada Societies, and has the concurrence of various denominations,
as being a faithful version. It is a curious fact, that while learned
philologists are discussing the actual use, by the Indians, and
existence in the language, of the substantive verb, To Be, the native
missionaries should be in the constant use of various forms of the
Chippewa verb, I AU, alleged to be found among the Chippewas of Sault
Ste. Marie, in 1822, to denote, as is done in this volume, the various
senses of “is,” “was,” &c. The orthography of this word as here given,
as “Ahyah.”

18.—The First Book of Genesis. 1 vol. 12mo. 178 pages. Toronto: A. D.
1835.

This volume is printed by the Auxiliary Bible Society of Canada, at
the office of the Christian Guardian. J. H. Laurence, Printer. It is
the work of Rev. Peter Jones, the native missionary, and is deemed by
missionaries and teachers, who have devoted their attention to the
language, an authentic rendering of the entire fifty chapters of the
original. There is no attempt to exhibit a plan of orthography, or
to employ the English alphabet in a more fixed form than is known to
common writers and speakers. As the influence of the juxtaposition of
consonants to vowels, and their modifications from such contact, are
well known, there is little or no difficulty in arriving readily at
the sounds intended by the translator to be conveyed. The idiom of the
Mississagie form of the Chippewa, which is employed throughout this
translation, is perceptibly different from the more rigid and tense
form of the vowel sounds, as heard in the region of Lake Superior;
but the language is literally the same, and well understood by these
northern bands. “Munedoo,” the term for God, instead of Monedo, the
northern form of it, and other analogous words, present no difficulty
to a northern ear or eye; for whatever indeed be the form of
orthography used, the native reader will retain the mother sound of the
word, and attach precisely such value to the syllables actually used in
any given translation, as shall bring out the entire and complete sound
as known to him from childhood.

19.—THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW, IN CHIPPEWA. 1 vol. 12mo. 112 p.
Boston: Crocker & Brewster, A. B. C. F. Missions, A. D. 1839.

This is substantially a re-publication of the Gospel of Matthew,
which originally appeared at York, now Toronto, Canada West, under
the auspices of the Canada Auxiliary Bible Society. It is understood
to have been the work of the brothers Jones. In this re-publication,
the orthography has been adjusted to the system prepared by the late
Mr. Pickering, with a few modifications, rendering it in all respects,
conformable to the system uniformly adopted in the publications of the
American Board.

20.—THE GOSPEL OF LUKE, IN CHIPPEWA. 1 vol. 12mo. Boston: Crocker &
Brewster, for the Am. Bd. Com. for For. Missions, A. D. 1837.

This translation is the joint production of George Copway, a converted
and educated Chippewa, of the Mississagie tribe, of Canada West, and
Rev. Sherman Hall, of the Lapointe Mission, Lake Superior.

21.—The Gospel of John, in Chippewa. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 83. Boston:
Crocker and Brewster. Printed for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1838.

This is the version of John and Peter Jones, No. 22, adapted to the
orthography of the American Board.

22.—THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 1 vol. 12mo. 105 p. Boston: Crocker &
Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. Missions, A. D. 1838.

These sheets emanate from the Lapointe Mission, Lake Superior, which is
under the superintendence and management of Rev. Sherman Hall, and is
the joint production of that Missionary and Mr. George Copway of the
Methodist Episcopal Mission of Canada.

23.—PICTURE DEFINING AND READING BOOK. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 123. Boston:
Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. Missions, A. D. 1835.

Here is a translation of Mr. Gallaudet’s popular “Definer,” with
illustrations, in the Chippewa, which exhibits the pictorial mode of
teaching, in a successful manner. The arts of design may certainly be
employed, to a great extent, in elementary teaching to the natives.
There is no indication of the translator’s name, or the field of his
labors, which latter is only known to be in the great missionary area
of the Chippewas of the Northwest.

24.—GEOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS. Abinoji Aki Tibajimouin; literally, News,
or Information of the Earth, for children or youth. 1 vol. 12mo. p.
139. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, A. B. C. F. M.

This volume has all the attraction of news and novelty for the
natives, giving information about people and countries, manners and
customs, which were before totally unknown to them. It is taken
chiefly from the Peter Parley series. The system of orthography is
precisely that employed in No. 24, which varies, in some respects,
from the system of the A. Board, and is to be regarded as an attempt
of the translator, whose name is not given, to amend it. The forms
of Chippewa substantives ending in _ngk_, are provided for by a dash
under the final vowels, thus _a̱_ _e̱_ _i̱_ _o̱_ _u̱_. As this _ngk_,
or _ng_, the g full, is both the participial form of the verb, and the
ablative or prepositional form of the noun, denoting, in the latter
cases, on, in, or at, agreeably to its antecedent, the abbreviation
requires to be carefully noticed. At page 88, at the foot of a wood
cut giving the mode of travelling on sleds drawn by dogs, in Siberia
in the winter, if the vowel _i_ in the word “peb_o̱_in,” signifying
winter, should not be put in its full prepositional form in _ing_, or
the vowel dashed according to the translator’s system, the word Siberia
should certainly have its local ending in _ng_ or _ngk_; otherwise
the reading of Bemadiz _i̱_ peb_o̱_in ima Siberia, is literally, In
_travelling—winter—there_, (or _that_ place)—_Siberia_; and not, as
the language permits—Travelling in winter, there (or that place,) in
Siberia.

25.—A Chippewa Primer. 1 vol. 12mo. 84 p. Printed for the Board of
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. New York: John Westall, 29
Ann street, A. D. 1844. Compiled by the Rev. Peter Dougherty. _1st and
2d editions._

Under the simple name of “Primer” this little work is one of much value
to the philologist, as well as being adapted to promote the advance
of the pupil. The Key to the spelling of the “Indian,” prefixed to
it, is more conformed to the ordinary standard of English orthœpy,
than is practised by the American Board, the vowels retaining, under
limitations, their natural _English_ sound.

26.—The First Initiatory Catechism, with the Ten Commandments and
Lord’s Prayer; by James Gall, translated into the Ojibwa language by
Rev. Peter Dougherty and D. Rodd. Printed for the Board of Foreign
Missions of the Presbyterian Church. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 69. New York: John
Westall, 11 Spruce street, A. D. 1847.

This translation exhibits the parallel passages of English and Indian.

27.—Ojibwa Spelling Book, designed for the use of Native learners.
Printed for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions,
by Crocker & Brewster, Boston. 1 vol. 12mo. 127 p., A. D. 1835, 2d Ed.

This elementary work contains a “Key to the Alphabet,” which is
adopted, essentially, from the system of Mr. Pickering.

28.—Omajibiigeuinun au John, or The Epistles of John in the
Ojibwa language. Translated and printed for the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. 1 vol.
12mo. p. 130, A. D. 1840.

29.—Short Reading Lessons in the Ojibwa language. Translated by Rev.
P. Dougherty, and printed for the Board of Foreign Missions of the
Presbyterian Church. New York: John Westall & Co., 14 Spruce street, A.
D. 1847.

The parallel passages in English and Indian are preserved, thus making
it an element for the study of American philology.

30.—Easy Lessons of Scripture History in the Ojibwa language.
Translated by Rev. P. Dougherty and D. Rodd. Printed for the Board of
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. New York: John Westall &
Co., A. D. 1847.

31.—The Chippewa Primer; compiled by Rev. P. Dougherty. Printed for
the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. 2d edition
enlarged. New York: John Westall & Co., printers, 14 Spruce street, A.
D. 1847, 1 vol. 12mo. p. 123.

This appears to be a judicious compilation, and evinces much
familiarity with the modes of thought and expression used by the
aborigines. The introduction of the word “holy” in the Chippewa term of
“Mah-no-tah-ho-ly-wun, ke te zhe no ka zo win” (hallowed be thy name,)
is a peculiarity of the version of the Lord’s Prayer, here introduced,
and while the object is appreciated, the propriety of the mode of
attaining it may be doubted. There are some Ottawa idioms which would
offer an objection to the work in high northern latitudes. The names
of the months and _days_ at page 120, must be deemed as quite local.
It seems desirable to make the record of this language as general and
comprehensive as possible, in all translations, and not to belittle its
phraseology unnecessarily, with localisms.

32.—The Morning and Evening Prayer of the Protestant Episcopal Church,
in the United States of America; together with a selection of hymns.
Printed for the diocese of Michigan. Detroit: Geiger & Christian. A. D.
1844. 1 vol. p. 59.

In this work, the translator, Mr. George Johnston, of Sault Ste Marie,
has used the English alphabet in its ordinary and natural manner, as
known to English readers. It embraces besides the daily morning and
evening services, the commandments, and a selection of hymns, and is
used at the Griswold Mission in Western Michigan.

33.—Nugamouinun Genungumouat Ijiu Anishinabeg Anumiajig.—[Songs
to be sung by praying Indians.] Printed for the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, by Crocker & Brewster. Boston: 1
vol. 12mo. p. 52. A. D. 1835.

This is a re-print of some of the approved hymns translated by Peter
Jones, altering the orthography so as to conform to the American
Board’s system.

34.—Kizhemanito Muziniegun Tezhiwindumingin, &c., or Old Testament
Bible Stories. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 72. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. Printed
for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1835.

A compilation of Scripture, containing the sacred story of the
Creation, the death of Abel, the Deluge, the Ark, the building of
Babel, the calling of Abraham, Destruction of Sodom, Daniel in the
lion’s den, and the story of Joseph in full. Some lessons in natural
history are added, and the whole illustrated with wood cuts.

35.—Ozageidiwin au Jesus. The Love of Jesus. Boston: Crocker &
Brewster. Printed for the A. B. C. F. Missions, A. D. 1840.

This tract, comprised in 21 pages, relates in the Chippewa tongue, the
story of the advent and vicarious sufferings and atonement of Jesus,
and is precisely such an element of christian knowledge, as should be
in the hands of every teacher in the wilderness.

36.—The First Initiatory Catechism, by James Gall, with the Ten
Commandments and Lord’s Prayer, by Rev. Peter Dougherty. Board of
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. New York: John Westall. A.
D. 1844.

A considerable amount of Scripture knowledge is here put in the shape
of questions and answers, in 24 pages. This form is well adapted to
the instruction of the Indian mind, from the clearness and simplicity
which it may be made to assume. In the version of the Lord’s Prayer
in this school tract, the term “Gwatah-me-quan-dah-gwud,” is employed
to express “hallowed,” in its aboriginal form, and without the
introduction of “ho-ly,” to which we alluded in the notice of No. 31.
This publication is, however, three years older than the Chippewa
Primer, the latter being of the date of 1847, and the former, of 1844;
and the suggestion, like that of the use of the word “God,” in the
version of the Bible by John Eliot, may be considered as the result of
more knowledge, or at least, BOLDNESS in the use of the language.

37.—Ojibue Spelling Book. Third edition. Boston: Crocker & Brewster,
for the A. B. C. F. Missions. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 96. A. D. 1846.

This publication is well adapted to convey instruction to the Indian
mind, on a great variety of subjects in common life. As a vocabulary of
terms and phrases in daily use, it reveals a list of equivalents for
names and things.

38.—The Ten Commandments.

This is a broad sheet without imprint, but was transmitted with other
translations, August 11th, 1847, by Walter Lowry, Esq., Secretary of
the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of the United
States, at New York.

39.—The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, translated
into the language of the Ojibua Indians. Otashki-Kikindiuin au
Kitogimaminan gaie Bemajiinung Jeeuskrist: ema Ojibue Inueuuning
Giezhtong. New York American Bible Society, A. D. 1844. 1 vol. 12mo.
643 pages.

This is a work of great labor and importance. It would have added much
to the interest with which it is regarded as a missionary triumph,
if some brief account had been prefixed to it, showing the various
laborers who have taken part in it, and the difficulties which have
been surmounted in transferring the more recondite and spiritual
portions of the Epistles and other passages, into a tongue which has
heretofore been employed only to call on fictitious Deities, or to
express objects and ideas, the farthest removed possible from holiness.

40.—Iu Pitabun gema gau Okikinoamaguz iuiniua igiu abinojiug. The Peep
of Day, or a series of the earliest Religious Instruction the infant
mind is capable of receiving. Boston: A. B. C. F. M., T. R. Marvin. A.
D. 1844. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 144.

41.—Ojibue Nugumouinun geaiouajin ijiu anishinabeg enumi iajig,
(Chippewa Songs for Christian Indians.) Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. p. 212. A.
D. 1844.

A judicious compilation of the Hymns of Peter Jones and other native
teachers, presented in the orthography of the American Board.

42.—Ojebway Nuhguhmonun. New York: Published by Lane & Tippett, for
the Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, 200 Mulberry street. A. D.
1847. 1 vol. 18mo. 289 pages.

This re-print of the translations of approved hymns by Peter Jones, has
some additions, translated by Rev. James Evans and George Henry.

43.—_Principes de la Langue des Sauvages Appeles Sauteux._ _Quebec: de
l’imprimerie de Frechette and cie._ 1 vol. 12mo. 146 pages. A. D. 1839.

This is a Grammar of the Chippewa language, composed by the Rev. G.
A. Belcourt, a Catholic missionary, at Red River of the North, whose
object, as it is expressed by Bishop Archer, in the enclosure of his
letter of the 8th May, 1848, was “to facilitate the study of the
Sauteux language,” an end, which it is conceived, he has accomplished
in a manner useful to missionaries and teachers, and creditable to
himself.

44.—Anamihe-masinahigan. Kebekong, (Quebec.) 1 vol. 18mo. 209 pages. A.
D. 1839.

This is a translation into the Sauteux or Chippewa language, of
certain essential parts of the services, prayers, and hymns of the
Catholic Church, by the Rev. G. A. Belcourt, of Red River, Hudson’s Bay
Territory. It embraces—1. Customary prayers of the morning service, to
page 17. 2. The Catechism for children, used in the diocese of Quebec,
to page 106. 3. Prayers of the Mass, Confession, and the Communion, to
page 131. 4. Hymns and chaunts in use in the Quebec diocese.


                          SECTION II.—OTTAWA.

45.—Ottawa Prayer Book: Ottawa Anamie Misinaigan. Detroit: 1 vol.
18mo. p. 293. A. D. 1842. Printed by Eugene T. Smith, for the Catholic
Church.

A translation of prayers, prepared by the Rev. Frederick Baraga.

46.—Katolik Anamie Misinaigan. Third edition of the preceding,
corrected and augmented. Detroit: A. D. 1846.

47.—Ottawa Anamie Misinaigan. First edition of this work printed at
Detroit, A. D. 1832, by George L. Whitney.

48.—The New Testament, in the Ottawa language. Shawnee Baptist Mission
Press. John G. Pratt, printer. A. D. 1841. Translated by Jonathan
Meeker, and revised and compared with the Greek, by Rev. Francis
Barker, A. M. 1 vol. 12mo. pages 125 and 98.

This translation comprises but the Gospels of Matthew and John.

49.—Original and Select Hymns, in the Ottawa language, by Jonathan
Meeker. Press of the American Baptist Board of Foreign Missions.
Shawnee, Ind. Ter. 1 vol. 18mo. 96 pages. A. D. 1845.

50.—Ottawa First Book. Prepared by Jonathan Meeker. J. G. Pratt,
printer, Shawnee Mission. A. D. 1838. 24 pages, 18mo.

51.—Jesus Odijetawin. _No imprint._ 85 pages.

This is transmitted from the Rev. F. G. Bondwel, at Lake Puckaway, in
the _Menomonee_ country, on Fox River, Wisconsin. It is a Catechism
which is given to Indian children attending school.

52.—Jesus Obimadisuoin Ajonda Aking. The Life of Jesus while on earth.
Paris, (France:) A. D. 1837. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 211.

This is a compilation and translation, by Mr. Baraga, and has the
approval of the Catholic Bishop of Detroit, Michigan, (Frederick Rese.)

53.—Anichinabek Amisinahikaniwa. The Indian Book. Detroit: Printed by
George L. Whitney. A. D. 1830. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 106.

There is a vocabulary of 40 words, in French and Ottawa, at pages 104,
105. It bears the name of Dejean, missionary.

54.—Abinodjuag Omasindiganiwan. Buffalo: Press of Oliver G. Steel. A.
D. 1837.

This pamphlet of 8 pages, 8mo., was transmitted by Rev. F. J. Van
Den Broek, 1838. It embraces the usual matter of first lessons for
children. It appears from a note at the end, to have been intended as
preparatory to the reading of the _Jesus Obimadisiwin_, No. 52.

55.—Child’s Book. Detroit: Bagg & Harmon, A. D. 1845, 8 pages, 18mo.

It contains the same elementary matter exactly as No. 54, compressed in
a smaller type and page, with two additional reading articles. In other
respects it is a re-print of the Buffalo Amisinaigon ewan.


                      SECTION III.—POTTAWATTOMIE.

56.—The Gospel according to Matthew, and the Acts of the Apostles.
Louisville, (Ky.) William C. Buck, printer. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 240.

This translation is by Jonathan Lykins. It is printed in the
consonantal system of notation, which has been prepared by Mr. Meeker.

57.—Potewatemi Nememissinoikan. A. M. D. G., Saint Louis. 1 vol. 12mo.
62 pages. W. J. Mullin, printer. A. D. 1844. A Pottawattomie Prayer
Book.

58.—Potawatome Nkumwinin. Shawnee Baptist Mission. J. Meeker, printer.
A. D. 1835. 1 vol. 84 pages, small 8vo.

59.—Potewatome Missinoikan Catechisme. Pottawattomie Book of Catechism.
Cincinnati: Stereotyped by Monfort & Conahans, for the Catholic Church.
_No date._ (Received 23d December, 1844.)

60.—Potewatemi Nememissinoikun. Baltimore: John Murphy, for the
Catholic Church. A. D. 1848. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 160.

61.—Pottawattomie Spelling Book. Shawnee Mission. J. Meeker, printer.
A. D. 1834, 32 pages, 12mo.

62.—Pewani Ipi Potewatemi Missinoikan. Catholic Elementary Book for
Pottawattomies. Baltimore: John Murphy. A. D. 1846.


                         SECTION IV.—MOHEGAN.

   BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE MOHEGAN, MOHAEKANUC, OR STOCKBRIDGE
                               LANGUAGE.

63.—The Assembly’s Shorter Catechism. 1 vol. 18mo. 34 pages. _No
imprint or date._

This is one of the earliest translations made into our Indian
languages, and is understood to have been done prior to the American
Revolution, while this tribe dwelt at Stockbridge, Mass., on the
Housatonic River. It has the following endorsement: “This translation
was made by John Quinney and Capt. Hendrick, who received his (their)
commission from General Washington. Little else has ever been
translated into the Stockbridge language besides this.” The name of the
tribes is written on the cover, “Muh hee kun ne ew,” being the plural
of (to preserve the orthography of the endorsement,) “Muh hee kun,”
denoting Mohegan people. It is a well characterized dialect of the
sub-groupe of the Eastern Algonquins.


                SECTION V.—MONTAGNAIS, OR MOUNTAINEERS.

               BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE MONTAGNAIS.

[This people occupy the country on the head-waters of the River
Saguenay, on the north shore of the St. Lawrence, below Quebec,
reaching to the Labrador coast. They are a part of the great Algonquin
family so celebrated in the history of Canada.]

64.—Aiamieu Kukuetshimitun Missinaigan. Prayer and Question (Catechism)
Book. Quebec: 53 pages, 12mo. A. D. 1848.

This work is published with the approbation of the Bishop of Quebec,
in the dialect of the Montagnais. “Ella est un des debris,” observes
the Bishop, in a note transmitting it, “ainsi que cette des Sauteux, de
la grande nation du Algonquins, si celebre dans l’histoire du Canada.”
The dialect differs but little from the forms of words now used by
the nations of this stock in the north-western quarters of the United
States. The use of the letter l, for the sound of n, as heard with our
tribes, marks the chief peculiarity in sound.


                         SECTION VI.—DELAWARE.

   BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE DELAWARE, OR LENNO-LEANPI LANGUAGE.

65.—The History of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Shawanoe Baptist
Mission. J. Meeker. A. D. 1837. 1 vol. 12mo. 221 pages.

This is a version from the Delaware, of Rev. David Zeisberger’s compend
of the Four Gospels, published in 1806. It is an attempt to express
the Indian sounds by a consonantal system of notation peculiar to Mr.
Meeker.

66.—Lenapie Wawipoetakse ave Apwatuk. First Lessons in the Delaware. J.
Meeker. Baptist Shawanoe Mission. 1 vol. 18mo. 48 pages. A. D. 1834.

67.—Lenapee Spelling Book. Shawnee Mission. J. Meeker, for the Baptist
Society. A. D. 1834. 24 pages, 18mo.


                        SECTION VII.—SHAWANOE.

68.—The Gospel of St. Matthew. Shawanoe Baptist Mission, Ind. Ter. J.
Meeker, printer. A. D. 1836. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 64, with 16 pages of hymns
added, by Johnston Lykins.

This translation has been compared with the Greek text, by J. A. Chute,
M. D.

69.—Shawnee Speller and Reader. Siwinowe Eawekitake. By Johnston
Lykins. Shawanoe Mission. J. Meeker, printer. A. D. 1834. 1 vol. 18mo.
54 pages.

This is executed in the Meekerian system of notation. “The consonants
are not pronounced _aloud_, but have precisely the same sound as in
reading English.”—_Editor._ The word “Siwinowe,” the equivalent for
“Shawanoe,” may serve as an example of the two systems. It has not
perhaps, occurred to the author, that when the new system has been
learned by the pupils, there will be no other books to be read in it,
except those which he or others may publish, in accordance with this
very artificial and unpronounceable key; and that to the learner, the
whole body of English instruction, science and learning must be a dead
letter.

70.—Pratt’s edition of the preceding. A. D. 1838. 24 pages.

This is a summary or condensed form of Mr. Lykins’ First Spelling Book.
Both are printed in the consonantal system.


                        SECTION VIII.—ABANAKIS.

71.—Kagakimzouiasis Weje Wo’ banakiah. Catechism in the Abanaki
language. Quebec: Frechette & Co., for the Catholic Church. 1 vol. 44
pages, 12mo. A. D. 1832.

A translation of the Christian Catechism of the diocese of Quebec,
into the language of the Abanakis, who are seated at the village of
St. Francis, in the district of Three Rivers. The Abanaki nation
inhabit a wide district of country situated on the south of the river
St. Lawrence, between the St. John’s of New Brunswick, and the River
Richlieu, Canada.



                       CHAPTER III.—APPALACHIAN.


This groupe is established, provisionally, on a geographical principle,
which considers in one family, all the tribes who formerly lived in the
southern latitudes of the Appalachian range. It has not escaped notice,
that there may be reasons for such a classification, on philological
grounds. No one can have given attention to the subject without
perceiving marked resemblances and affiliations, in the southern groupe
of languages, such as exist between the Choctaw and the Chickesaw, and
with more remoteness between the latter and the great Muscogee, or
Creek family. Points of harmony in the principles of utterance, exist
between all these tribes, even where coincidences in their vocabularies
are reduced to but a few instances.

But it is clear that no classification, on philological principles,
can be successfully attempted until we possess comparatively full and
reliable vocabularies and grammars of all the tribes, cognate and
diverse. When such a classification is established, it is apprehended
it must rest, as a basis, on the Muscogee. The ancient confederacy of
this type, had, in addition to the Muscogees, or Muscogulges proper,
the Hitchitees and Coosadies. Events in their history, threw in the
elements of the Utchees and the Natchez, both diverse tribes, and who
cannot now comprehend the national language, without an interpreter.[A]
The Apalaches, found by De Soto, were, if judged by the names which
the narrator of his expedition employs, Muscogees. The Alabamas, who
speak the Muscogee with some peculiarities, appear to have been of
the Coosada branch. The Seminoles of modern days, are pure Creeks.[A]
The Appalachicolas are of the same stock, without peculiarities. The
Mobilians were pure Choctaw. The only really anomalous elements in
this wide-spread groupe, are the Natchez and the Utchees, among the
Creeks proper, and the Catawbas, with their congeners, the Yamasees,
of South Carolina. If the latter be not found to have their analogies
with the leading Muscogee stock, they occupied country at an early
day at least, in the southern seaboard portions of the State, where
some of the geographical names of the Muscogee language are still
found. Philological researches are probably destined to discover in
the Natchez and Utchees, membra disjecta of the TOLTECAN groupe, and
thus to establish a historical link between the ancient Mexican and
American, or United States Indians.

[A] Vide Marshall, 2d chief of the Creeks, March, 1848, War Office.

Of the Cherokees, their fixed geographical position in the hills and
alpine valleys of the mountains; their compactness and permanency,
their peaceful policy with respect to the southern Indians
generally, and their language itself, appear to afford elements of
a classification, of which the original members, like those of the
Iroquois, whom they resemble in their original Totemic organization,
the descent of the chieftaincy in the female line, and some small
coincidences of language, must be sought far west, or south-west from
the Mississippi.

The whole number of works received in the languages and dialects of
this mixed groupe, is forty-five; of which, twenty are in the Cherokee,
and printed in the Cherokee character; nineteen in the Choctaw; and
four in the Creek. Translations, vocabularies, and historical or
illustrative information respecting the Natchez, Utchees, and Catawbas,
are of vital importance to the establishment of this groupe.


                         SECTION I.—CHEROKEE.

      BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE LANGUAGE OF THE CHEROKEES.

72.—THE GOSPEL OF ST. JOHN, in the Cherokee. 1 vol. 18mo. 101 p. Park
Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, John Candy, printer. 2d edition, A. D.
1841.

This Gospel is printed in the Cherokee character, under the supervision
of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. The name
of the translator is not given.

73.—THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW, in the Cherokee. 1 vol. 18mo. 120 p. Park
Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, John Candy, printer. 3d edition, A. D.
1840. Also 2d edition A. D. 1832.

Printed in the Cherokee character, under the same authority as the
preceding. Name of the translator not given.

74.—Doctrines and Discipline. 1 vol. 18mo. 45 p. Park Hill, Arkansas
Mission Press, John Candy, printer, A. D. 1842.

This tract in the Cherokee has been prepared under the preceding
auspices.

75.—CHEROKEE PRIMER. 1 vol. 18mo. 24 p. Park Hill, Arkansas Mission
Press, A. D. 1840, J. Candy, printer. Also edition of 1846.

Under the same auspices. This is a child’s first book, and begins
with the Cherokee syllabical alphabet in 85 characters, followed with
spelling lessons, with cuts, and easy reading lessons illustrated in
the same manner; also the numerals, and a short catechism.

76.—The Epistles of John, in the Cherokee. 1 vol. 18mo. 20 pages. Park
Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, J. Candy, printer, A. D. 1840. Cherokee
character.

Authority same as the preceding. To aid, apparently, the pupil, in
forming a just conception of the event of the Crucifixion, a print
thereof is added, with a serpent round about the foot of the Cross,
and a city (Jerusalem?) in the back ground. This symbolical mode
of teaching, is not observed in any other of the American Board’s
scripture translations.

77.—Evils of Intoxicating Liquor, and the Remedy. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 59.
Park Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, J. Candy, printer, A. D. 1842, 1844.

In this volume, three separate tracts, in the Cherokee character,
on the use of intoxicating drinks, are bound together, in the usual
Cherokee type, to match with the Gospels.

78.—Cherokee Hymns. 1 vol. 18mo. 67 pages. Cherokee character. Park
Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1844. J. Candy,
printer. Seventh edition. Also, fifth edition, 1833.

These hymns are translated from several sources, and adapted to the
ordinary metres.

79.—Cherokee Almanac, for 1846. 1 vol. 12mo. 36 pages. Cherokee
character. Missionary Press, A. B. C. F. M., Park Hill, Arkansas. J.
Candy & John F. Wheeler, printers.

This is a useful and appropriate tract, and besides the usual
astronomical calculations, has notices of some of the features and
working of the new Cherokee Government, terms of Courts, &c.

80.—The Gospel of Jesus Christ, according to John. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 101.
Park Hill, Ark. Miss. Press, A. B. C. F. M., John F. Wheeler, printer.
A. D. 1838.

This translation into the Cherokee character is by the Rev. S. A.
Worcester and Mr. Elias Boudinot, the latter an educated Cherokee.

81.—Poor Sarah. 1 vol. 18mo. 18 p. Cherokee character. A. D. 1843.
Missionary Press, Arkansas. Also, edition of 1833. From the latter,
this translation appears to be by Mr. E. Boudinot.

82.—Select Passages from the Holy Scriptures. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 24.
Cherokee character. No imprint.

83.—The Acts of the Apostles. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 127. New Echota: John F.
Wheeler and John Candy, printers. Printed for the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions, A. D. 1833.

This translation is by the Rev. Samuel A. Worcester and Mr. Elias
Boudinot.

  84.} Cherokee Almanac for 1840, p. 24. Park Hill, Arkansas.
     }
  85.}     ”      ”     for 1846, p. 36. Union,       ”
     }
  86.}     ”      ”     for 1847, p. 36. Park Hill,   ”

These Almanacs are expressed, chiefly, in the Cherokee character, while
they denote its further adaptation to the language of astronomy, and
give some facts of value in the local history and progress of this
tribe; as such, they are, with No. 80, valuable elements of information.

87.—Scriptures in Cherokee. Various Gospels, &c. 1 vol. 18mo. 483
pages. Park Hill, Arkansas Mission Press, A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1844.

This is a substantially bound volume, consisting of the Gospels, Acts,
Epistles of Paul to Timothy, and select passages of Scripture, Hymns,
&c., forming a kind of Scripture miscellany of much value.

88.—Cherokee Primer, edition of 1846. 4 copies. 1 vol. 18mo. 24 pages.
Park Hill, Arkansas.

The progress of primary education, among this people, may be inferred
from this tract.

89.—Temperance Tracts and Miscellanies. 1 vol. 18mo. 116 pages. Park
Hill Mission Press. A. D. 1844.

This volume consists of four separate tracts, bound together.

90.—Dairyman’s Daughter and Rob the Sailor. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 67. Park
Hill Mission Press, Arkansas, A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1847. Candy and
Archer, printers.

Two popular religious tracts are here presented in the Cherokee
language, in their own alphabetical character. The translators’ names
are not given.

91.—Sermon by the Rev. A. Dickinson. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 24. Cherokee
character. No imprint.

92.—Cherokee Singing Book. 1 vol. 4to. 86 pages. Boston: A. P.
Kendrick, printer, for A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1846.


                              SECTION II.

                   BOOKS AND TRACTS IN THE CHOCTAW.

93.—The Four Gospels in Choctaw. Boston. 1 vol. large 12mo. 410 pages.
Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1845. Second edition.

These Gospels are separately printed and paged, but bound up together,
and form a handsome volume. They are regarded by the best educated
Choctaws, as a faithful rendition of the original into that tongue.

94.—Chahta Holisso, it im Anumpuli, or the Choctaw Reader for the use
of native schools. Union: Printed for the A. B. C. F. M., by John F.
Wheeler. A. D. 1836. 123 pages.

There is a table of contents added, in English and Indian, to direct
the pupil to the leading passages.

95.—Constitution and Laws of the Choctaw Nation. Park Hill, Cherokee
Nation, John Candy, printer. A. D. 1840.

This volume consists of two pamphlets of 36 and 40 pages respectively,
giving the matter in both languages.

96.—Chahta uba Isht Taloa Holisso, or Choctaw Hymn Book. Third edition,
revised. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. p. 175. A. D. 1844. Press of T. R.
Marvin. Published for the A. B. C. F. M.

97.—General Rules of the United Societies of the Methodist Episcopal
Church. Park Hill: J. Candy. 1841. 24 pages.

98.—Triumphant Death of Pious Children. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. p. 72.
Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M.

A few hymns are added at the close of these simple and pertinent
narratives.

99.—Chahta Holisso. Third edition, revised. Boston: Crocker & Brewster,
for the A. B. C. F. M., 1 vol. 12mo. p. 72.

100.—Family Education and Government. A Discourse in the Choctaw
language, by J. S. Williams. Boston: A. D. 1835. Crocker & Brewster,
for the A. B. C. F. M., p. 48. With a brief synopsis of the discourse
at its close, from which the importance of its subjects may be judged
of.

101.—Choctaw Arithmetic. Chahta Na-Holhtina. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. p.
72. Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1835.

102.—The Child’s Book on Creation, or Ulla I Holisso, &c. 1 vol. 12mo.
Park Hill, Cherokee Nation. Mission Press: Candy & Wheeler. A. D. 1845.
_Second edition._

Fourteen separate tracts are bound up in this volume, making 159 pages
of matter, which is drawn from the sermons and writings of Edwards,
Nevins, and other distinguished divines of past and modern times.

103.—Ulla I Katikisma, or Child’s Catechism. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. 16
pages. A. D. 1835. Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M. Second
edition, revised.

104.—Holisso Holitopa. Scripture Lessons. Utica, N. Y: 1 vol. 12mo. p.
151. Press of William Williams. A. D. 1831.

This volume is inscribed on the blank page, in front, “Sabbath School
Book,” and bears the marks of having been much used by scholars.

105.—The History of Joseph and his Brethren, in Choctaw. Utica, N. Y.
Press of W. Williams. A. D. 1831. 48 pages, 12mo.

The translation of this little volume is due to Joseph Dakes, a native
Choctaw interpreter, with the revision of John Pitchlyn, who appends,
in a certificate, his judgment of its faithfulness to the original, and
probable value to his people.

106.—Chahta Holisso A Tukla, or the Second Chahta Book. 1 vol. 12mo. p.
144.

This volume contains translations of portions of the Scriptures,
biographical notices of Henry Obokiah and Catherine Brown, a catechism
and dissertations on religious subjects. It was printed at Cincinnati
in 1827, by Morgan, Dodge & Fisher. The translator’s name is withheld.

107.—The Acts of the Apostles. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. p. 165. Crocker &
Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1839.

This volume is accompanied by evidences of that carefulness and desire
to create exact impressions in the use of language, which are deemed
of much value. It closes with a list of Scripture proper names, as
pronounced by the ancients and by Choctaws; a table of words of unusual
use in the Choctaw, as Apostle, Baptise, Blaspheme, &c., together with
a few English words, for which no equivalents could be found, as Angel,
Synagogue, Temple, &c., and a detailed table of contents.

108.—Chahta Ikhan anchi, or the Choctaw Instructor. Utica, N. Y:
William Williams. A. D. 1831. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 155. By a missionary.

This volume contains a brief summary of Old Testament History and
Biography, with practical reflections. It acknowledges the aid and
services of Isaac Watson, a native interpreter.

109.—Chahta Holisso. Boston: 1 vol. 12mo. 108 pages. Crocker &
Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., A. D. 1830.

This is a Spelling Book, apparently the second attempt of that kind,
with the Choctaw, and carries the pupil from monosyllables, into easy
reading lessons. It ends with a transmutation of the English names of
the months into Anglo-Choctaw, as Macha for March, Eplil for April, Me
for May, Chum for June, Chuli for July, Akus for August, &c.

110.—Choctaw Spelling Book of 1827. Second edition, revised.
Cincinnati: Printed by Morgan, Dodge & Fisher.

111.—The Epistle of James, Chemis I Holisso Hake. Park Hill Mission
Press. John Candy. A. D. 1843. 42 pages, 18mo.

To this Epistle, is appended the first three Chapters of Revelations.

112.—Chani I Holisso Ummona Hoke. The Epistles of John. Park Hill
Mission Press. 27 pages, 18mo. A. D. 1841.


                             SECTION III.

           BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE CREEK OR MUSCOGEE.

113.—The Muskoke Spelling Book. Park Hill, Cherokee Nation. Mission
Press. E. Archer, printer. A. D. 1847. 36 pages, 18mo. Prepared by Rev.
P. Harrison and D. P. Aspberry.

114.—Nakchokv Esyvhiketv. Muskoke Hymns, collected and revised by Rev.
R. M. Loughridge. Park Hill, Mission Press. John Candy, printer. A. D.
1843. 1 vol. 18mo. p. 45.

To these hymns, the Ten Commandments and Lord’s Prayer, are added.

115.—The Muskoke Hymns of 1847, prepared and revised by Rev. P.
Harrison and D. P. Aspberry, native missionaries. 1 vol. 18mo. 101 p.

These are the hymns of Loughridge, of 1835, in a revised and improved
form.

116.—A Short Sermon: Also, Hymns in the Muskoke or Creek language, by
the Rev. John Fleming. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F.
M., 1 vol. 18mo. 35 pages. A. D. 1835.



                              CHAPTER IV.

            BOOKS, TRACTS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE DACOTA.


But one member of this groupe had crossed the Mississippi, in their
ancient migrations, and fixed themselves in the area east of it. This
tribe was the Winnebagoes, who formerly maintained an independent
position in central Wisconsin. They went into Iowa, a few years since,
and have just completed their second removal into the country of the
Chippewas, on the west banks of the Upper Mississippi. There is thus
left no portion of this stock east of that stream, save, perhaps, a
small band of the Sioux, who are yet located on its east bank, between
the Falls of St. Anthony and the mouth of the St. Croix river. The
great body of the Dacota groupe extend westward (north of Iowa) to and
beyond the Missouri, stretching southwardly below the Rocky Mountains
across the waters of the Platte. The Iowas, the Otoes, Omahaws, Osages,
&c., are elder branches of this groupe, who appear as a body, inclined
to fall back, in that direction.

The principal missionary efforts have been among the Sioux proper, in
which there have been published, so far as known, thirteen separate
translations; at the same time there have been five translations in
the Iowa, and a single work, in each of the dialects of the Winnebago,
Otoe, and Osage.


                  SECTION I.—SIOUX, OR DACOTA PROPER.

117.—Wicoicage Wowapi qa odowan Wakan, &c.—The Book of Genesis, and a
part of the Psalms. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 295. Cincinnati, Ohio: Kendall &
Barnard, for the A. B. C. F. Missions, A. D. 1842.

This is a version of the Book of Genesis and a part of the Psalms
from the original Hebrew into the Dakota, by the missionaries of the
American Board and Mr. Joseph Renville, Sr.

118.—Jesus Ohnihde Wicaye cin oranyanpi Qon: qa Palos Wowapi Kage
ciqon, &c. 1 vol. 12mo. p. 228. Cincinnati, Ohio: Kendall & Barnard,
for the American Bible Society, A. D. 1843.

This volume contains the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the
Revelation of John, in the Dakota language, translated from the Greek
by Stephen R. Riggs, A. M.

119.—Old Testament Extracts. 1 vol. 18mo. aggregate pages 216.
Cincinnati, Ohio, A. D. 1839. Printed by Kendall & Henry, for the A. B.
C. F. Missions.

This volume contains extracts from Genesis and the Psalms, the third
chapter of Proverbs, and the third chapter of Daniel, translated from
the French version of the Bible by Joseph Renville, Sr., and prepared
for the press by Dr. Thomas S. Williamson.

120.—Wowapi Mitawa, tamakece Kaga—My own Book. 1 vol. 18 mo. 64 pages,
A. D. 1842. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M.

Prepared from Rev. T. H. Gallaudet’s “Mother’s Primer” and “Child’s
Picture Defining and Reading Book,” by S. R. Riggs, A. M.

121.—Dakota Dowanpi Kin—Sioux Hymns. 1 vol. 18mo. 71 pages, A. D. 1842.
Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. Missions.

These hymns are composed in the Dacota language by Mr. Joseph Renville
and Sons.

122.—The Dakota First Reading Book. 1 vol. 18mo. 50 pages. Cincinnati,
Ohio, A. D. 1839: Kendall & Henry, for the A. B. C. F. M. Prepared by
Stephen R. Riggs and Gideon H. Pond.

123.—Dakota Wiwangapiwowapi—Sioux Catechism. 1 vol. 12mo. 12 pages, A.
D. 1844. New Haven, Conn: Hitchcock & Stafford, for the A. B. C. F. M.
By Rev. S. W. Pond.

124.—Eliza Marpicokawin, Raratonwan oyate en wapige Sa; qa Sara war
panica qon, &c. 12 pages, 12mo. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for the A.
B. C. F. M., A. D. 1842.

A narrative of a pious native female.

125. Wowapi Inonpa—The Second Dacota Reading Book. Boston: Crocker &
Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., 1 vol. 12mo. 54 pages, A. D. 1842. By
Rev. S. W. Pond. Consists of Bible stories from the Old Testament.

126.—Wiconi Owihanke Wannin Taninkin. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for
the A. B. C. F. M., 23 pages 12mo. A. D. 1837.

This volume contains Dr. Watts’ Second Catechism for children,
translated into the Dacota by Joseph Renville, Sr.

127.—Sioux Spelling Book, designed for the use of native learners.
Boston: Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. M., 22 pages 12mo. A.
D. 1836.

This useful little elementary volume is accompanied with a Key of the
vowel sounds.

128.—Josep Oyakapi Kin—The History of Joseph and his Brethren.
Cincinnati: Kendall & Henry, for the A. B. C. F. M., 1 vol. 40 p. 18mo.
A. D. 1839.

This is a translation of the narration, of the events, on this subject,
recorded in Genesis, by Samuel W. and Gideon H. Pond, educated natives.

129.—Woahope Wikcemna Kin, (sheet.)

We have here, the Ten Commandments, and the Lord’s Prayer, in the
Dakota. _No imprint._

130.—Wotanin Waxte Markus owa Kin Dee. Cincinnati: Kendall & Henry, for
the A. B. C. F. Missions. 1 vol. 18mo. 96 pages, A. D. 1839.

The Gospel of Mark in this translation is put into Sioux orally by Jos.
Renville, Sr., and was written and prepared for the press by Dr. Thomas
L. Williamson.


                        SECTION II.—WINNEBAGO.

131.—Ocangra Aramee Wa wa Ka Ka ra—Ocangra Prayer Book. Detroit:
George L. Whitney, printer. Published for the Catholic Church, A. D.
1833, 18 pages, 12mo.

This appears to be the first attempt at translation into the Winnebago
dialect. It is a translation of part of the Ottawa prayer book,
containing 203 pages (_vide_ No. 45,) 2d edition, used by the Ottawa
Indians of L’arbre Croche.


                             SECTION III.

             BOOKS AND TRANSLATIONS IN THE IOWA LANGUAGE.

132.—Original Hymns in the Iowa language. 1 vol. 62 pages, 18mo.
with forms of Prayer, 24 pages, and an introduction to the shorter
Catechisms, 29 pages.

This volume is prepared by the missionaries of the Board of Foreign
Missions of the Presbyterian Church, and printed at their press at the
Iowa and Sac Mission, Indian Territory. A. D. 1843.

133.—An Iowa Grammar, in part.

Of this work, 111 pages, 18mo., from page 9 to 100 inclusive, have been
received from Messrs. Irvin & Hamilton, missionaries among the Iowas,
on the Missouri, in the service of the Board of Foreign Missions of the
Presbyterian Church of the United States. Its completion is looked for
with interest.

134.—Iowa Primer, in part.

There are but 8 pages of this publication, extending from pages 17 to
24 inclusive, which was transmitted by Walter Lowry, Esq., Secretary
Board Foreign Missions Presbyterian Church, United States. These
sheets contain tables of Iowa dyssyllables and trysyllables, carefully
accented, with their equivalents in English, and constitute fragmentary
elements of value.

135.—Iowa Hymns, a fragment.

This consists of 16 pages of translation, No. 132, of the same date and
edition.

136.—St. Matthew in Iowa, in part.

But five Chapters (32 pages,) of this Gospel, have been received from
the translators, Messrs. Irvin & Hamilton, who are the same gentlemen
engaged on the Grammar, No. 133.


                           SECTION IV.—OTOE.

137.—Otoe Hymn Book, by Moses Merrill. Shawanoe Mission. J. Meeker,
printer, A. D. 1834.

This appears to be the only translation of any kind which has been made
into Otoe. The sound of k following f, as in lra-ke-kofk, reminds the
observer of a common sound in the Tuscarora, which appears wanting in
all the dialects which are geographically located between them. It has
also, the final tl, a termination so common to the Aztecs.


                      SECTION V.—OSAGE: WASHASHE.

138.—Washashe Wageressa Pahugreh Tse. The Osage First Book. Boston:
Crocker & Brewster, for the A. B. C. F. Missions. 1 vol. 18mo. 126
pages. A. D. 1834.

The broad sound of the letter a, as heard in fall, is represented in
this compilation, by a peculiar enlargement of the letter. The word
Wacondah, the family name of this groupe, for the Great Spirit, is
dropped, and its place supplied by “Chihova,” (Jehovah.)



                        CHAPTER V.—SA-APTINIC.


Of the thirteen distinct generic families or groupes of Indians,
reported to exist along the Oregon and California shores of the
Pacific, by the ethnographer of Captain Wilkes’ Expedition, but a
single specimen of translation has been received. It was, it appears,
the Sa-aptins, and not the Flatheads of the Salish groupe, who applied
for teachers, by performing a long journey to St. Louis. And the small
elementary work, below noticed, is to be regarded as the first fruits
of the mission established among them.


                   SECTION I.—NEZ PERCES: SA-APTIN.

139.—Nez Perce’s First Book. Designed for children and new beginners.
Clear Water Mission Press. 20 pages, 18mo. A. D. 1839.

The first spelling lesson consists of 44 monosyllables; the second,
124 dyssyllables; the third, of 56 dyssyllables; the fifth, of 60
dyssyllables, and the sixth, of 18 dyssyllables. The sounds of tl, lh
and hl, appear to be the only ones which are not known to the tribes
east of the mountains, but have their analogies in the Aztec family.

Mr. Hale, the ethnographer attached to Captain Wilkes’ Expedition,
observes of this tribe, that it is supposed to number 2,000 souls. The
Sa-aptins possess the country on the Lewis or Snake river, from the
Petoos to Wapticaciaes, about 400 miles. They resemble the Missouri
Indians; have horses, are good hunters, and make long excursions to the
Rocky Mountains. They had, formerly, wars with the Shoshonees, Crows,
and Blackfeet. They sent a deputation for missionaries, across the
Rocky Mountains. The disposition of this tribe has been much eulogized
by travellers. They are considered superior in intellect to the other
Oregon tribes.





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