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Title: Linotype Manual - Giving Detailed Instructions of the Proper Adjustment and - Care of the Linotype
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Internet Archive).



  LINOTYPE MANUAL

  GIVING DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS OF
  THE PROPER ADJUSTMENT
  AND CARE OF THE
  LINOTYPE

  _WITH ILLUSTRATIONS_


  _Price, $2.00_


  AGENTS

  J. W. SUTHERLAND, 62 MCVICKER’S THEATRE BLDG., CHICAGO
  F. H. McCALL, 408 HALL BUILDING, KANSAS CITY



  COPYRIGHT, 1898, BY
  F. H. McCall

[Illustration: Allied Printing Trades Council Union Label Chicago,
Ill.]



CONTENTS.


  BEST METHOD OF PLACING MACHINE                    9

  LINOTYPE MOTOR                                   12

  THE MACHINE AS IT COMES FROM THE FACTORY
    AND HOW TO ERECT IT                            13

  TEMPERATURE OF THE METAL                         23

  THE GAS CONNECTIONS AND GOVERNOR                 24

  PURIFYING THE METAL                              27

  FORMATION OF DROSS UPON THE SURFACE OF
    LINOTYPE METAL                                 27

  CARE OF FRICTION CLUTCH                          28

  TO ADJUST NEW STYLE AUTOMATIC STOP               30

  TO SET VISE AUTOMATIC                            30

  TO PREVENT TRANSPOSITION OF MATRICES             36

  THE ASSEMBLER STAR AND FRICTION SPRING           39

  TO SET DISTRIBUTER BAR                           40

  TO SET THE MAGAZINE                              41

  TO SET DISTRIBUTER BOX LIFT                      42

  TO REMOVE SIDE OF KEYBOARD TO CLEAN
    CAMS                                           46

  THE DISTRIBUTER BOX AND RAILS                    49

  THE SPACEBAND BOX AND PAWLS                      53

  KEYBOARD, MAGAZINE AND CONNECTIONS               57

  THE METAL POT                                    61

  CAUSES OF SQUIRTS                                62

  DIRECTIONS FOR FACING MOUTHPIECE                 63

  CARE OF MATRICES, SPACEBANDS AND MAGAZINE        67

  LAPPING AND CLEANING MOLDS                       69

  ADJUSTABLE MOLDS AND LINERS                      71

  THE SPACE BANDS                                  72

  POINT SYSTEM OF THE MERGENTHALER LINOTYPE
    CO.                                            73

  MATRIX HAIR SPACES                               74

  ADJUSTMENT OF MOLD SLIDE AND DISK                75

  DIRECTIONS FOR PUTTING IN A NEW VERGE            76

  ALIGNMENT OF FACES                               77

  KEYBOARDS                                        79

  SUPPLIES WHICH SHOULD BE KEPT IN STOCK           84

  NUMBERS AND SIZES OF CHANNELS—SIZES OF
    VERGES, PAWLS AND EARS OF MATRICES             86



INTRODUCTION.


The object in view in compiling this book is to show by means of cuts
and detail drawings the different adjustments and how to make same.

The automatics and how to set them.

The best method of placing machines in an office, with the necessary
belting, shafting, etc.

Erecting machine, and other useful information in regard to care of
same.

How to keep metal in good condition to obtain best results, and
other instructions that will tend to the successful operation of the
Linotype.



Best Methods of Placing Machine.


The machine complete and ready for operation weighs 1,925 pounds. In
operation there is no vibration, and the machine may be safely placed
in any building of ordinary strength.

[Illustration: MODE OF ERECTING MACHINES—NO. 1

Machine stands on Platform built on Main Floor. Driving Shaft, Pulleys
and Gas Pipes under the Platform and above Floor.

FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: MODE OF ERECTING MACHINES—NO. 2

Machines and Driving Shaft on Main Floor. Intermediate Platform over
Shaft. Good plan, but inferior to No. 1.

FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: MODE OF ERECTING MACHINES—No. 3

Modification of Plan No. 2. Machines and Driving Shaft on Main Floor.
Intermediate Platform over Shaft. Good Plan, but inferior to No. 1.

FIG. 3.]

Each machine requires somewhat less than one-quarter of a horsepower to
drive it, but the allowance of one-half horsepower is recommended to
insure steadiness of motion.

Each machine, including overhanging projections, is a little less than
five feet square.

In placing machines allowance must be made for space sufficient to
pass around and between them, and for seat of operator in front. A
liberal allowance is 7x10 feet.

The driving pulley of the machine is 14½ inches in diameter and should
be driven at about 62 revolutions per minute. _Never to exceed 66._ Any
arrangement of shafting and pulleys which will secure this speed will
answer.



Linotype Motor.


The Linotype Company has recently had a specially designed electric
motor built which is adapted for speedy application to Linotype
machines. These motors are cheap, compact, reliable and pleasing in
appearance. Their application demands no change in the machine except
to remove the driving pulley and substitute a gear wheel furnished with
the motor.

The only connection required is the extension of a wire to an ordinary
incandescent lamp socket or other suitable source of electric power.
The use of these motors avoid the necessity for countershafts, pulleys
and belts, and greatly improve the appearance of the office.

Motors wound for 115, 230 and 500 volts are carried in stock. The
price, with all attachments, applicable to any machine, is $65.



The Machine as It Comes from the Factory and How to Erect It.


In shipping the machine the base and heavy parts, such as column, metal
pot, cams, vise, etc., are assembled. The base being bolted with lag
screws to three skids and boxed up, with the distributer bracket and
step cleated in the top.

A second box, 20x24x18 inches, contains the key-board and reeds,
intermediate bracket, channel-plate support, and all the small parts,
such as vise-locking screws, flexible front, pi box and tube, second
elevator, distributer box, keyboard rod guide assembled, all carriages,
etc.

A third box, 44x26x16 inches, contains face plate assembled, magazine,
set of matrices, two small boxes, one containing large and small
assembler glasses, the other the magazine entrance.

A fourth box, 46x9x12 inches, contains distributer assembled and first
elevator.

Take boards from base and roll it to its permanent position and remove
skids, then cut the wires that bind levers C and J (Fig. 4). Then turn
clutch A to the right until second elevator lever J (Fig. 4) is in the
position shown in Fig. 5 and put on the distributer bracket A (Fig.
5). Then, in the order given, put on intermediate bracket D, upper
rod guide F, channel plate support E, second elevator C (Fig. 5), and
vise-locking screws 2 and 3 (Fig. 4).

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

Then put on keyboard C (Fig. 6) and put in rods B (Fig. 6), which are
numbered consecutively, beginning with No. 1 at the left. Then put on
first elevator A (Fig. 6), distributer N (Fig. 5), and belt P (Fig. 5),
which should always be crossed so as to run away from the gears.

Now, with machine in position (Fig. 6), put on face plate N (Fig. 7),
which is held by the three cap screws 2, 3 and 4 (Fig. 6), and magazine
A and flexible front and glass C (Fig. 7) and connect spaceband lever,
spaceband transfer carriage, distributer shifter carriages, line
delivery carriage, assembling elevator, etc. Reversing these directions
will, of course, show how to take the machine apart.

Before putting on driving belt it is advisable to turn machine over by
hand, to be sure everything is all right. If all parts are connected
properly there should be no binding and machine should turn easily.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]



Temperature of the Metal.


It is essential that the temperature of the metal should be kept
uniform. If the temperature is too high, porous or spongy slugs will
result, also defective faces and a weak surface, which allows the
letters to sink in printing.

A temperature that is too low causes the metal to adhere to the
mouthpiece and prevents the free flow of the metal to the mold.

We recommend that the metal in front of the well be kept at a
temperature anywhere between 536 and 563 degrees Fahrenheit. The
temperature can be kept uniform by means of the gas governor attached
to each machine, and can be supplemented by a gas pressure governor
attached to supply pipe. (See Fig. 10.)

The temperature can be ascertained by plunging a thermometer reading
up to 600 degrees Fahrenheit into the molten metal in front of the
well and readings taken when the mercury remains constant. Heat the
thermometer before plunging it into the metal. The bulb should be
wholly covered by the molten metal.

When no thermometer is at hand the temperature may be obtained
approximately by plunging a piece of paper into the molten metal. If it
turns brown the metal is in a proper condition to cast. The temperature
is too low if only a slight color is imparted to the paper; too high if
a deep brown or black.

No other metal, such as brass, zinc, or stereotype metal should be
mixed with linotype metal. It has been found that better results are
obtained if the slugs are melted in a proper furnace and cast into
ingots or blocks.

The pot will be kept more free from dross by this method than by
melting the slugs in the metal pot of the machine.



The Gas Connections and Governor.


For one machine use a ½-inch supply pipe, and increase about ¼-inch for
each additional machine, a 2-inch pipe being sufficient for a plant of
twelve machines. A ½-inch feed pipe should be run to each machine.

A gas governor is furnished by the Linotype Company, as shown in Fig.
10, which should be attached to the main pipe near the machines. This
governor, together with the one on the machine, will keep the gas at a
uniform pressure. The governor (Fig. 10) works as follows:

When the gas pressure becomes too heavy it raises the float B, which
sets in mercury at point J and A, and closes the valve C, points 1 and
2.

A small bottle of mercury is sent with each governor; also two small
lead weights, which go on top of float B. The arrows show how the gas
enters and leaves the governor.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]



Purifying the Metal.


The metal may be purified if, when in a molten state, a piece of green
wood about 4 inches in diameter and 7 or 8 inches long, attached to an
iron rod, is plunged into the molten metal and allowed to remain about
20 minutes, or until the boiling ceases.

The green wood causes the metal to boil violently, and the oxides
contained in the interior of the molten metal are affectually reduced.

The metal should then be thoroughly stirred and the scum removed by an
iron ladle.

The dross on the surface may be reduced by adding a few ounces of rosin
to the molten mass.



Formation of Dross Upon the Surface of Linotype Metal.


Dross is a compound formed by the action of air upon molten metal. The
oxygen contained in the atmosphere attacks most metals with which we
are acquainted. The formation of this oxide takes place more rapidly
and in larger quantities the higher the temperature of the metal.

This oxidation only occurs upon the surface of molten metal where the
air has access and not in the center of the molten mass. It is easy to
skim this dross from the metal by means of an iron ladle. It can then
be reduced to metal during the operation of melting the slugs into
blocks already described.

If this is done little loss will result. The principle of its reduction
to the metallic state is this:

If such dross is heated in contact with carbonaceous material, such as
rosin, the carbon and resulting gases formed in the process take away
the oxygen contained in the dross, liberating the metal.



Care of Friction Clutch.


Care should be taken to keep the inside rim of pulley and clutch
leather shoes free from oil; if not, the clutch will slip and fail to
turn machine over. The clutch and pulleys should be taken off every two
weeks and cleaned and oiled; if not, they will become dry on the shaft
and cause the mold disk to carry over when the machine stops.

To take off the clutch and pulleys unscrew the nut E (Fig. 13) and
loosen screw which holds clutch on the shaft; then clean shaft N
(Fig. 11); then put it back and adjust as described in Adjustment of
Automatic Stop.

The friction clutch spring S (Fig. 11) is sometimes too weak, and
should be strengthened or renewed. To take out this spring, unscrew the
cap or end of shaft as shown in Fig. 11.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]



To Adjust New Style Automatic Stop.


First—Adjust the automatic stopping pawl A (Fig. 14) to 15-16 inch from
side of cam to back of pawl and adjust automatic safety pawl the same.

Second—Set the automatic stopping lever C (Fig. 14) so as to engage
3-16 inch with automatic stopping pawl A. Then clamp the vertical
starting lever shaft K with set screw D (Fig. 12).

Third—By the adjusting nut E (Fig. 13) adjust the driving shaft clutch
flange F (Fig. 12) to 29-64 inch from end of driving shaft bearing G
(Fig. 12); then tighten check nut.

Fourth—By means of adjusting screw H (Fig. 12) take up the lost motion
between the contact points I and J (Fig. 12), leaving 1-32 inch play;
then tighten check nut.

To set friction clutch on machines with old-style automatic stop,
simply tighten the nut E (Fig. 13) until there is 1-16 inch between
flange F and driving shaft bearing G (Fig. 12), with starting lever
open; then set vise automatic.



To Set Vise Automatic.


First set eccentric screw 6 (Fig. 15) on inner end of stopping and
starting lever connection rod 8 (Fig. 15) so as to take up all lost
motion between it and the vertical starting lever. Then set the
eccentric screw 7 (Fig. 15) on outer end of the connecting rod 8 so
as to take up all lost motion between it and vise automatic stop
lever 4 (Fig. 15). To do this, pull out the vise automatic stop lever
4 with your finger until the inside end bears firmly against the vise
automatic stop rod 1, which, in turn, comes in contact with the vise
automatic stop mold disk dog 3 (Fig. 15); then pull out the starting
and stopping hand lever 2 (Fig. 15) until machine starts. At the time
when the machine starts the eccentric screw 7 should touch the outer
end of the vise automatic stop lever 4, then there would be no lost
motion and the vise automatic would act as follows:

In case of a tight line (which would not allow the first elevator to
drop into the vise far enough to force the vise automatic stop rod 1
down to allow the mold disk dog 3 to pass over the pawl 5 in the stop
rod 1) the disk coming forward would force the mold disk dog 3 against
the pawl 5 in stop rod 1 which, coming in contact with inner end of
vise automatic stop lever 4, would force the outer end of stop lever
against eccentric screw 7, which would cause the machine to be shut off
the same as if it were done by pushing the hand lever in by hand.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

If the vise automatic is set this way it will stop mold disk nearly
1-16 inch away from matrices, leaving the first elevator free to lift
up and a matrix to be taken out. This not only prevents a squirt, but
saves the ears of the matrices in many cases.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]



To Prevent Transposition of Matrices.


In order to prevent transposition of matrices and spacebands the parts
should be adjusted as illustrated in Fig. 31.

The assembler chute spring A, which lays between spaceband chute B and
assembler rail C, should be set as low as its banking piece “a” will
permit. Its lower end should be about midway between the lower end of
the spaceband chute B and matrix catch spring E, and in line with them.

The space between the spring A and rail C at point 2 should be equal to
the thickness of the capital W matrix.

The spaceband buffer F should be adjusted so that each band as it falls
into the line will be supported by the buffer, with its ear about 1-32
inch above the top of the assembler rail.

The buffer wire should have a slight inclination downward toward the
left, so that the ears of the bands will settle down as the line is
assembled.

The matrix catch spring E should project through the assembler plate a
sufficient distance to catch each matrix as it passes, and prevent it
from falling back to the right.

The assembler slide brake H and spring L should be adjusted to prevent
the assembler slide from jumping ahead to the left or continually
vibrating as the matrices enter. If the assembler vibrates it makes
it impossible for the operator to read the line, and the last letter
will sometimes fall out when the assembling elevator is raised. This
is caused by the brake H wearing at points 3 and 4, which lessens the
tension of the spring L and takes up the space between bottom screw J
and brake lever K at point 6, which should be about 1-32 inch. If brake
H is not too badly worn at points 3 and 4 this trouble can be obviated
by strengthening spring L and turning up screw J until you have about
1-32 inch space at point 6. Be careful not to get too much space at
point 6, or the assembler slide would not return when the line has been
released from the assembling elevator.



The Assembler Star and Friction Spring.


The assembler star should be renewed as soon as it is worn sufficient
to prevent it from pushing the matrices inside the assembling elevator
pawls, and it is advisable to renew the assembler chute rails at the
same time.

The assembler star friction spring sometimes gets too weak to hold the
star and it will slip. The assembler star friction disk will also wear
out.

To renew these, take off the assembler Fig. 17 (this shows back view)
and unscrew the nut C.

This cut also shows the intermediate gear B and assembler belt driving
pulley A.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.]



To Set Distributer Bar.


The distributer bar has a strip of brass about 1-16 inch wide set into
it just above the combinations.

In setting it for height be careful not to set it too low. If set too
low the matrix, in leaving the distributer box, will bind between the
distributer box upper rails N (Fig. 27), M (Fig. 26) and the brass
strip. If the matrices bind it will not only bend the ears, but also
wear brass strip.

The bar should be set so that when matrix is about to leave the rails,
and has entered onto the first combination of the bar, it will rest on
the top of the rails and be perfectly free on the bar.

To make this adjustment, loosen the screws E and F (Fig. 19) and set
the bar with the two set screws in top of distributer beam.

To set the bar endwise, the distance from the first combination (e)
(Fig. 18) to the outside of the distributer front screw bracket A (Fig.
18) should be 2⅞ inches.

In the latest machines built this bar is adjusted in the factory and a
pin driven into it just below screw F (Fig. 19). If bar is taken out it
will always go back in its proper place, and the end adjustment will
not be necessary.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.]



To Set the Magazine.


In setting the magazine first see that the distributer-bar is set
right, as shown in Fig. 18; then run two pi matrices onto the bar, one
at each end, as 1 and 2 (Fig. 20); then raise or lower the magazine
with screws E and F until there is about 1-16 inch space between the
bottom of matrix and the channel-plate entrance partition at points 1
and 2 (Fig. 20); then tighten check nuts on screws E and F to prevent
them from changing.

Next run a lower case “e” onto the bar by turning the distributer
slowly by hand, and set the magazine sidewise until the lower case “e”
drops as soon as it passes the second entrance partition, which would
be the right hand partition for the “e” channel. When the machine is
running the momentum will be sufficient to carry it to the center of
the “e” channel. Then turn out the screws N and M (Fig. 20) until they
touch the sides of the distributer bracket, and tighten the check nuts
on the screws M and N so they will not change.

The next thing is to set the lower end of the magazine in relation to
the rods J, Fig. 21.

First throw the rods into the verges; then touch the first and last
keyboard buttons, which are lower case “e” and “—”; then turn rubber
roller until the “e” and “—” rods are at their highest point; then
raise or lower the magazine by screws in channel-plate support A (Fig.
20) and on column R (Fig. 5) until there is about 1-32 inch between the
key rod and verge at point 8 (Fig. 32); then tighten the check nuts B
on screws A (Fig. 21).



To Set Distributer Box Lift.


Turn out screw A (Fig. 20) until the lift C (Fig. 20) will not come
down low enough to pick up the matrices; then turn the screw A (Fig.
20) until the lift C will just pick up all the matrices and tighten
check nut on the screw. This will allow all extra motion to be on the
upward motion which carries the matrix that much higher up into the
distributer screws, so there would be little danger of bending the ear
of the matrix.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.]

[Illustration: FIG. 20.]

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]



To Remove Side of Keyboard to Clean Cams.


The keyboard cams should be taken out and thoroughly cleaned every six
or eight months and oiled with a drop of clock oil on the journal pin.
This will prevent them from sticking and causing transposition of the
matrices.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

The easiest way to take out the cams is to take off the back and front
of the keyboard (Fig. 23). This is done by taking off the keyboard
tray N (Fig. 23); then taking out screws I and A (Fig. 22) with the
keyboard unlocked. The back, of course, comes off the same way. As
these are dowelled, you would have no trouble in replacing them.

It will be found easier in putting them back if a small wire is run
through the cam yoke triggers C (Fig. 31), locking them so they would
enter the keyboard keybars B (Fig. 31) at point 3 (Fig. 31).

Figure 24 shows the keyboard with the front taken off, showing the
keyboard keybars N in place and lower keyboard rod guide M.



The Distributer Box and Rails.


Figure No. 25 shows the distributer-box complete. The best way to take
it apart to renew the rails B and C (Fig. 28) is to take out screws 1,
2 and 3 (Fig. 25) and take off side (Fig. 26).

The rails M and K (Fig. 26) and N and O (Fig. 27) have to be renewed
when they have worn (as shown by dotted lines 1 and 2, Fig. 28) enough
to allow two thin matrices to pass between points 1 and 2, rails C and
B, and distributer-box bar pawl 3 (Fig. 28).

If the rails M (Fig. 26) and N (Fig. 27) are badly worn on the top 2
(Fig. 26) and 4 (Fig. 27) a matrix is liable to leave the box and enter
on the distributer-bar diagonally, and if the distributer-box is not
set properly the same thing will occur.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28.]



The Spaceband Box and Pawls.


To insure good work the spaceband box should be kept thoroughly clean.

To clean box, it will be necessary to take it off the machine and take
it apart. To do this take out screw K (Fig. 29) and screws L, which
hold the spaceband chute; drive out pin J and take off the pawl lever I
(Fig. 29); then take out screws A and C and take off side.

Figure 30 shows inside of box. The screw 1 in pawl lever should be
adjusted so that when pawl lever is down the pawls N and O will be
low enough to clear the top rails C and J (Fig. 30) about 1-32 inch,
with the screw resting on spaceband lever. If too low it will give a
double motion to the pawl lever I (Fig. 29) and sometimes throw out two
spacebands at once and clog the spaceband chute.

The spaceband center guide A (Fig. 30) will allow two bands to pass if
it is not adjusted properly.

At the lower end of the guide is a half pin or ear on each side, which
is to catch the second spaceband if pawl lever lifts two. This guide
is adjustable and should be set so as to allow only one band to pass
freely.

The pawls N and O (Fig. 30) have to be renewed when badly worn. Before
putting in new pawls rub them down on an oil stone, so that when
in place in the box, and moved up and down slowly by hand, they
will stand inside the hooks of the rails C and J about the width of
a spaceband ear, and both be the same height so as to lift the band
evenly.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.]

[Illustration: FIG. 29.]

The pawls N and O should work in their slots perfectly loose. As
the pawl levers and pawls drop by their own weight entirely, it is
necessary their movement should be perfectly free.

When putting spacebands into the box always be sure the bottom of the
first is back of the stop for spaceband end L (Fig. 30).



Keyboard, Magazine and Connections.


Figure 31 shows all parts at rest and Fig. 32 the parts in motion
after key lever A has been touched and the cam D has made one-half
revolution. In Fig. 31 the cam and yoke D is supported about 1-16
inch above the rubber roller E by the trigger C, which intersects the
keyboard keybar B at point 3.

The key rod G, which is suspended from the verge I at point 8, comes
down to about 1-16 inch from cam yoke at point 6. Note that point 4 on
cam D is only about one-half as far from the journal pin or cam bearing
as point 7. Now, suppose the rubber roll to be revolving and key lever
A pressed down, this will in turn raise the keybar B and throw out
the trigger C from the cam at point 5 and allow the cam to strike the
revolving rubber roll E at point 4, which would cause the cam to turn.

Now suppose we stop the rubber roll when the cam D has reached point
7 and we get the result as shown in Fig. 32, _i. e._, the cam yoke at
point 6 where the rod G rests will be raised high enough to raise the
upper end of rod G at point 8 enough to allow verge pawl L to release
the matrix M, which in Fig. 31 was held in its place in the magazine
by the verge pawl, then in Fig. 32 the upper verge pawl K will hold
the second matrix N and prevent it from following the first matrix M
out of the magazine. When the cam D has completed its revolution
or again come round to point 4 all the parts will have come back to
the position shown in Fig. 31, except that the matrix M will have gone
to the assembler and matrix N have taken its place. When the rod G is
raised (as explained) to its position in Fig. 32, the verge I is raised
by spring J and brought back again by the rod G, which is returned by
the coiled spring H and the keyboard keybar B is returned partly by its
own weight, which, if everything is clean, would be sufficient.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.]

[Illustration: FIG. 32.]

But to guard against sticking from dirt or other causes: The keyboard
keybar spring F (sometimes called the comb spring) is attached and
intersects the keybar B at point 2. R shows a sectional top view of
keyboard rod lower guide T as the slot 10 should be when new, and S
shows same when it is badly worn by the motion of the keyrod G.

When guide slot is worn as shown at 11 (Fig. 32) the keyboard rod is
apt to bind and the spring H would not be strong enough to bring the
rod back to its position. The guide T should then be renewed and the
old one repaired at leisure, by soldering a piece on the bottom and
cutting new slots.

These parts will give no trouble if care is taken to keep them clean.



The Metal Pot.


[Illustration: FIG. 33.]

Figure 33 shows a sectional view of metal pot and well; also mold-disk,
with a line of matrices assembled in front of mold ready to cast a
slug.



Causes of Squirts.


Squirts will sometimes occur even if the pump-stop attachment is
supposed to entirely prevent them. Two of the frequent causes of this
trouble are as follows:

First—When a line is given to the first elevator, just as the machine
is about completing its revolution to deliver the previous line, and
before the elevator is fairly settled into place, the line may become
twisted, although not enough to prevent it from going down into the
casting pawls. The mold cannot come forward far enough to close up
tightly on account of the twisted matrices, and the result is a squirt,
and the metal flies all over the mold face and into the elevator jaw,
soldering it up and stopping the machine.

Second—If the part of the elevator jaw which holds the upper ears
becomes sprung, the matrices will twist and you will get a squirt.

If vise automatic is not set properly, as described under Fig. 15, a
squirt is liable to occur.

When a squirt occurs from the first cause, many operators open the vise
and force down the jaw until the line breaks away from the mold disk.
This will give rise to the second cause, by springing the parts of the
jaw referred to. This should never be done, but this part of the jaw
should be loosened by taking out the three screws that hold it in place
and gently work the vise and line loose. Clean the squirt and put piece
back in place.



Directions for Facing Mouthpiece.


In many instances a machine will squirt metal back of the disk if the
metal is very hot. As a general thing, this is laid to the gas, but
in nearly every instance it will be found that it is caused by the
mouthpiece not being true with the back of the mold.

In some cases it will be found that the mold is warped slightly, but
not often.

If the back knife does not trim the bottom of the slug perfectly the
metal will adhere to the back of the mold, making high lines (_i. e._,
lines over .919, as explained under Fig. 39), and also prevent good
contact between the mouthpiece and mold, which would, of course, cause
metal to squirt back of the mold disk.

To prevent this, the mouthpiece should be faced up true with back of
mold, as follows: First send a line through the machine, stopping at
casting point; then screw up the nut on end of pot lever eyebolt until
it touches the pot lever. This takes up the pot pressure, so that
when the vise is let down the metal pot will retain the same position
as when casting a line. Then disconnect the vise-closing jaw screw
connecting rod by taking out the wing pin on end of vise-closing jaw
lever. This will prevent the rod from being bent or broken when vise is
let way down.

Then let the machine finish the revolution. Now throw off the driving
belt and pull out pot pump plunger pin and turn machine by hand to
casting point, disconnect mold disk slide and pull out disk B (Fig.
34); thoroughly clean back of mold A (Fig. 34) and cover with red lead
mixed with oil, or it will be found much better and easier to use
prussian blue oil paint, a tube of which will not cost over 10 cents.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.]

Rub the back of mold with this paint; push disk B in until the back of
mold A touches the mouthpiece X (Fig. 34); then turn mold disk back and
forth, rubbing the back of mold over the mouthpiece. The blue paint
will thus be transferred to the mouthpiece, and show the high points.

Should the paint show on one end only, throw the metal pot around by
means of set screws to be found in foot of pot legs until it is about
true: then, with a small coarse file, file off the blue spots, which
are the high or uneven places. Then push the mold in once more, and
again rub mold on mouthpiece and file off blue or high spots as before.
Continue this operation until the paint shows in small spots all over
the mouthpiece.

Before finishing this operation be sure to put in the cross vents
between the holes with a cold chisel, making them a little deeper at
the top, as shown in Fig. 35. This will prevent porous or spongy slugs.

After connecting the machine up again, put on the driving belt and run
through another line, stopping, as at first, at casting point. Then let
out the nut on end of pot lever eyebolt until it is about ⅛-inch from
back of pot lever.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.]

If this is done as described there will be a perfect lockup on the mold
both back and front, the only metal trimmed from back of mold being
that from the vents.



Care of Matrices, Spacebands and Magazine.


It is essential that these parts receive the most careful attention.
Matrices should be washed only when absolutely necessary, which would
be if oil should collect on them. This will not happen if machine is
properly cleaned and oiled.

Matrices that have been used a long time will sometimes show slight
burrs, caused by walls of matrices being crushed. If they are not
washed these small cavities will become filled up with dirt and metal
so that print will look clear. Washing would, of course, take this dirt
and metal away and burrs would show worse than before.

Instead of washing matrices, rub the sides on a piece of felt; then
lock them up in a galley and clean the face and front so the operator
can read the lines in the assembling elevator.

When a letter sticks in the magazine, take it out and, after making
sure that ears are not burred, polish the ears with graphite and wipe
them clean.

If a new set of matrices is treated in this way before putting them
into the machine there will be little or no trouble with them sticking
in the magazine.

Any burrs on the ears should be filed off, or they also will cause the
letters to stick.

In cleaning the magazine, do not use benzine unless oil should have
collected there by some means.

Be sure to lift up matrix guards at the lower end of magazine 2-2-2-2
(Fig. 36) and clean the channels on under side of these guards; also
the channels A (Fig. 36).

[Illustration: FIG. 36.]

The spacebands should be carefully inspected and metal should never be
allowed to collect on the slide. Metal on the spaceband slides will
destroy a set of matrices in a very few hours.

When cleaning spacebands, never use emery cloth, as this polishes the
slide and causes the metal to adhere to it. The best way to clean
spacebands is to rub them in graphite on a board or piece of felt
nailed on a board.



Lapping and Cleaning Molds.


If a mold is warped (as referred to under directions for facing
mouthpiece), the only way to fix it is to lap it down on a lapping
block.

Figure 37 shows the lapping block B and mold C that is to be lapped.

A lapping block is one of the most essential tools to have in an
office. If you do not have this block procure it at once from the
Linotype Company, or one of the stock rooms. This block is of cast
iron, corrugated on one face.

To use it, sprinkle a small quantity of emery and benzine on the
corrugated face; then rub the mold back and forth, as shown in Fig. 37,
until you have a perfect surface.

This block is also used to sharpen all the knives on the machine the
same way.

A mold should be taken apart and cleaned and polished at frequent
intervals, or the small grooves which make the ribs on the slug will
fill up with dirt and cause the slugs to stick.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.]



Adjustable Molds and Liners.


Figure 38 shows an adjustable mold and two liners. These molds are made
in three sizes for each body, No. 14, No. 24 and No. 30, and cost $30
each.

No. 14 will take liners to cast any length of line from 14 ems down as
short as may be desired. No. 24 will take liners to cast any length
from 24 ems to 7 ems, both inclusive. No. 30 will take liners to cast
any length of line from 30 ems to 13 ems, both inclusive.

These liners cost $1.50, and are interchangeable for any size mold of
the same body. For instance, a No. 2 minion liner will give 12 ems in
a No. 14 mold, 22 ems in a No. 24 mold, and 28 ems in a No. 30 mold.
This, of course, would apply to any size liner.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.]



The Space Bands.


Both sides of the spaceband slide 1 and 2 should measure the same at
top and bottom, but side 1 should never be thicker than side 2. On the
other hand, if side 2 be .001 thicker it will insure a better lockup of
the matrices.

Spacebands are made in two classes, thick and thin. The thick bands
present a minimum thickness of about .0375 of an inch in the line, and
expand to .1, and are stronger and heavier than the others.

The thin bands present a minimum thickness of about .032 of an inch in
the line, and expand to .095 of an inch, and are adapted for use where
very thin spacing is required; for example, in connection with very
small faces.

[Illustration]



Point System of the Mergenthaler Linotype Co.


This point system—adopted for convenience in measuring—is nearly
identical with that of Didot, as adopted by the United States
Typefounders’ Association. The size of a pica em, as understood before
the adoption of the point system, was one-sixth of an inch, or .166⅔.
The pica em adopted by the United States Typefounders’ Association
measures .166, while the Linotype pica em measures .168. The United
States Typefounders’ Association’s unit of measurement, or point, is
.01383. The Mergenthaler Linotype Company’s is .014. Therefore 12
points × .014 = .168, or the Linotype pica em.

All the Linotype matrix measurements are made on the basis of .014 to
a point, and .168 to an em pica. The following table will furnish an
illustration of these dimensions:

                No.               Em
    Font.     Points.    Point.  Space.
  Ruby          5     ×  .014  = .070
  Agate         5½    ×  .014  = .077
  Nonpareil     6     ×  .014  = .084
  Minion        7     ×  .014  = .098
  Brevier       8     ×  .014  = .112
  Bourgeois     9     ×  .014  = .126
  Long Primer  10     ×  .014  = .140
  Small Pica   11     ×  .014  = .154
  Pica         12     ×  .014  = .168

To measure Linotype matter, take an em space in the font to be
measured, and ascertain how many times it is contained in the matter to
be measured. The quotient will show the correct number of ems.

The length of molds is calculated on a basis of 166⅔ to an em pica,
while the body or thickness of slug is calculated according to the
above table.

The slug should be the same thickness at points 1, 2, 3 and 4 (Fig.
40). If the machine locks up properly, and the back knife is set right,
the slug should measure 918 to 919 thousandths high from bottom of slug
to top of letter.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.]



Matrix Hair Spaces.


These are furnished as sorts. They are similar in shape to the em and
en spaces, but are inserted in the line by hand and automatically
returned by the machine to the quad box. They are of the following
thicknesses, respectively: .012, .013, .014, .015, .016, .017, .018,
.019 and .020 of an inch. Regular thin spaces measure .028, .031, .035
and .0385.



Adjustment of Mold Slide and Disk.


Adjustment of the mold slide is done by means of two set screws, which
adjusts the gib on which it slides. This gib should be adjusted so that
the slide has .007 play. This will allow it to work freely.

The mold disk is held in position for casting and trimming the slug by
means of pins attached to the vise, called mold disk locking studs.
The studs are located in relation to the mold disk locking bushings at
the factory so as to give perfect alignment of the matrices. They are
dowelled in place and should never be changed.

Should the bushings or studs become badly worn at any time, renew them
and thus keep the alignment perfect.

The forward motion is imparted to the mold slide by means of a roller
which runs in a groove in the mold cam and driving gear. This roller is
connected with the mold slide lever by means of an eccentric pin that
has a pin attached, which serves as a handle with which to adjust it.

To adjust the slide, loosen the screw which holds the eccentric pin
with the T or a small monkey wrench, and turn the handle so that the
slide will come forward until the face of the mold is within .01 inch
of the vise movable jaw at the time when the line in first elevator
is to be justified. If pin is set so as to throw the disk too far
forward it would bind the spacebands and matrices and prevent the
justification levers from driving up the bands sufficient to space the
line, which would cause an indention of the line. On the other hand, if
the mold disk does not come forward far enough, it will not give a good
lockup, owing to the metal pot having to spring the disk too far in
making the final lockup.



Directions for Putting in a New Verge.


To put in a new verge, first lock up the machine and disconnect the
rods; then take off the magazine and place on a bench or other suitable
place, bottom up; then take off the verge partition locking strip
(which is held in place by some of the partition’s ears being bent
crosswise) up to the verge that is to be removed. Withdraw the verge
rod until you have reached the verge to be renewed; at the same time
follow it up with another rod, which will keep the other verges in
place. Then take out the verge.

In putting in the new one, be sure the hole is large enough to allow
the verge to work freely. Then push the verge rod back into place. Put
back the locking strip and bend the partition’s ears to hold it in
place. The magazine is now ready to be put back on the machine.



Alignment of Faces.


The following faces will align with each other and interchange table
characters on their respective bodies:

Ruby No. 18 with itself only.

Agate Nos. 1, 2, 3, and Agate Bold Face.

Nonpareil Nos. 1, 2, 3, 12, Nonpareil Old Style No. 1, Nonpareil Italic
No. 1 and Nonpareil Old Style Italic No. 1.

Minion Nos. 1, 2, 3, 21, Minion Doric, Minion Bold Face, Minion Gothic,
Minion Italic Nos. 1, 3, Brevier Nos. 1, 2, 4, 19, Brevier Italic No. 1
and Brevier Ionic.

Brevier Old Style No. 1, Brevier Old Style Ronaldson, Brevier Old Style
Italic No. 1, and German Brevier figures.

Long Primer Nos. 1, 13, Long Primer Old Style No. 1, Long Primer Old
Style Ronaldson, Long Primer Clarendon, Long Primer Italic Nos. 1, 13,
and Long Primer Old Style Italic No. 1, Bourgeois No. 13 and Bourgeois
Italic No. 13.

Small Pica Nos. 1, 9, Small Pica Old Style No. 1, Small Pica Old Style
Ronaldson, Small Pica Italic Nos. 1, 9, and Small Pica Old Style Italic
No. 1.

Small Pica Gothic with itself only.

German Nonpareil with itself only.

German Brevier with itself only.

German Bourgeois No. 2 with German Bourgeois Bold Face No. 1.

German Long Primer No. 2.

When table characters are ordered changed from No. 1 to No. 2 face, or
vice versa, in any font, the following characters are usually changed:
Regular figures from 1 to 0, fractions, figure space, $ £ * . ‥ also
† ‡ [ ] ℀ % § ⅌ ¶ / ° ‖ + × ÷ = ⎧ ⎩ { } ⎭ ⎫ and all the other special
signs when ordered.



Keyboards.


[Illustration: REGULAR KEYBOARD—WITHOUT FRACTIONS]

[Illustration: REGULAR KEYBOARD—WITH COMMERCIAL FRACTIONS]

[Illustration: COMBINATION HEAD LETTER AND BODY KEYBOARD]

[Illustration: COMBINATION HEAD LETTER ENGLISH—WITH FRACTION.]

[Illustration: HEAD LETTER KEYBOARD—TWO FACES—UPPER CASE ONE FACE,
UPPER AND LOWER CASE SECOND FACE]

[Illustration: COMBINATION ENGLISH AND GERMAN KEYBOARD]

[Illustration: COMBINATION ENGLISH AND GERMAN]

[Illustration: STANDARD GERMAN KEYBOARD]

[Illustration: REGULAR FRENCH KEYBOARD]

[Illustration: REGULAR SPANISH KEYBOARD]



Supplies Which Should Be Kept in Stock.


It will be found a great convenience, as well as a saving, to keep
the following list of supplies on hand, so that if any of these parts
should break or wear out they could be renewed at once and machine
would not have to stand idle until they could be procured from factory
or stock rooms.

The expense will be small, but the time saved by having these parts at
hand in an emergency will more than pay for the outlay:

                                                  Part
                                                   No.    Sheet.
   3 Line delivery lever link springs              216       B
   2 Second elevator starting springs              238       B
      (In ordering state if long or short spring
      is wanted.)
   1 Spaceband lever pawl hook                      98       B
      (State if old or new style.)
  10 Pot cam roller anti-friction rollers          300       B
   1 Automatic stop catch                           17      BB
   1 Ejector lever adjustable pawl assembled       165      BB
   2 Line delivery carriage long fingers (L H)     209       D
   2 Assembling elevator gate rail pawls           434       D
   2 Assembling elevator back rail pawls            77       D
   4 Spaceband box pawls                           186       D
   4 Assembling elevator matrix detaining
      plate, back                                  100       D
   4 Assembling elevator matrix detaining
      plate, front                                 433       D
  10 Assembler chute rails (back)                   15       D
  10 Assembler chute rails (front)                  16       D
  10 Assembler stars                                 6       D
   1 Assembler glass (small)                        20       D
   1 Assembler star shaft                            7       D
   1 Assembler pinion friction disk                315       D
   1 Assembler pinion friction spring              316       D
   3 Assembler star pinion friction nuts           317       D
   3 Assembler chute springs                       459       D
   3 Assembler matrix catch springs                 18       D
   1 First elevator back jaw                       107       E
   4 First elevator back and front jaw pawl
      levers                                       121       E
   4 First elevator back jaw pawls                 122       E
   4 First elevator front jaw pawls                123       E
   6 First elevator front jaw pawl springs         126       E
       (These last four not used on latest
         machines.)
   2 Knife wiper bar springs                       171       E
   1 Knife wiper bar guide                         312       E
   1 Pot lever spring                               27       F
   1 Back knife                                    254       F
       (State if old or new style.)
   1 Distributer box front plate upper rail         84       G
   1 Distributer box back plate upper rail          85       G
   1 Distributer box back plate lower rail          86       G
   1 Distributer box front plate lower rail        199       G
   1 Second elevator adjusting spring              183       G
   2 Second elevator bar springs                    67       G
   1 Distributer box bar, assembled                212       G
   1 Distributer box matrix lift                    91       G
   2 Keyboard keybar springs, upper case           234       H
   2 Keyboard keybar springs, lower case           219       H
   6 Keyboard cam and yokes, assembled             201       H
       (State if old or new style.)
   2 Keyboard cam yoke trigger hinge rods          145       H
  12 Escapement verges, assorted                     8       J
   6 Escapement verge pawls, assorted               10       J
   6 Escapement verge springs                       11       J
   1 Escapement verge hinge rod                      9       J
  25 Flat-head screws, assorted
  25 Round-head screws, assorted



Numbers and Sizes of Channels—Sizes of Verges, Pawls and Ears of
Matrices.


  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  Character.   No. of    Size of    Size of   Size of   Size of Ear
              Channel.   Channel.    Verge.    Pawl.     of Matrix.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
      e           1         50                  60           40
      e           2         50        75        60           40
      t           3         50        45        45           40
      a           4         60        70        60           50
      o           5         50        65        55           40
      i           6         40        40        35           33
      n           7         60        75        70           50
      s           8         50        60        50           40
      h           9         60        70        70           50
      r          10         50        60        50           40
      d          11         60        70        70           50
      l          12         40        40        35           33
      u          13         70        75        70           60
      c          14         60        65        60           50
      m          15         90       105       100           80
      f          16         50        75        55           40
      w          17         90        90        90           80
      y          18         60        70        70           50
      p          19         60        70        70           50
      v          20         60        70        70           50
      b          21         60        70        70           50
      g          22         60        70        70           50
      k          23         70        90        75           60
      q          24         60        70        70           50
      j          25         40        50        50           23
      x          26         70        90        75           60
      z          27         50        60        60           40
      fi         28         60        70        70           50
      fl         29         60        75        70           50
      ff         30         70        95        85           60
      ffi        31         90       105       105           80
      ffl        32         90       105       105           80
      em         33         90       140       140           80
      ,          34         40        40        35           33
      .          35         40        40        35           33
      :          36         50        70        65           40
      ;          37         50        75        65           40
      ?          38         60        70        70           50
      Fig        39         60       125        70           50
      (          40         40        55        45           33
      |          41         40        90        90           33
      ‘          42         40        45        35           33
      !          43         50        65        65           40
      -          44         40        50        45           33
      Thin       45         40        40        35           33
      )          46         40        40        40           33
      .          47         60        60        60           50
      ’          48         40        35        35           33
      *          49         60        55        55           50
      1          50         60        70        70           50
      2          51         60        70        70           50
      3          52         60        70        70           50
      4          53         60        70        70           50
      5          54         60        70        70           50
      6          55         60        70        70           50
      7          56         60        70        70           50
      8          57         60        70        70           50
      9          58         60        70        70           50
      0          59         60        70        70           50
      $          60         60        70        70           50
      ‥         61        100       100        95           90
      E          62         90        95        95           80
      T          63         80       100        95           70
      A          64         90       100       100           80
      O          65         80       100       100           70
      I          66         60        55        55           50
      N          67         90       100       100           80
      S          68         70        75        75           60
      H          69        100       110       110           90
      R          70         90        95        95           80
      D          71         90       105       105           80
      L          72         80        85        85           70
      U          73         90       105       105           80
      C          74         70        75        75           60
      M          75        100       110       110           90
      F          76         80        95        95           70
      W          77        110       145       145          100
      Y          78         90       100       100           80
      P          79         80        85        85           70
      V          80         90       105       105           80
      B          81         80        95        95           70
      G          82         80       105       105           70
      K          83         90       110       110           80
      Q          84         80        95        95           70
      J          85         60        75        70           50
      X          86         90       110       110           80
      Z          87         70        95        95           60
      @          88         90        85        85           80
      ℔          89         90        85        85           80
      & £        90         60        85        85           50
      —          91         90       125       125           80
      Pi         92        100

All figures, except in numbers of channels, in thousandths of inches.

*Channel No. 39 takes .125 verge and .70 pawl.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Page 28, “metalic” changed to “metallic” (“its reduction to the
    metallic”).
  Page 42, “partion” changed to “partition” (“the right hand partition
    for”).
  Page 60, “sprin” changed to “spring” (“keyboard keybar spring F”).
  Page 60, “apiece” changed to “a piece” (“soldering a piece on the
    bottom”).
  Page 70, “groves” changed to “grooves” (“or the small grooves which”).
  Page 79,  title “Keyboards.” added.

Figures 12 and 13, and 29 and 30 appear in an inverse order in the
original. This has been preserved.

On page 78, some characters may not render correctly with some
machine/format combinations.

Original images of this book can be found here:
https://archive.org/details/McCallLinotypeManual1898





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