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Title: Battle Honours of the British Army - From Tangier, 1662, to the Commencement of the Reign of King Edward VII
Author: Norman, C. B.
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



  BATTLE HONOURS OF THE BRITISH ARMY

  [Illustration: THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. Frontispiece.]



  BATTLE HONOURS OF
  THE BRITISH ARMY

  FROM TANGIER, 1662, TO THE COMMENCEMENT
  OF THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD VII

  BY C. B. NORMAN

  (LATE 90TH LIGHT INFANTRY AND INDIAN STAFF CORPS)

  AUTHOR OF "ARMENIA AND THE CAMPAIGN OF 1877," "TONQUIN; OR, FRANCE IN
  THE FAR EAST," "COLONIAL FRANCE," "THE CORSAIRS OF FRANCE," ETC.

  WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

  LONDON
  JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.
  1911



  TO
  THE HONOURED MEMORY
  OF

  THE OFFICERS AND MEN

  WHO HAVE FALLEN IN DEFENCE OF
  THEIR COUNTRY



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS


                                    PAGE
  Abu Klea                           135
  Abyssinia                          370
  Aden                               235
  Afghanistan                        252
  Afghanistan, 1879-80               378
  Ahmad Khel                         389
  Albuera                            172
  Ali Masjid                         381
  Aliwal                             281
  Ally Ghur                          147
  Alma                               297
  Almaraz                            173
  Amboor                             458
  Amboyna                            221
  Arabia                             224
  Arcot                               50
  Arracan                            245
  Arrah, Defence of                  332
  Arroyos dos Molinos                174
  Ashantee                           372
  Ashanti, 1900                      376
  Assaye                             144
  Atbara                             141
  Ava                                240

  Badajos                            177
  Badara                              57
  Balaclava                          300
  Banda                              224
  Barrosa                            170
  Beaumont                            92
  Behar                              332
  Beni Boo Alli                      233
  Bhurtpore                          211
  Bladensburg                         46
  Blenheim                            16
  Bourbon                            226
  British East Africa                376
  Burmah, 1885-1887                  249
  Busaco                             168
  Bushire                            237
  Buxar                               63

  Cabool, 1842                       263
  Candahar, 1842                     261
  Canton                             339
  Cape of Good Hope, 1806            248
  Carnatic                            67
  Central India                      329
  Charasiah                          386
  Chillianwallah                     289
  China (with the Dragon)            336
  China, 1858-1862                   340
  China, 1900                        344
  Chitral, Defence of                393
  Chitral                            394
  Ciudad Rodrigo                     176
  Cochin                             154
  Condore                             55
  Copenhagen                         364
  Corunna                            162
  Corygaum                           208
  Cutchee                            265

  Deig                               151
  Delhi, 1803                        148
  Delhi                              312
  Detroit                             44
  Dettingen                           24
  Dominica                           116
  Douro                              266

  Egmont-op-Zee                       95
  Egypt (with the Sphinx)            122
  Egypt, 1882                        129
  Egypt, 1884                        454
  Emsdorff                            28

  Ferozeshah                         277
  Fishguard                          363
  Fuentes d'Onor                     171

  Ghuznee, 1839                      254
  Ghuznee, 1842                      262
  Gibraltar, 1704                      3
  Gibraltar, 1778-1783                 8
  Goojerat                           292
  Guadeloupe, 1759                    99
  Guadeloupe, 1810                   120
  Guzerat                             69

  Hafir                              139
  Havana                             104
  Hindoostan                         214
  Hyderabad                          268

  India                              218
  Inkerman                           302

  Java                               228
  Jelalabad                          260
  Jersey, 1781                       360

  Kabul, 1879                        387
  Kahun                              257
  Kandahar, 1880                     392
  Kemmendine                         242
  Khartoum                           141
  Khelat                             255
  Khelat-i-Ghilzai, 1842             261
  Kimberley, Defence of              456
  Kimberley, Relief of               422
  Kirbekan                           135
  Kirkee                             203
  Koosh-ab                           239

  Ladysmith, Defence of              426
  Ladysmith, Relief of               425
  Laswarree                          150
  Lincelles                           90
  Louisburg                           36
  Lucknow                            316

  Maharajpore                        270
  Maheidpore                         207
  Maida                               10
  Malakand                           398
  Malplaquet                          21
  Mandora                            125
  Mangalore                           73
  Marabout                           127
  Martinique, 1762                   102
  Martinique, 1794                   111
  Martinique, 1809                   118
  Masulipatam                         56
  Mediterranean                       11
  Mediterranean, 1900-01              11
  Meeanee                            266
  Miami                               45
  Minden                              26
  Modder River                       417
  Monte Video                         40
  Moodkee                            276
  Mooltan                            291
  Moro                               108
  Mysore                              77

  Nagpore                            206
  Namur                               12
  Naval Crown, April 12, 1782        362
  Naval Crown, June 1, 1794          362
  New Zealand                        368
  Niagara                             45
  Nieuport                            91
  Nile, 1884-85                      133
  Nive                               186
  Nivelle                            184
  Nowah                              209
  Nundy Droog                         79

  Orthes                             187
  Oudenarde                           19

  Paardeburg                         423
  Pegu                               247
  Peiwar Kotal                       382
  Pekin                              343
  Pekin, 1900                        346
  Peninsula                          190
  Persia                             236
  Persian Gulf                       230
  Plassey                             52
  Pondicherry                         60
  Punjab Frontier                    396
  Punjaub                            286
  Punniar                            272
  Pyrenees                           182

  Quebec                              38
  Queenstown                          44

  Ramillies                           18
  Reshire                            238
  Rohilcund, 1774                     66
  Rohilcund, 1794                     81
  Roleia                             157

  Sahagun                            161
  St. Helena                         410
  St. Lucia, 1778                    109
  St. Lucia, 1796                    114
  St. Lucia, 1803                    115
  St. Sebastian                      184
  St. Vincent                        362
  Salamanca                          178
  Samana                             403
  Scinde                             266
  Seedaseer                           82
  Seetabuldee                        205
  Seringapatam                        84
  Sevastopol                         306
  Sholinghur                          71
  Sierra Leone, 1898                 373
  Sobraon                            283
  South Africa, 1835                 351
  South Africa, 1846-47              352
  South Africa, 1852-53              353
  South Africa, 1879-80              355
  South Africa, 1899-1902            408
  Suakin, 1885                       136
  Surinam                            115

  Taku Forts                         342
  Talavera                           167
  Tangier                              1
  Tarifa                             176
  Tel-el-Kebir                       130
  Ternate                            223
  Tirah                              404
  Tofrek                             138
  Toulouse                           188
  Tournay                             93

  Villers-en-Couche                   91
  Vimiera                            159
  Vittoria                           180

  Wandewash                           59
  Warburg                             29
  Waterloo                           192
  West Africa, 1887, 1892-93-94      374
  Wilhelmstahl                        32
  Willems                             93



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS


  1662-80. Tangier.
  1695. Namur.
  1704. Gibraltar.
    "   Blenheim.
  1706. Ramillies.
  1708. Oudenarde.
  1709. Malplaquet.
  1743. Dettingen.
  1751. Arcot.
  1757. Plassey.
  1758. Louisburg.
    "   Condore.
  1759. Masulipatam.
    "   Guadeloupe.
    "   Minden.
    "   Quebec.
    "   Badara.
  1760. Carnatic.
    "   Wandewash.
    "   Emsdorff.
    "   Warburg.
  1762. Martinique.
    "   Wilhelmstahl.
    "   Havana.
    "   Moro.
  1764. Buxar.
  1774. Rohilcund.
  1778. St. Lucia.
  1779-83. Gibraltar.
  1778-82. Guzerat.
  1781. Sholinghur.
    "   Jersey.
  1782. Naval Victory.
  1783. Mangalore.
  1791. Nundy Droog.
  1792-99. Mysore.
  1793. Lincelles.
    "   Nieuport.
  1794. Martinique.
    "   Lord Howe's Naval Victory.
    "   Villers-en-Couche.
    "   Beaumont.
    "   Willems.
    "   Tournay.
    "   Rohilcund.
  1796. St. Lucia.
  1797. St. Vincent.
    "   Fishguard.
  1798. Seedaseer.
    "   Seringapatam.
    "   Mysore.
    "   Egmont-op-Zee.
  1800. "1800" Defence of Malta.
  1801. Egypt.
    "   Mandora.
    "   Copenhagen.
  1803. St. Lucia.
    "   Ally Ghur.
    "   Delhi.
    "   Assaye.
    "   Laswarree.
    "   Deig.
  1804. Surinam.
  1806. Monte Video.
  1806. Cape of Good Hope.
    "   Maida.
  1808. Roleia.
    "   Vimiera.
    "   Sahagun.
  1808-14. Peninsula.
  1809. Arabia.
    "   Corunna.
    "   Cochin.
    "   Douro.
    "   Talavera.
    "   Bourbon.
    "   Martinique.
  1810. Amboyna.
    "   Guadeloupe.
    "   Ternate.
    "   Banda.
  1811. Java.
    "   Barrosa
    "   Fuentes d'Onor.
    "   Albuera.
    "   Almaraz.
    "   Busaco.
    "   Arroyos dos Molinos.
    "   Tarifa.
  1812. Ciudad Rodrigo.
    "   Badajos.
    "   Detroit.
    "   Salamanca.
  1813. Vittoria.
    "   Miami.
    "   Pyrenees.
    "   St. Sebastian.
    "   Nivelle.
    "   Nive.
    "   Niagara.
  1814. Orthes.
    "   Toulouse.
    "   Bladensburg.
  1815. Waterloo.
  1817. Kirkee.
  1817. Seetabuldee.
    "   Nagpore.
    "   Maheidpore.
  1818. Corygaum.
  1819. Nowah.
    "   Persian Gulf.
  1821. Arabia.
  1823. Beni Boo Alli.
  1824. Ava.
    "   Kemmendine.
  1825. Arracan.
  1826. Bhurtpore.
  1835. South Africa.
  1839-42. Afghanistan.
  1839. Ghuznee.
    "   Kelat.
    "   Aden.
  1840. Kahun.
  1842. Jelalabad.
    "   Khelat-i-Ghilzai.
    "   Candahar.
    "   Cabool.
    "   Cutchee.
    "   China.
  1843. Scinde.
    "   Meeanee.
    "   Hyderabad.
    "   Maharajpore.
    "   Punniar.
  1845. Moodkee.
    "   Ferozeshah.
  1846. Aliwal.
    "   Sobraon.
  1846-47. South Africa.
  1846. New Zealand.
  1849. Chillianwallah.
    "   Mooltan.
    "   Goojerat.
    "   Punjaub.
  1851-53. South Africa.
  1852. Pegu.
  1854. Alma.
    "   Balaclava.
    "   Inkerman.
    "   Sevastopol.
  1856. Reshire.
    "   Bushire.
  1856-57. Persia.
  1857. Koosh-ab.
  1857. Delhi.
    "   Lucknow.
    "   Central India.
    "   Defence of Arrah.
    "   Behar.
    "   Canton.
  1858-60. China.
  1860. Taku Forts.
    "   Pekin.
  1861-65. New Zealand.
  1867. Abyssinia.
  1873-74. Ashantee.
  1877-79. South Africa.
  1878-80. Afghanistan.
  1878. Ali Masjid.
    "   Peiwar Kotal.
    "   Charasia.
  1879. Kabul.
    "   Ahmed Khel.
  1880. Kandahar.
  1882. Egypt.
    "   Tel-el-Kebir.
  1884. Egypt.
  1884-85. Nile.
  1885. Abu Klea.
    "   Kirbekan.
  1885. Suakin.
    "   Tofrek.
  1885-87. Burmah.
  1887. West Africa.
  1892-1894. West Africa.
  1895. Defence of Chitral.
    "   Chitral.
  1897-98. Punjab Frontier.
  1897. Malakand.
    "   Samana.
    "   Tirah.
    "   Hafir.
  1898. Atbara.
    "   Khartoum.
    "   Sierra Leone.
  1899-1902. South Africa.
  1899. Modder River.
  1900. China.
    "   Pekin.
    "   Ashanti.
    "   Defence of Kimberley.
    "   Relief of Kimberley.
    "   Paardeburg.
    "   Defence of Ladysmith.
    "   Relief of Ladysmith.



CONTENTS


                                                       PAGES

  ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS                    vii

  CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS                    xi

  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS                                  xxi

  INTRODUCTION                                         xxiii


  CHAPTER I

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, 1662-1900

  Tangier, 1662-1680--Gibraltar, 1704--Gibraltar, 1779-1783
  --Maida, 1806--Mediterranean--Mediterranean, 1901-02  1-11


  CHAPTER II

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1695-1709

  Namur, 1695--Blenheim, 1704--Ramillies, 1706--Oudenarde,
  1708--Malplaquet, 1709                               12-23


  CHAPTER III

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1743-1762

  Dettingen--Minden--Emsdorff--Warburg--Wilhelmstahl   24-35


  CHAPTER IV

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

  Louisburg, 1758--Quebec, 1759--Monte Video, 1807--Detroit,
  August 12, 1812--Miami, April 23, 1813--Niagara,
  July 25, 1814--Bladensburg, October 24, 1814         36-48


  CHAPTER V

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1751-1764

  Arcot--Plassey--Condore--Masulipatam--Badara--Wandewash
  --Pondicherry--Buxar                                 49-65


  CHAPTER VI

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1774-1799

  Rohilcund, 1774--Carnatic--Guzerat, 1778-1782--Sholinghur,
  1781--Mangalore, 1783--Mysore--Nundy Droog, 1791--Rohilcund,
  1794--Seedaseer, 1799--Seringapatam, 1799            66-87


  CHAPTER VII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN FLANDERS, 1793-1799

  Lincelles--Nieuport--Villers-en-Couche--Beaumont--Willems
  --Tournay--Egmont-op-Zee                             88-96


  CHAPTER VIII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE WEST INDIES, 1759-1810

  West Indies, 1759-1810--Guadeloupe, 1759--Martinique,
  1762--Havana--St. Lucia, 1778--Martinique, 1794--St.
  Lucia, 1796--St. Lucia, 1803--Surinam--Dominica--Martinique,
  1809--Guadeloupe, 1810                              97-121


  CHAPTER IX

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN EGYPT AND THE SOUDAN

  Egypt (with the Sphinx)--Mandora, 1802--Marabout, 1802--Egypt,
  1882--Tel-el-Kebir, 1882--The Nile, 1884-85--Abu Klea,
  1885--Kirbekan, 1885--Suakin, 1885--Tofrek, 1885--Hafir,
  1896--Atbara, 1898--Khartoum, 1898                 122-143


  CHAPTER X

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1803-1809

  Ally Ghur, 1803--Delhi, 1803-04--Assaye, 1803--Laswarree,
  1803--Deig, 1803-04--Cochin, 1809                  144-155


  CHAPTER XI

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE PENINSULAR WAR, 1808-1814

  Roleia--Vimiera--Sahagun--Corunna--The Douro--Talavera--Busaco
  --Barrosa--Fuentes d'Onor--Albuera--Almaraz--Arroyos dos Molinos
  --Tarifa--Ciudad Rodrigo--Badajos--Salamanca--Vittoria--Pyrenees
  --San Sebastian--Nivelle--Nive--Orthes--Toulouse   156-191


  CHAPTER XII

  WATERLOO AND THE ORDER OF THE BATH FOR THE NAPOLEONIC WARS

  Waterloo, June 18, 1815                            192-199


  CHAPTER XIII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1818-1826

  Kirkee--Seetabuldee--Nagpore--Maheidpore--Corygaum--Nowah
  --Bhurtpore--Hindoostan--India                     200-220


  CHAPTER XIV

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR MINOR CAMPAIGNS IN THE EAST, 1796-1857

  Amboyna--Ternate--Banda--Arabia--Bourbon--Java,
  1811--Persian Gulf--Beni Boo Alli--Aden--Persia--Bushire--Reshire
  --Koosh-ab                                         221-239


  CHAPTER XV

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN BURMAH, 1885-1887

  Ava--Kemmendine--Arracan--Pegu--Burmah, 1885-1887  240-251


  CHAPTER XVI

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE FIRST AFGHAN WAR, 1839-1842

  Afghanistan, 1839-1842--Ghuznee, 1839--Khelat--Kahun,
  1840--Jelalabad--Khelat-i-Ghilzai--Candahar, 1842--Ghuznee,
  1842--Cabool, 1842--Cutchee                        252-265


  CHAPTER XVII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1843

  Scinde--Meeanee--Hyderabad--Maharajpore--Punniar   266-272


  CHAPTER XVIII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CONQUEST OF THE PUNJAB

  Moodkee--Ferozeshah--Aliwal--Sobraon--Chillianwallah--Mooltan
  --Goojerat--Punjab                                 273-294


  CHAPTER XIX

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1854-55

  Alma--Balaclava--Inkerman--Sevastopol              295-310


  CHAPTER XX

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-1859

  India--Delhi--Lucknow--Central India--Defence of
  Arrah--Behar                                       311-335


  CHAPTER XXI

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN CHINA, 1842-1900

  Chinese War of 1840-1842--Canton--China, 1858-1860--Taku
  Forts, Pekin--China, 1900--Pekin, 1900             336-347


  CHAPTER XXII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1806-1879

  Cape of Good Hope, 1806--South Africa, 1835--South Africa,
  1846-47--South Africa, 1851-1853--South Africa,
  1877-1880                                          348-359


  CHAPTER XXIII

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ACTIONS

  Jersey, 1781--Rodney's Victory of April 12, 1782--The
  Glorious First of June, 1794--St. Vincent--Fishguard
  --Copenhagen--New Zealand--Abyssinia--Ashantee     360-377


  CHAPTER XXIV

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE SECOND AFGHAN WAR

  Afghanistan, 1878-1880--Ali Masjid--Peiwar Kotal--Charasiah
  --Kabul, 1879--Ahmad Khel--Kandahar, 1880          378-392


  CHAPTER XXV

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR OPERATIONS ON THE NORTH-WEST INDIAN FRONTIER,
  1895-1897

  Defence of Chitral--Chitral--Malakand--Samana--Punjab
  Frontier--Tirah                                    393-407


  CHAPTER XXVI

  BATTLE HONOURS FOR SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902

  Modder River--Defence of Ladysmith--Defence of Kimberley--Relief
  of Kimberley--Paardeburg--Relief of Ladysmith--Medals granted
  for the campaign--Decorations won regimentally--Casualties by
  regiments                                          408-432


  CHAPTER XXVII

  MISSING BATTLE HONOURS

  Sir A. Alison's Committee--General Ewart's Committee--Marlborough's
  forgotten victories--Wellington's minor successes--Losses at Douai
  --Peninsula, 1705--Gibraltar, 1727--Peninsula, 1762--Belleisle
  --Dominica--Manilla--Cape of Good Hope, 1795--Indian Honours
  --Pondicherry--Tanjore--Madras troops--An unrewarded Bombay
  column--The Indian Mutiny--Punjab Frontier Force--Umbeyla
  --Naval honours                                    433-453


  APPENDICES:
    I. EGYPT, 1884                                   454-455
   II. DEFENCE OF KIMBERLEY                          456-457
  III. AMBOOR                                            458
   IV. WAR MEDALS                                    459-462

  INDEX                                              463-500



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


  THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH                       _Frontispiece_

  THE COLOURS OF THE TANGIER REGIMENT,
  1684 (NOW THE QUEEN'S ROYAL WEST
  SURREY REGIMENT)                           _To face page_ 2

  ROBERT, LORD CLIVE                                "      50

  GENERAL SIR RALPH ABERCROMBY                      "     124

  THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON                            "     192

  THE COLOURS OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN FUSILIERS
  (FORMERLY THE BOMBAY EUROPEANS)                   "     292

  FIELD-MARSHAL COLIN CAMPBELL: LORD CLYDE          "     324

  THE COLOURS OF THE QUEEN'S ROYAL WEST
  SURREY REGIMENT, 1902 (FORMERLY THE
  TANGIER REGIMENT)                                 "     424


  MAPS

  BATTLEFIELDS IN NORTHERN EUROPE                   "      13

  BATTLEFIELDS IN SOUTHERN INDIA                    "      49

  BATTLEFIELDS IN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL                "     182

  BATTLEFIELDS IN NORTHERN INDIA                    "     406



INTRODUCTION


In the following pages I have endeavoured to give a brief
description of the various actions the names of which are
emblazoned on the colours and appointments of the regiments in
the British army. So far as I have been able, I have shown the
part that each individual corps has played in every engagement,
by appending to the account a return of the losses suffered.
Unfortunately, in some cases casualty rolls are not obtainable; in
others, owing to the returns having been hurriedly prepared, and
later corrections neglected, the true losses of regiments do not
appear.

The whole question of the award of battle honours abounds in
anomalies. Paltry skirmishes have been immortalized, and many
gallant fights have been left unrecorded. In some cases certain
corps have been singled out for honour; others which bore an equal
share in the same day's doings have been denied the privilege of
assuming the battle honour. In some campaigns every skirmish has
been handed down to posterity; in others one word has covered long
years of fighting. Mysore, with its one honour, and Persia, with
four, are cases in point. In some instances honours have been
refused on the plea that the headquarters of the regiment was not
present in the action; in others the honour has been granted when
but a single troop or company has shared in the fight. There are
regiments whose colours bear the names of battles in which they
did not lose a single man; others have suffered heavy losses in
historic battles which are as yet unrecorded. At Schellenberg,
for example, Marlborough's earliest victory, and one unaccountably
absent from our colours, the losses of the fifteen regiments
engaged exceeded the total casualties of the whole army in the
campaign in Afghanistan from 1879 to 1881, for which no less than
seven battle honours were granted.

_Esprit de corps_ is the keystone of the discipline of the British
army, and the regimental colours are the living symbol of that
_esprit de corps_. It is to their colours that men look as the
emblems of their regimental history, and on those colours are--or
should be--emblazoned the names of all historic battles in which
the regiment has been engaged. A soldier knows--or ought to
know--the history of his own regiment, but the moment arrives when
his curiosity is piqued, and he wishes to learn something about
a corps which has fought side by side with his own. Perchance
curiosity may be excited as to the reason why Copenhagen appears on
the appointments of the Rifle Brigade, and Arabia on the colours
of the York and Lancaster; or how it comes about that Dominica
is alone borne by the Cornwalls and Pondicherry by the Dublin
Fusiliers. I have made no attempt to deal exhaustively with the
subject; that would be beyond my powers and would open up too wide
a field. I have therefore touched but lightly on those campaigns,
such as the Peninsular and Waterloo, which are familiar to everyone
in the least conversant with the history of his country, and have
dwelt in more detail with those wars which are less well known.
Memories are short. Already the South African War has been effaced
by that titanic struggle between Russia and Japan. How, then, can
the ordinary man be expected to carry in his mind even the rough
outline of the Defence of Chitral, an episode which rivals Arcot
in the heroism of its few defenders, or of Mangalore and Corygaum,
which were in no way inferior in point of steadfast gallantry.
When I read of the efforts made to insure the regular supply of
jam during the South African War, my mind turns to Chitral, where
the daily ration for six long weeks was one pound of flour a day,
rice and meat being issued only on the doctors' orders, the one
antiseptic available being carbolic tooth-powder! Or I think of
Mangalore, which capitulated after Campbell had cut up his last
horse and served out his last ration of flour. Yet I know that the
men who defended Mangalore were in no way the superior of those who
"muddled through" in South Africa, and that these were in no way
inferior to the men who drove the French out of Spain. There were
complaints of the stamp of recruits two centuries ago, as there are
to-day. "The men you send me," wrote Grey from Martinique, "are not
fit to bear arms." "I know not which are worse, officers or men,"
wrote Moore. "Send me men, not boys," wrote Sir Colin Campbell from
India. Yet the boys who were not fit to bear arms captured the West
Indies from the French; the worthless officers and men traversed
Spain and held Napoleon's veterans in check at Corunna while their
leader lay dying; and the boys in Sir Colin's regiments helped to
restore peace in India.

Does the nation realize the calls it has made upon the army, or
what oceans of blood have been shed owing to the vacillation and
parsimony of successive Ministries? Three times have we captured
the West India Islands; twice have our troops taken the Cape
of Good Hope; three times have our armies marched from sea to
sea in Spain; and there are few towns of importance in the Low
Countries which have not been captured more than once by British
troops. Conquests have been restored at the conclusion of a war
in the full knowledge that on the outbreak of fresh hostilities
those same conquests would have to be freshly undertaken and more
lives sacrificed. Armies hastily reduced on the conclusion of a
spurious peace had to be as hastily improvised on the renewal of
war. Officers have been censured, broke, and shot if they have not
performed prodigies with raw, untrained recruits. Uncomplainingly,
all ranks went forth to die, eager only to uphold the honour of
their Sovereign, of their regiments, and of their country.

I have not confined myself to the honours which appear only on the
colours of British regiments, but have included all which have
been granted to any corps which bears allegiance to our King. Some
of the noblest feats of arms have been achieved by a few British
officers at the head of a handful of Indian troops. At Mangalore
and at Lucknow the sepoy regiments fought no less gallantly than
the British corps which bear the same battle honour. The despatches
of Colonel Campbell and of Sir John Inglis bear testimony to this
fact; but at Seedaseer, Saugor, and Seetabuldee, at Corygaum,
Arrah, and Kahun, and last, but by no means least, at Chitral, the
sepoys had no British soldier to stiffen the defence. Yet there
was no wavering. So long as the fighting races of India show the
devotion to their officers and their loyalty to the Crown they
have ever shown, we may smile at the frothy vapourings of the
over-educated Bengalis, who have never furnished a single man for
the defence of the country which they wish to emancipate from our
rule. We read in the story of Chitral how the water-carrier, with
his jaw smashed by a bullet, insisted as soon as his wound was
dressed in taking more water to his Sikhs in the fighting-line.
Is there not a story rife of a British regiment in the Mutiny
which wished to recommend the regimental bheesti for a similar
act of valour? There are few names amongst these battle honours
around which stories of equal gallantry have not been woven. The
memory of those deeds which men have dared, and in daring which
they have gone forth to certain death, is the heritage not merely
of those who serve under the colours, but of every man and woman
of our race: Hardinge, rallying the men round the colours of the
57th at Albuera, with the now historic words, "Die hard, my men,
die hard!"--a title that has clung to the regiment to this day.
Luke O'Connor, then a colour-sergeant, holding high the colours
of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers at the Alma, under which ten young
subalterns had fallen, and he with bullet through the breast,
refusing to leave his sacred charge. Souter, of the 44th, tearing
the colours from their staff and wrapping them under his sheepskin
coat, and so saving them, when 667 officers and men fell under the
fierce onslaughts of the Afghans in the dim defiles of the Khurd
Kabul Pass, one solitary survivor reaching the shelter of the mud
walls, held by the 13th, at Jelalabad. Or those two boy heroes,
Melville and Coghill, whose dead bodies were found in the bed
of the Tugela River, hard by the colours they had died to save.
Or Quentin Battye, the first of three brothers to fall in the
"Guides," dying with the old tag on his lips: "Dulce et decorum est
pro patria mori."

These are the stories our colours have to tell, these the lessons
the names upon them teach. Not merely gallantry in action--that
is a small thing, and one inherent in our race. They teach of
privations uncomplainingly borne, of difficulties nobly surmounted,
of steadfast loyalty to the Crown, and of cheerful obedience to
orders even when that obedience meant certain death. Such are the
honours which have found an abiding-place on the colours of the
British army.

I am aware that I possess few qualifications for the task I have
undertaken, and I am also painfully aware that I have entirely
failed to do justice to my theme. That failure would have been
immeasurably greater had I not received the most valuable
assistance from those far better qualified than I am to bring into
relief the history of our army.

To these I would now venture to offer my most cordial thanks--to
the Army Council, for some invaluable casualty returns, which I
believe are now published for the first time; to the ever-courteous
officials at the Record Office and in the libraries of the
British Museum, the India Office, and the Royal United Service
Institution, for the patience with which they have suffered my many
importunities; last, but by no means least, to the many officers
of regiments, British and Indian, who have so kindly given me
unrecorded details of their regimental histories.

For the reproduction of the colours of "The Queen's" and the
Royal Dublin Fusiliers I am indebted to the courtesy of the
commanding officers of those two distinguished regiments. A close
relationship exists between them. When Tangier and Bombay passed
into our possession as the dowry of Queen Catharine of Braganza two
regiments were raised as garrisons for our new possessions. The
one proceeded to Tangier, and after some years of hard fighting,
returned to England, to be known as "The 2nd Queen's." The other
went to Bombay, and for two long centuries nobly upheld the
honour of our name under the title of "The Bombay Europeans." On
the transfer of the East India Company to the Crown the regiment
appeared in the Army List as the 103rd Royal Bombay Fusiliers.
Twenty years later, when regimental numbers were thrown into the
melting-pot and the nomenclature of historic regiments changed,
the Bombay Regiment became the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, and as such
worthily maintained its old reputation in South Africa. The Royal
Scots and the Munster Fusiliers may claim seniority to the Queen's
and the Dublins, but the battle honours on the colours I have
selected cover the whole period with which I deal--from Tangier to
Ladysmith, from Arcot to Lucknow.

I would, in conclusion, beg those--and they are many--whose
knowledge of regimental history is far deeper than my own to deal
gently with the many imperfections in this book--an unworthy
tribute of homage to the incomparable heroism of the British
soldier.

  C. B. NORMAN.

  _January, 1911._



BATTLE HONOURS OF THE BRITISH ARMY



CHAPTER I

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, 1662-1902

Tangier, 1662-1680--Gibraltar, 1704--Gibraltar, 1779-1783--Maida,
1806--Mediterranean--Mediterranean, 1901-02.


TANGIER, 1662-1680.

In the year 1910, just two centuries and a half after the event,
the regiments which upheld British honour on the coast of Morocco
were authorized to bear the above battle honour on their colours
and appointments:

  Royal Dragoons, 1662-1680.
  Grenadier Guards, 1680.
  Coldstream Guards, 1680.
  Royal Scots, 1680.
  The Queen's, 1662-1680.

The King's Own Lancaster Regiment has been unaccountably omitted
from this list; but there is no doubt that the 4th (King's Own),
under Colonel Kirke took part in the final series of actions with
the Moors prior to our evacuating the fortress.

Tangier passed into our hands, together with Bombay, as a portion
of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage with Charles
II. At that time there were many who considered it the more
valuable of the two acquisitions, commanding as it did the entrance
to the Mediterranean. Immense sums were spent in strengthening
the fortifications and in improving the harbour. The inveterate
hostilities of the Moors, however, only increased with time.
The one regiment first raised for the garrison, then styled the
"Regiment of Tangier" (now The Queen's Royal West Surrey) was from
the outset of its career engaged in a long series of engagements
waged against desperate odds. Soon it was found necessary to raise
a regiment of horse to supplement the task of the infantry in
dealing with the Moorish horsemen. The Royal Dragoons then came
into existence, and laid the foundations of that reputation for
dash and discipline which has never left them. Later on, owing
to the persistent hostility of the Moors, the Grenadier Guards,
the Coldstreams, and the 2nd Tangier Regiment (now the 4th King's
Own) were sent as reinforcements; and a reference to the Tangier
Papers shows that men from the fleet were continually employed
against the enemy. On one occasion Sir Cloudesley Shovel, with 600
seamen, took a leading part in the defence. Casualty returns were
not so carefully prepared in the seventeenth as in the twentieth
century, and I have found it impossible to discover the total
losses incurred during our occupation. Between the years 1660
and 1664 there was scarcely a month in which our troops were not
fighting for their lives, and on one occasion at any rate they were
so hard pressed that the Governor applied, and successfully, to the
Spaniards at Gibraltar for assistance. Thus it comes about that
in the casualty list which has come down to us of the action on
October 27, 1680, the Spanish Horse figures side by side with the
Grenadier Guards.


CASUALTIES IN ACTION AT TANGIER, OCTOBER 27, 1680.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Dragoons           |   - |   2 |  11 |  35 |
  |Grenadier Gds.           |   - |   1 |   7 |  51 |
  |Royal Scots              |   4 |  15 |  36 | 100 |
  |The Queen's R. W. Surrey |   2 |  10 |  34 | 120 |
  |Spanish Horse            |   5 |   4 |  12 |  22 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

A few weeks after this action the King's Own (Lancaster Regiment),
then commanded by Colonel Kirke, arrived as a reinforcement,
and later in the year the Coldstream Guards. In 1684 the place was
evacuated, having cost us many millions in money and many thousand
valuable lives.

  [Illustration: THE COLOURS OF THE TANGIER REGIMENT, 1684.
  (Now The Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment.)
  To face page 2.]


GIBRALTAR, 1704-05.

This battle honour, which commemorates the capture of Gibraltar
by the fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke, and the subsequent
defence of the fortress under Prince George of Hesse, is borne by
the following regiments:

  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Royal Sussex.

Queen Anne caused a medal to be struck in recognition of the
services of the senior officers at the capture of this historic
fortress, but it was left to King Edward VII. to sanction the grant
of the battle honour to the regiments which added the Rock to the
possession of Great Britain.

Owing to our having espoused the cause of Charles III. in the War
of the Spanish Succession, a fleet of fifty sail was sent into the
Mediterranean, under the command of Sir John Rooke, but it was
practically placed at the disposal of King Charles. Embarked on
the fleet under the command of Prince George of Hesse were the 4th
(King's Own), 30th (East Lancashire), 31st (East Surrey), the 32nd
(Cornwall Light Infantry), with Holt's and Shannon's Regiments,
all acting as Marines. On July 22, 1704, the fleet anchored in
Gibraltar Bay, and landed on what is now known as neutral ground.
To a summons to surrender, the Governor sent a defiant answer.
He, at all hazard, refused to recognize King Charles as his
Sovereign, or our right to dictate to Spaniards in the choice of
their monarch. On the following day Admiral Byng, with twenty-seven
vessels, stood close in and silenced the batteries, when the
bellicose Governor, in order to avoid the effusion of blood,
accepted the terms offered. Rooke then landed the troops under
Prince George, and sailed away to attack the allied fleets which
were in the offing. In the course of the month of August he fought
the Battle of Malaga, the effects of which were overshadowed by the
glorious victory of Blenheim. The French and Spaniards were not
prepared to sit down and see England established at the entrance
of the Mediterranean, and at once took steps to recover possession
of Gibraltar. We, on the other hand, took equally decisive
measures to hold it. At that moment we had a considerable force in
Portugal, acting in support of Charles III., and from this force
reinforcements were immediately despatched to Gibraltar.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF AND SUBSEQUENT OPERATIONS AT
GIBRALTAR, 1704-05.

  +------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._            +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery               |     |     |     |     |
  |Grenadier Gds.                |     |     |     |     |
  |Coldstream Gds.               |     |     |     |     |
  |4th K.O. (R. Lancaster Regt.) |     |     |     |     |
  |13th Somerset L.I.            |     |     |     |     |
  |Roy. Engineers                |     |     |     |     |
  |30th East Lancashire          |     |     |     |     |
  |31st E. Surrey                |     |     |     |     |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.            |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |35th R. Sussex                |     |     |     |     |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I have been unable to ascertain the casualties of
  individual corps at Gibraltar. I leave this table in the hope
  that at some future day the omission may be repaired; the total
  losses amounted to 3 officers and 57 men killed, 8 officers and
  258 men wounded.

A combined battalion of the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards, the
13th (Somerset Light Infantry), and the 35th (Royal Sussex), some
1,800 of all ranks, embarked on transports. Narrowly escaping
capture,[1] they succeeded in eluding the French fleet, and landed
in Gibraltar Harbour on December 18. On the 23rd Prince George made
a successful sortie at the head of his new troops, and destroyed a
considerable portion of the siege-works; but the allies, having the
land side open to them, were able to bring up supplies and fresh
troops without difficulty, whereas we were dependent entirely on
our fleet--in fact, on our command of the sea. In the early dawn
of February 7, 1705, the allies made a determined attempt to carry
the place by assault, but they were repulsed with terrible loss
by the Coldstream Guards and the 13th (Somersets); then, finding
their efforts useless, they abandoned the siege. Seventy-five years
later a fresh attempt to dispossess us of the fortress led to a new
battle honour appearing on the colours, but the siege of 1727 has
been unaccountably lost sight of.


GIBRALTAR, 1727.

It is somewhat difficult to understand why the defence of Gibraltar
in the year 1727 has not been considered worthy of being inscribed
on the colours of the regiments which fought so well under the
veteran Lord Portmore. From February 22 to June 23 the garrison,
barely 6,000 strong, withstood a close siege, repelling many
assaults and suffering many casualties. Famine as well as disease
stared them in the face. I have been unable to ascertain the
complete details of the losses of individual regiments engaged,
but from the accounts of contemporary writers who went through the
siege it would appear that the Grenadier Guards alone lost upwards
of 100, of whom nineteen were killed in one day. Surely "Gibraltar,
1727," might be added to the colours of the twelve regiments which
held the fortress for England under Lord Portmore.

The story of the siege is not pleasant reading. It is an early
exemplification of the manner in which the warnings of the "man
on the spot" are almost invariably disregarded by the authorities
at home, and how our soldiers are expected to make bricks without
straw, and to undergo perils which with a little exercise of
forethought might be avoided. In the month of August, 1726, the
Acting Governor, Colonel Kane, reported the threatening attitude
of the Spaniards, and that Malaga was being converted into a
military base, where large quantities of war material were being
collected. He further asked for the paltry sum of £3,000, in
order to place the fortress in a better state of defence. One of
the most pressing questions was the levelling of the earthworks
constructed by the Spaniards during the last siege, which were
still left standing, and which would afford shelter to the enemy in
the event of the outbreak of hostilities. The troops were lodged
in houses in the town; there were no barracks, and no casemates
to the various outworks. His garrison consisted of but four weak
battalions. On these representations one battalion was sent from
Minorca. In December Kane reported the mobilization at Malaga of
5,000 Walloon Guards, of fourteen Spanish battalions, and eight
regiments of cavalry. No doubt as to the intention of the Spaniards
now remained. Orders had been published for the Governors of the
four Andalusian provinces to raise 8,000 men, and in reporting this
circumstance Kane drew attention to the fact that the artillery
under his command consisted of _three non-commissioned officers and
fifteen gunners_, whilst the infantry amounted to but 1,400 men.
His lines of defences were three miles in extent, and the two works
mounted no less than 150 guns, the large majority of which had
long since been condemned. In the month of January the Spaniards
openly commenced their siege-works, throwing up batteries within
gunshot of the fortress; but it was not until the month of April
that General Clayton arrived with the first reinforcements, but
with no siege material. By the end of April the garrison had been
increased to a total of 6,000 men, two only of the regiments being
over 600 strong, whilst the reinforcements of artillery brought
up the strength of the Royal Regiment to 127 of all ranks; and of
these Lord Portmore wrote that the gunners "are the worst that ever
were employed."[2] The want of fresh provisions told heavily on the
men, and all ranks and all arms were busily employed in throwing up
fresh defensive works. Complaints were rife as to the guns--large
numbers burst--and the Governor reiterated his complaints that the
Spanish guns were far superior in range and accuracy to our own.
By the end of May the garrison was reduced to 4,427 effectives,
the men rarely getting one night in three in bed. Still the stout
old veteran answered shot for shot, warning the Government that
the Spaniards were evidently determined on wresting the position
from us, and that unless reinforcements were speedily sent the
place was liable to be carried by assault, as his men were not
sufficiently numerous to man the whole of the works. Fortunately
for the garrison, diplomacy was at work, and by the end of July
preliminaries of peace had been signed, and the safety of the
fortress was assured.

When actual hostilities broke out, the garrison of Gibraltar,
including the two regiments that had been sent from Ireland and
Minorca, consisted of the 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), 13th
(Somerset Light Infantry), 18th (Royal Irish), 20th (Lancashire
Fusiliers), and the 29th (Worcesters). Considerable delays occurred
in despatching the reinforcements, and, as I have remarked, it was
not until the month of April that these left England. The Governor,
the veteran Lord Portmore, who was at home on leave, returned
to his post, and at the same time a battalion of the Grenadier
Guards, under Colonel Guise--a name which has ever been synonymous
in the service with daring gallantry--the 14th (West Yorks), 25th
(Scottish Borderers), 26th (Cameronians), 34th (Border Regiment),
and 39th (Dorsets), were despatched under convoy of the fleet to
Gibraltar.

There would appear to have been the same eagerness amongst the
younger members of the House of Lords to see active service in
those days as there was in the Crimea and in the Boer War. The Duke
of Richmond, who was a Knight of the Garter and a member of the
King's Household, applied for leave to join the army, and so did a
son of the Duke of Devonshire. On the other hand, the Duke Wharton
joined the Spanish forces, and was happily wounded very early in
the siege, and so spared the shame of taking a prolonged share in
the operations against his own fellow-countrymen.

I have experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining any records
of the casualties, but the following list appears in a contemporary
publication written by an officer who took part in the siege, and
may, I think, be relied on as showing to a certain extent the
losses incurred during a portion of the siege:

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery              |   1 |   - |  11 |  16 |
  |Grenadier Gds.               |   - |   - |   2 |  19 |
  |5th Fusiliers                |   - |   - |   4 |  18 |
  |13th Somerset L.I.           |   - |   - |   7 |  26 |
  |14th W. Yorks                |   - |   - |   6 |  22 |
  |18th Roy. Irish              |   - |   - |   8 |  17 |
  |20th Lanc. Fus.              |   1 |   - |   8 |  12 |
  |25th K.O. Scottish Borderers |   1 |   - |   3 |  13 |
  |26th Cameronians             |   - |   - |   6 |  28 |
  |29th Worcesters              |   - |   - |   2 |  11 |
  |30th E. Lancs                |   - |   - |   8 |  14 |
  |34th Border Reg.             |   - |   - |   2 |  16 |
  |39th Dorsets                 |   1 |   - |   6 |  13 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


GIBRALTAR, 1779-1783.

(With Castle and Key and motto, "Montis Insignia Calpe.")

The regiments permitted to bear these distinctions are the

  Suffolk.
  Dorset.
  Northampton.
  Essex.
  Highland Light Infantry.

In the month of June, 1779, Spain declared war against England,
France having done so in the preceding year. There was no doubt
as to the object of the Spaniards--the recapture of Minorca,
Gibraltar, and the American Colonies lost to us in the preceding
wars. Fortunately, we had in Gibraltar a soldier who knew his
work. Though the name of Eliott will ever be associated with the
Rock, soldiers may also like to know that the gallant defender of
Gibraltar raised and trained that distinguished regiment the 15th
Hussars. From the moment that he took over the command in 1777
Eliott set to work to strengthen the defences. On the declaration
of war he had but 5,382 of all ranks in his garrison, including
458 gunners. His chief danger was starvation, for on the land
side he was completely hemmed in, whilst on the sea the Spaniards
instituted a close blockade, and brought pressure to bear on His
Shereefian Majesty to forbid the exportation of fresh meat and
vegetables to the garrison from Morocco. In November of that
year Rodney defeated the blockading fleet, and threw in the 71st
(Highland Light Infantry), a welcome reinforcement, and also stores
sufficient to maintain the garrison for a year. The Spaniards now
drew closer the blockade, and commenced to throw up elaborate
siege-works; but it was not until April, 1781, that the blockade
was converted into a siege in earnest, and it is said that between
then and November upwards of 100,000 shot and shell were poured
into the place. Our casualties were by no means heavy, nor did the
fortifications suffer much, though the town itself was utterly
destroyed. On the 27th of that month (November) Eliott attacked the
Spaniards, destroyed and burnt their batteries, spiking a large
number of guns, but though his losses in this sortie were slight,
his men suffered much from scurvy and the incessant duty which was
imposed on an all too scanty garrison. From time to time a vessel
would elude the blockading fleet; and on one occasion Admiral Darby
forced his way through with the 97th Regiment, and later still the
King's Own Scottish Borderers and the 59th (East Lancashires) were
also thrown in. In May, 1782, the Spaniards were reinforced by a
strong French division, and the siege was continued with renewed
vigour. Floating batteries, with massive timber roofs to protect
the gunners, were built by the allies, and then on September 14,
1782, convoyed by forty-seven sail of the line, this formidable
armada entered the bay, and opened a fresh bombardment from the
sea. To this Eliott responded with red-hot shot, and once more the
garrison was saved. In the following month Howe was enabled to
convoy a fleet of transports under the Rock, and so relieved Eliott
of his one dread--starvation. In February, 1783, peace was signed
between Spain and England, and on the 6th of the month the gates
of the fortress were thrown open, after a bombardment of thirteen
months.


CASUALTIES AT THE DEFENCE OF GIBRALTAR, 1779-1783.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery              |   2 |   8 |  29 | 121 |
  |Roy. Engineers               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |12th Suffolks                |   1 |   3 |  27 | 110 |
  |25th K.O. Scottish Borderers |   - |   - |   2 |   8 |
  |39th Dorsets                 |   2 |   3 |  27 |  60 |
  |56th Essex                   |   - |   3 |  27 |  67 |
  |58th N'amptons               |   1 |   2 |  18 |  74 |
  |59th E. Lancs.               |   - |   - |   8 |   9 |
  |71st Highland L.I.           |   - |   6 |  42 | 115 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders    |   - |   3 |  55 | 148 |
  |73rd Regt.                   |   - |   6 |  44 | 115 |
  |97th Regt.                   |   - |   - |  13 |  41 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MAIDA, JULY 4, 1806.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Royal Sussex.
  North Lancashire.
  Northamptons.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gloucestershire Regiment.

It recognizes the gallant services of these regiments in the
engagement fought in defence of our ally, the King of Naples, by
the little force under the command of General Stuart against a
superior body of French under General Regnier. In 1847, when the
so-called Peninsular medal was issued, a special clasp, "Maida,"
was awarded to the survivors of the brilliant little action on
the shores of the Straits of Messina. The Grenadier and Light
Infantry battalions, which bulk so largely in the accompanying list
of casualties, were composed of the flank companies of the five
battalions engaged, supplemented by 250 men of the 35th (Royal
Sussex) and a company of the 61st (Gloucesters), and so it comes
about that, although the headquarters were not present, the old
35th and 61st were accorded the battle honour. The losses in this
engagement were:

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Grenadier batt.           |   0 |   1 |   4 |  26 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers           |   - |   - |   1 |   6 |
  |27th Inniskillings        |   - |   - |   6 |  47 |
  |58th Northamptons         |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |Light Infantry battalion  |   1 |   3 |   7 |  42 |
  |78th Seaforth Highlanders |   - |   7 |   4 |  74 |
  |81st North Lancashire     |   - |   2 |  19 |  63 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MEDITERRANEAN.

This distinction was awarded to the following regiments of Militia
for their services during the Crimean War of 1854-55, when they
volunteered to perform garrison duty in order to set free line
regiments for service at the front:

  3rd Batt. the Buffs.
  3rd Batt. the King's Own (Royal Lancaster).
  5th Batt. Royal Fusiliers.
  3rd Batt. South Stafford.
  3rd Batt. West Yorkshire.
  3rd Batt. Loyal North Lancashire.
  3rd Batt. Oxford Light Infantry.
  3rd Batt. Northamptons.
  3rd Batt. Royal Berkshire.
  3rd Batt. Wiltshire.


MEDITERRANEAN, 1901-02.

The above honour is borne on the colours of the following
regiments, in recognition of their services in performing garrison
duty in the Mediterranean during the South African War of
1899-1902. For these services they were also granted a medal.

  3rd Batt. Northumberland Fusiliers.
  5th Batt. Royal Fusiliers
  3rd Loyal North Lancashire.
  3rd Batt. West Yorkshire.
  3rd Batt. King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.
  3rd Royal West Kent.
  3rd Batt. Seaforth Highlanders.
  5th Batt. Royal Munster Fusiliers.



CHAPTER II

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1695-1709

Namur, 1695--Blenheim, 1704--Ramillies, 1706--Oudenarde,
1708--Malplaquet, 1709.


NAMUR, 1695.

In the month of February, 1910, an Army Order was published
announcing that His Majesty King Edward VII. had been graciously
pleased to approve of the following regiments being permitted to
bear the honorary distinction "Namur, 1695" upon their colours, in
recognition of services rendered during the siege and capture of
that city, 215 years previously:

  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
  King's Own (Lancasters).
  Royal Warwicks.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  West Yorkshire.
  Bedfords.
  Leicesters.
  Royal Irish.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  King's Own Scottish Borderers.

Previously to this date the only regiment which in any way
commemorated its association with the siege of Namur was the 18th
(Royal Irish), which was entitled to bear on its colours the words
"Virtutis Namurcensis præmium," and which had received the title of
the "Royal Regiment of Ireland" from King William himself for its
conduct at the storming of that fortress. There was no good reason
why the Royal Irish should have been honoured above its fellows.
The details of the operations at Namur were open to all the world,
and the casualties suffered by other corps showed that they too had
borne their fair share of the fighting.

  [Illustration: Battlefields in NORTHERN EUROPE]

Namur was one of the many fortified towns in Flanders which had
fallen into the hands of the French during our struggles with
that nation in the closing years of the seventeenth century. King
William's military operations had not been attended with any marked
degree of success. His troops, despite the gallantry of the English
regiments, had been worsted at Steenkirk, Landen, and many other
fights, and in the ranks of our own regiments there was a very
decided feeling that our friends the Dutch were prone to throw the
brunt of the hard work on us, and were not too eager to afford us
that assistance in action which we had a right to expect. A glance
at the casualty lists which follow the various actions--the names
of which are inscribed on our colours--proves the truth of this
statement. Whether at Namur, Dettingen, Emsdorff, in Flanders or in
Spain, the British regiments were invariably expected to pull the
chestnuts out of the fire for their allies.

The Siege of Namur commenced on July 3, 1695, and three days later
King William determined to carry the outworks by assault. The
Guards attacked on the right, the Royal Scots and Royal Fusiliers
on the left. The assault was perfectly successful, but the loss was
enormous, the Brigade of Guards losing thirty-two officers, the
Royal Scots and Royal Fusiliers ten. A few days later, after the
fire of the batteries had opened a practicable breach in the walls
near the St. Nicholas Gateway, the British were again called upon
to carry this work. This they did with a loss of 800 killed and
wounded. Then came the final assault on the citadel, for which the
Leicesters, the Royal Irish, and Mackay's and Buchan's Highlanders
were told off. These two last are no longer with us. These four
battalions lost 63 officers and 925 men killed and wounded. But
the day was ours, and with the fall of the citadel Namur once more
passed into the possession of the House of Orange.

Although the Army Order of February, 1910, only grants the
distinction to infantry regiments, there were a number of British
cavalry regiments employed in covering operations during the
siege. There were the 1st and 2nd Life and the Royal Horse Guards,
all seven regiments of Dragoon Guards, the Royal Dragoons, Scots
Greys, 4th Hussars, 5th Lancers, and 7th Hussars. I regret I have
not been able to ascertain the losses they suffered. Those of the
infantry were as follows:


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF NAMUR, 1695.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Grenadier Gds.               |   6 |  12 | 152 | 298 |
  |Coldstream Gds.              |   4 |   9 | 101 | 193 |
  |Scots Guards                 |   3 |   4 |  51 |  60 |
  |Royal Scots                  |   6 |   5 |  62 | 109 |
  |2nd Queens                   |   2 |   4 |  54 |  46 |
  |3rd Buffs                    |   - |   1 |   8 |  47 |
  |4th K.O. (Lancaster Regt.)   |   3 |   4 |  46 |  59 |
  |6th R. Warwick               |   2 |   3 |  66 |  40 |
  |7th R. Fusiliers             |   1 |   3 |  33 |  58 |
  |14th W. Yorks                |   5 |   5 |  47 |  82 |
  |16th Bedfords                |   2 |   2 |  56 |  77 |
  |17th Leicesters              |   4 |   8 | 101 | 149 |
  |18th Roy. Irish              |  12 |  13 |  86 | 185 |
  |19th Yorkshire               |   - |   - |   8 |  11 |
  |23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers    |   6 |  15 |  92 | 123 |
  |25th K.O. Scottish Borderers |   7 |   4 |  79 |  95 |
  |27th R. Innis.               |   - |   3 |  44 |  25 |
  |Mackay's Regt.               |   2 |  15 |  73 | 126 |
  |Buchan's Regt.               |   4 |   9 |  65 | 140 |
  |Collingwood's Regt.          |   1 |   5 |  77 |  36 |
  |Saunderson's Regt.           |   - |   8 |  80 | 128 |
  |Seymour's Regt.              |   - |   - |  49 |  71 |
  |Lauder's Regt.               |   4 |   2 |  70 |  99 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for
  the figures relating to the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards, as
  well as for the casualties amongst the commissioned ranks of all
  regiments. I am bound to observe that the figures given by the
  Army Council do not correspond with a return which I have seen at
  the Record Office, entitled "Liste des Soldats Morts et blessés
  devant Namur depuis le Commencement jusqu'à la fin du Siege,"
  which may have been overlooked by the War Office.


THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION.

In the month of May, 1701, just two months after the death of
William III., we found ourselves involved in war with France, in
consequence of the quarrel as to the right of succession in Spain.
One hundred and thirty years later a similar cause led to the
Franco-German War. In those far-off days England was a Continental
Power, and whatever affected the Low Countries affected also the
United Kingdom. The Dutch provinces of Flanders lent themselves
to attack, and as in the wars under William, so now once more they
formed the theatre of war. We had no King to assume the command,
and to Marlborough was confided the task of commanding our armies.
The Spaniards were no longer our allies, and Spanish Flanders was
in the hands of our enemies, adding considerably to the military
difficulties. The Dutch, too, showed themselves no more favourably
disposed to us than when William of Orange was on the throne, and
the whole year of 1701 was wasted in fruitless wrangling. There was
infinite jealousy between ourselves and the Prussians and Dutch as
to Marlborough's position, and both nations seemed to forget that
their troops were but mercenaries, maintained in the field to a
very great extent by the subsidies voted by the English Parliament.
In 1702 Marlborough found himself in nominal command of about
60,000 men, of whom 12,000 were British soldiers. His freedom of
action was much hampered by Dutch Deputies and Prussian jealousies.
That year, however, saw him victorious on three occasions: at
Venloo, which, after a short siege, was carried by assault in the
most gallant manner by the English, led by the noted fire-eater
Cutts; at Maestricht, in August, where we lost 4 officers and 132
men killed, 7 officers and 134 men wounded; and at Liège, which
was captured with a loss to us of 11 officers and 143 men killed,
20 officers and 360 men wounded. As was the custom in those days,
the army went into winter-quarters, whilst the Commander-in-Chief
returned to England to face Parliament and secure funds and
reinforcements for the coming year.

In 1704 Marlborough determined to carry the war into his enemies'
country, and by a masterly movement, worthy of Napoleon in his
best days, transferred the scene of operations from the Valley of
the Meuse to that of the Danube, and on June 21, 1704, gained a
brilliant victory at Schellenberg, on the banks of that river--a
name that might well be borne on the colours and appointments of
the sixteen regiments which bore such a distinguished part in the
fight. I append the casualty lists of the losses incurred in this
now almost forgotten battle, which surely deserves recognition.


CASUALTIES AT SCHELLENBERG, JUNE 21, 1704.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Scots Greys             |   1 |   2 |   7 |  17 |
  |5th Lancers             |   - |   2 |   4 |  19 |
  |Grenadier Gds.          |   4 |   8 |  82 | 135 |
  |Royal Scots             |   5 |  25 | 115 | 302 |
  |Buffs                   |   2 |   - |   3 |  37 |
  |King's Liverpool Regt.  |   1 |   2 |   5 |  33 |
  |Lincolns                |   1 |   - |  13 |  39 |
  |East Yorkshire          |   - |   3 |  10 |  22 |
  |Bedfords                |   2 |   3 |  30 |  34 |
  |Royal Irish             |   - |   4 |  12 |  36 |
  |Royal Scots Fusiliers   |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers   |   5 |  11 |  66 | 162 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers |   1 |   4 |  29 |  44 |
  |26th Cameronians        |   - |   2 |  19 |  60 |
  |37th Hampshire          |   4 |  10 |  17 |  61 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Marlborough, in conjunction with the Prince Eugène of Savoy, now
pushed up to the vicinity of Munich, and there is little doubt,
had he been in possession of a sufficient artillery force, that
the capital of Bavaria would have fallen into his hands. He had
with him but thirty-five guns of the Royal Artillery, and he felt
compelled to relinquish the attempt. Falling back, he attacked
the Allies at Blenheim, where again the British troops covered
themselves with glory.


BLENHEIM, AUGUST 2, 1704.

This battle honour has been conferred on the

  King's Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  5th Lancers.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  Royal Scots.
  Grenadier Guards.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Buffs.
  East Yorkshire.
  Lincolns.
  Royal Irish.
  Bedfords.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Hampshire.
  Cameronians.

A medal to commemorate this victory was struck by order of Queen
Anne, but, unfortunately, no lists of the losses suffered by
regiments as regards the rank and file have been preserved, or, if
preserved, they have been lost sight of. We know from contemporary
journals that there were eighteen squadrons and fourteen battalions
of British troops engaged, and that the total casualties amounted
to 51 officers and 625 men killed, 147 officers and 1,381 men
wounded, the casualties amongst the officers being--


CASUALTIES AT BLENHEIM.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |King's Dragoon Guards   |   - |   - |}    |     |
  |3rd Dragoon Guards      |   3 |   5 |}    |     |
  |5th Dragoon Guards      |   1 |   - |} 93 | 156 |
  |Carabiniers             |   5 |   5 |}    |     |
  |7th Dragoon Guards      |   3 |   3 |}    |     |
  |                        |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Dragoons          |   - |   - |}    |     |
  |Scots Greys             |   - |   - |}    |     |
  |5th Lancers             |   - |   - |} 10 |  22 |
  |Grenadier Gds.          |   1 |   5 |}    |     |
  |Royal Scots             |   3 |   8 |}    |     |
  |                        |     |     |     |     |
  |Buffs                   |   3 |   9 |   - |   - |
  |King's Liverpool        |   1 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Lincolns                |   8 |   9 |   - |   - |
  |East Yorkshire          |   5 |  13 |   - |   - |
  |Bedfords                |   4 |  12 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Irish             |   4 |  10 |  57 |  96 |
  |Royal Scots Fusiliers   |   5 |  12 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers   |   - |   9 |   - |   - |
  |South Wales Borderers   |   3 |   9 |  84 |   - |
  |Cameronians             |   5 |  13 |   - |   - |
  |Hampshire               |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Seldom has there been a victory more complete. Twenty-four
battalions surrendered _en bloc_, the total number of prisoners
aggregating upwards of 11,000, amongst them being two General
officers; 124 guns and 109 stand of colours also fell into our
hands. Ireland is now an integral portion of the British Empire,
and Irish soldiers have in all our campaigns fought with stubborn
determination on our side. So, too, the Royal Irish covered itself
with glory on this day, as it has ever done when fighting for us.
At the same time, it is worthy of note that the fiercest of our
opponents at Blenheim were the regiments of the Irish Brigade in
the pay of the King of France.

Marlborough now retraced his steps to the Low Countries, and once
more prepared to oppose the French in the field and the Dutch in
the Council. The whole of the following year was spent in futile
attempts to organize a successful series of military movements in
face of the persistent antagonism of our Dutch colleagues.


RAMILLIES, MAY 12, 1706.

A medal was struck to commemorate this victory, which is inscribed
on the colours and appointments of the following regiments:

  1st King's Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  6th Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  5th R.I. Lancers.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Buffs.
  Liverpool Regiment.
  Lincolns.
  East Yorkshire.
  Bedfords.
  Royal Irish.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Cameronians.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcester.
  Hampshire.

Though inscribed on our colours, there were but few British troops
actually under fire at the Battle of Ramillies. On the cavalry fell
the task of converting a victory into a rout, and to this end the
six regiments of British dragoons enumerated above were worthily
employed, their trophies being 56 guns, 80 stand of colours, and
2,000 prisoners. No regimental lists of casualties have been
preserved, but it would appear that the Cameronians lost two
officers killed, and that the cavalry in the pursuit lost 384 of
all ranks killed and wounded.

Ramillies was not the only success that attended our arms in
Flanders during the year 1706, and it is difficult to understand
why it alone should have been selected for recognition. The whole
of Flanders in those days was studded with fortresses, under cover
of which the French lay secure. To capture these was a necessity,
and one by one they fell into our hands. In the months of August,
Menin, after a siege of six weeks, was carried by assault, our loss
being 32 officers and 551 men killed, 80 officers and 1,944 men
wounded; the regiments which took part in the siege and assault
being the Scots Greys, the 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards, the King's,
Liverpool Regiment, the Lincolns, the Royal Irish, and the Royal
Welsh Fusiliers, the latter losing fifteen officers killed and
wounded.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF RAMILLIES.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |King's Dragoon Guards   |     |     |     |     |
  |3rd Dragoon Guards      |     |     |     |     |
  |5th Dragoon Guards      |     |     |     |     |
  |Carabiniers             |     |     |     |     |
  |7th Dragoon Guards      |     |     |     |     |
  |Grenadier Gds.          |     |     |     |     |
  |Coldstream Gds.         |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Scots             |     |     |     |     |
  |Buffs                   |     |     |     |     |
  |King's Liverpool Regt.  |     |     |     |     |
  |Lincolns                |     |     |     |     |
  |East Yorkshire          |     |     |     |     |
  |Bedfords                |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Irish             |   - |   - |   4 |   6 |
  |Royal Scots Fusiliers   |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers   |     |     |     |     |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers |     |     |     |     |
  |26th Cameronians        |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |28th Gloucester         |     |     |     |     |
  |29th Worcester          |     |     |     |     |
  |37th Hampshire          |     |     |     |     |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I have left the tables of casualties blank in the hope
  that some more diligent searcher after truth may be fortunate
  enough to find the missing details.


OUDENARDE, JUNE 30, 1708.

This, again, was one of those victories to commemorate which a
medal was struck by order of Her Majesty Queen Anne, whilst a
century and three-quarters later the name "Oudenarde" was inscribed
on the colours and appointments of the following regiments, by
order of Her Majesty Queen Victoria:

  1st King's Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  Scots Greys.
  5th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Buffs.
  Lincolns.
  East Yorkshire.
  Bedfords.
  Royal Irish.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Cameronians.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Hampshire Regiment.

The year 1707 was wasted, owing to the opposition of the Dutch and
the treachery of the Austrians. The French were accordingly enabled
by the early spring of 1708 to mass an army of 100,000 men in
Flanders. To face them the Allies could bring but 80,000; but the
weight of Marlborough's name and the few thousand British veteran
troops in his army made up for this deficiency; and when, after a
series of the most brilliant manœuvres, the Duke at last met the
French at Oudenarde, he at any rate had no doubt as to the result.

At Oudenarde, as at Ramillies, the British troops were not heavily
engaged, their losses numbering 4 officers and 41 men killed, 17
officers and 160 men wounded.

Lille, the capital of French Flanders, was Marlborough's next
objective. The difficulties attendant on the siege were enormous,
owing to the swampy nature of the neighbourhood and the strength
of the fortifications. In spite of being some 10,000 men inferior
to the French mobile army, Marlborough determined to essay the
task, and from the month of August to October there were five
British battalions actively employed in the siege, the rest of
the army being engaged in covering the operations and holding in
check 96,000 French who were endeavouring to find an opening to
save the fortress. On October 11 the place was carried by assault,
our losses during the operations having been 17 officers and 447
men killed, 82 officers and 1,093 men wounded. The Bedfords, Royal
Irish, Royal Scots Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and the South
Wales Borderers, were the regiments which would be entitled to
this distinction. To commemorate the capture of Lille, Queen Anne
caused a medal to be struck, but the name is not on our colours.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF OUDENARDE, JUNE 30, 1708.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st King's Dragoon Guards |     |     |     |     |
  |3rd Dragoon Guards        |     |     |     |     |
  |5th Dragoon Guards        |     |     |     |     |
  |6th Carabiniers           |     |     |     |     |
  |7th Dragoon Guards        |     |     |     |     |
  |Scots Greys               |     |     |     |     |
  |5th Lancers               |     |     |     |     |
  |Grenadier Gds.            |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Coldstream Gds.           |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Artillery           |     |     |     |     |
  |Royal Scots               |     |     |     |     |
  |3rd Buffs                 |     |     |     |     |
  |8th Roy. Liverpool Regt.  |     |     |     |     |
  |10th Lincoln              |     |     |     |     |
  |15th E. Yorkshire         |     |     |     |     |
  |16th Bedford              |     |     |     |     |
  |18th Roy. Irish           |   1 |   - |   8 |  12 |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers |     |     |     |     |
  |23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers |     |     |     |     |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers   |     |     |     |     |
  |26th Cameronians          |     |     |     |     |
  |37th Hampshire            |     |     |     |     |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--According to the published Diary of Private Deane, the
  Grenadier Guards lost 2 officers killed at Oudenarde, but no
  detailed list of casualties is forthcoming.


MALPLAQUET, SEPTEMBER 11, 1709.

A medal was struck by Queen Anne to commemorate this victory,
and in the reign of Queen Victoria the regiments which were
present were permitted to add the name "Malplaquet" to the other
distinctions won in more recent battles:

  1st King's Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  5th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Buffs.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Lincolns.
  East Yorkshire.
  Bedfords.
  Royal Irish.
  Yorkshire Regiment.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Cameronians.
  Hampshire Regiment.

Prior to the Battle of Malplaquet, the Royal Scots, the Buffs, and
the Hampshires had been actively employed at the siege and capture
of the Fortress of Tournay, in which they suffered heavily; but
no distinction was awarded for this siege, save a medal struck by
Queen Anne, the word "Tournay" borne by the West Yorkshire, the
Hampshire, and the Shropshire, being granted for the action, which
took place in the same neighbourhood in 1794, and which I have
dealt with on page 94.

Leaving a force to level the fortifications of Tournay, which was
looked upon as one of the masterpieces of the great master, Vauban,
Marlborough moved towards Mons, where the French, under Marshal
Villars, lay with 95,000 men. Their position was a most formidable
one. From the forest of Laignieres to the wood of Blangier (a
distance of three miles) a series of entrenchments had been thrown
up, following the sinuosities of the ground. In advance of this
position a number of formidable redans had been constructed, in
some of which as many as twenty guns were placed. Fortune, however,
favoured the allies in many ways. In front of the position, but out
of cannon shot, were the woods of Sart, which enabled Marlborough
to conceal his intended movements from the French; whilst the
nature of the ground in rear of the French entrenchment prevented
Marshal Villars from making any use of his cavalry in the early
stages of the fight. On this occasion at any rate we had no reason
to complain of the conduct of our allies. The Dutch, under the
Duke of Orange, fought with unaccustomed gallantry, whilst the
Germans showed that they were not disposed to allow the English to
carry off all the honours of the day. Of the details of the battle
but little is known, except that it was one of the bloodiest ever
fought, scarcely exceeded even by the passage of the Beresina.
Although we were the victors, there is no doubt that our losses
were greater than those of the French. Sixteen guns and twenty
colours remained in our hands. The twenty British battalions
engaged lost 36 officers and 571 men killed, 66 officers and 1,281
men wounded.

There were many more occasions in which we crossed swords with the
French in Flanders before peace was declared. At Douai, Bethune,
and Bouchain, our troops suffered severely, but no honorary
distinctions were granted for any of these fights, so they do not
fall within the scope of this chapter.

Unfortunately, the lists of regimental losses of non-commissioned
officers and men have not been preserved, and all it is possible
to give, with any degree of accuracy, are the number of officers
killed, and, to a certain extent, of men wounded at Malplaquet.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF MALPLAQUET, SEPTEMBER 11, 1709.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st King's Dragoon Guards |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Dragoon Guards        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |5th Dragoon Guards        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Carabiniers           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |7th Dragoon Guards        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Scots Greys               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |5th Lancers               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Grenadier Gds.            |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Coldstream Guards         |   5 |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Scots               |   1 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Buffs                 |   6 |   9 |   - |   - |
  |King's Liverpool          |   1 |   8 |   - |   - |
  |10th Lincoln              |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |15th East Yorks           |   3 |   - |   2 |  62 |
  |16th Bedford              |   - |   4 |   - |  50 |
  |18th Roy. Irish           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |19th Yorkshire Regiment   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers |   5 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers |   3 |   7 |   - |   - |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |26th Cameronians          |   4 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |37th Hampshire            |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER III

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1743-1762

Dettingen--Minden--Emsdorff--Warburg--Wilhelmstahl.


DETTINGEN, JUNE 27, 1743.

This battle honour is now borne by the following regiments:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  1st King's Dragoon Guards.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  Scots Greys.
  3rd Hussars.
  4th Hussars.
  6th Inniskillings.
  7th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Buffs.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Devons.
  Suffolk.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding Regiment.
  Hampshire.

It commemorates the last battle in which a King of England was
present in person, the last in which the Order of Knighthood was
conferred on the field. The actual command was in the hands of the
veteran Earl of Stair, a soldier who had learned the art of war
under Marlborough. He had commanded a brigade at Ramillies, and
served on the great commander's staff at Blenheim, Oudenarde, and
Malplaquet.

We were fighting in support of the claims of Maria Theresa to the
throne of Austria. France, on the other hand, was supporting those
of the House of Bavaria. Side by side with our own men fought the
armies of Austria and Hanover. The field of battle was on the banks
of the Main, midway between Darmstadt and Frankfort, hard by the
village of Aschaffenburg, where, in the "Seven Weeks' War," the
Prussians gained one of their many successes over the Germans of
the Southern States. At Dettingen the brunt of the fighting fell
on the British, whose losses far exceeded the combined casualties
of the allies, the principal sufferers being the 3rd Dragoons,
all their officers but two, and more than half their men, being
killed or wounded. The heroism of Trooper Brown of this regiment
has been handed down to this day, and King George, recognizing
his valour, dubbed him Knight-Banneret at the close of the fight,
the Commander-in-Chief (the Earl of Stair), and the Honourable J.
Campbell, Colonel of the Scots Greys, being similarly honoured.
Brown's deed is recorded in the regimental history, but it is
little known outside the ranks of what is now the 3rd King's Own
Hussars. Three times did this gallant regiment charge into the
French massed infantry, outnumbering them four to one; thrice did
they overthrow the enemy's horse. Their standards had been torn to
ribbons, the staves shot through and riddled. At the close of one
charge a colour fell from a dead Cornet's hand and lay abandoned
on the ground. Trooper Brown dismounted to recover it, and, as he
regained the saddle, a French trooper with a sabre-cut disabled
his bridle-hand. His horse bolted with him into the midst of the
French army, when the colour was torn from his grasp and borne
away by a gendarme. Wounded and faint, but with the lust of battle
strong upon him, the dragoon rallied to his flag, cut down the
triumphant captor, then, gripping the broken staff between knee
and saddle, bore it in safety to the skeleton squadrons of his
own corps. Historians ridicule the part played by King George on
the field of Dettingen, but we may rely upon it that the British
army appreciated the kingly action when, at the close of the day,
veteran Field-Marshal and wounded dragoon alike received from
their Sovereign the accolade of honour. In these prosaic days the
prosperous tradesman receives the knighthood, the wounded dragoon
is relegated to the workhouse.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF DETTINGEN, JUNE 27, 1743.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Life Guards            |   - |   3 |   3 |   4 |
  |2nd Life Guards            |   - |   1 |   2 |   1 |
  |Royal Horse Guards         |   - |   1 |   8 |  11 |
  |1st King's Dragoon Guards  |   3 |   4 |   8 |  30 |
  |7th Dragoon Guards         |   - |   5 |  22 |  31 |
  |1st Royal Dragoons         |   - |   - |   3 |   3 |
  |Scots Greys                |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Hussars                |   1 |   6 |  41 | 100 |
  |4th Hussars                |   - |   - |   4 |   5 |
  |6th Inniskillings          |   - |   - |   2 |   1 |
  |7th Hussars                |   2 |   2 |   2 |  15 |
  |Royal Artillery            |   1 |   - |   4 |   8 |
  |Grenadier Gds.             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Coldstream Gds.            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Scots Guards               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Buffs                  |   - |   - |   3 |   3 |
  |8th King's Liverpool Regt. |   1 |   2 |   6 |  30 |
  |11th Devons                |   - |   2 |  11 |  28 |
  |12th Suffolk               |   2 |   3 |  27 |  65 |
  |13th Somerset L.I.         |   - |   2 |  21 |  30 |
  |20th Lancashire Fusiliers  |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers  |   1 |   1 |  36 |  55 |
  |23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers  |   1 |   1 |  15 |  27 |
  |31st E. Surrey             |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.         |   - |   1 |   - |   3 |
  |33rd W. Riding Regt.       |   4 |   - |  26 |  50 |
  |37th Hampshire             |   - |   1 |   4 |  14 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  The Brigade of Guards, though bearing the honour, were not
  actually engaged at Dettingen.

  NOTE.--Lieutenant Shaw of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers was promoted
  to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy in the Marines for gallantry at
  Dettingen.


MINDEN, AUGUST 1, 1759.

The following six regiments bear this honour:

  Suffolks.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  King's Own Scottish Borderers.
  Hampshire.
  King's Own Yorkshire L.I.

As at Dettingen, so at Minden, the British troops were acting in
support of foreign allies. At the former we were supporting the
cause of Austria against France, at the latter we were assisting
Frederick the Great in his campaign against the combined forces of
France and Austria. Our troops were under the command of Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick, whose rôle it was to prevent Hanover (then
an appanage of the British Crown) from being overrun by the French.
In addition to the above regiments, there were present fifteen
squadrons of English cavalry under Lord George Sackville, and four
batteries of artillery under Captains Foy, Phillips, Drummond,
and MacBean. The fruits of the victory and the glory of the day
were marred by the inaction of the British cavalry, due to the
supineness or something worse of Lord George Sackville. The feature
was the majestic advance of the British infantry under Brigadiers
Waldegrave and Kingsley, and the magnificent manner in which
the four batteries of artillery followed the retreating French,
converting an orderly retirement into a disorderly rout.


CASUALTIES AT MINDEN.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   1 |   2 |   2 |   9 |
  |Suffolk                  |   3 |  14 |  82 | 190 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers          |   6 |  11 |  80 | 224 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers    |   - |  10 |  35 | 161 |
  |K.O. Scottish Borderers  |   - |   7 |  19 | 119 |
  |37th Hampshire           |   3 |  12 |  43 | 188 |
  |51st K.O. Yorkshire L.I. |   1 |   9 |  20 |  78 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On the morning after the battle Prince Ferdinand addressed
a personal letter to Captain MacBean of the "Royal British
Artillery," in which he said: "It is to you and your brigade that I
am indebted for having silenced the fire of a battery of the enemy,
which extremely galled the troops."

Still further to show his appreciation of the services of the
Royal Artillery, the Prince ordered the Paymaster-General to hand
1,000 crowns to Captain Phillips, and 500 each to Captain MacBean,
Drummond, Williams, and Foy, for distribution amongst their men.

Concerning the Marquis of Granby, he wrote: "Had he (Lord Granby)
been at the head of the cavalry of the Royal King, his presence
would, I am persuaded, have greatly contributed to have made our
success more complete and more brilliant."


EMSDORFF, JULY 16, 1760.

This distinction is borne only by the

  15th Hussars,

and commemorates their association with a body of German troops
in Prince Ferdinand's campaign against the French, the opening
action of which was Minden. A French division, consisting of six
battalions with a regiment of hussars, was surprised by a force
of similar strength under Prince Ferdinand, and by sundown the
"King's" Hussars had gained for the Allies a glorious victory. It
was to the 15th, and to the 15th alone, that the credit of the day
was due. It was their _baptême de feu_, and well may they pride
themselves on their conduct at Emsdorff. Their gallantry was the
theme of the whole army, and the recollection of it has stood
them in good stead on many a hard-fought field. As Fortescue so
generously writes: "The traditions of charging home remained with
the regiment, and doubtless remains with it to this day."

In his official despatch Prince Ferdinand bears high testimony
to the very distinguished services rendered by the 15th. After
describing the action and the conduct of the troops generally, the
Prince wrote: "Particularly to Eliott's regiment, which was allowed
by everybody present to have done wonders.

"H.S.H. the Prince could not enough commend to the Duke the
bravery, good conduct, and good countenance, with which that
regiment fought."

In addition to the 15th, a regiment of Hanoverian cavalry and five
battalions of Hanoverian infantry were engaged at Emsdorff, their
total casualties being 8 men killed, 2 officers and 52 men wounded.
The total losses of the French were never ascertained, but that
evening the prisoners numbered 2 Generals and 177 other officers,
with 2,482 non-commissioned officers and men, whilst 9 stand of
colours and 5 guns remained in our hands. The 15th have good reason
to be proud of the battle honour "Emsdorff." Their casualties were
2 officers and 73 non-commissioned officers and men killed, 2
officers and 48 of other ranks wounded, their casualties in horses
being 168 killed and wounded.


WARBURG, JULY 31, 1760.

It was not until the close of the year 1909, just 150 years
after the battle, that the cavalry regiments which took part in
this brilliant action were authorized to bear on their colours
and appointments the battle honour "Warburg." Why the infantry
regiments which bore the brunt of the fighting should be denied
this distinction is not for me to tell. The regiments now honoured
are the

  Royal Horse Guards.
  King's Dragoon Guards.
  Queen's Bays.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  Scots Greys.
  Inniskillings.
  7th Hussars.
  10th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.

At Emsdorff, just a fortnight previously, the 15th Hussars had
nobly retrieved the slur which had been cast on the British cavalry
owing to the unfortunate behaviour of Lord George Sackville at
Minden. At Warburg the mass of the cavalry under Lord Granby
had an opportunity of showing that they were by no means behind
the 15th in dash or steadiness. De Muy, the French Commander,
occupied a very strong position in a bend of the River Diemel. His
right resting on the village of Warburg. The British infantry,
consisting of one brigade of four battalions under the command
of Colonel Beckwith of Kingsley's Regiment (now the Lancashire
Fusiliers) attacked in two columns. The right, under Major
Maxwell of the Lancashire Fusiliers, consisted of the Grenadier
companies of the Suffolks, Lancashire Fusiliers, Royal Welsh
Fusiliers, Scottish Borderers, 37th (Hampshire), and 51st (King's
Own Yorkshire Light Infantry). On its outer flank was the Heavy
Cavalry Brigade under Lord Granby. The left infantry column was
under Major Daulhat of the West Riding Regiment; this comprised
the flank companies of the Northumberland Fusiliers, the King's
Liverpool Regiment, the Devons, the South Wales Borderers, the 33rd
(West Riding Regiment), and the 50th (West Kent). On Daulhat's
left were the light cavalry under General Mostyn, the 7th Hussars
leading. In support came the two regiments of Highlanders, Keith's
and Campbell's.[3] Between the two infantry columns were three
troops of Horse Artillery, under Captains Phillips, MacBean, and
Stephens; these earned Prince Ferdinand's highest praise for
their dash and the accuracy of their fire. Some delay occurred in
supporting the attack of the British infantry, who alone sustained
the early stages of the action; and the Prince ordered Lord Granby
to move round the rear of the columns and press home an attack on
the French right rear. Granby was a different stamp of leader to
Lord George Sackville. Two hours at the trot brought him within
striking distance of the French. Then, forming his six regiments of
heavy cavalry in two brigades, and supporting them with Mostyn's
Light Dragoons, charged straight home. The French never waited
the attack, save three squadrons which stood firm and which were
cut to pieces. The main portion of the French cavalry turned and
fled. Ordering Mostyn to follow these up, Granby (always well to
the front) wheeled the heavies to the right, and threw himself
on the right rear of De Muy's infantry. These, like the cavalry,
broke, throwing down their arms and making for the ford across the
Diemel in their rear. Our artillery now came up at the gallop,
and effectually prevented any attempt at reforming on the part of
the beaten foe. The loss in our cavalry was trifling. That of the
French amounted to nearly 8,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners,
whilst 12 guns remained in our hands as trophies of war at Warburg.


CASUALTIES AT WARBURG.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Horse Guards       |   - |   1 |   2 |   6 |
  |King's Dragoon Guards    |   - |   1 |   7 |  28 |
  |Queen's Bays             |   - |   3 |  12 |  11 |
  |3rd Dragoon G.           |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |Carabiniers              |   - |   - |   3 |   3 |
  |7th Dragoon G.           |   - |   2 |   4 |   3 |
  |Royal Dragoons           |   - |   - |   8 |  12 |
  |Scots Greys              |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  |Inniskillings            |   - |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |7th Hussars              |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  |10th Hussars             |   2 |   - |   2 |  10 |
  |11th Hussars             |   - |   - |   3 |   2 |
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |Northumberland Fusiliers |   - |   2 |   4 |  26 |
  |King's Liverpool Regt.   |   - |   1 |   4 |  13 |
  |Devons                   |   - |   - |  12 |  21 |
  |Suffolks                 |   1 |   1 |  15 |  35 |
  |Lancs. Fusiliers         |   - |   1 |  15 |  38 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers    |   - |   2 |  12 |  19 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers  |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |K.O. Scottish Borderers  |   - |   1 |   8 |  25 |
  |W. Kent Riding Regt.     |   - |   - |   5 |  33 |
  |Hampshire                |   - |   2 |  10 |  20 |
  |Royal W. Kent            |   - |   - |   4 |  14 |
  |K.O. Yorkshire L.I.      |   - |   1 |   9 |  23 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

For his services at Minden, Major Daulhat was given the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 51st (King's Own Yorkshire Light
Infantry), and his battalion of Grenadiers was placed under Major
Welsh, of the 11th (Devons), who commanded it at Wilhelmstahl.

In his official report of the action to King George, Prince
Ferdinand wrote:

"The English artillery got up at a gallop and seconded the attack
in the most spirited manner. All the troops have done well, and
particularly the English."

       *       *       *       *       *

"The loss on our side is very numerous, and falls chiefly upon
the brave battalions of Maxwell's Grenadiers, which did wonders.
Colonel Beckwith, who commanded the Brigade of English Grenadiers
and Scotch Highlanders, distinguished himself greatly, and is
badly wounded in the head. My Lord Granby with the English cavalry
contributed extremely to the success of the day."

This casualty return exemplifies the lack of system in the method
of distributing battle honours. The losses in the cavalry amounted
to 129 killed and wounded, in the infantry to 376, yet the latter
have no "distinction" to show the part they played at Warburg.


WILHELMSTAHL, JUNE 24, 1762.

  The Northumberland Fusiliers

is the only regiment authorized to bear this honour; but here, as
in so many other instances, it is difficult to understand why one
regiment should be singled out for a battle honour to the exclusion
of others which have borne an equally meritorious part in the same
engagement.

Wilhelmstahl was one of the closing actions in Prince Ferdinand's
campaigns. As at Warburg, the Valley of the Diemel was the scene
of the fight, and, as at Warburg, the honours of the day rested
with the English. The French, some 70,000 strong, had their right
resting on the forest of Rheinhardswald, with their headquarters
at the village of Wilhelmstahl. Ferdinand detached Generals
Luckner and Sporcke to attack the flank of the enemy, whilst he
with the ten battalions of English infantry--some Brunswickers
and Hessians--supported by Lord Granby's cavalry, made a direct
attack on their front. With the other columns I have no concern.
That under the personal command of the Prince consisted of the
three battalions of the Brigade of Guards--one of Grenadiers, one
of the Coldstreams, and one of the Scots Guards; a brigade under
Colonel Beckwith, of the 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers), comprising a
composite battalion, made up of the flank companies of the Brigade
of Guards, a second battalion of the grenadier companies of the
Northumberland Fusiliers, the 8th (King's), 11th (Devons), 24th
(South Wales Borderers), the 33rd (West Riding Regiment), and the
50th (Royal West Kent), commanded by Major Welsh, of the Devons.
The third battalion in Beckwith's brigade was under Major Maxwell,
of the Lancashire Fusiliers, and was made up of the flank companies
of the Suffolks, Lancashire Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers,
King's Own Scottish Borderers, 37th (Hampshire Regiment), and the
51st (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry). The 5th (Northumberland
Fusiliers), 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), and the two Highland
regiments of Keith and Campbell (then the 87th and 88th), completed
the English portion of Prince Ferdinand's column.

The combined movement was well executed. The central column was
in presence of the enemy before they had the least apprehension
of being attacked. Finding themselves threatened in front, flank,
and rear, they struck their tents and fell back in some confusion.
Prince Ferdinand, to quote an officer who was present, "pursued
and pressed upon them as close as possible. They would have been
entirely routed had not Monsieur de Stainville thrown himself
forward with the Grenadiers of France, the Royal Grenadiers, and
the Regiment of Aquitaine (the flower of the French infantry),
to cover their retreat. His resolution cost him dear, his whole
infantry having been either killed or dispersed after a very
gallant defence. Two battalions only succeeded in escaping. Some
of these troops surrendered to Lord Granby's cavalry, and when the
infantry came up, the remainder, after one fire, laid down their
arms to the 5th Fusiliers, having been driven out of the forest
at the point of the bayonet by Beckwith's Grenadiers." Amongst the
prisoners taken were 58 officers of the Grenadiers of France, 38
of the Royal Grenadiers, and 22 of the Regiment of Aquitaine, "the
flower of the French army." In all 162 officers and 2,570 men.

In his official despatch Prince Ferdinand wrote:

"All the troops behaved exceedingly well, and showed great zeal
and willingness, but particularly the battalions of Grenadiers
belonging to Colonel Beckwith's brigade, which distinguished
themselves exceedingly."


CASUALTIES AT WILHELMSTAHL.

  +------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |         _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Horse Guards            |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |15th Hussars                  |   - |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |Royal Artillery               |   1 |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |Grenadier Gds.                |   1 |   - |   8 |  28 |
  |Coldstream Gds.               |   - |   - |   9 |  11 |
  |Scots Guards                  |   - |   - |  11 |  17 |
  |Grenadier Batt. of the Guards |   - |   1 |   8 |  25 |
  |King's Liverpool              |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Northumberland Fusiliers      |   1 |   - |   1 |  11 |
  |Welsh's Gren.                 |   - |   - |   3 |  41 |
  |Maxwell's Gren.               |   2 |   - |   3 |  58 |
  |Keith's Highlanders (87th)    |   - |   - |   9 |  23 |
  |Campbell's Highlanders (88th) |   - |   - |   5 |  22 |
  |Fraser's Chasseurs            |   - |   - |   1 |  12 |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

An artillery officer who was present wrote of the battle:

"They [the French] were fairly surprised, and our troops behaved
with a bravery not to be paralleled in history, especially our
Grenadiers and Highlanders, who sent prisoners, I dare say, more
than double their own numbers out of the forest. The 5th Regiment
behaved nobly, and took prisoners about twice their own number.
We had the misfortune to lose Lieutenant Cock (an officer of
our regiment, and as pretty an officer as any in the army) by a
cannon-shot, which took off his head."

The casualties in the British regiments amounted to 54 killed and
249 wounded; those of the allies, only to 144 killed and wounded.

The surrender of the French Grenadiers to the old "Fighting
Fifth" is commemorated by the Fusilier or, rather Grenadier, cap,
which at one time was worn only by the Northumberland Fusiliers.
Now, however, all Fusilier regiments share this honour with the
Northumberlands.

Studying the above list in conjunction with Prince Ferdinand's
despatch gives rise to the question, Why should the Northumberland
Fusiliers alone bear the battle honour "Wilhelmstahl"?

  NOTE.--During the years 1756-1762 the annual subsidies voted by
  the English Parliament to enable the Prussian armies to keep
  the field amounted to £670,000, aggregating £3,350,000. During
  the same period England paid for the upkeep of the armies of
  Hesse-Cassel £2,631,438.



CHAPTER IV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, 1758-1814

Louisburg, 1758--Quebec, 1759--Monte Video, 1807--Detroit,
August 12, 1812--Miami, April 23, 1813--Niagara, July 25,
1814--Bladensburg, October 24, 1814.


LOUISBURG, JULY 25, 1758.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this honour:

  Royal Scots.
  East Yorkshire.
  Leicester.
  Cheshire.
  Gloucester.
  Royal Sussex.
  South Lancashire.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  North Lancashire.
  Northampton.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Wiltshire.

It commemorates the siege and capture of the fortress of Louisburg
(Cape Breton's Island, North America) from the French in July,
1758. The army, which was under the command of General the Lord
Amherst, numbered 12,000 of all ranks, and was distributed as
follows:

  First Brigade--Brigadier Whitmore: 1st Royal Scots, 22nd
  (Cheshires), 40th (South Lancashire), 48th (Northampton), and 3rd
  Batt. 60th (King's Royal Rifles).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier James Wolfe: 17th (Leicester), 35th
  (Royal Sussex), 47th (Loyal North Lancashire), and 2nd Batt. 60th
  (King's Royal Rifles).

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Lawrence: 15th (East Yorkshire), 28th
  (Gloucester), 45th (Sherwood Foresters), and 58th (Northampton).

The grenadiers and light companies of the various regiments were,
as was customary in those days, organized into separate battalions.
The force, which was convoyed by twenty-three ships of the line,
under Admiral Boscawen, on which the 62nd (Wiltshires) were serving
as marines, arrived at Gabarus Bay, a little to the westward of
the fortress, on June 8, 1758. The country was well known, for
Commodore Sir R. Warren, with some colonial troops, had wrested it
from the French in 1745. A reconnaissance revealed three possible
landing-places, and, to make assurance trebly sure, Amherst
determined to threaten all three, whilst the true attack should
be made by Wolfe's brigade, with the grenadier and light infantry
battalions, at Freshwater Cove, about three miles from the city.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF LOUISBURG, JULY 25, 1758.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   1 |   4 |   5 |
  |Royal Scots              |   2 |   4 |  13 |  27 |
  |15th E. Yorks            |   2 |   3 |  27 |  26 |
  |17th Leicester           |   1 |   3 |  11 |  33 |
  |22nd Cheshire            |   - |   3 |   7 |  15 |
  |28th Gloucester          |   - |   1 |  12 |  25 |
  |35th R. Sussex           |   - |   4 |   ? |   ? |
  |40th S. Lancs            |   - |   1 |   8 |  21 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters  |   - |   - |  10 |  14 |
  |47th N. Lancs            |   - |   - |   9 |  30 |
  |48th N'hampton           |   1 |   1 |   8 |  17 |
  |58th N'hampton           |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |60th King's Royal Rifles |   1 |   1 |  24 |  57 |
  |78th[4]                  |   4 |   3 |  17 |  41 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The landing was stubbornly contested by the French, but, thanks to
the gallantry of Major Scott, at the head of the light infantry
battalion, Wolfe was enabled to effect his object with a loss of
about 100 killed and wounded. Lawrence's brigade was immediately
thrown ashore, and by nightfall Amherst had pitched his camp to the
westward, and just out of the range of the guns of the fortress.
The task of disembarking the siege material was exceedingly
arduous, and Amherst, owing to the nature of the ground, was
compelled to restrict the siege operations to the western face of
the fortress. Wolfe, however, was detached to move round the city,
and seize some works on the northern side of the harbour. This he
effected with but slight loss, and was enabled by a daring _coup
de main_ to occupy a commanding position some 300 yards distant
from the northernmost bastion. Thanks to the powerful and cordial
co-operation of the fleet, Amherst carried on the bombardment with
ceaseless vigour. By the end of July the walls were so battered
that they could barely withstand the shock of their own guns,
and on the 27th of that month the French General surrendered
unconditionally, with 5,600 men.


QUEBEC, SEPTEMBER 12, 1759.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this honour:

  Oxford Light Infantry.
  North Lancashire.
  Northampton.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  East Yorkshire.
  Royal Sussex.
  Gloucester.

It commemorates that glorious eleven weeks' campaign which
culminated in the capture of Quebec and established British
supremacy in Canada. It is doubly memorable owing to the fact that
the two opposing commanders, Wolfe and Montcalm, fell in the hour
of victory, and that vanquished as well as victor are held in
veneration by friend and foe alike.

The capture of Louisburg and the successes over the French in West
Africa, as well as on the continent of North America, determined
Pitt to carry out the scheme formulated in the preceding year for
the capture of Quebec. Wolfe, who had so distinguished himself
at Louisburg, was, to the surprise of the army, nominated to the
command, having under him three Brigadiers--Monckton, Townsend,
and Murray. The former had as a regimental commander shown himself
possessed of every capacity for high command. The force, which
numbered about 8,000 men, was composed of ten battalions of the
line: two of grenadiers, made up from the flank companies of all
regiments in North America; two of light infantry; and a corps of
local troops styled "Roger's Rangers," men inured to war and of
proved capacity. The distribution of the force was as under:

  First Brigade--Brigadier Murray: 35th (Royal Sussex), 48th
  (Northampton), and 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Townsend: 28th (Gloucester), 47th
  (North Lancashire), and 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifles.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Monckton: 15th (East Yorkshire), 43rd
  (Oxford Light Infantry), 58th (Northampton), and Fraser's
  Highlanders.

It was not until June 27 that Wolfe landed, without resistance,
on the Island of Orleans, just below Quebec, and on the following
day Monckton's brigade, with some heavy guns, was thrown across
to the right bank of the St. Lawrence. Emboldened by the passive
attitude of the French Commander, who seemed averse to adopt
any offensive measures, Wolfe moved the brigades of Murray and
Townsend to the left bank of the St. Lawrence, below the French
entrenched camp, whilst he himself, still holding on to the Isle
of Orleans, threw up batteries on the left bank _below_ the city.
This dissemination of his forces constituted a grave danger, but
Montcalm took no advantage of such a palpable error. On July 31
a determined attempt to assault the city was repulsed, our loss
being upwards of 500 killed and wounded, and the spirits of the
besiegers sank to zero. The British Admiral pointed out to Wolfe
that the proper course to pursue was to transfer his main force to
a position on the right bank of the St. Lawrence, above Quebec, so
as to prevent Montcalm from obtaining supplies or reinforcements
from Montreal. This proposition was concurred in warmly by the
General, and early in September Townsend and Murray took up their
new position to the west of the citadel. On September 13 Wolfe, by
a most daring midnight movement, scaled the Heights of Abraham, and
so encompassed the fall of what was considered an impregnable city.
Shot in the wrist early in the fight, the heroic young commander
still led on his men, until, just as the French were falling back,
he received a second ball in the groin, and finally fell at the
head of the 28th (Gloucesters), at the moment of victory. The
command now devolved on Townsend (Monckton having been disabled by
a severe wound), and he pressed forward the siege with vigour. On
September 18 General Ramesay, who had succeeded Montcalm in command
of the French, signed the capitulation of a city which was little
better than a mass of shapeless ruins. The praise for the capture
of Quebec is due to Wolfe; but Quebec was but an incident in the
long-drawn-out campaign which resulted in transferring Canada from
the Bourbon to British rule, and the credit for this belongs to a
General little remembered in these days--General the Lord Amherst.


CASUALTIES DURING THE OPERATIONS AT QUEBEC, 1759.

  +-------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |            _Regiments._             +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                                |   1 |   5 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery                      |   - |   - |   1 |  14 |
  |15th E. Yorks                        |   1 |  11 |  13 | 107 |
  |28th Gloucesters                     |   1 |   7 |  18 | 100 |
  |35th R. Sussex                       |   3 |  10 |  29 |  69 |
  |40th S. Lancashire                   |   1 |   7 |   1 |  29 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.                     |   - |   3 |  12 |  33 |
  |47th L.N. Lancashire                 |   1 |   3 |  16 |  49 |
  |48th N'hampton                       |   1 |   4 |  13 |  47 |
  |58th N'hampton                       |   1 |   8 |  17 | 129 |
  |60th King's Royal Rifles (3rd Batt.) |   4 |  13 |  22 | 176 |
  |60th King's Royal Rifles (4th Batt.) |   - |   1 |   2 |  30 |
  |78th Seaforth Highlanders            |   3 |  11 |  35 | 138 |
  |Grenadiers of Louisburg              |   1 |   7 |  13 | 112 |
  |Roger's Rangers                      |   2 |   2 |  21 |  26 |
  |Royal Marines                        |   - |   - |   8 |  22 |
  +-------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MONTE VIDEO, 1807.

A battle honour borne by the

  South Staffords.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Rifle Brigade.

The expedition to South America redounds little to the credit of
our arms, and, as is well known, ended in disaster. A few words
are necessary as to its inception. Prior to the expedition to the
Cape of Good Hope in 1806, the Admiral, Sir Home Popham, who was
in command of the naval forces in the South Atlantic, had been at
some pains to impress upon Pitt, the Prime Minister, the immense
advantages that would accrue to our trade by the conquest of the
Spanish possessions in South America; and though it would appear
that Popham was not entrusted with any mission in furtherance of
his design, there is no doubt that Pitt did look with considerable
favour on his proposals, and a force under General Crawford was
actually despatched to make a descent on the western shore of the
continent, and to occupy Chili or Peru. Popham, however, did not
lose sight of his own scheme, which was the conquest of Buenos
Ayres; and no sooner were we in possession of the Cape than he
persuaded Sir David Baird to place General Beresford, with the 38th
(South Staffords) and the 71st (Highland Light Infantry) at his
disposal. With these and the St. Helena Regiment, which consisted
of an infantry battalion and a company of artillery, Popham sailed
across the Atlantic, and early in June appeared off the coast
near Monte Video. After reconnoitring Mondanado, Popham decided
that an attack on Monte Video was impracticable, and, overcoming
the scruples of Beresford, proceeded to Buenos Ayres. The troops
were landed a short distance from the city, and, after a short
skirmish, the Spaniards, completely surprised, surrendered. The
troops engaged at the first capture of Buenos Ayres were the 71st
(Highland Light Infantry), a naval brigade, consisting of seamen
and marines, and the St. Helena Regiment, the casualties only
amounting to 4 men killed, an officer and 15 men wounded.

The Spaniards soon recovered from their surprise, and, realizing
the weakness of our force, took measures for the recapture of the
city. On August 12 a body of some 12,000 men appeared before Buenos
Ayres, and at the end of the day, our men being entangled in the
streets, and the 71st having lost 165 killed and wounded, Beresford
felt himself obliged to surrender.

When the news of the disaster reached England, reinforcements
were at once despatched to the coast, and Baird was ordered to
send all troops he could spare from the Cape. The command of the
new expedition was entrusted to Sir Samuel Auchmuty, whilst the
naval forces were placed under Admiral Sterling, Popham being
recalled for the purpose of undergoing trial by court-martial. On
arriving at Mondanado, Auchmuty found the troops from the Cape.
These were unprovided with artillery, and there was much difficulty
in securing the necessary provisions. Meat there was in plenty,
but for flour and other food-stuffs the troops were dependent on
England. After consultation with the Admiral, it was decided to
make an attack on Monte Video as a necessary preliminary to the
recapture of Buenos Ayres, and the release of the troops in the
hands of the Spaniards (close on 1,500 in number). On January 18,
1807, the force was successfully disembarked at Carretas, some
seven miles to the eastward of Monte Video. A reconnaissance proved
that the defences of the city were far more formidable than had
been reported, and on the 19th the Spaniards made a sortie, in
which they displayed a gallantry which our men had by no means
anticipated. Heavy guns were landed from the fleet, and breaching
batteries erected within 1,000 yards of the citadel. The Admiral
also landed upwards of 1,400 seamen and marines to assist the
troops. The General did not possess the means for a regular siege,
and, risky though the experiment was, he determined to carry the
place by storm so soon as a practicable breach was effected. On
the night of January 24 Sir Samuel made the preparations for the
assault. The storming column was composed of the Rifle Brigade, the
light and grenadier companies of all the regiments of the force,
with the 38th (South Staffords). The 40th (South Lancashire) and
the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) were in immediate support, whilst
the General held in reserve the 47th (North Lancashire), a company
of the 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 700 seamen and marines,
and the details of the 17th Lancers, 20th and 21st Light Dragoons.
The night was very dark, and it was found that the Spaniards had
repaired the breach with timber faced with damp hides, to avoid the
contingency of their being set on fire; but the Rifle Brigade and
light infantry battalion forced their way over all obstacles in the
face of a very determined resistance, and by daybreak we were in
possession of the town. The conduct of our men during the actual
assault and during the occupation called forth the warmest praise
of the General.


CASUALTIES DURING THE OPERATIONS AT MONTE VIDEO.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Navy                  |   - |   2 |   6 |  32 |
  |17th Lancers (dismt. troop) |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |20th Light Dragoons         |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |21st Light Dragoons         |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |38th S. Staffs              |   2 |  10 |  29 |  98 |
  |40th S. Lancs               |   4 |   5 |  18 |  76 |
  |47th Loyal N. Lancashires   |   - |   - |   3 |  16 |
  |72nd Seaforths              |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |83rd R. Irish Rifles        |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |87th R. Irish Fusiliers     |   3 |   3 |  60 |  80 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.            |   1 |   3 |  15 |  45 |
  |Light Infantry Battalion    |   1 |   6 |  66 |  99 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In the month of March the troops, under General Crawford, which
had been destined for the Chilian coast arrived at Monte Video,
and General Whitelock assumed command. An advance was now made
on Buenos Ayres, which resulted in the capitulation of our force
and the trial of the Commander-in-Chief. This disaster cast no
reflections either on the gallantry of our troops or the skill
of Auchmuty. At the same time, it is impossible to think of this
battle honour without recalling the unfortunate circumstances
connected with the two attacks on Buenos Ayres.


NORTH AMERICA, 1812-1814.

The war in North America in the early years of the nineteenth
century gave rise to much hard fighting, and though at the close
of the campaign in the Iberian Peninsula we were enabled to send a
number of our seasoned regiments as reinforcements, the operations
were by no means creditable to our arms.

On the institution of the Land General Service Medal in 1847
(commonly called the Peninsular Medal), a certain number of
engagements which had taken place in North America were included in
the list of those for which the medal was granted, and clasps were
issued for the following actions:

  Fort Detroit, August, 1812.
  Châteaugay, October 26, 1813.
  Christler's Farm, November 11, 1813.

But in the distribution of battle honours the two last names were
not authorized to be borne on the colours of the regiments engaged.
In the case of Christler's Farm an application for permission
to bear this honour on behalf of the 89th Regiment (now the 2nd
Royal Irish Fusiliers) met with a decided refusal. On the other
hand, four battle honours were granted to regiments to commemorate
engagements for which the medal was not issued--namely, Queenstown,
Miami, Niagara, and Bladensburg.


DETROIT

is borne only on the colours of the Welsh Regiment, and
commemorates the services of the old 41st Regiment at the affair
which took place in the vicinity of Fort Detroit, on August 16,
1812, when its casualties amounted to 1 officer and 3 men killed, 1
officer and 10 men wounded.


QUEENSTOWN

records the services of the Welsh Regiment and the Berkshires in
the affair of October 26, 1813, in which their casualties were--

  +---------------------------------------+
  |               |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |               |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |41st Welsh     |   - |   - |   2 |  18 |
  |49th Berkshire |   - |   2 |   8 |  30 |
  +---------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MIAMI

This, again, is an honour which was granted alone to the Welsh
Regiment as a recognition of its services in the affair of April
23, 1813, when the casualties were 11 men killed, 1 officer and 38
men wounded.


NIAGARA

is borne on the colours and appointments of the

  19th Hussars.
  Royal Scots.
  Royal Warwick.
  Welsh Regiment.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Royal Canadians.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  South Lancashire.

In the _London Gazette_ of July 25, 1814, the above regiments, as
well as the 103rd Regiment, were authorized to add this battle
honour to their other distinctions. In November, 1815, the 104th
Regiment were also awarded the honour.[5] The casualties at this
engagement were--


LOSSES AT NIAGARA.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Hussars            |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |  15 |
  |Royal Scots             |   1 |   3 |  15 | 112 |
  |8th King's Liverpool    |   - |   3 |  12 |  57 |
  |41st Welsh Regiment     |   - |   - |   3 |  34 |
  |89th R. Irish Fusiliers |   2 |  11 |  27 | 177 |
  |100th Royal Canadians   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |103rd Regiment          |   - |   1 |   6 |  46 |
  |104th Regiment          |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


BLADENSBURG, AUGUST 24, 1814.

This honour is borne on the colours of the following regiments:

  King's Own (Royal Lancaster).
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Essex.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.

The campaign on the Canadian frontier had been waged with varying
fortune: sometimes success attended our arms, at others we suffered
considerable reverses. We were fighting, however, under many
disadvantages. The bulk of our forces were employed in Spain, or
in the abortive expedition to the Low Countries. The abdication
of Napoleon, however, set free a portion of our troops, and a
brigade was despatched, under the command of Major-General John
Ross, from the South of France to North America. It consisted of
the 4th (King's Own), the 41st (Welsh), and the 44th (Essex). On
arrival at Bermuda it was met by the 21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers),
and by Admiral Cochrane, commanding the naval forces on the
station. The Admiral had been in the habit whilst blockading the
coast of landing at the mouth of the Potomac River, and making
incursions into the country, accompanied only by a few Marines.
He pointed out to the General the feasibility of an attack on
Washington, the young capital of the United States. On August 15
the General, accompanied by the Admiral, landed and made a lengthy
reconnaissance up the Patuxent River, which runs parallel to the
Potomac, and a short distance to the east. The landing presented
no difficulties, and on the 20th the whole of the brigade, having
arrived, were disembarked without opposition at a place called
Benedict, on the right bank of the Patuxent, only fifty miles from
Washington. On the following day the force moved to Nottingham
in three columns. The right, under Colonel Brooke, of the 44th,
consisted of the 4th (King's Own) and the 44th (Essex); the
centre, commanded by Colonel Patterson, of the 21st (Royal Scots
Fusiliers), comprised that corps and a strong naval brigade;
whilst the left column, which was under Colonel Thornton, of
the 85th (King's Light Infantry), was made up of that regiment
and the light companies of the other three battalions, and was
accompanied by the little artillery force, which consisted of but
a couple of 3-pounders and a howitzer. On August 22 the brigade
reached Marlborough, a small town sixteen miles from the capital,
and here Ross learnt that a body of American troops, about 6,000
strong, was drawn up for the defence of Washington at Bladensburg,
to the north of the city. Leaving some marines to guard his lines
of communication at Marlborough, Ross pushed on, the left column,
under his own personal command, leading, and on the morning of the
24th he found the enemy. The action was soon over, and by nightfall
Ross entered Washington, having captured ten of the enemy's guns.
Whether the subsequent burning of the Capitol was justified or not
is a question that everyone will decide for himself. Suffice to
say that public property to the extent of close on half a million
sterling was destroyed, in addition to several ships on the stocks,
and that we carried away 206 guns. Our losses were by no means
heavy. In justice to the memory of the General, it should be put on
record that a perfectly orderly entry into the city was effected,
and that all firing had long since ceased when, as he and the
Admiral were passing through the city, some shots were fired from a
private house, and that by his orders that house was set on fire.
The flames spread to neighbouring buildings, and before they could
be stopped the Capitol was in flames.

The raid--for raid it was--was looked upon as a decided success,
and Ross, who had succeeded in carrying off the greater part of
the guns found in Washington, determined to carry out a similar
raid on Baltimore. This, too, was successful, but it was achieved
at the loss of the gallant General, who was one of the four
officers who fell in the engagement outside Baltimore on September
12. The action of Bladensburg is commemorated not only on the
colours of the four regiments which were present, but the family
of the General were authorized by royal licence to add the word
"Bladensburg" to their own name of Ross.


CASUALTIES AT BLADENSBURG.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----+-----+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |R. Engineers            |   - |   - |   2 |   - |
  |4th King's Own          |   1 |   7 |  23 |  56 |
  |21st R. Scots Fusiliers |   - |   2 |   2 |  11 |
  |44th Essex              |   - |   - |  14 |  35 |
  |85th K. Shropshire L.I. |   2 |  11 |  12 |  53 |
  |Royal Marines           |   - |   - |   6 |   1 |
  |6th West India          |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


  [Illustration: BATTLEFIELDS IN SOUTHERN INDIA]



CHAPTER V

INDIA, 1751-1764

Arcot--Plassey--Condore--Masulipatam--Badara--Wandewash--Pondicherry
--Buxar.


The names at the head of the chapter commemorate a number of
long-forgotten Indian campaigns, waged against desperate odds and
extending over many years. The Colar Goldfields, Dindigul Cigars,
and the Nundy Droog Mine are names of pleasant memories to the
fortunate shareholders in those concerns. Little did soldier
or sepoy think that those fields on which he shed his blood in
order to maintain British supremacy in India would thus become
familiarized to British speculators. For us, their successors, it
is humiliating to feel that the heroic forging of the link which
connects them with the military history of our Empire should have
been long since forgotten. A few words in retrospect are necessary.

In the year 1600 a charter was granted by Parliament to the East
India Company, and within ten years factories had been established
at Surat, to the north of Bombay, and Petapolam, to the north of
Madras. We were not the first-comers in the field, for both Dutch
and Portuguese had been for many years engaged in commerce with the
East. In 1612 our first troubles arose with the Portuguese, whom we
defeated at Surat, and since then no question of their supremacy
has arisen. Fifty years later the French had firmly established
themselves at Masulipatam and Pondicherry, on the south-east
coast, as well as at Chandernagore, a few miles above Calcutta,
and for the next 150 years the rivalry between France and England
was the cause of much strife. The policy of the French was to stand
well in with the native rulers, to organize their armies on a
European model, and so, with their aid, to drive the English out of
India.

At the commencement of the eighteenth century Calcutta, Bombay, and
Madras were our chief centres, the former with factories stretching
to Patna, in the northwest. The influence of the Governor of
Bombay extended from the settlement at Ahmedabad, in the north,
to Calicut, on the west or Malabar coast, whilst Madras had under
its rule all factories on the eastern coast from Vizagapatam to
Cuddalore. The British East India Company of those days boasted of
but little Government support; the French company was fast becoming
a military rather than a commercial force. In 1750 the French had
driven us out of Madras, and were virtually rulers of Southern
India, and the bulk of our forces were besieged in Trichinopoly.
Fortunately for England, even in her darkest hour a man has arisen
to cope with and surmount her difficulties. Amongst the writers
or clerks in the employ of the factory at Madras was one Robert
Clive. He, with rare prescience, argued that, as the bulk of the
French forces, aided by their ally, the ruler of the Carnatic,
were employed in the reduction of Trichinopoly, therefore Arcot,
the capital of the Carnatic, in all probability lay unguarded. Mr.
Saunders, the Governor of Madras, cordially supported the plan
advocated by the young writer, which was to carry the war into the
enemy's country, and to seize Arcot, the capital, by a _coup de
main_.

  [Illustration: ROBERT, LORD CLIVE.
  To face page 50.]


ARCOT, AUGUST 31, 1751.

This honour is alone borne by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, the
lineal descendants of the gallant band of Englishmen in the service
of the East India Company at Madras, who in the year 1751, under
the incomparable Clive, laid the foundation of our Indian Empire.
In those days Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, was a city of
about 100,000 inhabitants, dominated by a fort almost in ruins. It
lies some sixty miles south-west of Madras, and Clive determined
not only to effect the relief of Trichinopoly, then besieged by
the French, but also to strike at French supremacy by seizing the
capital of their most powerful ally, the Sovereign of the Carnatic.
He left Madras on September 6, 1751, in command of a small force of
200 Englishmen and 300 sepoys, with but three field-guns. Of his
officers, eight in number, four, like him, were "writers" in the
Company's factory. Five days later Clive had thrown himself into
the half-ruined fort of Arcot, which had been hastily evacuated by
its garrison, mounted the guns, which had been abandoned, repaired
the defences, and made every preparation for a siege. A month later
the siege commenced in earnest, 10,000 trained troops of the Nawab,
aided by 300 French, drawing a close cordon round the fort, whilst
a siege-train directed by Frenchmen opened fire on its walls.
Macaulay, in his brilliant essay on Lord Clive, has borne eloquent
testimony to the heroism both of the leader and the led (I have not
the space to dwell on the details of the siege)--how the sepoys,
with starvation staring them in the face, brought their rations of
rice to their English comrades, with the remark that the water in
which it was boiled was sustenance enough for them; and how, after
being beleaguered for fifty days, in which he had lost one-third
of his force, Clive repelled a final assault, and was enabled to
assume the offensive against his disheartened and discomfited foes.

Arcot was a prelude to a campaign in which many gallant actions
were fought--actions long since forgotten, and which are unrecorded
on our colours. Trichinopoly and Covrepauk are no less worthy of
emblazonment than Reshire or Koosh-ab. But, alas! no connection
can now be traced between the sepoys who fought under Clive and
the regiments of our native army, whilst the identity of the First
Madras Europeans has for a whole generation been hidden under the
title of "Royal Dublin Fusiliers."

Little by little public interest was now being centred on India.
The desperate efforts of France to gain an ascendancy in the
Peninsula of Hindoostan, and the gallant endeavour of the servants
of the East India Company to thwart those efforts, had at last
aroused our Ministers to the value of Indian commerce, and to the
necessity of affording military assistance in the shape of trained
regiments to the "Honourable Company of Merchants trading to the
East." In 1754 a first step was made in this direction, and in that
year the 39th Regiment (now the 1st Dorsets) landed in Madras,
and, in memory of their connection with our early struggles in
India, have been permitted to bear on their colours the legend
"Primus in Indis." The following year a truce was signed between
France and England, thus putting an end to active hostilities. No
steps, however, were neglected by either party in order to secure a
paramount influence with native rulers. In this, however, we were
less successful than our rivals.


PLASSEY, JUNE 23, 1757.

The following regiments are entitled to bear this battle honour:

  The Dorsetshire Regiment.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

Just as in the South of India the rulers of the Carnatic and of
Mysore were the bitter foes of the English settlement at Madras,
so at Calcutta we had against us Surajah Dowlah, the ruler
of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa--a nominal Viceroy of the Mogul
Emperor--straining every nerve to wrest from us the territories
on which our factories were built. The tragedy of the Black Hole
of Calcutta is familiar to every schoolboy. Fortunate indeed for
England was it that, when the news of the fall of Calcutta reached
Fort St. George an English fleet, under Admiral Watson, was lying
in Madras Roads, and that men of action sat in the Madras Council.
Two hundred Europeans were at once despatched to the Hooghly, and
a force of 2,500 men hastily organized, consisting of 250 men of
the 39th Regiment (1st Dorsets), 700 Madras Europeans, and 1,500
sepoys, for their support. This force was under the joint command
of Admiral Watson and Robert Clive. Calcutta was relieved; and
as war with France had again broken out, it was determined--now
that all pressure on the part of Surajah Dowlah was removed--to
attack the French settlement at Chandernagore. The fleet sailed
up the Hooghly, and on March 23 the British flag was flying over
the French fortress. I have been unable to ascertain the losses of
Clive's troops on this occasion. Those of the Royal Navy amounted
to 4 officers and 46 men killed, 9 officers and 156 men wounded.
In the burial-ground of St. John's Church, Calcutta, may yet be
seen two monuments recording thus daring feat of arms and of superb
seamanship--the one raised in memory of the Admiral, the other of a
midshipman. The former reads:

  HERE LIES INTERRED THE BODY OF
  CHARLES WATSON, ESQ.,
  VICE-ADMIRAL OF THE WHITE,
  COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF HIS MAJESTY'S
  NAVAL FORCES IN THE EAST INDIES,
  WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 16TH DAY OF AUGUST, 1757,
  IN THE 44TH YEAR OF HIS AGE.

  Gheria taken, February 13th, 1756.
  Calcutta freed, January 11th, 1757.
  Chandernagore taken, March 23rd, 1757.

  Exegit monumentum ore perennius.

On the boy's tomb is inscribed:

  HERE LYES THE BODY OF
  WILLIAM SPEKE,
  AGED 16, SON OF HENRY SPEKE, ESQ.,
  CAPTAIN OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP _KENT_.
  HE LOST HIS LEG AND LIFE IN THAT SHIP
  AT THE CAPTURE OF FORT ORLEANS,
  THE 24TH MARCH, ANNO 1757.

Having punished the French for their refusal to afford assistance
to our beleaguered countrymen and countrywomen in Calcutta, Clive
now determined to march against the Nawab Surajah Dowlah. On June
13, having received fresh reinforcements on this occasion from
Bombay, he left Chandernagore at the head of 3,000 men, with ten
guns. Of these about 1,000 were English--the 39th Foot, under Major
Eyre Coote, some gunners of the Royal Artillery who had accompanied
the 39th from England, and detachments of the Bengal, Madras, and
Bombay European regiments. The Englishmen were conveyed in boats up
the Hooghly; the sepoys marched along the banks. On June 23 Clive
found himself face to face with Surajah Dowlah's army at Plassey, a
town on the River Hooghly, about 100 miles due north of Calcutta.
The odds were hopelessly unequal--Clive with 3,000 men and ten
light field-guns on the one side; Surajah Dowlah with 55,000 men,
of whom 15,000 were cavalry, and fifty guns of all calibres on
the other. Had Englishmen ever been in the habit of counting the
odds, the Indian Empire would never have been ours. Neither Clive
nor Coote were men to quail before difficulties. From eight until
eleven our infantry lay motionless, the field-guns only maintaining
an unequal duel with the more numerous artillery of the enemy,
which were being served--and very badly served--by some Frenchmen
in the service of the Nawab. Plassey was the foundation-stone of
British supremacy in Bengal, as Arcot was in Madras; yet the
fight was, from the soldier's standpoint, a very hollow one. Dawn
broke with the odds immeasurably in favour of the Mogul host. At
sunset that host was in full retreat, and yet our total losses were
but 11 English and 13 sepoys killed, the wounded being 22 and 21
respectively. Such was the price we paid for the establishment of
British rule over what is known as the Province of Bengal.


CASUALTIES AT PLASSEY.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Navy              |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   1 |   2 |   6 |  10 |
  |39th Dorset             |   1 |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |Royal Munster Fusiliers |   - |   1 |   1 |   2 |
  |1st R. Dublin Fusiliers |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |2nd R. Dublins          |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Bengal sepoys           |   - |   - |   9 |  11 |
  |Madras sepoys           |   - |   - |   4 |  10 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CONDORE, DECEMBER 9, 1758.

  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

In the course of this year there was incessant fighting between our
troops in Madras and the French and their allies; but the value of
India was now becoming more thoroughly appreciated by the Cabinet,
and a second regiment, then numbered the 79th, was sent out to
Madras, under Colonel William Draper. The French, on their part,
were not behindhand. The Count Lally and Admiral d'Ache arrived,
with close on 3,000 French troops, and the British forts at
Cuddalore and St. David were captured. Matters were looking serious
indeed in Southern India, when Clive, still in Calcutta, determined
to make a diversion. Eyre Coote, the Major of the 39th, who had
shown such gallantry at Plassey, was in England busily employed in
raising a regiment for service in India, and so was not available;
but Clive detached Major Forde, of the 39th, with detachments of
his own regiment and of the 1st Bengal Europeans (now the Munster
Fusiliers), barely numbering 600 men, and some 2,000 sepoys, down
the coast to Vizagapatam, which was being threatened by a French
force, under Conflans. Despite the odds against him--for the French
army outnumbered his by at least three to one--Forde pushed on,
finally meeting Conflans near the mouth of the Godavery River.


CASUALTIES AT CONDORE.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiment._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Munster Fusiliers  |     |     |     |     |
  |  (1st Bengal Europeans) |   1 |   4 |  15 |  29 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

There has been a long-standing dispute as to whether this
honour can be rightly claimed by the Dublin Fusiliers as the
representatives of the Madras and Bombay regiments which were
sent to assist Clive in 1757. It appears certain that the
men from Madras and Bombay were incorporated with the Bengal
European Regiment in April, 1758, and that none but Bengal troops
accompanied Forde to Vizagapatam. The India Office has therefore
given its decision in favour of the Munsters for both Condore and
Masulipatam.


MASULIPATAM, APRIL 8, 1759.

This honour is borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers alone. In spite
of many obstacles thrown in his way after the action of Condore
by our native allies, Forde determined to follow up Conflans.
It was not until March 6 that he arrived before Masulipatam,
behind the fortifications of which the French were awaiting him.
A fortnight was taken up in landing siege-guns from the fleet,
which had followed the army down the coast, and a small number
of bluejackets were disembarked to aid in the siege. On April 6
Forde learnt that a force of 40,000 natives, under Salabad Jung,
was advancing to the relief of Conflans, and he determined on
storming at once. His position was full of difficulty: in front a
formidable work, with a garrison exceeding his own force in number,
his land communications threatened by a Franco-native army 40,000
strong, and an empty treasure-chest. A weaker man would have taken
advantage of the presence of the fleet, contented himself with his
own marvellous success at Condore, and embarked his little army
for Bengal. Not of such stuff was Forde, and fortunate for him and
for England that he had with him men of like metal to himself.
On April 8 Forde ordered the assault, and by nightfall Conflans,
with 3,000 men, had unconditionally surrendered. Salabad Jung,
the Viceroy of the Circars Province, now realizing that all power
did not belong to the French, entered into a treaty with Forde,
by which he ceded to the English eighty miles of coast-line, and
entered into an agreement, not merely to dismiss all the French
then in his service, but also never again to employ French troops
or instructors. Forde was now free to return to Bengal, where his
services were soon to be urgently needed.


CASUALTIES INCURRED DURING THE OPERATIONS AT MASULIPATAM, ENDING
WITH THE ACTION OF APRIL 8, 1759.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiment._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Munster Fusiliers |   2 |   - |  22 |  62 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


BADARA, NOVEMBER 25, 1759.

An honour borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers only. The crushing
defeats inflicted by Forde on Conflans had the effect of restoring
our prestige in Madras. But in Bengal Clive was in no very
enviable position. The Dutch, who had a settlement at Chinsura, on
the Hooghly, had commenced open hostilities, and a Dutch fleet,
with a considerable force on board, entered that river. Clive
had at his disposal about 300 of the 1st Bengal Europeans, and
until the return of Forde from Masulipatam matters at Calcutta
were serious. As soon as Forde arrived, Clive, who believed only
in the offensive, ordered the victor of Condore to attack the
land force, whilst he determined to destroy the Dutch fleet with
some armed East Indiamen at his disposal. On November 20 Forde
marched to Chandernagore (the French settlement on the Hooghly,
some miles above Calcutta), and on the following day moved on to
Chinsura--only a few miles distant--where a small detachment of
the Dutch were encamped. He was joined here by Knox (a Company's
officer who had been under Forde at Condore), with a body of eighty
volunteer cavalry, raised from the English residents in Calcutta,
and a strong battalion of sepoys. He now learnt that the Dutch
force was moving to attack him. Confident of victory, Forde wrote
to Clive, asking for permission to forestall them. The story runs
that Clive was playing cards when Forde's letter reached him.
Laying down his hand, Clive scribbled on the back of the letter:
"Dear Forde,--Fight them. I will send you the Order in Council
to-morrow." Then, taking up his cards, went on with the game. On
November 25 the two forces came into collision. Forde's handful of
cavalry converted the check, which the steady fire of Knox's guns
had inflicted on the Dutch, into a rout. Practically the entire
Dutch force was either killed, wounded, or taken. The Government
in Holland repudiated the action of the Governor of their Indian
settlements, and paid compensation to the East India Company. But
Forde's little fight at Badara is deserving of recognition, not
merely because it was a gallant action fought against serious odds,
but more especially because it put an end once and for all to all
pretensions of the Dutch to supremacy in the East.

Unfortunately, no records exist showing the casualties we suffered
at the action of Badara.


WANDEWASH, JANUARY 22, 1760.

An honour borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

The operations in Southern India had not been characterized by the
same degree of success which had marked Forde's campaign against
Conflans and the Dutch, but in the very month that we won the
action of Badara Eyre Coote disembarked at Madras at the head of
his newly-raised regiment, then numbered the 84th. At the same time
some 300 recruits arrived for the Company's battalions, bringing
the total force at the disposal of the Government of Madras to
four battalions of infantry, 100 English troopers, and eighteen
field-guns. With these Coote determined to resume the offensive,
and on January 22 the two armies met at Wandewash, about 100 miles
south-west of Madras. The forces were fairly equally matched. Hyder
Ali, with his allies, the French, however, had a considerable
preponderance in cavalry. When we reflect on the momentous issue
decided by this and the preceding actions between the French and
ourselves in India, and compare the number of the troops engaged
with those we now mobilize for an Indian frontier campaign, it
seems little short of marvellous that our Indian Empire should have
been built up with such slender means.

The troops engaged, under the command of Eyre Coote, consisted
of Draper's Regiment (then the 79th), his own (the 84th), and
two English battalions in the Company's employ (now the Munster
Fusiliers), 2,000 sepoys, 1,200 Indian cavalry, and one squadron of
English horse, with sixteen guns. The brunt of the fighting fell on
the British regiments, Draper's suffering the most heavily; but our
total casualties--63 killed and 124 wounded--was a small price to
pay for a victory which cost the French 600 killed and wounded and
24 guns.

Step by step Coote now undertook the reduction of all the
French ports in Southern India. Arcot, Trincomalee, and finally
Pondicherry, all fell into our hands, only to be restored, as was
Chandernagore, to the French at the conclusion of peace in 1763--an
act of generous imbecility which necessitated their recapture on
the renewal of the war fifteen years later, at the cost of many
hundred valuable British soldiers.


CASUALTIES AT WANDEWASH.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Draper's Regiment (79th) |   3 |   4 |  17 |  66 |
  |Coote's Regiment (84th)  |   1 |   3 |  13 |  36 |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers   |   1 |   1 |   3 |  29 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


PONDICHERRY, 1761, 1778, 1793.

This battle honour is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers (at
that time the 1st Madras European Regiment), and was conferred upon
it by the Governor of Madras in recognition of its services at the
three sieges of that fortress in the years 1761, 1778, and 1793.
The operations were conducted by Sir Eyre Coote, an officer who had
received his early training in the 39th (Dorsets), and who, on that
regiment being recalled to England, undertook, as I have shown, to
raise a battalion for service in India.

This corps, which was numbered the 84th, and which we have already
seen at Wandewash, played an all-important part in the early
campaigns waged in India; but as it was disbanded in the year 1788,
the battle honours it gained are not to be found on the colours of
any existing regiment. Coote laid siege to Pondicherry in the month
of September, 1760, but it was not until the January following that
the Governor surrendered. In accordance with our invariable custom,
the fortress and neighbouring colony were restored to the French on
the conclusion of peace in 1763. The regiments associated with the
Dublin Fusiliers in the Siege of Pondicherry in 1760 were the 79th
(Draper's Regiment), the 84th (Coote's), the 89th (Highlanders),
under Major Hector Munro, and the 96th, under the Hon. G. Monson.
None of these corps survive to bear the battle honour.

In the year 1778, on the renewal of the war with France, the
reduction of Pondicherry once more became a matter of urgent
necessity. On this occasion the Dublin Fusiliers were again to the
fore in their capacity as the 1st Madras European Regiment (two
of its battalions being present). With them were no less than ten
battalions of sepoys. Many of these are still borne on the rolls
of the Madras army. The distinction has not been conferred on the
Indian corps for the operations in 1778; but if the losses suffered
during a successful campaign constitute a claim to a battle
honour, the words "Pondicherry, 1778," may well be accorded to the
regiments who figure in the subjoined list of casualties.


CASUALTIES AT PONDICHERRY, 1778.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._               +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Dublin Fus. (two battalions) |   1 |   8 |  45 |  92 |
  |Bengal Recruits              |   1 |   1 |   4 |  12 |
  |62nd Punjabis (Natives)      |   - |   2 |  17 |  57 |
  |67th Punjabis (Natives)      |   - |   2 |  10 |  37 |
  |69th Punjabis (British)      |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                |   - |   2 |   7 |  36 |
  |72nd Punjabis (British)      |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                |   - |   1 |   6 |  43 |
  |73rd Carnatic Inf. (British) |   - |   1 |   1 |   - |
  |73rd Carnatic Inf. (Natives) |   1 |   - |   6 |  14 |
  |74th Punjabis (Natives)      |   - |   - |  21 |  34 |
  |75th Carnatic Inf. (British) |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                |   - |   - |  23 |  44 |
  |76th Punjabis (Natives)      |   - |   - |   8 |  29 |
  |79th Carnatic Inf. (British) |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                |   - |   1 |   5 |  12 |
  |80th Carnatic Inf. (British) |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                |   - |   2 |   8 |  35 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The total losses of the Company's troops at Pondicherry
  in 1778 were 148 sepoys killed and 482 wounded. For this success
  Hector Munro, who commanded, was made a K.B.

The Bengal Recruits alluded to above were a party of recruits on
their way out to join what is now known as the Munster Fusiliers.
They were detained by the Governor of Madras to swell the British
element at the siege, and they well sustained the honour of the
regiment now known as the Royal Munster Fusiliers.

In the year 1793 the reduction of Pondicherry became once more
necessary. The fortress had been captured by Sir Eyre Coote and its
works demolished in 1761. On its restoration to the French, the
place was converted into an exceptionally strong fortification, and
its capture by Sir Hector Munro in 1778 entailed a loss of upwards
of 600 killed and wounded. In 1793 we found that our friends the
French had once more--and very rightly, too--done their utmost to
render the place impregnable, and that a very considerable force
would be necessary for its reduction. Colonel Braithwaite, of the
Madras army, was entrusted with its capture. The force at his
disposal consisted of the following troops:

  Cavalry Brigade--Colonel Floyd: 19th Hussars and 4th Madras
  Cavalry.

  First Infantry Brigade--Colonel Nesbitt: 36th (Worcesters), 52nd
  (Oxford Light Infantry), and the battalion companies of the
  Dublin Fusiliers.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Colonel David Baird: 71st (Highland
  Light Infantry), 73rd (Royal Highlanders), and the flank
  companies of the two battalions of the Madras European Regiment
  (Dublin Fusiliers), under Majors Petrie and Vigors.

  Third Infantry Brigade--Colonel Bilcliffe: 61st Pioneers, 62nd
  Punjabis, and 63rd Light Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Colonel Campbell: 66th Punjabis, 67th Punjabis,
  and the 8th Madras Infantry, which has ceased to exist.

  Fifth Infantry Brigade--Colonel Trent: 69th Pioneers, and the
  old 17th and 19th Regiments of Madras Infantry, which have been
  merged in other corps.

  Sixth Infantry Brigade--Colonel Cuppage: 23rd, 24th, and 25th
  Regiments of Madras Infantry.

The artillery consisted of 117 men of the Royal and 731 of the
Madras Artillery, and there were 75 English sappers, together with
that well-tried regiment which has fought so bravely on so many
fields--the Madras Sappers and Miners.

I regret that I have been unable to trace the losses of all the
native regiments; their total casualties amounted to 4 British
officers and 135 native ranks killed and wounded.


CASUALTIES AT PONDICHERRY, 1793.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery   |   - |   2 |  12 |  17 |
  |Roy. Engineers    |   1 |   4 |   5 |  18 |
  |36th Worcesters   |   - |   - |   5 |   9 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.  |   1 |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |71st Highl. L.I.  |   - |   1 |   8 |  14 |
  |73rd R. Highl.    |   3 |   - |   7 |  13 |
  |Petrie's batt.    |   - |   1 |   2 |   6 |
  |Vigor's batt.     |   - |   1 |   1 |   3 |
  |61st Pioneers     |   - |   - |   2 |   8 |
  |62nd Punjabis     |   1 |   - |   6 |  12 |
  |66th Punjabis     |   - |   - |   3 |   5 |
  |67th Punjabis     |   1 |   - |   9 |  16 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Although no battle honours have been awarded to the Indian
regiments which took part in the operations against Pondicherry in
the years 1778 and 1793, I have been at some pains to give a brief
account of the operations, both of which, with their accompanying
loss of life, might have been avoided had the Home Government
either insisted on the retention of the conquests we had made
in the East, or, were that impracticable, refused to allow the
rebuilding of fortifications in the French settlements in India.
"Pondicherry, 1778 and 1793," might be added with propriety to the
battle honours of regiments which took part in the sieges of those
years.


BUXAR, OCTOBER 23, 1764.

  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

In the interval between Eyre Coote's victory at Wandewash in
January, 1760, and the Battle of Buxar in October, 1764, our troops
in India had been continuously at war; yet the colours even of
those regiments which still survive, and which were then in the
service of the Company, bear no record of the many stubborn fights,
the by no means inglorious victories achieved over our gallant
foes. In the South, the Government of Madras had been carrying on
campaign after campaign against the trained troops of France and
the scarcely less formidable army of Mysore. In the North, Clive
and his successor had found foemen no less worthy of their steel in
the armies of the Emperor of Delhi and those of the ruler of Oude,
under Surajah Doolah. History--even Greek history--affords no more
striking episodes than those early struggles of our countrymen in
India; and though the names of Beerpore, Sooty, and Oondna Nullah
are forgotten, they deserve to stand side by side with other
well-remembered names that are emblazoned on the colours of the old
Company's regiments. The Battle of Buxar was the final episode in
the long-fought campaign with the ruler of Oude.

Now that the two senior battalions of the old Company's army have
been converted into the Royal Munster and Royal Dublin Fusiliers,
they are the only regiments which bear on their colours a memento
of one of the finest actions ever fought in India. The British
force numbered between 6,000 and 7,000 men, with twenty-eight
guns. It included, besides the two European regiments in the
Company's employ, a composite battalion, just 167 strong, made up
of detachments of the 84th, or Coote's Regiment, and volunteers
from the disbanded 89th Regiment and 90th (Light Infantry); two
companies of Royal Marines, under Captain Wemyss; a handful of
seamen, with a midshipman, working some guns side by side with the
Bengal Artillery; and a small troop of cavalry, the total being
about 1,200 Englishmen. To these must be added 900 Mogul horse and
5,000 sepoys. This little army was under the command of Colonel Sir
Hector Munro, of the 89th Regiment. The two Company's battalions
were inured to Indian warfare, and the men of the 90th (then the
only Light Infantry regiment in the British army), had learned
their lesson at the capture of Belleisle, Martinique, and Havana,
under their brave Colonel, James Stuart, who was destined to add
to the laurels gained at the Moro a great reputation in Southern
India.

The force opposed to Munro was a formidable one. It included eight
battalions trained and commanded by French officers, two batteries
of artillery manned by Europeans, 5,000 Afghan horse, and 40,000
men of Shah Shujah Daulah's own fairly trained army. The battle was
stubbornly contested, but the victory was complete. Our weakness
in cavalry, however, prevented Munro reaping the full benefits of
his success. In addition to the losses of the British contingent,
the sepoy battalions lost 257 killed and 435 wounded. Our trophies
included 137 guns, whilst the enemy left upwards of 2,000 dead on
the field.


CASUALTIES AT BUXAR.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |R. Munster Fus.        |   - |   3 |  37 |  58 |
  |Composite batt.        |   1 |   1 |   2 |  13 |
  |Royal Artillery        |   1 |   1 |   2 |   3 |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers |   - |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |British cavalry        |   - |   1 |   2 |   4 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Broome, in his admirable "History of the Bengal Army," states
that the two officers who figure in the list of casualties in the
composite battalion both belonged to the 90th Light Infantry. This
is an error. On comparing the names of the officers with the Army
Lists, I am convinced that they belonged to the 96th Regiment, and
that the error has arisen in the transcription by a clerk at the
War or India Office. I have come across many such errors. Perhaps
the most amusing is in the _Gazette_ recording the capture of
Havana in 1762, where the 42nd is referred to in the casualty rolls
as the "42nd Royal Hunters"!



CHAPTER VI

INDIA, 1774-1799

Rohilcund, 1774--Carnatic--Guzerat, 1778-1782--Sholinghur,
1781--Mangalore, 1783--Mysore--Nundy Droog, 1791--Rohilcund,
1794--Seedaseer, 1799--Seringapatam, 1799.


ROHILCUND, 1774.

This honorary distinction was awarded to the 2nd European Regiment
of the Bengal army for its services in the campaign undertaken
in that year to defend our ally, the King of Oude, against the
incursions of the Mahrattas. It is now borne by the Royal Munster
Fusiliers.

The campaign of 1774 was under the personal command of Colonel
Champion, the Commander-in-Chief in Bengal. There was a good
deal of hard work, of privations little to be understood by the
soldier who serves in India in these days, and more than one sharp
skirmish. The principal engagement was that fought at Kutra, in
the near neighbourhood of Bareilly, on St. George's Day (April
23), 1774, long known in India as St. George's Battle. Colonel
Champion had with him the 2nd Bengal European Regiment (now the 2nd
Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers) and six battalions of native
infantry. Unfortunately, no representatives of these remain to bear
the honour on their standards.

Our casualties amounted to 2 officers and 37 men killed, 7
officers and 93 men wounded. Immense booty was captured, and in
the distribution of this, officers and men benefited largely, the
respective shares being: Colonels, £1,900; Lieutenant-Colonels,
£1,600; Majors, £1,300; Captains, £685; subalterns, £343; cadets,
£100; sergeants, £6; privates, £4; Subadars, 131 rupees; Jemidars,
65 rupees; havildars, 40 rupees; sepoys, 35 rupees.


THE CARNATIC.

This honour has been awarded to the following regiments:

  Highland Light Infantry.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  27th Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  61st Pioneers.
  62nd Punjabis.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  64th Pioneers.
  66th Punjabis.
  67th Punjabis.
  69th Punjabis.
  72nd Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  74th Punjabis.
  75th Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  80th Carnatic Infantry.

It records their services in repelling the invasion of the Carnatic
by Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, and covers all the operations
undertaken against him up to the invasion of Mysore by the army
under Lord Cornwallis in 1791.

The renewal of the war with France in 1788 found Sir Hector Munro,
the victor of Buxar, Commander-in-Chief at Madras. It now became
necessary to reoccupy the fortified positions which we had captured
during the previous war with the expenditure of many lives, and
which had been restored to France on the conclusion of peace.
Although subsequent to the battle at Wandewash Hyder Ali, the
ruler of Mysore, had entered into a treaty with us, it was well
known that he had a striking predilection for the French; and on
the resumption of the war between France and England he openly
espoused the cause of our enemies, and prepared to invade the
Carnatic at the head of his troops. The Mysorean army was by no
means contemptible. It was partly trained on the European model,
and numbered little short of 100,000 men, of whom 25,000 were
cavalry, and it included a battalion of French troops. Munro's
first care was to prevent Hyder Ali receiving assistance from
France, and he at once took measures to seize the sea-ports of Mahé
and Pondicherry. In the defence of the former some of Hyder Ali's
troops took an active part, and the place made a gallant defence
before it surrendered. Sir Hector Munro undertook the reduction of
Pondicherry in person, but the garrison, anticipating the arrival
of a French fleet, made a most stubborn defence; and it was not
until the middle of October, after a siege lasting over two months,
that the British flag flew over its walls, our losses during these
operations amounting to upwards of 800 of all ranks, British as
well as native, killed and wounded.[6]

When Hyder Ali, in June, 1779, actually crossed the frontier,
our forces were much dispersed. Braithwaite, with 1,500 men,
held Pondicherry; Colonel Baillie, with 3,000, was at Guntoor,
on the Kistnah River; Colonel Cosby, with 2,000 native troops,
was at Trichinopoly; and Munro, with barely 5,000 men, at Madras.
Braithwaite and Baillie were immediately called in to strengthen
the Commander-in-Chief, whilst Colonel Cosby was ordered to
threaten Hyder Ali's line of communication. Wandewash, an important
strategical point on the Mysorean line of advance, was held by a
gallant young subaltern, Lieutenant Flint, with 200 sepoys, aided
by one single sergeant of the line. From August 11, 1780, until
January 22, 1781, this little band of heroes withstood assault
after assault, holding Hyder Ali's besieging force at bay until
relieved by Eyre Coote. The story of that siege has yet to be
written. Flint improvised his own artillery, made his own powder,
infused his own cheerful daring into the breasts of his sepoys, and
died unhonoured and unsung. There were, unfortunately, grievous
disasters to counterbalance this gallant achievement. Hyder Ali
threw himself on Baillie's force before it effected its junction
with Munro, practically annihilating it, the survivors, including
fifty English officers (amongst them Captain, afterwards Sir David,
Baird, of the 71st), being sent as prisoners to Seringapatam.

Whenever our fortunes in India have been at their lowest ebb we
have, fortunately, had men at hand to retrieve them. The "man on
the spot," unhampered from "home," has rarely failed us. In 1781
Warren Hastings was Governor-General, Eyre Coote Commander-in-Chief
at Calcutta. On hearing of Baillie's disaster and of Munro's
indecision, Warren Hastings despatched Eyre Coote to Madras armed
with full powers (suspending both Munro, the Commander-in-Chief,
and Whitehill, the Governor, from their functions). Coote had at
his disposal barely 8,000 men--the 71st (Highland Light Infantry),
1st Bengal, and 1st Madras European Regiments, some 1,600 men
in all, with six sepoy battalions and three regiments of native
cavalry. Munro, a gallant leader of men, but no General, at once
put himself under Coote's orders, and was entrusted with the
command of a brigade composed of the three British regiments. James
Stuart, who had commanded the 90th Light Infantry at Martinique and
Havana, and who had subsequently entered the Company's service,
being placed in command of the sepoy battalions. On July 1, 1781,
Coote inflicted his first defeat on Hyder Ali at the Battle of
Porto Novo, a fortified position on the sea-coast about 100 miles
south of Madras. On September 27 the two armies again met at
Sholinghur, about fifty miles west of Madras, when Coote, with
11,000 men and thirty guns, signally defeated Hyder Ali's army,
70,000 strong, killing, it is said, 5,000 of the enemy.


GUZERAT, 1778-1782.

This distinction is borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers and the
Royal Dublin Fusiliers. There is, however, considerable doubt as
to the propriety of the Munsters bearing the honour. Colonel P. R.
Innes, the painstaking and accurate historian of that regiment,
maintains that the old 1st Bengal European Regiment has no
right to it, and if the honour was granted, as it undoubtedly
was, for the operations conducted by General Goddard in Guzerat
in the years 1778-1782, it is very certain that the 1st Bengal
Europeans never were with Goddard. The early part of the year 1778
found the army of the Bombay Presidency hard pressed, and help
was solicited from Bengal, where all for the moment was quiet.
Warren Hastings at once despatched a force consisting of six
battalions of sepoys (none of which are now remaining), a couple
of batteries of artillery, and 500 Afghan horsemen, to Bombay.
The march was an arduous undertaking--to cross India from east to
west, with a possible and very probable combination of Mahratta
chieftains to bar its progress. The officer originally nominated
to the command was soon superseded by Brigadier-General Goddard,
an officer who had received his early training in the 84th under
Coote, and who, on that regiment being ordered to England, had
been offered increased rank in the army of the East India Company.
Goddard marched via Cawnpore and Kalpee, which he stepped aside to
capture, to Hoshungabad, finally co-operating with a column sent
up from Bombay, which included the 1st Bombay European Regiment,
now the Royal Munster Fusiliers, as well as some battalions of
native infantry. Later the Madras Presidency was also called
upon to assist, and 500 men of the Madras Europeans, now the 1st
Battalion of the Dublins, with a battery of artillery and a sepoy
battalion, was sent round by sea to Surat, to which place Goddard
had advanced. For close on two years the little army was constantly
engaged. It captured Bassein on December 11, 1780, Ahmadabad in
the following month, and in the space of a little more than a
year after the arrival of the Madras troops Goddard had reduced
the provinces of Guzerat and the Concan. The Bengal troops were
now allowed to return, and once more they marched across India,
reaching Cawnpore in April, 1784.

To commemorate their services the supreme Government struck a
medal, which was distributed to all ranks, officers receiving gold
and the sepoys silver, medals. According to Mayo, this was the
first occasion in which a medal was granted to the private soldiers
of our army.

I regret that I have been unable to ascertain the casualties of
all the forces engaged. Stubbs, in his invaluable history of the
Bengal Artillery, gives the names of the officers of his corps who
were killed, but Begbie ignores the fact that Madras artillery were
employed. Colonel Harcourt does not allude to the losses of the
Madras European Regiment in his history of the old "Blue Caps."
The Royal Dublin Fusiliers, then the 1st Bombay Regiment, lost 3
officers and 19 men killed, and 14 officers and 41 men wounded,
in the course of these operations, and there is no doubt that the
campaign in Guzerat was attended with considerable loss.


SHOLINGHUR, SEPTEMBER 27, 1781.

This battle honour, which commemorates the defeat of the Mysorean
Army of Hyder Ali and its expulsion from the Carnatic by Sir Eyre
Coote, is borne by the following regiments:

  Highland Light Infantry.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  27th Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  64th Pioneers.
  66th Punjabis.
  69th Punjabis.
  72nd Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  74th Punjabis.
  75th Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  80th Carnatic Infantry.

The total casualties in the action were by no means heavy. They
fell principally on the British troops. Unfortunately, although Sir
Eyre Coote alludes to a casualty return in his despatch announcing
the battle, all trace of this has disappeared, so that the losses
sustained by individual regiments must, in the case of Sholinghur,
as in those of Marlborough's earlier battles, always remain
unrecorded.

Early in the following year welcome reinforcements arrived from
England, the 73rd (then the 2nd Battalion of the 42nd) Highlanders,
the 98th and 100th Regiments disembarking on the Malabar coast,
the 72nd coming to Madras to reinforce Coote. These reinforcements
came none too early. Tippoo Sultan (Hyder Ali's son, his most
able Lieutenant and his successor) had surprised and annihilated
a British force under Colonel Braithwaite, all the officers save
one being either killed or carried prisoners to Seringapatam. A
few months later fresh reinforcements arrived in the 23rd Light
Dragoons (now the 19th Hussars), the 101st and 102nd Regiments
(long since disbanded, and not to be confused with the 101st Royal
Bengal and 102nd Royal Madras Fusiliers), with two Hanoverian
battalions. With these forces Stuart inflicted a severe defeat on
Tippoo Sultan at Cuddalore, taking from him thirteen guns. For this
fine action no battle honour was granted, though there are many
names on many colours less hardly earned.


CASUALTIES AT CUDDALORE.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery |   - |   2 |  19 |  67 |
  |71st H.L.I.     |   2 |   6 |  84 | 112 |
  |101st Regiment  |   4 |   6 |  42 |  55 |
  |Hanoverians     |   4 |  12 |  62 | 144 |
  |64th Pioneers   |   - |   - |   6 |  16 |
  |67th Punjabis   |   - |   - |   - |   8 |
  |72nd Seaforths  |   1 |   - |  23 |  47 |
  |Dublin Fus.     |   - |   2 |   8 |  29 |
  |72nd Punjabis   |   - |   3 |   6 |  39 |
  |18th Madras In. |   - |   3 |   4 |  50 |
  |20th M.N.I.     |   1 |   1 |   6 |  14 |
  |Bengal Infantry |   7 |   5 |  12 |  90 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On the opposite or Malabar coast Colonel McLeod, with the 2nd
Battalion of the 42nd, details of the 98th, 100th, and 102nd
Regiments, and the 8th Battalion of Bombay Sepoys, won a decisive
victory at Paniani on November 27, 1782, the 42nd losing 3 officers
and 57 men in the action; but the chief honours were reserved for
the 42nd at Mangalore.


MANGALORE, 1783.

The Royal Highlanders and 101st Grenadiers alone bear this battle
honour, and surely in the many names inscribed on the colours
and appointments of the Black Watch, there is not one which
redounds more to the glory of the regiment than this little-known
achievement, one of the brightest in the military history of our
own or of any other country.

A glance at the map of India will show Mangalore on the west or
Malabar coast of the peninsula. During our operations against
Hyder Ali, and subsequently against his son, the redoubted Tippoo
Sultan, its possession was of vital importance to both ourselves
and to the Mysoreans. Tippoo Sultan was in direct communication
with Napoleon, and through the Malabar ports reinforcements and
supplies reached him from France. When, in 1783, General Matthews,
the Commander-in-Chief in Bombay, led a column to reduce the
fortress of Bednore, in which Tippoo's treasure was stored, he left
garrisons at Mangalore and Onore to keep open his communication
with the sea. At first successful, Matthews was in the end
compelled to capitulate, and he, with the bulk of his army, were
done to death by the Mysoreans. Mangalore was held by a force of
about 1,800 men, under Colonel Campbell, of the 42nd; Onore by an
officer of the Bombay Army named Torriano, with whom at present I
have nothing to do.

Early in May Colonel Campbell learned of the disaster to General
Matthews, and at the same time he received a summons from Tippoo
Sultan demanding the surrender of the fort and town of Mangalore
in virtue of the terms of the capitulation arranged with the
Commander-in-Chief. Now, it is necessary for me here to interpolate
that General Matthews and the officers of the King's regiments
had not been on the best of terms. He, a servant of the East
India Company, refused to recognize their superior rank, and two
of the Colonels of the King's regiments (McLeod, of the 42nd,
and Humberston, of the 100th) had left his camp and formulated
complaints against the Commander-in-Chief to the Governor-General.
Campbell therefore replied to Tippoo Sultan's envoy that he refused
to recognize any arrangements which might have been made by the
Commander-in-Chief, and that he intended to defend the fort to the
last.

On May 9 the siege commenced on the land side, and for the next six
months Campbell was hemmed closely in by some 60,000 men. It is
true that communication by sea was still precariously maintained.
On May 23 the Indiaman _Fairford_ appeared off the port, and threw
ashore a small party of English recruits destined for the Bombay
European Regiment, which had been practically annihilated with
Matthews.[7] That day, May 23, Colonel Campbell made a vigorous
sortie, and destroyed a portion of the enemy's siege-works and
batteries; but in the retirement three companies of native troops
were cut off, and three British officers with 225 sepoys fell
into Tippoo Sultan's hands. On the morrow Campbell prepared for
a determined resistance. The women of the 42nd were told off to
the hospitals, and a stern code of orders published. The men were
forbidden to fire without explicit orders, and officers were
enjoined to remember that the bayonet, and the bayonet alone, was
the weapon of the British soldier. "Englishmen must recollect,"
runs the order, "that the bayonet is the service required of them,
and that they demean themselves by firing at such a dastardly foe."

A return, dated May 24, showed the garrison to consist of 70
British and 67 native officers, with 315 British and 1,394 native
soldiers. Attached to and included in the total of the 42nd were
a few of the then 98th and 101st Regiments (not to be confused
with the present Royal Munster Fusiliers), both of which were
with General Matthews at Bednore. The native troops included the
headquarters of the 8th Battalion (now the 101st Grenadiers), some
companies of the 15th Bombay Battalion, and details of other
regiments which were with the Commander-in-Chief at Bednore.
Amongst the officers was Lieutenant MacKay, of the Royal Navy, who
volunteered to act as a gunner during the siege. He did right good
and gallant service, and was twice wounded in the course of the
operations. Another name appears prominently in the despatches--a
name which has since become a household word in the British Army.
Campbell's Brigade-Major was a certain Captain Wolseley, of the
98th Regiment, and much of the credit of the defence was due to the
gallantry and unwearied exertions of this officer.

Between the Highlanders and the 8th Battalion of Bombay Grenadiers
a strong _camaraderie_ existed; they had fought side by side at
Panianee, when Colonel Macleod had drawn attention to the dash and
steady gallantry of the regiment. Campbell, in his despatches from
Mangalore, bore frequent testimony to the unselfish devotion of the
native officers, and the uncomplaining heroism of the men.

Into the details of the siege it is not my intention to enter.
Suffice to say that from May 23 until July 27, when news arrived of
peace between France and England, there was only one day in which
the garrison did not suffer some casualties, and that from June 12
the men were on half-rations of flour; of meat they had from the
first been deprived. Desertions amongst the sepoys were frequent,
and this was not to be wondered at. Life within the walls was not
a bed of roses, whereas Tippoo Sultan offered golden inducements
to those who would enter his service. On August 2 an armistice was
arranged, a French officer attached to Tippoo Sultan's army acting
as intermediary, Campbell declining to surrender the fortress until
he had received specific instructions on this head from Bombay.
The Mysorean Prince promised to furnish supplies on condition that
no attempts were made to strengthen the works or to communicate
with the outside world, except with the consent of the Tippoo
Sultan himself. On several occasions vessels came close enough
for Campbell to send an officer on board (indeed, Colonel McLeod,
the acting Commander-in-Chief, landed at Mangalore, and had an
interview with Tippoo Sultan). Campbell's pitiable condition was
well known to the authorities in Bombay;[8] but no well-sustained
effort appears to have been made to relieve him, and at last, on
January 30, his men reduced to skeletons with fatigue and sickness,
and his garrison reduced in numbers to one-half of their original
strength, he was compelled to capitulate; but he marched out with
all the honours of war, and even Tippoo Sultan kept honourably to
the terms of the capitulation, and gave the garrison a safe conduct
to Bombay. Colonel Campbell arrived there on March 13, and ten days
later he was laid to rest in the cathedral in that city. The Bombay
Government, at last recognizing his work, erected a monument to
commemorate his heroic defence of the little fort committed to his
charge.

The actual siege of Mangalore lasted from May 23 to July 27, 1783,
when hostilities ceased; but from that date until January 30,
1784, the garrison suffered from the want of food and the exposure
necessitated by being ever on the alert in case of treachery.

The losses of the garrison between those dates amounted to--

  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |_Officers._|  _Men._   |
  |    _British Troops._  |-----------|-----------|
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Total of British troops|  12 |  15 |  45 | 127 |
  |42nd R. Highlanders    |   5 |   4 |  34 |  96 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |_Officers._|  _Men._   |
  |   _Native Troops._    |-----------|-----------+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Total of Native troops |   5 |  16 | 121 | 438 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On p. 74 I have given the strength of the garrison on May 24, the
actual date of the commencement of the siege. The "marching-out"
state on January 27, 1784, shows the true extent of the sufferings
of the garrison of Mangalore:

  +-----------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  |                             |   MAY 24, 1783.   |  JAN. 27, 1784.   |
  |       _Regiments._          +-----------+-------+-----------+-------+
  |                             |_Officers._| _Men._|_Officers._| _Men._|
  +-----------------------------+-----------+-------+-----------+-------+
  |British:                     |           |       |           |       |
  |  42nd and details           |     28    |   245 |     16    |   119 |
  |  Bombay Artillery           |      4    |    15 |      3    |     9 |
  |  Bombay Fusiliers           |      6    |    55 |      4    |    19 |
  |  Officers of Sepoy Corps    |     32    |     - |     23    |     - |
  |                             |           |       |           |       |
  |Natives:                     |           |       |           |       |
  |  Bombay Artillery           |      4    |   133 |      3    |    83 |
  |  8th Grenadiers and details |     63    | 1,261 |     53    |   490 |
  +-----------------------------+-----------+-------+-----------+-------+


MYSORE.

This honour is now borne by the following regiments:

  19th Hussars.
  Worcester.
  West Riding.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Middlesex.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  26th Light Cavalry.
  27th Light Cavalry.
  28th Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  61st P.W.O. Pioneers.
  62nd Punjabis.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  64th Pioneers.
  66th Punjabis.
  67th Punjabis.
  68th Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  74th Punjabis.
  75th Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  80th Carnatic Infantry.
  81st Pioneers.
  82nd Punjabis.
  101st Grenadiers.
  103rd Light Infantry.
  104th Rifles.
  105th Light Infantry.
  107th Pioneers.
  108th Infantry.
  109th Infantry.

The aggressive action of Tippoo Sultan, who had been recognized
as ruler of Mysore on the death of Hyder Ali, and the cruelties
perpetrated on the English prisoners in Seringapatam, rendered
fresh hostilities with Mysore inevitable. The Home Government
therefore agreed to raise four more regiments, to be paid by, and
held at the disposal of the East India Company. These were numbered
74th and 75th Highlanders, and 76th and 77th of the line. All four
arrived in India in the course of the year 1788. It was known that
Tippoo Sultan had sent emissaries to France in the hope of securing
French aid in his efforts to drive us out of India, and in 1789 he
threw down the glove by invading the territory of our ally, the
Maharajah of Travancore. The Commander-in-Chief at Madras, General
Meadows, was a most gallant officer, who had distinguished himself
in the West Indies, but who was new to the East, and, brave man
that he was, was quite prepared to recognize that as yet he had
not sufficient experience of Eastern life to warrant his assuming
command of a large army operating under entirely novel conditions.
Lord Cornwallis, the Governor-General in India, therefore
determined to come down from Calcutta and take command of the army
destined for the subjugation of Tippoo Sultan. The task was no easy
one. Circumstances arose which delayed the Governor-General, and
the year 1790 was wasted in an abortive campaign under Meadows.

The year 1791 opened more auspiciously. The Commander-in-Chief at
Bombay, General Robert Abercromby, who was to co-operate with the
Governor-General, had by a well-executed movement seized Cannanore,
and made himself master of the province of Malabar.

Tippoo was now threatened from both sea-coasts, and seems to have
been utterly unprepared for the daring stroke so brilliantly
carried out by Cornwallis, who, leaving Madras early in February,
and passing through the famous Colar Goldfields, arrived before
Bangalore on March 5, and two days later had carried the
fortifications of that city by assault, and so secured a base of
operations for his projected advance on Seringapatam.

In May, after an unsuccessful attempt to carry that fortress by
storm, Cornwallis was compelled to fall back on Bangalore, where he
passed the hot weather.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF BANGALORE, MARCH, 1791.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Hussars            |   - |   1 |   3 |   7 |
  |36th Worcester          |   1 |   4 |   9 |  54 |
  |52nd Oxfd. L.I.         |   1 |   2 |   4 |  12 |
  |71st Highl. L.I.        |   - |   1 |   6 |  14 |
  |72nd Seaforths          |   - |   - |   5 |  18 |
  |74th Highl. L.I.        |   - |   2 |   1 |   7 |
  |76th W. Riding Regiment |   - |   1 |   8 |  45 |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers        |   - |   3 |  24 |  25 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The Indian regiments present at the capture of Bangalore
  were the 61st Pioneers, 62nd Punjabis, 63rd Palamcottah L.I.,
  64th Pioneers, and 80th Carnatic Infantry; their total losses
  were 62 killed and 123 wounded.


NUNDY DROOG, OCTOBER 19, 1791.

This honour is borne by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers alone, and
records the capture of what was considered by the Mysoreans an
impregnable stronghold by the force under Cornwallis prior to the
capture of Seringapatam in 1792. Nundy Droog lies some thirty miles
north of Bangalore, and threatened the communications between
Cornwallis's army and that of our ally, the Nizam of Hyderabad. It
became necessary then to possess it. It bore a great reputation,
and for three years had defied the whole strength of Hyder Ali's
army, and then only fell into his hands through starvation. Early
in September, 1791, Cornwallis detached Major Gowdie, with the
1st Madras European Regiment (now the Dublin Fusiliers) and six
battalions of sepoys, to effect its reduction. The fort is on
the summit of a granite mountain, its walls being three miles in
circumference, the hill itself being inaccessible except on one
side. With much difficulty heavy guns were dragged up the cliffs,
and the siege begun in due form. Cornwallis, chafing at the delay,
moved out from Bangalore with his whole army, thinking to overawe
the defenders; but on the night of October 18 he determined to
carry the place by assault. This was performed in the most dashing
manner, and with but slight loss, by the flank companies of the
36th (Worcester) and 71st (Highland Light Infantry), with the 1st
Madras European (Dublins) in support.

Abercromby was now approaching from the Malabar coast, and Lord
Cornwallis was preparing for the final advance on Tippoo Sultan's
famed stronghold.

In January, 1792, Cornwallis, apprised that Abercromby, with
the Bombay division, was within striking distance, commenced
his advance on Seringapatam. His force consisted of the 19th
Light Dragoons, two regiments of Madras cavalry, and the
Governor-General's Bodyguard, which he had brought down from
Calcutta, the 36th (Worcester), 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry),
72nd (Seaforths), 74th (Highland Light Infantry), 76th (West
Riding), 1st Madras Europeans (Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and sixteen
battalions of sepoys, with forty-six field and forty siege guns.

Abercromby's force comprised the 73rd (Royal Highlanders), 75th
(Gordons), 77th (Middlesex), 1st Bombay Europeans (2nd Battalion
of the Dublins), and eight battalions of sepoys, with twenty field
and sixteen siege guns, giving a total of about 9,000 British and
22,000 native troops.

On February 7 Seringapatam was carried by assault, our casualties
numbering about 535 of all ranks, and our trophies amounting
to eighty guns. On March 19 Tippoo Sultan signed a definitive
treaty of peace, ceding to England Malabar and Coorg on the west,
Baramahal and Dindigul on the Carnatic frontier, besides restoring
to the Nizam the territories wrested from Hyderabad by Hyder Ali.

The distribution of prize-money afforded Lord Cornwallis and
General Meadows, the second in command, an opportunity of giving
an example of noble generosity, these two commanders placing
their shares, amounting to £47,000 and £15,000, into the common
fund. The following were the shares for each rank: Colonels,
£1,160; Lieutenant-Colonels, £958; Majors, £734; Captains, £308;
Lieutenants, £205; Ensigns, £159; sergeants, £29; and privates, £14
10s. In the native army Subadars received 275 rupees; Jemidars, 132
rupees; havildars, 110 rupees; and sepoys, 51 rupees.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF SERINGAPATAM, 1792.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Hussars              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery           |   1 |   9 |   9 |  20 |
  |36th Worcesters           |   2 |   3 |   6 |  33 |
  |52nd Oxfd. L.I.           |   1 |   5 |   9 |  25 |
  |71st Highl. L.I.          |   2 |   1 |  25 |  54 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   1 |   4 |  15 |  43 |
  |73rd R. Highlanders       |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |74th Highl. L.I.          |   - |   2 |   2 |  18 |
  |75th Gordon Highlanders   |   - |   - |   3 |  12 |
  |76th W. Riding Regiment   |   1 |   4 |   1 |   8 |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers    |   - |   1 |   2 |  32 |
  |61st P.W.O. Pioneers      |   0 |   1 |   5 |  18 |
  |62nd Punjabis             |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |66th Punjabis             |   - |   1 |   9 |  14 |
  |76th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   3 |  12 |
  |79th Carnatic I.          |   - |   2 |   5 |   9 |
  |80th Carnatic I.          |   1 |   2 |   6 |  25 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ROHILCUND, 1794.

This distinction is borne only by the Royal Munster Fusiliers.

The campaign was necessitated owing to a serious rising in
the independent State of Rampur, and Lord Cornwallis, the
Governor-General, deemed the occasion so grave that he took the
field in person. The troops employed were the 2nd Regiment of
Bengal Europeans (now the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers),
with ten regiments of sepoys, none of which are now borne on the
Army List. The force was divided into three brigades of infantry,
commanded respectively by Colonel Ware, who afterwards lost his
life at the Battle of Laswarree, Colonel MacGowan, and Colonel
Burrington. One brigade of two regiments of native light cavalry
and four batteries of artillery made up the army. The only action
of importance was that of Betourah, which took place some nine
miles north of Bareilly. The enemy fought with great gallantry,
and charged home on our native cavalry, who do not appear to have
been well led--indeed, they fell back in disorder, breaking through
the ranks of the 13th Bengal Infantry. This regiment suffered very
heavily, all its officers being either killed or wounded, and
the Brigadier of the Third Brigade, Colonel Burrington, was cut
down in endeavouring to rally the cavalry. The officer commanding
that arm disappeared in the course of the action, and so escaped
court-martial. It was reported that he entered the service of the
French, and was given a commission by Napoleon.

Our casualties were heavy, fourteen officers falling on the field.
A monument was erected by Lord Cornwallis to mark the site of their
interment, and may yet be seen by the roadside near the village
of Betourah. The action, though costly, was decisive as to its
results. The recalcitrant leaders of the insurrection made their
submission to the Governor-General, and the army was immediately
demobilized.


CASUALTIES AT BETOURAH.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff           |   3 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Artillery       |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Munster Fuslrs. |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Bengal I.  |   5 |   4 |   - |   - |
  |18th Bengal I.  |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Here again it would appear that no record of the losses of the men
has been kept.


SEEDASEER, MARCH 6, 1799.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

  103rd Mahratta L.I.
  105th Mahratta L.I.
  107th Pioneers.

It commemorates a brilliant engagement with the army of Tippoo
Sultan, in which these three regiments of Bombay sepoys held at bay
for eight long hours some 18,000 of the flower of the Mysorean army.

As in 1792, so now in 1799, the armies of all three presidencies
were employed in a last endeavour to crush the power of the
Mysorean usurper. The Bombay column, under the command of
Major-General James Stuart, moving from the coast at Cannanore,
consisted of three brigades. The Centre Brigade, under Colonel
Dunlop, comprised the 75th (Gordon Highlanders), 77th (Middlesex),
and the 1st Bombay Europeans (now the 2nd Dublin Fusiliers); the
Right Brigade, under Colonel Montresor, was made up of the 1st
Battalions of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Bombay Infantry (now the 103rd,
105th, and 107th Regiments of the Indian army); the Third or Left
Brigade, under Colonel Wiseman, comprised the 2nd Battalion of
the 2nd, 2nd Battalion of the 3rd, and 1st Battalion of the 5th
Regiment of Bombay Infantry. For convenience of supplies, and also
owing to the bad state of the roads, the army was marching in three
columns, the Right Brigade, under Colonel Montresor, leading.

On March 5 the Right Brigade had reached Seedaseer, on the
frontiers of Coorg, the British Brigade being about eight miles in
its rear, and the Left Brigade some four miles farther off. Tippoo
Sultan was well informed of all our movements, and he endeavoured
to put into effect one of the great Napoleon's maxims--namely, to
beat your enemy in detail. With the bulk of his army, amounting
to some 20,000 men, he cut in between Montresor's brigade and
the British General, never doubting of an easy victory over the
three sepoy battalions. Montresor, however, had been warned of
his approach, and at once commenced to strengthen his position.
Stuart, too, had learnt of the near approach of the Mysoreans, and
he sent forward the 1st Battalion of the 5th Bombay N.I. to support
Montresor, and later in the day hurried up with the flank companies
of the 75th (Gordon Highlanders) and the whole of the 77th
(Middlesex). In the meantime Montresor had fought out the battle
unaided. The 1st Battalion of the 5th N.I. had never been able to
reach him, and the British troops only arrived in time to relieve
the pressure and to follow up the defeated enemy. The result of the
fight augured well for the future, and showed the Bombay sepoy that
he was more than a match even for Tippoo Sultan's men.

The casualty returns prove that the name of Seedaseer was worthily
earned by the three regiments which have been allowed to place that
battle honour on their colours; but it may reasonably be asked why
the same honour has not been conferred on the 109th Infantry, which
in those days was the 1st Battalion of the 5th Bombay Regiment, and
which contributed in some measure to the success of the day. The
Gordon Highlanders and the Middlesex content themselves with the
battle honours "Mysore" and "Seringapatam."

CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF SEEDASEER.

  +------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery               |   - |   1 |   6 |  18 |
  |75th Gordon Highlanders       |   - |   - |   3 |   9 |
  |77th Middlesex                |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |103rd Mahratta L.I. (British) |   1 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                 |   - |   2 |  11 |  25 |
  |105th Mahratta L.I. (British) |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |105th Mahratta L.I. (Natives) |   - |   - |   4 |  33 |
  |107th Pioneers (British)      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                 |   - |   - |   3 |  48 |
  |109th Infantry (British)      |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)                 |   - |   - |   1 |  26 |
  +------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SERINGAPATAM, MAY 4, 1799.

The regiments authorized to bear this battle honour are the

  Suffolks.
  West Riding.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Middlesex.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  26th Light Cavalry.
  27th Light Cavalry.
  28th Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  61st Pioneers.
  66th Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  80th Carnatic Infantry.
  81st Pioneers.
  82nd Punjabis.
  83rd Light Infantry.
  84th Punjabis.
  103rd Light Infantry.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  105th Light Infantry.
  107th Pioneers.
  109th Infantry.

The troops destined for the final capture of Seringapatam were
placed under the command of General Harris, the Commander-in-Chief
at Madras. All three Presidencies were represented.

The cavalry division was under Major-General Floyd (an officer well
versed in Indian warfare), who had commanded the 19th Hussars in
the previous capture of the fortress in 1792. It consisted of the
19th and 25th Light Dragoons and four regiments of Madras cavalry,
organized in two brigades, each consisting of one British and two
native regiments.

The Madras Column was distributed in three brigades, one composed
entirely of British regiments--the 12th (Suffolks), 74th (Highland
Light Infantry), and the Scots Brigade (now 2nd Connaught Rangers).
Major-General David Baird was in command of this brigade. The six
regiments of Madras sepoys were formed in two brigades, under
Colonels Gowdie and Roberts, of the Company's service, the Madras
Division being under Major-General Bridges, an officer of the
Company's service.

The Bengal Column was commanded by Major-General Popham, a
Company's officer, and consisted of three brigades. The First,
under Colonel Sherbrooke, comprised the 73rd (Royal Highlanders)
and a regiment of Swiss mercenaries (de Meurons); the Second
Brigade was made up of three battalions of Bengal sepoys, under
Colonel Gardiner; and the Third Brigade was composed of three
battalions of Madras sepoys, under Colonel Scott, of the Scots
Brigade.

The Bombay Column was commanded by General J. Stuart, and consisted
of the 75th (Gordon Highlanders), the 77th (Middlesex), and the 1st
Bombay Europeans (now the Royal Dublin Fusiliers), under Colonel
Dunlop, with six battalions of Bombay sepoys in two brigades, under
Colonels Montresor and Wiseman. A fourth column was under the
command of Colonel Arthur Wellesley, and comprised two regiments of
Bengal and four of Madras infantry, with his own regiment, the 33rd
Foot (West Riding Regiment), to stiffen the whole. Wellesley also
was given the supervision of the Nizam's troops, numbering some
6,000 irregular cavalry and 3,000 infantry, trained and organized
by French officers. In round numbers, the force at General Harris's
disposal numbered 7,000 British and 27,000 native troops, with a
well-equipped siege-train of forty-seven pieces of heavy ordnance.

Early in February the Commander-in-Chief received his final
orders to advance from Madras, and on April 14 he joined hands
with Stuart's column in the immediate vicinity of Seringapatam.
Three days afterwards the siege commenced, and on May 3 the breach
was declared practicable. Baird claimed the privilege of leading
the stormers (a privilege his by right). He had been a prisoner
in the fortress for over four years as a young Captain, and he
had been present in command of a brigade of Madras sepoys at
Cornwallis's capture of the fortress seven years before. Taking
into consideration the strength of the work and the immense
numerical superiority of the enemy, the fortress was carried
with marvellously slight loss, the killed numbering 69 English
and but 12 sepoys, the wounded 248 and 32 respectively, that of
the Mysoreans being estimated at 1,000 killed alone. The total
casualties during the siege, however, testified to the stubborn
stand made prior to the assault, as the following figures show:


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF SERINGAPATAM IN MAY, 1799.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _British Troops._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  |---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Light Dragoons        |   2 |   6 |  17 |  49 |
  |22nd Light Dragoons        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery            |   2 |   2 |  35 |  85 |
  |12th Foot (Suffolks)       |   - |   - |  17 |  49 |
  |33rd W. Riding Regiment    |   - |   - |   6 |  28 |
  |73rd Royal Highlanders     |   1 |   4 |  21 |  99 |
  |74th Highland L.I.         |   4 |   - |  45 | 111 |
  |75th Gordon Highlanders    |   1 |   3 |  16 |  64 |
  |77th Middlesex             |   1 |   2 |  10 |  51 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers     |   - |   - |  14 |  86 |
  |1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers |   - |   1 |   5 |  17 |
  |2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers |   - |   1 |   9 |  25 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  +    _Native Troops._       +-----+-----+-----+-----|
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----|
  |25th Light Cavalry         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |27th Light Cavalry         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |28th Light Cavalry         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |61st Pioneers              |   1 |   - |   3 |  14 |
  |66th Punjabis              |   - |   - |   5 |  13 |
  |73rd Carnatic I.           |   1 |   2 |  12 |  47 |
  |76th Punjabis              |   - |   - |  11 |  33 |
  |79th Carnatic I.           |   - |   - |   4 |  16 |
  |80th Carnatic I.           |   - |   - |   4 |  10 |
  |81st Pioneers              |   - |   - |   3 |  11 |
  |82nd Punjabis              |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |84th Punjabis              |   - |   - |   4 |   7 |
  |83rd L.I.                  |   1 |   3 |   8 |  46 |
  |103rd L.I.                 |   1 |   1 |   4 |  10 |
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles   |   - |   2 |   2 |  10 |
  |105th L.I.                 |   - |   1 |   6 |  21 |
  |107th Pioneers             |   - |   - |   3 |  14 |
  |109th Infantry             |   - |   1 |   2 |  25 |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners|   - |   - |   2 |  26 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The prize-money at the second capture of Seringapatam was
  unusually satisfactory, the share of the Commander-in-Chief being
  upwards of £100,000. General officers received in round figures
  £10,000, other ranks having as their share:

  Colonels             £4,320
  Lieutenant-Colonels  £2,590
  Majors               £1,720
  Captains               £864
  Lieutenants            £432
  Warrant Officers       £108
  Sergeants               £14
  Privates                 £7



CHAPTER VII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN FLANDERS, 1793-1799

Lincelles--Nieuport--Villers-en-Couches--Beaumont--Willems--Tournay
--Egmont-op-Zee.


These seven names record engagements between the allied forces
of Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, with the French at the
outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1793 and 1794. Our army, which
was composed of British, Hanoverians, and Hessians, was under
the command of the Duke of York. His Royal Highness, who was but
eight-and-twenty, had studied his profession in Berlin, and was
a thorough partisan of the red-tape and pipe-clay system of the
Prussian army. He possessed undeniable courage, with but little
experience; and as all his movements were controlled, on the one
hand, by the Cabinet at home, and on the other by the Austrian
Commander-in-Chief, it is a matter for small wonder that the
results of the campaign were something less than negative. At the
opening of the operations the British troops at the disposal of the
Duke consisted of three cavalry brigades, composed of the Blues;
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 6th Dragoon Guards; the Royal Scots
Greys and Inniskilling Dragoons, with the 7th, 11th, 15th, and
16th Light Dragoons. His infantry was made up of three battalions
of the Guards, the 14th (West Yorks), 37th (Hampshire), and 53rd
(Shropshire) Regiments--the three latter brigaded under Sir Ralph
Abercromby, an officer of very considerable experience.

In 1794 it became necessary to strengthen the army very largely,
and by the month of July of that year the Duke of York had under
his command some 26,000 British troops, distributed as under:

  First Cavalry Brigade: 2nd and 6th Dragoon Guards, the Scots
  Greys, and the Inniskilling Dragoons.

  Second Cavalry Brigade: The Blues, 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards,
  and the Royal Dragoons.

  Third Cavalry Brigade: 7th, 11th, 15th, and 16th Light Dragoons.

  Fourth Cavalry Brigade: 1st Dragoon Guards, the 8th and 14th
  Light Dragoons.

  Brigade of Guards: 1st Battalion of the Grenadiers, the
  Coldstream and the Scots Guards.

  First Infantry Brigade: The Buffs, 63rd (Manchesters), and 88th
  (Connaught Rangers).

  Second Infantry Brigade: 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), 33rd
  (West Riding Regiment), and 44th (Essex).

  Third Infantry Brigade: 12th (Suffolks), 36th (Worcesters), and
  55th (Border Regiment).

  Fourth Infantry Brigade: 14th (West Yorkshire), 37th (Hampshire),
  and 53rd (Shropshire).

  Fifth Infantry Brigade: 19th (Yorkshire), 42nd (Black Watch), and
  54th (Dorsetshire).

  Sixth Infantry Brigade: 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers--two
  battalions).

  Seventh Infantry Brigade: 40th (South Lancashire), 57th
  (Middlesex), 67th (Hampshire), and 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers).

There is ample evidence to show that all these regiments were
actually under fire during the campaign in Flanders, yet of the
twenty-two infantry regiments employed, only ten bear on their
colours any record of the share they took in the operations
undertaken against revolutionary France. All regiments that served
under Wellington in Spain and Portugal bear the word "Peninsula" on
their colours and appointments; all which served under Cornwallis
in India, the honour "Mysore"; all which landed in the Crimea bear
the honour "Sevastopol"; whilst the distinction "South Africa" was
conferred on every battalion of Volunteers which sent a company to
guard Boer prisoners. Surely, then, the regiments which fought and
bled under the Duke of York have a claim to some recognition of
their services.


LINCELLES, AUGUST 18, 1793.

This battle honour is peculiar to the three senior regiments of the
Brigade of Guards--

  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.

--and commemorates one of the many actions fought in Flanders at
the outset of the Revolutionary War with France. The Brigade, under
Lord Lake, had just arrived at Menin, _en route_ to the Siege
of Dunkirk. When the sound of firing was heard, and information
reached the Duke of York that the Prince of Orange had met with a
sharp rebuff at the hands of the French, he immediately ordered
the Brigade of Guards to march to the assistance of the Prince.
Although the men had but just arrived from a long, hot, and tiring
march, Lake at once marched to the sound of the guns, covering the
six miles in a little over the hour; but on reaching Lincelles,
which was supposed to be in possession of the Duke of Orange, he
was met with a "whiff of grape-shot." The Guards, with their usual
dash, at once stormed the French redoubts, which they carried at
the point of the bayonet, capturing twelve guns, one stand of
colours, and close on 100 prisoners. The action was one of those
isolated affairs which had no bearing on the campaign, but merely
serve to show the superior stamina and discipline of the Brigade
of Guards. Taking into consideration the strength of the force
engaged, the casualties were undoubtedly heavy.


PRESENT AT LINCELLES.

  Grenadier Guards       378 of all ranks.
  Coldstream Guards      346     "
  Scots Guards           398     "


CASUALTIES AT LINCELLES, AUGUST 18, 1793.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Grenadier Gds.    |   - |   5 |  21 |  44 |
  |Coldstream Gds.   |   1 |   2 |   8 |  47 |
  |Scots Guards      |   - |   2 |   8 |  45 |
  |Royal Artillery   |   1 |   - |   1 |   3 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


NIEUPORT, OCTOBER, 1793.

This battle honour is borne by the Shropshire Light Infantry, and
commemorates the gallant defence of this town by the old 53rd
Foot, when besieged for ten days by a force of 12,000 French
troops, under Vandamme, who later became one of Napoleon's most
famous Marshals. With the 53rd were associated some artillery, a
half-company of the Black Watch, and two Hessian battalions--all
told, some 1,300 men; but the honours of the defence rested with
a regiment which throughout its career has ever borne the highest
reputation for steady gallantry.


CASUALTIES.

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |42nd Black Watch     |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I. |   1 |   1 |  12 |  32 |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


VILLERS-EN-COUCHES, APRIL 24, 1794.

This is one of the four honours which the 15th Hussars has alone
the privilege of wearing. It records the gallantry of the regiment
practically under the eyes of the Austrian Emperor, when two
squadrons of the 15th charged side by side with the Austrian
Leopold Hussars, overthrowing a vastly superior body of the French,
taking three guns, and sabring, it is claimed, some 1,200 of the
enemy. The eight officers of the regiment were awarded the coveted
distinction of the Maria Theresa Order.


CASUALTIES AT VILLERS-EN-COUCHES.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  | 3rd Drag. Gds.   |   - |   - |  38 |   2 |
  | 1st R. Dragoons  |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  | 11th Hussars     |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  | 15th Hussars     |   - |   1 |  17 |  12 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


BEAUMONT, APRIL 26, 1794.

This honour, which was not conferred until the year 1909, is borne
by the

  Royal Horse Guards.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  1st King's Dragoon Guards.
  7th Hussars.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  11th Hussars.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  16th Lancers.

There had been rumours after the fight at Villers-en-Couches that
General Mansel's brigade of cavalry, consisting of the Blues,
Royals, and 3rd Dragoon Guards, had not supported the 15th with
sufficient promptitude in the affair on April 22.[9] It was Minden
and Warburg over again. So when, on April 25, at Beaumont, General
Otto, the Austrian officer in command of the allied cavalry, led
his division against 20,000 unbroken French infantry, British
Dragoons and Austrian Hussars cheerfully essayed what seemed a mad
undertaking. The total loss of the allied cavalry amounted to 15
officers and 284 men killed and wounded, amongst the former being
General Mansel, who commanded the British heavies, two of his sons
figuring amongst the wounded. Forty-one guns and 750 prisoners were
taken, whilst the French casualties, it is said, numbered over
7,000, 1,200 being killed by the sabre alone.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF BEAUMONT, APRIL 26, 1794.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |R. Horse Gds.             |   1 |   - |  15 |  20 |
  |1st King's Dragoon Guards |   - |   - |   6 |  13 |
  |3rd Drag. Gds.            |   2 |   2 |  15 |   8 |
  |5th Drag. Gds.            |   - |   1 |   9 |   9 |
  |1st Royal Dragoons        |   - |   1 |   6 |  13 |
  |7th Hussars               |   - |   - |   1 |  19 |
  |11th Hussars              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |16th Lancers              |   - |   - |   1 |  14 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


WILLEMS, MAY 10, 1794.

In the month of January, 1910, an Army Order was published
authorizing the following regiments to assume this battle honour:

  Royal Horse Guards.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  2nd Queen's Bays.
  Scots Greys.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  6th Inniskilling Dragoons.
  6th Carabiniers.
  11th Hussars.
  15th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.

As at Beaumont a fortnight earlier, so here at Willems, our cavalry
showed themselves able to break the French infantry formation, even
when not pounded by artillery. Thirteen guns and 450 prisoners were
the trophies of the day, and fully 2,000 of the enemy fell under
the sabres of the British horse.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF WILLEMS, MAY 10, 1794.

  +--------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                    |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                    |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Horse Guards  |   - |   1 |   2 |   8 |
  |2nd Drag. Gds.      |   - |   - |   2 |   2 |
  |3rd Drag. Gds.      |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |6th Carabiniers     |   - |   1 |   7 |  19 |
  |1st Roy. Drag.      |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |2nd Scots Greys     |   - |   1 |   6 |  11 |
  |6th Inniskill.      |   - |   - |   3 |   7 |
  |7th Hussars         |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |11th Hussars        |   - |   - |   7 |   3 |
  |15th Hussars        |   - |   - |   - |  14 |
  |16th Lancers        |   - |   2 |  13 |   7 |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


TOURNAY, MAY 22, 1794.

An honour borne by the

  West Yorkshire.
  Hampshire.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.

Just four days previously to the fight, the allied army, under
Field-Marshal Otto, had received a handsome beating at the hands
of the French. It is true we were hopelessly outnumbered, being
able to oppose but 18,000 to 64,000. Though beaten, we were not
disgraced. Fox's brigade, consisting of the three regiments above,
losing 520 of all ranks, whilst in the retirement the 7th and 15th
Hussars showed persistent gallantry. Nevertheless, it was a defeat,
for nineteen guns were left in the hands of the victors. We were
soon to learn that the failure on the part of the Archduke Charles
to support Otto and the Duke of York was a deliberate design
to discredit the British, and was due to jealousy of the Royal
Duke, who, if not a brilliant strategist, was at any rate a brave
commander, and ever solicitous for the comfort of his men.

On May 19 the Allies were concentrated in the immediate
neighbourhood of Tournay. The French were attempting to press home
their success of the preceding day. In the early morning of the
22nd Pichegru, who had hastened to assume command, attacked in four
columns. After some hours his superior numbers told, and the Allies
were gradually forced back. Then, late in the day, four brigades
were moved up to recapture the position of Pont-à-chin, which
practically commanded the Valley of the Scheldt. Fox's brigade,
having lost very heavily on the 18th, had been held in reserve, and
now numbered barely 600 men. At last, even they were pushed forward
into the fight, and, though entirely unsupported, these three
fine regiments, nobly responding to the Brigadier's call, dashed
forward, sweeping the French out of their hard-won vantage-ground
and capturing seven guns. This timely action turned the fortunes of
the day, and by nightfall the French had been beaten back, with a
loss of 6,000 men. So ended Tournay.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF TOURNAY, MAY 22, 1794.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |14th W. Yorks.    |   - |   1 |   5 |  29 |
  |53rd Shrops. L.I. |   - |   3 |   6 |  29 |
  |37th Hampsh.      |   - |   3 |   1 |  30 |
  |Royal Artillery   |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


EGMONT-OP-ZEE, OCTOBER 2, 1799.

In 1799 a fresh attempt was made to wrest Holland from the French,
and Sir Ralph Abercromby was despatched to the Low Countries at
the head of a division to co-operate with the Russians. His force
consisted of a Brigade of Guards (one battalion from each of the
three regiments, with a composite battalion of the grenadier
companies of the whole Brigade) and two brigades of infantry,
under Generals Coote and John Moore. On April 17 a landing was
effected at Grote Keten, in face of the determined opposition of
a brigade of French troops, our total loss being 27 officers and
440 men killed and wounded. Before the end of the month Abercromby
had been reinforced by seven more battalions, and by September 20
the British forces had been brought up to a total of 30,000, with
H.R.H. the Duke of York once more in chief command, the whole being
distributed as follows:

  Cavalry Brigade: 7th, 11th, and one squadron of the 18th Light
  Dragoons.

  First Brigade--Major-General D'Oyley: 1st Battalion Grenadier
  Guards, and a composite battalion of the grenadier companies of
  the whole Brigade.

  Second Brigade of Guards--Major-General Burrard: 1st Battalion
  Coldstreams, 1st Battalion Scots Guards.

  Third Brigade--Major-General Coote: 2nd (Queen's), 27th
  (Inniskillings), 29th (Worcesters), and 85th (Shropshire Light
  Infantry).

  Fourth Brigade--Major-General Sir John Moore: 1st (Royal Scots),
  25th (King's Own Scottish Borderers), 49th (Berkshires), 79th
  (Cameron Highlanders), and the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

  Fifth Brigade--Major-General Don: 17th (Leicesters--two
  battalions), 40th (South Lancashires--two battalions).

  Sixth Brigade--Lord Cavan: 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers--two
  battalions), and the 63rd (Manchesters).

  Seventh Brigade--Lord Chatham: Three battalions of the 4th
  (King's Own) and the 31st (East Surrey).

  Eighth Brigade--H.R.H. Prince William: Two battalions of the
  Northumberland Fusiliers and the 35th (Royal Sussex).

  Ninth Brigade--Major-General Manners: Two battalions of the 9th
  (Norfolks) and the 56th (Essex).

  Reserve Brigade--Colonel Macdonald: The Royal Welsh Fusiliers and
  the 55th (Border Regiment).

  In garrison at the Helder were a battalion of the 35th (Royal
  Sussex) and the 69th (Welsh).

After an indecisive action on September 19, the Duke of York
attacked the French on October 2 at Egmont-op-Zee, inflicting on
them a severe defeat. The brunt of the fighting fell on the Fourth
and Sixth Brigades, under Sir John Moore and Lord Cavan, Sir Ralph
Abercromby being present and exercising supreme command. Our losses
were very heavy, amounting to no less than 1,348 of all ranks
killed and wounded.

The following regiments alone have been authorized to bear the
honour "Egmont-op-Zee":

  15th Hussars.
  Royal Scots.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  King's Own Scottish Borderers.
  Berkshire.
  Manchester.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.

But the casualty rolls published in the Duke of York's despatch
show that many other regiments were engaged.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |7th Hussars                 |   - |   - |   2 |  11 |
  |11th Hussars                |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |15th Hussars                |   - |   1 |   2 |   2 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   1 |   9 |  65 |
  |Grenadier Gds.              |   - |   3 |   6 |  52 |
  |Royal Scots                 |   - |   7 |   7 |  65 |
  |The Queen's                 |   - |   - |   2 |  16 |
  |K.O. Lanc. Reg.             |   - |   1 |   3 |   9 |
  |Leicestershire              |   - |   2 |   2 |   5 |
  |Lancs. Fus.                 |   - |   1 |   3 |  40 |
  |R. Welsh Fus.               |   - |   2 |   7 |  52 |
  |K.O. Scottish Borderers     |   2 |   8 |  34 |  67 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers |   - |   4 |   4 |  41 |
  |29th Worcester              |   - |   - |   8 |  35 |
  |40th S. Lancs.              |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |55th Border R.              |   - |   1 |   2 |  18 |
  |49th Berkshire              |   2 |   5 |  31 |  50 |
  |63rd Manchest.              |   - |   1 |   1 |  36 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders    |   1 |   4 |  13 |  58 |
  |85th King's Own Shrop. L.I. |   - |   4 |   7 |  67 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders     |   3 |  11 |  57 | 182 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER VIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE WEST INDIES, 1759-1810

West Indies, 1759-1810--Guadeloupe, 1759--Martinique,
1762--Havana--St. Lucia, 1778--Martinique, 1794--St. Lucia,
1796--St. Lucia, 1803--Surinam--Dominica--Martinique,
1809--Guadeloupe, 1810.


The battle honours conferred for services in the West Indies cover
the half-century from the capture of Guadeloupe in 1759 to the
third capture of the same island in the year 1810. The appended
tables of casualties show that our losses in action were by no
means contemptible, but these did not represent one-tenth of those
we suffered from disease or from neglect of the most elementary
precautions against the effects of the climate on our troops.
In the event of our being at war with those nations which had
possessions in the West Indies, the islands formed convenient bases
for operations against our North American Colonies, as well as
harbours of refuge for the innumerable privateers which preyed upon
our commerce. When war unhappily broke out between our Colonies and
the Mother-Country, it became more than ever a matter of paramount
necessity that no Power but ourselves should hold possession of
these islands. Unfortunately, at the end of each successive war
England, as has ever been her custom, restored her conquests
to their original holders, with the inevitable result that our
soldiers and sailors were called upon to sacrifice their lives
in the recapture of the islands in pursuance of the time-worn
policy of English Cabinets. In the course of fifty years St. Lucia,
Guadeloupe, and Martinique were thrice wrested from the French, and
the two last-named islands thrice restored. Up to the year 1909 the
battle honours "Martinique" and "Guadeloupe," which figured on the
colours and appointments of some of our regiments, had been granted
only for the capture of those islands by Sir George Beckwith in the
years 1809 and 1810. Last year it was determined (and very rightly)
that the previous expeditions, which dated back to 1759, were also
worthy of being recorded, and an Army Order was issued in the month
of November, 1909, announcing that the King had been graciously
pleased to approve of the undermentioned honorary distinctions
being borne on the colours and appointments of a certain number
of regiments present in the following expeditions: "Havana";
"Guadeloupe, 1759"; "Guadeloupe, 1810"; "Martinique, 1762";
"Martinique, 1794 and 1809"; "St. Lucia, 1778, 1793, and 1803."

In any case where a regiment had been awarded the same distinction,
but with different dates, it was to bear on its colours or
appointments one distinction only, with the dates. Thus, so far as
Martinique is concerned, the East Yorkshire Regiment will have on
its colours "Martinique, 1762, 1794, 1809."

The services performed by our troops in the many expeditions for
the reduction of the Island of Guadeloupe have been scantily
recognized. So far as I have been able to ascertain, the first
capture of the Island of Guadeloupe took place in the year 1702,
when the Yorkshire Regiment lost 2 officers killed and 3 wounded;
the 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers) 3 officers killed and 5 wounded;
and the 35th (Royal Sussex), 2 killed, 3 wounded, and no less than
16 by disease.

Then came the expedition of 1759, with which I deal at length, and
for which a battle honour was granted.

In the year 1794 we once more captured the island, the losses being:

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery |   2 |   - |   3 |  57 |
  |Roy. Engineers  |   - |   1 |   1 |   3 |
  |E. Yorkshire    |   - |   1 |   3 |  31 |
  |R. Scots Fus.   |   - |   4 |   6 |  97 |
  |35th R. Sussex  |   - |   4 |   9 |  47 |
  |39th Dorsets    |   - |   - |   3 |  18 |
  |56th Essex      |   - |   2 |   6 |  35 |
  |60th K.R.R.     |   2 |   - |   6 | 107 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

For this expedition no battle honour was granted.

In the year 1814 Guadeloupe was handed over to the French, but
on Napoleon's escape from Elba in 1815 it declared for him, and
a fresh expedition became necessary for which no distinction has
yet been awarded. Possibly, in due course of time, the dates 1702,
1794, and 1815 may be added to the name "Guadeloupe" on the colours
of the regiments which participated in those long-forgotten, but by
no means bloodless, expeditions.

Late in the year 1758 it was determined by the Cabinet to effect
the reduction of the colonial possessions of France. With the
capture of the Settlements on the West Coast of Africa I have
nothing to do. For their reduction no battle honour was granted.
The campaigns, which resulted in the reduction of Louisburg and
Quebec are narrated on pp. 37 and 38. I now propose to deal with
the expeditions which led to the honour "Guadeloupe, 1759";
"Martinique, 1762"; and "Havana" being inscribed on the colours and
appointments of our regiments.


GUADELOUPE, 1759.

By the Army Order of November, 1909, the above battle honour was
conferred on the following regiments:

  Buffs.
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Gloucester.
  South Staffords.
  Royal Highlanders.
  North Staffords.
  Manchester.
  York and Lancaster.

Thus, a century and a half after the event, the services of our
troops at the second capture of the Island of Guadeloupe received a
tardy recognition.

In November, 1758, the Buffs, King's Own, Gloucester, North
Stafford, Manchester, and York and Lancaster Regiments embarked
at Spithead for Barbados, where they were joined by the South
Staffords and the Royal Highlanders, Lieutenant-General Peregrine
Hopson assuming the command. The force was divided into four
brigades, under Colonels Robert Armiger, George Haldane, Cyrus
Trapaud, and John Clavering, whilst Major-General the Hon. John
Barrington joined as second in command. It was also strengthened by
a detachment of 500 artillerymen, under Major S. Cleveland, R.A.,
and a battalion of Marines, under Colonel Rycaut, making a total
of about 6,800 men. On January 13, 1759, the expeditionary force
sailed for Martinique, where the French were well prepared for
defence, and no landing was attempted. Three days afterwards the
armament stood on to Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, and, under cover
of the guns of the fleet, the troops disembarked. On the following
morning a sharp skirmish took place, in which the French were
driven out of some entrenched buildings, our casualties amounting
to 100 killed and wounded; but it was found impossible to follow up
the enemy owing to the denseness of the jungle and the absence of
roads.

General Hopson, who was suffering from a mortal disease, appears
to have formulated no plan of operations for the reduction of
Martinique, and on the following morning the troops re-embarked
without opposition, and the fleet stood on to Guadeloupe, arriving
before that island on January 22. Basse Terre, the capital of
the southern island (for Guadeloupe practically consists of
the two islands, Guadeloupe, or Basse Terre and Grande Terre),
was bombarded by the fleet and utterly destroyed, the Governor
withdrawing his troops to a well-entrenched and most formidable
position some miles distant. The disembarkation of the troops
was consequently unopposed, but our outposts were much worried
day and night by incessant firing and desultory attacks from the
French, who had taken refuge in the surrounding jungle. The General
again seemed to have no definite plan of operations, and contented
himself with strengthening his position on the inland side of the
capital. Our troops suffered terribly from the climate. By the end
of January 600 men had been invalided to Antigua, and 1,500 were on
the sick-list.

The Commodore was a man of action, as also, indeed, was General
Barrington; but the former was independent of General Hopson, the
latter was not. About the middle of February Commodore Moore sailed
round to Port Louis, on the northern island, where he found a good
harbour. He at once bombarded its defences, forced the garrison to
surrender, and disembarked a battalion of Marines, thus securing
for Hopson a second base.

On February 16 the Commander-in-Chief died, and Barrington
determined to put an end to the inaction which was demoralizing
the troops. Leaving the 63rd (Manchester) Regiment to hold Basse
Terre (the defences of which on the land side had been considerably
strengthened), Barrington embarked the rest of his troops and
occupied Port Louis, whence he despatched Colonel Crump, of the
4th (King's Own), who had succeeded to the command of Haldane's
brigade, to effect the reduction of the French settlements in the
northern island. Early in April Brigadier Clavering was detached
with his brigade (reduced to 1,300 men) to destroy the French
position at Arnouville, in Guadeloupe itself. In this attack the
4th (King's Own) and the 42nd (Royal Highlanders) particularly
distinguished themselves, and in the middle of the month Clavering
was able to join hands with Crump, who had been withdrawn from the
Grande Terre, and to march southwards along the coast. Position
after position was carried until Clavering finally drove the French
from their entrenchments at Capesterre, in the south-west of the
mainland, where the inhabitants compelled the French commander to
sue for terms; and on May 1 the possession of Guadeloupe passed
into our hands.


CASUALTIES DURING EXPEDITION TO GUADELOUPE, 1759.

  +--------------------------------+----------------------+--------------+
  |                                |       _Officers._    |    _Men._    |
  |           _Regiments._         +------+-------+-------+------+-------+
  |                                |Killed|Wounded|Died of|Killed|Wounded|
  |                                |      |       |Disease|      |       |
  +--------------------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------+
  |Royal Artillery                 |   1  |    4  |    1  |   3  |    7  |
  |Royal Navy                      |   1  |    1  |    -  |  30  |   68  |
  |3rd Buffs (East Kent Regiment)  |   1  |    1  |    2  |   9  |   19  |
  |4th King's Own (Lancaster Regt.)|   2  |    2  |    3  |   8  |    5  |
  |38th Regt. (South Staffords)    |   1  |    3  |    1  |  11  |   37  |
  |42nd (R. Highlanders)           |   1  |    5  |    2  |  11  |   32  |
  |61st (2nd Gloucesters)          |   1  |    1  |    1  |   3  |   16  |
  |63rd (1st Manchesters)          |   3  |    2  |    2  |   4  |   18  |
  |64th (1st N. Staffords)         |   0  |    2  |    6  |   1  |    4  |
  |65th (1st York and Lancaster)   |   1  |    3  |    3  |   5  |    9  |
  +--------------------------------+------+-------+-------+------+-------+

  NOTE.--I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for
  this hitherto unpublished return of the rank and file killed and
  wounded at Guadeloupe.


MARTINIQUE, 1762.

This distinction was conferred on the following regiments by an
Army Order in November, 1909:

  East Yorkshire.
  Leicester.
  Cheshire.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Royal Sussex.
  South Stafford.
  South Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Northampton.
  King's Royal Rifles.

The employment of our troops on the Continent of Europe and in
Canada had prevented the Cabinet from carrying out the designs
for the capture of the Islands of Dominica, Martinique, and St.
Lucia; but the fall of Louisburg and Quebec set sufficient forces
at liberty to enable Pitt in the early part of 1762 to carry out
the long-deferred expedition. Its command was entrusted to General
the Hon. Robert Monckton, an officer of considerable experience,
who had more recently distinguished himself in command of a
brigade under Wolfe at Quebec. Carlisle Bay (Barbados) was the
point selected for the mobilization of the expeditionary force,
and there, at Christmas, 1761, the Commander-in-Chief arrived with
eleven battalions from North America. He was joined shortly by Lord
Rollo with five more battalions from Canada, and by General Ruffane
with four seasoned regiments fresh from the capture of Belleisle; a
couple of regiments from Guadeloupe, and two from Antigua, brought
the force at Monckton's disposal to some 12,000 men, distributed in
five brigades, under Brigadier W. Havilland, W. Ruffane, F. Grant,
Lord Rollo, and Hunt Walsh.

On January 5, 1762, escorted by a powerful fleet under Lord Rodney,
the expeditionary force left Barbados, and on the 7th had arrived
at St. Ann's Bay, the southernmost harbour in Martinique. Our
knowledge of the island was very defective. More than one attempt
at disembarkation proved ineffective, owing to the want of roads
by which the troops might advance, and it was not until the 16th
of the month that the entire force was landed at Case Navire,
a little to the north of the capital, Port Royal. A series of
works, dominated by powerful entrenchments on the hills, Morne
Tortenson and Morne Grenier, had been thrown up for the defence
of Port Royal. On January 24 the first-named position was carried
by Brigadiers Havilland and Walsh, with a loss of 33 officers and
357 men killed and wounded, and three days later the Morne Grenier
was taken, with a loss of about 100 of all ranks. On February
12, finding further resistance useless, the French commander
capitulated, and Monckton, in conjunction with Lord Rodney, who was
in command of the fleet, despatched detachments for the capture
of St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. Vincent, which fell into our
hands without offering any resistance. Our casualties during the
operations in Martinique were as follows:

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|  _Men._   |
  |        _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |4th K.'s Own               |   1 |   1 |   8 |  23 |
  |15th E. Yorks              |   - |   - |   4 |  15 |
  |17th Leicesters            |   - |   - |   4 |  17 |
  |22nd Cheshires             |   1 |   1 |   2 |   3 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers|   - |   2 |   4 |  19 |
  |28th Gloucs.               |   - |   2 |   5 |   9 |
  |35th R. Sussex             |   - |   2 |   4 |  19 |
  |38th S. Staffs             |   - |   - |   2 |  13 |
  |41st Welsh                 |   - |   1 |   1 |   6 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders     |   2 |  11 |  12 |  76 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |48th N'hampton             |   - |   2 |   9 |  15 |
  |60th K.R.R.                |   - |   3 |  12 |  42 |
  |65th York and Lancaster    |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |69th Welsh                 |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |75th W. Riding Regiment    |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |77th Middlesex             |   1 |   1 |   4 |  21 |
  |90th Scot. R.              |   - |   - |   3 |  17 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |98th N. Staffs             |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |100th Royal Canadians      |   - |   1 |   4 |   8 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

It will be seen from the above list, copied from the _London
Gazette_ (in which the 42nd are styled "Royal Hunters"!), that many
regiments suffered casualties which have not been authorized to
assume the honour "Martinique, 1762."


HAVANA.

The regiments authorized by the Army Order of November, 1909, to
bear this battle honour are:

  Royal Scots.
  Norfolk.
  East Yorkshire.
  Leicester.
  Cheshire.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Border.
  Royal Sussex.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Northampton.
  King's Royal Rifles.

A perusal of the following brief account of the campaign will show
that, if the ruling holds good under which the 5th Lancers, 18th,
19th, and 20th Hussars, together with many infantry regiments, are
permitted to bear the battle honours won by their predecessors,
there are other regiments equally entitled to inscribe "Havana" on
their colours and appointments than the fifteen above mentioned,
and three at least which have more claim to the battle honour
"Moro" than the Essex.

The campaign was decided on by the Ministry in the early spring of
1762, General the Earl of Albemarle being nominated to the chief
command, with orders to co-operate with Admiral of the Blue, Sir
George Pocock, who was at the time commanding the fleet in the
West Indies. The troops were composed of 4,000 men despatched from
England with the Commander-in-Chief; 8,000 were furnished by the
large forces then garrisoning the West India Islands, and 4,000
were detached by Sir Jeffrey Amherst from the forces in North
America. For transport service on shore, the Governor of Jamaica
raised a body of 1,500 negroes. These were augmented on the arrival
in Martinique of Lord Albemarle by the _purchase_ of 500 more! A
small force of cavalry was improvised by the Commander-in-Chief,
and placed under the orders of Captain Suttie, of the 9th Foot. The
whole force assembled at Martinique on May 5, 1762. It would appear
that Lord Albemarle, following the custom of the day, formed a
couple of Light Infantry Battalions from the light companies, and a
couple of Grenadier battalions from the grenadier companies of the
regiments under his command, the Light Infantry being placed at the
disposal of Colonel Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester. The
entire force was brigaded as under:

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General W. Havilland: Royal Scots, 56th
  (Essex), and the 60th (King's Royal Rifles).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General H. Walsh: 9th (Norfolks), 27th
  (Inniskilling Fusiliers), and the 48th (Northamptons).

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General John Reid: 34th (Border
  Regiment), 35th (Royal Sussex), 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry), and
  the 75th (Gordon Highlanders).

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General F. Grant: 17th (Leicesters),
  42nd (Royal Highlanders)--two battalions, two companies of the
  65th (York and Lancaster), and three companies of the 4th (King's
  Own), and four of the 77th (Middlesex).

  Fifth Brigade--Brigadier-General the Lord Rollo: 22nd
  (Cheshires), 40th (South Lancashires), 72nd (Seaforths), and the
  90th (Scottish Rifles).

  Colonel Leith: Royal Artillery, 357 men.

Of these, Brigadiers Havilland, Hunt-Walsh, and Lord Rollo had been
employed in the reduction of the island of Martinique, and it will
be noticed that a large proportion of the regiments had fought
under Wolfe at Quebec, or Studholme Hodgson at the capture of
Belleisle, or under Monckton at Martinique. Owing to the nature of
the ground, considerable difficulty was experienced in constructing
the siege batteries, which were armed with heavy guns from the
fleet, the stores and ammunition being conveyed to the front by
the corps of negroes purchased in Martinique by the General. In
consequence of the scarcity and badness of the water, the troops
suffered terribly. The seamen and Marines escaped the sickness
which more than decimated the army, and the Admiral landed a body
of 800 Marines to lighten the labours of the army.

On July 1 a heavy bombardment commenced, the fleet standing in to
aid. In this the _Dragon_, _Cambridge_, and _Marlborough_ suffered
severely. For a time the fire of the defence slackened, only to
be renewed with increased vigour in a couple of days. On the 21st
the garrison made a gallant sortie, which was repelled with equal
gallantry by the 90th Light Infantry, under Colonel Stuart. From
this date the defence gradually slackened, and on July 30 the
General determined to assault the Moro, which was the key of the
situation. The storming-party, which was under the command of
Colonel Stuart, of the 90th, was composed as follows:

  1st Royal Scots       6 officers, 107 N.C.O.'s and men.
  90th Light Infantry   8    "       53       "
  Marksmen              8    "       29       "

the 35th Regiment in support. The assault was admirably planned,
and carried out with dashing gallantry.


CASUALTIES DURING THE EXPEDITION TO HAVANA, FROM DATE OF LANDING TO
CAPITULATION ON AUGUST 13, 1762.

  +------------------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
  |                  |       _Officers._       |   _N.C.O.'s and Men._   |
  |                  +-------+--------+--------+-------+--------+--------+
  |   _Regiments._   |       |        |Died of |       |        |Died of |
  |                  |Killed.|Wounded.|Disease.|Killed.|Wounded.|Disease.|
  +------------------+-------+--------+--------+-------+--------+--------+
  |Royal Artillery   |   2   |    -   |    2   |   25  |   49   |   25   |
  |Engineers         |   -   |    2   |    -   |    -  |    -   |    -   |
  |1st Royal Scots   |   2   |    3   |    -   |   34  |   78   |   12   |
  |4th (K.O. Lancs.) |   2   |    1   |    1   |    2  |    1   |    -   |
  |9th Foot (Norfolk)|   1   |    1   |    3   |   24  |   31   |   28   |
  |15th Foot         |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | (E. Yorks)       |   1   |    1   |    2   |   12  |   20   |   10   |
  |17th Foot (Leics.)|   1   |    2   |    -   |    3  |    2   |   26   |
  |22nd Foot         |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | (Cheshire        |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Regiment)        |   1   |    1   |    2   |    7  |   13   |   28   |
  |27th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Inniskilling     |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Fusiliers)       |   1   |    1   |    1   |   15  |   23   |   13   |
  |28th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Gloucester       |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Regt.)           |   -   |    -   |    -   |   11  |   17   |    7   |
  |34th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Border Regiment) |   1   |    1   |    2   |   32  |   70   |   85   |
  |35th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Roy. Sussex      |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Regt.)           |   1   |    2   |    -   |   19  |   26   |   17   |
  |40th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | South            |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Lancashire)      |   -   |    -   |    1   |    9  |   13   |   10   |
  |42nd (Royal       |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  |  Highlanders)    |   -   |    -   |    9   |    3  |    8   |   73   |
  |43rd Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Oxford L.I.)     |   -   |    1   |    -   |   10  |   15   |   13   |
  |46th Foot (2nd    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Cornwall L.I.)   |   -   |    -   |    -   |    -  |    -   |    1   |
  |48th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Northamptonshire)|   -   |    -   |    3   |    8  |   30   |   10   |
  |56th Foot         |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | (2nd Essex)      |   -   |    -   |    2   |   36  |   83   |   85   |
  |60th Foot (King's |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Royal Rifles)    |   2   |    2   |    1   |   24  |   63   |   13   |
  |65th Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | York and         |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Lancaster)       |   -   |    -   |    -   |    -  |    1   |    -   |
  |72nd Foot (1st    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Seaforth         |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Highlanders)     |   1   |    1   |    2   |   20  |   27   |   85   |
  |77th Foot (2nd    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Middlesex)       |   1   |    3   |    -   |    3  |    8   |   16   |
  |90th Foot (2nd    |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Scottish Rifles) |   1   |    1   |    2   |   11  |   35   |   49   |
  |98th Foot (2nd N. |       |        |        |       |        |        |
  | Staffords)       |   -   |    1   |    1   |    6  |    3   |   32   |
  +------------------+-------+--------+--------+-------+--------+--------+
  |      Totals.     |  15   |   19   |    -   |  284  |  586   |    -   |
  +------------------+-------+--------+--------+-------+--------+--------+

  In addition to the losses in action, it will be noticed that 39
  officers and 641 N.C.O.'s and men died of disease.

With the Moro in our possession, the capitulation of the island was
a mere matter of time, and on August 14 the Captain-General signed
the articles of surrender of the Island of Cuba to the British
forces. Ninety-one officers and 29,700 of other ranks surrendered
as prisoners of war, and Admiral Pocock had the satisfaction of
taking possession of thirteen Spanish line-of-battle ships.

Our losses during the forty-four days' campaign had been
considerable, as the table of casualties on page 107 proves.

Hitherto the old 56th Regiment (now the Essex) has been the only
regiment entitled to carry the battle honour "Moro." The Royal
Scots have always, but as yet unsuccessfully, advanced their claim
to this distinction. The above facts show that the Scottish Rifles
and the Royal Sussex have an equal claim with the Royals to the
double distinction.

In conformity with our usual custom, the island was restored to
the Spaniards on the conclusion of the war, to be conquered by our
American cousins 130 years subsequently.

In those days the ardour of our sailors and soldiers was whetted by
the prospects of prize-money, and the capture of Havana, whilst it
brought wealth to the senior officers, brought consolation also to
all ranks in the shape of a rich distribution of doubloons.


DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZE-MONEY FOR THE CAPTURE OF HAVANA.

  NAVY.
                           £     _s._ _d._
  Commander-in-Chief    122,697    0    0
  Commodore              24,539    0    0
  Captain                 1,600    0    0
  Lieutenants               234    0    0
  Warrant officers          118    0    0
  Petty officers             17    5    0
  Seamen                      3   14    9

  ARMY.
                           £     _s._ _d._
  Commander-in-Chief    122,697    0    0
  Lieut.-General         24,539    0    0
  Major-General           6,816    0    0
  Field Officers            564    0    0
  Captains                  184    0    0
  Subalterns                116    0    0
  Sergeants                   8   18    8
  Corporals                   6   16    6
  Privates and drummers       4    1    8


ST. LUCIA, 1778.

This honour was awarded in 1909 to the following regiments--

  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  East Yorkshire.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Border Regiment.
  Royal Sussex.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Berkshire.

--for their services at the capture of the island from the French,
and for its gallant defence a few days later against a vastly
superior force.

On the outbreak of war between France and England in 1778 the
French at once assumed the offensive in the West Indies by the
capture of Dominica on September 8, that island, with a garrison
of barely 500 men, being compelled to surrender to the Marquis de
Bouillé, who landed some 8,000 troops, drawn from the large forces
massed in Martinique and Guadeloupe, which, in pursuance of our
time-honoured custom, had been restored to France at the end of the
previous war in 1763. In the month of November a combined naval
and military expedition under Admiral Barrington and Major-General
James Grant left Barbados for the reduction of St. Lucia. It
numbered some 6,000 men, composed as under:

  First Brigade--Brigadier Robert Prescott: 15th (East Yorkshire),
  28th (Gloucester), 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), and 54th
  (Border Regiment).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Sir H. Calder: 27th (Inniskilling
  Fusiliers), 35th (Sussex), 40th (South Lancashire), and 49th
  (Royal Berkshire).

  Third Brigade--Brigadier W. Meadows: 5th (Northumberland
  Fusiliers), Grenadier Battalion and Light Infantry Battalion,
  made up of the flank companies of all regiments present.

In addition, there were two companies of Royal Artillery and a
troop of Dragoons. Knowing that Admiral d'Estaing, with a fleet
outnumbering his own three to one, had already left Boston to
oppose him, Admiral Barrington set sail from Barbados on December
10, and the following day entered in Cul de Sac Bay, on the western
coast of the island. Two brigades were at once disembarked, and
they, carrying the French entrenchments, made themselves masters
of a strong position overlooking the main works of the enemy at
Castries. On December 12 the remainder of the troops were landed,
and an attack on the French entrenchments at the Morne Fortunée
was successfully carried out, and by evening we were in possession
of all the forts and batteries defending Castries Bay. Two days
later the French fleet, carrying 9,000 troops, appeared in the
offing, and d'Estaing at once attacked Barrington's squadron, which
was anchored across Cul de Sac Bay. Foiled there, he stood to the
northward, with the intention of turning General Grant's position
at Castries, and, under cover of the guns of the fleet, several
thousand French were landed. Here, however, they met with stout
opposition. Meadows, at the head of the Northumberland Fusiliers
and the Light Infantry Battalion, repulsing several most determined
attacks, in which the French lost 400 dead left on the field, with
some 1,200 wounded, our casualties in killed and wounded barely
reaching 175. D'Estaing re-embarked his men on the 28th, and
withdrew his fleet to Martinique, whereupon the French commandant
had no option but to surrender.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF THE ISLAND OF ST. LUCIA IN 1778.

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery      |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |4th King's Own       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |5th North. Fus.      |   - |   2 |   2 |  20 |
  |15th E. Yorks        |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |27th Innis. Fus.     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |28th Gloucester      |   1 |   1 |   1 |   2 |
  |L.I. Battalion       |   - |   - |   6 |  48 |
  |35th R. Sussex       |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |40th S. Lancs        |   - |   1 |   1 |   1 |
  |46th Corn. L.I.      |   - |   1 |   3 |   9 |
  |49th Berks           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |55th Border Regiment |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |
  |Grenadier Batt.      |   - |   - |   3 |  76 |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for the
  above casualty list.


MARTINIQUE, 1794.

This distinction, awarded in 1909, is borne by the following
regiments--

  Royal Warwick.
  Norfolk.
  East Yorkshire.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  East Surrey.
  North Stafford.
  Northampton.
  Dorset.
  York and Lancaster.

--and commemorates the second capture of the island from the
French. Considerable care had been bestowed on the preparation of
this expedition. Its command was entrusted to capable hands, Sir
John Jervis--afterwards Lord St. Vincent--having charge of the
naval, and General Sir Charles Grey of the military forces. These
last were divided into five brigades:

  First Brigade--Brigadier Sir C. Gordon: 15th (East Yorkshire),
  39th (Dorset), and 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Thomas Dunbar: 56th (2nd Essex), 63rd
  (1st Manchester), and 64th (1st North Staffords).

  Third Brigade--Brigadier J. Whyte: 6th (Royal Warwick), 58th (2nd
  Northampton), and 70th (2nd East Surrey).

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier Campbell (subsequently replaced by
  H.R.H. Duke of Kent): Three battalions, composed of the grenadier
  companies of all regiments in Ireland and Flanders.

  Fifth Brigade--Colonel Myers: Three battalions, composed of the
  light companies of the same regiments.

Profiting by the experience of the expedition in 1762, a number
of gunboats--flat-bottomed craft, to assist in the disembarkation
of the troops--had been sent out from England in sections, and a
number of negroes purchased for the formation of a transport corps.
On February 3 the expedition set sail from Carlisle Bay, Barbados,
and two days later appeared off the island of Martinique in three
divisions, the Commander-in-Chief with the Third and Grenadier
Brigades, landing at Trois Rivières, in the extreme south; Dundas,
with his own and the Light Infantry Brigade, near Trinité, on the
east coast; and Gordon at Case Navire, a little to the north of
Port Royal, the capital. By February 12 Grey and Gordon, greatly
assisted by the guns of the fleet, had gradually converged on Port
Royal, driving the French before them, whilst Dunbar was steadily
pushing his way across the island from east to west. On February
17 St. Pierre (the commercial capital) surrendered to Dunbar, and
on March 8 Grey commenced to throw up siege batteries for the
reduction of the fortifications at Fort Royal; fourteen days later
Fort Louis fell to a combined assault of seamen and soldiers, and
on the 23rd General Rochambeau surrendered.

Leaving six battalions in the island, Grey, who had been reinforced
by the Buffs and Norfolks, embarked with these two regiments, the
Warwicks, 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry), 63rd (Manchester), and the
Grenadier and Light Infantry Brigades, for St. Lucia, which was
captured on April 2; then, proceeding to Guadeloupe, he effected
the reduction of that island by the end of May, not, however,
without very sharp fighting. The casualties we incurred at the
capture of Guadeloupe are given on p. 99. At the capture of St.
Lucia our losses were trifling; those at the capture of Martinique
are given below.

No less than 122 officers of the garrison died of disease before
the end of the year:

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|  _Men._   |
  |        _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery            |   - |   3 |  10 |  18 |
  |6th R. Warwick             |   1 |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |8th King's Liverpool       |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |9th Norfolks               |   1 |   - |   - |   1 |
  |12th Suffolks              |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |15th E. Yorks              |   2 |   - |   3 |   4 |
  |17th Leicesters            |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers  |   3 |   - |   - |   - |
  |34th Border Regiment       |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |35th R. Sussex             |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Navy                 |   2 |   4 |  19 |  65 |
  |Three L.I. Battalions      |   - |   2 |  20 |  62 |
  |Roy. Engineers             |   - |   1 |   1 |   3 |
  |38th S. Stafford           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |39th Dorsets               |   1 |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |40th Loyal N. Lancashires  |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.           |   2 |   - |   - |   3 |
  |44th Essex                 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |58th N'ampton              |   2 |   - |   - |   - |
  |60th K.R.R.                |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |64th N. Staffs             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |63rd Manchesters           |   - |   - |   2 |  11 |
  |70th E. Surrey             |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |Three Grenadier Battalions |   1 |   4 |  30 |  74 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ST. LUCIA, 1794.

No battle honour was conferred for the capture of the island on
this occasion.

Immediately after the capture of Martinique, on March 25, 1794,
General Sir George Grey, with Admiral Sir John Jervis, sailed for
St. Lucia with a force composed as under:

  First Brigade--H.R.H. Prince Edward (afterwards Duke of Kent,
  father of Queen Victoria): Comprising three battalions, made up
  of the grenadier companies of the whole force in Martinique.

  Second Brigade--Major-General Dundas: Comprising three light
  infantry battalions.

  Third Brigade--Colonel Sir C. Gordon: 6th (Warwick), 9th
  (Norfolk), and 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry) Regiments.

On April 1 the squadron arrived off the island, and the Second
Brigade was at once disembarked under the guns of the _Winchelsea_,
the operation being executed, to use Sir John Jervis's words,
"with neatness and despatch, under the direction of Lord Viscount
Garlies." Colonels Blundell and Coote, at the head of their
battalions, advanced rapidly on the fortified position on the
Morne Fortunée, which was evacuated by the enemy, when the French
commander hoisted the white flag, and the island for the second
time in its history passed into the possession of the English.
Leaving Sir C. Gordon in command with the 6th and 9th Regiments as
garrison, Sir G. Grey returned to Martinique.

Owing to the exigencies of the service, and the inability of the
Ministry at home to realize the necessity of maintaining the troops
in the West Indies at a proper strength, Grey from time to time
was compelled to reduce the garrison, so that when, in the spring
of the following year, the negroes of St. Lucia, in common with
their fellows in the neighbouring islands, rose in revolt, the then
Governor, Colonel Stuart, had only some 400 men to make headway
against the revolt. In June the island was evacuated.


ST. LUCIA, 1796.

The only regiments authorized to bear the battle honour are the
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and the Shropshires.

Early in the year 1796 it became necessary to re-conquer
practically the whole of the French West India Islands--not,
indeed, from the armies of the French Republic, but from the hordes
of negroes, whose passions had been inflamed by revolutionary
agents, and whose ambitions had been fired by the pernicious
doctrines of "the rights of man." The command of the expeditionary
force was entrusted to Sir Ralph Abercromby, with whom was
associated the ever-to-be-remembered Sir John Moore. The total
force numbered some 18,000 men, distributed as under, and was
mobilized in Carlisle Bay, Barbados, in March, 1796:

  Cavalry: 27th Light Dragoons and Royal Irish Artillery.
  First Brigade: 14th, 27th, 28th, and 57th Regiments.
  Second Brigade: 3rd, 19th, 31st, and 35th Regiments.
  Third Brigade: 8th, 37th, 44th, and 55th Regiments.
  Fourth Brigade: 38th, 48th, 53rd, and 63rd Regiments.
  Fifth Brigade: 2nd, 10th, 25th, 29th, and 88th Regiments.
  Sixth Brigade: 42nd (Highlanders), and two battalions composed
     of the grenadier companies of all the regiments present.

Abercromby's first care was to throw reinforcements into Grenada,
which was still holding out, and on April 21 the convoy left
Carlisle Bay for St. Lucia. On the 26th Moore landed with the 14th
and 42nd, and on the following day he was reinforced by the 53rd,
57th, and the 2nd West India Regiment, under Brigadier Hope. By the
28th the whole of the force was ashore, but the operations dragged
on until May 15, when the whole island was in our hands. On the
17th of that month there had been a sharp engagement, in which
the 31st (East Surrey) lost heavily. Moore complained bitterly
of the troops, writing as follows: "It is hard to say whether
the officers or men are the worst." Moore was left in command at
St. Lucia, whilst Abercromby undertook the reduction of Grenada
and St. Vincent. Although the only regiments authorized to carry
the distinction "St. Lucia, 1796" are the Inniskilling Fusiliers
(27th), and Shropshire Light Infantry (53rd), reference to the
casualty lists shows that this selection casts an unnecessary slur
on the other corps which bore their fair share of fighting in the
reconquest of the island.

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |14th W. Yorks        |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |27th Inniskillings   |   1 |   6 |  22 |  65 |
  |28th Gloucester      |   - |   3 |   3 |  18 |
  |31st E. Surrey       |   2 |   6 |  61 | 107 |
  |42nd H'landers       |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |44th Essex           |   - |   3 |   4 |  17 |
  |48th N'ampton        |   - |   1 |   2 |  15 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I. |   3 |  13 |  46 |   - |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

By the close of the year 1796, Moore had buried 1,500 of
his garrison. So terrible were the losses we incurred from
sickness--losses due to the neglect of the home authorities to
provide for the sick--that it was with a sense of relief the army
learnt the welcome news that, under the terms of the Treaty of
Amiens, St. Lucia was restored to the French. This retrocession,
however, necessitated its recapture in 1803.

  NOTE.--The battle honour "St. Lucia, 1803," has been granted to
  the Royal Scots and North Staffords for their services in the
  expedition under General Grinfield, in which the 68th Durham
  Light Infantry and 3rd West India Regiment also shared.


CASUALTIES.

  +--------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                    |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                    |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Scots         |   - |   2 |   9 |  45 |
  |3rd W. India R.     |   - |   2 |   4 |  23 |
  |64th North Staffords|   - |   4 |   6 |  33 |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SURINAM, 1804.

The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the
Bedfordshire and the North Staffords.

It commemorates the capture of this colony from the Dutch by
a combined naval and military expedition on the resumption of
hostilities with Holland after the Treaty of Amiens. The colony had
been captured in 1799 by Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour and General
Trigge, but had been restored to the Dutch in 1802.

Carlisle Bay (Barbados) was the rendezvous, the squadron being
under the command of Commodore Samuel Hood, whilst the troops were
commanded by Major-General Sir Charles Green. These consisted of
the 16th (Bedfords), 64th (North Staffords), and the 6th West India
Regiment. Leaving Barbados on April 6, 1804, the squadron, delayed
by adverse and light winds, did not arrive off the mouth of the
Surinam River until the 25th, when the Dutch commander was invited
to surrender. To the summons he returned a truculent reply; and
the troops, divided into two brigades, under Colonels Maitland
and Hughes, were thrown ashore, reinforced by a naval brigade 600
strong. The defence was feeble, and in three days the place fell
into our hands. Our loss was trifling, falling on the naval brigade
and the North Staffords, neither the Bedfords nor the West India
Regiment suffering any casualties.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF SURINAM, 1804.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade           |   2 |   2 |   1 |   5 |
  |N. Staffords            |   - |   2 |   2 |   8 |
  |Naval Brigade           |   2 |   3 |   3 |   8 |
  |Bedfords                |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th West India Regiment |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


DOMINICA, 1805.

The only regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the Duke
of Cornwall's Light Infantry and the West India Regiment.

Our connection with the island dates back to the year 1762,
when, on June 11, it was captured by a joint naval and military
expedition under Colonel Lord Rollo and Commodore Sir James
Douglas, R.N., with the _Belliqueux_, _Dublin_, _Montague_, and
_Sutherland_. The troops concerned in this first capture were
detachments of the King's Own (Lancaster Regiment), the Cheshires,
and the Black Watch. The brunt of the fighting fell on the
Highlanders, who lost 2 officers and 19 men killed, 10 officers
and 74 men wounded. The possession of the island was confirmed to
us by the Treaty of Paris in the following year. In 1778 it was
taken from us by the French. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities,
the Governor, Major-General the Hon. W. Stewart, had reported
the precarious position of the island. His total force amounted
to 98 men of the 48th (Northamptons) and 28 gunners; of these
but 41 were fit for duty. On September 7 a French force of four
frigates, convoying 3,000 troops, appeared before the island, and
the Governor was perforce compelled to surrender to De Bouillé.
By the peace of 1783 the island was restored to us, but in 1805,
mindful of their former success, the French made a fresh attempt at
its capture. Five line-of-battleships, headed by the _Majestueux_,
of 120 guns, stood into the harbour and overwhelmed the town of
Roseau with their fire. The Governor, General Prevost, withdrew
to a second position, and refused all summons for surrender, when
the French, baffled, left him undisturbed. The garrison consisted
of the 46th Foot (now the 2nd Battalion of the Cornwall Light
Infantry), the 1st West India Regiment, and some local militia. The
casualties of the defenders were slight, but their services were
considered sufficiently meritorious for the following notification
in the _Gazette_:

"As a distinguished mark of the good conduct and exemplary valour
displayed by that regiment in the defence of the Island of Dominica
against a very superior French force on February 22, 1805, the 46th
Regiment is permitted to bear on its colours and appointments the
name 'Dominica.'" For many long years this was the only distinction
borne by that regiment.

The casualties were--

  Cornwall Light Infantry: 11 men killed, 1 officer and 7 men
  wounded.

  The West India Regiment: 9 men killed, 2 officers and 8 men
  wounded.


MARTINIQUE, 1809.

This distinction is borne by the

  Royal Fusiliers.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  East Yorkshires.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  King's Own Scottish Borderers.
  King's Own Royal Rifles.
  Manchesters.
  Scottish Rifles.
  West India Regiment.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens, Martinique, amongst our
many other conquests from France, was restored, thus necessitating
its recapture on the resumption of hostilities. Had it not been
for the fact that it was made a port of call and refit for all the
privateers in the Western Atlantic, the island might have been left
in peace; but in the interests of our commerce, as well as for
military reasons, its recapture was decided on, and General Sir
George Beckwith was entrusted with the command of the operations.
His divisional commanders were Lieutenant-General Sir George
Prevost and Major-General Maitland. The Commander-in-Chief himself
accompanied the First Division, which comprised the

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General Hoghton: Royal Fusiliers, Royal
  Welsh Fusiliers, and a wing of the 3rd West India Regiment.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Colville: 8th (King's Liverpool
  Regiment), 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), and a wing of the 1st
  West India Regiment.

  Reserve Brigade: The 3rd and 4th Battalions of the King's Royal
  Rifles and the 4th West India Regiment.

This force disembarked on January 30 at St. Luce Bay, on the
western coast of the island, and on the following day took
possession of the town of Trinité without opposition.

  First Brigade--Colonel Riall: 63rd (Manchesters) and the York
  Rangers (a colonial corps which did most excellent service in our
  West India campaigns).

  Second Brigade--Major-General Maitland: 15th (East Yorkshire),
  the flank companies of the 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), the
  8th West India Regiment, and a body of local volunteers, known as
  the York Light Infantry.

  Reserve Brigade--Colonel Macnair (90th): 90th (Scottish Rifles)
  and the 3rd West India Regiment.

This force disembarked on the south of the island, near the Three
Rivers--a spot at which considerable fighting had taken place
in our previous descents on the island--and here again Maitland
encountered some resistance. But his brigades, working over the
hills to the left, effected a junction with the Commander-in-Chief,
and by February 4, thanks to the effective co-operation of the
fleet, the French Governor surrendered.

Amongst the trophies were the colours, or rather the eagles, of
the 62nd and 80th Regiments of the French line. One of these
fell to the Royal Fusiliers, the other to the 90th, and the
Commander-in-Chief selected Captain Wilby, of the 90th, to carry
these trophies to England and depose them at the feet of the
King. These were the first eagles to be received in England, and
His Majesty was pleased to command that they should be escorted
in state by the regiments of the Household Brigade to St. Paul's
Cathedral, where they were received with all due solemnity. In the
early days of the reign of Queen Victoria these eagles were removed
to the chapel of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, where they may be
seen to this day.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF MARTINIQUE, 1809.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Roy. Fusiliers    |   1 |   2 |  36 | 119 |
  |8th K. Liverp.    |   1 |   0 |   4 |  13 |
  |R. Welsh Fus.     |   0 |   1 |  19 | 101 |
  |90th Scot. Rifles |   - |   2 |   8 |  31 |
  |W. India Regt.    |   - |   - |   2 |  19 |
  |L.I. Battalion    |   1 |   5 |  26 |  71 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In the year 1847, when the late Queen Victoria granted a medal to
the survivors of the wars against France, Martinique was included
in the list of campaigns for which the medal was to be conferred,
and a special clasp "Martinique" was issued with both the military
and naval General Service Medal.

By the Treaty of Amiens Martinique was handed over to the French,
but on Napoleon's escape from Elba it declared for the Emperor,
and General Leith was despatched with a strong force to recapture
the island. Fortunately, the Governor, recognizing the hopelessness
of resistance, surrendered without attempting a useless defence,
and so for a few months Martinique again became a British
possession, only to be handed back when Napoleon was safe under
restraint.


GUADELOUPE, 1810.

The regiments which are authorized to bear this honour are the

  East Yorkshire.
  Scottish Rifles.
  East Surrey.
  Manchester.
  West India.

The island on three previous occasions had been captured, and
thrice restored to the French. Once again it became necessary to
take measures for its reduction. Sir George Beckwith, who had so
successfully carried out the conquest of Martinique in the previous
year, was selected for the command of the expedition, with Generals
Hyslop and Harcourt as Divisional Generals under him. The force was
distributed as under:

  First Division: Major-General Hyslop.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General McLean: 90th Light Infantry
  (2nd Scottish Rifles), 8th West India Regiment, and a battalion
  composed of the light companies of all the regiments present in
  the West Indies.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General Skinner: 13th (Somerset Light
  Infantry), 63rd (Manchesters), and the York Rangers (a colonial
  corps).

  Second Division: Major-General Harcourt, who also commanded the
  Third Brigade, which consisted of the 15th (East Yorkshire), 3rd
  West India Regiment, and a second light infantry battalion.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General Barrow: 25th (King's Own
  Scottish Borderers), 2nd West India Regiment, and a battalion
  composed of the grenadier companies of the regiments present.

  Reserve Brigade--Brigadier-General Wale, under whom were placed
  a battalion composed of the grenadier companies of the regiments
  in the West Indies, a detachment of the York Rangers, and 300
  artillerymen.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF GUADELOUPE, 1810.

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery      |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |13th Somerset L.I.   |   - |   1 |   5 |   - |
  |East Yorkshire       |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |40th Cornwall L.I.   |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |King's Roy. R.       |   - |   2 |   4 |  11 |
  |63rd M'chesters      |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |90th Scottish Rifles |   - |   1 |   3 |   9 |
  |West India Regiments |   - |   4 |   7 |  84 |
  |York Rangers         |   4 |   5 |  28 | 102 |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In the year 1847 the General Service Medal was granted to the
survivors of this expedition, with a special clasp inscribed
"Guadeloupe."

In the year 1814, on the conclusion of the war with France,
Guadeloupe was once more restored; but on the escape of Napoleon
from Elba it threw off its allegiance to Louis XVIII., and declared
for the Emperor. Once more an expedition was organized for its
reduction, and though the futility of resistance was pointed out,
the garrison, by its unnecessary loyalty to a dead cause, compelled
the General to resort to force. The command of the 1815 expedition
was entrusted to Major-General Leith, the regiments selected being
the East Yorkshires, who have participated in every expedition
to the West Indies since the year 1759; the King's Own Scottish
Borderers; the 63rd (Manchesters); and the local West India
Regiments. The only casualties were--

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |63rd M'chesters |   - |   2 |   3 |  20 |
  |W. India Regt.  |   - |   2 |  13 |  31 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER IX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN EGYPT AND THE SOUDAN, 1802-1898

Egypt with the Sphinx--Mandora, 1802--Marabout, 1802--Egypt,
1882--Tel-el-Kebir, 1882--The Nile, 1884-85--Abu Klea,
1885--Kirbekan, 1885--Suakin, 1885--Tofrek, 1885--Hafir,
1896--Atbara, 1898--Khartoum, 1898.


EGYPT (WITH THE SPHINX).

On July 6, 1802, this distinction was conferred by King George
III. on the regiments named below, "as a distinguished mark of
His Majesty's royal approbation, and as a lasting memorial of the
glory acquired to His Majesty's arms by the zeal, discipline, and
intrepidity of his troops in that arduous and important campaign."
So ran the _Gazette_.

Five-and-forty years later, after much discussion and not a little
opposition, the grant of the Peninsular medal was extended to the
survivors of the campaign. The regiments that bear this battle
honour are the

  11th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's.
  King's Liverpool Regiment.
  Lincolns.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Royal Irish.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Cameronians.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashire.
  Dorsets.
  South Stafford.
  Royal Highlanders.
  South Lancashire.
  Northamptons.
  Essex.
  Royal West Kent.
  Manchesters.
  Cameron Highlanders
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  102nd King Edward's Own Grenadiers.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  113th Infantry.

The only regiments of the Indian Army now left which accompanied
the army under Sir David Baird in that memorable march across the
desert from Kosseir to the Nile are the 102nd King Edward's Own
Grenadiers, the 113th Infantry, and the 2nd Queen's Own Sappers and
Miners, a grand offshoot of the Royal Engineers. This distinguished
corps, known in olden days as the Madras Sappers and Miners, has no
less than thirty-one battle honours on its appointments, all won
between the Nile and the Peiho Rivers.

The object of the expedition to Egypt was to drive the French out
of the country, to restore it to its rightful owners, the Turks,
and to safeguard our Indian possessions, which were then threatened
by attempts on the part of Bonaparte to enter into alliances with
the independent Princes in Hindoostan. The command of the army was
entrusted to Sir Ralph Abercromby, an officer who possessed the
confidence of the army and of the country. He had recently effected
the conquest of the West India Islands, and was one of the few
Generals who had emerged from the late campaign in Flanders with an
enhanced reputation. His army of 17,000 men was brigaded as under:

  Cavalry Brigade: One troop of the 11th and the whole of the 12th
  and 26th Light Dragoons.

  Guards' Brigade--Major-General Ludlow: 1st Coldstream and 1st
  Scots Guards.

  First Brigade--Major-General Coote: Royal Scots, 54th
  (Dorsets--two battalions), and 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

  Second Brigade--Major-General Craddock: 8th (King's Liverpools),
  13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 18th Royal Irish, and the 90th
  (Scottish Rifles).

  Third Brigade--Major-General Lord Cavan: 50th (West Kent) and
  79th (Cameron Highlanders).

  Fourth Brigade--Major-General Doyle: 2nd (Queen's), 30th (East
  Lancashire), 44th (Essex), and 89th (Royal Irish Fusiliers).

  Fifth Brigade--Major-General John Stuart: Minorca, De Rolles',
  and Dillon's Regiments.

  Reserve--Major-General Sir John Moore: 23rd (Royal Welsh
  Fusiliers), 28th (Gloucesters), 42nd (Royal Highlanders), 58th
  (Northamptons), and a wing of the 40th (South Lancashires).

The artillery consisted of four batteries of 6-pounders, three
batteries of 12 pounders, with a small siege-train. Only one
battery was horsed, and although officers had been despatched many
months before to purchase horses in Syria, the obstacles thrown
in their way by the Turkish authorities had effectually prevented
either artillery or cavalry taking the field properly equipped.
When the army disembarked, the Cavalry Brigade consisted of 320
mounted men--

  +-----------------------------------+-----------+----------+---------+
  |                                   |           |_N.C.O.'s_|         |
  |           _Regiments._            |_Officers._|_and Men._|_Horses._|
  +-----------------------------------+-----------+----------+---------+
  |Troop of 11th Light Dragoons (now  |           |          |         |
  |  11th Hussars), C.-in-C.'s escort |      4    |      55  |    61   |
  |12th Light Dragoons                |     23    |     527  |   128   |
  |26th Light Dragoons                |     19    |     473  |   131   |
  +-----------------------------------+-----------+----------+---------+

--whilst for the artillery there were but sixty-four horses, and
this despite the promises of the Turkish Government that all horses
necessary for the army should be delivered in Marmorice Bay before
the army left for Egypt.

The disembarkation of the army on March 8, 1802, was effected
under a heavy fire, there being 31 officers and 642 of all ranks
killed and wounded. It was carried out by the Reserve, under
Sir John Moore, and the Brigade of Guards with a gallantry that
compelled the admiration of the whole army. The point selected had
been decided on by the Commander-in-Chief in conjunction with the
Admiral. By nightfall the whole of the army, with the exception of
the horses, was on shore, and on the morning of the 13th Abercromby
commenced his advance on Alexandria. The troops moved in three
columns, Moore's brigade being on the right, marching parallel
to the sea. The centre division was composed of the brigades of
Craddock, Coote, and the Brigade of Guards. It was led by the
90th (Scottish Rifles). The left column consisted of Lord Cavan's
brigade, a battalion of Marines, and the three foreign regiments;
the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) was in front. In the course of
the march the French made a most determined attack, their cavalry
charging down on the leading companies of the 90th. This corps
and the 92nd, which bore the brunt of the fighting, behaved with
the utmost steadiness, thus giving the regiments in rear time to
deploy, when the French were driven back on their own position,
from which they were driven with loss.

  [Illustration: GENERAL SIR RALPH ABERCROMBY.
  To face page 124.]


MANDORA, MARCH 13, 1802.

This battle honour is borne by the Scottish Rifles and the Gordon
Highlanders, and was conferred upon these two young regiments in
recognition of the gallantry with which they met and repelled the
attack of a vastly superior body of French, as related above. The
total loss of the army on March 13 amounted to 6 officers and
153 men killed, 66 officers and 1,936 men wounded, the heaviest
casualties being those of the two regiments who bear "Mandora" on
their colours. The 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), which was in the
immediate rear of the 90th, at once moved up to its support, and
also suffered very heavily. The 90th (Scottish Rifles) were under
the command of their junior Lieutenant-Colonel, afterwards better
known as General Viscount Hill, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army.
He was badly wounded at Mandora, when the command of the regiment
devolved on the next senior officer, Major Moncrieff, who a few
days subsequently was given the command of the 44th (Essex), on
its Colonel being killed. Thence he was moved, at Sir John Moore's
request, to the 52nd, in order to train that distinguished corps
as a light infantry regiment. Although the 90th at that time had
not the designation of light infantry, its founder, Colonel Graham,
afterwards Lord Lynedoch had from its earliest days trained it as
a light infantry corps, impelled thereto because its predecessor,
which had fought so well at the capture of Belleisle, Martinique,
and Havana, was at that time (1759-1764) the only light infantry
regiment in the British army, and the stout old Scotsman never
rested until he had secured the same title for the new 90th.


CASUALTIES OF THE 90TH AND 92ND AT MANDORA.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |90th Scottish Rifles    |   1 |   7 |  29 | 242 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders |   - |  11 |  19 | 110 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On March 21 the French made a third and final attack on
Abercromby's army, now in the immediate vicinity of Alexandria.
This again was repulsed, but our casualties were very heavy,
amounting to 75 officers and 1,400 of all ranks killed and wounded,
the heaviest loss falling on the 42nd (Royal Highlanders), a
corps which in all three actions had shown the most consummate
gallantry, its casualties in the three engagements being 506 killed
and wounded. In the course of this action Sir Ralph Abercromby
received a mortal wound, and the command of the army devolved upon
General Hutchinson. Leaving a sufficient force to cover Alexandria,
the new Commander-in-Chief at once commenced an advance on Cairo,
and on June 13 he had the satisfaction of receiving the surrender
of 13,000 French soldiers, who were massed at the capital. Of
these, some 8,000 were effectives, and the task of guarding them
on the return march to the sea was one that required much acumen,
for the total number of British troops at this time at Cairo was
barely 4,000. The army at Alexandria had, however, been reinforced
by a strong brigade from the Mediterranean, made up of the 20th
(Lancashire Fusiliers), 24th (South Wales Borderers), 25th (King's
Own Scottish Borderers), 26th (Cameronians), and the 27th (Royal
Inniskilling Fusiliers).

A further addition to the British army was now made in the shape of
a division which had been despatched from India under the command
of a tried and gallant officer, Sir David Baird. It comprised a
squadron of the 8th Hussars, the 10th (Lincolns), 86th (Royal Irish
Rifles), 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), 88th (Connaught Rangers),
four battalions of sepoys, some English gunners in the Company's
service, and some native sappers. The 8th Hussars and 86th (Royal
Irish Rifles) had landed at Suez, and marched direct across the
desert to Cairo. The other regiments were disembarked at Kosseir,
whence they marched to Keneh, on the Nile, a distance of 100 miles;
then, taking native boats, they dropped down stream to Cairo. As
soon as the convoy of prisoners had embarked to France, General
Hutchinson was enabled to turn his attention to Alexandria, in
which a considerable garrison was closely besieged.


MARABOUT, AUGUST 17, 1802.

This battle honour is borne by the Dorsetshires, and commemorates
the service of the 54th Regiment in the operations outside
Alexandria in the summer of 1802. The old 54th had been entrusted
with the task of keeping watch and ward over the French garrison in
Fort Marabout, and it was their successful capture of the redoubt
at the tomb of a Moslem saint which brought home to General Menou
the futility of further resistance. He hoisted the white flag, when
he and his army were permitted a safe conduct to France, on giving
an undertaking that they would not serve against England during the
continuance of the war. The Treaty of Amiens followed soon after
the surrender of Alexandria, and on the renewal of hostilities in
1803 the army of Egypt was once more free to act against us.

Before quitting the subject of the Egyptian campaign of 1802, it
appears pertinent to remark that there seems to exist no valid
reason why the 8th Hussars should not be accorded this distinction.
It may be urged that the headquarters of the regiment was not
present. The 11th Hussars bear the honour, and but one troop was
in Egypt, so that this contention does not hold good. Again, it may
be urged that they were not engaged. This would bear with equal
force against the infantry regiments which formed a portion of
Sir David Baird's force. All these have been authorized to bear
the distinction of "Egypt" (with the Sphinx). Why the 8th Hussars
have been denied this privilege is one of the many anomalies which
surround the question of battle honours.[10]


CASUALTIES IN THE THREE PRINCIPAL ENGAGEMENTS IN EGYPT.

     Legend: _Of._ = _Officers._
  +----------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
  |                |  MARCH 8.  |  MARCH 13  | MARCH 21   |  AUGUST 23 |
  |                |            | (MANDORA). |(ALEXANDRIA)| (MARABOUT).|
  |  _Regiments._  +-----+------+-----+------+-----+------+-----+------|
  |                |_Of._|_Men._|_Of._|_Men._|_Of._|_Men._|_Of._|_Men._|
  |                +--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---|
  |                |K.|W.|K.| W.|K.|W.|K.| W.|K.|W.|K.| W.|K.|W.|K.| W.|
  |----------------+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---|
  |11th Hussars    |- | -| -| - | -| -| -| - | -| -| -|  3| -| -| -| - |
  |12th Hussars    |- | -| -| - | -| 1| 1| - | -| -| -|  6| -| -| -| - |
  |Royal Artillery |- | -| -| - | -| 2| 2| 15| -| 5|14| 40| -| -| -| - |
  |Royal Engineers |- | -| -| - | -| -| -| - | -| -| -|  -| -| -| -| - |
  |Coldstream      |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Guards        | 1| 5|17| 69| 1| 1| 2|  4| -| -| 7| 53| -| -| -| - |
  |Scots Guards    |- | -| 5| 40| -| -| 4| 14| 1| 3|41|153| -| -| -| - |
  |1st Royal Scots |- | 4|12| 43| -| -| 4| 21| -| 4| 9| 69| -| -| -| - |
  |2nd Queen's     |- | -| -| - | -| -| 1| 14| -| 1| -| 10| -| -| -| - |
  |8th King's      |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  | Liverpool Regt.|- | -| -| - | -| 6|11| 65| -| -| 1|  2| -| -| -| - |
  |13th Somerset   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Light Infantry|- | -| -| - | 1| 9|16|100| -| -| -|  1| -| -| -| - |
  |18th Royal Irish|- | -| -| - | 1| 3| -| 45| -| -| -|  1| -| -| -| - |
  |23rd Royal Welsh|  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  | Fusiliers      |- | 2| 6| 38| -| -| 2|  4| -| 1| 5| 14| -| -| -| - |
  |28th Gloucesters|- | -| 5| 34| 1| 1| 9| 23| -| 4|20| 50| -| -| -| - |
  |30th East       |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Lancashire    |- | -| -| - | 1| 2| 2|  6| -| 2| 4| 24| -| -| -| - |
  |40th South      |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Lancashire    |1 | 2|15| 31| -| -| -|  2| -| 1| 4|  2| -| -| -| - |
  |42nd Black Watch|- | 8|21|148| -| 3| 1| 12| 4| 8|48|253| -| -| -| - |
  |44th Essex      |- | -| -| - | -| 3| 2| 22| -| 1| 1| 15| -| -| -| - |
  |50th West Kent  |- | -| -| - | 1| -| 5| 39| -| 4| 1| 37| -| -| -| - |
  |54th Dorsetshire|1 | 2| 4| 17| -| 7|13| 37| 1| 2| 4| 48| -| 2| 2| 14|
  |58th Northampton|1 | 2|10| 45| -| -| 2|  9| 1| 2| 2| 19| -| -| -| - |
  |79th Cameron    |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Highlanders   |- | -| -| - | -| 3| 5| 58| -| 1| 1| 20| -| -| -| - |
  |89th Royal Irish|  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Fusiliers     |- | -| -| - | -| -| -|  7| -| 2| 2| 10| -| -| -| - |
  |90th Scottish   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Rifles        |- | -| -| - | 1| 7|29|214| -| -| -|  1| -| -| -| - |
  |92nd Gordon     |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |  |  |  |   |
  |  Highlanders   |- | -| -| - | -|11|19|110| -| 2| 3| 37| -| -| -| - |
  +----------------+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+--+--+--+---+


EGYPT, 1882.

The following regiments have been authorized to add the above
honour to their colours and appointments:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  4th Dragoon Guards.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  19th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Irish.
  South Stafford.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Royal Sussex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Royal Berkshire.
  Royal West Kent.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Manchesters.
  York and Lancaster.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  2nd (Gardner's Horse).
  6th King Edward's Own Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  13th (Watson's Horse).
  7th Rajputs.
  20th (Brownlow's Punjabis).
  129th Baluchis.
  Royal Malta Artillery.

In the year 1882 the chronic misgovernment in Egypt led to serious
disturbances, which culminated in the assumption of power by the
military party, and an organized attack on all Christians. So
critical was the situation, that it was considered necessary to
send the fleets of the allied Powers to Alexandria; and after an
Arab mob had wreaked its vengeance on the city, the British fleet
bombarded the forts and sent ashore landing parties to restore
order. The British Government now determined to employ armed force
to uphold the authority of the Khedive, and an Expeditionary Force,
under the command of General Sir Garnet Wolseley, was organized
for this purpose.

The Egyptian army, which had thrown off all allegiance to the
Khedive, had taken up a strong position at Tel-el-Kebir astride
of the railway, barring the advance on the capital. Sir Garnet,
on landing at Alexandria, took steps to secure the safe passage
of the Suez Canal, and on August 21 he was able to land the bulk
of his troops at Ismailia, the halfway station between Port
Said, the Mediterranean terminus, and Suez, the Red Sea terminus
of the canal. After one or two minor actions at Kassassin and
Tel-el-Mahuta, Sir Garnet advanced on Tel-el-Kebir.

The casualties sustained by the troops at the few engagements that
took place during the operations (apart from those at Tel-el-Kebir)
were insignificant:

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Life Guards             |   - |   - |   6 |   8 |
  |2nd Life Guards             |   - |   1 |   1 |   6 |
  |Royal Horse Guards          |   - |   - |   1 |   9 |
  |4th Drag. Gds.              |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |7th Drag. Gds.              |   1 |   1 |   1 |   8 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   - |   3 |  12 |
  |Royal Marine Artillery      |   - |   3 |   6 |  21 |
  |2nd Batt. Roy. Irish        |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |46th Corn. L.I.             |   - |   4 |   - |  14 |
  |R. Marine L.I.              |   - |   - |   - |  25 |
  |3rd Batt. 60th Royal Rifles |   - |   - |   2 |  28 |
  |84th York and Lancaster     |   - |   - |   1 |  21 |
  |2nd Gardner's Horse         |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |13th Watson's Horse         |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


TEL-EL-KEBIR, SEPTEMBER 12, 1882.

The regiments named below are authorized to bear this battle honour:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  4th Dragoon Guards.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  19th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Irish.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Royal Highlanders.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  York and Lancaster.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  13th (Watson's Horse).
  2nd (Gardner's Horse).
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  6th King Edward's Own Cavalry.
  20th (Brownlow's Punjabis).
  7th Rajputs.
  129th Baluchis.

This battle honour commemorates the first action in which the
Household Cavalry were engaged since Waterloo. The hypercritical
may claim that the composite regiment, under Brigadier Ewart,
took part in the midnight charge on September 28, and this is
strictly true; but Kassassin does not figure on the standards or
appointments of the Household Cavalry, whereas Tel-el-Kebir does.

The Egyptian position at Tel-el-Kebir lay at right angles to the
railway and the Sweet Water Canal. It was covered by a long line
of trenches, flanked with powerful redoubts, and was held by some
30,000 men, with 60 guns. Sir Garnet's force barely numbered
15,000. To attempt the attack of such a formidable position in
daylight would have been to court serious loss, and Sir Garnet,
with a firm faith in his men, essayed the hazardous task of a long
night's march, as a prelude to an attack on the entrenched position
at dawn. At 11 p.m. the advance commenced, the First Division,
under Lieutenant-General Willis on the right; the Second, under
Lieutenant-General Hamley, on the left. Dawn was just breaking
when the Highland Brigade reached the Egyptian trenches, and, with
a mighty cheer, dashed over the parapet. Within a few minutes the
first division attacked also, and the cavalry, sweeping round the
rear, cut in on the flying enemy. An immediate pursuit was ordered,
and on the evening of September 14 the citadel of Cairo was in
our hands, the Cavalry Brigade having covered sixty-five miles in
twenty-four hours. The promptitude with which Sir Garnet Wolseley
followed up the victory of Tel-el-Kebir brought the rebellion to
an end, but it was clear that the continuance of the Khedivial
authority must henceforth rest on the protection that might be
afforded him by the English army of occupation. For this purpose
Sir Archibald Alison, who had commanded the Highland Brigade
with conspicuous success during the course of the operations,
was left in command of a British force, numbering some 10,000
men, whilst Major-General Sir Evelyn Wood was entrusted with the
re-organization of the Egyptian army.

As will be seen from a perusal of the following list of casualties,
the brunt of the fighting at Tel-el-Kebir fell on the Highland
Brigade, which suffered more heavily here than it did at the
historic Battle of the Alma.


CASUALTIES AT TEL-EL-KEBIR, SEPTEMBER 12, 1882.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Grenadier Gds.            |   - |   1 |   1 |   9 |
  |Coldstream Gds.           |   - |   1 |   - |   7 |
  |Scots Guards              |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |2nd Batt. Royal Irish     |   1 |   2 |   1 |  17 |
  |46th Corn. L.I.           |   - |   1 |   - |   5 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders    |   1 |   6 |   7 |  37 |
  |3rd Batt. K. Roy. Rifles  |   - |   - |   - |  20 |
  |84th York and Lancaster   |   - |   - |   - |  12 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |74th Highland L.I.        |   3 |   5 |  14 |  52 |
  |75th Gordon Highlanders   |   1 |   1 |   5 |  29 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders  |   - |   3 |  13 |  45 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers |   - |   - |   2 |  34 |
  |         ----             |     |     |     |     |
  |2nd Gardner's Horse       |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |6th K.E.O. Cavalry        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Watson's Horse       |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |7th Rajputs               |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |20th Brownlow's Punjabis  |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Following the precedent of the Crimean War, when British officers
and soldiers were authorized to receive and to wear decorations
and medals bestowed by our allies, the Queen sanctioned the
acceptance of a very generous bestowal of orders of the Osmanieh
and Medjidieh, whilst every officer and man received a bronze star
commemorative of the campaign at the hands of the Khedive.


TURKISH DECORATIONS BESTOWED FOR THE CAMPAIGN OF 1882.

  +-------------------------------+-----------+------------+
  |         _Regiments._          |_Osmanieh._|_Medjidieh._|
  +-------------------------------+-----------+------------+
  |General officers               |     4     |      6     |
  |Staff officers                 |    51     |     94     |
  |1st Life Guards (one squadron) |     1     |      -     |
  |2nd Life Guards (one squadron) |     1     |      1     |
  |Roy. Horse Gds. (one squadron) |     -     |      1     |
  |4th Drag. Gds.                 |     -     |      3     |
  |7th Drag. Gds.                 |     2     |      1     |
  |19th Hussars                   |     2     |      1     |
  |Royal Artillery                |     3     |     18     |
  |Roy. Engineers                 |     1     |      4     |
  |Grenadier Gds.                 |     2     |      2     |
  |Coldstream Gds.                |     3     |      1     |
  |Scots Guards                   |     3     |      1     |
  |Royal Irish                    |     3     |      1     |
  |38th South Staffords           |     2     |      2     |
  |42nd Roy. Highlanders          |     3     |      1     |
  |46th Cornwall L.I.             |     3     |      1     |
  |50th West Kent                 |     3     |      1     |
  |60th King's Royal Rifles       |     3     |      1     |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders      |     3     |      1     |
  |74th High. L.I.                |     2     |      2     |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders       |     3     |      1     |
  |84th York and Lancaster        |     3     |      1     |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers      |     3     |      1     |
  |      ----                     |           |            |
  |2nd Gardner's Horse            |     1     |      2     |
  |6th K.E.O. Cavalry             |     1     |      2     |
  |13th Watson's Horse            |     1     |      1     |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners    |     1     |      1     |
  |7th Rajputs                    |     1     |      2     |
  |20th Brownlow's Punjabis       |     1     |      2     |
  |129th Baluchis                 |     1     |      2     |
  +-------------------------------+-----------+------------+


NILE, 1884-85.

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which, under
Generals Earle and Sir Herbert Stewart, essayed to save General C.
Gordon, R.E., then hemmed in by fanatical Moslems at Khartoum. The
regiments entitled to bear the honour are the

  19th Hussars.
  Royal Irish.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Royal Sussex.
  South Staffordshire.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Essex.
  Royal West Kent.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.

Looking back after the event, it is clear that the British
Government did not appreciate the responsibilities they had
assumed when they left Sir Archibald Alison in command of the army
of occupation after the victory of Tel-el-Kebir. Not only was the
authority of the Khedive gone in Egypt proper, but it had vanished
in the far-off regions of the Soudan, which were now in the hands
of a fanatical Moslem false prophet, who styled himself the Mahdi.
At one time, in the days of the Khedive Ismail, the Soudan had been
administered by General Charles Gordon, of the Royal Engineers.
One of the most remarkable men of his generation, General Gordon
was the type of the earlier Christian martyrs, and as a Christian
martyr he died. At the request of the Khedive, and with the consent
of the British Government, General Gordon assumed the Governorship
of the Soudan, and set out for his post early in 1884. Into the
history of Gordon's gallant defence of Khartoum it is no part of my
province to enter. Towards the end of the year he was hard pressed,
and, though ordered to abandon the Soudan, he declined to do so.
It became necessary to organize a force, not merely to effect his
rescue, but also to restore the authority of the Khedive in the
Soudan and the Equatorial provinces of Egypt, where only the writ
of the Mahdi was allowed to run.

Once more Sir Garnet Wolseley was selected for the chief command,
and two expeditionary forces were organized, the one operating by
the River Nile, the other from the Red Sea port of Suakin. The
Commander-in-Chief accompanied the river column, which numbered
some 5,500 men. On reaching Korti, about the end of November, Sir
Herbert Stewart, with the camel corps, was detached to push across
the desert and occupy the Jakdul Wells. This was successfully
accomplished, and on December 8 he commenced another stage on the
march to Khartoum; but on nearing the wells of Abu Klea, these were
found to be in possession of the enemy, when was fought the action
which is inscribed on the colours and appointments of but two
regiments in the British army.


ABU KLEA, JANUARY 28, 1885.

This battle honour was conferred on the 19th Hussars and the Royal
Sussex Regiment for their services in the sharp action of January
28, 1885, when the commander of the force, Major-General Sir
Herbert Stewart, received a mortal wound, dying a few days after
the fight. Although the distinction was only granted to the two
regiments above mentioned, the brigade under General Stewart's
command comprised a naval brigade, under Captain Lord Charles
Beresford, and a camel corps, made up of regiments of heavy and
of light cavalry of the Household Cavalry and of the Brigade of
Guards, and a force of Mounted Infantry: no less than twenty-two
regiments were represented in the camel corps which fought so well
at Abu Klea.


CASUALTIES AT ABU KLEA.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Hussars              |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |Naval Brigade             |   2 |   2 |   6 |   9 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   2 |   - |   2 |
  |Heavy Cavalry Camel Corps |   6 |   - |  48 |  28 |
  |35th R. Sussex            |   - |   - |   5 |  25 |
  |Light Cavalry Camel Corps |   1 |   3 |   8 |   9 |
  |Mounted Infantry          |   - |   1 |   5 |  35 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


KIRBEKAN, FEBRUARY 10, 1885.

This battle honour, which is borne by the South Staffordshires and
the Royal Highlanders, commemorates the only action fought by what
was known as the River Column in the advance up the Nile for the
relief of General Gordon in the Soudan Campaign of 1885.

Whilst Sir Herbert Stewart with the camel corps was endeavouring
to force his way to Khartoum by the desert route, Major-General
Earle, a guardsman at the head of the River Column, was slowly
moving south from Korti. On February 10 an indecisive action was
fought with a small body of the enemy. Our losses were numerically
insignificant, but they included the General in command,
Major-General W. Earle, late of the Grenadier Guards, and the
commanding officers of the two line regiments present.

The news of the death of General Gordon and the occupation of
Khartoum by the Mahdi caused the Home Government to order the
withdrawal of the British troops from the Nile, and the task of
conducting the retirement was entrusted to Major-General Sir
Redvers Buller.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF KIRBEKAN.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |   K |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff          |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |38th S. Staffs         |   1 |   2 |   5 |  22 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders |   1 |   2 |   4 |  21 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SUAKIN, 1885.[11]

This honour, which commemorates a short campaign in the Eastern
Soudan, is borne by the

  5th Lancers.
  20th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Berkshires.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  9th Hodson's Horse.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
  17th (Loyal Regiment).
  128th Pioneers.

Whilst the Mahdi himself was conducting his successful campaign
against General Gordon at Khartoum, one of his Lieutenants,
Osman Digna, a slave merchant of Suakin, was pursuing a no less
successful career at Suakin, on the coast of the Red Sea. On two
occasions Egyptian armies had been worsted by him, and in the
month of December, 1883, a British officer, Colonel Valentine
Baker, was routed by an inferior body of tribesmen in an endeavour
to relieve the Egyptian fort at Tokar. Of his force of 3,700 men,
no less than 2,375 were killed, including 11 British officers. In
the spring of 1884 Major-General Sir Gerald Graham was despatched
to Suakin to teach Osman Digna a much-needed lesson, and in the
month of February Sir Gerald inflicted two severe defeats on the
tribesmen at El-Teb and Tamai. A medal and clasp were granted for
these services, but they have not been recorded on the list of
battle honours of the army.

When the withdrawal from the Nile was decided on, instructions were
despatched to Sir Gerald Graham at Suakin to prepare for an advance
on Berber from Suakin. His force was brought up to a strength of
13,000 men, including a contingent from New South Wales and a
brigade from India. This force was distributed as under:

  Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham, V.C.,
  K.C.B.

  Cavalry Brigade--Major-General Sir Henry Ewart, K.C.B.: The 5th
  Lancers, 20th Hussars, and 9th (Hodson's Horse).

  Brigade of Guards--Major-General Lyon Fremantle: A battalion of
  each of the three regiments--the Grenadiers, the Coldstream and
  the Scots Guards--and the Australian contingent.

  Second Brigade--Major-General Sir John MacNeill, V.C., K.C.B.:
  The 49th (Royal Berkshire Regiment), 53rd (Shropshire Light
  Infantry), and a battalion of the Royal Marine Light Infantry.

  Indian Brigade--Brigadier-General J. Hudson, C.B.: The 15th
  Ludhiana Sikhs, 17th (Loyal Regiment), and the 128th Pioneers.

To these must be added a battery of horse and two of field
artillery, with a well-horsed, but only partially trained,
battery of Australians. Sir Gerald's orders were to press on
the construction of the railway to Berber, a feat which did not
receive much encouragement on the spot, as it was felt that the
nature of the country and the want of water on the route selected
somewhat militated against success. The troops were much harassed
by continuous night attacks, whilst the superior mobility of the
enemy, who invariably shirked attack, prevented the General from
inflicting any serious damage to the causes of the Mahdi. One
action in this expedition has been rescued from oblivion, but it is
open to question whether at the time it was considered a victory.


TOFREK, MARCH 22, 1885.

This battle honour records the services of the under-mentioned
regiments in a sharp little fight outside the town of Suakin, on
the Red Sea, in the campaign of the Eastern Soudan, in 1885. It is
borne on the colours of the

  Royal Berkshire.
  Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  17th (Loyal Regiment).
  15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
  128th Pioneers.

In the early morn of March 22 Sir John MacNeill, a gallant and
experienced soldier, was sent out from Suakin with orders to form
a halfway camp on the route to Tamai. The road lay through a dense
thorn-bush, and the reconnoitring was unfortunately confided to
the 5th Lancers, a young regiment with no experience of Eastern
warfare. They were all unused to the glare of the Egyptian desert,
and gave no timely warning of the proximity of the enemy. The
brigade was attacked when half the men were busy cutting the
jungle to form a breastwork, but there was no confusion until the
camels, terrified by the onrush of the Soudanese, who commenced
ham-stringing the animals, broke the line of the rear face of the
hastily-formed square. The commanding officer of the regiment fell
in rallying his men. In twenty minutes the rush of the tribesmen
was repulsed, and though our losses were severe, those of the enemy
were enormous. Over 2,000 were buried by our men. Such a lesson was
taught them that from that day until the withdrawal of Sir Gerald
Graham's force no further attacks were made on his camp.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF TOFREK.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade             |   1 |   1 |   6 |   5 |
  |5th Lancers               |   1 |   - |   - |   5 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |Roy. Engineers            |   2 |   1 |  13 |   3 |
  |49th Berkshires           |   1 |   - |  22 |  30 |
  |Royal Marines             |   - |   - |   7 |  16 |
  |Madras Sappers and Miners |   2 |   1 |  12 |  20 |
  |15th Sikhs                |   - |   - |   9 |  11 |
  |17th Loyal Regiment       |   1 |   1 |  20 |  33 |
  |128th Pioneers            |   1 |   1 |   5 |   9 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


HAFIR.

This battle honour is borne only by the Prince of Wales's (North
Staffordshire) Regiment, and was awarded to them in recognition of
their conduct during the operation leading to the action of Hafir,
in the month of September, 1896.

Eleven years had elapsed since the engagements on the Nile and at
Tofrek, and during those eleven years the process of reorganizing
the Egyptian army had been ceaselessly carried on under the
direction of the British officers lent to the Khedive. Sir Evelyn
Wood had been succeeded by General Grenfell, and Grenfell by
General Kitchener. Our Consul-General at Cairo occupied a unique
position, for he was the virtual ruler of Egypt. A soldier
by profession, and one of the earliest of the Staff College
graduates, Sir Evelyn Baring had profited by his experience in
many appointments, in all of which he had acquired ripe stores
of priceless knowledge. Soldier, financier, diplomatist, he was
_facile princeps_ in all; and though Sir Herbert Kitchener was the
General who broke the back of Mahdiism, the brain which devised
and the hand which guided the machinery were those of Sir Evelyn
Baring. During those eleven years the Egyptian army had on more
than one occasion been pitted against the Mahdi's troops. The men
had learnt self-reliance, and possessed the most boundless faith
in their British officers. Step by step the army was converted
into a battle machine. The battalions of fellaheen were stiffened
with battalions of blacks from the Soudan. No better fighting
material exists in Africa. And as it improved in value, so were
the necessary measures taken to break the power of the Mahdi. The
railway was pushed farther south up the Nile, a strong brigade of
native troops was despatched from India to Suakin, and the Egyptian
army, stiffened with but one British regiment, taught that it was
now able to face the Mahdi's men. At Firket, in May, 1896, the
first of these combats took place, and in September, at Hafir, a
decisive success was gained, which opened the road to Dongola. The
64th (North Staffordshire) Regiment--the only corps which bears
the honour on its colours--was not actually engaged, and suffered
no casualties at the hands of the enemy; but it lost heavily by
disease in the operation leading up to the action, and so has been
authorized to assume the battle honour.

In the meantime the Khalifa was not idle. He recalled Osman Digna
from Suakin, and personally superintended the organization of
his troops at Omdurman, opposite Khartoum. Kitchener's force was
gradually strengthened. No less than thirteen gunboats had been
brought up the Nile in sections, and, being of shallow draft, were
able to co-operate with the troops on the banks. The time had now
come for the final attempt to reconquer the Soudan. In January,
1898, Kitchener's force was further reinforced by a brigade of
British troops under Major-General Gatacre, an officer who had
shown himself possessed of the highest attributes of a soldier
in our Indian frontier wars. The army that now faced the Khalifa
on the Atbara River comprised Gatacre's brigade (the Warwicks,
Lincolns, Seaforth, and Cameron Highlanders), three brigades of
Egyptian troops, with a brigade of Egyptian cavalry and the camel
corps. On April 5 the Sirdar made a careful reconnaissance of the
Khalifa's position, and on the early morning of the 8th commenced a
severe bombardment of the entrenchments behind which the Khalifa's
forces lay.


ATBARA, APRIL 8, 1898.

This battle honour is borne by the

  Royal Warwicks.
  Lincolns.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.

It commemorates the action fought by the army under Sir Herbert
Kitchener, prior to the capture of Khartoum and the overthrow of
Mahdiism. In our earlier dealings with the forces of Mahdiism,
even when they were opposed to British troops, we had always found
the enemy ready to meet us. At El Teb and Abu Klea, at Tamai and
Tofrek, they had never hesitated to charge our squares. Now a
different system of tactics was inaugurated, showing that they had
learnt a bitter lesson. The fact that the Mahdists awaited them
behind entrenchments, instead of charging down sword or spear in
hand, naturally infused courage into our own black troops, and
when, after an hour's bombardment, Kitchener stormed the enemy's
position, Egyptian fellaheen vied with kilted Highlander as to who
should lead the way to the front. Our success was complete: over
3,000 of the enemy were killed, our losses totalling 88 killed and
472 wounded, in both British and Egyptian forces.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Batt. 6th R. Warwicks |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |1st Batt. 10th Lincolns   |   - |   3 |   1 |  13 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   2 |   4 |   5 |  22 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders  |   3 |   1 |  13 |  44 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


KHARTOUM, 1898.

This battle honour, which records the services of the army
commanded by Sir Herbert Kitchener at the capture of the
stronghold of Mahdiism, is borne by the

  21st Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Lincolnshire.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.

The decisive success achieved at the Atbara on April 8, 1898,
opened the road to Khartoum. The railway was now pushed on to the
Atbara River, and fresh reinforcements sent out from home, bringing
up Sir Herbert Kitchener's force to nearly 26,000 men, thus
distributed:

  British Division: Major-General Gatacre.

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General A. Wauchope: 1st Warwicks, 1st
  Lincolns, 72nd (Seaforth Highlanders), and the 79th (Cameron
  Highlanders).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Hon. N. Lyttleton: 1st
  Grenadier Guards, 1st Northumberland Fusiliers, 2nd Lancashire
  Fusiliers, and the 1st Rifle Brigade.

  Egyptian Division--Major-General Hunter: Consisted of four strong
  brigades.

In addition, there were 2 batteries of Royal Artillery, 5 Egyptian
batteries, 20 machine guns, a flotilla of 10 gunboats, under
Commander Keppel, R.N., the 21st Lancers, with a brigade of
Egyptian cavalry and the camel corps, making a total force of 8,200
British and 17,600 Egyptian troops, with 44 field, 12 mountain, and
22 machine guns. The flotilla of armoured gunboats mounted 36 guns
in addition, and these in the final action contributed not a little
to the success of the day.

Late in August the whole force was concentrated at Metemneh, the
site of one of the actions between the little force under Sir
Herbert Stewart and the Mahdi's troops in January, 1885. On the
left bank of the river lay the British force, on the opposite bank
a large levy of friendly tribes eager to throw off the despotism
and tyranny of the Khalifa. On September 4 the British force
encamped four miles from Khartoum, and Sir Herbert Kitchener, who
was not the man to leave anything to chance, threw up a strong
breastwork, and bivouacked for the night. On the morrow the
gunboats bombarded the fort of Omdurman. The Khalifa, stung into
action, delivered a fierce attack on the zareba, but was repulsed
with heavy loss. Kitchener then left its shelter, and advanced
towards Omdurman; but the spirit of the Mahdiists was by no means
broken. Twice did they attack the British troops, but all was
of no avail. The training of the British officer now bore good
fruit. Under its incomparable leader, Brigadier Hector Macdonald,
his brigade of black troops manœuvred with all the coolness of
veterans, and the 21st Lancers, seizing their chance, charged into
the struggling mass of the enemy, who met them with the utmost
gallantry. The day was well won, and ere nightfall the British flag
was flying over the walls of the Khalifa's capital. His black flag
was amongst our trophies, and 10,000 of his misguided followers
lay dead on the sand-hills outside the accursed city. The results
of the battle, in which we lost some 500 of all ranks, killed
and wounded, were the destruction of the Khalifa's army, and the
restoration to the Khedivial Government of those provinces which
had thrown off his rule in the great upheaval of 1884.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF KHARTOUM.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |21st Lancers               |   1 |   4 |  20 |  46 |
  |1st Batt. Grenadier Guards |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |1st Batt. 5th Northum. F.  |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |1st Batt. 6th R. Warwicks  |   1 |   1 |   - |   6 |
  |1st Batt. 10th Lincolns    |   - |   1 |   - |  17 |
  |2nd Batt. 20th Lancs Fus.  |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders  |   - |   1 |   - |  17 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders   |   - |   2 |   2 |  27 |
  |2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade    |   - |   - |   - |   8 |
  |Egyptian Army              |   2 |   8 |  18 | 273 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER X

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1803-1809

Ally-Ghur, 1803--Delhi, 1803-04--Assaye, 1803--Laswarree,
1803--Deig, 1803-04--Cochin, 1809.


FIRST MAHRATTA WAR, 1803-04.

In the _London Gazette_ of February 28, 1851, appeared a
notification that Her Majesty the Queen had been graciously pleased
to sanction the bestowal of a medal on the survivors of the First
Mahratta War of 1803-04. The following clasps were issued with this
medal, now generally known as the First Indian General Service
Medal. It was also bestowed on the survivors--few, indeed, in
numbers--of (1) the siege and capture of Seringapatam, by the force
under Lord Harris; (2) the Second Mahratta War, 1817-18; (3) the
campaign in Nepaul; (4) and that in Burmah, as well as on (5) the
troops who took Bhurtpore, under Lord Combermere, in 1826.

The following clasps were issued with the medal in connection with
the First Mahratta War:

  1.  Ally-Ghur.
  2.  Delhi.[12]
  3.  Assaye.
  4.  Asseerghur.
  5.  Laswarree.
  6.  Argaum.
  7.  Gawilghur.
  8.  Deig.[13]

The growing power of the Mahrattas and the insolence of the
Mahrajah Scindia rendered it necessary for us to strengthen and
rectify our frontiers in the North-West of India. Delhi, which for
centuries had been the capital of the Mogul Empire, had fallen
into the hands of the Mahrattas, and the aged King had been treated
with barbarous cruelty. Our own territory, as well as that of
our allies, had been invaded. At last Lord Lake, the brilliant
leader at Lincelles, who had become Commander-in-Chief in India,
determined on action. Scindia was a formidable foe, and it was
a matter of doubt as to which of the other Ruling Chiefs would
follow him in the field; his troops had been organized and drilled
by Frenchmen, many of whom he entrusted with high command, and it
was computed that his army numbered 100,000 men, the greater part
cavalry. India was a country in which we could take no risks; we
were always fighting, as it were, with our backs to the wall, for
there was no Suez Canal, nor were there fast steamships to pour
reinforcements into the country when necessary. Lord Lake therefore
assembled practically the whole of his available army, and advanced
simultaneously from the north, south, east, and west.

I. The main army, under his own command in the north, was the most
powerful in point of numbers, but it contained only one regiment of
British infantry (the 76th, long known as the Hindoostan Regiment).
It was composed as under:


CAVALRY DIVISION: COLONEL VANDELEUR, AND ALSO COMMANDING THE FIRST
BRIGADE.

  First Brigade: 8th Light Dragoons, 1st and 3rd Bengal Cavalry.

  Second Brigade--Colonel St. Leger: 27th Light Dragoons, 2nd and
  6th Bengal Cavalry.

  Third Brigade--Colonel Macan: 29th Light Dragoons, and the 4th
  Bengal Cavalry.


FIRST INFANTRY DIVISION: MAJOR-GENERAL WARE.

  First Brigade--Colonel the Hon. G. Monson: 76th Foot, 4th (two
  battalions) and 17th Bengal Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Colonel Macdonald: 1st Batt. 12th and 15th Bengal
  Infantry.


SECOND DIVISION: MAJOR-GENERAL ST. JOHN.

  Second Brigade--Colonel Clarke: 8th, 9th, 1st Batt. 12th, and
  16th Bengal Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Colonel Powell: 2nd and 14th Bengal Infantry.

  Artillery--Colonel Horsford: One horse and three field batteries.

It must be borne in mind that at this time each regiment of cavalry
and battalion of infantry had two galloper guns. There was also a
powerful siege-train attached to the army. This army was to advance
westward on Agra and Delhi.

II. The division under Sir A. Wellesley:

Sir Arthur Wellesley was entrusted with the army of the south,
and had under his orders, not only his own division, but also
the one in Guzerat and the Hyderabad subsidiary force, commanded
respectively by Colonels Stevenson and Murray. A fourth army
was assembled in Cuttack, on the coast of Bengal, under Colonel
Harcourt. These forces were composed as follows:

19th Light Dragoons, 4th, 5th, and 7th Regiments of Madras Cavalry;
the 74th and 78th (Highlanders); and eight regiments of Madras
sepoys, of which only three now survive. This force amounted to
3,000 British and 5,000 native troops, and it was subsequently
strengthened by 2,500 Mysorean horse and a considerable body of
cavalry sent by the Peishwa.

The Hyderabad subsidiary force, also under Wellesley's orders,
comprised 120 English gunners, the Scots Brigade (now the 2nd
Connaught Rangers), 900 native cavalry, and 6,000 native infantry.
It was commanded by Colonel Murray.

III. The division in Guzerat, which was to insure the safety of
Cambay, and then to operate from the west, was under Colonel
Stevenson, and comprised the 65th (York and Lancasters), 75th
(Gordon Highlanders), the 86th (Royal Irish Rifles), and
detachments of the 61st (Gloucesters), 84th (York and Lancasters),
and 88th (Connaught Rangers), with 200 English artillerymen.

The most difficult task was that assigned to Wellesley, for he
had to arrange for the security of an enormous tract of country,
ruled over by chiefs whose friendship was more than doubtful. After
providing for the defence of Guzerat, he left 2,000 men, including
the 86th (Irish Rifles), near Baroda, a force of similar strength
with the 65th (York and Lancaster) on the Taptee, and retained the
rest for active operations under himself and Stevenson.

IV. Harcourt had with him for the advance through Cuttack the 80th
Foot, two companies of the 22nd, and the 25th Light Dragoons,
two regiments of Bengal cavalry, including a squadron of the
Governor-General's Bodyguard, and four regiments of Bengal infantry.

The campaign opened with a simultaneous advance of all four armies,
Lake moving on Ally-Ghur, Wellesley on Ahmadnagar, Stevenson on
Broach, and Harcourt on Balasore.

On September 3 Lake stormed and carried the fortress of Ally-Ghur.


ALLY-GHUR, SEPTEMBER 3, 1803.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the West Riding
Regiment alone; no other corps which shared in that decisive
victory being now existent; the two native regiments which bore
such a gallant part in the storming of the fortress having been
swept away during the Mutiny of 1857.

On the issue of the India General Service Medal in 1851 the
survivors of this action were granted that medal, with a clasp
inscribed "Ally-Ghur."

Ally-Ghur was held by a powerful force under the command of the
Frenchman Perron, and it made a gallant defence. The troops
selected for the assault were the 76th Foot, the 1st Battalion of
the 4th and the 17th Native Infantry, under Colonel the Hon. G.
Monson, the casualties being:

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |27th Lt. Drag.       |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |Royal Artillery      |   - |   1 |   2 |   7 |
  |76th West Ridings    |   6 |   4 |  19 |  62 |
  |4th Bengal Infantry  |   1 |   4 |  20 |  84 |
  |17th Bengal Infantry |   - |   2 |   8 |  36 |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In the fortress were 280 guns, which, with a large number
of prisoners, fell into our hands; Scindia's French
Commander-in-Chief, Monsieur Perron, a man of unusual ability, also
threw himself on the generosity of Lord Lake.

Leaving a garrison in Ally-Ghur, the Governor-General now pushed on
to Delhi, where a large force had been assembled, under Monsieur
Bourquieu. On the 11th of the same month (September) was fought
the first action in which British troops were ever engaged on this
historic spot.


DELHI, SEPTEMBER 11, 1803.

This distinction is borne only by the West Riding Regiment and
the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry, the latter one of the
most distinguished regiments in the Bengal army. The India General
Service Medal of 1851 was issued to the few survivors, with a clasp
inscribed "Delhi." Our total losses in this action amounted to 463
killed and wounded.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |27th Light Dragoons     |   1 |   1 |  11 |  18 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   1 |   4 |  27 |
  |76th W. Riding Regiment |   - |   1 |  33 |  97 |
  |2nd Bengal Cav.         |   - |   2 |   - |  15 |
  |3rd Bengal Cav.         |   1 |   6 |   6 |  11 |
  |2nd Bengal Inf.         |   - |   3 |   9 |  34 |
  |4th Bengal Inf.         |   - |   3 |  12 |  76 |
  |12th Bengal Inf.        |   2 |   1 |  16 |  36 |
  |14th Bengal Inf.        |   - |   - |   - |  13 |
  |15th Bengal Inf.        |   1 |   3 |  10 |  34 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The last regiment in the above return, the 15th Bengal Infantry,
now being the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry, is the only
regiment of the Bengal army still existing; the others, alas!
disappeared in the rebellion of 1857.


ASSAYE, SEPTEMBER 23, 1803.

This battle honour, the first won by Wellington as an independent
commander, is borne by the

  19th Hussars.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  62nd Punjabis.
  64th Pioneers.
  84th Punjabis.

On the issue of the India Medal of 1851 the survivors were awarded
the medal, with clasp "Assaye."

Wellington's force did not amount to more than 4,500 men, of whom
only 1,300 were British, and he was further handicapped, as, owing
to the nature of the ground, he was compelled to leave his heavy
field-guns in the rear. Opposed to him were some of Scindia's
finest troops, including two brigades commanded by the Frenchmen
Pohlman and Dupont, with a well-equipped brigade belonging to
the Begum Somroo. In all, the enemy were estimated at 30,000,
with 100 guns. That they were well handled during the fight was
self-evident, for when Wellesley's turning movement was discovered,
the Mahrattas changed position with all the accuracy of veterans.
The fight was one of the most stubbornly contested of any that we
have fought even in India. Our casualties amounted to 23 officers
and 381 men killed, 30 officers and 1,035 men wounded. Those of the
enemy were estimated at upwards of 6,000 whilst of the 100 guns
with which they commenced the action, no less than 98 remained in
our hands. The losses suffered by the regiments at Assaye which
still figure in the Army List were as follows:

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |         _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |19th Light Dragoons         |   2 |   4 |  15 |  36 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   4 |   4 |  22 |  31 |
  |74th Highld. L.I.           |  11 |   6 | 113 | 231 |
  |78th Seaforth H.            |   1 |   4 |  23 |  71 |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners |   1 |   5 |  19 |  46 |
  |62nd Punjabis               |   1 |   - |  20 |  22 |
  |64th Pioneers               |   2 |   2 |  26 |  89 |
  |84th Punjabis               |   1 |  12 |  43 | 178 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On November 28 Sir Arthur Wellesley captured Argaum, where we lost
346 officers and men killed and wounded. No battle honour was
awarded for this action, but on the issue of the India Medal the
survivors received the medal, with clasp "Argaum."

On December 14 the hill-fortress of Gawilghur was carried by
assault, the Scots Brigade, now the 2nd Connaught Rangers, being
the stormers. Here we lost 126 killed and wounded. No battle honour
was granted for Gawilghur, but it was included in the list of
actions for which the India Medal was granted, and a special clasp,
with the word "Gawilghur," was added to the decoration.


LASWARREE, NOVEMBER 1, 1803.

This battle honour has been awarded to the

  8th Hussars.
  West Riding Regiment.
  1st Brahmins.
  2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry.
  4th Rajputs.

On the issue of the India General Service Medal in 1851, it, with a
clasp inscribed "Laswarree," was issued to the survivors.

This was the hardest-fought action in Lord Lake's campaign, our
total casualties amounting to 267 killed and 682 wounded, amongst
the former being General Ware, commanding the First Division of
the army, and Brigadier-General Vandeleur, commanding the Cavalry
Division. The Commander-in-Chief was, as usual, in the thick of the
fight, having no less than three horses killed under him, three of
his staff being killed. The victory, however, was complete. It is
noticeable for the fact that our infantry came into action after a
forced march of sixty-five miles in forty-eight hours, a feat which
rivals that so extolled by Napier at Talavera. Unfortunately, the
Indian army had no historian to paint with stirring language the
deeds of the giants who lived in those days.


CASUALTIES AT LASWARREE AMONGST REGIMENTS STILL BORNE ON THE ARMY
LIST, NOVEMBER 1, 1803.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |8th Light Drag.           |   2 |   2 |  16 |  34 |
  |Bengal Artillery          |   - |   - |   7 |   6 |
  |76th West Riding Regiment |   2 |   4 |  41 | 165 |
  |1st Brahmins              |   - |   - |   4 |  12 |
  |2nd Q.O. Light Infantry   |   1 |   1 |  11 |  26 |
  |4th Rajputs               |   - |   1 |  17 |  69 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In the meantime Agra had fallen into our hands, despite a very
gallant defence by the Mahrattas under their French commanders,
our losses amounting to the respectable total of 228 killed and
wounded, amongst them being 5 British officers.

The other columns had not been idle. Colonel Harcourt, advancing
through Cuttack, had added that province to our fast-increasing
Indian possessions, and at the capture of the fort of Barabuttee
had given the 22nd Foot (the Cheshires) an opportunity of
distinguishing themselves. He then pushed on to the westward, to
co-operate with the army of Sir Arthur Wellesley.

Sir Arthur, moving from the west, had carried the fortress of
Ahmadnagar by storm, with a loss of but 141 killed and wounded, the
74th (Highland Light Infantry) and the 78th (Seaforths) being the
principal sufferers. On September 22 he came across the main army
of the Mahrattas, some 30,000 strong, under their French leaders,
and as we have seen on p. 249, defeated them at Assaye.


DEIG, NOVEMBER 13 TO DECEMBER 23, 1804.

The battle honour "Deig" is borne by the

  West Riding Regiment.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry.

It recognizes the services of those regiments at the battle
with Holkar's troops on November 13, and the subsequent siege
operations, which ended with the capture of that city by assault
on December 23 following. The attitude of Holkar during Lord
Lake's campaign in the year 1803 had given us good cause to doubt
his loyalty. Why he did not throw in his lot with Scindia in 1803
can only be ascribed to the immemorial jealousy between the two
Princes. No sooner was a truce patched up between Scindia and
ourselves than Holkar embarked on a series of operations which were
evidently intended to provoke hostilities. Lord Lake spent the hot
weather of 1803 on the frontier, and in September he took up the
challenge. Lord Lake's army was massed in the vicinity of Agra, and
consisted of an infantry division of three brigades, commanded by
Major-General Fraser, a cavalry division under Brigadier Macan, and
a reserve infantry division of two brigades under Brigadier Don.
The infantry division included the 76th (West Riding Regiment), the
1st Bengal European Regiment (now the 1st Munster Fusiliers), and
six regiments of Bengal infantry, of which only the 2nd Queen's Own
Rajput Light Infantry now remains. The cavalry division included
the 8th and 27th regiments of Light Dragoons, and four regiments
of native cavalry. Brigadier-General Don's brigade consisted of
four battalions of Bengal infantry. On October 14, 1803, Holkar,
throwing off the mask, made a sudden attack upon Delhi, which was
held by a garrison of Bengal troops under Colonel Ochterlony. He
was beaten off, with heavy loss, and on learning that Lord Lake
was moving on Delhi, Holkar precipitately retreated. His infantry
retired on Deig, he himself towards Furracakabad. Lake ordered
Fraser, with his division, to march at once to Deig, whilst he,
with the cavalry and Don's brigade, followed up the Mahratta
Prince. On November 13 Fraser found the Mahratta army drawn up
outside the fortress of Deig. They held a very strong position,
with one flank resting on a morass and the other on a large tank.
After a sharp fight, in which our little force lost 148 killed and
479 wounded, the Mahrattas broke, and took refuge behind the walls
of the fortress. In the engagement General Fraser lost his leg from
a round shot, and he sank beneath the effects of the wound. Lake,
following up the Maharajah, overtook him, and cut up his army, with
a loss to the 8th Hussars of but 2 killed and 13 wounded, those
of the enemy being estimated at 2,000. Lake now made his way to
Deig, ordering up the siege-train from Agra, and he also called up
reinforcements in the shape of a column from Bombay, and the flank
companies of the 22nd (Cheshires) from Cuttack. On the morning of
December 23 the breach was declared practicable, and the orders
for the assault given. Three columns were told off, under Colonel
Macrae, of the West Riding Regiment. The centre or main column
was led by Macrae in person. It consisted of two companies of the
76th (West Riding), two of the 22nd (Cheshires), and two of the
1st Bengal European Regiment.[14] The right and left columns were
each composed of two companies of the Bengal European Regiment, and
five of the 12th Bengal Infantry, a regiment no longer with us.
Considerable opposition was experienced, especially from a body of
Afghan mercenaries in Holkar's pay; but Christmas morning found
the British flag flying over the walls of Holkar's stronghold, our
total loss amounting to no more than 43 killed and 184 wounded.

The Regimental History of the 22nd (Cheshires) gives the casualties
of the regiment as 2 men killed and 4 wounded; but as Lord Lake's
despatch gives the names of four officers of that regiment as among
the wounded, I conclude the History is wrong. I have compared the
names of the wounded officers with the official Army List for
the year in question, and as these stand in the official records
it would appear that the _Gazette_ is right, and the Regimental
History wrong. Three out of the four officers were again wounded
in the attacks on Bhurtpore in the following month, when Sergeant
Shipp of the 22nd covered himself with glory, and obtained a
commission in the 65th for repeated acts of gallantry.

  +----------------------------------------+
  |  CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF DEIG.     |
  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |76th W. Ridings |   1 |   3 |  31 | 120 |
  |2nd Batt. N.I.  |   1 |   1 |  25 |  66 |
  |4th Batt. N.I.  |   2 |   2 |  22 |  28 |
  |Royal Dublins   |   - |   5 |  12 |  52 |
  |8th Batt. N.I.  |   - |   - |   4 |   2 |
  |2nd Q.O. Light  |     |     |     |     |
  |  Infantry      |   1 |  6  |  19 | 143 |
  |Royal Artillery |   - |   - |  16 |  47 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +----------------------------------------+
  |CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT.    |
  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----|
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |8th Hussars     |   - |   - |   2 |  12 |
  |Royal Artillery |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |22nd Cheshires  |   - |   4 |   2 |  13 |
  |76th W. Ridings |   - |   2 |   5 |  17 |
  |Royal Dublins   |   - |   1 |   ? |   ? |
  |8th Bom. N.I.   |   1 |   4 |   ? |   ? |
  |12th Bom. N.I.  |   1 |   - |   ? |   ? |
  |Pioneers        |   - |   2 |   ? |   ? |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


COCHIN, 1809.

On September 30, 1840, the Governor of Madras in Council conferred
the above distinction on the 17th Madras Infantry (the predecessors
of the 93rd Burmah Infantry), for their gallant conduct at the
defence of the Residency of Cochin during the rebellion in
Travancore in the year 1809.

Under the terms of various treaties the Maharajah of Travancore was
bound to maintain a Subsidiary Force of native troops, officered
by Englishmen of our own army, such force to be at the disposal
of the East India Company, under certain conditions. Differences
arose with the Maharajah, and an attempt to murder the British
Resident unmasked a plot for the expulsion of the British garrisons
in Southern India. The General commanding the Malabar coast, on
learning of the threatening condition of affairs, at once ordered
the 12th (Suffolks) and the 17th Madras Infantry to reinforce the
troops of the subsidiary force at Cochin, these were permeated with
discontent, having been seduced from their allegiance by the Prime
Minister of the State. A very determined attack on the Residency
at Cochin was repulsed by the small garrison, which consisted of a
detachment of the Suffolks and a wing of the 17th Madras Infantry.
Further operations became necessary, and a general movement of
troops from all the stations in Southern India was ordered. The
19th (Yorkshires), 59th (East Lancashires), 69th (Welsh), and 80th
(North Staffords), with a certain number of regiments of Madras
sepoys, advanced on Travancore. At Palamcottah the 69th (Welsh)
and the 3rd Regiment of Madras Infantry had a sharp brush with the
Travancoreans, in which the Madras regiment showed considerable
dash, and earned for itself the title, which its successor now
bears, of Palamcottah Light Infantry. The 12th (Suffolks) and the
17th Madras Infantry were on another occasion compelled to submit
to an attack on the part of the misguided Travancoreans, but the
advent of such a large force had a sobering influence on the
Maharajah: the obnoxious Prime Minister was removed and disgraced,
the arrears of subsidy paid, and the independence of the Maharajah
became a mere figment. The distinction "India" on their colours
serves to remind the Suffolks that in their long tour of service in
the early years of the last century they had some sharp fighting,
irrespective of the campaign in Mysore. The casualties in Cochin
show that it was not a mere summer picnic.

  +---------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                     |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Suffolks             |   0 |   4 |   9 |  67 |
  |93rd Burmah Infantry |   - |   1 |  10 |  45 |
  +---------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--On the renumbering of the regiments of the Indian Army in
  1903, the 93rd Infantry renounced their claim to these battle
  honours, to which, as the direct representation of the old 17th
  Madras Infantry, they are legitimately entitled.



CHAPTER XI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE PENINSULAR WAR, 1808-1814

Roleia--Vimiera--Sahagun--Corunna--The
Douro--Talavera--Busaco--Barrosa--Fuentes
d'Onor--Albuera--Almaraz--Arroyos dos Molinos--Tarifa--Ciudad
Rodrigo--Badajos--Salamanca--Vittoria--Pyrenees--San
Sebastian--Nivelle--Nive--Orthes--Toulouse.


The campaign was entered upon with a view of preventing the Iberian
Peninsula from falling under the domination of Napoleon, who, prior
to the landing of our troops in Portugal in August, 1808, had
brought about the abdication of the King of Spain, and placed his
brother Joseph on the throne of Madrid. Portugal had been invaded
also by the French. The King, taking refuge on an English squadron,
had sailed to Brazil, and Lisbon was at the moment in possession of
the French Army, commanded by Marshal Junot.

The honour "Peninsula" was granted to all regiments which served
under the Duke of Wellington from the date of his first landing
in Figueras Bay in August, 1808, to the Battle of Toulouse, in
April, 1804. Regiments which served under Sir John Moore and were
present at Corunna in January, 1809, but were not fortunate enough
to return to Spain, were debarred from this "distinction," the 14th
Foot (now the West Yorks) and the 26th Cameronians being cases in
point.[15] Gold medals and crosses were conferred on field and
general officers during the operations, but it was not until the
year 1847 that the Duke of Richmond was enabled to carry out the
project of inducing Her Majesty Queen Victoria to grant to the few
remaining survivors a silver medal with clasps for the various
actions, as below:

  Roleia.
  Vimiera.
  Sahagun.
  Benevente.
  Corunna.
  Talavera.
  Busaco.
  Barrosa.
  Fuentes d'Onor.
  Albuera.
  Ciudad Rodrigo.
  Badajoz.
  Salamanca.
  Vittoria.
  Pyrenees.
  San Sebastian.
  Nivelle.
  Nive.
  Orthes.
  Toulouse.


ROLEIA, AUGUST 17, 1808.

This was the opening action of the Peninsular War, which,
commencing with Roleia in August, 1808, lasted until the final
defeat of Soult by the Duke of Wellington at Toulouse in March,
1814.

The following regiments have been authorized at different times to
carry the word "Roleia" on their colours and appointments, and the
Land General Service Medal, with clasp "Roleia," was granted to all
survivors on June 1, 1847:

  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwick.
  Norfolk.
  Worcester.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  South Stafford.
  South Lancashire.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

They were brigaded as under, the chief command being held by
Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Arthur Wellesley:

  First Brigade--Hill:
      5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)      990
      1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)             833
      38th (South Staffords)              957
                                         ----  2,780

  Second Brigade--Fergusson:
      36th (Worcester)                    591
      40th (South Lancashire)             926
      71st (Highland Light Infantry)      903
                                         ----  2,420

  Third Brigade--Nightingale:
      29th (Worcester)                   806
      82nd (South Lancashire)            929
                                        ----  1,735

  Fourth Brigade--Bowes:
      6th (Royal Warwick)                946
      32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)     874
                                        ----  1,820

  Fifth Brigade--C. Crawford:
      50th (West Kent)                   948
      91st (Argyll Highlanders)          917
                                        ----  1,865

  Sixth Brigade--Fane:
      45th (Sherwood Foresters)          670
      5th Batt. King's Royal Rifles      936
      2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade            400
                                        ----  2,060
                                             ------
                                             12,626

      20th Light Dragoons                240
      Royal Artillery                    226

Opposed to these, the French had, under General Delaborde, not
more than 6,000 men. The odds, therefore, were considerably in our
favour; but the opposition was nowhere very determined, and our
casualties were slight. Three regiments, it will be seen from the
accompanying return, suffered no loss.


CASUALTIES AT ROLEIA.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |20th Hussars            |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   1 |   - |   1 |   - |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |5th Northumberland Fus. |   - |   2 |   3 |  41 |
  |6th R. Warwick          |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |
  |29th Worcester          |   - |   7 |  33 | 111 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.      |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |36th Worcester          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |38th S. Stafford        |   - |   - |   4 |   - |
  |40th S. Lancs           |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters |   1 |   1 |   - |   9 |
  |50th West Kent          |   - |   - |   2 |   1 |
  |60th K.R.R              |   - |   2 |   8 |  39 |
  |71st Highland L.I.      |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |82nd S. Lancs           |   - |   1 |   6 |  18 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |95th Rifle Brig.        |   - |   2 |  17 |  30 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The riflemen of the 60th and 95th (Rifle Brigade) had been
  engaged on August 15, when the latter regiment lost one officer
  killed and another wounded.


VIMIERA, AUGUST 21, 1808.

Four days after Roleia, Sir Arthur Wellesley, at the head of the
following regiments, inflicted a second defeat on the French army
under Junot, capturing three guns and many prisoners. The following
regiments bear the honour:

  20th Hussars.
  Queen's.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Norfolk.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Worcesters.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  South Stafford.
  South Lancashire.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  West Kent.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

The casualties incurred were as follows:


CASUALTIES AT VIMIERA.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |20th Hussars            |   1 |   - |  19 |  24 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   2 |   - |   2 |
  |2nd Queen's             |   - |   - |   - |   7 |
  |5th Northumberland Fus. |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Royal Warwicks      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |9th Norfolk (2nd Batt.) |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |20th Lancs Fus.         |   1 |   1 |   - |   5 |
  |29th Worcester          |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |36th Worcester          |   - |   5 |   7 |  36 |
  |38th S. Staffs          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |40th S. Lancs           |   - |   2 |   6 |  30 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.        |   - |   3 |  27 |  51 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |50th West Kent          |   1 |   4 |  19 |  63 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.        |   - |   2 |   5 |  33 |
  |50th K.R.R.             |   - |   2 |  14 |  22 |
  |71st Highland L.I.      |   - |   7 |  12 |  92 |
  |82nd S. Lancs           |   1 |   - |   7 |  53 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |95th Rifle Brig.        |   - |   4 |  37 |  43 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Immediately after the action negotiations were entered into with
the French to secure their evacuation of Portugal. The Convention
of Cintra, the result of these negotiations, raised a storm of
indignation in England. The three Generals--Harry Burrard, Sir
Howard Dalrymple, and Sir Arthur Wellesley--were recalled, and
their conduct submitted to a Court of Inquiry held at the Royal
Hospital, Chelsea, under the presidency of Sir Henry Dundas.
The _Times_ took a strong line against Wellesley, but the Court
of Inquiry to a great extent exonerated him. Subsequently he
returned to Portugal, as we know, to carry the war to a successful
conclusion, thus belying his detractors.

The troops engaged at Vimiera were brigaded as under:

      20th Light Dragoons                   240
      Royal Artillery (three batteries)     226

  First Brigade--Hill:
      5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)        944
      1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)               761
      38th (South Staffords)                953
                                           ----  2,658

  Second Brigade--Fergusson:
      36th (Worcester)                      591
      40th (South Lancashire)               923
      71st (Highland Light Infantry)        935
                                           ----  2,449

  Third Brigade--Nightingale:
      29th (Worcester)                      616
      82nd (South Lancashire)               904
                                           ----  1,520

  Fourth Brigade--Bowes:
      6th (Royal Warwick)                   943
      32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)        870
                                           ----  1,813

  Fifth Brigade--C. Crawford:
      45th (Sherwood Foresters)             915
      91st (Argyll Highlanders)             917
                                           ----  1,832

  Sixth Brigade--Fane:
      50th (West Kent)                      945
      5th Batt. 60th (King's Royal Rifles)  604
      2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade               456
                                           ----  2,005

  Seventh Brigade--Anstruther:
      2nd Batt. 9th (Norfolk)               633
      43rd (Oxford Light Infantry)          721
      52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)          654
      97th (West Kent)                      695
                                           ----  2,703

  Eighth Brigade--Acland:
      2nd (Queen's)                         731
      20th (Lancashire Fusiliers)           401
      1st Batt. Rifle Brigade               200
                                           ----  1,332
                                                ------
                             Total British      16,712

To which must be added about 2,000 Portuguese troops. Of the French
forces it is not so easy to speak. Wellesley estimated their
strength at 14,000, inclusive of 1,500 cavalry, with 23 guns.
Professor Oman's figures are 13,056, including 1,850 cavalry.
Whatever their strength may have been, they made but a poor stand
against Sir Arthur's troops.


MOORE'S CAMPAIGN IN SPAIN.

When the three Generals responsible for the Convention of Cintra
were recalled to England, Sir John Moore was nominated to the
chief command in Spain. The appointment was a popular one, for
Moore had greatly distinguished himself in command of a brigade
at the capture of the Island of St. Lucia, and later still at the
Battle of Egmont-op-Zee and in Egypt. His masterly advance from
Lisbon to the relief of Madrid, and his still more masterly retreat
from Salamanca to Corunna, are ably recounted in Professor Oman's
monumental work on the Peninsular War, and by General Maurice in
his Life of Moore. With not more than 30,000 men Moore held at
bay five times that number, and finally, at Corunna, covered the
embarkation of his worn-out army in the face of 25,000 French,
commanded by Marshal Soult. The one episode during that famous
retreat which is emblazoned on the colours and appointments of our
army is the brilliant cavalry action of Sahagun, for which, as well
as for the cavalry action of Benevente a few days afterwards, the
medal and clasps were granted.


SAHAGUN, DECEMBER 21, 1808.

This honour has been awarded to the 15th Hussars only, and
commemorates a brilliant little engagement, when the 15th attacked
and routed a far superior body of French cavalry. With the
trifling loss of 2 Hussars killed and 18 wounded, they captured 13
officers and 150 men of the enemy. Sahagun and Benevente--a similar
action which took place a few days subsequently, in which the 10th
and 18th Hussars bore their share, but for which no battle honour
was granted, though a clasp "Benevente" was added to the Peninsular
medal--bore testimony to the admirable manner in which our light
cavalry was handled during Moore's retreat to Corunna.


CORUNNA, JANUARY 16, 1809.

Authority to assume this battle honour was given in April, 1823,
and the medal and clasp were granted June 1, 1847.

This honour has been conferred on the following regiments:

  Grenadier Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's R.W. Surrey.
  King's Own.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Norfolks.
  West Yorkshires.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Cameronians.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  East Lancashire.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding.
  South Staffords.
  South Lancashire.
  Black Watch.
  K.O. (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  North Lancashire.
  Royal West Kent.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Argyll and Suth. Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

The following table gives the strength of Sir John Moore's army
at the commencement of the retreat. Unfortunately, no complete
list of casualties exists to show the exact losses at the Battle
of Corunna, but we know that on that day we had forty French guns
opposed to nine English, and that the losses inflicted on the enemy
were little short of 1,500, ours being about 800 only.


CAVALRY DIVISION: LORD PAGET.

      7th Hussars                                     497
      10th Hussars                                    514
      15th Hussars                                    527
      18th Hussars                                    565
                                                     ----  2,103
      Royal Artillery                                      1,297


FIRST DIVISION: SIR DAVID BAIRD.

  Brigade of Guards--Ward:
      1st Batt. Grenadiers                          1,300
      2nd Batt. Grenadiers                          1,027
                                                    -----  2,327
  First Brigade--Bentinck:
      1st Batt. 4th (King's Own)                      754
      1st Batt. 42nd (Royal Highlanders)              880
      1st Batt. 50th (Royal West Kent)                794
                                                    -----  2,428
  Third Brigade--Manningham:
      3rd Batt. Royal Scots                           597
      1st Batt. 26th (Cameronians)                    745
      2nd Batt. 81st (North Lancashire)               615
                                                    -----  1,957

SECOND DIVISION: SIR JAMES HOPE.

  Third Brigade--Leith:
      51st King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry)      516
      2nd Batt. 59th (East Lancashire)                557
      2nd Batt. 76th (West Riding Regiment)           654
                                                    -----  1,727
  Fourth Brigade--Hill:
      2nd (Queen's)                                   616
      1st Batt. 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)        835
      2nd Batt. 14th (West Yorkshire)                 550
      1st Batt. 32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)        756
                                                    -----  2,757
  Fifth Brigade--C. Crawford:
      1st Batt. 36th (Worcester)                      736
      1st Batt. 71st (Highland Light Infantry)        724
      1st Batt. 92nd (Gordon Highlanders)             900
                                                    -----  2,360

THIRD DIVISION: LIEUTENANT-GENERAL FRASER.

  Sixth Brigade--Beresford:
      1st Batt. 6th (Royal Warwicks)                  783
      1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)                         607
      2nd Batt. 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers)          496
      2nd Batt. 45th (Oxford Light Infantry)          411
                                                    -----  2,297
  Seventh Brigade--Fane:
      1st Batt. 38th (South Stafford)                 823
      1st Batt. 79th (Cameron Highlanders)            838
      1st Batt. 82nd (South Lancashire)               812
                                                    -----  2,473

RESERVE DIVISION: MAJOR-GENERAL E. PAGET.

  Eighth Brigade--Anstruther:
      20th (Lancashire Fusiliers)                     499
      1st Batt. 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)          828
      1st Batt. Rifle Brigade                         820
                                                    -----  2,147
  Ninth Brigade----Disney:
      1st Batt. 28th (Gloucester)                     750
      1st Batt. 91st (Argyll Highlanders)             698
                                                    -----  1,448
  Light Brigade----R. Crawford:
      1st Batt. 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry)          817
      2nd Batt. 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)          381
      2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade                         702
                                                    -----  1,900
                                                          ------
                                  Total British           27,221


CASUALTIES AT CORUNNA.

  +------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                    |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |            _Regiments._            +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                    |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff                       |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |7th Hussars                         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |10th Hussars                        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |15th Hussars                        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |18th Hussars                        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery                     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Grenadier Gds. (2nd Batt.)          |   - |   - |  13 |  40 |
  |1st Royal Scots                     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Queen's                         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |4th K.O. Lancaster Regt.            |   1 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |5th Northumberland Fus.             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Royal Warwick                   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |9th Norfolk                         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |14th W. Yorks                       |   - |   - |  10 |  30 |
  |20th Lancs F.                       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |23rd Royal Welsh Fus.               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |26th Cameronians                    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |28th Gloucester                     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |32nd Corn. L.I.                     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |36th Worcester                      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |38th S. Stafford                    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders              |   - |   6 |  39 | 105 |
  |43rd Oxfd. L.I. (two batts.)        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |50th Royal West Kent                |   2 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |51st K.O. Yorks L.I.                |   - |   - |   5 |  20 |
  |52nd Oxf. L.I. (1st and 2nd Batts.) |   - |   2 |   5 |  33 |
  |59th E. Lancs                       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |71st Highld. L.I.                   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |76th West Riding Regiment           |   - |   - |   1 |   6 |
  |79th Cameronian Highdrs.            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |81st L. North Lancashire            |   3 |  11 |  27 | 113 |
  |82nd S. Lancs                       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders             |   1 |   1 |   3 |  15 |
  |Rifle Brigade (1st and 2nd Batts.)  |   - |   - |  12 |  33 |
  +------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

It is useless disguising the fact that the French claim Corunna as
a victory. Moore, who fell during the action, and who, with General
Anstruther, was buried within the precincts of the work, had been
compelled to destroy the greater number of his horses and to bury
some of his guns prior to giving the order for embarkation, and
a large number of his sick were left behind. Nothing, however,
can detract from the magnificent manner in which he conducted the
retirement in the face of enormous odds, nor from the gallant way
in which his men pulled themselves together after the hardships
endured during the retreat, and stood at bay outside Corunna. It
was not a victory in the fullest sense of the word, but Corunna was
a grand military achievement.


THE PENINSULAR WAR (SECOND PHASE), 1809-1814.

To give even a summary of the campaign would be beyond the limits
of this work. It is the campaign which more than any other has
formed the theme for countless books, and is more or less known to
every schoolboy. My scheme is merely to bring before the regimental
officer and those interested in the "price of blood" the losses
sustained by each corps in each action, and so to bring home to
the army the anomalies that exist in the system under which battle
honours have been awarded.

We have seen that the Convention of Cintra, which was the closing
act of the successful campaign of Vimiera, had been received with
a storm of indignation in England. When it became known that Sir
Arthur Wellesley, one of the Signatories of that Convention, had
been appointed to succeed the late Sir John Moore in command of
the troops in Portugal, the attacks broke out afresh. The result,
however, gave the lie to the arm-chair critics, for the "Sepoy
General" proved a consummate master of the art of war. Landing
at Lisbon on April 22, Sir Arthur struck at once. There was one
French army still in Portugal, at Oporto, where Soult lay with a
considerable force. Leaving a portion of his army under Beresford
to watch the French main army, who were near Talavera, Wellesley
moved swiftly to the north. By a masterly stroke, he threw one
brigade across the Douro, and, with the loss of but 190 killed and
wounded, drove Soult out of Oporto.


DOURO.

is inscribed on the colours and appointments of the

  14th Hussars.
  Buffs.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.

and commemorates this, Wellington's first victory after he had been
entrusted with the supreme command in the Peninsula. In addition
to the regiments which are entitled to bear this battle honour,
there was a battalion of detachments engaged made up of the light
companies of the 29th (Worcesters), 38th (South Staffords), 43rd
and 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), and the Rifle Brigade. The 16th
Lancers, who were generally to the fore when fighting was expected,
also suffered some casualties. Soult was not only surprised; he
was, despite the smallness of our losses, badly beaten, and it
was only Wellesley's want of cavalry which prevented his being
overwhelmed with disaster. As it was, Soult only succeeded in
effecting a junction with Ney by burning his baggage, throwing his
guns over the mountain-side, and, by following goat-tracks, he at
last escaped the English pursuit.


CASUALTIES AT THE PASSAGE OF THE DOURO, MAY 10, 11, AND 12, 1809.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |14th Hussars                |   - |   4 |  13 |  19 |
  |16th Lancers                |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  |20th Hussars                |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Buffs                   |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |29th Worcester              |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |38th S. Staffs (detachment) |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |48th N'ampton               |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |52nd Oxf. L.I. (detachment) |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |66th Berkshire              |   - |   3 |   9 |  26 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--No detailed list of the casualties in the three days'
  skirmishing on the Douro is appended to Sir Arthur Wellesley's
  despatch. On May 11 we lost 19 men killed and 62 wounded, and on
  the 12th 23 killed and 86 wounded. The despatch alludes to the
  conduct of the 20th Hussars, and of the light companies of the
  29th, 43rd, and 52nd, and the riflemen of the 95th Regiment. None
  of these regiments have been awarded the honour. A detachment
  of the 83rd (Royal Irish Rifles) was present, and lost 14 men
  wounded.

Returning south after the success at the Douro, Wellesley at
once took steps to attack the main French army, which, under
Marshal Victor, with King Joseph himself as nominal leader, lay at
Talavera, to the north-east of Lisbon, across the Spanish frontier.

This battle honour is borne by the

  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  4th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Buffs.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  South Lancashire.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.

Talavera was a very different stamp of fight to anything in which
our troops had been previously engaged in the Peninsula. We had
but 20,000 men present, and our losses amounted to 4,000 killed
and wounded, those of the French to over 7,000. The full fruits of
the victory were lost owing to the failure of our Spanish allies
to afford us proper support, and the British army was compelled to
retire on the following day, leaving its wounded in the hands of
the French. It is true that we captured 17 guns, but the fact of
our retreat, coupled with the abandonment of the sick and wounded,
have induced the French to claim Talavera as a French victory.
Marshal Victor was created Duke of Talavera by King Joseph, while
Sir Arthur Wellesley was raised to the peerage under the title of
Lord Wellington,--of Wellington, in the county of Somerset, and of
Talavera. The fighting was exceedingly severe, and on more than one
occasion matters looked very doubtful. Sir Arthur, however, had
every reason to be proud of the manner in which his men faced the
tried veterans of France.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF TALAVERA, JULY 27 AND 28, 1809.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Drag. Gds.          |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |4th Hussars             |   - |   3 |   - |   9 |
  |14th Hussars            |   - |   6 |   3 |   7 |
  |16th Lancers            |   - |   1 |   6 |   5 |
  |23rd Lt. Drag.          |   2 |   4 |  47 |  46 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   1 |   3 |   7 |  23 |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Coldstream Gds.         |   2 |   9 |  33 | 253 |
  |Scots Guards            |   5 |   6 |  49 | 261 |
  |3rd Buffs               |   - |   2 |   6 | 107 |
  |7th Royal Fus.          |   1 |   3 |   6 |  53 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers |   - |  10 |  45 | 274 |
  |29th Worcesters         |   - |   7 |  36 | 140 |
  |31st E. Surrey          |   1 |   7 |  34 | 190 |
  |40th S. Lancs           |   - |   1 |  17 |  90 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters |   - |   3 |  13 | 147 |
  |48th N'ampton           |   - |  12 |  34 | 280 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.    |   - |   2 |   6 |  36 |
  |60th K.R.R.             |   - |   7 |  10 |  29 |
  |61st Gloucesters        |   3 |  11 |  46 | 196 |
  |66th R. Berks           |   - |  11 |  16 |  88 |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles |   4 |  11 |  38 | 282 |
  |87th R. Irish Fus.      |   1 |  13 |  35 | 170 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers  |   3 |   3 |  19 |  85 |
  |97th West Kent          |   - |   - |   6 |  25 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--There were two battalions of detachments at Talavera. The
  one composed of the flank companies of the 52nd, 79th, and 91st
  lost an officer, and 74 men killed and wounded. The other, made
  up from the 28th, 35th, 38th, 42nd, and 43rd, had 194 casualties.

  The Cameron Highlanders lost 9 killed and 28 wounded at Talavera.


BUSACO, SEPTEMBER 27, 1810.

At Talavera Wellington realized that he was too weak to cope in
the field with the immense forces that France had poured into the
Peninsula. His plan of campaign now was to wear the enemy down
until he should have organized the Portuguese and Spanish armies.
He therefore retired once more into Portugal, and commenced that
systematic defence of the kingdom which ultimately led to the
destruction of French pretensions in the Iberian Peninsula. By the
summer of 1810 Napoleon had 300,000 men in Spain. By that time
Wellington had thrown up the famous lines of Torres Vedras, behind
the shelter of which the task of reorganizing the Portuguese army
proceeded apace. The winter of 1809-10 was passed without any open
conflict. It was not until the end of September, 1810, that the
next great fight was fought, when Wellington, with 50,000 men,
barred Massena's advance at the Ridge of Busaco.

This battle honour has been conferred on the

  Royal Scots.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Norfolks.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Gloucesters.
  Royal Highlanders.
  South Staffords.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Rifle Brigade.

Our losses are tabulated below. Those of the French amounted to
4,400 killed and wounded, including 5 General Officers.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF BUSACO, SEPTEMBER 27, 1810.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |14th Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |16th Lancers             |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |1st Royal Scots          |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |5th Northumberland Fus.  |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |7th Royal Fus.           |   - |   1 |   1 |  22 |
  |9th Norfolk              |   - |   1 |   5 |  18 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers  |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |38th S. Stafford         |   - |   1 |   5 |  17 |
  |42nd Black Watch         |   - |   - |   - |   7 |
  |43rd Oxf. L.I.           |   - |   - |   - |   7 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters  |   3 |   4 |  25 | 109 |
  |50th Royal W. Kent       |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |52nd Oxf. L.I.           |   - |   2 |   3 |  10 |
  |60th K.R.R.              |   - |   5 |   3 |  16 |
  |74th Highl. L.I.         |   1 |   1 |   6 |  21 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders |   1 |   2 |  11 |  41 |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles  |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers   |   1 |   7 |  29 |  95 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.         |   - |   - |   9 |  22 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Wellington had once more shown his men that they were more than
a match for the French in the field, but he still clung to his
old plan of campaign, and, retiring behind the lines of Torres
Vedras, prepared to wear the enemy down. The winter was passed
with the English secure within their formidable entrenchments at
Torres Vedras, the French starving outside. We held the command
of the sea, and, with the Tagus in his rear, Wellington was able
to feed his men without difficulty, to replenish supplies, and to
continue the reorganization and training of the Portuguese army.
In the South of Spain the French were showing renewed activity
and Wellington detached a division under General Graham to afford
support to the garrison of Cadiz. This the stout old Scotsman did
most effectually by attacking Victor at Barrosa.


BARROSA, MARCH 4, 1811.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Gloucesters.
  Hampshires.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers
  Rifle Brigade.

Here a little British division not 4,000 strong overthrew double
the number of Frenchmen, capturing six guns and two eagles.
The subjoined list of casualties shows that others besides the
regiments which are authorized to emblazon this battle honour on
their colours did their duty as Englishmen on that March day. There
seems no valid reason why the Norfolks, North Lancashires, South
Lancashires, and the Rifle Brigade should not be permitted to
assume this honour, albeit the headquarters of those regiments were
not present in the engagement.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF BARROSA, MARCH 4, 1811.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Grenadier Gds.             |   2 |   8 |  33 | 177 |
  |Coldstream Guards          |   1 |   2 |   8 |  46 |
  |Scots Guards               |   1 |   1 |  14 |  85 |
  |Royal Artillery            |   - |   8 |   6 |  40 |
  |Roy. Engineers             |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |28th Gloucester            |   - |   8 |  16 | 135 |
  |67th Hampshire             |   - |   4 |  10 |  30 |
  |87th R. Irish F.           |   1 |   4 |  44 | 124 |
  |9th Norfolk (flank cos.)   |   - |   4 |   8 |  56 |
  |47th N. Lancs (flank cos.) |   1 |   1 |  20 |  49 |
  |82nd S. Lancs (flank cos.) |   - |   2 |   8 |  89 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.           |   1 |   3 |  14 |  48 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--A battalion composed of the flank companies of the 9th
  (Norfolk), 28th (Gloucester), and 82nd (South Lancashire) went
  into action 475 bayonets; its losses were 225 non-commissioned
  officers and men killed and wounded. A fellow battalion of the
  flank companies of the 47th and three companies of the 95th
  (Rifle Brigade) lost 130 men out of 594.


FUENTES D'ONOR, MAY 5, 1811.

In March, 1811, Massena, with his army much worn with the hard
winter blockade outside Torres Vedras, fell back into Spain,
closely followed by Wellington. Then ensued a number of rearguard
actions which are not inscribed on our colours, but which brought
out, on the one hand, the capacity of Ney as a rearguard commander,
and, on the other, the admirable handling of our own Light Division
of immortal fame. Pressing Massena back, Wellington endeavoured to
relieve the beleaguered garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo with his own
army, and detached Beresford to perform the same action with regard
to Badajoz, and so it came about that within a few days of each
other two general actions were fought.

Fuentes d'Onor is borne on the colours or appointments of the

  1st Royal Dragoons.
  16th Lancers.
  14th Hussars.
  Scots Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  South Wales Borderers.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Rifle Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF FUENTES D'ONOR, MAY 3-5, 1811.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Roy. Drag.           |   - |   4 |   1 |  36 |
  |14th Hussars             |   - |   5 |   4 |  28 |
  |16th Lancers             |   - |   2 |   7 |  16 |
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   3 |   6 |  22 |
  |Roy. Engineers           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Coldstream Gds.          |   - |   1 |   4 |  49 |
  |Scots Guards             |   1 |   1 |   5 |  52 |
  |24th S. Wales B.         |   1 |   - |   6 |  21 |
  |42nd Black Wat.          |   - |   1 |   3 |  29 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters  |   - |   - |   3 |   1 |
  |51st K.O. Yorks L.I.     |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |King's Roy. R.           |   - |   4 |   3 |  21 |
  |71st Highl. L.I.         |   3 |   8 |  28 | 105 |
  |74th Highl. L.I.         |   1 |   3 |   3 |  63 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders |   3 |  11 |  58 | 166 |
  |85th Shropshire L.I.     |   1 |   3 |  12 |  37 |
  |83rd R. Irish R.         |   1 |   1 |   6 |  36 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers   |   1 |   2 |  12 |  53 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders  |   - |   3 |   7 |  43 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.         |   1 |   1 |   3 |  19 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The feature of the action was the marvellous gallantry of a troop
of horse artillery under Norman Ramsay, which, though surrounded by
the French, cut its way through the hostile hosts, and, amidst the
tumultuous applause of the whole army, rejoined Wellington, with
guns intact, but with the loss of half its men.

The following regiments appear in the casualty returns published in
the _London Gazette_, but do not yet bear the battle honour:

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Scots            |   - |   - |   - |   9 |
  |5th Northumberland Fus.|   - |   - |   - |   7 |
  |9th Norfolk            |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |30th E. Lancs          |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |50th West Kent         |   - |   2 |   3 |  24 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers |   - |   - |   - |   7 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ALBUERA, MAY 16, 1811.

Ten days after Wellington had defeated Massena at Fuentes d'Onor,
Beresford, at the head of 32,000 men, of whom only 8,000 were
English, repulsed a determined attack on the part of Soult at
Albuera. This battle, which was one of the most severe ever fought
by British troops, is recorded on the colours of the

  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  4th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  Buffs.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  Border Regiment.
  Dorsets.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshire.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.

The Allies were undoubtedly superior in numbers, but the brunt of
the fighting fell on the British division, which lost 3,500 out
of 8,000 engaged. The French losses amounted to upwards of 8,000
killed and wounded.

The following table, published in the _London Gazette_, shows once
more that battle honours are bestowed in a very capricious fashion:


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF ALBUERA.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Drag. Gds.            |   1 |   - |   9 |   9 |
  |4th Hussars               |   - |   2 |   3 |  17 |
  |13th Hussars              |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   1 |   3 |  10 |
  |Roy. Engineers            |   2 |   2 |   - |   3 |
  |Buffs                     |   4 |  14 | 212 | 234 |
  |2nd Batt. Royal Fusiliers |   2 |  28 | 112 | 563 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers     |   2 |  11 |  74 | 245 |
  |29th Worcesters           |   5 |  12 |  75 | 232 |
  |31st E. Surrey            |   - |   7 |  29 | 119 |
  |34th Border Regiment      |   3 |   4 |  30 |  91 |
  |39th Dorsets              |   1 |   4 |  14 |  77 |
  |48th N'ampton (2nd Batt.) |   7 |  23 | 116 | 276 |
  |57th Middlesex            |   2 |  21 |  87 | 318 |
  |King's Roy. R.            |   - |   1 |   2 |  18 |
  |66th R. Berks             |   3 |  12 |  52 | 104 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--In the casualties for Albuera I have included the losses
  on May 15, the previous day.

The following regiments figure in the official casualty returns,
but they have not as yet been authorized to assume the battle
honour:

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |27th Inniskillgs. |   - |   3 |   8 |  66 |
  |28th Gloucester   |   - |   6 |  27 | 131 |
  |40th S. Lancs     |   - |   3 |  10 |  18 |
  |97th R.W. Kent    |   - |   - |   7 |  21 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

It will be remarked that, whereas the 13th Hussars, with the
loss of one man wounded, has been awarded the distinction, the
Gloucesters, which lost a total of 164 killed and wounded, has been
denied it.


ALMARAZ, MAY 19, 1811.

  Royal West Kent.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of the
above regiments for their conduct in one of the many sharp little
engagements under that brilliant tactician General, afterwards
Viscount, Hill, who in his despatch calling special attention to
the services of the 50th (West Kent) and 71st (Highland Light
Infantry), added: "Nor can I avoid mentioning the steadiness of
the 6th Portuguese Regiment and two companies of the 60th Rifles."
Particular stress also was laid on the conduct of the 13th Hussars
in capturing some of the enemy's guns. Neither the 13th Hussars nor
the King's Royal Rifles have as yet been permitted to assume this
distinction.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF ALMARAZ, MAY 19, 1811.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |28th Gloucesters        |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |50th West Kent          |   1 |   7 |  27 |  93 |
  |71st Highland L.I.      |   - |   4 |   8 |  28 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--Our trophies at Almaraz included the Standard of the 4th
  Battalion of the "Corps Etrangères," taken by the 71st, and
  eighteen guns.


ARROYOS DOS MOLINOS, OCTOBER 28, 1811.

This distinction is only to be found on the colours of the Border
Regiment.

Like Almaraz, it was one of the many engagements fought by Hill's
division single-handed, and it has always been a matter of keen
jealousy--if such a word can be used--on the part of the other
regiments present that they have been denied the privilege of
inscribing this battle honour on their colours. Lord Hill in his
despatch laid no especial stress on the conduct of the 34th;
indeed, his highest praise was reserved for the two Highland
regiments, the 71st and the 92nd. Hill's division consisted of:

  Howard's Brigade: The 50th (West Kent), 71st (Highland Light
  Infantry), and the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

  Wilson's Brigade: The 28th (Gloucesters), 34th (Border Regiment),
  39th (Dorsets), and a Portuguese battalion.

  Erskine's Brigade of Cavalry: The 9th and 16th Lancers, with a
  couple of batteries of artillery.

The French occupied the town of Arroyos dos Molinos, when, to use
Hill's own words, "The 71st and 92nd charged into the town with
cheers, and drove the enemy out at the point of the bayonet."
Wilson's brigade had been sent round to attack the enemy in
the rear, and the 50th (West Kent) supporting the Highlanders,
secured the prisoners, whilst the 28th (Gloucesters) and the
34th (Borderers) pursued the flying French until the arrival of
the cavalry enabled them to follow up the enemy. One general and
35 other officers, with upwards of 1,000 men, were taken, our
total casualties being but 65 of all ranks killed and wounded. On
more than one occasion the Gordon Highlanders have applied to be
permitted to assume this distinction, but whilst conceding the
valuable part they played at Arroyos dos Molinos, the War Office
have declined to accede to their request on the plea that the
battle honour was conferred on the 34th in lieu of a particoloured
pom-pom to their shako. As the present generation of soldiers apply
the term "pom-pom" to a man-destroying weapon, and not to the
ornament of infantry headgear, and as shakos have been relegated to
museums, it might be fitting to reopen the vexed question of this
battle honour.


CASUALTIES OF THE ACTION OF ARROYOS DOS MOLINOS, OCTOBER 28, 1811.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |9th Lancers             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Hussars            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |28th Gloucesters        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |34th Border             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |50th West Kent          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |60th King's Roy. Rifles |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |71st Highland L.I.      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders |   - |   4 |   3 |   7 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I have been unable to trace any record of the losses of
  individual regiments, except in the case of the 92nd.


TARIFA, DECEMBER, 1811.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the North Lancashire
Regiment and the Royal Irish Fusiliers, in recognition of their
services in the gallant defence of the fortress of Tarifa in the
month of December, 1811. General Skerrett in his despatch drew
particular attention to the conduct of the companies of the Rifle
Brigade which were also present. The casualty list which I append
shows that this battle honour was earned without a great effusion
of blood.


CASUALTIES AT TARIFA, DECEMBER, 1811.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Engineers           |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |47th Loyal N. Lancashires |   1 |   2 |   - |   5 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers |   - |   2 |   5 |  21 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.          |   - |   - |   3 |  17 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CIUDAD RODRIGO, JANUARY, 1812.

This hardly-earned battle honour has been awarded to the

  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Middlesex Regiment.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.

It will be seen from a glance at the appended casualty returns that
a great many other regiments were present during the operations
connected with the siege and capture of this fortress from the
French, notably the Coldstream and Scots Guards. The losses of the
two Battalions of Guards and of the Northamptons were far heavier
than those of some of the regiments to whom the distinction of this
battle honour has been granted.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF CIUDAD RODRIGO.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   2 |   1 |  19 |
  |Roy. Engineers           |   1 |   5 |   - |   2 |
  |Coldstream Gds.          |   - |   - |   1 |  10 |
  |Scots Guards             |   - |   - |   4 |  17 |
  |Northumberland Fusiliers |   1 |   8 |  35 |  58 |
  |Roy. Fusiliers           |   - |   - |   2 |   8 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers    |   - |   - |   2 |  18 |
  |South Wales Borderers    |   - |   - |   3 |  19 |
  |40th S. Lancs            |   - |   - |   3 |  19 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders   |   - |   - |   1 |  14 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.         |   - |   3 |   9 |  45 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters  |   3 |   4 |  15 |  29 |
  |48th N'amptons           |   - |   4 |  15 |  43 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.         |   1 |   5 |   7 |  52 |
  |King's Roy. R.           |   - |   1 |   1 |   5 |
  |74th Highland L.I.       |   - |   4 |   5 |  17 |
  |77th Middlesex           |   - |   5 |  14 |  31 |
  |83rd Roy. Irish Rifles   |   - |   2 |  10 |  31 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers   |   - |   6 |  10 |  47 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers   |   2 |   7 |  11 |  51 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.         |   - |   6 |   9 |  47 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The Coldstream and Scots Guards figure in the casualty
  returns for Ciudad Rodrigo, but do not bear the honour.


BADAJOZ, MARCH AND APRIL, 1812.

The losses incurred by the army under Wellington during the siege
and at the assault of this fortress were most severe. The battle
honour is borne by the

  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  East Lancashire.
  South Staffords.
  South Lancashire.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.

In the year 1811 Wellington had made an unsuccessful attempt to
seize Badajos, in which we suffered heavy loss. Now, with this
fortress and Ciudad Rodrigo in his hands, the French were deprived
of any rallying-point on the road to Madrid, and the English
Commander-in-Chief at once opened a determined offensive campaign.
The gallantry displayed by our men at the assault are graphically
described by Napier and by many contemporary historians, French and
English; it only remains for me to record the part played by each
unit in the memorable siege.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF BADAJOZ.

  +-------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                               |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |         _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                               |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery                |   2 |   4 |  27 |  48 |
  |Roy. Engineers                 |   3 |   7 |   5 |  21 |
  |Royal Scots                    |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |K. O. Lancs                    |   2 |  15 |  40 | 173 |
  |Northumberland Fusiliers       |   1 |   4 |  20 |  55 |
  |Roy. Fusiliers                 |   5 |  12 |  50 | 147 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers          |   3 |  15 |  31 | 123 |
  |27th Roy. Inniskilling Fus.[16]|   5 |  20 |  51 | 303 |
  |30th E. Lancs                  |   - |   6 |  38 |  88 |
  |38th S. Staffs                 |   1 |   4 |  12 |  25 |
  |40th S. Lancs[16]              |   2 |  24 |  83 | 387 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.               |   3 |  15 |  74 | 255 |
  |44th Essex                     |   2 |   7 |  37 |  88 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters        |   4 |  11 |  46 | 132 |
  |51st K.O. Yorks L.I.[16]       |   1 |   3 |  26 |  75 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.               |   5 |  16 |  66 | 295 |
  |King's Royal Rifles            |   1 |   4 |   6 |  37 |
  |74th Highland L.I.             |   2 |  11 |  20 | 104 |
  |77th Middlesex                 |   - |   4 |   3 |  26 |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles        |   3 |   7 |  31 |  76 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers         |   5 |  10 |  55 | 180 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders        |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |94th Connaught Rangers         |   1 |   3 |  14 |  77 |
  |97th W. Kent[16]               |   - |   5 |  16 |  80 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.               |   8 |  16 |  61 | 297 |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SALAMANCA, JULY 22, 1812.

This was the first battle on a large scale ever fought by
Wellington, and its name is borne on the colours and appointments
of the

  5th Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Hussars.
  4th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's.
  King's Own.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Norfolks.
  Devons.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcester.
  East Lancashires.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  South Staffords.
  South Lancashire.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF SALAMANCA, JULY 22, 1812.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff               |   2 |   5 |   - |   - |
  |5th Drag. Gds.              |   - |   2 |   9 |  42 |
  |3rd Hussars                 |   1 |   - |   6 |  11 |
  |4th Hussars                 |   - |   1 |   7 |  21 |
  |12th Lancers                |   1 |   - |   2 |   2 |
  |14th Hussars                |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |16th Lancers                |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |Coldstream Gds.             |   - |   1 |   7 |  22 |
  |Scots Guards                |   - |   1 |   1 |  20 |
  |Royal Scots                 |   - |   8 |  23 | 131 |
  |Queen's                     |   1 |   6 |  13 |  77 |
  |K.O. Lancs.                 |   - |   1 |   2 |  40 |
  |N'umberland F.              |   - |   8 |  11 | 131 |
  |Royal Fusiliers             |   1 |  10 |  19 | 168 |
  |Norfolk                     |   - |   1 |   3 |  42 |
  |Devon                       |   1 |  15 |  44 | 281 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers       |   1 |   6 |   9 |  90 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers |   - |   1 |   1 |   7 |
  |30th E. Lancs               |   - |   1 |   3 |  22 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.          |   2 |   9 |  15 | 111 |
  |36th Worcester              |   4 |   4 |  16 |  74 |
  |38th S. Staffs              |   2 |  14 |  23 | 155 |
  |40th S. Lancs               |   - |   5 |  12 | 115 |
  |42nd Bk. Watch              |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.            |   - |   1 |   1 |  15 |
  |44th Essex                  |   2 |   - |   4 |  23 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters     |   - |   5 |   5 |  45 |
  |48th N'ampton               |   - |  10 |   9 |  60 |
  |51st K.O. Yorks L.I.        |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.            |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.        |   - |  11 |  26 | 105 |
  |58th N'ampton               |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |60th K.R.R.                 |   - |   3 |   6 |  24 |
  |61st Gloucester             |   5 |  19 |  38 | 303 |
  |68th Durham L.I.            |   1 |   2 |   3 |  14 |
  |74th Highland L.I.          |   - |   2 |   3 |  41 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders    |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |83rd Roy. Irish Rifles      |   - |   2 |  13 |  30 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers      |   2 |   4 |  11 | 110 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers      |   1 |   3 |   3 |  21 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.            |   - |   - |   3 |  24 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--It will be remarked that both the Coldstream and the Scots
  Guards figure in the casualty returns, but they have not been
  authorized to bear the honour.

In actual numbers the two armies were evenly matched, Wellington
having some 42,000 men against an equal number of the French. There
were, however, nearly 15,000 Portuguese in the allied army, and no
one could assert that they were the equal of 15,000 British. The
victory was complete. Our casualties, though severe, were little
more than half of those sustained by the French, who lost upwards
of 8,000 killed and wounded, whilst twelve cannon and two eagles
remained in our hands. The road was now open to Madrid, and on
August 12 Wellington entered that capital in triumph.

In the month of October came a damper in the shape of a decided
reverse at Burgos, and the winter was spent by Wellington in
reorganizing his forces for the final struggle in the coming
summer. The French were heavily engaged in Eastern Europe, and
Napoleon was unable to spare large bodies of men for the war in
Spain. The stars in their courses were fighting for Wellington.


VITTORIA, JUNE 21, 1813.

This victory, which gave Wellington his baton of Field-Marshal, is
borne on the colours of the

  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Hussars.
  4th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  15th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  King's Own.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Norfolk.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Border.
  South Staffords.
  Dorsets.
  South Lancashire.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  North Lancashire.
  Royal Berkshires.
  Royal West Kent.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT VITTORIA, JUNE 21, 1813.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff               |   - |   8 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Dragoon Guards          |   - |   1 |   3 |   3 |
  |5th Dragoon Guards          |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |3rd Hussars                 |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |10th Hussars                |   - |   - |   6 |  10 |
  |11th Hussars                |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |12th Lancers                |   1 |   - |   3 |   8 |
  |13th Hussars                |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |15th Hussars                |   - |   2 |  10 |  47 |
  |16th Hussars                |   - |   2 |   7 |  12 |
  |18th Hussars                |   1 |   2 |  10 |  21 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   - |   1 |   9 |  53 |
  |Roy. Engineers              |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Scots                 |   - |   7 |   8 |  96 |
  |King's Own Lancaster        |   2 |   6 |  11 |  72 |
  |Northumberland Fusiliers    |   2 |   6 |  22 | 132 |
  |Royal Fusiliers             |   - |   - |   2 |   2 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers             |   - |   - |   3 |   1 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers       |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers |   - |   3 |   7 |  32 |
  |28th Gloucester             |   - |  17 |  12 | 171 |
  |31st E. Surrey              |   - |   1 |   1 |  13 |
  |34th Border                 |   - |   3 |  10 |  63 |
  |38th S. Staffs              |   - |   2 |   - |   6 |
  |39th Dorset                 |   - |   8 |  28 | 181 |
  |40th S. Lancs               |   - |   3 |   5 |  34 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.            |   - |   2 |   2 |  25 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters     |   - |   4 |   4 |  66 |
  |47th N. Lancs               |   2 |   4 |  18 |  88 |
  |48th N'ampton               |   - |   - |   1 |  18 |
  |50th Roy. West Kent         |   - |   7 |  27 |  70 |
  |51st K.O. Yorks. L.I.       |   1 |   1 |  10 |  20 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.            |   1 |   1 |   3 |  18 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.        |   - |   - |   4 |   6 |
  |57th Middlesex              |   - |   2 |   5 |  21 |
  |59th E. Lancs               |   - |   8 |  11 | 125 |
  |60th K.R.R.                 |   - |   2 |   2 |  47 |
  |66th Berkshire              |   - |   1 |   2 |  22 |
  |68th Durham L.I.            |   2 |  10 |  23 |  91 |
  |71st Highland L.I.          |   3 |  12 |  41 | 260 |
  |74th Highland L.I.          |   - |   5 |  13 |  64 |
  |82nd S. Lancs               |   1 |   3 |   5 |  22 |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles     |   3 |   4 |  32 |  74 |
  |87th Royal Irish Fusiliers  |   1 |   7 |  84 | 177 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers      |   - |   5 |  23 | 187 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders     |   - |   - |   4 |  16 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers      |   - |   7 |   5 |  59 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.            |   1 |   6 |  11 |  61 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In this battle Wellington, for the first time, had a decided
superiority in numbers, having close on 80,000 men opposed to but
62,000 of the French; but it must be conceded that the 20,000
Portuguese were by no means of the same value as 20,000 British
infantry. The victory was undisputed. Practically the whole of the
French artillery--no less than 143 guns, with 1,000 prisoners--fell
into our hands, and upwards of a million in treasure was the booty.
The personal effects of King Joseph and an immense quantity of
material was also taken. Our casualties amounted to more than 4,000
killed and wounded; those of the French to upwards of 6,000.

Amongst the cavalry regiments which suffered losses at Vittoria,
but which have not yet been authorized to assume the battle honour,
are the 12th Lancers and 15th and 18th Hussars.[17]


PYRENEES, JULY 28 TO AUGUST 2, 1813.

This battle honour was granted as a distinction commemorative of
the three days' hard fighting in the Pyrenees between July 28 and
August 1, 1813. It is borne by the following regiments:

  14th Hussars.
  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Devons.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  East Surrey.
  Worcesters.
  Border.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  South Lancashire.
  Dorsets.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshire.
  Royal West Kent.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Middlesex.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

  [Illustration: Battlefields in SPAIN & PORTUGAL]

There were many reasons which compelled Wellington to refrain
from prosecuting a vigorous pursuit after the decisive victory
of Vittoria. The French were in possession of the two fortresses
of Pampeluna and San Sebastian in the north, and they were far
superior in numbers to the Allies in the south of the Peninsula.
He pushed the enemy back slowly to the frontier, and at the
same time he detached two of his own divisions, under Sir Thomas
Graham, to reduce San Sebastian, whilst he entrusted the task of
besieging Pampeluna to the Spaniards, resolving that, as soon as
these two fortresses were in his possession, he would continue the
work of expelling the French from the Peninsula. Emboldened by
Lord Wellington's tactics, Soult turned and attacked the English
at Roncesvalles and in the Maya Pass. At the latter engagement we
were compelled to fall back, leaving some prisoners in the hands
of the French; but reinforcements coming up, Wellington resumed
the offensive, and by August 1 had once more driven the French to
the north of the Pyrenees. The fighting during these few days was
excessively severe, our casualties amounting to upwards of 4,000 of
all ranks killed and wounded.


CASUALTIES IN THE ACTIONS IN THE PYRENEES, JULY 25 TO AUGUST 2,
1813.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   1 |   1 |  19 |
  |2nd Queen's              |   - |   1 |   1 |   9 |
  |3rd Buffs                |   1 |   1 |   3 |  27 |
  |6th Royal Warwicks       |   1 |   7 |  14 | 140 |
  |7th Royal Fus.           |   1 |  10 |  52 | 187 |
  |11th Devons              |   - |   4 |   7 |  62 |
  |20th Lancs Fusiliers     |   3 |  17 |  38 | 189 |
  |23rd Royal Welsh Fus.    |   3 |   8 |  23 |  85 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers  |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |27th Royal Inniskillings |   3 |  11 |  58 | 228 |
  |28th Gloucester          |   1 |   6 |   9 | 121 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   - |   3 |   2 |  37 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.       |   - |   4 |   4 |  51 |
  |34th Border R.           |   1 |   5 |  48 | 122 |
  |36th Worcesters          |   - |   3 |   8 |  35 |
  |39th Dorsets             |   2 |   7 |  11 | 118 |
  |40th S. Lancs            |   2 |  10 |  22 | 197 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders   |   - |   - |   4 |  26 |
  |45th Derbysh.            |   - |   1 |   - |   7 |
  |48th N'amptons           |   2 |  10 |  12 | 109 |
  |50th West Kent           |   3 |  12 |  30 | 198 |
  |51st K.O.Y.L.I.          |   - |   - |   7 |  62 |
  |53rd Shrops. L.I.        |   - |   1 |   1 |  20 |
  |57th Middlesex           |   - |   3 |   4 |  68 |
  |58th N'ampton            |   - |   6 |  10 |  61 |
  |60th Royal R.            |   2 |   6 |   8 |  72 |
  |61st Gloucesters         |   - |   4 |   3 |  38 |
  |68th Durham L.I.         |   1 |   3 |   8 |  41 |
  |71st Highland L.I.       |   2 |   7 |  28 | 181 |
  |74th Highland L.I.       |   1 |   4 |   6 |  38 |
  |79th Cameron H.          |   - |   1 |   5 |  47 |
  |82nd S. Lancs            |   4 |   6 |  17 | 146 |
  |91st H'landers           |   - |   7 |  13 | 100 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders  |   - |  26 |  55 | 363 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.         |   - |   2 |   7 |  28 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SAN SEBASTIAN, AUGUST, 1813.

On July 18, 1817, the following regiments were permitted to assume
the battle honour for their services at the siege and capture of
this fortress:

  Royal Scots.
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Norfolks.
  East Lancashire.
  South Staffords.
  North Lancashire.

Immediately after the Battle of Vittoria, Lord Wellington detached
two divisions to besiege this fortress, the possession of which
was a necessary prelude to his further pursuit of the French.
Unfortunately, our army was ill-provided with material for a siege,
and two months were spent before the place was taken. Our losses
during the siege and in the two assaults were very severe, as the
accompanying casualty returns prove:


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF SAN SEBASTIAN, JULY AND
AUGUST, 1813.

  +---------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                 |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                 |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery                  |   4 |   7 |   4 |  20 |
  |Roy. Engineers                   |   3 |   3 |  14 | 111 |
  |Coldstream Gds.                  |   - |   1 |   3 |  20 |
  |Scots Guards                     |   - |   - |   1 |  24 |
  |Royal Scots                      |   8 |  15 | 118 | 310 |
  |2nd Queen's                      |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |4th K.O. Lancs.                  |   5 |   6 | 117 | 170 |
  |7th Royal Fus.                   |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |9th Norfolks                     |   6 |  12 |  62 | 177 |
  |20th Lancashire Fusiliers        |   1 |   1 |   2 |   9 |
  |23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers        |   - |   1 |   4 |   4 |
  |27th Roy. Inniskilling Fusiliers |   1 |   - |   5 |   2 |
  |38th South Staffords             |   5 |  12 |  33 | 174 |
  |40th South Lancashires           |   - |   1 |   3 |   8 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.                 |   1 |   - |   2 |  10 |
  |47th Loy. North Lancs            |   7 |   6 | 106 | 130 |
  |48th N. Staffs                   |   - |   1 |   4 |   1 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.                 |   1 |   2 |   1 |   7 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.             |   - |   - |   2 |   1 |
  |59th E. Lancs                    |   8 |  12 | 109 | 208 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.                 |   - |   2 |   7 |   1 |
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


NIVELLE, NOVEMBER 10, 1813.

The battle honour for this hard-fought action is borne by the

  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Devons.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Border.
  Dorsets.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Highland L.I.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF THE NIVELLE, NOVEMBER 13, 1813.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff               |   5 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery             |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |12th Lancers                |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Coldstream Guards           |   - |   1 |   - |   9 |
  |2nd Queen's                 |   - |   - |   2 |  26 |
  |Buffs                       |   - |   1 |   3 |   8 |
  |K.O. Lancs.                 |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |5th Northumberland Fus.     |   - |   2 |  15 | 109 |
  |Roy. Warwicks               |   - |   - |   1 |   6 |
  |Devons                      |   - |   5 |   3 |  38 |
  |S. Wales Bord.              |   - |   2 |   - |   5 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers |   1 |   3 |   9 |  51 |
  |28th Gloucester             |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |31st E. Surrey              |   - |   1 |   1 |  13 |
  |34th Border R.              |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |38th S. Staffs              |   - |   2 |   - |   2 |
  |39th Dorsets                |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |40th S. Lancs               |   1 |   6 |  15 |  80 |
  |42nd B. Watch               |   - |   2 |   - |  25 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.            |   2 |   9 |   6 |  60 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters     |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |48th N'amptons              |   - |   4 |   7 |  57 |
  |51st K.O. Yorks L.I.        |   2 |   2 |  22 |  73 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.            |   - |   6 |  34 | 202 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.        |   - |   1 |   3 |  20 |
  |57th Middlesex              |   2 |   7 |   5 |  50 |
  |58th N'ampton               |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |59th E. Lancs               |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |King's Roy. R.              |   1 |   3 |   7 |  58 |
  |61st Gloucester             |   2 |   5 |   5 |  37 |
  |66th Berkshire              |   - |   2 |   5 |  32 |
  |68th Durham L.I.            |   2 |   6 |   7 |  32 |
  |76th W. Riding              |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders    |   - |   1 |   6 |  44 |
  |82nd S. Lancs.              |   - |   6 |   9 |  58 |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles     |   - |   4 |   7 |  36 |
  |84th York and Lancaster     |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |85th Shropshire L.I.        |   1 |   - |   - |  13 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers   |   1 |   5 |  74 | 133 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders     |   1 |   6 |  13 | 105 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers      |   1 |   2 |  10 |  60 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.            |   - |   8 |  11 |  76 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Wellington had made all his preparations for a general advance so
soon as he should be in possession of the two fortresses of San
Sebastian and Pampeluna. The former fell into our hands on August
31, but Pampeluna held out until the last days of October. Directly
he was apprised of its fall, Wellington commenced his advance.
Soult had profited by the delay, and had constructed three strongly
entrenched positions, each of which was held with determination.
The first has not been inscribed on our colours; the second was on
the banks of the River Nivelle, and before the French were driven
from it Wellington had lost upwards of 1,200 men. It is worthy of
note that, though the Coldstream Guards figure in the casualty
return, they have not been awarded the battle honour of Nivelle.


NIVE, DECEMBER 9 TO 13, 1813.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

  16th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Buffs.
  Royal Scots.
  Norfolk.
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Gloucesters.
  Devons.
  East Lancashire.
  Worcesters.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  East Surrey.
  Border.
  West Riding.
  Dorset.
  Royal Highlanders.
  South Staffords.
  Loyal North Lancashires.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Royal Berkshire.
  West Kent.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Wiltshires.
  York and Lancaster.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

This was Soult's last stand before he was driven across the
frontier, and, as the casualty lists show, a very gallant stand did
he make on those four December days. The heavy losses incurred by
the Grenadier and Scots Guards failed to obtain for the Household
Brigade this well-merited battle honour until the month of August,
1910, but full justice has not yet been done to the Brigade of
Guards for its gallant services at Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, and
Sebastian.


CASUALTIES DURING THE CROSSING OF THE NIVE, DECEMBER 9 TO 13, 1813.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff            |   7 |   6 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   2 |  15 |
  |13th Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |14th Hussars             |   - |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |16th Lancers             |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |Grenadier Gds.           |   2 |   2 |  21 | 126 |
  |Coldstream Gds.          |   - |   1 |   - |  13 |
  |Scots Guards             |   1 |   3 |   7 |  54 |
  |Royal Scots              |   - |  13 |   7 | 111 |
  |K.O. Lancs               |   - |  15 |  13 | 154 |
  |Norfolk                  |   2 |   6 |  26 | 160 |
  |Devons                   |   - |   1 |   1 |  16 |
  |28th Gloucester          |   - |   5 |  13 | 129 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   - |   2 |   2 |  32 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.       |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |34th Border R.           |   - |   - |   1 |  12 |
  |36th Worcesters          |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |38th S. Staffs           |   - |   4 |  12 |  90 |
  |39th Dorsets             |   - |   1 |   3 |  26 |
  |42nd B. Watch            |   2 |   1 |   - |  11 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.         |   - |   - |  12 |  22 |
  |47th N. Lancs            |   - |   2 |  12 |  53 |
  |50th West Kent           |   - |  11 |  20 |  92 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.         |   - |   3 |   2 |  15 |
  |57th Middlesex           |   3 |   4 |   7 | 113 |
  |59th E. Lancs            |   - |  11 |  18 | 136 |
  |60th K.R.R.              |   - |   2 |   9 |  76 |
  |61st Gloucesters         |   - |   2 |   - |   4 |
  |66th Berkshire           |   - |   1 |   9 |  68 |
  |71st Highland L.I.       |   3 |   9 |  27 | 100 |
  |76th W. Riding           |   - |   - |   1 |  15 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders |   - |   1 |   5 |  26 |
  |84th York and Lancaster  |   2 |   6 |  24 | 100 |
  |85th K.O. Shrop. L.I.    |   - |   1 |   1 |  11 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders  |   - |   - |   7 |  47 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders  |   4 |  10 |  27 | 140 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.         |   1 |   1 |   9 |  71 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ORTHES, FEBRUARY 27, 1814.

This, the first battle fought by Wellington on French soil, is
borne on the colours of the

  7th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  Buffs.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Devons.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  Border.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Dorsets.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.
  West Kent.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

The casualties fell heavily on the Sherwood Foresters and on the
two Irish regiments which then bore the numbers 87th and 88th.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF ORTHES, FEBRUARY 27, 1814.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff              |   - |   6 |   - |   - |
  |7th Hussars                |   - |   3 |   4 |   6 |
  |10th Hussars               |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |13th Hussars               |   - |   1 |   2 |  15 |
  |14th Hussars               |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |15th Hussars               |   - |   - |   - |   9 |
  |Royal Artillery            |   1 |   1 |   3 |  23 |
  |Roy. Engineers             |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |N'umberland F.             |   1 |   - |   5 |  31 |
  |Roy. Warwick               |   2 |   8 |  24 | 111 |
  |Royal Fusiliers            |   - |   4 |   6 |  56 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers            |   2 |   6 |  16 |  97 |
  |Roy. Welsh F.              |   - |   3 |  16 |  75 |
  |27th Royal Inniskilling F. |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |40th S. Lancs              |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |42nd B. Watch              |   1 |   4 |   4 |  90 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters    |   1 |   9 |  14 | 106 |
  |48th N'ampton              |   - |   - |   1 |  13 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.           |   - |   6 |   7 |  76 |
  |58th N'ampton              |   - |   3 |   3 |  25 |
  |King's Roy. R.             |   - |   2 |   3 |  31 |
  |61st Gloucesters           |   - |   - |   1 |   6 |
  |68th Durham L.I.           |   - |   1 |   3 |  27 |
  |74th Highland L.I.         |   - |   5 |   8 |  21 |
  |82nd S. Lancs              |   - |   2 |   2 |  24 |
  |83rd Roy. Irish Rifles     |   - |   6 |  11 |  47 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers  |   1 |   5 |  92 | 116 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers     |   2 |  11 |  41 | 214 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders    |   - |   7 |   3 |  27 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers     |   - |   1 |   1 |  12 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--In following up the retreating French the army had been
  sharply engaged on February 14, 17, 23, and 26, and subsequently
  to Orthes. A general action was fought at Tarbes on March 20,
  1814, the brunt of the work falling on the Rifle Brigade.


TOULOUSE, APRIL 10, 1814.

This, the closing action of the Peninsular War, was fought after
the abdication of Napoleon, and was the final act of the campaign
which Sir Arthur Wellesley opened at the combat of Roleia on
August 17, 1808. There are ten regiments which bear on their
colours the names of the earliest and the last engagements, Roleia
and Toulouse. Of these, only five suffered any loss in both
engagements. The King's Royal Rifles, Highland Light Infantry, and
Rifle Brigade take pride of place, each having fifteen Peninsular
battle honours on their appointments. Those to whom the battle
honour "Toulouse" has been awarded are the

  5th Dragoon Guards.
  3rd Hussars.
  4th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Devons.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF TOULOUSE, APRIL 10, 1814.

  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._          +-----------+-----------+
  |                                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff                   |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  |5th Drag. Gds.                  |   - |   1 |   1 |   2 |
  |3rd Hussars                     |   - |   1 |   - |   5 |
  |4th Hussars                     |   - |   1 |   2 |   5 |
  |10th Hussars                    |   1 |   1 |   4 |   6 |
  |15th Hussars                    |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |Royal Artillery                 |   - |   - |   7 |  31 |
  |Queen's (four companies)        |   - |   - |   - |  12 |
  |N'umberland F.                  |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |Royal Fusiliers                 |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |Devon                           |   1 |   4 |  14 | 121 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers                 |   - |   - |   2 |   9 |
  |Roy. Welsh F.                   |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |27th Inniskilling Fusiliers     |   2 |   5 |  23 |  76 |
  |28th Gloucesters                |   - |   3 |   3 |  25 |
  |34th Border R.                  |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |36th Worcester                  |   1 |   9 |  38 | 104 |
  |39th Dorsets                    |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |40th S. Lancs                   |   - |   8 |   7 |  71 |
  |42nd B. Watch                   |   4 |  22 |  50 | 337 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters         |   1 |   8 |   7 |  72 |
  |48th N'ampton                   |   - |   4 |   5 |  39 |
  |50th W. Kent                    |   - |   2 |   2 |   8 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.                |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I. (two cos.) |   - |   5 |   2 |  14 |
  |60th K.R.R.                     |   - |   3 |  11 |  48 |
  |61st Gloucesters                |   1 |  18 |  16 | 140 |
  |71st Highland L.I.              |   - |   - |   3 |  13 |
  |74th Highland L.I.              |   - |   7 |  32 |  72 |
  |79th Cameron H.                 |   3 |  15 |  26 | 179 |
  |83rd Roy. Irish Rifles          |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers       |   1 |   2 |   7 |  17 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers          |   1 |   2 |   7 |  76 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders         |   - |   6 |  18 |  98 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers          |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |95th Rifle Brig.                |   - |   1 |  10 |  75 |
  +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

In this fight the 42nd (Royal Highlanders) was wellnigh annihilated.


PENINSULA, 1808-1814.

The following regiments bear this battle honour:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  4th Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  3rd Hussars.
  4th Hussars.
  7th Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  10th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  13th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  15th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  18th Hussars.
  20th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
  Buffs.
  K.O. (Royal Lancaster).
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Norfolk.
  Lincoln.
  Devons.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Worcester.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding.
  Border.
  South Staffordshire.
  Hampshire.
  Dorset.
  South Lancashire.
  Black Watch.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Loyal North Lancashire.
  Northampton.
  Royal Berkshire.
  Royal West Kent.
  K.O. (Yorkshire L.I.).
  King's (Shropshire L.I.).
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Wiltshire.
  Manchester.
  York and Lancaster.
  Durham L.I.
  Highland L.I.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.


ROLL OF THE PRINCIPAL ACTIONS DURING THE PENINSULAR WAR.

  +---------+-----------+----------------+--------------------------------+
  |         |           |  _Casualties._ |                                |
  |         |           |_Offi- | _Men._ |                                |
  |_Action._|  _Date._  | cers._|        |           _Honours._           |
  |         |           +---+---+---+----+                                |
  |         |           |K. |W. | K.|  W.|                                |
  +---------+-----------+---+---+---+----+--------------------------------+
  |         |1808       |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Roleia   |August 17  |  4| 20| 65| 315|Medal, clasp, and battle honour.|
  |Vimiera  |August 21  |  4| 37|185| 497|  "      "              "       |
  |Sahagun  |December 21|  -|  -|  2|  18|  "      "              "       |
  |Benevente|December 29|  -|  3|  5|  23|  "      "    No  battle honour.|
  |         |1809.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Corunna  |January 16 | ? | ? | ? |  ? |Medal, clasp, and battle honour.|
  |Douro    |May 24     |  -| 10| 23|  86|No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
  |Talavera |July 27    | 27|171|643|3295|Medal, clasp, and battle honour.|
  |         |1810.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Busaco   |Sept. 27   |  5| 35|102| 408|  "       "             "       |
  |         |1811.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Barrosa  |March 4    |  7| 45|182| 881|  "       "             "       |
  |Fuentes  |           |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |   d'Onor|May 5      | 11| 62|157| 576|  "       "             "       |
  |Albuera  |May 16     | 39|165|850|2567|  "       "             "       |
  |Arroyos dos          |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |  Molinos|October 28 |  -|  7|  7|  51|No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
  |Tarifa   |December   |  2|  3|  7|  24|   "          "          "      |
  |         |1812.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Ciudad   |           |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |  Rodrigo|January    |  8| 60|122| 436|Medal, clasp, and battle honour.|
  |Badajos  |March,April| 60|269|751|2539|  "      "              "       |
  |Almaraz  |May 19     |  2| 12| 32| 131|No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
  |Salamanca|July 22    | 28|178|360|2536|Medal, clasp, and battle honour.|
  |         |1813.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Vittoria |June 21    | 22|173|490|2704|   "     "              "       |
  |Pyrenees |July,August| 28|221|510|3295|   "     "              "       |
  |San      |           |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Sebastian|September  | 35| 70|535|1038|   "     "              "       |
  |Nivelle  |November 10| 21|121|237|1031|   "     "              "       |
  |Nive    December 9-13| 19|140|200|2055|   "     "              "       |
  |         |1814.      |   |   |   |    |                                |
  |Orthes   |February 27| 15|105|192|1291|   "     "              "       |
  |Toulouse |April 10   | 16|134|298|1661|   "     "              "       |
  +---------+-----------+---+---+---+----+--------------------------------+



CHAPTER XII

WATERLOO, AND THE ORDER OF THE BATH FOR THE NAPOLEONIC WARS


WATERLOO, JUNE 18, 1815.

This victory, generally considered the most glorious ever gained
by British troops, was commemorated in divers manner. The first
regiments of Guards were allowed to assume the title of Grenadiers;
all who participated were granted a medal bearing the effigy of
the Prince Regent--the first medal ever given to all ranks by the
British Government--and were permitted to count two years' service
towards pension; and the word "Waterloo" was inscribed on the
colours and appointments of the following regiments:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  1st Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Dragoons.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  Inniskilling Dragoons.
  7th Hussars.
  10th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  13th Hussars.
  15th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  18th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  King's Own Royal Lancasters.
  West Yorkshire.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashire.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding Regiment.
  South Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

  [Illustration: THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
  To face page 192.]

The story of the Battle of Waterloo has been described in the
minutest detail by the most accomplished military historians
in Great Britain, Germany, and France, so that nothing remains
to be told on this head. As is well known, Napoleon, worn down
by the successive campaigns which had been waged against him in
Europe and in Spain, had at last abdicated, and was relegated to
honourable exile in the Island of Elba. In the early spring of 1815
he violated his engagements, and returned to France, where the
majority of his soldiery flocked to his standard. The Allies once
more mobilized their armies, and prepared for war. Whilst Austria
and Russia were advancing from the east, the armies of Prussia
and of Great Britain pushed forward from the north. Napoleon
endeavoured to defeat these before the arrival of the Russians and
Austrians on his frontier. On June 16 he simultaneously attacked
the Prussians at Ligny and Wellington at Quatre-Bras. The Prussians
were undoubtedly worsted, and we at the best fought a very doubtful
action at Quatre-Bras. The Allies then fell back, and it was agreed
that a further stand should be made at Waterloo. Circumstances
arose which prevented Blücher from arriving on the field as soon
as was anticipated, and for four long hours the small British
army withstood the onset of the whole of Napoleon's forces; then,
early in the afternoon, the effect of the Prussian advance on our
left began to be felt, and as the divisions of our allies came
successively into action, the success of the day was no more in
doubt. By sundown the battle was won, the French in full retreat,
and Napoleon's sun had set for ever.

The vexed question of the relative part played by the Prussians and
ourselves will never be settled to the satisfaction of all. One
point in regard to this question has, in my humble opinion, never
been sufficiently brought out. The Prussian army was virtually
an army of mercenaries, kept in the field by the large subsidies
so generously voted by the English Parliament. It is true that
we might have held our own without the arrival of the Prussians,
but it is quite certain that we should never have inflicted the
crushing defeat had not Blücher arrived--not so opportunely, as
some writers assert, but according to his promise. Then, we know
that the battle was a part of the prearranged plan between the Duke
of Wellington and Prince Blücher. This, however, is beyond all
doubt--that had it not been for the generous subsidies voted to
Prussia by the English Parliament, amounting to 3,000,000 sterling,
in the years 1814-15, there would have been no Prussian army to
assist us. Throughout the wars with Napoleon, Austria, Prussia, and
Russia received large sums to enable them to keep their armies in
the field. It was not only the King's German Legion which was paid
with English gold, but the Prussian army also; and when the Germans
taunt the British army with being an army of mercenaries, it would
be well for them to study the financial conditions under which they
fought in the wars with France in the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries. The following figures, showing the pecuniary assistance
afforded by England to her allies, are of passing interest:

  +------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
  |      |   AUSTRIA.   |   PRUSSIA.   |    RUSSIA.   |
  +------+--------------+--------------+--------------+
  |1814  |    £545,612  |  £1,757,669  |  £1,758,436  |
  |1815  |  £1,475,632  |  £2,555,473  |  £1,330,171  |
  |1816  |  £1,796,229  |  £2,382,823  |  £3,241,919  |
  +------+--------------+--------------+--------------+


CASUALTIES DURING THE WATERLOO CAMPAIGN.

     Legend: _Of._ = _Officers._
  +------------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------+
  |                  |  QUATRE-BRAS  |               |    WATERLOO     |
  |                  |   (JUNE 16).  |   (JUNE 17).  |   (JUNE 18).    |
  |                  +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+---------+
  |  _Regiments._    | _Of._ |_Men._ | _Of._ |_Men._ | _Of._ |  _Men._ |
  |                  +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+
  |                  | K.| W.| K.| W.| K.| W.| K.| W.| K.| W.|  K.|  W.|
  +------------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+
  |1st Life Guards   | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 8 | 9 | 2 | 3 | 16 | 39 |
  |2nd Life Guards   | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | - | 16 | 40 |
  |Royal Horse Gds.  | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3 | 5 | 1 | 4 | 16 | 56 |
  |King's Drag. Gds. | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3 | 4 | 40 |100 |
  |Royal Dragoons    | - | - | 1 | - | - | - | - | - | 4 | 9 | 85 | 88 |
  |Roy. Scots Greys  | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 3 | 8 | 96 | 89 |
  |6th Inniskillings | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 5 | 72 |111 |
  |7th Hussars       | - | - | - | - | 1 | - | 6 |21 | - | 6 | 56 | 96 |
  |10th Hussars      | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 | 5 | 20 | 40 |
  |11th Hussars      | - | 1 | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 4 | 11 | 34 |
  |12th Lancers      | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 | 4 | 45 | 61 |
  |13th Hussars      | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 9 | 11 | 69 |
  |15th Hussars      | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 | 3 | 21 | 48 |
  |16th Lancers      | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 | 3 | 18 | 18 |
  |18th Hussars      | - | 1 | 1 | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 | 12 | 71 |
  |Royal Artillery   | - | 2 | 9 |17 | - | - | - | - | 5 |24 | 53 |211 |
  |Royal Engineers   | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - |  - |    |
  |Grenadier Guards  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  (1st Batt.)     | 2 | 4 |23 |256| - | - | - | - | 1 | 5 | 50 | 96 |
  |Grenadier Guards  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  (3rd Batt.)     | 1 | 6 |19 |235| - | - | - | - | 3 | 6 | 81 |245 |
  |Coldstream Gds.   | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 7 | 54 |242 |
  |Scots Guards      | - | - | - | 7 | - | - | - | - | 3 | 9 | 39 |288 |
  |Royal Scots       | 6 |12 |20 |180| - | - | - | - | 2 |13 | 13 |115 |
  |4th King's Own    | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 8 | 12 |113 |
  |14th West Yorks   | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 |  7 | 21 |
  |23rd R. Welsh F.  | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 4 | 6 | 11 | 78 |
  |27th Inniskill. F.| - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 |13 |103 |360 |
  |28th Gloucesters  | - | 4 |11 |60 | - | - | - | - | 1 |15 | 18 |143 |
  |30th East Lancs   | - | 2 | 5 |28 | - | - | 1 | 2 | 6 |12 | 47 |157 |
  |32nd Cornw. L.I.  | 1 |16 |21 |152| - | - | - | - | - | 9 | 28 |137 |
  |33rd W. Riding    | 3 | 7 |16 |67 | - | - | - | 3 | 2 | 9 | 33 | 92 |
  |40th S. Lancs     | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 |10 | 30 |159 |
  |42nd Roy. Highl.  | 3 |14 |42 |228| - | - | - | - | - | 6 |  5 | 39 |
  |44th Essex        | 2 |15 |10 |94 | - | - | - | - | - | 4 |  4 | 57 |
  |51st King's Own   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  Yorkshire L.I.  | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 |  9 | 20 |
  |52nd Oxford L.I.  | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 1 | 8 | 16 |174 |
  |69th Welsh        | 1 | 4 |37 |110| - | - | - | 3 | 3 | 3 | 14 | 50 |
  |71st Highland L.I.| - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 2 |14 | 24 |160 |
  |73rd Roy. Highl.  | - | 4 | 4 |43 | 1 | - | 3 | - | 5 |12 | 47 |175 |
  |79th Camerons     | 1 |16 |28 |248| - | - | - | - | 2 |11 | 39 |132 |
  |92nd Gordons      | 4 |20 |35 |226| - | - | - | - | - | 6 | 14 | 96 |
  |95th Rifle Brigade|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  (1st Batt.)     | 1 | 4 | 8 |51 | - | - | - | - | 1 |11 | 20 |124 |
  |95th Rifle Brigade|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  (2nd Batt.)     | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - |14 | 34 |179 |
  |95th Rifle Brigade|   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |
  |  (3rd Batt.)     | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | - | 4 |  3 | 36 |
  +------------------+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+


THE ORDER OF THE BATH.

At the close of the Peninsular War, the Order of the Bath, which up
till then had consisted of but one class (the K.B.), was enlarged,
and henceforth comprised three classes, as at present. The First
Class, or Knight's Grand Cross, was reserved for General and Flag
Officers; the Second Class was open to officers not below the rank
of Post-Captain in the navy or Lieutenant-Colonel in the army. In
order to obtain the Third Class of the Bath, better known as the
C.B., an officer must have been mentioned in despatches for service
in presence of the enemy. This qualification does not apply to
the two higher classes, and it has happened more than once that
officers have received the Grand Cross of the Bath who, under
its statutes, are ineligible for the lowest class! The number of
K.C.B.'s was limited to 180, and of these, 80 were bestowed on the
Royal Navy and Royal Marines, and 100 on the army, in the following
proportion as to ranks: 19 Admirals and 9 Lieutenant-Generals
were granted the Order; 23 Vice and 25 Rear Admirals; and 37
Major-Generals, 19 Post-Captains, and 22 Colonels; whilst 32
Lieutenant-Colonels commanding regiments or Staff Officers received
the same Order. Three officers of Marines were likewise granted the
Order of the K.C.B. It is very rare now for a regimental commanding
officer, still rarer for a Post-Captain, to obtain admission to the
Second Class of the Bath.

I think I am right in stating that the late Sir William Peel and
Sir Harry Keppel were the last Post-Captains who obtained this
distinction. Sir Robert Sale and Sir Harry Smith were actually
Lieutenant-Colonels of the 13th Light Infantry and of the Rifle
Brigade respectively when they were advanced to the dignity
of Grand Crosses of the Bath, but they held the local rank of
Major-General in the East Indies. The latter was almost immediately
promoted to the rank of substantive General Officer; the former was
killed before reaching the higher grade.

The Battle of Waterloo was the first engagement for which the
C.B. was granted. It is true that in the same _Gazette_ a number
of officers received the decoration for their services in the
Peninsular War, and of these not a few also appeared in the
Waterloo _Gazette_ with a star against their names, intimating
that they had received the decoration for previous services. The
list of officers granted the dignity of K.C.B. was published in
the _Gazette_ of January 2, 1815; but the C.B.'s, both for the
Peninsula and for Waterloo, appeared in the _Gazette_ of September
4, 1815.

The following list gives the number of decorations conferred
regimentally. It will be noticed that a number of regiments do not
figure in the list at all. On the other hand, a number of regiments
which participated in these honours have long since ceased to
exist, amongst them the well-known King's German Legion and the
little-known Greek Light Infantry. Of these I have not given the
details.


THE FIRST REGIMENTAL RECIPIENTS OF THE BATH.

  +------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+
  |                              |      _Peninsula._     |_Waterloo._|
  |         _Regiments._         +-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |                              |   K.C.B.  |    C.B.   |    C.B.   |
  +------------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |2nd Life Guards               |     -     |     -     |     1     |
  |Royal Horse Guards            |     1     |     -     |     1     |
  |King's Dragoon Guards         |     -     |     -     |     1     |
  |5th Dragoon Guards            |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |7th Dragoon Guards            |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |1st Royal Dragoons            |     -     |     -     |     1     |
  |Royal Scots Greys             |     -     |     -     |     2     |
  |3rd Hussars                   |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |7th Hussars                   |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |9th Lancers                   |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |10th Hussars                  |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |11th Hussars                  |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |12th Lancers                  |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |Royal Artillery               |     9     |     8     |     8     |
  |Royal Engineers               |     -     |    10     |     2     |
  |Grenadier Guards              |     6     |     4     |     6     |
  |Coldstream Guards             |     5     |     5     |     4     |
  |Scots Guards                  |     2     |     4     |     2     |
  |Royal Scots                   |     2     |     2     |     3     |
  |4th King's Own                |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |5th Northumberland Fusiliers  |     1     |     2     |     -     |
  |6th Royal Warwicks            |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |7th Royal Fusiliers           |     1     |     2     |     1     |
  |8th King's Liverpool Regiment |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |9th Norfolks                  |     1     |     -     |     -     |
  |10th Lincolns                 |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |11th Devons                   |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |12th Suffolks                 |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |13th Somerset Light Infantry  |     1     |     -     |     -     |
  |14th West Yorkshires          |     -     |     3     |     1     |
  |21st Royal Scots Fusiliers    |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers    |     2     |     4     |     2     |
  |24th South Wales Borderers    |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |27th Royal Inniskilling Fus.  |     1     |     3     |     1     |
  |28th Gloucesters              |     1     |     1     |     2     |
  |30th East Lancashires         |     -     |     1     |     3     |
  |31st East Surreys             |     1     |     1     |     -     |
  |32nd Cornwall Light Infantry  |     -     |     1     |     1     |
  |33rd Duke of Wellington's     |     -     |     -     |     1     |
  |34th Border Regiment          |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |35th Royal Sussex             |     1     |     1     |     -     |
  |36th Worcesters               |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |38th South Staffords          |     1     |     3     |     -     |
  |39th Dorsets                  |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |40th South Lancashires        |     -     |     2     |     1     |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders        |     2     |     3     |     2     |
  |43rd Oxford Light Infantry    |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |44th Essex                    |     -     |     1     |     3     |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters       |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |48th Northamptons             |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |49th Royal Berkshires         |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |50th Royal West Kent          |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |51st King's Own Yorkshire L.I.|     -     |     1     |     3     |
  |52nd Oxford Light Infantry    |     1     |     5     |     1     |
  |53rd Shropshire Light Infantry|     1     |     1     |     -     |
  |54th Dorsetshire              |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |56th Essex                    |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |57th Middlesex                |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |58th Northamptons             |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |59th South Lancashire         |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |60th King's Royal Rifles      |     -     |     4     |     -     |
  |62nd Wiltshire                |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |66th Royal Berkshire          |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |68th Durham Light Infantry    |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |69th Welsh                    |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |71st Highland Light Infantry  |     -     |     2     |     2     |
  |73rd Royal Highlanders        |     -     |     -     |     2     |
  |74th Highland Light Infantry  |     1     |     1     |     -     |
  |77th Middlesex                |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |78th Ross-shire Buffs         |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders      |     -     |     1     |     2     |
  |83rd Royal Irish Rifles       |     1     |     1     |     -     |
  |85th King's Shropshire L.I.   |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |86th Royal Irish Rifles       |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |87th Royal Irish Fusiliers    |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |88th Connaught Rangers        |     -     |     3     |     -     |
  |89th Royal Irish Fusiliers    |     -     |     2     |     -     |
  |90th Scottish Rifles          |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders       |     1     |     -     |     -     |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders       |     -     |     -     |     2     |
  |94th Connaught Rangers        |     -     |     1     |     -     |
  |Rifle Brigade                 |     2     |     6     |     8     |
  +------------------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

No regimental officers were granted the dignity of a K.C.B. for the
Battle of Waterloo.



CHAPTER XIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1818-1826

Kirkee--Seetabuldee--Nagpore--Maheidpore--Corygaum--Nowah--Bhurtpore
--Hindoostan--India.


THE SECOND MAHRATTA WAR, 1817-18.

The conclusion of the First Mahratta War of 1803-04 left us
nominally at peace with all the ruling Sovereigns in Central and
Southern India. At the same time, the result of that campaign had
in no way impaired their power for evil. Their armies were, so
far as numbers went, enormously powerful, and in a measure well
organized and equipped. In most cases they had been drilled by
European instructors, and certainly for irregular warfare they
constituted a very formidable foe. Although they had accepted
peace, it was well known that there was not a ruling Prince
in India who would not willingly see our downfall; and in the
event of war with one, it was doubtful who we should not find
arrayed against us. The Governor-General, then, had to prepare
for an alliance of all the central and probably of one or more
of the southern rulers. Our possible enemies were the Peishwa,
the hereditary chief of the Mahratta Confederacy; Scindia,
the Maharajah of Gwalior; Holkar, the Maharajah of Indore;
the Maharajah of Nagpore; the Nizam of Hyderabad, in whose
dominions there was considerable disaffection; Ameer Khan, a
Moslem freebooter, who, though possessing neither territory nor
population, had nevertheless a powerful and well-disciplined force
at his command; and, lastly, the Pindarees.

It must be borne in mind that at this time we had Subsidiary
Forces, composed of native troops, maintained by the different
rulers, but officered by Englishmen, at Hyderabad, Nagpore, Poona,
and Gwalior; and through these officers, as well as through the
Residents at the Courts of these Princes, we were well able to
judge of the numbers and value of the forces that could be brought
against us. These forces were estimated to be as follows:

  +------------+------------+-------------+---------+
  |            |  CAVALRY.  |  INFANTRY.  |  GUNS.  |
  +------------+------------+-------------+---------+
  |Scindia     |   14,250   |   16,250    |   140   |
  |Holkar      |   20,000   |    7,900    |   107   |
  |The Peishwa |   28,000   |   13,800    |    37   |
  |Nagpore     |   15,700   |   17,000    |    85   |
  |Ameer Khan  |   12,000   |   10,000    |    80   |
  |The Nizam   |   25,000   |   20,000    |   240   |
  |Pindarees   |   15,000   |    1,500    |    20   |
  +------------+------------+-------------+---------+

With but few exceptions, the cavalry was undisciplined and
unorganized, but well mounted, and the men as a rule admirable
swordsmen. To combat this possible alliance, the Marquess
of Hastings determined to utilize the troops of all three
Presidencies, and to take the field in person, and so assume the
direction of the operations. The Bengal army would deal with
Scindia, and then push to the south and west to assist the troops
of the other Presidencies. The Madras troops, with Secunderabad
as their base, after assuring the neutrality of the Nizam, would
operate from the south, whilst the Bombay army was left to deal
with the Peishwa, whose disaffection was beyond doubt.

The Bengal army was composed of four divisions, under the personal
command of the Marquess of Hastings. These were commanded
respectively by Major-Generals Browne, Donkin, Marshal, and Sir
David Ochterlony. Each division comprised one cavalry and two
infantry brigades. Of the troops which composed that army, few
regiments are left. The 24th Light Dragoons were disbanded shortly
after the campaign, and the majority of the native regiments fell
away from their allegiance in the unfortunate rebellion of 1857. Of
the regiments which went to make up the First Division, the 87th
(Royal Irish Fusiliers) still survive; of the Second Division,
the 8th (Royal Irish) Hussars, the 14th (West Yorkshires), and
Gardner's Horse are yet on the rolls of the army. The 67th
(Hampshires) and the 2nd Gurkhas, with Skinner's Horse, also
survive.

The Madras army was under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir
Thomas Hislop. Of its cavalry brigade no representatives remain;
of its four infantry brigades we have many survivors--first and
foremost, the Royal Scots and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers; then the
1st Madras Europeans, which, with the 17th Madras Infantry (now
the 93rd Burmah Infantry), composed the First Brigade. The Second
Brigade was made up of three light infantry regiments (native), of
which the 63rd Palamcottah Light Infantry and the 74th Punjabis are
with us. There were, all told, two regiments of British and six of
native infantry.

The Hyderabad Division, commanded by Major-General Doveton,
comprised a battalion of the Royal Scots and ten regiments of
Madras infantry; whilst the Hyderabad Subsidiary Brigade was made
up of a wing of the 1st Madras Europeans (now the Royal Dublins)
and three native regiments. Sir John Malcolm commanded the Third
Division of the Madras army. It comprised a regiment of Madras
cavalry, four battalions of Madras infantry, 4,000 Mysorean horse,
and three regiments of what were so long known as the Hyderabad
Contingent.

In the neighbourhood of Poonah was Sir Lionel Smith, with the 65th
(York and Lancasters), the 1st Bombay Europeans (now the 2nd Royal
Dublins), and four regiments of Bombay infantry.

Watching events in Guzerat was General Sir H. Grant Keir, with
the 17th Lancers, the 47th (Loyal North Lancashires), and four
battalions of Bombay native infantry; whilst at Nagpore was
Colonel Adams, with a regiment of Bengal and one of Madras cavalry,
and seven battalions of Madras infantry.

Reserve Bombay Division (Brigadier Munro): 22nd Light Dragoons,
7th Madras Cavalry, a battalion composed of the flank companies of
the 34th, 53rd, 69th, and 84th Regiments, the 1st Bombay European
Regiment, and three battalions of Bombay sepoys.

Prior to the army being put in motion, we had as garrisons at the
various capitals, or in their immediate vicinity, the following
troops:

At Secunderabad, watching the Nizam, a wing of the Madras European
Regiment and three battalions of Madras sepoys.

At Poonah, watching the Peishwa, a detachment of the Bombay
European Regiment and four battalions of Bombay sepoys, whilst
another detachment of the 65th Foot (York and Lancaster) was on the
march as a reinforcement.

At Nagpore were the 6th Bengal Cavalry, the Madras Bodyguard, and
two battalions of sepoys.


KIRKEE, NOVEMBER 5, 1817.

This honour is borne on the colours of the

  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  102nd Grenadiers.
  113th Infantry.
  112th Infantry.
  123rd Outram's Rifles.

The attitude of the Peishwa's advisers left little room for doubt
as to their intentions, and Colonel Burr, who was in command
at Poona, took the necessary steps to secure the safety of the
Resident and to maintain a hold on the capital of the Mahratta
Confederacy. He concentrated his forces at Kirkee, where on
November 5 he was attacked by the whole of the Peishwa's army.
From a study of the casualties, it would appear that the British
regiment was not engaged seriously, and there is no doubt that the
brunt of the fighting fell on the Bombay sepoys, who behaved with
exemplary steadiness. The result of the day was a serious check to
the Peishwa's forces, our losses being inconsiderable. General
Lionel Smith now pushed up reinforcements, and assumed command at
Poona, where, on the 17th of the month, a second action was fought,
known as the Battle of Poona; and though this is not borne on the
colours of the regiments engaged, the troops present were awarded
the India medal, with a clasp inscribed "Poona." Those who were at
both engagements received one clasp, with the names of both actions
engraved.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION AT KIRKEE, NOVEMBER 5, 1817.

  +----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                      |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery       |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |Dublin Fusiliers      |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |102nd Grenadiers      |   - |   1 |   1 |   8 |
  |112th Infantry        |   - |   - |   4 |  10 |
  |113th Infantry        |   - |   - |  12 |  37 |
  |123rd Outram's Rifles |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION AT POONA, NOVEMBER 17, 1817.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |65th York and Lancaster |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |Dublin Fusiliers        |   - |   1 |   5 |  13 |
  |105th Lt. Inf.          |   - |   - |   1 |  10 |
  |107th Pioneers          |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |112th Infantry          |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |113th Infantry          |   - |   - |   3 |  10 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SEETABULDEE, NOVEMBER 26, 1817.

This distinction is borne on the colours and appointments of the
Madras Bodyguard and the 61st Pioneers. Colonel Hopeton Scott, who
was in command of the troops at Nagpore when hostilities broke
out, withdrew his force to the fortified hill of Seetabuldee, in
the immediate neighbourhood of Nagpore. He was more fortunately
situated than Colonel Burr at Poona, inasmuch as he had under
his command a regiment of Bengal cavalry, whose commanding
officer was one of those men not rarely met with in our Indian
army--a born leader of irregular troops, with no idea of shirking
responsibility. On November 26 Colonel Scott found himself
attacked by the whole of the Nagpore army, numbering some 18,000
men, with thirty-six guns. His position was naturally a strong
one, and the attacks were never pressed home; but his situation
was critical, owing to the immense numbers opposed to his small
force. The Bengal cavalry were by no means averse to testing the
metal of the Nagporeans, and, in spite of express orders not to
provoke a conflict, their commander, Captain Fitzgerald, took every
opportunity of charging into the masses of the enemy whenever
occasion offered, and finally charged down on the flank of the
Nagpore infantry as they were recoiling from an attempt to carry
the hill by storm, and converted a momentary confusion into a rout.
In this he was supported by a small detail of the Madras Bodyguard.
Colonel Scott's men had sustained a series of attacks extending
over eighteen hours, and a glance at the list of casualties shows
that the honour "Seetabuldee" was well earned. More the pity that
the cavalry regiment which bore the major part in that day's work
no longer exists.


CASUALTIES AT SEETABULDEE.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery            |   - |   1 |   2 |  15 |
  |Madras Bodyguard           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Bengal Cav.            |   - |   3 |  23 |  24 |
  |61st Pioneers              |   2 |   3 |  55 |  99 |
  |1st Batt. 20th Bengal Inf. |   1 |   3 |  15 |  46 |
  |Resident's Esc.            |   - |   1 |  10 |  33 |
  |Major Jenkin's Levies      |   - |   3 |   8 |  13 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--It is worthy of remark that the total strength of the
  force engaged at Seetabuldee amounted to 1,315 of all ranks, and
  the casualties were 355 killed and wounded--a striking testimony
  to the steadiness and devotion of the Sepoys of those days.


NAGPORE, DECEMBER 16, 1817.

On learning of the action at Seetabuldee, Brigadier Doveton pushed
on to reinforce Scott, and on December 16 was fought this action,
which is borne as an honorary distinction on the colours of the

  Royal Scots.
  6th Jat Light Infantry.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  61st Pioneers.
  62nd Punjabis.
  81st Pioneers.
  83rd Light Infantry.
  86th Infantry.
  88th Infantry.
  97th Infantry.

The brunt of the fighting fell on the Royal Scots, who have ever
shown themselves to the front in our Indian wars, and on the Berar
Infantry, who were then fighting against their own ruler. The
honour is borne by one of the representatives of Russell's brigade,
yet, if contemporary returns are to be trusted, all the Hyderabad
regiments did well at Nagpore.

With the repulse of the Nagporean army, Doveton's troubles were
not at an end. A body of 300 Arabs withdrew into the fort, and
before they surrendered the English commander was compelled to
open a regular siege, in the course of which many casualties were
incurred. On December 24 the Arabs came to terms, and we took
possession of the city.


CASUALTIES AT THE ENGAGEMENTS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF NAGPORE,
NOVEMBER 16-24, 1817.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   5 |  19 |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   - |   5 |   7 |
  |6th Jat Light Infantry  |   - |   - |   2 |  11 |
  |61st Pioneers           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |62nd Punjabis           |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |Royal Scots             |   1 |   - |  29 |  97 |
  |81st Pioneers           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |83rd Light Inf.         |   - |   - |  14 |  20 |
  |86th Infantry           |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |88th Infantry           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |97th Deccan Inf.        |   - |   - |  12 |  45 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MAHEIDPORE, DECEMBER 23, 1817.

This battle honour, which commemorates the only general action
fought by the main army during the course of the Second Mahratta
War, is borne on the colours and appointments of the

  Royal Scots.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  28th Light Cavalry.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  74th Punjabis.
  87th Punjabis.
  88th Infantry.
  91st Light Infantry.
  94th Russell's Infantry.
  95th Russell's Infantry.

The distinction was granted in recognition of the services of
the army under Sir Thomas Hislop, which resulted in the total
defeat of the army belonging to the Maharajah Holkar, of Indore,
at Maheidpore on December 22, 1817. Holkar's army far outnumbered
the English in cavalry, as well as in guns. We captured no less
than sixty-five of the latter. The Holkar force had the reputation
of being well trained. For many years the Maharajah had availed
himself of the services of English and French instructors, but on
the outbreak of hostilities he had foully murdered all the English
in his employ, and their absence, no doubt, shook the confidence
of the men, who for so long had been accustomed to European
leadership. From the returns it would appear that the 27th Light
Cavalry (then the 3rd Madras Cavalry) suffered some casualties on
this occasion.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF MAHEIDPORE, DECEMBER 22, 1817.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Scots                |   1 |   2 |   8 |  32 |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers     |   1 |   1 |   7 |  51 |
  |Bombay Art.                |   - |   3 |   5 |  12 |
  |28th Light Cav.            |   - |   - |   4 |   8 |
  |29th Deccan Horse          |   - |   - |  19 |  47 |
  |63rd Light Inf.            |   1 |   3 |  26 |  71 |
  |74th Punjabis              |   - |   2 |  14 |  34 |
  |87th Punjabis              |   - |   1 |   1 |  11 |
  |88th Infantry              |   - |   1 |  14 |  52 |
  |91st Light Inf.            |   - |   6 |  16 |  69 |
  |94 and 95th Russell's Inf. |   - |   1 |  12 |  61 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CORYGAUM, JANUARY 1, 1818.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the 34th Poona Horse
and 102nd Grenadiers. It commemorates a very gallant stand made
by a small body of Bombay Sepoys during the Second Mahratta War,
in face of vastly superior forces. Colonel Burr, who was left in
command of the troops at Poona after the defeat of the Peishwa in
November, found that, owing to various circumstances, that army,
though defeated, was by no means demoralized, and there was reason
to fear a fresh attack. He therefore ordered Captain Staunton, who
was at Seroor, some fifty miles distant, to fall back on Poona.
Staunton had with him a couple of guns of the Madras Artillery,
with twenty-six English gunners, 500 of the 2nd (now 102nd)
Grenadiers, and 250 of what was then known as the Reformed Horse
(now the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse). Staunton
moved off on receiving Colonel Burr's orders, but on nearing
Corygaum found himself in the presence of the main body of the
Peishwa's army, estimated at 18,000 men, with thirty-six guns.
The village lent itself to defence, though the position was much
cramped, especially for the large number of horses attached to his
little force. Staunton knew that Sir Lionel Smith was within a
couple of days' march, and that if he could hold out for that time
he was sure of relief. He had taken the precaution to move with
double the usual supply of ammunition, and he was seconded by eight
British officers as gallant as himself.

On the evening of December 30 he occupied the village, which he
proceeded to strengthen so far as was possible. The want of water
was a great drawback, and, as I have said before, the large number
of horses within such a confined space impeded the movements of the
men. The fight was an exceedingly fierce one. The enemy on more
than one occasion obtained an entrance into the village, and were
able to seize the temporary hospital. The wounded were cruelly
massacred, but a fine charge led by Dr. Wylie enabled Staunton to
regain possession of this building. On another occasion during an
assault by an overwhelming number of the enemy one of the two guns
was lost, but a counter-attack retrieved this loss. For thirty-six
hours the little force held its own. Five out of the eight officers
were _hors de combat_, only six men were left to work the guns, and
the sepoy battalion had lost 150 out of 500 men. On the evening of
New Year's Day the fire of the assailants began to slacken, and
ere nightfall it had died away. News had reached Sir Lionel Smith
of the hard straits of Staunton's force, and he at once moved
off to relieve him. The Peishwa's army was in no mood to face a
well-organized British army, and it hurriedly withdrew from before
Corygaum, leaving Staunton with the consciousness of having placed
on record one of the finest feats of arms in the history of the
Bombay army. Both Staunton and Dr. Wylie ultimately received the
Companionship of the Bath for their services, and a monument was
erected at Corygaum to commemorate the fight.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF CORYGAUM, JANUARY 1, 1818.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Bombay Art.       |   1 |   - |  12 |   8 |
  |Poona Horse       |   - |   3 |  40 |  24 |
  |102nd Grenadiers  |   1 |   3 |  50 | 105 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


NOWAH, JANUARY 21, 1819.

This name is inscribed on the colours of the 94th and 95th
Russell's Infantry, and commemorates a little-known episode in
the history of our dealings with the peoples of Southern India.
A mud fort held by a rebellious chief defied the power alike of
the Hyderabad Nizam and the British Resident. It became necessary
to bring the recalcitrant chief to reason, and the Resident
despatched a portion of the Hyderabad contingent to reduce the
fort. Fortunately, the operations were attended with no loss
of English life, but a glance at the casualty list shows that
the fighting was far more severe than in many actions which are
recognized on the colours of better-known regiments than the direct
representatives of Russell's brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF NOWAH, JANUARY, 1819.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |94th Russell's Infantry |   - |   1 |  12 |  58 |
  |95th Russell's I.       |   - |   2 |   3 |  56 |
  |96th Berar Inf.         |   - |   1 |   6 |  44 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


MEDAL FOR THE SECOND MAHRATTA WAR.

For their services in this campaign the survivors were awarded the
India General Service Medal, the issue of which was notified in the
_London Gazette_ of February 28, 1851. The following clasps were
issued with the medal:

  KIRKEE.--For the action on November 5, 1817.

  POONA.--For the engagement on November 17, 1817.

Those who were present at both actions received one clasp, engraved
"Kirkee--Poona."

  SEETABULDEE.--For the action fought by Colonel Scott on November
  26, 1817.

  NAGPORE.--For General Doveton's action on December 16.

Those present at both engagements received but one clasp, inscribed
"Seetabuldee--Nagpore."

  MAHEIDPORE.--For the action fought by the army under the command
  of Sir Thomas Hislop on December 21.

  CORYGAUM.--For the gallant defence of the village of Corygaum by
  Colonel Staunton on January 1, 1818.


BHURTPORE, JANUARY, 1826.

This battle honour has been conferred on the following corps:

  11th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  West Yorkshire.
  East Lancashire.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  1st Skinner's Horse.
  1st Prince of Wales's Own Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry.
  1st Brahmins.
  3rd Brahmins.
  4th Rajputs.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  9th Gurkhas.

It commemorates the services rendered by the forces employed at the
siege and capture of the famous fortress which twenty years before
had successfully defied Lord Lake. In 1803 the Maharajah had thrown
in his lot with the Mahratta Princes, and Bhurtpore was a depot
of arms for the armies of Holkar. Lord Lake, after his successful
actions at Deig, Delhi, and Laswarree, determined to effect its
capture. On January 3, 1804, he appeared before the fortress
with a force which included the 22nd (Cheshire), 65th (York and
Lancaster), 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 76th (West Ridings),
and the 1st Bengal European Regiment (Royal Munster Fusiliers).
On January 9 the place was assaulted, and we were driven back,
with a loss of 5 officers and 64 men killed, 23 officers and 364
men wounded. On the 21st of the same month a second assault was
repulsed, our losses being 18 officers and 569 men killed and
wounded. The siege was now carried on more systematically, but with
a very inadequate train, and on February 20 and 21 two assaults
were delivered, which cost us no less than 51 officers and 1,771
men _hors de combat_. Lake then raised the siege.

In 1826, when the British army once more appeared before its walls,
the army of the Maharajah of Bhurtpore, remembering the successful
defence in 1804, felt pretty confident of holding its own against
the British. On our side, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Combermere,
a Peninsular veteran, determined to leave nothing to chance.

Two divisions were assembled--one at Agra, under Major-General
Jasper Nicolls; the second at Muttra, under Major-General Reynell,
C.B.; whilst Lord Combermere assumed the chief command in
person. The cavalry division was composed of two brigades, under
Colonel Sleigh, of the 11th Hussars, who was given the rank of
Brigadier-General.

  First Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier Murray (16th Lancers): 16th
  Lancers, 6th, 8th, and 9th Bengal Cavalry.

  Second Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier Childers (11th Hussars): 11th
  Hussars, 3rd, 4th, and 10th Bengal Cavalry.

The infantry was composed as follows:


FIRST DIVISION: MAJOR-GENERAL T. REYNELL, C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier M'Combe (14th Foot): 14th Foot (West
  Yorkshire), 23rd and 63rd Bengal Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier Whitehead (4th Bengal Infantry): 32nd,
  41st, and 58th Bengal Infantry.

  Fifth Brigade--Brigadier Paton, C.B. (18th Bengal Infantry): 6th,
  18th, and 60th Bengal Infantry.


SECOND DIVISION: MAJOR-GENERAL JASPER NICOLLS, C.B.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Edwardes (14th Foot): 59th Foot (East
  Lancashire), 11th and 31st Bengal Native Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Adams (14th Bengal Native Infantry):
  33rd, 36th, and 37th Bengal Native Infantry.

  Sixth Brigade--Brigadier Fagan (15th Bengal Native Infantry):
  15th, 21st, and 25th Bengal Native Infantry.

The artillery of the force comprised eight horse and twelve field
batteries, with a siege-train of 112 pieces, including twelve
mortars of 10-inch and fifty-eight of 8-inch calibre. The siege
operations were under the directions of a very distinguished
Company's officer, Brigadier Anbury, C.B.

On December 9, 1825, the two columns advanced from Muttra and Agra
respectively, and on the 28th of the month the first battery opened
fire. On January 17 the breaches were reported practicable, and the
Commander-in-Chief determined to assault, Major-General Reynell
being placed in command of the three storming columns, which were
detailed as follows:

  Right Column--Colonel Delamain: 200 of the Munster Fusiliers, the
  58th Bengal Infantry, and 2nd Sirmoor Gurkhas.

  Centre Column--Brigadier M'Combe (14th Foot): Four companies of
  the 14th (West Yorkshire), the 23rd and 63rd Bengal Infantry.

  Left Column--Brigadier Whitehead: Two companies of the 14th Foot
  (West Yorkshire), the 18th and 60th Bengal Infantry.

  Left Column--Brigadier Paton: Four companies of the 14th Foot
  (West Yorkshire), the 6th and 41st Bengal Infantry.

  Reserve--Brigadier Whitehead: Two companies of the 14th Foot
  (West Yorkshire), the 21st and 32nd Bengal Infantry.

The remainder of the army was drawn up to the left of the fortress
to afford general aid. The defence was most stubborn, all three
commanders of the assaulting columns being badly wounded; but
the men of the 14th (the "Old Bucks" of those days, now the West
Yorkshire) would not be denied, and ere sunset the fortress was in
our possession. The individual losses of the existing regiments
were:

  +------------------------+-----------------------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _British Troops._    |-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |11th Hussars            |   - |   1 |   2 |   7 |
  |16th Lancers            |   - |   1 |   1 |   5 |
  |Bengal Artillery        |   - |   2 |   8 |  11 |
  |Bengal Enginrs.         |   2 |   7 |  13 |  30 |
  |14th W. Yorks           |   2 |   7 |  31 |  99 |
  |59th E. Lancs           |   2 |   8 |  16 |  97 |
  |101st Munster Fusiliers |   - |   3 |  10 |  42 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                               |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Native Troops._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                               |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry |   1 |   3 |  11 |  20 |
  |3rd Brahmans                   |   - |   - |   1 |  11 |
  |1st Gurkhas                    |   - |   1 |   4 |  21 |
  |2nd Gurkhas                    |   - |   - |   3 |  15 |
  |1st Skinner's Horse            |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--Of the many native infantry regiments above enumerated
  the 15th have become the 2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry, the
  32nd the 3rd Brahmans, the 33rd is the 4th Rajputs, and the 63rd
  the 9th Gurkhas. The remainder, with the exception of the Gurkha
  regiments, were lost to us in 1857.

The prize-money distributed to the troops was considerable, but the
enormous sums received by the Commander-in-Chief, compared with the
pittance given to the private, provoked not a little indignation.
At Seringapatam in 1792 Lord Cornwallis and General Meadows handed
over their share for distribution amongst the non-commissioned
officers and privates--an example which was not followed either
by Lord Harris at Seringapatam in 1799 or by Lord Combermere at
Bhurtpore. At the request of the officers of the force, a sum of
£5,000 was retained for distribution amongst the widows of their
comrades who had fallen in action.


DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZE-MONEY.

  Commander-in-Chief     £59,500
  General Officers        £5,900
  Lieutenant-Colonels     £1,420
  Majors                    £950
  Captains                  £476
  Subalterns                £238
  Sergeants                   £8
  Privates                    £4


_Native Ranks._

  Subadars            rupees 322
  Jemidars               "   282
  Havildars              "    53
  Sepoys                 "    26


HINDOOSTAN.

This honour has been conferred on the following regiments for their
gallant services in the earlier campaigns which consolidated our
power in our great Indian dependency:

  8th Hussars.
  Leicesters.
  Worcesters.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  West Riding Regiment.

_8th Hussars._--In the month of March, 1825, the Royal Irish
Hussars were authorized to add the harp as well as the battle
honours "Laswarree" and "Hindoostan" to their colours and
appointments. The 8th had been present with Lord Lake in his
campaign against the Mahrattas; they had served against the
Rohillas in Bundulcund, and were with Rollo Gillespie in the
gallant attack on the Gurkha fort of Kalunga, where a detachment of
100 dismounted men lost half its numbers. They had done right good
work at the Siege of Hattrass, and assisted in many long-forgotten
but arduous campaigns, in which our troops were so constantly
engaged during the earlier years of the foundation of the Indian
Empire.

_17th (Leicestershire Regiment)._--The honour was bestowed on the
old 17th Foot on June 25, 1825, in recognition of the services of
the regiment between the years 1804 and 1823. The 17th had been
with Wolfe at Louisburg, but had missed the hard fighting in the
Peninsula. In the course of its twenty years' Indian service it
did right good work in several of those little-known campaigns
in which there was hard work and little glory. At the storming
of the fort at Chumar, in Bundulcund, it lost 2 officers and 56
men killed and wounded. In the following year (October, 1807), at
the operations in connection with the reduction of the fort of
Kamounah, near Allyghur, it lost no less than 4 officers and 47 men
killed, 5 officers and 95 men wounded. In the Gurkha War of 1814
its casualties amounted to 74 men killed and wounded, and in the
year 1817 it again suffered heavily at the capture of Jubbulpore.

_36th (Worcestershire Regiment)._--This distinguished corps,
which already had the battle honour "Mysore" emblazoned on its
colours, was authorized in October, 1835, to add the battle honour
"Hindoostan" in recognition of its services from 1790 to 1793. In
those three years it had lost 4 officers and 65 men in the action
of Sattimungulum; it had been present at the storming of Bangalore,
Nundy Droog, Pondicherry, and Seringapatam (1792); and in the
course of the latter operations it had lost 5 officers and 60 men
killed and wounded.

_52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)._--In February, 1821, the 52nd was
authorized to add this distinction to its long list of battle
honours as a recognition of its gallant services in India between
the years 1790 and 1793. The honour "Mysore," already granted,
commemorated its connection with the army which Lord Cornwallis led
against Tippoo Sultan in 1792. In the operations of that army the
52nd had borne a very distinguished part, having furnished details
for the storming-party at the assault of Bangalore and Nundy
Droog, and had lost heavily at the first capture at Seringapatam.
There had been several occasions in which the 52nd had shown an
earnest of their future greatness during those three years, and for
which as yet they had received no recognition. At Cannanore their
casualties amounted to 67 killed and wounded, including 4 officers.
At Dindigul they had lost 23 men, and they had borne their fair
share of the hardships and loss at the Siege of Pondicherry, as
well as at the capture of the Island of Ceylon.

_71st (Highland Light Infantry)._--On January 20, 1837, the 71st
and 72nd Regiments were authorized to add this battle honour to
those already emblazoned on their colours. No regiment had better
earned it than the old Highland Light Infantry. From the date of
its landing in India in 1780, until its departure for home twenty
years later, the regiment had been continually on active service.
The flank companies had been present at Baillie's unfortunate
defeat at the hands of the Mysoreans, when their casualties
amounted to 6 officers and 181 men killed and wounded, the two
companies being practically annihilated. They had shared in Eyre
Coote's defeat of the same Mysorean army at the Battle of Porto
Novo. At Cuddalore, on June 13, 1783, they lost 10 officers and 196
non-commissioned officers and men. The Commander-in-Chief, General
Stuart, thus wrote of their services on this day: "I am also most
grateful to Captain Lamont and the officers under his command, who
so gallantly led the precious remnants of the 73rd Highlanders"--at
that time the regimental number was 73--"through the most perilous
road to glory, until exactly one-half the officers and men were
either killed or wounded." The 71st furnished a detachment of
stormers at the capture of Bangalore; at the fortress of Nundy
Droog in 1791; and at Seringapatam, in the following year, they
enabled their commander, David Baird, to take a striking revenge
for the indignities and cruelties inflicted on their comrades who
had fallen into Tippoo Sultan's hands when Baillie met with his
defeat. At the storming of Pondicherry the 71st were, as usual,
well to the fore, and they formed a portion of the force which
added Ceylon to the British Empire. No regiment has a better claim
to the battle honour "Hindoostan" than the Highland Light Infantry.

_72nd (Seaforth Highlanders)._--It was not until the year 1837 that
the 72nd were authorized to add the battle honour "Hindoostan"
to their other distinctions, and the honour was then granted to
commemorate the gallant services of the regiment during its tour
of Indian service between the years 1782 and 1793. It had already
been granted the distinctions "Mysore" and "Carnatic"--scanty
recognition of fifteen years' continuous war. At Cuddalore, in
1783, its losses amounted to 60 killed and wounded, including 3
officers; at Seringapatam (1792) they were rather more severe. At
the Siege of Nundy Droog and of Pondicherry the Seaforths did not
escape scathless, and, with the 52nd, they aided in the capture of
Ceylon from the Dutch.

_76th (West Riding Regiment)._--This regiment from its earliest
days was known as the "Hindoostan Regiment," and was the first
regiment to bear the word "Hindoostan" on its colours--a
distinction granted to it on the petition of Lord Lake in the year
1807. Few regiments have suffered more severely in action than
did the 76th at Allyghur, Delhi, Laswarree, and Deig; whilst in
Lord Lake's attempt on Bhurtpore the regiment was again cut to
pieces. Throughout the earlier phase of Lord Lake's campaign it
was the only British infantry in his army, and, in recognition of
its valour, the Commander-in-Chief bestowed upon the 76th a third
colour--a distinction which has been disallowed by the War Office.


INDIA.

This distinction is borne by the

  Suffolks.
  West Yorkshire.
  Hampshire.
  Welsh.
  York and Lancaster.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.

_12th (Suffolk Regiment)._--On p. 154 I have alluded to the
services of the 12th Regiment at the defence of the Residency at
Cochin. It was for this and other hard work performed in the early
days of the last century that the 12th earned this well-merited
distinction "India." During the rising in Travancore they lost
heavily. A boat containing the sergeant-major and thirty-three men
was wrecked on the coast below Quilon, and every man was massacred.
At Quilon itself they lost 53 officers and men in an engagement
with the Travancorean troops. Prior to this the 12th had served
with General Harris in the war with Tippoo Sultan, and had earned
the battle honour "Seringapatam."

_West Yorkshire._--The old 14th Foot were actively employed on
several campaigns between 1810 and 1825. They furnished the
stormers at Bhurtpore when that fortress was captured by Lord
Combermere, and they had previously borne a prominent part in the
operations which led to the capture of Fort Hattrass in 1817.

_65th (York and Lancaster)._--This regiment was unfortunate enough
to be deprived of the privilege of sharing in the victories
gained by the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley in 1803. With
the 86th they were selected to maintain order on the line of
communications. A detachment was present at the engagements outside
Poonah--engagements which are borne on the colours of the Royal
Dublin Fusiliers under the name "Kirkee." They were present in many
hard-fought actions in Guzerat, and were employed more than once
in suppressing refractory Rajahs in the Bombay Presidency. Their
conduct in expeditions against the Arab pirates on the Persian
Gulf earned the distinction of "Arabia." These are described on p.
224.

_67th (Hampshire Regiment)._--The old 67th certainly lost more men
in putting this battle honour on their colours than they did in
the better-known but less arduous campaign in China in 1860. At
the capture of the fort of Ryghur in 1817, and, two years later,
at the storming of Asseerghur, they lost some 60 officers and men
killed and wounded. Indeed, throughout their first tour of Indian
service--from 1805 to 1826--they were almost continuously in the
field.

_69th (The Welsh Regiment)._--In the early part of the nineteenth
century the 69th was constantly employed on active service. It lost
heavily in the suppression of the mutiny of the Madras troops at
Vellore, and in the operations in Travancore in the year 1808 it
defeated the rebels on more than one occasion, sharing with the
12th (Suffolks) the principal honours of that little-remembered
campaign.

_75th (Gordon Highlanders)._--"Mysore" and "Seringapatam" on the
colours of the old 75th testify to the work this fine regiment went
through in Southern India; but those honours by no means exhaust
its claims on the honour list of the army. In the year 1802 it
was engaged in a series of hard fights in Western India, in the
province of Cambay, where its casualties amounted to 4 officers
and 161 men killed and wounded. At the capture of the fort of
Jemlanabad the losses were 67 of all ranks. These were some of the
affairs which led King George III. to accord the 75th permission
to add the honour "India" to the colours of the old Stirlingshire
Regiment, now the Gordon Highlanders.

_84th (York and Lancaster Regiment)._--The 84th was one of those
regiments whose duty it was to do garrison duty in the disaffected
districts during the campaign which put "Assaye" on the colours
of more fortunate corps. Between the years 1796 and 1819 it was
constantly employed in little-heard-of expeditions, which entailed
many hardships and not a little hard fighting. On one occasion,
in Guzerat in 1801, it lost an officer and 19 men killed, and its
total losses in those twenty-two years amounted to close on 200
killed and wounded. It is a strange coincidence that in Guzerat
they should have been fighting side by side with the regiment which
eighty years later became their 1st Battalion.

_86th (The Royal Irish Rifles)._--During the operations of the
main army, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, the 86th were employed in
keeping in check the turbulent tribes in Guzerat, and so they,
like the 65th and 84th, missed sharing in the glories of Assaye.
Their services in Guzerat, in Cambay, were sufficiently severe.
At the capture of Kariah their casualties were no less than 67 of
all ranks; at Baroda they lost 37 killed and wounded; at Baroach
4 officers and 39 men; and at Lord Lake's attack on Bhurtpore the
losses of the 86th were 112 of all ranks.



CHAPTER XIV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR MINOR CAMPAIGNS IN THE EAST, 1796-1857

Amboyna--Ternate--Banda--Cochin--Arabia--Bourbon--Java--Persian
Gulf--Beni Boo Alli--Aden--Persia--Bushire--Reshire--Koosh-ab.


AMBOYNA, 1796 AND 1810.

This distinction is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, as
the lineal descendants of that most distinguished corps the 1st
Madras European Regiment, which certainly has the right to bear
with the Dorsets the title of "Primus in Indus."

From the earliest days of our association with the East Indies
there had been mutual jealousies between the English and the
Dutch merchants with regard to commerce in the Moluccas. So far
back as the year 1623 the summary execution by the Dutch Governor
of Amboyna of the commander of an East Indiaman nearly led to
war between the two nations, and would have done so had not the
States General disavowed the action of their colonial official.
When Holland threw in her lot with France at the outbreak of the
revolutionary wars, and granted the French fleets the hospitality
of her Eastern harbours, it was determined to relieve the Dutch of
these possessions.

In February, 1796, Admiral Rainier, commanding the fleet in the
East Indies, sailed to Amboyna with a squadron consisting of the
_Suffolk_ (74), _Centurion_ (50), _Resistance_ (44), _Orpheus_
(32), and _Swift_ (16). The Dutch, recognizing the futility of
resistance, surrendered, and Amboyna passed into our possession.
The small body of troops employed on this occasion, as well as
the navy, reaped a rich harvest in the shape of prize-money, the
share of the Commander-in-Chief amounting to £90,000, and that of
the Captains of the Royal Navy to £13,000 each. A detachment of
the Madras European Regiment, under Major Vigors, was embarked on
Admiral Rainier's squadron, and participated beneficially in the
booty, the shares that fell to the lot of the soldiers being:

                        £    _s._ _d._
  Major in command   13,583   0    0
  Captains            1,314   0    0
  Subalterns            636   0    0
  Sergeants             229   0    0
  Privates               44   0    0

At the Peace of Amiens, Amboyna and the neighbouring islands were
restored to the Dutch. In the year 1810 it was found necessary to
reoccupy them, and Captain Edward Tucker, R.N., with the _Doris_,
_Cornwallis_, and _Samarang_, embarked a detachment of 130 men
of the 1st Madras European Regiment (Royal Dublin Fusiliers),
with 50 men of the Royal Artillery, as well as some sepoys.
Slight opposition was encountered, our losses being 3 men killed,
1 officer and 9 non-commissioned officers and men wounded. We
maintained a garrison in the island until the year 1814, when by
the Treaty of Paris it was once more restored to the Dutch, and the
British Empire deprived of one of the richest islands in Eastern
waters.

  +--------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
  |         DETAILS OF FORCE LANDED.           |      CASUALTIES.      |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |           |        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Force Engaged._    |_Officers._| _Men._ +-----------+-----------+
  |                       |           |        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade          |     8     |   235  |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |Royal Artillery        |     1     |    46  |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers |     5     |   130  |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


TERNATE, 1801 AND 1810.

This honour is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. It
commemorates one of the many little oversea expeditions which we
were compelled to undertake in the course of our wars with France
between the years 1793 and 1815. Ternate is one of the Molucca
Islands, and then, as now, belonged to the Dutch. Its harbours,
however, were open to the French fleets, and gave refuge to vessels
of war and to privateers, which preyed upon our China commerce.
It became necessary, therefore, to reduce the island, and in the
year 1801 a combined naval and military expedition was despatched
for its subjugation. The Madras troops were under the command of
Colonel Burr, and they encountered a stubborn resistance. It was
not until after a siege of fifty-two days that the Dutch Governor
surrendered. As was our custom, on the conclusion of peace in the
following year Ternate was restored to its original owners.

In the year 1810 it again became necessary to take possession of
the island, and, after the capture of Amboyna, Captain Tucker, with
a small detachment of artillery and of the 1st Madras European
Regiment, the latter under Captain Forbes, set sail for the island.
There was but slight opposition, and on August 31 Ternate once more
passed into our hands, only to be restored to the Dutch under the
terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

  +--------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
  |         DETAILS OF FORCE LANDED.           |      CASUALTIES.      |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |           |        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Force Engaged._    |_Officers._| _Men._ +-----------+-----------+
  |                       |           |        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade          |     8     |   200  |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |Royal Artillery        |     1     |    36  |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers |     3     |    74  |   - |   1 |   1 |   9 |
  +-----------------------+-----------+--------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The troops received a small solatium in the shape of prize-money,
the share of a Captain being £270, a Subaltern £120, a sergeant
£32, and a private £13.


BANDA, 1796 AND 1810.

This distinction was granted by the Governor of Madras to the
1st Madras European Regiment, and is now borne only by the Royal
Dublin Fusiliers. It commemorates the two occupations of the Island
of Banda, in the Eastern Archipelago, by a detachment of the old
Madras European Regiment, the first taking place in 1796, the
second in 1810. No medal was issued to the land forces engaged,
but on the institution of the Naval General Service Medal in
1847 the naval commanders of the _Caroline_, _Piedmontaise_, and
_Barracouta_ were awarded the naval gold medal for the capture of
the island in 1810, and distinctive bronze arm-badges, in lieu of
medals, were bestowed by the Governor of Madras on the sepoys. The
detachment of the 1st Madras European Regiment (now the 1st Royal
Dublin Fusiliers) was under the command of Captain Nixon. Their
services were cordially acknowledged by Captain Coles, of H.M.S.
_Caroline_, but the regiment does not appear to have suffered any
casualties.


ARABIA, 1809.

This distinction was granted to the York and Lancaster Regiment by
a notification in the _London Gazette_ in the month of March, 1823,
in recognition of the gallant services of the regiment during the
operations on the coast of Arabia in the years 1809 and 1821. The
old 65th Regiment, as it then was, had not been fortunate enough
to have been present at any of the well-known campaigns during
its tour of Indian service. Nevertheless, it had been engaged in
several arduous and by no means bloodless minor expeditions, in
which the soldier-like qualities of a regiment are as severely
tested as in campaigns which bring in their train greater honours
and rewards. Such were the two expeditions for the punishment of
piratical tribes on the Arabian coast.

The expedition in 1809 was under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel
Lionel Smith, of the 65th Regiment. It was accompanied by the
frigates _Chiffon_ (Captain Wainwright) and _Caroline_. The
military force comprised the 65th (York and Lancaster), the flank
companies of the 47th (North Lancashire), and the 2nd Bombay Native
Infantry, now the 103rd Mahratta Light Infantry, with a company of
artillery. Nominally the pirates owned allegiance to the Sultan
of Turkey, but his sovereignty was very shadowy, and as they
had embraced Wahabiism they were looked upon more in the light
of rebels than subjects. For years they had interfered with our
commerce in the Persian Gulf, and had treated their prisoners with
the refinement of cruelty. It therefore became necessary to root
them out of their lair.

The little force left Bombay in the month of September, 1809, and
proceeded to the pirate stronghold of Ras el Khima, on the Arabian
coast. The Arabs fought bravely, but our superior armament and
discipline soon told, and the fort, which had originally been
built by the Portuguese more than two centuries previously, was
dismantled. On December 27 the flotilla arrived at Linga, another
piratical haunt, and this, too, after making a show of resistance,
was destroyed. Hostages were brought to Bombay as security for the
good behaviour of the tribes, and the force then returned to India,
its total casualties having been:


CASUALTIES AT BENI BOO ALLI, 1809.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments_        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Navy                |   - |   - |   2 |  16 |
  |65th York and Lancs Regt. |   - |   1 |   2 |   7 |
  |47th N. Lancs             |   1 |   - |   3 |  10 |
  |103rd Mahratta Light Inf. |   - |   - |   2 |  31 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--For this expedition the 2nd Bombay Native Infantry was
  granted the battle honour "Beni Boo Alli."


BOURBON, JULY 8, 1810.[18]

This distinction has been granted to the

  Welsh Regiment.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  66th Punjabis.
  84th Punjabis.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.

A medal was struck, by order of the Governor-General of India,
for distribution to the officers and men of the Company's forces
present during the expedition.

In the _London Gazette_ of July 17, 1826, the 69th Foot (now
the 2nd Welsh Regiment) was authorized to bear on its colours
and appointments the word "Bourbon," in commemoration of the
distinguished conduct of the regiment at the attack and capture of
that island. Subsequently the same privilege was conferred on the
86th (2nd Battalion Irish Rifles).

Bourbon, now better known as Reunion, was a thorn in the side of
the East India Company during our many wars with France. With
Mauritius, then known as the Isle of France, it was a harbour of
refuge for the many privateers which preyed upon our commerce,
and a base of operations for the French fleet in Eastern waters.
Its reduction became a necessity, but was from time to time
deferred, until at last, in the month of September, 1809, the
Governor-General, Lord Minto, despatched a force, under Colonel
Keatinge, of the 56th Regiment (now the Essex), to report on the
feasibility of the capture of both islands. With Keatinge was
associated Commodore Josias Rowley, at the head of a squadron
comprising the _Raisonnable_, _Sirius_, _Boadicea_, _Nereide_, and
_Otter_, with the Honourable Company's cruiser _Wasp_. Keatinge's
force consisted of his own regiment, the 56th (Essex), and the
2nd Bombay Native Infantry (now the 104th Wellesley's Rifles). A
descent was made on the island, the forts at the principal port
destroyed, and some French men-of-war and armed Indiamen brought
away; but the force was altogether too small for Keatinge to
retain possession.

In the following July, having received reinforcements, Keatinge and
Rowley made a second descent. In the meantime they had occupied the
Island of Rodriguez, which served as a valuable base of operations.
In addition to the Essex and the Bombay Regiment, Keatinge now had
the 69th (2nd Welsh), the 86th (2nd Irish Rifles), and the 6th and
12th Regiments of Madras Infantry (now the 66th and 84th Punjabis);
and this force was strengthened by a naval brigade of seamen and
Marines from the ships, the total numbering about 3,600 men. The
French garrison made some show of resistance, but after a sharp
engagement the Governor, seeing himself cut off from all hope of
aid, surrendered, and until the conclusion of peace in 1814 Bourbon
remained in our possession, Colonel Keatinge being installed as
Governor, and a regiment being raised from the Creole inhabitants,
which was borne on the rolls of our army as the Bourbon Regiment.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF THE ISLAND OF BOURBON, 1810.

  +-----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                 |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                 |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |12th Suffolk     |   - |   2 |   2 |   5 |
  |56th Essex       |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |69th Welsh       |   - |   - |   2 |   - |
  |86th R. Irish R. |   1 |   6 |  10 |  51 |
  +-----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT THE ATTACK ON THE ISLAND IN 1809.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Marines            |   - |   2 |   7 |  17 |
  |56th Essex               |   - |   - |   6 |  27 |
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The Essex Regiment, by its participation in both descents on the
island, seem to have some claim to this distinction.


JAVA, 1811.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the

  West Yorkshire.
  East Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Governor-General's Bodyguard.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.

The expedition was under the command of General Sir Samuel
Auchmuty, but the Governor-General of India, Lord Minto, himself
accompanied the troops, in order to arrange for the civil
administration of the Dutch islands, several of which, as I have
shown, had already fallen into our hands.

The troops selected comprised two Madras and one Bengal division,
and were brigaded as follows:

  First Madras Division--Major-General R. R. Gillespie: 25th Light
  Dragoons (260), Horse Artillery (152), the 14th (West Yorkshire),
  a wing of the 59th (East Lancashire), the 89th (Royal Irish
  Fusiliers), and four companies of European Sappers.

  Second Madras Division--Colonel Gibbs, of the 59th (East
  Lancashire): 22nd Light Dragoons (154), Royal Artillery (98), a
  wing of the 59th (East Lancashire), the 69th (Welsh), and the
  78th (Seaforth Highlanders).

The Bengal division was under the command of Major-General J. S.
Wood, and consisted of the Governor-General's Bodyguard, the 1st
Battalion of the Bengal Native Infantry, and five battalions of
sepoys, who had volunteered from the whole of the regiments of the
Bengal army, and who were designated as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th,
and 5th Regiments of Bengal Volunteers. On the force being broken
up, these men returned to their own regiments, receiving the medal
which the Governor-General caused to be struck for the expedition,
and so it comes about that, with the exception of the Bodyguard and
the Madras Sappers, no native corps bears the distinction "Java" on
its colours.

A powerful fleet, under the command of Admiral the Hon. R.
Stopford, convoyed the transports. It comprised the following
vessels:

  Commander-in-Chief: Rear-Admiral the Hon. R. Stopford.
  Commodore: W. R. Broughton.

                 GUNS                 GUNS                 GUNS
  _Scipio_         74  _Illustrious_    74  _Minden_         74
  _Lion_           64  _Akbar_          44  _Nisus_          38
  _Présidente_     38  _Hussar_         38  _Phæton_         38
  _Leda_           38  _Caroline_       36  _Modeste_        36
  _Phœbe_          36  _Bucephalus_     36  _Doris_          36
  _Cornelia_       32  _Psyche_         32  _Drake_          32
  _Procris_        18  _Barracouta_     18  _Hesper_         18
  _Harpy_          18  _Hecate_         18  _Dasher_         18
  _Samarang_       12


HONOURABLE EAST INDIA COMPANY'S CRUISERS.

  _Malabar._           _Aurora._            _Mornington._
  _Nautilus._          _Vestal._            _Ariel._
  _Thetis._            _Psyche._

and fifty-seven transports carrying troops.

The total strength of the expeditionary force amounted to
5,344 British and 5,770 native troops. On August 4 the troops
disembarked at a place called Chillingcherry, some ten miles east
of the capital, meeting with no opposition; but on the 10th the
advanced brigade, under Gillespie, a most dashing officer, who
had distinguished himself greatly in the West Indies, had a sharp
encounter with the French, who were driven back, our casualties
amounting to 90 killed and wounded. On the 20th the siege of Fort
Cornelis was commenced, the Admiral landing a naval brigade and
some heavy guns to aid in the operations. On the 26th the fort
was carried by assault, Gillespie again distinguishing himself,
pursuing the beaten enemy with the 22nd Light Dragoons for a
distance of thirty-five miles, capturing 2 general, 30 field, and
214 other officers; 280 guns and 6,000 prisoners fell into our
hands as a consequence of this bold attack, and the operations
were brought to a conclusion by the unconditional surrender of
the island. Gillespie, who was left in command on the departure
of the Governor-General, experienced some difficulty in inducing
the natives to learn submission, and a number of expeditions
were necessary ere peace was fully restored. On the institution
of the Land General Service Medal in 1847, the survivors of the
expedition received that medal with a clasp inscribed "Java." The
Governor-General, on his own initiative, at the conclusion of the
operations, bestowed gold medals on field officers and silver
medals on all other ranks; but the privilege of wearing these was
confined to officers and men in the service of the East India
Company.


CASUALTIES IN THE EXPEDITION TO JAVA, 1811.

  +-----------------------------+-----------------+-------------------+
  |                             |   _Officers._   |_N.C.O.'s and Men._|
  |         _Regiments._        +--------+--------+--------+----------+
  |                             |   K.   |   W.   |   K.   |   W.     |
  +-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+----------+
  |Royal Navy                   |    -   |    5   |   15   |    55    |
  |Royal Artillery              |    1   |    2   |    1   |     9    |
  |Bengal Artillery             |    1   |    1   |    3   |    12    |
  |Madras Artillery             |    -   |    1   |    2   |     6    |
  |Bengal Engineers             |    -   |    1   |    -   |     -    |
  |Madras Engineers             |    -   |    1   |    -   |     -    |
  |22nd Light Dragoons          |    1   |    1   |    1   |    19    |
  |14th West York               |    1   |    5   |   11   |    90    |
  |59th East Lancastrian        |    5   |   10   |   18   |   128    |
  |69th Welsh                   |    3   |    8   |   14   |    60    |
  |78th Seaforth Highlanders    |    1   |    7   |   33   |   137    |
  |89th R.I. Fusiliers          |    -   |    8   |   11   |    65    |
  |Governor-General's Bodyguard |    -   |    1   |    1   |     5    |
  |Madras Pioneers              |    1   |    1   |    1   |     4    |
  |3rd Bengal Native Vols.      |    -   |    -   |    -   |     3    |
  |4th Bengal Native Vols.      |    -   |    2   |   11   |    28    |
  |5th Bengal Native Vols.      |    -   |    1   |    2   |    22    |
  |6th Bengal Native Vols.      |    -   |    3   |    4   |    22    |
  +-----------------------------+--------+--------+--------+----------+


PERSIAN GULF, 1819.

This distinction is borne only by the 121st Pioneers, formerly
the Bombay Marine Battalion, and was awarded to that regiment by
the order of the Governor of Bombay in Council as a recognition
of its services when employed under Sir W. Grant Keir in the
destruction of the piratical strongholds in the Persian Gulf in the
year 1819. A previous expedition had been undertaken against the
same tribes in the year 1809, when Sir Lionel Smith, with the 65th
(York and Lancasters), the 47th (North Lancashire), and the 2nd
Bombay Infantry had taught the pirates that they could not attack
vessels flying the English flag with impunity. For some years the
hot bloods of the Arabian coast abstained from exercising their
predatory habits, but in the year 1817 they plundered several
vessels, massacring their crews. The vessels of the East India
Squadron had more than one sharp tussle with the pirates, but
these were always able to escape to their lairs, where the seamen
were unable to follow them. It was determined in 1819 to despatch
a second expedition against the Joassma, the offending tribe.
The command was entrusted to Major-General Sir W. Grant Keir, an
officer who had conducted more than one successful campaign in
Cutch and against other recalcitrant petty potentates. The troops
selected were the 65th (York and Lancaster Regiment), and the flank
companies of the 47th (Loyal North Lancashires). These two corps
had been associated in the previous expedition in the year 1809. In
addition to the British contingent, the 1st Battalion of the 2nd
Bombay Native Infantry (now the 103rd Mahratta Light Infantry),
the 11th Marine Battalion (now the 121st Pioneers), and the flank
companies of the 1st Battalion of the 3rd Bombay Infantry (now the
105th Mahratta Light Infantry), also accompanied the force, which
was convoyed by H.M.S. _Liverpool_ and several of the Honourable
East India Company's cruisers.

The whole force assembled at the Island of Larrack, in the Persian
Gulf, on November 24, and the General at once proceeded in the
_Liverpool_ to Ras-el-Khima, the pirates' stronghold, where he made
a careful reconnaissance. Attempts were made through the Imaum
of Muscat to open negotiations with the chief of the Joassma
tribe, but to these he returned a defiant reply. The General
thereupon sent for the transports, and on December 3 the whole
force disembarked unopposed. It was evident that the fort had been
considerably strengthened since 1809, and the General borrowed some
24-pounders from the _Liverpool_ in order to construct and arm his
shore batteries. Whilst the siege operations were in progress,
the Arabs made more than one determined sortie; but when the
bombardment commenced in earnest, they made but a feeble reply.
This is scarcely to be wondered at. Their guns were all of small
calibre, and the _Liverpool_ claimed that she had thrown upwards of
1,200 32 and 24 pound shot into the place in twenty-four hours.

On the evening of December 9 the breach was declared practicable,
but when the storming-parties approached the place at dawn on the
10th it was found deserted. Information was received through the
Imaum of Muscat that the Arabs had retreated to another stronghold
farther inland. The General then re-embarked a portion of his
force, and proceeded up the coast to Rhams, which also was found
to be abandoned; but here it was ascertained that the tribes were
still defiant, and were massed in a hill fort of Zaya, some miles
inland. The two British corps, with the artillery, were at once
despatched to destroy this work, and on the 18th of the month Sir
Grant Keir was able to report to Government the destruction of all
the piratical strongholds and the submission of their chiefs.

The expedition had been attended with some loss, but the official
report of the casualties in the _Bombay Gazette_ tends to show that
these fell on the British, and not on the native, corps engaged.
The York and Lancaster Regiment have been accorded the distinction
"Arabia" as a recognition of their services; but the 47th (Loyal
North Lancashires), although they were twice employed with the 56th
on the by no means pleasing duty of chastising Arab pirates, have
not as yet been permitted to add the word "Arabia" to the other
battle honours which are embroidered on their colours.


CASUALTIES DURING THE EXPEDITION TO THE PERSIAN GULF IN 1819.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |47th North Lancashires   |   1 |   - |   2 |  17 |
  |65th York and Lancasters |   1 |   2 |   4 |  24 |
  |103rd Mahratta L.I.      |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |105th Mahratta L.I.      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |121st Pioneers           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Considerable booty was found, and the sum of £38,958 was remitted
to England by the prize agents for distribution amongst the men
of the 47th (North Lancashire) and 65th (York and Lancaster)
Regiments.[19]


BENI BOO ALLI, MARCH, 1821.

This distinction is borne by the

  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  103rd Mahratta Light Infantry.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  105th Mahratta Light Infantry.
  107th Pioneers.
  113th Infantry.
  121st Pioneers.

It was awarded to these regiments by the Governor of Bombay
for their gallant services in destroying the strongholds of
Arab pirates in the Persian Gulf. The 65th Regiment (York and
Lancasters) was also employed in the same service, but it does not
bear the honour.

The expedition was under the command of Major-General Lionel Smith,
who, as a Lieutenant-Colonel, had carried through successfully a
previous expedition in the year 1809.

On this occasion his force comprised the 65th (York and
Lancasters), the 1st Bombay European Battalion (now the 2nd Royal
Dublin Fusiliers), the 1st Battalion of the 7th Regiment of Bombay
Native Infantry, and the flank companies of the 1st Battalion of
the 2nd, 2nd Battalion of the 2nd, 1st Battalion of the 3rd, and
1st Battalion of the 4th Regiments of Bombay Native Infantry, with
the Bombay Marine Battalion (121st Pioneers), together with 200
Bombay artillerymen. H.M.S. _Topaze_, _Liverpool_, _Eden_, and
_Curlew_ also accompanied the force.

The Arabs were in a most defiant mood. They had inflicted a severe
defeat on a native force which had been sent against them a short
time previously. This force had been driven back, with a loss of
nearly 400 sepoys killed, whilst five British officers were amongst
the slain. Sir Lionel Smith's force landed without opposition under
cover of the guns of the fleet, and on March 2 the stronghold of
the Joassma tribe was carried, after a sharp fight. The Imaum of
Muscat now endeavoured to induce the tribes to come to terms, but
on the 10th they made a most determined attack on our camp. In this
they were worsted, but our losses were considerable, the 1st Bombay
Fusiliers and the 7th Regiment of Bombay Sepoys (now the 113th)
suffering severely. The destruction of their forts and vessels by
the fleet soon reduced the Arabs to reason, and they agreed to send
hostages to Bombay for their future good behaviour. Our casualties
during this expedition were as follows:


CASUALTIES AT BENI BOO ALLI.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Navy               |   3 |   3 |   5 |  20 |
  |65th York and Lancaster  |   - |   2 |   4 |  35 |
  |2nd Dublin Fus.          |   1 |   3 |  17 |  34 |
  |113th Pioneers (British) |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |
  |113th Pioneers (Native ) |   - |   2 |  21 | 122 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ADEN, 1839.

This distinction is borne by the

  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  121st Pioneers.
  124th Baluchistan Infantry.

It commemorates the expedition which transferred the sovereignty
of the well-known coaling-station to the East India Company. So
far back as the year 1799 an expedition from Bombay had occupied
the Island of Perim, at the entrance of the Red Sea, and during
the expedition to Egypt in the year 1801 we had a garrison on that
inhospitable little islet. At the close of the war with France the
garrison was withdrawn. With the advent of steam it became evident
that the real route to India would be by the Red Sea, and the
value of Aden as a coaling-station was borne on the minds of the
Government of our great dependency. Commodore Haines, of the Indian
Marine, an officer of exceptional attainments, was entrusted with
the task of carrying on the necessary negotiations with the Arab
ruler of Aden, and in the year 1835, in return for a cash subsidy
and a promise of British protection, we became virtual rulers of
the place. Disputes soon arose. The neighbouring chiefs disapproved
of the action of the chief with whom we had negotiated, and in
the year 1838 it became evident that it would be necessary for us
to maintain a garrison there in order to assert our supremacy.
No resistance was anticipated, and the force sent was small. It
consisted of a wing of the 1st Bombay Fusiliers (now the Royal
Dublin Fusiliers) and the 24th Bombay Native Infantry, the whole
under Major T. M. Bailie, of the latter regiment. Two ships of
the Royal Navy, the _Volage_ and _Cruiser_, and a squadron of
the Indian Marine also participated in the affair. On these were
embarked the present 121st Pioneers, then known as the Bombay
Marine Battalion.

On the arrival of the expedition at Aden, the Arabs declined to
allow the troops to land or to supply them with either food or
water. The works were then shelled, and under cover of this fire
the troops disembarked and occupied the town, which had been
abandoned, the Arabs having taken refuge in one of the forts, from
which a white flag was displayed. After a little parleying, these
men surrendered; but in the act of disarming them a regrettable
incident occurred, in which we lost some sixteen men killed and
wounded; otherwise, with the exception of one midshipman, who was
hurt in the landing, Aden was acquired without bloodshed.

In the month of November following a half-hearted attempt was made
to recapture the place. This was repulsed without loss, and in May,
1840, a second attempt was also repulsed. Since then our hold on
Aden has been unchallenged, though on more than one occasion we
have been compelled to undertake expeditions against the tribes
in the hinterland, none of which, however, have been deemed of
sufficient importance for special mention. Indeed, with so many
hard-fought actions unrecorded, one is tempted to ask how comes it
that the name "Aden" has been selected for a battle honour.


PERSIA, 1856-57.

This distinction is borne by the

  14th Hussars.
  North Staffords.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
  34th Poona Horse.
  35th Scinda Horse.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  120th Rajputana Infantry.
  123rd Outram's Rifles.
  126th Baluchistan Infantry.
  129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis.

It recognizes the services of a force which was employed in
Persia during the winter 1856-57, in a campaign for which no less
than four battle honours were granted. The army was commanded by
Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram, K.C.B., an officer of the
Bombay army, who was affectionately termed the Bayard of India. His
force was organized as follows:

  First Division: Major-General Stalker.

  First Brigade--Brigadier N. Wilson, K. H: 64th (North Staffords),
  120th Rajputana Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier R. H. Honnor: 106th (Durham Light
  Infantry), and 104th Bombay Rifles.

  Second Division: Major-General H. Havelock, C.B.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier H. Hamilton: 78th (Ross-shire Buffs),
  126th Baluchistan Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier J. Hale: 123rd Outram's Rifles and
  129th Baluchis.

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier J. Jacob: 14th Hussars, 33rd Queen's
  Own Light Cavalry, 34th Poona Horse, and 35th Scinde Horse.

The _casus belli_ may be summed up in one word--Herat. That city
had long been considered the key of India, and when, early in 1856,
the Persians captured it from the Afghans, we insisted on its
restoration. On this being refused, it was determined to compel
acceptance of our demands. Sir James Outram, who had been nominated
to the chief command, was on his way from England, and, in order to
lose no time, the First Division of the expeditionary force, under
General Stalker, accompanied by a powerful squadron of vessels
belonging to the Indian Marine, left Bombay on November 9 for the
Persian Gulf. On December 5 the fleet bombarded the fortifications
of Bushire, and the following day the troops disembarked unopposed.

No casualties were incurred either at the bombardment of Bushire
or at the landing of the troops. It was a very cheaply won battle
honour.


BUSHIRE, DECEMBER 5, 1856.

The following regiments have been authorized to bear this battle
honour for the bombardment of Bushire:

  North Stafford.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
  34th P.A.V.O. Poona Horse.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  120th Rajputana Infantry.
  129th P.W.O. Baluchis.


RESHIRE, DECEMBER 7, 1856.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the

  North Staffords.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  34th Poona Horse.
  33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  120th Rajputana Infantry.
  129th Baluchis.

On December 5 the first division of the Persian Expeditionary Force
had disembarked in the near neighbourhood of the fortified city of
Bushire. The Persians were holding an old redoubt which dated from
the days of the Dutch occupation. Unfortunately, General Stalker
made no attempt to shell the work, and when, in the early morning
of December 7, the brigade carried it by assault, the 64th (North
Staffords) and 104th Bombay Rifles were met by a well-sustained
fire, which, however, died away as they neared the parapet. The
Colonel of the 64th--Stopford--who was in command of the brigade,
was shot dead as he led the men over the breastwork, and the
104th lost two officers mortally wounded. With this insignificant
loss, the formidable work was carried, and on the following day
the Governor of Bushire, thinking he had done enough for honour,
surrendered the fortifications of the city to the General. The
whole brigade now took up its position close to Bushire, to await
the arrival of the Commander-in-Chief with the remainder of the
army.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF RESHIRE, DECEMBER 7, 1856.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |64th N. Stafford         |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry  |   1 |   - |   - |   3 |
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |120th Rajputana Infantry |   2 |   1 |   - |   7 |
  |106th Durham L.I.        |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |34th Poona H.            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |129th Baluchis           |   - |   - |   2 |   - |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


KOOSH-AB, FEBRUARY 8, 1857.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of the

  North Staffords.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
  34th Poona Horse.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  120th Rajputana Infantry.
  126th Baluchis.
  129th Baluchis.

It recognizes the services of these regiments at the action of
Koosh-ab, during the Persian campaign under Sir James Outram. The
Persian infantry, which had been trained by British officers,
were well handled, and actually threw themselves into square
when threatened by our cavalry. These squares were broken by the
3rd Bombay Cavalry (now the 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry), and
two officers obtained the Victoria Cross for their conduct on
this occasion. Sir James Outram, who had a keen eye for personal
gallantry, recommended no less than ten members of the regiment for
this much-prized decoration, including some of the native ranks.
The casualties which I append below show that the Persians evinced
little determination, or else their shooting did not reflect much
credit on their training:

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |64th N. Stafford        |   - |   2 |   2 |  10 |
  |106th Durham L.I.       |   - |   1 |   2 |   9 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   - |   1 |   1 |  14 |
  |34th Poona H.           |   - |   - |   3 |   8 |
  |126th Baluchis          |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The other regiments present suffered no loss.



CHAPTER XV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN BURMAH, 1824-1887

Ava--Kemmendine--Arracan--Pegu--Burmah.[20]


AVA, 1824-1826.

This distinction is borne by the following regiments:

  Royal Scots.
  South Staffords.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Welsh.
  North Lancashire.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Dorsets.
  Governor-General's Bodyguard.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  26th Light Cavalry.
  61st Pioneers.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  67th Punjabis.
  69th Punjabis.
  72nd Punjabis.
  76th Punjabis.
  82nd Punjabis.
  86th Carnatic Infantry.
  88th Carnatic Infantry.
  90th Punjabis.
  92nd Punjabis.

It recognizes the services of these regiments in the long and
harassing campaign in Lower Burmah, between the years 1824 and 1826.

Our relations with our Burmese neighbours had never been marked
with cordiality. They had been in the habit of committing
unprovoked raids across the Assam or Cachar borders, and had
misconstrued our verbal remonstrances into a sign of weakness. So
far back as the year 1784 they had annexed Arracan in the most
unprovoked manner, and since that date on more than one occasion
considerable bodies of Burmese troops had actually violated
British territory in pursuit of what they were pleased to call
fugitives from justice. In the year 1823 they committed a series of
aggressions in Sylhet and Cachar, and finally occupied an island in
the vicinity of Chittagong, which was undoubtedly British. To our
remonstrances they retaliated with a threat to invade Bengal and
drive us back to our island home. War was reluctantly decided upon,
and it was resolved to invade Burmah with four separate columns:

I. A column composed entirely of Bengal troops under the command
of Brigadier Richards, was to operate from the north, and, after
capturing the old capital of Assam, was to threaten the kingdom
from that direction.

II. A second Bengal column under Brigadier Shuldham, was to
penetrate by way of Sylhet.

III. A mixed column of Bengal and Madras troops, under
Brigadier-General W. Morrison, was to advance from Chittagong into
Arracan, with the support of a flotilla of the Indian Marine.

IV. The main attack was entrusted to a joint Bengal and Madras
army, under Major-General Archibald Campbell, of the 38th (South
Stafford Regiment), an officer who had done good service in the
Peninsula. The troops composing the main army comprised a Bengal
brigade, which consisted of the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry),
38th (South Stafford), and the 20th Bengal Infantry. The 1st Madras
Brigade comprised the 41st (Welsh Regiment), the Madras European
Regiment (now the 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and five battalions
of Madras sepoys, with two companies of artillery.

The 2nd Madras Brigade consisted of the 89th (Royal Irish
Fusiliers), five battalions of Madras sepoys, and two companies of
artillery.

The Bengal and Madras troops assembled in Cornwallis Bay, in the
Andaman Islands; thence the main army proceeded to Rangoon, whilst
Colonel McCreagh, of the 13th (Somersets), was detached to seize
the island of Cheduba. Rangoon was occupied after very feeble
resistance, but in the month of December the Burmese, finding
we were not disposed to advance farther into their country, made
desperate attempts to retake the city. They found, however, that
we were as good behind stockades as they were, and from that date
the war resolved itself into a number of desultory expeditions,
in which stockade after stockade was carried at the point of the
bayonet, often with heavy loss. There was little glory to be gained
in such a war, nor was there scope for any display of military
talent; but the gallantry of the officers and the ready valour of
our men was never better exemplified.

The determined attack on Rangoon by the Burmese in the month of
December, 1824, gave the 26th Madras, now the 86th Carnatic,
Infantry an opportunity of putting an additional battle honour on
their colours.


KEMMENDINE, NOVEMBER 30 TO DECEMBER 9, 1824.

This battle honour is borne only by the 86th Carnatic Infantry,
and was granted to that corps, then the 26th Madras Infantry, by
the Governor of Madras, in recognition of the gallant defence
of the Kemmendine stockade during the repeated attacks by the
Burmese in the month of December, 1824. Kemmendine was the name
given by the Burmese to one of the principal defences of Rangoon.
We had captured it with some loss on the first occupation of the
city. It was rightly looked upon as one of the most important
works in the vicinity of Rangoon. In December, when the Burmese
made their desperate attempts to retake Rangoon, the Kemmendine
stockade was the object of their fiercest attacks. It was held by
the 26th Madras Infantry, now the 86th Carnatics, a company of
the Madras Europeans, and some gunners, the Honourable Company's
cruiser _Sophie_ being moored off its river face. The conduct
of the Madras sepoys was beyond all praise, and even Havelock,
ever chary of encomiums, except to his beloved 13th, wrote in
the most eulogistic manner of the 26th. "The sepoys of the 26th
acquired a lasting reputation for their firmness at Kemmendine,"
wrote that distinguished General in his "History of the War in
Ava." "Major Yates, who commanded them, sent for, and received,
frequent supplies of ammunition, but never talked or dreamt of
reinforcements, surrender, or retreat. Hungry and watching, pent
in, outnumbered, and wearied by night and day, they repelled their
assailants with slaughter." Another contemporary writer says: "Worn
out with fatigue, they successfully repulsed the successive attacks
of the enemy, contenting themselves with dry rice, not even laying
aside their arms for cooking food." The safety of the stockade was
entirely due to the ceaseless watchfulness of the little garrison.
The Burmese had no stomach for an assault on a foe who was ready
for them, and so it was that the garrison of Kemmendine escaped
with few casualties.

  +---------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                 |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                 |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Dublin Fusiliers                 |   - |   1 |   4 |  13 |
  |86th Carnatic Infantry (British) |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |86th Carnatic Infantry (Natives) |   - |   2 |   6 |  21 |
  +---------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The battle honour was only conferred on the 26th Madras Native
Infantry, which also was allowed to assume the honour "Ava." The
1st Madras European Regiment, a detachment of which was so closely
associated with them in the defence, has been obliged to content
itself with the one distinction "Ava."

On December 7 the Commander-in-Chief determined to teach the
Burmese a fresh lesson, and, attacking the besieging force (for
Rangoon at this time was virtually besieged) in four columns, he
inflicted on them a most crushing defeat, capturing over 200 pieces
of ordnance.

In the course of the next few months our troops suffered terribly
from climate and the criminal neglect of the most elementary
precautions as regards shelter and food. The British soldier
fought in coatee, shako, and leather stock. Hundreds perished from
sunstroke, more from scurvy and cholera. The 13th (Somersets), 38th
(South Staffords), 41st (Welsh), 45th (Sherwood Foresters), 49th
(Royal Berkshires), and 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) buried 3,586
men in eight months; whilst the two regiments sent to Arracan, the
44th (Essex) and 54th (Dorsets), lost 595 out of a strength of
1,004.

Not only were our troops suffering from the climate, but the
resistance of the enemy was found to be far more formidable
than was anticipated. It was found necessary to call for more
reinforcements, and early in 1825 the Royal Scots, the 44th
(Essex), the 45th Sherwood Foresters, and the 87th (Royal Irish
Fusiliers) joined Sir Archibald's army. The want of cavalry had
been apparent, so the Governor-General's Bodyguard and a regiment
of Madras cavalry were also despatched to Rangoon. In the course of
the cold weather expeditionary columns had been sent to Tenasserim
and Martaban, both of which provinces had been occupied with but
little loss. A force despatched to Kykloo, however, met with a
serious repulse, and the Commander-in-Chief felt that it would be
necessary to carry the war still farther into Burmese territory. In
February the main army advanced towards Prome, Brigadier Sale, of
the 13th (Somersets), being detached to Bassein, which he occupied
after a sharp fight. Sir Archibald Campbell met with a check at
Donabew in the month of March, but towards the end of April Prome
was occupied, and the summer was passed by the army with that city
as its headquarters. Advances on our part, with a view to opening
negotiations, were construed by the Burmese into an acknowledgment
of our weakness, and as soon as the season permitted, fresh
hostilities commenced. It was not until the month of February,
1826, that we were enabled to meet the enemy in the open. So little
did they dread our attacks, and so little had they taken to heart
the numerous defeats we had inflicted on them, that they actually
withstood our attack in the open at Pagahm, not far from Prome.
This was the lesson they needed. Hitherto the want of cavalry and
the density of jungle had prevented our following up our successes,
but at Pagahm the Governor-General's Bodyguard was able to reach
the flying Burmese, cutting up a large number. The result of this
was a renewal of peace negotiations; this time the advance was on
their part.

The result of the war was a considerable extension of our territory
to the east of Bengal. Tenasserim, Martaban, and Rangoon, all fell
into our hands, and the King of Burmah renounced all sovereignty
over Arracan and Assam.


ARRACAN, 1825.

This distinction was conferred by the Governor-General in Council
on the Bengal native regiments which took part in the invasion of
the ancient kingdom of Arracan during the operations in Burmah in
the year 1825. The British and Madras regiments employed bear the
same honour as that bestowed on the regiments which accompanied the
main army under Sir Archibald Campbell. The only regiments now left
with the distinction "Arracan" are the 2nd Gardner's Horse and the
5th Light Infantry.

The force destined for the invasion of Arracan was placed under the
command of Brigadier-General W. Morrison, of the 54th (Dorsets),
and acted in co-operation with a strong flotilla of the Indian
Marine. It was composed of three brigades--two of Bengal, the third
of Madras troops:

  First Brigade--Lieutenant-Colonel W. Richards: 26th Bengal
  Infantry, 44th (Essex Regiment), 49th and 62nd Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Lieutenant-Colonel Grant, C.B. (54th Foot): 54th
  (Dorsets), 42nd (now the 5th Light Infantry), and 61st Bengal
  Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Lieutenant-Colonel Fair (10th Madras Infantry):
  10th and 16th Madras Infantry (the latter now the 76th Punjabis).

A couple of companies of Bengal and one of Madras Artillery, as
well as two squadrons of Gardner's Horse, accompanied the force.


CASUALTIES OF THE ARRACAN FIELD FORCE.

  +--------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                    |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                    |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |44th Essex          |   - |   - |   - |  11 |
  |54th Dorsets        |   - |   2 |   3 |  25 |
  |2nd Gardner's Horse |   - |   - |   - |   8 |
  |5th Light Infantry  |   - |   1 |   1 |  18 |
  |76th Punjabis       |   1 |   3 |  10 |  30 |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES IN ACTION DURING THE OPERATIONS IN BURMAH, 1824.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Scots                |   - |   1 |   2 |   5 |
  |Somerset L.I.              |   5 |  18 |  21 | 138 |
  |South Staffords            |   2 |   6 |  25 | 130 |
  |41st Welsh                 |   2 |   2 |  12 |  98 |
  |44th Essex                 |   1 |   5 |   3 |  14 |
  |45th Sherwood Foresters    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |47th N. Lancs              |   1 |   5 |  10 |  80 |
  |54th Dorsets               |   - |   3 |   3 |  27 |
  |87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers  |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |89th Roy. Irish Fusiliers  |   3 |   8 |  21 | 147 |
  |1st Roy. Dublin Fusiliers  |   1 |   3 |  22 | 120 |
  |Governor-General's Bodygd. |   - |   1 |   3 |   3 |
  |26th Light Cav.            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |61st Pioneers              |   - |   3 |   6 |  24 |
  |63rd Light Infantry        |   1 |   3 |  10 |  58 |
  |67th Punjabis              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |69th Punjabis              |   - |   2 |   5 |  16 |
  |72nd Punjabis              |   - |   1 |   1 |  11 |
  |76th Punjabis              |   1 |   3 |  10 |  30 |
  |82nd Punjabis              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |86th Carnatic I.           |   - |   2 |   4 |  57 |
  |88th Carnatic I.           |   - |   3 |   2 |  22 |
  |90th Punjabis              |   - |   1 |   1 |  12 |
  |92nd Punjabis              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The force suffered much from sickness, owing to the unhealthy
nature of the country traversed, and experienced many hardships.
The resistance was not very serious, but on one or two occasions
the Burmese fought well. The total casualties amounted to about
130 killed and wounded, the Dorsets and 76th Punjabis being the
principal sufferers.

The casualties in action barely reached 3 per cent., those by
disease exceeded 56 per cent., of the troops present!


PEGU.

This distinction was granted to the following regiments, in
recognition of their services during the campaign in Burmah in the
years 1852-53:

  Royal Irish.
  South Staffords.
  King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  54th Sikhs.
  61st Pioneers.
  69th Punjabis.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  86th Carnatic Infantry.

The continual infractions of the Treaty of 1826 by the King of
Burmah, his arbitrary seizure of the persons and property of
British merchants, and his insolent reply to communications
addressed to him by the Governor-General of India, rendered it
necessary for us to take steps to uphold the dignity of our flag.
Early in 1852 a force, furnished by the armies of Madras and
Bengal, was placed under the command of General Godwin, an officer
who had served in the war of 1834, and who prior to that had taken
part in almost every engagement of note in the Peninsular War,
under Wellington. At the outset of the operations it was thought
that a brigade from each presidency would prove sufficient, but
before the end of 1852 the army under General Godwin's command was
organized into no less than five brigades, as under:

  Madras Brigade--Brigadier-General W. H. Elliott: 51st King's Own
  Light Infantry, 1st, 9th, and 35th Regiments of Madras Infantry
  (now the 61st Pioneers, 69th and 72nd Punjabis).

  First Bengal Brigade--Brigadier-General T. S. Reignolds: 18th
  (Royal Irish), the 40th and 67th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

  Second Bengal Brigade--Brigadier-General T. Dickenson: 80th
  (North Staffords), 10th Bengal Infantry, and the 54th Sikhs.

  Third Bengal Brigade--Brigadier-General H. Huishe: 1st Battalion
  Munster Fusiliers, and the 37th Bengal Infantry.

Of these five Bengal regiments, the 54th Sikhs alone remains to
bear the honour.

The campaign calls for little remark. The General, whilst waiting
for the Madras Brigade, seized Martaban, and on April 19 Rangoon
was captured, with a loss to us of 149 officers and men killed
and wounded, our trophies amounting to no less than ninety-two
guns, mostly of large calibre. In the month of August the 1st
Madras Fusiliers (now the 1st Battalion of the Dublin Fusiliers)
arrived from Madras, and in October Pegu was captured. The war
now resolved itself into a succession of attacks on dacoits, or
petty chieftains, and is noticeable for the fact that in one of
these, when matters were looking very serious for us, a young
officer--Ensign Garnet Wolseley, of the 80th--showed himself
possessed of determined gallantry and ready resource. He was badly
wounded on this occasion, but it is not every Ensign that is
fortunate enough to be mentioned in despatches in his first action.

The result of the campaign was a considerable addition to our
Indian Empire--or, rather, to the dominions then administered
by the East India Company--and the annexation of the maritime
provinces of the Burmese kingdom. The casualties show the serious
nature of the fighting which took place:

  +---------------------------+-----------------------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery            |   4 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |18th Royal Irish           |   2 |   5 |  12 |  71 |
  |51st K.O. Yorkshire L.I.   |   2 |   4 |   5 |  31 |
  |80th North Staffords       |   5 |   4 |   4 |  40 |
  |1st Bengal Fus. (Munsters) |   2 |   1 |   3 |  11 |
  |1st Madras Fus. (Dublins)  |   - |   2 |   2 |  27 |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers and Min.  |   - |   3 |   3 |  13 |
  |54th Sikhs                 |   1 |   3 |   6 |  20 |
  |61st Pioneers              |   - |   1 |   4 |  17 |
  |69th Punjabis              |   - |   2 |   3 |  18 |
  |79th Carnatic I.           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |86th Carnatic I.           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


BURMAH, 1885-1887.

This distinction was awarded to the regiments named below, who
shared in the long and arduous operations in Burmah which led to
the annexation of that province in the years 1885-1887:

  The Queen's (R.W. Surrey).
  King's Liverpool.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Hampshire.
  King's Own Yorkshire L.I.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Rifle Brigade.
  7th Hurriana Lancers.
  26th P.W.O. Light Cavalry.
  27th Light Cavalry.
  31st Lancers.
  2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  4th Rajputs.
  1st Brahmins.
  5th Light Infantry.
  10th Jats.
  11th Jats.
  12th Pioneers.
  16th Rajputs.
  18th Infantry.
  26th Punjabis.
  27th Punjabis.
  33rd Punjabis.
  61st Pioneers.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  72nd Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  74th Punjabis.
  75th Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  81st Pioneers.
  83rd Light Infantry.
  86th Carnatic Infantry.
  87th Punjabis.
  90th Punjabis.
  95th Russell's Infantry.
  96th Berar Infantry.
  101st Grenadiers.
  105th Mahratta Light Infantry.
  107th Pioneers.
  123rd Outram's Rifles.
  125th Napier's Rifles.
  127th Baluch Light Infantry.
  3rd Gurkhas.
  8th Gurkhas.

The absurd pretensions of the Court of Burmah had led to a
cessation of all diplomatic intercourse between the British and
Burmese Governments since the year 1879. In 1884 King Thebaw gave
cause for further remonstrances by the high-handed treatment
accorded to an English company trading in his kingdom, and on
October 22, 1885, a contemptuous reply to an ultimatum led to a
war which placed the battle honour "Burmah, 1885-1887" on the
colours of so many of our regiments. Our Intelligence Department
was by no means well informed as to the nature of the interior of
the kingdom, beyond the main facts that roads were non-existent,
and that it consisted for the most part of thick jungle. In the
operations of 1824-1826, and again during the campaign of 1882,
no efforts had been made to reach the capital, but it was now
determined that no durable peace was possible until the King
himself had felt the power of our arms. Fortunately, the officials
of the Bombay-Burmah Trading Company possessed a number of
steamers, the officers of which were excellent pilots, knowing the
upper reaches of the river well, and their knowledge enabled the
naval authorities to carry the operations to a rapid and successful
conclusion. The officer selected to command the expeditionary
force was Sir Harry Prendergast, of the Madras Engineers. He had
well won a Victoria Cross for an act of exceptional gallantry in
the Mutiny, and he had the reputation, besides personal gallantry,
of possessing high powers of organization. The force at his
command numbered upwards of 9,000 men, with 67 guns, and it was
accompanied by a flotilla of no less than 55 river steamers, with
a naval brigade of 600 men and 26 guns. The land force was divided
into three brigades, each composed of one British and two native
regiments, commanded by Brigadiers Foord, F. B. Norman, and G. S.
White respectively. There were, as divisional troops, a battalion
of native pioneers and six batteries of artillery. On November
14, 1885, no answer having been received to the ultimatum of the
Viceroy, the force advanced; on the following day the forts at
Minhla, on the Irawadi River, were carried by General Norman's
brigade, and on the following day we silenced the various forts
between our frontier and the capital. On the 26th, as we neared the
capital, envoys arrived announcing the unconditional surrender of
King Thebaw, and on the 28th we entered Mandalay, and the official
war was over, our losses having been comparatively very trifling.
Unfortunately, although a certain number of the Burmese troops laid
down their arms at Mandalay, a very large number escaped into the
jungle, to commence a harassing campaign of dacoitry. A force of
three brigades and 9,000 men had been considered sufficient for the
subjugation of the country; now five brigades and 30,000 men were
mobilized to restore order.

On January 1 the Viceroy published a proclamation, by the terms of
which the sovereignty of Burmah passed into our hands: "By command
of the Queen-Empress, it is hereby notified that the territories
formerly governed by King Thebaw will no longer be under his
rule, but have become part of Her Majesty's dominions, and will,
during Her Majesty's pleasure, be administered by such officers as
the Viceroy and Governor-General of India may from time to time
appoint." With this simple announcement 88,000 square miles of
territory passed into our possession.


CASUALTIES AT MANDALAY.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |King's Liverpool Regt. |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |Hampshires             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |11th Rajputs           |   1 |   - |   3 |  15 |
  |83rd W.L.I.            |   1 |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |Roy. Welsh Fus.        |   - |   1 |   2 |  14 |
  |2nd Q.O.L.I.           |   1 |   - |   6 |  15 |
  |72nd Punjabis          |   - |   5 |   1 |   6 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XVI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE FIRST AFGHAN WAR, 1839-1842

Afghanistan, 1839-1842--Ghuznee, 1839--Khelat, 1839--Kahun,
1840--Jelalabad--Khelat-i-Ghilzai--Candahar, 1842--Ghuznee,
1842--Cabool, 1842--Cutchee.


AFGHANISTAN.

This distinction is borne by the

  4th Hussars.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  The Queen's.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Leicesters.
  31st D.C.O. Lancers.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  34th Poona Horse.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Light Infantry.
  16th Lancers.
  119th Multan Regiment.

It commemorates their share in the ill-judged campaign which had
for its object the forcible imposition of an unpopular Sovereign
on an unwilling people. Many of the oldest and most experienced of
our Indian statesmen foretold disaster from the outset. The Duke
of Wellington expressed himself in no measured terms on the folly
of endeavouring to overthrow the _de facto_ ruler of Afghanistan,
and to put on his throne a monarch who did not own an acre of
land nor a rupee which he did not owe to our bounty. Unsuccessful
negotiations were entered into with Runjeet Singh, the ruler of
the Punjab, with a view to permitting our army to march through
the Punjab. This favour was refused, and the Bengal troops, which
mobilized at Ferozepore, were compelled to march down the left bank
of the Sutlej, through Bhawulpore, and then, crossing the Indus by
a bridge of boats thrown across that river at Bukkur, to traverse
the desert of Scinde, and, ascending the Bolan Pass, to enter
Afghanistan by way of Kandahar. The chief command it was intended
should have been held by Sir Harry Fane, the Commander-in-Chief in
India, but at the last moment--indeed, after the army had assembled
at Ferozepore--its composition was considerably reduced, and Sir
John Keane, the Commander-in-Chief in Bombay, assumed the command.
The troops destined for the expedition consisted of some 27,000
men, including the reserve divisions at Ferozepore and in Scinde,
and were brigaded as under:

  Cavalry Division--Major-General E. Thackwell: Wing of the 4th
  Hussars, 16th Lancers, the 2nd and 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, a
  wing of the 1st Bombay Cavalry (now the 31st Duke of Connaught's
  Own Lancers), the 34th Poona Horse, the 1st and 4th Local Horse
  (now the 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers), and the 3rd Skinner's
  Horse.

This fine force of cavalry was formed in three brigades:

  First Infantry Division--Major-General Sir W. Cotton.

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General J. R. Sale, C.B.: 13th (Somerset
  Light Infantry), the 16th and 48th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Major-General W. Nott, C.B.: 31st, 42nd, and 43rd
  Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General A. Roberts: 2nd Bengal European
  Regiment, 30th, 35th, and 37th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

The 35th Bengal Infantry was left at Bukkur to hold the bridge
over the Indus, and preparations were made to punish the Scinde
Sirdars, who evinced a determination to oppose the passage of our
troops through their country. Wiser counsels prevailed, possibly
due to the fact that H.M.S. _Wellesley_ had with a couple of
broadsides knocked the forts at Kurrachee into pieces, and that
the Bombay troops were advancing from the south. On reaching
Quettah, the Bombay column, which was under Sir John Keane, the
Commander-in-Chief, joined hands with the Bengal army. This force
consisted of the 4th Hussars, the two Bombay cavalry regiments
named above, the 2nd (Queen's), 17th (Leicesters), and the 19th
(now the 119th) Bombay Infantry. Leaving the 43rd Bengal Infantry
at Quettah, the army pushed on to Kandahar, losing an immense
number of its baggage animals _en route_, and suffering much from
marauding Baluchis, and still more from the terrible heat in the
passes. It must be remembered that the men marched in leather
stocks, in leather shakos, and red coatees! In June the army
reached Kandahar, and thence a force was detached, under Brigadier
Sale, to the Helmund River, meeting with a certain amount of
opposition. Leaving a strong garrison under Colonel Herring in
Kandahar, and entrusting the chief command in Southern Afghanistan
to General Nott, the Commander-in-Chief advanced to the north
towards the end of June, reaching the neighbourhood of Ghuznee
on July 21, where the first serious opposition was encountered,
the Afghans being signally worsted by our cavalry, who were well
handled by General Thackwell, a Peninsular veteran, who had lost an
arm at Waterloo.


GHUZNEE, 1839.

This battle honour was the first granted during the reign of Queen
Victoria, and was awarded to the following regiments, who were
present at the storming of the Afghan fortress by Sir John Keane on
July 23, 1839:

  4th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  The Queen's (R.W. Surrey).
  13th Somerset L.I.
  17th Leicesters.
  1st Bengal Fus. (Munsters).
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  31st Duke of Connaught's Lancers.
  34th Poona Horse.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  119th Multan Regiment.

All the regiments of the old Bengal army which participated in this
feat of arms, or in the subsequent operations in Afghanistan, were
swept away in the Mutiny of 1857.

Sir John Keane, against the advice of his artillery officers, had
left his siege-train behind, owing to difficulties of carriage, and
there was nothing to be done but to carry Ghuznee by storm. There
were men present who had assisted at the storming of Bhurtpore in
1826, and all remembered the terrible losses incurred by Lord
Lake's army at the unsuccessful assaults of that fortress in
1805. The prospect was not a pleasing one, but with the Oriental
_l'audace, l'audace, toujours l'audace_ is the best policy in the
long-run. On July 23 Keane carried the place by assault with but
trifling loss, and so earned a peerage.


CASUALTIES AT THE STORMING OF GHUZNEE, JULY 28, 1839.

  +-------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                   |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                   |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |4th Hussars        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |16th Lancers       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Queen's        |   - |   6 |   4 |  27 |
  |17th Leicester     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Somerset L.I. |   - |   1 |   1 |  30 |
  |Munster Fus.       |   - |   9 |   1 |  51 |
  |Bengal Artillery   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Bombay Artlly.     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Bombay Engrs.      |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Skinner's H.   |   ? |   ? |   ? |   ? |
  |31st Lancers       |   ? |   ? |   ? |   ? |
  |34th Poona H.      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |119th Mult. R.     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On August 8 the army reached Kabul, and the puppet Shah Sujah was
installed on the throne, the brave Dost Mohammed flying before
our arms, only to rally for a fresh desperate venture for the
kingdom. The Bombay column was now ordered back by way of Ghuznee
and Kandahar, and the Commander-in-Chief, with the 16th Lancers
and some details of the 13th Light Infantry and of the Bengal
regiments, returned to India by the Khyber.


KHELAT, NOVEMBER 13, 1839.

This battle honour is borne by the

  Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
  Leicesters.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Rajput L.I.

It commemorates a scarcely remembered, but very successful, affair
carried out by a column of the invading army of Afghanistan. On
the capture of Ghuznee (p. 254) and the flight of Dost Mohammed,
it was erroneously anticipated that the people of the country were
willing to accept Shah Sujah as their Sovereign. Sir John Keane,
misled by the political officers, determined to send back a large
portion of his army to India, and whilst one column was to return
by the Khyber Pass, in the north, another was told off to return by
the Bolan, in the south. This column was placed under the command
of Major-General Willshire, and comprised the regiments above
named, with a company of Bombay Artillery and one of Sappers. All
were much under their proper strength, and this I touch upon in
passing, as it brings out into stronger relief the nature of the
task achieved by General Willshire's force.


STRENGTH OF BRITISH TROOPS.

  The Queen's          13 officers, 331 other ranks.
  Leicesters           24     "     374   "     "
  Artillery             2     "      38   "     "


STRENGTH OF NATIVE TROOPS.

  2nd Q.O. Light Inf.  11 officers, 373 other ranks.
  Sappers               3     "     127   "     "

The Baluch tribes had shown themselves uniformly hostile towards
us during the whole course of the expedition to Afghanistan. They
had attacked our convoys, murdered officers, and cut up camp
followers with impunity, and apparently with the full approval
of their chiefs. General Willshire, on the return march of the
Bombay column, was instructed to inflict condign punishment on
the Khans of Khelat. These, on the other hand, determined to make
a sturdy resistance. On approaching Khelat the General found the
Baluchis massed on the heights surrounding the city, and he at
once took measures to attack them. Whilst the Bombay artillery
shelled the heights, three columns of infantry, each consisting
of but four weak companies, pushed up the three principal spurs,
the remainder of the force, under the General's own personal
command, being held in reserve. The Bombay artillery always held
the reputation of being second to none, and the accuracy of their
fire not only silenced the few Baluch guns which were posted on
the heights, but compelled the enemy to seek shelter behind the
walls of the fortress before the advancing columns had come to
close quarters. The General, seeing the enemy streaming towards
the walls, endeavoured to forestall them, and it became a race as
to who should reach the open gateway first. Although in this we
were beaten by a short head, yet we were so close in rear of the
Baluchis that they were unable to make any very well-organized
stand: our men were close at their heels. The gates were blown in,
and British private, well supported by the Bengal sepoy, pressed
into the place. If we compare the numbers present at Khelat with
those which assisted at the storming of Ghuznee, and then study the
two casualty lists, it will at once be seen that, although the name
of Khelat may not be so familiar as that of Ghuznee, the feat of
General Willshire's army is in no way inferior to that which gained
for Sir John Keane the title of Baron Keane of Ghuznee.


CASUALTIES AT THE STORMING OF KHELAT.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   1 |   1 |   3 |
  |The Queen's             |   1 |   5 |   2 |  42 |
  |Leicesters              |   - |   1 |   6 |  32 |
  |2nd Q.O. L.I.           |   - |   2 |   2 |  17 |
  |Bombay Saps. and Miners |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


KAHUN, 1840.

_105th Mahratta Light Infantry._

In the month of March, 1841, the Governor of Bombay issued the
following Order in Council:

"In order to testify his admiration of the gallantry, prudence, and
perseverance which distinguished Captain Brown in the defence of
Kahun, and the fidelity and bravery of the officers and men under
his command, the 5th Regiment of Native Infantry shall be permitted
to have 'Kahun' inscribed on their colours and borne on their
appointments."

Outside the ranks of the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry there are
few who know of the gallant deed which this one word commemorates.
On his return to India after the successful capture of Ghuznee, Sir
John Keane deemed it advisable to occupy the forts of Quetta and
Kahun, commanding as they did two passes between Afghanistan and
the Lower Indus. Quetta is well known to the present generation of
soldiers, but Kahun is still in the territory of the Murri tribe.
It is situated in a valley some ten miles long by five broad, at
the western extremity of an exceedingly difficult pass. The town in
1840 was surrounded by a lofty wall, 25 feet in height, with six
bastions, but unprovided with a ditch. The force told off to hold
the fort consisted of 300 men of the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry
(then the 5th Bombay Infantry), under a Captain Lewis Brown, of
that corps. He was instructed to move in with six months' supplies,
as it was considered quite possible that the Baluchis would refuse
to supply him with provisions. The 500 camels, with provisions,
were to be escorted back to Sukkur, on the Indus, by a company
of the 5th and a squadron of the Scinde Irregular Horse, under
Lieutenant Clarke of the 5th, who were to march up to Kahun under
Brown's orders. Two guns were at first told off for this force, but
this order was afterwards countermanded. However, Brown, contrary
to orders, did succeed in taking one gun with him. Leaving Sukkur
late in April, Brown reached Kahun on May 12, his march having
been vigorously opposed by the Baluchis. On the 15th he sent back
the camels, adding a second company to the infantry escort, as he
considered the attitude of the tribes very threatening. He thus
reduced his force to 140 bayonets, 12 gunners, and 1 gun. On the
return march Clarke's little force was attacked by a large body of
Baluchis and totally annihilated. Brown now saw that he would have
to fight for life. He at once commenced to strengthen the walls,
levelled all houses in the immediate neighbourhood, cut down all
trees within musketry range, and dug a ditch round the place. On
August 31 an effort was made to relieve him. Major Clibborn, of the
101st Grenadiers, with 300 bayonets of his own regiment, 200 sabres
of the Scinde Horse, with three guns, reached the foot of the
pass, within sound of gunshot of the beleaguered garrison. There
Clibborn was attacked by an overwhelming force of Baluchis, and
after a stubborn fight was driven back, with the loss of all his
guns, 5 officers and 190 men killed. The garrison had long since
been deprived of all meat rations, and on September 5 Brown found
that he had but six bags of flour left. On this day he received an
official letter from the Brigade-Major at Sukkur, informing him
of the defeat of the relieving force, and further adding that it
would be impossible to make another attempt, as there were no more
troops available. Brown was therefore told that he must act on his
own resources, and either cut his way out or make arrangements with
the Baluch chiefs for a safe conduct to Sukkur. On more than one
occasion Dodah Khan, the head of the Murri tribe, had offered to
allow Brown to march through his country if he would hand over the
fort, but without superior orders Brown felt he was not entitled to
treat. Now he had full power to act on his own responsibility, and
on September 12, after a close siege of four months, the gallant
Brown entered into an arrangement with the Baluch chief, and
evacuated the fort which he had held so nobly. The Baluchis, unlike
the Afghans at Kabul, held to their word. Brown's return march was
unmolested, and early in October the remains of his own worn-out,
half-starved garrison reached Quetta. Few battle honours have been
more worthily earned than Kahun.

The forebodings of the prophets of evil came to pass. We had
placed Shah Sujah on the throne of his fathers, but it was not in
our power to enthrone him in the hearts of his people. Expedition
after expedition was undertaken to punish tribes which refused
to accept his rule, and who in doing so showed active hostility
to ourselves. In 1841 it was determined to evacuate the country,
but a rising of the tribes in the Khyber Pass effectually cut off
all communication between Kabul and India. Sir Robert Sale was
despatched with a brigade to open the pass, but he found that he
was compelled to fight his way at every step, and finally threw
himself into Jelalabad, a semi-fortified town midway between Kabul
and Peshawur. Shortly after his arrival he learnt of the murder of
the Envoy, Sir William Macnaghten, and of the attempt of the Kabul
garrison to reach the shelter of Jelalabad. Of the army which left
Kabul, but one man reached the shelter of Sale's defences, the 44th
Foot being absolutely annihilated. Lady Butler's picture, "The
Remnant of an Army," depicts Dr. Bryden riding, sorely wounded,
into the snowed-in fortress.[21]


JELALABAD.

This battle honour, with a mural crown, is borne by the Somerset
Light Infantry, and commemorates their gallant defence of Jelalabad
in the winter of 1841-42. As a feat of arms the defence was not of
any striking value. The garrison suffered from want of food, and
they were exposed to attack on the part of the Afghan tribes; but
as a matter of fact they were left pretty much undisturbed, their
casualties during the six months' siege being but 4 men killed, 2
officers and 14 men wounded. On April 5 Sale made a sortie, driving
off the besiegers, and so relieving himself before the arrival
of the avenging army under Pollock. In this action the 13th lost
their gallant Colonel Dennie, a soldier whose loss would have
dimmed a far more glorious victory than that won under the walls of
Jelalabad; the losses on this day were, in addition to the Colonel,
8 men killed, 2 officers and 31 men wounded. As the native infantry
regiment which shared with the 13th the glories of the defence
of Jelalabad no longer exists, I have not given the casualties
incurred by any corps but the Somerset Light Infantry. The total
casualties of the 13th throughout the campaign amounted to 4
officers and 62 men killed, 19 officers and 238 non-commissioned
officers and men wounded.


KHELAT-I-GHILZAI.

This honour, with the word "Invicta," is borne by the 12th
Pioneers (the Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment). During our occupation
of Afghanistan certain strategic points had necessarily been held
in order to maintain our communications with India. Amongst these
were the forts of Ghuznee and Khelat-i-Ghilzai, between the capital
and Kandahar. The former was entrusted to a Colonel Palmer, of
the 27th Bengal Infantry; the latter to Captain Craigie, with
a regiment of infantry raised in Hindustan for the army of the
Shah Sujah. Unfortunately, the Ghuznee garrison was compelled
to surrender, but Craigie and his men weathered the storm, and
though besieged for four long months, and reduced to sore straits
for food, they repelled more than one assault. For its gallant
defence of Khelat-i-Ghilzai the Shah's regiment was brought on
the establishment of the Bengal army, and now remains with us as
the 12th Pioneers (the Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment). In addition
to the name "Khelat-i-Ghilzai," the regiment is allowed to carry
an honorary standard, and bears on its colours the proud motto
"Invicta."


CANDAHAR, 1842.

This battle honour was conferred on the troops which, advancing
from Kandahar under General Nott, aided in the release of the
captives in Kabul, and in the punishment of the Afghans for the
murder of our Envoy in 1841. The regiments still entitled to bear
this honour are the

  South Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  1st Skinner's Horse.
  34th Poona Horse.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Light Infantry.
  12th Pioneers (Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment).

Throughout the winter of 1841-42 General Nott had been subject to
considerable annoyance from the tribes of Southern Afghanistan.
On two occasions he had been attacked at Kandahar, and he had
experienced some difficulty in keeping open his communications with
India by the Bolan Pass. It was not until he had heard that General
Pollock was at Jelalabad that he was able to commence his advance
towards Kabul. His force was divided into two brigades of infantry,
with a small, but very efficient, force of cavalry, consisting of
the 3rd Bombay Cavalry (now the 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry),
and two regiments of irregular cavalry, one of which is still with
us as Skinner's Horse. His artillery comprised two batteries of
horse and two of field artillery. The First Infantry Brigade was
under Brigadier Wymer, and consisted of the 40th (South Lancashire
Regiment), the 16th and 38th Regiments of Bengal Infantry, and the
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment, this last alone being with us.

The Second Brigade comprised the 41st (Welsh Regiment), the
42nd and 43rd Regiments of Bengal Infantry (now the 5th and 6th
Regiments of Light Infantry).

On passing Khelat-i-Ghilzai, which all through the winter had been
most gallantly defended by the 3rd Regiment of the Shah's infantry,
under Captain Craigie, Nott, in obedience to instructions,
destroyed the fortifications. At Ghuznee he met with his first
opposition, and was able, with but little loss, to inflict a sharp
defeat on the Afghans.


GHUZNEE, 1842.

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which marched
up from Kandahar, under General Nott, and were present at the
successful little skirmish outside the fortress of Ghuznee in
August, 1842. The regiments authorized to bear this honour are the

  South Lancashire.
  The Welsh.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Jat Light Infantry.
  12th Khelat-i-Ghilzais.

The losses were slight; indeed, when we examine the casualty
returns of nearly all the engagements that have been inscribed on
the colours of the British army for services in Afghanistan, it is
impossible to avoid the conclusion that the honours have been very
liberally bestowed.


CASUALTIES AT GHUZNEE, 1842.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |40th S. Lancs.          |   - |   1 |   - |  12 |
  |41st Welsh              |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   2 |   2 |  15 |   7 |
  |Christie's Horse        |   - |   1 |   7 |  14 |
  |5th Light Inf.          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Jat. Lt. Inf.       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |12th Khelat-i-Ghilzais  |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CABOOL, 1842.

This distinction was granted to all the regiments which
participated in the operations in Afghanistan, having for their
object the release of the captives in the hands of Akbar Khan, or
of the relief of the garrisons at Jelalabad and Khelat-i-Ghilzai.
The command of the army operating from Peshawur was entrusted
to General George Pollock, of the Bengal Artillery, whilst the
Southern army, which advanced from Kandahar, was, as we have seen,
commanded by General Nott, a distinguished officer of the Indian
army. The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the

  3rd Hussars.
  Norfolk.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  East Surrey.
  South Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  4th Rajputs.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Light Infantry.
  12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai.

Pollock's army was mobilized at Peshawur, in virtue of an
arrangement with Runjeet Singh, the Sovereign of the Punjab, who
had consented to send an army to act in conjunction with our own.
It was not until the commencement of April that General Pollock
had collected sufficient carriage for his advance. We were now
under no delusions as to the feeling of the people of Afghanistan,
and we also knew that the tribes in the Khyber Pass would oppose
every step of our way. Sir Robert Sale had relieved himself before
General Pollock started, and it was intended that his troops
should join in the advance, and take their share in carrying
out the punishment to be inflicted on the city of Kabul. Sale's
brigade was numbered the First of Pollock's army, which was thus
constituted:

  Commanding the Forces: General George Pollock.
  Second in Command: Major-General John McCaskill.

  First Brigade--Major-General Sir Robert Sale: 13th (Somerset
  Light Infantry), 35th Light Infantry, and tribal levies.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Tulloch: 9th (Norfolk
  Regiment), 26th and 60th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General Wilde: 30th, 53rd, and 64th
  Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General Monteath: 31st (East Surrey),
  6th and 33rd Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

The cavalry brigade was under Brigadier-General White, and
consisted of the 3rd Hussars, the 1st and 10th Regiments of Bengal
Light Cavalry, and two corps of Irregular Horse.

The artillery comprised two batteries of horse artillery, three
of field, and one mountain battery, under Brigadier-General H.
Delafosse.

Pollock determined to advance before the arrival of his Third
Brigade, leaving that to join him at Jelalabad. He left Peshawur
on April 5, and, after one or two sharp skirmishes, arrived
at Jelalabad on the 16th of the same month. Here the army was
reorganized, Sir Robert Sale being made a Divisional General, and
placed in command of the second division, which was to consist of
the 9th (Norfolks), the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), the 16th
and 26th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

General McCaskill, in command of the first division, had under
him the 31st (East Surrey), the 33rd and 60th Regiments of Bengal
Infantry, and the Sikh army.

In the month of August the army continued its advance on Kabul.
Some opposition was experienced in forcing the passes in which our
troops in the preceding winter had met their doom, but by the end
of September retribution had been exacted; the captives, amongst
whom were Sir Robert Sale's wife and daughter, had been released;
the Bala Hissar, or citadel, in Kabul had been destroyed, and
Nott's army had joined hands with the Commander-in-Chief. The
retirement to Peshawur was effected with comparatively little
loss, and in the beginning of November the army was once more on
the left bank of the Sutlej, in British territory.

Pollock's force met with opposition in the Khyber, both in going up
to relieve the garrison of Jelalabad as well as in the return march
from Kabul to Peshawur, the casualties of his and Nott's force
being--

  +-------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                   |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                   |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Hussars        |   - |   - |   - |   8 |
  |9th Norfolk        |   1 |   5 |  26 |  90 |
  |13th Somerset L.I. |   - |   1 |   2 |  19 |
  |31st E. Surrey     |   1 |   2 |   5 |  40 |
  |40th South Lancs   |   1 |   4 |  15 |  33 |
  |41st Welsh         |   2 |   3 |  11 |  48 |
  |5th Light Inf.     |   - |   2 |   8 |  17 |
  |6th Light Inf.     |   - |   3 |  12 |  76 |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CUTCHEE, 1839-1842.[22]

This distinction, which is borne on the appointments of the 35th
Scinde Horse and the 36th Jacob's Horse, was awarded to those
regiments for their services in the province of Cutchee during
the operations in Afghanistan in 1839-1842. Cutchee is a province
of Southern Baluchistan, and the inhabitants had been enriching
themselves at the cost of the East India Company by a very
comprehensive system of attacks on our convoys. No general action
was fought, and the actual losses incurred by the two regiments
were trifling; but the work was none the less arduous for the
absence of fighting, and Sir Charles Napier felt it would be an
encouragement to the two newly-raised regiments if they received
some outward token that the Sirkar appreciated their good and
gallant conduct. On several occasions the regiments had shown
considerable dash, and had never hesitated to follow their British
officers against any number of Baluchis.



CHAPTER XVII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1843

Scinde--Meeanee--Hyderabad--Maharajpore--Punniar.


SCINDE, 1843.

This distinction was accorded to the Cheshire Regiment for its
services in Scinde--services which brought to the regiment the two
battle honours "Meeanee" and "Hyderabad." The distinction has not
been conferred on the Bombay native regiments which fought side
by side with the Cheshires in the brilliant and hardly-contested
campaign on the banks of the Indus.


MEEANEE, FEBRUARY 17, 1843.

This battle honour, which commemorates the victory gained by the
army commanded by General Sir Charles Napier over the Amirs of
Scinde, is borne by the following regiments:

  Cheshires.
  34th Poona Horse.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  112th Infantry.
  125th Outram's Rifles.

The hostilities with the Amirs of Scinde were the direct but
inevitable result of the first Afghan War. With some difficulty
we had succeeded in obtaining the consent of some of the Amirs
to the passage of the Bombay column of the army of Afghanistan
through their country; but the people themselves were very averse
to this concession. It was laying them open to future annexation,
as they wisely conjectured. The passage of our convoys through
their territories was an irresistible attraction to Baluch
marauders, and, not content with robbery, they cut up stragglers
with impunity. Then we demanded satisfaction, and finally the Amirs
undertook to enter into a treaty, by which they were compelled
to pay the cost of a force which we maintained in Scinde for the
purpose of safeguarding our lines of communication. Our reverses
in Afghanistan, as well as the defeat they themselves inflicted
on our troops in the neighbourhood of Kahun, and one or two other
regrettable incidents, led the Amirs to underrate our strength.
They not only neglected to keep up the payments for the army of
occupation, but they consistently violated the treaty in every
possible way. Frequent attacks were made on parties of troops, and
it was evident either that the Amirs would not, or could not keep
their people in order.

Sir Charles Napier was despatched to Hyderabad to compel respect
to the treaty. The Amirs retaliated by attacking the Residency.
Fortunately, a small vessel belonging to the Indian Marine was
lying in the Indus, some few miles from the Residency, and Major
(afterwards General) Sir James Outram was enabled to beat off his
assailants, and to reach the steamer in safety. Napier was a man of
action. Knowing that the Amirs were within a few miles of the city,
he at once marched to attack them. He calculated their numbers
at between 30,000 and 40,000 men, well armed with matchlock and
sabres. His own force was just 2,600 men, with twelve guns. This
included but one British battalion--the 22nd (Cheshires)--barely
600 men, all armed with the old flintlock Brown Bess--a weapon
which, though a more rapid loader than the matchlock, was its
inferior in range. The Amirs had taken up a strong position in a
large wooded game-preserve, surrounded with a low mud wall. The
one entrance Napier closed with a company of the 22nd, and then he
assaulted the place, after he had thoroughly shaken the defenders
with a searching fire from his twelve guns. The Baluchis fought
well, but this happened to be one of the sepoys' fighting days,
and, after three hours' hard firing, the Baluchis were driven off
in confusion. Estimates vary as to their losses. Napier himself put
it at 5,000 killed; others put it as low as 500.

If the General's estimate was a correct one, then we must put
aside the old saying that it took a ton of lead to kill a man with
Brown Bess. When we consider the strength of the position held
by the Baluchis and their enormous superiority in numbers, the
losses incurred in gaining such a decisive victory were by no means
excessive.


CASUALTIES AT MEEANEE.

  +----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                      |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |22nd Cheshires        |   1 |   5 |  23 |  52 |
  |Royal Artillery       |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |34th Poona H.         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |35th Scinde H.        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |36th Jacob's H.       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Q.O. Sappers      |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |9th Bengal Cavalry    |   1 |   5 |   3 |  29 |
  |101st Grenadiers      |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |112th Infantry        |   3 |   2 |  12 |  45 |
  |125th Outram's Rifles |   1 |   2 |  16 |  27 |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The 101st Grenadiers were present at Meeanee, were
  mentioned in Sir C. Napier's despatch and captured a Baluch
  standard, but they have not as yet been awarded the battle honour.

The 9th Bengal Cavalry, which behaved with the greatest gallantry
at Meeanee, is, unfortunately, no longer represented in the Army
List. The regiment was swept away in the Mutiny of 1857, and the
present 9th Regiment of cavalry was raised by the immortal Hodson
in 1857, whose name it bears.


HYDERABAD, MARCH 24, 1843.

This battle honour is borne by the

  Cheshires.
  34th Poona Horse.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  101st Grenadiers.
  108th Infantry.
  112th Infantry.
  121st Pioneers.
  125th Outram's Rifles.

It commemorates a second victory gained by Sir Charles Napier over
the Amirs of Scinde, and was fought, as the name suggests, in the
immediate neighbourhood of Hyderabad, on the Indus, just one month
after Meeanee. That month had been spent in fruitless negotiations.
Outram, the Political Officer, thought he could induce the Amirs
to accept our terms without further bloodshed. The hot weather was
drawing on apace, and Napier felt there was no time for further
delay. He had been reinforced by a couple of sepoy battalions from
Bombay and by two field batteries from Bengal, and already some
regiments were on the march from the Sutlej to support him. On
March 24 he attacked the Amirs, and, though the action was a severe
one, it was never for one moment in doubt. The losses in the 22nd
Cheshires were sensibly higher than at Meeanee, and the 34th Poona
Horse, for the second time in their history, had a fair opportunity
of showing of what material they were made. They emerged from the
ordeal with a reputation they have maintained to this day.


CASUALTIES AT HYDERABAD.

  +----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                      |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |22nd Cheshires        |   - |   5 |  23 | 119 |
  |Royal Artillery       |   1 |   - |   - |   5 |
  |34th Poona H.         |   - |   1 |   3 |  17 |
  |35th Scinde H.        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |36th Jacob's H.       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Q.O. Sappers      |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |101st Grenadiers      |   - |   - |   2 |   1 |
  |108th Infantry        |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |112th Infantry        |   - |   - |   2 |   1 |
  |121st Pioneers        |   - |   2 |   4 |  22 |
  |125th Outram's Rifles |   - |   - |   3 |  23 |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The result of the campaign was the annexation of Scinde, and the
perpetration of the canard that in announcing his second victory
Napier telegraphed to the Governor of Bombay the one word "Peccavi."

The troops were well rewarded for their short campaign.
Considerable booty was found in the Amirs' palaces, and Sir Charles
at last, after nearly forty years of arduous service, found himself
the richer by £68,000, which was his share of the prize-money.


THE GWALIOR CAMPAIGN.

MAHARAJPORE AND PUNNIAR, DECEMBER 29, 1843.

These two general actions, fought on the same day, recall one of
the shortest campaigns on record--a campaign forced unwillingly on
the Government of India by the truculent conduct of the military
oligarchy in the Mahratta State of Gwalior. This spirit was no
doubt intensified by the feeling--or, rather, by the hope--that,
owing to our recent disasters in Afghanistan, the British would be
unwilling to trust to the arbitrament of the sword.

"Maharajpore" is borne on the colours of the

  16th Lancers.
  Dorsetshire.
  East Lancashires.
  Governor-General's Bodyguard.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry.
  6th Jat Light Infantry.
  12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai.

"Punniar" on the colours of the

  9th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  Royal West Kent.
  6th P.W.O. Cavalry.

On the refusal of the Gwalior Council of Regency to disband their
army, which was a standing menace to the peace of our North-West
Frontier, the Governor-General determined to undertake the task of
that disbandment himself. A large camp of exercise was therefore
formed at Agra, under the direct superintendence of Sir Hugh Gough,
the Commander-in-Chief; and a second force was assembled at Jhansi,
under General Sir George Grey. The former force is responsible for
the victory of Maharajpore, the latter for that of Punniar.

Sir Hugh Gough's army was composed of one cavalry and three
infantry divisions:

  Cavalry Brigade--Major-General Sir Joseph Thackwell: 16th
  Lancers, the Bodyguard, and four native cavalry regiments.

  First Infantry Brigade--Major-General Sir John Littler: 39th
  Regiment (Dorsets) and 56th Bengal Infantry.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Major-General Valliant: 40th Regiment
  (South Lancashires), 2nd and 16th Bengal Infantry.

  Third Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General Stacey: 14th, 31st, and
  45th Bengal Infantry.

The plan of attack was simple, and one which has been invariably
successful against an Oriental foe. The Mahrattas were found
holding a strong position around the village of Maharajpore. The
Commander-in-Chief ordered Sir John Littler, with his own and the
Second Cavalry Brigade, to make a direct attack on the enemy's
position, covered by a heavy artillery fire, Stacey's brigade being
held in reserve. At the same time Sir Joseph Thackwell, with the
First Cavalry Brigade and Valliant's infantry, turned the enemy's
left. The Gwalior troops made a very determined resistance, but
if they thought that the disasters in Afghanistan were in any way
due to deterioration on the part of the British army, they were
woefully disillusioned. Littler found the Gwalior troops holding a
series of entrenched positions, from which they were successively
driven at the point of the bayonet, not without heavy loss, our
total casualties being 36 officers and 750 men killed and wounded.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF MAHARAJPORE, DECEMBER 29, 1843.

  +---------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |              _Regiments._             +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |16th Lancers                           |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |39th Dorset                            |   1 |  10 |  29 | 174 |
  |40th S. Lancs                          |   - |   8 |  23 | 151 |
  |Governor-General's Bodyguard           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Q.O.L.I.                           |   - |   1 |   3 |  16 |
  |Bengal Artillery                       |   1 |   - |   6 |  36 |
  |Bengal Engrs.                          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |6th Jat Light Infantry                 |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |12th Pioneers (Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regt.) |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  +---------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On the same day General Grey found another division of the Gwalior
army entrenched at Punniar. On this occasion our losses amounted to
35 killed and 182 wounded, our trophies to twenty-four guns. The
result of the two engagements was the destruction of the military
power of Gwalior.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF PUNNIAR.

  +--------------+-----------+-----------+
  |              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |9th Lancers   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |The Buffs     |   1 |   3 |  10 |  56 |
  |Roy. W. Kent  |   1 |   1 |   8 |  32 |
  |6th K.E. Cav. |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XVIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CONQUEST OF THE PUNJAB

Moodkee--Ferozeshah--Aliwal--Sobraon--Chillianwallah--Multan
--Goojerat--Punjab.


The British conquest of the Punjab embraces two distinct
phases--the one represented by the Sutlej Campaign of 1845-46,
the other better known as the Punjab War of 1849. The extension
of our dominions to the North-West, the gradual break-up and
absorption of the hitherto independent principalities in Southern
and Central India, had brought our frontiers conterminous with
those of the powerful Sikh monarchy of Runjeet Singh. That monarch
was a well-wisher--outwardly, at any rate--of his neighbours, and
during the Afghan War he proved his loyalty to us. On his death the
sovereignty of the Sikhs fell into the hands of a group bitterly
hostile to the English, and it was evident that there were members
of the Sikh Regency who believed that the overthrow of the British
was a matter of comparative ease. Into the merits of the quarrel it
is not my province to enter. Suffice it to say that on December 11
the Sikh army crossed the Sutlej, the boundary river between the
two kingdoms, and that the crossing constituted an act of war.

In those far-off days our frontier stations were Ferozepore and
Ludhiana, with Umballa in support. Ferozepore was the headquarters
of a division, commanded by a sterling soldier, who had done good
service in the Gwalior Campaign--Sir John Littler. It consisted of
the 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment, two batteries of horse, and two
of field artillery, two regiments of native cavalry, and seven
battalions of native infantry.

At Ludhiana, some eighty miles to the east, lay another division,
under Brigadier Wheler, comprising the 50th (Royal West Kent), two
batteries of horse artillery, three regiments of native cavalry,
and five battalions of native infantry.

At Umballa, under Sir Walter Gilbert, a well-known soldier and
equally well-known sportsman, were the 9th (Norfolks), 31st (East
Surrey), and 80th (South Staffords), the 3rd Light Dragoons
(now 3rd Hussars), two regiments of native cavalry, with the
Governor-General's Bodyguard and five battalions of native
infantry. At Kussowlie was the 29th (Worcesters), and at Subathoo
the 1st Bengal Europeans (now the 1st Royal Munster Fusiliers),
both these battalions being at the disposal of Sir Walter Gilbert.

Thus, at the three frontier stations there was a total force of
some 22,000 men ready to face the Sikh advance. At Meerut, which
was the headquarters of the Bengal Artillery, there were three
horse and three field batteries, the 9th and 16th Lancers, the 10th
Foot (the Lincolns), and a considerable force of native infantry,
with one regiment of native cavalry.

The Sikh army was known to be superior in every way to any army
we had yet met in India, both in training and in material. There
were a considerable number of foreign officers in the employ of the
Sikhs, and the men had a high reputation, which they maintain to
this day, of being equal to the best material of which any army,
whether European or Asiatic, can boast. Of its numbers at that
time we had no accurate estimate. The Chief Political Officer,
Major Broadfoot, who fell gloriously at Ferozeshah, reported that
it consisted of upwards of 100,000 men, and that the Sikh plan of
campaign was to invade British India with two powerful armies of
50,000 each--with the one to overwhelm Littler at Ferozepore, with
the other to attack Wheler at Ludhiana. Fortunately for us, at the
moment when their services and their friendly co-operation were
most needed, both the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief
were on the spot. The Governor-General, Sir Henry Hardinge, was a
soldier of renown. He had served with Moore at Corunna, had rallied
the men at Albuera with the now historic saying, "Die hard, my
men--die hard!" and had lost an arm at Ligny, when attached to
Blücher's army, the day before Waterloo. The Commander-in-Chief
was a well-known fighter, and the forerunner of a family of
equally heroic men. Sir Hugh Gough was an old comrade of the
Governor-General's. He, too, had fought throughout the Peninsular
War, but he had won his spurs at the capture of the Cape of Good
Hope in 1805. At Barrosa under Graham, at Tarifa under Skerret, and
in many a hard tussle under Wellington, Gough and the 87th (Royal
Irish Fusiliers) had won imperishable renown. He had in more recent
days shown himself as good a leader of an army as he had been
commander of a regiment. In the China War of 1842 he had paved the
way for the victory at Maharajpore. With two such soldiers in the
field, the Khalsa army, despite its numbers, its organization, and
the bravery of its men, was likely to meet its match.

Hard though the campaign was--and for some days the fate of our
Indian Empire hung in the balance--no blame can be attached to
the military authorities for any shortcomings that were disclosed
during this campaign. On December 11 the Sikhs, crossing the
Sutlej, cut in between Ferozepore and Umballa. On the following day
the Commander-in-Chief moved out of Umballa to meet them. The din
of battle was music in the ears of the war-worn Governor-General,
and he blithely accompanied the army. On the 17th the Ludhiana
division joined that of Umballa, and on the 18th the Sikhs and
British met at Moodkee. Our troops had covered 150 miles in seven
days, and, as Sir Charles Gough puts it in terse and soldier-like
language, "wearied with long and incessant marching, the troops
were enjoying a well-earned rest, when reports came in from the
cavalry patrols that a large force of Sikhs was advancing upon
them." Orders were at once given to fall in, and in a very few
moments the force was formed in order of battle. The cavalry, with
the horse artillery, immediately advanced, under Sir Hugh Gough's
personal direction, and formed line in front of the Sikh position,
the guns occupying the centre, with the cavalry on either flank.
The infantry formed up in second line and moved forward. On the
extreme right was Wheler's brigade, the next stood Bolton's, and
then in succession a brigade of native regiments belonging to
Gilbert's division, which had not yet been joined by the British
battalions from Kussowlie; whilst to the left stretched Sir John
McCaskill's division, which comprised the 9th (Norfolks) and
the 80th (South Staffords), with three native battalions; and
so commenced the opening scene in the drama which culminated at
Goojerat two years later.


MOODKEE, DECEMBER 18, 1845.

This battle honour was conferred on the regiments present under
Lord Gough at the stubbornly contested fight at Moodkee. It is now
borne by the following regiments:

  3rd Hussars.
  Norfolk.
  East Surrey.
  Royal West Kent.
  South Staffords.
  Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
  5th Light Infantry.
  7th Rajputs.

Moving forward with his cavalry and horse artillery, Sir Hugh Gough
opened a heavy fire on the Sikh line, in order to give time for
his infantry to deploy and his field batteries to come up into
line. Then the cavalry opened out and threatened both flanks of the
enemy. The infantry pushed resolutely forward. They were received
with equal resolution on the part of our gallant foes. Night put
an end to the conflict, but the success was ours. Seventeen guns
remained in our hands. Our losses had been most severe, numbering
872 of all ranks killed and wounded.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF MOODKEE.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General and Divnl. Staff |   5 |  11 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Hussars              |   2 |   3 |  58 |  32 |
  |Royal Artillery          |   2 |   4 |  18 |  23 |
  |9th Norfolk              |   - |   1 |   2 |  49 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   2 |   6 |  24 | 125 |
  |50th W. Kent             |   1 |   5 |  11 |  92 |
  |80th S. Staffs           |   - |   1 |   4 |  19 |
  |Gov.-General's Bodyguard |   1 |   2 |   6 |  17 |
  |3rd Skinner's H.         |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |6th K.E.O. Cav.          |   - |   - |   4 |   8 |
  |5th Light Inf.           |   1 |   1 |  26 |  61 |
  |7th Rajputs              |   - |   1 |   6 |   8 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The casualties in the native regiments which have disappeared from
the Army List are not given.


FEROZESHAH, DECEMBER 21, 1845.

This battle honour is inscribed on the colours of the

  3rd Hussars.
  Norfolk.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  Royal West Kent.
  Wiltshire.
  South Staffords.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Governor-General's Bodyguard.
  3rd (Skinner's Horse).
  6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  4th Rajputs.
  5th Rajputs.
  7th Rajputs.

On the 20th, the day after Moodkee, the two battalions of
British troops--the 29th (Worcesters) and 1st Europeans (Munster
Fusiliers)--joined the army, and Gough at once advanced again to
meet the Sikhs, and at the same time Sir John Littler moved out
of Ferozepore to effect a junction with headquarters, leaving two
native battalions to hold the cantonment. The force now at Sir Hugh
Gough's disposal was as follows:

  First Division: Sir Harry Smith.

  First Brigade--Brigadier Hicks: 31st (East Surrey), 24th and 47th
  Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Ryan: 50th (Royal West Kent), 42nd and
  48th Bengal Infantry.

  Second Division: Major-General Sir Walter Gilbert.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Taylor (29th Foot): 29th (Worcesters),
  80th (South Staffords), and 41st Bengal Infantry.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier McClaren: 1st Europeans (1st Royal
  Munsters), 16th and 45th Bengal Infantry.

  Third Division--Brigadier-General Wallace: 9th (Norfolks), 2nd
  and 73rd Bengal Infantry.

  Fourth Division--Major-General Sir John Littler.

  Seventh Brigade--Brigadier Reid: 62nd (Wiltshires), 12th and 14th
  Bengal Infantry.

  Eighth Brigade--Brigadier-General the Hon. T. Ashburnham: 33rd,
  44th, and 54th Bengal Infantry.

At 3 a.m. the force, under the Commander-in-Chief, struck its
camp, and four hours later Littler also left his cantonments.
It was the intention of the Commander-in-Chief to attack the
enemy without waiting for the junction of Littler's force, but
the Governor-General vetoed the plan, so that it was nearly dusk
before the Sikh entrenchments were attacked. The Sikhs fought even
more stubbornly than at Moodkee. Littler's attack on the left
was checked, the 62nd (Wiltshires) losing 20 officers and 281
non-commissioned officers and men in twenty minutes. The fault
was not theirs; they were not properly supported by the Bengal
regiments. As one eyewitness put it: "Jack Sepoy fights well
enough on occasions, but this was not one of his fighting-days."
The 12th and 14th Bengal Infantry, however, did show much courage
and determination. It was the purely native brigade, under
Ashburnham, which hung back, and this was attributed to the fact
that it contained no British battalion to stiffen the sepoy corps.
Littler's check took place before the Commander-in-Chief had
delivered his attack. The Sikhs, triumphant in having driven back
one British column, fought with more than usual determination. The
main assault took place by echelon from the right, Sir Hugh Gough
leading that column in person, whilst the Governor-General cheered
on the centre, he having placed his services at the disposal of the
Commander-in-Chief.

Night fell on a scene of great confusion. On the extreme right
Gilbert's division had carried the Sikh entrenchments, on the left
Littler had been repulsed, and in the centre Sir Harry Smith's
division had borne away to the left, and was cut off from the main
army. Men and officers were worn out with fatigue and chilled
with the bitter cold of a Punjab night. It was impossible to
light fires without drawing down the fire of the enemy, who were
much elated at the result of the engagement, and who throughout
the night kept up an incessant artillery fire on our bivouac.
One heavy gun in particular caused especial annoyance, and Sir
Henry Hardinge called upon the 80th to silence it. The men nobly
responded to the call. In perfect silence they advanced to the
edge of the Sikh entrenchments, and then, headed by their Colonel,
Bunbury, and supported by the "Dirty Shirts" (Royal Munsters),
they dashed over the parapet with a cheer, bayoneting the gunners,
spiking the gun, and driving off all the Sikhs in the vicinity.
This little episode showed the Sikhs that the fight was not yet
won. The Commander-in-Chief determined to renew it on the morrow,
and the Governor-General, who felt that the fate of India hung in
the balance, was equally firm in his resolve to support the Chief.
"Better that our bones should bleach honourably on the field of
battle than retire," was the response to a suggestion to fall back.

When dawn broke on the 22nd it was found that Sir Harry Smith,
who had clung to the village of Ferozeshah during the night, had
effected a junction with the division under Littler, and that
both divisions were now in front of the extreme right of the
Sikh position. They were too distant to join in the final attack
on the entrenchments, which was delivered in the early dawn,
the Commander-in-Chief leading the division on the right, the
Governor-General that on the left. The attack was preceded by a
heavy artillery fire, and under its cover the infantry, forgetting
fatigue, cold, and hunger, swept forward with unhesitating
devotion, and carried the entrenchments at the point of the
bayonet. Our losses in this battle were terribly severe--not merely
in numbers. Whole regiments were decimated, but amongst the dead
were men who had helped to build up our Indian Empire, and whose
names are imperishably engraved on the military history of our
country. The total casualties amounted to 2,415 killed and wounded,
including 115 British officers.

No means existed of ascertaining the enemy's losses, but that they
were most severe was undoubted. They abandoned their entrenched
position, and recrossed the frontier, leaving seventy-three guns
in our hands. But the campaign was not over. Reinforcements were
called up from Meerut, Delhi, and Cawnpore, and on January 6 Sir
John Grey arrived at headquarters with the 9th and 16th Lancers,
the 10th Foot (Lincolns), two regiments of native cavalry and three
of native infantry, whilst the 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry) was
within a few days' march.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF FEROZESHAH.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Hussars              |   2 |   7 |  53 |  86 |
  |Royal Artillery          |   2 |   4 |  39 |  84 |
  |9th Norfolk              |   3 |   7 |  67 | 197 |
  |29th Worcesters          |   3 |   3 |  52 | 192 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   2 |   6 |  59 |  96 |
  |50th Roy. West Kent      |   2 |   6 |  24 |  89 |
  |62nd Wiltshire           |   7 |  11 |  97 | 184 |
  |80th S. Stafford         |   4 |   4 |  39 |  73 |
  |Royal Munster Fusiliers  |   4 |   4 |  51 | 164 |
  |Staff                    |   6 |  12 |   - |   - |
  |Gov.-General's Bodyguard |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |3rd Skinner's Horse      |   - |   - |   9 |   8 |
  |6th K.E.O. Cav.          |   - |   - |   4 |   9 |
  |4th Rajputs (Natives)    |   1 |   3 |   7 |  37 |
  |5th Rajputs (British)    |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   2 |   - |  12 |  40 |
  |7th Rajputs (Natives)    |   - |   - |   9 |  26 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The Sikhs, too, were by no means disheartened, and towards the
middle of January a strong force crossed the Sutlej and threatened
our line of communication at Ludhiana. Sir Harry Smith was detached
to attack them, which he did at Aliwal, having fought a successful
little action on January 20 at Buddiwal.


ALIWAL, JANUARY 28, 1868.

The following regiments have been awarded this battle honour:

  16th Lancers.
  East Surrey.
  West Kent.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  7th Rajputs.
  13th Shekhawati Regiment.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Gurkhas.

Sir Harry Smith, the hero of Aliwal, was an officer who had seen
considerable service in the Rifle Brigade, having been present at
practically every engagement during the Peninsular War, either
as Adjutant of the Rifle Brigade or on the staff of the Light
Division. He at this time wore only the Waterloo medal, for a
grateful country had not as yet recognized the services of the
Peninsular veterans. His division constituted a very efficient
fighting force. There were four batteries of horse and one of field
artillery. His cavalry was in two brigades--

  First Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier MacDowell: 16th Lancers, 3rd
  Light Cavalry, and 4th Irregulars.

  Second Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier Stedman: Governor-General's
  Bodyguard, 1st and 5th Light Cavalry.

--the two brigades being under a distinguished officer,
Brigadier-General Cureton, who was to fall two years later at the
head of the cavalry brigade at Ramnuggur.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier Hicks: 31st (East Surrey), 24th
  and 36th Bengal Infantry.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier Wheler: 50th (West Kent), 48th
  Bengal Infantry, and the 2nd Gurkhas.

  Third Infantry Brigade--Brigadier Wilson: 53rd (Shropshire Light
  Infantry), 30th Bengal Infantry, and the Shekhawati Battalion
  (now the 13th Bengal Infantry).

  Fourth Infantry Brigade--Brigadier Godby: 47th Bengal Infantry
  and the 1st Gurkhas.

The total strength was 3,000 cavalry and 7,100 infantry, with
twenty-eight field-guns and two 8-inch howitzers. Covering his
front with his cavalry and horse artillery, Sir Harry Smith, who
was a consummate drill, advanced in true light division order
against the Sikhs, who held a position with their rear resting on
the River Sutlej, close by the village of Aliwal. On the extreme
right was Stedman's cavalry brigade, then in succession Godby's
and Hick's infantry, with three batteries and the howitzers in
the centre; then came Wheler's and Wilson's brigades, with two
batteries between them, and on the left the 16th Lancers, with the
3rd Bengal Light Cavalry.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF ALIWAL.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |16th Lancers             |   2 |   6 |  56 |  77 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   - |   1 |   1 |  14 |
  |50th West Kent           |   1 |  10 |   9 |  59 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.     |   - |   - |   3 |   8 |
  |Gov.-General's Bodyguard |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Skinner's Horse      |   1 |   - |   - |   2 |
  |7th Rajputs              |   - |   - |   1 |   9 |
  |13th Shekhawati          |   - |   - |   2 |  13 |
  |1st Gurkhas              |   - |   - |   6 |  16 |
  |2nd Gurkhas              |   - |   1 |   9 |   3 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The village of Aliwal was carried at the point of the bayonet by
the brigades of Godby and Hicks, whilst those of Wheler and Wilson
attacked the Sikh entrenchment. Cureton, a born cavalry leader,
was watching his opportunity, and as the infantry swarmed over the
entrenchments, the 16th swept down on the Sikh infantry through an
opening on the extreme right. The Sikhs hurriedly threw themselves
into squares. The Red Lancers charged ere they had time to complete
their formation, and, reforming on the far side, charged again in
splendid style. The infantry brigade gave effective support to
Cureton's cavalry, never allowing the Sikhs a moment to rally, but
pressing them back step by step to the river, into which at last
they were driven in utter rout, with the loss of sixty-seven guns
and all their camp equipage. Our total losses in this engagement
were 580 men killed and wounded, but the results were far-reaching,
for the whole of the Cis-Sutlej provinces of the Sikh Raj made
their submission to the British, and passed away for ever from the
domination of the Khalsa.


SOBRAON, FEBRUARY 10, 1846.

This, the final defeat of the Sikhs on the banks of the Sutlej, is
commemorated on the colours and appointments of the

  3rd Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  16th Lancers.
  Norfolks.
  Lincoln.
  Worcesters.
  East Surrey.
  Royal West Kent.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Wiltshires.
  South Staffords.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
  2nd (Gardner's Horse).
  6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
  4th Rajputs.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Jat Light Infantry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  7th Rajputs.
  8th Rajputs.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  9th Gurkhas.

The undoubted success gained by Sir Harry Smith at Aliwal infused
fresh spirit into our troops, and now every preparation was made
for the final bout with the Sikhs. On February 7 the siege-train
arrived in the Commander-in-Chief's camp, and on the following day
Sir Harry Smith rejoined headquarters. The Sikhs had not been idle.
They had thrown up most formidable entrenchments at Sobraon, on
the banks of the Sutlej, covering the ford on the direct road to
Lahore. To attack this was no easy task, for the Commander-in-Chief
had to provide against a counter-attack on the part of our gallant
foes, who in point of numbers, as in mobility, were far our
superiors. To avoid this contingency, Sir John Littler, with his
division, watched the fords in front of Ferozepore; Sir John Grey,
with three battalions of sepoys and a regiment of native cavalry,
watched those midway between that place and Sobraon; whilst
Brigadier-General Wheler fronted the Sutlej near Ludhiana.

The cavalry was now under the command of Sir Joseph Thackwell, an
officer of the highest distinction, who had served throughout the
Peninsular War, lost an arm at Waterloo, and finally added to his
reputation in Kabul and at Maharajpore. He, with the 16th Lancers
and three regiments of native cavalry, was to threaten the Sikh
left above Sobraon. Next to him came the division led by Sir Harry
Smith, consisting of the 31st (East Surrey), the 50th (West Kent),
and four sepoy battalions. Our centre was composed of Sir Walter
Gilbert's division, which contained the 29th (Worcesters), 1st
Bengal Europeans (1st Munsters), and four sepoy battalions. On our
left was a division commanded by another Peninsular and Waterloo
veteran--Sir Robert Dick. This, which was to lead the attack,
comprised the 10th (Lincolns), 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry),
80th (South Stafford), with three battalions of sepoys; and in
Dick's second line were the 9th (Norfolks), 62nd (Wiltshire), with
one sepoy battalion. The artillery, which numbered sixty guns, was
distributed throughout the whole front.

The troops got under arms at 2 a.m., it being the intention of
the Commander-in-Chief to attack at dawn; but such a dense fog
hung over the river that the actual advance was delayed until nine
o'clock, when the three horse batteries attached to Sir Robert
Dick's division galloped to the front, and opened a very heavy fire
on the Sikh entrenchments. Under cover of this, Stacey's brigade,
which included the Lincolns and Shropshires, moved steadily
forward. When within 300 yards of the entrenchments, they were
threatened by a body of cavalry, and also came under the enfilading
fire of a battery, which inflicted heavy loss on the 53rd. Then,
cheering on his men, Dick carried the first line of trenches with
a charge, the brave old General meeting his death-wound in the
_mêlée_. On the extreme right Sir Harry Smith's attack had been
no less successful, but in the centre Gilbert's advance had been
checked, owing to the nature of the breastworks in the front,
which were from 8 to 10 feet in height, the men having to mount
on each other's shoulders before they could force their way in.
On Dick's left the 3rd Hussars had also found an entrance to the
entrenchments, and were charging down on the enemy, driving them
in confusion towards the one bridge which was their one and only
chance of safety.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF SOBRAON.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Genl. and Divl. Staff    |   4 |   8 |   - |   - |
  |3rd Hussars              |   - |   4 |   5 |  22 |
  |9th Lancers              |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |16th Lancers             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery          |   1 |   1 |   6 |  46 |
  |9th Norfolks             |   - |   1 |   5 |  28 |
  |Lincoln                  |   1 |   2 |  30 | 100 |
  |29th Worcesters          |   - |  12 |  32 | 129 |
  |31st E. Surrey           |   - |   7 |  35 | 112 |
  |50th West Kent           |   1 |  11 |  41 | 186 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.     |   1 |   8 |   7 | 105 |
  |62nd Wiltshire           |   1 |   1 |   3 |  43 |
  |80th S. Staffs           |   - |   4 |  13 |  74 |
  |Royal Munster Fusiliers  |   3 |   9 |  33 | 152 |
  |Gov.-General's Bodyguard |   - |   4 |   6 |  38 |
  |2nd Gardner's Horse      |   - |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |6th K.E.O. Cavalry       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |4th Rajputs (British)    |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   1 |   4 |   4 |  55 |
  |5th Light Inf. (British) |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   3 |   8 |  53 |
  |6th Jat L.I. (British)   |   - |   2 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   4 |   7 |  90 |
  |7th Rajputs (British)    |   - |   4 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   1 |   4 |   8 |  64 |
  |8th Rajputs (British)    |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   1 |   4 |  59 |
  |1st Gurkhas (British)    |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   2 |   6 |  74 |
  |2nd Gurkhas (British)    |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   4 |  13 | 126 |
  |9th Gurkhas (British)    |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Do. (Natives)            |   - |   1 |   3 |  30 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

By noon the day was ours, but our loss had been enormous. It is
true that the Sikh army was in full retreat, and that sixty-seven
guns, chiefly of large calibre, were in our hands, but our
casualties amounted to close on 2,400 killed and wounded. The
little graveyard at Ferozepore bears testimony to the severity of
the fighting in the Sutlej Campaign. In no war in which Great
Britain has been engaged have the Staff suffered so severely,
and in none has the proportion of General Officers been so high,
Generals Sir Robert Sale, Sir Robert Dick, and Sir John McCaskill,
with Brigadier-Generals Taylor, Bolton, and Wallace, being killed,
and no less than eight Brigadiers wounded, in the short campaign.
The casualties amongst the British regiments were appalling. The
Governor-General had spared neither himself nor his Staff, every
single member of which was either killed or wounded.


PUNJAUB.

All regiments employed in the operations in the Punjab against the
Sikhs in the year 1848-49 were awarded this distinction. Some bear
it in addition to one of the three battle honours "Chillianwalla,"
"Mooltan," and "Goojerat," granted for this campaign. Others, which
were not present at any of these general actions, but which were
actually under fire, bear only the word "Punjaub." The following
regiments carry this word on their colours and appointments:

  3rd Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  14th Hussars.
  Lincolns.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Gloucester.
  Worcester.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  North Staffords.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  2nd Gardner's Horse.
  5th Cavalry.
  31st Lancers.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sap and Min.
  2nd Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  11th Rajputs.
  51st Sikhs.
  52nd Sikhs.
  103rd Light Infantry.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  109th Infantry.
  119th Multan Regiment.
  121st Pioneers.

The victory over the Sikhs at Sobraon had been complete. That
battle had been fought on February 10; on the 20th of the month
our troops entered Lahore, the capital of the Sikh kingdom. The
conditions of peace were galling enough to a high-spirited and
warlike race like the Sikhs, but they were indispensable for
our security in India. Their army was reduced to reasonable
dimensions, all the artillery was handed over to us, the whole of
the territories on the left bank of the Sutlej were annexed by
Great Britain, and a war indemnity of £1,500,000 was exacted. The
conduct of the administration was placed in the hands of a Council
of Regency, which was supposed to be favourable to our cause, and
a British Resident was appointed at the Court of Lahore, in which
city a strong British garrison was retained until all the terms had
been complied with.

It was soon evident that the Council of Regency was unable to
govern the country. Spasmodic outbursts of anti-British fanaticism
culminated in the murder of two English officers at Multan,
and in the early summer of 1848 it was clear that we must be
prepared to conquer and to administer the Punjab. Multan was in
the hands of men opposed, not only to the British, but also to
the nominal rulers of the kingdom (the Council of Regency), and a
British force, under General Whish, was despatched to retake the
fortress. This was composed of two troops of horse artillery and
a siege-train manned by four companies of English gunners. Five
companies of sappers, under Major Robert Napier, later known as
Field-Marshal Lord Napier of Magdala, the 10th (Lincoln) and 32nd
(Cornwall Light Infantry), with four sepoy battalions, made up the
regular forces. To these must be added some 15,000 native levies,
who had flocked to the call of a subaltern--Lieutenant Herbert
Edwardes--and some loyal Sikhs. A column was under orders from
Bombay to assist Whish. This comprised the King's Royal Rifles, the
1st Bombay European Regiment (now the 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers),
and four sepoy battalions. The task before Whish was more than his
force, without the aid of the Bombay troops, could encompass, and
the check to his operations had a disastrous effect throughout the
Punjab. All the malcontents threw in their lot against us, and
on December 16 Lord Gough crossed the Ravi River, and commenced
the final conquest of the Land of the Five Rivers. His army was
composed as under:


DISTRIBUTION OF THE ARMY OF THE PUNJAB, 1849.

_Commander-in-Chief: General Lord Gough, G.C.B._

  Cavalry Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Joseph Thackwell, K.C.B.

  First Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier M. White: 3rd Hussars, 5th and
  8th Light Cavalry.

  Second Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier Pope: 9th Lancers, 14th
  Hussars, 1st and 6th Light Cavalry.

  First Infantry Division: Major-General Whish, at Multan.

  First Brigade--Brigadier Markham: 32nd Foot (Cornwall Regiment),
  49th and 51st Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Hervey: 10th Foot (Lincolns), 8th and
  72nd Bengal Infantry.

  Second Infantry Division--Major-General Sir Walter Gilbert, K.C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier Mountain: 29th Foot (Worcesters), 30th
  and 56th Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Godby: 2nd Bengal Europeans (2nd
  Munsters), 31st (now the 2nd Q.O. Light Infantry), and the 70th
  Bengal Infantry (now the 11th Rajputs).

  Third Division: Brigadier-General Colin Campbell, C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier Pennycuick: 24th Foot (South Wales
  Borderers), 25th and 45th Bengal Infantry.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Hoggan: 61st Foot (2nd Gloucesters),
  15th, 36th, and 46th Bengal Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Penny: 15th, 20th, and 69th Regiments
  Bengal Infantry.

  Artillery Division--Brigadier-General Tennant: Six batteries of
  horse artillery, three field and two heavy batteries.

Ever since the advance from Sobraon we had retained a strong force
at Lahore, as well as at Ferozepore, but no success had attended
our efforts to keep down the numbers of the Sikh army; in fact, at
that time the Sikhs were a race of warriors, every man carrying
arms, and every second man had undergone military training. Lahore,
it is true, was no longer the headquarters of their army, but Lord
Gough soon found that the Sikh forces drawn up on the far side
of the Chenab were no whit inferior to those he had met and with
difficulty overthrown on the banks of the Sutlej. On November 23
the opening action of the campaign took place at Ramnuggur,[23]
where the 14th Hussars showed themselves worthy of the high
reputation they had made in the Peninsula; and on the 30th of the
month Sir Joseph Thackwell, in command of the cavalry, fought the
successful action of Sadoolapore.[24]


CHILLIANWALLAH, JANUARY 13, 1849.

This battle honour, which commemorates one of the hardest fights
ever waged in India, is borne by the following regiments:

  3rd Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  14th Hussars.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  11th Rajputs.

On January 10 Lord Gough received orders from the Governor-General
to attack the Sikhs. Up to this date it had been the intention of
the Commander-in-Chief to await the arrival of General Whish's
division from Multan, the fall of which was daily expected. On
January 13 Gough found the enemy in a strongly entrenched position
at Chillianwallah, and attacked them in his usual formation, with
his cavalry on the flanks, the advance being preceded by a heavy
artillery fire. The Sikhs far outnumbered our forces, and their
front, it is said, extended to a distance of no less than six
miles, so that a turning movement with the small numbers at his
disposal would have exposed Lord Gough to the piercing of his line
by a counter-attack. The ground was much broken and covered with
thick jungle, which rendered it exceedingly difficult for any
General to exercise efficient control over even one brigade. Some
confusion was the inevitable result, for it must be borne in mind
that the only means of communication then known was by mounted
orderlies, and I am afraid it must be admitted that this was not
one of the Bengal sepoys' fighting-days. The Sikhs had abandoned
their stereotyped plan, and had advanced from their entrenched
position, and literally forced the hand of the Commander-in-Chief.
They relied on the nature of the ground to hide their dispositions,
and in this they were to a certain extent successful. The result of
the day was by no means satisfactory. Our losses were abnormally
heavy, amounting to 2,338 officers and men killed and wounded. The
Sikhs, it is true, were driven from their position and fell back
during the night, but they retired unmolested and carried off all
their artillery.

The Commander-in-Chief was subjected to a great amount of harsh
criticism for his conduct of the operations--criticism based on
but a very partial knowledge of the real facts--and in deference
to public opinion, too often the offspring of the fertile brains
of armchair critics, Sir Charles Napier, the conqueror of Scinde,
was sent out to India to relieve the brave Gough. It is but fair
to state that the Commander-in-Chief had never lost the love or
confidence of the officers and men under him, and the stars fought
for the genial Irishman. Multan fell; Whish, with his own and the
Bombay division, joined headquarters, and before the new Chief
arrived Gough had inflicted a crushing defeat on the Sikhs at
Goojerat, and the Punjab had passed into our hands for ever.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF CHILLIANWALLAH, JANUARY 13, 1849.

  +-----------------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._                   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Hussars                              |   - |   2 |  24 |  14 |
  |9th Lancers                              |   - |   - |   4 |   8 |
  |14th Hussars                             |   1 |   1 |   3 |  14 |
  |Bengal Artillery                         |   1 |   3 |  18 |  39 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers                  |  11 |  10 | 237 | 266 |
  |2nd Q.O. L.I.                            |   - |   1 |   3 |  14 |
  |29th Worcester                           |   - |   4 |  34 | 203 |
  |61st Gloucester                          |   - |   3 |  11 | 100 |
  |2nd Bengal Europeans (Munster Fusiliers) |   - |   2 |   6 |  59 |
  |11th Rajputs                             |   2 |   - |   3 |  20 |
  +-----------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I have not given the casualties in the native regiments
  which no longer exist.


MOOLTAN, JANUARY, 1849.

This distinction was conferred on the troops engaged in the siege
of Multan, under General Whish, during the Second Punjab Campaign.
It is borne on the colours and appointments of the following
regiments:

  Lincolns.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  5th Cavalry.
  31st Lancers.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  103rd Mahratta L.I.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  109th Infantry.
  119th Multan Regiment.

The siege of Multan was of necessity begun in the very height of
the hottest season of the year--the month of July. In order to
spare the men, the British troops dropped down the rivers by boat,
whilst the native troops marched. I have already, on p. 288, given
the composition of the force with which General Whish undertook
the siege. Herbert Edwardes, a subaltern of that distinguished
corps the 1st Bengal Fusiliers, was already on the spot with a
large force of irregulars, who, owing to his personal magnetism,
had flocked to our standard; but the Sikhs, aware of the approach
of the British force, busied themselves steadily in strengthening
the works at Multan. It was not until the commencement of September
that the whole of the siege-train was present, and then Whish
summoned the Sikhs to surrender. This was an empty form. It was
well known that the Sikhs had no intention of submitting to our
rule, and that ere our flag should be hoisted over the walls of
Multan many a gallant soldier would have met his death.

On September 7 the siege commenced, with, it must be confessed,
very inadequate means. The Pathan and Baluch levies, who had been
won over by Edwardes, fought gallantly enough in the field, but
they resolutely declined to undergo the fatigue of siege-work,
all of which fell on the British and sepoy battalions. The siege
dragged slowly on until December 12, when General Dundas arrived
with two strong brigades, consisting of the 2nd Battalion King's
Royal Rifles, the 1st Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers, three
regiments of native cavalry, and five of native infantry. Now the
siege was pushed on with vigour, and on January 21 all preparations
were made for an assault. The Sikhs, however, never waited for
this, and on January 22 Mulraj, the Sikh commander, surrendered at
discretion. Whish was now free to push on to the north, and afford
much-needed aid to the Commander-in-Chief.


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF MULTAN, JANUARY 22, 1849.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |10th Lincoln             |   1 |   4 |  13 | 113 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.       |   2 |  11 |  17 | 104 |
  |60th K.R.R.              |   1 |   2 |  10 |  28 |
  |Artillery                |   1 |   6 |  21 |  94 |
  |Bengal Engrs.            |   - |   9 |  30 |  96 |
  |Roy. Dublin F.           |   1 |   6 |  16 |  86 |
  |Indian Navy              |   1 |   2 |   1 |   3 |
  |5th Cavalry              |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |31st Lancers             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |35th Scinde H.           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |36th Jacob's H.          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Q.O. Corps of Guides     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |103rd Mahratta L.I.      |   - |   2 |   1 |  20 |
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles |   - |   2 |  29 |  72 |
  |109th Infantry           |   1 |   2 |   1 |  10 |
  |119th Multan             |   - |   2 |   6 |  42 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--The four regiments of Bengal infantry which took part
  in the siege of Multan have ceased to exist. Their casualties,
  therefore, are not given.


GOOJERAT, FEBRUARY 21, 1849.

This distinction is borne on the colours and appointments of the

  3rd Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  14th Hussars.
  Lincolns.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  11th Rajputs.
  103rd Light Infantry.
  119th Multan Regiment.

  [Illustration: THE COLOURS OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN FUSILIERS.
  (Formerly the Bombay Europeans.)
  To face page 292.]

On February 21 General Whish, with the First Division strengthened
by the Bombay troops, joined the Commander-in-Chief, so that, in
addition to the force enumerated on p. 288, Lord Gough had with
him for the final attack on the Sikh position two additional
battalions of British soldiers (the 2nd Battalions of the King's
Royal Rifles and Royal Dublin Fusiliers), two regiments of native
cavalry, and two of native infantry. His artillery was brought up
to the respectable total of ninety-six field-guns, which included
three heavy batteries. The Sikhs occupied a strong position, their
flanks resting on two villages, which they had fortified, and their
whole front was covered by a series of entrenchments. Whish, with
the Bombay troops, as I have said, joined the Commander-in-Chief
on February 21 at dawn; on the morrow Lord Gough launched his
attack. As the British army approached the broad sandy nullah
which ran along the front of the Sikh line, the guns opened on us,
disclosing their whole front. To this fire the ninety-six pieces
at once replied, and for two hours a storm of shell was poured on
the entrenchments; then, shortly before noon, Gough moved forward
the whole line. The Sikhs fought, as is their wont, with consummate
gallantry, and the Afghan Horse on our right made a gallant effort
to retrieve the fortunes of the day. They were met in an equally
gallant manner by the Scinde Horse, supported by the 9th Lancers,
and on this flank being uncovered the horse artillery galloped up
and enfiladed the Sikh entrenchments. "By half-past twelve," writes
Sir Charles Gough, who, as a subaltern, took part in the campaign,
"the whole Sikh army was in full flight. By one o'clock Goojerat
itself, the Sikh camp, their baggage, and most of the guns, were
in possession of the victors." Sir Walter Gilbert, at the head of
12,000 men, pressed the retreating Sikhs hard, never slackening his
pursuit until he had driven their Afghan allies through the Khyber
Pass and received the unconditional surrender of their leaders.

At Goojerat the victory was complete, and the Sikhs, recognizing
the inevitable, acknowledged British rule. Heavy was the price we
paid for the conquest of the Punjab, but the blood shed on the
banks of the Sutlej was not shed in vain, for England has no more
faithful subjects, no braver soldiers in her armies, than the Sikhs
who stood so bravely before us in the campaigns of 1846-1849.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF GOOJERAT.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |3rd Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |9th Lancers             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |14th Hussars            |   1 |   2 |   - |   4 |
  |10th Lincolns           |   - |   1 |   7 |  53 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |29th Worcesters         |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |32nd Cornwall L.I.      |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |King's Royal R.         |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |61st Gloucesters        |   - |   - |   - |   9 |
  |Roy. Munster F.         |   1 |   5 |   9 | 135 |
  |Roy. Dublin F.          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |35th Scinde H.          |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |36th Jacob's H.         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Q.O. Corps of Guides    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Q.O. Light Infantry |   - |   5 |  11 | 127 |
  |11th Rajputs            |   - |   6 |  10 |  38 |
  |103rd Light Inf.        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |119th Multan            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XIX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1854-55

Alma--Balaclava--Inkerman--Sevastopol.


The perennial quarrel between Russia and Turkey entered on a new
phase in the year 1854, when England and France, espousing the
Ottoman cause, despatched their fleets into the Baltic and a
combined naval and military expedition to the Crimea. The command
of the British army was entrusted to General Lord Raglan--a veteran
officer, who had served on the Duke of Wellington's Staff in the
Peninsula and at Waterloo, where he lost an arm, and who for many
years had held the important post of Military Secretary at the
Horse Guards. He had never exercised the command of an independent
body of troops, and his experience of war was not of recent date.
The whole campaign was grievously mismanaged, but the chief blame
rested with the authorities at the War Office, who neglected to
provide the army with the thousand and one requisites for troops
waging war in such a climate as a Crimean winter. It was retrieved
by the bravery of our troops and their cheerful endurance of
sufferings--sufferings that might have been avoided by the exercise
of common forethought.

The army that landed in the Crimea on September 14, 1854, numbered
some 27,000 men, with fifty-four guns, and was distributed as under:


_Commander-in-Chief: Field-Marshal Lord Raglan._

Cavalry Division: General the Earl of Lucan.

  Heavy Brigade--Brigadier-General J. Yorke Scarlett: The 4th
  and 5th Dragoon Guards, the Scots Greys, and the Inniskilling
  Dragoons.

  Light Cavalry Brigade--Major-General the Earl of Cardigan: 4th,
  8th, 11th, and 13th Hussars, and the 17th Lancers.


First Division: H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge.

  Brigade of Guards: A battalion of the Grenadier, Coldstream, and
  Scots Guards.

  Highland Brigade--Major-General Sir Colin Campbell: The 42nd
  (Royal), 79th (Cameron), and 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders).


Second Division: Lieutenant-General Sir de Lacy Evans.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General Adams: 41st (Welsh), 47th (North
  Lancashire), and 49th (Royal Berkshires).

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General Pennefather: The 30th (East
  Lancashire), 55th (Border Regiment), and the 95th (Derbyshire).


Third Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Richard England.

  Fifth Brigade--Brigadier-General Sir John Campbell: 4th (King's
  Own), 38th (South Staffords), and the 50th (Royal West Kent).

  Sixth Brigade--Brigadier-General Eyre: The Royal Scots, 28th
  (Gloucesters), and 44th (Essex).


Fourth Division: Major-General Sir George Cathcart.

  Seventh Brigade--Brigadier-General Torrens: 20th (Lancashire
  Fusiliers), 21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers), and the 68th (Durham
  Light Infantry).

  Eighth Brigade: 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), and the 57th
  Middlesex (arrived after the landing of the troops on September
  14, not in time to take part in the Battle of the Alma).


Light Division: Lieutenant-General Sir George Brown.

  First Brigade--Major-General W. Codrington: 7th (Royal
  Fusiliers), 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), and the 33rd (West
  Riding Regiment).

  Second Brigade--Major-General G. Buller: The 19th (Yorkshires),
  77th (Middlesex), and the 88th (Connaught Rangers).

In addition to the above, the 2nd Battalion of the Rifle Brigade
was also present, but in the earlier stages of the campaign it
acted as a divisional battalion.

Acting in co-operation with us was a strong French army, under
Marshal St. Arnaud, a division of which was commanded by one of
the Napoleon Princes, and a Turkish force of 8,000 men, under Omar
Pasha.

In the spring of 1855 a division of the Sardinian army also
arrived, and was sharply engaged with the Russians at the Battle of
the Tchernaya.

The army was reinforced from time to time by regiments from
home and from India, and when peace was declared in 1856 it
was composed of close on 50,000 well-equipped men, capable of
carrying on the Siege of Sevastopol to a satisfactory conclusion.
The casualties during the campaign, apart from those incurred at
the Battles of Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman, and the two assaults
on the Redan, were not heavy, the losses in some regiments being
remarkably small; but the losses from disease were regrettably
severe--the more regrettable as, with proper forethought, many
hundreds--nay, thousands--of valuable lives might have been saved.
The campaign is memorable as the first in which the whole of our
infantry were armed with a _percussion_ arm, and also the first in
which a body of lady nurses was organized for service in military
hospitals. The honoured name of Florence Nightingale must for ever
be associated with the war in the Crimea. It was also the first
in which officers and men were authorized to accept and to wear
foreign medals and decorations; and, lastly, it was to recognize
the bravery of subordinate officers and men in the campaign that
the decoration of the Victoria Cross was instituted.


ALMA, SEPTEMBER 20, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the following regiments:

  4th Hussars.
  8th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  17th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  King's Own (Lancasters).
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Yorkshire.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashires.
  West Riding.
  Border.
  South Staffords.
  Welsh.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  North Lancashire.
  Royal Berkshire.
  West Kent.
  Middlesex.
  Manchester.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

At the Alma the Russians occupied a strong natural position,
following the crest of a range of hills dominating the valley of
the Alma River. Their front was covered by one or two redoubts, but
no serious effort had been made to strengthen it. Had this been
done, the disparity in numbers would have been compensated for. The
actual strength of the combatants and casualties are as follows:

  +----------------+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+
  |                |        |       |_Officers._|     _Men._    |
  |_Troops Engaged_| _Men._ |_Guns._|-----+-----+-------+-------+
  |                |        |       |  K. |  W. |   K.  |   W.  |
  +----------------+--------+-------+-----+-----+-------+-------+
  |British         | 27,000 |    54 |  26 |  73 |   327 | 1,557 |
  |French          | 23,000 |    72 |   3 |  54 |   253 | 1,033 |
  |Turks           |  6,500 |     ? |   ? |   ? |    ?  |    ?  |
  |Russians        | 37,500 |    96 |  45 | 100 | 1,762 | 2,720 |
  +----------------+--------+-------+-----+-----+-------+-------+

A good-sized library might be filled with the literature on the
Crimean War. Most of the more valuable books, such as Hamley's,
Kinglake's, Clarke's, and Sir William Russell's "Letters to the
_Times_," are in every library, so that it is quite unnecessary to
deal in any detail with the events of this campaign. At the Alma
the French took the right, their right flank resting on the sea. We
advanced, covered by the Rifle Brigade, with the Cavalry Division
on our outer or left flank. The Second Division, on our right,
kept touch with the French, and had in support the Third Division,
under Sir Richard England. On our left the Light Division, under
Sir George Brown, led, supported by the division under the Duke of
Cambridge, who in this, his first engagement, showed the hereditary
courage of our Royal Family. In the course of the advance through
the vineyards at the foot of the hill, and before the final advance
took place, the troops suffered much from the artillery fire of
the Russians, and were thrown into some confusion. Few amongst the
senior officers had seen any service since the Peninsular War, and
the number of regimental officers who had heard the whistle of a
bullet was infinitesimal; yet the behaviour of all was excellent,
and after three and a half hours of hard fighting the Russians
were in full retreat, leaving a couple of guns in our hands.
Unfortunately, we were in no condition to follow up our advantage.
The Russians were able to retire unmolested into Sevastopol, and
we were compelled to embark on a siege of indefinite length, with
totally inadequate means.

It was necessary to secure a harbour as a base of operations,
and the allied armies carried out a flank march within striking
distance of the Russians. No advantage was taken of this movement,
and by the commencement of October our troops were in possession of
the little land-locked harbour of Balaclava, and the labours of the
long-drawn-out siege commenced.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF THE ALMA.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |11th Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |17th Lancers             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery          |   3 |   - |   9 |  21 |
  |Grenadier Gds.           |   - |   3 |  11 | 116 |
  |Coldstream Gds.          |   - |   2 |   - |  27 |
  |Scots Guards             |   - |  11 |  26 | 123 |
  |Royal Scots              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |K.O. Lancaster           |   - |   2 |   3 |   8 |
  |Royal Fusiliers          |   1 |  11 |  42 | 168 |
  |Yorkshire                |   2 |   6 |  45 | 174 |
  |Lancashire Fus.          |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |R. Welsh Fus.            |   8 |   5 |  45 | 152 |
  |Gloucester               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |30th E. Lancs            |   1 |   4 |  11 |  63 |
  |33rd W. Riding           |   1 |   6 |  55 | 177 |
  |38th S. Stafford         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |41st Welsh               |   - |   - |   4 |  23 |
  |42nd R. High.            |   - |   - |   7 |  32 |
  |44th Essex               |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |
  |47th N. Lancs            |   - |   4 |   4 |  61 |
  |49th R. Berks            |   - |   - |   2 |  13 |
  |50th West Kent           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |55th Border              |   2 |   6 |  11 |  96 |
  |63rd Manchester          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |68th Durham L.I.         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |77th Middlesex           |   - |   - |   3 |  17 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers   |   - |   1 |   5 |  16 |
  |93rd Sutherland Highl.   |   1 |   - |   7 |  44 |
  |95th Sherwood Foresters  |   6 |  11 |  48 | 128 |
  |Rifle Brigade            |   - |   1 |  11 |  39 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


BALACLAVA, OCTOBER 25, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the

  4th Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Dragoons.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  Inniskilling Dragoons.
  4th Hussars.
  8th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  17th Lancers.
  Sutherland Highlanders.

The defence of the country surrounding Balaclava had been entrusted
to the Turks, who in a series of actions on the banks of the
Danube had shown that they could fight well behind stone walls.
Some redoubts had been thrown up on the neighbouring heights,
and these were armed with ships' guns, lent by us to the Turks.
In Balaclava itself was one battalion--the 93rd (Sutherland
Highlanders)--and the command of the place had been entrusted
to one of the few veterans of the army who had seen modern war.
Sir Colin Campbell had served under Wellington in the Peninsula,
and had earned mention in more than one despatch when still a
subaltern. For his conduct at Barrosa and at San Sebastian, at both
of which actions he was wounded, he was promoted to a company in
the 60th Rifles. In the China War he had commanded the 98th, and
was made an Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. In the Punjab Campaign he
had added to his reputation by his masterly handling of a brigade
in the hard-fought battles of Chillianwallah and Goojerat, and he
had earned still higher laurels when in command of the troops at
Peshawur in the early days of our occupation of the Punjab frontier.

On the early morning of October 25 the Russians, who had no very
great opinion of the Turkish troops, made a determined attack on
Balaclava. The valley leading down to the sea is cut in two by
a low range of hills, and down these two valleys they advanced.
The Turks, after one or two rounds, incontinently abandoned the
redoubts, and fled in haste to the refuge of the town. Sir Colin
moved up the 93rd Highlanders, and awaited the advance of the
Russian cavalry division. He had a firm faith in the new weapon
with which his troops were armed, and a still firmer belief in his
Highlanders. On swept the Russians, and, as they came within range,
a volley from the 93rd at 600 yards emptied many saddles, but did
not stop the advance; then, as the dense Russian columns neared
the "thin red streak, tipped with steel," a second volley, at 150
yards, rang out, and as the smoke cleared away the Russians were
seen moving to the rear. Now was the opportunity for our cavalry,
and the Heavies were not slow in taking advantage of it. Scarlett
moved forward his brigade in two lines, the Greys and Inniskillings
leading, with the 5th and 4th Dragoon Guards on the right and left
flanks respectively, and the Royal Dragoons in support, the total
strength being some 750 men. As Russell graphically wrote, while
the Russians fell back, Scarlett charged into them. "By sheer
steel and courage the Inniskillings and Scots were winning their
desperate way right through the enemy's squadrons, and already grey
horse and red coat had disappeared right at the rear of the mass,
when the Royals, 4th Dragoon Guards, and 5th Dragoon Guards rushed
at the remnants of the first line of the enemy, and went through
it like pasteboard. In less than five minutes after they met our
Dragoons the Russians were flying at full speed from a foe not half
their strength."

Lord Raglan had in the meantime moved down the First and Fourth
Divisions to reinforce Balaclava, and, recognizing the military
genius of the Brigade Commander, ordered the Duke of Cambridge
to take his instructions from Sir Colin Campbell. The services
of the infantry were not called into requisition, but, owing to
some inconceivable blunder, never yet properly explained, the
Light Brigade of cavalry, without any supports, were ordered to
attack the Russian troops in the westernmost valley. Here there
was a whole division of Russian cavalry, with a force of six
battalions of infantry supporting thirty-six guns, and at this
force the little cavalry brigade, just 636 strong, was let loose.
"C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas la guerre!" was the comment
of a French General who witnessed the spectacle. The Earl of
Cardigan was not wanting in personal courage, but he was totally
inexperienced in war. He led his men straight at the guns, and
escaped scathless himself, but he acted in defiance of all the
canons of the art of war. The charge of the Light Brigade has been
immortalized by Tennyson, but, alas! the men who participated in
it were rewarded with the same decoration as the infantry soldiers
who marched down from the camp to act as spectators of that gallant
charge. The clasp "Balaclava" means nothing; the name on the
colours is the battle honour.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF BALACLAVA.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                  |   2 |   4 |   - |   - |
  |4th Drag. Gds.         |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |5th Drag. Gds.         |   - |   2 |   2 |  11 |
  |Roy. Dragoons          |   - |   4 |   2 |   7 |
  |R. Scots Greys         |   - |   4 |   2 |  53 |
  |Inniskilling Dragoons  |   - |   - |   2 |  13 |
  |4th Hussars            |   2 |   2 |  32 |  22 |
  |8th Hussars            |   2 |   2 |  30 |  23 |
  |11th Hussars           |   - |   3 |  32 |  23 |
  |13th Hussars           |   3 |   - |  24 |  14 |
  |17th Lancers           |   3 |   4 |  33 |  34 |
  |Sutherland Highlanders |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


INKERMAN, NOVEMBER 5, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the

  4th Hussars.
  8th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  13th Hussars.
  17th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  King's Own.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Yorkshire.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashire.
  West Riding.
  Border.
  South Staffords.
  Welsh.
  Essex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  North Lancashire.
  Royal Berkshires.
  West Kent.
  Middlesex.
  Manchesters.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Rifle Brigade.

This was indeed a soldiers' battle. In the early dawn of November 5
a large Russian force, taking advantage of a dense fog, issued from
Sevastopol and surprised our troops in the trenches. Reinforcements
were hurried up from the camp, and the men--the few men on duty
in the trenches and in the advanced siege-works--behaved with
unexampled heroism. As each fresh regiment came up it was hurried
into action, without any regard to brigades or divisions, and,
indeed, in many cases men were found fighting in groups under
officers of different regiments. The Allies were not merely
surprised: they were outnumbered, as the following table shows:

  +----------+--------+-------+-----------+---------------+
  |          |        |       |_Officers._|     _Men._    |
  | _Troops  | _Men._ |_Guns._+-----+-----+-------+-------+
  | Engaged_ |        |       |  K. |  W. |   K.  |   W.  |
  +----------+--------+-------+-----+-----+-------+-------+
  | British  |  8,500 |    38 |  44 | 102 |   616 | 1,878 |
  | French   |  7,500 |    18 |  14 |  34 |   118 | 1,299 |
  | Russians | 42,000 |   106 |   2 |  47 | 4,976 |10,162 |
  +----------+--------+-------+-----+-----+-------+-------+

After an heroic struggle, in which the Russians displayed the
greatest gallantry, they were driven back, with terrible slaughter,
the fire of those of our regiments which were armed with the Minié
rifle doing fearful execution in the dense columns of the enemy. It
will hardly be believed that many regiments were still armed with
the Brown Bess with which we fought in the Peninsula, although the
Minié rifle had in the Kaffir War three years before proved itself
a most formidable weapon.

The losses of the army during the winter of 1854-55 were appalling,
but the men bore them without a murmur. With the spring active
operations were renewed, and on June 18, the anniversary of
Waterloo, an attempt was made to carry the fortress by storm. In
this disastrous attack our losses were 22 officers and 247 men
killed, 78 officers and 1,207 men wounded. Ten days later the
Commander-in-Chief, Lord Raglan, died, and the command was given
to his Chief of the Staff, another Peninsular veteran, Sir James
Simpson, an officer who did not enjoy the confidence of the army,
and who practically owned that he felt himself unfitted to exercise
its command.

On September 8 a second attack was made on the Redan, the outwork
which had defied our attempt on June 18. Again we were driven back,
after our men had made good their footing in the place. This defeat
was entirely due to the neglect to support the stormers, who had
shown the habitual gallantry of the British soldier.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF INKERMAN.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                   |   5 |  12 |   - |   - |
  |8th Hussars             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |11th Hussars            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Hussars            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |17th Lancers            |   1 |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   2 |   4 |  13 |  76 |
  |Grenadier Gds.          |   3 |   6 | 101 | 124 |
  |Coldstream Gds.         |   8 |   5 |  65 | 116 |
  |Scots Guards            |   1 |   8 |  49 | 119 |
  |1st Royal Scots         |   - |   - |   1 |   - |
  |4th K.O. Lancs          |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |7th Royal Fus.          |   - |   5 |  13 |  49 |
  |19th Yorkshire          |   1 |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |20th Lancs Fus.         |   1 |   8 |  40 | 122 |
  |21st R. Scots F.        |   1 |   6 |  24 |  90 |
  |25th R. Welsh F.        |   1 |   1 |  18 |  20 |
  |28th Gloucester         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |30th E. Lancs           |   2 |   5 |  29 | 101 |
  |33rd W. Riding          |   1 |   2 |   6 |  55 |
  |38th S. Stafford        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |41st Welsh              |   5 |   6 |  55 | 101 |
  |44th Essex              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |47th N. Lancs           |   - |   2 |  19 |  45 |
  |49th R. Berks           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |50th West Kent          |   1 |   1 |   8 |  21 |
  |55th Border             |   - |   5 |  18 |  58 |
  |57th Middlesex          |   2 |   3 |  13 |  75 |
  |63rd M'chester          |   3 |   7 |  12 |  93 |
  |68th Durham L.I.        |   2 |   2 |  16 |  33 |
  |77th Middlesex          |   1 |   - |  20 |  37 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers  |   - |   2 |  22 |  80 |
  |95th Sherwood Foresters |   - |   4 |  27 | 104 |
  |Rifle Brigade           |   2 |   4 |  35 | 109 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On the following day the Redan was found to be evacuated, and our
men entered unopposed. This was the last general action of the war.
The Russians now abandoned the city, and retired to the far side
of the harbour, and, though actual fighting was at an end, the
winter was passed as if on active service. In the spring overtures
of peace were made, and in the summer of 1856 the army returned to
England, Sevastopol being restored to the Russians.

In writing of battle honours, I must not omit to mention that our
allies, the French, Turks, and Sardinians, bestowed a certain
number of decorations on our officers and men. The French
distributed crosses of the Legion of Honour, which were, as a rule,
given to officers. In some exceptional cases a cross was given to a
non-commissioned officer, and in some very few cases to privates.
The French war medal was bestowed on a certain number of men in
each battalion, and one was given to H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge.
The Turks showered the Order of the Medjidieh with no niggardly
hand, and the Sardinians gave a few crosses of the Order of St.
Maurice and St. Lazarus to senior officers, and a few medals to
each regiment. The distribution of these foreign decorations gave
rise to considerable dissatisfaction. There were certain regiments
which had fought throughout the campaign; there were others which
had landed at the very close of the operations, and had not lost
a man in action. All shared equally, like the labourers in the
vineyard.

There were few officers on the Staff or in the Brigade of Guards
who did not receive four decorations for this campaign, and, in
truth, the Guards deserved all they received. They not only took
their fair share of trench duty, but at the Alma and at Inkerman
they suffered most severely. A party of Guardsmen who happened to
be on fatigue duty at Balaclava the morning of the battle were
collected by a young officer, and fell in on the left of the 93rd.
That young officer afterwards acted as Brigade-Major to the heroic
Nicholson at the Siege of Delhi, and as I write is, I believe, the
only living officer who saw Sevastopol and Delhi fall. I allude to
Lieutenant-General Sir Seymour Blane, who served as a subaltern
of the Scots Guards in the Crimea. Afterwards exchanging into the
52nd, he marched down with Nicholson to Delhi, and was by his side
when the hero of the siege was shot down inside the Cashmere Gate.


SEVASTOPOL.

This distinction was awarded to all regiments which landed in the
Crimea prior to September 8, 1855, the date of the last storming of
the Redan:

  King's Dragoon Guards.
  4th Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  Royal Dragoons.
  Royal Scots Greys.
  4th Hussars.
  Inniskilling Dragoons.
  8th Hussars.
  10th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  13th Hussars.
  17th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Buffs.
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Norfolks.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  West Yorkshire.
  Leicester.
  Royal Irish.
  Yorkshire.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Scottish Rifles.
  Gloucesters.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding.
  Border.
  South Staffords.
  Dorsets.
  South Lancashire.
  Welsh.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Essex.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  North Lancashire.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.
  West Kent.
  Middlesex.
  Wiltshire.
  Manchester.
  Durham Light Infantry.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

In addition to the following casualties in action, between the
landing of the army in the Crimea on September 14, 1854, and the
storming of the Redan on September 8, 1855, 11,375 non-commissioned
officers and men were invalided and 16,037 died of disease!


CASUALTIES DURING THE CAMPAIGN IN THE CRIMEA (INCLUDING THE BATTLES
OF ALMA, BALACLAVA, AND INKERMAN).

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |K. Drag. Gds.               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |4th Drag. Gds.              |   - |   - |   2 |  12 |
  |5th Drag. Gds.              |   1 |   3 |   2 |   4 |
  |Carabiniers                 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Roy. Dragoons               |   - |   4 |   3 |   7 |
  |Scots Greys                 |   - |   4 |   8 |  57 |
  |4th Hussars                 |   2 |   2 |  19 |  24 |
  |Inniskillings               |   - |   - |   3 |  14 |
  |8th Hussars                 |   2 |   3 |  26 |  23 |
  |10th Hussars                |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |11th Hussars                |   1 |   2 |  29 |  29 |
  |12th Lancers                |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Hussars                |   3 |   - |  14 |  31 |
  |17th Lancers                |   4 |   5 |  39 |  34 |
  |Royal Artillery             |  12 |  30 | 173 | 632 |
  |Roy. Engineers              |  15 |  13 |  55 |  86 |
  |Grenadier Gds.              |   6 |  12 | 144 | 410 |
  |Coldstream Guards           |  10 |   6 | 128 | 197 |
  |Scots Guards                |   4 |  23 | 109 | 336 |
  |Royal Scots                 |   3 |  10 |  58 | 225 |
  |Buffs                       |   3 |  13 |  78 | 259 |
  |King's Own                  |   2 |   5 |  38 | 142 |
  |Royal Fusiliers             |   8 |  23 | 174 | 381 |
  |Norfolks                    |   1 |   2 |  20 |  83 |
  |Somerset L.I.               |   - |   - |   - |  11 |
  |14th W. Yorks               |   - |   - |  16 |  46 |
  |Leicesters                  |   1 |   5 |  34 | 134 |
  |Royal Irish                 |   3 |  10 |  87 | 267 |
  |Yorkshire                   |   4 |  20 | 138 | 502 |
  |20th Lancs F.               |   3 |  10 |  83 |  81 |
  |R. Welsh Fus.               |  16 |  15 | 193 | 495 |
  |28th Gloucesters            |   - |   9 |  42 |  89 |
  |30th E. Lancs               |  10 |  19 | 144 | 364 |
  |31st E. Surrey              |   2 |   1 |  25 |  84 |
  |33rd W. Riding              |   8 |  21 | 116 | 293 |
  |34th Border                 |   7 |  18 | 118 | 375 |
  |38th S. Staffs.             |   3 |   7 |  43 | 210 |
  |39th Dorsets                |   1 |   1 |   9 |  46 |
  |41st Welsh                  |   9 |  13 | 145 | 426 |
  |42nd R. Highlanders         |   1 |   2 |  39 | 119 |
  |44th Essex                  |   4 |   8 |  64 | 156 |
  |46th Cornwall L.I.          |   1 |   2 |  32 |  71 |
  |47th N. Lancs               |   2 |   9 | 120 | 216 |
  |48th N'ampton               |   - |   2 |  12 |  60 |
  |49th Berkshire              |   7 |  10 | 204 | 325 |
  |50th West Kent              |   2 |   4 |  56 |  67 |
  |55th Border                 |   6 |  18 | 145 | 412 |
  |56th Essex                  |   - |   1 |   8 |  13 |
  |57th Middlesex              |   8 |  11 |  81 | 237 |
  |62nd Wiltshire              |   7 |   7 |  37 | 121 |
  |63rd Manchester             |   6 |   8 |  65 | 127 |
  |68th Durham L.I.            |   6 |   4 |  51 |  71 |
  |71st Highland L.I.          |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders   |   1 |   - |  12 |  48 |
  |77th Middlesex              |   5 |  11 | 411 | 606 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders    |   - |   2 |  12 |  55 |
  |82nd S. Lancs               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |88th Connaught Rangers      |   7 |  16 | 159 | 400 |
  |89th R. Irish F.            |   - |   1 |  13 |  73 |
  |90th Scottish R.            |   4 |  15 |  92 | 221 |
  |93rd Sutherland Highlanders |   2 |   2 |  19 |  95 |
  |95th Derbysh.               |   7 |  21 | 184 | 360 |
  |97th West Kent              |   8 |   9 | 108 | 198 |
  |Rifle Brigade (two batts.)  |   9 |  20 | 245 | 781 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The Sultan of Turkey, in addition to the Order of the Medjidieh,
bestowed a silver medal on every officer and man present in the
Crimea, and Queen Victoria in like manner granted the Crimean
Medal to every French, Sardinian, and Turkish soldier or sailor
present in the campaign.


DECORATIONS BESTOWED BY OUR ALLIES DURING THE CRIMEAN WAR.

  +---------------------------+-------+----------+---------+------+
  |                           |Legion |          |         |French|
  |        _Regiments._       |  of   |          |Sardinian| War  |
  |                           |Honour.|Medjidieh.|  Medal. |Medal.|
  +---------------------------+-------+----------+---------+------+
  |General officers           |   22  |    16    |     8   |   1  |
  |Staff officers             |   47  |    35    |     8   |   -  |
  |Med. officers              |   31  |    85    |     -   |   -  |
  |1st Drag. Gds.             |    -  |     3    |     -   |   -  |
  |4th Drag. Gds.             |    2  |     7    |     6   |   4  |
  |5th Drag. Gds.             |    3  |     6    |     -   |   4  |
  |6th Drag. Gds.             |    -  |     2    |     2   |   -  |
  |Roy. Dragoons              |    2  |     5    |     3   |   3  |
  |R. Scots Greys             |    2  |     5    |     3   |   4  |
  |4th Hussars                |    3  |     6    |     4   |   4  |
  |8th Hussars                |    3  |     5    |     4   |   3  |
  |10th Hussars               |    -  |     7    |     1   |   1  |
  |11th Hussars               |    2  |     7    |     2   |   5  |
  |12th Lancers               |    -  |     4    |     2   |   1  |
  |13th Hussars               |    2  |     5    |     4   |   2  |
  |17th Lancers               |    2  |     6    |     4   |   3  |
  |Royal Artillery            |   74  |   124    |    50   |  60  |
  |Roy. Engineers             |   26  |    22    |    15   |   7  |
  |3rd Batt. Grenadier Guards |    6  |    31    |     7   |   9  |
  |1st Batt. Coldstream Gds.  |    6  |    32    |     7   |   9  |
  |1st Batt. Scots Guards     |    7  |    32    |     9   |   7  |
  |Royal Scots (two batts.)   |    7  |    25    |     7   |   7  |
  |Buffs                      |    4  |    10    |     3   |   5  |
  |4th King's Own             |    4  |    13    |     6   |   9  |
  |7th Roy. Fus.              |    8  |    14    |     6   |   9  |
  |9th Norfolk                |    4  |    10    |     3   |   7  |
  |13th Somer. L.I.           |    2  |    10    |     5   |   -  |
  |14th W. Yorks              |    2  |    10    |     5   |   6  |
  |17th Leicesters            |    3  |    12    |     2   |   6  |
  |18th Roy. Scots            |    3  |    11    |     4   |   7  |
  |19th Yorkshire             |    7  |    11    |     6   |   9  |
  |20th Lancs F.              |    5  |    13    |     6   |   9  |
  |21st R. Scots F.           |    6  |    11    |     7   |   9  |
  |23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers    |    7  |    10    |     6   |  10  |
  |28th Gloucester            |    5  |    13    |     8   |   9  |
  |30th E. Lancs              |    6  |    17    |     6   |   9  |
  |31st E. Surrey             |    2  |     7    |     1   |   5  |
  |33rd W. Riding             |    6  |    14    |     7   |   9  |
  |34th Border                |    4  |    13    |     6   |   8  |
  |38th S. Staffs             |    5  |    12    |     6   |   9  |
  |39th Dorsets               |    4  |    10    |     3   |   6  |
  |41st Welsh                 |    7  |    12    |     6   |   9  |
  |42nd R. Highl.             |    6  |    13    |     6   |   8  |
  |44th Essex                 |    6  |    13    |     8   |   8  |
  |46th Corn. L.I.            |    5  |    16    |     6   |   7  |
  |47th N. Lancs              |    6  |    17    |     9   |   7  |
  |48th N'amptons             |    2  |     9    |     2   |   4  |
  |49th R. Berks              |    6  |    12    |     7   |   9  |
  |50th R. W. Kent            |    5  |    12    |     8   |   7  |
  |55th Border                |    3  |    13    |     6   |   9  |
  |56th Essex                 |    1  |     -    |     -   |   4  |
  |57th Middlesex             |    6  |    13    |     6   |   8  |
  |62nd Wiltshire             |    5  |    13    |     6   |   8  |
  |63rd Manchester            |    2  |     8    |     4   |   8  |
  |68th Durham L.I.           |    7  |    11    |     6   |   9  |
  |71st Highland L.I.         |    2  |    10    |     4   |   6  |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders  |    2  |     8    |     1   |   4  |
  |77th Middlesex             |    5  |    12    |     6   |   7  |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders   |    5  |    12    |     7   |   8  |
  |88th Connaught Rangers     |    6  |    14    |     9   |  10  |
  |89th R. Irish F.           |    4  |    10    |     4   |   5  |
  |90th Scottish R.           |    5  |    11    |     5   |   8  |
  |93rd Sutherland Highlanders|    4  |    14    |     6   |   9  |
  |95th Derbyshire            |    6  |    11    |     6   |   8  |
  |97th West Kent             |    5  |    11    |     5   |   8  |
  |Rifle Brigade (two batts.) |   11  |    33    |    13   |  18  |
  +---------------------------+-------+----------+---------+------+


THE VICTORIA CROSS.

This decoration dates from the Crimean War, and was instituted,
as is well known, as a reward open to all ranks for conspicuous
bravery in presence of the enemy. During the campaign the following
regiments were able to add to their other honours the Victoria
Cross:

  Royal Scots Greys                2
  4th Hussars                      1
  Inniskilling Dragoons            1
  11th Hussars                     1
  13th Hussars                     1
  17th Lancers                     3
  Royal Artillery                  9
  Royal Engineers                  7
  Grenadier Guards                 4
  Coldstream Guards                3
  Scots Guards                     5
  Royal Scots                      1
  The Buffs                        2
  4th (King's Own)                 1
  7th (Royal Fusiliers)            5
  17th (Leicestershire)            1
  18th (Royal Irish)               1
  19th (Yorkshire)                 2
  23rd (Royal Welsh Fus.)          4
  30th (East Lancashire)           1
  34th (Border Regiment)           2
  41st (Welsh)                     2
  44th (Essex)                     1
  47th (North Lancashire)          1
  49th (Royal Berkshire)           3
  55th (Border)                    2
  57th (Middlesex)                 2
  68th (Durham Light Infantry.)    1
  77th (Middlesex)                 2
  90th (Scottish Rifles)           2
  97th (West Kent)                 2
  1st Batt. Rifle Brigade          4
  2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade          3

The following table is of interest, as showing the total losses
incurred by the army in the Crimea in the different arms:

     Legend: _Of._ = _Officers._
  +----------+-------------+-------------+-------------+---------------+
  |          |   CAVALRY.  |  ARTILLERY. |  ENGINEERS. |   INFANTRY.   |
  |          +-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+------+--------+
  |          |_Of._| _Men._|_Of._| _Men._|_Of._| _Men._| _Of._| _Men._ |
  +----------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+------+--------+
  |Killed in |     |       |     |       |     |       |      |        |
  | action   |   9 |   114 |  11 |   121 |   9 |    32 |  125 |  2,331 |
  |Died of   |     |       |     |       |     |       |      |        |
  | wounds   |   4 |    26 |   1 |    52 |   6 |    23 |   73 |  1,832 |
  |Died of   |     |       |     |       |     |       |      |        |
  | disease  |  23 | 1,007 |  10 | 1,298 |   5 |   175 |  105 | 13,414 |
  |          +-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+------+--------+
  |    Total |  36 | 1,147 |  22 | 1,471 |  20 |   230 |  303 | 17,577 |
  |          +-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+------+--------+
  |Wounded   |     |       |     |       |     |       |      |        |
  | in action|  26 |   237 |  30 |   632 |  13 |    86 |  435 | 10,406 |
  |          |     |       |     |       |     |       |      |        |
  +----------+-----+-------+-----+-------+-----+-------+------+--------+

From the above it will be seen that, whilst 2,769 officers and
men were killed in action or died of their wounds, the losses by
disease amounted to no less than 16,037! For every ten officers
killed in action, six died from disease, whereas in the proportion
of the men who fell the figures were reversed. For every ten who
fell in action or as a result of their wounds no less than sixty
died of disease.



CHAPTER XX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-1859

India--Delhi--Lucknow--Central India--Defence of Arrah--Behar.


INDIA, 1857-1859.

For some inscrutable reason, the colours of those regiments which
were employed in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny bear no
record of their services unless they happened to have been employed
at the Siege of Delhi or in the operations at Lucknow or in Central
India. There is, indeed, one notable exception. A group of Sikhs,
but fifty in number, aided Mr. Wake in his determined defence of
Arrah, and subsequently the regiment was engaged in maintaining
peace in the province of Behar. For these services the 45th
Rattray's Sikhs are authorized to bear the words "Defence of Arrah"
and "Behar" on their colours and appointments. Yet British and
native troops--aye, civilians and delicately-nurtured women--were
engaged for many weary months in a daily contest with battle and
with wounds, with plague, pestilence, and famine. Throughout
the length and breadth of the northern portion of Hindustan we
were waging a life-and-death struggle for the maintenance of
British supremacy in India. The details of many incidents in that
struggle we never shall know. Our Indian graveyards are filled
with tombs recording the losses of those days, from Generals who,
like Nicholson, fell in the hour of victory, to wee bairnies who
perished from want of the bare necessaries of life, and, alas! also
from the sword and bullet of our foes. The whole peninsula is
hallowed with the unknown graves of our gallant dead.

The history of the Siege of Delhi, where a force of less than
10,000 men besieged a city defended by four times their number of
disciplined troops for a period of twelve long weeks in the hottest
season of the year, is only equalled by the dauntless bravery with
which Lucknow was defended against incalculable odds. Loyal native
vied with his British comrade in upholding the honour of our flag,
whilst the cheerful heroism and self-abnegation of the women who
bore such a noble part in the struggle is deserving of more than
a passing tribute of homage. The romantic interest that centred
round Havelock's relief of Lucknow has dwarfed the marvellous
achievements of the Delhi force--an achievement never surpassed in
the military annals of our own or any other country.

The losses suffered by the troops at the siege of that fortress
exceeded in number the total casualties incurred by the rest of the
army in the suppression of the rebellion. The "morning states" of
September 13--the day before the storm of the city--showed a total
strength of 9,366 effectives; on the evening of the 20th, when the
entire city was in our hands, there were but 5,520. No less than
3,846 officers and men had been killed and wounded; yet four days
afterwards General Wilson was enabled to despatch a little column
to aid in the relief of Lucknow. It consisted of three batteries of
Bengal Artillery, 300 men of the 9th Lancers, the headquarters of
the 8th and 75th Regiments, totalling only 450 men, so grievously
had these battalions suffered in the siege. Four squadrons of
native cavalry and two battalions of Punjab troops brought the
total strength of the brigade to just under 2,000 men.


DELHI, MAY TO SEPTEMBER, 1857.

The regiments authorized to bear the battle honour "Delhi" on their
colours and appointments are the

  Carabiniers.
  9th Lancers.
  King's (Liverpool).
  Gloucesters.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  9th Hodson's Horse.
  10th Lancers.
  21st Daly's Horse.
  22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
  25th Cavalry.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides,
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  54th Sikhs.
  55th Coke's Rifles.
  56th Punjab Rifles.
  57th Wilde's Rifles.
  127th Baluch Light Infantry.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  3rd Gurkhas.

It will be noted that the Carabiniers is the only corps which bears
the two honours "Delhi" and "Sevastopol."

On the first news of the mutiny at Meerut reaching the
Commander-in-Chief at Simla on May 12, he at once moved down
with the Headquarters Staff to Umballa, where the regiments at
Kussowlie, Dugshai, and Subathoo, had been ordered to assemble. The
9th Lancers and two troops of Bengal Artillery were quartered at
that station, and at Meerut were the Carabiniers, the 60th Rifles,
and the headquarters of the Bengal Artillery.

Much unavoidable delay occurred in procuring carriage for the
troops, and, of course, it was necessary to provide for the safety
of the Punjab. It was not until May 24 that the Commander-in-Chief
was able to move. Two days afterwards he died of cholera at Kurnal,
and the command devolved upon General Barnard--a gallant officer
who had been Chief of the Staff during the latter part of the
Crimean War, but who was new to India. The force moving down from
Umballa consisted of two brigades, and was to be joined before
reaching Delhi by the Meerut garrison. This junction took place on
June 7. The Meerut force had fought a successful action with the
mutineers a week previously, capturing five guns.

On the 7th General Barnard found the mutineers drawn up in a strong
position at Budli-ka-Serai to dispute his advance. They had thrown
up some works, in which heavy guns were placed. After a sharp
fight, in which we lost 51 killed and 131 wounded, the rebels were
driven out of their vantage-ground, with the loss of thirteen
guns, and from this day the siege may be said to have commenced.
Just one month later General Barnard died of cholera, which was
daily claiming victims from all ranks. Indeed, until the close
of the siege, this scourge was never absent. From time to time,
as circumstances permitted, reinforcements of both British and
native troops were pushed down from the Punjab, and the loyal Sikh
chiefs also sent contingents, which, though not of great fighting
value, served to keep open our communications with Lahore, and to a
certain extent, no doubt, did aid in the work of the siege.

Between June 7 and September 14--the day of the assault--the
besieging force fought no fewer than thirty-two engagements, and
so heavy were the duties thrown on officers and men that it was
impossible to relieve the guards, men remaining for days at a time
on duty, whilst staff officers took their turn in the batteries and
trenches. On the morning of September 13 the decision was taken to
carry the city by storm. Two breaches were declared practicable on
the northern side of the walls at the Water and Kashmir bastions.
Practically the whole available force was detailed for the assault.
The first, second, and third columns, under the command of General
John Nicholson, were to act on the left; the fourth, under Major
Reid, of the 2nd Gurkhas, on the right. It consisted of Major
Reid's own gallant regiment (now well known to all soldiers as the
2nd Gurkhas), the infantry of the Guides, and such men as could be
spared from the picquets of the British regiments on the ridge. No.
1 column of the force, under Nicholson, was composed of the 75th
(now the Gordon Highlanders), the 1st Bengal Fusiliers (now the
1st Munsters), and the 2nd Punjab Infantry (now the 56th Rifles).
This stormed the breach at the Kashmir bastion. No. 2 column,
under Colonel Jones, of the 61st, consisted of the 8th (Liverpool)
Regiment, the 2nd Bengal Fusiliers (now the 2nd Munsters), and the
4th (now the 54th Sikhs). The third column, under Colonel Campbell,
of the 52nd, was composed of the 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry),
the 3rd Gurkhas, and Coke's Rifles. The total strength of the
three columns amounted to 2,800 men, whilst the fourth, under
Major Reid, was 680 strong, but it had in support 1,200 men of the
Kashmir contingent. The reserve was under Colonel Longfield, of the
8th, and comprised the 61st Foot (2nd Gloucesters), the 4th Punjab
Infantry (now the 57th), Wilde's Rifles, and the Baluch battalion
(now the 127th Baluch Light Infantry).


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF DELHI, MAY TO SEPTEMBER,
1857.

  +----------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------+
  |                      |    BRITISH TROOPS.    |     NATIVE TROOPS.    |
  |                      +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |     _Regiments._     |_Officers._|   _Men._  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |                      +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |General Staff         |   4 |   9 |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery       |   4 |  24 |  43 | 216 |   1 |   1 |  26 |  49 |
  |Royal Engineers       |   3 |  19 |   6 |   3 |   2 |   1 |  34 |  60 |
  |6th Carabiniers       |   1 |   2 |  18 |   9 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |9th Lancers           |   1 |   2 |  26 |  64 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |8th (King's Liverpool)|   3 |   7 |  41 | 129 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |52nd (Oxford L.I.)    |   1 |   4 |  28 |  75 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |60th (King's Roy.     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  |  Rifles)             |   4 |  10 | 109 | 266 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |61st (Gloucestershire)|   2 |   7 |  30 | 112 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |75th (Gordon Highl.)  |   5 |  14 |  79 | 184 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |1st Roy. Munster Fus. |   3 |  11 |  95 | 210 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Roy. Munster Fus. |   4 |   6 |  79 | 156 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Hodson's Horse        |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |21st Daly's Horse     |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |22nd Sam Browne's H.  |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |25th Cavalry          |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Q.O. Corps of Guides  |   2 |   6 |   - |   - |   5 |  10 |  65 | 215 |
  |54th Sikhs            |   1 |   3 |   - |   - |   2 |   7 |  43 | 116 |
  |55th Coke's Rifles    |   3 |   5 |   - |   - |   3 |   5 |  71 | 141 |
  |56th Rifles           |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |  41 | 103 |
  |57th Wilde's Rifles   |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   2 |   9 |  59 |
  |127th Baluchis        |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   - |   1 |   7 |  48 |
  |2nd Gurkhas (Sirmoor  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  |  Rifles)             |   1 |   6 |   - |   - |   2 |   8 |  80 | 219 |
  |3rd Gurkhas           |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |   - |   3 |  20 |  33 |
  +----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I regret that I have been unable to trace the losses in
  those three fine regiments, now the 21st, 22nd, and 25th Cavalry.

The story of the siege and the assault is an epic which will remain
a monument of the heroism of our troops, British and native, to
all time. Those who stand on that famous ridge and gaze at the
stupendous walls before them, must wonder, as I have wondered, at
the audacity which conceived and the gallantry which achieved such
a feat of arms. As I have said, by September 20 the city, with its
arsenal, was in our hands, and on the following day a small brigade
of all arms was at once despatched to open up communications with
the North-West Provinces, and to aid in the tranquillization of the
country. Our losses during the siege were grievously heavy. Out of
a total strength of 640, the 60th Rifles lost 389 of all ranks; the
2nd Gurkhas lost 310 out of 540; the Guides 303 out of 550. Coke's
Rifles had all its officers killed or wounded, and more than half
the men. The 52nd had arrived from Sialkot just a month prior to
the assault. It marched into camp 640 strong; on the morning of
September 14 it paraded 240 rank and file, having lost 74 men from
cholera and sunstroke in one short month! The table on p. 315 tells
its own tale.


LUCKNOW.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this battle honour
on their colours and appointments:

  Queen's Bays.
  7th Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  King's Liverpools.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Lincolns.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Border.
  Scottish Rifles.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  South Staffords.
  South Lancashire.
  Black Watch.
  Royal West Kent.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  North Staffords.
  York and Lancaster.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Sutherland Highlanders.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  Rifle Brigade.
  9th Hodson's Horse.
  10th Hodson's Horse.
  11th Probyn's Lancers.
  21st Daly's Horse.
  22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
  25th Cavalry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  14th Sikhs.
  16th Lucknow.
  32nd Pioneers.
  56th Punjabi Rifles.
  57th Wilde's Rifles.

This one battle honour, "Lucknow," covers four distinct military
operations--the memorable defence of the Residency under Sir
Henry Lawrence; the first relief, or rather reinforcement, of the
beleaguered garrison by Sir Henry Havelock; the final relief and
withdrawal of the women and children by Sir Colin Campbell; and,
lastly, the siege and capture of the city in March, 1858. With the
medal granted for the Indian Mutiny clasps were issued for the
Relief, the Defence, and one simply superscribed "Lucknow," which
covered the final operations only. Wearers of the medal are enabled
to show the distinctive part they played in the grand struggle in
and around Lucknow, but survivors are now few and far between.
In a very few short years there will be no wearers of the Mutiny
Medal left. Whilst the men by their clasps showed the share they
took in the operations, the regiments bear no distinctive mark
showing the part they played. The Somerset Light Infantry and the
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment are authorized to bear a mural
crown as a distinctive honour for their defence of Jelalabad and
Khelat-i-Ghilzai; the 16th Lucknow Regiment wears a battlemented
gateway, to connect it with the memorable defence of the Residency;
the 45th Sikhs bear the words "Defence of Arrah"; and the regiments
which formed the garrison, under Sir George White, were granted the
honour "Defence of Ladysmith," to differentiate them from their
comrades who, under Sir Redvers Buller, effected their relief. It
is true that the 32nd were made light infantry as a recognition of
their conduct at Lucknow, but so little is this fact remembered
that in the month of January, 1910, a leading service paper gravely
asserted that the Cornwalls were given their bugles in the year
1832! _Sic transit gloria mundi._


_Defence of Lucknow._

Lucknow, the capital of the newly-annexed kingdom of Oude, was in
1857 a city of some 150,000 inhabitants, known to be fanatically
hostile to our rule. Only the year before the Mutiny the King had
been deposed, and with good cause. Misgovernment and tyranny were
rampant throughout his kingdom, and we were performing a mere act
of justice towards his people in removing him from power. We have
not yet learnt the lesson that a nation prefers bad government
under its own rulers to the best form of government under an alien
administration. The unpopularity of the annexation was felt beyond
the confines of Oude. A very large proportion of the sepoys of
the Bengal army were recruited from this very country, and their
sympathies were naturally with their fallen King.

Fortunately, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General responsible for
the annexation, had selected one of the very best soldier-statesmen
in India for the post of Chief Commissioner--Sir James Outram, a
tried soldier of the Bombay army. At this moment he was absent from
his post, having been selected to command the troops in the Persian
Expeditionary Force. His successor, Sir Henry Lawrence, was, like
Outram, a soldier--one of that gallant band of brothers whose names
will last so long as does our Indian Empire. He commenced his
career in the Bengal Artillery, had seen a great deal of service
as a gunner, and had earned a still higher reputation in the early
days of the administration of the Punjab. Fortunate it was for
England that she had such a man in Lucknow. The Mutiny caused no
surprise to Henry Lawrence. Fifteen years previously, in the pages
of the _Calcutta Review_, he had predicted an attempt on the part
of the pampered sepoy to gain the upper hand, but his warnings had
fallen on deaf ears. Now he was ready for the emergency--ready so
far as his means permitted. The garrison of Lucknow consisted of
one British battalion--the 32nd (Cornwall Regiment), numbering 19
officers and 517 other ranks--one weak company of the 84th--one
officer and 48 men. There were, in addition, six regiments of
native infantry, two of native cavalry, and two batteries of native
artillery.

The news of the mutiny at Meerut and of the capture of Delhi by
the adherents of the old Mogul Emperor was known in Lucknow on May
12, and then Lawrence commenced to take steps to meet the coming
storm. Measures were adopted to render the Residency defensible--no
easy task. It was in the heart of the city, surrounded by a few
buildings erected for the convenience of the staff of the Resident.
These were in plots of ground, separated by low mud walls. Within
easy range were several masonry palaces, which afforded good
shelter to an enemy. It was impossible to include all of the
staff houses in the scheme of defence, owing to the smallness of
the garrison. All that could be done was to connect the various
buildings by a breastwork, and to excavate a ditch all round.
Provisions and ammunition were brought in, and all the civilians,
as well as the British troops, were concentrated as near the
Residency as possible.

On May 29 the native garrison threw off all semblance of loyalty,
murdered their officers, including the Brigadier (Handscomb), and
moved out of their lines, which they fired. They were from time to
time joined by other mutineers, who had committed grievous outrages
in other stations in Oude. No attack, however, was made on the
Residency.

On June 29 Lawrence determined to undertake the offensive, and he
moved out to Chinhut, where the mutineers were massed, to attack
them. He met with a sharp reverse, losing some of his guns, whilst
the wing of the 32nd, who were with him, lost 115 killed out of 300
men engaged. The following morning Lawrence blew up the magazine,
containing 249 barrels of powder and 594,000 rounds of ammunition,
which it was found impossible to carry into the Residency, and made
final preparations for the siege. His garrison consisted of under
2,000 men, of whom 100 were civilians and 765 loyal natives--men
of the mutinied regiments who had determined to throw in their lot
with the Sirkar. With them were nearly 200 pensioners--men mostly
past work.

It is not within the scope of this work to deal with the details
of that heroic defence, where civilian vied with soldier,
native with Englishman, to uphold the honour of our name; where
delicately-nurtured women and the no less devoted wives of the
privates shared all the dangers, all the privations, of the
humblest sepoy. Many women and children died from want of the bare
necessaries of life; more than one babe was shot in its mother's
arms, and more than one woman fell a victim to the bullets of
our foes. For a long eighty-seven days did the siege last, and
then the little band under Havelock forced its way through the
many thousands of the besieging force, and brought the welcome
reinforcement of British bayonets to the beleaguered garrison. The
figures below tell the sad tale of the severe losses which were
endured by the heroic garrison of Lucknow:


CASUALTIES IN THE DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW.

  +----------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._                  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |32nd Corn. L.I.                   |   7 |   8 | 192 | 171 |
  |Royal Bengal Artillery            |   1 |   2 |  52 |  18 |
  |84th York and Lancs (one company) |   - |   1 |  12 |   8 |
  +----------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

No fewer than eighty-nine women and children also perished.


_Relief of Lucknow by General Sir Henry Havelock._

The most serious problem that faced the Governor-General in India,
as soon as the real gravity of the Mutiny was realized, was to
effect the relief of the beleaguered garrisons of Lucknow and
Cawnpore, where large numbers of women and children were hemmed
in by the mutineers, and were in daily peril of their lives. It
was well known that at both places the defences were utterly
inadequate, and that the garrisons were all too small. By a
fortunate coincidence, a strong force was on its way to China
for the purpose of compelling a respect for treaty rights, and
the regiments composing that force were stopped at Singapore
and diverted to Calcutta. At the same time, the regiment at the
Mauritius was despatched with all haste to India, and the return
of the two battalions--the 64th (North Staffords) and the 78th
(Ross-shire Buffs)--from the Persian Campaign enabled Lord Canning,
the Governor-General, to send these up to Allahabad, and so to form
the nucleus of a relieving army.

The officer selected for the command of the relieving force was
Colonel Henry Havelock, an officer who had recently commanded a
brigade in the Persian War. Havelock had seen an immensity of
service in India, mostly on the Staff. He had been Adjutant of
the 13th Light Infantry, and had served with that distinguished
regiment throughout the Burmese War of 1824. In Afghanistan he had
earned a Brevet and a C.B. for his exceptional services at the
defence of Jelalabad. He had been present at Maharajpore, where he
had earned a second Brevet. But he was a disappointed man. Success
had come to him late in life, for he had been twenty-three years a
subaltern, and had been purchased over times without number.

Immediately on his arrival in Calcutta Havelock learned of his
new command, and he at once pushed up to Allahabad to take over
charge from Colonel Neill, of the Madras Fusiliers, already at that
station. The force was all too weak for the task imposed upon it.
It barely numbered 1,350 bayonets, including 500 Sikhs. Its cavalry
numbered just twenty sabres, composed of officers of regiments
which had disappeared in the storm and a few brave planters.
The following are the details of the brigade with which Havelock
essayed the relief of Lucknow:

  Royal Artillery                76 men.
  64th (North Staffords)        435  "
  78th (Ross-shire Buffs)       284  "
  84th (York and Lancaster)     191  "
  Madras Fusiliers              376  "
  Ferozepore Sikhs              448  "
  Volunteer cavalry              20 sabres.

Arriving at Allahabad on June 30, Havelock immediately moved
forward; but the weather was terrific, and his men suffered
much--not only from heat, but also from cholera. Not a day passed
without some victim being claimed by one or other of these deadly
foes. To-day it was a drummer of the Highlanders, to-morrow the
senior Staff Officer of the army. Still, no heart quailed. The
danger that faced their countrywomen nerved all, but, alas! their
gallant efforts were doomed to failure. When the Nana saw the net
closing round him, he gave the order for the murder of the women
and children who, trusting to his honour, had surrendered to him at
Cawnpore; and when Havelock's force entered the place, they were
met with the most ghastly evidence of cruelties which had been
perpetrated by the man who for many years professed himself a loyal
ally of the English.

Weakened by losses in action, as well as by disease, Havelock was
compelled to halt at Cawnpore for reinforcements. These reached him
in the shape of the 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)--the Fighting
Fifth--from the Mauritius, and six companies of the 90th (Scottish
Rifles)--a regiment which, under its Colonel, Campbell, had earned
a great reputation for dash in the Crimea. With the reinforcements
came the unwelcome news that he had been superseded by Sir James
Outram, who was reappointed to his old post of Chief Commissioner
of Oude, with the supreme command of all the troops in that
province. Sir James, however, with rare self-denial, refused to
deprive Havelock of the honour of carrying out the relief, and
published an order announcing his intention to act in the ranks of
the volunteer cavalry until Lucknow was entered.

It was not until the middle of September that Havelock was enabled
to continue his onward march. He was opposed at every step, but the
troops would not be denied; and on the 25th of that month a welcome
reinforcement of nearly 2,000 fighting men was thrown into Lucknow,
and the lives of the sorely-pressed garrison assured.

Havelock lived just long enough to know that his services had been
appreciated at last, and that he had been gazetted a Major-General
for distinguished service in the field, and raised to the dignity
of a K.C.B. The baronetcy conferred upon him was not gazetted until
after his death. The final relief I deal with on p. 326. A dark
shadow was cast over that glorious achievement. Havelock was able
to drag his sorely stricken frame across the breastwork to welcome
Sir Colin Campbell and the relieving army, and then, worn out by
toil and anxiety, he sank into his grave. In a shady grove of trees
hard by the Alumbagh they made his humble tomb, and Campbell,
Outram, Inglis, Peel, and many a stout soldier who had followed
him in that stern march from Cawnpore, now followed his remains
to their last resting-place. So long as gallant deeds and noble
aspirations and spotless self-devotion are cherished in our midst,
so long will Havelock's lonely tomb, hard by the scenes of his
triumphs and of his death, be regarded as one of the most sacred
spots where England's soldiers lie.


RELIEF OF LUCKNOW BY SIR COLIN CAMPBELL, NOVEMBER, 1857.

No sooner was Delhi in our hands than General Wilson, as I have
shown on p. 312, despatched a small force towards Agra, where,
unfortunately, the civil and military authorities had not shown
themselves possessed of those qualities which have built up our
Indian Empire. Few indeed were the men that Wilson could spare, but
on the morning of September 21 Brigadier Greathed, Colonel of the
8th (King's), now the Liverpool Regiment, marched towards Agra at
the head of the little movable column. His force consisted of two
troops of horse and one battery of field artillery; the 9th Lancers
(300 strong); the 8th and 73rd Regiments, which, in consequence
of their heavy losses, only numbered 450 men; four squadrons of
the 21st, 22nd, and 25th Cavalry and of Hodson's Horse, the four
squadrons some 500 strong; and the 2nd and 4th Punjab Infantry
(now the 56th and 57th Rifles). All told, the brigade numbered 800
cavalry, 1,650 infantry, 200 sappers, and 18 guns.

On the 10th of the following month Greathed reached Agra, where he
was attacked by the rebels. To their astonishment, these gentry
found they had a totally different stamp of men to deal with than
the Agra garrison, and Greathed, with the loss of but 13 killed and
54 wounded, drove them off, capturing thirteen guns. During the
short halt at Agra, General Hope Grant, Colonel of the 9th Lancers,
arrived in camp with some 300 British soldiers, convalescents
of the regiments at Delhi, and took over command. Pushing on to
Cawnpore, he found a wing of the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) and
some men of the regiments which had gone into Lucknow with Havelock.

The relief of Lucknow was now the principal objective, and Hope
Grant, in obedience to orders received from Calcutta, moved towards
that city, halting at Bhantira until the arrival of Sir Colin
Campbell, who, on the first news of the Mutiny reaching England,
had been sent out to assume the post of Commander-in-Chief in
India. The new Chief possessed the confidence not only of the
Ministry in England, but of every man in the army. Probably he
was the most deservedly popular General who had up till then ever
commanded an army in the field. He had a wide experience of war.
As a subaltern he had served in the Peninsula, been repeatedly
mentioned in despatches for gallantry--a rare thing to happen to a
subaltern in Wellington's days. He commanded a regiment in China
in the war of 1842, a brigade in the Punjab Campaign of 1849, was
in chief command in many of the early expeditions on the Punjab
frontier, and was one of the very few General Officers who emerged
from the Crimean War with enhanced credit. The vast majority of
the reinforcements despatched from England for the suppression of
the Mutiny had served in the Crimea, and to them the name of Colin
Campbell was that of a man who could lead and whom they were proud
to follow.

  [Illustration: FIELD-MARSHAL COLIN CAMPBELL: LORD CLYDE.
  To face page 324.]

On November 9 Sir Colin arrived at Bhantira, and assumed the
command of the army. Sir Colin was fully alive to the imperative
necessity of withdrawing the beleaguered garrison from its
perilous position at Lucknow. Sir James Outram, who, as I have
shown, assumed command on reaching the Residency, was besieged
by a disciplined army numbering 60,000 men. He was encumbered
with 1,500 sick men, women, and children, and the Residency, over
which our flag had been kept flying for thirteen weary weeks,
was but an ordinary Indian building, commanded on all sides by
masonry palaces, which had been converted into siege-batteries. To
carry through this formidable task Sir Colin had but 4,500 men,
distributed as under:

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier Little (9th Lancers): Two squadrons
  9th Lancers, one squadron 21st Daly's Horse, one squadron 22nd
  Sam Browne's Horse, one squadron 25th Cavalry, one squadron
  Hodson's Horse.

These native troops were under Lieutenants Watson, Probyn,
Younghusband, and Hugh Gough respectively, and it is worthy of note
that of these four subalterns one (Younghusband) was killed; the
other three were all wounded in action, and all three lived to wear
the Victoria Cross and the Grand Cross of the Bath.

  Artillery Brigade--Brigadier Crawford, R.A.: Two troops of Bengal
  Horse Artillery, two batteries of Field Artillery, two companies
  of Royal Artillery, eight guns of the Naval Brigade under the
  gallant Sir William Peel, with 250 seamen and Marines.

  First Brigade--Brigadier Adrian Hope: 93rd Highlanders, a wing of
  the 53rd (Shropshires), and the 57th Wilde's Rifles.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier Greathed: 8th (King's Liverpool
  Regiment), a battalion made up of detachments of British
  regiments in Lucknow, and the 56th Punjab Rifles.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier Russell: 84th Regiment, 23rd (Royal
  Welsh Fusiliers), and two companies of the 82nd (South
  Lancashires).

To keep open communication with Allahabad and Calcutta, Sir Colin
had left General Wyndham at Cawnpore with a force of British
troops. Wyndham had earned a great reputation for coolness under
fire at the storming of the Redan, but he had no experience of
Indian warfare, and had never exercised an independent command in
his life. At Cawnpore he did not show to advantage as a commander.

During Sir Hope Grant's halt prior to Sir Colin's arrival the
most energetic measures had been adopted to obtain the necessary
carriage to enable the Commander-in-Chief to carry out his design
of withdrawing the garrison, so that, on his assuming command, all
was ready for an immediate advance; and on November 17, after some
hard fighting, which entailed a loss of 45 officers and 496 men
killed and wounded, the relieving force entered the Residency, and
the garrison was saved. Ten days subsequently the evacuation of the
Residency had been successfully accomplished, and the whole force
was _en route_ for Cawnpore, where Wyndham had suffered a sharp
reverse at the hands of the mutinous Gwalior contingent.


SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF LUCKNOW.

When Sir Colin Campbell withdrew the garrison from the Residency,
he felt that but half of his task was done. His force was not
strong enough to warrant his attacking the mutineers, and so
crushing the rebellion in Oude. This must be left until the
arrival of the reinforcements from England, and undertaken when he
was not hampered with a large convoy of sick and wounded, women
and children. In order to maintain a certain hold on the country
around Lucknow, Sir Colin left Sir James Outram with a considerable
force to occupy the Alumbagh--an old shooting-lodge of the Kings
of Oude, situated in a park about three miles from the suburbs of
Lucknow. Outram's force numbered over 4,000 men, and comprised the
5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), 75th (Gordon Highlanders), 78th
(Seaforths), 90th (now the Scottish Rifles), and the 2nd Bengal
Fusiliers (now the 2nd Munsters), with 450 gunners of the Bengal
Artillery and 150 sabres. Opposed to Outram were, according to
his report, no less than 96,000 armed men; and from the end of
November, when the Residency was evacuated, until March 21, when
Sir Colin finally defeated the mutineers and retook Lucknow,
Outram's force was practically besieged in the Alumbagh.

The months of December, 1857, January, February, and March, 1858,
were occupied in preparing for the final advance on Lucknow and
the break-up of the many bodies of mutineers scattered over Oude,
Bundulcund, and the North-West Provinces. Reinforcements were
daily arriving from England, but it was not until the beginning of
March that Sir Colin was able to commence his advance on Lucknow.
His army now numbered upwards of 20,000 men, with 180 guns. Never
in the history of India had such a large number of British troops
taken the field.

The Cavalry Division, under Sir Hope Grant, included the Queen's
Bays, 7th Hussars, 9th Lancers, Hodson's Horse, Daly's Horse, Sam
Browne's Horse, and the 25th Cavalry, in addition to the division
under Outram.

The Second Division, under Sir Edward Lugard, was composed of the
Third Brigade (Brigadier Guy)--34th, 38th, and 53rd Regiments;
Fourth Brigade (Adrian Hope)--42nd, 93rd, and 57th Wilde's Rifles.

The Third Division, under General Walpole, comprised the Fifth
Brigade (Brigadier Douglas)--23rd, 79th, and 1st Munster Fusiliers;
Sixth Brigade (Horsford)--2nd and 3rd Battalions Rifle Brigade and
56th Rifles.

The artillery was under the command of Sir Archdale Wilson, who had
been made a K.C.B. for the capture of Delhi.


CASUALTIES AT THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW BY HAVELOCK.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |5th Northumberland Fus.   |   1 |   2 |  23 |  29 |
  |64th N. Staffs.           |   1 |   3 |   7 |  81 |
  |78th Ross. Buffs          |   2 |   6 |  47 |  85 |
  |84th York and Lancaster   |   2 |   4 |  25 |  55 |
  |90th Scottish Rifles      |   4 |   7 |  39 |  62 |
  |102nd R. Dublin Fusiliers |   1 |   4 |  33 |  83 |
  |14th Ferozepore Sikhs     |   - |   1 |   7 |  37 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW BY SIR COLIN CAMPBELL,
NOVEMBER, 1857.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                     |   2 |   6 |   - |   - |
  |Naval Brigade             |   1 |   3 |   4 |  17 |
  |9th Lancers               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery           |   1 |   6 |  14 |  59 |
  |Roy. Engineers            |   - |   1 |   3 |  17 |
  |5th Fusiliers             |   - |   - |   5 |   3 |
  |8th King's                |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers   |   - |   1 |   3 |  18 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.      |   - |   3 |  10 |  63 |
  |64th Regiment             |   - |   - |   4 |   7 |
  |82nd Regiment             |   1 |   1 |   1 |  13 |
  |84th Regiment             |   - |   - |   1 |   8 |
  |90th Light Inf.           |   1 |   3 |   6 |  22 |
  |93rd H'landers            |   2 |   7 |  33 |  62 |
  |102nd R. Dublin Fusiliers |   1 |   - |   3 |  12 |
  |21st Cavalry              |   - |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |22nd Sam Browne's H.      |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |25th Cavalry              |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |56th Punjab R.            |   1 |   1 |   5 |  18 |
  |57th Wilde's R.           |   1 |   2 |  13 |  50 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND CAPTURE OF LUCKNOW, MARCH, 1858.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Force employed._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade               |   1 |   1 |   1 |  13 |
  |The Bays                    |   1 |   1 |   2 |   5 |
  |7th Hussars                 |   - |   3 |   - |   3 |
  |9th Lancers                 |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |Royal Artillery             |   1 |   3 |   6 |  33 |
  |Roy. Engineers              |   3 |   3 |  19 |  34 |
  |5th Fusiliers               |   - |   1 |   - |   3 |
  |10th Lincolns               |   - |   1 |   4 |  23 |
  |20th Lancs F.               |   - |   2 |   7 |  28 |
  |23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers     |   - |   3 |   4 |  25 |
  |34th Border                 |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |38th S. Staffs              |   - |   3 |   1 |  22 |
  |42nd Royal Highlanders      |   - |   1 |   5 |  39 |
  |53rd Shropshire L.I.        |   - |   2 |   1 |  27 |
  |78th Seaforth Highlanders   |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders    |   - |   2 |   7 |  21 |
  |90th Scottish Rifles        |   - |   1 |   5 |  28 |
  |93rd Sutherland Highlanders |   2 |   2 |  12 |  59 |
  |97th Royal W. Kent          |   1 |   - |   2 |  21 |
  |Rifle Brigade (two batts.)  |   1 |   2 |   - |  19 |
  |22nd Sam Browne's Cav.      |   - |   1 |   1 |   9 |
  |25th Cavalry                |   - |   1 |   - |   6 |
  |56th Punjab R.              |   1 |   1 |   8 |  32 |
  |57th Wilde's R.             |   1 |   3 |   9 |  30 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CENTRAL INDIA, 1857-58.

The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the

  8th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  14th Hussars.
  17th Lancers.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  South Staffords.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Leinster.
  30th Gordon's Horse.
  31st Duke of Connaught's Own Lancers.
  32nd Lancers.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  44th Merwara Infantry.
  61st Pioneers.
  79th Carnatic Infantry.
  96th Berar Infantry.
  98th Infantry.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  110th Mahratta L.I.
  112th Infantry.
  113th Infantry.
  124th Baluchis.
  125th Napier's Rifles.

Although as a whole the Princes of Central India remained loyal
to our rule, their armies threw in their lot with the mutineers,
and the honour "Central India" was conferred on the regiments
which were employed in stamping out rebellion in those provinces
during the winter of 1857-58 and in the ensuing hot weather. A
number of independent columns were so engaged, but the brunt of
the fighting fell on the troops under that dashing leader Sir Hugh
Rose, afterwards Lord Strathnairn. The capture of Kotah, Jhansi,
Calpee, and Gwalior all bear witness to the heroism of our troops
and to the sufferings they endured during that terrible hot-weather
campaign of 1858, when men died of cholera and of sunstroke by
hundreds, and when the survivors struggled on manfully to retain
our hold on Hindustan.

The rapidity of the movements of Sir Hugh Rose has often been held
up as a contrast to the slowness of those of Sir Colin Campbell,
but it must be borne in mind that when Sir Hugh took the field
the back of the Mutiny had been broken. His duty was to hunt down
and to destroy all bodies of armed rebels in the field, and right
nobly did he perform his task. Sir Colin had to organize a force
for the relief of Lucknow (where close on 300 women and children
were besieged), to break the power of the rebel army in Oude, and
to maintain peace in Bengal. His one line of communications was a
narrow strip of railway open to destruction at many points, and he
had in the field against him over 100,000 trained troops, possessed
of large stores of arms and munitions. The tasks before the two
Generals were entirely different. Whether, had Sir Colin been in
command in Central India, he would have acted with the rapidity
that Sir Hugh showed is a mere matter of opinion. This much is
certain--that Sir Hugh never could have achieved success had not
Northern India been in our hands, and that it was in our hands was
due first to the gallantry of the Delhi Field Force, and secondly
to the well-organized, if slowly carried out, campaign by which Sir
Colin swept the rebels out of Oude.

The Central India Campaign divides itself into a number of
well-executed operations in different parts of the country. First
we may take the Malwa Field Force, under Brigadier C. S. Stuart,
which consisted of the 14th Hussars, 86th (Royal Irish Rifles),
3rd Hyderabad Cavalry, and 125th Napier's Rifles, which was in the
field from July to December, 1857.


CASUALTIES IN CENTRAL INDIA.

  +--------------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._          +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |8th Hussars                     |   - |   9 |  18 |  34 |
  |12th Lancers                    |   - |   1 |   2 |  16 |
  |14th Hussars                    |   1 |   4 |  15 |  73 |
  |17th Lancers                    |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |Royal Artillery                 |   2 |   6 |  11 |  37 |
  |Roy. Engineers                  |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |71st High. L.I.                 |   1 |   1 |   9 |  15 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders       |   - |   1 |   3 |  14 |
  |83rd R. Irish Rifles            |   2 |   1 |   7 |  28 |
  |86th R. Irish Rifles            |   1 |  10 |  26 | 109 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers          |   - |   2 |   7 |  54 |
  |95th Derbys                     |   2 |   7 |   4 |  37 |
  |3rd Madras Eur. (2nd Innis. F.) |   - |   - |   3 |  12 |
  |3rd Bomb. Eur. (2nd Leinst.)    |   - |   6 |  17 |  92 |
  |30th Gordon's Horse             |   - |   1 |   7 |  18 |
  |31st Lancers                    |   1 |   4 |   6 |  19 |
  |32nd Lancers                    |   1 |   3 |   3 |  12 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry         |   - |   2 |   4 |  15 |
  |2nd Q.O. Sap. and Miners        |   1 |   4 |   6 |  29 |
  |3rd Sappers and Miners          |   - |   1 |   2 |  11 |
  |44th Merwara Infantry           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |61st Pioneers                   |   - |   - |   2 |   5 |
  |79th Carnatic Infantry          |   - |   4 |   3 |  27 |
  |96th Berar Inf.                 |   2 |   1 |  14 |  22 |
  |98th Infantry                   |   - |   1 |   7 |  32 |
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles        |   - |   1 |   5 |  13 |
  |110th Mahratta L.I.             |   - |   1 |   2 |  22 |
  |112th Infantry                  |   1 |   1 |   3 |   6 |
  |113th Infantry                  |   - |   - |   2 |  14 |
  |124th Baluchis                  |   - |   1 |  12 |  20 |
  |125th Napier's Rifles           |   2 |   6 |  11 |  37 |
  +--------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Then we have Sir Hugh Rose commanding two brigades, the one under
the same Brigadier C. S. Stuart, the other under Colonel Stewart,
of the 14th Hussars. His first act was to relieve Saugor, then
defended by the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry. A Madras
column had been toiling up to effect this, but General Whitlock
was impeded by many obstacles. In April Sir Hugh carried Jhansi by
storm; in May Calpee was taken; and then the General was reinforced
by a column from the north, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir
Robert Napier (afterwards Lord Napier of Magdala). In June Gwalior
was recaptured, and with this the real operations of the Central
India Field Force came to an end, though the appearance in the
field of a rebel General, Tantia Topee, and the assumption of
the title of Peishwa by the notorious Nana Sahib compelled the
Commander-in-Chief once more to organize a number of flying
columns, whose work procured for the regiments which composed them
the battle honour "Central India."

I have found it an impossible task to ascertain the losses suffered
by some of the regiments. The casualties given in the table on p.
331 show, however, that the distinction "Central India" was not
earned without hard fighting.


DEFENCE OF ARRAH--BEHAR, 1857.

These two distinctions are the peculiar property of the 45th
Rattray's Sikhs, and demand a passing notice.

When the Mutiny broke out, there was but one British regiment in
the long stretch of nearly a thousand miles between Calcutta and
Lucknow--the 10th Foot, at Dinapore. Here, too, was a large native
garrison--the 7th, 8th, and 40th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.
Dinapore is the military cantonment of the city of Patna, the
hot-bed then of Wahabiism, with a population of 150,000, of whom
some 38,000 were Mussulmen. It is the capital, too, of the province
of Behar, the centre then of the indigo trade, and the home of a
number of English planters--gentlemen and sportsmen, whose sporting
instincts stood England in good stead in that hour of trial.

The General at Dinapore had plenty of warning as to the temper of
his troops and of the neighbouring population, but no measures
were taken to deal with the crisis; and when the sepoy garrison
mutinied, the men were allowed to leave the station unmolested. A
few hours later a feeble attempt was made to follow them up, but
the detachment of the 10th (Lincolns) returned to Dinapore, having
failed to overtake the mutineers. These marched at once on Arrah, a
civil station, the head of the railway engineers, some twenty-five
miles distant. There, fortunately, were a handful of Englishmen
unfettered by red tape. Herewald Wake, the Commissioner, and Vicars
Boyle, the railway engineer, had foreseen the coming storm, and,
to meet it, had converted the billiard-room in Boyle's garden into
a little fort, in which ammunition and provisions had been stored.
Its garrison consisted of sixteen Englishmen, one Moslem gentleman,
and fifty men of Rattray's newly-raised regiment of Sikhs.

On the 27th the Dinapore garrison--three regiments of sepoys,
reinforced by a disaffected Rajput, Rajah Kunwar Singh, who
possessed two pieces of artillery--appeared on the scene, and
demanded the surrender of the treasure. On that day the siege
commenced in earnest.

Two days afterwards the Brigadier at Dinapore sent out a
force, consisting of some men of the 10th (Lincolns) and 37th
(Hampshires), to relieve Arrah. The affair was mismanaged from
the outset, and the column was driven back with heavy loss.
Fortunately, there was a man at hand capable of dealing with
the situation. Major Vincent Eyre, of the Bengal Artillery, was
bringing up his battery to the aid of Havelock, and, hearing of
the distress of the little garrison in Arrah, he undertook its
relief. With but 150 men of the Northumberland Fusiliers, 40
of his own battery, and 18 gallant planters, who for the nonce
converted themselves into a corps of cavalry, he attacked the
besieging force, and after a sharp fight was enabled to bring off
the garrison without loss. The siege lasted but five days, but the
devotion of the 45th Sikhs and the gallantry of Vicars Boyle and
Herewald Wake stand out in striking contrast to the supineness of
the military authorities at Dinapore.

For many months subsequently the 45th were employed in hunting
down rebels in the province of Behar, unsupported by any British
troops, and for these services, in which the men were exposed to
many attempts on their fidelity, the 45th bear the word "Behar"
on their colours and appointments. Their losses during these
operations were unusually severe, 2 British officers and 43 of all
ranks having been killed or died of wounds, and 1 native officer
and 75 other ranks having been wounded.

It is impossible to close this chapter without adverting to the
injustice meted out in the distribution of the battle honours
for the Indian Mutiny. Every regiment that served on the line of
communications in Afghanistan or in South Africa has been granted
a battle honour. The regiments which maintained peace in the
Punjab, which disarmed mutinous soldiery, which hunted down rebels
in Lower India, have been denied all share in the distinctions
granted for the Mutiny. The Inniskilling Fusiliers at Peshawar,
the 24th (South Wales Borderers) at Jhelum, the 81st (Loyal North
Lancashire) at Lahore, the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry) at
Azimghur, all contributed to the maintenance of our hold on India,
and many of these regiments suffered severely in action.[25] It is
not too much to say that, had it not been for the 81st at Lahore,
we should never have held the Punjab. The conduct of this regiment
at the disarming of the native garrison at Meean Meer was one of
the finest feats in those dark days. Again, what are we to think
of the failure to recognize the conduct of the 31st (now the 2nd
Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry) at Saugor, where they defended a
large number of Englishwomen and children? There was no stiffening
of British bayonets, as at Lucknow or at Cawnpore, but there were a
number of British officers who had earned the confidence of their
men; and when the mutinous 42nd Bengal Infantry endeavoured to
seduce the then 31st Bengal Infantry from their duty, the answer
was not merely a refusal, but the regiment, under its own native
officers, sallied out from the fort at Saugor, attacked their
mutinous _bhaibunds_, drove them off in confusion, and captured a
couple of guns. For the defence of Arrah by one weak company, the
45th Sikhs bear on their colours the honour "Defence of Arrah." Was
the defence of Saugor one whit less deserving of reward?


VICTORIA CROSSES FOR THE MUTINY.

  Queen's Bays                  2
  7th Hussars                   2
  8th Hussars                   5
  9th Lancers                  12
  14th Hussars                  1
  17th Lancers                  1
  Royal Artillery              19
  Royal Engineers               8
  Northumberland Fusiliers      3
  10th (Lincolns)               3
  13th (Somerset L.I.)          2
  23rd (Royal Welsh Fus.)       2
  32nd (Cornwall L.I.)          4
  34th (Border Regiment)        1
  42nd (Royal Highlanders)      8
  43rd Light Infantry           1
  52nd (Oxford L.I.)            2
  53rd (Shropshires)            5
  60th (King's Royal Rifles)    8
  61st (Gloucesters)            1
  64th (North Staffords)        1
  71st (Highland L.I.)          1
  72nd (Seaforth H'landers)     1
  75th (Gordons)                3
  78th (Ross-shire Buffs)       8
  84th (York and Lancaster)     6
  86th (Royal Irish Rifles)     4
  90th Light Infantry           6
  93rd (Highlanders)            7
  95th (Derbyshires)            1
  101st (Royal Munsters)        4
  102nd (Royal Dublin Fus.)     4
  103rd (Royal Munster Fus.)    1
  109th (Royal Leinster)        1
  Rifle Brigade                 3



CHAPTER XXI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN CHINA, 1842-1900

Chinese War of 1840-1842--Canton--China, 1857-1860--Taku
Forts--Pekin--China, 1900--Pekin, 1900.


CHINA, 1840 (WITH THE DRAGON).

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which participated
in the first China War, under Sir Hugh (afterwards Lord) Gough, and
is borne by the

  Royal Irish.
  Cameronians.
  Border Regiment.
  Royal Berkshires.
  North Staffords.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  62nd Punjabis.
  66th Punjabis.
  74th Punjabis.

The first China War, generally known as the "Opium War," while not
entailing any very severe fighting, cost us many hundred lives,
owing to the neglect of the most elementary precautions on the part
of the officials who were responsible for the fitting out of the
expedition. The actual _casus belli_ was the refusal of the Chinese
Government to permit the importation of opium into the Empire.
British merchants had been in the habit of importing the drug from
India, and large fortunes had been amassed in this trade. When
the edict was issued, there were large stocks of the drug in the
warehouses of our fellow-countrymen, and its seizure entailed, it
is said, a loss of £3,000,000. The British Commissioner on the spot
insisted on the right of disposing of the opium, but the Chinese
authorities put this beyond a doubt by destroying the forbidden
article. We then demanded compensation, which was refused, and
a force was despatched from India to enforce satisfaction and
pecuniary compensation. This consisted of the 18th (Royal Irish),
the 26th (Cameronians), and the 49th (Royal Berkshires), with a
battalion of Bengal infantry, composed of volunteers from the whole
of the Bengal army. Chusan was occupied with but little loss, and
the Viceroy of the province sued for peace. Terms were arranged,
the Chinese ceding Hong-Kong and paying an indemnity of 6,000,000
dollars. Grave doubts were felt as to the permanence of this
arrangement, and our troops occupied certain points in the country.
No efforts were made to provide them with suitable clothing or
food, and the mortality was appalling, the Cameronians losing no
less than 286 men between July 1, 1840, and January 1, 1841.

Early in 1841, weary of the vacillation of the Chinese, the
British Government sent out considerable reinforcements, and
Lieutenant-General Sir Hugh Gough was placed in supreme command.
His little army was thus composed:

  First Brigade--Major-General Lord Saltoun: 26th (Cameronians),
  98th (North Staffords), and Bengal Volunteers.

  Second Brigade--Major-General Schoedde: 55th (Border Regiment),
  2nd (now the 62nd), 6th (now the 66th), and 37th Regiments of
  Madras Native Infantry.

  Third Brigade--Major-General Bartley: 18th (Royal Irish), 49th
  (Royal Berkshires), and 14th (now the 74th) Madras Infantry.

Early in May, 1841, the forts at the entrance of the Canton River
were bombarded and captured. The fleet then passed up the river,
and on May 24 Canton itself was taken, after slight resistance, our
losses being 14 killed and 91 of all ranks wounded. In the month of
August Amoy was occupied, and in October Chusan was reoccupied, our
losses being an officer and 19 men killed and wounded.

The winter of 1841-42 was spent in fruitless negotiation, and with
the opening of the spring Sir Hugh Gough recommenced operations.
In March, 1842, Ningpo was taken, and in the month of May Chapoo
was captured, after a sharp fight, in which our losses were 6
officers and 51 of all ranks killed and wounded. In the month of
July the fleet pushed up the Yangtse Kiang River, with a view of
showing the Chinese that we could and we would reach the very heart
of their country. A more determined resistance was met with at
Ching-Kiang-Foo, which was carried with a loss of 13 officers and
111 of all ranks. This broke the back of the war-party. Emissaries
came in suing for peace. The fresh terms included a war indemnity
of 21,000,000 dollars and the opening of a number of ports to free
and unrestricted trade.


LIST OF CASUALTIES.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |18th Roy. Irish |   2 |   6 |   8 |  73 |
  |26th Camer'ians |   2 |   2 |   6 |  24 |
  |49th R. Berks   |   1 |   8 |   7 |  49 |
  |55th Borders    |   1 |   3 |   5 |  40 |
  |98th N. Staffs  |   - |   - |  13 |   1 |
  |62nd Punjabis   |   - |   3 |   1 |   8 |
  |66th Punjabis   |   - |   1 |   1 |  11 |
  |74th Punjabis   |   - |   1 |   1 |  13 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The little army was well rewarded for its arduous services,
and the following list of honours conferred for the China War
of 1840-1842 effectually dispels the legend that the lavish
distribution of rewards for military services is a product of
the later Victorian era. Sir Hugh Gough was created a Baronet,
the three Brigadiers received the Knighthood of the Bath, three
officers were made Aides-de-Camp to Queen Victoria, twenty-nine
received the Companionship of the Bath, eight were made Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonels, and thirteen received the Brevet of Major. The
young Queen was graciously pleased to allow the East India Company
to strike a medal commemorative of the campaign, and officers and
men of her regiments were authorized to wear this decoration. At
the same time Her Majesty expressed her opinion that in future
medals should only be granted by the Sovereign, and that it should
not be left to a company of "merchant venturers" trading to the
East Indies to issue decorations to her soldiers.


CANTON (1858).

This distinction was conferred on the 59th Foot (now the East
Lancashire Regiment) for its services when holding the city of
Canton during the second Chinese War of 1857-1860.

The terms of the treaty entered into after the war of 1842 had
never been faithfully observed by the Chinese. At last the seizure
of a vessel called the _Arrow_, flying the British flag, compelled
us to demand reparation. This was contemptuously refused, and in
the early spring of 1857 a force was despatched from England to
enforce respect to our flag. The outbreak of the Indian Mutiny
necessitated the diversion of the regiments from China to India,
so the punishment was delayed. General Straubenzee was then in
command of the troops in China, which consisted of the 59th (East
Lancashires), four battalions of sepoys, and a couple of battalions
of Royal Marine Light Infantry.

Sir Michael Seymour, the naval Commander-in-Chief, who was in
supreme command of the naval and military forces, was acting in
conjunction with a French brigade, and it was deemed advisable
to seize Canton with the available forces, rather than allow
the Chinese to strengthen its defences, and so increase the
difficulties of capture.

In the month of January, 1858, the Admiral, after consultation
with General Straubenzee, determined to attempt the capture of
Canton. The force at his disposal consisted of the 59th (East
Lancashires), two strong battalions of Royal Marines, and a brigade
of bluejackets numbering 1,800 men. This force was placed under
the command of Major-General Straubenzee. The Chinese showed
considerable determination, but the energy and gallantry of our
bluejackets carried all before them, and Canton was occupied,
with a total loss of 2 officers and 14 men killed, 4 officers and
112 men wounded, the 59th (East Lancashires) contributing to the
casualty list 2 officers and 2 men killed, 1 officer and 17 men
wounded.


CHINA (1857-1860).

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which took part
in the operations in China during the years 1857-1860, and is now
borne by the following corps of the Indian Army:

  7th Rajputs.
  10th Jats.
  11th Rajputs.
  15th Sikhs.
  22nd Punjabis.
  27th Punjabis.
  105th Mahratta L.I.

The necessity for putting forth our whole strength in the
suppression of the rebellion in India led, as I have said on p.
321, to a temporary cessation of the military operations in China.
Lord Elgin, who had been deputed by the Home Government to carry
through the negotiations, was naturally anxious to do so without
the effusion of blood. He had a considerable naval force at his
disposal, and a number of native troops had been sent from India,
more with a view of removing them from the sphere of temptation
than with the intention of their carrying out serious military
operations.

In 1858 the Chinese Commissioners agreed to our demands that the
treaty of peace between the two nations should be concluded at
Pekin; but on realizing that Lord Elgin was determined to carry
out this clause, every obstacle was thrown in his way. Finally,
when Sir Frederick Bruce attempted to pass up the Peiho River, he
was fired on, and three of our gunboats sunk. The Indian Mutiny
was now at an end, and Sir Hope Grant, who as a cavalry leader
had gained great distinction in its suppression, was nominated to
the chief command of the China Expeditionary Force. Sir Hope had
a double claim to this distinction, for he had acted as Brigade
Major to Lord Saltoun in the war of 1840-42. It was very evident
from the tone of the correspondence of the Chinese Commissioners
that all memory of the defeats they had experienced in the war
of 1840-1842 had been effaced. Our Envoys were treated with
supercilious disdain, and we were gravely warned of the dangers we
were incurring in thus treating the Celestial Empire. In reply to
our ultimatum they wrote:

"The contents of the letter of the English Envoy fills us with the
greatest astonishment, and the demand for an indemnity is against
all decorum. The language in which the English letter is couched is
too insubordinate and extravagant even to be discussed. In future
the British Ambassador must not be so wanting in decorum, or he
will give cause for serious trouble."

In face of such language as this, it was evident that nothing short
of a sharp lesson inflicted at the capital itself would teach this
irrepressible people the power of our arms, and preparations were
at once made for the final advance of the troops, under Sir Hope
Grant.


CASUALTIES DURING THE OPERATIONS IN CHINA, 1858-1861.

  +-----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                 |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                 |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |7th Rajputs      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |10th Jats        |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |15th Sikhs       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |22nd Punjabis    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |27th Punjabis    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |105th Mahr. L.I. |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +-----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  NOTE.--I have been unable to ascertain the losses of the Sepoy
  battalions during the occupation of the Chinese Ports, 1857-62.


CHINESE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE OF 1860.

The army, under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Hope Grant,
which was to act in conjunction with a French force, numbered some
16,000 all told, and was brigaded as under:

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General Pattle (King's Dragoon
  Guards): King's Dragoon Guards, 11th Probyn's Lancers, 19th
  Fane's Horse.

  First Infantry Division--Major-General Sir John Mitchell, K.C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General Staveley, C.B.: The Royal Scots,
  31st (East Surrey Regiment), and 15th Ludhiana Sikhs.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Sutton: 2nd (Queen's), 60th
  (King's Royal Rifles), and 23rd Sikh Pioneers.

  Second Division--Major-General Sir Robert Napier, K.C.B.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General Jephson: The Buffs, 44th (Essex
  Regiment), and 20th Brownlow's Punjabis.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General Reeves: 67th (Hampshires), 99th
  (Wiltshires), and 19th Punjabis.

To each infantry division a field battery was attached, and a troop
of horse artillery acted with General Pattle's cavalry brigade.
At the immediate disposal of the Commander-in-Chief were three
field and two mountain batteries, a battalion of Sikhs, a company
of Royal Engineers, under that fine soldier the late Sir Gerald
Graham, who had recently gained the Victoria Cross for a series of
acts of gallantry in the Crimea, and with him were two companies of
the Madras Sappers and Miners.

The 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) were left to garrison Hong-Kong,
whilst other points on the coast were occupied by native troops
from Bengal and Madras.


TAKU FORTS (AUGUST 12, 1860).

This battle honour was awarded to the regiments which assaulted the
Taku Forts at the commencement of the second phase of the Chinese
War of 1860:

  King's Own Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  East Surrey.
  Essex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Hampshire.
  11th Probyn's Horse.
  19th Fane's Horse.
  2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  23rd Pioneers.

Early in June, 1860, the force, under Sir Hope Grant, disembarked
in Talien-Wan Bay, where the 99th (Wiltshire) and the 19th Punjabis
were left to hold the base, whilst preparations were made for the
advance on Pekin. The first objective was the capture of the Taku
Forts, at the entrance of the Peiho River--the forts which had
inflicted such a serious blow to our prestige in the previous year.
On August 20 these were carried by storm by Napier's division,
the colours of the 44th and the 67th being almost simultaneously
placed on the ramparts by Lieutenants Rogers and Chaplin of those
regiments. Both of these officers received the Victoria Cross for
their heroism, both having been badly wounded in their gallant dash
for the prize of honour.


CASUALTIES AT THE STORMING OF THE TAKU FORTS.

  +------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery   |   - |   2 |   - |  15 |
  |2nd Queen's       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |3rd Buffs         |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |31st E. Surrey    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |44th Essex        |   - |   2 |  10 |  50 |
  |Royal Marine L.I. |   - |   5 |   1 |  24 |
  |67th Hampshire    |   - |   8 |   6 |  63 |
  +------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


PEKIN (OCTOBER 12, 1860).

This battle honour is borne by the regiments which accompanied
General Sir Hope Grant to Pekin during the second Chinese War of
1860:

  King's Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's R.W. Surrey.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Hampshire.
  Wiltshire.
  11th K.E.O. Lancers (Probyn's Horse).
  19th Lancers (Fane's Horse).
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  23rd Pioneers.

After the fall of the Taku Forts, the Chinese Envoys made every
effort to induce Sir Hope Grant to forgo his march on the capital,
but both the English and the French commanders felt this was a
point that could not be waived. In the course of the negotiations
some members of the Staff were seized by the Chinese, and, after
undergoing the most brutal torture, were foully murdered. Such
conduct merely emphasized the necessity for the occupation of the
capital, and on October 5 the allied armies entered Pekin, having
experienced but slight opposition during the advance, the survivors
of the little band who had been so treacherously captured having
been previously released.


OTHER CASUALTIES IN ACTION DURING THE MARCH TO PEKIN.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |K. Drag. Gds.          |   - |   1 |   1 |  10 |
  |2nd Queen's.           |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |3rd Buffs              |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |11th Probyn L.         |   - |   2 |   4 |  16 |
  |19th Fane's H.         |   - |   2 |   3 |  24 |
  |20th Brownlow's Punjs. |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |23rd Pioneers          |   - |   1 |   1 |   8 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CHINA, 1900.

This distinction is borne by the regiments which took part in the
expedition to China in the year 1900, under the command of General
Sir Alfred Gaselee, in conjunction with the allied army, which
was entrusted to the supreme command of Field-Marshal the Count
Waldersee, a German officer of distinction.

  15th Cavalry.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  1st K.E.O. Sappers and Min.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Min.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  6th Jat. Light Infantry.
  14th Sikhs.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  34th Pioneers.
  57th Wilde's Rifles.
  61st Pioneers.
  63rd Light Infantry.
  88th Carnatic Infantry.
  91st Punjabis.
  98th Infantry.
  122nd Rajputana Infantry.
  130th Baluchis.
  4th Gurkhas.

Anti-dynastic and anti-Christian troubles had been rife in China
for some time previous to the Boxer Rising of 1900. Little is
really known of the Boxers, except that they formed a secret
society, having as their object the extermination of all Christians
and the overthrow of the existing dynasty. The murder of some
English missionaries in the neighbourhood of the capital and a
general sense of insecurity led the various foreign Ministers in
Pekin to call up a mixed force of Marines and bluejackets from the
allied fleets in Chinese waters for the defence of the Embassies.
This step was replied to by the Chinese by the murder of the German
Minister and a general attack on the Embassies, which for a period
of eight weeks were exposed to one of the closest sieges of modern
times. Thanks to the gallantry of the British Minister, Major Sir
Claude Macdonald--a soldier who had served his apprenticeship
in that excellent regiment the Highland Light Infantry, and who
was unanimously nominated to the supreme command of the little
garrison, numbering only 400 officers and men--the Legations,
though hard pressed, were enabled to hold out until assistance
arrived.

In June, 1900, on learning of the precarious situation of the
Legations, Admiral Seymour, commanding our fleet in Chinese waters,
and the senior of the foreign Admirals, essayed to march to their
relief with a mixed force of 2,000 seamen and Marines from the
various fleets. His little force included Americans, Austrians,
French, German, Italian, and Russians, as well as our own men, our
contingent numbering close on half the total. The Admiral found
his force too small to cope with the hordes of Boxers, and he was
compelled to make a stand at Tientsin. In the meantime the European
Powers, together with Japan, were hastily despatching troops for
the double relief of the Legations and of the Admiral. On June 16
the allied fleets bombarded and seized the Taku Forts, as well
as the Chinese flotilla, the torpedo-boats built by the Germans
for the Chinese fleet being gallantly cut out from under the guns
of the forts by a young English Lieutenant, Roger Keyes. By the
beginning of August the Indian brigades, under Sir Alfred Gaselee,
reached the mouth of the Peiho, and after a series of small
engagements pushed its way up to Pekin, and on August 14 the relief
of the beleaguered Legations was accomplished.


PEKIN, 1900.

This honour was awarded to the regiments which accompanied General
Sir Alfred Gaselee to the relief of the beleaguered Embassies in
Pekin, when besieged by Chinese during the Boxer Rising of 1900:

  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  1st Duke of York's Own Lancers.
  7th Rajputs.
  51st Sikhs.
  24th Punjabis.

I have given on p. 344 the names of the regiments which are
entitled to bear the distinction "China, 1900," on their colours
and appointments. It is difficult to fathom the reasoning which has
denied this distinction to the regiments which accompanied General
Gaselee to Pekin. As well deny a regiment the honour "Sevastopol"
because it had been already granted one for the Alma. Sir Alfred
Gaselee's task was no easy one. The relieving force was composed of
many nationalities, and international jealousies were not unknown.
Some of the allied commanders were desirous of delaying the advance
until the arrival of the whole of their contingents. Gaselee and
General Chaffee, the chief of the American contingents, set their
faces against this. The lives of women and children were at stake,
and the English General let it be distinctly understood that he was
going to march on a certain day, whatever the others might decide.
The Americans and the Japanese were one with him. On August 14 the
relieving force started.

  +---------------+--------+-------+
  |_International_| _Men._ |_Guns._|
  |   _Force._    |        |       |
  +---------------+--------+-------+
  |Japanese       | 10,000 |   24  |
  |Russians       |  4,000 |   16  |
  |British        |  3,000 |   12  |
  |U.S.A.         |  2,000 |    6  |
  |French         |    800 |   12  |
  |Germans        |     20 |    -  |
  |Austrians      |    100 |    -  |
  +---------------+--------+-------+

  +----------------------+-------+
  |  _British Force._    | _Men._|
  +----------------------+-------+
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers |  300  |
  |1st Bengal Lancers    |  400  |
  |7th Rajputs           |  500  |
  |24th Punjabis         |  300  |
  |51st Sikhs            |  500  |
  |Chinese Regiment      |  100  |
  |Hong-Kong Regiment    |  100  |
  |Naval Brigade         |  300  |
  +----------------------+-------+

Little resistance was met with, and on August 20 General Gaselee
had the satisfaction of learning that, thanks to his decision,
the lives of the beleaguered garrison of the Legations had been
saved. The force he took with him was dangerously small, but he
had been compelled to leave a strong detachment, under Generals
O'Moore Creagh and Lorne Campbell, to guard his long line of
communications, as well as to leave garrisons at Hong-Kong and
Shanghai, where there was a considerable amount of anti-Christian
feeling. Originally his brigades had been organized as under:

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General Sir Norman Stewart: 7th Rajputs,
  24th Punjabis, 51st Sikhs, and 126th Baluchis.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General O'Moore Creagh, V.C.: 2nd
  Queen's Own Light Infantry, 14th Sikhs, 1st Battalion 4th
  Gurkhas, and 130th (Prince of Wales's Own) Baluchis.

  Lines of Communications--Brigadier-General Lorne Campbell: 63rd
  Palamcottah Light Infantry and 122nd Rajputana Infantry.

  Divisional Troops: 1st Bengal Lancers, 61st Pioneers, and two
  batteries of artillery.

Sir Norman Stewart, as the second senior officer, and as the one
who had the widest experience of war, was selected by General
Gaselee to command the brigade which was to have the honour of
relieving the garrisons.



CHAPTER XXII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1806-1879.

Cape of Good Hope, 1806--South Africa, 1835--South Africa,
1846-47--South Africa, 1851-1853--South Africa, 1877-1879.


CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 1806.

This distinction has been conferred on the following regiments:

  South Wales Borderers.
  East Lancashire.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Sutherland Highlanders.

Before touching on the capture of the Cape in 1804, it will be
advisable briefly to allude to the previous capture in 1795.

When Holland threw in her lot with revolutionary France, the Cape
became a subsidiary base for the French fleets, which put in there
for provisions and water, as well as for refit. As the islands of
Rodriguez, Bourbon, and Mauritius belonged to France, it became
necessary for the safety of our Indian possessions that we should
seize all those points which were detrimental to the preservation
of the trade route to India. The reduction of the French islands
necessitated the employment of a force larger than we at that time
could dispose of, but the Dutch settlements presented no such
difficulties. It was therefore determined to despatch a joint naval
and military expedition from England, which should be reinforced by
troops from India.

Admiral Sir Keith Elphinstone was selected for the naval command,
his force consisting of the _Monarch_ (74 guns), _Tremendous_
(74), _America_ (64), _Stately_ (64), _Ruby_ (64), _Sceptre_ (64),
_Trident_ (64), _Jupiter_ (50), _Crescent_ (50), _Sphinx_ (24), and
_Moselle_ (16). Major-General Craig embarked on the fleet with the
78th Highlanders, having instructions to pick up the St. Helena
Regiment at that island. Detachments of the 25th and 27th Light
Dragoons also embarked, the idea being to horse them on arrival at
the Cape.

Commodore Blanket, then commanding the fleet in the East Indies,
had instructions to proceed south to co-operate with the Admiral,
and he was to convoy a force under the command of Sir Alured
Clarke, composed of the 84th, 95th, and 98th Regiments. Leaving
Spithead in the _Monarch_ on April 5, Elphinstone arrived at
the Cape on July 11, and Craig at once disembarked his troops.
Desultory skirmishing took place with the Boers until September 3,
when the Indian contingent arrived. The Dutch, seeing the futility
of further resistance, surrendered. In the meantime Elphinstone
had taken possession of the Dutch fleet of eight fine ships--the
_Dordrecht_ (66 guns), _Revolution_ (66), _Admiral Tromp_ (54),
_Castor_ (44), _Brave_ (40), _Bellona_ (28), _Sirene_ (28), and
_Havik_ (18). The total casualties amounted to 9 men killed, 3
officers and 53 men wounded, and fell, as will be seen, chiefly on
the force commanded by General Craig.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE IN 1795.

  +---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                           |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                           |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |78th Seaforth Highlanders  |   - |   2 |   6 |  24 |
  |84th York and Lancaster    |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Navy                 |   - |   1 |   3 |  15 |
  |98th (now Argyll Highlrs.) |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |95th                       |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  +---------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 1806.

In accordance with our time-honoured Parliamentary custom, the
Cape, which had been captured in 1795, was restored, by the terms
of the Treaty of Amiens, to the Dutch, thus necessitating its
recapture on the renewal of the war in 1803. It was known that
efforts had been made to render this more difficult, and therefore
it was determined to employ a larger force. The command of the
troops was entrusted to Sir David Baird, a soldier who had shown
conspicuous gallantry on several occasions in India, and who had
displayed considerable resource when in command of the Indian
division of the Egyptian Expeditionary Army in 1801. With him was
associated Admiral Sir Home Popham, whose squadron, comprised
the _Diadem_, _Raisonnable_, _Belliqueux_, _Diomed_, _Leda_,
_Narcissus_, _Espoir_, and _Encounter_.

The troops forming the expedition were the 20th Hussars; a Highland
brigade, under Brigadier Ronald Fergusson, an officer who had
distinguished himself as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 84th at the
capture of the Cape in 1795, and had added to that reputation by
his conduct in Flanders under Abercromby. This brigade consisted
of the 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 72nd (Seaforths), and
93rd (Sutherland Highlanders). The Second Brigade, under General
Beresford, afterwards the well-known commander of the Portuguese
army in the Peninsular War, under Wellington, consisted of the 24th
(South Wales Borderers), the 38th (South Staffords), 59th (East
Lancashires), and the 83rd (Royal Irish Rifles).

On January 7 the troops were landed, General Beresford, with
the 20th Hussars and the South Staffords, being sent round to
Saldanha Bay to effect a diversion, his brigade being handed over
to Colonel Baird, of the 83rd. In landing, the 93rd unfortunately
lost thirty-six men by the upsetting of a boat. On the following
day--January 8--the Dutch were driven from their entrenched
position on the Blue Mountain by the Highland Brigade, and on the
9th the General capitulated.

When the order was issued conferring this distinction on certain
of the regiments which had taken part in this expedition, the two
corps which were detached under Beresford were for some reason
omitted from the list. There would seem no reason why the 20th
Hussars and South Staffords should not now be allowed to assume the
honour. The casualties amounted to 15 killed and 189 wounded, and
fell chiefly on the Highland Brigade.


CASUALTIES AT THE CAPTURE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE IN 1806.

  +----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                            |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                            |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |24th S. Wales Borderers     |   1 |   - |   3 |  16 |
  |59th E. Lancs               |   - |   1 |   2 |   5 |
  |71st Highland L.I.          |   - |   2 |   6 |   7 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders   |   - |   2 |   2 |  36 |
  |83rd R. Irish R.            |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |93rd Sutherland Highlanders |   - |   5 |   2 |  57 |
  +----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SOUTH AFRICA, 1835.

This distinction is borne by the

  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.

Our difficulties at the Cape may be said to have commenced with its
first capture in 1795, and to have lasted until the conclusion of
peace with the Boers more than a century later. In the year 1819 we
had to embark on a campaign with the Kaffirs, and now, in the early
part of 1835, there was a general rising of the Kaffirs against
the European settlers in South Africa. Delagoa Bay was attacked,
the Portuguese Governor killed, and the fort captured. Our own
Colony was overrun, and it became necessary to use force against
force. The garrison of the Colony had been reduced to a dangerous
level. There were but three weak battalions of the line, one
company of artillery, and that fine old regiment the Cape Mounted
Rifles. Fortunately, we had as Governor a man well qualified to
deal with the crisis. Sir B. D'Urban was an officer who had acted
as Adjutant-General to Lord Beresford throughout the Peninsular
War, and he now had as his Adjutant-General Colonel Harry Smith,
subsequently known as the victor of Aliwal, and whose name will be
associated with a later war in South Africa.

Leaving the 98th (North Staffords) to garrison Cape Town, General
Sir B. D'Urban moved up the 72nd (Seaforths) to Grahamstown, then
held by a wing of the 75th (now the 1st Gordons). A laager was
constructed round Port Elizabeth, and the inhabitants formed into
battalions of irregulars, and placed under the command of regular
officers. A similar proceeding was adopted at Grahamstown, and in
April Colonel Harry Smith was ready to take the field. His force
did not number more than 3,000 men. It was composed of the 72nd
(Seaforths), Cape Mounted Rifles, some 1,500 mounted Boers, and two
weak battalions of armed Hottentots. Desultory fighting continued
for some weeks--indeed, it was not until the month of December that
a permanent peace was concluded, our frontiers being pushed still
farther to the north.


SOUTH AFRICA, 1846-47.

This distinction commemorates a long-forgotten campaign, and is
borne by the

  7th Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Scottish Rifles.
  Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

For some considerable time prior to the outbreak of hostilities our
relations with the Gaikas, a powerful tribe on the Natal frontier,
had been on the verge of breaking-point; and as no embargo was
placed on the importation of arms, it was foretold that as soon
as these gentry felt themselves strong enough a struggle for the
mastery was inevitable. In the early spring of 1846 the storm broke
by the Gaikas attacking a convoy of prisoners and releasing some
of their own tribesmen, and for a time Grahamstown was practically
besieged. There was but a small force in the Colony to make head
against the insurrection, but as the Boers had as much, if not
more, to lose at the hands of the Kaffirs, large numbers of them
were enrolled for defence. The Governor of the Colony was General
Sir Peregrine Maitland, and he promptly moved up to the front with
all the available troops. Fortunately, a transport conveying the
90th (Scottish Rifles) from Ceylon to England had put into Port
Elizabeth in distress, and the regiment was at once disembarked and
sent up to the front.

In April, Colonel Somerset, of the Cape Mounted Rifles, took the
field, with the 7th Dragoon Guards, the 91st (Argyll Highlanders),
and his own regiment, strengthened by some Burghers and Hottentot
levies, and on April 16 inflicted a sharp defeat on the enemy. The
6th (Royal Warwicks), 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers), 45th (Sherwood
Foresters), and the Rifle Brigade were successively sent out to
reinforce Sir Peregrine. In the early part of 1847 an advance was
made into the Amatole Bush, and after a few trifling skirmishes the
Gaikas sued for peace, and our frontier was pushed up to the Kei
River.


SOUTH AFRICA, 1851-52-53.

The following regiments are entitled to bear this distinction, for
which a medal was granted by an Army Order of November 21, 1854

  12th Lancers.
  Queen's Royal West Surrey.
  Royal Warwick.
  Suffolks.
  Royal Highlanders.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Highland Light Infantry.
  Argyll Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

Sandilli, the Gaika chief, had never reconciled himself to
accepting loyally the terms of the treaty entered into after the
war of 1847. In December, 1851, a party of the 45th (Sherwood
Foresters) was surprised and cut up, although we were supposed
to be at peace with the tribes. The Governor of the Colony, Sir
Harry Smith, was a man of energy, and one who knew the country
well, for he had been in actual command of the troops during the
war of 1835. Since then he had added to his reputation in India,
both in the Gwalior and Sikh Wars. He was not the man to sit down
tamely under such an insult. He at once proceeded to Grahamstown
to judge for himself the necessity of the case, and then wrote
home for reinforcements. Without waiting for these, he commenced
operations by an invasion of the Amatole Bush with two columns, the
one commanded by Colonel Fordyce, of the 74th, the other by Colonel
Mitchell; these operations were not unattended with loss, and
further movements in the Waterkloof Mountains cost the 74th their
Colonel and some thirty men.

In the autumn reinforcements commenced to arrive from England.
These included the same battalion of the Rifle Brigade which had
done so well in the previous campaign; but this time the Rifles
were armed with the Minié, a weapon which ranged up to 1,000 yards.
A few of the same weapons were served out to each company of the
other regiments, and though perhaps in close Bush fighting the
old Brown Bess was effective enough, yet, when it happened, which
it often did, that the Kaffirs were holding a position with open
country in its front, the long range of our weapons won the day
before our men began to suffer any loss.

The policy of Sir Harry Smith did not commend itself to the Home
Government, and in the early part of 1852 General Sir George
Cathcart was sent out to the Cape to replace him. Sir George had
earned a high reputation as a writer on military subjects, and
was an officer of considerable experience. He had acted on the
staff of his father, who was attached to the Russian army during
the campaign of Leipsic, as well as in that of 1813-14 against
Napoleon, and he had been Aide-de-Camp to the Duke of Wellington
at Waterloo. It was not until the commencement of 1853 that
Sandilli sued for peace, when Sir George Cathcart returned home.
He subsequently became Adjutant-General of the army, but resigned
that position to take command of a division in the Crimean War, and
he fell gallantly leading on his men at the Battle of Inkerman on
November 5, 1855.


SOUTH AFRICA, 1879.

The regiments entitled to bear this distinction on their colours
and appointments are the

  King's Dragoon Guards.
  17th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  King's Own Lancasters.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  Scottish Rifles.
  South Staffords.
  Northamptons.
  Middlesex.
  King's Own Royal Rifles.
  Wiltshires.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll Highlanders.

The campaign was undertaken with a view of punishing the Zulus,
a powerful tribe bordering our Colony of Natal, for continual
violations of our territory. The Zulus were undoubtedly the most
powerful tribe in Southern Africa, and on more than one occasion
they had defeated the Boers. We unfortunately entered on the
campaign with our usual contempt for the forces opposed to us.
The General in command was Major-General Lord Chelmsford, an
officer who had considerable war experience, and who had held the
highest staff appointments in India, both in war and in peace.
He had served in the Crimea, first as a regimental officer in
the Grenadier Guards, and subsequently on the staff. Exchanging
into the 95th (Derbyshire Regiment), he served with that fine old
corps in Central India, and in 1867 he was Adjutant-General to the
Abyssinian Expeditionary Force.

The invasion of Zululand was to have been carried out by five
columns, the Commander-in-Chief exercising a general supervision
of the whole, but at the outset moving with the two centre columns.

No. 1 column was under the command of Colonel Pearson, of the
Buffs, and consisted of the 2nd Battalion of the Buffs, the 99th
(Wiltshires), a strong naval brigade, and some native levies. It
numbered 4,750 men, with four guns.

No. 2 column was under the command of Colonel Durnford, of the
Royal Engineers. It consisted entirely of native levies, commanded
by British officers, and was 3,300 strong. Its commander had
considerable colonial experience, and was generally looked upon as
the best officer in South Africa for dealing with native questions.

No. 3 column was under the command of Colonel Glyn, of the 24th
(South Wales Borderers). It consisted of both battalions of that
unfortunate regiment, one of native levies, with six guns. Its
strength was 4,700 men.

No. 4 column was under Colonel (better known as Field-Marshal Sir
Evelyn) Wood, V.C., C.B., of the 90th (Scottish Rifles). He had
with him the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), his own corps, and
native levies, including a regiment of Frontier Light Horse, under
Colonel Redvers Buller, V.C., C.B. Its strength was 2,270 men, with
six guns. In composition and leadership there is no doubt that this
was the best organized of the five columns.

No. 5 column was under that exceptionally fine soldier Colonel
Hugh Rowlands, V.C. It consisted of the 80th (South Staffords),
with a number of native levies, bringing up its strength to 1,600
men, with three guns. The duty of this column was to watch the
western frontiers of Zululand, and to keep a watch over another
recalcitrant chieftain, Sekukuni, who had to be dealt with in the
near future.

The army crossed the frontier in three columns--No. 1, under
Pearson, following the easternmost road, near the sea, to Etshowe;
Nos. 3 and 4, with the Commander-in-Chief, crossing the Tugela
River at Rorke's Drift; whilst Sir Evelyn Wood took a more
northerly course. On January 22 Lord Chelmsford, leaving Colonel
Durnford at Isandhlwana, within the Zulu border, moved forward to
reconnoitre. No means were taken to keep touch with Durnford's
column, which was attacked by an overwhelming force of the enemy,
and the whole force annihilated, the 24th losing no less than 25
officers and 591 non-commissioned officers and men. To the credit
of the corps it must ever be remembered that not a man fell back;
all died at their post. The colours were borne away at the distinct
orders of the commanding officer by two young officers, Lieutenants
Coghill and Melville, whose dead bodies were found some days after
in the bed of the Tugela River, with the blood-stained standards
lying safe beside them. A few hours later the Zulus followed up
this success by a vigorous attack on the post at Rorke's Drift, on
the Tugela River, held by one company of the 24th. Its commander,
Lieutenant Bromhead, came of a famous fighting family, and he was
associated with a sapper officer, Lieutenant Chard. The post was
defended with unsurpassed heroism. After some hours the Zulus,
unable to stand against the accurate shooting of the 24th, fell
back, and so the communications with the Cape were maintained, and
the Commander-in-Chief, who, although within hearing of the firing,
was ignorant of the true state of affairs, was enabled to fall back
and to reorganize his army.

Colonels Pearson and Wood held on to their positions. Wood was
attacked on the 25th by the Zulus at Kambula, but beat them off
after a sharp engagement with but slight loss, his two regiments
showing themselves worthy of their high reputations as light
infantry corps.

Pearson, on the other hand, was shut up in Etshowe, and was only
relieved some days later by the Commander-in-Chief, who on his
march to Etshowe inflicted a defeat on the Zulus at Ginghelovo.

The news of the disaster to the 24th caused a strong sensation
in England. Reinforcements were hurried out to the Cape, and the
command of the forces entrusted to Sir Garnet Wolseley. On his
arrival in Natal he reorganized his army, which was now constituted
as under:


First Division: Major-General Hope Crealock.

  First Brigade--Brigadier C. Pearson: 2nd Battalion 3rd Buffs,
  88th (Connaught Rangers), and 99th (Wiltshires).

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General J. Mansfield Clarke: 57th
  (Middlesex), 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles, and 91st (Argyll
  Highlanders).

  Divisional Troops: Naval brigade (800 strong), ten mountain guns,
  one company of sappers, and two battalions of native troops.


Second Division: Major-General Newdigate.

  First Brigade--Colonel Glyn: 2nd Battalion 21st (Royal Scots
  Fusiliers) and the 58th (Northamptons).

  Second Brigade--Colonel Collingwood: 1st Battalion 24th (South
  Wales Borderers) and the 94th (Connaught Rangers).

  Divisional Troops: Three battalions of native levies, one company
  of Royal Engineers, and three batteries of artillery.

  Flying Column--Colonel Evelyn Wood, V.C., C.B.: 1st Battalion
  13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 90th (Scottish Rifles), 80th
  (South Staffords), Buller's Frontier Horse, and two squadrons of
  mounted infantry.

  Cavalry Brigade--Major-General Marshal: King's Dragoon Guards,
  17th Lancers, and native mounted troops.

  Lines of Communications--Major-General Hugh Clifford, V.C., C.B.:
  88th (Connaught Rangers) and details.

Before Sir Garnet Wolseley had time to arrive at headquarters, Lord
Chelmsford moved up from Ginghilovo, and defeated the Zulus in a
serious engagement at Ulundi. Our losses were trifling, those of
the enemy extremely heavy. With this defeat the active opposition
of the Zulus ceased, and Sir Garnet Wolseley at once organized a
number of flying columns to traverse the country and to effect the
capture of the King. This brought the war to a close.

Early in the following year Sir Garnet turned his attention to King
Sekukuni, whose stronghold was captured by a portion of the army
which had been engaged at Ulundi.

The troops who took part in the campaigns against the Zulus and
against Sekukuni were honoured by being awarded the South African
War Medal, with a clasp bearing the date "1879" or "1880," as the
case may be, and the regiments were authorized to add the words
"South Africa" to the other distinctions on their colours. If we
except the losses incurred by the 24th Regiment at Isandhlwana and
the cutting up of a company of the 80th (South Staffords), the
losses in the campaign were not of a very serious nature, as the
appended casualty return shows:


CASUALTIES IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1877-1879.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._         +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery              |   3 |   2 |  68 |   4 |
  |Roy. Engineers               |   1 |   - |   4 |   - |
  |K. Drag. Gds.                |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |17th Lancers                 |   1 |   3 |   1 |   4 |
  |Buffs                        |   - |   - |   3 |   3 |
  |4th King's Own               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |13th Somerset L.I.           |   1 |   2 |   8 |  28 |
  |2nd Batt. 21st Roy. Scots F. |   - |   4 |   3 |  24 |
  |1st Batt. S. Wales Bdrs.     |  16 |   - | 404 |   2 |
  |2nd Batt. S. Wales Bdrs.     |   5 |   - | 187 |   4 |
  |57th Middlesex               |   - |   1 |   - |   3 |
  |58th N'amptons               |   - |   2 |   1 |  10 |
  |3rd Batt. 60th Rifles        |   1 |   - |   1 |   5 |
  |80th S. Staffs.              |   1 |   - |  60 |   1 |
  |88th Connaught Rangers       |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |90th Scottish R.             |   2 |   3 |  15 |  46 |
  |91st Argyll Highlanders      |   - |   - |   1 |   8 |
  |94th Connaught Rangers       |   - |   2 |   2 |  22 |
  |99th Wilts                   |   1 |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |Naval Brigade                |   2 |   1 |   8 |  15 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XXIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ACTIONS

Jersey, 1781--Rodney's Victory of April 12, 1782--The Glorious
First of June, 1794--St. Vincent--Fishguard--Copenhagen--New
Zealand--Abyssinia--Ashantee.


JERSEY, 1781.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

  1st Royal Jersey Light Infantry.
  2nd Royal Jersey Light Infantry.
  3rd Royal Jersey Light Infantry.

It commemorates the gallant conduct of these three regiments in
repelling the French attack on that island in the year 1781. In the
early dawn of January 6 a French force, under the command of the
Baron de Rullecourt, made a sudden descent on the island of Jersey,
landing a short distance to the east of St. Helier, the capital.
Entering the town, they occupied the central square, and surrounded
the house of the Lieutenant-Governor, who was at once made a
prisoner. He was compelled to sign a capitulation of the island,
although he explained to the French commander that such an act
would, of course, be ignored by the next senior officer. However,
under cover of a flag of truce, the French commander, accompanied
by the unfortunate Governor, approached Elizabeth Castle, which
dominates the town of St. Helier, and demanded the surrender of the
garrison.

The troops at that time in the island, detachments of which were
in the castle, consisted of the 78th Highlanders, 83rd Glasgow
Volunteers (now the 71st Highland Light Infantry), and the 95th
Regiment (the forerunners of the Rifle Brigade), together with the
three regiments of Militia named above. The senior officer was
Major Pierson, of the 95th. So far from obeying the orders of the
Lieutenant-Governor, who, of course, being a prisoner, was deprived
of all vestige of authority, Major Pierson replied to the French
commander that unless the Governor was released and the French
troops laid down their arms within ten minutes he would open fire
on them. Rullecourt retorted that unless the castle accepted his
terms he would hang the Governor. It is said that Pierson's reply
was brief and to the point: "Hang, and be damned!" said he. The
French officer was allowed to rejoin his troops, then Pierson,
moving a couple of companies of the 78th to a hill on the opposite
side of St. Helier, which had not been occupied by the French,
descended into the square. The French made a brave resistance,
but at the end of an hour Rullecourt, who had been shot through
the jaw, surrendered. Our losses were by no means small, the most
serious being the death of the gallant Pierson, who fell at the
head of his men, and whose gallant conduct and heroic death are
commemorated by a monument in the square of St. Helier.


CASUALTIES IN JERSEY, JANUARY 6, 1781.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   1 |   - |   - |
  |78th Highlanders        |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |83rd Glasgow Volunteers |   - |   - |   6 |   8 |
  |95th Regiment           |   1 |   - |   2 |  13 |
  |1st R. Jersey L.I.      |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |2nd R. Jersey L.I.      |   - |   3 |   - |   6 |
  |3rd R. Jersey L.I.      |   - |   - |   4 |  24 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


A NAVAL CROWN, SUPERSCRIBED APRIL 12, 1782.

This distinction is borne by the Welsh Regiment in commemoration
of the part played by a detachment of the old 69th Regiment, which
were acting as Marines on the fleet in the action when Rodney
defeated De Grasse off the island of Martinique, taking the French
Admiral a prisoner, with his flagship, the _Ville de Paris_, of 120
guns.

The total losses in this engagement were 10 officers and 237 men
killed, 22 officers and 766 men wounded, the 69th losing 5 officers
and 29 men killed and wounded.


A NAVAL CROWN, SUPERSCRIBED JUNE 1, 1794.

This distinction was conferred on the Queen's (Royal West Surrey)
and the Worcester Regiment for their services when acting as
Marines on the ships composing Lord Howe's fleet in the memorable
action on the Glorious First of June. Our prizes included two
line-of-battle ships of eighty and four of seventy-four guns,
whilst the sinking of the _Vengeur_ afforded our adversaries
material for a pretty piece of fiction. The total losses in this
battle were 15 officers and 235 men killed, 39 officers and 669 men
wounded. To this total the regiments above mentioned contributed as
under:


CASUALTIES ON JUNE 1, 1794.

  +--------------+-----------+-----------+
  |              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  | The Queen's  |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  | Worcesters   |   1 |   1 |  11 |  24 |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ST. VINCENT, FEBRUARY 14, 1797.

This battle honour has been conferred on the Welsh Regiment in
recognition of the services of a detachment of this regiment,
under Lieutenant Pierson, when acting as Marines in Lord Nelson's
ship, the _Captain_, at the battle which gave Sir John Jervis his
peerage. The gallantry of a sergeant of the 69th, who smashed
in the quarter gallery of the Spanish flag-ship, was specially
mentioned by Nelson, who also begged to be allowed to retain the
services of Lieutenant Pierson on board his ship.[26]


FISHGUARD, FEBRUARY 24, 1797.

This distinction is borne on the appointments of the Pembrokeshire
Yeomanry, and, with the exception of "Jersey, 1781," borne on the
colours of the three regiments of Jersey Militia, is the only
battle honour granted for services in the United Kingdom. It
recognizes the promptitude with which that regiment turned out to
repel an incursion of French troops on the coast of Pembrokeshire
on the date above mentioned. Strangely enough, in the despatches
in which Lord Cawdor, the senior officer on the spot, and Lord
Milford, the Lord-Lieutenant of the county, report the circumstance
to the Duke of Portland, the Prime Minister, no mention whatever
is made of the Yeomanry being present. Lord Cawdor wrote that,
hearing that three French ships of war and a lugger had anchored in
a small roadstead near Fishguard, he at once proceeded to the spot
"with a detachment of the Cardigan Militia and all the provincial
forces" he could collect. He found that 120 men had disembarked,
and in the course of the evening the French commandant surrendered
unconditionally. Lord Milford, the Lord-Lieutenant of the county,
reported that "before the troops arrived many thousands of the
peasantry turned out, armed with pikes and scythes, to attack the
enemy." It does not appear that any shots were exchanged, or that
Monsieur Tate, Chef-de-Brigade, made any effort to regain his ships
or to oppose the armed peasantry who were ready to attack him. The
name Tate has not a very Gallic flavour. One of the French ships,
_La Résistance_, was captured on March 9 by H.M.S.

_Nymphe_, and brought into the navy under her new name _Fishguard_,
thus connecting the navy with her battle honour.


1800.

This distinction is borne on the appointments of the King's Own
Malta Regiment of Militia, and has been awarded to that corps for
its services during the defence of the island against the French.


COPENHAGEN, APRIL 2, 1801.

This distinction has been conferred on the Berkshire Regiment and
the Rifle Brigade for the services they rendered as Marines on
the fleet under Sir Hyde Parker and Sir Horatio Nelson when the
Danish fleet was destroyed at Copenhagen. The casualties suffered
by the troops were slight. It is worthy of remark that the Queen's,
Worcester, and Welsh Regiments have been granted permission to add
a naval crown to the dates of the fleet actions which they bear
on their colours. The Berkshires and Rifle Brigade have not been
accorded this augmentation.


CASUALTIES AT COPENHAGEN, 1801.

  +--------------+-----------+-----------+
  |              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Berkshire     |   - |   2 |  13 |  40 |
  |Rifle Brigade |   - |   - |   3 |   4 |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


COPENHAGEN, 1807.

The regiments that would be entitled to this battle honour are the

  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  K.O. Royal Lancaster.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  King's Liverpool.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  Gloucester.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  South Lancashire.
  Royal West Kent.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.

It is difficult to understand why the troops which took part in the
expedition to Copenhagen in 1807 should be denied the battle honour
conferred on the Berkshires and Rifle Brigade for their services as
Marines in the expedition of 1801. In neither case were the losses
severe, but the later expedition was in no way less successful
than the former. The attitude of the Danes and the fear that
their fine fleet would fall into the hands of the French led the
Ministry of the day to assemble a powerful fleet and a by no means
inconsiderable army in order to carry out their policy.

The former, which consisted of no less than twenty-six
line-of-battle ships, was under the command of Sir James Gambier;
whilst General the Lord Cathcart was in command of the land forces.
The troops employed were thus brigaded:


Right Division: Lieutenant-General Sir G. Ludlow.

  Brigade of Guards--Major-General Finch: Coldstream, Scots Guards.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General J. Walsh: 1st Battalion 28th
  (Gloucester) and 79th (Cameron Highlanders).


Left Division: Sir David Baird.

  Third Brigade--Major-General Grosvenor: 1st Battalion 4th (King's
  Own Lancaster) and 1st Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers.

  Fourth Brigade--Major-General Spencer: 32nd (Cornwall Light
  Infantry), 50th (Royal West Kent), and 82nd (South Lancashire).

  Fifth Brigade--Brigadier-General Macfarlane: 1st Battalion
  7th (Royal Fusiliers) and 1st Battalion 8th (King's Liverpool
  Regiment).

  Reserve Division--Sir Arthur Wellesley: 1st Battalion 43rd
  (Oxford Light Infantry), 2nd Battalion 52nd (Oxford Light
  Infantry), 1st Battalion 92nd (Gordon Highlanders), and 1st
  Battalion 95th (Rifle Brigade).

There was, in addition, a strong division of the King's German
Legion, under Lieutenant-General the Earl of Rosslyn, comprising
three regiments of cavalry, ten battalions of infantry, two
batteries of horse and four companies of field artillery. For siege
purposes, ten companies of the Royal Artillery, under Major-General
Bloomfield, and three of Royal Engineers, under Colonel D'Arcey,
accompanied the force.

On July 18 the troops, numbering upwards of 27,000 men, embarked on
377 transports, and on the 15th of the following month disembarked
without opposition at Wibeck, a few miles from Copenhagen. On the
28th of the month the Reserve Division, under Sir Arthur Wellesley,
had a sharp brush with the Danes, capturing ten guns and 1,500
prisoners; and on September 1, the siege-works being complete,
the city was summoned to surrender. General Peiman, the Danish
Commander-in-Chief, returned a bombastic reply, intimating that
the Danes were ready to die to a man rather than surrender their
capital or their fleet. On the following day the batteries opened
fire, and on the 5th the General surrendered unconditionally.
Our trophies included eighteen line-of-battle ships and fifteen
frigates, the prize-money accruing to the two Commanders-in-Chief
amounting to upwards of £300,000! On October 15 the troops
re-embarked, and in the course of the following month troops and
prizes arrived in England. It is worthy of note that of the huge
convoy of 377 transports, few of which exceeded 500 tons burden,
only six were wrecked. Five, unfortunately, were picked up by
French frigates.


CASUALTIES DURING THE EXPEDITION TO COPENHAGEN, 1807.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery           |   1 |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |Scots Guards              |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |4th K.O. Royal Lancasters |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |Royal Fusiliers           |   - |   - |   2 |   - |
  |8th King's Liverpool      |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |23rd R. W. Fus.           |   1 |   - |   4 |   5 |
  |43rd Oxf. L.I.            |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |50th Royal W. Kent        |   - |   1 |   2 |  15 |
  |79th Cameron Highlanders  |   - |   - |   1 |   3 |
  |82nd S. Lancs             |   1 |   2 |   4 |  17 |
  |92nd Gordon H.            |   - |   - |   3 |   5 |
  |95th Rifle Bde.           |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The total casualties amongst the troops amounted to 4 officers and
39 men killed, and 6 officers and 139 men wounded. Amongst the
latter was Sir David Baird, who had been badly wounded, as we have
seen, in India, and who was destined to lose an arm at Corunna in
the following year.


NEW ZEALAND.

This distinction has been conferred for three separate campaigns,
but no attempt has been made by the addition of dates, as in the
case of the wars in South Africa, to differentiate between the
various operations.


NEW ZEALAND, 1846-47.

The first campaign took place in the years 1846-47, and the
regiments which obtained the honour for these operations are the

  Northamptons.
  Manchesters.
  Wiltshires.


NEW ZEALAND, 1860-61.

The regiments which earned this distinction are the

  Suffolk.
  West Yorkshire.
  South Lancashire.
  Middlesex.
  York and Lancaster.

At the time of the dispute which led to these operations there was
but one British battalion in the islands, and so critical was the
situation that the city of Auckland was practically besieged by the
natives. Urgent messages were sent to Australia and to Tasmania,
where at that time we had garrisons, and the 12th (Suffolks) and
40th (North Lancashires) arrived very shortly from Sydney and
Melbourne respectively. At the same time, on the news reaching
England, the 68th (Durham Light Infantry) was ordered from Burmah,
the 57th (Middlesex) and 70th (East Surrey) from India, and the
2nd Battalion of the 14th, a newly-raised corps, from the Curragh.
General Pratt, who had arrived from Australia, took command of the
operations, but some dissatisfaction was expressed at his strategy,
and in March, 1863, he was superseded by Sir Duncan Cameron, an
officer who had done good service in the Crimea.

The New Zealanders--or rather the Maori--showed themselves most
gallant foes. Their _pahs_, or stockades, were constructed with
much skill, and until these had been thoroughly searched out with
artillery fire we found them almost impossible to carry.

It was generally conceded that the war was one which, with a little
exercise of forbearance on the part of the Colonial Government,
might have been avoided, and there was a good deal of friction
between the civilian and military elements in consequence, many of
the soldiers openly expressing an opinion that their foes had not
been fairly dealt with. In the spring of 1861 a hollow truce was
patched up. Our casualties during the operations, so far as the
regular troops were concerned, had not been heavy, except in the
case of the 40th (North Lancashires) and 65th (York and Lancasters).

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery         |   1 |   - |   2 |  12 |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   1 |   1 |   4 |
  |12th Suffolks           |   - |   1 |   1 |   7 |
  |14th West Yorks         |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |40th N. Lancs           |   2 |   3 |  38 |  58 |
  |57th Middlesex          |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |65th York and Lancaster |   1 |   1 |   5 |  38 |
  |Naval Brigade           |   - |   2 |   5 |  20 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


NEW ZEALAND, 1863-1866.

The regiments which were present during the operations, which
lasted for nearly three years, are the

  Suffolks.
  West Yorkshire.
  Royal Irish.
  North Lancashire.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Royal West Kent.
  Middlesex.
  York and Lancaster.
  Durham Light Infantry.

The same causes which led to the war in 1860 were once more
the origin of armed resistance to the Government. The natives
considered that they were not being dealt fairly with in the matter
of the sale of their lands, and, as I have said before, there was
a very strong party in the Colony who sympathized with them. At the
same time, it was felt that the Government must be supported until
peace had been restored, and that then, but not till then, could
the cause of the disturbance be removed. The troops, which included
all the regiments named above, were under the command of Sir Duncan
Cameron, and he had on his staff a number of exceptionally good
men--men who came to the fore in our later wars--amongst them
being Sir George Greaves and Sir Thomas Baker, both of whom became
Adjutant-General in India. With them were Sir Henry Havelock and
Sir John MacNeill, the latter of whom obtained the Victoria Cross
in the campaign.


CASUALTIES IN NEW ZEALAND, 1864.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Naval Brigade           |   3 |   8 |  13 |  34 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   1 |   2 |   5 |   8 |
  |12th Suffolks           |   1 |   - |   7 |  24 |
  |14th W. Yorks           |   2 |   8 |  13 |  29 |
  |18th Roy. Irish         |   1 |   1 |  19 |  44 |
  |40th N. Lancs           |   2 |   3 |  22 |  42 |
  |43rd Oxford L.I.        |   7 |   2 |  13 |  19 |
  |50th W. Kent            |   1 |   3 |  18 |  30 |
  |57th Middlesex          |   2 |   2 |  23 |  47 |
  |65th York and Lancaster |   2 |   8 |  24 |  49 |
  |68th Durham L.I.        |   - |   4 |   9 |  41 |
  |70th E. Surrey          |   1 |   2 |   8 |  16 |
  |                        |     |     |           |
  |Colonial Troops         |   6 |  15 |    650    |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Although the war dragged on for so long, it calls for no special
remark. It resolved itself into the attack of the Maori stockades,
which were constructed with great skill. On more than one occasion
we certainly came off second best. One point, however, is worthy of
note. It was found that the red coats and shakos of the soldiers
were not the most suitable garments for Bush warfare, and, to the
distress of the old soldiers of the leather stock and pipeclay
school, the men fought in blue jumpers and forage-caps.

In the month of June we experienced rather a serious reverse at
what was known as the Gate Pah; but the distinguished regiment
which suffered heavily on that day showed a few weeks later that
it had lost none of the dash for which it had been so famous in
Wellington's days. In the early spring of 1866 peace was declared,
and since then there have been no more loyal servants of the Crown
than our Maori fellow-subjects.


ABYSSINIA, 1867-68.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this battle honour:

  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  King's Own Lancasters.
  Cameronians.
  West Riding.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  10th Hodson's Horse.
  12th Cavalry.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  21st Punjabis.
  23rd Pioneers.
  102nd K.E.O. Grenadiers.
  103rd Mahratta Light Infantry.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  121st Pioneers.
  125th Napier's Rifles.
  127th Baluch Light Infantry.

The above regiments formed the expeditionary force, under Sir
Robert Napier, then Commander-in-Chief in Bombay, which had for
its object the release of a number of English and German prisoners
held in captivity by Theodore, King of Abyssinia. Until the year
1861 our relations with this half-savage, half-Christian potentate
had been of the most cordial nature. He looked on Mr. Plowden,
the British Consul, as his most trusted adviser, and amongst the
members of his personal household was more than one Englishman. On
Mr. Plowden's death a change occurred. The new Consul seems not
to have been on the best terms either with the King or with the
Foreign Office, and the neglect of the latter to take any notice
of an autograph letter addressed to our Queen by King Theodore
led to an open rupture. The King swept all Europeans into prison,
including the Consul, and on remonstrances being made detained
other emissaries. As Theodore had contracted a habit of doing away
with his prisoners, it was considered necessary to back up verbal
remonstrances with force, and the conduct of the negotiations was
removed from the Foreign Office and placed in the hands of the
Commander-in-Chief in Bombay.

Little was known of the country, and the most pessimistic
forebodings were indulged in by the English Press. The result
proved the falsity of the critics. Sir Robert Napier was a master
of the art of organization, and from the date of the landing of
the troops in Zoulla Bay until their final embarkation there
was not a single mishap. There was practically no fighting. The
army traversed close on 300 miles of country destitute of roads,
crossed mountain-ranges 9,000 feet in height, stormed what Theodore
fancied was an impregnable fortress, effected the release of the
European prisoners, and freed the Abyssinians from the tyranny of
a bloodthirsty King, without the loss of a single man killed in
action, and of only thirty-seven who died by disease. The result
was due to one man, and to one man alone, and it proved the wisdom
of not interfering with the General in command when once he has
been entrusted with the conduct of military operations. The House
of Commons grumbled at the cost of the expedition, but Sir Robert
Napier judged the value of a British soldier at a higher price than
mere pounds, shillings, and pence, and preferred that the tax-payer
should pay for the mistakes of the Foreign Office in hard cash
rather than that the army should pay in the lives of its men.

Thirty years later the Italians tried their 'prentice hand in the
same country. The annihilation of their army threw into stronger
relief the wisdom of the tactics employed by Lord Napier, where,
by utilizing native labour for the construction of the necessary
military roads, he saved the health and the lives of his soldiers.

It is impossible to write of the Abyssinian Expedition without
adding a word as to the marvellous manner in which the
disembarkation and final embarkation of the army was conducted,
without hitch or loss, by the Quartermaster-General at Zoulla Bay,
then Major Fred Roberts,[27]

The casualty rolls are instructive, and may be compared with
advantage with those of the Italian army which was cut to pieces in
Abyssinia thirty years later:


CASUALTIES IN ABYSSINIA, 1867-68.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Roy. Engineers          |   - |   1 |   - |   3 |
  |4th King's Own          |   - |   1 |   - |   6 |
  |33rd West Riding        |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |23rd Punjab Pioneers    |   - |   - |   - |  12 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ASHANTEE, 1873.

This distinction has been conferred on the

  23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers).
  Black Watch.
  Rifle Brigade.
  West India Regiment.

It commemorates the services of a force, under the command
of Major-General Garnet Wolseley (now Field-Marshal Viscount
Wolseley), which was organized for the purpose of putting a stop
to the intolerable cruelties and depredations of the Ashantee
monarch on the West Coast of Africa. In February, 1873, King Coffee
Kalkali, not content with ravaging the territories of our allies,
actually invaded our own territories in the neighbourhood of Cape
Coast Castle. He was beaten off by Colonel Harley, then in command
of the troops, and a second invasion was also repulsed by Colonel
Festing, of the Royal Marine Artillery. Our relations with the
Ashantees had been clouded by the memory of a severe defeat we
suffered at their hands when Sir Charles Macartney, the Governor
of the Colony, had been killed, and his head carried in triumph
to Coomassie, the capital. It was now deemed imperative to teach
the Ashantees that the English arm was longer than they imagined,
and Sir Garnet Wolseley, who had only recently carried through a
most successful little expedition in the North-West Territory of
Canada, was selected for the command of the Ashantee Expeditionary
Force. With him were associated a number of special-service
officers, whose duty it was to raise regiments from the tribes
which had suffered at the hands of King Coffee Kalkali, and to act
in co-operation with our own advancing troops.

The expedition was perfectly successful. After penetrating to the
capital, the force returned to the coast, and re-embarked for
England. There were several sharp skirmishes during the advance,
in which the 42nd (Royal Highlanders) particularly distinguished
themselves, and in which they suffered severely. The expedition,
however, is more noticeable in that it produced a school of
officers for long known as "the Wolseley Gang," to whom the army
and the nation owe a deep debt of gratitude for the institution of
many of the most valuable military reforms.

At the conclusion of the war a medal was granted to the officers
and men who took part in the expedition, with a special
clasp--"Coomassie"--to those who were fortunate enough to have been
present at the final advance on the capital.


CASUALTIES IN ASHANTEE WAR, 1873.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Regiments._ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff           |   - |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery |   1 |   1 |   1 |   6 |
  |Roy. Engineers  |   1 |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |Naval Brigade   |   - |   7 |   - |  32 |
  |R. Welsh Fus.   |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |42nd R. Highl.  |   - |  11 |   6 | 120 |
  |Rifle Brigade   |   - |   3 |   3 |  30 |
  |Native Levies   |   2 |  11 |   5 | 122 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SIERRA LEONE, 1898.

This distinction is borne by the West India Regiment and West
African Regiment, and commemorates their conduct in the campaign
undertaken for the purpose of putting down the rebellion in
the Colony of Sierra Leone in that year. The rising was a most
serious one, and for a time the lives of all the whites on the
West Coast were in danger. Nominally the cause of offence was the
imposition of a hut-tax; in reality the grievance was a stricter
interpretation of the laws regarding slavery. Little heed was
paid to the warnings of disaffection. A number of towns in the
hinterland were burnt and many English were massacred before we
were in a position to cope with the rebels. The command of the
operations was entrusted at first to Major-General Woodgate, who
afterwards met a soldier's death at the head of his brigade at
the Battle of Spionkop, in the Boer War. On his falling ill, the
operations were brought to a successful conclusion by Colonel
Cunningham, of the Cornwall Light Infantry. The losses of the West
India Regiment amounted to 3 officers and 8 men killed, 8 officers
and 39 men wounded.


WEST AFRICA.[28]


WEST AFRICA, 1887.

The above distinction is borne on the colours of the West India
Regiment, and has been conferred on that hard-working corps for a
series of arduous campaigns on the West Coast of Africa.

The campaign of 1887 was under the command of Major-General Sir
Francis de Winton, the troops being accompanied by a naval brigade
furnished by H.M.S. _Icarus_ and _Royalist_. It was undertaken
for the subjugation of a powerful tribe called the Yonnies, who
had carried fire, sword, and rapine through the hinterland of the
Colony.


WEST AFRICA, 1892.

The campaign of 1892 was under the command of Colonel Scott, an
officer who had served in the 42nd Highlanders through the Crimea,
the Mutiny, and the two Ashantee wars of 1874 and 1890. It was
necessitated by the conduct of the Egbas and Jebus, two tribes who
were blocking all the trade-routes from Lagos into the interior.


WEST AFRICA, 1893.

The campaign of 1893 was under the command of Colonel Ellis, of the
West India Regiment, and was undertaken for the punishment of the
Sofas, a tribe which had been giving much trouble on our own and on
the French frontier. The expedition was marred by an unfortunate
contretemps between our forces and the French Senegalese troops, in
which we lost three officers killed, the subaltern in command of
the French detachment falling a victim to the mistake of his men.


WEST AFRICA, 1894.

This year was marked by two expeditions--the one from Bathurst,
under Captain Gamble, of the Royal Navy, accompanied by a
detachment of the West India Regiment. In this the navy were
roughly handled, losing 3 officers and 14 men killed, 6 officers
and 32 men wounded. In the following month Major Fairtlough, of the
Royal Artillery, took up the threads of the affair, and brought it
to a successful conclusion. The recalcitrant chief, Foda Silah,
took refuge in French territory, and was handed over to us for
deportation.

In the month of September, 1894, the attitude of the ruler of Benin
compelled us to destroy the armed towns on his frontier. Admiral
Bedford, commanding the Cape of Good Hope Station, was entrusted
with the chief command. The bulk of the forces were drawn from
the ships on the Cape Station, but a detachment of the West India
Regiment well and worthily upheld the fame of that corps. Our
trophies included 106 guns of all calibres, a large number of small
arms, 14 tons of gunpowder, and 8,300 dozens of gin!


BRITISH EAST AFRICA, 1896-1899, 1901.

This battle honour has been conferred on the

  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  116th Mahrattas.
  124th D.C.O. Baluchistan Infantry.
  127th P.W.O. Baluch Light Infantry.

It commemorates arduous work, of which little is heard in England,
in tropical regions of East Africa and the fever-haunted hinterland
of Zanzibar. Split up into a number of small detachments, these
regiments have showed themselves worthy successors to the old
Bombay army, which more than a century ago broke the power of
the Mahrattas and set the stamp of civilization on the coast of
Malabar. The list of casualties shows that sickness was not the
only foe these distinguished regiments had to face.


CASUALTIES DURING THE OPERATIONS IN EAST AFRICA.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |104th Wellesley's Rifles |   1 |   - |  27 |   4 |
  |124th D.C.O. Baluchis    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |116th Mahrattas          |   - |   1 |   2 |   6 |
  |127th P.W.O. Baluch L.I. |   2 |   3 |  19 |  20 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


ASHANTI, 1900.

This distinction has been conferred on the West African Regiment,
in commemoration of its services in the campaign undertaken for
the relief of the Residency of Coomassie during the rebellion in
Ashantee in the year 1900. The practical annexation of the kingdom
of Ashantee after the campaign of 1890, for which no battle honour
was granted, though a bronze decoration was awarded to the troops,
had not been accepted with any degree of heartfelt loyalty by the
people, and, though peace had been maintained, it was known that
this was due to the personal ascendancy of successive Residents
rather than to the acquiescence of the people in the new state
of affairs. During the absence of the permanent Resident it was
determined to obtain possession of the Golden Stool, the emblem of
royalty. To effect this, a small expedition was despatched from
Kumassi, the capital and seat of the Residency. This expedition was
repulsed, and the repulse was followed by a general upheaval of
the tribes. The Residency was closely besieged, and there were no
troops on the coast to despatch to its relief.

Brigadier-General Willcocks, an officer who to youth added
experience, was selected to command an expeditionary force; but, in
consequence of the war in South Africa, it was found inexpedient
to employ British troops. The General set out on his mission with
a mixed force, made up of detachments from the various corps in
West Africa. The West India Regiment furnished its quota, as did
the West African Frontier Force, the Central African Frontier
Regiment, and the West African Regiment, of which the greater part
was engaged. The country was an exceedingly difficult one, but its
difficulties were known. Although the rising commenced in the month
of April, it was not until July that Sir William James Willcocks
was ready to move forward. His force numbered, all told, 152 whites
and 2,800 natives, the former including a number of invaluable
non-commissioned officers. It was fiercely opposed the whole way
from the coast to Kumassi, and the severity of the fighting may be
gauged from the fact that the total losses amounted to 9 Englishmen
and 113 natives killed, and 53 English and 680 natives wounded.



CHAPTER XXIV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE SECOND AFGHAN WAR

Afghanistan, 1878-1880--Ali Masjid--Peiwar Kotal--Charasiah--Kabul,
1879--Ahmad Khel--Kandahar, 1880.


AFGHANISTAN, 1878-1880.

This battle honour was granted to all regiments which took part in
any of the operations during the course of the war in Afghanistan
between the years 1878 and 1880. In the two campaigns there were
no less than thirty-one regiments of cavalry and eighty battalions
employed, and though few of these were actually under fire, yet all
were accorded the distinction. It is borne on the colours of the
following regiments:

  Carabiniers.
  8th Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  10th Hussars.
  11th Hussars.
  15th Hussars.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  King's Liverpool.
  Norfolks.
  Devons.
  Suffolks.
  West Yorkshire.
  East Yorkshire.
  Leicesters.
  Royal Irish.
  K.O. Scottish Borderers.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Hampshire.
  North Lancashire.
  Berkshire.
  K.O. Yorkshire L.I.
  Shropshire L.I.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Manchester.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Rifle Brigade.
  1st Skinner's Horse.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  4th Cavalry.
  5th Cavalry.
  8th Cavalry.
  10th Hodson's Horse.
  11th Probyn's Lancers.
  12th Cavalry.
  13th Watson's Horse.
  14th Murray's Lancers.
  15th Cureton's Lancers.
  17th Cavalry.
  18th Tiwana Lancers.
  19th Fane's Lancers.
  21st Daly's Horse.
  22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
  23rd Cavalry.
  25th Cavalry.
  26th Light Cavalry.
  32nd Lancers.
  33rd Light Cavalry.
  34th Poona Horse.
  35th Scinde Horse.
  36th Jacob's Horse.
  38th Central India Horse.
  39th Central India Horse.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
  3rd Brahmins.
  4th Rajputs.
  5th Light Infantry.
  6th Light Infantry.
  8th Rajputs.
  9th Bhopal Infantry.
  11th Rajputs.
  12th Pioneers.
  13th Rajputs.
  14th Sikhs.
  15th Sikhs.
  16th Rajputs.
  17th Loyal Regiment.
  19th Punjabis.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  21st Punjabis.
  22nd Punjabis.
  23rd Pioneers.
  24th Punjabis.
  25th Punjabis.
  26th Punjabis.
  27th Punjabis.
  28th Punjabis.
  29th Punjabis.
  30th Punjabis.
  31st Punjabis.
  32nd Pioneers.
  42nd Deoli Infantry.
  44th Merwara Infantry.
  45th Sikhs.
  51st Sikhs.
  52nd Sikhs.
  53rd Sikhs.
  55th Coke's Rifles.
  56th Punjab Rifles.
  57th Wilde's Rifles.
  58th Vaughan's Rifles.
  61st Pioneers.
  64th Pioneers.
  75th Carnatic Infantry.
  81st Pioneers.
  90th Punjabis.
  101st Grenadiers.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  105th Mahratta L.I.
  108th Infantry.
  109th Infantry.
  110th Mahratta L.I.
  113th Infantry.
  115th Mahrattas.
  119th Multan.
  124th Baluchistan.
  127th Baluch L.I.
  128th Pioneers.
  130th Baluchis.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Sirmoor Rifles.
  3rd Gurkhas.
  4th Gurkhas.
  5th Gurkhas.

A very large number of these regiments were employed in keeping
open the three lines of communication with Afghanistan--viz., by
the Khyber, the Kuram, and the Bolan Passes. Though they did not
participate in any of the actions which appear on the colours of
certain more fortunate regiments, they were nevertheless exposed
to continuous hardship, and some to constant attack by the
fanatical tribes who inhabit the borderland between Hindustan and
the territories of the Amir. Some, indeed, suffered more heavily
in these long-forgotten skirmishes than did many of the regiments
which added two or three names to their list of battle honours.

In consequence of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877, our relations with
Russia became very strained, and owing to what the Sultan of Turkey
considered our neglect to afford him material support against
Russia, the long-standing friendship between England and Turkey was
imperilled. Both nations turned towards the Amir of Afghanistan as
the one potentate who could assist them to indulge in the policy of
pinpricks towards England, and both nations despatched Missions to
Kabul with this end in view. The Afghan Amir soon showed a change
in his policy towards us. In accepting a Russian Mission at Kabul
he defied treaty rights, and in refusing to accept an English
Mission he inflicted on us a deliberate insult. The English Cabinet
in the month of October, 1878, presented an ultimatum, and on
November 21 our armies crossed the frontier.

The plan of campaign was simple. Afghanistan was to be invaded by
three columns, operating respectively by the Khyber route from
Peshawar, by the Kuram route from Kohat, and by the Bolan Pass on
Kandahar. The detail of the northern force was as under:


PESHAWAR VALLEY FIELD FORCE.

  Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Browne, V.C., K.C.S.I., C.B.,
  commanding.

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General C. J. S. Gough, V.C., C.B.:
  Two squadrons 10th Hussars, 11th Probyn's Lancers, Guides Cavalry.

  Commanding Royal Artillery--Colonel W. J. Williams: One horse,
  one field, three heavy, and three mountain batteries.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General H. T. Macpherson, V.C.,
  C.B.: 4th Battalion Rifle Brigade, 20th Brownlow's Punjabis, 4th
  Gurkhas.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General J. A. Tytler, V.C.,
  C.B.: 1st Battalion Leicestershire, Guides Infantry, 51st Sikhs.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General F. Appleyard, C.B.: 81st (North
  Lancashire), 14th Sikhs, 27th Punjabis.

  Fourth Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General W. Browne: 51st
  (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry), 6th Jat Light Infantry,
  45th Sikhs.

Mobilizing at Peshawar in the early days of November, 1878, the
column crossed the frontier at Jumrood on November 21, and
advanced on Ali Masjid, the hill fortress at the Afghan entrance
of the Khyber Pass. Some show of fight was made, and Sir S. Browne
deferred making the assault until the arrival of all his troops. In
the course of the night the Afghans evacuated the fort, which was
occupied by our men. Thus, with a casualty list of under sixty, the
main road to Kabul had been opened.


ALI MASJID.

This battle honour is borne by the

  10th Hussars.
  Loyal North Lancashires.
  Leicester.
  K.O. Yorkshire L.I.
  Rifle Brigade.
  11th Probyn's Lancers.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  6th Light Infantry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  14th Sikhs.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  27th Punjabis.
  45th Rattray's Sikhs.
  51st Sikhs.
  4th Gurkhas.

The casualties incurred were:

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery          |   - |   - |   1 |   9 |
  |51st K.O. Yorkshire L.I. |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |14th Sikhs               |   - |   1 |   8 |  24 |
  |20th Punjabis            |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |27th Punjabis            |   2 |   - |   4 |   6 |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


KURAM VALLEY FIELD FORCE.

  Major-General F. S. Roberts, V.C., C.B., commanding.

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General Hugh Gough, V.C., C.B.: One
  squadron 10th Hussars, 12th and 25th Cavalry.

  Commanding Royal Artillery--Colonel A. H. Lindsay: One horse, one
  field, and two mountain batteries.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General A. H. Cobbe: 1st
  Battalion Liverpool Regiment, 23rd Pioneers, 29th Punjabis, and
  58th Vaughan's Rifles.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General J. B. Thelwall: 72nd
  (Seaforth Highlanders), 21st Punjabis, 56th Rifles, and 5th
  Gurkhas.

The Central, or Kuram Valley, Field Force assembled at Kohat, and
advanced up the Thull Valley to be ready to cross the frontier on
November 21. The Afghans were known to be holding the Peiwar Kotal
in force, but the approaches to this position were well known,
having been accurately surveyed many years before by Sir Frederick
Roberts, predecessor in the post of Quartermaster-General Sir Peter
Lumsden. A frontal attack was out of the question, and there were
elements of weakness in Sir Frederick Roberts's army. One of his
British regiments was dangerously weak, both in physique and in
numbers, and one of his native regiments was disaffected. However,
this did not deter the officer, who throughout his career had ever
displayed, not only great personal gallantry, but quickness of
decision and a long-acquired habit of accepting to the full all
responsibility in cases of doubt. The frontier was crossed on the
exact date, the Peiwar Kotal reconnoitred, its defences accurately
estimated, and on December 2 the Kuram route was in our hands.


PEIWAR KOTAL, DECEMBER 2, 1879.

The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the

  King's Liverpool.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  12th Cavalry.
  23rd Pioneers.
  29th Punjabis.
  56th Punjab Rifles.
  58th Vaughan's Rifles.
  5th Gurkhas.

A medal and clasp, inscribed "Peiwar Kotal," were issued to the
troops engaged.

The battle honour commemorates a sharp little fight between the
Kuram column of the Afghan army, commanded by Major-General
Frederick Roberts, of the Royal Artillery, and the Afghan army.
The Afghans were drawn up behind a strongly entrenched position
on the summit of the Peiwar Kotal, a pass at the entrance of the
Kuram route to Kabul. Their numbers were estimated at 10,000 men,
and they had a well-equipped force of artillery. The position was
capable of being turned by a well-known but exceedingly difficult
path, known as the Spin Gawi. Roberts determined to turn the
position with the bulk of his force, numbering only 2,263 men, with
eight guns, whilst a frontal attack was entrusted to Brigadier
Cobbe, with 1,000 men and five guns. Starting at midnight, the
turning column pushed up an almost inaccessible path in the dead
of night, and as dawn broke appeared on the left flank of the
astonished Afghans. The resistance was for a time stubborn, but
as the troops were enabled to form across the ridges and bring a
rifle-fire to bear on the enemy, the issue soon was put beyond
doubt, and so the future Earl Roberts was able to secure his first
victory.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF THE PEIWAR KOTAL, DECEMBER 2, 1879.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery           |   1 |   - |   - |   3 |
  |8th K. Liverpl.           |   - |   1 |   1 |   7 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   - |   1 |   2 |   9 |
  |12th Cavalry              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |23rd Pioneers             |   1 |   - |   2 |   7 |
  |29th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   5 |  12 |
  |56th Punjabi Rifles       |   - |   - |   7 |  11 |
  |58th Vaughan's Rifles     |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |5th Gurkhas               |   - |   - |   2 |  16 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The army destined for the invasion of Afghanistan from the south
was double the strength of the northern columns. It was composed of
two divisions, which were under the command of Lieutenant-General
Donald Stewart, an officer of the Indian army who had held a high
staff appointment at the Siege of Delhi, had subsequently commanded
the Bengal division in the expedition to Abyssinia, and who had
seen a considerable amount of service on the Peshawar frontier
when Adjutant of a native regiment. He had held responsible staff
appointments in peace, and had earned a good reputation for
handling large bodies of troops at manœuvres. The command of the
Second Division was entrusted to Major-General Michael Biddulph,
an artillery officer who had done good service in the Crimea, and
had served in many situations in India, in all of which he had
displayed high military qualifications. This army, the composition
of which is given below, was intended to provide for the occupation
of Southern Afghanistan, and also to despatch one division to join
hands with the northern army at Kabul, should such a step be deemed
advisable. From Multan and Quetta as bases, the Kandahar army
advanced on the capital of Southern Afghanistan, which was occupied
without resistance.


KANDAHAR FIELD FORCE.

First Division: Lieutenant-General Donald Stewart commanding.

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General Walter Fane, C.B.: 15th
  Hussars, 8th Cavalry, 19th Fane's Lancers.

  Commanding Royal Artillery--Brigadier-General C. G. Arbuthnot,
  C.B.: One horse, three field, two heavy, three siege, and one
  mountain battery.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General R. Barter, C.B.: 2nd
  Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 15th Sikhs, and 25th Punjabis.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General W. Hughes: 59th (East
  Lancashire), 12th Kelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment, 1st and 3rd Gurkhas.


Second Division: Major-General M. A. S. Biddulph, C.B.

  Artillery--Colonel Le Mesurier commanding: One field and two
  mountain batteries.

  Cavalry Brigade: Brigadier-General C. H. Palliser, C.B.: 21st
  Daly's Horse, 22nd Sam Browne's Horse, and 35th Scinde Horse.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General R. Lacy: 70th (East
  Surrey), 19th Punjabis, and 127th Baluchis. Second Infantry
  Brigade--Brigadier-General T. Nuttall: 26th Punjabis, 32nd
  Pioneers, 55th Coke's Rifles, and 129th Baluchis.

The three columns now proceeded to occupy strategic positions in
the country until the Amir should accede to our demands. Sir S.
Browne pushed up the Khyber Pass to Gundamak, General Roberts
undertook the pacification of the tribes bordering on the Kuram
route, and General Stewart despatched his Second Division to the
Helmund. In the spring of 1879 the Amir Shere Ali died, and his
successor at once opened negotiations with the Indian Government.
A fresh treaty was concluded, under which the Amir assented to the
nomination of a British Envoy at Kabul. Sir Louis Cavagnari was
selected for this important post, and towards the end of July left
for the Afghan capital, accompanied by a small escort of the Corps
of Guides. Our troops were recalled within the new frontier, and
all boded well, but on September 3 the Mission was attacked in the
Residency at Kabul, and every member slain, the little escort of
the Guides adding to the reputation of the regiment by refusing
all overtures from their co-religionists, and dying by the side of
their officers. Such an outrage demanded swift retribution, and Sir
Frederick Roberts at once took up the command of the troops in the
Kuram Valley, and prepared for an advance on Kabul. His army was
composed as under:


DETAILS OF THE KABUL FIELD FORCE.

  Major-General Sir Frederick Roberts, K.C.B., V.C., commanding.

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General Dunham Massey: 9th Lancers,
  12th Cavalry, 14th Lancers, and 25th Cavalry.

  Royal Artillery--Brigadier-General B. L. Gordon: Two horse and
  two mountain batteries.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General Herbert Macpherson,
  V.C., C.B.: 67th (Hampshire Regiment), 92nd (Gordon Highlanders),
  and 28th Punjabis.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General T. D. Baker, C.B.:
  72nd (Seaforths), 53rd Sikhs, 23rd Pioneers, 58th Vaughan's
  Rifles, and 5th Gurkhas.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General J. Tytler, V.C., C.B.: 85th
  (Shropshire Light Infantry), 11th and 13th Rajputs, and 20th
  Punjabis.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General T. E. Gordon: 2nd Battalion
  King's Liverpool Regiment, 7th Rajputs, 21st and 29th Punjabis.

Leaving his Third and Fourth Brigades to maintain communications
with India, Sir Frederick at once pushed on to Kabul, meeting with
no opposition until in the immediate vicinity of the capital. On
the way he had been joined by the new Amir, who wished to disclaim
all participation in the attack on the Residency. His presence was
not an unmixed blessing. It was more than suspected that he was in
close communication with the malcontents, and that he was cognizant
of the intention of his troops to hold the position at Charasiah,
where, on October 6, Sir Frederick fought and dispersed the Afghan
army, with but little loss on our side.


CHARASIAH, OCTOBER 6, 1879.

This battle honour is borne by the following regiments:

  9th Lancers.
  Hampshires.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  12th Cavalry.
  14th Murray's Lancers.
  25th Cavalry.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  23rd Pioneers.
  28th Punjabis.
  58th Vaughan's Rifles.
  5th Gurkhas.

The force at Sir Frederick Roberts's disposal only amounted to
4,000 men and eighteen guns. The enemy occupied a series of hills
some three miles in extent, and dominating the plain to a height of
over 3,000 feet. The brunt of the fighting fell on the two Highland
regiments. Again the British General, who showed himself an adept
in mountain warfare, essayed a turning movement with Baker's
brigade, and, with a loss of but 88 killed and wounded, made his
way into Kabul.


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION OF CHARASIAH, OCTOBER 6, 1879.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |        _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |9th Lancers               |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |67th Hampshire            |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   - |   1 |   3 |  33 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders   |   - |   - |   3 |   6 |
  |12th Cavalry              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |14th Murray's Lancers     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |25th Cavalry              |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |23rd Pioneers             |   - |   1 |   1 |   2 |
  |28th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |58th Vaughan's Rifles     |   - |   1 |   4 |   4 |
  |5th Gurkhas               |   - |   - |   4 |   7 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On the issue of the medal for Afghanistan, a clasp inscribed
"Charasiah" was issued to all the troops engaged.


KABUL, 1879.

This battle honour was granted to the regiments which took part in
the operations in the neighbourhood of Kabul under Sir Frederick
Roberts in the month of December, 1879. It is borne on the colours
and appointments of the

  9th Lancers.
  Norfolk.
  Hampshires.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  12th Cavalry.
  14th Murray's Lancers.
  25th Cavalry P.F.F.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  23rd Pioneers.
  28th Punjabis.
  53rd Sikhs.
  58th Vaughan's Rifles.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  4th Gurkhas.
  5th Gurkhas P.F.F.

With his entry into Kabul, which was effected without further
opposition after the Battle of Charasiah, the difficulties of Sir
Frederick Roberts's army were only at their commencement. The
Amir was in our camp, but it was clear that he was heart and soul
with his people, and that they were bitterly opposed to us was
self-evident. They appeared forgetful of the ease with which they
had been defeated at Ali Masjid, at the Peiwar Kotal, and again at
Charasiah; but they remembered the campaign of 1842, when they had
annihilated a British army. Early in December the clouds broke, and
after a few engagements, in which we were not uniformly successful,
Sir Frederick Roberts withdrew his whole force into an entrenched
position at Sherpur, just outside the city, and there awaited the
attack. His dispositions were thoroughly sound. Reinforcements were
ordered up from the line of communications, but these were delayed,
owing to determined attacks by the tribes on our posts at different
points between Kabul and Peshawar.

From December 14 to 24 Sir Frederick was practically besieged in
Sherpur. On the 23rd the much-vaunted attack was delivered, but
the troops vied with their commander in steadiness. None had
lost confidence in him owing to the unfortunate failure of his
combinations against the enemy at the commencement of the month--a
failure for which the General-in-Chief was by no means responsible.
If the Afghans thought that they were likely to catch a British
army asleep at midnight, the attack on Sherpur must have woefully
disappointed them. In spite of the fact that 100,000 men had
assembled to sweep the British out of the land, the assault was
repelled before the arrival of a single man of the reinforcing
troops, and with a loss of but 57 officers and men killed and
wounded during the siege of ten days.

A clasp was added to the Afghan medal for this brilliant feat of
arms.


CASUALTIES IN THE ENGAGEMENTS NEAR KABUL, DECEMBER 11 TO 23, 1879.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |9th Lancers               |   3 |   4 |  20 |  28 |
  |Royal Artillery           |   2 |   - |   3 |   8 |
  |Roy. Engineers            |   2 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |67th Hampshire            |   - |   - |   1 |  11 |
  |72nd Seaforth Highlanders |   2 |   2 |  12 |  39 |
  |92nd Gordon Highlanders   |   1 |   1 |   3 |  25 |
  |12th Bengal C.            |   - |   - |   5 |   4 |
  |14th Lancers              |   1 |   1 |   8 |   7 |
  |25th Cavalry P.F.F.       |   2 |   2 |   8 |   6 |
  |Q.O. Corps of Guides      |   1 |   3 |  15 |  37 |
  |23rd Pioneers             |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |28th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |53rd Sikhs                |   - |   5 |   5 |   9 |
  |58th Vaughan's Rifles     |   - |   - |   4 |  17 |
  |5th Gurkhas               |   1 |   1 |   4 |  10 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The complicity of the Amir Yakub Khan in the attack on the
Residency was never clearly proved, but it was very evident that he
made no attempt to save the lives of the Envoy and his Staff. His
desire, therefore, to abdicate was encouraged, and he was deported
as a State prisoner to India. His successor, the Amir Abdur Rahman,
had been a fugitive on Russian soil for many years, and his hold
on the people was but slight. It was deemed advisable to show our
strength in those parts of the country where no British army had
been seen, and in the month of March, 1880, Sir Donald Stewart,
who was in command at Kandahar, left the capital of Southern
Afghanistan for Kabul. His force consisted of:

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General C. H. Palliser, C.B.: 19th
  Fane's Lancers, 21st Daly's Horse, and 22nd Cavalry.

  Royal Artillery: One horse, one heavy, and two mountain batteries.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General R. Barter: 2nd
  Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 19th and 25th Punjabis.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General R. J. Hughes: 59th
  (East Lancashire), 15th and 52nd Sikhs, and 3rd Gurkhas.

In all, some 2,000 British and 5,000 native troops.

Leaving Kandahar on the last day of March, Sir Donald found himself
attacked by a strong body of Afghans on nearing Ghuznee, and though
for a moment things looked threatening, at the end of an hour the
enemy were in full retreat, and the name "Ahmad Khel" had been
added to the colours of the

  East Lancashires.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  19th Fane's Horse.
  21st Daly's Horse.
  22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  15th Sikhs.
  19th Punjabis.
  25th Punjabis.
  52nd Sikhs.
  3rd Gurkhas.

Our casualties being--

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery           |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |
  |East Lancashire           |   - |   2 |   1 |  10 |
  |2nd Batt. K. Royal Rifles |   - |   - |   4 |   1 |
  |19th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |19th Fane's H.            |   - |   - |   - |  19 |
  |22nd Sam Browne's H.      |   - |   2 |   3 |  20 |
  |25th Punjabis             |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |52nd Sikhs                |   - |   - |   1 |   9 |
  |3rd Gurkhas               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

A few days later a second skirmish took place, but the march was
not further interrupted, and by the end of the month Sir Donald
Stewart had assumed the command in Northern Afghanistan.

His successor in the south now experienced a series of mishaps. At
the Battle of Maiwand a British force was totally defeated, and
Kandahar closely invested by the Afghans. A sortie, gallantly led
by Brigadier Brooke, in which that officer lost his life, resulted
in the siege being prosecuted by the Afghans with greater vigour.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF MAIWAND, JULY 27, 1880.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                   |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery         |   2 |   1 |  12 |  12 |
  |Roy. Engineers          |   1 |   - |   2 |   3 |
  |66th Roy. Berks         |  10 |   2 | 276 |  30 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   1 |   - |  26 |  18 |
  |3rd Scinde H.           |   1 |   - |  14 |   5 |
  |3rd Sappers and Miners  |   1 |   - |  15 |   6 |
  |101st Grenadiers        |  10 |   6 | 356 |  55 |
  |130th P.W.O. Baluchis   |   6 |   7 | 235 |  25 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT THE SORTIE FROM KANDAHAR, AUGUST 16, 1880.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |      _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                   |   3 |   3 |   - |   - |
  |Royal Fusiliers         |   2 |   2 |  22 |  28 |
  |59th E. Lancashire      |   - |   - |   2 |   2 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   - |   1 |   6 |   2 |
  |34th P.W.O. Light Cav.  |   1 |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |3rd Sappers and Miners  |   - |   1 |   6 |   7 |
  |119th Multan I.         |   2 |   1 |  20 |  24 |
  |128th Pioneers          |   1 |   1 |  30 |  22 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The precarious situation at Kandahar demanded immediate measures,
and once more Sir Frederick Roberts was chosen to vindicate British
honour and to teach the Afghans that they were powerless in the
face of well-led and well-handled British troops; and he was placed
in command of the following compact force, with instructions
to march to Kandahar with all possible despatch, and crush the
anti-British movement in Southern Afghanistan.


DETAILS OF THE KABUL-KANDAHAR FIELD FORCE.

_Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Roberts,
K.C.B._

  Cavalry Brigade--Brigadier-General Hugh Gough, V.C., C.B.: 9th
  Lancers, 3rd and 23rd Regiments of Cavalry, and Central India
  Horse.

  Artillery Brigade--Colonel Alured Johnson: Three mountain
  batteries.

  Infantry Division: Major-General Sir John Ross, K.C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General H. Macpherson, V.C., C.B.: 92nd
  (Gordon Highlanders), 23rd Pioneers, 24th Punjabis, and 2nd
  Gurkhas.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General T. D. Baker, C.B.: 72nd
  (Seaforth Highlanders), 52nd and 53rd Sikhs, and 5th Gurkhas.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General C. M. Macgregor, C.B.: 2nd
  Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 15th Sikhs, 25th Punjabis, 4th
  Gurkhas.

The total strength being 2,562 British and 7,151 native troops,
with eighteen guns.

On August 11 the Kabul-Kandahar Force commenced its march to the
south, and on the 31st of the month reached Kandahar--a distance of
313 miles. No opposition was experienced on the march. The garrison
of Kandahar was found in a state of extreme dejection. In order
not to attract the enemy's fire the General in command had given
instructions that even the British flag should not be hoisted on
the walls. Neither Sir Frederick Roberts nor his force were the men
to delay when a fight was in prospect, and as the army of Ayub Khan
was still encamped in the vicinity, flushed with their victory over
General Burroughs at Maiwand, Sir Frederick determined on at once
attacking the Afghans, and on the very day of his arrival the Chief
sent out General Hugh Gough to reconnoitre the enemy's position.


KANDAHAR, SEPTEMBER 1, 1880.

This honour is borne by the

  9th Lancers.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  Royal Berkshires.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  3rd Sappers and Miners.
  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  23rd Cavalry.
  33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
  34th Poona Horse.
  38th Central India Horse.
  39th Central India Horse.
  15th Sikhs.
  23rd Pioneers.
  24th Punjabis.
  25th Punjabis.
  52nd Sikhs.
  53rd Sikhs.
  101st Grenadiers.
  104th Wellesley's Rifles.
  119th Multan.
  128th Pioneers.
  129th Baluchis.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  4th Gurkhas.
  5th Gurkhas.

Sir Frederick adopted the same tactics here as in his earlier
actions: making a wide sweeping movement with a portion of his
infantry and his cavalry, he pressed home the frontal attack with
the two Highland regiments, and in an hour the Afghan army was in
full retreat. The only troops actually engaged were those who had
marched down with General Roberts from Kabul.


CASUALTIES AT THE BATTLE OF KANDAHAR, SEPTEMBER 1, 1880.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Staff                   |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |60th Roy. Rifles        |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |72nd Seaforths          |   2 |   2 |  11 |  20 |
  |92nd Gordons            |   - |   2 |  19 |  69 |
  |3rd Skinner's H.        |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |23rd Cavalry P.F.F.     |   - |   1 |   - |   6 |
  |33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |3rd Scinde Horse        |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |38th C.I. Horse         |   1 |   - |   - |   5 |
  |15th Sikhs              |   - |   - |   2 |   4 |
  |23rd Pioneers           |   - |   1 |   2 |  13 |
  |24th Punjabis           |   - |   1 |   1 |  10 |
  |25th Punjabis           |   - |   1 |   - |   1 |
  |52nd Sikhs P.F.F.       |   - |   1 |   3 |  23 |
  |53rd Sikhs P.F.F.       |   - |   - |   - |   6 |
  |129th D.C.O. Baluchis   |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |2nd Gurkhas             |   - |   2 |   8 |  21 |
  |4th Gurkhas             |   - |   2 |   1 |   4 |
  |5th Gurkhas             |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XXV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR OPERATIONS ON THE NORTH-WEST INDIAN FRONTIER,
1895-1897

Defence of Chitral--Chitral--Malakand--Samana--Punjab
Frontier--Tirah.


DEFENCE OF CHITRAL, 1895.

This battle honour is borne by one regiment--the 14th Prince of
Wales's Own Ferozepore Sikhs.

It commemorates one of those gallant but little-remembered
occurrences where a handful of British officers, at the head of
sepoys no less brave than themselves, have upheld the honour of our
flag against overwhelming odds, and thus belied the oft-repeated
cry of the decadence of the present generation of Englishmen. There
are few episodes in our military history which can vie with the
defence of Chitral, none which excel it in sublime heroism.

A few words are necessary in retrospect. Chitral is a small State
perched up in the almost inaccessible Himalayas, on the main route
between Hindustan and the Pamirs. In the year 1876 the ruler of
this State, which hitherto had been independent, placed himself
under the protection of the Maharajah of Kashmir, and so became one
of our vassals.

Matters marched smoothly for some years, but in the early part of
1895 intertribal disputes arose, the ruler was murdered, and his
throne seized by a usurper, who possessed the support of all the
neighbouring clans, and was, it was shrewdly suspected, receiving
the moral, if not the material, support of the Amir of Afghanistan.
The Chief Political Agent in those regions was Surgeon-Major
George Robertson, a medical officer who had studied the languages
and customs of the Upper Himalayan tribes, and who was trusted
as implicitly by them as by our own Government. He hurried from
his headquarters at Gilgit to Chitral in the hope of allaying
the excitement, but he found himself in the face of a determined
effort on the part of the usurper and his supporters--all fanatical
Moslems--to free themselves from the yoke of the Kafir. All that
Robertson could do was to throw himself into the little native fort
of Chitral, and there to hold out until help arrived from India.
The few scattered garrisons in the Upper Himalayas were isolated,
and all were in equal danger. In one case a detachment of Sikhs
was practically annihilated, its surviving officers being taken
prisoners.

Robertson had with him in Chitral five young officers, a company of
the 14th Sikhs, numbering 88 men, and 300 Kashmiri levies--these
last all untrained in the use of the rifle with which they were
armed. The story of the defence of Chitral has been told in all too
modest language by one of the principal actors, and I can cordially
recommend "The Story of a Minor Siege," by Sir George Robertson, to
the attention of those who talk of the deterioration of our race.
For seven long weeks did that heroic garrison hold out, and when at
last relieved, the relief was effected by a force entirely composed
of native soldiers--the 32nd Pioneers--who, under their indomitable
Colonel, had traversed the gigantic passes of the Himalayas,
swept aside all opposition, and shown the world that the Indian
army contains in its midst, men who are not to be equalled by any
soldiers in the world.

The losses sustained by that one company of the 14th Sikhs during
the defence of Chitral were 1 officer and 17 men killed, 1 officer
and 53 men wounded.


CHITRAL, 1895.

This distinction, which was granted to commemorate the services of
the troops which relieved the beleaguered garrison of Chitral, is
borne by the following regiments:

  Buffs.
  Bedfords.
  K.O. Scottish Borderers.
  East Lancashire.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  9th Hodson's Horse.
  11th Probyn's Lancers.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  13th Rajputs.
  15th Sikhs.
  23rd Pioneers.
  25th Punjabis.
  29th Punjabis.
  30th Punjabis.
  32nd Pioneers.
  34th Pioneers.
  37th Dogras.
  54th Sikhs.
  4th Gurkhas.

The General in command was General Sir Robert Low, K.C.B., and his
force was distributed as under:

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General A. A. A. Kinloch, C.B.: 1st
  Battalion Bedfords, 1st Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 15th
  Sikhs, and 37th Dogras.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Waterfield: 2nd Battalion
  King's Own Scottish Borderers, 1st Battalion Gordon Highlanders,
  54th Sikhs, and the infantry of the Corps of Guides.

  Third Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General Gatacre: 1st Battalion
  Buffs, 2nd Battalion Seaforth Highlanders, 25th Punjabis, and 4th
  Gurkhas.

On the line of communication and in reserve were the 1st Battalion
East Lancashires, the Guides Cavalry, the 11th (Probyn's) Lancers,
the 13th Rajputs, the 23rd Pioneers, and the 30th Punjabis.

Whilst this force was being hastily mobilized, messages had
been despatched to Colonel Kelly, commanding the 32nd Pioneers
at Gilgit, far away to the west of Chitral, advising him of the
critical position of the garrison. Kelly was one of the few
officers in the Indian army who had attained the command of a
regiment without having participated in any great campaign. He was
known to be a good and a keen soldier, but luck had been against
him. Now his turn had come. In the depth of winter, the passes
covered with snow, often waist deep, mountain torrents unbridged,
paths over which even the mules picked their way with difficulty,
every ounce of food to be carried for the whole long march of 200
miles, and a formidable rising of all the fanatical Moslem tribes
in his front--these were some of the difficulties that Kelly had to
face. The story of that march vies with the story of the defence.
It was a war against Nature, and the British-led force won.

Sir Robert Low, with the main army pushing up over the Malakand
Pass, easily dispersed the gathering of the tribes which
endeavoured to bar his advance on Chitral, and so relieved the
pressure which otherwise might have militated against Kelly's
success. In these engagements the relieving force suffered the
following casualties:

  +-------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+
  |                               |      _Officers._      |           |
  |                               +-----------+-----------+   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._         | _British._| _Native._ |           |
  |                               +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                               |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |16th (Bedford)                 |   - |   - |   - |   - |   1 |   2 |
  |25th (K.O. Scottish Borderers) |   - |   2 |   - |   - |   2 |  15 |
  |60th (King's Royal Rifles)     |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |78th (Seaforth Highlanders)    |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |75th (Gordon Highlanders)      |   - |   3 |   - |   - |   3 |   9 |
  |11th (Probyn's) Lancers        |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   1 |  10 |
  |37th Dogras                    |   - |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |  16 |
  |54th Sikhs                     |   - |   2 |   - |   2 |   3 |   7 |
  |4th Gurkhas                    |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  +-------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+


PUNJAB FRONTIER.

This honour, which was sanctioned by the Viceroy of India, is borne
by the following regiments of the Indian army:

  3rd Skinner's Horse.
  6th K.E. Cavalry.
  9th Hodson's Horse.
  11th Probyn's Lancers.
  13th Watson's Horse.
  18th Tiwana Lancers.
  38th Central India Horse.
  39th Central India Horse.
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai.
  15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
  20th Brownlow's Punjabis.
  22nd Punjabis.
  24th Punjabis.
  30th Punjabis.
  31st Punjabis.
  34th Pioneers.
  35th Sikhs.
  36th Sikhs.
  37th Dogras.
  38th Dogras.
  39th Gharwal Rifles.
  45th Rattray's Sikhs.
  53rd Sikhs.
  56th Punjabi Rifles.
  81st Pioneers.
  128th Pioneers.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  3rd Gurkhas.
  4th Gurkhas.
  5th Gurkhas.
  9th Gurkhas.

In the year 1897 Greece, in defiance of the warnings of the Great
Powers, threw down the gauntlet to Turkey, and at the end of a
brief fortnight's campaign was compelled to sue for peace. Through
the good offices of the same Powers she was permitted to escape
the just punishment she had incurred. The victory of the Turks was
greatly exaggerated throughout the Moslem world, and there is no
doubt that emissaries of the Sultan were sent through all Moslem
countries to expatiate on the greatness of the Ottoman Power and
the invincibility of her armies.

About this time the Amir of Afghanistan published a work appealing
to the faithful, and a fanatical priest perambulated the mountains
along our frontier preaching a war against the infidel. All these
causes tended to a great feeling of restlessness--a restlessness
not confined to one clan, but showing clearly all down the
frontier, from the Black Mountain to the Waziri Hills.

A brief explanation of the condition of affairs on our Punjab
frontier is here necessary. That frontier extends up to and
impinges on that great mountain-range which interposes between
the Indian Empire and the kingdom of Afghanistan. This range is
peopled by wild warlike tribes, who own allegiance to no man. Their
names are more or less familiar to the British public by reason of
the many punitory expeditions we have been compelled to undertake
into their hills. Intertribal jealousies have generally been our
strongest ally, and never until the year 1897 have we found such a
serious combination of tribes against us.

The campaign commemorated by this battle honour--"Punjab
Frontier"--commenced by a most treacherous attack on a detachment
of troops in the Tochi Valley. It was followed up by a most
determined attack on our garrison at Malakand by the Swatis--a
tribe who for many years had given us no trouble. Then came an
incursion of the Mohmands into the Peshawar Valley, and finally
came the attack on the garrisons in the Khyber Pass by the Afridis,
that great clan which furnishes some of the very best soldiers to
the Indian army. For the operations against the Afridis a separate
battle honour--"Tirah"--was granted.

The casualties suffered by our troops in the various expeditions
for which the battle honour "Punjab Frontier" was awarded to native
regiments are tabulated on p. 402. It must be remembered that this
distinction has not been conferred on the British regiments engaged.


MALAKAND, 1897.

This battle honour has been awarded to the undermentioned regiments
of the Indian army by the Viceroy in Council, in recognition of the
gallant services rendered in the defence of the Malakand Pass on
the North-West Frontier of India at the outset of the great rising
of the tribes in 1897:

  11th K.E.O. Lancers (Probyn's Horse).
  Q.O. Corps of Guides.
  24th Punjabis.
  31st Punjabis.
  35th Sikhs.
  38th Dogras.

The Chitral campaign of 1895 had taught us the necessity, not
merely of constructing good gun-roads from our Punjab frontier
stations to the remoter garrisons in the Upper Himalayas, but
also of keeping garrisons on those roads in order to overawe
the frontier tribes. The Malakand Pass lies some thirty miles
beyond Hoti Mardan, the cantonment which for more than half a
century has been the home of the Guides, the most famous of
all our frontier regiments. The pass was held in strength. Its
commander, Brigadier-General W. Meiklejohn, was a soldier who had
a considerable experience of Frontier Wars, and who had received
his early training under one of the most accomplished masters
of the art of mountain warfare that the Indian army has ever
produced--Field-Marshal Sir Charles Brownlow. Meiklejohn had with
him some of the pick of the Indian army--a squadron of the 11th
(Probyn's) Horse, the 24th and 31st Regiments of Punjab Infantry,
and the 45th Sikhs. Within thirty-two miles were the Guides, and
twenty-six miles farther south, at Nowshera, lay a brigade which
comprised a battalion of British troops.

There had been ominous murmurings in the mountains to the north of
Peshawar. As I have shown on p. 397, a fanatical Moslem priest had
been preaching a religious war, and this spirit of fanaticism had
been fanned into a flame by exaggerated accounts of the success
of the Turks over the Greeks in Thessaly. Although nominally at
peace with his neighbours, Meiklejohn was not a man to take any
risks. On more than one occasion frontier camps had been rushed by
fanatics, and when on the evening of July 26, 1897, the Swatis of
Malakand endeavoured to rush the camp on the Malakand Pass, they
were met by men who had studied hill warfare in the best of all
schools--that of the Punjab frontier. When dawn broke the little
garrison had lost 50 killed and wounded, but this they knew was but
the commencement of their troubles. A telegram had been got through
to Hoti Mardan before sundown. It reached that place at half-past
eight in the evening. It must be here remembered that this was the
month of July, the leave season, and that the cry of "Wolf, wolf!"
has so often been heard on the Punjab frontier that its repetition
is never considered sufficient to stop leave. At that moment the
temporary command of the Guides was in the hands of a Lieutenant,
Lockhart. As I have said, he received the message at 8.30 p.m.;
five hours later--at 1.30 a.m.--the Guides were on the march for
Malakand; at half-past six the following evening they swung up the
Pass, having covered thirty-two miles in the hottest season of the
year in just seventeen hours, thus rivalling the marvellous march
they made in the Mutiny from Mardan to Delhi. It is related by an
officer who was present that so little affected were the Guides by
this trying march that company after company, as it swung by the
main guard of the Malakand Force, came to the shoulder with all the
accuracy of a battalion of the Guards.

That night the garrison had to meet a second attack, in which
the Guides fought with all their accustomed _élan_. The same
day the Brigadier at Nowshera, in response to the messages from
Malakand, despatched the headquarters and two squadrons of the 11th
(Probyn's) Horse, two mountain batteries, and two battalions (the
35th Sikhs and 38th Dogras), to the relief of Malakand. Some idea
of the severity of the weather may be gathered from the fact that
the 35th Sikhs lost 21 men from heat apoplexy in that march from
Nowshera to the foot of the Pass.

With the arrival of these reinforcements all danger had passed, but
the attitude of the tribes made it abundantly clear that we were
face to face with the greatest frontier upheaval since Sir Walter
Gilbert had driven the Afghans through the Khyber Pass in the
spring of 1849.

The first step was to chastise the tribes in the immediate vicinity
of Malakand, and orders were at once issued for the mobilization of
the following force, under the command of a distinguished officer
of the Royal Engineers, Major-General Sir Bindon Blood, K.C.B., who
had acted as Chief of the Staff to Sir Robert Low in the Chitral
Expedition in 1895. This force was brigaded as follows:

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General W. Meiklejohn, C.B., C.M.G.: 1st
  Battalion Royal West Kent, 24th Punjabis, 31st Punjabis, and 45th
  Sikhs.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General P. de Jeffreys: 1st Battalion
  Buffs, the 35th and 36th Sikhs, and the Infantry of the Guides.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General J. H. Wodehouse, C.B., C.M.G.:
  1st Battalion Highland Light Infantry, 1st Battalion Gordon
  Highlanders, 21st Punjabis, and the 2nd Battalion 1st Gurkhas.

The divisional troops consisted of the 10th Hodson's Horse, 11th
Probyn's Horse, four mountain batteries, and the 22nd Punjabis.

The losses sustained in the defence of the position prior to the
operations of the army acting under Sir Bindon Blood amounted to--

  +--------------+-----------+-----------+
  |              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  | _Regiments._ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Q.O. Guides   |   - |   3 |   3 |  27 |
  |24th Punjabis |   1 |   2 |   8 |  24 |
  |31st Punjabis |   - |   2 |  12 |  32 |
  |45th Sikhs    |   1 |   - |   4 |  28 |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

No account of the defence of Malakand would be complete without
an allusion to the gallant action of a company of the 45th Sikhs,
under a subaltern, in holding on to the outpost of Chakdarra, a
few miles farther up the pass. So sudden was the outburst that
Lieutenant Rattray, the officer in command, was actually playing
polo with the officers at Malakand when he heard of the threatened
attack. He at once galloped back to the outpost, passing _en route_
groups of the tribesmen, who made no attempt to hinder him. He
arrived to find that his brother subaltern had commenced to prepare
for the fray. That night they were attacked, and from July 25 until
August 2 were continuously under fire. When they were relieved by
the advance of a force from Malakand, the casualties in the company
of the 45th Sikhs at Chakdarra amounted to 5 killed and 18 wounded,
whilst the sergeant's party of the 11th Bengal Lancers lost 3 men.

While yet the force was being mobilized for the punishment of
the Swatis for the attack on Malakand, the Mohmands raided some
villages in the Peshawar Valley. The raiders were promptly punished
by the Peshawar Division, under General Elles; but this was not
deemed sufficient, and in the month of September Sir Bindon Blood,
having dealt with the Swatis, advanced against the Mohmands from
the north, the while that General Elles, with a well-equipped
brigade, moved up from Peshawar.


DISTRIBUTION OF THE MOHMAND FIELD FORCE.

First Division: Major-General Sir Bindon Blood, K.C.B.

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General Jeffreys, C.B.: The Buffs, 35th
  Sikhs, and 38th Dogras.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Wodehouse, C.B.: The Queen's,
  22nd Punjabis, and the 39th Punjabis.


Second Division: Major-General Edmond Elles, C.B.

  Third Brigade: Somerset Light Infantry, 20th Brownlow's Punjabis,
  and 2nd Battalion 1st Gurkhas.

  Fourth Brigade: 2nd Battalion Oxford Light Infantry, 37th Dogras,
  and the 9th Gurkhas.

After inflicting considerable punishment on the clans in the lower
valleys, the Peshawar Division was withdrawn to take part in the
Tirah Expedition (p. 404), whilst Sir Bindon Blood remained in
occupation of the country. The Mohmand Expedition was productive of
some sharp fighting, as the subjoined list of casualties prove:


CASUALTIES IN THE SWAT, MOHMAND, AND KURAM VALLEY EXPEDITIONS IN
1897.

  +-----------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+
  |                             |      _Officers._      |           |
  |                             +-----------+-----------+   _Men._  |
  |         _Regiments._        | _British._| _Native._ |           |
  |                             +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |2nd (Queen's)                |   - |   - |   - |   - |   3 |   6 |
  |3rd (Buffs)                  |   - |   - |   - |   - |   7 |  19 |
  |11th (Devons)                |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |52nd (Oxford Light Infantry) |   - |   3 |   - |   - |   3 |  11 |
  |50th (Royal West Kent)       |   1 |   5 |   - |   - |   3 |  24 |
  |107th (Royal Sussex)         |   - |   1 |   - |   - |   4 |   7 |
  |6th K.E.O. Cavalry           |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |9th Hodson's Horse           |   - |   - |   1 |   - |   3 |   4 |
  |18th Lancers                 |   - |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |12th Pioneers                |   - |   - |   - |   - |   3 |   3 |
  |20th Brownlow's Punjabis     |   - |   - |   - |   - |   7 |  47 |
  |22nd Punjabis                |   - |   - |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |34th Pioneers                |   1 |   - |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |51st Sikhs                   |   1 |   2 |   - |   1 |  13 |  15 |
  |55th Coke's Rifles           |   1 |   2 |   - |   - |   7 |   4 |
  |9th Gurkhas                  |   - |   - |   - |   - |   2 |   2 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+


SAMANA, SEPTEMBER 12-14, 1897.

This distinction was conferred on the 36th Sikhs by the Viceroy
of India as a recognition of the gallant conduct of a detachment
of that regiment at the defence of Fort Gulistan against a very
superior force.

The attack on Fort Gulistan was one of the incidents which led
to the expedition against the Afridis, and which is commemorated
on the colours of our army under the title "Tirah." This fort,
which is situated on the Samana Range, to the west of the frontier
station of Kohat, dominates one of the main roads into the Afridi
Hills, and is held by a detachment of native troops furnished from
the garrison of Kohat. Almost simultaneously with the attack on
the garrison of Malakand (see p. 398) symptoms of unrest displayed
themselves amongst all the tribes along our North-West Frontier.
The forts on the Khyber Road were attacked, the Mohmands made their
descent into the Peshawar Valley, and the Afridis, not content with
the attacks on the Khyber line, endeavoured to turn us out of the
position on the Samana Ridge.

The garrison of Fort Gulistan consisted of two companies of the
36th Sikhs, under Major Des Vœux, and hard by was a little detached
work, with a garrison of but twenty men, under a native officer.
The conduct of this detachment must for ever remain one of the
brightest pages in the history of our Indian army, and yet the
history of that army abounds with instances of the self-devotion
and heroism of our native soldiery.

Cut off from all communication with any senior officer, the
Subadar[29] in command of the Saragai post was left entirely to his
own devices. Gallantly did he carry out his orders. Surrounded by
10,000 Afridis, he not only repelled all attacks for three days,
but when offered terms and a safe conduct to Kohat, his reply was
that until he received instructions from his Colonel he could not
abandon the post committed to his care; and so the brave old Sikh
and his gallant men stayed on and died, true to the last to their
trust. When the Fort Gulistan was relieved, on September 14, it
was found that Saragai was in the hands of the Afridis, and that
every man of the garrison had died at his post. To commemorate the
heroism of its garrison the Government of India erected a monument,
on which the names of that heroic band are inscribed, within the
walls of the great Sikh cathedral, the Golden Temple at Umritsar.

The losses sustained by the two companies of the 36th Sikhs in the
defence of the Samana Ridge were 22 killed and 48 wounded out of a
total of 166 combatants.


TIRAH, 1897-98

This battle honour, sanctioned by Army Order No. 23 of 1900, is
borne by the following regiments:

  Queen's.
  Devons.
  Yorkshire.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  K.O. Scottish Borderers.
  Sherwood Foresters.
  Northamptons.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  18th Tiwana Lancers.
  1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
  15th Sikhs.
  30th Punjabis.
  36th Sikhs.
  53rd Sikhs.
  56th Rifles.
  128th Pioneers.
  1st Gurkhas.
  2nd Gurkhas.
  3rd Gurkhas.
  4th Gurkhas.

It was granted in recognition of one of the most arduous campaigns
we have been called upon to wage on the Indian frontier. Our
opponents were the great tribe of Afridis, who people the mountains
to the west of the cantonment of Peshawar, and who furnish some
of the best soldiers in our Punjab regiments. The Afridis are
subdivided into a number of clans, all antagonistic to each other.
Intertribal wars are of frequent occurrence, and although on many
occasions we have been compelled to undertake punitory expeditions
against certain of these, it has never been our lot to find such a
unanimity of feeling against us as on this occasion.

It was thoroughly realized that we had a foe well worthy of our
steel. The Afridis were well armed, and they counted some thousands
of men who had been through the mill of discipline in our own
regiments. Many of the very best regiments of the Indian army
contained a large number of Afridis, and though these men have
never hesitated to fight bravely against their own co-religionists
in our border wars and in Afghanistan, there was more than a
possibility that their loyalty would be too severely tried were we
to employ them against their own fellow-tribesmen.

The chief command was entrusted to General Sir William Lockhart,
an officer well versed in frontier warfare, one who understood
the Afridi character thoroughly, and who was well known and well
respected by the tribesmen. His army was the most powerful that we
had ever mobilized for frontier war. It numbered close on 35,000
men, of whom 10,900 were British, and was distributed as under:


First Division: Major-General W. Penn Symons, C.B.

  First Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General R. C. Hart, V.C., C.B.:
  1st Battalion Devonshires, 2nd Battalion Sherwood Foresters, 2nd
  Battalion 1st Gurkhas, and the 30th Punjabis.

  Second Infantry Brigade--Brigadier-General Alfred Gaselee, C.B.:
  1st Battalion Queen's, 2nd Battalion Yorkshire Regiment, 2nd
  Battalion 4th Gurkhas, and the 53rd Sikhs.


Second Division: Major-General Yeatman Biggs.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General F. J. Kempster, D.S.O.: 1st
  Battalion Dorsets, 1st Battalion Gordon Highlanders, 1st
  Battalion 2nd Gurkhas, and the 15th Sikhs.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General R. Westmacott, C.B., D.S.O.:
  2nd Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers, 1st Battalion
  Northamptons, 1st Battalion 3rd Gurkhas, and the 36th Sikhs.

The divisional troops at the disposal of the Commander-in-Chief
comprised the 18th Tiwana Lancers, three mountain batteries, and
the 128th Pioneers.

A second column was organized to act from Peshawar, and was placed
under the command of Brigadier-General A. G. Hammond, V.C., an
officer who had served in the famous Corps of Guides for twenty
years, and who was a master in the art of mountain warfare, having
won the Victoria Cross during the Afghan War of 1879, under the
eyes of Lord Roberts. His force comprised the 2nd Battalion Royal
Inniskilling Fusiliers, the 2nd Battalion Oxford Light Infantry,
the 9th Gurkhas, the 32nd Pioneers, and the 45th Sikhs, with the
9th Hodson's Horse, one field and one mounted battery.

A third column, under Colonel Hill, of the Indian army, was
assembled in the Kuram Valley. It consisted of the 6th King
Edward's Own Cavalry, the 38th and 39th Central India Horse, the
12th Pioneers, and the 1st Battalion of the 5th Gurkhas, the total
force amounting to 34,880 fighting men, British and native, with no
less than 20,000 followers.

No white man had ever penetrated the upper valleys of Tirah, and
our knowledge was based on the information of the Afridi officers
and men, who for forty years had formed the backbone of so many
of our Punjab regiments. The frontier town of Kohat formed the
base of operations, which had of necessity, owing to the absence
of roads, to be carried on in one single line. The advance took
place on October 18, and two days later the Dargai Heights, which
commanded the entrance to the valley, were stormed, with a loss of
200 killed and wounded. The Afridis were too wise to risk a general
engagement. They had been trained in our own school, had studied
under our officers, and had well learned their lesson. Instead
of wasting life in futile attacks on our troops when in mass,
they waged a ceaseless war against convoys or survey parties. Sir
William Lockhart remained in occupation of the Afridi country until
the middle of December, when negotiations for peace were opened;
but it was not until the commencement of April, 1898, that the
Afridis consented to pay the fines imposed or to give up the rifles
demanded.

  [Illustration: Battlefields in NORTHERN INDIA]

Our casualties, which are set out in detail in the subjoined
return, amounted to 23 British officers, 4 native officers, and
287 other ranks killed; 56 British officers, 16 native officers,
and 853 of all ranks wounded--a tribute to the gallantry of our foe
and to the musketry training of the British officers who had taught
them how to shoot.


CASUALTIES IN THE TIRAH EXPEDITION.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |         _Regiments._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery              |   1 |   2 |   4 |  21 |
  |2nd Queen's                  |   - |   2 |  10 |  29 |
  |11th Devons                  |   - |   - |   - |   9 |
  |19th Yorkshire               |   1 |   3 |   6 |  33 |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers    |   - |   1 |   2 |  13 |
  |25th K.O. Scottish Borderers |   - |   3 |   7 |  34 |
  |39th Dorsets                 |   4 |   4 |  19 |  65 |
  |48th N'amptons               |   3 |   1 |  23 |  41 |
  |75th Gordon H.               |   2 |   8 |   9 |  63 |
  |95th Derbyshire              |   1 |   1 |   8 |  33 |
  |Roy. Engineers               |   1 |   1 |   3 |  14 |
  |18th Bengal Lancers          |   - |   1 |   2 |   6 |
  |15th Sikhs                   |   2 |   7 |  11 |  35 |
  |30th Punjabis                |   - |   - |   3 |   8 |
  |36th Sikhs                   |   - |   5 |  15 |  50 |
  |53rd Sikhs                   |   - |   4 |   8 |  28 |
  |56th Punjab R.               |   2 |   - |   5 |  27 |
  |121st Pioneers               |   - |   1 |   2 |  13 |
  |128th Pioneers               |   - |   1 |   9 |  24 |
  |2nd Gurkhas                  |   4 |   4 |  23 |  75 |
  |3rd Gurkhas                  |   1 |   3 |  13 |  43 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



CHAPTER XXVI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902

  Modder River--Defence of Ladysmith--Defence of Kimberley--Relief
  of Kimberley--Paardeburg--Relief of Ladysmith--Medals granted
  for the campaign--Decorations won regimentally--Casualties by
  regiments.


SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of
practically every infantry regiment in the army, in the cavalry the
only regiments which were so unfortunate as not to participate in
the campaign being the 4th Dragoon Guards, the 4th, 11th, and 15th
Hussars, which were in India, and the 21st Lancers, which were at
home. The following long list of regiments shows those which are
authorized to bear this honour:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  King's Dragoon Guards.
  Queen's Bays.
  3rd Dragoon Guards.
  5th Dragoon Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  7th Dragoon Guards.
  Royal Dragoons.
  Scots Greys.
  3rd Hussars.
  5th Lancers.
  Inniskillings.
  7th Hussars.
  8th Hussars.
  9th Lancers.
  10th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  13th Hussars.
  14th Hussars.
  16th Lancers.
  17th Lancers.
  18th Hussars.
  19th Hussars.
  20th Hussars.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Royal Scots.
  Queen's.
  Buffs.
  King's Own.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Royal Fusiliers.
  King's Liverpools.
  Norfolks.
  Lincolns.
  Devons.
  Suffolks.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  West Yorks.
  East Yorks.
  Bedfordshire.
  Leicesters.
  Royal Irish.
  Yorkshire.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  Cheshire.
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
  South Wales Borderers.
  K.O. Scottish Borderers.
  Scottish Rifles.
  Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
  Gloucesters.
  Worcesters.
  East Lancashire.
  East Surrey.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  West Riding.
  Border.
  Royal Sussex.
  Hampshires.
  South Staffords.
  Dorsets.
  East Lancashires.
  Welsh.
  Black Watch.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.
  Derbyshire.
  Loyal North Lancashire.
  Northamptons.
  Royal Berkshires.
  Royal West Kent.
  K.O. Yorkshire L.I.
  Shropshire L.I.
  Middlesex.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  Wiltshire.
  North Staffords.
  York and Lancaster.
  Durham L.I.
  Highland L.I.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Cameron Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Connaught Rangers.
  Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
  Leinster.
  Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  Rifle Brigade.


YEOMANRY REGIMENTS.

  Ayrshire.
  Berks.
  Buckinghamshire.
  Cheshire.
  Denbighshire.
  Derbyshire.
  1st Royal Devon.
  Royal North Devon.
  Dorset.
  Essex.
  Fife.
  Gloucestershire.
  Hampshire.
  Herts.
  Royal East Kent.
  West Kent.
  Lanarkshire.
  Royal Lanarkshire.
  Lancashire Hussars.
  Duke of Lancaster's.
  Leicestershire.
  City of London.
  1st County of London.
  2nd County of London.
  3rd County of London.
  Lothian and Border Horse.
  Lovat's Scouts.
  Montgomeryshire.
  Northumberland.
  Nottingham Rangers.
  South Nottingham Hussars.
  Oxford.
  Pembroke.
  Scottish Horse.
  Shropshire.
  North Somerset.
  West Somerset.
  Suffolk.
  Warwickshire.
  Westmorland and Cumberland.
  Worcestershire.
  Yorkshire Dragoons.
  Yorkshire Hussars.


MILITIA REGIMENTS.

  3rd Royal Scots.
  3rd Queen's (West Surrey).
  3rd Buffs.
  3rd King's Own (Lancaster).
  3rd Royal Warwicks.
  4th Royal Warwicks.
  5th Royal Fusiliers.
  4th King's Liverpool.
  3rd Norfolks.
  4th Norfolks.
  3rd Lincolns.
  4th West Yorkshire.
  3rd East Yorkshire.
  4th Bedfords.
  3rd Leicester.
  3rd Yorkshire.
  3rd Lancashire Fusiliers.
  4th Lancashire Fusiliers.
  3rd Cheshire.
  3rd South Wales Borderers.
  3rd Scottish Borderers.
  3rd Scottish Rifles.
  4th Scottish Rifles.
  6th Worcester.
  3rd East Lancashire.
  3rd East Surrey.
  3rd West Riding.
  3rd Royal Sussex.
  3rd South Stafford.
  3rd South Lancashire.
  3rd Welsh.
  3rd Essex.
  4th Derbyshire.
  3rd Loyal North Lancashire.
  3rd Northampton.
  5th Middlesex.
  6th Middlesex.
  3rd Manchester.
  4th Manchester.
  3rd North Stafford.
  3rd York and Lancaster.
  3rd Durham L.I.
  3rd Highland L.I.
  5th Royal Irish Rifles.
  3rd Argyll Highlanders.
  4th Argyll Highlanders.
  4th Royal Munster Fusiliers.
  4th Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  5th Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
  5th Rifle Brigade.


ST. HELENA.

One militia battalion was deputed to carry out the thankless but
onerous task of guarding the Boer prisoners at this island, and so
it comes about that the distinction "St. Helena" is borne on the
colours of the 3rd Battalion of the Wiltshire Regiment.


MEDALS GRANTED FOR THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA.

Two medals were given for this campaign--the one with the head of
Queen Victoria, to which a number of clasps were appended; the
other with the head of His Majesty King Edward VII., to which were
attached two clasps--"South Africa, 1901," and "South Africa, 1902."

The following were the clasps issued with the medal known as the
Queen's Medal.


BATTLE CLASPS.

  1. "Talana," for the action on October 20, 1899.

  2. "Elandslaagte," for the action on October 21, 1899.

  3. "Belmont," for the action on November 23, 1899.

  4. "Modder River," for the action on November 28, 1899.

  5. "Tugela Heights," for a series of engagements fought by Sir
  Redvers Buller in his first endeavours to force his way into
  Ladysmith in February, 1900.

  6. "Relief of Kimberley," on February 15, 1900.

  7. "Relief of Ladysmith," February 26, 1900.

  8. "Paardeburg," for the action fought between February 27 and
  28, 1900.

  9. "Driefontein," for the action on March 10, 1900.

  10. "Wepener," for the defence of that position between April 5
  and 25, 1900.

  11. "Johannesburg," for the operations leading to the seizure of
  that city, ending on May 31, 1900.

  12. "Laing's Nek," for the operations by Sir Redvers Buller's
  army, ending June 12, 1900.

  13. "Diamond Hill," for the action at that place on June 12, 1900.

  14. "Witterburgen," for the operations in that district at the
  end of July, 1900.

  15. "Belfast," for the defence of that position on January 7,
  1900.

  There were clasps given inscribed:

  16. "Defence of Kimberley."

  17. "Defence of Ladysmith."

  18. "Defence of Mafeking."

  Clasps were also issued bearing only the names of the various
  Colonies to those troops which had not been engaged in any of the
  above-mentioned engagements; these Colony clasps were in number:

  19. "Cape Colony."

  20. "Natal."

  21. "Orange River Colony."

  22. "Rhodesia."

  23. "Transvaal."

  And there were also two date clasps inscribed:

  24. "South Africa, 1901."

  25. "South Africa, 1902."


BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CAMPAIGN.

Whilst medals and clasps were distributed with a free hand, a
different policy was enacted with reference to the names that
were inscribed on the colours and appointments of the regiments
which took part in the campaign. Only six battle honours were
authorized for the two and a half years' fighting--"South Africa"
(with a date indicating the period that the corps remained in the
country), "Modder River," "Defence of Kimberley,"[30] "Relief of
Kimberley," "Defence of Ladysmith," "Relief of Ladysmith," and
"Paardeburg"--and no regiment obtained more than four of these
battle honours. Few were able to add more than two honours for the
campaign.

The relations between the British Government and the Boers had
never been marked by any cordiality. Their hostility was not
confined to ourselves. They had rebelled against the Dutch East
India Company prior to our conquest of the Cape of Good Hope, and
from the earliest days of the Dutch settlement there had been
constant friction between the Boers and the natives. It is not
my province to enter into the causes of the war, or whether it
might have been avoided, suffice to say that on October 9, 1899,
an ultimatum was handed to our Agent in Pretoria, couched in such
terms as to render hostilities inevitable. On the 12th the first
shot was fired, and England embarked on a campaign of far greater
magnitude than any in which we had ever been engaged. Our forces
were all too weak to cope with the situation, and they were widely
scattered.

The Boers from the outset assumed the offensive, whilst we, owing
to our numerical inferiority, were compelled to act strictly on
the defensive until the arrival of reinforcements, which were
already on the way from England. Within a very few days of the
outbreak of hostilities it became apparent that we had, as usual,
grievously underrated the strength of our opponents. Sir George
White, with the bulk of the troops in South Africa, was shut up in
Ladysmith, where he made a gallant defence. Colonel Kekewich, with
a half-battalion of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment and some
artillery, kept the flag flying at Kimberley, the headquarters of
the diamond-fields; whilst Colonel Baden-Powell, with irregular
troops only, earned a world-wide reputation for his brilliant
defence of Mafeking. Not content with enveloping our forces in
this way, the Boers carried on a series of daring raids into
Cape Colony. In this they were to a great extent assisted by the
disloyal conduct of many of the Dutch Colonials, who were actively
hostile to our cause.

In justice to the General Officers who were in command during the
earlier and less successful stages of the war, a brief description
of the military resources of the Empire is desirable. As Lord
Salisbury, the Prime Minister, had stated in the House of Lords
that no Indian troops would be employed, I may eliminate the
magnificent fighting material that we possess in our Indian army.
Approximately we had the following forces to draw on from our
fellow-subjects beyond the seas, who at once let it be known that
they looked on the quarrels of the Mother Country as their own, and
that they were ready to place at the disposal of the War Office the
manhood of their peoples. Our resources may be thus summarized:

  Regular troops in the United Kingdom        108,000
     "      "    in India                      68,000
     "      "    in other garrisons            30,000
     "      "    in South Africa               22,000
  Army Reserve in the United Kingdom           83,000
                                              -------  311,000

  Auxiliary forces in the United Kingdom      344,000
     "        "    in Canada                   33,000
     "        "    in Australia                29,000
     "        "    in New Zealand               7,700
     "        "    in Tasmania                  2,000
                                              -------  415,700
                                       Total           726,700

Of this grand total of upwards of 700,000 men it was clear that
large numbers would never be available. India could only be denuded
of a small portion of the British garrison, and of the auxiliary
forces in the United Kingdom a very large proportion were by no
means fit to take their places in the field; yet before the war was
brought to a close the troops actually sent to the front were not
far short of 400,000 men. Of these were despatched:

  From the United Kingdom and the Mediterranean      338,000
  From India                                          19,500
  From our Dominions beyond the seas                  30,000

For transport purposes and to supply the wastage in our mounted
troops 470,000 horses and 150,000 mules and donkeys were purchased;
for the conveyance of the troops and animals to the seat of war no
fewer than 1,057 ships were taken up, and 1,374,000 tons of stores
were from first to last shipped to South Africa. Unfortunately,
all this energy was delayed until after the actual declaration of
war. So far back as the month of June the Commander-in-Chief had
unsuccessfully applied for permission to mobilize an army corps on
Salisbury Plain and to convert the existing transport waggons to
mule draught. It was not until October 8 that the order for the
mobilization was sanctioned, and the first reinforcements did not
leave the country until the third week in that month, war having
been declared on the 11th.[31]

Our forces at the outset of hostilities were scattered necessarily
over a wide area. The frontiers of the two Republics ran
conterminously with our own for a distance of 1,000 miles. To
defend this with 22,000 men was a manifest impossibility. Sir
Forestier Walker, who was in command in Cape Colony, determined to
hold the most important positions on that long line of frontier;
whilst Sir George White in Natal, against his better judgment,
deferred to the views of the Governor of Natal, and divided his
forces, thus paving the way to defeat.

In addition to Kimberley, Sir Forestier Walker had weak detachments
guarding the principal railway junctions of De Aar, Nauwpoort,
and Stormberg. White had a brigade, under Sir Penn Symons, at
Dundee, in the North of Natal; the remainder of his force was at
Ladysmith. On October 20 the Dundee column fought an action at
Talana, and the following day White's troops, under General French,
defeated the Boers at Elandslaagte; but the arrival of strong Boer
reinforcements and the death of Penn Symons compelled the retreat
of the Dundee brigade, and on the 30th White suffered a severe
check at Lombard's Kop. It was now clear that the army in South
Africa was powerless until the arrival of reinforcements from
home, and these, late in the day as it was, were being hurried
forward as fast as circumstances would permit. The Viceroy of India
had been requested to despatch with all haste a cavalry brigade,
one of infantry, and three batteries of artillery. Some of these,
as well as the battalion from the Mauritius, were already in South
Africa, and battalions from Malta, Cyprus, and Egypt were _en
route_. The army corps asked for in June was now despatched, with
Sir Redvers Buller to hold the chief command in South Africa. It
was composed as follows:


First Division: Lieutenant-General Lord Methuen.

  Guards' Brigade--Brig.-Gen. Paget: 3rd Battalion Grenadiers, 1st
  Battalion Coldstream, 2nd Battalion Coldstream, 1st Battalion
  Scots Guards.

  Second Brigade--Brig.-Gen. Hildyard: 2nd Battalion Queen's, 2nd
  Battalion Devons, 2nd Battalion West Yorks, 2nd Battalion East
  Surrey.

  One squadron 1st Life Guards and three batteries Field Artillery.


Second Division: Lieutenant-General Clery.

  Highland Brigade--Brig.-Gen. Wauchope: 2nd Battalion Royal
  Highlanders, 1st Battalion Highland Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion
  Seaforths, 1st Battalion Argylls.

  Fourth Brigade--Major-Gen. Lyttelton: 2nd Battalion Scottish
  Rifles, 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 1st Battalion Durham
  Light Infantry, 1st Battalion Rifle Brigade.

  One squadron Royal Horse Guards and three batteries Field
  Artillery.


Third Division: Lieutenant-General Gatacre.

  Fifth Brigade--Brig.-Gen. Hart: 1st Battalion Inniskilling
  Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion Royal Irish Rifles, 1st Battalion
  Connaught Rangers, 1st Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

  Sixth Brigade--Brig.-Gen. Barton: 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers,
  2nd Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1st Battalion Royal Welsh
  Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers.

  One squadron 2nd Life Guards and three batteries Field Artillery.


Cavalry Division: Lieutenant-General French.

  First Brigade: Carabiniers, 10th Hussars, 12th Lancers, one
  battery Royal Horse Artillery.

  Second Brigade: Royal Dragoons, Scots Greys, Inniskilling
  Dragoons, one battery Royal Horse Artillery.

  Lines of Communication: 2nd Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers,
  2nd Battalion Somerset Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion Cornwall
  Light Infantry, 1st Battalion Welsh Regiment, 2nd Battalion
  Northamptons, 2nd K.O. Yorkshire Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion
  Shropshire Light Infantry, 1st Battalion Gordons, Highland Light
  Infantry.

Until the arrival of these reinforcements we were holding on to
our own frontiers with but 15,000 men in Natal, 10,000 in the Cape
Colony, and some 1,500 in Rhodesia, inclusive of colonial forces.
Opposed to us the Boers had at the least 53,000 men. Of these,
it was estimated that 23,000 men were before White in Ladysmith,
7,500 had been despatched against Baden-Powell in Mafeking, a
slightly larger force was enveloping Kekewich in Kimberley, and the
remainder were being mobilized for the defence of the two Republics.

The original plan of campaign decided on before the departure of
Sir Redvers Buller from England was to invade the Republics from
the south with the army corps, the composition of which I have just
given, whilst making such diversions as might be possible from
Natal. On Buller's arrival all this had to be changed. The relief
of Ladysmith was now the primary object of our Commander-in-Chief,
all question of an invasion of the Republics being for the present
out of the question. So soon as the reinforcements commenced to
arrive, Methuen, with the Brigade of Guards, was pushed up to
relieve Kimberley; the Second, Fifth, and Sixth Brigades were at
once directed to Natal, where Buller quickly followed. To replace
the Second Brigade in the First Division a Ninth Brigade, made
up from regiments intended for the line of communications, was
formed, and Wauchope's brigade of the Second Division advanced to
the support of Methuen, and to strengthen our hold on the line
of railway. Generals French and Gatacre were entrusted with the
command of the railway running parallel with the frontiers of
the Republics, and were stationed respectively at Nauwpoort and
Stormberg, whilst Wauchope was posted at De Aar.

Buller expressed himself optimistic as to the relief of Kimberley,
which was closely invested by the Boers, and by the middle of
November Methuen commenced his advance. His force consisted of the
Brigade of Guards, the Ninth Brigade (1st Loyal North Lancashire,
2nd King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 1st Northumberland
Fusiliers, and 2nd Northamptons), the 9th Lancers, three squadrons
of mounted infantry, three field batteries, a naval brigade 360
strong, with four long 12-pounder quick-firers, and the New South
Wales Lancers. On October 23 he defeated the Boers at Belmont, his
casualties being 3 officers and 51 men killed, 23 officers and 220
men wounded. On the 25th he fought a second successful action at
Enslin, losing 3 officers and 15 men killed, 6 officers and 137
men wounded; and on October 28 he again defeated the Boers on the
Riet River. The action, however, is officially known as that of the
Modder River.


MODDER RIVER, NOVEMBER 28, 1899.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of the
following regiments:

  9th Lancers.
  Grenadier Guards.
  Coldstream Guards.
  Scots Guards.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Northamptons.
  K.O. Yorkshire L.I.
  Highland Light Infantry
  Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.

It commemorates the third of the three successful actions fought
by Lord Methuen in the early stage of the South African War in his
attempt to relieve Kimberley. A clasp, inscribed "Modder River,"
was given for this engagement, in which the casualties were as
follows:


CASUALTIES AT THE ACTION ON THE MODDER RIVER.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Corps or_   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |  _Regiments._  |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |9th Lancers     |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Artillery |   - |   4 |   3 |  22 |
  |Naval Brigade   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Grenadier Gds.  |   - |   3 |   8 |  40 |
  |Coldstream Gds. |   2 |   1 |  10 |  77 |
  |Scots Guards    |   - |   2 |  10 |  37 |
  |N'umberland F.  |   - |   - |  11 |  34 |
  |Loyal N. Lancs  |   - |   1 |   3 |  16 |
  |Northamptons    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |K.O. Yorks L.I. |   1 |   3 |   8 |  46 |
  |Highland L.I.   |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Argyll Highl.   |   - |   2 |  15 |  95 |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The Boer forces covering the Siege of Kimberley were under
the command of General Cronje, and he, falling back after his
third reverse at the Modder River, took up a strong position at
Magersfontein, entrenching his whole front for a distance of nine
miles. To hasten the relief of Kimberley, Wauchope was now pushed
up to reinforce Methuen, and on December 11 that General attacked
Cronje, but met with a most serious reverse, losing 22 officers
and 188 men killed, 46 officers and 629 men wounded, the bulk of
the casualties falling on the Highland Brigade, which also lost
its gallant leader, Wauchope, the second of his name to fall at
the head of English troops in an unsuccessful action, for Andrew
Wauchope's uncle fell at Rosetta in our little-remembered, but
unfortunate, expedition to Egypt in 1807.

In the meantime Buller had proceeded to Durban, and was concerting
his plans for the relief of Ladysmith. He had at his disposal
18,000 men and thirty field guns, besides a naval brigade with
fourteen long-range quick-firers. On December 15 he made his first
effort, and was badly defeated at Colenso, losing, in addition to 7
officers and 136 men killed, 47 officers and 709 men wounded, and
ten guns. The superior mobility of the Boers, and the fact that
White had with him four regiments of cavalry shut up in Ladysmith,
induced Buller to make the most earnest representations for a large
force of mounted reinforcements, and the War Office responded to
the call by mobilizing three more divisions, and taking steps to
raise a force of 4,000 Yeomanry.

These repeated disasters had aroused the nation--temporarily, at
any rate--to a proper sense of its responsibilities, and all ranks
and all classes responded to the call for volunteers. The veteran
Field-Marshal Lord Roberts, who had served his apprenticeship at
the Siege of Delhi just two-and-forty years before, accepted the
chief command, and at once embarked for the seat of war. On his
arrival the situation was no clearer. Methuen, with the First
Division, lay immobile twelve miles south of Kimberley, with a
Boer army strongly entrenched in his front; Gatacre, at Stormberg,
had met with a serious reverse; Sir George White was closely
besieged in Ladysmith; and Buller was gathering together his forces
for a second attempt to carry the strong position before him. Lord
Roberts landed in South Africa on January 10, and his first care
was to organize his transport, so as to have all in readiness for
an advance so soon as the reinforcements now on the seas should
arrive. As his Chief of the Staff he had Lord Kitchener, fresh from
his successful campaign in Egypt, where he had shown himself a
master in the matter of organization.

It was not until the commencement of February that the
Field-Marshal felt himself able to move. His plan of campaign was
first the relief of Kimberley with the Cavalry Division, under
French, then an advance on the capital of the Orange Free State.
This advance, he felt sure, would relieve the pressure in Natal,
and so enable Buller to join hands with Ladysmith. Approximately,
Lord Roberts had now in the Cape Colony 52,000 men, and in Natal
40,000, of whom some 9,000 or 10,000 were shut up in Ladysmith.
Even now he felt that he would need heavy reinforcements to meet
the wastage of war, and he requested that 8,000 Imperial Yeomanry
and thirty battalions of Militia might be despatched to the seat of
war as soon as they could be mobilized. Then, and not till then,
did Lord Roberts feel justified in his advance. His transport was
in an effective condition, and he had received assurance from home
that the reinforcements asked for would be sent without delay. On
February 6 he left Cape Town for the front, and on the 15th French
set forth for the relief of Kimberley.

The troops actually at Lord Roberts's disposal at this period
consisted of four divisions of infantry and one of cavalry. The
composition of the Cavalry Division is given on p. 422; that of the
four infantry divisions was as follows:


First Division: Lieutenant-General Lord Methuen.

  Brigade of Guards--Major-General Paget: 3rd Battalion Grenadier
  Guards, 1st Battalion Coldstream Guards, 2nd Battalion Coldstream
  Guards, 1st Battalion Scots Guards.

  Ninth Brigade--Brigadier-General Pole-Carew: 1st Battalion
  Northumberland Fusiliers, half a battalion of the North
  Lancashire, 2nd Battalion Northamptons, 2nd Battalion King's Own
  Yorkshire Light Infantry.


Sixth Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Kelly-Kenny.

  Thirteenth Brigade--Major-General C. E. Knox: 2nd Battalion
  Buffs, 2nd Battalion Gloucesters, 1st Battalion West Ridings, 1st
  Battalion Oxford Light Infantry.

  Eighteenth Brigade--Brigadier-General T. E. Stephenson: 2nd
  Battalion Royal Warwicks, 1st Battalion Yorkshire Regiment, 1st
  Battalion Essex, 1st Battalion Wiltshires. Three field batteries
  and two naval 12-pounders.


Seventh Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Charles Tucker.

  Fourteenth Brigade--Major-General Chermside: 2nd Battalion
  Norfolks, 2nd Battalion Lincolns, 1st Battalion King's Own
  Scottish Borderers, 2nd Battalion Hampshires.

  Fifteenth Brigade--Brigadier-General Wavell: 2nd Battalion
  Cheshires, 1st Battalion East Lancashire, 2nd Battalion South
  Wales Borderers, 2nd Battalion North Staffords. Three field
  batteries.


Ninth Division: Lieutenant-General Sir H. Colville, K.C.B.

  Highland Brigade--Brigadier-General MacDonald: 2nd Battalion
  Black Watch, 1st Battalion Highland Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion
  Seaforth Highlanders, 1st Battalion Argyll and Sutherland
  Highlanders.

  Nineteenth Brigade--Brigadier-General Smith-Dorrien: 2nd
  Battalion Cornwall Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion Shropshire
  Light Infantry, 1st Battalion Gordon Highlanders, Royal Canadian
  Infantry. Three field batteries and one of 5-inch howitzer.

At Sterkstrom, General Gatacre had the remains of the Third
Division, consisting of the 1st Royal Scots, 2nd Northumberland
Fusiliers, 1st Derbyshire, 2nd Royal Berkshire, 2nd Royal
Irish Rifles, and a Militia battalion--the 3rd Durham Light
Infantry--with three field batteries and a couple of naval guns.

At Nauwpoort, General Clements had the 2nd Bedfords, 1st Royal
Irish, 2nd Worcester, 2nd Wiltshire, a Militia battalion--the 4th
Derbyshire--with one horse and three field batteries.

The Second Division was with Sir George White in Ladysmith, and
comprised a cavalry brigade, consisting of the 5th Dragoon Guards,
5th Lancers, 18th and 19th Hussars.

  Seventh Brigade--Brigadier-General Ian Hamilton: 1st Battalion
  Manchesters, 2nd Battalion Gordons, 1st Battalion Royal Irish
  Fusiliers: and 2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade.

  Eighth Brigade--Brigadier-General F. Howard: 1st Leicesters, 2nd
  Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 1st Battalion King's Liverpools,
  and a company of the Rifle Brigade.

White also had the following divisional troops, brigaded under
Brigadier-General Knox: 1st Devons, 1st Gloucester, and 1st King's
Royal Rifles. There were also six field, one mountain battery,
two 6-inch howitzers, and a naval brigade of 280 men, with five
long-range quick-firing guns.

Sir Redvers Buller at the time of Lord Roberts's arrival had
upwards of 30,000 men, thus detailed:


Second Division: General Lyttelton.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Hildyard: 2nd Battalion
  Queen's, 2nd Battalion Devons, 2nd Battalion West Yorks, and 2nd
  Battalion East Surrey.

  Fourth Brigade--Brigadier-General Norcott: 2nd Battalion Scottish
  Rifles, 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles, 1st Battalion Durham
  Light Infantry, and 1st Battalion Rifle Brigade, with three field
  batteries.


Fifth Division: Sir Charles Warren.

  Tenth Brigade--Major-General Coke: 2nd Battalion Somerset Light
  Infantry, 2nd Battalion Dorset, 2nd Battalion Middlesex.

  Eleventh Brigade--Brigadier-General A. S. Wynne: 1st Battalion
  King's Own, 1st Battalion East Lancashire, and the Rifle reserve
  battalion, with three batteries of field artillery.


Third Division: Clery.

  Fifth Brigade--Major-General Hart: 1st Battalion Inniskilling
  Fusiliers, 1st Battalion Border Regiment, 1st Battalion Connaught
  Rangers, 2nd Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

  Sixth Brigade--Major-General Barton: 2nd Battalion Royal
  Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1st Battalion
  Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and 2nd Battalion Royal Irish Fusiliers,
  with three field batteries.

Buller's cavalry consisted of the Royal Dragoons, 13th Hussars, and
a large number of colonial troops, who were of the most effective
service. He also had a naval brigade of 400 men, with a number of
4·7 and 12-pounder long-range guns.

Such was the position of the army commanded by Lord Roberts when,
on February 12, General French was sent forward with the Cavalry
Division (Kelly-Kenny, with the Sixth Division, following in
support) for the relief of Kimberley.


RELIEF OF KIMBERLEY, FEBRUARY 15, 1900.

This battle honour has been conferred on the following regiments:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  Scots Greys.
  9th Lancers.
  10th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  16th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  Yorkshire.
  Gloucesters.
  West Riding.
  Welsh.
  Oxford Light Infantry.
  Essex.

There were many reasons why the Boers should have made great
endeavours to seize this town. Cecil Rhodes, their arch-enemy,
was shut up in the place, and the garrison was certainly none too
large for the task confided to its commander. Lord Methuen had
been checked by two serious reverses in his advance on Kimberley,
and his division now lay a few miles to the south of the town,
with the Boer army under Cronje facing him. Lord Roberts pushed up
the Sixth Division, under General Kelly-Kenny, to Randam, hard by
the Modder River. The Sixth was followed by the Seventh Division,
under General Tucker; and the Seventh by the Ninth, under Sir Henry
Colville. The Cavalry Division, under Lieutenant-General French,
was also moved westwards towards the line of railway leading
up from the Cape to Kimberley. With this division Lord Roberts
intended to effect the relief of the Diamond City.

French's division was composed of three brigades of cavalry, with a
strong force of mounted infantry, and was brigaded as follows:

  First Brigade--Brigadier-General Porter: The Scots Greys, the
  Carabiniers, one squadron each of the Inniskillings, 14th
  Hussars, and New South Wales Horse, and three batteries of Royal
  Horse Artillery.

  Second Brigade--Brigadier-General Broadwood: Composite regiment
  of Household Cavalry, 10th Hussars, 12th Lancers, and three
  batteries of Royal Horse Artillery.

  Third Brigade--Brigadier-General Gordon: 9th and 16th Lancers,
  with two batteries of Royal Horse Artillery.

  Mounted Infantry Division--Colonel Alderson: Three battalions
  of mounted infantry, Roberts's Horse, Kitchener's Horse, the
  Queensland and New Zealand Mounted Infantry.

In the very early morning of February 12 French left the line of
railway, and, bearing to the eastward, crossed the Riet River
between Cronje's camp and the capital. He was followed by the Sixth
(Kelly-Kenny's) Division. Sweeping round through Watervaal and
Klip's Drift, French found the Boers astride his road. They were
not in great strength, and he made no attempt to bandy words with
them. The road to his objective lay between two hills, on which
the enemy were posted, and French, mindful of the urgency of his
mission, determined to ignore the enemy, and, putting his men at
the gallop, he forced his way past the Boers with astonishingly
little loss. His way was now clear, and, pushing ahead as fast as
the condition of his horses would allow, he swept round to the
north of the town, and at 6 p.m. had effected the task before him.
Leaving Colonel Porter in command, French now retraced his steps,
in order to take a part in the impending attack on the position
held by General Cronje near Paardeburg.


CASUALTIES DURING FRENCH'S RELIEF OF KIMBERLEY.

  +----------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._  +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Scots Greys     |   1 |   2 |   3 |   6 |
  |Inniskillings   |   - |   1 |   - |   2 |
  |9th Lancers     |   - |   3 |   1 |  17 |
  |10th Hussars    |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Buffs           |   - |   1 |   - |   4 |
  |Yorkshires      |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Gloucesters     |   - |   1 |   2 |   8 |
  |Cornwall L.I.   |   - |   - |   - |   3 |
  |12th Lancers    |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |14th Hussars    |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |16th Lancers    |   1 |   1 |   3 |  18 |
  |R.H. Artillery  |   1 |   3 |   - |  24 |
  |West Riding     |   - |   - |   - |  19 |
  |Hampshires      |   - |   - |   1 |   1 |
  |Oxford L.I.     |   - |   1 |  11 |  38 |
  |Roberts's Horse |   - |   1 |   - |   5 |
  -----------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


PAARDEBURG, FEBRUARY 18 TO 27, 1900.

This battle honour was conferred on the following regiments
for the operation which resulted in the surrender of the Boer
Commander-in-Chief in the war in the Transvaal:

  1st Life Guards.
  2nd Life Guards.
  Royal Horse Guards.
  Carabiniers.
  Scots Greys.
  9th Lancers.
  10th Hussars.
  12th Lancers.
  16th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  Norfolks.
  Lincolns.
  Yorkshires.
  K.O. Scot. Borderers.
  Gloucesters.
  Cornwall L.I.
  West Riding.
  Hampshires.
  Welsh.
  Black Watch.
  Oxford L.I.
  Essex.
  Shropshire L.I.
  Seaforth Highlanders.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.

By the brilliant relief of Kimberley Lord Roberts had scored the
first real success of the campaign, and had opened the way for
an advance on the capital of the Boer Republics. General Cronje
realized this, and, breaking up his camp on the Modder River,
commenced a hurried retreat towards Bloemfontein. But Lord Roberts
was already practically athwart his path. French, returning from
Kimberley, threw himself across the head of Cronje's army, and
General Kelly-Kenny, with the Sixth Division, clung to his rear.
The Seventh and Ninth Divisions were now closing up, and Lord
Roberts was free to assault the strong position which Cronje had
taken up at Paardeburg.

Despite the large force at the disposal of the Commander-in-Chief,
the operation was none too simple. Cronje had with him a large
number of women and children, and, from motives of humanity, Lord
Roberts was averse to resorting to the usual methods of war. Our
first attack on the Boer position at Paardeburg was met in the
most gallant manner, our losses being very heavy. Little by little
we neared the Boer defences, our troops actually sapping up to
the cleverly-devised works; but it was not until February 27 that
General Cronje decided to surrender.

The road was now open for an advance on Bloemfontein, the capital
of the Orange Free State, and as soon as Lord Roberts had filled
up his convoys with provisions he recommenced his forward march,
and on March 12 the Field-Marshal hoisted the British flag in
Bloemfontein.

  [Illustration: THE COLOURS OF THE QUEEN'S ROYAL WEST SURREY
  REGIMENT, 1902.
  (Formerly the Tangier Regiment.)
  To face page 424.]


CASUALTIES DURING THE OPERATIONS AT PAARDEBURG, FEBRUARY 18 TO 27,
1900.

  +------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                        |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                        |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Life Guards         |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |2nd Life Guards         |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |Roy. H. Guards          |   - |   - |   - |   4 |
  |Carabiniers             |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Scots Greys             |   - |   - |   - |   2 |
  |9th Lancers             |   - |   1 |   - |   5 |
  |10th Hussars            |   - |   - |   2 |  10 |
  |12th Lancers            |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |16th Lancers            |   - |   - |   - |   1 |
  |Royal Artillery         |   - |   - |   3 |  21 |
  |Roy. Canadian           |   1 |   3 |  34 |  90 |
  |Buffs                   |   1 |   1 |   2 |   7 |
  |Norfolks                |   1 |   1 |   - |   - |
  |Lincolns                |   - |   2 |   2 |  18 |
  |Yorkshire               |   1 |   7 |  49 | 103 |
  |K.O. Scottish Borderers |   - |   1 |   - |  15 |
  |Gloucesters             |   - |   1 |   5 |  19 |
  |Cornwall Light Infantry |   3 |   4 |  25 |  56 |
  |West Ridings            |   1 |   2 |  22 | 104 |
  |Hampshire               |   - |   - |   1 |   4 |
  |Welsh                   |   1 |   5 |  18 |  63 |
  |Black Watch             |   1 |   3 |  19 |  79 |
  |Oxford L.I.             |   3 |   4 |   6 |  30 |
  |Essex                   |   - |   3 |  15 |  47 |
  |K.O. Shrop. L.I.        |   - |   4 |   8 |  35 |
  |Seaforth Highl.         |   2 |   6 |  45 | 103 |
  |Gordon Highl.           |   - |   2 |   3 |  15 |
  |Argyll Highl.           |   1 |   6 |  19 |  66 |
  +------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


RELIEF OF LADYSMITH.[32]

I have already alluded to the reverse that Buller met with at
Colenso on December 15. On January 24 a second attempt by Sir
Redvers Buller met with no better success, our losses amounting
to 1,700 killed and wounded. The advance of Lord Roberts to
the eastward had the effect that the experienced Field-Marshal
anticipated. The pressure in Natal was lessened, and on the day
that Cronje surrendered to Lord Roberts Buller's mounted brigade
entered Ladysmith, after a series of well-fought actions, in which,
if our men upheld the traditions of the British army, the Boers
showed themselves gallant foemen.


CASUALTIES AT THE RELIEF OF LADYSMITH.

  +-----------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                             |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |          _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                             |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Dragoons               |   - |   - |   2 |   6 |
  |13th Hussars                 |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Artillery              |   3 |  10 |  18 |  98 |
  |Roy. Engineers               |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Queen's West Surrey          |   3 |  10 |  30 | 245 |
  |K.O. Lancs                   |   3 |   4 | 107 | 225 |
  |Royal Fusiliers              |   - |   - |   5 |  69 |
  |King's Liverpl.              |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Devons                       |   - |   7 |  16 | 189 |
  |Somerset L.I.                |   3 |   1 |  16 |  63 |
  |West Yorkshire               |   2 |   5 |  27 | 173 |
  |Lancashire Fus.              |   6 |  12 |  85 | 247 |
  |Royal Welsh Fusiliers        |   2 |   2 |  10 |  54 |
  |Scottish Rifles              |   6 |  10 |  49 | 102 |
  |Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers |   5 |  14 |  98 | 248 |
  |East Surrey                  |   1 |   6 |  27 | 176 |
  |Border                       |   1 |   6 |  14 |  20 |
  |Dorsets                      |   - |   1 |   3 |  27 |
  |South Lancs                  |   2 |   4 |  26 | 121 |
  |Middlesex                    |   - |   - |  20 |  71 |
  |K. Roy. Rifles               |   3 |   9 |  47 | 143 |
  |York and Lanc.               |   - |   4 |  13 | 137 |
  |Durham L.I.                  |   2 |   6 |  20 | 118 |
  |Roy. Irish Fus.              |   - |   - |  14 |  88 |
  |Connaught R.                 |   - |   7 |  56 | 177 |
  |R. Dublin Fus.               |   5 |  12 |  89 | 348 |
  |Rifle Brigade                |   - |  12 |  30 | 151 |
  +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


THE DEFENCE OF LADYSMITH,[33] OCTOBER 29, 1899, TO FEBRUARY 27,
1900.

The actual siege of Ladysmith commenced when Sir George White met
with the reverse at Lombards' Kop on October 30, and lasted for
four months. With the large force at his disposal there was but
small chance of the place being carried by assault, but there was
always the possibility of its being compelled to surrender by
famine. Fortunately, in White we had a commander whose reputation
for personal bravery was proverbial, and he had with him senior
officers whose names were almost as well known for their gallantry.
In his garrison were seasoned regiments of old soldiers who had but
recently arrived from India. The Boers had experienced the metal of
White's men at Talana and at Elandslaagte, and cared little to come
again to close quarters with them.

During that long siege of four months the Boers made but one
attempt to attack the place. This action, known as Cæsar's Camp
(January 6), was one of the hardest-fought actions of the war, our
losses amounting to 18 officers and 158 men killed, 29 officers
and 221 men wounded, whereas the total casualties for the rest of
the siege only reached the total of 6 officers and 62 men killed,
33 officers and 262 men wounded. The losses by sickness were
not unusually heavy. That they were not heavier was due to the
cheerful face put on the situation by the brave commander and the
self-devotion of the officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps,
who, as ever, showed themselves as careless of their own lives as
they were tenderly careful of those of the men committed to their
charge.[34]


CASUALTIES AT THE DEFENCE OF LADYSMITH.

  +-------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                   |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiments._   +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                   |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |5th Dragoon Guards |   - |   4 |   1 |   9 |
  |5th Lancers        |   1 |   7 |   2 |  14 |
  |18th Hussars       |   - |   1 |   9 |  19 |
  |19th Hussars       |   - |   - |   6 |  16 |
  |Royal Artillery    |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Roy. Engineers     |   2 |   1 |   7 |   7 |
  |Devons             |   3 |   4 |  25 |  50 |
  |Leicesters         |   2 |   1 |   5 |  26 |
  |Gloucesters        |   - |   - |   8 |   9 |
  |K. Roy. Rifles     |   3 |   - |  42 |  58 |
  |Manchesters        |   1 |  10 |  49 |  90 |
  |Gordon Highl.      |   2 |   3 |  16 |  25 |
  |Rifle Brigade      |   2 |   9 |  32 |  43 |
  +-------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

With the surrender of Cronje's army, the relief of Ladysmith, and
the entry of our army into Bloemfontein, it was hoped that the back
of the enemy was broken. The war, however, dragged on for close on
two years, the principal incidents being the relief of Mafeking by
Brigadier-General Mahon on May 15, the occupation of Johannesburg
by Lord Roberts on the 31st of the same month, and the entry into
Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal, on June 5. The Boers
showed marvellous powers of recuperation, and many hard actions
were fought ere they were subdued. In the month of October the
aged President Kruger deserted his fellow-countrymen, and embarked
for Europe, and on the 25th of that month Lord Roberts formally
proclaimed the annexation of the two Republics to the Empire,
and in the following month Lord Roberts handed over the command
to General Lord Kitchener. Then we entered on a long period of
guerilla warfare, for which our troops were little prepared. More
reinforcements were called for, and by the close of the year 30,000
men were sent out to South Africa. It was not until the month of
March, 1902, that the Boer commanders consented to treat, although
the hopelessness of the struggle must have been long apparent to
the meanest understanding, and on May 31, 1902, the conditions
of surrender were signed. Never was an enemy treated with more
consideration.

The war in the Transvaal was noteworthy in many ways. It is true
that in the campaign in Egypt a small body of Canadian Voyageurs
had volunteered for service up the Nile, and that the Government
of New South Wales had despatched a contingent to our assistance
at Suakin in 1885; but during the war in South Africa contingents
were despatched from all our dominions beyond the seas. Canada,
Australia, India, New Zealand, and Tasmania all had their forces
in the field; whilst in the regiments of Yeomanry were to be found
men drawn from all ranks of society and from all parts of our
Empire--from the islands of the West Indies to Hong-Kong. Then,
again, it was the first occasion in which men from our Volunteer
corps had been permitted to strengthen the ranks of their line
battalions, and the first in which the Yeomanry and Militia had
been pushed forward into the fighting-line. There were two great
lessons taught by the war--the one that our military organization
was not adapted to modern warfare, and the second that the Mother
Country could count on the warm-hearted support of her children
beyond the seas.


DECORATIONS FOR THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902.

  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |   _Regiments._          |V.C.|C.B.|     D.S.O.     |
  |                         |    |    C.M.G.     D.C.M.|[35]
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |1st Life Guards          |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |   3 |
  |2nd Life Guards          |  - |  1 |  - |   4 |   2 |
  |Roy. H. Guards           |  - |  1 |  - |   4 |   2 |
  |K. Drag. Guards          |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   1 |
  |Queen's Bays             |  - |  - |  - |   - |   1 |
  |3rd Drag. Gds.           |  - |  - |  - |   3 |   1 |
  |5th Drag. Gds.           |  1 |  2 |  - |   2 |   6 |
  |Carabiniers              |  - |  2 |  - |   5 |   6 |
  |7th Drag. Gds.           |  - |  - |  - |   3 |   5 |
  |Royal Dragoons           |  - |  2 |  - |   2 |   6 |
  |Scots Greys              |  - |  - |  - |   4 |   5 |
  |3rd Hussars              |  - |  - |  - |   1 |   1 |
  |5th Lancers              |  1 |  - |  - |   3 |   5 |
  |Inniskill. Drag.         |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   7 |
  |7th Hussars              |  - |  3 |  - |   6 |   1 |
  |8th Hussars              |  - |  3 |  - |   1 |   4 |
  |9th Lancers              |  - |  1 |  - |   6 |  10 |
  |10th Hussars             |  2 |  1 |  - |   2 |   5 |
  |11th Hussars             |  - |  - |  - |   - |   - |
  |12th Lancers             |  - |  2 |  - |   6 |   6 |
  |13th Hussars             |  - |  1 |  - |   4 |   5 |
  |14th Hussars             |  1 |  - |  - |   2 |   5 |
  |16th Lancers             |  - |  - |  - |   4 |   6 |
  |17th Lancers             |  - |  - |  - |   3 |   3 |
  |18th Hussars             |  1 |  1 |  - |   6 |  10 |
  |19th Hussars             |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |   8 |
  |Royal Artillery          |  9 | 27 | 11 |  95 | 261 |
  |Roy. Engineers           |  1 |  8 |  5 |  35 |  76 |
  |Grenadier Gds.           |  - |  4 |  - |   9 |  16 |
  |Coldstream Gds.          |  - |  4 |  - |  13 |  19 |
  |Scots Guards             |  - |  2 |  - |   7 |  19 |
  |Royal Scots              |  - |  - |  - |  10 |  16 |
  |Queen's                  |  - |  1 |  1 |  10 |  17 |
  |Buffs                    |  - |  2 |  - |  10 |  16 |
  |King's Own               |  - |  1 |  - |  10 |  11 |
  |N'umberland F.           |  - |  2 |  - |   8 |  31 |
  |Royal Warwicks           |  - |  - |  - |   6 |  13 |
  |Royal Fusiliers          |  1 |  1 |  - |   6 |  13 |
  |K. Liverpool             |  2 |  1 |  1 |   5 |  11 |
  |Norfolks                 |  - |  1 |  - |  10 |  16 |
  |Lincolns                 |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |  15 |
  |Devons                   |  1 |  2 |  - |  11 |  32 |
  |Suffolks                 |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |  12 |
  |Somerset L.I.            |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |  11 |
  |West Yorks               |  2 |  1 |  - |   8 |  15 |
  |East Yorks               |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |  10 |
  |Bedfords                 |  - |  - |  - |   6 |   9 |
  |Leicesters               |  - |  - |  1 |   3 |   8 |
  |Royal Irish              |  - |  1 |  - |   6 |  12 |
  |Yorkshire                |  1 |  1 |  - |   5 |  17 |
  |Lancs Fusiliers          |  - |  - |  - |   8 |  21 |
  |Roy. Scots Fus.          |  1 |  2 |  1 |   3 |  10 |
  |Cheshires                |  - |  2 |  - |   2 |  11 |
  |Roy. Welsh Fus.          |  - |  1 |  - |   8 |  17 |
  |S. Wales Bord.           |  1 |  1 |  - |   4 |  11 |
  |K.O. Scot. Bord.         |  1 |  1 |  - |   7 |  13 |
  |Scottish Rifles          |  - |  - |  - |   3 |  15 |
  |Inniskilling Fus.        |  - |  - |  - |   5 |  13 |
  |Gloucesters              |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |  12 |
  |Worcester                |  - |  2 |  - |  10 |  21 |
  |E. Lancashire            |  - |  1 |  - |   8 |  10 |
  |East Surrey              |  1 |  1 |  - |   9 |  12 |
  |Cornwall L.I.            |  1 |  - |  - |   3 |  11 |
  |West Ridings             |  1 |  1 |  - |   5 |  13 |
  |Border                   |  - |  1 |  - |   6 |  10 |
  |Royal Sussex             |  - |  1 |  - |   6 |  15 |
  |Hampshire                |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |  11 |
  |South Staffords          |  - |  1 |  1 |   4 |   8 |
  |Dorsets                  |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |  14 |
  |S. Lancashire            |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |   6 |
  |Welsh                    |  - |  2 |  - |   6 |  12 |
  |Roy. Highl.              |  - |  2 |  - |   8 |  13 |
  |Oxford L.I.              |  - |  1 |  - |   7 |  13 |
  |Essex                    |  1 |  3 |  - |   8 |  13 |
  |Derbyshire               |  2 |  2 |  - |   6 |  20 |
  |Loy. N. Lancs            |  - |  2 |  1 |   8 |  15 |
  |Northamptons             |  - |  1 |  - |   5 |   8 |
  |Royal Berkshire          |  1 |  1 |  - |   7 |  14 |
  |Royal W. Kent            |  - |  3 |  - |   2 |   9 |
  |K.O. Yorks L.I.          |  1 |  1 |  - |   5 |  15 |
  |Shropshire L.I.          |  - |  1 |  - |   7 |   8 |
  |Middlesex                |  - |  2 |  - |   6 |  10 |
  |K. Royal Rifles          |  2 |  2 |  1 |  21 |  38 |
  |Wiltshire                |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |   9 |
  |Manchesters              |  2 |  1 |  - |  14 |  23 |
  |N. Staffords             |  - |  - |  - |   5 |   8 |
  |York and Lanc.           |  - |  2 |  - |   3 |   8 |
  |Durham L.I.              |  - |  3 |  - |   9 |  16 |
  |Highland L.I.            |  1 |  1 |  - |   5 |   9 |
  |Seaforth Highl.          |  - |  2 |  - |   3 |  14 |
  |Gordon Highl.            |  6 |  3 |  1 |  10 |  32 |
  |Cameron Highl.           |  1 |  2 |  - |   5 |  13 |
  |Roy. Irish Rifles        |  - |  1 |  - |   4 |  15 |
  |Roy. Irish Fus.          |  - |  1 |  - |   4 |   9 |
  |Argyll Highl.            |  - |  2 |  1 |   5 |  10 |
  |Connaught R.             |  - |  2 |  - |   4 |  12 |
  |Leinster                 |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |   6 |
  |R. Munster Fus.          |  - |  2 |  - |   5 |  14 |
  |Roy. Dublin F.           |  - |  2 |  - |  10 |  18 |
  |Rifle Brigade            |  2 |  2 |  1 |  14 |  35 |
  |Army Med. C.             |  5 | 12 | 27 |  27 |  38 |
  |Army Service C.          |  - |  7 |  - |   9 |   3 |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |                   MILITIA BATTALIONS.              |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Scots              |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   3 |
  |Queen's W. Sur.          |  - |  - |  1 |   2 |   3 |
  |East Kent                |  - |  1 |  - |   1 |   3 |
  |K.O. R. Lancs            |  - |  - |  1 |   4 |   7 |
  |Roy. Warwicks            |  - |  1 |  - |   1 |   3 |
  |Norfolk                  |  - |  1 |  1 |   1 |   3 |
  |Devon                    |  - |  - |  1 |   - |   - |
  |Somerset L.I.            |  - |  - |  1 |   - |   3 |
  |West York                |  - |  - |  - |   2 |   3 |
  |Bedford                  |  - |  1 |  - |   3 |   3 |
  |Leicesters               |  - |  - |  - |   1 |   - |
  |Yorkshire                |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   3 |
  |Lancashire F.            |  - |  1 |  1 |   2 |   2 |
  |Cheshire                 |  - |  - |  - |   3 |   3 |
  |S. Wales Bord.           |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   3 |
  |Scottish Bord.           |  - |  - |  1 |   2 |   3 |
  |Scottish Rifles          |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   3 |
  |Worcesters               |  - |  - |  - |   - |   1 |
  |East Lancs               |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   3 |
  |East Surrey              |  - |  - |  1 |   - |   - |
  |West Riding              |  - |  1 |  - |   1 |   3 |
  |Royal Sussex             |  - |  1 |  - |   - |   1 |
  |South Staffords          |  - |  - |  - |   1 |   4 |
  |South Lancs              |  - |  - |  - |   2 |   2 |
  |Welsh                    |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   3 |
  |Oxford L.I.              |  - |  - |  - |   1 |   - |
  |Derbyshire               |  - |  - |  - |   2 |   2 |
  |Loy. N. Lancs            |  - |  - |  - |   1 |   1 |
  |Middlesex                |  - |  - |  1 |   2 |   3 |
  |K. Roy. Rifles           |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   2 |
  |Manchester               |  - |  - |  - |   - |   1 |
  |North Stafford           |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   2 |
  |Durham L.I.              |  - |  - |  1 |   1 |   2 |
  |Roy. Irish R.            |  - |  1 |  - |   1 |   1 |
  |Argyll and Sutherland H. |  - |  1 |  - |   1 |   2 |
  |Leinster                 |  - |  - |  2 |   3 |   3 |
  |R. Munster Fus.          |  - |  - |  1 |   - |   2 |
  |Roy. Dublin F.           |  - |  - |  - |   2 |   3 |
  |Antrim Artill.           |  - |  - |  1 |   - |   1 |
  |Donegal Artill.          |  - |  - |  - |   - |   1 |
  |Londonderry A.           |  - |  - |  - |   - |   1 |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |City Imp. Vol.           |  - |  2 |  1 |   5 |  17 |
  |Engineer Vol.            |  - |  1 |  - |   - |   4 |
  |Lovat's Scouts           |  - |  1 |  - |   2 |   4 |
  |Imperial Yeom.           |  1 | 10 |  1 |  96 | 113 |
  |Elswick Art. V.          |  - |  - |  - |   2 |   1 |
  |Scottish Horse           |  1 |  1 |  - |   3 |   6 |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+

  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |  CONTINGENTS FROM OUR DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS.   |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+
  |Canadian troops          |  4 |  5 |  6 |  19 |  18 |
  |New South Wales          |  - |  7 |  1 |  23 |  15 |
  |New Zealand              |  1 |  5 |  2 |  10 |  11 |
  |Queensland               |  - |  6 |  1 |   8 |  11 |
  |South Australia          |  - |  3 |  1 |   9 |  10 |
  |Tasmania                 |  2 |  3 |  - |   4 |   4 |
  |Victoria                 |  1 |  2 |  2 |   7 |   6 |
  |West Australia           |  1 |  2 |  - |   6 |   8 |
  |South Africa             | 10 | 12 | 34 | 125 | 191 |
  |Lumsden's Horse (India)  |  - |  1 |  1 |   2 |   6 |
  +-------------------------+----+----+----+-----+-----+


TOTAL CASUALTIES DURING THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902.

  +-------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                         |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Regiments._           +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                         |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |1st Life Guards          |   - |   - |   2 |   9 |
  |2nd Life Guards          |   1 |   1 |   3 |  14 |
  |Roy. H. Guards           |   2 |   1 |  19 |  15 |
  |1st K.D. Gds.            |   4 |   8 |   9 |  30 |
  |Queen's Bays             |   3 |   5 |  23 |  51 |
  |3rd Drag. Gds.           |   1 |   2 |   5 |  15 |
  |5th Drag. Gds.           |   - |   5 |   9 |  27 |
  |Carabiniers              |   5 |   4 |  25 |  57 |
  |7th Drag. Gds.           |   3 |   8 |  21 |  57 |
  |1st Roy. Drag.           |   2 |   2 |  10 |  27 |
  |Scots Greys              |   6 |   6 |  34 | 103 |
  |3rd Hussars              |   1 |   - |   4 |  10 |
  |5th Lancers              |   1 |   9 |  19 |  74 |
  |Inniskillings            |   5 |  12 |  37 |  79 |
  |7th Hussars              |   - |   3 |   2 |   3 |
  |8th Hussars              |   3 |   8 |  13 |  42 |
  |9th Lancers              |   5 |  15 |  40 | 130 |
  |10th Hussars             |   4 |   8 |  61 |  57 |
  |12th Lancers             |   3 |   8 |  25 |  79 |
  |13th Hussars             |   - |   4 |  17 |  45 |
  |14th Hussars             |   1 |   1 |  23 |  30 |
  |16th Lancers             |   7 |  12 |  29 |  95 |
  |17th Lancers             |   7 |   9 |  58 | 100 |
  |18th Hussars             |   3 |  10 |  37 |  85 |
  |19th Hussars             |   1 |   2 |  25 |  70 |
  |20th Hussars             |   1 |   1 |   1 |   2 |
  |Royal Artillery          |  30 |  96 | 178 | 807 |
  |Roy. Engineers           |   4 |  16 |  27 |  65 |
  |2nd Gren. Gds.           |   2 |   7 |  40 | 132 |
  |3rd Gren. Gds.           |   5 |  11 |  53 | 183 |
  |1st Coldst. Gds.         |   - |   8 |  27 |  99 |
  |2nd Coldst. Gds.         |   5 |   5 |  29 | 108 |
  |1st Scots Gds.           |   - |   6 |  33 |  75 |
  |2nd Scots Gds.           |   1 |   5 |  15 |  55 |
  |1st Royal Scots          |   2 |   4 |  17 |  32 |
  |2nd Queen's              |   4 |  12 |  38 | 294 |
  |2nd Buffs                |   4 |  11 |  61 | 184 |
  |2nd King's Own           |  13 |  12 | 128 | 249 |
  |1st N'umberland Fusiliers|   9 |  15 |  85 | 189 |
  |2nd N'umberland Fusiliers|   3 |   6 |  37 | 103 |
  |2nd Roy. Warw.           |   1 |   5 |  11 |  44 |
  |3rd Roy. Warw.           |   - |   2 |  10 |  25 |
  |2nd Roy. Fus.            |   4 |   4 |  17 |  92 |
  |1st K. L'pools           |   1 |   2 |  50 | 190 |
  |2nd Norfolks             |   4 |   5 |  11 |  39 |
  |2nd Lincolns             |   1 |   8 |  34 |  68 |
  |1st Devons               |   5 |  10 |  36 |  92 |
  |2nd Devons               |   - |   9 |  36 | 203 |
  |1st Suffolks             |   6 |   7 |  36 | 103 |
  |2nd Somer. L.I.          |   8 |   4 |  21 |  78 |
  |2nd W. Yorks             |   5 |  15 |  74 | 251 |
  |2nd E. Yorks             |   2 |   3 |   9 |  55 |
  |2nd Bedfords             |   5 |   4 |  20 |  65 |
  |1st Leicesters           |   2 |   4 |  15 |  71 |
  |1st Royal Irish          |   5 |   8 |  39 |  87 |
  |1st Yorkshire            |   1 |  10 |  73 | 132 |
  |2nd Lancs Fus.           |   6 |  17 | 110 | 266 |
  |2nd R. Scots F.          |   5 |  12 |  54 | 145 |
  |2nd Cheshires            |   1 |   1 |   5 |  53 |
  |1st R. Welsh F.          |   5 |  17 |  67 | 187 |
  |2nd S. Wales B.          |   2 |   4 |  32 |  94 |
  |1st K.O.S.B              |   7 |   5 |  45 |  90 |
  |27th Innis. Fus.         |  10 |  17 | 119 | 261 |
  |28th Gloucesters         |   1 |   9 |  65 | 107 |
  |29th Worcesters          |   - |   4 |  12 |  33 |
  |30th E. Lancs            |   1 |   1 |  19 |  39 |
  |33rd W. Ridings          |   3 |  13 |  55 | 188 |
  |34th Border              |   2 |   9 |  27 | 199 |
  |35th R. Sussex           |   2 |   7 |  31 |  94 |
  |36th Worcesters          |   4 |   4 |  38 |  88 |
  |38th S. Staffords        |   4 |   4 |  16 |  56 |
  |40th S. Lancs.           |   4 |   4 |  45 | 130 |
  |41st Welsh               |   5 |  12 |  67 | 187 |
  |42nd B. Watch            |   - |   - |   5 |   2 |
  |43rd Oxf. L.I.           |   3 |   8 |  29 |  96 |
  |44th Essex               |   2 |   7 |  51 | 170 |
  |45th Derbys              |   2 |  13 |  57 | 137 |
  |46th Corn. L.I.          |   4 |   6 |  32 |  49 |
  |47th Loyal N. Lancashire |   4 |   8 |  27 | 107 |
  |51st K.O.Y.L.I.          |   1 |   5 |   - |   4 |
  |54th Dorsets             |   - |   3 |  24 |  92 |
  |56th Essex               |   - |   4 |   3 |  15 |
  |58th N'amptons           |   - |   6 |   8 |  32 |
  |1st K.R.R.               |  11 |  11 |  72 | 234 |
  |2nd K.R.R.               |   4 |   4 |  29 |  78 |
  |3rd K.R.R.               |   6 |  14 |  61 | 216 |
  |4th K.R.R.               |   3 |   8 |   9 |  39 |
  |61st Glouc.              |   1 |   4 |  27 |  91 |
  |63rd Manch.              |   5 |  16 |  75 | 145 |
  |65th York & Lancaster    |   1 |   5 |  30 | 162 |
  |66th R. Brk.             |   1 |   5 |  23 |  93 |
  |67th Hamp.               |   3 |   4 |  50 |  60 |
  |68th Durh. L.I.          |   4 |   8 |  38 | 147 |
  |70th E. Sur.             |   1 |  10 |  50 | 206 |
  |71st H.L.I.              |   4 |   9 |  30 | 161 |
  |73rd Royal Highl.        |  12 |  17 | 119 | 347 |
  |75th Gordon Highl.       |   8 |  16 |  50 | 181 |
  |77th Middl.              |   5 |   6 |  47 |  76 |
  |78th Ross. B.            |  10 |  23 | 122 | 276 |
  |79th Camer. Highl.       |   4 |   8 |  22 |  65 |
  |85th Shrop. L.I.         |   - |  12 |  44 | 105 |
  |86th Royal Irish R.      |   3 |  11 |  31 | 106 |
  |87th Royal Irish Fus.    |   2 |  11 |  40 |  96 |
  |88th Con. R.             |   - |  16 |  58 | 242 |
  |89th Royal Irish Fus.    |   4 |   9 |  36 | 148 |
  |90th Scottish Rifles     |  10 |  10 |  56 | 134 |
  |91st Argyll Highl.       |   4 |  14 |  85 | 208 |
  |92nd Gords.              |   9 |  14 |  65 | 173 |
  |94th Con. R.             |   - |  16 |  58 | 252 |
  |95th Derby               |   1 |   3 |  12 |  33 |
  |96th Manch.              |   2 |   4 |   7 |  19 |
  |97th Royal W. Kent       |   2 |   1 |  18 |  46 |
  |98th N. Staf.            |   1 |   1 |   9 |   1 |
  |99th Wiltsh.             |   2 |   6 |  33 |  79 |
  |100th Roy. Canadns.      |   1 |   2 |   9 |  39 |
  |101st Royal Munsters     |   5 |   3 |  19 |  74 |
  |102nd Royal Dublins      |   2 |   5 |  78 | 124 |
  |103rd Royal Dublins      |   5 |  19 |  63 | 281 |
  |104th Roy. Munsters      |   - |   - |   2 |   2 |
  |105th K.O. York. L.I.    |   6 |  11 |  56 | 151 |
  |108th Inniskilling F.    |   1 |   - |   3 |   5 |
  |109th Leins.             |   - |   1 |   - |   9 |
  |Rifle Brig. (1st Batt.)  |   6 |  16 |  48 | 291 |
  |Rifle Brig. (2nd Batt.)  |   8 |  14 |  75 | 165 |
  |Rifle Brig. (4th Batt.)  |   - |   2 |   5 |  30 |
  |R.A.M.C.                 |   7 |  23 |   - |   - |
  |C.I.V.'s                 |   1 |   1 |  10 |  51 |
  |Imp. Yeom.               |  67 | 131 | 470 |1,236|
  |Militia                  |  15 |  34 | 160 | 368 |
  |Volunteers               |   2 |  12 |  29 | 117 |
  |Gen. Staff               |  11 |  30 |   - |   - |
  |Australian contingts.    |  29 |  77 | 222 | 658 |
  |Canadian contingts.      |   7 |  23 |  87 | 255 |
  |New Zealand cont.        |   7 |  26 |  78 | 176 |
  |S. African contingt.     | 119 | 328 |1,354|3,005|
  +-------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  Total casualties, including all departmental corps, killed, died
  of wounds, or wounded in action, irrespective of those who died
  from disease: Officers, 701 killed, 1,668 wounded; men, 7,091
  killed, 19,143 wounded.



CHAPTER XXVII

MISSING BATTLE HONOURS

Sir A. Alison's Committee--General Ewart's
Committee--Marlborough's forgotten victories--Wellington's
minor successes--Losses at Douai--Peninsula, 1705--Gibraltar,
1727--Peninsula, 1762--Belleisle--Dominica--Manilla--Cape of
Good Hope, 1795--Indian Honours--Pondicherry--Tanjore--Madras
troops--An unrewarded Bombay column--The Indian Mutiny--Punjab
frontier force--Umbeyla--Naval honours.


Until some thirty years ago, the names inscribed on the colours
and appointments of our regiments were mainly in recognition of
services between the years 1793 and 1815, or for campaigns in
India. It so happened that many regiments which had done good
service in the wars of the Austrian or Spanish Succession were
debarred from sharing in the honours so generously distributed
for the Peninsular campaign, owing to the fact that they were at
the time employed in garrisoning our distant dependencies, or in
holding threatened points in other quarters of the globe. Several
regiments had no names on their colours, although they had borne
their share in the important victories won by Marlborough, or had
fought in the no less arduous wars later in the eighteenth century.
It was felt that such names as Blenheim and Malplaquet were as
deserving of recognition as, let me say, Bushire or Surinam. In the
year 1881 a Committee, under the presidency of the late General Sir
Archibald Alison, was appointed to consider the subject, and, after
much deliberation, came to the conclusion that "the names of such
victories only should be retained as either in themselves or by
their results have left a mark in history which render their names
familiar, not only to the British army, but also to every educated
gentleman."

The result of Sir Archibald Alison's Committee was that four of
Marlborough's victories were added to the battle honours of the
army--Blenheim, Oudenarde, Ramillies, and Malplaquet. What led to
the selection of two out of these four names will ever remain a
mystery. At Oudenarde the twenty-two regiments present lost but 168
officers and men killed and wounded. At Ramillies the casualties
were only slightly heavier. On the other hand, during the same
campaign we had lost far more heavily at Ath, Douai, Liège, Lille,
Maestricht, Menin, and Namur. Until the present year (1910), the
18th (Royal Irish) was the only regiment which bore any reference
to Namur on its colours, and the other names are still lacking.

Within the last few months another Committee, under the able
presidency of the Adjutant-General, has been adjudicating on the
same subject. To this Committee the regiments of the army owe a
deep debt of gratitude. Its labours are confessedly incomplete. It
has rescued from oblivion some long-forgotten campaigns in the West
Indies; it has given due credit to the regiments which participated
in the costly capture of Namur by William III.; it has to a certain
extent satisfied the _amour propre_ of our cavalry regiments by
adding to their appointments three somewhat unimportant actions,
and has placed on the colours of a few distinguished corps the
names of battles in Flanders and the Peninsula to which they were
justly entitled. The task of such a Committee is by no means a
light one. The haphazard way in which battle honours have hitherto
been granted, and the difficulties of obtaining accurate records
of many of the earlier campaigns, have added not a little to its
labours. It would appear that the Committee has been guided by two
main principles in the selection of fresh battle honours--the one
that no distinction should be granted unless the headquarters of
the regiment had been present in the engagement, and that honours
should only be conferred on regiments with a continuous history
from the date of the action, a break in the direct genealogical
succession invalidating the claim.

These decisions rule out many regiments otherwise eligible, and
hitherto they have never been enforced. Indeed, in one case, at
any rate, General Ewart's Committee has evaded its own ruling.
"Gibraltar, 1704-05," has been awarded to both the Grenadier and
to the Coldstream Guards; yet it was a composite battalion, only
600 strong, made up from the two regiments, which was sent from
Lisbon to assist Prince George of Hesse in the defence of the
Rock. In earlier days battle honours were not seldom bestowed on
regiments which had been represented in actions by single troops
or companies. A troop of the 11th Hussars acted as personal escort
to the Commander-in-Chief during the Egyptian campaign of 1801,
yet the battle honour was conferred on the regiment. The three
regiments of Household Cavalry bear the honours "Egypt, 1882," and
"South Africa, 1899-1900"; yet it was a composite regiment, made up
of a squadron from each regiment, which earned the battle honour.
The headquarters of the 35th were not present at Maida, nor of the
69th at St. Vincent, yet the Royal Sussex and the Welsh have been
awarded these battle honours.

When we come to the question of direct representation, the
same anomalies crop up. A regiment, which I need not further
particularize, affords, perhaps, the most striking instance. It
was disbanded at the close of the eighteenth century for acts of
alleged disloyalty and indiscipline. The order for disbandment was
read at the head of every troop and company in the army. That order
contained such strong expressions as "seditious and outrageous
proceedings," "atrocious acts of disobedience," "insubordination,"
"indelible stigma," and generally commented on the conduct of the
regiment in the strongest possible terms. Half a century later a
new corps bearing the same number sprang into existence, and was
permitted to bear the battle honours that would have accrued to its
predecessor. A similar privilege was conferred on the 19th and 20th
Hussars, when they were taken over from the East India Company,
and on the 18th Hussars and 100th Royal Canadians when they were
resuscitated some fifty years ago. But there is a long list of
regiments to whom this privilege will now be denied, amongst them
the 76th (Middlesex), 90th (Scottish Rifles), and 98th (North
Staffords), which accompanied General Ruffane from Belleisle, and
were present at the capture of Martinique and Havana. The 79th,
which was with Draper at Wandewash, Pondicherry, and the capture of
Manilla; the 84th--Eyre Coote's famous regiment--which took part
in all the earlier battles in India, and which, with the 78th and
91st, captured the Cape of Good Hope in 1795; the 103rd and 104th,
which were granted the battle honour "Niagara" at the same time as
the 19th Hussars and the 100th Regiment. This list could be added
to almost indefinitely. I give these few instances to show how
regiments will be affected by the strict application of the ruling
of General Ewart's Committee.

The halo that surrounds the name of the great Duke of Wellington
has led many to suppose that the battles fought in the Peninsula
were combats of giants. When we come down to hard facts, and study
the casualty returns, and then reflect on the result of many of
these actions which are inscribed on our colours, it is clear that
they can hardly be described as "having by their results left their
mark on history." In no less than ten engagements in the Peninsular
War for which battle honours have been granted our losses were less
than those at Oudenarde, the least costly of all Marlborough's
battles, whilst in three, the aggregate of killed only reached
sixteen men.

The following table is, I venture to think, instructive as showing
the scanty recognition accorded to the regiments which fought
under Marlborough, the generous recognition of those which fought
under Wellington:

  +--------------------------------------+
  |        MARLBOROUGH'S BATTLES         |
  |         FOR WHICH NO BATTLE          |
  |      HONOURS HAVE BEEN GRANTED.      |
  +--------------+-----------+-----------+
  |              |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |_Engagements._+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |              |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Schellenburg  |  32 |  85 | 638 |1,419|
  |Liège         |  11 |  20 | 142 |  365|
  |Menin         |  34 |  80 | 551 |1,994|
  |Lille         |  17 |  43 | 447 |1,093|
  |Douai         |  13 |  61 | 638 |1,093|
  +--------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +--------------------------------------------+
  |           WELLINGTON'S BATTLES             |
  |         FOR WHICH BATTLE HONOURS           |
  |            HAVE BEEN GRANTED.              |
  +--------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                    |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |  _Engagements._    +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                    |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Sahagun             |   - |   - |   2 |  18 |
  |The Douro           |   - |  10 |  23 |  86 |
  |Almaraz             |   2 |  12 |  32 | 101 |
  |Arroyos dos Molinos |   - |   7 |   7 |  51 |
  |Tarifa              |   2 |   3 |   7 |  24 |
  +--------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

On p. 16 I have given the list of regiments that fought at
Schellenburg, with a return of their individual losses. At Menin we
had four, at Liège and Lille five, and at Douai eight, battalions
engaged, so the severity of the fighting may be gauged.

It may be urged that, as Schellenburg preceded Blenheim by only
one month, and that as practically the same regiments were present
at both engagements, such a distinction would merely have the
effect of granting two battle honours to a few specially favoured
regiments. Four days intervened between Roleia and Vimiera--actions
which neither in their severity nor in their results can be
compared to the two victories of Marlborough; indeed, several
regiments which escaped scathless in Wellington's two earliest
fights bear two battle honours on their colours. The campaign
in Persia lasted exactly two months, and three insignificant
skirmishes brought four battle honours to the fortunate regiments
present.

I have been unable to trace the casualty returns for Liège, Menin,
and Lille. Those of Douai I give in the following table, as I do
not remember having seen them in any recent publication:


CASUALTIES AT THE SIEGE AND ASSAULT OF DOUAI.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Regiments._       +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Roy. Artillery            |   - |   - |  34 |  96 |
  |Roy. Engineers            |   - |   - |  35 |  45 |
  |19th Yorkshire            |   - |  11 |  94 | 207 |
  |21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers |   1 |   7 |  49 | 182 |
  |23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers   |   2 |   9 |  54 | 147 |
  |24th S. Wales Borderers   |   1 |   9 |  35 | 148 |
  |26th Camer'ians           |   1 |   6 |  50 | 186 |
  |34th Border               |   1 |   5 |  81 | 125 |
  |Sutton's Regt.            |   5 |   8 | 110 | 113 |
  |Honeywood's Regt.         |   2 |   6 |  86 | 170 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Surely these figures are eloquent enough to justify the award of a
battle honour to the regiments engaged!

Whilst Marlborough was fighting in Northern Europe, another
British army was engaged in the South, where a century later our
troops under Wellington were to earn undying fame. It is true the
campaign was tinged with more than one disaster, owing to the lack
of support on the part of our allies, but it was also relieved by
many gallant actions well worthy of recognition. The storming and
capture of Valenza by the 33rd (West Riding), the heroic defence
of Alicante, Peterborough's daring capture of Barcelona, are all
feats of arms well worthy of being emblazoned on colours which
already bear such names as Roleia, Douro, and Tarifa. The regiments
entitled to share in the honours that might well be awarded for our
earliest campaign in the Peninsula are:

  2nd Queen's Bays.
  1st Royal Dragoons.
  Royal Scots.
  8th Royal Irish Hussars.
  Royal Warwicks.
  Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
  King's Own (Lancaster).
  Norfolks.
  Leicester.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  Cornwall Light Infantry.
  East Surrey.
  Border.
  West Riding.
  Worcesters.
  Royal Sussex.

On p. 8 I have alluded to the gallant defence of Gibraltar by Lord
Portmore in 1727 as an instance of a missing battle honour, and
have given the losses sustained by the regiments which formed the
garrison in that memorable defence. Should "Gibraltar, 1727," be
added to the battle honours of the army, as well indeed it may be,
the regiments which would be entitled to the distinction are the

  Grenadier Guards.
  Northumberland Fusiliers.
  Somerset Light Infantry.
  West Yorkshire.
  Royal Irish.
  Lancashire Fusiliers.
  K.O. Scottish Borderers.
  Cameronians.
  Worcester.
  East Lancashire.
  Border.
  Dorsets.

Five-and-thirty years later, when our armies, under Prince
Ferdinand, were earning the battle honours "Minden," "Warburg," and
"Wilhelmstahl," a second army, under Lord Tyrawley, was fighting
on the historic battle-fields of Spain. In the year 1910 the 16th
Lancers were authorized to wear a special cap plate in recognition
of their services at Valencia di Alcantara in the campaign of 1762.
On this occasion the Red Lancers made a forced march of forty-five
miles, surprised the Spaniards, taking the General in command
prisoner, and returning with three stand of colours. This is the
only recognition yet accorded for the campaign in the middle of the
eighteenth century.

As dates have been added to differentiate between our various
campaigns in the West Indies, South Africa, and Gibraltar, it would
be a graceful act, and one of strict justice, to add the dates
1727 to the battle honour "Gibraltar," and 1705-06 and 1762 to
the battle honour "Peninsula." The following regiments would be
entitled to this last distinction--"Peninsula, 1762":

  16th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  Hampshire.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Royal Irish Rifles.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Argyll Highlanders.

These represent the 3rd Buffs, 67th, 75th, 83rd, 85th, 91st, and
92nd Regiments of those far-off days.

Another name that might well be rescued from oblivion is Belleisle.
A combined naval and military expedition, under Admiral the Hon.
Sir A. Keppel and Major-General Studholme Hodgson, was despatched
to that island in the spring of 1761. The troops comprised twelve
battalions of infantry, the 16th Light Dragoons, and a strong body
of artillery. As usual, we opened the campaign by despising our
enemy, and on April 6 met with a sharp reverse. Additional troops
were sent out from home, and two months later the French Governor
surrendered. Our total losses in the campaign amounted to 13
officers and 271 men killed, 21 officers and 476 men wounded.

The regiments that would be entitled to bear the battle honour
"Belleisle" are the

  16th Lancers.
  Buffs.
  Norfolks.
  Yorkshire.
  Royal Scots Fusiliers.
  East Lancashire.
  Worcesters.
  Hampshire.
  Gordon Highlanders.
  Middlesex.
  Shropshire Light Infantry.
  Scottish Rifles.
  Welsh.
  West Kent.
  North Staffords.

Immediately on the capitulation of the island General Ruffane, who
had commanded a brigade throughout the operations, was despatched
to the West Indies with the 69th (Welsh), 76th (Middlesex), 90th
Light Infantry, and 98th Regiment, to assist in the reduction of
Martinique and Havana. These operations have been rewarded with
battle honours, and are fully described in Chapter VIII. Ruffane's
brigade, however, with the exception of the Welsh, have been denied
the honour.

Before leaving the West Indies, I would wish to draw attention to
the fact that, whilst the defence of the Island of Dominica in
1805 is inscribed on the colours of the Cornwall Light Infantry,
no recognition is made of the capture of that island by the troops
under Lord Rollo in 1762, yet surely the one feat is as worthy of
remembrance as the other. The appended table may not be without
interest to the regiments concerned in the two transactions:

  +-----------------------------------------------+
  |          CAPTURE OF DOMINICA, 1762,           |
  |          FOR WHICH NO BATTLE HONOUR           |
  |               HAS BEEN GRANTED.               |
  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiment._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |42nd Royal Highlanders |   2 |  10 |  19 |  74 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  +-----------------------------------------------+
  |          DEFENCE OF DOMINICA, 1805,           |
  |          FOR WHICH A BATTLE HONOUR            |
  |               HAS BEEN GRANTED.               |
  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |    _Regiment._        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |46th Cornwall L.I.     |   - |   1 |  11 |   7 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

Guadeloupe, 1702, 1794, and 1815, are also battle honours well
worthy of remembrance.

Simultaneously with the expedition against Havana, which is alluded
to above, and set forth in detail in Chapter VIII., a force was
despatched from Madras for the reduction of the Spanish settlement
in Manilla, thus forestalling by 150 years the memorable exploits
of Admiral Dewey on the same spot. This was under the command of
General Draper, who, at the head of his own regiment (then the
79th), had done good service in Southern India. The Spaniards were
utterly unprepared, and though the troops with Draper amounted to
but one battalion of the line, a naval brigade 1,000 strong, and a
brigade of Madras sepoys, the little army was thrown ashore, and
after one week's bombardment the forts surrendered, our losses
amounting to 5 officers and 28 men killed, 5 officers and 106 men
wounded.

The prize-money must have been some slight compensation to the
troops for the hardships endured. Field Officers received £1,500,
Captains £900, whilst the privates received £6. The Spanish colours
captured were presented by General Draper to King's College,
Cambridge, and he raised a monument to the memory of the officers
and men who fell in the grounds of his private residence, still
known as Manilla Hall, Clifton. Under the present ruling of the
Army Council there would appear to be no prospect of the word
"Manilla" being added to the battle honours of the army.

Another missing distinction is "Cape of Good Hope, 1796." There
would appear to be no reason why the first capture of the Cape
should not be commemorated equally with the second. In connection
with this later expedition there is one unaccountable omission, as
I have explained on p. 351. Sir David Baird detached the 20th Light
Dragoons and the 38th Regiment (South Staffords), under Brigadier,
afterwards Field-Marshal, the Lord Beresford, to Saldanha Bay.
The consequence was that they were not actually present at the
operations on January 8, and so it comes about that, although they
participated in the hardships of the campaign, and contributed
to its results, the 20th Hussars and South Staffords have been
debarred from bearing the battle honour.

The battle honours for our campaigns in India have been awarded
in the same unequal manner: hard-fought battles are unrecognized,
paltry skirmishes are emblazoned on our colours. This is partly
due to the fact that in the case of those regiments which were in
the service of the East India Company the Governor-General or the
Governor of the Presidency authorized the distinction, whereas in
the case of "King's regiments" the Sovereign alone was the fountain
of honour. So it comes about that the Royal Munster and Royal
Dublin Fusiliers, the direct representatives of the old European
regiments of John Company, bear on their colours battle honours
which have not been awarded to the King's regiments which fought by
their side, and which, strangely enough, have also been denied to
the Indian regiments which took part in the same operations. "Nundy
Droog" is on the colours of the Dublins, but the 36th (Worcesters)
and 71st (Highland Light Infantry) are still without the honour.
The British troops which captured Pondicherry in 1793 comprised the
36th (Worcesters), 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), 71st (Highland
Light Infantry), and 72nd (Seaforths), with the Madras European
Regiment, but the Royal Dublin Fusiliers alone bear the honour.

In some cases a single battle honour, such as "Carnatic," "Mysore,"
and "Ava," covers a campaign which included in its operations a
number of general actions, and had for its results the addition
of a province to the Empire. Other campaigns of less severity,
and which have had negative results, such as the two wars in
Afghanistan and that in Persia, have been rewarded with a profusion
of honours, some, indeed, representing the paltriest skirmishes.
Battles in which we have lost hundreds are left unnoticed, whilst
affairs in which the casualties may be counted on the fingers
receive undue recognition.

The old regiments of the Madras native army have suffered under
this lack of system. They are much in the same position that
Marlborough's regiments occupied until Sir Archibald Alison's
Committee gave them relief. They were excluded from any share in
the eighteen battle honours awarded for the Afghan and Persian
wars, and yet received no recognition of their presence in battles
which have been inscribed on the colours of the Madras European
regiment--battles which resulted in the overthrow of the Mysorean
usurper and the expulsion of the French from India. Surely such
battles as these, both in their severity and by their results, may
be deemed of sufficient historic interest to warrant their being
placed on the colours of the Indian troops which bore their share
in the fighting.

At the siege and capture of Pondicherry in 1778 (a battle for which
an honour was granted to the Madras Europeans, and which appears on
the colours of the Dublins) the Indian regiments of the Madras army
lost 19 officers and 646 of other ranks.

At the third capture of the French fortress by General Braithwaite
in 1793, for which the Dublins also wear the honour, a strong
force of Indian troops was present, and suffered severe loss. The
following Madras regiments would become entitled to the missing
battle honour, "Pondicherry, 1778-1793":

  2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
  61st Pioneers.
  62nd Punjabis.
  63rd Palamcottah Light Infantry.
  66th Punjabis.
  67th Punjabis.
  69th Punjabis.
  73rd Carnatic Infantry.
  76th Punjabis.
  80th Carnatic Infantry.

Another campaign well worthy of recognition is that which led to
the capture of Tanjore in 1771. In this the Indian regiments lost 8
officers and 297 men--a far heavier casualty roll than that which
earned _four_ battle honours in Persia. The following table shows
the regiments that would be entitled to adopt the missing battle
honour, "Tanjore, 1771":


TANJORE, 1771.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |     _Regiments._      +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                       |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Dublin Fusiliers |   2 |   3 |  27 |  83 |
  |64th Pioneers          |   - |   3 |  14 |  22 |
  |66th Punjabis          |   - |   1 |  17 |  49 |
  |67th Punjabis          |   1 |   - |  29 |  60 |
  |69th Punjabis          |   - |   - |   6 |  21 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

The earlier Indian battles, which were fraught with great results,
but which, fortunately, were not attended with any serious
losses, such as Arcot, Plassey, Condore, Masulipatam, Badara,
and Buxar, are well deserving of perpetual remembrance, for are
they not the foundation-stones of our Indian Empire? But there
are other battles, no less momentous in their results, and which
were attended with far heavier loss of life, which have been left
unrecorded. Macleod's defeat of Tippoo Sultan at Paniani, Munro's
capture of Negapatam from the Dutch, Stuart's victory at Cuddalore,
were more far-reaching in their results, and entailed far harder
fighting and far more severe privations, than, let us say,
Koosh-ab or Charasia. "Seringapatam" can be read on the colours
of the regiments which stormed the fortress under Lord Harris,
but the distinction has never been granted to those which carried
the place by assault under Lord Cornwallis seven years earlier.
"Guzerat" was awarded to the Bengal troops which, under Goddard,
marched to the relief of the Bombay army in 1779, but the services
of the Bombay column which marched across the continent to the
assistance of Lord Lake in the First Mahratta War have never yet
been recorded. The 65th (York and Lancaster), 86th (Irish Rifles),
102nd Bombay Grenadiers, 104th Wellesley's Rifles, 105th Mahratta
Light Infantry, and 117th Mahrattas, did right good and gallant
work in that campaign, for which they have no distinction. In the
same war the 22nd (Cheshires) played a conspicuous rôle, but their
services in Cuttack, as well as at Bhurtpore, have been forgotten.

"Bourbon" is borne on the colours of the 69th (Welsh) and 86th
(Royal Irish Rifles). Surely the honour should also be accorded
to the 56th (Essex), which were present at both attacks on the
island. If the capture of Bourbon, which was restored to France
on the conclusion of peace, is deemed worthy of an honour, the
taking of the Mauritius, still a British possession, is no
less deserving of one. The regiments which formed General J.
Abercromby's force included the 12th (Suffolk), 14th (West Yorks),
22nd (Cheshires), 33rd (West Riding), 56th (Essex), 59th (East
Lancashire), 84th (York and Lancaster), 87th and 89th (Royal Irish
Fusiliers), and 104th Wellesley's Rifles. From the Mauritius many
of these regiments went on to the conquest of Java, for which
they received a battle honour. It is true that the subjugation of
that island cost us many lives, but it has never been the custom
to take into consideration casualties in awarding battle honours.
It seems difficult to understand why Bourbon and Java should be
deemed worthy of distinction, whilst Mauritius and Ceylon remain
unnoticed.

Another noticeable omission in the list of India battle honours
is "Nepaul." If we except the two campaigns of 1846 and 1849
against the Sikhs, that against the Gurkhas entailed the hardest
fighting we have ever experienced in India. At the outset we met
with more than one reverse, and suffered enormous losses, the
casualties of the 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry) alone totalling
21 officers and 428 of other ranks killed and wounded. A dismounted
detachment of the 8th Hussars, 100 strong, lost 5 officers and 57
men. The result of the war was a lasting alliance with the kingdom
of Nepaul, and the opening up to our Indian army of a field of
recruits unsurpassed for heroism, discipline, and loyalty. The
troops entitled to such a distinction would be the 8th Hussars,
17th (Leicesters), 24th (South Wales Borderers), 53rd (Shropshire
Light Infantry), 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), and the 2nd Queen's
Own Rajput Light Infantry.

The 55th (Border Regiment) have no distinction to record the loss
of upwards of 100 men in the campaign in Coorg in 1834; nor the
Leicesters for their still heavier losses at the siege and assault
of the fort of Kamounah twenty-five years previously.

A reference to the chapter on the Indian Mutiny will show that
there were but three battle honours (if I except the two given to
the 45th Sikhs) granted for the three years' campaign--"Delhi,"
"Lucknow," and "Central India." Yet there were many regiments whose
task was no less arduous, and whose services were as valuable,
as those performed by the regiments which took part in the final
capture of Lucknow. Hunting down bands of rebels during the
hot weather was not the easiest part of the campaign, and the
disarmament of disaffected native troops in the Punjab was a task
of the heaviest responsibility. The services of the 13th (Somerset
Light Infantry) at Azimghur, of the 24th (South Wales Borderers) at
Jhelum, of the 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers) at Peshawar, of the
81st (Loyal North Lancashire) at Lahore, brought decorations to the
commanders and medals to the men, but to the regiments nothing to
show the part they played in holding fast to our Indian Empire in
the day of our darkest trouble.

Another fact in connection with the battle honours for the Mutiny
is deserving of remark. The 32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry) have
no special distinction to differentiate them from those regiments
which shared in Sir Colin Campbell's final and comparatively
bloodless capture of the city in March, 1858. The defence of
Lucknow stands out as a feat apart, and must for ever remain one of
the grandest episodes in our military history. A special clasp was
granted with the medal, but no special battle honour.

The regiments which were with Sir George White bear the distinction
"Defence of Ladysmith"; the Loyal North Lancashire, "Defence of
Kimberley"; the 13th (Somerset) have a mural crown, with the word
"Jelalabad"; and the regiments that were with Eliott at Gibraltar
have the castle and key, with a distinctive motto, as emblematic of
its defence; but the Cornwall Light Infantry bear the single word,
"Lucknow," with no emblem commemorative of that heroic defence
which thrilled our country half a century ago, and which made the
name of Havelock a household word wherever the English language is
spoken.

I have alluded to the two special honours awarded to the 45th
Rattray's Sikhs for the Mutiny--"Defence of Arrah" and "Behar."
The gallant defence of Arrah by a handful of Sikhs, under the
leadership of a Bengal civilian, Wake, was a striking episode
in a campaign in which heroic actions were of daily occurrence;
but the award of this battle honour to the 45th Sikhs brings out
into strong relief the omission to grant a like honour to the 2nd
Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry for the no less heroic defence
of Saugor. Saugor was in the centre of a district seething with
revolt. The garrison of Jubbulpore, the nearest cantonment,
had fallen away, murdering their officers, and the other sepoy
battalion in Saugor also joined the mutineers; but the 31st Bengal
Infantry (now the 2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry) stood firm. They
had every inducement to abandon their trust. The neighbouring
Princes had thrown in their lot with the rebels, and offered
tempting rewards for the rupees that lay in the treasury and the
ammunition that was stored in the arsenal. There was a large number
of Christian women and children in the fort, whose surrender was
demanded. The 31st not merely defended these, but on more than one
occasion sallied out and attacked the rebels, and on one memorable
day returned with a couple of guns. This was not a defence of a
week, as at Arrah. The Saugor garrison was isolated from the month
of July, 1857, when the Mutiny reached its head, until its relief
by the Central India Field Force, under the command of Sir Hugh
Rose, in January, 1858.

I am well aware that the 32nd (Cornwalls) and the 31st Bengal
Native Infantry were respectively made Light Infantry regiments
for the defence--the one of Lucknow, the other of Saugor; but
memories are short. Few outside their own ranks know whence their
bugles came; indeed, in this very year (1910) a leading Service
paper, in answer to a correspondent, asserted that the 32nd were
made light infantry in the year 1832! In addition to the special
battle honours, "Defence of Lucknow" and "Defence of Saugor," all
regiments which took part in the suppression of the great rebellion
in India should be awarded the battle honour "India, 1857-58."

For upwards of half a century a picked body of native troops
kept watch and ward over the North-West Frontier of our Indian
Empire, waging numberless campaigns against the independent tribes
who people the borderland between our frontiers and those of
Afghanistan. In many of these border wars the fighting has been
hard, the losses very severe, but until the year 1897 no battle
honour was awarded for these services. Three medals have been
issued, with clasps for close on fifty different expeditions, but
the regiments of the old Punjab Frontier Force, which held that
border for fifty years, and which in so doing lost upwards of
2,000 officers and men, have never been authorized to add to their
colours the first two names of their old and well-known title.

The distinction "Punjab Frontier" was subsequently conferred on a
number of regiments which were present in one of the more recent
campaigns. In the Umbeyla Expedition of 1863 the total casualties
were 36 officers and 1,080 men killed and wounded, the heaviest
falling on the 71st (Highland Light Infantry) and 101st (now
Munster Fusiliers), and the three magnificent Punjab regiments
commanded by Majors Ross, Brownlow, and Keyes. At Umbeyla the
Highland Light Infantry suffered more heavily than in the Crimea
and Mutiny combined, but it bears no battle honours to remind it
that it lost five officers killed in the Boneyr Hills.

Here it may not be out of place to call attention to the
marvellous success that attended the Punjab Frontier Force as a
training-school for officers of the Indian army. It was formed
immediately after the conquest of the Punjab in 1849, the first
commander being Brigadier Hodgson, a grandson of the Studholme
Hodgson who took Belleisle in 1761. It was raised partly from the
tribes beyond our border, partly from the disbanded soldiers of
the Sikh army, partly from men of the Punjab, and was officered
by selected Captains and subalterns from the three presidencies
of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay. It was composed of five regiments
of cavalry, two mountain and two field batteries, ten battalions
of infantry, and the famous Corps of Guides. Not only did it bear
the brunt of every expedition on the Punjab Frontier, but its
regiments fought in Burmah in 1852 and in the Mutiny with rare
distinction. In the half-century of its existence it has seen
three of its members reach the highest rank in the army--that of
Field-Marshal--fifteen have been raised to the dignity of Grand
Cross of the Bath, and sixteen have won the Victoria Cross. The
young officers of the Punjab Force were taught to act on their own
responsibility. There was a total absence of red tape from the
first, and the result was the upgrowth of a school which did not a
little to the saving of our Indian Empire in the dark days of 1857.
Subalterns had found themselves in command of regiments, Captains
at the head of brigades of all arms, and when the Mutiny broke out
John Lawrence had at his hand a body of youngsters whom he employed
to raise regiments on a nucleus of their own corps. The squadrons
that Probyn and Watson (both these officers won the Victoria Cross,
and have lived to wear the Grand Cross of the Bath) took down to
Delhi expanded into regiments. As with the cavalry, so with the
infantry. In the China War of 1860 practically the whole of the
native troops employed at the front had been raised by officers
of the Punjab Irregular Force, and in the Abyssinian War, seven
years later, the Bengal Brigade was composed of regiments raised in
the same manner. The regiments which served under the great Duke
in Spain were authorized to bear the word "Peninsula" on their
colours and appointments, even though they had not been present
at any of the general actions for which a special distinction was
conferred. It would be a graceful act to recognize the service of
the Punjab Force by granting the battle honour "Punjab Frontier,
1849-1897," to each regiment of the old Frontier Force which for
that long fifty years bore the brunt of the fighting from Cashmere
to Baluchistan.

Honours to regiments for participation in naval actions appear
also to have been bestowed with the same lack of system. When we
remember that for many years prior to the Napoleonic wars, as well
as throughout the period 1793 to 1814, detachments of troops were
regularly employed in the fleet, it is certainly somewhat invidious
that only three regiments should bear the naval crown on their
colours and appointments. The Welsh is doubly honoured in having
the words "St. Vincent," as well as the naval crown, with the date
"April 12, 1782." The Queen's and Worcesters bear the crown, with
the date "June 1, 1794." I make no pretence of giving an exhaustive
list of the engagements in which soldiers have fought in the
fleet. I merely wish to emphasize the fact that many regiments
are entitled to the distinction conferred on the Queen's, the
Worcesters, and the Welsh.

The headquarters of the 39th (Dorsets) was with Admiral Watson at
the destruction of the nest of pirates at Gheriah, and subsequently
accompanied him to the relief of Calcutta and the capture of
Chandernagore. The 4th King's Own and 46th (Cornwall) were with
Lord Byron in the action off Granada in 1779, the 14th (West
Yorks) with Rodney at the Relief of Gibraltar. The 5th Fusiliers,
17th (Leicester), and 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) were with the
same Admiral when he defeated De Grasse two years later. The
headquarters of the 98th and a strong detachment of the 78th were
in Sir E. Hughes's fleet in the five actions with Suffren in the
Bay of Bengal in 1782-83. In his despatch Sir Edward alludes to the
valuable services afforded by Colonel Fullerton, of the 98th. In
the engagement of July 9, 1782, both regiments suffered severely.

Long prior to this the Grenadier and the Coldstream Guards were at
the Battle of Solebay, in 1672, and the Royal Fusiliers were with
Byng in the action off Minorca. The services of the Berkshires and
of the Rifle Brigade in Nelson's fleet brought the battle honour
"Copenhagen" to these distinguished corps, but they are without the
crown to show that it was won for naval services.

       *       *       *       *       *

I think I have written enough on "missing battle honours" to
show that these distinctions are bestowed on no definite plan.
Abyssinia represents a marvellous triumph of military organization,
which gave the lie to the most ominous prophecies of disaster.
Detroit, Reshire, and Charasiah record skirmishes rather than
historic battles. Amboyna, Banda, and Ternate recall but minor
deeds of glory. Martinique and Guadeloupe remind us of conquests
oft repeated, with no permanent benefit to the Empire. Roleia
and Vimiera are associated more with the humiliating Convention
of Cintra than with military triumphs. On the other hand, the
regiments which brought Ceylon, Dominica, and Mauritius under our
flag are still unrewarded; for Marlborough's victories but four
honours have been granted, four-and-twenty for those of Wellington.

When Reshire and Hafir find a place on our colours, surely room
might be found for Schellenberg and Douai, for Menin, Nepaul, and
Umbeyla. Minorca and its gallant defence might be embroidered side
by side with Tarifa, El-bodon and Lerena with Sahagun, Ramnuggur
with Aliwal, and Barcelona with St. Sebastian.

The names on our colours do indeed testify to our "far-flung
battle-line." From Niagara to Pekin, from Copenhagen to the Cape of
Good Hope, the British soldier has fought, and bled, and conquered.
To record all the gallant deeds of the British army would be
impossible. In this chapter it has been my endeavour to recall a
few which have as yet found no place on our colours. There is still
room for the names of many such victories which "by their results
have left a mark in history, and which are familiar not only to the
British army, but to every educated gentleman."

       *       *       *       *       *

The names inscribed on our colours should be familiarized to every
schoolboy, and, at the risk of being accused of militarism, I would
suggest that in every Board school should be hung the facsimile of
the colours of the county regiment, and that every lad should be
taught the part that regiment has played in the building of our
Empire--an Empire which is the heritage of every son of Britain.
Under the territorial system the nation and the army are being
drawn closer to each other. Battle honours are now no longer the
peculiar property of the regiment which earned them, but are
proudly borne by corps which have never seen a shot fired in anger,
and thus they become a source of pride to the county to which those
regiments belong. The men of territorial regiments and the boys
of cadet corps all have their share in the battle honours of their
county regiments.

History, we are told, is but a record of crimes. Those crimes
cannot be laid to the charge of the men who, in obedience to
orders, went forth to face death in the battles which are
inscribed on the colours of our army. Those dead heroes lie in
long-forgotten graves, but the humblest private among them was an
empire-builder--a member of that advance guard of civilization
which Great Britain has sent forth to the uttermost ends of the
earth. Hateful though war be, few are the wars we have waged that
have not ultimately brought peace and prosperity in their train,
and there are still fewer names on our colours from which other
lessons than those of tactics and strategy may not be learnt.

"England expects that every man will do his duty" was the last
signal of the immortal Nelson--one which he kept flying to the end.
That, too, is the signal held before every soldier when the colours
are uncased. The names embroidered in their letters of gold are a
perpetual reminder to him that those who have gone before him, and
whose privilege it has been to die under those standards, have ever
acted up to Nelson's signal and to the immemorial traditions of the
British army,


DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI.



APPENDIX I

EGYPT, 1884


This distinction has been conferred on the

  10th Hussars.
  19th Hussars.
  Royal Highlanders.
  King's Royal Rifles.
  York and Lancaster Regiment.
  Royal Irish Fusiliers.
  Gordon Highlanders.

It commemorates a short campaign which entailed some hard fighting
in the neighbourhood of Suakin, on the Red Sea, in the early part
of the year 1884. The campaign of 1884 in Egypt was primarily due
to the action of the mutinous Egyptian army, but it was soon found
that the evil was far more deeply seated. The British occupation
struck at the root of the prosperity of Upper Egypt, where
thousands depended on the slave trade, and serious risings against
the authority of the Khedive took place throughout the Soudan.
The forces despatched to restore order were signally defeated.
As these were under the command of English officers, lent to the
Egyptian Government, we at once became involved. One of these
armies, commanded by Hicks Pasha, which had been sent from Khartoum
towards the Equatorial provinces, was annihilated. A second, under
Valentine Baker Pasha, was cut to pieces in the near neighbourhood
of Suakin. It was to wipe out the stain of this defeat that General
Sir Gerald Graham was despatched with the above force in February,
1884. The 10th Hussars and 89th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) had been
stopped on their way home from India; the other regiments formed a
portion of the army of occupation. Sir Gerald fought two general
actions--the one at El Teb on February 24, the other at Tamai on
March 14. The Egyptian medal of 1882 was conferred on the troops
present in the campaign, with clasps for the two actions, those
present in both receiving one clasp with the two names engraved on
it. The regiments received but one battle honour--"Egypt, 1884."


CASUALTIES AT EL TEB, FEBRUARY 24, 1884.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Forces_        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |      _Employed._      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |Royal Artillery        |   - |   1 |   1 |   - |
  |10th Hussars           |   2 |   1 |   4 |   - |
  |Royal Highlanders      |   - |   3 |   3 |   - |
  |York and Lancaster     |   - |   3 |   7 |   - |
  |Gordon Highlanders     |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Roy. Engineers         |   - |   1 |   1 |   - |
  |19th Hussars           |   1 |   2 |  13 |  20 |
  |King's Royal Rifles    |   1 |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Irish Fusiliers  |   - |   1 |   - |   7 |
  |Royal Marines          |   - |   2 |   3 |   - |
  |Naval Brigade          |   1 |   2 |   2 |   9 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


CASUALTIES AT TAMAI, MARCH 14, 1884.

  +-----------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                       |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |       _Forces_        +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |      _Employed._      |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |10th Hussars           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |Royal Highlanders      |   1 |   4 |  60 |  29 |
  |York and Lancaster     |   1 |   1 |  30 |  23 |
  |Gordon Highlanders     |   - |   1 |   1 |   8 |
  |19th Hussars           |   - |   - |   - |   - |
  |King's Royal Rifles    |   - |   - |   - |   5 |
  |Royal Irish Fusiliers  |   - |   1 |   - |   5 |
  |Royal Marines          |   - |   - |   3 |  15 |
  |Naval Brigade          |   3 |   - |   6 |   7 |
  +-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



APPENDIX II

DEFENCE OF KIMBERLEY, 1899-1900


This battle honour is borne only by the Loyal North Lancashire
Regiment. The importance of holding fast to Kimberley, the
headquarters of the diamond industry in South Africa, was, of
course, early recognized by the authorities at the Cape; but, owing
to the extent of territory we had to guard and the paucity of the
troops at his disposal, Sir Forestier Walker was only able to spare
a half-battalion of regulars for the garrison of this extremely
valuable centre. Its command was entrusted to Colonel Kekewich, of
the old 47th Foot. His position was one of great delicacy, for the
uncrowned King of South Africa, the Right Honourable Cecil Rhodes,
judged it his duty to undergo the perils of the siege. The gigantic
intellect of Mr. Rhodes and his independence of character did
not lend itself to a due appreciation of the military situation.
He fretted at the action of the officers in supreme command. At
the same time, he showed unexampled generosity in assisting the
civilians who were beleaguered with him, and spent money like
water in furthering all plans for the defence of the town which
met with his approval. The population of the place was upwards of
40,000, of whom no less than 35,000 were natives. To feed these
and to guard the long perimeter from attack taxed the slender
resources of the brave commander to the uttermost. The force at
his disposal consisted of one company of Garrison Artillery, four
companies North Lancashire Regiment, Diamond Field Artillery (six
guns), Kimberley Infantry, Diamond Field Horse, Kimberley Horse,
numbering in all some 1,200 men. From the declaration of war on
October 12, 1899, until the relief by General French on February
16, 1900, the town was closely besieged. The civilian element
suffered but little from the desultory bombardment, nor were the
casualties amongst the garrison abnormally heavy.


CASUALTIES AT THE DEFENCE OF KIMBERLEY.

  +--------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                          |_Officers._|   _Men._  |
  |   _Forces Employed._     +-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |                          |  K. |  W. |  K. |  W. |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  |North Lancashire Regiment |   1 |   3 |   4 |  10 |
  |Other military details    |   1 |   7 |  13 |  43 |
  |Civilian population       |   - |   - |   5 |  24 |
  +--------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+



APPENDIX III

AMBOOR


The distinction commemorates the gallant defence of the Fort of
Amboor, in the Carnatic, by a force under the command of Captain
Calvert, of the Madras army, when closely besieged by Hyder Ali's
army in the year 1767. Calvert's garrison consisted of a sergeant's
party of the old 1st Madras European Regiment, now the Royal
Dublin Fusiliers, one company of the 4th Madras Infantry, and the
headquarters of the 10th Madras Infantry, some 500 strong. On
November 15, five days after Hyder Ali's batteries opened fire,
Calvert was compelled to abandon the lower fort, owing to the
severity of the bombardment and the fact that the siege batteries
commanded his outworks. He held the upper fort until the advance
of the main army, under Colonel Smith, on December 10, compelled
Hyder Ali to withdraw. In recognition of the steady gallantry
displayed by the 10th Madras Infantry, it was officially designated
the Amboor Regiment, and was authorized to carry a third colour,
recording the defence of Amboor. Its casualties during the siege
amounted to a native officer and 11 men killed and 23 men wounded.
The 10th Gurkhas, which is the lineal descendant of the old 10th
Madras Native Infantry, has not yet been authorized to assume this
battle honour.



APPENDIX IV

WAR MEDALS


In the reign of Queen Anne medals were struck to commemorate
military operations, though it does not appear that these were
actually bestowed on the officers who assisted at them. In Boyer's
"History of the Reign of Queen Anne" excellent facsimiles are given
of the medals enumerated below:

  1. The Capture of Kaiserwart, Venloo, and Liège, 1702.
  2. The Destruction of the Spanish Fleet in Vigo, 1702.
  3. The Battle of Blenheim, 1704.
  4. The Capture of Gibraltar, 1704.
  5. The Battle of Ramillies, 1706.
  6. The Relief of Barcelona, 1706.
  7. The Battle of Oudenarde, 1708.
  8. The Capture of Lille, 1708.
  9. The Capture of Sardinia and Minorca, 1708.
  10. The Capture of Tournay, 1709.
  11. The Battle of Malplaquet, 1709.
  12. The Capture of Mons.
  13. The Capture of Douay.
  14. The Capture of Bethune, St. Venant, and Aire, 1710.
  15. The Battle of Almancara, in Spain, July 16, 1710.
  16. The Battle of Saragossa, August 9, 1710.
  17. The Capture of Bouchain, 1711.

The East India Company had for many years been in the habit of
granting medals or other rewards to officers and men employed in
military operations under the orders of the Governor-General. These
had been conferred on officers of the King's as well as on those
of the Honourable Company's Services, but in the case of King's
officers permission was rarely granted for such medals to be worn
outside the Company's dominions. It was not until the year 1815
that the Prince Regent, following the example of the East India
Company, suggested the bestowal of a silver medal on all officers
and men who had been present at the Battle of Waterloo or the
engagements of the two previous days.

Prior to this the East India Company had granted gold medals to
the British officers and silver to native officers present in the
following campaigns:


  1. The Campaign in Guzerat in 1778-1782. All ranks.
  2. The War in Mysore, 1791-1794. Officers only.
  3. The Expedition to Ceylon, 1796. Officers only.
  4. The Capture of Seringapatam, 1799. Officers only.
  5. The Expedition to Egypt in 1801. Officers only.
  6. The Expeditions to Rodriguez, Bourbon, and the Mauritius,
       in the years 1809-10. Officers only.
  7. The Expedition to Java in 1811. Officers only.


Then came the issue of the Waterloo Medal by the Prince Regent,
subsequently to which the East India Company continued the issue of
medals at the close of any important campaign. The medals now took
a different form, being assimilated to that issued for Waterloo.
These smaller medals were granted for--

  8. The War in Nepaul, 1814-1817.
  9. The First Burmese War, 1824-1826.
  10. The Capture of Ghuznee.
  11. The Defence of Jelalabad, 1842.
  12. The Defence of Khelat-i-Ghilzai, 1842.
  13. A medal for the War in Afghanistan, inscribed with one
        or more of the following names: Candahar, 1842;
        Ghuznee, 1842; or Cabool, 1842.

Queen Victoria, on being applied to, gave her consent to this medal
being worn by officers and men in uniform beyond the dominions of
the East India Company. At the same time the young Queen expressed
her opinion that there should be but one fountain of honour, and
that it should not be left to a company of merchants to award
decorations to soldiers of the Crown.

The next occasion on which the East India Company bestowed a medal
was for--

  14. Sir Charles Napier's Expedition in Scinde, when a
        medal, inscribed "Meeanee" or "Hyderabad," or,
        in the case of those present at both battles, with
        both names, to all ranks who fought in Scinde.
  15. For the Gwalior Campaign a bronze five-pointed star was
        issued; and
  16. The First Sikh War of 1846 saw the last issue of a medal
        by the East India Company.
  17. The Medal for the Punjab Campaign of 1848 being
        authorized by Queen Victoria.

The Duke of Richmond, who had served on the Staff of the Duke of
Wellington in the Peninsular War, now moved in Parliament that a
medal be bestowed on the survivors of the campaigns fought under
the Great Duke. The Duke himself, if he did not actually oppose
the motion, at any rate threw cold water upon it. The young Queen,
however, was a warm supporter of the idea of rewarding the men
who had fought for England long years before, and, after lengthy
discussions, it was decided that a silver medal should be bestowed
on all survivors, officers and men, of the following battles:

  Roleia, August 17, 1808.
  Vimiera, August 21, 1808.
  Sahagun, December 21, 1808.
  Benevente, January 3, 1809.
  Corunna, January 16, 1809.
  The Douro, May 24, 1809.
  Talavera, July 27, 1809.
  Busaco, September 27, 1810.
  Barrosa, March 4, 1811.
  Fuentes d'Onor, May 5, 1811.
  Albuera, May 16, 1811.
  Ciudad Rodrigo, January, 1812.
  Badajoz, March and April, 1812.
  Salamanca, July 22, 1812.
  Vittoria, June 21, 1813.
  Pyrenees, July 28 to August 2, 1813.
  St. Sebastian, August and September, 1813.
  Nivelle, November 10, 1813.
  Nive, December 9-13, 1813.
  Orthes, February 27, 1814.
  Toulouse, April 10, 1814.

Subsequently the issue of the medal was sanctioned to the survivors
of the following operations:

  Egypt, 1801.
  Maida, 1806.
  Martinique, 1809.
  Guadeloupe, 1810.
  Java, 1811.
  Fort Detroit, August, 1812.
  Châteaugay, October, 1813.
  Chrystler's Farm, November 1, 1813.

Efforts were made, but unsuccessfully, to extend the medal so as to
include the capture of the Cape of Good Hope, of Mauritius, and the
war in Nepaul. It will be noticed that the medal was granted for
services extending from the Egyptian campaign of 1801 to the Battle
of Toulouse in 1814; yet the medal bears the dates 1794-1814, and
is graced with the head of the young Queen Victoria, who was not
born until five years after Toulouse was fought.

In February, 1851, a similar medal was granted to the survivors of
the many campaigns waged in India between the years 1798 and 1826;
with it were issued the following clasps:

  Seringapatam.
  Assaye.
  Argaum.
  Deig.
  Seetabuldee.
  Corygaum.
  Alli Ghur.
  Assurghur.
  Gawalghur.
  Nepaul.
  Nagpore.
  Ava.
  Delhi, 1803.
  Laswarree.
  Delhi, 1804.
  Kirkee.
  Maheidpore.
  Bhurtpore.

The issue of the Peninsular Medal inaugurated a new system with
regard to the rewards for military services, and henceforth the
officers and men of the navy and army have been rewarded with
a medal for practically every campaign in which they have been
engaged. Times have indeed changed. In the early days of the
Peninsular War the Duke of Wellington refused to recommend the
issue of the gold medal (which was only granted to field officers)
except to those who had been actually under the _musketry_ fire
of the enemy. Ninety years later we have seen a medal granted for
garrison service in Malta and St. Helena the while a war was in
progress in South Africa.



INDEX


  Abercromby, General Ralph, in Flanders, 95, 114;
    in Egypt, 123

  Abercromby, General Robert, 78

  Abraham, the heights of, 39

  Abu Klea, action at, 135

  Abyssinia, expedition to, 370

  Acland, General, in Peninsula, 161

  Adams, Brigadier, at Bhurtpore, 212

  Aden, capture of, 235

  Afghanistan, first war, 252;
    second war, 378

  Afridis, expeditions against, 404

  Afridis soldiers, 398; 405

  Agra, capture of (1803), 151;
    action at (1857), 324

  Ahmadabad, capture of, 70

  Ahmad Khel, action at, 389

  Ahmadnagar, capture of, 151

  Albemarle, Earl of, at Havana, 105

  Albuera, Battle of, 172

  Ali Masjid, capture of, 381

  Alison, General Sir A., in Egypt, 132

  Aliwal, Battle of, 281

  Alli Ghur, Battle of, 147

  Alma, Battle of, 297

  Almaraz, action at, 173

  Alumbagh, defence of, 327

  Amboyna, capture of, 221

  Ameer Khan, 200

  Amherst, the Earl of, at Louisburg, 37 _et seq._

  Amirs of Afghanistan: Dost Mohammed, 255;
    Shah Sujah, 255;
    Shere Ali, 385;
    Yakub Khan, 388;
    Abdul Rahman, 388

  Amirs of Scinde, 266

  Amoy, capture of, 337

  Anstruther, General, in Peninsula, 160;
    killed at Corunna, 164

  Arabia, expedition to, 223, 231

  Arab pirates, 225

  Arcot, capture of, 51

  Argaum, Battle of, 150

  Armiger, General, in West Indies, 100

  Arnaud, Marshal St., 296

  Arracan, operations in, 245

  Arrah, defence of, 333

  Arroyos dos Molinos, action at, 174

  Assaye, 149

  Atbara, Battle of, 141

  Auchmuty, General Sir S., at Monte Video, 42;
    in Java, 228

  Austria, Emperor of, 91

  Austria, subsidies to, 194

  Ava, expedition to, 240


  Badajos, storming of, 178

  Badara, Battle of, 57

  Bailie, Major T. M., at Aden, 235

  Baillie, Colonel, 68

  Baird, Captain David, 69;
    afterwards Sir David, 85;
    in Peninsular War, 162

  Baker, Colonel Valentine, in Egypt, 136

  Baker, Major T. D., 369;
    afterwards General Sir T., 385

  Balaclava, Battle of, 300

  Baluchis, the, 256

  Banda, capture of, 224

  Barabuttee, action at, 151

  Baring, Sir Evelyn (afterwards Lord Cromer), 139

  Barnard, General, at Delhi, 312

  Barrington, Admiral, at St. Lucia, 100, 109

  Barrosa, Battle of, 170

  Barrow, Brigadier, at Guadeloupe, 120

  Bassein, capture of, 244

  Basse Terre, 100

  Bath, grant of the Order of the, 197

  Battles and campaigns:
    Abu Klea, 135
    Abyssinia, 370
    Aden, 234
    Afghanistan (1839), 252;
      (1879), 378
    Agra, 151, 324
    Ahmad Khel, 389
    Albuera, 172
    Ali Masjid, 381
    Aliwal, 281
    Alli Ghur, 147
    Alma, 297
    Almaraz, 173
    Amboyna, 220
    Arabia, 224
    Arcot, 50
    Argaum, 150
    Arracan, 245
    Arrah, 332
    Arroyos dos Molinos, 174
    Ashantee (1874), 372
    Ashanti (1900), 376
    Assaye, 149
    Atbara, 141
    Ava, 239
    Badajos, 177
    Badara, 57
    Balaclava, 300
    Banda, 224
    Bangalore, 79
    Baroda, 220
    Barrosa, 170
    Beaumont, 92
    Behar, 332
    Belleisle, 440
    Beni Boo Alli, 233
    Betourah, 81
    Bhurtpore, 211
    Bladensburg, 46
    Blenheim, 16
    Bourbon, 226
    British East Africa, 376
    Budli ka Serai, 313
    Burmah, 240 _et seq._
    Busaco, 168
    Bushire, 237
    Buxar, 63
    Cabool (1842), 263
    Candahar (1842), 261
    Canton, 339
    Cape of Good Hope, 348
    Carnatic, 67
    Central India, 329
    Ceylon, 216, 217, 445
    Charasiah, 386
    Chillianwallah, 289
    China, 336-347
    Chitral, 393
    Chumar, 215
    Ciudad Rodrigo, 176
    Cochin, 154, 218
    Condore, 55
    Coorg, 446
    Copenhagen, 364
    Corunna, 162
    Corygaum, 208
    Cuddalore, 72, 216
    Cutchee, 265
    Deig, 151
    Delhi (1803), 148;
      (1857) 312
    Detroit, 44
    Dettingen, 24
    Dominica, 116, 441
    Douai, 438
    Douro, 166
    Egmont-op-Zee, 95
    Egypt (1801), 122
    Egypt (1882-1884), 129, 454
    Emsdorf, 28
    Ferozeshah, 277
    Fuentes d'Onor, 171
    Ghuznee (1839), 254;
      (1842), 262, 389
    Gibraltar (1704), 3;
      (1779), 10
    Goojerat, 291
    Guadeloupe (1759), 99;
      (1810), 120
    Guzerat, 69
    Hafir, 139
    Havana, 104
    Hindoostan, 214
    Hyderabad, 268
    India, 218
    Inkerman, 302
    Java, 228
    Jelalabad, 260
    Kabul, 387
    Kahun, 257
    Kalunga, 214
    Kamounah, 215
    Kemmendine, 242
    Khartoum, 141
    Khelat, 255
    Kimberley, 422, 456
    Kirbekan, 135
    Kirkee, 203
    Koosh-ab, 239
    Kutra, 66
    Ladysmith, 425
    Laswaree, 150
    Lille, 20, 437
    Lincelles, 90
    Louisberg, 36
    Lucknow, 316, 329
    Maharajpore, 270
    Maheidpore, 207
    Maida, 10
    Malakand, 398
    Malplaquet, 21
    Mandora, 125
    Mangalore, 73
    Manilla, 441
    Marabout, 127
    Martinique (1762), 102;
      (1794), 111;
      (1809), 118
    Masulipatam, 56
    Mauritius, 445
    Mediterranean, 11
    Meeanee, 266
    Menin, 19, 437
    Miami, 45
    Minden, 26
    Modder River, 417
    Monte Video, 40
    Moodkee, 276
    Moro, 108
    Multan, 291
    Mysore, 77
    Nagpore, 206
    Namur, 12
    Naval Crown, 362
    Nepaul, 446
    New Zealand, 368
    Niagara, 45
    Nieuport, 91
    Nile, 133
    Nive, 186
    Nivelle, 184
    Nowah, 209
    Nundy Droog, 79
    Orthes, 187
    Oudenarde, 19
    Paardeburg, 423
    Paniani, 72
    Pegu, 247
    Peiwar Kotal, 382
    Pekin, 343;
      (1900), 346
    Peninsula, 190
    Persia, 236
    Persian Gulf, 230
    Plassy, 52
    Pondicherry, 60
    Poona, 204
    Punjab Frontier, 396, 448
    Punjaub, 286
    Punniar, 272
    Pyrenees, 182
    Quebec, 38
    Queenstown, 44
    Quilon, 218
    Ramillies, 18
    Reshire, 238
    Rohilcund (1774), 66;
      (1794), 81
    Roleia, 157
    Sahagun, 161
    St. Lucia (1778), 109;
      (1796), 114;
      (1803), 115
    St. Sebastian, 184
    St. Vincent, 362
    Salamanca, 178
    Samana, 403
    Sattimangulum, 215
    Scinde, 266
    Seedaseer, 82
    Seetabuldee, 204
    Seringapatam, 84
    Sevastopol, 306
    Sholinghur, 71
    Sierra Leone, 373
    Sobraon, 283
    South Africa (1835), 351;
      (1846-47), 352;
      (1851-52-53), 353;
      (1878-79), 355;
      (1899-1901), 408
    Suakin, 136
    Surinam, 115
    Taku Forts, 342
    Talavera, 167
    Tangier, 1
    Tanjore, 444
    Tarifa, 176
    Tel-el-Kebir, 130
    Ternate, 223
    Tirah, 404
    Tofrek, 138
    Toulouse, 188
    Tournay, 93
    Villers-en-Couche, 91
    Vimiera, 159
    Vittoria, 180
    Wandewash, 59
    Warburg, 29
    Waterloo, 192
    West Africa, 374
    Wilhelmstahl, 32
    Willems, 93

  Beaumont, Battle of, 92

  Beckwith, Colonel, at Warburg, 32;
    at Wilhelmstahl, 33

  Beckwith, General Sir George, at Martinique and Guadeloupe, 118, 120

  Behar, operations in, 334

  Benevente, action at, 162

  Beni Boo Alli, expedition to, 225, 233

  Bentinck, General, in Peninsula, 163

  Beresford, Brigadier, at the Cape, 350;
    at Monte Video, 41;
    in Peninsula, 163

  Beresford, Captain Lord Charles, in Egypt, 135

  Betourah, Battle of, 81

  Bhurtpore, failure at, 211;
    capture of, 213

  Biddulph, General Sir M., 384

  Bladensburg, action at, 46

  Blanket, Commodore, at the Cape, 349

  Blane, Sir Seymour, at Balaclava, 305

  Blenheim, Battle of, 16

  Blood, General Sir Bindon, at Relief of Malakand, 400

  Bolan, the Pass of, 253

  Boneyr Hills, 449

  Bourbon, the Island of, expedition to, 226

  Bowes, Brigadier, in the Peninsula, 158, 160

  Boxer, the, Rising, 344

  Braithwaite, Colonel, 62, 68

  Bridges, General, at Seringapatam, 85

  British East Africa, 376

  Bromhead, Lieutenant, V.C., at Rorkes Drift, 357

  Brooke, Brigadier, at Kandahar, 390

  Brooke, Colonel, at Bladensburg, 46

  Brown, Captain, at Kahun, 257

  Brown, General Sir George, in Crimea, 296

  Brown, Trooper, 3rd Hussars, at Dettingen, 25

  Browne, General Sir Samuel, V.C., in Afghanistan, 380

  Brownlow, Field-Marshal Sir Charles, 399, 449

  Buenos Ayres, defeat at, 41

  Budli-ka-Serai, action at, 313

  Buller, General Sir R., in Egypt, 136;
    in South Africa, 415

  Burgos, reverse at, 180

  Burmah, war in (1824), 240;
    (1852), 247;
    (1885-1887), 249;
    annexation of, 251

  Burr, Colonel, at Kirkee, 203;
    at Ternate, 223

  Burrard, General, 95

  Burrington, Colonel, 81

  Busaco, Battle of, 168

  Bushire, capture of, 237

  Buxar, Battle of, 63

  Byng, Admiral, at Gibraltar, 3


  Cairo, 127, 131

  Calder, Brigadier, at St. Lucia, 109

  Cambridge, H.R.H. the Duke of, in Crimea, 296

  Cameron, General Sir D., in New Zealand, 369

  Campbell, Brigadier, at Martinique (1794), 111

  Campbell, Brigadier Colin, in the Punjab, 288;
    at Balaclava, 300;
    at Lucknow, 324

  Campbell, Colonel, at Mangalore, 73

  Campbell, General the Honourable, at Dettingen, 25

  Campbell, Sir Archibald, in Burmah, 241

  Campbell, Sir John, in the Crimea, 296

  Campbell's Highlanders at Warburg, 30;
    at Wilhelmstahl, 33

  Candahar (1842), 261

  Canton, 337, 339

  Cape of Good Hope (1795), 349;
    (1806), 350

  Cardigan, the Earl of, 296, 302

  Cardigan, the, Militia, 363

  Carnatic, operations in the, 67

  _Caroline_, H.M.S., at Banda, 224

  Casualties:
    at Abu Klea, 135
    in Aden, 236
    at Ahmad Khel, 389
    at Albuera, 173
    at Ali Masjid, 381
    at Aliwal, 282
    at Ally Ghur, 147
    at Alma, 299
    at Almaraz, 174
    at Amboyna, 222
    in Arabia (1809), 225
    in Argaum, 150
    in Arracan, 246
    at Arroyos dos Molinos, 175
    in Ashantee, 373, 377
    at Assaye, 149
    at Asseerghur, 219
    at Atbara, 141
    in Ava, 246
    at Badajos, 178
    at Badara, 57
    at Balaclava, 302
    at Bangalore, 79
    at Baroach, 220
    at Baroda, 220
    at Barrosa, 170
    at Beaumont, 92
    in Behar, 334
    at Beni Boo Alli, 225, 234
    at Betourah, 82
    at Bhurtpore, 211, 213
    at Bladensburg, 48
    at Blenheim, 17
    at Bourbon, 227
    in British East Africa, 376
    in Burma (1824), 246;
      (1852), 248;
      (1885), 251
    at Busaco, 169
    at Buxar, 65
    in Cabool, 265
    in Cambay, 219
    in Cannanore, 216
    at the Cape of Good Hope (1795), 349;
      (1806), 351
    in Central India, 331
    at Charasiah, 386
    at Chillianwallah, 290
    in China (1840-1842), 338;
      (1860), 343, 344
    in Chitral, 394
    at Ciudad Rodrigo, 177
    in Cochin, 155
    at Condore, 56
    at Copenhagen (1801), 364;
      (1806), 366
    at Corunna, 164
    at Corygaum, 209
    at Cuddalore, 72, 216
    at Deig, 154
    at Delhi (1803), 148;
      (1857), 315
    at Detroit, 44
    at Dettingen, 26
    at Dindigul, 216
    in Dominica, 117, 441
    at Douai, 438
    at the Douro, 166
    at Egmont-op-Zee, 96
    in Egypt (1802), 128;
      (1882), 130
    at Emsdorff, 29
    at Ferozeshah, 280
    at Fuentes d'Onor, 171
    at Gawilghur, 150
    at Ghuznee (1839), 255;
      (1842), 263
    at Gibraltar (1704), 4;
      (1727), 8;
      (1779-1783), 10
    at Goojerat, 294
    at Guadeloupe (1702), 98;
      (1759), 102;
      (1794), 99;
      (1810), 121;
      (1815), 121
    in Havana, 107
    at Hyderabad, 269
    at Inkerman, 304
    in Java, 230
    at Jelalabad, 260
    at Jemlanabad, 219
    at Jersey, 360
    at Kabul, 388
    at Kamounah, 215
    at Kandahar, 390, 392
    at Kemmendine, 243
    at Khartoum, 143
    at Khelat, 257
    at Kimberley, 423
    at Kirbekan, 136
    at Kirkee, 204
    at Koosh-ab, 239
    at Kutra, 66
    at Ladysmith, 426, 427
    at Laswarree, 151
    at Lincelles, 90
    at Louisburg, 37
    at Lucknow--Defence, 320;
      Relief, 328;
      Capture, 329
    at Maharajpore, 271
    at Maheidpore, 207
    at Maida, 11
    at Malakand, 401
    at Malplaquet, 23
    at Mandora, 128
    at Mangalore, 76
    at Marabout, 128
    at Martinique (1762), 104;
      (1794), 112;
      (1809), 119
    at Masulipatam, 57
    at Meeanee, 268
    at Miami, 45
    at Minden, 27
    at Modder River, 417
    at Monte Video, 43
    at Moodkee, 277
    at Mooltan, 292
    at Nagpore, 206
    at Namur, 14
    in New Zealand, 368, 369
    at Niagara, 45
    at Nieuport, 91
    at Nive, 187
    at Nivelle, 185
    at Nowah, 210
    at Orthes, 188
    at Oudenarde, 21
    at Paardeburg, 425
    at Paniani, 73
    at Pegu (_see_ Burmah)
    at Peiwar Kotal, 383
    at Pekin, 344
    in the Persian Gulf, 233;
      (_see_ Arabia, Beni Boo Alli)
    at Plassy, 55
    at Pondicherry, 61, 63
    at Poonah, 204
    at Punniar, 272
    at Pyrenees, 183
    at Quatre-Bras, 195
    at Quebec, 40
    at Queenstown, 44
    at Quilon, 218
    at Ramillies, 19
    at Reshire, 238
    at Rohilcund, 66, 82
    at Roleia, 158
    at Sahagun, 162
    at St. George's Battle, 66
    at St. Lucia (1778), 110;
      (1796), 115;
      (1803), 115
    at St. Sebastian, 184
    at St. Vincent, 363
    at Salamanca, 179
    at Samana, 403
    at Sattimungulum, 215
    at Schellenberg, 16
    in Scinde (_see_ Meeanee, 266; Hyderabad, 268)
    at Seedaseer, 84
    at Seetabuldee, 205
    at Seringapatam, 81, 87
    at Sevastopol, 307
    at Sierra Leone, 374
    at Sobraon, 285
    in South Africa, 359, 431, 432
    at Surinam, 116
    at Taku Forts, 343
    at Talavera, 168
    at Tangier, 2
    at Tanjore, 444
    at Tarifa, 176
    at Tel-el-Kebir, 132
    at Ternate, 223
    at Tirah, 407
    at Tofrek, 138
    at Toulouse, 189
    at Tournay, 94
    at Umbeyla, 449
    at Villers-en-Couches, 91
    at Vimiera, 159
    at Vittoria, 181
    at Wandewash, 60
    at Warburg, 31
    at Waterloo, 195
    in West Africa, 374, 375
    at Wilhelmstahl, 34
    at Willems, 93

  Cathcart, General Sir G., 296, 354

  Cathcart, General the Lord, 365

  Cavan, General the Earl of, 95, 123

  Cawdor, the Earl of, at Fishguard, 363

  Cawnpore, action at, 326

  Central India, operations in, 329

  Ceylon, capture of, 216, 452

  Chakdara, defence of, 401

  Charasiah, action at, 386

  Champion, Colonel, in Rohilcund, 66

  Chandernagore, capture of, 53

  Chaplin, Lieutenant, V.C., in China, 343

  Chard, Lieutenant, V.C., at Rorkes Drift, 357

  Châteaugay, medal for, 44

  Chatham, General the Lord, 95

  Cheduba, occupation of, 241

  Chelmsford, General the Lord, in South Africa, 355

  Childers, Brigadier, at Bhurtpore, 212

  Chillianwallah, the Battle of, 290

  China, war in (1842), 336 _et seq._;
    (1860), 341

  Chinhut, reverse at, 319

  Chitral, defence and relief of, 393

  Christler's farm, medal for, 44

  Chusan, capture of, 337

  Cintra, convention of, 159

  Ciudad, Rodrigo, Battle of, 176

  Clarke, General, Sir Alured, at the Cape, 349

  Clavering, Brigadier J., at Guadeloupe, 100

  Cleveland, Major, 100

  Clibborn, Major, 259

  Clive, Lord Robert, 50, 51, 53 _et seq._

  Cochin, defence of, 154

  Cochrane, Admiral, at Bladensburg, 46

  Codrington, General Sir W., in Crimea, 296

  Coles, Captain, R.N., at Banda, 224

  Colville, Brigadier, at Martinique, 118

  Combermere, General the Lord, at Bhurtpore, 211

  Condore, the Battle of, 55

  Coote, General Sir Eyre, at Plassy, 54;
    at Wandewash, 59;
    at Pondicherry, 60;
    at Sholinghur, 71

  Coote, Major-General, at Egmont-op-Zee, 93;
    in Egypt, 123

  Copenhagen, 364

  Cornwallis, General the Lord, 78, 81

  Corunna, Battle of, 162

  Corygaum, the Battle of, 208

  Cotton, General Sir W