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Title: Historical Record of the First Regiment of Foot - The Origins of the Regiment
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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[Illustration: BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IVᵗʰ.

_and under the Patronage of_

Her Majesty the Queen.



British Army

_Comprising the_

_History of every Regiment_


_By Richard Cannon Esqʳᵉ._

_Adjutant General Office House Guards._


_Printed by Authority._]



                                                    _1st January, 1836_.

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who have
distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the Enemy,
an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British Army
shall be published under the superintendence and direction of the
Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the following
particulars, viz.,

       *       *       *       *       *

---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of the
Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time employed;
The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations, in which it has
been engaged, particularly specifying any Achievement it may have
performed, and the Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have captured from
the Enemy.

       *       *       *       *       *

---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying the
Place and Date of the Action.

---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in engagements with the Enemy,
have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks of His
Majesty's gracious favour.

---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and
Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in Action.


---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been permitted
to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges or Devices, or
any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

                  By Command of the Right Honourable
                          GENERAL LORD HILL,

                                                         JOHN MACDONALD,


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend upon
the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service are
animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that any
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which alone
great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the Military
History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright examples
to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to incite him to
emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him in their
honourable career, are among the motives that have given rise to the
present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the time
of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and admiration
to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions, the Houses of
Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the Commanders,
and the Officers and Troops acting under their orders, expressions
of approbation and of thanks for their skill and bravery, and these
testimonials, confirmed by the high honour of their Sovereign's
Approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which appears
to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies) for British
Regiments to keep regular records of their services and achievements.
Hence some difficulty has been experienced in obtaining, particularly
from the old Regiments, an authentic account of their origin and
subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty having
been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future keep a
full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth derive
information as to the difficulties and privations which chequer the
career of those who embrace the military profession. In Great Britain,
where so large a number of persons are devoted to the active concerns
of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and where these pursuits
have, for so long a period, been undisturbed by the _presence of
war_, which few other countries have escaped, comparatively little is
known of the vicissitudes of active service, and of the casualties of
climate, to which, even during peace, the British Troops are exposed in
every part of the globe, with little or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country derives
from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist and the
trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to reflect
on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on their
sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which so many
national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in spite
of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and steadiness
with which they have maintained their advantages against superior

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the Corps
employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of individual
bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His Majesty's
special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk of the
Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them cannot fail
to be useful and interesting to military men of every rank, it is
considered that they will also afford entertainment and information to
the general reader, particularly to those who may have served in the
Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or are
serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment to every
thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a narrative of the
services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove interesting. Authentic
accounts of the actions of the great,--the valiant,--the loyal, have
always been of paramount interest with a brave and civilized people.
Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who, in moments of danger
and terror, have stood, "firm as the rocks of their native shore"; and
when half the World has been arrayed against them, they have fought the
battles of their Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a
record of achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising,
gained by our countrymen,--our brothers,--our fellow-citizens in
arms,--a record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished Officers,
will be introduced in the Records of their respective Regiments, and
the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to time, been conferred
upon each Regiment, as testifying the value and importance of its
services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment will
be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall be
completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.




The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for innate
courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority of the
British troops over those of other countries has been evinced in the
midst of the most imminent perils. History contains so many proofs
of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can be raised upon
the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be admitted, that the
distinguishing feature of the British soldier is INTREPIDITY. This
quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England when their country
was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army, on which occasion the
undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to attack the Roman soldiers as
they descended from their ships; and, although their discipline and
arms were inferior to those of their adversaries, yet their fierce and
dauntless bearing intimidated the flower of the Roman troops, including
Cæsar's favourite tenth legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short
swords, and other weapons of rude construction. They had chariots,
to the axles of which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling
scythe-blades, and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons,
who alighted and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit,
or retreat, sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of
cavalry. These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being thus
regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full development of
the national character followed, and it shone forth in all its native

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords and
spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only. They had
also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror, consisted (as
already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost entirely
of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with their trains
of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion of men appeared
on foot, and, although these were of inferior degree, they proved
stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When stipendiary troops were
employed, infantry always constituted a considerable portion of the
military force; and this _arme_ has since acquired, in every quarter
of the globe, a celebrity never exceeded by the armies of any nation at
any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour was
worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice became
general for military men to be so completely cased in steel, that it
was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive purposes of
war, in the early part of the fourteenth century, produced a change in
the arms and equipment of the infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave
place to various kinds of fire-arms, but British archers continued
formidable adversaries; and owing to the inconvenient construction and
imperfect bore of the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men,
well trained in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered
a valuable acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;" the
"men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and thirty
pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty musketeers, and
twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides his principal
weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John Smithe)
in 1590, was:--the colour in the centre of the company guarded by the
halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on each flank of the
halberdiers; half the musketeers on each flank of the pikes; half
the archers on each flank of the musketeers; and the harquebusiers
(whose arms were much lighter than the muskets then in use) in equal
proportions on each flank of the company for skirmishing.[1] It was
customary to unite a number of companies into one body, called a
REGIMENT, which frequently amounted to three thousand men; but each
company continued to carry a colour. Numerous improvements were
eventually introduced in the construction of fire-arms, and, it having
been found impossible to make armour proof against the muskets then in
use (which carried a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty
for the soldier, armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in
the seventeenth century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and
the infantry were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed
with matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes, from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus, King
of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men; he caused
the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks, or in
small wooden bandoleers, each containing a charge, to be made up into
cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed each regiment into
two wings of musketeers, and a centre division of pikemen. He also
adopted the practice of forming four regiments into a brigade; and the
number of colours was afterwards reduced to three in each regiment.
He formed his columns so compactly that his infantry could resist the
charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen and Austrian cuirassiers; and
his armies became the admiration of other nations His mode of formation
was copied by the English, French, and other European states; but, so
great was the prejudice in favour of ancient customs, that all his
improvements were not adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled the
Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually consisted
of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light firelocks. In
this year the king added a company of men armed with hand-grenades to
each of the old British regiments, which was designated the "grenadier
company." Daggers were so contrived as to fit in the muzzles of the
muskets, and bayonets similar to those at present in use were adopted
about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1635, by order of King James II., to
guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th
Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the Second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service. During
the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting the
fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46 musketeers;
the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans; ensigns,
half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in 1697 the Marine
regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on the breaking out of
the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand-grenades; and
the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour: the corps
of Royal Artillery was first added to the army in this reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light companies
were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of General
Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside their swords,
as that weapon had never been used during the seven years' war. Since
that period the arms of the infantry soldier have been limited to the
musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European states;
and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods, been allowed
to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they have had to
contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and superiority of
the British infantry have been evinced on very many and most trying
occasions, and splendid victories have been gained over very superior

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have dared
to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves valiant with
any arms. At _Crecy_, King Edward III., at the head of about 30,000
men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip King of France,
whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000 men; here British valour
encountered veterans of renown:--the King of Bohemia, the King of
Majorca, and many princes and nobles were slain, and the French army
was routed and cut to pieces. Ten years afterwards, Edward Prince of
Wales, who was designated the Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_,
with 14,000 men, a French army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and
took John I., King of France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the
25th of October, 1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000
men, although greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness,
defeated, at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the
flower of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarch, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the States
General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and firmness;[3]
and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant Princes and the
Emperor of Germany, the British troops in the service of Sweden and
other states were celebrated for deeds of heroism.[4] In the wars of
Queen Anne, the fame of the British army under the great MARLBOROUGH
was spread throughout the world; and if we glance at the achievements
performed within the memory of persons now living, there is abundant
proof that the Britons of the present age are not inferior to their
ancestors in the qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness
the deeds of the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who
fought in Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the
French army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate
that country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the
arduous campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON;
and the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means he
could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to their
fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British Government.
These achievements, with others of recent dates in the distant climes
of India, prove that the same valour and constancy which glowed in the
breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers, Agincourt, Blenheim, and
Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable spirit
and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and cheerful
obedience to his superiors. These qualities, united with an excellent
system of order and discipline to regulate and give a skilful direction
to the energies and adventurous spirit of the hero, and a wise
selection of officers of superior talent to command, whose presence
inspires confidence,--have been the leading causes of the splendid
victories gained by the British arms.[5] The fame of the deeds of the
past and present generations in the various battle-fields where the
robust sons of Albion have fought and conquered, surrounds the British
arms with an halo of glory; these achievements will live in the page of
history to the end of time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a detail
of facts of an interesting character, connected with the hardships,
sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in the various
parts of the world where the calls of their Country and the commands
of their Sovereign, have required them to proceed in the execution
of their duty, whether in active continental operations, or in
maintaining colonial territories in distant and unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements of
this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted to every
species of warfare, and to all probable situations and circumstances
of service, are calculated to show forth the brilliancy of military
tactics calculated upon mathematical and scientific principles.
Although the movements and evolutions have been copied from the
continental armies, yet various improvements have from time to time
been introduced, to ensure that simplicity and celerity by which the
superiority of the national military character is maintained. The rank
and influence, which Great Britain has attained among the nations of
the world, have in a great measure been purchased by the valour of the
Army, and to persons, who have the welfare of their country at heart,
the records of the several regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

         20     20    20    30   2⚐0    30    20    20     20
       Harque- Arch- Mus- Pikes. Hal- Pikes. Mus-  Arch- Harque-
       buses.  ers.  kets.      berds.       kets. ers.  buses.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10 of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/23 of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign of
Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under Admiral
Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and in its
subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at the siege
of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed in
1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation would
beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the field, let
them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the Spanish infantry
was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe. For instances of
valour displayed by the British Infantry during the Seventy Years' War,
see the Historical Record of the Third Foot, or Buffs.

[4] Vide the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt, to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and has
enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national military
character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under circumstances of
peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the successful
result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January, 1809, it is
stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops
ever been more manifest. At the termination of a severe and harassing
march, rendered necessary by the superiority which the enemy had
acquired, and which had materially impaired the efficiency of the
troops, many disadvantages were to be encountered. These have all been
surmounted by the conduct of the troops themselves; and the enemy has
been taught, that whatever advantages of position or of numbers he
may possess, there is inherent in the British officers and soldiers
a bravery that knows not how to yield,--that no circumstances can
appal,--and that will ensure victory when it is to be obtained by the
exertion of any human means.

                           HISTORICAL RECORD


                              THE FIRST,


                        ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT:

                       CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF

                      THE ORIGIN OF THE REGIMENT

                            IN THE REIGN OF

                      KING JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND,


                      OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES

                               To 1846.

                              COMPILED BY

                         RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.


                       ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.


                     PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,

                          30, CHARING CROSS.

                             M DCCC XLVII.


                              THE FIRST,


                      THE ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT

             Bears on its Colours, as a Regimental Badge,

                       SURMOUNTED WITH A CROWN.

                  In the corners of the second Colour

                        THE THISTLE AND CROWN,

                            WITH THE MOTTO

                     _"NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT":_

                               ALSO THE





  Anno                                                              Page

   882  Origin of the _Scots Guards_ at the French Court               1

  1420  Scots Auxiliaries sent to France                               2

  1421  Battle of Baugé                                                3

  1422  Scots _Gendarmes_ instituted in France                        --

  ----  Capture of Avranches                                          --

  1423  Battle of Crevan                                              --

  1424  ---- Verneuille                                               --

  1440  Scots _Garde du Corps_ instituted in France                   --

  1495  Conquest of Naples                                             4

  1515  Battle of Pavia                                               --

  1590  Origin of the _Royal Regiment_                                --

  1613  _Scots Regiment in the service of Sweden_                      7

  1615  Capture of Kexholm, and siege of Plesko                       --

  1620  ---- Riga, Dunamond, and Mittau                                8

  ----  Scots Companies in the service of the King of
          Bohemia                                                     --

  1621} Battles of Prague and Fleurus                                 --

  1625  _Hepburn's Scots Regiment in the Swedish Service_              9

  ----  Capture of Selburg, Duneberg, Nidorp, and
          Dorpat; and battle of Semigallia                            --

  1626  Relief of Mew                                                 --

  1627  Capture of Kesmark and Marienberg, and action
          at Dirschan                                                 10

  1628  Capture of Newburg, Strasberg, Dribentz, Sweitz,
          and Massovia                                                --

  ----  Defence of Stralsund                                          --

  1629  Skirmish near Thorn                                           --

  1630  Relief of Rugenwald                                           12

  ----  Blockade of Colberg                                           13

  1631  Capture of Frankfort on the Oder                              14

  ----  ---- Landsberg                                                16

  1631  Defence of the fortified camp at Werben                       17

  ----  Battle of Leipsic                                             --

  ----  Capture of Halle, and services in Franconia                   21

  ----  ---- Wurtzburg and Marienberg                                 22

  ----  Defence of Oxenford                                           --

  ----  Capture of Frankfort on the Maine                             23

  ----  ---- Oppenheim and Mentz                                      24

  1632  ---- Donawerth                                                26

  ----  Forcing the passage of the Lech                               27

  ----  Capture of Augsburg                                           --

  ----  Siege of Ingoldstadt                                          --

  ----  Capture of Landshut and Munich                                28

  ----  Relief of Weissemberg                                         --

  ----  Defence of Nurenberg                                          --

  ----  Capture of Rayn and Landsberg                                 30

  ----  Relief of Rayn                                                31

  1633  Skirmish near Memmingen                                       32

  ----  Capture of Kaufbeuren                                         --

  ----  Siege of Kempten                                              --

  1634  Battle of Nordlingen                                          33

  _Hepburn's Scots Regiment in the French Service_:

  ----  Siege of La Motte, and relief of Heidelberg                   34

  1635  _Hepburn's two regiments incorporated_                        35

  ----  Action near Metz                                              36

  1636  Capture of Saverne                                            --

  1638} Siege of St. Omer                                             38
  1639} Capture of Renty, Catelet, and Hesdin                         39

  ----  Skirmish near St. Nicholas                                    40

  1643  Battle of Roucroy                                             41

  ----  Capture of Thionville and Turin                               --

  1644  Capture of Gravelines                                         42

  1646  ---- Courtray and Dunkirk                                     43

  1648  Battle of Lens                                                --

  1649  Siege of Paris                                                44

  1652  Action in the suburbs of Paris                                45

  ----  Skirmish at Villeneuve, St. George's                          47

  ----  Capture of Bar le Duc, and Ligny                              48

  1653  Capture of Château Portien and Vervins                        49

  1661  The Regiment proceeds to England                              52

  1662  Returns to France; Scots Guards incorporated  in
          the Regiment                                                53

  1666  Proceeds to England, and afterwards to Ireland                --

  1668  Returns to France                                             54

  1672  Capture of Grave                                              --

  1673  ---- Maestricht                                               55

  1674  Skirmishes near Heidelberg                                    --

  ----  Battle of Molsheim                                            56

  1675  Capture of Dachstein                                          57

  ----  Defence of Treves                                             --

  1676  Skirmish near Saverne                                         58

  1677  ---- Kochersberg and capture of Fribourg                      59

  1678  Returns to England                                            60

  ----  Grenadier Company added                                       --

  1679  Stationed in Ireland                                          --

  1680  Four Companies proceed to Tangier                             61

  ----  Action with the Moors                                         --

  ----  Twelve additional Companies proceed to Tangier                62

  ----  Actions with the Moors                                        63

  1683  One Company from Tangier to England                           67

  1684  Fifteen Companies     ditto                                   --

  ----  Five Companies from Ireland to England                        --

  ----  Styled "_The Royal Regiment of Foot_"                         --

  ----  Reviewed by King Charles II.                                  68

  1685  Battle of Sedgemoor                                           70

  ----  Rewards to Wounded Officers and Men                           72

  ----  Reviewed by King James II.                                    73

  1686  Divided into Two Battalions                                   74

  ----  2nd Battalion proceeds to Scotland                            --

  ----  1st    "      encamps on Hounslow Heath                       --

  1688  1st    "               ditto                                  75

  ----  2nd    "      from Scotland to England                        --

  ----  The Revolution                                                --

  1689  The Regiment mutinies                                         77

  ----  2nd Battalion proceeds to Scotland                            79

  ----  1st     "        "        the Netherlands                     --

  ----  1st     "     Battle of Walcourt                              --

  1690  2nd Battalion proceeds from Scotland to Holland               80

  1692  Battle of Steenkirk                                           81

  1693  ---- Landen                                                   84

  1695  1st Battalion, Siege of Namur                                 87

  1696  Reviewed by King William III.                                 91

  1698  Embarks for Ireland                                           92

  1701  Embarks for Holland                                           93

  1702  Covering the siege of Kayserswerth                            94

  ----  Skirmish near Nimeguen                                        --

  ----  Covering the sieges of Venloo and Ruremonde                   95

  ----  Capture of Stevenswart and Liege                              --

  1703  ---- Huy and Limburg                                          97

  1704  Battle of Schellenberg                                        99

  ----  ---- Blenheim                                                102

  ----  Covering the siege of Landau                                 105

  1705  Re-capture of Huy                                            106

  ----  Forcing the French lines at Neer-Hespen and
          Helixem                                                    107

  ----  Skirmish near the Dyle                                       108

  1706  Battle of Ramilies                                           109

  ----  Covering the sieges of Dendermond, Ostend, and
          Menin                                                       --

  ----  Capture of Aeth                                              110

  1707  The regimental badge changed from the _Cross_
          to the _Circle of St. Andrew_                               --

  1708  Battle of Oudenarde                                          111

  ----  Covering the siege of Lisle                                  112

  ----  Battle of Wynendale                                          113

  ----  Forcing the passage of the Scheldt                           114

  ----  Capture of Ghent                                              --

  1709  Capture of Tournay                                           115

  ----  Battle of Malplaquet                                         116

  ----  Covering the siege of Mons                                   118

  1710  ---- Douay and Bethune                                        --

  ----  Capture of Aire                                              119

  1711  ---- Bouchain                                                 --

  1712  Covering the siege of Quesnoy                                120

  1714  Returns to England                                           121

  1715  Proceeds to Ireland                                          122

  1741  2nd Battalion proceeds to the West Indies                    123

  1742  2nd Battalion proceeds to England                            123

  1743       "        returns to Ireland                              --

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to Flanders                            --

  1745       "        battle of Fontenoy                             124

  ----       "        embarks for England                            125

  ----  2nd Battalion ---- ditto                                      --

  ----       "        marches to Scotland                            126

  1746       "        battle of Falkirk                               --

  ----       "        ---- Culloden                                  127

  ----  1st Battalion, expedition to L'Orient, &c.                   128

  1747       "         proceeds to Holland                           130

  ----       "         relief of Hulst, and defence of
          Fort Sandberg                                               --

  1748  2nd Battalion proceeds to Holland                            131

  1749  Both Battalions proceed to Ireland                           132

  1751  Regulation respecting Colours and Clothing; and
          designated "_The First, or Royal Regiment
          of Foot_"                                                   --

  1757  2nd Battalion proceeds to North America                      134

  1758       "        capture of Louisburg                            --

  1759       "        ---- Ticonderago, and Crown Point              135

  1760  2nd Battalion, expedition against the Cherokees              136

  ----       "         capture of Isle aux Noix, and
          Montreal                                                   141

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to Quiberon Bay; returns
          to Ireland                                                 142

  1761  2nd Battalion, expedition against the Cherokees               --

  ----       "         capture of Dominico                           144

  1762       "         capture of Martinico, and the
                         Havannah                                     --

  ----       "         re-capture of Newfoundland                    147

  1763       "         returns to England                            148

  1764       "         proceeds to Scotland                           --

  1768  1st Battalion  ---- Gibraltar                                 --

  ----  2nd Battalion  returns to England                             --

  1771        "        proceeds to Minorca                            --

  1775  Both Battalions return to England                             --

  1780  1st Battalion proceeds to the West Indies                    149

  1781  1st Battalion, capture of St. Eustatia, St. Martin,
                         and Saba                                    149

  1782        "        defence of St. Christopher                     --

  ----        "        returns to England                            152

  1784  2nd Battalion proceeds to Gibraltar                          153

  ----  1st Battalion ---- Ireland                                    --

  1790        "       ---- West Indies                                --

  1793  2nd Battalion, defence of Toulon                              --

  1794        "        descent on Corsica; capture of
          Convention Redoubt, and Calvi                              156

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to St. Domingo                        159

  ----        "       capture of Fort L'Acal                          --

  ----        "       attack on Bombarde                             160

  ----        "       defence of a Block House                        --

  ----        "       capture of Port-au-Prince                       --

  ----        "       defence of Fort Bizzeton                       161

  1795        "       ---- an out-post                                --

  1796  2nd Battalion proceeds to Elba                               162

  1797  1st Battalion returns to England; proceeds to
          Scotland                                                   162

  ----  2nd Battalion proceeds to Portugal                            --

  1798  1st Battalion ---- Ireland                                   163

  1799  2nd Battalion returns to England                              --

  ----        "       expedition to Holland                           --

  ----        "       action near the Helder                          --

  ----        "       ---- Shagen                                    164

  ----        "       battle of Egmont-op-Zee                         --

  ----        "       returns to England                             165

  1800        "       expedition to Ferrol and Cadiz                  --

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to Scotland                           166

  1801  2nd Battalion, expedition to Egypt                            --

  ----        "        battle of Aboukir                              --

  ----        "        ---- Alexandria                               168

  ----        "       skirmishes at Hamed, El Aft, &c.               170

  ----        "       capture of Cairo, and Alexandria                --

  ----  1st Battalion returns to England                             171

  ----        "       proceeds to the West Indies                     --

  ----        "       capture of St. Martin, St. Thomas,
          St. John, and Santa Cruz                                   172

  1801  2nd Battalion proceeds to Malta                              172

  1802         "      ---- Gibraltar                                  --

  1803         "      returns to England                              --

  ----         "      proceeds to the West Indies                     --

  ----         "      capture of St. Lucia, and Tobago               173

  ----  1st Battalion ---- Essequibo, Demerara,
          and Berbice                                                174

  1804  _Two additional Battalions embodied_                          --

  1805  4th Battalion proceeds to Ireland                             --

  ----  3rd Battalion ---- England                                    --

  ----  2nd Battalion ---- England                                   175

  1806  4th Battalion ---- England                                    --

  1807  2nd Battalion ---- the East Indies                            --

  ----  3rd Battalion ---- Ireland                                    --

  ----  4th Battalion ---- Scotland                                   --

  1808         "      ---- England                                   176

  ----  3rd Battalion, expedition to Spain                            --

  1809         "       battle of Corunna                             177

  ----         "       embarks for England                           178

  ----         "       expedition to Walcheren                       179

  ----         "       siege of Flushing                              --

  ----         "       returns to England                            180

  1810  1st Battalion, capture of Guadaloupe                          --

  ----  3rd Battalion proceeds to Portugal                           181

  ----        "       battle of Busaco                                --

  ----  4th Battalion proceeds to Scotland                           182

  1811  3rd Battalion, battle of Fuentes d'Onor                       --

  1812         "       siege of Ciudad Rodrigo                       183

  ----  Styled, "_First Regiment of Foot, or Royal Scots_"            --

  ----  3rd Battalion, siege of Badajoz                               --

  ----         "       skirmish near Torrecille de la Orden          184

  ----         "       battle of Salamanca                            --

  ----         "       siege of Burgos                               185

  ----         "       skirmish near Palencia                         --

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to Canada                             186

  1813         "      attack on Sackett's Harbour                    188

  ----         "      ---- Sodius                                     --

  ----         "      skirmish near Four-mile Creek                  189

  ----         "      ---- Cross-roads                                --

  ----         "      capture of Fort Niagara                         --

  1813  1st Battalion, capture of Black-rock and Buffalo             190

  ----  3rd Battalion, skirmish near Osma                            192

  ----       "         battle of Vittoria                             --

  ----       "         capture of St. Sebastian                      193

  ----       "         passage of the Bidassoa                       195

  ----       "         battles of Nivelle and Nive                   196

  ----  4th Battalion proceeds to Swedish Pomerania                   --

  1814  1st Battalion, action at Longwood                            197

  ----       "         skirmish near Chippewa                        198

  ----       "         battle of Lundy's Lane                        199

  ----       "         siege of Fort Erie                            201

  ----       "         action at Cook's Mills                        202

  ----  2nd Battalion employed against the Pindarees                 203

  ----  3rd Battalion, blockade of Bayonne                            --

  ----  4th Battalion, siege of Bergen-op-Zoom                        --

  ----       "         returns to England                            204

  ----       "         proceeds to Canada                            205

  ----  3rd Battalion, repulsing the sortie from Bayonne              --

  ----       "         proceeds to Ireland                           206

  1815  1st and 4th Battalions return to England                     207

  ----  3rd Battalion proceeds to Flanders                            --

  ----       "        battle of Quatre Bras                          208

  ----       "        ---- Waterloo                                  210

  ----       "        advances to Paris                              212

  ----  4th Battalion proceeds to France                              --

  1816       "        _returns to England, and disbanded_            214

  ----  1st Battalion proceeds to Ireland                             --

  1817  _3rd Battalion returns to England, and disbanded_            215

  ----  Order respecting inscriptions on the colours                  --

  ----  2nd Battalion, services against the Pindarees                216

  ----       "         battle of Nagpore                             217

  ----       "         ----  Maheidpoor                              221

  1818       "         capture of Fort Talnere                       223

  ----       "         capture of Forts Gawelghur, and
                         Narnullah                                   225

  ----       "         operations against Peishwah Bajee
                         Rao                                         226

  ----       "         capture of Forts Unkye, Rajdeir,
                         Inderye, Trimbuck, and Malleygaum           227

  1819       "         capture of Asseerghur

  1819  2nd Battalion capture of Asseerghur                          229

  1821  The title of "_First, or Royal Regiment of Foot_"
                restored                                             236

  1825  2nd Battalion embarks for Rangoon                             --

  ----       "        action at Donabew                              237

  ----       "        skirmishes at Padoun Mew                       240

  ----       "        action at Simbike                              244

  ----       "        action near the Irawaddy                       246

  1826  1st Battalion, Service Companies proceed to the
                    West Indies                                      248

  ----       "         Reserve Companies proceed to
                    Scotland                                         249

  ----  2nd Battalion, action at Melloone                            250

  ----       "         ----  Pagahm Mew                              251

  ----       "         returns to Madras                             252

  1831       "         embarks for England                           254

  1832       "         proceeds to Scotland                          249

  ----  _The colours of both Battalions assimilated_                  --

  1833  1st Battalion, Reserve Companies proceed to
                    Ireland                                          255

  ----  2nd Battalion proceeds to Ireland                            256

  ----  1st Battalion, Service Companies proceed to Ireland           --

  1836  2nd Battalion, ----  proceed to Canada                        --

  1837       "         Depôt companies proceed to England            257

  ----       "         Service Companies, action at St.
                    Charles                                           --

  ----       "         ---- action at
                     Point Olivière                                  258

  ----       "         ---- action at
                     St. Eustache                                    259

  1838  1st Battalion proceeds to Scotland                           261

  1839       "         Service Companies embark for
                     Gibraltar                                        --

  1841       "         Depôt Companies proceed to Ireland             --

  1843  2nd Battalion, Service Companies embark for the
                     West Indies                                      --

  ----       "         Wreck of the Premier Transport,
                     and return of the head-quarter division
                     to Quebec                                        --

  1844  2nd Battalion, head-quarters, and three Companies
                     proceed to Nova Scotia, and embark
                     for the West Indies                             261

  1846      "          Service Companies embark for Scotland,
                     and joined by Depôt Companies                    --

  ----  1st Battalion, Service Companies embark for the
                     West Indies                                     262

  ----  The conclusion                                               263


  1633  Sir John Hepburn                                             265

  1636  James Hepburn                                                267

  1637  Lord James Douglas                                            --

  1655  Lord George Douglas                                          268

  1688  Frederick Duke Schomberg                                      --

  1691  Sir Robert Douglas                                           270

  1692  Lord George Hamilton                                         271

  1737  Honourable James St. Clair                                   272

  1762  Sir Henry Erskine, Bart.                                     273

  1765  John Marquis of Lorne                                         --

  1782  Lord Adam Gordon                                             274

  1801  His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent                          275

  1820  George Marquis of Huntly                                     279

  1834  Thomas Lord Lynedoch                                         280

  1843  Sir George Murray, G.C.B.                                    285

  1846  Sir James Kempt, G.C.B.                                      288


  Colours of the Regiment, to precede                             Page 1

  Colonel Sir Robert Douglas, at the Battle of Steenkirk,
    to face                                                           83

  Uniform in 1838, to face                                           261

[Illustration: Colours of the 1st, or Royal Regiment of Foot.

                            To face page 1.]






[Sidenote: 882]

THE ROYAL REGIMENT of FOOT is the representative of a body of gallant
Scots, formerly in the service of the celebrated GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS,
King of Sweden; and of another body of Scots, many years in the service
of the Kings of France; and it claims an origin anterior to that of any
other corps in the British army; but, although a laborious research has
been made, and _much_ information procured, yet, owing to the little
attention which was paid to the history of military bodies previously
to the last century, _all_ the circumstances connected with its origin
have not been ascertained. Its first Colonel was SIR JOHN HEPBURN, a
distinguished officer, well known in Europe during the early part of
the seventeenth century; but it appears to have existed some time as
independent companies before it was constituted a regiment. Tradition
has connected its early services with the ancient Scots Guards at the
French court; and, in order that the claims of the ROYAL REGIMENT to
antiquity may be clearly understood, a brief statement of the origin
and services of the Scots Guards is introduced into this record.

The Scots have been celebrated for deeds of arms for many centuries,
and they have been described by historians as a hardy, valiant,
and generous people. Led by a native ardour for military fame,
many Scotsmen have quitted their own country, and, like the daring
adventurers of the remote ages, they have sought renown in foreign
lands, where they have acquired celebrity for martial achievements,
long before the practice of forming military bodies into regiments
existed. It is recorded in history, that as early as the year 882,
Charles III., King of France, had twenty-four armed Scots, in whose
fidelity and valour he reposed confidence, to attend his person as a

[Sidenote: 1254]

The life of LOUIS IX. is stated to have been twice preserved,--once in
France, and afterwards in Egypt during the Holy War, by his faithful
and valiant Scots attendants; and that monarch, after his return from
Palestine, in 1254, increased the number of Scots who attended his
person to about one hundred, and constituted them a Corps of Guards.[7]
The practice of having armed Scots attendants appears to have been
continued by the succeeding sovereigns of France, and Charles V. is
stated to have placed this corps on a regular establishment.

[Sidenote: 1415]

[Sidenote: 1420]

[Sidenote: 1421]

[Sidenote: 1422]

[Sidenote: 1423]

[Sidenote: 1424]

[Sidenote: 1429]

[Sidenote: 1440]

When King Henry V. of England, after having gained the memorable
victory at _Agincourt_, on the 25th of October, 1415, and captured
many of the principal towns and castles of France, was acknowledged
as heir to the French throne by Charles VI., the Scots Guards appear
to have quitted the court, and to have taken part with the Dauphin
(afterwards Charles VII.), in his resistance to the new arrangement
which deprived him of the succession to the crown. At the same time
7000 men were sent from Scotland, under the command of John Earl of
Buchan, to assist the Dauphin, and these auxiliaries having evinced
signal gallantry on several occasions, especially at the battle of
_Baugé_, on the 22nd March, 1421, when the Duke of Clarence and above
a thousand English were killed, King Charles VII. selected from among
them one hundred "Men at Arms," and one hundred "Archers," whom he
constituted a corps of Guards for the protection of the Royal Person,
which corps was subsequently designated the "GENDARMES ECOSSOISES:" at
the same time, the Scots Commander, the Earl of Buchan, was appointed
Constable of France. The Scots continued with the French army, and
signalized themselves at the capture of _Avranches_, in Normandy, in
1422; and at the battle of _Crevan_, in 1423. An additional force of
five thousand men was sent from Scotland to France in 1424, and the
Scots gave proof of personal bravery at the battle of _Verneuille_, in
1424; and in the attack of an English convoy under Sir John Falstolfe,
in 1429; and after these repeated instances of gallantry, Charles VII.
selected a number of Scots gentlemen of quality and approved valour,
whom he constituted a Guard, to which he gave precedence before all
other troops in France, and this guard was designated LE GARDE DU CORPS
ECOSSOISES.[8] The Scots GENDARMES, and GARDE DU CORPS, continued to
form part of the French military force until about the year 1788; but
for more than a hundred years before their dissolution the officers and
men were nearly all French.

[Sidenote: 1484]

[Sidenote: 1495]

[Sidenote: 1509]

[Sidenote: 1515]

About the year 1484, another auxiliary force proceeded from Scotland
to France; and the Scots in the French service signalized themselves
in various parts of Europe, but especially in Italy in the year 1495,
and they acquired the principal glory in the conquest of Naples.[9]
There were also Scots troops with the French army serving against the
Venetians in 1509,[10] and with King Francis I. of France, in Italy, in
1515, in which year the Scots Guards were nearly all killed in defence
of the King's person before _Pavia_, where he was taken prisoner.[11]
After this fatal battle King Francis is stated to have exclaimed, "We
have lost everything but our honour!"

[Sidenote: 1590]

Two historical accounts of the origin and services of the FIRST, OR
ROYAL, REGIMENT OF FOOT, have already been printed, in which this
corps is stated to be a continuation of the ancient Scots Guards at
the French Court but this is an error,--the Scots Guards were Cavalry,
and this was always an Infantry corps, and it never sustained any
character in the French army, but that of a regiment of the line. The
supposition, that this Regiment was formerly the Body Guard of the
Scottish kings is also without foundation.

Milan, a military historian of the 18th century, who evinced much
zeal and assiduity in tracing the origin of every British corps,
UNCERTAIN;" and in the two editions of his succession of Colonels,
published in 1742 and 1746, he did not give the date of the appointment
of its first Colonel, SIR JOHN HEPBURN; but, in a subsequent edition,
he states the 26th of January, 1633, to be the date of this officer's
commission, as Colonel of the OLD SCOTS CORPS. This date appears to
be correct, as SIR JOHN HEPBURN did not quit Germany until 1632, and
no mention of a Scots _Regiment_ in the French service has been met
with in any of the military histories, or other French works (of which
many volumes have been examined), previously to 1633. This corps must,
however, have existed some time as _independent companies_, previously
to its being constituted a regiment, as Père Daniel, in his history of
the French army,[12] states, that this regiment, which he designates
"LE REGIMENT DE DOUGLAS," was sent from Scotland to France in the reign
of James VI. (James I. of England), and this monarch commenced his
reign in 1567, when he was only a child, and died in 1625; hence it
is evident that it had been in France some years before its formation
into a regiment, under the command of SIR JOHN HEPBURN, took place.
Père Daniel also alludes to this corps, in connexion with Henry IV.
of France, and thus associates its services with the wars between
that monarch and the Leaguers, which fixes the date of its arrival in
France about the second year of his reign, viz. 1590. Francis Grose,
the author of the British Military Antiquities, does not profess to be
in possession of any information respecting the ROYAL REGIMENT, beyond
what he obtained from Père Daniel; and the French historians of the
seventeenth century introduce the regiment into their works abruptly,
without saying a word about its origin. Thus, the only intelligence
extant relating to the origin of this distinguished corps, and which
is corroborated by collateral evidence, amounts to this:--"A BODY OF
proceeded to France were probably raised and commanded by men who
had served in the Scots Guards at the French Court, which might give
rise to the tradition of the ROYAL REGIMENT being connected with that
corps; and, as the Scots Guards have ceased to exist, the ROYALS may be
considered as the representative of that ancient body.

[Sidenote: 1591]

[Sidenote: 1595]

The occasion of these Scots companies being raised and sent to France
in the reign of James VI., was the succession of Henry of Navarre, a
Protestant prince, to the throne of France, in 1589, by the title of
Henry IV., when a sanguinary war commenced between him and the combined
Roman Catholic princes and nobles, called the Leaguers, who opposed
his accession to the throne with all their power and influence. Queen
Elizabeth furnished the French monarch with auxiliary English forces;
the King of Scotland permitted his subjects to aid the Protestant
cause, and several companies of Scottish foot were raised and sent
to France. The British troops highly distinguished themselves under
the Lord Willoughby, Sir John Norris, Sir Roger Williams, and other
commanders. The English afterwards quitted France, but Henry IV.,
having discovered the value of these companies of hardy and valiant
Scots, retained them in his service.

[Sidenote: 1609]

[Sidenote: 1610]

In 1609, and the early part of 1610, Henry IV. made preparations for
engaging in a war with the House of Austria; but he was murdered in
the streets of Paris on the 14th of May, 1610; and, after his death,
his son, Louis XIII., being a minor, the preparations for war were
discontinued, and part of the army was disbanded.

Leaving the Scots companies in France, where they appear to have been
employed in garrison duty for many years, the Record commences the
narrative of the services of another body of Scots, under the King of
Sweden, of which the ROYAL REGIMENT is also the representative.

[Sidenote: 1611]

[Sidenote: 1613]

GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, _King of Sweden_, who was designated "_the lion of
the north_," succeeded to the throne in 1611, and he soon began to take
an important part in the affairs of Europe. Having heard of the valour
of the Scots, he procured, in 1613, a number of companies from Scotland
and from the Netherlands,[13] and formed two Scots regiments. He also
hired fifteen ships from the Scots nation, which took the town and
district of Drontheim, and sailed afterwards to the southernmost shores
of Sweden.[14]

[Sidenote: 1615]

[Sidenote: 1616]

A peace was soon afterwards concluded between Sweden and Denmark;
but Gustavus retained his Scots veterans in his service; and in 1615
he commenced a war with Russia. He soon rendered himself master of
the province of Ingria,--took by storm the strong fort of _Kexholm_,
and besieged _Plesko_; but he was induced to desist from further
enterprises by the pacific interposition of King James I. of England,
and a cessation of hostilities took place.

[Sidenote: 1617]

[Sidenote: 1619]

The Scots in the service of Gustavus were, however, allowed but a short
period of repose before they were again called upon to take the field.
In 1617 Gustavus invaded Poland; and his troops were engaged in various
actions until 1619, when a truce was agreed upon by the contending

[Sidenote: 1620]

[Sidenote: 1621]

In 1620 the King of Sweden renewed the war; and the Scots, under
Colonels Ruthven and Seaton, distinguished themselves at the siege and
capture of _Riga_, the capital city of Livonia. The towns of _Dunamond_
and _Mittau_ were also captured soon afterwards; and these successes
were followed by another truce.

Meanwhile events had transpired which gave rise to the formation of
another body of Scots, with whose services the ROYAL Regiment is also
connected. The Protestants of Bohemia having revolted from the dominion
of Austria, elected to the throne the Count Palatine, who was assisted
by an English regiment under Sir Horace Hore; and had also in his
service a regiment of English and Scots, under Colonel GRAY; and one of
the Scots companies was commanded by JOHN HEPBURN, who was the first
Colonel of the ROYAL Regiment. GRAY'S regiment was employed in 1620 to
guard the King of Bohemia's person; but after the loss of the battle
of _Prague_ in 1621, His Majesty fled to Holland. GRAY'S regiment
formed part of the force rallied by the Earl of Mansfield; after many
enterprises, it retreated to the Palatinate, and was employed in Alsace
and Germany.

[Sidenote: 1622]

[Sidenote: 1625]

After the Princes of the Union had made peace with the Emperor, it
retreated through Alsace and Lorraine, and along the borders of France
to the Netherlands, and was engaged with a Spanish force near _Fleurus_
(30th August, 1622), when Sir James Ramsay and Captains HEPBURN and
Hume evinced signal gallantry. The army afterwards proceeded to
Holland, and was disbanded; when HEPBURN and his company entered the
service of the King of Sweden. About the year 1625, Gustavus Adolphus
appointed JOHN HEPBURN Colonel of a Scots regiment, of which the ROYAL
REGIMENT OF FOOT is the representative.

The King of Sweden renewed hostilities with Poland in 1625, and
conquered _Selburg_, _Duneberg_, _Nidorp_, and _Dorpat_; and defeated
the Polish army on the plains of _Semigallia_.

[Sidenote: 1626]

During the succeeding year he captured several places belonging to
the Elector of Brandenburg; and in a short time afterwards gained
possession of Polish Prussia.

Historians have omitted to state the part which the Scots regiments
took in these services; but it is recorded that at the relief of _Mew_,
a town near the conflux of the river Versa into the Vistula, COLONEL
JOHN HEPBURN'S Scots soldiers highly distinguished themselves. These
veterans being sent upon a desperate service, climbed a steep and
difficult eminence with surprising alacrity to attack the Poles.

"When Thurn and Hepburn had gained the summit, which lay near the
banks of the Vistula, they found the Polish soldiers entrenching
themselves, and fell on them with incredible fury. But as the Poles
poured in fresh troops every moment, the fight was maintained for two
hours with surprising obstinacy. During this interval Gustavus threw
a supply of men and ammunition into the town. And here, once more, it
appeared that infantry were able to resist an equal or superior body
of cavalry, for the fire of Thurn's soldiers was irresistible, and the
pikemen stood immovable, like a wall of brass."[15] The Poles, dismayed
at the desperate resolution of their opponents, raised the siege, and
Gustavus entered the town on the same evening.

[Sidenote: 1627]

The King of Sweden made his appearance in Prussia in 1627, at the
head of a brave and well-appointed army, of which COLONEL HEPBURN'S
regiment formed a part; he took _Kesmark_ by assault, and defeated, on
the same day, a division of Polish troops marching to its relief. He
afterwards besieged and captured _Marienberg_; and defeated the Poles
at _Dirschan_.

[Sidenote: 1628]

The army was joined in 1628 by nine thousand Scots and English
soldiers, and from this period the British troops took an important
part in the military operations of the Swedish monarch, who was now
at the head of 2,000 cavalry, 24,000 infantry, and 3,000 archers. He
repulsed the Poles in a sharp skirmish, and captured four field-pieces
and fourteen colours; and he subsequently besieged _Dantzic_, but he
afterwards relinquished his design on this place, and captured, by
surrender, _Newburg_, _Strasberg_, and _Dribentz_, and took _Sweitz_
and _Massovia_ by storm.

This year _Stralsund_ was besieged by the Imperialists, and two Scots
regiments in the service of the King of Denmark, with a detachment
from the King of Sweden's army, under the Scots Colonel, Sir Alexander
Lesley, assisted in the defence of the town; after a siege of
three months, the Emperor's General, Albert Count Walstein, having
half-ruined a numerous army, retired from before the place.

[Sidenote: 1629]

In the succeeding year the Emperor Ferdinand II. commenced measures
for the extirpation of the protestant religion in Germany, where it
had taken deep root for about a century; he also sent troops to the
assistance of the Poles in their war with Sweden; but Gustavus was
enabled to oppose the united armies, and to hold them in check. In a
partial action between the advance-guards, a few miles from _Thorn_,
Gustavus's hat was knocked off in a personal encounter with one of
the enemy's officers named Sirot, who afterwards wore the hat without
knowing to whom it belonged. On the succeeding day, two prisoners
(one a Scots officer named Hume) seeing Sirot wearing the King, their
master's, hat, wept exceedingly, and with exclamations of sorrow,
desired to be informed if the King was dead. Sirot, being thus made
acquainted with the quality of his antagonist in the preceding day's
skirmish, related the manner in which he became possessed of the hat,
upon which they recovered a little from their anxiety and surprise.
Soon afterwards the King of Poland, having nearly exhausted his
resources, became disposed to enter into pacific relations with Sweden,
and a treaty was concluded in the summer of this year.

This peace gave the King of Sweden an opportunity of executing his
design of interposing in behalf of the persecuted protestants of
Germany, in which he was abetted by England, France, and Holland, and
the Scots in his service had the honour of taking part in this glorious

[Sidenote: 1630]

Preparations were made for this great undertaking with perseverance
and judgment. It is recorded in history that the King of Sweden had in
his service ten thousand English and Scots soldiers, well nurtured and
experienced in war, in whom "he always principally confided, conferring
on them the glory of every critical and trying adventure." Amongst
these forces, COLONEL JOHN HEPBURN'S SCOTS REGIMENT appears to have
held a distinguished character for gallantry on all occasions; and no
troops appear to have been found better calculated for this important
enterprise than the Scots, who proved brave, hardy, patient of fatigue
and privation, frugal, obedient, and sober soldiers. In addition to
the British troops already in his service, Gustavus afterwards entered
into a treaty with the Marquis of Hamilton, who engaged to raise eight
thousand English and Scots for the service of the Swedish monarch.

When the King sailed with his main army for Pomerania, where he arrived
towards the end of June, 1630, COLONEL HEPBURN'S REGIMENT was stationed
under the renowned Chancellor Oxenstiern in Polish Prussia; but it
was soon afterwards engaged in operations in Outer Pomerania; and was
subsequently again stationed in Prussia, from whence it was suddenly
ordered to _Rugenwald_, in consequence of the following extraordinary

One of the Scots regiments[16] in the service of Sweden, commanded by
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monro, having embarked from Pillau in the
middle of August, in order to join the main army, was shipwrecked a
short distance from _Rugenwald_ in Pomerania, which place was occupied
by a garrison of Imperialists. These brave Scots, being cast ashore,
drenched with wet, without ammunition, and having only their pikes and
swords, and a few wet muskets, found themselves surrounded by garrisons
of the enemy, and at a distance of eighty miles from the king and
his army; yet, with astonishing resolution and courage, under such
disadvantageous circumstances, they concealed themselves near the shore
until night, and, having secretly procured a few dry muskets and some
ammunition from a Pomeranian officer, they took the town by a midnight
assault, and maintained themselves, fighting and skirmishing with
the enemy, until COLONEL HEPBURN arrived with his regiment to their

A Swedish army of eight thousand men was soon afterwards assembled near
Rugenwald, and COLONEL HEPBURN'S REGIMENT, having been relieved from
garrison duty, advanced to _Colberg_, and was engaged in the blockade
of the town; a detachment of the regiment was also sharply engaged with
a body of Imperialists which was advancing to relieve the place, but
was defeated.[18]

[Sidenote: 1631]

During the winter the regiment marched to the vicinity of Stettin,
the capital of Pomerania: it was subsequently employed in several
operations; and in March, 1631, it was encamped at Schwedt, in the
province of Brandenburg, where it was formed in brigade with three
other Scots regiments, viz.--Mackay's, Lumsdell's, and Stargate's.
This brigade was commanded by Colonel Hepburn, whose regiment took
the right, and was designated HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE or the _Green
Brigade_: other brigades were also formed and designated the _Yellow
Brigade_, the _Blue Brigade_, and the _White Brigade_.[19]

Advancing from Schwedt on the 24th of March, the regiment proceeded
with the main army, commanded by Gustavus in person, to _Frankfort_ on
the Oder, and was employed in the attack on the town. The army arrived
before the town during the afternoon preceding Palm Sunday, and the
regiment was posted opposite Gubengate. On the following day, after
divine service had been twice performed, the King sent Captain Guntier
of the regiment, with a serjeant and twelve private men, to ascertain
if a body of troops could be lodged between the outer and inner walls;
and this little party having, with fine courage, waded the ditch and
ascended the mud wall, gained the required information, and returned
without sustaining any loss; the King immediately afterwards commanded
the town to be attacked by storm; HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE was ordered
to commence the assault, and a select body of pikemen, with Sir John
Hepburn at their head, took the lead in this splendid enterprise.

The fascines and scaling ladders being ready, the King called Colonels
Hepburn and Lumsdell, and said, _My valiant Scots, remember your
countrymen slain at Old Brandenburg_.[20] The next moment the cannon
fired a volley, and the storming party rushing through the smoke
instantly attacked the town. Colonel Hepburn and his gallant pikemen
waded the ditch, in doing which they were waist deep in mud and water,
and carried the outer wall in gallant style. The enemy fled from the
wall towards a great sallyport, followed by Hepburn and his valiant
pikemen in full career; but when within a few paces of the port,
Hepburn was wounded in the leg and forced to halt; his place was
instantly supplied by the Major of his regiment, who was shot dead the
next moment; many of the pikemen also fell, and the remainder shrank
back before the tempest of bullets which assailed them. But in a few
moments the pikemen, led by Colonel Lumsdell and Lieutenant-Colonel
Monro, returned to the charge, and forced the sallyport; the enemy,
being confounded by the fury of the onset, omitted to let down the
portcullis. Having gained the streets, the pikemen formed up, and a
division of musketeers formed on each flank; the musketeers opened
their fire, the pikemen charged along the street, and the enemy was
routed, when a dreadful slaughter ensued, for during the fury of the
assault no quarter was given. Lieutenant-Colonel Masten, with a party
of musketeers of HEPBURN'S BRIGADE, followed the pikemen into the town,
and joining in the charge, augmented the confusion and slaughter of
the enemy. Meanwhile Major John Sinclair and Lieutenant George Heatly,
with another party of fifty musketeers of HEPBURN'S BRIGADE, scaled the
walls with ladders and drove their opponents into the town; but were
immediately afterwards charged by a troop of Imperial cuirassiers. The
brave Scots retired a few paces, and placing their backs to the wall,
kept up such a sharp fire that they forced the cuirassiers to retreat.

While HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE was thus carrying all before it, the
Yellow and Blue Brigades attacked another part of the town, where they
were warmly received by an Irish Regiment in the Emperor's service,
and were twice repulsed. The Irish behaved to admiration, but being
eventually overpowered, nearly every man was killed; and their Colonel,
Walter Butler, being shot through the arm, and pierced through the
thigh with a pike, was taken prisoner.

The slaughter continued for some time. The Imperialists beat a parley
twice, but the noise and tumult of the conflict was so great that the
drum was not heard; and they eventually fled over the bridge, leaving
nearly two thousand men and fifty colours behind them, besides stores,
treasure, and much valuable property, which fell into the hands of the
victors. The leading division of pikemen of HEPBURN'S BRIGADE, which,
after he was wounded, was commanded by Colonel Lumsdell, captured
EIGHTEEN COLOURS. This officer highly distinguished himself; and after
the town was taken, the King bid him ask what he pleased and his
request should be granted.[21]

Frankfort being thus gallantly won, a Scots officer, Major-General
Lesley, was appointed governor of this important acquisition; and on
the 5th of April, the King, placing himself at the head of a select
body of men from each brigade, commanded by Colonel Hepburn, proceeded
in the direction of _Landsberg_, and while on the march, the advance
guard defeated a regiment of Croatians. On the 8th of April a strong
fort in front of the town was attacked. The King, having through the
invention of a floating-bridge, and the ingenuity of a blacksmith,
surprised an out-guard and gained some advantage, the fort surrendered,
and the town soon afterwards followed this example. It was a remarkable
circumstance that the garrison exceeded in numbers the besieging army;
but the valour of Gustavus's troops, and the high state of discipline
which prevailed in his army, enabled him to perform astonishing
exploits. Colonel Hepburn and Lieutenant-Colonel Monro acquired great
credit by their conduct on this occasion.

After placing a garrison in Landsberg, the detachment commenced its
march on the 18th of April, back to Frankfort; and HEPBURN'S REGIMENT
proceeded soon afterwards to the vicinity of Berlin. Attempts were
made to induce the Duke of Brandenburg to join with the Swedes, and
when persuasion proved unavailing, the city of Berlin was invested.
The Duke, alarmed at this hostile proceeding, sent his Duchess and the
ladies of the court to entreat Gustavus to forbear; but the Swedish
monarch proved inexorable, and the Duke of Brandenburg was forced to

In July the regiment proceeded to Old Brandenburg, and on its arrival,
a pestilential disease raging in the city, the regiment was ordered to
encamp in the fields. During the same month the Marquis of Hamilton
arrived in Germany with six thousand British troops, which had been
raised for the service of the King of Sweden.

The regiment was subsequently engaged in several operations. It
encamped a short time near the banks of the Elbe, in the vicinity of
_Werben_, where an entrenched camp was formed, which was attacked
several times by the Imperialists without success.

The Saxons at length united their force with the Swedes; at the same
time the Imperialists, under the Count de Tilly, invaded Saxony, and
captured several towns, including _Leipsic_. The Swedish and Saxon
armies advanced against the invaders, and this movement was followed by
the decisive battle of _Leipsic_, in which COLONEL HEPBURN'S REGIMENT
took an important part.[22]

Having passed the night in order of battle, at day-break, on the
morning of the memorable 7th of September, 1631, divine service was
performed in the Swedish army, and the troops afterwards advanced
against the enemy. The Swedes took the right, and the Saxons the left.
The advance guard was composed of three regiments, two Scots and one
Dutch, led by three Scots colonels; and HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE formed
part of the reserve, which was commanded by Colonel Hepburn. The
engagement commenced about mid-day; and after a tremendous cannonade,
the cavalry of both armies advanced and engaged in a series of charges,
in which the Swedish and Finland horse had the advantage; and the King
was enabled to change his position so as to avoid the evil effects of
a high wind and clouds of dust which nearly blinded his soldiers. At
length the enemy attacked the Saxons on the left with great fury, and
drove them out of the field. The Imperialists then directed their main
force against the Swedes, and a detachment from the Scots regiments
highly distinguished itself in a conflict with the enemy's cavalry.[23]
During the heat of the conflict HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE was moved from
the rear of the centre to the left flank, which had become exposed by
the flight of the Saxons. Immediately afterwards two columns of the
enemy were seen coming down upon the left of the Swedish army, and the
King ordered HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE to wheel to the left and confront
the enemy. Before this movement was executed, the Imperialists were
within musket shot; in a moment the artillery on both sides opened
a tremendous cannonade; this was followed by two volleys from the
musketeers, and the next moment HEPBURN'S pikemen went cheering to the
charge with distinguished bravery, and, breaking in upon the front of
the first column, drove it back with terrible confusion and slaughter.
Meanwhile HEPBURN'S right wing of musketeers, commanded by Colonel
Monro, fell with great fury upon the enemy's troops which protected
the cannon and captured the guns. The slaughter would have been great,
but the ground where the battle was fought being very dry, and newly
ploughed, and the wind high, the clouds of dust favoured the escape
of the enemy.[24] When HEPBURN'S BRIGADE was attacking the enemy's
columns, the King sent the Blue Brigade and a body of musketeers to
its assistance; but before the arrival of these reinforcements the
Scots were triumphant. The Imperial columns being broken, the Swedish
horsemen pursued the fugitives until dark and made great slaughter.
Success having attended the Swedish arms in other parts of the field,
the victory was complete; but the conquerors had the misfortune to lose
their baggage, which was plundered by their friends, the runaway Saxons.

The Scots gained great honour in this action, particularly the brigade
of which HEPBURN'S regiment formed part. Colonel Monro, who commanded
the right wing of musketeers, writes--"The victory and credit of the
day was ascribed to our brigade; we were thanked by his Majesty for
our service in a public audience, and in view of the whole army, and
we were promised to be rewarded." In another place the same author
observes--"His Majesty did principally, under God, ascribe the glory
of the victory to the Swedish and Finland horsemen, who were led by
the valorous Velt-Marshal Horne; for though the Dutch horsemen did
behave themselves valorously divers times that day, yet it was not
their fortune to make the charge which did put the enemy to flight;
and though there were brave brigades of Swedes and Dutch in the field,
yet it was the SCOTS brigades' fortune to gain the praise for the foot
service, and not without cause, for they behaved themselves well, being
led and conducted by an expert and fortunate cavalier, the valiant

The pursuit was continued until the Imperial army was literally cut
to pieces, excepting a few regiments, which, being favoured by the
clouds of dust and smoke, escaped. The Imperial camp was left standing,
and the Swedish troops passed the night in their enemy's tents. The
Imperial cannon, the greater part of the baggage, and many standards
and colours, were captured by the victorious Gustavus. Such were the
results of the famous battle of _Leipsic_,--the most important action
which had been fought for more than half a century,--and where the
regiment, which is now represented by the FIRST, or ROYAL REGIMENT, in
the British line, acquired great honour.

After passing the night on the field of battle the army assembled in
column, and divine service was again performed; after which the King
of Sweden addressed the several regiments on the subject of their
exploits on the preceding day, and again returned thanks to HEPBURN'S
SCOTS BRIGADE for its distinguished gallantry.[26] From the field of
battle the army advanced to _Leipsic_, and invested the town, but
the recapturing of this place was left to the Saxons. Meanwhile part
of HEPBURN'S BRIGADE proceeded to _Halle_, and captured the town and
castle on the 11th of September. While the army lay near this place
several protestant Princes, with the Elector of Saxony at their head,
visited the King, on which occasion his Majesty passed many encomiums
on the Scottish nation, and beckoning to Colonel Hepburn, who stood in
another part of the room, recommended him, Lumsdell, and Monro, to the
Elector's more immediate notice.[27]

From Halle the brigade marched to Erfurt, in the famous forest of
Thuringia, and was afterwards destined to take part in the reduction
of the Circle of Franconia. From Erfurt the brigade advanced, with
other troops, through the forest of Thuringia,--proceeded a distance
of one hundred and eleven miles along difficult roads, and took by
capitulation six large towns, in the short period of eight days.
Having arrived at _Wurtzburg_, the town soon surrendered; but a strong
castle, called _Marienberg_, standing on an eminence on the other side
of the river Maine, being garrisoned by a thousand men, well provided
with every means of defence, held out against the Swedish arms, and
the Scots were selected to commence operations against this place.
The approach was hazardous beyond description; one arch of the bridge
was blown up, and the batteries raked the bridge from one end to the
other. A few daring Scots musketeers, however, passed the river in
small boats on the 5th of October, and, leaping on shore in the face of
a sharp fire, were soon warmly engaged. A plank had, in the meantime,
been laid across the broken arch of the bridge, and a number of veteran
Scots running across one after another, joined their companions in the
fight, and a lodgment was effected beyond the river, and some advantage
gained. The castle was afterwards taken by storm; and this having been
deemed an impregnable fortress, it was found well stored with corn,
wine, ammunition, and treasure; and small arms were found for seven
thousand men.

While the brigade lay at Wurtzburg, the King sent out so many
detachments that he had only about ten thousand men at head-quarters,
and an army of fifty thousand men, commanded by the Duke of Lorraine,
advanced against him. His Majesty having received information that
the enemy designed to pass the Maine at _Oxenford_ and attack him,
the King proceeded, on the same evening, after dark, to the quarters
of HEPBURNS'S SCOTS BRIGADE, and commanded the men to assemble under
arms immediately. Having selected eight hundred musketeers, his
Majesty commanded them to follow him, while the pikemen and colours
remained behind. The musketeers, being led by Brigadier-General
Hepburn, and accompanied by eighty Swedish horsemen, continued their
march throughout the night, and at two o'clock on the following morning
arrived at _Oxenford_, and formed up in the market-place, while fifty
of the horsemen advanced to observe the motions of the enemy. Soon
afterwards the report of pistols was heard, when his Majesty sent out a
lieutenant and fifty musketeers to skirmish and to cover the retreat of
the horse, which service was gallantly performed. The enemy, however,
proved too numerous, and the fifty musketeers were forced to retire,
when the King sent a hundred musketeers, under Lieutenant-Colonel
Monro, to restore the fight, and they drove back a superior body of
the Imperialists, for which they were applauded by the King. These few
Scots having thus frustrated the designs of the enemy, his Majesty
returned to Wurtzburg, leaving Hepburn, with his musketeers, to
defend the place; and this excellent officer made such a formidable
disposition of his men, and kept so good a countenance, that, although
the enemy advanced with his army up to the town with drums beating
and colours flying, as though he was about to storm the place, yet he
afterwards retired. The musketeers, having thus boldly confronted a
large army and maintained their post, were afterwards ordered to return
to Wurtzburg.

On the 7th of November HEPBURN'S SCOTS BRIGADE, or the GREEN BRIGADE,
advanced with the army towards _Frankfort on the Maine_, a place
celebrated throughout Europe for its annual fairs; and while traversing
the rich plains and beautiful scenery of one of the most fruitful parts
of Germany, several strong towns surrendered to the army. The brigade
crossed the Maine at Aschaffenberg, on the 14th of November, and
arrived at Frankfort on the 16th, when the city surrendered.

In the early part of December HEPBURN'S or the GREEN, and the Blue
brigades, were employed in the siege of a strong fort near _Oppenheim_,
and while performing this service, these hardy veterans were encamped
in the midst of a deep snow. The enemy made a sally in the night, but
were repulsed by the Scots pikemen, and on the following morning the
fort surrendered. The two brigades afterwards attacked a fort, and
also the castle belonging to the town. A party of gallant Scots having
stormed the wall between the outward fort and castle, they found the
drawbridge down, and, forcing an entrance into the castle, they put the
Spanish garrison to the sword; at the same time another party stormed
the fort with such fury that nine companies of Italians were soon
overpowered and forced to surrender. These Italians afterwards engaged
in the Swedish service, and were attached to the GREEN BRIGADE; but
they all deserted during the following summer. The King having passed
the Rhine with part of his army to attack the town on the other side,
the place surrendered.

Notwithstanding the severity of the season, the King resolved to
continue operations, and one Sunday afternoon, in the early part
of December, in tempestuous weather, with frost and snow, the army
appeared before _Mentz_. HEPBURN'S SCOTS,[28] or the GREEN BRIGADE,
took its post before the town; and the men having prepared the
batteries during the night, the fire of the cannon commenced at
day-break with such fury that the besieged were dismayed, and they
surrendered in the middle of December. The brigade was afterwards
placed in garrison in the town, where it continued during the remainder
of the winter.

[Sidenote: 1632]

During the preceding campaign, several additional regiments arrived
in Germany from Scotland, namely, Sir James Lumsdell's, the Master
of Forbes', Sir Frederick Hamilton's, and Colonel Monro's; also
Colonel Austin's English regiment; recruits also arrived for the old
regiments; and in the beginning of 1632 there appear to have been
thirteen Scots regiments and five English regiments in the service
of the King of Sweden. There were also two Scots generals, three
major-generals, three brigadier-generals, twenty-seven colonels,
fifty-one lieutenant-colonels, and fourteen Scots majors,[29] in the
Swedish army: and the FIRST, or ROYAL, REGIMENT OF FOOT, in the British
line, being the only one of these eighteen British regiments which has
continued to exist to the present time, it is the representative of the
whole of this gallant force.

HEPBURN'S veterans remained in garrison at Mentz, recruiting in
vigour and in numbers, until the beginning of March, 1632, when they
proceeded to Frankfort on the Maine, and, advancing from thence to
Aschaffenberg, were reviewed in the fields before the town on the
6th of March, by the King of Sweden. From Aschaffenberg the brigade
continued its march to Weinsheim, where it was reviewed by the Elector
Palatine, who complimented this distinguished body of Scots on the high
character it had acquired for deeds of valour.

After this review the brigade advanced with the army to invade Bavaria,
and on the 26th of March it appeared before _Donawerth_ on the Danube,
when the King posted part of the troops on the heights above the town.
On the following day, a battery having been constructed to command
the bridge, the enemy made a furious sally, and, having driven back
some Swedish troops, captured the guns; but a number of HEPBURN'S
veterans rushing forward sword in hand, the Bavarians were repulsed and
driven back into the town. During the night, Sir John Hepburn marched
his brigade with great silence five miles up the Wernitz, and having
crossed the river, returned by the opposite bank to an angle which
commanded the bridge over the Danube, where he posted his musketeers
behind garden-walls and hedges, and formed the pikemen into three
bodies under the cover of the enclosures. At day-break the enemy's
garrison attempted to force its way through the besieging army; eight
hundred musketeers rushed suddenly out of the town towards the bridge
where HEPBURN'S men were posted, when the Scots musketeers opened a
destructive fire, and before the smoke had cleared away, the pikemen
came cheering forward to the charge, while the musketeers drew their
swords and joined in the attack, and the enemy's column was broken
and cut to pieces. Many of the Bavarians fled towards the town;
HEPBURN'S veterans, following in full career, entered the town with the
fugitives, and made great slaughter in the streets. Meanwhile, the
enemy's troops, which sallied on the other side of the town, were also
nearly all destroyed. The governor escaped, but he saved only a small
portion of his garrison. Thus Donawerth was captured in forty-eight
hours after the army appeared before the town; and in this exploit the
gallant veterans under Sir John Hepburn acquired new laurels.[30]

This success enabled the King to penetrate into Bavaria; and in the
early part of April HEPBURN'S BRIGADE took part in the brilliant
enterprise of forcing the passage of the river _Lech_ in the face of
a superior army, and the success which attended this daring exploit
alarmed one half of Europe, and astonished the other.

The brigade was afterwards engaged in the siege of _Augsburg_, which
place capitulated on the 10th of April. From Augsburg the brigade
proceeded with the army to _Ingoldstadt_, and, being engaged in the
siege of this town, it had one very trying night's service: the King,
expecting a sally from the garrison, ordered Hepburn's veterans to
stand all night under arms on some high ground near the town; the enemy
kept up a constant fire against the brigade with dreadful execution,
and the men had to stand like targets to be shot at, without the power
of making resistance. "To my mind," observes the brave Colonel Monro,
"it was the longest night in the year, though in April, for at one shot
I lost twelve men of my own company." The first attack not succeeding,
the King raised the siege and retired.

After quitting the precincts of Ingoldstadt, the brigade was detached
against _Landshut_, a pretty little town with a castle, in Bavaria,
which place surrendered on the 29th of April.

Having completed this conquest, the brigade proceeded to Freysingen,
where it rejoined the main army, and advanced from thence to _Munich_.
This celebrated city surrendered immediately, and the King being
desirous of preserving it from plunder, he made a present of about five
shillings English to every soldier in the army, and posted HEPBURN'S
SCOTS BRIGADE at the bridge to prevent the ingress of stragglers.
The army was afterwards encamped without the town, excepting the old
Scots brigade, which entered the city with the King, and HEPBURN'S own
regiment furnished the guard at the market-place, while the remainder
of the brigade furnished the King's guard at the castle. As no other
brigade was admitted into Munich, this circumstance proves the high
estimation in which this old Scots corps was held. Its commander,
Brigadier-General Hepburn, was appointed governor of Munich.

Leaving this city on the 1st of June, the brigade again directed its
march towards Donawerth, where it arrived on the 4th. It subsequently
marched to the relief of _Weissemberg_, which was besieged by the
enemy; but the garrison surrendered before the troops marching for its
relief arrived. The brigade then continued its march to Furt, where an
encampment was formed. It was afterwards employed in several operations
of a defensive character. The King having to defend _Nurenberg_, and to
confront an army of 60,000 men with only 20,000, his Majesty formed an
entrenched camp round the city, where the brigade was stationed some

The enemy's army, commanded by the Duke of Bavaria and Count Walstein,
appeared before Nurenberg, and by means of their immense superiority
of numbers endeavoured to cut off the supplies of provision from
the Swedish army, but were unable to accomplish their object. The
opposing armies lay watching each other's movements until the 21st
of August, when, reinforcements having arrived for the Swedes, the
King attacked the enemy's fortified camp; the old Scots Brigade was
sharply engaged in the attack of the heights of Altenberg, and in the
attempt on Altenberg Castle, in which service it lost many officers
and men; but the attack failed at every point. The King afterwards
formed a fortified camp within cannon shot of the enemy, and the two
armies confronted each other until the 8th of September, when his
Majesty retired, and five hundred musketeers of the old Scots Brigade,
commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Sinclair, covered the retreat to
Neustadt. A few days afterwards, the Marquis of Hamilton being about
to return to England, Brigadier-General Hepburn obtained permission
to accompany him, and the regiment was left under the command of the
Lieutenant-Colonel. When the gallant Hepburn and several other officers
took leave of their companions in arms, Monro informs us that "the
separation was like the separation which death makes betwixt friends
and the soul of man, being sorry that those who had lived so long
together in amity and friendship, also in mutual dangers, in weal and
in woe, the splendour of our former mirth was overshadowed with a cloud
of grief and sorrows, which dissolved in mutual tears."

The brigade was now commanded by Colonel Monro, and towards the end of
September it marched to the relief of _Rayn_, which was besieged by the
enemy; but this garrison also surrendered before the troops marching
to its relief arrived. The King, however, resolved to retake the town,
and having arrived before the walls on the 3rd of October, he took
advantage of a thick fog, and brought his cannon to bear upon the works
unperceived, when the garrison immediately surrendered.

The brigade being much exhausted and decreased in numbers from its
recent hard services, it was placed in quarters of refreshment in
Bavaria, while the King marched with part of the army into Saxony.
Before his departure, his Majesty expressed his approbation of the
conduct of these veteran Scots on all occasions, and exhorted the
commanding officers to use every possible expedition in replacing the
casualties in the ranks of their respective regiments; but this proved
the final separation between the great Gustavus Adolphus and these
distinguished regiments; his Majesty marched to Saxony, and was killed
at the battle of Lützen,[31] which was fought on the 6th of November,

After the death of the King of Sweden[32] the old Scots Brigade
served for a short time under the Elector Palatine, and was employed
in the siege and capture of _Landsberg_, a town of Upper Bavaria on
the Lech; and while before this place a dispute about precedence arose
between this and another (Ruthven's) brigade: "But," observes Colonel
Monro, "those of Ruthven's Brigade were forced, notwithstanding their
diligence, to yield the precedence unto us, being older blades than
themselves, for in effect we were their schoolmasters in discipline, as
they could not but acknowledge."

When the capture of Landsberg was effected, the old Scots Brigade
marched to the relief of _Rayn_, which was closely beset by the
Bavarians, who raised the siege on the approach of the Scots, and
retired into Saxony.

From Rayn the brigade marched to the vicinity of the ancient city of
Augsburg, where the men lay two months of extreme cold weather in the
open fields; the loss of the great Gustavus Adolphus was now seriously
experienced, the generals were indecisive, and operations were

[Sidenote: 1633]

But in February, 1633, the brigade was again called into action. It
proceeded, in the first instance, to Ulm, a considerable town on the
banks of the Danube, and from thence towards _Memmingen_, to attack
a division of the enemy stationed in the town; but, having halted at
some hamlets within three miles of the place, the houses took fire in
the night, and the brigade lost much baggage, and saved its cannon and
ammunition with difficulty. This misfortune did not, however, prevent
the troops from marching against their adversaries, who after some
sharp skirmishing, retired.

Soon afterwards the brigade proceeded to _Kaufbeuren_, a small town on
the Wertach, and having invested the place, the garrison held out two
days, and then surrendered. Having refreshed the men with three days'
rest at Kaufbeuren, the brigade marched with part of the army towards
the Iller, and, having passed the river by a temporary bridge, besieged
_Kempten_ (the ancient _Campodunum_). But while the brigade lay before
the town, it was suddenly ordered to proceed by forced marches to the
Duchy of Wirtemberg.

Having been recalled from Wirtemberg, the brigade proceeded to
Donawerth on the Danube, where it was stationed during a great part of
the summer; while a convention of the Protestant princes of Germany was
held at Heilbronn. The pay of the troops being a long time in arrear,
they resolved not to engage in any further operations until their
arrears were paid. Thus disorder and confusion found its way into the
Swedish army, and the Scots regiments were no longer recruited with the
same facility as formerly.

[Sidenote: 1634]

The old Scots Brigade, however, continued at its post of duty, and it
formed part of the army, commanded by Marshal Horn and the Duke of
Saxe-Weimar, which advanced to the relief of _Nordlingen_; and this
movement brought on a general engagement, which was fought in the
vicinity of the town on the 26th of August, 1634, when the confederates
were defeated, and the Scots Brigade suffered so severely, that one
of the regiments (Monro's) was reduced a few days afterwards to one
company.[33] After the battle, the wreck of this distinguished brigade
retreated to Worms, a town situate on the left bank of the Rhine; and,
Marshal Horn having been taken prisoner, the veteran Scots were under
the orders of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar.

The loss of the battle of _Nordlingen_ almost ruined the protestant
interest in Germany, but soon afterwards the court of France agreed to
support this depressed and declining cause. The prospect of immediate
succours from France allayed the consternation which prevailed amongst
the confederate princes. A French army approached the Rhine, and
several towns in Alsace admitted French garrisons.

In the French army which thus approached the Rhine, the celebrated SIR
JOHN HEPBURN appeared at the head of a Scots regiment in the French
service. When this officer quitted Germany in 1632 (as before stated),
he was not satisfied with the manner in which the Swedish affairs were
conducted: on his arrival in England he was knighted; in the following
year he tendered his services to Louis XIII.; and a regiment having
been constituted of the old Scots companies and some newly-raised men,
he was appointed its Colonel, by commission dated the 26th of January,
1633. He served in 1634 with the French army,[34] commanded by Marshal
de la Force. During the summer he was engaged in the siege of _La
Motte_ (or La Mothe), which place surrendered on the 26th of July; and
HEPBURN'S REGIMENT lost one captain and several men in this service.
On the 19th of December, Sir John Hepburn passed the Rhine with his
own and six other regiments of infantry, seven cornets (or troops)
of cavalry, and a train of artillery, and took post at Manheim, from
whence he sent forward parties to reconnoitre the enemy. The remainder
of the French army afterwards passed the Rhine, and Sir John Hepburn
marched to the relief of _Heidelberg_, an ancient city situate on the
river Neckar, at the foot of the mountain called the Giesberg. This
city was besieged by the Imperialists, and defended by the Swedes.
After some sharp fighting, in which Sir John Hepburn distinguished
himself, the besieging army retreated, and the city was delivered to
the French on the 23rd of December.

[Sidenote: 1635]

After this success, part of the French army marched to Landau,
and formed a junction with the Swedish forces under the Duke of
Saxe-Weimar, which had escaped after the defeat at Nordlingen. Thus
the remaining few veterans of HEPBURN'S SCOTS REGIMENT in the _Swedish
service_, and HEPBURN'S SCOTS REGIMENT in the _French service_, were
brought into contact to fight together in the same cause, and the two
regiments appear to have been incorporated into one. This union would,
doubtless, prove agreeable to both corps; the veterans in the Swedish
service had long been without pay, and the strongest attachment existed
between them and their former leader, Sir John Hepburn, who had been
their companion in toil, in danger, and in victory; and this union of
the two corps placed them again under their favourite commander: at the
same time, Hepburn's regiment in the French service was already much
decreased in numbers from a long campaign, and the addition of these
renowned veterans would prove a valuable acquisition. Thus Hepburn's
Regiments, or _Le Régiment d'Hebron_ in the SWEDISH SERVICE, and _Le
Régiment d'Hebron_ in the FRENCH SERVICE (for the French historians use
the same title for both regiments), appear to have become one corps in
1635; and there is reason to believe that the remains of several other
Scots corps in the Swedish service were added to HEPBURN'S REGIMENT,
as its establishment, two years afterwards, is stated to have amounted
to the extraordinary number of 8316 officers and soldiers.[35] There
appear also to have been two other Scots regiments in the French
service in 1635, namely, Colonel Lesley's and Colonel Ramsay's, besides
the Scots _Gardes du Corps_ and _Gendarmes_ spoken of at the beginning
of this Memoir.

HEPBURN'S REGIMENT served during the campaign of 1635 with the French
array in Germany, commanded by the Cardinal de la Valette; and the
remains of the Swedish army, which had escaped after the defeat at
Nordlingen in 1634, continued to co-operate with the French, and were
commanded, under the Cardinal, by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. Little
advantage, however, accrued from placing an ecclesiastical dignitary at
the head of the army. The supplies of provision were intercepted by the
Germans, the French troops were reduced to the necessity of subsisting
on roots gathered about the villages, and the horses were fed on the
leaves of trees. At length the army, after burying its cannon and
destroying its baggage, retreated through mountainous parts of the
country; the Germans followed and attacked the rear; HEPBURN'S REGIMENT
was sharply engaged amongst the mountains; and the Imperialists were
severely punished for their temerity in a sharp action in September,
near _Metz_.[36]

[Sidenote: 1636]

During the summer of 1636 HEPBURN'S REGIMENT served with the army
commanded by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and in the month of May it
appeared before _Saverne_, a town of Alsace, situated on the banks of
the river Sarre, which was defended by an Imperial garrison commanded
by Colonel Mulhein. The siege of this place was immediately commenced,
and the garrison made a desperate resistance. A breach having been
effected, three assaults were made on the 20th of June, and were
repulsed with great loss. On the following day the batteries against
the town opened their fire with greater fury than before, and during
the progress of the siege the gallant Sir John Hepburn[37] was shot in
the neck, and died, regretted, not only by his old companions in arms,
but also by the court of France, where his valour and abilities were
well known and appreciated. After holding out a few days longer the
garrison surrendered; and Louis XIII. conferred the vacant Colonelcy of
the regiment on Lieutenant-Colonel James Hepburn, whose name appears
amongst the Scots lieutenant-colonels in the service of the King of
Sweden in 1632.

[Sidenote: 1637]

The regiment appears to have continued to serve in Alsace, under the
Duke of Saxe-Weimar, whose army consisted of French, Scots, Swedes, and
Germans, in the pay of France; and during the year 1637 it was engaged
in several skirmishes with the Imperialists, but no considerable action
was performed by either side.

This year Colonel James Hepburn was killed, and he was succeeded in the
command of the regiment by Lord James Douglas, second son of William,
first Marquis of Douglas. From this period the regiment was known in
France by the title of _Le Régiment de Douglas_.[38]

While the regiment was in Alsace, Picardy was invaded by the Spaniards,
and in 1637 this corps of hardy Scots appears to have been withdrawn
from the army commanded by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, and stationed near
the frontiers of Picardy.

[Sidenote: 1638]

In the spring of 1638 it was placed under the command of the Marshal
de Chastillon, for the purpose of penetrating into the Earldom of
Artois, which at this period formed part of the Spanish Netherlands.

The army having been assembled near Amiens, passed the Somme on the
18th of May, 1638; DOUGLAS' REGIMENT, forming part of the division
under Lieutenant-General Hallier, passed the river at Abbeville,
marched from thence to Doullens, and, after taking part in the capture
of several small forts, was engaged in the siege of _St. Omer_, a place
of great strength, and provided with a good garrison. The trenches were
opened on the night between the 29th and 30th of June. On the 12th of
July three hundred of the garrison issued out of the town to attack
the men in the trenches, and encountering a party of DOUGLAS' SCOTS,
a fierce combat ensued, and the Spaniards were driven back with the
loss of many men killed and taken prisoners; the enemy also lost a
strong post which they had held until that time.[39] A Spanish force,
however, advanced to the relief of the garrison, and having succeeded
in throwing succours into the town, the siege was raised by the French.

After quitting the vicinity of St. Omer, the regiment was engaged in
the siege of _Renty_, a small town on the river Aa. The army appeared
before this place on the 1st of August, and on the 9th the garrison

The next service in which the troops were employed was the siege of
_Catelet_, a town of Picardy, which the Spaniards had captured in 1636;
and this place was taken by storm on the 14th of September.

[Sidenote: 1639]

Having passed the winter in quarters in Picardy, DOUGLAS' REGIMENT
marched in the early part of May, 1639, to the rendezvous of the army
at Doullens, and served this year against the Spaniards, forming part
of the army commanded by General Meilleraie. The French commander
marched first towards Aire, but after reconnoitering the defences of
this place, he proceeded to _Hesdin_,--a town situated amongst marshes
on the little river Canche, where he arrived on the 19th of May,
and commenced the siege of the place with great vigour. Louis XIII.
visited the camp, that his presence might animate the soldiers in their
attacks; and, the garrison having surrendered on the 29th of June, the
King was so well pleased with the manner in which this siege had been
conducted, that he presented General Meilleraie with the baton of a
Marshal of France; the ceremony was performed in the breach he had made
in the fortress, and the King commanded _Te Deum_ to be sung in the
principal church of the town.[40]

After repairing the works, the army advanced against the Spanish
forces under the Marquis de Fuentes; and DOUGLAS' REGIMENT took part in
a sharp skirmish near the village of _St. Nicholas_, on which occasion
four pieces of cannon were captured from the Spaniards.

[Sidenote: 1640]

[Sidenote: 1641]

[Sidenote: 1642]

The regiment continued to take part in the military operations against
the Spaniards. Meanwhile Scotland was violently agitated by an attempt
made by King Charles I. to introduce the English Liturgy. This was
followed by an unfortunate misunderstanding between the King and his
Parliament in England, which produced a civil war; but, in the scenes
of slaughter and devastation which followed, this regiment did not
take part. It was in the service of Louis XIII. of France, who was
engaged in a war with Austria and Spain; and the French King had urgent
occasion for the presence of the three Scots regiments[41] with his

[Sidenote: 1643]

While the civil war was raging in England, Louis XIII. died (14th May,
1643), and was succeeded by his son Louis XIV., who was afterwards
designated _Louis le Grand_; at the time of his accession he was in
his minority. Notwithstanding this event the war was prosecuted with
vigour, and the court of France procured, in 1643, an additional
regiment of foot from Scotland, commanded by Colonel Andrew
Rutherford,[42] afterwards Earl of Teviot. This regiment was designated
in France _Le Régiment des Gardes Escossois_, or the REGIMENT OF SCOTS
GUARDS: but the title was only honorary, as it was never employed near
the royal person. The date of its formation has not been ascertained;
but, as it was afterwards incorporated into DOUGLAS' REGIMENT, now the
FIRST ROYALS, this corps is its representative, and its services have a
place in this Memoir.

Immediately after the regiment of Scots Guards arrived in France,
it was ordered to advance to the relief of _Roucroy_, a town of the
Ardennes, which was besieged by the Spaniards. The troops employed
in this service were commanded by Louis de Bourbon, Duc d'Enghien,
who was afterwards celebrated for military achievements under the
title of _Prince of Condé_, or the Great Condé. The Spaniards had a
superiority of numbers: the two armies engaged near _Roucroy_, on the
19th of May, when the French gained a decisive victory, and captured
the cannon, baggage, and many of the standards and colours belonging
to the Spaniards. Rutherford's Scots' Regiment had the honor of taking
part in this battle. It was soon afterwards employed in the siege of
_Thionville_, a town situated on the river Moselle; and had one captain
and four men killed, and one major and several private men wounded
in the attack of the counterscarp. This siege being prosecuted with
vigour, the town surrendered on the 10th of August, and the regiment
appears to have marched immediately afterwards for Italy.

Meanwhile DOUGLAS' REGIMENT had been removed from the Netherlands
and placed under the orders of Prince Francis-Thomas of Savoy, who
commanded the French army in Italy; and, having been engaged in several
operations, it was employed in the autumn in the siege of the city of
_Turin_, in Piedmont, which place was invested on the 14th of August.
The Scots Regiment of Guards also arrived in Piedmont in time to take
part in the siege, which was terminated on the 27th of September
by the surrender of the city, when DOUGLAS' REGIMENT was placed in

[Sidenote: 1644]

Before the following campaign the regiment was, however, removed from
Piedmont to Picardy; and passing from thence to the Netherlands, it
served, in 1644, under the Duke of Orleans, who held, during the
minority of Louis XIV., the title of Lieutenant-General to the King.
The army in the Netherlands was this year of considerable magnitude,
and DOUGLAS' REGIMENT formed part of the division commanded by Marshal
Meilleraie,[44] and was engaged in the siege of _Gravelines_, a town
situated on the river Aa, nine miles from Dunkirk. The communication
of Gravelines with the sea rendered it a place of great importance
to the Spaniards, who made strenuous exertions for its preservation.
Two sorties were made by the garrison in the early part of July, when
DOUGLAS' REGIMENT was sharply engaged, and the enemy was repulsed.
Every attempt made by the Spaniards to relieve the place was defeated,
and the town surrendered on the 28th of July, 1644. This success
was followed by the capture of several forts, and places of minor
importance, near the sea.

[Sidenote: 1645]

[Sidenote: 1646]

While the Scots regiments in the service of France were gaining laurels
in Italy and Flanders, England continued the theatre of civil war,
and many desperate engagements were fought with varied success. At
length the King's army, after suffering a series of reverses, was
found unable to withstand the forces of the Parliament; and a number
of officers and soldiers, who had fought in the royal cause, fled to
France, and were taken into the service of Louis XIV. Five English
battalions were formed, and added to the French army in Flanders;
and, during the campaign of 1646, the British troops were employed in
the siege and capture of _Courtray_, a considerable town on the river
Lys; and they afterwards took a distinguished part in the siege of the
city of _Dunkirk_, which surrendered to the French army on the 10th of
October, 1646.

[Sidenote: 1647]

The British troops continued to take part in the war in Flanders: and
in 1648 a troop of Scots cuirassiers, and the regiment of Scots Guards,
had an opportunity of distinguishing themselves at the battle of
_Lens_,[45] in Artois, under that distinguished commander the Prince of
Condé. This battle was fought on the 10th of August, 1648. The Spanish
army, commanded by Archduke Leopold, suffered a complete overthrow,
and lost thirty-eight pieces of cannon, and upwards of one hundred
standards and colours.

Soon after this victory an insurrection broke out in Paris; the court
removed to Rouel, and afterwards to St. Germain, and part of the army
was recalled from Flanders to besiege the capital, and to reduce the
Parliament of Paris to obedience.

[Sidenote: 1648]

[Sidenote: 1649]

In this year (1648) a treaty was concluded at _Munster_, which restored
peace to a great part of Europe, but the war was continued between
France and Spain, and the British troops were continued in the service
of France. Meanwhile King Charles I. of England, having fallen into
the power of Cromwell, was beheaded at Whitehall Palace on the 30th of
January, 1649.

While these events were taking place in other parts of Europe, Paris
was besieged by the French army, of which DOUGLAS' REGIMENT continued
to form a part; but an amicable arrangement between the Court and
Parliament took place in the spring of 1649. This was, however,
followed by insurrections in several of the provinces, and the Spanish
commanders, availing themselves of the distracted state of France,
recaptured several places in the Netherlands.

While France was disturbed with internal commotions, three hundred
veteran Scots, who had been left in garrison at _Ypres_ in West
Flanders, were engaged in the defence of that place against the
Spaniards, and, after a gallant resistance, were eventually forced to
surrender: but obtained honourable conditions, and marched out on the
6th of May, 1649, with drums beating and colours flying.

[Sidenote: 1650]

The commotions in France occasioned a decrease in the revenues of Louis
XIV., and DOUGLAS' veterans, with the other Scots regiments in the
French service, could not procure their pay. Meanwhile, King Charles
II., who had been an exile on the continent for some time, was entering
into a treaty, called the COVENANT, with the Scots, through whose means
his Majesty expected to recover the sovereignty of Great Britain; at
the same time, application was made to the French court for permission
for DOUGLAS' and the other regiments to return to Scotland with the
King; but these gallant veterans were so beloved and esteemed in France
for their good conduct on all occasions, that Louis XIV. declined
to accede to this request, and promised to give them their pay with
greater regularity in future.

[Sidenote: 1651]

Had these distinguished regiments accompanied their sovereign to
Scotland, great advantage would, doubtless, have accrued to the royal
cause. But, instead of accompanying their King, they were employed in
the defence of several strong towns on the frontiers of Picardy and
Flanders. The internal disorders in France continued, a want of money
prevailed in the army, and many of the French soldiers deserted. At the
same time the Spaniards, being in communication with the disaffected in
France, recovered several more of the towns which had been wrested from
them in the preceding campaigns, and besieged Dunkirk.

While these events were occurring on the continent, Charles II. was
crowned King in Scotland; but his affairs not prospering in the north,
he penetrated into England, and the Scots troops sustained a decisive
overthrow at _Worcester_ on the 3rd of September, 1651. The King fled
from the field, and, after remaining in concealment with several loyal
families for a short time, he escaped in disguise to France.

Meanwhile, the troubles in France were increasing. The Duke of Orleans
and the Prince of Condé were opposed to the court; the latter was at
the head of an army; and DOUGLAS' REGIMENT was employed in operations
against the insurgents.

[Sidenote: 1652]

After several marches and manœuvres, the opposing armies came in
contact in the summer of 1652, in the vicinity of _Paris_; the royal
army was commanded by Marshal Turenne; and the rebel army by the Prince
of Condé, who erected barricades in the Fauxbourg of St. Antoine, where
he was attacked on the 2nd of July, 1652.[46] The fighting had been
continued for some time with great resolution on both sides, when
DOUGLAS' and three other regiments attacked a barricade across one of
the streets near the river, which they carried sword in hand, and,
having dislodged the enemy from the houses, established themselves on
this spot. Immediately afterwards a troop of royal horse, attempting to
pass the barricade, was repulsed by the insurgent horsemen, who were
driven back in their turn by the fire of DOUGLAS' and another regiment
from the houses. Scarcely had the horse quitted the street, when two
bodies of insurgent foot came rushing forward with great fury to retake
the barricade, but DOUGLAS' and another regiment opened so destructive
a fire from the houses, and the regiments which guarded the barricade
made so resolute a defence, that the rebels were repulsed with great
loss. A general attack was afterwards made on the other posts occupied
by the rebels in the suburbs of Paris, and the rebellion would probably
have been crushed at once, but the Parisians opened their gates and
admitted the insurgents into the city, and thus protected them from
the fury of the royal army. The city of Paris having thus manifested
a determination to take part with the insurgents, DOUGLAS' Regiment,
with the remainder of the royal army, retreated on the same day to St.
Denis, where his Majesty and the court had retired.

While the Prince of Condé held possession of Paris, and the royal army
lay at St. Denis, a large Spanish army prepared to penetrate from the
Netherlands into France, to act in concert with the French insurgents;
when the court of Louis XIV. removed to Pontoise, and the army
marched to Compeigne, and encamped under the walls of the town. The
Spanish army entered France, but after a short stay it retired to the
Netherlands, when the army of Louis XIV. advanced towards Paris, and
encamped near Gonesse. This movement was followed by the return of the
Spanish forces under the Duke of Lorraine, when the army under Marshal
Turenne attempted to intercept the enemy, and a sharp skirmish occurred
at _Villeneuve St. Georges_, nine miles from Paris, and the designs of
the Duke of Lorraine were frustrated. But the Prince of Condé marched
out of Paris, and succeeded in forming a junction with the Spaniards
at Ablon; and the united armies were double the number of the forces
under Marshal Turenne, who constructed two temporary bridges over the
Seine, threw up entrenchments, and maintained his post for several
weeks. While the two armies confronted each other, frequent skirmishes
occurred in the fields and vineyards, in which DOUGLAS' Scots took a
conspicuous part. On one of these occasions a captain of the regiment
was taken prisoner, who escaped from the enemy a few days afterwards,
and brought information that the Prince of Condé had left the Spanish
army in consequence of indisposition. The enemy not being so watchful
as before, and the King's army being in want of provisions, it retired
with great secrecy during the night of the 4th of October, and
continued its march to Courteuil, when the enemy quitted the vicinity
of Paris, and marched into winter quarters in Champagne and other parts
of France.

When the absence of the united rebel and Spanish army from Paris
was ascertained, the royal family of France proceeded with a strong
guard to the capital, and obtained possession of the city; and
DOUGLAS' Regiment, with the remainder of the King's army, marched for
Champagne, to attack the enemy in his quarters.

During the winter DOUGLAS' Regiment was engaged in the siege of _Bar
le Duc_; the lower town was taken by storm, and, about the middle of
December, when two practicable breaches were made, the upper town and
castle surrendered; when an Irish regiment in the Spanish service was
made prisoners. The Irish finding that the Duke of York was with the
French army, in command of the Scots gendarmes and a regiment of foot
called the Regiment of York, they obtained permission to enter the
French service, and were incorporated into the Duke's regiment.

From Bar le Duc, DOUGLAS' Regiment marched a distance of nine miles,
to _Ligny_, a town situate on the river Ornain, and was engaged in
the siege of the castle. A mine being ready, on the 21st of December,
"Marshal Turenne commanded the regiments of York and DOUGLAS to
prepare for the attack at the springing of the mine, and ordered his
own regiment to be in readiness to second them. All things being
prepared in this manner, fire was given to the mine, and in the midst
of the smoke, before it could be discerned what effect the mine had
produced, the Count d'Estrées, who commanded the attack, ordered it
to be instantly made. Accordingly, they fell on, passing over the
ditch, which was very broad, upon the ice. But when they came to the
ditch, they perceived that the mine had failed their expectation, and
there was no possibility of mounting the breach. Upon this there was a
necessity of making a retreat; the ice broke under the men, and most
of them fell into the ditch, which gave leisure to the enemy to do
execution on them. Thus, for want of a little patience to see what
effect the mine had wrought; the regiment of York lost four captains,
some lieutenants and ensigns, and about a hundred men, slain outright,
and the regiment of DOUGLAS two captains and near fifty private
soldiers; besides many officers and soldiers hurt."[47] Immediately
after this failure another mine was commenced, and the garrison
surrendered on the 22nd of December.

[Sidenote: 1653]

A garrison having been placed in Ligny, the army proceeded to _Château
Portien_, a small town of the Ardennes, situate on the right bank of
the river Aisne; and while on this march the weather was so severe,
that several of the soldiers were frozen to death on the road. The
siege of this place was commenced in the beginning of January, 1653,
and the town was delivered up in less than ten days.

Having completed this conquest, the troops proceeded through a
difficult tract of country, and besieged _Vervins_. The weather
continued inclement, the men were suffering from the want of food, and
great difficulties had to be overcome; yet the attacks were made with
such spirit and determination, that possession was gained of this town
on the 28th of January.

The troops were now exhausted, and DOUGLAS' Regiment was sent into
quarters of refreshment. It again took the field in June following; but
the enemy had so great a superiority of numbers, that the greater part
of the year was passed in defensive operations.

[Sidenote: 1654]

[Sidenote: 1655]

The regiment appears to have passed the year 1654 in garrison. In 1655
it was employed in the Netherlands; its Colonel, Lieutenant-General
Lord James Douglas, commanded a flying camp between Douay and Arras;
several skirmishes occurred, and on one occasion LORD JAMES DOUGLAS was
killed; he was succeeded in the Colonelcy by his brother, LORD GEORGE
DOUGLAS, afterwards EARL OF DUMBARTON. This change in its Colonel did
not alter the title of the corps, as it continued to be distinguished
by the title of DOUGLAS' REGIMENT.

This year (1655) the King of France concluded a treaty with Cromwell,
who was at the head of the British nation with the title of Lord
Protector; and it was stipulated that a body of Cromwell's forces
should proceed to Flanders to co-operate with the French against the

[Sidenote: 1656]

[Sidenote: 1657]

[Sidenote: 1658]

This treaty occasioned King Charles II. to unite his interests with
those of Spain; the Duke of York quitted France, and obtained a command
in the Spanish army; and a great part of the Royal British troops,
which had escaped from England and entered the French army, transferred
their services from the crown of France to that of Spain. The cavalier
gentlemen, who thus transferred their services to the crown of Spain,
were formed into a troop of Horse Guards, of which Charles Berkeley
(afterwards Earl of Falmouth) was appointed Captain and Colonel; and
the remainder were formed into six regiments of foot--one English, one
Scots, and four Irish.[48] The determination thus manifested, by the
British troops in the service of France to preserve their loyalty to
King Charles II., appears to have occasioned measures to be adopted
by the French commanders to prevent DOUGLAS', and the other old Scots
regiments, from following this example; and these corps appear to have
been placed in remote garrisons, as they are not mentioned in the
histories of the military transactions in the Netherlands in 1657 and
1658, in which years the French army and Cromwell's forces captured
St. Venant and Mardyk, defeated the Spanish army, and afterwards took
Dunkirk, Ypres, Bruges, Dixmude, Furnes, Gravelines, Oudenarde, and
Menin; and Dunkirk was occupied by the English.

[Sidenote: 1659]

In September, 1658, Cromwell died; and in 1659 the Prince of Condé
disbanded his forces, and having tendered his submission to the crown
of France, he was received into the favour of Louis XIV. At the same
time a treaty of peace, called the Peace of the Pyrenees, was concluded
between France and Spain, and Dunkirk was ceded to England.

[Sidenote: 1660]

After this treaty was concluded the strength of the French army was
decreased, and DOUGLAS' Regiment was reduced to eight companies. These
events were followed by the restoration of King Charles II. to the
throne of Great Britain; when the British troops which had been in the
service of Spain were placed in garrison at Dunkirk; and DOUGLAS'
Regiment, in the French service, was in garrison at Avennes.

[Sidenote: 1661]

Soon after the restoration, King Charles II. disbanded the army of the
Commonwealth, which he found in England at his return. It was, however,
deemed necessary to have a regular force established, for in January,
1661, a number of religious fanatics, called millenarians, or fifth
monarchy-men, took arms against the government, and, although this
insurrection was suppressed in a few days, yet it was deemed necessary
to send for the Duke of York's troop of Guards from Dunkirk, and
afterwards for DOUGLAS' veteran Scots regiment from Flanders.

The regiment having arrived in England in the spring of 1661, it
obtained rank in the British army from that date. It appears, however,
to have had rank in the Swedish army from about the year 1625, and in
the French army from 1633. No instance has been met with of its having
been distinguished by any other title than the name of its Colonel,
except during part of the time it was in the Swedish service, when it
was designated, together with three other Scots regiments of which it
is now the representative, the GREEN BRIGADE.

Soon after its arrival in England the establishment of the regiment
was augmented, and its presence at this particular period was of
great service to King Charles II.[49] But his Majesty having (after
disbanding the whole of the army of the Commonwealth) established
three troops of Life Guards, a regiment of Horse Guards, and two
regiments of Foot Guards, in England; and a troop of Life Guards, and
a regiment of Foot Guards in Scotland; it was not deemed necessary to
detain DOUGLAS' veteran corps in England, and it was, accordingly, sent
back to France in 1662.

[Sidenote: 1662]

At the same time, General Andrew Rutherford, who commanded the
battalion of Scots Guards in the French service, having been appointed
Governor of Dunkirk by King Charles II., his battalion was incorporated
in DOUGLAS' Regiment. There was also another battalion of Scots Foot
in the service of France, commanded by Lord James Douglas, and this
battalion was likewise incorporated into DOUGLAS' veteran regiment,
which now consisted of twenty-three companies of one hundred men each,
and its established numbers, including officers and non-commissioned
officers, were upwards of 2500.

[Sidenote: 1663]

The King of France having, after the treaty of the Pyrenees, placed his
army upon a peace establishment, the strength of DOUGLAS' Regiment was
reduced to eight companies of one hundred men each.

[Sidenote: 1665]

[Sidenote: 1666]

Three years after its return to France, a war broke out between England
and Holland; and in the succeeding year Louis XIV. took part with the
Dutch against England, when DOUGLAS' regiment was again ordered to quit
the French service, and to return to England: it accordingly landed at
Rye, in Sussex, on the 12th of June, 1666, and mustered eight hundred

The Roman Catholics in several counties in Ireland were, at this
period, in a state of insurrection; and in a short time after the
arrival of the regiment from France, it was ordered to proceed to
Ireland, where it appears to have remained upwards of twelve months.

[Sidenote: 1668]

[Sidenote: 1670]

After the conclusion of the peace of Breda in 1668, the insurrections
in Ireland having been suppressed, the regiment was again sent to
France; and in an order issued by Louis XIV. in 1670, respecting the
rank of regiments, it appears one of the first.[51]

[Sidenote: 1672]

A war commenced in 1672 between the French monarch and the States
General of Holland; King Charles II. of England also declared war
against the Dutch; and a British force, commanded by the Duke of
Monmouth, was sent to France to co-operate with the army of Louis XIV.
in an attack upon Holland. DOUGLAS' Regiment had, in the meantime, been
augmented to sixteen companies, and when the army took the field, it
formed two battalions; and was in the division of the army commanded
by Marshal Turenne. Several fortified towns were captured by the main
army; and in June, DOUGLAS' Regiment, being encamped in the vicinity
of Nimeguen, was detached with several other corps under the Comte
de Chamilly to besiege _Grave_. The attack on the town commenced
towards the end of June, and in the early part of July the governor
surrendered. A number of the subjects of the British crown, who had
entered the service of Holland, being found in garrison, they were
permitted to engage in the service of Louis XIV., and were received as
recruits in DOUGLAS' Regiment.[52] In August the regiment was withdrawn
from the vicinity of Grave, and ordered to join the forces under
Marshal Turenne.

[Sidenote: 1673]

In 1673 eight thousand British troops served with the French army,
and were engaged in the siege of _Maestricht_, in which service they
evinced signal gallantly; and in repulsing a sally of part of the
garrison, the Duke of Monmouth, Captain Churchill (afterwards the great
Duke of Marlborough), and twelve private men of the English Life Guards
(a squadron of which corps was serving with the French army), highly
distinguished themselves.[53] The town surrendered on the 2nd of July.

[Sidenote: 1674]

Before the following year King Charles II. concluded a treaty of peace
with the Dutch Republic; but his Majesty did not withdraw the whole
of his troops from France; and during the campaign of 1674 DOUGLAS'
Regiment, with the Scots regiment of Hamilton, and the English
regiments of Monmouth and Churchill, served with the French army on
the Rhine, commanded by Marshal Turenne. In the early part of June,
DOUGLAS' Regiment was encamped near Philipsburg,[54] a town in the west
of Germany about half a mile from the Rhine, and was formed in brigade
with the French regiments of Plessis and La Ferté, with a battalion of
detachments, commanded by Brigadier-General the Marquis of Douglas.[55]

The opposing armies having taken the field, DOUGLAS' Regiment was
suddenly withdrawn from the vicinity of Philipsburg, and, after
crossing the Rhine, advanced towards the ancient city of _Heidelberg_,
to prevent the junction of the forces under the Duke of Lorraine and
the army commanded by the Duke of Bournonville. This movement brought
on several skirmishes, in which the regiment took part; it was also
engaged in a sharp action on the 16th of June, when the Imperialists
were defeated; and in the accounts of this action published at the
time, the conduct of the regiment is spoken of in terms of commendation.

After chasing the enemy out of the Palatinate, the regiment retired
with the army across the Rhine, to join the reinforcements from Alsace
and other places; and after the arrival of these troops, the army
re-passed the Rhine, and DOUGLAS' and two other regiments were detached
to the vicinity of Landau, and ordered to encamp within a league of
the town. The regiment was subsequently detached towards Manheim, and,
after taking part in several operations, in the beginning of October it
was encamped at Lavantzenaw, in Alsace.

Information having been received that the Germans had passed the Rhine
and advanced to _Molsheim_, the French and British troops quitted their
camp about an hour after midnight on the 3rd of October, and after a
march of several hours, arrived at the enemy's camp, and attacked them
with great spirit. The conflict took place amongst woods and broken
grounds, and the British troops displayed signal gallantry, fighting
with a spirit and resolution which the enemy could not withstand.
Many officers and men fell, yet the conflict was continued, and Lord
Duras (afterwards Earl of Feversham) had three horses killed under
him. Eventually the enemy were driven from the field, with the loss
of ten pieces of cannon, thirty standards and colours, and several

The Germans were subsequently reinforced by a number of fresh troops,
when Marshal Turenne retired with the French and British forces, and
took up a position near Saverne in Alsace, by which he prevented the
Imperialists deriving much advantage from their superiority of numbers.

[Sidenote: 1675]

During the depth of the winter, when the Germans had retreated,
DOUGLAS' Regiment[57] was placed, with several other corps, under
the orders of the Marquis of Vaubrun, and engaged in the siege of
_Dachstein_, a town in the department of the Lower Rhine. The trenches
were opened during the night of the 25th of January, 1675; and during
the night of the 28th, DOUGLAS' veterans were engaged in storming the
works, and lost several officers and men. Amongst the killed was the
Major of the regiment, who is stated by the French historians to have
been an officer of great merit. On the following day the governor
surrendered the town, when the regiment was sent into quarters.

It again took the field in the month of May, and was encamped for a
short time near Strasburg; at the same time the Germans, under the
Count de Montecuculi, menaced the city of Philipsburg with a siege;
but the French and British forces passed the Rhine on the 7th of June,
when the Germans changed their position, and the two armies confronted
each other, and manœuvred for several days in the territory bordering
on the Rhine. DOUGLAS' Regiment, having been on a detached service for
some time, was suddenly ordered to join the main army, from whence it
was afterwards sent to _Treves_ to reinforce the garrison. Several
sharp skirmishes occurred; and on the 27th of July, as Marshal Turenne
was reconnoitring the enemy, he was killed by a cannon-ball. After the
death of this celebrated veteran, the army was commanded _ad interim_
by the Count de Lorge, who retreated across the _Rhine_. The Germans
attacked their adversaries while making this retrograde movement,
when the gallant conduct of two battalions of veteran Scots saved the
main army from a severe loss. _Treves_ was afterwards besieged by the
Germans, and DOUGLAS' Regiment highly distinguished itself in the
defence of this ancient city, under the command of Marshal de Crequi.
The French troops mutinied, and endeavoured to compel the governor to
surrender, but DOUGLAS' Scots stood by the Marshal in the desperate
defence of the town, and were thanked for their conduct by Louis XIV.
Treves was surrendered on the 5th of September, and the regiment was
bound by the articles not to serve for three months, either in the
field or in the defence of any town.

[Sidenote: 1676]

The French monarch having employed the greater part of his forces in
making conquests in the Netherlands, a small army, of which DOUGLAS'
and Hamilton's Scots regiments formed part, was employed on the Rhine
during the campaign of 1676, under the orders of Marshal Luxembourg.
The imperial army, commanded by the Duke of Lorraine, had great
superiority of numbers. In the beginning of June, the two armies were
manœuvring and skirmishing in Alsace; and on the 5th of that month,
while the French were retiring through the mountains near _Saverne_,
the Germans attacked the rear-guard with great fury, and, having
forced a defile, put several French squadrons into confusion. But
as the German horsemen galloped between the mountains in pursuit,
two battalions of Scots foot having taken post on some high ground
beyond the defile, the musketeers opened so tremendous a fire that the
pursuing squadrons were checked and forced to retire, when a regiment
of German horse, and several squadrons of Lorraine dragoons, were
nearly destroyed. In this rencontre Sir George Hamilton and several
other officers of distinction were killed. The French army subsequently
formed an entrenched camp near Saverne; and the Germans besieged
Philipsburg, which was surrendered on the 15th of September.

[Sidenote: 1677]

During the campaign of 1677, the French army on the Rhine was commanded
by Marshal de Crequi. The British troops with this army consisted this
year of two squadrons of Royal English horse, and two battalions of
DOUGLAS' and a battalion of Monmouth's regiments.[58] The opposing
armies took the field, and after much manœuvring and skirmishing, the
Prince of Saxe-Eysenach, who commanded a division of Germans, having
been driven into an island on the Rhine, was forced to capitulate. A
sharp skirmish afterwards took place at _Kochersberg_, in Alsace, when
the Imperialists were defeated, and sustained great loss. _Fribourg_
was subsequently besieged by a detachment from the French army, and the
garrison surrendered on the 16th of November, when DOUGLAS' regiment
proceeded into winter quarters.

[Sidenote: 1678]

At length the conquests effected by France occasioned the English Court
and Parliament to become sensible of the necessity of restraining
the ambition of Louis XIV.; and King Charles II., having concluded
a treaty with the Dutch, gave orders for the British troops in the
French service to return to England; at the same time, his Majesty
issued commissions for an augmentation of about twenty thousand men
to the English army, and declared his determination of engaging in
the war with France. DUMBARTON'S Regiment, as it was now designated,
accordingly received orders in the early part of the year 1678 to quit
the service of the French monarch, and from this period it has been
permanently on the British establishment.

Soon after the arrival of the regiment from France, a number of men,
who each carried a large pouch filled with HAND-GRENADES, were added
to the establishment, and formed into a company, under the command
of Captain Robert Hodges. These men were instructed to ignite the
fuses, and to cast the grenades into forts, trenches, or amidst the
ranks of their enemies, where the explosion was calculated to produce
much execution; and the men, deriving their designation from the
combustibles with which they were armed, were styled GRENADIERS. Their
duties were considered more arduous than those of the pikemen or
musketeers; and the strongest and most active men were selected for the
grenadier company. And although the hand-grenades have long been laid
aside, yet one company, which is designated the "Grenadier Company,"
continues to form part of every battalion.

[Sidenote: 1679]

In 1679, DUMBARTON'S Regiment, which consisted at this period of
twenty-one companies, was stationed in Ireland. In the autumn of
this year, Tangier, in Africa (which had been ceded by Portugal to
Charles II., in 1662, as part of the marriage-portion of his consort,
Donna Catherina, Infanta of Portugal), was besieged by the Moors, who
destroyed two forts at a short distance from the town, and then retired.

[Sidenote: 1680]

They, however, again appeared before the town in the spring of 1680,
when four companies of DUMBARTON'S Regiment were ordered to reinforce
the garrison; and these companies having embarked at Kinsale in the
James and Swan frigates, landed at Tangier on the 4th of April.

Fort Henrietta, which stood at a short distance from the town, was
at this time besieged by the Moors, and two breaches having been
made, and the works undermined, the garrison could not maintain the
place; consequently a sally from the city was resolved upon, to give
the garrison an opportunity of blowing up the fort, and of cutting
their passage through the Moorish army to the town; and Captain Hume,
Lieutenant Pierson, Lieutenant Bayley, four serjeants, and 80 private
men, of DUMBARTON'S Regiment, were selected to form the forlorn-hope
in the sally. Accordingly, at eight o'clock on the morning of the 12th
of May, DUMBARTON'S veterans issued from the town, and made a gallant
attack on the Moorish army; at the same time the garrison in the fort
blew up the building, and rushed forward, sword in hand, to cut their
passage through the barbarians. The conflict was sharp: the Moors came
running forward in crowds to cut off this devoted band; yet these
resolute Britons forced the first trench, and gained the second. This
was, however, twelve feet deep; and while struggling to overcome the
difficulty, Captain Trelawny and 120 men were killed by the Moors;
and only forty-four officers and men succeeded in joining Captain
Hume and his party of veteran Scots. This party was also attacked by
several bodies of Moorish horsemen, who were all expert lancers; but
the barbarians were repulsed. One Moorish chieftain rode over Captain
Hume; but his horse fell, and the barbarian was immediately killed.
The men continued skirmishing, and retiring in good order until they
arrived under the protection of the guns of the fortress. The companies
of DUMBARTON'S Regiment lost on this occasion fifteen men killed, and
Captain Hume[59] and several men wounded.

In a few days after this action a cessation of hostilities was agreed
upon with the Moors for four months; and during the summer twelve
additional companies of DUMBARTON'S Regiment arrived at Tangier, from
Ireland, under the command of Major Sir James Hackett. The arrival of
these celebrated veterans is thus announced in one of the publications
of that period:--"After this landed the valorous Major Hackett with
the renowned regiment of the Earl of Dumbarton; all of them men of
approved valour, fame having echoed the sound of their glorious
actions and achievements in France and other nations; having left
behind them a report of their glorious victories wherever they came;
every place witnessing and giving large testimony of their renown: so
that the arrival of this illustrious regiment more and more increased
the resolutions and united the courage of the inhabitants, and added
confidence to their valour."[60]

Hostilities again commenced in September, when the garrison quitted
the town, and encamped under the walls; and the Lieut.-Governor, Sir
Palmes Fairborne, is reported to have made the following speech to
DUMBARTON's Scots:--"Countrymen and fellow-soldiers, let not your
approved valour and fame in foreign nations be derogated at this time,
neither degenerate from your ancient and former glory abroad; and as
you are looked upon here to be brave and experienced soldiers (constant
and successive victories having attended your conquering swords
hitherto), do not come short of the great hopes we have in you, and the
propitious procedures we expect from you at this time. For the glory of
your nation, if you cannot surpass, you may imitate the bravest, and be
emulous of their praises and renown."[61]

The expectations of the Lieutenant-Governor, with regard to these
celebrated Scots, appear to have been realised; and in the various
skirmishes and actions which followed, they always signalised
themselves. In the account of a sharp action fought on the 20th of
September, it is reported that "The grenadiers under Captain Hodges
behaved themselves very bravely." On the 22nd of the same month, "Some
of the Moorish horse advanced resolutely to the very line where our men
were lodged, but were repulsed, and several of them killed. Several
of the Scots grenadiers, who were very active and daring, advancing a
little too far, were killed, and others, advancing to their relief,
were likewise hard put to it." A sharp skirmish was afterwards kept up
throughout the day, and "The Scots and the seamen from the fleet were
hotly engaged, having beat the Moors out of several trenches." While
retiring, Captain Fitzpatrick was attacked by a Moorish chieftain, but
was delivered by a shot which brought the barbarian down at the moment
he was about to spear the captain. A Scots grenadier, of undaunted
bravery, being desirous of possessing the Moor's charger, leaped over
the trenches and seized the horse; but this brave man was immediately
afterwards cut to pieces by a party of Moors, who came galloping
forward at the moment he was about to retire with the horse. On the
same day it was resolved, in consequence of a newly-erected fort being
completed, to retire within the walls, when Sir James Hackett, at
the head of DUMBARTON'S Scots, covered the retrograde movement, and
repulsed several charges made by the Moorish lancers.

A sally was made from the town on the 24th of September, when the
Scots again distinguished themselves, and had Captain Forbes and eight
men killed. The Lieut.-Governor, Sir Palmes Fairborne, also received
a mortal wound, and was succeeded in the command of the garrison by
Lieut.-Colonel Sackville of the Foot Guards.

On the 27th of September, a general sally of the garrison was made
on the Moorish lines, where between fourteen and fifteen thousand
barbarians were encamped. About three in the morning, the troops
issued in silence from the town, and formed in order of battle. Soon
afterwards the signal for the attack was given, when DUMBARTON'S[62]
company of Scots grenadiers, led by Captain Hodges, and followed by
the remaining companies of the regiment, rushed towards the Moorish
lines with the velocity of lightning. The Moors, who were reposing
beyond their trenches, were suddenly aroused by the sound of a
trampling multitude rushing to battle; and the next moment a shower of
hand-grenades bursting amongst them put them in some confusion; yet
they sprang to their arms, and, standing firm to receive the charge,
disputed the ground with firmness. Soon the action became general, and
"Nothing was heard but the roaring of cannon, the firing of muskets,
and the loud acclamations of the Christians, who, ever and anon, when
they gained any trench of the enemy, raised a shout which pierced
the clouds, and echoed in the sky.[63]" DUMBARTON'S veterans quickly
carried the first trench, then mixing in fierce combat with the Moors,
soon proved that a valiant Scot was more than a match for one of the
dusky sons of Africa. The first trench having been won, a portion of
it was levelled for the cavalry, and the British and Spanish horsemen
charged the Moors, and plunging amidst the dark masses, trampled
and cut down the astonished Africans. At the same time the British
grenadiers were seen using their hatchets with dreadful execution on
one side, the pikemen were bearing down all before them on another,
and, the musketeers, having slung their muskets, were fighting, sword
in hand, with an impetuosity which the Moors could not withstand. The
waving masses of barbarians were broken, and they fled like a scattered
swarm over the land; the British troops pursued, and a number of single
combats followed, for the Moors were more expert in personal conflicts
than in fighting in large bodies. These combats, however, generally
terminated in favour of the British; and the Scots, particularly
Captain Hodges and his grenadier company, were distinguished for the
number they slew. Thus the siege of Tangier was raised, and DUMBARTON'S
veteran Scots captured a splendid colour[64] from the Moors. The
regiment lost[65] in this action, Lieutenants Scott and St. Leger;
Ensigns Farrell, Murray, Bell, and Rhue; six serjeants, and thirty
private soldiers killed; Captains Lockart, Lundy, Hume, Douglas,
and Percy; Lieutenants Glascock, Murray, Ennis, Corson, Bainesman,
Macrohen, Stuart, Aukmooty, and Butler; with Ensign Mowast, and one
hundred serjeants and private men wounded.

In a few days after this engagement a truce was concluded with the
Moors for six months; and in the early part of December a regiment of
foot (now the Fourth, or King's own), with 200 recruits for DUMBARTON'S
Regiment, arrived from England.

[Sidenote: 1681]

During the winter, Lieut.-Colonel Kirk was sent on an embassy to
Muley-Ismael, Emperor of Morocco. In the spring of 1681, a treaty of
peace for four years was concluded and sent to England by Captain
Thomas Langston.

[Sidenote: 1682]

[Sidenote: 1683]

King Charles II., however, found the maintenance of a sufficient
garrison at Tangier too expensive to be continued without the aid
of a grant from parliament. At the same time the nation was more
alarmed at the prospect of a popish successor to the throne than at
the apprehension of losing this fortress, which they feared would
become a nursery for popish soldiers. The advantage derived from the
Levant trade, and other arguments, were brought forward in favour of
maintaining Tangier; but the parliament refused the necessary supply;
and towards the end of 1683, Admiral Lord Dartmouth was sent with a
fleet to demolish the fortress, and to bring away the garrison and
British inhabitants.

[Sidenote: 1684]

One company of DUMBARTON'S Regiment arrived from Tangier, in November,
1683, and landed at Gravesend; and the remainder arrived in the river
Thames in February, 1684, and, having landed at Rochester, were
quartered--eight companies at Rochester and Chatham, six at Winchester,
and two at Southampton. At the same time directions were sent to the
Duke of Ormond, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, to send the five
companies of the regiment in that country to England.

In June of this year four companies attended the Duchess of York
(afterwards Queen of England) at Tunbridge Wells; and in the autumn
King Charles II. conferred upon this celebrated regiment the title of

On the 1st of October, sixteen companies of the Royal Regiment,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Sir James Hackett, were reviewed, with
a number of other corps, by King Charles II., on Putney Heath. "The
Coldstream, my Lord DUMBARTON'S, and the Admiral's Battalions,
successively exercised all three by beat of drum, the military postures
of pike, sword, and musket, every man dexterously discharging his
duties with an exact and general readiness, to the great delight of
their Majesties and Royal Highnesses, who vouchsafed, all the time
of exercise, to grace the arms with their presence. The other two
battalions of the Royal Regiment[67] had not fallen short of the like
performance, if illness of weather, when they just intended it, had not
prevented: the day proving wet and showery was a general impediment
from proceeding at that time to any other motions customary upon the
like reviews; and all decamped sooner than otherwise they would have
done." In the Army List, published by Nathan Brooks, in October,
1684, the ROYAL, or DUMBARTON'S Regiment, is stated to "consist of
twenty-one companies, two lieutenants to each company, three serjeants,
three corporals, and two drums, established; distinguished by red coats
lined with white; sashes white, with a white fringe; breeches and
stockings light grey; grenadiers distinguished by caps lined white, the
lion's face, proper, crowned; flys St. Andrew's cross, with thistle and
crown, circumscribed in the centre, '_Nemo me impunè lacessit_.'"

[Sidenote: 1685]

After the review, the regiment was stationed in extensive cantonments
in the county of Kent, where it remained until the death of King
Charles II., on the 6th February, 1685, when it was suddenly ordered to
march into quarters in London and the adjacent villages.[68] Although
King James II. was known to be a papist, yet no opposition was made to
his accession to the throne; and in March four companies proceeded to
Yarmouth, and four to Rochester, leaving thirteen companies in quarters
in the metropolis.

The tranquillity of the kingdom was, however, suddenly disturbed
in June, 1685, by the rebellion of James, Duke of Monmouth, who
appeared on the western coast with a band of followers, and asserted
his pretensions to the throne, when orders were issued for the ROYAL
Regiment to be augmented to one hundred men per company, and five
companies were sent from London to Portsmouth, to increase the strength
of that garrison.

Shortly afterwards, Brigadier-General Lord Churchill (afterwards the
Great Duke of Marlborough) was sent to the west of England with a
body of troops to oppose the rebels; and another division of the army
followed under the direction of Lieut.-General the Earl of Feversham,
who was appointed to the command of the royal forces. At the same
time five companies of the ROYAL Regiment of foot, under the orders
of Lieutenant-Colonel Archibald Douglas, and a troop of the Royal
Horse Guards, commanded by Sir Francis Compton, were sent from London
with the train of artillery to be employed on this service. The four
companies of the ROYAL Regiment at Yarmouth were at the same time
ordered to march to London; so that during Monmouth's rebellion the
regiment was employed as follows:--Five companies with the army; five
in garrison at Portsmouth; seven attending the court in London; and
four at Rochester.[69]

The five companies of the ROYAL Regiment, under the orders of
Lieut.-Colonel Douglas, with nine field-pieces,[70] having joined
the army under the Earl of Feversham, the rebels found it necessary
to move to Bridgewater. The King's forces advanced to the village of
Weston, where they arrived on the 5th of July, and the cavalry having
been quartered in the village, the infantry encamped on _Sedgemoor_.
The ROYALS, being formed in one small battalion, took the right of
the line, and were posted behind a deep ditch; a squadron of horse
and fifty dragoons were sent forward as an advanced guard, and one
hundred of the ROYALS were kept under arms in readiness to support
the cavalry out-guards. During the night the rebels marched out of
Bridgewater, with the design of surprising the King's forces; but the
guard having given an alarm, the five companies of the ROYAL Regiment
were formed in order of battle in a few moments, and opening their
fire upon the advancing rebels with good effect, held them in check,
and gave time to the other battalions to form, and for the cavalry
to draw out of the village.[71] The rebel cavalry, under Lord Grey,
first attempted to charge the ROYALS, but being unable to cross the
ditch, they were driven back by the steady fire of the veteran Scots.
The rebel infantry, headed by the Duke of Monmouth, directing their
march by the fire, first attacked the ROYALS, and extending along the
moor, a sharp combat of musketry ensued in the dark. The rebel foot,
consisting principally of miners, fought with desperation; but their
cavalry was soon chased out of the field by the King's horsemen; and
when daylight appeared, the Life Guards, Royal Horse Guards, and Royal
Dragoons, charged the right flank of the rebel infantry, and put
Monmouth's untrained battalions into disorder. A complete rout ensued;
the insurgents fled from the moor; and numbers were slain and made
prisoners in the adjoining fields. The companies of the ROYAL Regiment
were foremost in the pursuit, and captured the Duke of Monmouth's
standard with his motto in gold letters,--"_Fear none But God._"[72]

The Duke of Monmouth was taken prisoner soon afterwards, and was
beheaded on the 15th of July on Tower-Hill, London.

Thus the rebellion was suppressed; and the sum of 397_l._ was paid
to the officers and soldiers of the ROYAL Regiment of foot who were
wounded in this service, as is set forth in the following warrant,
copied from the public accounts of that period:--


"WHEREAS by the establishment of our forces, we have been graciously
pleased to direct that an allowance be made to such officers and
soldiers as should be wounded or hurt in our service; our will and
pleasure is, that out of such monies as are or shall come to your hands
for the contingent use of our guards, &c., you cause the sums following
to be paid to the officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers, of
our ROYAL Regiment of Foot, hereunder mentioned, viz.:--

                          £.  _s._  _d._
  Capt. Jas. Moncrief     40    0     0
  Lieut. Jno. Stirling    20    0     0
    "    Rob. Dury        20    0     0
    "    Thos. Bruce      20    0     0
    "    Jno. Livingston  35    0     0
    "    Jno. M'Kullock   25    0     0
     "   Jas. Law.        15    0     0
                        £175    0     0

  Murdo Mackenzie          8    0     0
  John Henderson           2    0     0
  James Ferchardson        2    0     0
  Will. Conn               8    0     0

  Andrew Kennedy           8    0     0
  Andrew Duncomb           4    0     0

  William Murray           5    0     0

  Thomas Powell            4    0     0
  John Mackintosh          4    0     0
  David Campbell           3    0     0
  David M'Cloud            4    0     0
  Allan M'Cullough         3    0     0
  Edwd. Correll, jun.      8    0     0
  Duncomb Grant            4    0     0
  John Mackenzie, jun.     2    0     0
  Alex. Mackintosh         2    0     0
  Alex. M'Dowgall          4    0     0
  John Pendrick            3    0     0
  John Brown               4    0     0
  John Shepheard           2    0     0
  John Chambers            7    0     0
  James Hall               7    0     0
  Thomas Shepheard         2    0     0
  John Lowry               2    0     0
  David Jekenbur           4    0     0
  John Richy               3    0     0
  James Ratt               2    0     0
  James Cormagh            2    0     0
  Thomas Gouthar           2    0     0
  James Johnston           3    0     0
  John Adams, jun.         8    0     0
  James Johnston.          2    0     0
  John Mackiver            4    0     0
  James Mosey              5    0     0
  John Gorden              4    0     0
  James Factor             5    0     0
  Thomas Baker             2    0     0
  James Contie             3    0     0
  Robert Miller            4    0     0
  Dunie Ferguson           2    0     0
  Dune Mackenzie           2    0     0
  John Young               4    0     0
  Nicholas Farland         3    0     0
  John Clark               2    0     0
  Alex. Wilson             2    0     0
  Andrew Singleton         2    0     0
  William Symins           2    0     0
  George Robinson          4    0     0
  David Arrott             4    0     0
  Thomas Mackgowne         2    0     0
  John M'Garth             2    0     0
  John Mackenzie           3    0     0
  John Burne               3    0     0
  Jno. Robinson            2    0     0
  Jas. Ramskin             3    0     0
  Will. Lowder             3    0     0
  John Davison             2    0     0
  Charles Johnson          3    0     0
  Charles Gelly            3    0     0
  Willm. Bayon             2    0     0
  James Watson             2    0     0
  Charles Jolley           5    0     0
  Peter Constable          5    0     0
                         222    0     0
               Officers  175    0     0
                        £397    0     0

"Which sums, amounting to three hundred and ninety-seven pounds, are to
be paid to the said persons, in satisfaction for their wounds received
in our service during the late rebellion; provided none of them be
already admitted to the allowance appointed for our Royal Hospital,
near Chelsea. And for so doing, this, together with the acquittances of
the said persons, or their assigns, shall be your discharge.

"Given at our Court at Whitehall this 16th day of May, 1686.

"By his Majesty's command,


  "_To our trusty and well-beloved Cousin and Councillor Richard,
  Earl of Ranelagh, our Paymaster-General, &c. &c. &c._"

The following men of the ROYAL Regiment, who were admitted into the
Royal Hospital at Chelsea, received the sums set down against their

                         £.  _s._  _d._
  J. Batchelor, 10 marks  6   13     4
  Martin Bryer            6   13     4
  Jas. Bennerman          6   13     4
  John Dannine            6   13     4
  Arch. Eastwood          6   13     4
  John Murray             6   13     4
  Angus Macleod           6   13     4
  Arch. Nicholson         6   13     4
  Thomas Jarvis           6   13     4
  Robert Thomas           6   13     4
  John Harris             6   13     4
  Godfrey Twiddy          6   13     4

Serjeant Weems of the ROYAL Regiment particularly distinguished
himself; and a warrant of James II. directs that he should be paid
"Forty pounds for good service in the action at Sedgemoor, in firing
the great guns against the rebels."

A few days after the battle, the establishment of the ROYAL Regiment
was reduced from 100 to 50 private men per company; and in August
eleven companies were encamped on Hounslow Heath, where they were
reviewed by the King. In September, thirteen companies marched to
Winchester, to attend the court at that city; and the regiment passed
the winter at Portsmouth and Exeter, with one company detached to Lynn.

[Sidenote: 1686]

At this period the establishment of the regiment consisted
of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 18 captains, 1
captain-lieutenant, 41 lieutenants, 21 ensigns, 1 adjutant, 1 chaplain,
1 quarter-master and marshal, 1 chirurgeon, 1 chirurgeon's mate, 1
drum-major, 1 piper, 42 drummers, 63 serjeants, 63 corporals, and
1050 private soldiers. The privilege of having two lieutenants and
three serjeants to each company appears to have been peculiar to this
regiment; and a warrant of King James II., dated the 1st of January,
1686, directs that "As any of the lieutenants of the ROYAL Regiment
shall die, or be displaced, their number be reduced to one lieutenant
only in each company of this regiment; and that as the serjeants shall
die, or be displaced, they be in the same manner reduced to two in each

On the 1st of March, 1686, a second adjutant and a second surgeon's
mate were added to the establishment, and the regiment was again
divided into two battalions; the first battalion consisting of eleven,
and the second of ten companies; and in April the second battalion
embarked at Gravesend for Scotland. At the same time the whole of the
first battalion was placed in garrison at Portsmouth, from whence it
marched in June following to the vicinity of Hounslow, and on the
24th of that month erected its tents on the heath, where about twelve
thousand men were encamped, under the orders of Lieut.-Generals the
Earls of Feversham and Dumbarton, and were frequently exercised in
presence of the royal family. In July, four companies marched from
Hounslow Heath, and encamped near Tunbridge Wells, to attend the
Princess Anne (afterwards Queen Anne) during her residence at that
place; and in August the battalion struck its tents, and marched to
Yarmouth and Bungay, with a detachment at Landguard-Fort, where it
passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1687]

From these quarters the first battalion was removed in the spring
of 1637 to the vicinity of London, where it halted a few days, and
afterwards proceeded to Portsmouth, and passed the summer months in
that garrison. In the autumn it marched into Yorkshire; and the men
were employed dining the winter in working on the fortifications at

[Sidenote: 1688]

In April, 1688, the first battalion was recalled from Yorkshire, and
was stationed at Greenwich, Woolwich, and Deptford, until the 26th of
June, when it encamped on Hounslow Heath.

In the meantime the second battalion had marched from Scotland to
York. In August it proceeded to Hertford and Ware; and in September
to Gravesend, where the first battalion had previously arrived from
Hounslow Heath; and the two battalions being again united, occupied
Gravesend, Tilbury-Fort, Sheerness, and other places along the banks of
the Thames and the coast of Kent.

At this period the nation was violently agitated by political events.
The King, being a roman catholic, and being guided by jesuitical
councils, and countenanced and encouraged by a few families of the same
persuasion, was attempting to effect the subversion of the established
religion and laws. At the same time many noblemen and gentlemen who
felt the greatest concern for the welfare of their country had invited
the Prince of Orange to come to England with a Dutch army to aid them
in resisting the proceedings of the court. Thus the kingdom was divided
against itself, and men were looking forward, with a mixed feeling
of hope, terror, and consternation, to the great convulsion which
threatened the State. The King made preparations to avert the danger,
and augmented his army, when the ROYAL Regiment was increased to 26
companies, and the total strength to 1858 officers and soldiers, each
battalion having now a grenadier company.

In the early part of November, the Dutch fleet having sailed past
Dover, the ROYAL Regiment was ordered to the west; and when the Prince
of Orange had landed at Torbay and advanced to Exeter, it proceeded to
Warminster, which was the most advanced post of the royal army. The
head-quarters were at Salisbury, and King James reviewed his army on
Salisbury Plain on the 21st of November. But his Majesty found that
his conduct had alienated the affections not only of his subjects in
general, but of the officers and soldiers of his army, many of whom
forsook his camp and joined the Prince of Orange. Yet, while many of
the nobility and gentry, with officers and soldiers from almost every
regiment in the army, were quitting the King's standard daily, the
ROYAL Regiment of Foot was an exception; it preserved its ranks entire,
and stood with an unshaken loyalty amidst the general defection which
prevailed in the kingdom.

When the King ordered his forces to retire towards London, the ROYAL
Regiment marched, first to Devizes, and afterwards to Windsor, where
it arrived on the 29th of November. The desertions continuing, the
King sent orders to Lieut.-General the Earl of Feversham to make no
further resistance to the Prince of Orange, and his Majesty afterwards
attempted to effect his escape to France. These orders produced
much confusion. Several corps were disbanded; and the men spreading
themselves in parties over the country, committed many disorders. The
ROYAL Regiment, however, appears to have been equally conspicuous for
good order as for loyalty, and continued at its post of duty until
directed by the Prince of Orange to march to Oxford.

Although the King failed in his first attempt to escape to France,
yet he afterwards succeeded, and having been followed by the Earl of
Dumbarton, the Colonel of the ROYAL Regiment, the Prince of Orange
conferred the Colonelcy on one of his most distinguished officers,
Marshal Frederick De Schomberg, afterwards Duke Schomberg.

[Sidenote: 1689]

After these events had transpired, a convention was assembled, which
declared the throne abdicated and vacant, and conferred the sovereignty
on William and Mary, Prince and Princess of Orange. Many of the
officers and men of the ROYAL Regiment were, however, not satisfied
with the new arrangements. Their regiment had been King James's
favourite corps, on account of its antiquity, valour, and good conduct,
and its having served with his Majesty in France, when he was an exile.
Having preserved their loyalty to the last, the officers and men did
not expect much favour from the new king. At the same time they were
not pleased that a foreigner, Marshal Schomberg, though an officer
of distinguished merit, should be placed at the head of a national
Scots corps. While these feelings were prevalent in the breasts of
the officers and men, the regiment received orders to embark for the
Netherlands to replace the Dutch troops which were in England. This
order was considered premature: the national assembly in Scotland had
not declared for King William, and the Scots officers and soldiers did
not consider themselves bound to obey the commands of a king who had
not been acknowledged in Scotland. Under this impression a number of
officers and men mutinied, and, seizing the money appointed for their
pay, marched with four pieces of cannon towards Scotland. At the same
time the Royal Regiment of Scots Horse, commanded by Major-General
Viscount Dundee, deserted from its quarters at Abingdon, and proceeded
in the same direction.[74] The King sent Major-General Sir John Lanier
with his own (now the First Dragoon Guards), and Colonel Langston's
regiment of horse, and Lieut.-General De Ginkell (afterwards Earl of
Athlone) with three regiments of Dutch dragoons, in pursuit of the
mutineers; and these troops having overtaken the men of the ROYAL
Regiment in Lincolnshire, about twenty officers and five hundred men,
who had previously become convinced of their error, laid down their
arms and submitted themselves to the King's clemency. King William
III. is reported to have repeatedly expressed his admiration of the
firm loyalty and attachment evinced by the officers and soldiers of
the ROYAL Regiment to their former sovereign, when he was forsaken by
almost every other person; and the King, after dismissing three or four
officers, pardoned the remainder of the regiment, and ordered the first
battalion to be completed to its establishment from the second, and to
proceed to its original destination.

The second battalion of the ROYAL Regiment having transferred its
serviceable men to the first, proceeded to Scotland; and the first
battalion embarked for the Netherlands, where it arrived in the
beginning of May, 1689, and joined the Dutch camp at Tongres in the
early part of June. The British troops were commanded by the Earl of
Marlborough,[75] and the combined army by Prince Waldeck. The ROYALS
were employed in several operations; and on the 25th of August they
took part in a sharp action with the French troops commanded by
Marshal d'Humieres, at _Walcourt_, in the province of Namur. The enemy
attacked a foraging-party, and this brought on a sharp action, in which
the British infantry evinced firmness and intrepidity, particularly
a detachment under Colonel Robert Hodges;[76] and the French were
repulsed with considerable loss.

[Sidenote: 1690]

During the winter, the second battalion of the ROYAL

Regiment, having recruited its ranks, was sent from Scotland to
Holland; and in the summer of 1690 both battalions took the field. On
the 21st of June, the regiment was on its march to Brussels; but Prince
Waldeck, without waiting for the arrival of the British troops, engaged
the French at Fleurus, and was defeated. This disaster reduced the
combined army to the necessity of limiting its operations, and acting
on the defensive during the remainder of the campaign.

[Sidenote: 1691]

On the 1st of July, 1690, Marshal Duke Schomberg was killed at the
battle of the Boyne in Ireland; and the Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment
remained vacant until the 5th of March, 1691, when it was conferred by
King William III. on Lieut.-Colonel Sir Robert Douglas.

The regiment having been withdrawn from its winter quarters in the
month of March, 1691, was encamped at Halle, in South Brabant, where
the first battalion was formed in brigade with the Scots Foot Guards,
and the regiments of Ramsay, Angus, Mackay, and Hodges; and the second
battalion was posted, with O'Ffarrel's regiment, between two divisions
of Dutch infantry.[77] The French besieged Mons, and the confederates
being unable to relieve the place, the garrison surrendered on the 31st
of March, when the French troops went into quarters.

After the surrender of Mons, the ROYAL Regiment was sent into garrison,
from whence it was withdrawn in May, and was encamped near Brussels,
and both battalions were formed in one brigade with the Scots regiments
of Mackay, Ramsay, O'Ffarrel, and Angus, under the orders of
Brigadier-General Ramsay. The summer was passed by the opposing armies
in manœuvring on the rich plains of the Netherlands; and in October the
troops marched into quarters for the winter.

[Sidenote: 1692]

In the spring of 1692, Louis XIV. marched into the Netherlands with an
immense army and besieged Namur, when the ROYAL Regiment was called
from its cantonments, and advanced with the army, commanded by King
William III. in person, to the relief of the place; but the march
having been delayed by heavy rains, the garrison surrendered on the
20th of June. On the 23rd of that month, Colonel Sir Robert Douglas,
with 2 captains, 2 lieutenants, 2 ensigns, and 120 private men, of
the ROYAL Regiment, was detached, with other troops, to attempt the
surprise of Mons. After marching all night, the detachment arrived
about one o'clock on the following morning within a short distance of
the town, when the troops were ordered to halt, and Sir Robert Douglas
and Colonel O'Ffarrel, having proceeded to consult with the Prince of
Wirtemberg, who commanded the party, mistook their way in the dark, and
fell into the hands of a detachment of French cavalry, and were made
prisoners. The enemy being found prepared to resist, the detachment
returned to the camp at Mellé, and Sir Robert Douglas was released on
payment of the regulated ransom, and rejoined the regiment on the 29th
of June.

After several changes of position, King William resolved to attack
the French army commanded by Marshal Luxembourg, at its camp, near
_Steenkirk_. On the evening of the 23rd of July (O.S.), the first
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment, commanded by Sir Robert Douglas,
the second battalion of the 1st Foot Guards, with the regiments of
Fitzpatrick and O'Ffarrel, and two battalions of Danes, were ordered
forward to commence the attack on the French army, and were accompanied
by a detachment from each battalion of Brigadier-General Churchill's
brigade, with hatchets and spades to make a passage through the woody
grounds between the two armies. Between ten and eleven o'clock on the
following morning these troops arrived in front of the French camp,
and took post in a thick wood, beyond which there was a small valley
intersected with hedges lined with French infantry, and on the opposite
side of the valley appeared the French camp. About eleven o'clock two
batteries opened their fire upon the enemy; and when the main body of
the army had arrived within a mile of the wood, the leading regiments
issued from amongst the trees and commenced the attack. "Certainly
never was a more dreadful and at the same time bolder firing heard,
which for the space of two hours seemed to be a continued thunder. Our
van-guard behaved in this engagement to such wonder and admiration,
that though they received the charge of several battalions of the
enemy, one after another, yet they made them retreat almost to their
very camp."[78] Amongst the foremost in this action was seen the
brave Sir Robert Douglas at the head of the first battalion of the
ROYAL Regiment, emulating the noblest actions recorded in the annals
of war. Having led his battalion against the troops behind the first
hedge, he soon cleared it of French combatants, and drove one of the
enemy's battalions from the field in confusion. A second hedge was
attacked and carried by the gallant Scots in a few moments:--a third
was assaulted,--the French stood their ground,--the combatants fought
muzzle to muzzle,--and again the ROYALS proved victorious, and the
third hedge was won. The toil of conflict did not cool the ardour of
the veteran Scots; but forward they rushed with a loud huzza, and
attacked the troops which lined the fourth hedge. Here the fighting was
severe; but eventually the ROYALS overthrew a fourth French battalion,
and drove a crowd of combatants from their cannon.[79] In this conflict
the first battalion lost one of its three colours. Sir Robert Douglas,
seeing the colour on the other side of the hedge, leaped through a gap,
slew the French officer who bore the colour, and cast it over the hedge
to his own men; but this act of gallantry cost him his life, a French
marksman having shot him dead on the spot while in the act of repassing
the hedge. "Thus the Scots commander improved upon the Roman general;
for the brave Posthumius cast his standard in the middle of the enemy
for his soldiers to retrieve; but Douglas retrieved his from the middle
of the enemy, without any assistance, and cast it back to his soldiers
to retain."[80] While the leading regiments were thus carrying all
before them, the main body of the army was a mile in the rear, and
could not be brought up in time to sustain the corps in advance: the
ROYALS and other regiments of the advance-guard, after displaying a
degree of constancy and valour seldom equalled, were forced to retire;
and eventually the army retreated to its camp.

[Illustration: Sir Robert Douglas of Glenbervie, Colonel of the Royal
Regiment of Foot, killed at the Battle of Steenkirk, July 24th, 1692.

                                                     [To face page 83.]

The loss of the regiment in this action has not been ascertained.
Mention has, however, been made in history of two Captains, viz.
Mackraken and Levingston, of the ROYAL Regiment, who were killed;
and from the returns published at the time, the brigade to which the
regiment belonged lost 6 field officers, 14 captains, 24 subalterns,
and 507 men killed; and 6 field officers, 20 captains, 32 subalterns,
and 608 men wounded[81]; and doubtless a number of these belonged to
the ROYAL Regiment.

A few days after the battle, King William conferred the Colonelcy
on Lord George Hamilton (afterwards Earl of Orkney) from the Royal
Regiment of Fusiliers.

On the 2nd of August, a detachment of the ROYAL Regiment, commanded by
Captain Rowland Mackenzie, was engaged with a party of French troopers
in a wood near the camp, and took twenty prisoners.[82] Towards the end
of September the regiment marched from the camp to Bruges, from whence
parties were detached to Scotland to procure recruits.

[Sidenote: 1693]

Having passed the winter at Bruges, where the losses of the preceding
campaign were replaced by recruits from Scotland, the regiment marched
out of its quarters towards the end of April, 1693, and pitched its
tents on the levels near the town, from whence it proceeded to the
villages near Brussels, where it arrived on the 13th of May. On the
17th, it marched out of its village cantonments and joined the camp at
Dieghem, from whence it subsequently marched to Parck camp in front of
Louvaine, and had its post on the heights near Birbeck. Here it was
stationed until the early part of July, when the army advanced, and,
after several marches, the regiment was in position on the 18th of
July, near the village of Neer-Winden, in South Brabant. The first
battalion had its post in the village of _Neer-Landen_, near the left
of the line, and its grenadier company occupied a strong building at
the head of the village. The second battalion was stationed on the
right of the village, where a slight entrenchment was made during the

On the morning of the 19th of July, when the first rays of light
appeared, a French army, commanded by Marshal Luxembourg, of nearly
double the numbers of the confederates under King William, was
discovered in order of battle within cannon-shot of the position.
The batteries instantly opened their fire, and, about eight o'clock,
six French brigades attacked the post at Laér and Neer-Winden, but
were repulsed. The enemy next attacked the village of Neer-Landen
with four brigades,[83] and the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment
stood its ground manfully. The French came rushing to the attack with
great fury, but the head of their column was pierced by a shower of
musket balls, and the killed and wounded crowded the street, while the
grenadiers of the ROYAL Regiment threw their grenades, with unerring
aim, from the windows of the house they occupied. The French, however,
pressed forward, and the battalion, being unable to resist the host
of combatants which assailed it, was forced to retire; at the same
time the house occupied by the grenadiers was set on fire. At this
moment the Queen Dowager's Regiment (now 2nd Foot, or Queen's Royal)
advanced to the assistance of the ROYALS, and the two battalions
renewed the fight with great bravery. Prince Frederick's and Fagel's
Dutch regiments also advanced to support the two British battalions; at
the same time King William came galloping to that part of the field,
and his presence inspired the combatants with new ardour. The French
disputed the ground for some time, but after a fierce conflict of
about two hours' duration, they gave way, and were driven through the
defile into the plain; and the ROYAL and Queen Dowager's battalions,
which had fought together at Tangier in Africa, stood triumphant at the
end of the village, and were thanked for their gallantry by the King.
Notwithstanding this success, the fortune of the day turned eventually
in favour of the French, who carried the village of Neer-Winden, and
broke into the King's camp, when their superiority of numbers gave them
a decided advantage. The ROYALS were withdrawn from their post; and the
King ordered a retreat, which was effected with difficulty, and was
attended with great loss. The loss of the enemy was, however, so great,
that he derived little advantage from this victory, excepting the power
of besieging Charleroi, which was taken in the autumn. The loss of the
ROYAL Regiment does not appear to have been great; the only officers
of this corps mentioned by D'Auvergne amongst the killed and wounded
are--Captain Young died of his wounds, with Captain Sir James Cockburn,
Lieutenants Brown and Blake, and Ensign White wounded. In October the
regiment marched to Bruges, and parties were again sent to Scotland to
procure recruits to replace the loss sustained during this campaign.

[Sidenote: 1694]

On the 18th of May, 1694, the first battalion marched out of its winter
quarters, and on the following day encamped near Ghent; and, resuming
its march on the 21st, proceeded to the general rendezvous of the army
near Louvaine, where it arrived on the 28th of that month.

Meanwhile, the second battalion remained in garrison at Bruges, and in
June it marched out of the town and encamped along the banks of the
canal towards Ghent, where a small army of observation was assembled
under the orders of the Spanish general, Count de Merode Thian.

The first battalion marched with the army commanded by King William in
person, from the vicinity of Louvaine, on the 13th of July, and was
afterwards encamped at Mont St. André. In the middle of August the King
attempted by a forced march to cross the enemy's lines and penetrate
into French Flanders; but the French, by extraordinary exertions,
gained the pass first, and thus preserved their country from an

Towards the end of August the second battalion quitted its post on the
Bruges Canal, and joined the first battalion at the camp at Rousselaér;
and both battalions formed part of the covering army during the period
the Prussians and Dutch were engaged in the siege of Huy, and the men,
having to remain in the fields in wet weather, erected huts of wood and
straw. Huy surrendered on the 17th of September, and in October the
ROYAL Regiment returned to its former station at Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1695]

Having passed the winter and spring in convenient quarters, the ROYAL
Regiment again took the field on the 26th of May, 1695; and on the 21st
of June the first battalion, commanded by Colonel Lord George Hamilton,
was detached to engage in the siege of the strong fortress of _Namur_;
at the same time, the second battalion remained with the covering army,
commanded by the Prince of Vaudemont, encamped near the river Lys.

Namur was, at this period, deemed almost impregnable, and the
garrison, consisting of twenty battalions of infantry, and twenty-four
squadrons of dragoons, was commanded by Marshal Boufflers, an officer
celebrated for bravery and perseverance; a vigorous defence was
consequently anticipated.

The first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was stationed for several
days at Templeux, a post about five miles from Namur, and on the 8th
of July it took its station in the lines of circumvallation, and was
ordered to take part in an assault upon the covered-way near the hill
of Bouge, on the same evening. The signal for the attack was given
about seven o'clock, when the Foot Guards advanced boldly up to the
enemy's palisades, and placed the muzzles of their muskets between
the staves, fired a volley which put the French into some confusion.
The palisades were afterwards broken, and the troops rushed forward
to attack the second covered-way. During the first attack the ROYALS
supported the Dutch Foot Guards, but when the first palisades were
broken down, the Scots rushed furiously forward with the Foot Guards,
the second covered-way was carried, the French were overpowered,
driven from their works, and chased amongst the batteries on the
brow of the hill, and many of them sought a refuge from the fury of
their assailants in the stone pits. The ROYALS gained great credit
for their conduct on this occasion; and had Captains Sanderson and
Dixon, Lieutenant Penefather, and Ensign Cockburn, killed; and Colonel
Lord George Hamilton, Captain Hamilton, and Ensigns Carre and Vernal,

On the 10th of July the battalion was on duty in the trenches, and as
it marched out on the following day Major Macilivan was killed by a
cannon-ball from the castle of Namur: on the same day its Colonel was
promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. The battalion was again
on duty in the trenches on the 13th of July; and on the evening of
the 17th it was engaged in storming the counterscarp. The attack was
commenced by the grenadiers, who rushed to the glacis, cast their
grenades over the palisades into the covered-way, and, following up
this attack with spirit, the troops carried the counterscarp in gallant

An assault was made on the 23rd of July, on the covered-way and
traverses between the bastion of St. Roche and the Porte de Fer, and
the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment formed part of the storming
party. The attack was made a little before sunset, and, after a sharp
contest, a lodgment was effected. The only loss sustained by the
battalion in this service appears to have been Lieutenant Archibald
Hamilton and a few private men wounded. The Dutch and Brandenburgers
were also successful at their points of attack, and on the 24th of
July, when preparations were making for another assault, the garrison
hoisted a white flag, and agreed to surrender the town, which was
delivered up on the following day, when the garrison retired into the
castle, where they resolved to defend themselves to the last extremity.

After the surrender of the town of Namur the first battalion of the
ROYAL Regiment marched from the lines of circumvallation to Genappe,
where a small force was assembled under the Earl of Athlone to
co-operate with the covering army; Captain Burgh and Lieutenant Wallis
of the ROYALS, however, remained with the forces engaged in the siege
of the castle, in the capacity of engineers. From Genappe the first
battalion marched to the village of Waterloo, and there pitched its
tents. Meanwhile, the second battalion had been engaged in several
movements for the preservation of Ghent, Bruges, and the maritime
towns of Flanders, and was, at this period, encamped near Brussels.
The confederate army being thus divided, part carrying on the siege
of the castle of Namur, and the remainder stationed in various places
in the Netherlands, the French commander, Marshal Villeroy, having
assembled an immense army, advanced to Brussels and bombarded the city;
he afterwards marched towards Namur, with the design of raising the
siege of the castle; when both battalions of the ROYAL Regiment, with
the remainder of the covering army, proceeded to the vicinity of Namur,
and took up a position to cover the siege. This position the French
commander did not venture to attack, and the siege of the castle was
prosecuted with vigour. On the 20th of August, the grenadier companies
of the ROYAL Regiment quitted the covering army to take part in an
assault upon the castle, and were engaged in storming the counterscarp
and breach of the Terra Nova, under the orders of Lord Cutts. This
proved a severe and sanguinary service; the assailants and defenders
fought with distinguished bravery, and, although the castle was not
carried, yet several lodgments were effected. The ROYALS had Lieutenant
William Hamilton and several men killed, and others wounded; Lieutenant
Archibald Hamilton, who was wounded in the third attack on the town,
was again wounded on this occasion. Preparations were afterwards made
for a second assault, when the garrison surrendered, and marched
out on the 26th of August (O.S.) Thus this important conquest was
effected, and the military reputation of King William was elevated; at
the same time, new lustre was reflected on the confederate arms. The
summer having been spent in making this capture, after the works were
repaired, the ROYALS marched back to Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1696]

In this city they passed the winter, and the losses of the preceding
campaign were replaced. On the 9th of May, 1696, they marched out of
Bruges, and pitched their tents along the banks of the canal towards
Ghent; and having received their new clothing from England a few days
before, they were reviewed, with several other corps, on the 16th of
May, by the Prince of Vaudemont, and on the 28th by King William, and
their appearance and discipline excited admiration.

The regiment passed this summer in camp along the banks of the Bruges
canal, having its post on the right of the bridge at Mary-Kirk; and
in the autumn it again proceeded into quarters at Bruges, where five
regiments of cavalry and eleven of infantry were stationed during the

[Sidenote: 1697]

In the spring of 1697, when the ROYAL Regiment took the field, four
companies were left in garrison at Bruges, where they remained during
the summer. The remainder of the regiment marched to Brussels in the
early part of March, and advanced from thence on the 12th of April
to Waterloo, where a camp was formed of four English and eight Dutch
battalions. The regiment was subsequently engaged in the several
operations of the main army under King William; during the latter part
of the month of May and the beginning of June it was encamped, with
the army, on the plain of Bois-Seigneur-Isaac, and was stationed in
front of the King's quarter; in the middle of June it marched to the
vicinity of Brussels, and was encamped before that city until the war
was terminated by the treaty of Ryswick, which was signed during the
night between the 10th and 11th of September, 1697.

[Sidenote: 1698]

[Sidenote: 1699]

After the conclusion of the peace of Ryswick the ROYAL Regiment
marched from Brussels to Ghent, and during the winter it embarked for
Ireland; at the same time a reduction of four companies was made in
the establishment. A further reduction was subsequently made, and in
a warrant under the sign manual, bearing date the 1st of May, 1699,
the numbers of the regiment are fixed at 22 companies of 3 officers, 2
serjeants, 2 corporals, 1 drummer, and 34 private men each.[84]

[Sidenote: 1700]

Events transpired in Europe at the close of the year 1700 which
occasioned the regiment to be again placed on a war establishment and
sent on foreign service.

These events were the decease of Charles II., King of Spain, on the
1st of November, 1700, without issue, and the accession of Philip Duke
of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. of France, to the throne of Spain, in
violation of existing treaties, and to the prejudice of the house of
Austria. Several European states being averse to the accession either
of an Austrian or Bourbon prince to the throne of the Spanish monarchy,
a partition had been contemplated; but the sudden acquisition of the
dominions of Spain by a grandson of the most potent and ambitious
monarch in Europe, with the prospect of France and Spain being
eventually united under one sovereign, rendered the partition-treaty
abortive, agitated the public mind, and produced a sensation of alarm
throughout the greater part of Christendom.

[Sidenote: 1701]

The interest of every state being affected by the change in the
dynasty of Spain, the standing armies were augmented, and, while
the din of hostile preparation was heard on every side, negotiations
were commenced with the view of preventing a war. The French monarch,
however, sent a body of troops to take possession of the Spanish
Netherlands, and detained 15,000 Dutch, who, in virtue of a convention
with Spain, formed the garrisons of the barrier towns. The loss of so
large a body of their best troops, with the advance of a French army
towards their frontiers, alarmed the States General of the United
Provinces, and King William sent thirteen British battalions to Holland
to assist the Dutch.

The ROYAL Regiment, having been augmented to 24 companies of 3
officers, 3 serjeants, 3 corporals, 2 drummers, and 59 private men
each, was one of the corps selected to proceed on foreign service;
it accordingly embarked at the Cove of Cork on the 15th of June,
1701, in two ships of war, and sailing on the following day, arrived
at Helvoetsluys, on the island of Voorn, in South Holland, on the
8th of July. Here the English troops were removed from the ships of
war on board of Dutch vessels, and sailed up the river Maese to the
several garrisons of Breda, Gertruydenberg, Huesden, Worcum, Gorcum,
and Borsch. From these stations they were recalled in the middle of
September to the vicinity of Breda, and encamped on Breda Heath, where
they were reviewed on the 21st of that month by King William, and
afterwards returned to their former stations.[85]

Meanwhile the death of King James II. had occurred at St. Germain in
France, and Louis XIV. caused the Pretender to be proclaimed King of
England, Scotland, and Ireland. This indignity offered to the British
sovereign and nation aroused the indignation of the people; the army
was again augmented, and in the following spring additional forces were
sent to Holland.

[Sidenote: 1702]

The ROYAL Regiment, having passed the winter amongst the Dutch, quitted
its cantonments on the 10th of March, and proceeded to Rosendael,
where the British infantry assembled and encamped under the orders
of Brigadier-General Ingoldsby. Here the troops received information
of the death of King William III. on the 8th of March, and of the
accession of Queen Anne. They also learnt that Her Majesty was resolved
to prosecute the war with vigour, and the officers and soldiers took
the oath of allegiance to the Queen.

In the middle of April a strong fortress on the Lower Rhine called
_Kayserswerth_, which was occupied by the French, was besieged by the
Germans, and a few days afterwards the ROYAL and other British corps
quitting their camp at Rosendael, marched across the country to the
Duchy of Cleves, where they joined a body of Dutch and Germans under
the Earl of Athlone, and encamped at Cranenburg on the Lower Rhine to
cover the siege. While the ROYAL Regiment lay with the army at this
camp, a French force of superior numbers, commanded by the Duke of
Burgundy and Marshal Boufflers, traversed the forest of Cleves, and
advanced through the plains of Goch to cut off the communication of the
allied army with Grave and Nimeguen. In consequence of this movement,
the allied army struck its tents a little before sunset on the 10th of
June, and having continued its retreat throughout the night, arrived
about eight o'clock on the following morning within a few miles of
_Nimeguen_, at the same time the French columns appeared on both flanks
and in the rear, marching with all possible expedition to surround the
allies. Some sharp skirmishing occurred; the ROYALS, Foot Guards, and
other British corps forming the rear guard, behaved with distinguished
gallantry, and having taken possession of some hedges and buildings,
held the enemy in check while the army effected its retreat under the
works of Nimeguen: in three days afterwards Kayserswerth surrendered.

In the meantime additional forces had arrived from England, and the
Earl of Marlborough assumed the command of the British, Dutch, and
auxiliary troops. The French had, at this period, overrun the Duchy of
Cleves, and were menacing the frontiers of Holland; but when the Earl
of Marlborough had assembled the troops of the several nations, he
advanced against the enemy, and by skilful movements forced the French
commanders to retire. The ROYALS formed part of the force under the
Earl of Marlborough, and were engaged in several movements designed to
bring on a general action, which the enemy avoided. In September the
regiment was encamped a few miles from Maestricht, and formed part of
the covering army during the siege of _Venloo_, a town in the province
of Limburg, on the east side of the river Maese, which surrendered
on the 25th of September. In a few days after the capture of this
place, the siege of _Ruremonde_ was undertaken; at the same time one
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment, commanded by Brigadier-General the
Earl of Orkney, was detached, with other troops, from the main army
near Maestricht to besiege _Stevenswart_, or Fort St. Etienne, situated
on a small island in the river Maese, nineteen miles from Maestricht.
Two batteries opened a sharp fire against the fort in the beginning of
October, and at day-break on the morning of the third of that month the
troops reared their ladders against the walls and began to ascend to
attack the place sword in hand, when the garrison beat a parley and
surrendered. The battalion of the ROYAL Regiment rejoined the army on
the 6th of October, and Ruremonde surrendered on the same day. On the
tenth, at one o'clock in the morning, the main army struck its tents
and advanced in two columns towards the city of _Liege_, and at four
in the afternoon encamped near the works. The French set the suburb
of St. Walburgh on fire, and retired into the citadel and Chartreuse,
when the magistrates delivered up the city, and the army commenced the
siege of the citadel, which was taken by storm on the 23rd of October;
the British grenadiers and fusiliers engaged in the assault highly
distinguished themselves, and had 154 officers and soldiers killed,
and 380 wounded. The Chartreuse surrendered a few days afterwards; and
these conquests terminated the campaign. The British troops quitted
the pleasant valley of Liege on the 3rd of November, and marched to
Tongres, where they halted one day, and afterwards continued their
route to Holland; the ROYAL Regiment proceeded to Breda, in which city
it appears to have passed the winter in garrison, together with a
battalion of Foot Guards and two or three other corps.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Leaving these quarters towards the end of April, 1703, the ROYAL
Regiment traversed the country to the vicinity of Maestricht. Meanwhile
the Dutch and Germans were besieging Bonn, a strong town on the Rhine;
and the French commanders, Marshal Villeroy and Boufflers, thinking
to take advantage of the dispersed state of the army, made a sudden
advance to surprise the troops in their quarters. The first attack
was made on two British regiments[86] at Tongres, a town surrounded
by a wall and defended by a few dilapidated towers; these regiments,
however, defended themselves upwards of twenty-four hours before they
surrendered. While the contest was in progress at Tongres, the ROYALS,
with a number of other corps, struck their tents, and proceeding to
Maestricht, formed in order of battle near the works; the French
commanders advanced and reconnoitred the position, and, after a sharp
cannonade, retreated to Tongres.

Bonn surrendered in the middle of May, and the army was afterwards
assembled in the vicinity of Maestricht, where the first battalion
of the ROYAL Regiment was formed in brigade with the battalion of
Foot Guards, and the regiments of Stewart, Howe, Ingoldsby, and
Marlborough,[87] under the orders of Brigadier-General Withers; and
the second battalion with the regiments of North and Grey, Derby,
Row, and Ferguson,[88] under the command of Brigadier-General the
Earl of Derby. On the 24th of May the army advanced towards Tongres,
when the French quitted their post and made a precipitate retreat,
and the confederates encamped at Thys. The army subsequently made
several movements for the purpose of bringing on a general engagement,
which the French avoided, and took post behind their fortified lines,
where the DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH was desirous of attacking them, but was
prevented by the Dutch generals and field deputies. In August the army
advanced to _Huy_, a strong fortress on the Maese above the city of
Liege, which was besieged and captured in ten days. Another proposal
to attack the French lines was declined by the Dutch; and the main
army afterwards advanced to St. Trond; at the same time a detachment
invested _Limburg_, a city of the Spanish Netherlands situated on a
pleasant eminence amongst the woods near the banks of the little river
Wesdet. The siege of this place was commenced on the 10th of September,
and on the 27th the governor, with a garrison of 1400 men, surrendered
at discretion. Thus Spanish Guelderland was delivered from the power
of France, and the Dutch were freed from the dread of an invasion. The
capture of Limburg was followed by the separation of the army for the
winter; the ROYAL Regiment struck its tents on the 10th of October, and
proceeded to the neighbourhood of Tongres, where it halted ten days,
and afterwards continued its march through the province of Limburg to

While the army, of which the ROYAL Regiment formed part, was engaged
in operations in the Netherlands, the Elector of Bavaria took arms
against the Emperor of Germany; and a French force commanded by Marshal
Villiers having traversed the Black Forest and joined the Bavarians,
the united armies were making considerable progress in the heart of
Germany. This event occasioned the ROYALS, with a great portion of the
English and Dutch forces under the Duke of Marlborough, to transfer
their services from the Low Countries to Germany, to arrest the
progress of the French and Bavarians.

[Sidenote: 1704]

Previous to quitting the Netherlands, the regiment sent a detachment of
six hundred men to Maestricht to garrison that city, while the Dutch
troops were working at the entrenchments on the heights of Petersberg.
In the early part of May, 1704, the remainder of the regiment marched
from its winter quarters towards the Rhine, and was joined at Bedburg
by the detachment from Maestricht. On the 19th of May the army directed
its march from Bedburg along the course of the Rhine towards the
Moselle, and traversed both rivers at Coblentz on the 25th and 26th of
that month; thence proceeding towards the Maine, arrived at the suburbs
of Mentz in the beginning of June; the cavalry being in advance with
the Duke of Marlborough, the infantry and artillery a few stages in
the rear under General Charles Churchill. From the Maine the infantry
directed its march through the Landgraviate of Hesse, towards the
Neckar, passed this river on the 15th of June, and proceeding in the
direction of the Danube, was soon afterwards at the seat of war in
Germany, and co-operating with the forces of the empire.

On the 2nd of July, at three o'clock in the morning, the army marched
in the direction of Donawerth, to attack a body of French and Bavarians
under the Count d'Arco, in an entrenched camp on the heights of
_Schellenberg_, on the left bank of the Danube. After traversing a
difficult tract of country, the troops crossed the river Wernitz and
arrived in front of the enemy's camp, and about six in the evening
the leading division, consisting of a detachment from each British
regiment, with the Foot Guards, ROYALS, and Ingoldsby's regiment
(23rd), commanded by Brigadier-General Fergusson, and a Dutch force
under General Goor, advanced under cover of a heavy cannonade, to
attack the enemy's entrenchments. When these brave troops arrived
within the range of the enemy's cannon they were assailed by a volley
of grape, which produced a dreadful carnage. General Goor and many
brave officers fell; Lieut.-Col. White of the ROYALS was severely
wounded; yet the assailants moved forward with a firm tread until they
arrived at a ravine which they were unable to pass, when they shrunk
back before the shower of bullets which assailed them. At this moment
the enemy issued from the entrenchments and charged the British and
Dutch with great fury, but were gallantly opposed by the English
Foot Guards. The ROYALS and Ingoldsby's regiment also confronted the
charging Bavarians with firmness, and the enemy was repulsed and driven
back into the entrenchments. A second attack was soon afterwards
made on the heights, and the ROYALS were again sharply engaged. The
French and Bavarians made a vigorous resistance, and sallying from the
trenches attacked the leading regiments of the allies; the British and
Dutch infantry being exhausted by a continued struggle up a rising
ground, and their ranks thinned by a destructive fire, once more shrunk
back; they were, however, supported by the cavalry under Lieut.-General
Lumley, and having rallied, they returned to the attack with great
resolution. This protracted contest shook the strength and weakened the
resistance of the enemy. The Imperialists, commanded by the Margrave of
Baden, arrived at the scene of conflict and attacked the enemy's left;
at the same time the British and Dutch made another furious attack.
Three field-officers of the ROYALS had already been carried from the
field wounded, yet the regiment was seen pressing upon the enemy,
and making a desperate effort to force the entrenchments; the Scots
Greys dismounted to join in the attack; and the French and Bavarians
were overpowered and driven from the heights with dreadful carnage.
The cavalry under General Lumley charged the fugitives, and completed
the overthrow of the enemy. Sixteen pieces of artillery, a number of
standards and colours, with the enemy's tents, and the equipage, and
the plate of Count d'Arco, fell into the hands of the confederates.

Thus the ROYALS were triumphant near the same ground where the
regiment, when forming part of the GREEN BRIGADE in the service of
Gustavus Adolphus, distinguished itself in March 1632.

The first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment had Captain Murray, Ensigns
M'Dugal and M'Ilroy, one serjeant, and 38 rank and file killed; and
Lieut.-Colonel White, Major Cockburn, Captains Hume, Irwin, and Brown;
Lieutenants Kid and Ballatine; Ensigns Stratton, Cunningham, and
Stewart; with 3 serjeants, and 103 rank and file, wounded.

The second battalion had Captain Baily and Lieutenant Levingston,
with 1 serjeant and 76 private men, killed; and Major Kerr, Captain
Carr, Lieutenants Pearson, Moore, Vernel, Hay, Dickson, and Hamilton,
Ensigns M'Queen, M'Onway, Moremere, Elliot, Inglis, and Moore, with 12
serjeants, and 184 rank and file, wounded.

The victory at Schellenberg was immediately followed by the flight of
the enemy from Donawerth, which place was taken possession of by the
allies. At the same time the ROYAL Regiment crossed the Danube, and
advancing into Bavaria, was engaged in operations with the army; while
the French and Bavarians, having made a hasty retreat to Augsburg,
formed an entrenched camp near that city. The enemy also abandoned
several small towns, which were taken possession of by the allies, and
Rayn was captured after a short siege. The army afterwards advanced
towards Augsburg, and halted a short time within sight of the enemy's
fortified camp. In the mean time each regiment sent out parties to
plunder the country. This occasioned the Elector of Bavaria to engage
in a treaty with the view of an accommodation; but he soon afterwards
received information that another reinforcement of French troops had
traversed the Black Forest, when he broke off the treaty, which so
incensed the Imperialists that they laid a great part of Bavaria in

The fortified camp at Augsburg being found too strong to be attacked
with any prospect of success, the troops retired a few stages, and the
siege of Ingoldstadt was undertaken by a detachment of Germans, at the
same time the ROYAL Regiment formed part of the covering army.

The Elector of Bavaria quitted his entrenched camp, and having formed
a junction with the reinforcements which Louis XIV. had sent to his
aid, the united armies encamped in the valley of the Danube, near the
village of _Blenheim_. At the same time the allied army, commanded by
the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy, had advanced to the
village of Minster, and was encamped with its left to the Danube.

At three o'clock on the morning of the eventful 13th of August, 1704,
the allies advanced to attack the French and Bavarians. About seven
the heads of columns arrived in presence of the enemy, and a pause
ensuing, the chaplains performed the usual service at the heads of
their respective regiments. About mid-day, a column, of which one
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment formed part, advanced under the
direction of Lieut.-General Lord Cutts and Major-General Wilks, to
attack the village of _Blenheim_, where the French commander, Marshal
Tallard, had posted a considerable number of troops, and entrenchments
and pallisades had been constructed. This column, consisting of the two
British brigades, commanded by Brigadier-Generals Row and Fergusson,
a brigade of Hessians, and a brigade of Hanoverians, proceeded to the
banks of the little river Nebel, and took possession of two water
mills, which the enemy evacuated, and set on fire. Thence advancing
towards the inclosures, the leading brigade received the fire of the
troops in Blenheim, and many officers and men fell; but the gallant Row
struck his sword in the enemy's pallisades before he gave the word
"fire." His brigade was, however, unable to force the entrenchments
against the superior numbers of the enemy; and while retiring it was
charged by the French cavalry, but the enemy was repulsed by the
Hessians. Soon afterwards, Fergusson's brigade and the Hanoverians
traversed the Nebel, near the lower water-mill, and attacked the front
of the village, but were repulsed three successive times; the firing
was, however, continued against Blenheim; and the remainder of the
forces traversed the rivulet, and attacked the main body of the French
army. The other battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was now brought into
action; the blaze of musketry extended along the whole front; and the
troops of the several nations fought with distinguished bravery. The
combat of musketry, and the charges of the cavalry, were continued for
some time with varied success. Eventually the main body of the enemy
was overpowered, and chased from the field with great slaughter; many
prisoners were also captured, and amongst them the French commander,
Marshal Tallard.

When the main body of the French army was defeated, the troops posted
in Blenheim attempted to escape by the rear of the village, but were
repulsed. A second attempt was made in another direction, but was
checked by the Scots Greys. A third attempt was also made, but the
French were again driven back, and forced to take shelter behind the
houses and inclosures. Though encompassed and intercepted on every
side, the French obstinately defended their post. Additional forces
were brought against them; the batteries opened a tremendous fire;
Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney attacked the French troops posted in
the churchyard with eight battalions; Lieut.-General Ingoldsby attacked
the right side of the village with four battalions, supported by the
Royal Irish (late 5th) Dragoons; and both battalions of the ROYALS
were now engaged. A sharp struggle ensued, which ended in a parley,
and eventually twenty-four French battalions of infantry, and twelve
squadrons of cavalry, surrendered prisoners of war. The Germans who
attacked the enemy's right were also triumphant. Thus the struggle of
this eventful day ended in a complete victory, which reflected lustre
on the confederate arms, and showed in its native colours the true
character of the British soldier. The French and Bavarians are reported
to have lost in killed, wounded, prisoners, and from other causes,
about forty thousand men, with nearly all their tents, cannon, and
ammunition, and a great number of standards, colours, and kettle-drums.

The ROYAL Regiment lost in this action[89] Lieut.-Colonel White,
Ensigns M'Conway and Craig, killed; Captain Lord Forbes died of his
wounds; and Captains Montgomery, Bruce, and Lindsay, with Lieutenants
Harrowby and Lisle, and Ensign Hume, wounded.

The number of French and Bavarians taken on this occasion was so great
that the second battalion of the ROYALS, with the regiments of Prince
George of Denmark, Lords North and Grey, Row and Meredith, commanded
by Brigadier-General Fergusson, were sent to Holland in charge of the
prisoners. These troops marched with the prisoners to Mentz, where
they embarked in boats and sailed to Holland, and, having delivered
them into the charge of other corps, were placed in garrison for the
remainder of the year.

Meanwhile the first battalion continued with the army in Germany; and
the enemy abandoned several important cities, which were occupied by
the allies. The battalion of the ROYAL Regiment proceeded through
the circle of Swabia and directed its march to Philipsburg, where it
crossed the Rhine on the 7th of September, and subsequently formed
part of the covering army during the siege of _Landau_, a town in the
Bavarian circle of the Rhine, situated in a beautiful valley on the
river Queich. On the 13th of October this battalion, with the regiments
of Hamilton, Ingoldsby, and Tatton, marched from the covering army
encamped at Croon-Weissemberg to Germersheim, and embarking in boats,
sailed down the Rhine to Holland, and were placed in garrison for the

[Sidenote: 1705]

In the following spring, the losses of the preceding campaign were
replaced with recruits from Scotland; and in April the regiment quitted
its quarters, and directed its march towards Maestricht, passed that
city on the 13th of May, and proceeded to Juliers. From Juliers the
regiment proceeded through a mountainous country to the valley of the
Moselle, in the midst of which stands the ancient city of Treves, where
both battalions encamped on the 28th of May. The British and Dutch,
with several German corps, having assembled in the neighbourhood of
Treves, the army passed the Moselle and the Saar on the 3rd of June,
and advanced towards Syrk, near which place a French army of superior
numbers, commanded by Marshal Villiers, was encamped. The allied army
halted a short distance from the enemy, and awaited the arrival of
the Imperialists under the Margrave of Baden, who had promised to
co-operate with the Duke of Marlborough in carrying on the war in this
direction: but this co-operation was delayed so long that the British
commander was forced to return to the Netherlands, where the French
were making considerable progress.

The retreat was commenced during the night of the 17th of June; and
on the 20th, Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney was detached with all
the grenadiers, and one hundred men of each battalion, to observe the
motions of a detachment which Marshal Villiers had sent towards the

The approach of the army towards the Maese alarmed the French, and they
raised the siege of the citadel of Liege and retired. On the 4th of
July the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was detached, with other
forces under General Schultz and Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney, to
besiege _Huy_, which had been captured by the French during the absence
of the army up the Moselle. On the 6th a battery of twelve cannon
and six mortars opened a sharp fire upon Fort Picard; and during the
afternoon of the same day the troops forced the covered-way and reared
their ladders against the walls, when the French quitted this fort and
also Fort Rouge, and fled to the castle. On the 10th the batteries were
brought to bear on the castle and on Fort Joseph, and on the following
day the garrison surrendered.

Meanwhile the French army, commanded by Marshal Villeroy and the
Elector of Bavaria, having taken refuge behind their fortified
lines, the Duke of Marlborough had formed a scheme for forcing these
stupendous barriers, and the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment
rejoined the army in time to take part in this splendid enterprise. The
lines were menaced by a detachment on the south of the Mehaine, which
drew the greater part of the French army to that quarter; and during
the night of the 17th of July the allied army marched to its right,
and at four o'clock on the following morning the leading regiments
approached the works at _Neer-Hespen_ and _Helixem_. Both battalions
of the ROYAL Regiment were in the leading division. Their advance was
concealed by a thick fog, and under the cover of this obscurity one
column cleared the village of Neer-Winden and Neer-Hespen, another
gained the bridge and village of Helixem, and a third carried the
castle of Wange, which commanded the passage over the Little Gheet.
Then rushing through the inclosures and marshy grounds, the troops
forded the river, and crowded over the defences with an ardour
which overcame all opposition. The French guards were surprised and
overpowered, and a detachment of dragoons fled in a panic. Thus the
lines were forced; the pioneers were instantly set to work, and in
a short time a passage was made for the cavalry. While this was in
progress, the Marquis d'Allegre advanced with twenty battalions of
infantry, and fifty squadrons of cavalry, and opened a sharp cannonade;
but his advance was retarded by a hollow way, which gave time for more
troops to pass the lines; and eventually his forces were attacked and
defeated, and the allies took many prisoners, and also captured a
number of standards and colours. Speaking of this action, the Duke of
Marlborough observes in a letter published in his memoirs,--"It is
impossible to say too much good of the troops that were with me, for
never men fought better."

The enemy made a precipitate retreat, and took up a position behind
the river Dyle. The Duke of Marlborough advanced with the design of
passing the river, but was prevented by heavy rains. On the 21st of
July, a small body of French troops passed the _Dyle_, when the first
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was ordered forward, and a slight
skirmish ensued. The French fled to their lines, and a few companies of
the ROYALS pursuing too far, were fired upon from the works, and had
one captain killed and several men wounded. Major General Wood was also

The ROYAL Regiment was subsequently engaged in several manœuvres; but
the designs of the British commander were frustrated by the inactivity
and want of co-operation on the part of the Dutch generals. The French
lines were demolished in the autumn; and a detachment was sent to
invest a small town and fortress on the Scheldt, called Sandlivet,
which surrendered on the 29th of October. In the early part of November
the regiment marched back to Holland, and was placed in garrison for
the winter.

[Sidenote: 1706]

The ROYAL Regiment again took the field in May, 1706, and proceeding
to the province of Limburg, arrived at the general rendezvous of the
army at Bilsen, near Tongres, on the 19th of that month. Advancing from
Bilsen, the army proceeded in the direction of Mont St. André; and on
Whit-Sunday, the 23rd of May, as the troops were on the march, the
enemy's army, commanded by Marshal Villeroy and the Elector of Bavaria,
was discovered forming in order of battle in the position of Mont
St. André, with their centre at the village of _Ramilies_, which was
occupied by a considerable body of troops.

The allied army, diverging into the open plain of Jandrinœuil, formed
line, and advanced against the enemy. The ROYAL Regiment, having its
post near the right of the first line, formed on the heights of Foulz;
then descending, with several other British, Dutch, and German corps,
into the low grounds near the river, menaced the villages of Autreglise
and Offuz with an attack. This movement occasioned the enemy to weaken
his centre to support his left flank, when the duke of Marlborough
made a powerful attack on the enemy's centre and right. The ROYALS
were spectators of the fight for above an hour; at length a critical
period in the engagement arrived, and the regiment was brought forward.
The veterans of Schellenberg and Blenheim fought like men resolved to
die rather than lose their reputation; and the French, Spaniards, and
Bavarians, were overthrown and driven from the field with a terrible
slaughter. The fugitives were pursued many miles, and an immense number
of prisoners, with cannon, standards, and colours, was captured. Thus
a complete and decisive victory was gained over an army of superior
numbers in less than three hours.

The wreck of the French army continued its precipitate flight to
Louvain, and immediately afterwards abandoned that city, and also
Brussels. The States of Brabant, and the magistrates of Brussels,
renounced their allegiance to the Duke of Anjou. The principal towns of
Brabant, and several others in Flanders, were immediately delivered up,
and others surrendered on being summoned, or in a few days afterwards.
Dendermond held out, and was blockaded in the early part of June; and
Ostend was afterwards besieged by a detachment from the main army,
and surrendered on the 6th of July. Menin was besieged on the 25th of
July, and surrendered in August; and Dendermond was delivered up in the
early part of September. During these sieges the ROYALS continued to
form part of the covering army; but after the surrender of Dendermond,
one battalion of the regiment was detached under Marshal d'Auverquerque
and Lieut.-General Ingoldsby, to besiege _Aeth_, a town and fortress
on the river Dender. This place was invested on the 16th of September:
the several attacks were carried on with vigour, and the garrison
surrendered on the 3rd of October. The capture of Aeth was the last
important event of this glorious campaign: and in the early part of
November the ROYAL Regiment marched into garrison at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1707]

Here the regiment passed the succeeding winter and spring, and again
took the field on the 16th of May, 1707, when the first battalion was
formed in brigade with the Foot Guards and the regiments of Godfrey and
Sabine (now 16th and 23rd), commanded by Brigadier-General Meredith;
and the second battalion with the regiments of Webb, Ingoldsby, and
Tatton, (now 8th, 18th, and 24th), and Temple's (since disbanded),
under the command of Brigadier General Sir Richard Temple, afterwards
Viscount Cobham. The opposing armies, however, passed the campaign in
manœuvring, and observing each other's movements; the French avoided a
general engagement; and in October the ROYALS returned to Ghent.

In this year, the Union of Scotland with England having taken place,
the _Cross of St. Andrew_ was placed on the colours of the English
regiments in addition to the Cross of St. George--previously displayed;
and the ROYAL Regiment obtained as a regimental badge--the _Royal
Cypher_, within the _circle of St. Andrew_, surmounted with _a crown_;
instead of St. Andrew's Cross, which it had formerly borne on its

[Sidenote: 1708]

While the regiment was reposing in winter quarters in Flanders, the
King of France fitted out a fleet and embarked a body of troops at
Dunkirk for the purpose of making a descent on the British coast in
favour of the Pretender; and the ROYALS, with the Foot Guards and seven
other corps, were ordered to return to England to repel the invaders.
The ROYAL Regiment marched from Ghent on the 8th March, 1708 (O.S.),
embarked at Ostend on the 15th, and arrived at Tynemouth on the 21st.
Meanwhile the French fleet, with the Pretender on board, had sailed
from Dunkirk; but being chased by the British men-of-war, the enemy
returned to Dunkirk without effecting a landing. The ROYALS were then
ordered back to Flanders, and having landed at Ostend on the 20th of
April, proceeded in boats along the canal to Ghent.

The regiment remained at Ghent until the 22nd of May, when it took
the field and engaged in the general operations of the army, and soon
afterwards the French obtained possession of Ghent and Bruges by
treachery. A more important advantage was, however, gained on the 11th
of July by the allied army commanded by the Duke of Marlborough, who
crossed the Scheldt and defeated the French army, commanded by the Duke
of Burgundy and Marshal Vendôme, near _Oudenarde_. The ROYALS formed
part of the division of twenty battalions commanded by the Duke of
Argyle, and having traversed the Scheldt by the pontoon bridge between
Oudenarde and the Abbey of Eename, they ascended the heights of Bevere;
then, inclining to the right, engaged the enemy in the fields and open
grounds beyond the rivulet. A fierce conflict of musketry ensued, and
charge succeeded charge, until the shades of evening gathered over the
scene of conflict, and the combatants could only be discerned by the
flashes of musketry which blazed in the fields and marshy grounds.
The French, having been driven from hedge to hedge, and from thicket
to thicket, were eventually overpowered. Part of their army being
separated from the remainder was nearly surrounded and destroyed, and
the work of destruction was continued until the darkness became so
intense that it was impossible to distinguish friends from foes, when
the troops were ordered to cease firing. Night favoured the enemy;
many of the corps, which were nearly surrounded, escaped in the dark,
and the wreck of the French army made a precipitate retreat to Ghent,
leaving the allies in possession of the field of battle, with many
prisoners, standards, colours, and other indisputable marks of victory.

The ROYALS were subsequently employed in covering the siege of _Lisle_,
the capital of French Flanders, which was captured by Louis XIV. in
1667, and ceded to France by the treaty of peace in 1668. This city
being situated on a plain watered by several streams, and protected
by a series of stupendous works constructed under the superintendence
of Vauban, the celebrated French engineer, and being defended by a
garrison of 15,000 men commanded by the veteran Marshal Boufflers, who
was prepared with everything requisite for a protracted defence, the
siege was considered an undertaking of great magnitude, and it excited
universal attention. The French made strenuous exertions to preserve
the place, and an immense body of troops advanced against the covering
army, of which the ROYAL Regiment formed a part; but the French
Marshals were dismayed by the determined countenance of the allies,
and frustrated by the superior tactics of the Duke of Marlborough. The
enemy next attempted to cut off the supplies of military stores and
provision from the army; and a quantity of stores having been sent
from England to Ostend, and there placed in waggons, one battalion of
the ROYAL Regiment, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Hamilton, was detached
from the covering army to protect the stores from Ostend to the camp.
This battalion was sent, in the first instance, to Oudenburg, with
orders to wait there until the convoy had passed, and afterwards to
join the escort at Turout. The waggons left Ostend on the 27th of
September, and continued their route towards the army; at the same
time the French commanders sent a detachment of 22,000 men under the
orders of Count de la Motte to intercept the convoy. After the waggons
had proceeded a considerable distance on their way, the battalion of
the ROYAL Regiment quitted Oudenburg and proceeded to Turout, where
information was received of the movements of the enemy, when the
battalion marched with all possible expedition to succour the convoy,
and arrived at the wood of _Wynendale_ at the moment when Major-General
Webb was forming the few troops he had with him in an opening beyond
the wood. The French had to pass through the wood, and Major-General
Webb placed a battalion in ambush amongst the trees on each side of the
defile, and drew up the main body of his detachment, which consisted
of about 8000 men, in an open space at the end of the defile. The
French advanced in full confidence to overwhelm a force which did not
amount to half their own numbers; but, when passing through the wood,
they were assailed by the ambush on their left, which put them in some
confusion. They, however, continued to advance and broke through two of
the battalions of the allies posted at the end of the defile; but the
battalion in ambush on the enemy's right having opened its fire, and
the head of their column being attacked, the French were repulsed and
driven back through the wood. They soon rallied and returned to the
attack, and were again assailed by a destructive fire in front and on
both flanks, and they shrunk back in dismay. The attack was repeated,
and the destructive cross fire was again opened with the same results;
and Count de la Motte, being unable to induce his men to return to the
charge, he was forced to relinquish the contest and retire. At this
moment Lieut.-General Cadogan arrived with a few squadrons of cavalry,
and the convoy was conducted in safety to the army. This gallant
exploit excited great admiration, and Major-General Webb was honoured
with the thanks of parliament, and the approbation of the Queen, for
his conduct on this occasion.

The ROYAL Regiment continued to form part of the covering army, and
was employed in several services connected with the procuring of
provision and stores for the besieging troops. In November, the Elector
of Bavaria besieged Brussels, and the ROYALS formed part of the force
which advanced to relieve the place. The strong positions of the enemy
behind the _Scheldt_ were forced on the 27th of November; and when the
troops advanced upon Brussels, the Elector of Bavaria raised the siege,
and made a precipitate retreat.

The citadel of Lisle, being vigorously pressed, surrendered on the 9th
of December. The period for military operations had passed away; but
notwithstanding the lateness of the season the Duke of Marlborough
resolved to besiege _Ghent_, and the ROYAL Regiment was one of the
corps selected for this service. An attack was made on the out-posts of
the town on the night of the 24th of December, when a detachment of the
ROYALS formed part of the forlorn-hope, and had several men killed and
wounded. The trenches were opened during the same night, and the siege
being prosecuted with spirit and vigour, the garrison surrendered
on the 2nd of January, 1709. Bruges was also vacated by the French;
and the ROYAL Regiment, having marched into Ghent when that city was
delivered up, remained there during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1709]

The regiment, having reposed for a few months in convenient quarters,
and obtained a body of fine recruits from Scotland, advanced from
Bruges to the plain of Lisle, and was afterwards encamped with the
army on the banks of the Upper Dyle. The French had constructed a
new line of entrenchments and forts: the allies advanced with the
apparent design of attacking the enemy, when Marshal Villars drew a
number of troops out of the neighbouring garrisons, and prepared to
make a determined resistance. This was what the Duke of Marlborough
wished; and no sooner had a considerable detachment of French troops
quitted the garrison of _Tournay_, than the allies struck their tents,
marched to the left, and invested the town. Both battalions of the
ROYAL Regiment were in the besieging army, and took an active part in
the several attacks on the works, and in repulsing the sallies of the
garrison. On the 29th of July, while preparations were making to attack
the town by storm, the governor surrendered. The citadel still held
out; but five British regiments, which had not taken part in the siege
of the town, were selected for the siege of the citadel, and the ROYAL
Regiment joined the covering army.

During the period the siege of the citadel of Tournay was in progress,
Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney was detached, with the grenadier
companies of the ROYAL and several other regiments, and twenty
squadrons of cavalry, towards St. Ghislain, to seize on certain passes,
and to facilitate the subsequent operations of the campaign; and the
citadel having surrendered on the 3rd of September, the army afterwards
proceeded towards Mons, the capital of the province of Hainault,
which the allies intended to besiege. While the troops were on the
march, Marshal Villars made several movements with the view to prevent
the loss of Mons; and on the 10th of September the French army was in
position in front of Taisniere and the hamlet of _Malplaquet_, and
having thrown up entrenchments and constructed _abatis de bois_ and
other defences, until their camp resembled a fortified citadel, they
there awaited the attack of the allies.

At three o'clock on the morning of the 11th September, the forces of
the several nations which composed the army commanded by the Duke
of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy, were under arms. The two
battalions of the ROYAL Regiment appeared on parade on the ground where
they had passed the night, and divine service was performed by the
chaplain. The French camp was a short distance in front; but a thick
mist overspread the woods and open grounds, and concealed the armies
from each other. Under cover of the fog, the artillery was brought
forward, and dispositions made for the attack: the French heard the din
of hostile preparations, and seized their weapons, and two powerful
armies, headed by commanders of renown, stood arrayed against each
other. The troops of both armies had confidence in their leaders, and
were anxious for the combat; the one to acquire new laurels under
their favourite chiefs, and the other to retrieve the disasters of
eight successive campaigns. The fog lingered on the ground until about
half-past seven, when the sun broke forth. The fire of the artillery
instantly opened on both sides, and the columns of attack moved
forward, and commenced one of the most sanguinary and hard-contested
battles on record, in which there was a greater sacrifice of life than
at the battles of Blenheim, Ramilies, and Oudenarde, put together.
"It is impossible to express the violence of the fire on either side.
Besides the enemy's advantageous situation, they defended themselves
like brave men, and made all the resistance that could be expected
from the best of troops; but then nothing could be a finer sight than
to see our foot surmount so many obstacles, resist so great a fire,
force the enemy's entrenchments, beat them from thence, and drive them
quite out of the wood, and after all, to draw up in good order of
battle on the plain, in sight of our enemies, and before their third

The ROYALS formed part of the division commanded by General Count
Lottum, and were engaged in the assault of the entrenchments in the
wood of Taisniere. Two battalions of Foot Guards led the attack, and,
having overcome several local difficulties, they commenced ascending
the enemy's breastwork, but were repulsed and driven back. The ROYALS
seconded the Foot Guards; Argyle's regiment (3rd Buffs), and several
other corps, prolonged the attack to the left; and these troops,
rushing forward with the native energy and resolution of Britons,
forced the entrenchments in gallant style, and the French fell back
fighting and retreating into the woods. The ROYALS, and other corps,
pressed forward: the trees and foliage being thick, the ranks were
broken; every tree was disputed, and the wood echoed the turmoil of
battle on every side.

When the fighting in the wood of Taisniere, where the ROYALS were
engaged, had assumed the character of a series of skirmishes, a
most sanguinary conflict was raging in other parts of the field,
particularly in the centre, where the Prince of Orange led the Dutch
infantry against the enemy's treble entrenchments, and at the points
of attack allotted to the Germans. Eventually the enemy's position was
broken, and a conflict of cavalry ensued, in which the allies proved
victorious. Meanwhile the ROYALS, and other corps engaged in the woods,
continued to gain ground, and the French were forced to retreat. The
allies captured a number of prisoners, colours, standards, and cannon;
but this victory was purchased at an immense expense of human life,
especially of Germans and Dutch. The ROYALS having fought a great part
of the day in the wood, where the men were partly covered by the trees,
the regiment did not sustain a very severe loss. Lieutenant Haley and a
few private men were killed; and Lieutenants J. Stratton, Dixon, and W.
Stratton, were wounded[91].

The victory at Malplaquet was followed by the siege and capture of
_Mons_, which was terminated by the surrender of the garrison on the
20th of October. The ROYALS formed part of the covering army during the
siege, and afterwards marched back to Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1710]

The regiment having passed the winter in its former quarters, quitted
Ghent on the 14th of April, 1710, and directing its march towards
the frontiers of France, arrived at the rendezvous of the army, in
the vicinity of Tournay, on the 19th of that month. The allies, by a
forced march, succeeded in passing the French lines at Pont-a-Verdun
without opposition, and invested _Douay_. The ROYALS formed part of the
covering army during the siege. The French army advanced and menaced
the allies with an attack, but retreated after a sharp cannonade, and
Douay surrendered on the 27th of June.

After the capture of Douay, the ROYALS marched in the direction
of Aubigny, and formed part of the covering army encamped at
Villers-Brulin during the siege of _Bethune_. This place having
surrendered on the 28th of August, the ROYALS were afterwards detached
from the main army, and sent under the command of the Prince of
Anhault, to besiege the town of _Aire_, which is situated on the banks
of the river Lys. The governor of this place made a vigorous defence;
and the regiment was sharply engaged several times in carrying on the
attacks and storming the outworks, and had a number of men killed and
wounded. The garrison having surrendered on the 9th of November, the
regiment afterwards marched back to its former winter-quarters at
Ghent, where it arrived on the 23rd of November.

[Sidenote: 1711]

The ROYALS again took the field towards the end of April, 1711, and,
advancing up the country, joined the army near Douay, and were reviewed
with the remainder of the British infantry, on the 8th of June, by
the Duke of Marlborough, at the camp at Warde. On the 14th the army
advanced to the plains of Lens. The enemy had thrown up a new line of
entrenchments; and the French army, commanded by Marshal Villars, was
posted behind these formidable works, which were deemed impregnable.
But the British commander, by menacing the enemy's left, occasioned the
French troops to be drawn to that quarter; then, by a forced march,
passed the lines at an unguarded part at _Arleux_, and afterwards
invested _Bouchain_, a fortified town of Hainault, situated on both
sides of the river Scheldt. The ROYALS formed part of a division of
twenty battalions, commanded by Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney,
which took post on the north and north-west side of the town and river.

The French, by a night march, gained possession of the heights of
Wavrechin, from whence they expected to be able to relieve the town;
and the ROYALS formed part of a division of infantry which advanced
to dislodge the enemy; but the position was found too formidable to
be attacked, and the regiment retired without firing a shot. During
the night a series of works was constructed; a causeway was also made
through the deep inundations which the enemy had, by means of sluices
on the river, caused to overflow the low grounds near the town; and
thus Bouchain was completely invested, and all communication with
the troops on the heights of Wavrechin cut off. The siege was then
prosecuted with vigour, and the ROYALS took their turn of duty in the
trenches, and in carrying on the attacks, and had several men killed
and wounded. The total loss of the British troops in this siege was
1,154 officers and men killed and wounded. The garrison agreed to
surrender on the 13th of September. The ROYALS remained at Bouchain
until the works were repaired, and afterwards went into quarters for
the winter.

[Sidenote: 1712]

In the early part of April, 1712, the regiment once more took the
field, and on the 19th of that month pitched its tents near Tournay,
where the Duke of Ormond arrived on the 9th of May, and took command of
the army, the Duke of Marlborough having, for a political cause, been
removed from his military appointments.

On the 19th of May the army advanced, and on the 21st encamped on
the hills of St. Denis, near Bouchain; thence proceeding across the
Scheldt, arrived a few days afterwards near the frontiers of France;
and the two grenadier companies of the ROYAL Regiment, forming part of
a reconnoitring party, advanced a few miles into Picardy.

The siege of _Quesnoy_ was afterwards undertaken, and the ROYAL
Regiment, forming part of the covering army, was encamped at
Cateau-Cambresis; but was not engaged in any act of direct hostility.
The garrison surrendered on the 4th of July; and soon afterwards the
Duke of Ormond having received orders to proclaim a suspension of arms
between the British and French, preparatory to a general treaty of
peace, the British troops retreated from the frontiers of France to

The French monarch having agreed to deliver the city of Dunkirk
into the hands of the British as a pledge of his sincerity in the
negociations for peace, it was taken possession of by six battalions
from England; and on the 4th of August, the ROYALS, with four other
British regiments, twenty pieces of cannon, and four mortars, under the
command of Lieut.-General the Earl of Orkney, marched from the camp
near Ghent to Dunkirk, where they arrived on the 6th, and the regiment
remained in garrison in this city nearly two years.

[Sidenote: 1713]

[Sidenote: 1714]

A treaty of peace having been concluded at Utrecht, the British troops
were ordered to return from Flanders. Several regiments embarked
in the spring of 1714; the ROYALS marched from Dunkirk, in May, to
Nieuport, where they remained until after the decease of Queen Anne
and the accession of King George I., which occurred on the 1st of
August, 1714. The first battalion embarked a few days after this
event, and landed--seven companies at Dover, and five at Greenwich
and Deptford--on the 15th of August; and the second battalion landed
at Gravesend and the borough of Southwark on the 22nd of that month.
Both battalions assembled in the vicinity of London, and having been
reviewed by the Duke of Ormond, afterwards proceeded into garrison at
Portsmouth and Plymouth.[92] At the same time a reduction of four
companies took place, and the establishment of each battalion was fixed
at 10 companies, of 3 officers, 2 serjeants, 2 corporals, 1 drummer,
and 36 private men each[93].

[Sidenote: 1715]

After the arrival of King George I. from Hanover, the Protestant
succession to the throne appearing to be peacefully established, the
ROYALS were ordered to proceed to Ireland, where the presence of a
considerable military force was deemed necessary to restrain the Roman
Catholics from taking arms in favour of the Pretender. The regiment was
accordingly relieved from garrison duty at Portsmouth and Plymouth by
the Third Foot Guards, in March, 1715, and proceeded to Chester, where
both battalions embarked for Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1716]

[Sidenote: 1717]

[Sidenote: 1727]

[Sidenote: 1728]

During the remainder of the reign of George I. and the early part of
the reign of George II. the regiment was stationed in Ireland. In
1717 its establishment was fixed at 22 companies, of 3 officers, 2
serjeants, 2 corporals, 1 drummer, and 38 private men each; and the
expense of the regiment was estimated at £16,710 18_s._ 4_d._ per
annum. Thus it continued for several years; but in 1727, when 10,000
men were held in readiness to embark for Holland to assist the Dutch in
the war with Austria, an augmentation of 20 serjeants, 20 corporals, 20
drummers, and 500 men, was added to the establishment; no embarkation,
however, took place, and the regiment was afterwards placed upon a
peace establishment.

[Sidenote: 1737]

In January, 1737, Field Marshal the Earl of Orkney, who had commanded
the ROYALS nearly 45 years, and had often led the regiment to battle
and to victory, died in London; and in June King George II. conferred
the Colonelcy on the Honorable James St. Clair, from the 22nd Regiment
of Foot.

[Sidenote: 1740]

The death of Charles VI., Emperor of Germany, having occurred in the
autumn of 1740, the succession of the Archduchess Maria-Theresa, as
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, was disputed by the Elector of Bavaria,
and immediate signs of war appearing, an augmentation was made to the
strength of the ROYAL Regiment; and its establishment was increased to
1628 officers and men.

[Sidenote: 1741]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1742]

[Sidenote: 1743]

Previous to this period both battalions had usually been employed at
the same station: they were considered as one corps, and few instances
occurred of their being engaged in separate services, even for short
periods; but on the 21st of October, 1741, while the first battalion
remained in Ireland, the second battalion, having been placed on the
English establishment, embarked at Cork for the West Indies. It however
remained in the West Indies only a few months, and arrived in England
in December, 1742, together with the 6th, 15th, and 24th regiments[94].
In the following year it returned to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In the meantime, the French having taken part with the Elector of
Bavaria against the Archduchess Maria-Theresa, a British force had
been sent to Flanders to co-operate with the Austrians; and in the
spring of 1743 the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was ordered
to proceed from Ireland to Flanders to join the army. It accordingly
embarked from Ireland, and on its arrival at Ostend, in June, took
charge, together with three other regiments, of the clothing for the
army which had marched from Flanders to Germany. From Ostend the ROYALS
marched with the clothing to Brussels, where they arrived on the 10th
of July; thence, continuing their route for Germany, passed the Maese
on the 14th and joined the army at Hanau, a few days after King George
II. had gained a victory over the French at Dettingen. The ROYALS were
afterwards engaged in operations in the west of Germany, but returned
to the Netherlands in the autumn.

[Sidenote: 1744]

During the following year the first battalion of the ROYALS formed
part of the army commanded by Field Marshal Wade, and was employed
in several operations in the Netherlands; but no general engagement

[Sidenote: 1745]

In the spring of 1745 the French besieged Tournay; and the ROYALS
formed part of the army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke of
Cumberland, who advanced to the relief of the town. The French took
up a position near the village of _Fontenoy_ to cover the siege; and
the Duke of Cumberland, though inferior to the enemy in numbers,
resolved to attack the position. The army accordingly advanced to the
vicinity of Tournay, drove in the French out-posts on the 10th of May,
and on the morning of the following day moved from its camp-ground to
attack the enemy. Having passed through some narrow defiles and broken
ground, the troops deployed on the plain in front of the enemy, and
the British infantry commenced the attack with a spirit and resolution
which overcame all opposition. But the Dutch having failed in their
attack on the village of Fontenoy, and a brigade of infantry ordered
to storm a battery above Vezont having delayed its attack, the British
infantry, which had forced the French lines, were exposed to a dreadful
cross-fire, and were ordered to retire. A second attack was afterwards
made, with similar results: the cavalry advanced to charge; but the
failure of the Dutch on Fontenoy, and the delay of the brigade detached
against the flank battery at Vezont, rendered a retreat necessary; and
the army withdrew from the field of battle, and halted that night
under the cannon of Aeth. Although the attack failed, yet the army
succeeded in impressing the French with a sense of British valour
and magnanimity, and the honour of the British arms was preserved
untarnished. The loss on both sides was nearly equal; that of the first
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was 2 serjeants and 85 rank and file
killed; with Captains Thompson and Edmonstone, Lieutenants Cockburn,
Nairn, Elliott, Abernethy, and Grant, Ensign Jones, 5 serjeants, and
178 rank and file, wounded; also 8 rank and file missing.

The ROYALS were subsequently encamped with the army on the plain of
Lessines, from whence they retired to Grammont, and afterwards occupied
a position near Brussels to cover Dutch Brabant; but the French, by
means of their immense superiority of numbers, captured several towns
in the Austrian Netherlands. In the autumn the army went into winter

Meanwhile Charles-Edward, the eldest son of the Pretender, being
encouraged by several chiefs of the Highland clans, who were
disaffected to the Protestant succession, landed on the western coast
of Scotland, and was soon joined by a number of hardy mountaineers,
with whom he advanced to Edinburgh, and obtained possession of that
city. This success of the young Pretender occasioned the first
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment to be withdrawn from the Netherlands,
and it arrived in the Thames on the 25th of October. It was afterwards
ordered to form part of the army assembled in the south of England to
oppose the threatened descent of the French.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1746]

In the meantime the second battalion, having embarked from Dublin on
the 30th of September, 1745, had arrived in England, and formed part of
the army under Field Marshal Wade, assembled in order to prevent the
advance of the Highlanders into England. The rebels, however, succeeded
in eluding the vigilance of the King's troops, and penetrated as far
as Derby. The second battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was at this time
in Yorkshire; and when the young Pretender, being disappointed of the
expected aid in England, was forced to make a precipitate retreat to
Scotland, this battalion marched in pursuit of the rebels, and arrived
at Newcastle-on-Tyne on the 24th of December. From Newcastle this
battalion marched to Edinburgh, where it arrived in the early part
of January, 1746, and was placed under the command of Lieut.-General

The young Pretender had, in the meantime, been joined by some new
levies, and having procured a supply of artillery and ammunition, he
occupied the town of Stirling and commenced the siege of the Castle.
A few regiments having been assembled at Edinburgh, one division,
commanded by Major-General Huske, advanced on the 13th of January and
drove a party of rebels out of Linlithgow; another division advanced
to Barroustouness, and on the 16th the whole proceeded to _Falkirk_
and encamped near the town. On the 17th, about mid-day, the rebel army
was discovered advancing towards the high grounds on Falkirk Moor;
the King's troops quitted their camp and marched through the broken
and rugged grounds towards the enemy, and between three and four in
the afternoon the action commenced. But at this moment a tremendous
storm of wind and rain beat in the faces of the King's troops and
nearly blinded them, and their muskets became so wet that the soldiers
could not fire. At the same time the storm beating on the backs of
the Highlanders caused them little annoyance, and they charged their
nearly blinded antagonists under such advantageous circumstances, that
several regiments were instantly broken and driven from the ground.
The reserve, however, stood firm, and the ROYALS having rallied, joined
these troops under Major-General Huske. This body of troops made a
resolute stand; the storm had abated a little, and when the Highlanders
attempted to charge the reserve, they were assailed by a shower of
bullets, which caused them to shrink back; and they were eventually
driven up the hill with precipitation. This division, of which the
ROYALS formed part, maintained its ground to the last, and remained on
the field until dark, when no enemy being in sight, and the night being
cold and stormy, the troops retired from the Moor to their camp, and
afterwards to Linlithgow, where the soldiers, who were all dripping wet
and nearly exhausted, were put under cover, and on the following day
they marched to Edinburgh.

Additional forces were afterwards sent to Scotland; the Duke of
Cumberland arrived at Edinburgh and took the command; and on the 31st
of January the troops were again in motion towards the Highlanders, who
raised the siege of Stirling Castle and made a precipitate retreat for
Inverness, and one division for the Highlands.

The second battalion of the ROYAL Regiment also took part in the
several movements which preceded the battle of _Culloden_, which
was fought on the 16th of April, on Culloden Moor, a few miles from
Inverness. The army had advanced on the 14th to the Royal burgh of
Nairn, about 16 miles from Inverness. During the night between the
15th and 16th of April, the Pretender attempted, by a forced march, to
surprise the Royal camp, but the out-posts were found alert and the
surprise impracticable, and he retreated towards Inverness, and halted
on Culloden Moor. On the following day the King's army was discovered
advancing in order of battle, with the second battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment on the right of the first line, commanded by Lieut.-General
the Earl of Albemarle. The action commenced between twelve and one,
and in less than one hour the rebel army was overpowered and chased
from the Moor with dreadful slaughter. This victory was decisive. The
young Pretender fled from the field, and after wandering for some time
in disguise amongst the isles and mountains, he escaped to France. The
ROYALS, after returning from the pursuit of the fugitive Highlanders,
pitched their tents near Inverness, where they remained for several
weeks, and afterwards marched to Perth.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The rebellion being thus finally suppressed, part of the forces in
England became disposable for other services; and the nation being at
war with France, an attack on the French possessions in Canada was
meditated; and the first battalion of the ROYAL Regiment, being at
this period in the south of England, was selected to form part of the
expedition, under its Colonel, Lieut.-General the Hon. James St. Clair,
which was accompanied by a naval force under Admiral Lestock. The
fleet was, however, detained so long by contrary winds that the attack
on Canada was deferred, and an attempt on _L'Orient_, a considerable
sea-port on the north-west of France, and the principal station for the
French East India Company's shipping and stores, was resolved upon.
The expedition sailed from Plymouth on the 14th of September, and on
the 20th a landing was effected in Quimperle Bay, and a body of French
troops were driven from the shore. On the following day the troops
advanced in two columns towards L'Orient, the ROYALS being in the right
column; some French militia fired upon the troops from the woods, but
a few skirmishers were thrown out, and the militia were driven back.
On arriving at Plemur the leading companies of the column entering
the village were fired upon from the houses; but this resistance was
speedily overcome, and the villagers were punished for their temerity.
On the 22nd the troops appeared before L'Orient, when the governor
sent a flag of truce, and proposed to surrender the town on certain
conditions. These conditions were, however, considered too favourable
to the French, and they were rejected in consequence of a report of the
engineers stating the practicability of reducing the town. The siege
was immediately commenced, the sallies of the garrison were repulsed,
and the town was set on fire in three places by the bombs; but the
expedition proved of insufficient force for the capture of the town,
and the siege was raised on the evening of the 26th. The roads being
bad, four pieces of cannon, one mortar, and some ammunition, were left
behind; and the troops retreated to Quimperle Bay and re-embarked
without opposition.

In the early part of October another descent was made on the French
coast. The troops effected a landing on the peninsula of _Quiberon_,
and Lieut.-General St. Clair, at the head of the ROYALS and 42nd
Highlanders, took a fort with 18 guns, and having fortified the isthmus
the troops were cantoned in the villages and farm-houses. The forts
and guns in the peninsula, with those in the isles of Houat and Hedic,
having been destroyed, and the country laid in ruins, the troops
re-embarked and returned to England.

[Sidenote: 1747]

The war had, in the meantime, continued to rage in the Netherlands,
and the French, having reduced the Austrian provinces, advanced, in
April, 1747, into Dutch Flanders, and captured Sluys and Sas van Ghent,
and besieged Hulst. The 1st battalion of the Royal Regiment had, in
the meantime, proceeded to Holland, and was in cantonments in the
province of Zealand, from whence it was detached, with Bragg's (28th)
and Lord John Murray's Highland (42nd) Regiments, under the command of
Major-General Fuller, to the relief of _Hulst_, and, having landed at
Stapledyke on the 1st of May, was employed in the defence of an outwork
called _Fort Sandberg_. On the 3rd of May the French attacked Sandberg
by storm; the Dutch made a gallant resistance, and, on the advance of
the British brigade, the enemy was driven back. On the 5th the ROYALS
were on duty in the fort, and the French, having carried the sap along
the dyke to within a few paces of the pallisades, attacked the place
by storm about nine o'clock in the evening. The assailants advanced
with all the spirit and fury which usually distinguishes the first
attack of the French; the out-guards and piquets were instantly forced
back into the garrison, and a Dutch regiment was disconcerted and gave
way. The enemy continued his triumphant career until he encountered
the ROYALS, when a most sanguinary conflict of musketry ensued, which
was kept up throughout the night. "The narrowness of the ground in
which the battalion was drawn up would not admit of wheeling outwards
to the right and left, as is requisite in common street-firing, as it
contained only a platoon abreast; so the first platoon fired their 24
rounds, and then filed off man by man, and were succeeded by the next
and following platoons, which acted in the same manner; and what is
extraordinary, all this, though in the night, was performed without any
disorder and confusion."[95]

The morning light had already dawned upon this scene of conflict and
carnage,--between three and four hundred officers and men of the ROYALS
were _hors de combat_; yet the survivors,--though standing amidst
the dying and the dead, and being unable to take one step without
treading on a killed or wounded man,--maintained their ground with
resolution, and continued to pour their fatal volleys upon the enemy,
who had sustained an equal or greater loss, until five o'clock, when
the ROYALS were relieved by the Highlanders; and the French, dismayed
by the sanguinary tenacity of the defence, retreated.[96] In this
desperate service Major Sir Charles Erskine was killed; Lieut.-Colonel
Abercrombie, Lieutenants Forbes, Grant, Gordon, and Rutherford, with
Ensigns Campbell and St. Clair, were wounded; and several of these
officers afterwards died of their wounds: the battalion had also about
four hundred non-commissioned officers and private men killed and

The fire of the French batteries being resumed with increased fury,
Fort Sandberg was rendered untenable a few days afterwards, and the
Dutch governor, General La Roque, having resolved to vacate the Fort
and surrender the town of Hulst, the British brigade proceeded to
Welshorden, where it was attacked by the French; but, having repulsed
the enemy, it embarked in small vessels, and, sailing to South
Beveland, went into cantonments on that island. The ROYALS appear to
have remained in South Beveland some time, and they did not engage in
any other military operation this year.

[Sidenote: 1748]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In the spring of 1748 the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL

Regiment, having been withdrawn from Scotland, embarked for Holland,
and joined the allied army commanded by His Royal Highness the Duke
of Cumberland, at the camp near Ruremonde. Preliminary articles for
a treaty of peace having been agreed upon, a suspension of arms took

[Sidenote: 1749]

[Sidenote: Both Batts.]

After the conclusion of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the British
troops were withdrawn from Holland, and both battalions of the
ROYAL Regiment proceeded to Ireland, and were placed upon the Irish
Establishment in 1749.

[Sidenote: 1751]

On the 1st of July, 1751, a warrant was issued under the sign manual
for regulating the standards, colours, and clothing of the army, in
which numerical titles were given to the several corps, and this
was styled the "FIRST, OR ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT." The rank of the
several regiments was first established by a board of general officers
assembled in the Netherlands, by command of King William, on the 10th
of June, 1694; another board of general officers was assembled by Queen
Anne in 1713, to decide on the rank and seniority of regiments raised
after 1694; and a third board was assembled by command of King George
I. in 1715, on the same subject. These boards decided that English
regiments raised in England should take rank from the date of their
formation, and Scots and Irish regiments, with English regiments raised
for the service of a foreign power, should take rank from the date of
their being first placed on the English establishment. Thus the ROYAL
Regiment obtained rank from 1661, as before stated.

In the warrant of 1751 the facing of the ROYALS is directed to be
BLUE.[98] "In the centre of their colours the King's cypher, within
the circle of St. Andrew, and the crown over it; in the three corners
of the second colour, the thistle and crown. The distinction of the
colours of the second battalion is, a flaming ray of gold descending
from the upper corner of each colour towards the centre.[99]

"On the grenadier caps the same device as in the centre of the colours,
white horse, and the King's motto over it, on the little flap.

"The drums and bells of arms to have the same device painted on them,
with the number or rank of the regiment under it."

[Sidenote: 1755]

Both battalions remained in Ireland until the undetermined limits of
the British territory in North America gave rise to another war. The
colonies on the coast had extended themselves on every side, while the
Indian trade drew many wandering dealers into the inland country, where
they found well-watered plains, a delightful climate, and a fruitful
soil. These advantages appearing to compensate for the distance from
the sea, a company of merchants and planters obtained a charter for a
tract of land beyond the Allegany Mountains and near the river Ohio,
and commenced establishing a settlement. The French laid claim to this
part of the country, drove away the new settlers, and built a strong
fort called Du Quesne, to command the entrance into the country on the
Ohio and Mississippi. Another dispute had, in the meantime, occurred
respecting Nova Scotia.

[Sidenote: 1757]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

These aggressions on the part of the French occasioned a body of
British troops to be sent to North America in 1755. War was declared
against France in 1756; and in May, 1757, the 2nd battalion of the
ROYALS embarked at Cork, and proceeded with the 17th, 27th, 28th, 43rd,
46th, 55th, and 58th regiments to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, where they
arrived in the early part of July, being designed to form part of an
expedition under the Earl of Loudoun against an island belonging to the
French in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, called _Cape Breton_. On arriving
at Halifax the ROYALS were landed and formed in brigade with the 28th,
44th, and 55th regiments, commanded by Major-General Hopson; and the
expedition was deferred until the succeeding year.

[Sidenote: 1758]

In May, 1758, the troops were again embarked, and sailed under the
orders of Lieut.-General Amherst (afterwards Lord Amherst)--the naval
force being under Admiral Boscawen; but owing to the unfavourable state
of the weather a landing could not be effected on the island until
the 8th of June, when the troops proceeded in boats towards the shore
in three divisions. The ROYALS, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Forster,
formed part of the right division under Brigadier-General Whiteman,
which proceeded towards White Point to make a diversion, while the men
of the centre division, led by the gallant Brigadier-General James
Wolfe, jumped into the water, in the face of a tremendous fire of
cannon and musketry, hastened to the shore, attacked the French with
fixed bayonets, and drove them from their posts in gallant style. The
other divisions followed; but the surf was so high that several boats
were overset, others were dashed to pieces, and many men were drowned.

The siege of _Louisburg_, the capital of the island, was afterwards
commenced; and in carrying on the approaches the troops underwent great
fatigues with a cheerful alacrity which redounded to their honour. By
their meritorious perseverance, and the co-operation of the fleet, the
town was taken by surrender on the 26th of July, and with it the whole
island and two other small islands in the Gulf also surrendered. The
French garrison was made prisoners, and eleven stand of colours were
sent to England. The ROYALS lost in this service Lieutenants Fenton
and Howe, killed; with Lieutenants Fitzsimmons, Bailey, and Ashe,
and Ensign Waterton, wounded. This conquest was considered of great
importance to the nation, and the meritorious conduct of the officers
and soldiers was rewarded with the approbation of their Sovereign and
the thanks of Parliament.

While the ROYALS were at Cape Breton, a body of British troops,
employed on the continent of North America under the command
of Major-General Abercrombie, had advanced against the fort at
Ticonderago, which had been built by the French in 1756 on the
west shore of Lake Champlain; and in the attack on this place the
British troops were repulsed. Lieut.-General Amherst, having received
information of this disaster, embarked from Louisburg on the 30th of
August with the 2nd battalion of the ROYALS, 17th, 47th, and 48th
regiments, and Frazer's Highlanders, and sailed to Boston, where he
disembarked the troops, and, marching through the woods to Lake George,
joined the camp of the forces under Major-General Abercrombie.

A resolution to attack the French possessions in North America at four
different points at one time was ultimately agreed upon; and the ROYALS
were selected to form part of the force, under Lieut.-General Amherst,
designed to make a second attempt on _Ticonderago_.

[Sidenote: 1759]

The troops assembled for this purpose on the east bank of Hudson's
River, about fifty miles from Albany, in the beginning of June, 1759,
where they were encamped three weeks. Advancing from thence on the
21st of June, they arrived at the banks of Lake George in the evening,
and there pitched their tents, and commenced erecting a fort; at
the same time means were used to collect boats to convey the troops
along the lake. This occupied one month, and on the 21st of July the
regiments struck their tents, went on board the boats, and, using
blankets for sails, arrived at the second Narrows on the following
morning, and effected a landing. Thence, advancing towards Ticonderago,
the van-guard encountered 400 French regulars and native Indians
near the saw-mills two miles from the fort, and routed them in a few
moments. The French commander, M. Bourlemaque, had fortified a post
in front of the fort, but, when he saw the steady resolution of his
opponents, he quitted his lines, placed a garrison in the fort, and
embarked with his main body for _Crown Point_, another fort on Lake
Champlain, erected by the French in 1731. The siege of Ticonderago
was then prosecuted with vigour, and on the 25th of July the garrison
blew up the fort and sailed to Crown Point; which place the French
commander also abandoned, and retired down the lake to Isle aux Noix.
The ROYALS and other forces afterwards proceeded to Crown Point and
commenced erecting a new fort; vessels were also built in order to have
a naval force on the lake. This work was in progress until the 11th
of October, when the large boats, with a brigantine mounting eighteen
guns and two swivels, and a sloop mounting sixteen guns, being ready,
the troops embarked, and sailed down the lake in four divisions; but
afterwards encountering high northerly winds, and a severe frost having
set in, the expedition was countermanded; the troops returned to Crown
Point and Ticonderago, and the ROYALS proceeded to New York for winter

[Sidenote: 1760]

Meanwhile the _Cherokee Indians_ had been carrying on a cruel warfare
against the settlers on the frontiers of the southern provinces
of North America, and in the early part of 1760 the two flank and
four battalion companies of the ROYALS, mustering 400 men, were
ordered to proceed, under the command of Major Frederick Hamilton,
to South Carolina, to strike a decisive blow against the aggressors.
They accordingly embarked from New York, and, with a battalion of
Highlanders and some provincial troops commanded by Colonel Montgomery,
sailed to Charleston, and marched from thence up the country to Fort
Ninety-six, situate on the borders of the Cherokee territory. Having
halted a short time at this place, the troops advanced on the 28th of
May, and arrived on the 1st of June at Twelve-mile River. The scouts
being unable to find any Indian tracks, it was concluded that the
Cherokees were not informed of the march; and, although the men had
already traversed twenty miles of rugged ground that morning, from
Beaver-dams to the river, the commanding officer resolved to push
forward immediately. The tents, waggons, and cattle, were placed in a
square, a guard was placed over them, and, just as the sun was sinking
beneath the horizon, the troops moved quietly forward along the rugged
wood-lands. After a march of sixteen miles the detachment arrived at an
Indian hamlet called Little Keowee, and the light company of the ROYALS
was ordered to surround the houses and bayonet the inhabitants. As the
ROYALS approached the houses, a company of Indian warriors, who were
sleeping under the trees near the hamlet, raised their usual war-cry,
and opened a scattering fire; but the soldiers--undaunted by the dismal
yell of their antagonists--fired one volley,--then, rushing forward,
encountered the Indians in close fight, and bayoneted the whole except
the women and children. The troops then continued their route, and
just as the first rays of morning began to dawn they arrived at
Estatoe, the capital of the Lower Cherokees; the town had, however,
been abandoned nearly an hour before; but about a dozen warriors were
intercepted and slain. The town, which was found well provided with
ammunition, provision, and magazines of corn, was plundered and laid
in ashes, and many of the inhabitants who had concealed themselves
perished in the flames. This service performed, the troops resumed
their march, and laid several other towns and villages in ashes; an
act of necessary severity, which excited painful feelings in the
breasts of the brave men who executed it. Colonel Grant observes, in
his narrative of these transactions, published in the South Carolina
Gazette,--"I could not help pitying them; their villages were agreeably
situated, their houses neatly built and well provided, having abundance
of everything; they must be pretty numerous, for Estatoe and Sugartown
consisted at least of two hundred houses, and every other village of at
least one hundred houses. After killing all we could find, and burning
every house, we marched to Keowee, and arrived on the 2nd of June,
after a march of sixty miles without sleeping, at Fort Prince George,
at four in the evening." This service was performed with the loss of
four men killed, and Lieutenants Marshal and Hamilton, of the ROYALS,

After this severe chastisement, pacific overtures were made to
the Cherokee nation, but without the desired effect; and a second
expedition into their country was resolved upon. For this purpose
the six companies of the ROYALS and other troops were in motion at
day-break on the morning of the 24th of June, taking with them six
days' provision, and arrived that night at Orkonee Creek. Thence
proceeding on the following day through woody dells and narrow tracts
and chasms between mountains, reached War-woman's Creek in the
evening. Continuing the march on the 26th through a country wild and
rugged beyond description, the detachment arrived on the following
morning within eighteen miles of the Indian town called Etchöey, and
the troops proceeded forward with caution. A few horsemen marched in
front and on each flank,--the grenadiers and light infantry scoured
the thickets,--and the four battalion companies of the ROYALS marched
in the rear. Arriving at a valley covered with trees and bushes, and
overlooked by hills on both sides, Captain Morrison and a few men
pushed forward into the thickets, and were assailed by a straggling
fire, which proved fatal to the captain, and the next moment the woods
echoed with the dismal howlings of a thousand Indians raising their
war-cry. Undaunted by this appalling noise, the grenadiers and light
infantry rushed forward amongst the trees to encounter the Indian
warriors,--the four battalion companies of the ROYALS supported the
attack,--while the Highlanders pushed forward on the left to cut off
the retreat of the Indians to the hills. The savage warriors soon gave
way,--the Highlanders intercepted them in their retreat,--the ROYALS
pressed upon the rear, and a number of Indians were slaughtered amongst
the trees on the side of the hill. The main body of the Indian army
appeared soon afterwards on the face of the mountain on the left of
the line of march, and, with frantic gestures and horrid sounds, bid
defiance to their white adversaries. The ROYALS, having gained the
front of the column, pushed forward to engage their fierce opponents
with distinguished bravery. The Indians opened a scattering fire, and
made the valley echo with their whooping and howling; but this noise
produced little effect on the soldiers, who dashed through the bushes
and thick foliage with a "valour, discipline, and steadiness, worthy of
admiration;" and, although the warriors kept up a sharp fire with their
rifles for some time, yet they eventually gave way. "The action lasted
about an hour. Captain Manley Williams, of the ROYALS, was killed: he
was truly a gentleman and an extreme good officer."[100] The ROYALS
had also eight private men killed; and Captain Peter Gordon, Ensigns
Edrington and Knight, one serjeant, and thirty-two private men, wounded.

The Indians fled from the field of battle towards Etchöey, to alarm
their women and children; and the soldiers pressing forward soon drew
near the town, when a band of warriors opened a straggling fire from
amongst some trees and then fled. The town was found deserted, but well
stored with corn. The Cherokees, finding themselves unable to resist
the troops, abandoned several other towns and fled to the mountains. At
the same time Colonel Montgomery, having no place of safety where he
could leave his wounded men, did not advance any farther, but retired
on the 28th of June to War-woman's Creek. The Indians, taking courage
from this retrograde movement, returned in swarms from the mountains,
and on the morning of the 29th the woods and bushes on the line of
march appeared crowded with warriors ready to attack the troops in
their retreat; but two officers and fifty men of the ROYALS being
sent out to scour the bushes on the right of the road, and the same
number of the Highlanders on the left, they were chased from their
lurking-places, and the retreat was continued to Fort Prince George.

The Commanding Officer, in his despatch, observes:--

"The fatigue was immense, yet not an officer or soldier complained.
The detachment has been all along in high spirits, judging nothing too
difficult. Never did greater harmony appear than amongst the corps of
our little army."

The two flank companies marched soon afterwards to Charleston, and
there embarked for New York, leaving the four battalion companies in
South Carolina under the command of Major Frederick Hamilton.

The four battalion companies left in quarters at New York, under
Lieut.-Colonel Forster, had in the meantime advanced up the country
to Crown Point, of which place the Lieut.-Colonel was appointed
Commandant. Embarking from thence on the 11th of August, the four
companies sailed, with several other corps under Colonel Haviland, down
Lake Champlain towards _Isle-aux-Noix_, and, having landed on the 16th,
encamped on the left bank of the River Richlieu. The enemy occupied a
fort near the river; but when the batteries opened their fire against
it, the French commandant retreated with the greater part of the
garrison, leaving an officer and 30 men to capitulate, who were made
prisoners. Two other forts were also abandoned by the French, and the
Isle-aux-Noix was taken possession of by the English. In the meantime a
British force, under General Amherst, had proceeded to Oswego, embarked
from thence on Lake Ontario, and, sailing down the River St. Lawrence,
invaded the French settlements in Canada on that side, and advanced
upon _Montreal_. Quebec had been captured in the preceding year; and
an army, commanded by Major-General Murray, was advancing from thence
towards Montreal. The four companies of the ROYALS and other troops,
under Colonel Haviland, were also advancing towards the same point by
lake Champlain and the River Richlieu; and the whole were united near
Montreal on the 7th of September. The French Governor, being unable to
withstand the forces opposed to him, surrendered on the following day;
and thus the conquest of Canada was effected with trifling loss. When
the French battalions laid down their arms their colours were demanded;
and their Commander answered:--"Although the several regiments had
brought with them their colours from France, they had, finding them
troublesome and of little use in this woody country, destroyed them."

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

While the second battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was thus engaged in
North America the first battalion had embarked from Ireland, under the
command of Lieut.-Colonel Horne Elphinston, and sailed for Quiberon
Bay, on the coast of France, which station was appointed for the
rendezvous of an expedition under the orders of Major-General Kingsley,
designed for the capture of one of the French islands in the Bay of
Biscay, called Belle-Isle; but the death of King George II. occurring
(25th October, 1760) before all the troops arrived, the expedition was
laid aside, and the battalion sailed back to Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1761]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The four companies of the second battalion left in South Carolina,
under Major Hamilton, were stationed at Charleston; and, the _Cherokee
Indians_ having rejected the proposed conditions for a peace, these
companies, with two of the 17th, three of the 22nd, and eight of
newly-raised provincials, proceeded up the country in March, 1761,
again to make war on the refractory Indians. These companies encamped
a short time on the banks of the Congaree, from whence they proceeded
in May to Fort Prince George, and were joined by twenty Chickasaw
warriors from the country on the east side of the Mississippi, and
by King Heigler, with twenty Catawbas warriors. From Fort Prince
George this company of regulars, provincials, and savages, advanced in
the early part of June against the middle Cherokees, through a most
difficult country. An officer of the expedition, in a letter published
in July, 1761, observes:--"The defiles and passes along War-woman's
Creek are horrid; on one side high and rocky mountains hanging over
our heads, the path rocky, and no wider than for a single pack-horse;
and on the other side a deep and frightful precipice, at the bottom
of which is the creek." On the 10th of June, as the troops were on
the march along the banks of a river, the Indian army was discovered,
arranged for battle on a high woody hill on the right of the line of
march, with a straggling line of warriors beyond the river. The Indian
riflemen opened an irregular fire, and immediately afterwards more
than a thousand warriors raised the dismal war-whoop, which echoed
in the woods and dells. This produced little effect on the soldiers,
who advanced in regular order to engage their savage antagonists. The
commanding officer observed, in his report:--"The troops behaved with
great spirit and coolness, and by the heavy fire of their platoons
dislodged the enemy from the advantageous posts which they had taken
possession of." The firing continued until two in the afternoon, when
the Indians were driven from their posts and fled. The loss of the
four companies of the ROYALS was three men killed; with Ensign Joseph
Knight, and six men wounded.

After this victory the expedition continued its advance into the
Cherokee country: the Indians fled to their mountain fastnesses; and
the soldiers laid fifteen towns and villages in ruins, destroyed the
crops of corn, and afterwards returned to Fort Prince George. This
proceeding convinced the Indians of their inability to resist the
King's forces, and they sued for peace, which was accordingly granted

The other four battalion companies of the second battalion of the
ROYAL Regiment, which had been engaged in the conquest of Canada in
the preceding year, had in the meantime proceeded from Montreal,
across the country, to New York, and, leaving the two flank companies
in garrison, embarked in April, 1761, for the West Indies, under the
orders of Colonel Lord Rollo. About this period the British government
had resolved to capture the Island of _Dominico_, which was declared
neutral by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, but had become
subject to France; and when the four companies of the ROYALS arrived
at Guadaloupe they were selected to form part of the expedition for
this service. Sailing from Guadaloupe on the 4th of June, the troops
soon arrived at Dominico, effected a landing on the 6th, under a
sharp fire of cannon and musketry, captured a flanking battery, and
took the town of Roseau, the capital of the island, in a few hours.
In the evening of the same day the troops assaulted and carried the
intrenchments above the town, and captured the French commandant and
several other officers; and no further resistance was made. Thus the
whole island was reduced with trifling loss; and Lord Rollo observed,
in his despatch:--"As to the King's troops, I cannot enough applaud the
coolness and intrepidity with which they acted on this occasion."

[Sidenote: 1762]

Leaving Dominico in December, the four companies of the ROYALS
proceeded to Barbadoes, where a body of troops was assembled, under the
orders of Major General the Hon. Robert Monckton, for an attack on the
French island of _Martinico_. A landing was effected in the early part
of January, 1762, and the island was reduced in the succeeding month.
"I cannot," observes the general, in his despatch, "find words to
render that ample justice which is due to the valour of His Majesty's
troops which I have the honour to command. The difficulties they had
to encounter in the attack of an enemy possessed of every advantage of
art and nature were great; and their perseverance in surmounting these
obstacles furnishes a noble example of British spirit."

While the contest at Martinico was in progress, the four companies of
the ROYALS which had been engaged in the war with the Indians embarked
from Charleston, and sailed to the West Indies under the orders
of Colonel Grant. War had, in the meantime, been declared against
Spain; an attack on the Spanish settlements in the West Indies had
been resolved upon; and the four companies of the ROYALS were placed
under the orders of General the Earl of Albemarle, to proceed against
the valuable settlement of the _Havannah_, in the island of Cuba.
Proceeding through the Straits of Bahama, the expedition arrived within
six leagues of the Havannah on the 6th of June; a landing was effected
on the following day; and on the 9th the troops took up a position
between Coximar and the Moro. The Moro fort being the key-position of
the extensive works which covered the town, the capture of this place
was of great importance; and the four companies of the ROYAL Regiment
formed part of the force destined to make the attack on this formidable
fortress. The hardships endured in carrying on the operations were
very great: a thin soil, hardly sufficient to cover the troops in
their approaches, a scarcity of water, and the labour of dragging the
artillery several miles over a rocky country, and under a burning
sun, were happily overcome by the unanimity which existed between
the land and sea forces. The progress made in erecting batteries,
carrying forward approaches, and sapping and mining the works, with
the fire of the artillery, having alarmed the Spanish governor, he
resolved to attempt to relieve the Moro. 1500 men were ferried over
the harbour, and they made three separate attacks on the British line;
the four companies of the ROYALS were brought forward to sustain the
posts, and the Spaniards were repulsed, with considerable loss. The
siege was afterwards continued with vigour; two mines were sprung; a
practicable breach was made, and a detachment of the ROYALS was ordered
to form part of the storming party,[101] under Lieut.-Colonel Stuart,
of the 90th Regiment. The attack was made on the 30th of July. LIEUT.
CHARLES FORBES, of the ROYALS, led the assault, and, ascending the
breach with signal gallantry, formed his men on the top, and soon drove
the enemy from every part of the ramparts. The garrison was taken by
surprise; the Spanish commander, Don Louis de Velasco, exerted himself
to save the fortress; and, while endeavouring to rally his men, he was
mortally wounded. The confusion amongst the ranks of the enemy was thus
augmented; nearly 150 Spaniards were killed, 400 threw down their arms
and were made prisoners, and the rest were either killed in the boats,
or drowned in attempting to escape to the Havannah. As Lieutenants
Forbes, of the ROYALS, Nugent, of the 9th, and Holroyd, of the 90th
Regiments, were congratulating each other on their success, the two
latter were killed by a party of desperate Spaniards, who fired from
the light-house. Lieutenant Forbes, being exasperated at the death of
his companions, attacked the light-house with a few men, and put all in
it to the sword.

The capture of the Moro facilitated the attack on the Havannah; and on
the 11th of August a new series of batteries opened so well-directed a
fire that at two o'clock in the afternoon the guns of the garrison were
silenced, and flags of truce were hung out from every part of the town
and from the ships in the harbour. The capitulation was signed on the
13th, and on the following day the British troops took possession of
this valuable settlement. Three Spanish men-of-war, with a company's
ship, were found sunk at the entrance of the harbour, nine men-of-war
were delivered up to the victors, and two were found upon the stocks.
The loss sustained by the ROYAL Regiment in this important service was
Lieutenants Cook and Ashe, 1 serjeant, and 31 rank and file, killed;
Captain Balfour, Lieutenant Ruth, Ensign Keating, 2 serjeants, 1
drummer, and 75 rank and file, wounded; two rank and file missing; 3
men dead of their wounds, and 12 from diseases arising from the climate
and severe exertions in carrying on the siege.

The British government having withdrawn many troops from North America
to the West Indies, the French sent an armament across the Atlantic,
and took possession of St. John's, Newfoundland. Detachments were
immediately ordered from the British garrisons to dislodge the enemy;
and the two flank companies of the second battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment, having been left in North America, were employed in this
service, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel William Amherst. A landing
was effected, on the 13th of September, at Torbay, and the troops
gained possession of the strong post of Kitty Vittiy. A detachment was
sent to the top of a high rock which commanded the ford, and under
cover of the fire of these men the light companies of the ROYAL and
Montgomery's Highlanders passed the river. The grenadiers of the ROYAL
and 77th Regiments supported the attack; and the French were driven
from their post on a hill beyond the river. Two other heights were
afterwards carried; and on the 17th, a battery being ready to open its
fire on the fort, the French commander surrendered.

In November of this year General the Hon. James St. Clair died at
Dysart; and the Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment was conferred on his
cousin, Sir Henry Erskine, from the Twenty-fifth Regiment.

[Sidenote: 1763]

[Sidenote: 1764]

At the peace in 1763 the Havannah was restored to Spain; and the
several companies of the second battalion were withdrawn from North
America and the West Indies, and sailed for England. In 1764 this
battalion proceeded to Scotland, where it remained four years.

[Sidenote: 1765]

Sir Henry Erskine died in August, 1765, and was succeeded in the
Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment by John Marquis of Lorne, afterwards
Duke of Argyle.

[Sidenote: 1768]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In January, 1768, the first battalion embarked from Ireland for
Gibraltar, and was stationed in garrison at that important fortress for
several years.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1771]

The second battalion remained in Scotland until the spring of 1768,
when it returned to England; and in April, 1771, it embarked with the
51st and 63rd Regiments for the island of Minorca, to relieve the 3rd,
11th, and 67th Regiments.

[Sidenote: 1775]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1776]

The first battalion was relieved from garrison duty at Gibraltar in
the autumn of 1775, and arrived in England in December of the same
year. The second battalion was also relieved at Minorca in a few
weeks afterwards, and arrived in England in February, 1776; and both
battalions remained in Britain until the autumn of 1780.

[Sidenote: 1780]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The contest on the subject of taxation between Great Britain and her
North American Colonies having given rise to hostilities in 1775, the
insurgents were abetted by France, Spain, and Holland. The French
monarch openly declared in favour of the rebellious colonists in 1778,
the Spaniards in 1779, and a secret treaty between the Dutch and
Americans was discovered in 1780. Thus the contest assumed a formidable
character; hostile proceedings extended from North America to the
West Indies; and in November, 1780, the first battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment embarked from Portsmouth to take part in the contest.

[Sidenote: 1781]

On arriving in the West Indies the ROYALS proceeded, with other troops
commanded by Major-General Vaughan, and a naval force under Sir
George Brydges Rodney, against the Dutch island of _St. Eustatia_,
which surrendered on the 3rd of February, 1781, together with the
neighbouring isles of _St. Martin_ and _Saba_. Property to an immense
amount was captured on this occasion, and a severe blow was thus
inflicted on the Dutch.

[Sidenote: 1782]

The first battalion was afterwards stationed on the island of _St.
Christopher_, together with the flank companies of the 15th, and
a detachment of the Royal Artillery, which, with a few militia,
constituted the whole military force on the island, and was commanded
by LIEUT.-COL. THOMAS FRASER of the ROYALS, "a brave old officer,"[102]
who acted as Brigadier-General under the Governor, Major-General
Thomas Shirley.

In the early part of January, 1782, a French naval force, and a fleet
of transports with an army on board, appeared before the island;
and the commander of the British troops, being unable to oppose so
formidable a host, retired to Brimstone Hill, where he was joined
by the governor with a few militia. Unfortunately, the principal
inhabitants were in the interest of the enemy; so much so, that twelve
brass 24-pounders, two 13-inch mortars, and a quantity of ammunition,
sent from England for their defence, were suffered, by the Council
and Assembly of the island, to lie in a useless state at the foot
of Brimstone Hill. The French Commander, the Marquis de Bouillé,
immediately landed 8000 men and a formidable train of artillery,
and advanced towards the hill on which the garrison had taken post.
The ground occupied by the ROYALS, flank companies of the 15th, and
militia, was about 200 yards in diameter, and remarkably strong; but
the fortifications were old and in a ruinous state, and the troops had
no intrenching tools: they, however, resolved to defend the place as
long as possible, in hopes of being relieved.

Although the French had so great a superiority of numbers they did not
venture to attack the little band of stout-hearted Britons on Brimstone
Hill by storm, but commenced the siege in regular form,--breaking
ground on Sommerfall's estate on the north-west side, and on Rawlin's
estate on the old road-side. The French artillery opened its fire on
the 19th of January, and from that day a storm of balls and bombs
rattled round Brimstone Hill with increasing fury, until the houses
on the heights were battered to pieces, and the old works were nearly

During this period Rear-Admiral Hood appeared before the island with a
British naval and land force, and a body of troops effected a landing
on the 29th of January; but the French had so great a superiority of
numbers, and they had completely surrounded Brimstone Hill, so that
these few troops could not be of any use in attempting to save the
island, and they re-embarked.

The fire of the French batteries had, in the meantime, dismounted or
disabled nearly all the guns on the hill; several large breaches had
also been made in the works on the north-west side of the fort; the
garrison was reduced by sickness and other casualties to about 500
men; the want of intrenching tools rendered it impossible for the men
either to repair the damaged works or throw up intrenchments; the
provision-stores had also been destroyed by the French batteries; and
the few remaining men fit for service had to be under arms every night,
expecting the enemy to storm the hill. Yet, under all these disasters,
the garrison evinced that valour, firmness, and constancy, for which
the British soldier has been distinguished at periods of extreme danger
and privation.

At length the governor and commander of the forces "thought they should
be wanting in humanity to the brave soldiers who had behaved so long
with such fidelity and courage if they should subject them to all the
horrors of an assault, which, from the superior numbers of the enemy,
and the ruinous condition of the place, could not fail to succeed. They
therefore proposed a cessation of arms on the 12th of February, for
adjusting the terms of capitulation, which was done, as the Marquis de
Bouillé did not impose hard terms on the soldiers of a garrison who
had acquitted themselves so well and had suffered so much."[103]

The garrison marched through the breach with drums beating and colours
flying, and, having laid down their arms, the militia proceeded to
their homes, and the regular troops were sent to England, on condition
that they should be considered as prisoners of war until exchanged.
Brigadier-General Fraser observed, in his despatch:--"Notwithstanding
the event has proved unfortunate, I should be wanting in doing justice
to the troops under my command if I concluded without saying that
both officers and soldiers deserve the highest commendation. Under a
constant fire of shot and shells, night and day (that I doubt has,
in any instance, been exceeded), the officers showed a constant and
universal cheerfulness, and by their example the soldiers bore the
greatest fatigue with a firmness that deserves my acknowledgments."
The loss sustained by the battalion during this siege was, Lieutenants
Wilson and Clerk, Quarter-master Shungar, 3 serjeants, 2 drummers, and
22 rank and file, killed; Captains Wallace and Buckeridge, Surgeon
Young, 6 serjeants, 4 drummers, and 84 rank and file, wounded; 2
private men missing.

After the capitulation the battalion proceeded to England, where it
arrived in May, and, its exchange having been settled, it resumed
military duty.

[Sidenote: Both Batts.]

On the 9th of May, 1782, the Duke of Argyle was removed to the 3rd Foot
Guards; and the Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment was conferred on Lord
Adam Gordon, fourth son of Alexander, second Duke of Gordon.

[Sidenote: 1783]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1784]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1790]

Both battalions remained in England until the autumn of 1783, when,
peace having been concluded, the second battalion embarked for Ireland,
from whence it proceeded, in the following year, to Gibraltar to
relieve the Hanoverian corps, which had been performing duty in that
garrison during the war. At the same time the first battalion proceeded
from England to Ireland, where it remained until January, 1790, when
it embarked for the West Indies to relieve the 3rd Foot, and on its
arrival at its destination it was stationed at Jamaica.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1793]

Meanwhile a revolution had broken out in France; and in 1793 the French
Monarch, Louis XVI., was beheaded by his subjects. Anarchy, confusion,
and bloodshed prevailed in that kingdom, and the revolutionary party
sought to involve other nations in the like horrors. War was the
result. A powerful party, with principles favourable to monarchy,
still existed in France; and, although the kingdom was governed by
republicans, who maintained their authority by the terrors of the
guillotine, yet many patriots stood forward with boldness in the cause
of royalty; and a union took place between the cities of Marseilles,
Lyons, and Toulon, in favour of Louis XVII., which alarmed the ruling
powers. A republican army was sent against them, and Marseilles
immediately surrendered. At the same time the inhabitants of the
celebrated port of _Toulon_, the principal station of the French navy,
joined with Admiral Turgot in proposing a negotiation with Admiral
Lord Hood, who commanded a British naval force in the Mediterranean,
and the port was taken possession of in August, 1793, by the British,
in the name of Louis XVII. The French general had no sooner obtained
possession of Marseilles than he advanced against Toulon. Strenuous
exertions were made to procure troops to defend the place: besides
French loyalists and a few British troops, detachments of Spaniards,
Neapolitans, and Sardinians, were procured, and the second battalion of
the ROYAL Regiment embarked from Gibraltar to take part in this service.

The battalion landed at Toulon towards the end of October, and marched
on the evening of the same day to an out-post called _Les Sablettes_,
where it was partially engaged with the enemy. Three companies were
afterwards detached to _Fort Mulgrave_, an important post on the
heights of Balaguier, which covered the town and harbour. This post was
attacked on the evening of the 15th of November by a strong body of
French republicans, who were repulsed and driven back. Lieut.-General
O'Hara stated in his despatch on this subject:--"I have particular
pleasure in mentioning that, on this occasion, the very spirited
exertions of the British troops stationed in Fort Mulgrave, consisting
of a detachment of the second battalion of the First, or ROYAL Regiment
of Foot, commanded by Captain Duncan Campbell, and of a detachment
of the Royal Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Lemoine, were the
principal means of repulsing the enemy, and of saving that important
post. Our loss, including Spaniards, Neapolitans, and Sardinians,
amounted only to 61. Among the wounded were Captain Duncan Campbell, of
the ROYALS, and Lieutenant Lemoine, of the Artillery."

The enemy afterwards erected a battery on the heights of _Arenes_,
which much annoyed one of the principal out-posts; and a detachment
of the ROYALS formed part of the force, consisting of 400 British,
300 Sardinians, 600 Neapolitans, 600 Spaniards, and 400 French,
commanded by Major-General David Dundas, which issued from Toulon on
the morning of the 30th of November, crossed the river, traversed the
olive-grounds, ascended the heights of Arenes, and carried the battery
with signal gallantry. British valour was conspicuous on this occasion;
but, unfortunately, an excess of ardour led to a disastrous result.
The French fled in dismay down the hill; the British and other troops,
following in full career, passed the valley, and ascended other heights
at a considerable distance; and when out of breath, and exhausted with
the chase, they encountered a superior body of fresh adversaries, and
were forced to retreat, and Lieut.-General O'Hara was taken prisoner.
Sir Gilbert Elliot, Bart., who was an eye-witness, observed, in a
letter to the Secretary of State:--"It is a real consolation to know
that the courage of the British was conspicuous from the beginning of
the action to the end; and that an excess of that good quality was
the true and only cause of the miscarriage." The ROYALS lost, on this
occasion Lieutenant M'Kellar, 1 serjeant, and 9 rank and file, killed;
Lieutenants Mackenzie and Colin M'Donald, with 2 serjeants, 1 drummer,
and 32 rank and file, wounded; Captains Reeves and Finnay wounded, and
taken prisoners; Lieutenant Bird, 2 serjeants, 1 drummer, and 17 rank
and file, missing.

The defence of Toulon with only 12,000 men of five different nations,
against an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, was found a difficult
service. The garrison had to occupy a circumference of fifteen miles,
by a number of posts, which required 9000 men for their protection.
In the middle of December the republican army attacked the line of
posts with great fury, and forced a passage at several places. The
ROYALS were engaged in the defence of _Fort Mulgrave_, and lost 1
serjeant, 1 drummer, and 18 rank and file. After the line of posts
was forced it was found impossible to maintain the town; the French
shipping, magazines, and arsenal, were consequently set on fire, and
the men of the several nations embarked on board the fleet on the 19th
of December. Detachments of the troops took part with the seamen in
the work of destruction; and Lieutenant Ironmonger, of the ROYALS,
is stated to have been the last officer who quitted the dock-yard
gates. With the republican army which attacked Toulon was an officer
of artillery, named NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, who afterwards arrived at the
dignity of Emperor of France.

[Sidenote: 1794]

After the evacuation of Toulon the fleet remained five weeks in the bay
of Hieres, during which time arrangements were made for attacking the
island of _Corsica_: the fleet weighed anchor on the 24th of January,
1794, but was dispersed by a gale of wind, and the ROYALS were driven
to one of the ports in the island of Elba, where they remained several
days. On the 5th of February they again put to sea, and on the evening
of the 7th landed, with the 11th, 25th, 30th, 50th, 51st, and 69th
Regiments, in an open bay in the Gulf of Fiorenzo, in the island of
Corsica. On the following day the ROYALS and 51st were detached, under
Lieut.-Colonel (afterwards Sir John) Moore, with a small howitzer
and a six-pounder carried on the shoulders of a party of seamen,
against Fornelli Tower, and after traversing eight miles of rocky
mountainous country, destitute of roads, arrived at the heights above
the tower, but found the distance too great for the light artillery to
reach it; and the two battalions afterwards retired. Batteries were
subsequently erected against _Convention Redoubt_, which was considered
the key to the works on this part of the island; and, the fire of
the artillery having produced some effect, the ROYALS, commanded by
Captain Mackenzie, and 51st Regiment, moved from their camp-ground on
the morning of the 17th of February to attack the advanced point of
the redoubt; at the same time the 50th Regiment marched against the
centre of the work, and the 21st proceeded along the sea-shore; the
whole commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Moore. After traversing some rocky
grounds covered with myrtle-bushes with great caution, the troops
arrived in the vicinity of the redoubt unperceived by the enemy; then,
rushing forward, entered the works, and with their bayonets drove
the French and Corsicans down the steep hill in the rear. The enemy
soon afterwards evacuated the town of Fiorenzo, with the towers and
batteries in the gulf, and retreated to the Tower of Tichine, situated
on a high mountain between Fiorenzo and Bastia, an important sea-port
and the capital of the island. Speaking of this event, Lieut.-General
Dundas observed in his despatch,--"The conduct of Lieut.-Colonel
Moore, of the several commanding officers, and of the officers and
soldiers under his orders, was firm and judicious, and merits every

Bastia was afterwards besieged by sea and land, and surrendered on
the 22nd of May. An assembly of the Deputies afterwards agreed to
unite the island to Great Britain, which was performed with the
solemnities customary on such occasions. But _Calvi_, a fortified
town thirty-three miles from the capital, and situated on a tongue of
land which forms one of the most beautiful harbours in the island,
still held out; and the ROYALS formed part of the land force commanded
by Lieut.-General Stuart selected for the siege of this place. The
battalion accordingly embarked from Bastia, and, having landed near
Calvi on the 19th of June, took post on a ridge of mountains three
miles from the town. Owing to the numerous rocky heights and steep
mountains before the town, the soldiers and seamen had to make roads
along difficult precipices, to drag the guns up the mountains, and to
carry up materials for erecting the batteries, which they performed
with cheerful alacrity. The fire of the heavy artillery having made
a practicable breach on the west side of the Mozello, on the 18th of
July the light infantry and ROYALS, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Moore,
"proceeded with a cool, steady confidence, and unloaded arms, towards
the enemy, forced their way through a smart fire of musketry, and,
regardless of live shells flung into the breach, or the additional
defence of pikes, stormed the Mozello; while Lieut.-Colonel Wemyss,
with the Royal Irish Regiment, and two pieces of cannon, under the
direction of Lieutenant Lemoine, equally regardless of opposition,
carried the enemy's battery on the left, and forced the trenches
without firing a shot."[104] The capture of these posts proved of great
importance, and, the siege being continued with vigour, the garrison
surrendered on the 10th of August. The loss sustained by the 2nd
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was very trifling, viz., about four men
killed and Captain Colin M'Donald and seven men wounded. The battalion
was afterwards stationed in garrison at Calvi, where it remained nearly
two years.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The republican principles which produced the revolution in France soon
extended to the French West India settlements; and the inhabitants of
colour in the island of _St. Domingo_ (now the black empire of Hayti),
having imbibed the doctrine of equality, rose in arms against the
whites, and carried fire and bloodshed through the settlement. Many
of the planters having, from the distracted state of France, no hope
of relief from that country, were desirous of placing themselves under
the protection of Great Britain: a body of troops was accordingly sent
to their aid, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Whitelocke; and while
the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was engaged in the defence of
Toulon and the capture of Corsica, the 1st battalion embarked from
Jamaica and sailed to St. Domingo.

Much resistance was met with from the republican troops and revolted
negroes on the island. In February, 1794, the light company of the
ROYALS advanced against the fortress of _L'Acal_, in the vicinity of
Leogane. Part of the force designed for this service was embarked in
transports, and the remainder, including the light company of the
ROYALS, proceeded by land. The wind proving unfavourable, the troops
in transports could not disembark; the remainder, however, advanced
against the fort,--ascended the hill, which was rendered difficult by
trees placed in all directions,--and, attacking the enemy with fixed
bayonets, drove them from their works. After obtaining possession of
the fort, two officers and thirteen private men were killed by the
explosion of a magazine, which was fired by a negro recently from
Africa, who did not know the use of gunpowder. One of the officers thus
killed was Captain Morshead, of the light company of the ROYALS, who
was wounded in the assault of the fort. Captain Hutchinson,[105] of
the ROYALS, who was doing duty with the artillery, was wounded at the
commencement of the attack, but he continued at his post of duty until
the fort was carried.

Part of the battalion was afterwards engaged in an unsuccessful attack
on _Bombarde_, in which service sixteen men were killed and twenty-six
taken prisoners. The attack was made before day-break in the morning,
and, the retreat being sudden, ENSIGN JOHN GARSTON, of the ROYALS, with
eight men of his company, became separated from the detachment, and,
losing the road, wandered in a wrong direction. Towards mid-day he
fell in with a patrol of six men of the enemy, and was called upon to
surrender; but this brave young officer answered by a threat to fire
upon them if they attempted to interrupt him. He continued to stray
farther from his intended point; the enemy followed at a distance, and
again called upon him to surrender, but he constantly refused. At night
the patrol, fatigued with following him over dry and sandy plains,
retired. The ensign and his little party continued to wander--fainting
with hunger, thirst, and fatigue--two days and a night, during which
time two men died of want and weariness, having found nothing but
the fruit of Indian fig-trees and aloes. At length they arrived at a
demolished port, where they found an old fishing-boat, in which they
embarked, and arrived on the morning of the third day at the entrance
of the bay of the mole St. Nicholas, from whence the fishermen brought
them into the town.[106]

Lieutenant M'Kellar, of the ROYALS, who commanded the light company
after the death of Captain Morshead, occupied an unfinished block-house
near the fortress of _L'Acal_, where he was attacked by the enemy; but
he repulsed the assailants with signal gallantry, and his conduct on
this occasion was mentioned in orders.

_Port-au-Prince_, the capital of the French possessions in the island,
was still in the power of the republicans, and the siege of this place
was resolved upon. The flank companies of the battalion took part in
this service, and the enemy evacuated the town on the 4th of June, and
it was immediately occupied by the British troops. Unfortunately, a
malignant fever broke out in the town, and the British lost 40 officers
and 600 rank and file within two months after the surrender of the

A detachment of the ROYALS, under Lieutenant Clunes, formed part of the
garrison of 120 men at _Fort Bizzeton_, which was attacked on the 5th
of December by 2000 of the enemy, who were repulsed with considerable
loss. Major-General Sir Adam Williamson, speaking of this affair
in his public despatch, stated,--"Captain Grant (13th) and his two
Lieutenants, Clunes of the ROYALS and Hamilton of the 22nd Regiment,
merit every attention that can be shown them. They were all three
severely wounded early in the attack, but tied up their wounds and
continued to defend their posts. It has been a very gallant defence,
and does them great honour." The loss of this little garrison was, one
serjeant and four rank and file killed; three officers, one serjeant,
and thirteen rank and file, wounded.

[Sidenote: 1795]

A detachment of the battalion was engaged in the defence of an
out-post at the commencement of the year 1795; and Lieutenant Spencer
was wounded, and Lieutenant Watts killed, by the blowing up of a

[Sidenote: 1796]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The 2nd battalion had, in the mean time, remained in garrison at Calvi,
in the island of Corsica; but the French having violated the neutrality
of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and taken possession of the city of
Leghorn, directed the cannon of the fortresses against the British
shipping in the road, and seized on British property; it was believed
they had the same design against Porto Ferrajo, in the island of Elba;
and the ROYALS were withdrawn from Corsica in July, 1796, to take
possession of this place. Meanwhile the success of the French arms in
various parts of Europe, particularly the victorious career of General
Bonaparte in Italy, had produced a revolution of feeling amongst the
inhabitants of Corsica. Bonaparte was a native of the island, and
the Corsicans gloried in him as a man who reflected honour on his
country; this produced a feeling of regret that the island had become
annexed to Great Britain, and they began to plot measures to effect its
separation. It appearing evident that the cost of the defence would
exceed the advantage derived from the possession of the island, it was
evacuated in October, and the remainder of the troops proceeded to
Elba, where the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was stationed.

[Sidenote: 1797]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The 1st battalion had, in the meantime, been much reduced in numbers by
its arduous services in the island of St. Domingo; and in May, 1797, it
returned to England, from whence it was ordered to Scotland to recruit.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The French republic had concluded a treaty of peace with Spain, and
entered into negociations with the Portuguese; but the Queen of
Portugal refused to ratify the treaty, and agreed to receive British
troops into several ports of Portugal. The 2nd battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment was, in consequence, withdrawn in the summer of 1797 from the
island of Elba to proceed to Portugal; calling at Gibraltar, it there
received drafts from the several regiments in that garrison, and, on
its arrival in the river Tagus, it was placed in garrison at Cascaes, a
small sea-port in the district of Torres Vedras, fifteen miles west of
Lisbon, where the battalion was stationed during the remainder of this
and the following year.

[Sidenote: 1798]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1799]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In 1798 the 1st battalion, having recruited its numbers, proceeded
from Great Britain to Ireland; and in the beginning of 1799 the 2nd
battalion was withdrawn from Portugal, and after its arrival in England
it was encamped on Barham Downs.

Bonaparte was at this period in Egypt, French troops were also
engaged in operations on the Rhine, on the Danube, and elsewhere;
and a favourable opportunity appeared to present itself for rescuing
Holland from the power of France, into which it had fallen after the
unfortunate issue of the campaign in the Netherlands in 1794. A plan
of co-operation was concerted between Great Britain and Russia, in the
expectation that the Dutch would rise in arms against the French, and
in favour of the Prince of Orange, and, aided by the Anglo-Russian
force, would exert themselves to effect their emancipation. The 2nd
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was selected to form part of the
expedition to Holland, and it sailed from Deal on the 13th of August,
with several other corps commanded by General Sir Ralph Abercombie,
and, after some delay from contrary winds, landed on the 27th on the
Dutch coast, near the _Helder_. A considerable body of French and Dutch
troops assembled near the point of debarkation, some sharp fighting
occurred, and in the evening the enemy retreated to a position six
miles in his rear. The garrison in the Helder also abandoned its
post, which was taken possession of on the following day by the 2nd
battalion of the ROYALS and the 92nd Regiment. A numerous train of
heavy and field artillery was found in this important post; and two
days afterwards the Dutch fleet surrendered without striking a blow,
and hoisted the colours of the Prince of Orange.

The Dutch people did not, however, manifest a disposition to rise
against the French; but on the 10th of September the united French and
Dutch forces attacked Sir Ralph Abercombie's position near _Shagen_,
and were repulsed by the steady valour of the British troops. The
British commander observed in his despatch,--"It is impossible for
me to do full justice to the good conduct of the troops." The 2nd
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment had Lieutenant Gordon and three private
men wounded on this occasion.

Additional forces were sent from England, and His Royal Highness the
Duke of York arrived and took the command of the army. A Russian
force also arrived; and on the 19th of September an attack was made
on the enemy's position, but, owing to the inconsiderate valour of
the Russians, it failed. On the 2nd of October another attack was
made on the enemy's positions between Bergen and _Egmont-op-Zee_, in
which the ROYALS had another opportunity of signalizing themselves.
"The points where this well-fought battle were principally contested
were from the sea-shore in front of Egmont, extending along the sandy
desert, or hills, to the heights above Bergen, and it was sustained by
the British columns under those highly-distinguished officers General
Sir Ralph Abercrombie and Lieut.-General Dundas, whose exertions, as
well as the gallantry of the brave troops they led, cannot have been
surpassed by any former instance of British valour[107]." The ROYALS
were engaged with the enemy's troops occupying the sand-hills in front
of Egmont-op-Zee, and lost on this occasion seven private men killed,
Captains Barns and Hunter, Lieutenants Ainslie, Edmonston, Patten,
Bowe, Fraser, and Johnstone, Ensign Birmingham, four serjeants, and
sixty-one rank and file wounded, Lieutenant Hope wounded and taken
prisoner, and ten rank and file missing.

The gallant conduct evinced by the battalion on this occasion was
afterwards rewarded with the Royal permission to bear the word
"EGMONT-OP-ZEE" on its colours.

The Dutch people were not aroused by these gallant exertions on their
behalf to make any attempt to deliver themselves from the power of
France; and, several circumstances, calculated to render the expedition
unsuccessful having occurred, it was decided that, instead of fighting
for a people who were not resolved to be free, the troops should be
withdrawn from Holland. A convention was in consequence concluded with
the enemy, and the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL Regiment returned to

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The 1st battalion was stationed during the whole of this year in

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The 2nd battalion did not remain long on home service before it
was again ordered to embark; and it formed part of the force under
Lieut.-General Sir James Pulteney which landed on the 25th of August,
1800, on the coast of Galicia, in Spain, with the view of attacking
the strong fortress of _Ferrol_, a sea-port situated at the influx of
the river Javia into the extensive inlet called the Bay of Corunna.
Having made good their landing, the troops advanced to the heights
which overlook the town; some sharp skirmishing took place, and the
ROYALS had one private soldier killed, and Lieutenant Edmonston and
one private soldier wounded. After viewing the town and its defences,
Sir James Pulteney resolved not to lose time in attacking this place,
but to re-embark the troops and proceed to join General Sir Ralph
Abercrombie, who commanded a British force in the Mediterranean. The
united forces afterwards sailed to _Cadiz_, and summoned the governor
to surrender; but a disease was ravaging the city at the time, and
the fleet quitted the coast for fear of infection, and proceeded to

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

During the summer the 1st battalion quitted Ireland, and proceeded to
Scotland, where it continued during the remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

After its arrival at Gibraltar the 2nd battalion was selected to form
part of an expedition under the orders of Sir Ralph Abercrombie,
designed to drive the French army out of Egypt; and in November it
sailed from Gibraltar to the island of Malta, where the men were
disembarked to refresh themselves after having been many months at
sea. The abundance of fresh provisions which the island afforded, the
comforts of the beautiful city of Valetta, with the luxury of the
scenery, soon restored and reanimated the troops; and on the 20th of
December the expedition sailed for the Bay of Marmorice, in Asiatic
Turkey, where the fleet arrived in nine days.

[Sidenote: 1801]

Here the troops remained for several weeks, in a bay surrounded by
mountains, which presented to the eye the most picturesque scenery
imaginable; the regiments were successively disembarked and exercised;
Turkish horses were purchased for the cavalry; gun-boats were procured
to cover the landing of the troops in Egypt, and a plan of co-operation
was arranged with the Turks. The delays of the Turks detained the fleet
some time; but on the 23rd of February, 1801, it again put to sea, when
a gale of wind dispersed the Greek and Turkish vessels. The British
continued their course, and having arrived on the 1st of March off the
celebrated city of Alexandria, the ancient capital of Egypt, they bore
down at sunset into the bay of _Aboukir_.

The 2nd battalion of the ROYALS was formed in brigade with the 1st
and 2nd battalions of the 54th, and the 92nd Highlanders, commanded
by Major-General Coote, and formed part of the van-guard of 5000
men, which entered the boats on the morning of the 8th of March, to
effect a landing. At nine o'clock the boats moved forward, and as
they approached the shore, the French troops poured down a shower of
shot, shells, grape, and musketry, which cut the surface of the water
into deep furrows, and sank several of the boats. Yet the undaunted
Britons pressed forward;--the reserve leaped out of the boats on the
shore and formed as they advanced;--the 23rd and flank companies of
the 40th rushed up the heights in the face of dangers and difficulties
sufficient to intimidate ordinary men;--the 28th and 42nd also formed
and mounted the position;--while the Foot Guards and 58th prolonged
the attack;--and the ROYALS and 54th pushed forward to sustain their
brave companions in arms. A column of French infantry advancing through
a hollow way with fixed bayonets against the left flank of the Foot
Guards, encountered the ROYALS and 54th; the British pressed forward
to engage their antagonists with their characteristic ardour; the
French hesitated, fired a volley, and then retreated; and the ROYALS
and 54th continued their advance. The regiments, which first ascended
the enemy's position, had already gained considerable advantage, and
when the ROYALS reached the heights and joined in the attack, the
French retreated. They, however, maintained a scattered fire from the
rear sand-hills for about an hour and a half, when they were obliged
to retreat, with the loss of eight pieces of cannon and many horses.
Sir Ralph Abercrombie expressed his approbation of the conduct of
the troops in general orders in the following terms:--"The gallant
behaviour of the troops in the action of yesterday claims from the
Commander-in-Chief the warmest praise that he can bestow; and it is
with particular satisfaction that he observed their conduct marked
equally for ardent bravery, and by coolness, regularity, and order."
The loss of the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was--Lieutenant
Lyster, 1 serjeant, and 11 rank and file, killed; Captain---- M'Donald,
Lieutenants Graham and Fraser, 3 serjeants, and 40 rank and file,

In the evening after the action the victorious troops advanced three
miles on the road towards Alexandria; on the 10th they advanced three
miles further, and, owing to the depth of the sand, the men were three
hours proceeding that short distance. On the 12th they encamped near
Mandora Tower, and on the succeeding day marched through the wood
of date-trees to attack the enemy on the ridge of heights in front.
Some sharp fighting occurred, and the French were driven from their
position, and forced to retreat over the plains to their lines on the
heights before Alexandria. The ROYALS lost during this day's service 4
men killed and 21 wounded.

After this victory the British troops took up a position with their
right to the sea, and their left to the canal of Alexandria; and the
Arabs visited the camp and brought sheep, goats, fowls, eggs, and
everything the country afforded, and appeared happy to engage in a
friendly intercourse with their deliverers. On the 19th 500 Turkish
troops arrived and encamped three miles in the rear of the army. The
French at _Alexandria_ having been increased in numbers by troops from
the interior, advanced on the 21st of March to attack the British,
and the ROYALS had another opportunity of acquiring laurels on the
distant shores of Egypt. The battalion, being on the right of the
1st brigade, had its post in the centre of the front line, on the
left of the Foot Guards. As soon as the day dawned a column of French
grenadiers advanced, supported by a heavy line of infantry, to assault
this part of the position. The Foot Guards threw forward a line of
skirmishers; these being driven in, and the French column near, the
brigade opened its fire with great precision. The enemy attempted to
turn the left flank of the Guards, but was checked; and the ROYALS,
with the remainder of their brigade, coming forward at the moment to
engage the enemy, the French grenadiers were driven from their ground
and forced to retreat. A crowd of French sharp-shooters afterwards
advanced against the ROYALS and other regiments at this part of the
field, and the French artillery played incessantly. But the British
stood their ground manfully, and repelled the attacks of the enemy with
a constancy and valour which redounded to their honour. The French
were repulsed at every point of attack, and forced to retreat; and
at 10 o'clock A.M. the action ceased. The splendour of the victory
was, however, clouded with the fall of the British commander, Sir
Ralph Abercrombie, who was wounded in the action and died a few days
afterwards. The loss sustained by the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment was--9 rank and file killed; with Captain Goodson, Lieutenants
Gordon, M'Pherson, and Johnstone, 1 serjeant, and 68 rank and file,
wounded. Four days after the battle, between five and six thousand
Turks arrived. Soon afterwards a body of British and Turks traversed
the country to the city of _Rosetta_, situated near the mouth of one
of the great channels of the river Nile, a place distinguished by the
beauty of its environs, being completely embosomed in a grove of date,
banana, sycamore, orange, lemon, and pomegranate trees, while the lofty
palm-tree, towering over all, added magnificence to the landscape.
This place was soon captured; but the fort of St. Julian held out,
and, while the siege was in progress, the ROYALS marched across the
country to _Hamed_, on the Nile, five miles above Rosetta, where they
arrived on the 12th of April. A small force of British, Turks, and
Greeks, assembled at this place, to cover the siege, several skirmishes
occurred, and the ROYALS had two drummers and eight private men killed.

After the surrender of St. Julian, General Hutchinson, who commanded
the British forces in Egypt, having left a body of troops before
Alexandria, advanced with the remainder, on the 5th of May, along the
banks of the Nile, through a rich country, abounding in rice, sugar,
wheat, barley, and other necessaries and luxuries of life, and on the
7th of May drove the French from the post of _El-Aft_. He also forced
the enemy to quit their fortified post at _Rahmanie_, and to retire
through the desert to the city of _Cairo_, the metropolis of modern
Egypt. The ROYALS had three men wounded in the skirmish near Rahmanie.
The British and Turks continued their route along the banks of the
Nile, and arrived, on the 1st of June, within sight of the Pyramids.
On the 8th they encamped within a few miles of these stupendous
structures, where they halted several days; then advanced to _Cairo_
and commenced the siege of the city, and in a few days the French
surrendered the place.

The capture of the capital of Egypt added additional lustre to the
British arms; and the brave men, whose skill and prowess gained these
honours, were rewarded with the approbation of their Sovereign and the
thanks of Parliament. From Cairo the British and Turks retired down the
Nile, and proceeded to the vicinity of _Alexandria_, and, having driven
in the French out-posts, besieged the city, which was surrendered
in the beginning of September. The ROYALS had one serjeant and seven
private men killed before Alexandria, and also sustained considerable
loss from the effects of fatigue and climate.

The nations of Europe had witnessed with anxiety the progress of this
important struggle, and, when the veterans of France were overpowered,
the dawn of liberty appeared above the distant horizon.

The British troops having, by a display of gallantry and heroism which
exceeded the most sanguine expectations of their country, overcome the
boasted "_Invincible_" legions of Bonaparte, and forced the French
"_Army of the East_" to evacuate Egypt, from whence its ambitious and
tyrannical leader had vainly imagined he should be able to extend
his conquests throughout Asia, King George III. conferred upon the
ROYALS and other corps, which had thus exalted the military fame of
Great Britain, the honour of bearing on their colours the SPHYNX,
and the word "EGYPT," as a distinguished mark of His Majesty's royal
approbation of their conduct.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The 1st battalion had, in the meantime, marched from Scotland to
England; and it sailed on the 1st of January, 1801, from Portsmouth
for the West Indies, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Nicholson. A
combination had been entered into by the courts of Sweden, Denmark,
and Russia, to support the principles of an armed neutrality, contrary
to the stipulations of treaties, and injurious to the interests of
Great Britain; orders were in consequence issued for the attack of
the Swedish and Danish islands in the West Indies; and the ROYALS
joined the expedition, commanded by Lieut.-General Thomas Trigge, at
the island of St. Bartholomew, on the 22nd of March. On the 24th the
troops made good their landing on the Danish island of _St. Martin_.
After landing, the ROYALS, with the 11th and 2nd West India regiments,
proceeded to the French quarter and took possession of Lee Hill, which
commanded Fort Chesterfield. The artillery was dragged up the heights,
and preparations made for commencing the attack, when the governor

One wing of the battalion, and a detachment of the Royal Artillery,
were left at St. Martin's under Lieut.-Colonel Nicholson, who
was appointed to the command of the troops and the charge of
the administration of the island. The other wing, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel J. C. Cowell, proceeded with the expedition to the
island of _St. Thomas_, which surrendered, together with _St. John_,
and their dependencies, on the 28th of March; and on the 31st of the
same month the Danish island of _Santa Cruz_ was taken. The battalion
was then stationed, half at the island of St. Martin, and half at St.

In August, 1801, General Lord Adam Gordon died, and was succeeded in
the Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment by His Royal Highness the Duke of
Kent, from the 7th Royal Fusiliers.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In November of the same year the 2nd battalion was withdrawn from
Egypt, and proceeded to the island of Malta, where it remained upwards
of four months.

[Sidenote: 1802]

The victories gained by the British troops in Egypt, the West Indies,
and other parts of the globe, were followed by a treaty of peace, which
was concluded at Amiens; and in May, 1802, the 2nd battalion of the
ROYAL Regiment proceeded from Malta to Gibraltar.

[Sidenote: 1803]

It quitted Gibraltar in the beginning of 1803, and proceeded to
England. Soon after its arrival the war again broke out, and it was
ordered to the West Indies, where it arrived in June. It was inspected
at Barbadoes by Lieut.-General Greenfield, and immediately afterwards
proceeded with an expedition against the French island of _St. Lucia_.
The 1st division, consisting of the ROYALS and two field-pieces, landed
on the island in the afternoon of the 21st of June, under the orders
of Brigadier-General Brereton. The other corps followed; the French
out-posts were driven in, and the town of Castrées taken possession of.
On the following morning, before daylight, the ROYALS and 64th regiment
advanced to attack the strong post of _Morne Fortuné_ by storm. The
ROYALS led the assault in gallant style; the redoubt was carried with
fixed bayonets, and the enemy immediately surrendered. On the same day
Lieut.-General Greenfield issued a general order, in which he stated:--

"The Commander of the Forces has the honour to congratulate the troops
under his command on the gallant attack and capture of the fortress of
Morne Fortuné, and the unconditional surrender of the island of St.

"He shall have particular satisfaction in reporting to the King the
readiness with which the troops forming the expedition were embarked
on the shortest notice: he must, in particular, speak of the gallant
behaviour of the second battalion of the ROYALS."

The loss of the battalion on this occasion was 1 serjeant, and 8
rank and file, killed; Lieut.-Colonel Macdonald, Captain Chaloner, 2
serjeants, and 43 rank and file, wounded; and 1 rank and file missing.
Both the officers afterwards died of their wounds.

As a mark of His Majesty's approbation of the signal gallantry evinced
by the ROYALS on this occasion, they were permitted to bear the words
"SAINT LUCIA" on their colours.

After the capture of St. Lucia the expedition proceeded to _Tobago_,
where it arrived on the 30th of June. The troops landed without
opposition, and marched in column towards Scarborough; the French
governor, General Berthier, was summoned, and he surrendered the island
on the same day. The ROYALS were afterwards stationed at the island of
Tobago for several months.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The first battalion, which had been in the West Indies since 1801, was
employed in 1803, under Lieut.-General Greenfield, in capturing the
islands belonging to the Batavian republic. _Essequibo_ and _Demerara_
surrendered on the 20th of September, 1803; and the island of _Berbice_
surrendered to Lieut.-Colonel Robert Nicholson, of the ROYALS, on the
23rd of that month, when the Batavian garrison, of upwards of 600 men,
was made prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1804]

[Sidenote: 3rd and 4th Batts.]

While the first and second battalions were in the West Indies two
additional battalions were embodied at Hamilton, in North Britain,
on the 25th of December, 1804, and added to the establishment of
the FIRST, or ROYAL Regiment of Foot, which now consisted of four
battalions, all fit for active service.

[Sidenote: 1805]

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

Soon afterwards the fourth battalion marched to Stirling Castle, and,
after doing duty there a short time, embarked for Ireland.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

In May, 1805, the third battalion marched from Scotland to the south of

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1806]

In February of the same year the two flank companies of the second
battalion were detached from Tobago, for the defence of the island
of Antigua; and the battalion companies embarked for the defence of
Trinidad; and in July the whole returned to Tobago, where the battalion
remained until November of the same year, when, after transferring its
effective non-commissioned officers, drummers, and private men to the
first battalion, it embarked for England, and landed in January, 1806,
a mere skeleton.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

This year (1806) the fourth battalion quitted Ireland, and on its
arrival in England it was quartered at Horsham, and afterwards at
Bexhill barracks. The third battalion was also stationed, during the
winter of the same year, at Bexhill barracks.

[Sidenote: 1807]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In the meantime information arrived in England of the revolt of two
battalions of Sepoys, in the service of the East India Company,
at Vellore, and of their attack on a few companies of the King's
troops at that place in July, 1806; also of the alarming spirit of
insubordination evinced by the native troops in other parts of India;
and the second battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was immediately ordered
to embark for India, to strengthen the European force in that country.
When the order arrived the battalion only mustered about 500 men; but
it was completed in twenty-four hours to 1000, by volunteers from the
third and fourth battalions, then at Bexhill barracks. On the 17th of
April, 1807, it embarked at Portsmouth in six China ships, under the
orders of Lieut.-Colonel A. Stewart, arrived off the west coast of the
Malay peninsula in September following, and landed on the 18th of that
month on the Prince of Wales's Island.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

The third battalion had in the meantime proceeded to the island of
Jersey, from whence it embarked, in September, for Ireland.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

The fourth battalion, consisting, after it had transferred its
service-men to the second, of about 40 rank and file, embarked in April
of the same year at Portsmouth, for Scotland; arrived at Glasgow on the
29th of that month, and commenced recruiting its numbers.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1808]

While the second battalion remained at the Prince of Wales's Island
it lost about 100 men from disease. In November it embarked for the
continent of India, landed at Madras in December, and, marching into
the interior, was stationed at Wallajahbad and Bangalore, where it
remained until March, 1808, when it returned to Madras.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

During the summer of 1808 the fourth battalion, having recruited its
ranks, embarked from Scotland, and arrived in England in August.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1809]

The resistance of the Portuguese and Spaniards to the tyrannical
government of Napoleon had, in the meantime, occasioned a British force
to be sent to their aid; and Portugal had been freed from the power of
France. Spain was overrun by the legions of Napoleon; the Spaniards
were rising in arms in every quarter; and a British force was ordered
to their aid, under the command of Lieut.-General Sir John Moore. The
third battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was selected to form part of
this force; and it accordingly embarked at Cork in September, 1808,
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Andrew Hay,[108] and sailed for
Spain with a body of troops under the orders of Lieut.-General Sir
David Baird. These troops landed at Corunna in October, and marched
up the country; at the same time another British force was advancing
into Spain from the frontiers of Portugal, under Sir John Moore; and
a junction was effected on the 20th of December at Majorga, from
whence the united forces advanced on the following day to Sahagun, in
the province of Leon. The Spaniards had, however, been defeated and
dispersed; and the few troops under Sir John Moore were unable to cope
with the overwhelming numbers with which Napoleon advanced to attack
the British army. A retreat was consequently resolved upon; and the
third battalion of the ROYAL Regiment shared with the other corps in
all the fatigues and privations consequent upon a retrograde movement,
continued for a distance of 250 miles, along roads covered with snow,
over mountains and rivers, and through narrow defiles, with an enemy
above three times as numerous as themselves following in full career,
and frequently skirmishing with the rear-guard. Yet such was the
ability of the British commander, and the native energy and resolution
of the troops, that this retrograde movement was successfully executed,
and in the middle of January, 1809, the army arrived, unbroken, in
front of _Corunna_. Napoleon, having been foiled in his object, had
desisted from the pursuit; but he had detached a large body of troops,
under Marshal Soult, to pursue the British to the sea-shore; and a
general engagement was fought on the 16th of January, when the British
were victorious. The third battalion of the ROYAL Regiment was formed,
on this occasion, in brigade with the 26th (Cameronians), and the
second battalion of the 81st, under Major-General Manningham, in the
division commanded by Sir David Baird. Before the action commenced,
Captain Rowan was sent forward with 100 men of the ROYALS, and joined
the 81st Regiment, which had also been posted in advance. On the
approach of the enemy this party was attacked by very superior numbers,
and Captain Rowan brought back very few of his men. When the enemy
approached Sir David Baird's division, it did not wait to be attacked,
but advanced under a heavy fire to meet its opponents; on no occasion
was the valour of British troops more manifest, and the ROYALS, with
the remainder of their brigade, were thanked in general orders for
their gallant conduct. This victory was, however, purchased at the
expense of many valuable lives; and the death of Sir John Moore, who
was killed by a cannon-ball, was an irreparable loss to his country.
The British troops afterwards embarked at Corunna, and returned to
England. When the ROYALS arrived in England, it was discovered that
they had sustained, in killed, wounded, missing, and death from
fatigue, a loss of about 250 men: and their gallantry was rewarded with
the Royal permission to bear the word CORUNNA on their colours.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

This year (1809) the 2nd battalion marched, under the command of
Lieut.-Colonel H. Conran, from Fort St. George, Madras, to take the
field. Previously to quitting this station the following order was
issued by the Governor-General in Council:--

"On the march of the 2nd battalion of the ROYALS from the garrison
of Fort St. George, Lieut.-Colonel Conran will assume the command of
the force under the orders of march to the ceded districts, without
interfering with the command of the troops in the centre division of
the army.

"The Governor-General in Council is pleased to express his entire
approbation of the conduct of the 2nd battalion of the ROYALS while
they have been stationed at Fort St. George.

"The Governor-General in Council requests Lieut.-Colonel Conran
will accept the expression of his warmest thanks for the able and
satisfactory manner in which he has conducted the duties incidental to
the command of the troops in the garrison of Fort St. George."

After the ROYALS had been in the field a short time they were
separated, and one wing proceeded to Hyderabad, and the other to
Masulipatam, a considerable sea-port in the district of Condapilly,
where they remained during the succeeding year.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

The 3rd battalion had, in the meantime, been selected to form part of
an expedition to Holland, under the command of the Earl of Chatham,
for the purpose of destroying the enemy's shipping, arsenal, &c., on
the Scheldt. It accordingly embarked from Portsmouth in July, under
the command of Major Gordon, and landed at _Walcheren_, one of the
Dutch islands in the German ocean, situated at the mouth of the river
Scheldt, and was engaged in the siege of _Flushing_, the capital of
the island. On the 7th of August the enemy issued from the town, and
attacked the British troops. "Their principal effort was directed
against the small wood on the left of our advanced piquet on the dyke;
and their left column advanced towards that point in a heavy mass,
attempting to deploy while they entered the small meadow which lies
between the two woods. Here they were received with a most destructive
fire by the ROYALS, posted on the dyke, and were gallantly charged by
the light company of that regiment." These gallant exertions being
seconded by the 5th and 35th regiments, and two six-pounders, the enemy
fell back, having sustained very considerable loss.

An attempt was afterwards made to drive the enemy from their posts
in front of the advanced piquets. "The 3rd battalion of the ROYALS
advanced along the sand-hills; and the light company of that
battalion, under Captain Hay, charged the enemy most gallantly. Very
little resistance was made, and the enemy retired into the suburbs
of the town, to which they set fire. They had with them two small
field-pieces, one of which was taken in a most gallant manner by
Lieutenant Jackson and thirty men of the ROYALS."[109] The Commander
of the Forces expressed his approbation of the conduct of the ROYALS
on this occasion, in general orders, and attributed the success
principally to the rapid and gallant charge made by Captain Hay with
the light company at the moment of the enemy's deployment.

The siege was afterwards prosecuted with vigour, and the town
surrendered on the 15th of August. After the capture of this place,
the expedition prepared to carry the original design into execution;
but the enemy had, in the meantime, removed his shipping higher up
the Scheldt, and collected so large a body of troops for the defence
of Antwerp, that further proceedings were abandoned, and the troops
returned to England. The loss of the ROYALS in this expedition
was--Lieutenant M'Lean, 1 drummer, and 8 private men, killed; Captain
J. Wilson, Lieutenants Jackson and M'Kenzie, 7 serjeants, and 81 rank
and file, wounded; and 6 rank and file missing. The unhealthy climate
of Walcheren, however, produced a much greater loss from disease.

[Sidenote: 1810]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The 1st battalion had continued in the West Indies, and was stationed
at Demerara and Tobago, from whence fifty men were detached, under
the command of Captains Lynch and Mullen,[110] to form part of an
expedition under Lieut.-General Sir George Beckwith, K.B., against the
island of _Guadaloupe_. The ROYALS formed part of the 2nd battalion
of light infantry, under Lieut.-Colonel David Stewart, of the 8th
West India Regiment. A landing was effected on the 28th of January,
1810, and the ROYALS took part in the operations, by which the enemy
was forced to surrender the island in the early part of February. The
ROYALS had 3 rank and file killed, and 1 serjeant and 12 rank and file
wounded, in this service.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

A British army was at this period in Portugal, under the command of
Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Wellesley; and the 3rd battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment, having, after its return from Walcheren, been recruited to
1000 rank and file, embarked at Portsmouth in February, 1810, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Barns,[111] for Portugal. After landing
at Lisbon it joined the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley, and formed
part of Major-General Leith's division. Marshal Massena was advancing
from Spain with an immense army, and he vaunted that he would drive
the English into the sea. The British and Portuguese troops manœuvred
to retard the advance of the enemy, and in September the army took up
a position on the rocks of _Busaco_. This position was attacked by the
enemy on the 27th of September; a desperate engagement ensued, and the
British, by astonishing efforts of valour, overcame their antagonists,
and stood triumphant on the lofty heights. Sir Arthur Wellesley, in his
despatch, stated,--"Major-General Leith reports the good conduct of
the ROYALS;" and the royal permission was afterwards obtained for the
regiment to bear the word BUSACO on its colours, in commemoration of
the good conduct of the battalion in this engagement.

The army afterwards retired to the lines of _Torres Vedras_, where
a series of works constructed with skill opposed an insurmountable
barrier to the progress of the enemy. The French Marshal, after
reconnoitring the works, retired to Santarem, and the two armies
confronted each other during the remainder of the year.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The 4th battalion proceeded, in August of this year, from England to
Scotland; the 1st battalion continued in the West Indies; and the 2nd
battalion passed the year at Hyderabad and Masulipatam, in the East

[Sidenote: 1811]

In the early part of 1811[112] the left wing of the 2nd battalion
of the ROYAL Regiment proceeded by forced marches from Hyderabad to
Masulipatam, where it joined the right wing, in the expectation of
embarking with the expedition commanded by Lieut.-General Sir Samuel
Auchmuty, against the Dutch island of Java. The battalion mustered 1036
rank and file, and the officers and men panted for an opportunity to
signalize themselves; but, to their great regret, the order for their
embarkation was countermanded. They remained at Masulipatam until July,
when they proceeded to Trichinopoly, a strong city in the Carnatic.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

The 3rd battalion remained opposed to the French army in Portugal.
Marshal Massena occupied his position at Santarem until his numbers
were reduced by sickness and privation, and on the night of the 5th
March, 1811, he retreated towards the frontiers. The ROYALS, moving
forward with the army, took part in the operations which followed; the
French retired into Spain, leaving a garrison in Almeida, which was
blockaded by the allies. Having crossed the frontiers, the ROYALS were
engaged on the 5th of May at _Fuentes d'Onor_, on which occasion the
French Marshal was defeated in his attempt to relieve Almeida. The
ROYALS had one serjeant and 8 rank and file wounded in this action.[113]

[Sidenote: 1812]

This battalion was also before the strong fortress of _Ciudad Rodrigo_,
when it was besieged by the allied army in January, 1812, and captured
by storm on the 19th of that month.

On the 11th of February, 1812, "His Royal Highness the Prince Regent
was pleased, in the name and on the behalf of His Majesty, to approve
of the FIRST, OR ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT, being in future styled, THE

From the province of Leon the 3rd battalion marched towards Spanish
Estremadura, and was before the city of _Badajoz_ when that fortress
was besieged and taken by storm in the month of April; in which service
the ROYALS had two officers wounded; namely, Lieutenants Rea and
O'Neil, who were attached to the engineer's department.

After the capture of Badajoz the battalion proceeded with its division
(the 5th) towards Ciudad Rodrigo, and advanced upon Salamanca, which
city the French were forced to evacuate in the middle of June.
The enemy retreated beyond the Douro, and part of the allied army
advanced to Trabancos. The French subsequently re-passed the Douro,
when the ROYAL SCOTS, with the remainder of the division, advanced to
_Torrecille de la Orden_, to cover the retreat, and insure the junction
of the corps in advance. On the 18th of July the French army commanded
by Marshal Marmont pushed forward, some sharp skirmishing occurred, and
the ROYALS were partially engaged, and had two men wounded. The allied
army afterwards retreated, and took up a position on the rocky heights
near _Salamanca_.

On the 22nd of July, while the French army was manœuvring and extending
to the left, the British commander commenced the attack at a favourable
moment. The 3rd battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS, with the remainder of the
5th division, formed behind the village of Arapiles; and, advancing
from thence, attacked the enemy in front with distinguished bravery,
and, engaging in a fierce combat of musketry, drove the French from one
height to another. Lieut.-General Leith, commanding the division, was
carried out of the field wounded. Lieut.-Colonel Barns was severely
wounded while leading the battalion to the charge, and obliged to
withdraw, and the command of the ROYAL SCOTS devolved on Major Colin
Campbell. The battalion continued to press forward, and forced the
legions of Napoleon to give way. A decisive victory was ultimately
gained; and the valour of the ROYAL SCOTS was rewarded with the Royal
permission to bear the word SALAMANCA on their colours. Major Campbell
signalized himself at the head of the battalion after the fall of
Lieut.-Colonel Barns, and was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel in
the army. The loss of the battalion in action was,--Lieutenant Neils
Falks, 1 serjeant, and 22 rank and file, killed; Lieut.-Colonel Barns,
Captain Logan, Lieutenants Kellett, O'Neil, M'Killigan, and Clark,
Ensign Stoyte,[114] 7 serjeants, 2 drummers, and 120 rank and file,
wounded. Volunteer M'Alpin, who was attached to the ROYAL SCOTS, was
also wounded.

After this victory the battalion advanced with the army to Madrid,
and was present at the surrender of the Retiro on the 14th of August.
From Madrid the battalion proceeded to _Burgos_, where it remained
during the siege of that fortress, in which Lieutenant Rea of the
regiment, who was acting as engineer, was again wounded. When the
British Commander found himself unable to withstand the overwhelming
numbers which were advancing against him, he retired, and while on the
retreat the ROYAL SCOTS were detached to _Palencia_, to protect the
men employed in the destruction of the bridges over the Carrion. The
enemy assembled a considerable force at this point, and Lieut.-Colonel
Campbell retreated to Villa Muriel; the battalion was sharply engaged
during this day's manœuvres, and had 2 serjeants and 6 rank and file,
killed; 1 serjeant and 7 rank and file wounded; and 1 serjeant and 26
rank and file missing. The retreat was continued to the frontiers of
Portugal, where the ROYAL SCOTS passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

During this contest the tyrannical decrees published by Napoleon, with
the view of destroying the commerce of Great Britain, had occasioned
the government to issue orders in council respecting the trade of
neutral nations, for the purpose of counteracting the intentions of
the French Emperor. The enforcing of these orders, and the pressing
of British seamen on board of American ships, eventually brought on a
war between the British Crown and the United States of North America;
and the 1st battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS was withdrawn from the West
Indies, where it had been stationed since 1801, to strengthen the
British force in Canada. Five companies and the head-quarters embarked
from Demerara[115] on the 24th of April, and sailed for Barbadoes.
During their passage a remarkable eruption of Mount Souffre, in the
island of St. Vincent, took place on the 1st May, when a total darkness
ensued, which continued for nearly six hours, accompanied by a fall of
volcanic ashes which covered the decks and rigging of the vessels. The
five companies stationed at Tobago and Berbice had previously arrived
at Barbadoes; and on the 24th of June the whole battalion, mustering
1094 rank and file, under the command of Major John Gordon, sailed in
seven transports for Quebec. During the passage one of the transports
was captured by an American frigate; but it was afterwards allowed to
proceed on its voyage on conditions of not serving against the United
States until regularly exchanged. In the early part of August the
battalion arrived at Quebec; and on the 14th of that month the flank
companies, under Major Gordon, and a detachment of the Royal Artillery
with a light three-pounder, proceeded in bateaux to Point Levi, but
returned to Quebec towards the end of the same month.

In the beginning of September the flank companies sailed up the St.
Lawrence to Montreal, and proceeded from thence to Chambly, a fort on
the river Sorel, which issues from Lake Champlain. In November the
head-quarters and five battalion companies marched, under the command
of Major Gordon, for St. John's; but on their route they received
orders to proceed direct to Montreal, to resist the threatened attack
of an American force under General Dearborn. The plans of the enemy
were disconcerted, and General Dearborn retreated without making the
attack, when the five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS proceeded to their
original destination.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The 2nd battalion, in the East Indies, remained at Trichinopoly; and
in July, 1812, four companies, commanded by Captain John Gordon, were
ordered to suppress a mutiny amongst the Company's native troops at
Quilon, which then threatened most serious consequences to the British
possessions in India. After performing this service, the four companies
returned to their former quarters at Trichinopoly.

[Sidenote: 1813]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

Three of the companies and the head-quarters of the 1st battalion in
Canada were withdrawn from St. John's in April, 1813, to Montreal,
where two other companies also arrived from Quebec. Soon afterwards an
attack on the American post at _Sackett's Harbour_, on Lake Ontario,
was resolved upon; and 2 serjeants and 25 rank and file of the ROYAL
SCOTS were placed under the orders of Colonel Baynes, to take part in
this service. The grenadier company was also ordered from Chambly to
engage in the expedition; but before its arrival, the other troops
sailed from Kingston, and, having effected a landing on the 29th of
May, advanced with great gallantry along a causeway connecting the
island with the main land, dashed into a thick wood, and, encountering
the Americans, drove them from amongst the trees. The detachment
afterwards set fire to the American storehouses near the fort, and
retired. The ROYAL SCOTS had 2 private men killed, 7 wounded, and 1
taken prisoner by the enemy, in this service.

During the same month, the light company of the ROYAL SCOTS was sent
from Chambly to Kingston, for the purpose of instructing the flank
companies of the Canada militia regiments, which had been formed into a
light battalion, in light infantry drill.

On the 4th of June the head-quarters and one company arrived at
Kingston, from Montreal; on the 17th seven companies advanced to
Four-Mile Creek; and on the following day two companies embarked from
Kingston, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, to attack a
strong post occupied by the Americans at _Sodius_. The detachment made
good its landing on the 20th of June, captured a great quantity of
stores, and burnt the public buildings; and re-embarking on the same
day, sailed to Four-Mile Creek; having sustained a loss of 3 private
men killed, and 1 serjeant and 3 private men wounded.

While the battalion lay at _Four-Mile Creek_, frequent skirmishes
occurred between the British and Americans; and on the 12th of August
the ROYAL SCOTS had several private men wounded.

From Four-Mile Creek the battalion proceeded to St. David's, and went
into cantonments at that place until the 1st of September, when it
marched to _Cross-roads_, and was there partially engaged with a body
of Americans, but experienced little loss. The battalion encamped
a short time at Cross-roads; and on the 8th of October some sharp
fighting took place, in which the ROYAL SCOTS had 5 private men
wounded, and 1 taken prisoner. On the 11th the battalion went into
quarters at Burlington.

Notwithstanding the severity of a Canadian winter, military operations
were continued; and on the 17th of December the grenadier and one
battalion companies of the ROYAL SCOTS marched from Burlington, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, towards Niagara; and on the
19th the grenadiers, commanded by Captain Bailey, assisted at the
storm and capture of _Fort Niagara_ without sustaining any loss; and
the battalion company advanced to dislodge the enemy from the heights
of Lewiston. Colonel Murray, in his report of this transaction to
Lieut.-General Drummond, observes--"I have to express my admiration of
the valour of the grenadier company of the ROYALS under Captain Bailey,
whose zeal and gallantry were very conspicuous;" and in a general
order published at the time, Lieut.-General Drummond stated--"The
troops employed on this occasion were the grenadier company of the
ROYAL SCOTS, 100th regiment, and flank companies of the 44th. Their
instructions were, not to fire, but to carry the place at the point of
the bayonet. These orders were punctually obeyed--a circumstance that
not only proves their intrepidity, but reflects great credit on their

"Lieut.-General Drummond will perform a most gratifying duty in
bringing under the notice of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent,
through his Excellency the Commander of the Forces, the admirable
execution of this brilliant achievement on the part of every individual

"The Lieut.-General has received from Major-General Riall a very
favourable report of the zeal and alacrity of the detachment of the
ROYAL SCOTS under Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, and the 41st battalion
companies under the command of Major Friend, who advanced under the
Major-General's command to dislodge the enemy from the heights of
Lewiston. The Lieut.-General has only to regret that the enemy's rapid
retreat from Lewiston heights did not afford to Major-General Riall an
opportunity of leading them to victory."

After this success five companies of the battalion, under the command
of Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, crossed the Niagara river, and were employed,
on the 29th of December, in storming the enemy's batteries at _Black
Rock_ and _Buffalo_, and in burning and laying waste the enemy's
frontier between these places and Fort Niagara; in which service 2
corporals and 13 private men were killed, and 3 serjeants and 27 rank
and file wounded, and 6 rank and file were missing. The conduct of the
troops on this service was described in general orders as follows:--

"The conduct and bravery of the officers and soldiers of the
advance-corps of the right division having been crowned with the most
complete success by the capture of Fort Niagara, with all the enemy's
guns and stores, and the destruction of four armed vessels, and of
the cover along the whole of their frontier from that fort to Buffalo
Creek--a measure dictated not only by every consideration of military
policy, but authorised by every motive of just retaliation--it only
remains for Lieut.-General Drummond to thank the troops for their
exertions, and to express his admiration of the valuable qualities
which they have displayed in the course of that short but severe
service, in which they have cheerfully borne the absence of almost
every comfort, and the rigours of a climate for which they were far
from being prepared. The immediate reward of their gallant conduct the
Lieut.-General trusts will be felt in the repose which they have so
well earned for themselves, by depriving the enemy of all the means of
present annoyance; the more remote recompense of their exertions will
be found in the approbation of their king and country."

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

While the 1st battalion was actively employed in Canada, the 2nd
battalion marched to Bangalore; and in April, 1813, the right wing,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel M'Kellar, took the field, and joined
the force in the southern Mahratta country, under the orders of
Lieut.-Colonel Dowse, and remained in the field twelve months.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

Meanwhile the 3rd battalion, advancing from the frontiers of Portugal
into Spain, was actively employed in operations. The French army,
disconcerted by the superior tactics of the British commander,
retreated, and took up a position in front of Vittoria. The allied
army followed the retreating enemy in full career, traversing rocks
and mountains, passing rivers, and overcoming difficulties heretofore
deemed insurmountable, still hovering round the retiring enemy, and
attacking his columns when an opportunity offered. On one of these
occasions the ROYAL SCOTS were engaged (18th June) near _Osma_, and had
3 rank and file killed, 9 wounded, and 4 missing.

On the 21st of June the army advanced in three columns to attack
the enemy in his position in front of _Vittoria_. The ROYAL SCOTS,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, being in the left column under
Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, advanced
against the enemy's right flank. This portion of the army carried the
heights commanding the village of Abechuco, and then advanced against
the village of Gamarra Major, which was carried in gallant style, the
enemy being dislodged at the point of the bayonet with great slaughter,
and the loss of three guns. Lieut.-Colonel Campbell of the ROYAL SCOTS
was severely wounded, and the command of the battalion devolved on
Major Peter Fraser. Towards the close of the action the ROYAL SCOTS,
with the remainder of the division, crossed the river Zadora, turned
the enemy's right, and cut off his retreat by the Bayonne road. The
other divisions were also successful at their several points of attack;
the French army was completely routed, with the loss of its cannon,
ammunition, baggage, and military chest; and it fled a mere wreck to
the frontiers of France. The gallant conduct of the ROYAL SCOTS in this
memorable action was rewarded with the Royal permission to bear the
word "VITTORIA" on their colours. The battalion lost Captain Hay and
Lieutenant Glover, who died of their wounds; 11 rank and file killed;
Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, Lieutenants Armstrong, Rea, M'Killigan, and
Cross, Ensign Green, Volunteer Dobbs, 4 serjeants, and 92 rank and
file, wounded.

After this victory the ROYAL SCOTS marched towards the coast, and
were engaged in the siege of the strong fortress of _St. Sebastian_.
A breach having been made on the left flank, Major-General Hay was
directed to storm the fortress with his brigade, of which the ROYAL
SCOTS formed a part.

The battalion had passed the night of the 24th of July in the
trenches. At day-break on the following morning it led the attack
under the orders of Major Peter Fraser, and, though exposed to a most
destructive shower of grape and musketry, which thinned the ranks,
it advanced in the teeth of this storm of fire, in the most cool and
determined manner. Major Peter Fraser, while gallantly encouraging
his brave followers by his example, was killed; and Captain Mullen,
being next in seniority, assumed the command of the battalion, which
duty he performed with much credit. Though the cannon of the fortress
thundered in front, the French soldiers poured down their volleys of
musketry, and hand-grenades, shells, and large stones, flew in showers
through the darkened air; yet onward went the ROYAL SCOTS, and assailed
the breach with a degree of valour and intrepidity which rivalled
the gallant exploits of their predecessors under the great Gustavus
Adolphus. But the defences round the breach had not been destroyed, and
success was found to be impossible; the storming party was consequently
ordered to retire.[116] The battalion lost, on this occasion, Major
Fraser, Captain Cameron, Lieutenants Anderson, Clark, Massey, and
Adjutant Cluff, 6 serjeants, and 75 rank and file, killed; Captains
Arguimbeau, Logan, Stewart, Macdonald, and Buckley, Lieutenants O'Neil,
Eyre, and Reynolds, Volunteer Miller, 7 serjeants, and 230 rank and
file, wounded; Lieutenant Reynolds died of his wounds, and Lieutenant
Eyre was taken prisoner.

The siege was afterwards prosecuted with vigour, and on the 31st of
August the fortress was again attacked by storm. The ROYAL SCOTS,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Barns, were directed to make their attack
on the left of the second breach, and were supported by the 38th
regiment. The assault was made with great gallantry; some of the
traversers of the semi-bastion were carried by the leading companies,
but were retaken by the enemy. Nothing could exceed the bravery and
steadiness of the troops employed at this point; and the enemy,
observing the whole division in motion, sprung a mine on the top of the
curtain; but the explosion was premature, and only a few of the leading
men of the ROYAL SCOTS suffered from it. Yet undismayed by the bursting
mine, and fierce opposition of the enemy, the ROYAL SCOTS pressed
forward upon their adversaries, and carried the coverlain; the troops
crowded into the town in every direction, and in the course of an hour
were masters of the place, excepting the citadel.[117]

On the 8th of September batteries mounting fifty-four pieces of
ordnance opened a tremendous fire upon the citadel. In less than three
hours the enemy hoisted a flag of truce, and, after some discussion,
surrendered. As a testimony of the royal approbation of the signal
valour evinced by the ROYAL SCOTS during this siege, and of the value
attached to their services, they were permitted to bear the words "ST.
SEBASTIAN" on their colours. Their loss in the successful storm of the
town was, Ensign Boyd, 3 serjeants, 1 drummer, and 48 rank and file,
killed; Lieutenants Armstrong, Holebrooke, Macdonnell, Clark, and
Suckling, 7 serjeants, and 133 rank and file, wounded. Captain James
Stewart, who was performing the duty of aide-de-camp to Major-General
Hay, was killed from the castle while reconnoitring the works on the
4th of September. Captain Robert Macdonald was promoted to the rank of
Major in the army, for his distinguished services at the storm of St.

After the capture of this fortress the troops advanced to the
frontiers; and on the 7th of October the light company of the ROYAL
SCOTS, commanded by Lieutenant J. N. Ingram, crossed the _Bidassoa_,
followed by the remainder of the battalion and that portion of the
army which had reduced St. Sebastian; the ROYAL SCOTS being the first
British corps of the allied army which entered France. Thus, after
driving the legions of Napoleon out of Portugal and Spain, the seat of
war was transferred to the enemy's country; and the interior of France
became the scene for the display of British prowess. After crossing the
Bidassoa the troops drove the enemy to the heights of Irun, a distance
of about three miles.

On the 10th of November the enemy's formidable line of works on the
river _Nivelle_ were attacked, and the ROYAL SCOTS, with the other
regiments of the 5th division, drove the enemy from a field redoubt,
and pursued them under the guns of Bayonne. The battalion lost, on this
occasion, 1 rank and file, killed, and 4 serjeants and 15 rank and file
wounded. Further operations were retarded by snow and rain; but in the
early part of December the army passed the river _Nive_, and drove the
French into their entrenched camp in front of Bayonne; from whence they
issued on the three following days, and attacked the allies, but were
repulsed. The ROYAL SCOTS were warmly engaged on these occasions, and
their gallantry was rewarded with the royal permission to bear the word
"NIVE" on their colours. Their loss was 3 rank and file killed, and 1
serjeant and 3 rank and file wounded.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

In the meantime important events had transpired on the continent of
Europe. The invasion of Russia by Napoleon, the burning of Moscow,
the disastrous retreat of the French army from the north, and the
separation of Prussia, Austria, and other states, from the interest of
Napoleon, were followed by a treaty of alliance and subsidy between
Great Britain and Sweden, in which it was stipulated that a Swedish
army commanded by the Crown Prince should join the allies; and on the
2nd of August, 1813, the 4th battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS embarked
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Muller for Stralsund, in Swedish
Pomerania, forming part of an expedition sent thither under the orders
of Major-General Gibbs. Thus a battalion of the regiment proceeded to
the same part of the world to which a body of daring Scots, who formed
the nucleus of this distinguished corps, proceeded exactly 200 years
before, to engage in the service of the Swedish monarch. The battalion
remained at Stralsund until the middle of December, when it advanced to
support the army of the Crown Prince of Sweden on the Elbe, and halted
on the 24th of December at Lubeck.

Thus at the conclusion of the year 1813 the regiment had four
battalions on foreign service in three different quarters of the globe;

  1st battalion in Upper Canada, America.
  2nd     "        the East Indies, Asia.
  3rd     "        France, Europe.
  4th     "        Germany,   "

[Sidenote: 1814]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The services of the 1st battalion were limited, during the early
part of 1814, to the usual duties of a corps stationed on an enemy's
frontier. On the night of the 3rd of March, Captain Stewart received
information of the appearance of a strong body of Americans in
_Longwood_, in advance of Delaware town; and he directed the light
companies of the ROYAL SCOTS, and 89th regiment, to march at day-break,
to support the advance posts. At five o'clock on the evening of the
4th the Americans were discovered, in very superior force, posted on a
commanding eminence, protected with breastworks formed of logs of wood.
The companies of the ROYAL SCOTS and 89th instantly attacked the enemy
in front, "in the most gallant manner," while a company of rangers, and
a detachment of Canadian militia, made a flank movement to the right,
and a small band of Indians made a similar movement to the left, with
a view of gaining the rear of the position. "After repeated efforts
to dislodge the enemy in an arduous and spirited contest of an hour
and a half's duration, which terminated with the daylight, the troops
were reluctantly withdrawn, having suffered severely, principally
in officers."[118] The ROYAL SCOTS had Captain David Johnstone, 1
serjeant, and 9 private men killed; Lieutenant Angus Macdonald, 2
serjeants, and 37 private men, wounded; and a bugler taken prisoner.

The battalion assembled at Fort George on the 1st of June; and on the
3rd of July two flank and five battalion companies marched from that
place towards _Chippewa_. In the meantime a body of Americans had
landed at Black Rock, and had driven in the garrison of Fort Erie.
On the 4th the enemy advanced in force by the river, and the light
company of the ROYAL SCOTS was engaged in a skirmish with the American
riflemen. On the 5th of July a severe engagement with very superior
numbers of the enemy took place.[119] The attack was not attended with
success. Major-General Riall, speaking of the conduct of the troops
in general orders, observed--"Although their efforts were not crowned
with the success they deserved, yet he has the greatest satisfaction
in saying it was impossible for men to have done more, or to have
sustained with greater courage the heavy and destructive fire with
which the enemy, from his great superiority in numbers, was enabled to
oppose them." The ROYAL SCOTS had Captain E. P. Bailey, 5 serjeants,
and 71 rank and file killed; Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, Lieutenants W.
Campbell, A. Macdonald, A. Campbell, J. T. Connell, B. Fox, George
Jackson, and Charles Hendrick, 12 serjeants, and 132 rank and file,
wounded; Captains E. M. Bird and John Wilson severely wounded and taken
prisoners; 5 serjeants and 72 rank and file missing.

Fort Erie afterwards surrendered to the superior numbers of the enemy;
the ROYAL SCOTS returned to Fort George; and on the 13th of July seven
companies took up a position at Fifteen-mile Creek.

The three companies left at Fort George quitted that place a few days
afterwards, and, having crossed the Niagara river on the 25th of
July, marched to _Lewiston_ to attack a body of the enemy; but the
Americans fled, and the ROYAL SCOTS captured a quantity of stores and
other articles. The three companies afterwards re-passed the river
at Queenstown; and, advancing to the _Falls of Niagara_, formed in
the position of _Lundy's Lane_, under the orders of Lieut.-General
Drummond. In the mean time the other seven companies were on the march
from Fifteen-mile Creek towards the Falls.

The three companies of the ROYAL SCOTS had scarcely taken their post in
the centre of the position of Lundy's Lane, when about 5000 Americans
advanced, and attacked the British troops with great fury; and a most
sanguinary contest ensued. During the heat of the conflict the seven
companies of the ROYAL SCOTS arrived from Fifteen-mile Creek, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, and took post on the right of
the line. The enemy attempted to force the centre for the purpose of
gaining the crest of the position, but were repulsed with loss, and the
ROYAL SCOTS distinguished themselves in driving back the assailants.
About nine in the evening there was an intermission of firing; but the
Americans renewed the attack soon afterwards with fresh troops, and a
fierce conflict of musketry and artillery followed in the dark. The
Americans charged up the hill; the British gunners were bayoneted
while in the act of loading, and the guns were in the possession of
the enemy for a few moments; but the troops in the centre, where the
three companies of the ROYAL SCOTS were fighting, soon drove back the
Americans, and retook the guns. The storm of battle still raged along
the heights; the muzzles of the British and American artillery were
within a few yards of each other, and the fight was kept up with a
sanguinary obstinacy seldom witnessed. In limbering up the guns, at
one period an American six-pounder was put by mistake on a British
limber, and a British six-pounder on an American limber. At one moment
the Americans had the advantage; at the next the shout of victory rose
from the British ranks; and about midnight the enemy retreated.[120]
The troops were thanked for their distinguished bravery in general
orders on the following day; and "the admirable steadiness of the ROYAL
SCOTS, under Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, at several very critical points
and movements, claimed the Lieut.-General's particular notice." The
three companies in the centre of the line particularly distinguished
themselves, and were twice mentioned in the Lieut.-General's public
despatch in terms of the highest commendation. The ROYAL SCOTS lost on
this occasion Lieutenant William Hemphill, 3 serjeants, 1 drummer, and
48 rank and file, killed and missing; Captain Brereton, Lieutenants
Haswell and Fraser, 4 serjeants, and 93 rank and file, wounded;
Lieutenants Clyne, Lamont, and Fraser taken prisoners. The conduct of
the battalion on this occasion, with the distinguished bravery evinced
by the grenadier company in the storm of Fort Niagara on the 19th
of December, 1813, obtained the Royal permission to bear the word
"NIAGARA" on the colours of the regiment.

An attack on _Fort Erie_ having been resolved upon, the 1st battalion
of the ROYAL SCOTS appeared before this place on the 4th of August, and
formed part of the besieging force. During the progress of the siege
several slight skirmishes occurred; and on the 10th of August the ROYAL
SCOTS had Lieutenant Gregor M'Gregor and 3 private men killed and 9
private men wounded.

The batteries having produced an impression on the place, a general
assault was made on the fort and adjoining works on the 15th of August
before day-break; and two companies of the ROYAL SCOTS formed part of
the force selected to storm the fort and entrenchments leading from
it to the lake. This portion of the storming party made its attack
with signal gallantry, and after a desperate resistance succeeded
in effecting a lodgment in the fort through the embrasures and
demi-bastion, and turned the guns against the enemy, when a sudden
explosion of some gunpowder placed under the platform occurred, and
almost all the men who had entered the place were either killed or
dreadfully mangled. This occasioned the troops to retreat; the enemy
opened a heavy fire of musketry, and the storming party retired.
The eight companies of the ROYAL SCOTS which had not taken part in
the storming of the fort were immediately thrown out to cover the
retreat--"a service which that valuable corps executed with great
steadiness."[121] The loss of the battalion in this unfortunate affair
was--Captain Torrens and 32 rank and file killed, 2 serjeants and 37
rank and file wounded.

The troops continued before the fort, and on the 9th of September 2
private soldiers of the ROYAL SCOTS were killed, and Lieutenant P.
Grant wounded by a shell. On the 17th the enemy made a sortie, and an
engagement took place, which lasted nearly five hours. "On the right
the enemy's advance was checked by the 1st battalion ROYAL SCOTS,
supported by the 89th regiment, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel
Gordon of the Royals; and in the centre he was driven back by the
Glengarry light infantry, under Lieut.-Colonel Battersby, and directed
by Lieut.-Colonel Pearson, inspecting field officer."[122] On this
occasion the battalion lost 2 serjeants and 22 rank and file killed
and missing; Lieut.-Colonel Gordon, Lieutenant Rutledge, and 30 rank
and file, wounded. Lieutenant Rutledge died on the same day, and
Lieut.-Colonel Gordon on the 25th.[123]

On the 17th of October the battalion marched to Chippewa, and engaged
the enemy at _Cook's Mills_, drove the Americans from their post,
without sustaining any loss. Shortly afterwards the battalion proceeded
to Fort Niagara, where it was stationed during the remainder of the

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In April, 1814, the left wing of the 2nd battalion in the East Indies
marched to Bellary; at the same time the right wing, forming part of
the force in the southern Mahratta country, quitted the field, and
joined the left wing at Bellary in May. Soon afterwards the battalion
proceeded to Hyderabad, where it remained until the beginning of
November, when it received orders to proceed to Ellichpoor, to join
the field force under the command of Brigadier-General Doveton, and
was subsequently employed against a barbarous people called the
_Pindarees_, who infested the British territory in India at this
period, and committed dreadful ravages wherever they appeared.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

The 3rd battalion was employed in the spring of 1814 in the blockade
of the strong fortress of _Bayonne_, in France; while a great part of
the allied British, Spanish, and Portuguese army, which had passed the
Pyrenees mountains, advanced up the country.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

In the meantime the Dutch had made an energetic struggle to free
themselves from the power of Napoleon, and a strong party had declared
in favour of the Prince of Orange. A British force was sent to Holland
under the orders of Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord
Lynedoch, and the 4th battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS was ordered from
the north of Germany to join the troops in Holland. The battalion
accordingly commenced its march from Lubeck on the 17th January, 1814,
and encountered many difficulties, from the inclemency of the weather.
While traversing the forest of _Shrieverdinghen_, 120 men were lost in
a snow storm; much extreme suffering occurred during the journey; and
on the 2nd of March the men went into cantonments at Rozendalh. After
halting six days the battalion was ordered to join the force destined
to make an attempt on the strong fortress of _Bergen-op-Zoom_; and
was selected to form part of the 4th column of attack; at the same
time its flank companies were detached to join another column. The
attack was made about ten o'clock on the night of the 8th of March.
The ROYAL SCOTS succeeded in crossing the Zoom, and forced an entrance
by the water-port. Having gained possession of the ramparts round the
water-port gate, the battalion was exposed to a heavy fire of grape
and musketry from two howitzers, and a strong detachment of French
marines, stationed near the arsenal: two companies were detached to
keep the enemy in check, and were relieved every two hours by two other
companies of the battalion. These companies were actively engaged in
this service from eleven o'clock until daylight; when the enemy made a
furious attack in strong columns, which bore down all before them. The
two detached companies of the ROYAL SCOTS were attacked by a host of
combatants, and driven in. A heavy fire of grape was opened upon the
battalion from the guns of the arsenal; and it was forced to retire by
the water-port gate, when a detached battery opened upon it. Being thus
placed between two fires, with a high palisade on one side, and the
Zoom filled with the tide on the other, the battalion was unfortunately
obliged to surrender. The colours were first sunk in the river Zoom by
Lieutenant and Adjutant Galbraith: the battalion then surrendered, on
condition that the officers and men should not serve against the French
until exchanged. The failure of the coup-de-main on Bergen-op-Zoom
occasioned an immense sacrifice of gallant men. Of the ROYAL SCOTS,
Captains M'Nicol, Edward Wetherall, and Purvis, Lieutenant Mills, 1
serjeant, and 36 rank and file, were killed; Lieutenants Robertson,
Stoyte, Midgley, and Stewart, 7 serjeants, 1 drummer, and 63 rank and
file, wounded.

On the following day the battalion marched out of Bergen-op-Zoom, and
on the 8th of April it embarked for England: on the 21st it arrived at
Hilsea barracks, where it was supplied with clothing and equipments,
and on the 6th of May it embarked on board the Diomede and Leopard (two
sixty-fours, armed en-flute), and sailed for Canada.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

Meanwhile the success of the arms of the allied sovereigns in various
parts of Europe had been followed by the abdication of Bonaparte,
and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty to the throne of France.
This event occurred in April, 1814, at which time the 3rd battalion
of the ROYAL SCOTS was employed in the blockade of _Bayonne_. The
French commandant in this fortress, not believing the statement of
Bonaparte's abdication to be true, made a sortie with the garrison on
the morning of the 14th of April, and gained a temporary advantage;
but was afterwards repulsed. Major-General Hay,[124] Lieut.-Colonel
of the ROYAL SCOTS, was killed at the first onset; the battalion also
had 5 rank and file killed; Captain Buckley, Lieutenant Macdonnell, 1
serjeant, 1 drummer, and 32 rank and file, wounded; also a few private
men missing.

This was the last action of the war; and the British troops, after
vanquishing the legions of Bonaparte in various parts of the globe,
stood triumphant in the interior of France, and saw the fall of that
gigantic power which had shaken the throne of every sovereign on the
continent of Europe, and, aiming at universal empire, had sought
to rule the world with Asiatic despotism. The ROYAL SCOTS remained
encamped near Bayonne until August, when they marched back to Spain,
and were the last British corps which quitted the French territory
after the termination of this glorious war. The battalion, having
embarked at Passages for Ireland, landed at the Cove of Cork on the
13th of September, 1814.

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent was pleased to confer upon the 3rd
battalion the honour of bearing the word "PENINSULA" upon its colours,
as a mark of his royal approbation of its meritorious conduct in
Portugal and Spain.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

The right wing of the 4th battalion, which sailed for Canada in May,
arrived at Quebec on the 26th of June, and on the 1st of July sailed up
the St. Lawrence to Three Rivers; but the left wing, in the Leopard,
was wrecked on Anticosti, a barren island in the mouth of the river St.
Lawrence, and lost all its arms and baggage. The right wing afterwards
returned to Quebec, and, the left having joined it, the battalion
formed part of that garrison until May of the following year.

[Sidenote: 1815]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1st and 4th Batts.]

In January, 1815, the first battalion quitted Fort Niagara, and
proceeded to Queenstown. From this place it proceeded to Fort George,
Kingston, Prescott, Montreal, and Three Rivers, which latter place it
reached on the 25th of May, when it embarked for Quebec; and on its
arrival off Cape Diamond, peace having been concluded with the United
States, it was removed on board of transports. At the same time the 4th
battalion was withdrawn from garrison at Quebec, and, having embarked
on board the fleet, both battalions sailed for England, and arrived at
Portsmouth on the 17th and 18th of July.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

In the meantime Napoleon Bonaparte, with that perfidy which had ever
marked his conduct, had quitted the island of Elba, and, attended
by 600 men, made his appearance on the shores of France. The French
troops joined the standard of the invader, the royal family fled, and
Bonaparte reascended the throne with a rapidity which exceeded the
wildest flights of poetry or romance. The peace of Europe was thus
broken. The allied sovereigns resolved to wage war against the usurper;
and in April, 1815, the 3rd battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS was suddenly
ordered from its quarters at Fermoy to the Cove of Cork, to embark for
the Netherlands, where a British force was assembling to engage in the
approaching contest, under Field-Marshal the Duke of Wellington--a
leader under whose eye this portion of the ROYAL REGIMENT had already
acquired numerous laurels in the Peninsular War.

The battalion landed at Ostend in the early part of May, and proceeded
to Ghent, and from thence to Brussels, where it was stationed several
weeks. It formed part of the 9th brigade, commanded by Major-General
Sir Denis Pack, and was placed in the 5th division, under the command
of Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Picton.

During the night between the 15th and 16th of June, while the ROYAL
SCOTS were reposing in comfortable quarters at Brussels, the men were
suddenly aroused by the bugles sounding and drums beating to arms.
Instantly quitting their beds, the soldiers prepared for action, and,
seizing their muskets, issued in bands from every part of the city;
and in a few hours the British regiments were passing through the dark
forest of Soignes in the direction of Charleroi, a sharp conflict
having already commenced between the corps in advance and the enemy.
After a march of about twenty-two miles, the 5th division arrived at
the scene of conflict soon after mid-day on the 16th of June, and,
diverging from the high road, confronted the enemy on the undulating
grounds near the farm-house of _Quatre Bras_.

The ROYAL SCOTS, advancing from their post in the centre of the 5th
division, by a movement to their left through a field of corn which
reached to the shoulders of the tallest men, encountered a column of
French infantry, and by a determined charge drove it from its ground.
The enemy's musketeers rallied under the protection of their formidable
cavalry, and opened a galling fire, which was returned by the ROYAL
SCOTS with steadiness and precision. The enemy, having the advantage
of a rising ground, poured down volley after volley of grape and
musketry with dreadful execution. The ROYAL SCOTS stood their ground
with unflinching firmness; and, after fighting for some time in line,
the battalion formed square, to resist the French cavalry, which was
advancing in great force. The valour and intrinsic merit of the corps
were now tested; but in vain the foaming squadrons of cuirassiers came
rushing forward--in vain the daring swordsmen sought to penetrate the
square; neither the superiority of their numbers, nor the fury of their
charge, availed against the ROYAL SCOTS; the battalion stood firm, and
resisted every attack of the enemy with an unshaken fortitude, which
reflected honour on the corps.[125] After repulsing the formidable
onsets of the enemy's steel-clad horsemen, the battalion deployed;
again the French cuirassiers and lancers advanced, and the battalion
once more formed square. The daring squadrons rushed forward in full
career; the battalion sent forward a shower of balls, which emptied a
hundred saddles, and the remaining horsemen wheeled round, and galloped
away.[126] Thus the ROYAL SCOTS were triumphant, and they were soon
afterwards moved to sustain the 28th regiment, which had suffered
severely: another furious onset was made by the French cavalry, when
the two corps formed one square, and repulsed their assailants with
firmness. The French, dismayed by the sanguinary resistance of their
adversaries, and being attacked in turn, were already giving way. Sir
Thomas Picton placed himself at the head of the ROYAL SCOTS and 28th
regiment, and leading them to the charge, the enemy was driven from his
position with loss.

The battalion passed the following night on the field. The Prussians
had been attacked on the 16th of June at Ligny, and forced to retreat
to Wavre; a corresponding movement was made by the Duke of Wellington,
to keep up the communication with the Prussians, and the ROYAL SCOTS,
retreated on the 17th of June, with the remainder of the army, to the
elevated grounds in front of the village of _Waterloo_, where the
troops passed a stormy night in the open fields, drenched with rain.

On the memorable 18th of June the battalion formed part of the reserve
under the gallant Sir Thomas Picton. At the commencement of the battle,
when the enemy sent forward a cloud of skirmishers, and developed his
massy columns of attack, the ROYAL SCOTS, commanded by Major Colin
Campbell, were instantly engaged with the legions of Napoleon. "I have
great pleasure," observes an officer, who was an eye-witness, "in
detailing the conduct of the gallant 3rd battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS,
and though I have been present with the battalion at the battles of
Busaco, Fuentes d'Onor, Salamanca, Vittoria, both stormings of St.
Sebastian, the passage of the Bidassoa, &c., &c., in all which they
bore a most conspicuous part, and suffered severely, I can assure you
they never evinced more steadiness, or more determined bravery, than at
the late battle.

"About nine o'clock on the morning of the 18th June, the battalion was
attacked by the enemy, and, with very little interruption, the entire
day it formed a line of skirmishers in front of the brigade.

"I have often seen the battalion engaged, but, I must confess, on this
trying day, it far excelled anything I had ever witnessed; and indeed,
so pleased was the late General Picton with its gallantry and good
conduct, that he several times expressed it himself to the battalion in
the most flattering terms."

Thus, while the thunder of 400 cannon, the roll of musketry, the
occasional explosion of caissons, the hissing of balls and grape-shot,
the clashing of arms, and the impetuous shouts of the combatants,
produced an awful scene of carnage and confusion, the ROYAL SCOTS were
seen amidst the storm of battle, boldly confronting the torrent of
superior numbers, and fighting with a constancy and valour which the
enemy could not overcome. Corps after corps advanced; but amidst the
dense smoke which often prevented the combatants from distinguishing
each other, the British colours waved triumphant, and the shout of
victory rose above the din of combat. Paralyzed by the astonishing
resistance of the British arms, the attacks of the enemy relaxed; the
Prussians arrived on the left, to co-operate, the Anglo-Belgian army
formed line, and with one impetuous charge overthrew the French host,
and drove it in wild confusion from the field of battle, with the loss
of its cannon and equipages. Those warlike and numerous legions, which
a few hours before meditated only rapine and conquest, were mingled
in utter confusion along the road, and over the fields, while the
allied squadrons poured on their shattered flanks and rear, and sabred
the panic-struck fugitives without mercy or intermission. Thus ended
a battle, the greatest of past or present times, the importance and
character of which are above the reach of sophistry or mis-statement; a
battle, which may in itself be considered an era, and the story of it,
serving as a monument to commemorate the national glory, will survive
when the brightest historical epochs on record shall be lost amid the
obscurity and confusion of ages. In the important conflicts on the 16th
and 18th of June, the ROYAL SCOTS had Captain Buckley, Lieutenants
Armstrong, O'Niel, and Young, Ensigns Kennedy, Robertson, and Anderson,
1 serjeant-major, 4 serjeants, and 29 rank and file, killed; Major
Campbell; Brevet-Majors Arguimbeau, M'Donald, Massey, and Dudgeon;
Lieutenants Rea, Ingram, Simms, Clark, Mann, G. Stewart, Alstone,
Dobbs, Morrison, Miller, Lane, Black, Scott, and Adjutant Cameron;
Ensigns Cooper, Stephens, and M'Kay; Quarter-Master Griffith; Volunteer
Blacklin; 20 serjeants, and 275 rank and file, wounded.

The battalion advanced with the main army into France, and encamped on
the 6th of July at Clichy, on the banks of the Seine, two miles from
Paris, where it remained nearly four months.

[Sidenote: 1st and 4th Batts.]

In the meantime the 1st and 4th battalions had arrived at Portsmouth
from Canada (as before stated), and the 4th having been completed to
1000 effective rank and file, by the transfer of men from the 1st,
sailed for the Netherlands, to join the allied army under the Duke of
Wellington; at the same time the remainder of the 1st battalion sailed
for Scotland, and was stationed in Edinburgh Castle.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

The 4th battalion having landed at Ostend, marched up the country to
Paris, and pitched its tents at Clichy, where the 3rd battalion was
also encamped.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

After the flight of Bonaparte, and the restoration of Louis XVIII. to
the throne of France, rewards were conferred on the officers who had
distinguished themselves during the war;[127] and the honour of bearing
the word "WATERLOO" on its colours, was conferred on the 3rd battalion
of the ROYAL SCOTS; every officer and man present at the battles on
the 16th and 18th of June, 1815, also received a silver medal, to be
worn on the left breast, attached by a crimson and blue riband, and
the soldiers had the privilege of reckoning two years' service towards
additional pay and pension on discharge.

The 3rd battalion quitted the camp at Clichy on the 29th of October
to go into cantonments for the winter: it occupied successively Maule,
Montmorency, and Gillecourt, and their adjacents.

[Sidenote: 4th Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1816]

During the winter the 4th battalion was ordered to return to
England,[128] where it arrived in the early part of 1816. From the
period of its formation the 4th battalion was considered as a depôt to
the other battalions of the regiment, until it embarked for Germany,
in 1813. All recruits enlisted for the regiment, volunteers from the
militia, and sick and wounded men sent home from foreign service with
any prospect of being again fit for military duty, joined the 4th
battalion; and the recruits were completely drilled before they were
sent to join the other battalions.[129] Peace having been restored, the
battalion was disbanded at Dover on the 24th of March, 1816.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In February of the same year the 1st battalion marched from Edinburgh
Castle to Port Patrick, where it embarked for Ireland, and remained in
that country nearly ten years.

[Sidenote: 3rd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1817]

The 3rd battalion, forming part of the army of occupation in France,
marched from Gillecourt in January, 1816, and went into garrison at
Valenciennes. It quitted this place in March, 1817, and proceeded to
Calais, where it embarked for England, and landed at Dover on the
24th of the same month. It shortly afterwards marched to Canterbury
barracks, where it was disbanded on the 24th of April, 1817.

[Sidenote: 1st and 2nd Batts.]

The regiment was thus reduced to its former establishment of TWO
BATTALIONS; and the men of the 3rd battalion having been transferred
to the 1st and 2nd battalions, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent
was pleased to grant permission to the 1st and 2nd battalions to bear
"PENINSULA," and "WATERLOO," on their colours, in commemoration of the
distinguished services of the 3rd battalion of the regiment, as before

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In the meantime the 2nd battalion had continued actively employed in
the East Indies against the _Pindarees_, and these barbarous hordes
being composed entirely of horsemen, the services of the corps were of
an arduous and trying nature; traversing extensive districts by forced
marches, passing rivers and thickets, and attempting to surprise these
bands of plunderers, were duties calculated to exhaust the physical
powers of Europeans when performed under an Indian sun.

While the ROYAL SCOTS were engaged in these services, several of the
native princes prepared to wage war against the British. Their designs
were partly discovered and disconcerted by the Marquis of Hastings.
Hostilities, however, followed, and the battalion was called upon to
engage in the contest. The eight battalion companies formed part of the
second division under the command of Brigadier-General Doveton; and the
flank companies were destined to form part of the 1st division of the
army of the Deccan, under Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Hislop, Baronet.

The battalion was stationed at Jaulnah; from whence the flank companies
marched on the 11th of October, 1817, under the command of Captain
Hulme, with two regiments of native cavalry, and four guns, to join
the head-quarters of the 1st division, and arrived at Hurda on the
22nd. The battalion companies quitted Jaulnah on the 15th of October,
under the command of Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, (Lieut.-Colonels
N. M'Leod,[130] and Neil M'Kellar having the command of brigades,)
and arrived, with the remainder of the 2nd division, its train of
elephants, camels, and horses, at Meiker, on the 23rd. From this
place the ROYAL SCOTS were detached, with the battering train, down
the Berar Ghats, with the design of taking part in the reduction of
Asseerghur, an important fortress, belonging to a native sovereign
named Scindia; but the order was suddenly countermanded, and the
division was directed to proceed to _Nagpore_, the capital of the
Mahratta territories, an attack having been made on the British
force at that place. The division proceeded for this station without
delay; and the ROYAL SCOTS, following by forced marches, rejoined the
head-quarters on the 7th of November, at Oomrouttee. From this place
Brigadier-General Doveton pushed forward with the ROYAL SCOTS, and part
of his division, and having encountered excessive fatigue, by constant
marching, arrived on the 12th in the vicinity of Nagpore, where he
was joined by the remainder of the division on the following day. In
the meantime the British troops at this place had taken post on two
strong eminences near the residency, on which attacks had been made
by the Rajah's forces, and one of the eminences had been carried by a
great superiority of numbers; but the other, though attacked, had been

On the arrival of Brigadier-General Doveton's division, the Rajah
was inclined to come to terms, and he at length agreed to surrender
his guns and disperse his troops; but the treachery he had already
evinced induced the Brigadier-General to dispose his troops in order
of battle when he advanced to take possession of the guns. The troops
were accordingly formed in the following order:--Two regiments of
native cavalry and six horse artillery six-pounders on the height;
on its left Lieut.-Colonel M'Leod's brigade, composed of a wing of
the ROYAL SCOTS, four regiments of native infantry, and the flank
companies of another native regiment; Lieut.-Colonel M'Kellar's
brigade, consisting of a division of the ROYAL SCOTS, a regiment of
native infantry, and a detachment of horse artillery with four guns;
on its left was Lieut.-Colonel Scot's brigade, of a division of the
ROYAL SCOTS, a regiment of native infantry, and a detachment of foot
artillery with sappers and miners, and two guns; a reserve of native
infantry supported the line, and the principal battery of the artillery
was posted in the rear of Lieut.-Colonel M'Leod's brigade. On the left
of the position was an enclosed garden; beyond it the Nagah Nuddee; a
small river ran from thence past the enemy's right; and three parallel
ravines, terminating in the bed of the river, crossed the space
between the infantry and the enemy; but in front of the cavalry, and
on their right, the country was open. The enemy's position was masked
by irregularities of the ground and clusters of houses and huts, and a
thick plantation of trees, with ravines, and a large reservoir. On this
ground the Rajah had formed an army of 21,000 men, of which 14,000 were
horse, with seventy-five guns. Such was the ground on which the battle
of _Nagpore_ was fought. Beyond the river lay the city, from the walls
of which the movements of both armies could be perceived.

The Rajah had agreed, after much procrastination, to surrender his
guns at noon on the 16th of December; and the British force was put
in motion to receive them. The first battery was taken possession
of without opposition; but on the troops entering the plantation,
the enemy treacherously opened a sharp fire of musketry on them.
The action then commenced. The columns deployed. The brigades under
Lieut.-Colonels M'Leod and M'Kellar carried the enemy's right battery
with great gallantry, and afterwards drove the right wing from its
ground. The other batteries were also carried, and the supporting
troops routed, and the enemy was driven from all his positions, and
pursued a distance of five miles. The enemy's camp equipage, 40
elephants, and 75 guns were captured; and the ROYAL SCOTS added to
their former honours that of standing triumphant in the interior
of India, over an immense superiority of numbers of the enemy. The
battalion lost on this occasion 9 rank and file killed, and 26 wounded.

After this success the siege of the city of _Nagpore_ was commenced.
The troops which defended this place, consisting of about 5000 Arabs
and Hindoostanees, insisted upon extraordinary terms; and these not
being granted, they resolved on a desperate defence. On the 23rd of
December a breach was made at the Jumma Durwazza gate, and an assault
on the place was resolved on. One company of the ROYAL SCOTS, under
the command of Lieutenant Bell, with five of native infantry, and a
proportion of sappers and miners, were allotted for this service; and
two other companies of the ROYAL SCOTS, under the command of Captain H.
C. Cowell, were destined to attack the city at another gate; and the
remaining five companies were kept for the protection of the batteries.

At half-past eight o'clock on the morning of the 24th of December the
signal was given, when the storming party, rushing from the trenches,
gained the breach, but were instantly assailed by a heavy fire of
matchlocks from the adjoining buildings; at the same time the British
troops were unable to injure their numerous antagonists, either by
the fire of musketry or coming to close quarters. The Arabs, thus
sheltered behind walls, each marked with fatal aim, and with impunity,
his destined victim; and their fire under these circumstances is
destructive at distances beyond that where European musketry is
considered effective. Lieutenant Bell, of the ROYAL SCOTS, a most
promising officer, who had served with the 3rd battalion during a great
part of the war in Spain, was killed while gallantly leading his men
to the attack; and the breach being found untenable, the troops were
ordered to withdraw. The other storming parties succeeded in gaining
the desired points; yet their positions were also untenable, and they
were ordered to retire.

On the following day the Arabs renewed their offer to surrender; and
their terms being acceded to, they marched out of the city on the 1st
of January, 1818, and were allowed to go where they pleased, with the
exception of proceeding to Asseerghur. The loss of the ROYAL SCOTS in
the attack on _Nagpore_ was 1 lieutenant (Bell) and 10 rank and file
killed, with 2 serjeants and 49 rank and file wounded.

Brigadier-General Doveton, in his despatch to the Commander-in-Chief in
India, stated--"During the operation in the field of the 2nd division
of the army of the Deccan under my command, the conduct of the 2nd
battalion of His Majesty's ROYAL SCOTS, under the immediate command
of Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, has been invariably such as to entitle
that valuable corps to my highest approbation and applause; and more
particularly in the action with the enemy's army at this place on the
16th ultimo, their gallantry, steadiness, and good conduct were most

Thus, whether Europe, Asia, Africa, or America be the scene of
conflict, the conduct of the ROYAL SCOTS appears to have been uniformly
the same; and the gallantry displayed by the 2nd battalion on this
occasion was rewarded by the royal permission, dated the 29th of
March, 1823, to bear the word "NAGPORE" on its colours.

In the meantime the two flank companies, commanded by Captain Hulme,
had been engaged in several movements with the 1st division of the
army of the Deccan, and passed the Nerbuddah in flat-bottomed boats on
the 30th of November. On the 8th of December the division arrived at
Peepleea, and after four marches encamped in the vicinity of Oojain, a
short distance from _Maheidpoor_, where the army of Mulhar Rao Holkur,
one of the coalesced Mahratta powers against the British interests
in India, was assembled. After various fruitless negociations, the
division advanced against the enemy on the morning of the 22nd of
December; and as the troops were crossing the ford of the Seeprah river
they were exposed to a powerful and concentrated cannonade. About half
a mile beyond the river stood the army of Holkur; and after passing the
stream Brigadier-General Sir John Malcolm advanced with two brigades of
infantry to attack the enemy's left and a ruined village situated on
an eminence near the centre. The companies of the ROYAL SCOTS formed
part of this force; and in the action which followed they evinced their
native valour in a signal way. The enemy's left was brought forward
in anticipation of the attack, and a destructive fire of grape shot
was opened on the British; yet, encouraged by the example of Sir John
Malcolm and Lieut.-Colonel M'Gregor Murray,[131] the ROYAL SCOTS rushed
forward in the face of this tremendous fire; the enemy's infantry
were driven from their position, and the village and batteries were
carried at the point of the bayonet; the enemy's artillerymen were
resolute, and stood their ground until they were bayoneted. While the
ROYAL SCOTS were victorious at their point of attack, the enemy's right
was overpowered; his centre gave way on the appearance of a brigade
ascending from the river; and his troops, occupying a position where
his camp stood, also fled on the advance of a British force to attack
them. Thus the army of Mulhar Rao Holkur was routed; and in a general
order, dated the 23rd of December, the Commander-in-Chief of the army
of the Deccan observed--"The undaunted heroism displayed by the flank
companies of the ROYAL SCOTS in storming and carrying, at the point of
the bayonet, the enemy's guns on the right of Lieut.-Colonel Scot's
brigade, was worthy of the high name and reputation of that regiment.
Lieutenant M'Leod fell gloriously in the charge, and the conduct of
Captain Hulme, Captain M'Gregor, and of every officer and man belonging
to it entitles them to his Excellency's most favourable report and
warmest commendation."

The loss of the ROYAL SCOTS on this occasion was Lieutenant Donald
M'Leod, 1 serjeant, and 7 rank and file, killed; Lieutenants John
M'Gregor and Charles Campbell, 4 serjeants, 1 drummer, and 27 rank and
file, wounded. In commemoration of the valour evinced by these two
companies the battalion obtained the royal permission to bear the word
"MAHEIDPOOR" on its colours.

[Sidenote: 1818]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

Arrangements having been made for the pursuit of Holkur, the troops
advanced on the 28th of December, and on the 30th formed a junction
with part of the Bombay army, under the command of Major-General Sir
William Keir Grant, at Taul. Advancing from thence on the following
day, the troops encamped in the beginning of January, 1818, at
Mundesoor, and soon afterwards, Holkur's government having been brought
to submission, the presence of the 1st division of the army of the
Deccan being no longer necessary in this part of India, it marched
southward. On the 22nd of January it crossed the Seeprah river, on the
24th it reached Oojain, where it halted until the 28th. On the 30th it
was at Indoor; on the 13th of February it recrossed the Nerbuddah, and
proceeding in the direction of the Taptee, encamped on the left bank
of that river on the 27th, in the vicinity of _Talnere_, a town and
fortress belonging to Holkur, formerly the capital of the sultans of
the Adil Shahy dynasty, in the fifteenth century, which, it had been
agreed, should be delivered up to the British government, but which,
unexpectedly, opened a fire upon the advanced part of the division. A
summons was sent to the Killedar, who commanded the garrison, warning
him of the consequences of resistance; and, no answer being returned,
a battery was brought to bear on the fort, which silenced the enemy's
fire in a few hours, but not before several casualties had occurred
from the well-directed fire of matchlocks from the walls. On a further
examination of the fort, one of the outer gates was discovered to be in
a ruinous state; and the flank companies of the ROYAL SCOTS and of the
Madras European regiment, were placed under the orders of Major Gordon,
of the ROYAL SCOTS, for the attack of the gate. The garrison offered to
capitulate; and an unconditional surrender was demanded without delay;
but, the evening being advanced, it was suspected the enemy would
attempt to escape during the approaching darkness, and the storming
party advanced up to the gate. A passage for single files between
the walls and the frame of the outer gate was discovered, and no
opposition being offered, the storming party and pioneers entered: they
subsequently passed the second gate, and at the third were met by the
Killedar and some natives. Lieut.-Colonel Conway, the Adjutant General
to the army, with Lieut.-Colonel M'Gregor Murray, had entered with the
storming party, and they passed through the third and fourth gates; but
at the fifth and last gate they were stopped, though the wicket was
opened. A hurried conversation about terms of surrender now took place;
and Colonel Murray, concluding that there was an urgent necessity for
establishing such a footing as would secure eventual success should
the enemy hold out, entered by the wicket with Major Gordon and three
grenadiers of the ROYAL SCOTS, but refrained from drawing his sword, to
show he had no intention of breaking off the parley. Five persons only
had passed the wicket when the enemy fell upon them, and in a moment
laid them all dead, excepting Colonel Murray, who fell towards the
wicket covered with wounds. The enemy attempted to close the wicket,
but were prevented by a grenadier, private Sweeny, of the ROYAL SCOTS,
who thrust his musket into the aperture: Lieut.-Colonel M'Intosh and
Captain M'Craith forced the wicket open, and it was held in this state
while the captain was with one hand dragging Colonel Murray through,
and with the other warding off blows with his sword. A fire was then
poured in through the wicket, which cleared the gateway sufficiently
for the grenadiers of the ROYAL SCOTS, under Captain M'Gregor, who
formed the head of the storming party, to enter, and the fort was
carried by assault, but at the expense of the captain's life. The
garrison was put to the sword, and the Killedar was hanged on the
same evening. The ROYAL SCOTS had Major Gordon, Captain P. M'Gregor,
and 3 private men killed; Lieutenant John M'Gregor (brother to the
captain),[132] and 3 rank and file, wounded. The conduct of the ROYAL
SCOTS on this occasion was spoken of, in general orders, in terms of
commendation; and the intrepidity and courage of Major Gordon and
Captain M'Gregor were especially noticed.

In the meantime, the 2nd division of the army of the Deccan, with
which the eight battalion companies of the ROYAL SCOTS were serving,
had been withdrawn from Nagpore, and proceeded (22nd January)
towards Ellichpoor. In the early part of February, detachments from
the division captured the two strong hill-forts of _Gawelghur_ and
_Narnullah_. The division was afterwards encamped at Ootran; in March
it proceeded to Copergaum, and on the 17th of that month encamped
on the left bank of that noble river the Godavery, near Fooltaumba;
at the same time the 1st division was encamped on the opposite bank
of the river. Here the 2nd division resumed its former designation
of the Hyderabad division. Two flank and three battalion companies
of the ROYAL SCOTS were directed to proceed to Hyderabad; and the
remaining five companies continued in the field with the force
under Brigadier-General Doveton. These companies were commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, and on his appointment to the command of
a brigade, by Captain Joseph Wetherall,[133] the next officer in

The division was engaged in operations against Peishwah Bajee Rao (one
of the Mahratta confederacy), who, with an army of cavalry said to
amount to 20,000 men, studiously avoided a conflict with the British
field force, and sought to accomplish his object by sudden marches and
surprises. Information having been received of an intended attack of
this chief on the cantonments of Jaulnah, the Hyderabad division, with
which were three companies of the ROYAL SCOTS, commanded by Captain
Wetherall (the other two companies remaining at Fooltaumba), proceeded
seventy-two miles in two forced marches, and before the remaining
thirty miles were accomplished, the Peishwah had proceeded in another
direction. After a short halt, the division continued the pursuit of
the flying enemy, encountering many difficulties while traversing parts
of the country which had never before witnessed the presence of a
British army, and using the most indefatigable exertions, it frequently
occurring that the troops occupied the ground which Bajee Rao had
left on the preceding day. After a circuitous route, having performed
forty-one marches in forty days, at the hottest period of the year,
during which time the division had only two halts, the troops returned
for supplies to Jaulnah, where they encamped on the 11th of May. In
this difficult service the European soldiers had not evinced any want
of physical power; they had performed their marches cheerfully, and
their only complaint was not being able to overtake the flying enemy.
After a halt of two days, the division again resumed the chase of its
flying foe, and continued the pursuit until the Peishwah surrendered
himself to the British government, when it returned to Jaulnah.

Meanwhile the two companies of the ROYAL SCOTS left at Fooltaumba,
under the command of Lieutenant Bland, had marched with a body of
troops, under Lieut.-Colonel M'Dowall, of the East India Company's
service, into the Candeish country, and had captured the fort of
_Unkye_, situated on the summit of the Candeish Ghats, also the forts
of _Rajdeir_ and _Inderye_, in which service the two companies had a
few private men wounded. They were next engaged in the reduction of the
strong hill-fort of _Trimbuck_, situated near the source of the river
Godavery, which surrendered on the 25th of April; their loss on this
occasion was 1 serjeant, 1 drummer, and 8 private men, wounded. The
conduct of the ROYAL SCOTS in this service was spoken of in terms of
commendation in detachment orders. The capture of Trimbuck was followed
by the surrender of seventeen other forts.

After this service the detachment proceeded to the strong fort of
_Malleygaum_, situated on the river Moassum, and defended by a party
of the Arabs, who surrendered to Brigadier-General Doveton at Nagpore.
This place was defended by two lines of works, with very high walls,
the inner one of superior masonry and surrounded by a ditch 25 feet
deep and 16 feet wide. On the 18th of May a sortie of the garrison was
repulsed; and on the 19th two batteries opened their fire. A breach
having been effected, an attempt was made to carry the fort by storm:
2 officers and 50 rank and file of the ROYAL SCOTS, commanded by
Lieutenant Bland, formed part of the principal storming party against
the breach, and Lieutenant Orrock and 25 rank and file part of a column
destined to make an attack on another point; but success was found
impracticable, and the storming party was withdrawn. Another point
of attack was afterwards selected, and new batteries raised. Two of
the enemy's magazines having been blown up, the garrison surrendered,
and the British flag was hoisted on the walls of _Malleygaum_, on the
morning of the 13th of June. The ROYAL SCOTS lost in this siege 5 rank
and file killed; Ensign Thomas, 1 serjeant, 1 drummer, and 11 rank and
file, wounded.

[Sidenote: 1819]

The whole of the hill-forts in the Candeish being reduced, the two
companies of the ROYAL SCOTS proceeded to Jaulnah, and joined the other
three companies of the battalion, with the Hyderabad division at that
place. Here the troops expected to take up their monsoon quarters; but,
when all who were obliged to live under canvass were busily engaged in
making arrangements to mitigate the severity of the approaching rains,
the division was ordered to proceed with all possible expedition to
Nagpore. Quitting Jaulnah on the 7th of August, the troops commenced
the march, and the dreaded rains immediately set in; the roads became
almost impassable; the baggage was unable to keep up with the troops,
and the tents were consequently in the rear, so that the men were
frequently exposed for twenty-four hours to incessant rain; no shelter
could be procured in the villages, and every comfort was wanting.
Exposed to these calamities, the troops arrived at Ellichpoor on the
3rd of September in such a state as to be totally unfit to proceed any
further. Here they halted until the 21st of December, when they were
again put in motion, and halted at Walkeira on the 30th, where the
five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS were, in consequence of their long
service in the field, relieved by a division of His Majesty's 30th
regiment from Hyderabad. The five companies then returned to Jaulnah,
expecting to continue their march to the Deccan, but were ordered
to proceed to Boorhaunpoor in charge of a battering train which lay
at Jaulnah. On the 1st of March, 1819, they rejoined the Hyderabad
division, encamped near the city of Boorhaunpoor, and marched to engage
in the siege of the celebrated fortress of _Asseerghur_, which, on
account of its strength, was termed "the Gibraltar of the East." This
fortress is situated on a detached hill, not commanded by any other in
its neighbourhood. It consists of an upper and lower fort; the upper
one, of an irregular form, about 1100 yards from east to west, and
about 600 from north to south; it crowns the top of the hill, which is
about 750 feet in height; and all round it, with the exception of one
place which is strongly fortified, there is a perpendicular precipice
from 80 to 120 feet, surmounted with a low wall full of loop-holes.
Below this are two lines of works, the outer one forming the lower
fort, which rises directly above the pettah, and the entrance to which
is protected by strong gateways and flanking works; and immense labour
and great skill had been employed in rendering this naturally strong
post almost impregnable. Such was the formidable fortress against which
the five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS were about to be employed.

The Hyderabad division was encamped at Neembolah, about seven miles
from this celebrated fortress, belonging to his Highness Doulat Rao
Scindia, and, negotiations having failed, about twelve o'clock on the
night of the 17th of March, five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS,[134]
commanded by Captain J. Wetherall, with the flank companies of the
30th, 67th, and Madras European regiments, five companies of native
infantry, and a detachment of sappers and miners, the whole commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, of the ROYAL SCOTS, and a reserve, commanded
by Major Dalrymple, of the 30th, assembled at the camp for the attack
of the pettah of Asseer; another party was also directed to co-operate
in this service from Sir J. Malcolm's division.

Between one and two o'clock the column commenced its march; advancing
up the bed of a deep nullah, or small river, nearly dry at the time,
the assaulting party arrived unobserved within 500 yards of the pettah,
then rushed upon the gate with the greatest ardour and steadiness,
the five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS leading the way. The enemy was
surprised, and, after discharging a few rounds of grape, retired
without making further opposition. The head of the attacking column
forced the gate, and, proceeding up the main street, encountered an
advanced piquet of the enemy, which retired to the lower fort, firing
occasionally at the head of the column. Major Charles M'Leod, of the
East India Company's service, Deputy Quartermaster-General, acted as
guide on the occasion, and by his direction the leading files of the
ROYAL SCOTS pursued the enemy close under the walls of the fortress,
from whence an incessant fire of artillery and matchlocks was kept
up, and a few ill-directed rockets were also discharged. The leading
sections of the ROYAL SCOTS, which had pursued the enemy up the hill,
were joined by one or two files of the 30th and 67th regiments, the
whole amounting to about 25 or 30 men; and as soon as the enemy saw
the small force before which they had so precipitately fled, they
immediately rallied, and came shouting down the hill with augmented
numbers to attack this small party, but were repulsed by a spirited
charge with the bayonet, which, with a few rounds of musketry, obliged
them to retreat within the works, some of which were within 50 or 60
yards of this handful of men, leaving their chief, who was shot by
a soldier of the ROYAL SCOTS, and several men, on the ground. Major
M'Leod, being wounded, proceeded to the rear; and the enemy having
established a cross fire from the walls of the lower fort and from two
cavaliers, Captain Wetherall ordered the advanced party to retire a
short distance to a post established by Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, where
there was some cover for the men. The loss of the leading sections in
this affair was 1 private soldier killed; Major M'Leod, Lieutenant
Bland, and 11 rank and file, wounded. The remainder of the column did
not sustain any loss, the men being protected from the enemy's fire by
the houses in which they had established themselves.[135]

The assaulting party maintained its post until night, when it was
relieved by fresh troops, and the five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS
returned to their tents, which had been left standing at Neembolah; but
Lieut.-Colonel Fraser remained in command of the troops at the pettah.
At day-break on the 19th a heavy gun battery opened against the fort.
At dusk in the evening a party of the enemy issued from the lower fort,
crept unperceived down a deep ravine to the rear of the pettah, and
gained the main street, where they encountered the British troops, and
were repulsed and forced to abandon their enterprise. Lieut.-Colonel
Fraser, of the ROYAL SCOTS, while in the act of gallantly encouraging
the soldiers, and directing them to withhold their fire and give the
enemy the bayonet, was shot in the head and fell dead on the spot: his
body was afterwards conveyed to the camp at Neembolah and interred with
military honours.[136]

On the 21st of March the five companies of the ROYAL SCOTS took
their turn of duty in the pettah, where they arrived a little before
day-break. As soon as it was light a heavy gun battery opened on the
forts with great effect, but it had only fired about a dozen rounds
when, from some accident which could not be explained, the magazine in
the rear of it, containing 130 barrels of gunpowder, exploded, killing
a conductor of ordnance, a native officer, and 34 non-commissioned
officers and rank and file, and wounding another native officer and 65
non-commissioned officers and rank and file. Such was the violence of
the explosion that about six inches of the top of a bayonet was blown
nearly six hundred yards from the battery. From this period until the
29th new batteries of heavy guns and mortars were erected, and, a
breach having been effected in the wall of the lower fort, the enemy
abandoned it and retired to the upper one: the lower fort was taken
possession of on the morning of the 30th by part of Sir John Malcolm's

The ROYAL SCOTS, with the remainder of the Hyderabad division, had in
the meantime removed from their ground at Neembolah and occupied a
position three miles north-east of the fortress. During the progress of
constructing the new batteries on elevated and commanding situations,
the dragging of ordnance into many of them was performed by the
European soldiers, who literally worked like horses; and during the
whole of the time they were annoyed by a constant fire of matchlocks
from the walls of the upper fort, but which was too distant to prevent
the execution of this herculean labour, which was performed with that
ardour and cheerfulness so characteristic of British soldiers, when
necessity demands any extraordinary exertions from them.

On the 31st of March part of the Bengal army, consisting of 2,200
native troops, with 22 pieces of heavy ordnance, commanded by
Brigadier-General Watson, joined the besieging force; and these
guns were soon placed in battery, and opened on the fort. The storm
of war now raged round _Asseerghur_ with awful fury; the shot and
shells from the numerous British batteries flew in showers, a dozen
shells sometimes exploding within the area of the upper fort at the
same moment, and a breach was soon effected in the outer retaining
wall at the only assailable part of the fort; at the same time two
batteries of 18 and 24-pounders were directed against the inner wall.
This unremitting fire was continued until the 6th of April, when the
garrison, apprehending the consequences of having to sustain an attack
on the works by storm, forced the Killedar to sue for terms, namely,
"liberty to preserve their arms and to depart with their personal
property." These conditions being refused, hostilities recommenced; the
Killedar, however, accepted the terms offered on the 8th, and agreed
on his part to surrender the fort on the morning of the 9th, and the
firing ceased; but, as he said he could not answer for the garrison,
the control of which he had lost, preparations were made for renewing
operations in case of refusal. The garrison, however, submitted; a
British guard took possession of the gates at the appointed hour;
and a union flag was sent, with an escort of 100 Europeans and the
like number of native infantry, to the upper fort, and hoisted under
a royal salute from all the batteries. The garrison, amounting to
1200 men, marched out at noon and grounded their arms. Their loss
was inconsiderable, from having such good cover from the fire of the
British batteries, being only 43 killed, and 95 wounded; and this was
chiefly occasioned by the bursting of shells. The loss of the besieging
army was 11 European and 4 native officers, and 95 European and 213
native soldiers killed and wounded, including the loss at the explosion
of the magazine on the 21st of March. Of this number the ROYAL SCOTS
had only 7 rank and file killed and wounded in addition to the loss on
the 18th of March. The force employed against Asseerghur amounted to
about 20,000 men; the ordnance of all calibre to 61 guns and 40 mortars
and howitzers: the enemy had 119 guns and mortars mounted on the works,
and some of the guns were of immense calibre--one a 384-pounder.[137]

In a general order, dated Madras, 28th April, 1819, the conduct of the
five companies of the regiment was spoken of in the following terms:--

"The conduct of the detachment of His Majesty's ROYAL SCOTS under the
command of Captain Wetherall, and of His Majesty's 30th Foot, under
Major Dalrymple, during the siege of Asseer, has been most exemplary,
and such as to reflect the most distinguished credit on their several
commanding officers, as well as on the whole of the officers and men
composing those detachments."

After the capture of this fortress the services of the five companies
of the ROYAL SCOTS being no longer required with the Hyderabad
division, on the morning of the 11th of April they commenced their
march for the Deccan, for the purpose of joining the head-quarters and
the other five companies, which had quitted Hyderabad in December,
1818, and had proceeded to Wallajahbad, forty-seven miles from Madras:
and on the 24th of July the several companies of the battalion were
united at that station.

The battalion remained at Wallajahbad until the 21st of December, when
it marched for Trichinopoly, where it arrived on the 11th of January,

[Sidenote: 1820]

[Sidenote: Regiment.]

On the 23rd of January, 1820, the much-lamented event, the decease
of His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, occurred, which occasioned
great grief to the corps, His Royal Highness having always evinced a
constancy of attention to, and interest in, the welfare and credit of
the regiment, which endeared his name in the grateful remembrance of
the officers and men.

The Colonelcy of the regiment was conferred, on the 29th of January,
on Lieut.-General George Marquis of Huntly, only surviving son of
Alexander, fourth Duke of Gordon, from the 42nd Highlanders.

[Sidenote: 1821]

In August of the following year His Majesty King George IV. was pleased
to approve of the regiment resuming its designation of the "FIRST, OR

[Sidenote: 1824]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

The 2nd battalion remained stationary at Trichinopoly until June, 1824,
when it marched to Madras, where it halted until September. In the
meantime hostilities had commenced between the British and the Burmese
empire; and in September the battalion embarked from Madras and sailed
for Calcutta, where it arrived on the 10th of October. Towards the end
of the year it marched to Barrackpore for the purpose of suppressing a
mutiny amongst the Company's native troops at that place; and after the
performance of this painful duty it returned to Calcutta.

[Sidenote: 1825]

In the middle of January, 1825, it received orders to proceed to
Rangoon, a city and principal port of the Burmese empire, situated
on the north bank of the river Irawaddy, thirty miles from the
sea, to reinforce the troops under Brigadier-General Sir Archibald
Campbell,[138] employed against the Burmese army. It accordingly
embarked from Calcutta under the command of Lieut.-Colonel
Armstrong,[139] on the 15th of that month; and on its arrival at
Rangoon, the enemy having been driven from his position in its
vicinity, the flank companies advanced with the army upon Prome, a city
situated about 150 miles up the river Irawaddy, while the battalion
companies formed part of the reserve.

The advance was commenced on the 12th of February; owing to the nature
of the country and the want of sufficient means for transporting the
necessary military stores, part of the force proceeded by land, and
the remainder in boats up the river Irawaddy. The flank companies of
the ROYALS, commanded by Captain Tenison, formed the advance-guard
of the land column, which was commanded by Brigadier-General Sir
A. Campbell. Proceeding along a narrow and difficult path, tending
obliquely toward the Irawaddy river, the column marched through the
provinces of Lyng and Sarrawah; and on its arrival at Mophi, between
two and three thousand Burmese, commanded by Maha Silwah, quitted an
old pegaun fort, where they had evinced some determination to resist,
and dispersed into a close jungle in the rear. From Mophi the column
continued its progress, uninterrupted by the enemy, and forded the
river Lyng at Thaboon on the 1st of March. The Carian inhabitants of
the country through which the army marched viewed the expulsion of
the Burmese with much satisfaction, and assisted the troops in making
roads and in procuring supplies of rice and buffaloes. On the 2nd of
March the division arrived at Sarrawah, on the Irawaddy, where its
junction with the water column had been intended. This column had
destroyed several of the enemy's stockades, and had continued its
course up the river until it arrived within sight of _Donabew_, where a
series of formidable stockades extending nearly a mile along the banks
of the Irawaddy, and protected by about 15,000 Burmese, presented
a formidable opposition. Information was received of a gallant but
unsuccessful attack having been made on this post by the water column;
and Sir Archibald Campbell resolved to retrace his steps with the
land column, and concentrate his force for the reduction of this
formidable position. He accordingly crossed the Irawaddy at Sarrawah
by means of canoes and rafts, which, owing to the insufficiency of
the craft employed, was not effected in less than five days. After
halting two days at Henzada, the column pursued its march along the
right bank of the river, and arrived before Donabew on the 25th of
March: on the 27th a communication was opened with the water column,
under Brigadier-General Cotton, of the 47th regiment, and both columns
co-operated in the reduction of the place. Batteries were constructed
without delay, and during the progress of these operations the enemy
made several spirited _sorties_: on one occasion _seventeen elephants_
were sent out, each carrying a complement of men, supported by a body
of infantry; but the result proved the inutility of employing such
means against British troops. In the beginning of April the batteries
opened their fire, and shortly afterwards, the Burmese commander, Maha
Bandoola, having been killed by the bursting of a shell, the enemy
deserted the place and retreated through the jungles in the direction
of Lamina. The intrenchments were immediately taken possession of, and
considerable stores of grain and ammunition, with a number of guns of
various descriptions, fell into the hands of the British. The ROYALS at
this place had only one private man wounded.

After the capture of Donabew the troops resumed their march; and having
crossed the Irawaddy on the 7th of April, at Sarrawah, were joined at
that place by the reserve from Rangoon, consisting of eight companies
of the ROYALS, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Armstrong, a
regiment of native infantry, and a supply of elephants; the whole under
the orders of Brigadier-General M'Creagh. Thus reinforced the army
pushed forward; the Burmese retreated; and the British troops arrived
before Prome without the necessity of firing a shot: this city, though
strongly fortified, was deserted, and in part burnt. Shortly afterwards
the wet season set in, and during the heavy rains the army remained
inactive; but no opportunity was omitted of entering upon pacific
negociations with the Burmese government.

Information having been received of the approach of the enemy with a
considerable force towards the British position, a reconnoissance was
made up the river in a steam-boat by fifty men of the ROYAL Regiment,
under Brigadier-General Cotton; and on the 15th of August the enemy
was discovered at Meeaday, on the left bank of the river, about forty
miles from Prome, with a force of between 16,000 and 20,000 men, who
appeared all armed with muskets: they had also a small force on the
right bank of the river. The Burmese opened a battery of 16 guns upon
the reconnoitring party, but the width of the river being upwards
of three-quarters of a mile, their shot fell short. On the 16th the
steam-boat returned to Prome.

In the early part of September pacific overtures were made by the
enemy, and an armistice was afterwards concluded, when the ROYALS
were selected to preserve the line of demarcation between the two
armies. Terms of peace were also proposed, namely,--"a large portion
of territory was to be ceded by the Burmese, and two crores of rupees
paid as an indemnification for the expenses of the war." These
conditions produced the utmost indignation at the court of Ava, and
a determination to resist their invaders and prosecute the war with
vigour. Hostilities recommenced on the 16th of November; and three
bodies of British native infantry were soon afterwards repulsed in
an attack upon the enemy's advanced position;--the Burmese being in
greater force than was anticipated, and the troops sent against them
insufficient to contend against so considerable a superiority of

The result of this attack inspired the Burmese generals with a high but
false idea of their own power; and they advanced from their position
with their whole force, amounting to between 50,000 and 60,000 men.
Brigadier-General Campbell had only about 6000 men to oppose to this
formidable host, which threatened to surround him; but though so very
inferior in numbers to the enemy, he calmly awaited their approach, and
determined to avail himself of any favourable opportunity of attacking
them. In the meantime, in order to prevent the enemy's attempts to
intercept his communication with Rangoon, and cut off his supplies,
which had to be brought a distance of 150 miles up the river Irawaddy,
the British commander established 100 men of the ROYAL Regiment, and an
equal number of native infantry, under the command of Captain Deane of
the ROYALS, at _Pagahm-Mew_, a few miles below Prome, on the Irawaddy,
supported by a division of the flotilla on the river under Lieutenant
Kellett, of the Royal Navy. This detachment was frequently attacked by
superior numbers, and the meritorious conduct of both officers and men
is detailed in the following copies of letters from Captain Deane to
the Adjutant-General of the Forces serving in Ava:--

20th November.--"I have the honour to report, for the information of
the Commander of the Forces, a brush which took place between the party
under my command and the enemy this morning.

"In the early part of the morning the fog was so thick as to preclude
our seeing anything in our front, and on its clearing up I discovered,
by means of a reconnoitring party, that the enemy were in considerable
force on the edge of the jungle in front of my left, and shortly
afterwards I discovered them marching in three columns across my front,
for the attack of my right, left, and centre;--their main object being
evidently to gain the right of the village. I, consequently, detached a
party to turn their left, and had, in a few minutes, the satisfaction
to observe that column retiring in confusion, and with considerable
loss. I then moved forward with the remainder of my party to attack
their centre, which also retired in confusion after a very few rounds:
during this time their right was engaged with a strong piquet which
I had placed to dispute the passage of a bridge on the left of the
village--this the piquet effectually did. In both the defence of my
centre and left, I was much indebted to the prompt assistance afforded
me by Lieutenant Kellett, R.N.

"The enemy's force consisted of two gilt chattahs, and about 800 men
armed with muskets and spears, with two or three jinjals; their loss I
conceive to have been about 25 or 30 men killed. We had not, I am happy
to say, a single man wounded. The enemy, however, from the great extent
of the village, succeeded in setting fire to it at both ends, but
very little damage was done, as we extinguished it almost immediately.
The Rajah and all his attendants deserted the place the moment the
firing commenced; he has, however, just returned, and appears much more
composed, and highly delighted with the result."

November 25th.--"I have the honour to report, for the information of
the Commander of the Forces, another affair which we have had with the
Burmese this morning.

"A little before day-break we had embarked 20 men of the ROYALS, and
30 sepoys of the 26th Madras native infantry, in light row-boats,
intended to co-operate with Lieut.-Colonel Godwin, on the opposite
side of the river. They were just in the act of shoving off from the
shore when the enemy, to the amount of 5000 or 6000, made a rush at our
works, howling most horribly, and, at the same time, setting fire to
the village, which they had entered at all points. We had fortunately
got an 18-pounder into battery late yesterday evening, which, added to
two 12-pounders which we had before, did great execution. Lieutenant
Kellett, R.N., was at this moment shoving off with the row-boats, but
instantly returned to our assistance with all his men, and kindly
undertook the superintendence of our guns, the well-directed fire of
which so mainly contributed to our success. The enemy, after nearly two
hours' sharp firing, retired in admirable order, carrying off great
numbers of dead and wounded; so much so, that we have not been able to
find more than 10 or 12 dead bodies. I am happy to add, that, with the
exception of one man slightly grazed in the elbow by a musket-shot,
we have not a man either killed or wounded. The Rajah's house was
very early in flames, and is burnt to the ground; indeed, I may say
the village is completely destroyed. The guns in the boats were of
the greatest assistance in scouring the village with grape. We got
possession of one jingal and three muskets. The enemy appeared to have
several mounted men, but I cannot say what they were."

November 26th.--"The enemy appeared in great force this morning at
day-break all along our front, and had a good deal of skirmishing
with the piquets; but we could not succeed in drawing them within
musket-shot of our works. They are all armed with muskets, and have
a great many jinjals, and two or more guns, with which they annoyed
us very considerably, having taken up a position in the woody part of
the village, from whence they opened a musket fire on the boats. From
this I determined to dislodge them, and sent out a strong party for
that purpose; these came close upon them, and drove them out, with, I
have every reason to believe, considerable loss. They are, however, by
no means discomfited, and are, I understand, determined to entrench
themselves round us, and make regular approaches, as their orders are
peremptory to carry the place. In confirmation of this a number of
their entrenching tools were left behind by the killed and wounded. Our
only casualty this morning, I am happy to say, is one Lascar severely,
but not dangerously, wounded: the shot first grazed the jaw-bone,
entered the shoulder, and came out under the arm-pit. From one of
the prisoners taken this morning, whom I have, by this opportunity,
forwarded to Major Jackson, I learn there are absolutely 5500 men now
here, and that a further force is hourly expected from Puttow-down,
where, he says, the Setahwoon now is."

Thus 200 British troops resisted the attack of between 5000 and 6000
of the enemy; which occasioned Sir Archibald Campbell to observe in
his despatch, "the meritorious conduct of both officers and men, as
detailed in the enclosed copies of letters from Captain Deane, will, I
am certain, obtain for them the approbation of the Right Honourable the
Governor-General in council."

While this detachment was maintaining its post against such very
superior numbers of the enemy, Brigadier-General Sir A. Campbell had
resolved to make an attack upon every accessible part of the Burmese
line, to the east of the Irawaddy, extending from a commanding ridge
of hills to two villages about eleven miles north-east of Prome. The
enemy's army was divided into three corps, all protected by stockades,
and occupying positions of difficult approach; but each separated
from the other by local obstructions, so that they could be attacked

Leaving four native regiments for the defence of Prome, the General
marched early on the morning of the 1st of December against the enemy's
left flank at _Simbike_; during this movement the battalion companies
of the ROYALS were on board the flotilla under Sir James Brisbane,
diverting the attention of the enemy from this movement by an attack
upon another part of their position, and otherwise co-operating with
the land force. On arriving at the Nawine river the army was divided
into two columns. The right, under Brigadier-General Cotton, in which
were the flank companies of the ROYALS, proceeding along the left bank
of the river, came in front of the enemy's works, consisting of a
series of stockades, covered on both flanks by thick jungle, and by
the river in the rear, and defended by a considerable force, in which
were 8000 Shans, a people of Laos, under their native chiefs, who
bore a high character for gallantry, and these people were inspired
with confidence by the presence of a female, whom they considered a
prophetess. Notwithstanding the formidable appearance of these works,
crowded with Burmese and Shans, and bristling with spears, the flank
companies of the ROYALS, commanded by Captain Harvey, with the 41st and
89th regiments, supported by the 18th Madras native infantry, the whole
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Godwin, instantly stormed the stockades,
in gallant style, and carried them in less than ten minutes.[140] The
Burmese fled,--the Shans, who had never encountered British troops
before, fought manfully a short time, but were soon overpowered, and
their prophetess mortally wounded. The enemy left 300 dead, including
their veteran commander, Maha Memiow, who was 75 years of age, in the
works; also their stores and ammunition, with a considerable quantity
of arms, and 100 Cassay horses. The left column, under Sir Archibald
Campbell, having crossed the Nawine, came up as the fugitives were
retreating, and completed the dispersion of this wing of the Burmese
army. The loss of the flank companies of the ROYAL Regiment in this
action was--1 serjeant and 2 rank and file, killed: Ensign Campbell,
who died on the succeeding day, and 5 rank and file, wounded.

Following up this advantage, Sir A. Campbell resolved to attack the
centre division of the Burmese army, posted on the Napadee hills,
which was not effected without considerable difficulty and some loss,
but which proved quite successful; the Burmese were driven from their
stockades and entrenchments, and forced to seek safety in a precipitate

The battalion companies of the ROYALS, having quitted the flotilla,
joined the division under Brigadier-General Cotton,[141] which crossed
the _Irawaddy_ in the course of the night of the 4th of December, to
attack the enemy's right wing under Sudda Woon, posted on the left
bank of the river. On the following morning the attack was made in
conjunction with the navy and flotilla, and the Burmese were soon
driven from their extensive works near the banks of the stream. On
taking possession of these defences it was discovered, that the enemy
had a stockaded work about half a mile in the interior, completely
manned and occupied by guns. Against this stockade the troops instantly
advanced with their native energy and fortitude;--Brigadier-General
Armstrong, of the ROYALS, Colonel Brodie, and Colonel Godwin,
moved against the enemy's centre and right; at the same time
Brigadier-General Cotton advanced with the companies of the ROYAL
Regiment against the left, and the work was instantly carried,--the
enemy leaving 300 dead on the field, and dispersing in every direction.
Several prisoners were taken, and from 300 to 350 muskets, which the
Burmese had abandoned in their flight, were broken by the soldiers.
Brigadier-General Cotton observed in his despatch,--"I have to add
my warmest acknowledgments to Brigadier Armstrong, who commanded the
advance; to Colonel Brodie, who had charge of the light companies; and
to Colonel Godwin, who commanded the reserve; and to every officer and
man engaged. I am happy to say this service was performed with the
trifling loss of one man killed and four wounded." Thus in the course
of four days the immense army of Ava, which had threatened to envelope
Prome, and to swallow up the little body of British troops which had
penetrated into the interior of the Burmese empire, was driven from its
positions; and, as the timorous herd is put to flight by the lion of
the forest, so the legions of Ava fled with precipitation before the
fierce attacks of the British, and sought for shelter amongst their
thick jungles.

The British force was now at liberty to advance upon Ummerapoora,
the modern capital of the Burmese empire, situated on the shores
of a romantic lake at a short distance from the left bank of the
Irawaddy. Part of the Burmese army had been rallied and had taken post
on some strong positions near Meeaday. Against these positions the
British troops advanced in two divisions; the ROYALS were embarked
and sailed up the river in the flotilla, to support one of the land
divisions under Brigadier-General Cotton. During the first stages of
the march the troops proceeded along a difficult road through thick
jungle, and the men were frequently deluged with rain, which proved
injurious to their health, and many of them suffered from attacks of
the cholera. When the troops drew near to Meeaday the Burmese evacuated
their position and took post at _Melloone_, on the right bank of the
Irawaddy, on a series of fortified heights, and a formidable stockade,
which was considered the _chef-d'œuvre_ of the Burmese engineers.
The British troops took post at Patanagoh, on the left bank of the
river, opposite the enemy's works. The Burmese sent a flag of truce,
and expressed a desire to put an end to the war; they also not only
permitted the flotilla, on which the ROYALS had embarked, to pass
close under their works without interruption, but likewise sent out
two gaudy war-boats to act as pilots, and the British naval force
anchored above the town, by which the enemy's retreat by the river was
cut off. The conditions of the treaty were afterwards discussed. The
Burmese negotiators objected to the payment of money, and stated they
were unable to raise such a sum. They stated they might, by using great
economy, pay a million baskets of rice within a year, but they did not
grow rupees; and, if the British had any objection to the rice, there
were abundance of fine trees in the forests which they might cut down
and take away instead of the money. Finding these and other arguments
unavailing, the treaty was concluded, and a limited time given for its
being ratified. In the meantime a cessation of hostilities had been
agreed upon until the 18th of January, 1826, and the troops remained

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1826]

While the 2nd battalion was thus employed in the interior of the
Burmese empire, where British troops had never appeared before, the 1st
battalion remained in Ireland, whither it had proceeded in the early
part of the year 1816, as before stated. On the 25th December, 1825,
it was separated into six _service_ and four _reserve_ companies; and
in January, 1826, the _service_ companies embarked at Cork for the
West Indies, and the _reserve_ companies embarked, at the same time
and place, for the Isle of Wight: the former landed at Barbadoes in
the spring, and the latter, after remaining a short time in the south
of England, embarked at Gravesend for Scotland, and landed at Leith in

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

Leaving the 1st battalion at Barbadoes and in Scotland, the record
resumes a statement of the military operations in which the 2nd
battalion was engaged against the barbarian forces of Ava. The
armistice being in force, a free intercourse prevailed between the two
armies; and on the 6th of January, 1826, a boat arrived at Patanagoh
from Ava with letters from Surgeon Sandford and Lieutenant Bennett, of
the ROYAL Regiment: these officers had left Prome while the battalion
was stationed at that place in order to proceed to Rangoon, in
consequence of ill health, and fell into the enemy's hands a little
below Padoun.[142]

The treaty of peace not having been ratified within the stipulated
time, and the Burmese authorities appearing to follow a system of
perfidy and evasion, hostilities recommenced on the morning of the 19th
of January; and, after the British batteries had made an impression on
the enemy's works at _Melloone_, the position was attacked by storm and
carried in gallant style. The Burmese fled in confusion and dismay,
leaving their ordnance and military stores behind; and the terror of
the British arms filled the court of Ava with consternation: but, still
indulging a vain and delusory hope of eventual success, new levies were
made, and a new general and a new army took the field.

On the 25th of January the army resumed its march towards the enemy's
capital, and on the 31st it was met by Dr. Price, an American
missionary, and Dr. Sandford, whom the sovereign of Ava had despatched
as messengers of peace. Terms, similar to what had already been agreed
upon, were offered, but the British commander refused to halt until
they were accepted; he, however, promised not to pass Pagahm-Mew, which
was between him and the capital, in less than twelve days.

The Burmese resolved once more to try their fortune in battle, and
their army was formed in position to stop the advance of their
invaders. This brought on an action, which was fought on the 9th of
February, near _Pagahm-Mew_; and on this occasion the Burmese abandoned
their system of combating behind barriers, and encountered the British
force in the open field; but after a contest of five hours the
barbarians were overthrown, and the conquerors were left in possession
of Pagahm-Mew, with all its stores, ordnance, arms, and ammunition.

No opposing army now remained between the British and the capital of
the Burmese empire; the troops continued their route through a country
which presented a wide extent of rich and well-cultivated grounds,
thickly interspersed with copsewood and villages; while temples and
pagodas adorned the banks of the river, and gave an imposing effect to
this glittering eastern scenery. Terror and consternation prevailed
at the Burmese court; and when the army had arrived within four days'
march of the capital, it was met by the ratified treaty, which put an
end to the war. A party of officers from the army visited the capital,
and were received by the humbled monarch with every honour.

Thus an eastern empire, with its myriads of inhabitants, was subdued
by the constancy and valour of a handful of British troops, who had
marched from victory to victory, and had forced a haughty monarch to
sue for peace. The following is an extract from an order issued by the
Governor-General of India on this subject:--

"While the Governor-General in Council enumerates, with sentiments
of unfeigned admiration, the achievements of the First, or ROYALS,
the 13th, 38th, 41st, 45th, 47th, 87th, and 89th Regiments, the
Honourable Company's Madras European Regiment, and the Bengal and
Madras European Artillery, as the European troops which have had the
honour of establishing the renown of the British arms in a new and
distant region, his Lordship in Council feels that higher and more
justly-merited praise cannot be bestowed on those brave troops than
that, amidst the barbarous hosts which they have fought and conquered,
they have eminently displayed the virtues and sustained the character
of the British soldier."

The meritorious conduct of the ROYALS was rewarded by King George IV.
with the honour of bearing the word "AVA" on their colours.

The object of the war having been accomplished, the troops commenced
retiring in the early part of March; the 2nd battalion of the ROYAL
Regiment proceeded down the river Irawaddy in boats to Rangoon, where
it arrived on the 25th of March. After remaining at this place a few
days, the 1st division, under Lieut.-Colonel Armstrong, embarked for
Madras, where it landed on the 18th of May. The 2nd division, under
Captain L. MacLaine, followed, and, having landed on the 19th of June,
the battalion was encamped near Madras until the beginning of July,
when it marched to Bangalore.

[Sidenote: 1827]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The _service_ companies of the 1st battalion remained at Barbadoes
until 1827, when they were ordered to Trinidad; and they were stationed
at that island during the succeeding four years.

[Sidenote: 1830]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

[Sidenote: 1831]

The 2nd battalion remained at Bangalore until July, 1830, when it was
ordered to Arnee, as a preparatory measure previous to its embarkation
for Europe[143]. From Arnee the battalion proceeded to Marmalong
Bridge, about seven miles from Madras, where it was encamped for
several weeks; and while at this station the following order was

"Fort St. George, 25th February, 1831.


"The Right Honourable the Governor in Council cannot permit His
Majesty's ROYAL REGIMENT to quit India, after forming a part of the
army of this presidency for 23 years, without publicly recording his
high sense of its distinguished merits.

"During the Mahratta war the ROYAL Regiment was more than three years
in the field.

"It nobly maintained the character of British soldiers at the battle
of Maheidpoor; and, after gallantly sharing in other conflicts of that
eventful period in the peninsula, it embarked for Rangoon, and assisted
in maintaining the honour of the British arms, and in establishing
peace with the Ava dynasty.

"The Right Honourable the Governor in Council has only further to
add, that the conduct of the officers and men of His Majesty's ROYAL
REGIMENT, when in garrison, has been such as to meet with the entire
approbation of Government, and that his best wishes for their continued
welfare and fame will accompany them in whatever part of the world the
national interest and honour may call for their services."

The first division of the battalion embarked for England on the 29th of
January 1831; the remainder proceeded on the 21st of March to Fort St.
George, and the second division embarked at Madras on the same day. The
other divisions embarked on the 3rd and 16th of June, 9th of July, and
5th of September.

The first five divisions arrived in England during the summer and
autumn of 1831; and on the 25th of December they embarked at Chatham
for Scotland, under the orders of Lieut.-Colonel G. A. Wetherall, and
landed at Leith on the 6th of January following.

[Sidenote: 1832]

The last division disembarked at Chatham on the 15th of January, 1832;
and the battalion passed that and the succeeding year in Scotland.

In October of this year His Majesty was pleased to approve of the
following regulation:--

"That the devices and distinctions on the colours and appointments of
the two battalions of the FIRST, or ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT, be the same
in each battalion, as is the case in the several battalions of the
three regiments of Foot Guards, and also in those regiments of the line
which formerly consisted of two or more battalions.



"_18th October 1832._"

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In the meantime the _service_ companies of the 1st battalion had
removed from the island of Trinidad,--three companies and head-quarters
to St. Lucia, and three companies to Dominica. On their departure
from Trinidad, the following order was issued by the Governor of the

"Trinidad, 16th January, 1832.


"His Excellency Major-General Sir Lewis Grant cannot allow the
head-quarters of the ROYAL Regiment to quit Trinidad without expressing
to Lieut.-Colonel Carter, and the officers, non-commissioned officers,
and men of the regiment, the very great satisfaction their general
conduct, both as officers and men, has afforded him since his landing
at Trinidad.

"The decorous conduct of the corps, and the perfect manner in which its
duties have been performed, entitle it to the greatest praise. For this
His Excellency returns to Lieut.-Colonel Carter his particular thanks,
and requests he will make a communication to the same effect to the
officers and others under his command.

"His Excellency assures the officers and men of the ROYAL REGIMENT that
they carry with them his best wishes for their welfare."

[Sidenote: 1833]

On the 26th of October, 1833, the _reserve_ companies of the 1st
battalion embarked from Glasgow for Ireland, and landed at Londonderry
on the 28th of that month.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In December of the same year the second battalion embarked from
Glasgow, and, having landed at Belfast, was stationed in Ireland two
years and a half.

[Sidenote: 1834]

His Grace the Duke of Gordon was removed in December, 1834, to the
Third, or Scots Fusilier Regiment of Foot Guards; and the Colonelcy of
the ROYAL Regiment was conferred by His Majesty King William IV., on
General Thomas Lord Lynedoch, G.C.B., from the 14th Regiment of Foot.

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The six _service_ companies of the 1st battalion quitted the West
Indies in December, 1835, and proceeded to Ireland, where they arrived
in the early part of 1836; and, having joined the _reserve_ companies,
the battalion remained in that part of the United Kingdom upwards of
two years.

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

During the summer of 1836, the 2nd battalion was divided into six
_service_ and four _depôt_ companies; and in July the _service_
companies embarked at Cork for Canada, leaving the depôt companies
at Boyle, from whence they were removed in the succeeding year to

The _service_ companies landed at Quebec on the 24th of August, and
passed the winter and succeeding spring in garrison at that city.

[Sidenote: 1837]

In May, 1837, two serjeants and twenty rank and file were detached from
Quebec to Grosse Isle, where they were stationed, with a detachment of
the Royal Artillery, and of the 15th and 66th regiments, under Major
Jackson. The remainder of the service companies proceeded in July
from Quebec to Montreal, where they were stationed, with the 32nd and
a small detachment of the 15th, under the orders of Lieut.-Colonel
Wetherall, K.H., of the ROYALS. A detachment of nine rank and file
of the ROYALS was stationed at Sorel; and in August the party was
withdrawn from Grosse Isle.

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

On the 24th of September the _depôt_ companies of this battalion
embarked at Kingstown for England, and landed on the 26th at Devonport.

Previous to the arrival of the ROYALS in Lower Canada, the minds of
the inhabitants of that flourishing colony were agitated by factious
men, who sought to dictate to the Government measures not deemed
conducive to the welfare of the state. During the summer, the House
of Assembly refused to proceed in its deliberations until the demand
for the total alteration of the legislative powers was complied with;
and this was followed by the appearance of many of the colonists in
arms, and by open violations of the law. The revolt rapidly extending,
the law-officers of the Crown and the magistrates of Montreal applied
to Lieut.-General Sir John Colborne, K.C.B. (now Lord Seaton), the
commander of the forces in Canada, for a military force to assist
in apprehending several persons charged with high treason, who were
supposed to be at the villages of St. Denis and St. Charles; and
Colonel Gore was sent with detachments of the 24th, 32nd, and 66th
regiments, and one howitzer, with a magistrate to St. Denis; at the
same time Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall, K.H., of the ROYALS, was directed
to move with Captain David's troop of Montreal cavalry, four companies
of the ROYALS, a detachment of the 66th, and two six-pounders, from
Chambly, on _St. Charles_, a village seventeen miles from the ferry at
Chambly, to assist the magistrates in executing the warrants.

The detachment under Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall passed the river
Richelieu by the upper ferry at Chambly; but the severity of the
weather, and the bad state of the roads, impeded the march, and
information having been received of the increased numbers of the
rebels at St. Charles, the detachment halted at St. Hilaire until
joined by another company of the ROYALS from Chambly. On the 26th of
November the detachment resumed its march, and on arriving within a
mile of St. Charles it was fired upon by the insurgents on the opposite
side of the river, and one man of the ROYAL Regiment was wounded.
Several rifle shots were also fired from a barn in front, which was
burnt by the detachment. On arriving at the vicinity of St. Charles
1500 rebels were found posted in a close stockaded work, which was
attacked; and after firing a few rounds, the troops assaulted and
carried the defences by storm, killed a number of the rebels, took
sixteen prisoners, and burnt the buildings. The ROYALS had 1 Serjeant
and 1 rank and file killed; 8 rank and file severely, and 7 slightly,
wounded. Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall's horse was shot under him during
the action, and Major Warde's horse was severely wounded, and died
afterwards. The detachment of the 66th had 1 man killed and 3 wounded.

Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall observed in his despatch:--"Every officer
and man behaved nobly. Major Warde carried the right of the position
in good style, and Captain Glasgow's artillery did good execution. He
is a most zealous officer. Captain David's troop of Montreal cavalry
rendered essential service during the charge."

After this success the detachment retired, on the 27th of November,
to St. Hilaire, and advanced on the following day towards _Point
Olivière_, to attack a body of rebels who had taken post at that place,
and constructed an abatis, for the purpose of cutting off the retreat
of the detachment; but when the troops formed for the attack, the
rebels, after exchanging a few shots, fled, leaving two guns mounted
on carts behind them. The detachment returned on the same day with 25
prisoners to Chambly, the men having suffered much from heavy rains,
roads knee-deep in mud, and also from frost and snow.

In the meantime the detachments under Colonel Gore had, from
obstructions of a formidable nature, and from the severe state of the
weather, failed in the attempt on St. Denis, and had retired. The
conduct of Lieutenant Lysons of the ROYAL Regiment, attached to the
Quarter-Master General's department, who was employed on this service,
was spoken of in terms of commendation, and also the exertions of
Surgeon Farnden, in rendering assistance to the wounded. After the
success of the ROYALS at St. Charles, the rebels broke up from their
post at St. Denis.

The rebellion was, however, not arrested in its progress, and the
troops had much harassing duty to perform in severe weather. On the
13th of December Lieut.-General Sir John Colborne proceeded with all
his disposable force (including the companies of the ROYAL Regiment)
towards _St. Eustache_, to put down the revolt in the country of the
Lake of the Two Mountains, where the insurgents had driven the loyal
inhabitants from their homes, and had pillaged an extensive tract of
country. The ROYALS, with the Montreal rifles, and Captain Globinsky's
company of volunteers, formed a brigade under Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall.
The volunteers were detached to the woods bordering on the upper road
to St. Eustache, to drive in and disperse the rebel piquets. The
remainder of the brigade, with the other disposable troops, crossed the
north branch of the Ottawa river on the ice, on the 14th of December,
advanced upon St. Eustache, and entered the village at several points.
The ROYALS and Montreal rifles advanced up the main street, and took
possession of the most defensible houses. An officer was detached to
bring up the artillery; but he was driven back by the fire of the
rebels, who had taken post in the church. The artillery entered the
village by the rear, and opened their fire on the church door, while
some companies of the ROYALS and rifles occupied the houses nearest
to the church. After about an hour's firing, and the church doors
remaining unforced, a party of the ROYALS assaulted the presbytery,
killed some of its defenders, and set it on fire. The smoke soon
enveloped the church, and the remainder of the battalion advanced; a
straggling fire opened upon them from the Seignior's house, forming
one face of the square in which the church stood, and Lieut.-Colonel
Wetherall directed the grenadiers to carry it, which they did, killing
several, taking many prisoners, and setting it on fire. At the same
time part of the battalion commanded by Major Warde entered the church
by the rear, drove out and slew the garrison, and set the church on
fire. 118 prisoners were made in these assaults. The ROYALS had 1 man
killed and 4 wounded in this service.

On the 16th the ROYALS advanced with the remainder of the disposable
force to St. Benoit, where no opposition was offered; and the rebels
sent delegates to say they were prepared to lay down their arms
unconditionally. The ROYALS returned to Montreal, where they arrived
on the 17th of December with the prisoners. The good results of these
movements were the return of the peasantry to their usual occupations,
and the disappearance of armed parties of the rebels.

[Illustration: First, or Royal Regiment of Foot, 1838.

                                                    [To face page 261.]

[Sidenote: 1838]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In May, 1838, the first battalion proceeded from Ireland to Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1839]

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

In November, 1839, the first battalion was again directed to prepare
for foreign service, and the six service companies were embarked from
Greenock for Gibraltar on the 11th and 25th of that month, on board the
troop ships Athol and Sapphire.

[Sidenote: 1841]

The four depôt companies remained in Scotland until May, 1841, when
they were embarked for Ireland.

[Sidenote: 1843]

[Sidenote: 2nd Batt.]

In September, 1843, three companies of the second battalion were
embarked at Toronto for the West Indies; and on the 28th October the
head-quarters, with the other three companies, under the command of
Major Bennett, were embarked at Quebec for the same destination on
board of the Premier transport, which was wrecked in the Gulf of St.
Lawrence, but fortunately no lives were lost, and the three companies
returned to Quebec on the 12th November.

On the 18th December, 1843, General Lord Lynedoch died, and the
colonelcy of the regiment was conferred by Her Majesty on General
the Right Honourable Sir George Murray, G.C.B., from the 42nd Royal
Highland Regiment.

[Sidenote: 1844]

The head-quarters and the three companies of the second battalion,
under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Bell, again embarked from Quebec on
the 20th May 1844, and arrived on the 1st June at Halifax, Nova Scotia,
where they remained until November, when they proceeded from Halifax to
the West Indies, and arrived at Barbadoes on the 8th and 17th November.

[Sidenote: 1846]

The service companies of the second battalion returned from the West
Indies in January, 1846, and arrived at Leith on the 21st March, from
whence they proceeded to Glasgow, where they were joined by the depôt
companies, which embarked from Belfast in May, 1845.

[Sidenote: 1st Batt.]

The service companies of the first battalion embarked from Gibraltar
for the West Indies, on the 17th February, 1846, and arrived at
Barbadoes on the 21st March. The depôt companies, which proceeded from
Glasgow to Dublin in 1841, remained in Ireland.

On the 28th July, 1846, General the Right Honourable Sir George Murray,
G.C.B. died, and Her Majesty was pleased to confer the colonelcy of the
First or Royal Regiment of Foot on General the Right Honourable Sir
James Kempt, G.C.B., from the Second, or Queen's Royal Regiment of Foot.

The head-quarters of the first battalion are at Trinidad: the depôt
companies at Newbridge: the second battalion is at Edinburgh, at the
close of the year 1846, at which period this record is concluded.


The foregoing account proves the antiquity of the FIRST, OR ROYAL
REGIMENT OF FOOT, and gives a statement of its services for a period
of more than 200 years, during which it has acquired laurels under the
great GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS, king of Sweden, and under the French Marshals,
TURENNE, the Prince of CONDÉ, LUXEMBOURG, and DE CREQUI: it has since
formed a part of the British army which has fought and conquered under
most celebrated warriors and consummate generals of their periods; thus
establishing a fame and distinction which, it is presumed, few, if any,
other military bodies in Europe can claim. The career of the ROYAL
REGIMENT has not evinced a feverish and uncertain valour, sometimes
emitting sudden flashes which startle and surprise, and at others
betraying weakness and pusillanimity, but it has proved uniform and
invincible; and whether employed against the barbarous tribes of Asia,
Africa, and America, or the disciplined legions of Europe, the officers
and men of the ROYAL REGIMENT have, on all occasions, displayed the
native energy, firmness, and contempt of danger peculiar to Britons;
and by their victories in every quarter of the globe, they have
established a reputation for future ages to emulate.

Posterity, looking back at the splendid achievements of the British
arms in various parts of the world, will naturally inquire what
regiments won honour and fame in the several fields of glory where
British valour was sternly proved. To this it may be answered that,
in the seventeenth century, when GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS stood forth the
champion of the Protestant princes of Germany, this regiment fought
and conquered in that glorious cause; and it claims the honour of
having fought at the battle of LEIPSIC, famous in the history of
Sweden, and at ROUCROY, celebrated in the annals of France.

In the succeeding century, when the balance of power in Europe was
destroyed by the union of France and Spain, and LOUIS XIV. sought to
dictate laws to Christendom, this regiment was one of the first which
appeared at the scene of conflict, and it shared in the victories of
capturing the fortresses which that ambitious monarch had erected as
bulwarks to his kingdom; and thus purchased peace for Europe.

When BONAPARTE, whose hatred and jealousy of England were unalterable,
sought to become more than the dictator of Europe, this regiment met
the legions of the usurper, and fought and triumphed in battles, which
are inscribed on its colours as monuments to stimulate to deeds of
valour the men of future generations, who shall enrol themselves under
the banners of the ROYAL REGIMENT. Besides these leading features of
its career, in which the national character and influence have been
elevated, this regiment has evinced equally brilliant qualities in
actions which, though less important in their bearing on the affairs
of Europe, have attested the intrinsic merit of the corps, and have
purchased numerous advantages to the commerce, power, stability, and
happiness of Britain.


[6] Bishop Lesley; and Abercromby's Martial Achievements of the Scots

[7] L'Escosse Françoise, par A. Houston; and the Translator's Preface
to Beauge's History of the Campaigns in 1548 and 1549.

[8] Milan, a military publisher remarkable for correct dates, states,
in an account of the French army printed in 1746, that the _Scots
Gendarmes_ were instituted in 1422, and the _Scots Garde du Corps_ in
1440. Père Daniel, the French military historian, adduces proof that
they were instituted by Charles VII., but does not give the dates.

[9] Bishop Lesley; and Philip de Commines.

[10] List of the French army printed at the time.

[11] L'Ecosse Françoise, par A. Houston.

[12] Histoire de la Milice Françoise, par Le Père Daniel. 2 tom. 4to.
Paris, 1721.

[13] The companies obtained from the Netherlands were part of a
distinguished body of Scots, who had been many years in the service of
the States-General of the United Provinces; and were, in consequence of
a truce having been concluded for 12 years, at liberty to engage in the
service of Sweden. Vide _Historical Record of the Third Foot_.

[14] Introduction de Puffendorf, tome iv. p. 84.

[15] Harte's Life of Guslavus Adolphus.

[16] The regiment alluded to was raised by Donald Mackay, Lord Reay, in
1626, for the service of the King of Denmark; it was afterwards in the
service of the King of Sweden, and was reduced in 1634 to one company.
In 1637, Colonel Robert Monro, who had served in the regiment from the
time it was raised, published an historical account of its services,
under the title of _Monro's Expedition_; from which history much
valuable information has been obtained relating to the ROYAL REGIMENT,
and its first Colonel, Sir John Hepburn, who had lived in terms of
intimacy and strict friendship with Colonel Monro from the time they
were schoolfellows.

[17] Monro's expedition; and Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus.

"He maintained his post for nine weeks, repulsing every attempt to
retake it, till he was relieved by a Scotch regiment (the Royals)
under Colonel Hepburn, and a body of Swedish troops."--_General David
Stewart's History of the Highland Regiments_, published in 1822.

[18] Swedish Intelligencer.

[19] Monro's Expedition.

[20] The Imperialists had previously enacted a cruel tragedy on a party
of Scots at Old Brandenburg.

[21] Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus; Monro's Expedition; and the
Swedish Intelligencer.

[22] In a list of Gustavus's army published at the time, in the
_Mercure François_, the regiment is stated to have displayed four
colours at the battle of Leipsic.

[23] "The King having noticed that the Duke of Saxony was leaving
the field, and that Count Tilly was ready to charge his main body,
selected 2,000 musketeers of the brave Scots nation, and placed 2,000
horse on their flanks. The Scots formed themselves in several bodies
of six or seven hundred each, with their ranks three deep (the King of
Sweden's discipline being never to march above six deep;) the foremost
rank falling on their knees, the second stooping forward, and the
third standing upright, and all giving fire together, they poured,
at one instant, so much lead amongst the enemy's horse, that their
ranks were broken, and the Swedish horse charging, the enemy were
routed."--_Account of the battle of Leipsic published at the time._

[24] "We were as in a dark cloud, not seeing the half of our actions,
much less discerning either the way of our enemies, or the rest of our
brigades; whereupon, having a drummer by me, I caused him to beat the
_Scots March_, till it cleared up, which re-collected our friends unto
us."--_Monro's Expedition._

[25] Monro's Expedition.

[26] "His Majesty, accompanied by a great and honourable train of
cavaliers, alighted from his horse at the head of our brigade; the
officers coming together about his Majesty in a ring, his Majesty made
a speech of commendation of the brigade, thanking them for their good
service, and exhorting them to the continuation thereof, promised he
would not forget to reward them; and turning towards the superior
officers, they did kiss his Majesty's hand; the inferior officers and
soldiers crying aloud, they hoped to do his Majesty better service than
ever they had done."--_Monro's Expedition._

"His Majesty bestowed particular encomiums on the Swedish and Finland
horse, conducted by Horne; as also on that brave body of Scottish
infantry which Hepburn commanded."--_Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus._

[27] Harte.

[28] "The foot brigades were commanded to their several posts. Colonel
Hepburn's brigade (according to custom) was directed to the most
dangerous post, next the enemy; and the rest to theirs. The night
coming on, we began our approaches, and prepared for making ready our
attacks, when certain men were ordered to make cannon baskets, some
to provide materials, some to watch, some to dig, some to guard the
artillery, some to guard the workmen, and some to guard the colours
before the brigade. The day approaching, we having made ready the
batteries in the night, the service on both sides beginneth with cannon
and musket."--_Monro's Expedition._

[29] Monro gives the name of every British officer above the rank of
Captain in the Swedish army. Many Scots officers had been promoted to
the command of Swedish, Finland, and Dutch regiments.

[30] "Here also we see the valour of Hepburn and his brigade
praiseworthy, being, first and last, the instruments of the enemy's
overthrow."--_Monro's Expedition._

"The King returned Hepburn public thanks for suggesting the idea of
crossing the Wernitz, and for executing his plan with such judgement
and valour."--_Harte's Life of Gustavus Adolphus._

[31] In some accounts of the battle of Lützen the _Green Brigade_, of
which Hepburn's regiment formed a part, is mentioned by mistake amongst
the troops engaged, instead of the _White Brigade_. As Colonel Monro
commanded the brigade at the time the battle was fought, his narrative
is considered sufficient authority for stating that it was not present.

[32] Gustavus Adolphus King of Sweden was born on the 9th of December,
1594. He learnt the duty of a musketeer as soon as he could carry a
musket; and when seventeen years of age he was Colonel of a Cavalry
corps, and served a campaign against the Danes. In the same year
(1611) his father died, and the young Gustavus succeeded to the
throne of Sweden; and he soon afterwards evinced, to the surprise
of all Europe, the most distinguished abilities as a commander, a
hero, and a politician. The discipline which he introduced into
his army was strict beyond all precedent, and to this many of his
victories may be attributed. His improvements in arms, equipment,
and in military tactics, were particularly important; and he was
brave even to rashness. He was wounded in action on six different
occasions, had three horses killed under him, and was several times
in the power of the enemy, but was rescued by his own men. On the
fatal 6th of November, 1632, he fought sword in hand at the head of
the Smoland cavalry, and was shot through the left arm, but continued
fighting until his voice and strength failed from loss of blood, when
he attempted to retire. At that instant an Imperial cavalier came
galloping forward, and, crying "_Long have I sought thee_," shot
the King through the body; and the next moment one of his Majesty's
attendants shot the cavalier dead on the spot. As the King and his
attendants were retiring, they were charged by a troop of cuirassiers;
his Majesty was held for a few moments on the saddle, but his horse,
being shot in the shoulder, made a desperate plunge, and threw the
rider to the ground. After his fall the King received five wounds in
different parts of his body, and was shot through the head. Thus fell
the brave Gustavus, the most distinguished warrior of his age; with
whose life the early services of HEPBURN'S regiment, now represented by
the FIRST, OR ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT, are intimately connected.

[33] Monro's Expedition.

[34] In the _Mercure François_ and other French works he is called
_Colonel Hebron_ and _Le Chevalier d'Hebron_; Père Daniel, the French
historian, gives the following reason for this change--"On l'appelloit
en France 'le _Chevalier d'Hebron_,' son nom d'_Hepburn_ étant
difficile à prononcer."

[35] This transfer of men from the service of the Crown of Sweden to
that of France was not peculiar to Hepburn's veterans; but the German
and Swedish forces which, after the defeat at Nordlingen, retreated,
under the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, towards the Rhine, were nearly all taken
into the pay of France.

[36] Mercure Françoise; Anderson's History of the Reign of Louis XIII.;
and the Complete History of Europe.

[37] "The most deplorable accident was the death of the Scottish
"Colonel Hepburn, who, with his usual coolness, surveying the breach,
received a ball in his neck, and died, extremely regretted in the army,
and by the Court of France."--_Anderson's History of France_, vol. v.
p. 90.

"Le combat fut fort opiniâtre en ceste prise, et de telle façon; que
le Colonel Hebron Escossois, y fut tué d'une mousquetade dans le col,
qui luy passoit dans les reins, ayant laissé une reputation digne de
sa valeur, fidelité, et experience au fait de la guerre."--_Mercure
François_, tom. xxi. p. 277.

[38] The following return of the establishment of the regiment in 1637
was procured by its Colonel, General Lord Adam Gordon, who died in

  Colonel (Lord James Douglas)           1
  Lieutenant-Colonel (Colonel Monro)     1
  Major (Sir Patrick Monteith)           1
  Captains                              45
  Captain-Lieutenant                     1
  Lieutenants                           45
  Ensigns                               48
  Surgeons                               4
  Adjutants                              6
  Chaplains                              2
  Drum-Major                             1
  Piper                                  1
  Sergeants                             88
  Corporals                            288
  Lance-Parade                         288
  Drummers                              96
  48 Companies of 150 Privates each   7200
                 Total                8316

[39] Mercure François.

[40] In a plan of the siege of Hesdin, published at Paris in 1639,
_Douglas' Scots Regiment_ appears formed in brigade with the Regiment
of Champaigne.

[41] The three Scots regiments in the service of France at this period,
are designated by the French historians, the regiments of DOUGLAS,

[42] Père Daniel.

[43] Mercure François; and Le Histoire Militaire de Louis le Grand, par
M. Le Marquis de Quincy.

[44] This division consisted of the following corps; viz.: The French
Guards, the Swiss Guards, the regiments of Picardy, DOUGLAS, La
Meilleraie, Grancy, and Molondin.--_Mercure François._

[45] Account of the battle of Lens, published at the time; Life of the
Prince of Condé; and Histoire Militaire de Louis le Grand.

[46] A detailed account of this action is given in the Life of King
James II., from the memoirs written with his own hand, and published
by the Rev. J. S. Clarke in 1818. His Majesty was then (1652) Duke of
York, and was serving with the French Army, of which DOUGLAS' Regiment
formed part.

[47] Life of King James II., from the Memoirs written with his own hand.

[48] The forces were designated by the following titles:--


  The Duke of York's Troop              afterwards the third troop of
                                        Life Guards, and disbanded in


  The King's Regiment of Guards,        afterwards constituted, with a
                                        battalion of Guards raised in
                                        England in 1661, the FIRST
                                        FOOT GUARDS.

                                      { The few remaining men of these
  The Duke of York's Regiment         { regiments were, in 1660, placed
  The Duke of Gloucester's Regt.      { in garrison at Dunkirk; they
  The Earl of Bristol's Regiment      { were afterwards removed to
  Lord Newborough's Regiment          { Tangier, and incorporated in
  Colonel Richard Grace's Regt.       { the SECOND, or QUEEN'S REGIMENT
                                      { OF FOOT.

[49] "Ce Régiment de Douglas, étant en garnison à Avesnes en 1661,
eut ordre de passer en Angleterre, où il rendit des services très
considerables au Roy Charles II.

"Il n'était que de huit compagnies en partant de France, et se trouva
en y revenant, un an aprés, de trente-trois compagnies, qui étoient
composées pour le moins de cent hommes chacune. Mylord George Douglas
l'a toujours commandé en France."--_Père Daniel._

[50] London Gazette; and Military Records in the State Paper Office.

[51] "_Le Régiment de Douglas Escossois._ Ce Régiment a servi
plusieurs années en France, et s'y est fort distingué. Je trouve dans
l'Ordonnance de Louis XIV., de l'an 1672, pour le rang des Régimens,
qu'il étoit un des premiers."--_Père Daniel._

[52] Comte de Chamilly's despatch, in the original correspondence
respecting the campaign of 1672, published in France.

[53] See the Historical Record of the Life Guards, p. 43.

[54] Histoire du Vicomte de Turenne par L'Abbé Raguenet.

[55] Mémoires de deux dernieres Campagnes de Monsieur de Turenne en

[56] London Gazette.

[57] The Colonel of the Regiment, Lord George Douglas, was created
_Earl of Dumbarton_ on the 9th of March, 1675; but the French
historians continued to designate the corps, "_Le Régiment de Douglas_."

[58] In the order of battle for the French army on the Rhine in 1677,
printed in the _Histoire Militaire de Louis le Grand_, the First
Battalion of DOUGLAS' Regiment appears formed in brigade with the
regiments of _La Marine_, _Couronne_, and _Vendôme_, and the second
battalion is posted between two cavalry brigades, on the left of the

[59] "Captain Hume, who commanded our advance-party, showed great
conduct and courage, standing several charges of the enemy's horse;
and when the action was over, and he was upon his retreat to the main
body, one of the Moors' chief commanders charged the rear of his party
and overthrew him; but the Moor's horse falling, he was immediately
killed."--_London Gazette._

[60] Tangier's Rescue by John Ross, fol. 1681.

[61] Tangier's Rescue by John Ross, fol. 1681.

[62] "This day the Scots and their grenadiers charged first, if
there was any time at all between their charging: for, like fire and
lightning, all went on at once."--_Tangier's Rescue._

[63] Tangier's Rescue.

[64] Four colours were captured in this action; one by DUMBARTON'S
Scots, one by the Admiral's battalion, one by the English horse, and
one by the Spaniards. Three guns were also taken; two by the Foot
Guards, and one by the battalion of Marines and Seamen.

[65] The following return shows the loss sustained by the British
troops in this engagement:--

  |                                       |  Killed.  ||  Wounded. |
  |                                       +---+---+---++---+---+---+
  |                                       | O |   |   || O |   |   |
  |                                       | f |   |   || f |   |   |
  |                                       | f |   | H || f |   | H |
  |                Corps.                 | i |   | o || i |   | o |
  |                                       | c |   | r || c |   | r |
  |                                       | e | M | s || e | M | s |
  |                                       | r | e | e || r | e | e |
  |                                       | s | n | s || s | n | s |
  |                                       | . | . | . || . | . | . |
  | Four troops of English Horse, now     |   |   |   ||   |   |   |
  |   Royal Dragoons                      |   |   |  5||  2|  5|  9|
  | Three do. of Spanish Horse, disbanded |   |   |   ||   |   |   |
  |   in 1683                             |  1| 13| 24||  6| 30| 25|
  | Battalion of Foot Guards              |   |  7|   ||  1| 51|   |
  | The Earl of Dumbarton's Regiment, now |   |   |   ||   |   |   |
  |   1st Royal                           |  6| 36|   || 15|100|   |
  | The Earl of Inchiquin's do., now 2nd  |   |   |   ||   |   |   |
  |   or Queen's Royal                    |  2| 34|   || 10|124|   |
  | Vice Admiral Herbert's Battalion,     |   |   |   ||   |   |   |
  |   consisting of Marines and Seamen    |  2| 10|   ||   | 24|   |
  |                                       +---+---+---++---+---+---+
  |                             Total     | 11|100| 29|| 34|334| 34|

_Narrative of the Siege of Tangier, published by authority, fol. 1680._

[66] The First Regiment of Foot Guards was for several years designated
the _Royal Regiment_. There was also at this period a _Royal Regiment_
in _Ireland_, which was sometimes styled Foot Guards. This corps
adhered to King James II. at the Revolution in 1688. One battalion had
previously arrived in England, and, being composed of papists, it was
disbanded by William III. The men were confined a short time in the
Isle of Wight, and afterwards transferred to the service of the Emperor
of Germany. The other battalion fought in the cause of James II. in
Ireland, until the surrender of Limerick in 1691, when it proceeded to
France, and remained in the French service until it was disbanded.

[67] The author of the account of this review here means two battalions
of the 1st Foot Guards.

[68] War-Office Records.

[69] War-Office Records.

[70] Sixteen field-pieces were employed. Nine were sent from the Tower
of London, and seven from Portsmouth.

[71] Lediard, and several other historians, attribute the preservation
of the King's army from a complete overthrow at Sedgemoor to the
excellent conduct of the ROYALS, in being under arms so quickly as to
be able to hold the rebels in check until the other corps had time to
form their ranks.

[72] Fountainhall's Diary, p. 59.

[73] War-Office Establishment Book.

[74] Sir John Dalrymple, and several other historians who wrote many
years after these events occurred, have mistaken the Royal Regiment of
Scots Horse for the Royal Regiment of Scots Dragoons, now the 2nd or
Royal North British Dragoons, or _Scots Greys_; but the latter regiment
did not mutiny. The Scots Horse escaped to Scotland, and many of them
joined the Highlanders in their resistance to King William III.; and
the regiment was taken off the establishment of the army and was not
afterwards restored.

[75] List of troops sent to the Netherlands, in 1689, under the Earl of

  Second troop of Guards, now 2nd Regiment of Life Guards.

  Royal Regiment of Horse Guards.

  One Battalion of the 2nd Foot Guards.

  One Battalion of the Scots Foot Guards, now 3rd Foot Guards.

  One Battalion of the Royal Regiment.

  Prince George of Denmark's Regiment, now 3rd Foot, or the

  Royal Fusiliers, now 7th Royal Fusiliers.

  Col. John Hales' Regiment, afterwards disbanded.

   "   Sir David Collier's "      "         "

   "   Robert Hodges'      " now 16th Foot.

   "   Edwd. Fitzpatrick's " afterwards disbanded.

   "   Fergus D. O'Ffarrel's " now 21st Royal Scots Fusiliers.

[76] This officer commanded the _Grenadier Company_ of the ROYAL
Regiment when it was raised in 1678; and frequently distinguished
himself against the Moors at Tangier in 1680. In October, 1688,
Lieut.-Col. Archibald Douglas of the ROYAL Regiment was appointed
Colonel of a newly-raised regiment, now the 16th Foot; and was
succeeded in December of the same year by Lieut.-Col. Hodges, from the
ROYAL Regiment, who was killed at the battle of Steenkirk.

[77] D'Auvergne's History of the Campaigns in Flanders.

[78] D'Auvergne.

[79] "The bravery of our men was extraordinary, and admired by all; ten
battalions of ours having engaged above thirty of the French at one
time, and _Sir Robert Douglas_, at the head of _one_ battalion of his
own regiment, having driven _four_ battalions of the enemy from their
cannon."--_London Gazette._

[80] Memoirs of Captain George Carleton.

[81] The General History of Europe.

[82] D'Auvergne.

[83] The French brigades, which attacked the post occupied by the first
battalion of the _Royal_ Regiment, were those of Bourbonnois, Lyonnois,
Anjou, and Artois, and King James' Royal Regiment, or Irish Guards,
were amongst them.--(_D'Auvergne._)

[84] Official Records in Ireland.

[85] Millner's Journal of the Marches, Battles, and Sieges of the
British troops on the Continent from 1701 to 1712.

[86] Portmore's, now 2nd or Queen's Royals, and Elsts, afterwards

[87] Now the 9th, 15th, 23rd, and 24th Regiments.

[88] Now the 10th, 16th, 21st, and 26th Regiments.

[89] The following Return shows the number of Officers killed and
wounded in each British Regiment at the battle of Blenheim:--

                                                Killed. Wounded.

  The Queen's Horse, now      1st Dragoon Guards   0       2
  Lieut.-Gen. Wood's Regt.    3rd     "    "   -   2       5
  Colonel Cadogan's "         5th     "    "   -   1       0
  Lieut.-Gen. Wyndham's       6th     "    "   -   5       5
  Duke of Schomberg's         7th     "    "   -   3       3
  Royal Scots Dragoons        2nd Drags. (Greys)   0       0
  Royal Irish Dragoons, late  5th   "     -    -   0       1
  Foot Guards, one battalion   -    -     -    -   1       5
  Royals       two   do., now 1st Foot    -    -   3       7
  Prince George's Regt.,   "  3rd  "      -    -   2       9
  Brig.-Gen. Webb's "      "  8th  "      -    -   0       2
  Ld. North & Grey's "     "  10th "      -    -   8       9
  Brig.-Gen. Howe's  "     "  15th "      -    -   5      13
  Earl of Derby's    "     "  16th "      -    -   4      12
  Royal Irish        "     "  18th "      -    -   3      10
  Brig.-Gen. Row's   "     "  21st "      -    -   6      12
  Lt.-Gen. Ingoldsby's     "  23rd "      -    -   0       9
  Dk. of Marlborough's     "  24th "      -    -   3       9
  Brig.-Gen. Fergusson's   "  26th "      -    -   5      14
  Colonel Meredith's  "    "  37th "      -    -   0       3
                                                ----    ----
                                   Total  -       51     130

[90] Milner's Journal.

[91] London Gazette, &c.

[92] War-Office Marching-Order Book.

[93] War-Office Establishment Book.

[94] Records of the Adjutant-General's Office.

[95] Extract of a letter from an officer.

[96] "The troops did honour to their country, particularly the 1st
battalion of the Royal Scots, who were put to the hardest trials,
behaved heroically, and suffered much."--_Scots Magazine._

[97] London Gazette, &c. &c.

[98] In 1684, and for many years afterwards, the facing of the regiment
was _white_.

[99] His Majesty's commands were issued in October, 1832, directing
that the colours of both battalions of the Royal Regiment should bear
the same devices and distinctions.

[100] South Carolina Gazette.

[101] Return of troops engaged in the assault of Fort Moro, on the 30th
July, 1762.

                        Officers.  Serjeants.  Rank and File.
  Royal Regiment            6          5            102
  Marksmen                  8          8            129
  90th Regiment             8          2             50
           To sustain them--
  56th Regiment            17         14            150
                           --         --           ----
                   Total   39         29            431

[102] Stedman's History of the American War.

[103] Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 to 1783, by
Robert Beatson, Esq., LL.D.

[104] Lieut.-General Stuart's despatch.

[105] Afterwards General Sir William Hutchinson, K.C.H.

[106] Rainsford's Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti.

[107] The Duke of York's despatch.

[108] This officer rose to the rank of Major-General, and was killed
before Bayonne in 1814.

[109] Journal of Quartermaster-General Brownrigg, laid before

[110] Captain Mullen was on the Staff at Barbadoes, but volunteered his
services on this expedition.

[111] Now Lieut.-General Sir J. Stevenson Barns, K.C.B., Colonel of the
Twentieth Regiment of Foot.

[112] In this year (1811) was living at the village of Delmes, in
Scotland, John Reed, aged 100 years; he was a private in the 2nd
battalion of the ROYAL Regiment at the battle of _Culloden_, in 1746,
and was in the battalion upwards of 40 years.

[113] At a Scots corporation dinner, held in London on the 4th of May,
1811, on the health of the Duke of Kent, the Colonel of the ROYAL
Regiment, being drunk, his Royal Highness rose to return thanks, and,
in the course of his speech, said:--"My royal brother has been pleased
to praise the regiment in which I have been employed, and have had
the honour to command, and I too can bear testimony to the spirit
and gallantry of the Scottish soldiers. From the earliest days, when
I commenced my military life, it was always my utmost aim to arrive
at the command of a Scots regiment, and to bring that regiment into
action would have been the greatest glory I could have attained, as I
am well convinced the officers and men would have justified my most
sanguine expectations; their courage, perseverance, and activity,
being undoubtedly such as may always be relied on; and they are always
able and willing to do their duty, if not more than their duty." His
Royal Highness took great interest in the welfare of the regiment;
and he this year presented, by the hands of Lieut.-Colonel M'Leod, a
gold medal to Serjeant Manns of the regiment, for the very meritorious
manner in which he had educated upwards of 800 soldiers and soldiers'

[114] This officer was shot through the hand whilst bearing the
colours, the ball passing through the flag.


"Demerara, 20th of April, 1812.


"Major-General Carmichael cannot refrain from expressing his regret
on the departure of the ROYAL SCOTS. The honourable testimony from
Governor Bentinck and the inhabitants of the good conduct of the
regiment for nearly nine years corresponds with the opinion the
Major-General has formed of their correct discipline and military
order in all respects, which evince the incessant attention of Colonel
Stewart and the officers of the corps. He sincerely wishes them every
happiness, and looks forward with the pleasing hope of meeting the
regiment on future service.

                                             (Signed)      "A. STEWART,

[116] "The ROYALS led the attack, on which occasion the distinguished
gallantry of this corps was most conspicuous."

"The ROYALS refused to give way in the least, until General Hay
received orders, through General Oswald, from General Graham, to
retire, it having been found that success was physically impracticable,
as the defences round the breach were not destroyed; and, from the
showers of musketry, grape, hand-grenades, shells, and large stones,
with which the attacking column was assailed, it appears miraculous
that any escaped."--_Extract from Sir T. Graham's despatch._

"The ROYAL REGIMENT proved, by the numbers left in the breach, that it
would have been carried, had they not been opposed by real obstacles,
which no human prowess could overcome."--_Extract from Division Orders._

[117] "Major-General Hay speaks most highly of the conspicuous
gallantry of Colonel Barns in the successful assault of the coverlain,
with the brave battalion of the ROYAL SCOTS.

"Indeed I conceive our ultimate success depended upon the repeated
attacks made by the ROYAL SCOTS."--_Sir Thomas Graham's despatch_.

[118] Extract from General Orders.

[119] The Americans were about 6000 strong, and the British only
1500: namely, ROYAL SCOTS, 500; 1st battalion King's Own, 480; 100th
regiment, 450; one troop 19th Light Dragoons; and a proportion of
artillery.--_London Gazette._

[120] The Americans were 5000 strong; the British were 2800.--_London

[121] Lieut.-General Drummond's Despatch.

[122] General Orders.

[123] A stone was placed in the church at Montreal, Lower Canada, with
the following inscription:--

"In memory of Lieut.-Colonel JOHN GORDON, commanding the 1st battalion
Royal Scots Regiment of Foot, who departed this life on the 25th of
September, 1814, in consequence of a wound received in action with the
enemy in front of Fort Erie, on the 17th of the same month.

"This slab is placed by the officers of the battalion, to commemorate
their high esteem for him as a man, and their respect for his character
as a soldier."

[124] This valuable and gallant officer had served many years in the
Royal Regiment, in which he had a son, Captain George Hay, killed at
the battle of Vittoria.

A monument was erected to his memory in the cemetery of the church of
Etienne, Bayonne, with the following inscription:--

                       This tomb is placed here
       By the officers of the 3rd battalion, 1st, or Royal Scots
                           Regiment of Foot,
              As a testimony of respect to the memory of
                               The late
                       MAJOR-GENERAL ANDREW HAY,
   Commanding the First Brigade of the Fifth Division of the British
                            Army in France,
           Who gallantly fell on the morning of the 14th of
                             April, 1814,
                   In defence of the ground in which
                        His body is deposited,
                            Aged 52 years.

Near the north door of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, a monument
has also been erected to the memory of this gallant veteran. He is
represented falling into the arms of Valour, with a soldier standing,
lamenting the loss of his commander.

[125] "The 3rd battalion of the Royal Scots _distinguished itself in a
particular manner_. Being removed from the centre of the 5th division,
it charged and routed a column of the enemy. It was then formed in a
square, to receive the cavalry, and though repeated attacks were made,
not the slightest impression was produced. Wherever the lancers and
cuirassiers presented themselves, they found a stern and undismayed
front, which they vainly endeavoured to penetrate."--_Mudford's
Historical Account of the Campaign in the Netherlands in 1815._

[126] "Though charged six or seven times by an infinite superiority of
numbers, the French cavalry never for an instant made the slightest
impression upon the square of the Royal Scots."--_Narrative by an
Officer who was an eye-witness._


"Whitehall, 13th December, 1815.

"HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE REGENT, taking into His Royal Highness's
consideration the highly distinguished services of COLONEL JAMES
FOOT, Companion of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, and
Knight of the Royal Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword, manifested
by him on divers important occasions in the campaigns of Toulon,
Corsica, Holland, Egypt, and during the recent arduous operations and
splendid achievements of His Majesty's arms in Portugal, Spain, and
France, and being desirous of conferring upon that officer such a mark
of favour as may in an especial manner evince the sense his Royal
Highness entertains of the intrepidity and valour displayed by him
at the battle of Busaco, wherein, as Lieut.-Colonel of the Staff, he
commanded a brigade; at the capture of Badajoz, on the 6th of April,
1812; at the victory of Salamanca, where, in leading his battalion to
the charge, he was severely wounded; and his distinguished gallantry
at the assault and capture of St. Sebastian, and the battles of the
Nive, hath been pleased, in the name and on the behalf of His Majesty,
to grant unto the said Colonel Barns, His Majesty's Royal license and
authority that he and his descendants may bear the following honourable
augmentation to the arms of his family:--

"A chief, thereon the representation of the curtain of a fortification;
and above the words 'St. Sebastian,' as also a canton charged, with
the representations of the gold cross presented by His Majesty's
command to the said James Stevenson Barns, and of the badge of the
Royal Portuguese Military Order of the Tower and Sword pendant from the
ribands from which the said distinctions are respectively attached.

"And the following crest of honourable augmentation:--

"Issuant from a broken battlement, a dexter arm in armour, the hand
grasping a banner inscribed 'St. Sebastian;' in allusion to the
conspicuous conduct of the said Colonel Barns, on the 31st of August,
1813, when he gallantly led the 3rd battalion of the ROYALS, and
assaulted and carried the curtain of the fortress, thereby eminently
contributing to the ultimate capture of that important place; provided
the said armorial distinctions be first duly exemplified, according to
our law of arms, and recorded in the Herald's Office; otherwise His
Majesty's royal license and permission to be void, and of none effect."


"Port Chatlerain, 29th November, 1815.

"Brigade Order.

"The 4th battalion of the Royals, the 42nd and 92nd regiments, are to
march to-morrow morning for Meulans, on their route for Boulogne, to
embark for England.

"Major-General Sir Denis Pack, cannot allow these corps to depart from
his command without expressing his regret at losing them.

"The conduct of the 4th battalion, Royals, in camp and quarters has
been, like that of the 3rd battalion and the two regiments, orderly and
soldier-like; and he is confident, from the high state of discipline
these corps appear in, they would have emulated their comrades in the
3rd battalion, had the same glorious opportunity been afforded them."

[129] The following return shows the number of men drafted from the 4th
to the other battalions on foreign service:--

  Key to table:
  A.=To what Battalion.

  |   Date of transfer.   |       |     |     |     |      |     |        |
  +-------+---------------+   A.  |  S. |  C. |  D. |  P.  |  B. | Total. |
  | Year. |    Month.     |       |     |     |     |      |     |        |
  | 1807  | April         |  2nd  |  3  |  3  |  5  |   75 | 68  |   154  |
  | 1808  | February      |  1st  |  3  |  4  |  "  |  198 |  1  |   206  |
  | ----  | June          |  3rd  |  1  |  1  |  "  |  124 | 60  |   186  |
  | ----  | 6th November  |  2nd  |  2  |  6  |  7  |   95 | 12  |   122  |
  | ----  | 24th December |  3rd  |  "  |  1  |  3  |  146 |  "  |   150  |
  | ----  | 25th    "     |  2nd  |  "  |  "  |  "  |   90 |  "  |    90  |
  | 1809  | 19th January  |  3rd  | 25  | 23  |  4  |  385 |  "  |   437  |
  | ----  | 25th    "     |  3rd  |  "  |  "  |  "  |   "  | 91  |    91  |
  | ----  | 25th May      |  3rd  |  "  |  "  |  1  |  450 |  "  |   451  |
  | ----  | 3rd December  |  1st  |  2  |  "  |  "  |  120 |  "  |   122  |
  | 1811  | March         |  3rd  |  4  |  4  |  "  |  200 |  "  |   208  |
  | 1812  | November      |  1st  |  5  |  5  |  "  |  300 |  "  |   310  |
  | ----  |    "          |  2nd  |  2  |  2  |  "  |  200 |  "  |   204  |
  | ----  |    "          |  3rd  |  2  |  2  |  "  |  250 |  "  |   254  |
  |       |               |       +-----+-----+-----+------+-----+--------+
  |       |               | Total | 49  | 51  | 20  | 2633 | 232 |  2985  |

[130] This officer was promoted to the rank of Major-General in 1830,
and was drowned in the 'Frolic' steam-boat, between Tenby and Bristol,
in March, 1831, with his wife, Lady Arabella M'Leod.

[131] This officer was Deputy Adjutant-General to the King's troops,
and he placed himself with the flank companies of the Royal Scots on
the right, and encouraged the men by his example.

[132] This officer received a severe wound while protecting his
brother's body.

[133] Captain Wetherall afterwards rose to the rank of Major in the
regiment, and he wrote an historical record of his corps, which was
printed in 1832, at the expense of the Colonel, the Duke of Gordon.
Although there are some inaccuracies in the work, particularly as
regards the formation and early services of the regiment, yet the
record was as correct as could be expected from the limited information
he was in possession of; and he evinced much laudable zeal and industry
in its compilation. He followed the idea of Hamilton, who, in his
printed sketch of the ROYAL Regiment, supposes it to have been a
continuation of the Scots Guards at the French Court; but this has been
proved to be an error. Major Wetherall died, while serving with the 1st
battalion at Dominica, on the 7th August, 1833.

[134] It is only an act of justice to state that such was the
soldier-like feeling and _esprit de corps_ of the men, after they were
made acquainted with the duty that lay before them, that on their
falling in with their companions in the camp at Neembolah at twelve
o'clock on the night of the 17th of March, there was not one individual
amongst them in the least intoxicated, or unfit for duty.

[135] "The promptitude and energy with which the attack was made by the
troops under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Fraser, of His Majesty's
ROYAL SCOTS, reflect high credit on him and on all the officers and men
employed. Our loss has been trifling; Lieutenant Bland, of the ROYAL
SCOTS, is wounded. We are now in complete possession of the pettah, and
the superintending engineer is employed in erecting a mortar battery
to bombard the fort."--_Brigadier-General Doveton's Letter to Captain
Stewart, Acting Resident at the Court of Doulat Rao Scindia._

[136] "Yesterday evening a desperate and unexpected sally from the
fortress was made upon an advanced post of our troops in the pettah;
and it is with extreme regret I have to add that LIEUT.-COLONEL FRASER,
of His Majesty's ROYAL SCOTS, who had been appointed by me to command
in the pettah, was killed when in the act of gallantly rallying the
party and keeping the advance in their position. The enemy was,
however, immediately driven back, and compelled to retire again into
the fort."--_Brigadier-General Doveton's Despatch._

[137] Lieut.-Colonel Blaker's Mahratta War.

[138] Afterwards Lieut.-General Sir Archibald Campbell, Bt. G.C.B.,
Colonel of the 62nd Regiment, who died at Edinburgh on the 6th October,

[139] Now Major-General Sir Richard Armstrong.

[140] "The attack upon Simbike was most handsomely led by
Lieut.-Colonel Godwin, with the advanced guard of the right column,
consisting of the flank companies of His Majesty's ROYALS, &c.
&c."--_London Gazette._

[141] This division consisted of 250 of the ROYALS, 270 of the 41st,
260 of the 89th, the light company of the 28th Madras native infantry,
and 100 pioneers.--_London Gazette._

[142] When Dr. Sandford and Lieutenant Bennett were captured,
preparations were made to crucify them, but, after an hour's suspense,
they were sent away from the river, and eventually forwarded in
chains to the capital, a distance of 300 miles. On reaching Ava they
were thrown into a loathsome dungeon, crowded with criminals and
deserters, where the Doctor remained five, and Lieutenant Bennett ten
days, with nothing but a little rice to support them, and even this
was occasionally omitted. After being released from gaol they were
kept separate. The Doctor was a prisoner at large in the house of
an American missionary (Mr. Price), and the king's interpreter; and
Lieutenant Bennett was placed under charge of a Burmese constable, and
was in chains in a lonely situation during the troubled and fearful
state of Ava. From the vindictive and sanguinary disposition of some
of the Burmese ministers and chiefs, the lives of the prisoners were
in constant jeopardy, particularly during the moments of excitement
produced by disastrous intelligence from the army. The prisoners had
also to dread that, through the influence and fury of the Queen and
Priests, they should be sacrificed as a propitiatory offering to the
Burmese gods. On the nearer approach of the British army, the Doctor
and Lieutenant Bennett were frequently consulted on European modes
of concluding treaties of peace; and the Burmese acknowledged they
could not reconcile to their minds the idea that a victorious army,
with nothing to impede its progress, should halt within a day or two's
march of the capital, and terminate the war on conditions; this was
not Burman custom. To use their own simile, they could not believe
the cat with the mouse in her claws would refrain from demolishing
it; and, therefore, they concluded the pecuniary demand of the
English general was merely a ruse to obtain as much precious metal as
possible, and afterwards as much territory would be retained as was
deemed convenient. To raise their opinion of British faith, the Doctor
engaged to convey a letter to the British camp, and to return of his
own accord, and his re-appearance astonished the Burmese ministers, and
whole population of Ava.

Lieutenant (now Major) Bennett wrote an interesting narrative of
the various scenes and incidents he met with, all of a novel and
singular nature, and exhibiting traits and peculiarities of the Burman
character, which his situation as a prisoner of war could alone
develope. This narrative was published in the first and second volumes
of the United Service Journal.

[143] _Copy of a letter from Major-General Sir Theophilus Pritzler to
the Colonel of the Royal Regiment_:--

"Bangalore, East Indies, 30th July, 1830.


"The 2nd battalion of the ROYAL REGIMENT having been under my command
for nearly five years, I cannot allow it to march from Bangalore
without conveying to your grace the high opinion I entertain of it both
collectively and individually. Its zeal and good conduct as soldiers
have been equally conspicuous as its anxiety to produce harmony and
good fellowship in society; and it will leave a lasting impression
upon the inhabitants of this place, which has been marked in a most
flattering manner.

"This battalion has of late been commanded by a particular friend of
mine (Lieut.-Colonel Wetherall), in a manner which has produced the
goodwill of his officers and soldiers in an eminent degree, and placed
the battalion in the highest state of discipline; and I only regret
that your grace cannot see it in the state in which it leaves this
station, which, after a service in India of 23 years, has, I believe,
astonished our Commander-in-Chief, who is now here.

"The corps of officers is highly respectable, and amongst them are some
of the finest young men in the army. I am, therefore, confident that,
under your grace's protection, the 2nd battalion of the ROYALS will
very soon rival our best regiments in England.

"I trust your grace will excuse this long intrusion; I sincerely hope
that you enjoy your health; and I have the honour to be,

                            "My Lord Duke,
                 "Your faithful and obedient servant,

                                                  "THEOPHILUS PRITZLER.

"_To His Grace the Duke of Gordon._"





_Appointed 26th January, 1633_.

JOHN HEPBURN[144] descended from the Hepburns of Bothwell, an
ancient and distinguished family, which for many ages had extensive
possessions in East Lothian. His father was proprietor of the lands
of Althestaneford, and gave young Hepburn a liberal education. From
his earliest youth he was remarkable for spirit and resolution. When
he quitted college he made the tour of part of Europe (in 1615), and
the rising fame of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, of whose character
he heard frequent commendations, gave birth to a spark of military
ardour within his breast which was never extinguished till his death.
Soon after his return from his travels, when the attempt was made to
rescue Bohemia from the power of Austria, he engaged in the cause of
liberty, and commanded a company of foot at several sieges and actions
in Bohemia, Alsace, and Germany, and at the battle near Fleurus. When
the King of Bohemia's forces were disbanded, he entered the service
of the Swedish monarch. In his first essay in arms he displayed an
ardour which procured him the favour and approbation of Gustavus, whose
vigilant eye soon detected in this aspiring youth all the qualities
requisite to constitute an excellent soldier. After a short service in
the subordinate commissions he was quickly advanced to the command of
a regiment, and was employed in services which required a considerable
portion of skill and valour. He was invariably either at the head of
his regiment, or at the head of the brigade of which his regiment
formed part, and, as his regiment was incorporated into a Scots corps
in the French service, now the FIRST, OR ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT, his
services are set forth in the historical record of this corps, where
his name will be found associated with deeds of valour and heroism
of particular brilliancy. He appears to have been celebrated equally
for bravery, skill, and humanity: he was beloved and esteemed by
Gustavus Adolphus, and also by his companions in arms, both officers
and soldiers; and his presence inspired confidence in the ranks of the
brave Scots who fought under his command.[145]

That innate spirit and fire which constituted a part of his character,
rendered him incapable of brooking even an imaginary injury; and
Gustavus Adolphus, who was equally remarkable for the fiery temperament
of his constitution, having uttered one or two sharp expressions to
the brave Scottish warrior, he declared he would never more unsheath
his sword in the Swedish quarrel. The king is said to have placed
more confidence in this officer than in any other colonel in the
Swedish army; and some days before their disagreement his Majesty
had appointed him to the command of half the infantry in the camp at
Nuremberg. The king afterwards made several condescensions to Hepburn,
and appeared particularly desirous of retaining this valuable officer
in his service; but the Scottish hero was inflexible, and he quitted
the Swedish army in 1632. On his arrival at the British court, his
fame having preceded him, he was knighted. He soon afterwards tendered
his services to the king of France, who was too well acquainted with
the character, capabilities, and experience of this renowned Scot, not
to give him employment, and he was placed at the head of a regiment,
constituted of some new levies and old Scots companies in the French
line. His commission was dated the 26th of January, 1633; and at the
head of this corps he distinguished himself in Alsace and Germany,
and had the satisfaction of seeing many of the veterans of his former
regiment incorporated in his new corps. He commanded a division of the
French army on the Rhine, and was on the point of being advanced to
the dignity of a Marshal of France; but he was killed at the siege of
Saverne, before the diploma reached him. Thus terminated the career of
one of the best officers Scotland ever produced. He was known in France
by the title of the CHEVALIER HEBRON; and such was the fame of his
gallantry, that, although he was killed in the reign of Louis XIII., a
monument was erected to his memory some years afterwards by Louis XIV.,
in the cathedral of Toul. A contemporary historian (Lithgow) states
"_he was one of the best soldiers in Christendom, and, consequently, in
the world_."


_Appointed 26th August, 1636_.

This officer was cousin to Sir John Hepburn, and heir apparent of the
ancient house of Wachton. He was one of the gallant Scots, who, led
by a native ardour for military fame, sought renown in foreign lands,
and fought under the great Gustavus Adolphus in the glorious attempt
made by that monarch to rescue the Protestant princes of Germany from
the power of the emperor. In toils, dangers, and triumphs, he was the
companion of Sir John Hepburn. He rose to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel
in the Swedish army; and having transferred his services to the crown
of France, he succeeded Sir John Hepburn in the Colonelcy of the Scots
corps, now the ROYAL REGIMENT. He was killed in action in Lorraine a
few months afterwards; but the particular circumstances connected with
his fall have not been ascertained.


_Appointed in 1637_.

LORD JAMES DOUGLAS, second son of William, first Marquis of Douglas,
acquired celebrity in the wars between the house of Austria and the
Protestant league, and distinguished himself in France, Flanders,
Italy, and Germany. He obtained the Colonelcy of the Scots corps,
now the ROYAL REGIMENT OF FOOT, in 1637; and was killed while in the
command of a flying camp between Douay and Arras in October, 1655. A
monument was erected to his memory in the church of St. Germain de
Prez, at Paris, with an inscription in Latin.


_Appointed 21st October, 1655_.

LORD GEORGE DOUGLAS was the son of William, first Marquis of Douglas,
by his second wife Mary, daughter of George, first Marquis of Huntly.
In his youth he was page of honour to Louis XIV. Having made choice of
the profession of arms, he entered the service of the king of France,
and succeeded his brother in the Colonelcy of the Scots Regiment,
now the ROYAL REGIMENT, in the British line. In 1672 he served with
the French army in the Netherlands, and was attached to the division
commanded by Marshal Turenne. He afterwards served several campaigns
with the French army on the Rhine; highly distinguished himself in the
defence of Treves, and was promoted to the rank of Major-General in
France. He was created EARL OF DUMBARTON on the 9th of March, 1675.

In the early part of the reign of King James II. the Earl of Dumbarton
was Commander-in-Chief in Scotland; and he commanded the troops which
suppressed the rebellion of the Earl of Argyle in the summer of 1685.
He was subsequently elected a Knight Companion of the Order of the
Thistle. He held the rank of Lieut.-General in England, and was second
in command of the army encamped on Hounslow Heath in 1687 and 1688.
At the Revolution he adhered to King James II., whom he followed to
France, where he died in 1692.


_Appointed 31st December, 1688_.

FREDERICK DE SCHOMBERG descended from an ancient and noble family of
that name of the Palatinate, or Lower Rhine; and, during the struggle
made by the Protestant states of Europe against the power of Austria
and Spain, he served under Frederick Henry Prince of Orange, after
whose death he engaged in the service of the King of France.

Portugal, after having been subject to Spain many years, asserted its
independence in 1640; and a sanguinary war commenced between the two
kingdoms. The Spaniards had penetrated into the heart of Portugal,
and were anticipating its speedy subjugation, when Louis XIV. sent
General de Schomberg secretly to the aid of the house of Braganza. He
was already famous for his successful defence of Bourbourg against
two powerful armies, and for his conduct in the wars in Rouissillon;
and, when placed at the head of the Portuguese forces, his name at
once aroused the desponding adherents of the Braganza family, and
inspired them with new hopes and new expectations. While his presence
infused courage into the army, his discretion, for which he was always
remarkable, directed its energies to advantage; towns were taken,
battles were won, and finally a powerful army headed by Don John of
Austria was defeated, and the Spanish monarch forced, in 1668, to
acknowledge the independence of Portugal, and to conclude a peace with
the house of Braganza. His success excited the surprise of Europe,
and his achievements were celebrated by poets and orators in several

After his success in Portugal he commanded a French force against the
Spaniards in Catalonia; and his merits became so conspicuous, that
in 1675 he was promoted by Louis XIV. to the dignity of a marshal of
France. He subsequently commanded the French army in the Netherlands,
and in 1676 he forced the Prince of Orange to raise the siege of
Maestricht. In a few years afterwards the king of France endeavoured
to suppress the Protestant religion in his kingdom, when Marshal de
Schomberg, refusing to become a papist, his services appear to have
been, to a certain extent, forgotten. Various means had formerly been
used, and prospects of advancement to the highest honours held out, to
induce him to change his religion, but in vain; and he now obtained
liberty to quit France on condition of his proceeding to Portugal.
Soon afterwards he obtained permission to proceed to Germany; and the
emperor designed to have placed this distinguished veteran at the head
of his armies, but was prevented by the influence of the Jesuits. The
Elector of Brandenburg availed himself of the services of Marshal de
Schomberg, and appointed him a minister of state, and Generalissimo of

When William Prince of Orange (afterwards William III.) was preparing
an army for a descent on Britain, to oppose the proceedings of James
II., his Highness was desirous of obtaining the services of Marshal
de Schomberg, who was considered one of the greatest captains of his
time, and, being devoted to the Protestant interest, he consented
to accompany the Prince. The success which attended this enterprise
enabled his Highness to reward the veteran commander, who was appointed
Colonel of the ROYAL REGIMENT, and Master-General of the Ordnance.
He was also constituted a Knight of the Garter, and created Baron of
Teyes, Earl of Brentford, Marquis of Harwich, and DUKE SCHOMBERG.
During the summer of 1689 he was sent Commander-in-Chief to Ireland to
relieve the persecuted Protestants, and to rescue that kingdom from the
power of King James; and he was killed at the battle of the Boyne, in
July, 1690, while gallantly advancing with a regiment of foot to charge
the enemy. Thus terminated the life of this distinguished veteran in
the 84th year of his age. He was buried at St. Patrick's, Dublin, where
a stone with an inscription was placed over his tomb by the Dean and
Chapter of the church.


_Appointed 5th March, 1691_.

Amongst the many officers which Scotland has produced, who have
signalized themselves in war, few have evinced brighter military
virtues than the brave SIR ROBERT DOUGLAS of Glenbervie. He was second
cousin to the Earl of Dumbarton; he served many years in the ROYAL
REGIMENT, in which he rose to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel; and he was
known as a brave and generous aspirant to military fame, when King
William III. promoted him to the Colonelcy of the REGIMENT. Bright
prospects of future glory were before him. He had already given
astonishing proofs of personal bravery at the battle of STEENKIRK,
when he saw one of the colours of his regiment in the hands of the
French. He instantly rushed forward into the thickest of the enemy's
ranks, and rescued the colour at the expense of his life, as more fully
detailed in the historical record of the ROYAL REGIMENT. He lived
beloved and admired, and fell regretted by his sovereign and country,
but more particularly by the officers and men of his regiment, with
whom he had served in various parts of the world, and in whose breasts
his memory was cherished with particular tenderness. By his fall he
purchased a renown which more fortunate commanders have failed to
acquire; and the story of his gallantry will survive to the remotest


_Appointed 1st August, 1692_.

LORD GEORGE HAMILTON, fifth son of William Duke of Hamilton, was an
officer in the ROYAL REGIMENT in the reign of Charles II., and also
of James II.,[147] and, adhering to the Protestant interest at the
Revolution in 1688, he was advanced to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel, and
on the 1st of March, 1690, to the brevet rank of Colonel. He served
under King William III. in Ireland, and distinguished himself at the
battle of the Boyne; and in 1691 he was at the siege of Athlone, at the
battle of Aghrim, and at the capture of Limerick. In January, 1692,
he was appointed Colonel of the 7th Royal Fusiliers, at the head of
which corps he distinguished himself at the battle of Steenkirk, and
his gallantry was rewarded with the Colonelcy of the ROYAL REGIMENT.
Continuing to serve under King William in the Netherlands, he
distinguished himself in 1693 at the unfortunate battle of Landen, and
in 1695 at the siege and capture of Namur, and while engaged in this
service he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. On the 3rd
of January, 1696, he was advanced to the peerage by the title of Baron
Dechmont, Viscount of Kirkwall, and EARL OF ORKNEY; and in March, 1702,
he was promoted to the rank of Major-General. He served the campaign of
this year under the Earl of Marlborough, and was engaged in the siege
of Stevenswart. He commanded a brigade of infantry during the campaign
of 1703, was advanced to the rank of Lieut.-General, and invested with
the Order of the Thistle in 1704; and, having proceeded with the army
into the heart of Germany, took part in gaining the glorious victories
of Schellenberg and Blenheim. In 1705 he distinguished himself at the
siege and capture of Huy; and in the following year at the battle of
Ramilies, and the siege of Menin. He also took a distinguished part in
the battle of Oudenarde; in covering the siege of Lisle; and in forcing
the passage of the Scheldt in 1708. In 1709 he distinguished himself
in the movements which preceded and led to the battle of Malplaquet,
and during this hard contested action he signalized himself at the head
of fifteen battalions of infantry. He also signalized himself at the
siege of Douay in 1710; and in the beginning of the following year he
was promoted to the rank of General. He was also engaged in passing the
French lines in 1711, and commanded twenty battalions of infantry at
the siege of Bouchain.

On these occasions the EARL OF ORKNEY had evinced personal bravery and
military talents of a superior character. At the close of the war he
was a member of the Privy Council, and Governor of Edinburgh Castle.
On the accession of George I. he was appointed one of the Lords of the
Bedchamber to His Majesty, and Governor of Virginia; and in January,
1736, he was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. He was many years
one of the sixteen representatives of the Scottish peerage, and died in
January, 1737.


_Appointed 27th June, 1737_.

This officer entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne, and had the
honour of serving under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. He
was several years in the 3rd Foot Guards; and in 1722 he obtained the
brevet rank of Colonel. In October, 1734, King George II. appointed him
Colonel of the 22nd Foot; and in 1737 promoted him to the Colonelcy of
the ROYAL REGIMENT. He obtained the rank of Brigadier-General in 1739,
that of Major-General in 1741, and Lieut.-General in June, 1745, at
which time he was performing the duty of Quarter-Master General to
the army in the Netherlands, commanded by his Royal Highness the Duke
of Cumberland. In the following year he commanded an expedition which
was originally designed for an attack on the French settlements in
Canada; but was countermanded, and afterwards made an attack on the
French sea-port L'Orient, and on the peninsula of Quiberon.[148] He
was subsequently employed on an embassy to the courts of Vienna and
Turin.[149] On the decease of his brother in 1750, he became entitled
to the dignity of Lord Sinclair, a Scottish peerage; but he preferred a
seat in the House of Commons, of which he had been many years a member,
and he therefore did not assume the title. He was promoted to the rank
of General in 1761, and died at Dysart in November, 1762.


_Appointed 17th December, 1762_.

SIR HENRY ERSKINE was an officer of the ROYAL REGIMENT, in which
corps he was appointed Captain on the 12th March, 1743; in April,
1746, he was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel, and held the
appointment of Deputy Quarter-Master General to the expedition under
Lieut.-General St. Clair, which made a descent on the French coast, in
which service he was wounded. In June, 1759, he was promoted to the
rank of Major-General; and in October, 1760, he obtained the Colonelcy
of the 67th regiment, from which he was removed in 1761 to the 25th
Regiment, and in 1762 to the Colonelcy of the ROYALS. He was a Member
of Parliament, and Secretary to the Order of the Thistle, and died in
August, 1765.


_Appointed 11th September, 1765_.

JOHN CAMPBELL entered the army in the reign of King George II., and
was appointed Lieut.-Colonel of the 54th Regiment, now the 43rd
Light Infantry, on the 25th of April, 1745, and served a short time
on the Continent. The rebellion breaking out in Scotland in the
same year, he quitted the Netherlands, and joined General Hawley
with 1000 Argyleshire highlanders in January, 1746, on the day of
the unfortunate battle of Falkirk. He subsequently joined the Duke
of Cumberland at Perth, and accompanied his Royal Highness to the
north. In November, 1755, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel, and
appointed Aide-de-camp to the King. In the following month he obtained
the Colonelcy of the 54th Regiment, then first embodied, from which
he was removed in April, 1757, to the 14th Dragoons, and two years
afterwards he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and appointed
Colonel of the Argyleshire Fencibles. In January, 1761, he was promoted
to the rank of Lieut.-General. On the decease of his uncle, Archibald,
third Duke of Argyle, in 1761, his father, General John Campbell, of
the Scots Greys, succeeded to that title, and Lieut.-General Campbell
of the 14th Dragoons obtained the designation of MARQUIS OF LORNE.
In 1762 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in Scotland, and in 1765
he obtained the Colonelcy of the ROYAL Regiment of Foot. He was
again appointed Commander-in-Chief in Scotland in 1767, and in 1770
he succeeded to the title of DUKE OF ARGYLE. In March, 1778, he was
promoted to the rank of General; four years afterwards he was removed
from the ROYALS to the 3rd Foot Guards, and he was advanced to the
rank of Field Marshal in 1796. The many virtues for which his Grace
was distinguished occasioned him to be highly honoured and respected
in society; and he died lamented on the 24th of May, 1806, in the 83rd
year of his age.


_Appointed 9th May, 1782_.

LORD ADAM GORDON, fourth son of Alexander second Duke of Gordon, was
appointed Captain in the 18th Royal Irish Regiment of Foot on the 12th
of December, 1746, and Captain and Lieut.-Colonel in the Third Foot
Guards on the 2nd of January, 1756. In 1758 he proceeded with the
expedition under General Bligh against the French coast; was at the
capture of Cherbourg, and the descent on the coast of Brittany, and
distinguished himself at the head of his company while bringing up the
rear of the army when attacked by the enemy during the embarkation at
St. Cass. He was promoted to the Colonelcy of the 66th Regiment in
January, 1763, and subsequently held a command in North America. In
May, 1772, he was promoted to the rank of Major-General; in December,
1775, he was removed to the 26th Cameronians; and in the following
year he rose to the rank of Lieut.-General. He was appointed Governor
of Tynemouth Castle in 1778; was removed to the ROYAL REGIMENT in
1782; and appointed Commander-in-Chief in Scotland in 1789. He was
further promoted to the rank of General in 1793, and in 1796 he was
appointed Governor of Edinburgh Castle. He was several years a Member
of Parliament, but vacated his seat in 1788. He prided himself much on
being Colonel of the ROYAL REGIMENT, and took particular interest in
everything connected with the corps. His decease took place in August,


_Appointed 21st August, 1801_.

During the early part of this century the ROYAL Regiment of Foot had
the honour of being commanded by a Prince who was distinguished alike
for his social and military virtues,--namely, FIELD MARSHAL HIS ROYAL

Prince Edward, fourth son of His Majesty King George III., was born
on the 2nd of November, 1767. In the eighteenth year of his age he
proceeded to Germany for the completion of his studies, and resided
successively at Lunenburg and Hanover, and was appointed, on the 30th
of May, 1786, Colonel of the Hanoverian Guards. During the succeeding
year he removed to Geneva, and while pursuing his studies at this
place, His Majesty conferred upon him the Colonelcy of the 7th Royal
Fusiliers. Early in 1790 he returned to England; and after passing
a few days with his family he embarked, in obedience to the King's
command, for Gibraltar, in order to acquire a knowledge of garrison
duty under Major-General O'Hara. While at Gibraltar he commanded
for several months the 2nd, or Queen's Regiment, until the arrival
of the 7th Royal Fusiliers, as a reinforcement to the garrison, in
August, 1790. In 1791 he sailed with his regiment from Gibraltar for
Quebec; and while serving in Canada he was promoted to the rank of
Major-General. From North America he proceeded, during the winter of
1793-4, through the United States to Boston, where he embarked for
the West Indies, and joined the army under General Sir Charles Grey,
at the commencement of the siege of Fort Bourbon, in the island of
Martinique, and commanded the detached camp at La Coste, above Point à
Petre. During the several attacks His Royal Highness's conduct excited
the admiration of the army: his life was frequently exposed to the most
imminent peril; and his aides-de-camp, Captain, afterwards General Sir
Frederick, Wetherall, and Lieutenant Vesey, were wounded near his Royal
Highness's person.[150] In compliment to the gallantry evinced by His
Royal Highness on this occasion, the lower fort, called Fort Royal, was
subsequently named FORT EDWARD.

After the capture of Martinique, the army proceeded to St. Lucie;
and His Royal Highness commanded the grenadier brigade, which, in
conjunction with the light infantry brigade, under Major-General Thomas
Dundas, formed the storming-party which carried Morne Fortuné. From St.
Lucie the army proceeded to the island of Guadaloupe; and the flank
companies were detached under Prince Edward and Major-General Dundas,
who succeeded in gaining possession of Morne Marscot and Fleur D'Epée,
commanding Point à Petre. His conduct again excited admiration, and His
Royal Highness received the thanks of Parliament. After the capture
of the French West India Islands[151], His Royal Highness returned to
North America, and was shortly afterwards appointed Commander of the
Forces in Nova Scotia and its dependencies. On the 12th of January,
1796, he was promoted to the rank of Lieut.-General; and, having
returned to England on account of ill health, he was created, on the
23rd of April, 1799, _Earl of Dublin_, in Ireland, and DUKE OF KENT AND
STRATHEARN, in Great Britain; in the following month he was promoted
to the rank of General, and appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the
forces in British North America. On his return to North America his
arrival was greeted by all ranks; and during his stay in that country
he introduced numerous improvements in the system of conducting public
business. In August, 1800, His Royal Highness returned to England; and
in the following year he was appointed to the Colonelcy of the ROYAL
REGIMENT of Foot. In 1802 he was appointed Governor of the important
fortress of Gibraltar, whither he immediately proceeded; and while
attempting to effect the removal of several long-existing abuses
and irregularities, His Royal Highness experienced that opposition
which has attended every attempt to remedy evils, when the private
interests and privileges of individuals are concerned. The Duke of
Kent returned in 1803 to England, where he continued to reside upwards
of fifteen years. He was promoted to the rank of Field-Marshal on the
5th of September, 1805; he was also elected a Knight of the Garter;
constituted a Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order
of the Bath; and appointed Keeper and Ranger of Hampton Court Park.

During the period His Royal Highness resided in England the ROYAL
REGIMENT of Foot experienced the advantage of his constant care and
anxiety for its interests, and of his influence in the kingdom. It was
recruited with facility, and he had the satisfaction of having four
battalions on foreign service, amounting to 5000 men, at the same time
in three different quarters of the globe. The attachment of His Royal
Highness to his corps was evinced on all occasions, and he frequently
expressed himself in terms of exultation at its achievements. His
concern was not, however, limited to his regiment, as there was
scarcely a public charity in the metropolis which did not derive
benefit from his patronage, personal eloquence, and contributions, and
over many he presided. His private acts of benevolence, in the cases of
widows and orphans who were known to His Royal Highness as deserving
objects of relief, were very numerous, and the instances of his
charity and philanthropy were attested by the grateful acknowledgments
of those who had no claim on His Royal Highness's bounty beyond the
circumstance of a husband, father, or other relative, having performed
faithful service under his command. The provision made by His Majesty's
Government for His Royal Highness had not been equal to his necessary
expenditure to support the dignity of a Prince of the royal blood,
particularly for the periods he was on foreign service; and in 1816
economical views induced him to proceed to the Continent. In May, 1818,
he was married at Coburg, according to the Lutheran rites, to Her
Serene Highness Victoria Maria Louisa, youngest daughter of the late
reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg. Shortly after the solemnities the royal
pair proceeded to England, and were remarried at Kew Palace on the 11th
of July, 1818, according to the rites of the Church of England. In a
few weeks after this ceremony the Duke returned with his bride to the
Continent; in the succeeding year they revisited England; and on the
24th of May, 1819, the Duchess gave birth, at Kensington Palace, to a
daughter, named Alexandrina Victoria, Her present Majesty.

In a few months after this happy event this amiable Prince, whose
social, private, and public virtues endeared him to his family and
friends, and procured him a place in the affections of the British
people, was attacked by pulmonary inflammation, produced by accidental
cold, and he died at his temporary residence at Sidmouth on the 23rd
of January, 1820. The remains of His Royal Highness were removed from
Sidmouth and deposited in the royal vault at St. George's Chapel, in
Windsor Castle, on the 12th of February, 1820, with the usual honours
and solemnities observed at the funerals of the members of the Royal


_Appointed 29th January, 1820_.

GEORGE MARQUIS OF HUNTLY, son of Alexander fourth Duke of Gordon,
was appointed to a commission in the 35th Regiment in 1790. He soon
afterwards raised an independent company of foot, and was appointed, on
the 25th of January, 1791, Captain in the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment.
In July, 1792, he was appointed Captain-Lieutenant and Lieut.-Colonel
in the 3rd Foot Guards; and, proceeding with his company to the
Netherlands in the following year, he was engaged with the French at
St. Amand and Famars, and in the siege of Valenciennes; also in the
action before Dunkirk, and the affair at Lannoy. In the beginning of
1794 his Lordship raised the 100th (afterwards 92nd) regiment, of which
he was appointed Lieut.-Colonel Commandant; and he proceeded with his
regiment to Gibraltar, but on his return to England he was captured
by a French privateer. He subsequently rejoined his regiment at the
island of Corsica, where he served upwards of a year, and obtained
the rank of Colonel on the 3rd of May, 1796. He was soon afterwards
appointed Brigadier-General in Ireland, where he served during the
rebellion. In 1799 he proceeded with the expedition to Holland, and
was actively employed until the 2nd of October, when he was wounded.
His Lordship was promoted in 1801 to the rank of Major-General; and in
1803 he was appointed to the Staff in North Britain, where he served
three years. In January, 1806, he was removed to the Colonelcy of the
42nd Royal Highlanders; and on the 25th of April, 1808, he was promoted
to the rank of Lieut.-General. He commanded a division of the army in
the expedition to Walcheren in 1809, and was promoted to the rank of
General on the 12th of August, 1819. In the following year he obtained
the Colonelcy of the ROYAL REGIMENT, and was constituted a Knight
Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath about
five months afterwards. He succeeded, on the decease of his father, in
1827, to the dignity of DUKE OF GORDON, and was also appointed Governor
of Edinburgh Castle, and Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland; and
in 1834 he was removed from the ROYALS to the 3rd Foot Guards. This
kind-hearted and gallant nobleman and soldier, who was distinguished
for an uninterrupted succession of acts of kindness and philanthropy,
died on the 28th of May, 1836.


_Appointed 12th December, 1834_.

Amongst the most distinguished of the able and scientific soldiers who
led the conquering armies of England from the Tagus to the Seine, was
the venerable General Lord Lynedoch, whose death took place on the 18th
December, 1843, at his residence in London.

The early life of this eminent man was that of a private country
gentleman, but one whose mind had been cultivated in no ordinary
degree. The classical attainments of his father, and the many elegant
accomplishments of his mother, were directed to that which formed with
them a never ceasing object, namely, the education of their son, who,
owing to the death of both his elder brothers, had become heir to the
family estate. The family from which he is descended, is a branch of
that from which the Dukes of Montrose trace their origin. His father
was Thomas Graham, Esq., of Balgowan, and his mother was Christiana,
fourth daughter of the first Earl of Hopetoun. He was born at Balgowan
(Perthshire), in the year 1750. In 1774 his father died, and, in
the same year, he married the Hon. Mary Cathcart, one of the three
daughters of the ninth Lord Cathcart. Thus Mr. Thomas Graham apparently
settled down for life in the quiet, unobtrusive, happy condition of an
independent country gentleman; and thus he continued in the enjoyment
of great domestic felicity, surrounded by many estimable and attached
friends, for a period of nearly 20 years. He had by this time attained
the mature age of forty-two, and to all external seeming was one of the
last men in the world likely to enter upon a military life.

In the year 1792, however, his domestic happiness was brought to a
termination by the death of his wife. The effect of this melancholy
event unsettled the mind of Mr. Graham, and his case adds one to the
instances that might be adduced in which domestic calamities have
procured, for the State, services of the highest order in the field
and the cabinet. It may be said, that this change in his condition and
prospects, imparted almost a romantic character to the tenor of his
life. His grief was such as injured his health, and he was recommended
to travel, with a view of alleviating the one, and restoring the other,
by change of scene and variety of objects. While at Gibraltar in 1793,
he was led into military society, and from that period he commenced to
devote himself to the profession of arms.

Lord Hood was then about to sail for the south of France, and Mr.
Graham had recently been a traveller in that country. He therefore
gladly acceded to his proposition to accompany him as a volunteer.
In the year 1793, he landed with the British troops at Toulon, and
served as extra aide-de-camp to General Lord Mulgrave, the father to
the present Marquis of Normanby, who marked by his particular thanks
the gallant and able services of the elderly gentleman who had thus
volunteered to be his aide-de-camp: the events of that period gave Mr.
Graham ample means of indulging his taste for military life: nor did he
neglect any opportunity which circumstances presented; he was always
foremost in the attack, and on one occasion, at the head of a column,
when a private soldier fell, Mr. Graham took up his musket and supplied
his place in the front rank.

On returning to this country, he received a letter of service for
raising a regiment in his native country, of which he was appointed
Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant on the 10th February, 1794, and which
having been since retained on the establishment of the army, is now
the Ninetieth Light Infantry, or Perthshire Volunteers. This regiment
formed part of the army under the command of Lord Moira (afterwards
Marquis of Hastings). It passed the summer of 1795 at Isle Dieu,
whence it proceeded to Gibraltar. On the 22nd of July, 1795, the rank
of Colonel in the Army was conferred on Lieutenant-Colonel Graham.

He continued for some months with his regiment at Gibraltar, when he
obtained permission to join the Austrian Army. His connexion with that
service continued during the summer of 1796, taking the opportunities
which his position presented him of sending to the British Government
intelligence of the military operations and diplomatic measures adopted
by the commanders and sovereigns of the Continent: his despatches at
this period evinced, in a remarkable degree, the great talents and
characteristic energy of the writer.

During the investment of the city of Mantua by the French, he was
shut up there for some time with General Wurmser, but, impatient of
remaining inactive, he succeeded in making his escape, under cover of
night, encountering great difficulty and imminent hazard.

Early in the year 1797, he returned to England, but in the following
autumn rejoined his regiment at Gibraltar, whence he proceeded to the
attack of Minorca with Sir Charles Stuart, who bestowed the warmest
eulogiums on the skill and valour displayed by Colonel Graham. The part
which he took in the reduction of Minorca is thus described in a work,
published some years ago, detailing those transactions:--

"After the debarkation of the troops innumerable difficulties opposed
themselves to their operations. There is not in any part of Europe to
be found a greater variety of natural obstacles to an invading army
than in this island. Reports from deserters and others, contradictory
in their purport, rendered General Stuart for a short time irresolute
what course to pursue. He, however, resolved to proceed by a forced
march to Mercadel, and by possessing that essential post, to separate
the enemy's force. To effect this object, Colonel Graham was sent
with 600 men, and by dint of the utmost effort arrived at Mercadel, a
very few hours after the main body of the enemy had marched towards
Candarello. Here he made a considerable number of prisoners, seized
several depôts of ammunition, &c., and established his corps in front
of the village. The reduction of Minorca being completed, Colonel
Graham repaired to Sicily, where he employed himself in the service
and for the assistance of its legitimate monarch; and such were his
exertions, that he received repeated acknowledgments and tributes of
gratitude and esteem from the King and Queen of Naples."

In September, 1798, Colonel Graham, having been appointed to the local
rank of Brigadier-General, commanded the force, consisting of the
30th and 89th Regiments, and some corps embodied under his immediate
direction, in the siege of the island of Malta. Brigadier-General
Graham, aware of the prodigious strength of the place, with the
assistance of the fleet, resorted to a blockade, when, after a
resistance of nearly two years' duration, a reinforcement of troops
under the command of Major-General Henry Pigott was sent to assist in
reducing the garrison, which capitulated on the 5th September, 1800,
as announced in the following despatch from Major-General Pigott,
addressed to Lieutenant-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, then commanding
the forces in the Mediterranean.

"Malta, September 5, 1800.

"I have great satisfaction in acquainting you with the surrender of the
fortress of La Valette, with all its dependencies, after sustaining a
blockade of two years. The capitulation has been signed this day.

"During the short time you were here, you must have been sensible of
the great exertions which Brigadier-General Graham must have made with
the limited force he had, previous to my arrival with a reinforcement:
he has ever since continued these exertions, and I consider that the
surrender of the place has been accelerated by the decision of his
conduct in preventing any more inhabitants from coming out of the
fortress a short time before I came here. He was sent to negotiate the
terms of capitulation with General Vaubois, and I am much indebted to
him for his assistance in that business."

On the completion of this service, General Graham came home for a few
months, and, again anxious for active service, proceeded to Egypt,
but before his arrival that country had been completely conquered. He
returned through Turkey, making some stay at Constantinople, and during
the peace of Amiens resided for a short time at Paris. His active and
enterprising spirit had now to endure a period of repose. In 1808,
however, he proceeded with General Sir John Moore to Sweden, where he
availed himself of that opportunity to traverse the country in all
directions. Shortly afterwards Sir John Moore was ordered to Spain, and
Major General Graham served there during the whole campaign of 1808.
He was afterwards appointed to command a division in the expedition to
Walcheren, but having been attacked with fever he was obliged to come
home. In February, 1811, having been previously raised to the rank of
Lieutenant-General, he was appointed to the command of an expedition to
attack the rear of the French army then blockading Cadiz, an operation
which led to the celebrated battle of Barrosa. The thanks of Parliament
were voted to him and the brave force under his command, and never
were thanks more nobly earned or bestowed in a manner more honourable
to those who offered and those who received them. He was at that time
a member of the House of Commons, and in his place in Parliament he
received that mark of a nation's gratitude. In acknowledging the honour
thus conferred on him, Lieutenant-General Graham spoke as follows:--

"I have formerly often heard you, sir, eloquently and impressively
deliver the thanks of the house to officers present, and never without
an anxious wish that I might one day receive this most enviable mark of
my country's regard. This honest ambition is now fully gratified, and I
am more than ever bound to try to merit the good opinion of the house."

Barrosa was to Lord Lynedoch what Almaraz was to Lord Hill, and
Albuhera to Lord Beresford.

After this series of events, and having been appointed a Knight of
the Bath in February, 1812, Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Graham joined
the army under the Duke of Wellington; but from ill health he was
obliged to revisit England for a short period. Early in 1813, however,
he returned to the Peninsula, and commanded the left wing of the
British army at Vittoria. Mr. Abbott, then Speaker of the House of
Commons, (afterwards Lord Colchester,) in alluding to General Graham's
distinguished career at this period, stated that his was "a name never
to be mentioned in our military annals without the strongest expression
of respect and admiration;" and Mr. Sheridan, speaking of the various
excellences, personal and professional, which adorned his character,

"I have known him in private life; and never was there seated a loftier
spirit in a braver heart."

Alluding to his services in the retreat of the British army to Corunna,
he continued:--

"In the hour of peril, Graham was their best adviser; in the hour of
disaster, Graham was their surest consolation."

He was second in command at the siege and capture of Ciudad Rodrigo;
and commanded the army employed in the siege of St. Sebastian, and
also the left wing at the passage of the Bidassoa; but soon after, in
consequence of ill health, he was obliged to resign his command to
Sir John Hope. In 1814 he was appointed to the command of the forces
employed in Holland, and on the 3rd of May in the same year he again
received the thanks of Parliament, and was raised to the peerage by the
title of Baron Lynedoch, of Balgowan, in the county of Perth.

As years advanced, and the infirmities of age began to accumulate,
Lord Lynedoch found the climate of Italy better calculated to sustain
his declining energies than the atmosphere and temperature of his own
country; he, therefore, spent much time on the continent; but, on a
recent occasion, so anxious was he to manifest his sense of loyalty and
his personal attachment to the Queen, that when Her Majesty visited
Scotland, he came home from Switzerland for the express purpose of
paying his duty to Her Majesty in the metropolis of his native land.

Lord Lynedoch's first commission in the army, that of Lieut.-Colonel,
was dated 10th February, 1794; and he was promoted Colonel, by brevet,
on the 22nd July, 1795. His commissions in the grade of General Officer
were,--Major-General, 25th September, 1803; Lieut.-General, 25th July,
1810; and General, 19th July, 1821. He was successively Colonel of the
90th Regiment, at the head of which he continued nearly twenty years;
of the 58th; and of the 14th Regiment, from which he was removed to
the ROYAL REGIMENT on 12th December, 1834, when the Duke of Gordon was
appointed to the Colonelcy of the Scots Fusilier Guards. He was also
Governor of Dumbarton Castle in North Britain. He wore a Cross for his
services at Barrosa (as Commander of the Forces), at Ciudad Rodrigo,
Vittoria, and St. Sebastian (where he commanded a division), and he
was a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and of the foreign Order of St.
Michael and St. George.

To advert at greater length to Lord Lynedoch's services as a soldier
would be superfluous. Conspicuous, in action for his talents, in
council for his sagacity, and in private life for unassuming worth and
the most estimable qualities, his character displayed a rare union of
skill, chivalry, and amiability, and his widely-spread fame, his long
and intimate connexion with the army, which have been the admiration
of the present generation, will continue to hold a prominent place in
British history. Though his titles have become extinct, he has left
behind him a name which will be held in honoured remembrance while
loyalty is considered a virtue, and military renown a passport to fame.


_Appointed 29th December, 1843_.

SIR GEORGE MURRAY was a native of Scotland, and entered the army at the
age of 17, as an Ensign in the 71st Regiment, on the 12th of March,
1789. He was shortly afterwards removed to the 34th Regiment, and to
the 3rd Foot Guards in July, 1790, from which time, to the close of the
war in 1815, he was almost constantly employed in the active military
service of his country, in the Netherlands, in the West Indies, in
Egypt, in the north of Europe, and in the peninsula of Spain and

He was first under fire with the 3rd Guards in Flanders, and
participated in the campaigns of 1793 and the two following years,
being present at the affair at St. Amand, sieges of Tamars and
Valenciennes, attack of Lincelles, investment of Dunkirk, &c.; and he
accompanied the army on its retreat through Holland and Germany.

In 1795 he served as aide-de-camp to Major-General A. Campbell on the
expedition to Quiberon Bay; and in the autumn he proceeded to the West
Indies with the force under Sir Ralph Abercromby. Having returned home
in ill health, he continued on the Staff of Major-General Campbell,
first in North Britain, and then in Ireland.

In the year 1799 Lieut.-Colonel Murray was employed in the
Quarter-Master General's department of the army under the Duke of
York in Holland; and he was wounded in the action on the Helder.
He subsequently embarked from Cork for Gibraltar with part of the
force destined to be employed under Sir Ralph Abercromby in the
Mediterranean; and, being again placed in the Quarter-Master General's
department, he was ordered to precede the army to Egypt, for the
purpose of making arrangements for the debarkation of the troops. He
was present in the action on the landing of the force, in the affairs
of the 13th and 21st March, 1801, at the siege of Rosetta, and the
investments of Cairo and Alexandria.

From Egypt Lieut.-Colonel Murray proceeded to the West Indies, where he
served for twelve months in the situation of Adjutant General.

Returning home, he was, in the early part of 1803, appointed one of the
Assistant Quarter-Masters General at head-quarters; in November, 1804,
he was appointed Deputy Quarter-Master General to the army in Ireland.

While holding that commission he was detached, as Quarter-Master
General, with the expedition to Stralsund, and likewise with the
force employed under Lieut.-General the Earl Cathcart at Copenhagen.
He resumed his duties in Ireland; and in 1808 was again detached,
as Quarter-Master General, with the force sent to the Baltic under
Lieut.-General Sir John Moore; and when these troops proceeded to
Portugal, Lieut.-Colonel Murray accompanied that force, and was engaged
at the battle of Vimiera, at Lugo, and Villa Franca, as well as at
Corunna, and his services as a staff officer were particularly alluded
to and commended in Lieut.-General Hope's despatch containing the
account of that victory.

In the year 1809 Colonel Murray was appointed Quarter-Master General to
the army under Lieut.-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, but returned home
in 1811, and in May of the following year was appointed Quarter-Master
General in Ireland, where he remained until September, 1813, when he
again proceeded to the Peninsula, and served there at the head of
the Quarter-Master General's department until the close of the war,
participating in all the important operations of that eventful period,
and evincing all the talents which are indispensable in a staff officer
with an army employed in such arduous and trying circumstances: he
received a Cross and five Clasps for his services in the field.

In June, 1814, Major-General Sir George Murray was appointed
Adjutant-General to the army in Ireland, a situation which he vacated
in December following for the purpose of undertaking the governorship
of the Canadas; but on the resumption of hostilities in the spring
of 1815, he quitted America for the purpose of joining his former
companions in arms. He did not, however, succeed in reaching the army
until the allies had entered Paris; but he continued to serve on the
Continent, with the local rank of Lieut.-General, until the return of
the Army of Occupation to England, in 1818.

In August, 1819, Lieut.-General Sir George Murray was appointed
Governor of the Royal Military College; in March, 1824, he was
nominated Lieut.-General of the Ordnance, and in March, 1825, he
proceeded to Dublin as Lieut.-General, commanding the forces in
Ireland, where he remained till the year 1828, and in September, 1829,
he received the appointment of Governor of Fort George in North Britain.

Sir George Murray's career was not, however, limited to his military
employments. Having sat in two successive Parliaments as member for
his native county of Perth, he was offered the seals of office as
Secretary of State for the Colonial Department, which he accepted,
and held from 1828 to 1830. His merits and talents, whether in a
military or political point of view, were thus kept in view by the
Duke of Wellington, then Prime Minister. In 1834 and 1835 he filled
the situation of Master-General of the Ordnance, and in 1841 that
appointment was again conferred upon him, and he continued to hold it
till within a short period of his decease, which occurred on the 28th
July, 1846.

Sir George Murray was successively Colonel commandant of a battalion
of the 60th Regiment, Colonel of the 72nd Regiment, and of the 42nd
Royal Highlanders, which he held upwards of twenty years, when he was
removed to the Colonelcy of the FIRST, OR ROYAL REGIMENT, in December,

He was a Knight of the Crescent; and, in addition to the Orders of
Leopold of Belgium, St. Alexander Newski of Russia, the Red Eagle of
Prussia, the Tower and Sword of Prussia, Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria,
and St. Henry of Saxony, Sir George Murray was decorated with the
Crosses of the First Class of the Order of the Bath, and of the Royal
Hanoverian Guelphic Order.


_Appointed 7th August, 1846_.


[144] Historians have fallen into several errors respecting this
distinguished officer. Père Daniel states that he was esteemed by Henry
IV. of France, whereas Henry IV. died in 1610, and young Hepburn did
not leave school until 1614; Hamilton states that he was knighted on
his return from the continent by James VI.; but this monarch died in
1625, and Colonel Hepburn did not return until 1632; and Harte, in his
life of Gustavus Adolphus, states that Colonel Hepburn was killed in a
duel in France; whereas there is abundant proof that he was killed at
the siege of Saverne.

[145] Colonel Monro, afterwards Lord Monro, speaks of Hepburn in the
highest terms of praise; they were first schoolfellows at college--then
companions in their travels--and afterwards associates in war,
partaking of the same toils, dangers, and triumphs.--See Monro's
Expedition part ii. p. 75.

[146] Abrégé de la Vie de Frederic Duc de Schomberg, par M. de Luzaney.

[147] Captain in the ROYAL REGIMENT in 1684. Vide Nathan Brooke's Army
List, dated 1st October, 1684; also in 1687. Vide Bibl. Harl. 4847.

[148] Vide Historical Record of the Royal Regiment, page 129.

[149] David Hume, the historian, was secretary to General St. Clair
during the expedition to the coast of France, and the embassy to Vienna
and Turin.

[150] When Prince Edward was ordered to storm Morne Tartisson and Fort
Royal, on the 17th of March, 1794, he placed himself at the head of his
brigade of grenadiers, and addressed them as follows:--"_Grenadiers!
This is St. Patrick's day; the English will do their duty in compliment
to the Irish, and the Irish in compliment to the Saint!_--FORWARD,

[151] In commemoration of the important captures in the West Indies,
at the period above stated, an anniversary dinner takes place at the
United Service Club on the 17th of March (St. Patrick's day), as it was
on that saint's day his late Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, at the
head of his Grenadier brigade, carried Fort Royal by escalade, when
both his aides-de-camp, General Sir Frederick Wetherall, and the late
Major-General Vesey, were severely wounded close to His Royal Highness.
The following officers attended on the 17th March, 1838:--The Marquis
of Thomond, General Viscount Lorton, Admiral Lord Colville, General Sir
Lowry Cole, G.C.B., General Lord Howden, G.C.B., General Sir Fitzroy
Maclean, Bart., Lieutenant-General Sir H. S. Keating, K.C.B., Sir
William Pym, K.C.H., and Major-General Reeves, C.B. All these officers,
with the exception of the Admiral, served in the Grenadier brigade,
under the orders of their illustrious commander, His Royal Highness the
Duke of Kent.


  Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical

  Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

  Enclosed italics markup in _underscores_.

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