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Title: An Outline of the Phonology and Morphology of Old Provençal
Author: Grandgent, C. H.
Language: English
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                    Heath’s Modern Language Series

                              AN OUTLINE
                                OF THE
                       PHONOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY
                             OLD PROVENÇAL

                            C. H. GRANDGENT

                            Revised Edition

                           BOSTON, U. S. A.
                     D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS

                           COPYRIGHT, 1905,
                         BY D. C. HEATH & CO.


This book, which is intended as a guide to students of Romance
Philology, represents the result of desultory labors extending through
a period of twenty years. My first introduction to the scientific
pursuit of Provençal linguistics was a course given by Paul Meyer at
the École des Chartes in the winter of 1884-85. Since then I have been
collecting material both from my own examination of texts and from the
works of those philologists who have dealt with the subject. Besides
the large Grammars of the Romance Languages by Diez and by Meyer-Lübke,
I have utilized H. Suchier’s _Die französische und provenzalische
Sprache_ (in Gröber’s _Grundriss der romanischen Philologie_, I,
561), the _Introduzione grammaticale_ in V. Crescini’s _Manualetto
provenzale_, the _Abriss der Formenlehre_ in C. Appel’s _Provenzalische
Chrestomathie_, and many special treatises to which reference will be
made in the appropriate places. Conscious of many imperfections in my
work, I shall be grateful for corrections.

I have confined myself to the old literary language, believing that
to be of the greatest importance to a student of Romance Philology
or of Comparative Literature, and fearing lest an enumeration of
modern forms, in addition to the ancient, might prove too bewildering.
I should add that neither my own knowledge nor the material at my
disposal is adequate to a satisfactory presentation of the living
idioms of southern France. These dialects have, however, been
investigated for the light they throw on the geographical distribution
of phonetic variations; my chief source of information has been F.
Mistral’s monumental _Dictionnaire provençal-français_. Catalan and
Franco-Provençal have been considered only incidentally. I have not
dealt with word-formation, because one of my students is preparing a
treatise on that subject.

Readers desiring a brief description of Provençal literature are
referred to H. Suchier and A. Birch-Hirschfeld, _Geschichte der
französischen Literatur_, pp. 56-96; A. Stimming, in Gröber’s
_Grundriss der romanischen Philologie_, II, ii, pp. 1-69; and A.
Restori, _Letteratura provenzale_. For a more extended account of the
poets they should consult _Die Poesie der Troubadours_ and the _Leben
und Werke der Troubadours_ by F. Diez; and _The Troubadours at Home_ by
J. H. Smith. The poetic ideals are discussed by G. Paris in _Romania_,
XII, pp. 516-34; and with great fulness by L. F. Mott in _The System
of Courtly Love_. The beginnings of the literature are treated by
A. Jeanroy in his _Origines de la poésie lyrique en France au moyen
âge_, reviewed by G. Paris in a series of important articles in the
_Journal des Savants_ (November and December, 1891, and March and July,
1892) reprinted separately in 1892 under the same title as Jeanroy’s
book. Contributions by A. Restori to several volumes of the _Rivista
musicale italiana_ deal with Provençal music; some tunes in modern
notation are to be found in J. H. Smith’s _Troubadours at Home_, and
in the _Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen_, CX (New Series
X), 110 (E. Bohn).[1] Aside from the editions of individual poets,
the best collections of verses are those of C. Appel, _Provenzalische
Chrestomathie_; V. Crescini, _Manualetto provenzale_; and K. Bartsch,
_Chrestomathie provençale_. Earlier and larger anthologies are M.
Raynouard’s _Choix des poésies originales des troubadours_, and C.
A. F. Mahn’s _Werke der Troubadours_ and _Gedichte der Troubadours_.
The only dictionary of importance for the old language is the
_Lexique roman_ (six volumes) of M. Raynouard, augmented by the
_Supplement-Wörterbuch_ of E. Levy (now appearing in instalments). The
poetic language of the present day can be studied to advantage in E.
Koschwitz’s _Grammaire historique de la langue des Félibres_.




    Abl.: ablative.

    Acc.: accusative.

    Cl.L.: Classic Latin.

    Cond.: conditional.

    Cons.: consonant.

    Einf.: W. Meyer-Lübke, _Einführung in das Studium der
    romanischen Sprachwissenschaft_, 1901.

    F.: feminine.

    Fr.: French.

    Free (of vowels): not in position.

    Fut.: future.

    Gram.: W. Meyer-Lübke, _Grammaire des langues romanes_, 3
    vols., 1890-1900.

    Grundriss: G. Gröber, _Grundriss der romanischen Philologie_, 2
    vols., 1888-1902.

    Imp.: imperfect.

    Imper.: imperative.

    Intertonic (of vowels): following the secondary and preceding
    the primary accent.

    Intervocalic (of consonants): standing between two vowels.

    It.: Italian.

    Körting: G. Körting, _Lateinisch-romanisches Wörterbuch_, 2d
    ed., 1901.

    Lat.: Latin.

    Levy: E. Levy, _Provenzalisches Supplement-Wörterbuch_, 1894-.

    Ltblt.: _Literaturblatt für germanische und romanische
    Philologie_, monthly, Leipzig.

    M.: masculine.

    Nom.: nominative.

    Obj.: objective (case).

    Part.: participle.

    Perf.: perfect.

    Pers.: person.

    Phon.: P. Marchot, _Petite phonétique du français
    prélittéraire_, 1901.

    Pl.: plural.

    Pr.: Provençal.

    Pres.: present.

    Pret.: preterit.

    Raynouard: M. Raynouard, _Lexique roman_, 6 vols., 1836-44.

    Rom.: _Romania_, quarterly, Paris.

    Sg.: singular.

    V.L.: Vulgar Latin.

    Voc.: H. Schuchardt, _Vocalismus des Vulgärlateins_, 3 vols.,

    Voiced (of consonants): sonant, pronounced with vibration of
    the glottis.

    Voiceless (of consonants): surd, pronounced without glottal

    Vow.: vowel.

    Zs.: _Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie_, 4 to 6 nos. a
    year, Halle.


N. B.--Phonetic characters not entered in this list are to be
pronounced as in Italian. Whenever it is essential to distinguish
spelling from pronunciation, _italic_ type is used for the former,
Roman for the latter.

    · (under a vowel): close quality.

    ¸ (under a vowel): open quality.

    ¯ (over a vowel): long quantity.

    ̆ (over a vowel): short quantity.

    ̑ (under a letter): semivowel, not syllabic.

    ´ (over a letter): stress.

    ´ (after a consonant): palatal pronunciation.

    ✱ (before a word): conjectural, not found.

    > (between words or letters): derivation, the _source_ standing
    at the _open_ end.

    +: followed by.

    ạ: French _â_ in _pâte_.

    ą: French _a_ in _patte_.

    β: bilabial _v_, as in Spanish.

    c: see k.

    c´: palatal _k_, as in English _key_.

    ð: English _th_ in _this_.

    ẹ: French _é_ in _thé_.

    ę: French _ê_ in _fête_.

    g: English _g_ in _go_.

    g´: palatal _g_, as in English _geese_.

    h: English _h_ in _hat_.

    ị: French _i_ in _si_.

    į: English _ĭ_ in _pit_.

    k: English _k_ in _maker_.

    k´: see c´.

    l´: palatal _l_, as in Italian _figlio_.

    n´: palatal _n_, as in Italian _ogni_.

    ŋ: English _ng_ in _sing_.

    ọ: German _ō_, as in _sohn_.

    ǫ: German _ŏ_, as in _sonne_.

    r´: palatal _r_.

    š: English _sh_ in _ship_.

    þ: English _th_ in _thin_.

    ụ: German _ū_, as in _gut_.

    ų: German _ŭ_, as in _butter_.

    ü: French _u_ in _pur_.

    w: English _w_ in _woo_.

    χ: German _ch_ in _ach_.

    y: English _y_ in _ye_.

    z: English _z_ in _crazy_.

    ž: French _j_ in _jour_.



  INTRODUCTION                                                         1-9
  PHONOLOGY                                                          10-84
    Accent                                                           11-13
    Vowels                                                           13-36
      _Quantity_                                                     13-14
      _Accented Vowels_                                              14-24
          a                                                          14-15
          ẹ                                                          15-17
          ę                                                          17-20
          ị                                                             20
          ọ                                                          20-21
          ǫ                                                          21-23
          ụ                                                          23-24
          au                                                            24
      _Unaccented Vowels_                                            24-36
          Initial Syllable                                           25-27
          Intertonic Syllable                                        27-29
          Penult                                                     29-32
          Final Syllable                                             32-36
    Consonants                                                       37-84
          Latin Consonants                                           37-40
          Germanic Consonants                                        40-41
          Greek Consonants                                           41-42
      _Initial Consonants_                                           42-44
          Single                                                     43-44
          Groups                                                        44
      _Medial Consonants_                                            45-78
          Single                                                     47-55
          Groups                                                     55-78
            _Double Consonants_                                      56-57
            _Groups Ending in L_                                     57-58
            _Groups Ending in R_                                     58-61
            _Groups Ending in W_                                     61-62
            _Groups Ending in Y_                                     63-69
            _Groups Beginning with L, M, N, R, or S_                 69-74
            _Miscellaneous Groups_                                   74-78
      _Final Consonants_                                             78-81
          Single                                                     78-81
          Groups                                                        81
      _Sporadic Change_                                              81-84
          Insertion                                                  81-82
          Metathesis                                                 82-83
          Dissimilation                                              83-84
  MORPHOLOGY                                                        85-146
    Declension                                                      85-113
      _Nouns_                                                        85-94
        First Declension                                                90
        Second Declension                                            90-91
        Third Declension                                             91-94
      _Adjectives_                                                   95-99
        Comparison                                                   96-97
        Numerals                                                     98-99
      _Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives_                          99-113
        Articles                                                   100-101
        Personal Pronouns                                          101-105
        Possessives                                                105-107
        Demonstratives                                             107-109
        Interrogatives and Relatives                               109-110
        Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives                         110-113
    Conjugation                                                    114-146
      _The Four Conjugations_                                      114-115
      _Fundamental Changes in Inflection_                          116-118
      _Infinitive, Present Participle, and Gerund_                 118-119
      _Past Participle_                                            119-121
      _Future and New Conditional_                                 121-123
        Future Endings                                             122-123
        Conditional Endings                                            123
      _Present_                                                    123-132
        Double Stems                                               125-126
        Peculiar Forms                                             127-130
        Personal Endings                                           130-132
      _Imperfect Indicative_                                       132-133
      _Preterit, Old Conditional, and Imperfect Subjunctive_       133-146
        Preterit                                                   133-144
          _Weak_                                                   135-138
          _Strong_                                                 138-144
        Old Conditional                                            144-145
        Imperfect Subjunctive                                      145-146
  INDEX                                                            147-159



1. The language here studied is, in the main, that used by the poets of
Southern France during the 12th and 13th centuries. The few works that
we have earlier than the 12th century must, of course, be utilized for
such information as they afford concerning the process of linguistic
change; and lacking words or forms must occasionally be sought in
writings later than the 13th. Prose literature, moreover, should not
be neglected, as it greatly enlarges our vocabulary and throws much
light on local divergences. The modern dialects need be cited only to
determine the geographical distribution of variations.

2. The extent of the Provençal territory is sufficiently indicated
by the map on p. viii. The upper black line separates Provençal
on the northwest and north from French, on the northeast from
Franco-Provençal; on the east are the Gallo-Italic dialects. The lower
black line divides Provençal on the southwest from Basque, on the south
from Spanish, on the southeast from Catalan. The boundary line between
French and Provençal must be determined somewhat arbitrarily, as there
is no distinct natural division; the several linguistic characteristics
of each idiom do not end at the same point, and thus one language
gradually shades into the other. The line shown on the map is based on
the development of free accented Latin a, which remains a in Provençal,
but is changed to e in French. The limits of other phonetic phenomena
may be found in Suchier’s maps at the back of Vol. I of Gröber’s
_Grundriss_. There may be seen also a large map showing the place of
Provençal among the Romance languages. Consult, furthermore, P. Meyer
in _Romania_, XXIV, 529.

3. The Spanish and Gallo-Italic frontiers are more clearly defined,
and Basque is entirely distinct. Franco-Provençal and Catalan, on
the other hand, are closely related to Provençal and not always easy
to divide from it. Catalan, in fact, is often classed as a Provençal
dialect; but it is sufficiently different to be studied separately.[2]
Franco-Provençal, rated by some philologists as an independent
language, has certain characteristics of Provençal and certain features
of French, but more of the latter; in some respects it is at variance
with both. The Gascon, or southwest, dialects of Provençal differ in
many ways from any of the others and present not a few similarities to
Spanish[3]; they will, however, be included in our study.

4. The Provençal domain embraces, then, the following old provinces:
Provence, Languedoc, Foix, part of Béarn, Gascony, Guyenne, Limousin,
most of Marche, Auvergne, the southwestern half of Lyonnais and the
southern half of Dauphiné. The native speech in this region varies
considerably from place to place, and the local dialects are, for
convenience, roughly grouped under the names of the provinces; it
should be remembered, however, that the political and the linguistic
boundaries rarely coincide. For some of the principal dialect
differences, see §§ 8 and 10-13.

5. The language of the poets was sometimes called _lemosí_; and, in
fact, the foundation of their literary idiom is the speech of the
province of Limousin and the adjacent territory on the north, west, and
southwest.[4] The supremacy of this dialect group is apparently due
to the fact that it was generally used for composition earlier than
any of the others: popular song, in all probability, had its home in
the borderland of Marche[5]; religious literature in the vulgar tongue
developed in the monasteries of this region; the artistic lyric was
cultivated, we know, at the court of Ventadour, and it must have found
favor at others. Furthermore, many of the leading troubadours belonged
by birth or residence to the Limousin district.

6. The troubadours’ verses, as we have them, seldom represent any one
dialect in its purity. The poet himself was doubtless influenced both
by literary tradition and by his particular local usage, as well as by
considerations of rhyme and metre. Moreover, his work, before reaching
us, passed through the hands of various intermediaries, who left upon
it traces of their own pronunciation. It should be said, also, that
the Limousin was not a single dialect, but a group of more or less
divergent types of speech. For these reasons we must not expect to find
in Provençal a uniform linguistic standard.

7. Neither was there a generally accepted system of orthography. When
the vulgar tongue was first written, the Roman letters were used with
approximately the same values that they had in Latin, as it was then
pronounced. As the Provençal sounds changed, there was a conflict
between the spellings first established and new notations based on
contemporary speech. Furthermore, many Provençal vowels and consonants
had no equivalents in Latin; for these we find a great variety of
representations. The signs are very often ambiguous: for instance, _c_
before _e_ or _i_ (as in _cen_, _cinc_) generally stands in the first
texts for ts, in the more recent ones for s, the pronunciation having
changed; _z_ between vowels in early times usually means dz (_plazer_),
but later z (_roza_); _i_ between vowels (_maiór_) indicates either y
or dž (English _j_), according to the dialect; a _g_ may signify “hard”
g (_gerra_), dž (“soft” _g_: _ges_), or tš (English _ch_: _mieg_). It
is probable that for a couple of centuries diphthongs were oftenest
written as simple vowels.

8. Some features of the mediæval pronunciation are still obscure. The
close ọ was transformed, either during or soon after the literary
epoch, into ụ (the sound of French _ou_); hence, when we meet in a
late text such a word as _flor_, we cannot be certain whether it is
to be sounded flọr or flụr. We do not know at what time Latin ū in
southern France took the sound ü (French _u_): some suppose that it
was during or shortly before the literary period; if this be true,
the letter _u_ (as in _tu_, _mur_) may represent in some texts ụ,
in others ü. In diphthongs and triphthongs whose first element is
written _u_ (_cuer_, _fuolha_, _nueu_, _buou_), this letter came to
be pronounced in most of the dialects like French _u_ in _huit_,
while in others it retained the sound of French _ou_ in _oui_; we
cannot tell exactly when or where, in ancient times, this development
occurred. In the diphthongs ue, uo (_luec_, _fuoc_), opinions disagree
as to which vowel originally bore the stress; subsequent changes
seem to indicate that in the 12th and 13th centuries the practice
varied in the different dialects. Old Provençal must have had in some
words a peculiar type of r, which was sufficiently palatal in its
articulation to call for an i-glide before it (_esclairar_); we do
not know precisely how it was formed; in most regions it probably was
assimilated to the more usual r as early as the 12th century. The š and
ž (palatal s and z) apparently ranged, in the several dialects, between
the sounds of French _ch_ and _j_ on the one hand, and those of German
_ch_ (in _ich_) and _j_ (in _ja_) on the other; the former types were
largely assimilated, doubtless by the 13th century, to s and z (_pois_,
_maisó_), the latter were not (_poih_, _maió_).

9. The following table comprises the Old Provençal sounds with their
usual spellings, the latter being arranged, as nearly as may be, in
the order of their frequency. Diphthongs and triphthongs are included
in the vowel list, compound consonants in the consonant table. For
an explanation of the phonetic symbols, see p. vii. The variant
pronunciations are discussed in § 8.


  SOUND.      SPELLINGS.             EXAMPLES.

  ạ           _a_                    _pan_

  ą           _a_                    _car_

  ai          _ai_, _ay_             _paire_, _cays_

  au          _au_                   _autre_

  ẹ           _e_                    _pena_

  ę           _e_                    _cel_

  ẹi          _ei_, _ey_             _vei_, _veyre_

  ęi          _ei_, _ey_             _seis_, _teysser_

  ẹu          _eu_                   _beure_

  ęu          _eu_                   _breu_

  ị           _i_, _y_               _amic_, _ydola_
  ię          _ie_, _e_              _quier_, _velh_

  ięi         _iei_, _iey_, _ei_     _ieis_, _lieys_, _leit_

  ięu         _ieu_, _eu_            _mieu_, _deus_

  ịu          _iu_                   _estiu_

  ọ (or ụ)    _o_, _u_               _corre_, _sun_

  ǫ           _o_                    _cors_

  ọi          _oi_, _oy_             _conoisser_, _oyre_

  ǫi          _oi_, _oy_             _pois_, _poyssán_

  ọu          _ou_                   _dous_

  ǫu          _ou_                   _mou_

  ụ: see ọ, ü

  ü (or ụ?)   _u_                    _mut_

  uę, üę      _ue_, _o?_             _cuec_, _olh?_

  uęi, üęi    _uei_, _uey_, _oi?_    _cueissa_, _pueyssas_, _oit?_

  uęu, üęu    _ueu_, _ou?_           _nueu_, _bou?_

  üi          _ui_, _uy_             _cuit_, _duy_

  uǫ, üǫ      _uo_, _o_              _gruoc_, _folha_

  uǫi, üǫi    _uoi_, _oi_            _puoi_, _noit_

  uǫu, üǫu    _uou_, _ou_            _pluou_, _ou_


  SOUND.      SPELLING.                 EXAMPLES.

  b           _b_, _bb_                 _bel_, _abbat_

  d           _d_                       _don_

  dz          _z_, _c_                  _plazer_, _dicén_

  dž          _i_, _g_, _tg_, _gg_,     _ioc_, _gen_, _paratge_, _viagge_,
              _ti_, _tgi_, _ih_         _coratie_, _lotgiar_, _puihar_

  ð           _d_                       _veder_

  f           _f_, _ph_                 _fer_, _phizica_

  g           _g_, _gu_                 _gras_, _guan_, _guerra_

  h (Gascon)  _h_, _f?_                 _ham_, _fe?_[6]

  k           _c_, _qu_, _k_, _g_       _cais_, _quar_, _quer_, _ki_,

  l           _l_, _ll_                 _leu_, _belleza_

  l´          _lh_, _ill_, _ilh_,       _fuelha_, _meillor_, _failha_,
              _ll_, _l_, _il_,          _vellar_, _viel_, _voil_, _fiyl_,
              _yl_, _yll_, _li_         _fayllentia_, _filia_

  m           _m_, _mm_                 _mes_, _commanda_

  n           _n_, _nn_                 _nas_, _annat_

  n´          _nh_, _gn_, _inh_, _ign_, _cenher_, _plagner_, _poinh_,
              _ing_, _innh_, _ingn_,    _seignor_, _soing_, _poinnher_,
              _ngn_,_nn_, _n_, _in_,    _fraingner_, _ongnimen_, _vinna_,
              _ng_, _ynh_, _ni_, _ny_,  _franén_, _soin_, _sengor_,
              _nyh_                     _poynh_, _lenia_, _senyoria_,

  ŋ           _n_                       _lonc_

  p           _p_, _pp_, _b_            _prop_, _opparer_, _obs_[8]

  r           _r_                       _rire_

  r´          _r_                       _cuer_

  rr          _rr_                      _terra_[9]

  s           _s_, _ss_, _c_, _ç_, _x_  _sap_, _fassa_, _cenat_, _ça_,

  š           _ss_, _s_, _sh_, _h_,     _faissa_, _cais_, _pueysh_,
              _hs_                      _Foih_, _faihs_

  t           _t_, _tt_, _d_            _tot_, _attenir_, _nud_[8]

  ts          _c_, _z_, _tz_, _ç_,      _cel_, _faz_, _parlatz_, _ço_,
              _gz_, _cz_, _ti_          _fagz_, _czo_, _fayllentia_[10]

  tš          _ch_, _g_, _ich_, _ig_,   _chan_, _plag_, _ueich_, _faig_,
              _h_, _gz_                 _lah_, _gaugz_[11]

  v           _u_ (printed _v_)         _ven_

  y           _i_, _y_                  _gabia_, _preyar_

  z           _s_, _z_, _ç_             _pausa_, _roza_, _riçia_
                                        (< _ridēbat_)

  ž           _s_, _z_, _i_             _raso_, _poizo_, _maio_

10. The Gascon group presents certain striking divergences from
the other dialects: (1) it shows a b corresponding to Provençal v,
as in _be_ = _ve_ < _vĕnit_, _abetz_ = _avetz_ < _habētis_; (2)
it substitutes r for l between vowels, as in _bera_ = _bela_ <
_bĕlla_; (3) it changes initial f to h, as in _he_ = _fe_ < _fĭdem_.
Other Gascon peculiarities are less ancient, less general, or less

11. Some distinctions may be pointed out between the speech of the
north and that of the south:--

    (1) Latin ca and ga, either at the beginning of a word or after
    a consonant, became respectively tša and dža in the northern
    dialects[12], and remained unchanged in the southern: _canto_ >
    _chan can_, _lŏnga_ > _lonia longa_.

    (2) Latin ct and gd became it and id in most of the north and
    in the southwest[12], tš and dž in most of the south and in the
    northwest[13]: _factum_ > _fait fach_, _frig(i)da_ > _freida
    freia_. Nct became int, nt, n´, ntš in different regions:
    _sanctum_ > _saint sant sanh sanch_. Cs (Latin _x_) had various
    local developments--is, itš, tš--somewhat similar to those of
    ct: _exīre_ > _eissir eichir ichir_.

    (3) Latin d between vowels disappeared in some spots in the
    north and northeast[12], and became z nearly everywhere else:
    _audīre_ > _auir auzir_.

    (4) Latin ll became l´ in some parts of the south[13], and
    usually l in other regions: _bĕlla_ > _belha bela_.

    (5) Provençal final ns remains in the southeast and east, and
    is elsewhere generally reduced to s: _bŏnus_ > _bons bos_.
    Provençal final n also falls in a large region, but its history
    is more intricate; the poets use indifferently forms with and
    without _n_: _bĕne_ > _ben be_.

12. Several Latin consonants, when combined with a following ḙ or i̭,
give results that are widely different in various localities, but the
geographical distribution of the respective forms is complicated and
not always clear: _pŏdium_ > _puech poi_; _basiare_ > _baisar basar
baiiar baiar_; _bassiare_ > _baissar baichar bachar_; _potiōnem_ >
_poizon pozon poio_. The same thing may be said of intervocalic y
(Latin _j_): _major_ > _mager maier_. Also of intervocalic c, sc, g,
ŋg, followed by e or i: _placēre_ > _plazer plaizer plager_, _nascere_
> _naisser nasser naicher nacher_, _lēgem_ > _lei leg_, _ŭngere_ >
_onher onger_.

13. In the development of unstressed vowels there are very numerous
local variations, which will be discussed later. Even among accented
vowels there are some divergences:--

    (1) Provençal ą, ę, ǫ before nasals become ạ, ẹ, ọ in some
    dialects, especially in those belonging to or bordering on the
    Limousin group: _canem_ > cąn cạn, _vĕnit_ > vęn vẹn, _bŏnum_
    > bǫn bọn. The poets nearly always use the forms with close

    (2) The breaking of ę, ǫ, under certain conditions, into
    diphthongs is not common to the whole territory, and the
    resulting forms show local differences: _mĕum_ > męu mięu,
    _fŏcum_ > fǫc fuǫc fuęc füc. Breaking is least common in the


14. Inasmuch as Provençal, like the other Romance languages, grew out
of the Latin commonly spoken under the Roman Empire, we must take
this latter language as our starting-point. The transformation was so
gradual and continuous that we cannot assign any date at which speech
ceases to be Latin and begins to be Provençal; since, however, the
various Latin dialects--destined to become later the various Romance
languages--began to diverge widely in the 6th and 7th centuries, we
may, for the sake of convenience, say that the Latin period ends at
about this time. Before this, certain changes (which affected all the
Romance tongues) had occurred in the popular language, differentiating
it considerably from the classic Latin of the Augustan writers.
Although the most important of these alterations have to do with
inflections rather than with pronunciation, the sound-changes in Vulgar
Latin are by no means insignificant.

15. It is essential at the outset to distinguish “popular” from
“learned” words. The former, having always been a part of the spoken
vocabulary, have been subject to the operation of all the phonetic
laws that have governed the development of the language. The latter
class, consisting of words borrowed by clerks, at various periods, from
Latin books and from the Latin of the Church, is naturally exempt from
sound-changes that occurred in the vulgar tongue before the time of
their adoption. The form of learned words depends, in the first place,
on the clerical pronunciation of Latin at the date of their borrowing;
then, if they came into general use, their form was subject to the
influence of any phonetic laws that were subsequently in force. The
fate of borrowed terms differs, therefore, according to the time of
their introduction and the degree of popularity which they afterwards


16. The place of the _primary_ accent, which in Classic Latin was
determined by quantity, remained unchanged in Vulgar Latin even after
quantitative distinctions were lost. A short vowel before a mute
followed by a liquid may, in Classic Latin, be stressed or unstressed;
in Vulgar Latin it is usually stressed: _cathédra_, _tenébræ_.[14]

There are some exceptions to the rule of the persistence of the accent
in Vulgar Latin:--

    1. An accented e or i immediately followed by the vowel of the
    penult transfers the stress to this latter vowel, and is itself
    changed to y: _filíŏlus_ > _filyólus_, _mulíĕrem_ > _mulyére_.
    This shift is perhaps due to a tendency to stress the more
    sonorous of two contiguous vowels.

    2. An accented u immediately followed by the vowel of the
    penult transfers the stress to the _preceding_ syllable, and
    is itself changed to w: _habúĕrunt_ > _ábwerunt_, _tenúĕram_ >
    _ténwera_. This shift cannot be explained on the same principle
    as the foregoing one; it is perhaps due in every case to
    analogy--_hábuit_, _ténui_, for instance, being responsible for
    the change in _habúerunt_, _tenúeram_.

    3. Verbs compounded with a prefix, if their constituent parts
    were fully recognized, were usually replaced in Vulgar Latin
    by a formation in which the vowel and the accent of the
    simple verb were preserved: _défĭcit_ > _disfácit_, _réddĭdi_
    > _reddédi_, _rénĕgo_ > _renégo_, _réquĭrit_ > _requærit_.
    In _récĭpit_ > _recípit_ the accent but not the vowel was
    restored, speakers having ceased to associate this verb with
    _capio_. In _cóllĭgo_, _érĭgo_, _éxĕo_, _ínflo_ the composite
    nature of the word was apparently not recognized.

    4. The adverbs _ĭllāc_, _ĭllīc_ accented their last syllable,
    by the analogy of _hāc_, _hīc_.

17. In Provençal the primary accent falls on the same syllable as in
Vulgar Latin: _bonitātem_ > V. L. _bonitáte_ > Pr. _bontát_, _compŭtum_
> V. L. _cómputu_ > Pr. _cónte_; _cathĕdra_ > V. L. _catédra_ > Pr.
_cadéira_; _filiŏlus_ > V. L. _filyólus_ > Pr. _filhóls_, _tenuĕram_
> V. L. _ténwera_ > Pr. _téngra_, _requĭrit_ > V. L. _requærit_ > Pr.
_requér_, _illac_ > V. L. _illác_ > Pr. _lai_.

    1. Some learned words have an irregular accentuation,
    apparently due to a mispronunciation of the Latin: _cándĭdum_ >
    _quandí_, _grammátĭca_ > _gramatíca_, _láchry̆mo_ > _lagrím_,
    _spírĭtum_ > _esprít_ (perhaps from the formula _spirítui
    sancto_). Others were adopted with the correct stress, but
    shifted it later: _fábrĭca_ > _fábrega_ > _fabréga_ (and
    _fárga_), _fémĭna_ > _fémena_ > _feména_ (and _fémna_),
    _láchry̆ma_ > _lágrema_ > _lagréma_, _sémĭnat_ > _sémena_ >
    _seména_ (and _sémna_), _vírgĭnem_ > _vérgena_ > _vergína_ (and

    2. _Dimércres_ < _dīe Mercūrī_ (perhaps through ✱_dīe
    Mércŏris_) has evidently been influenced by _divénres_ < _dīe

    3. Some irregularities due to inflection will be discussed
    under Morphology.

18. The _secondary_ accent, in Vulgar Latin, seems not to have followed
the Classic Latin quantitative rule, but to have fallen regularly on
the second syllable from the primary stress: _cṓgĭtó_, _cupĭ́dĭtā́tem_.
If this secondary accent _followed_ the tonic, its vowel probably
developed as an unstressed post-tonic vowel; if it _preceded_, its
vowel was apparently treated as a stressed vowel. This treatment was
doubtless continued in Provençal until the intertonic vowel dropped
out: _cógĭtó_ _cógĭtánt_ > _cug_ _cúian_ (cf. _cánto_ _cántant_ > _can_
_cántan_), ✱_comĭnĭtĭāre_ > _comén’tiáre_ > _coménzár_ > _comensár_. As
may be seen from this last example, after the fall of the intertonic
vowel, the secondary stress, being brought next to the primary,
disappeared, and its vowel was henceforth unaccented. Cf. § 45, 1.

19. Short, unemphatic words had no accent in Vulgar Latin, and were
attached as particles to the beginning or the end of another word: _te
vídet_, _áma me_. Such words, if they were not monosyllabic, tended to
become so; a disyllabic proclitic beginning with a vowel regularly,
in Vulgar Latin, lost its first syllable: _illum vídeo_ > V. L. _lu
véyo_ > Pr. _lo vei_. A word which was used sometimes independently,
sometimes as a particle, naturally developed double forms.



20. Latin had the following vowels, which might be long or short: a, e,
i, o, u. The diphthongs, æ, œ, au, eu, ui, were always long: æ and œ,
however, were simplified into monophthongs, mainly in the Republican
epoch, _æ_ being sounded ę̄, _œ_ probably ẹ̄; au retained (save in some
popular dialects) its old pronunciation; eu did not occur in any word
that survived; ui, in _cui_, _illui_, in Vulgar Latin, was accented
_úi_ (as in _fui_). The simple vowels, except a, were, doubtless from
early times, slightly different in quality according to their quantity,
the long vowels being sounded close, the short open: ẹ̄, ị̄, ọ̄, ụ̄;
ę̆, į̆, ǫ̆, ų̆.

21. Between the 1st and the 7th century of our era, the Classic Latin
quantity died out: it had apparently disappeared from unstressed
vowels as early as the 4th century, from stressed by the 6th. It left
its traces, however, as we have seen, upon accentuation (§ 16), and
also upon vowel quality, the originally long and short remaining
differentiated in sound, if they were accented. Of the unaccented
vowels, only i shows sure signs of such a differentiation, and even for
i the distinction is evident only in a final syllable: _vēnī_ _vēnĭt_ >
vẹnị vẹnįt.


22. The vowels of Vulgar Latin are a, ẹ, ę, ị, į, ọ, ǫ, ụ, ų, with
the diphthongs áu and úi; the old æ and œ had become identical in sound
with ę and ẹ. As early as the 3d century of our era, į was changed, in
nearly all the Empire, to ẹ, and thus became identical with the vowel
coming from original ē. A little later, perhaps, ų, in the greater
part of the Empire, became ọ, thus coinciding with the vowel that was
originally ō. Ypsilon, in words taken from the Greek, was identified,
in early borrowings, with Latin u; in later ones, with Latin i: βύρσα
> Pr. _borsa_, γῠρος > Pr. _girs_. Omicron, which apparently had
the close sound in Greek, generally (but not always) retained it in
recently borrowed words in Vulgar Latin: τόρνος > tọrnus (cf. Pr.
tọrn), but κόλαφος > _cŏlăphus_ = cọlapus or cǫlapus (cf. Pr. cǫlp).

The development of the Vulgar Latin vowels in Provençal will now be
examined in detail:--


23. Cl. L. ā, ă > V. L. a > Pr. ą: _ărbŏrem_ > ąrbre, _grātum_ > grąt,
_măre_ > mąr.

    1. The ending _-arius_ shows an irregular development in
    French and Provençal, the Provençal forms being mainly such as
    would come from _-ĕrius_; as in _parlier_, _parleira_. In the
    earliest stage we find apparently -ęr´ and -ęr´a; then -ęr´
    and -ęir´a; next -ęr, -ięr and -ęira, -ięira; finally, with
    a reciprocal influence of the two genders, -ęr, -ięr, -ęir,
    and -ęra, -ięra, -ęira, -ięira: _caballarium_ > _c(h)avaler_
    _-ier_, _-eir_, ✱_man(u)aria_ > _manera_ _-iera_ _-eira_
    _-ieira_. The peculiar treatment of this suffix has not been
    satisfactorily explained. See E. R. Zimmermann, _Die Geschichte
    des lateinischen Suffixes -arius in den romanischen Sprachen_,
    1895; E. Staaff, _Le suffixe -arius dans les langues romanes_,
    Upsala, 1896, reviewed by Marchot in _Zs._, XXI, 296, by
    Körting in _Zeitschrift für französische Sprache_, XXII, 55;
    Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, I, 222, § 237; Zimmermann in _Zs._,
    XXVI, 591; Thomas in _Rom._, XXXI, 481 and in _Bausteine zur
    romanischen Philologie_, 641. The likeliest theory is that of
    Thomas: that _-arius_ was associated with the Germanic ending
    _-ari_ and participated in the _umlaut_ which affected the
    latter; cf. _Phon._, pp. 34-36.

    2. In Gascony and Languedoc _ei_ is used for _ai_ < _habeo_.
    The _ei_ perhaps developed first as a future ending (_amar
    -ei_) by analogy of the preterit ending _-ei_ (_amei_): see
    Morphology, §§ 152, 1, 162, (4), 175, (4), where this latter
    ending is discussed also. For a different explanation, see
    Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, I, 222, § 237.

    3. A few apparent irregularities are to be traced to the
    vocabulary of Vulgar Latin. For instance, Pr. _sereisa_
    represents, not Cl. L. _cĕrăsus_, but V. L. _cĕrĕsĕa_: see
    Meyer-Lübke, _Einf._, § 103. _Uebre_ is from ✱_ŏpĕrit_, or
    _apĕrit_ modified by ✱_cŏpĕrit_ = _cōperit_. _Voig_ is from
    ✱_vŏcĭtum_ = _vacuum_: _Einf._, § 114.

    4. Such forms as _fontaina_ = _fontana_ < _fontāna_, etc., and
    _tres_ = _tras_ < _trans_, etc., are French or belong to the
    borderland between French and Provençal.

24. In some dialects, particularly in Rouergue, Limousin, Auvergne, and
Dauphiné, a became ạ before a nasal, and at the end of a monosyllable
or an oxytone: _canem_ > cạn, _grandem_ > grạnt, _cadit_ > cạ,
_stat_ > estạ.

    1. The conditions differ somewhat in the various dialects,
    according as the nasal consonant falls or remains, and is
    followed by another consonant or not. In Limousin the sound
    is ą before an n that cannot fall: see § 11, (5). In Rouergue
    and in Dauphiné, ạ appears before all nasals. The poets
    generally follow the Limousin usage. See F. Pfützner, _Ueber
    die Aussprache des provenzalischen A_, Halle, 1884.


25. Cl. L. ē, ĭ, œ > V. L. ẹ > Pr. ẹ: _habēre_ > avẹr, _mē_ > mẹ,
_mensem_ > mẹs, _plēnum_ > plẹn, _rēgem_ > rẹi, _vēndĕre_ > vẹndre;
_ĭnter_ > ẹntre, _fĭdem_ > fẹ, _malĭtia_ > malẹza, _mĭnus_ > mẹns,
_mĭttĕre_ > mẹtre, _sĭccum_ > sẹc, _vĭrĭdem_ > vẹrt, _pœna_ > pẹna.

    1. Some words have ę instead of ẹ:--

    (_a_) The ending -_ētis_ in the present indicative becomes -ętz
    through the analogy of ętz < _ĕstis_.

    (_b_) Camęl (also ẹ), candęla (also ẹ), cruzęl, fizęl (also
    ẹ), maissęla have ę through the analogy of the suffix -ęl <
    -_ĕllus_. In _camel_ the substitution probably goes back to
    Vulgar Latin.

    (_c_) Many learned words, including proper names, have ę for
    ẹ: decręt, Elizabęt, Moysęs, pantęra, requięs, secręt (ẹ),

    (_d_) Espęr for espẹr < _spēro_, quęt for quẹt <
    _qu_(_i_)_ētum_ are perhaps bad rhymes. Bartolomeo Zorzi, a
    Venetian, rhymes -ẹs with -ęs; in Catalan these two endings
    were not distinguished.

    (_e_) Individual cases: adęs, ‘at once,’ probably from _ad
    id ĭpsum_, seems to have been affected by pręs and apręs <
    _ad prĕssum_; mostięr < _monastērium_ shows the influence of
    _ministĕrium_; nęr nięr (also nẹr nẹgre) < _nĭgrum_ perhaps
    shows the influence of entęr entięr and the numerous adjectives
    in -ęr -ięr; nęu nięu nęy < _nĭvem_ has been attracted by bręu
    gręu, lęu; senęstre (cf. late Lat. _sinexter_) is evidently
    influenced by dęstre.

    2. Many words have i instead of ẹ:--

    (_a_) _Berbitz_ = _vervēcem_, _camis_ = _camĭsia_, come from
    alternative V. L. forms, _berbīcem_, ✱_camīsia_. _Planissa_
    (also -_eza_), _sebissa_, etc., probably show -_īcia_ for
    -_ĭtia_. For _dit_ = _dĭgĭtum_ see § 65, Y, 1.

    (_b_) In many learned words Latin ĭ is represented by i in
    Provençal: _albir_, _martire_, _edifici_, _iuzizi_, _servizi_,
    _vici_, etc.; _iusticia_, _leticia_, _tristicia_, etc.
    _Aurilha_ (also ẹ) < _aurĭcula_, _cilh_, (also _cieilh_,
    _sobreselhs_) < _cĭlium_, _issilh_ < _exĭlium_, _familha_ <
    _famĭlia_, _maístre_ (also maẹstre maiẹstre) < _magĭstrum_,
    _meravilha_ (also ẹ) < _mirabĭlia_, _perilh_ < _perĭculum_,
    etc., are probably learned forms. _Máistre_ and _mestre_ are

    (_c_) _Ciri_ (_cere_) = _cēreum_, _iure_ (cf. _ebriac_)
    = _ēbrium_ (or ✱_ĕbrium_), _marquis_ (ẹ), _merci_ (ẹ),
    _país_ (ẹ) = ✱_pagēnsem_, _plazir_ (ẹ), _pris_ (ẹ), etc.,
    are French.[15] For a discussion of _iure_ and a different
    explanation of _ciri_, see P. Savj-Lopez, _Dell’ “Umlaut”
    provenzale_, 1902, p. 4.

    (_d_) _Ins_ (also _entz_) < _ĭntus_, _dins_ (also _dens_) < _de
    ĭntus_, _dintre_ (cf. _en_, _entre_) < _de ĭnter_ have not
    been satisfactorily explained. Regular forms with ẹ are found
    in Béarn, Gascony, Dauphiné, and the Alps.

    (_e_) Individual cases: _tapit_ < ταπήτιον shows the modern
    pronunciation of Greek η; _verin_ = _venēnum_ is an example of
    substitution of suffix.

    3. _Arnei_, _fei_, _mei_ = _me_, _palafrei_, _perquei_, _sei_ =
    _se_ are French or Poitevin forms; they are common in William
    of Poitiers. _Mercey_, _rey_ = _re_, used by Marcabru, seem to
    be due either to an imitation of such forms as the preceding or
    to the analogy of _crei_ _cre_ < _crēdo_. Cf. § 65, N, 3.

    4. _Contránher_ seems to be a fusion of _constrĭngere_ and
    _contrahere_; _vendanha_ < _vindēmia_ shows French influence.

26. An ẹ in hiatus became i: _lĭgat_ > lia, _vĭa_ > via.

27. When there was in the next syllable a final ī, V. L. ẹ was changed
in Provençal to i: _ecc’ĭllī_ > cilh, _ecc’ĭstī_ > cist, _fēcī_ > fis,
✱_prēsī_ > pris, ✱_vēnuī_ > vinc, _vigĭntī_ ✱_vĭntī_ > vint.

    1. In the nominative plural of masculine nouns and adjectives
    this change was regularly prevented by the analogy of the
    singular and the accusative plural: _mĭssī_ > _mes_, _plēnī_ >
    _plen_. We find, however, _cabil_ < _capĭllī_.

    2. _Dec_ for ✱_dic_ < _dēbuī_ seems to have been attracted
    by the _dec_ < _dēbuit_ of the third person. _Venguest_ for
    _venguist_ < ✱_venuĭstī_ is due both to the influence of the
    plural forms _venguem_, _venguetz_ and to the analogy of the
    weak preterits, such as _cantest_, _vendest_.


28. Cl. L. ĕ, æ > V. L. ę > Pr. ę: _infĕrnum_ > enfęrn, _fĕrrum_ > fęr,
_pĕdem_ > pę; _cælum_ > cęl, _quærit_ > quęr.

    1. Such forms as _glisia_, _lire_, _pire_, _pis_, _profit_
    are French. _Profich_ may be a cross between _profieg_ and
    _profit_, or it may be due to the analogy of _dich_.

    2. _Cossint_, _mint_, _sint_, used by Arnaut Daniel, are
    perhaps faulty rhymes.

    3. _Auzil_ < _avicĕllī_, in the _Boeci_, may be due to the
    analogy of such plural forms as _cabil_ < _capĭllī_, _il_ <
    _ĭllī_, etc. _Briu_, sometimes used for _breu_ < _brĕvem_,
    is evidently connected with _abrivar_, ‘hasten,’ the origin
    of which is uncertain. _Elig_ shows the influence either
    of _eligir_ (beside _elegir_) or of _dig_. _Ginh_ = _genh_
    < _ingĕnium_ evidently follows _ginhos_ < _ingeniōsus_ and
    its derivatives. _Isme_ (_esme_) is a post-verbal noun from
    ✱_ismar_ (cf. _azismamen_), a dialect form of _esmar_ <
    _æstimare_. _Quis_ < ✱_quæsi_, _tinc_ < _tĕnui_ are due to the
    analogy of _pris_ < ✱_prēsī_, _vinc_ < ✱_vēnuī_.

    4. Beside nęula < _nĕbula_, we find _nebla_, _neble_,
    presumably from the same source, and also _nible_, _niól_,
    _nióla_, _niúl_, _niúla_, _nivól_. According to Nigra,
    _Archivio glottologico italiano_, XV, 494, _nūbes_ > _nūbĭlus_
    > ✱_nĭbŭlus_ (and ✱_nĭbūlus_?), whence might be derived
    ✱_níŭlus_ ✱_niúlus_, which would account for _niól-a_,
    _niúl-a_, and perhaps for a ✱_nívol_ > _nivól_. _Nible_ might
    be regarded as a cross between _neble_ and _niul_. Cf. § 38, 3.

    5. In ẹs < _ĕst_ the ẹ probably comes from such combinations
    as mẹ’s, quẹ’s, understood as m’ẹs, qu’ẹs. Espẹlh <
    _spĕculum_ shows the influence of cossẹlh, solẹlh. Estẹla
    presupposes a Latin ✱_stēla_ or ✱_stēlla_ for stĕlla: cf. the
    Fr. and It.

    6. _Plais_, ‘hedge’ seems to be a cross between _plĕxus_ and
    _paxillus_, ‘fence.’ _Vianda_ (< _vivenda_?) is probably French.

    7. _Volon_ < _volentem_ shows the influence of the ending

    8. _Greuga_ < _con-gregar_ has been influenced by _greu_ <
    ✱_grĕvem_ = _gravem_ influenced by _lĕvem_. Cf. _grey_ <

29. Before a nasal, in most of the dialects of Limousin, Languedoc, and
Gascony, ę became ẹ: _bĕne_ > bẹn, _dicĕntem_ > dizẹn, _tĕmpus_ >
tẹms, _tĕnet_ > tẹn, _vĕniam_ > vẹnha, _vĕntum_ > vẹnt.

30. Early in the history of Provençal, before u, i, or one of the
palatal consonants l´, r´, s´, z´, y, tš, dž, an ę broke into ię,
except in a few dialects of the west and north: _dĕus_ > dięus,
_mĕum_ > mięu; _amāvi_ > ✱_amai_ > amęi amięi,[16] ✱_fĕria_ > fięira,
✱_ec(c)lĕsia_? (Cf. _Zs._, XXV, 344) > glięiza, _lĕctum_ > lięit,
_pĕjus_ > pięis; _vĕtŭlum_ _vĕclum_ > vięlh, _ministĕrium_ > mestięr,
✱_ec(c)lĕsia_? > glięza, _mĕdia_ > mięia, _lĕctum_ > lięg. There seems
to be also, at least in some dialects, a tendency to break the ę before
a g or a k: _lĕgunt_ > lięgon; ✱_sĕquit_ > sęc sięc, subjunctive
sięgas (sęga), but infinitive sęgre < ✱_sĕquere_.[17]

The breaking was probably due to a premature lifting of the tongue
under the influence of a following high vowel or a palatal (or velar)
consonant.[18] Before u it occurred everywhere except in the extreme
west; before palatals the ę apparently remained intact both in the
extreme west and in Quercy, Rouergue, Auvergne, and Dauphiné. At first,
no doubt, the diphthong was less marked than it became in the 12th and
13th centuries. It is not indicated in our oldest text, the _Boeci_
(_breu_, _deu_, _eu_, _mei_, _meler_, _vel_)[19], and it frequently
remains unexpressed even in the writings of the literary period.

It is to be noted that ę does not break before u < l nor before i < ð:
_bĕllus_ > bęls > bęus, _pĕtra_ > ✱pęðra > pęira, _Pĕtrum_ > ✱Pęðre >
Pęire, _rĕtro_ > ✱ręðre > ręire[20]. The breaking must, therefore, have
occurred before these developments of l and ð, both of which apparently
antedate the _Boeci_: cf. _euz_ = _els_, v. 139; _eu_ = _el_, v. 155;
_Teiric_ < ✱_Teðric_ < _Theodorīcum_, v. 44, etc. On the other hand,
there is no diphthong before ts, dz, s, z coming from Latin c´, cy,
pty, tty, ty: _dĕcem_ > dętz, _pĕttia_ (or _pĕcia_) > pęssa, _nĕptia_
> nęssa, ✱_prĕtiat_ > pręza, _prĕtium_ > prętz[21]. The breaking,
therefore, took place after these consonants had ceased to be palatal.
We may ascribe it with some confidence to the period between the
seventh and tenth centuries.

    1. A number of cases of ię before r are doubtless to be
    explained by analogy. _Hĕri_ > ęr; _autre_ + _er_ > autręr,
    which, through the influence of adjectives in -ęr -ięr, became
    autrięr: hence the form ięr. _Fĕrio_, _mĕreo_ > fięr, mięr;
    hence, by analogy, the first person forms profięr, quięr, then
    the third person forms fięr, mięr, profięr, quięr, sięrf (but
    sęrvon, sęrva), and the subjunctives ofięira, sofię(i)ra.

    2. Ięsc (= _ĕxeo_), ięscon, ięsca receive their diphthong
    either from earlier forms with s´ or from ięis < _ĕxit_.


31. Cl. L. ī > V. L. ị: _amīcum_ > amịc, _fīnem_ > fịn, _trīstem_ >

    1. Frẹg, frẹit are from V. L. ✱_frĭgdum_ = _frīgĭdum_, the ĭ
    being perhaps due to the analogy of _rĭgĭdum_.

32. In the 13th century or earlier the group iu, in most dialects,
became ieu: _captīvum_ > caitiu caitieu, _æstīvum_ > estiu estieu,
_revīvĕre_ > reviure revieure, _sī vās_ > sius sieus.


33. Cl. L. ō, ŭ > V. L. ọ > Pr. ọ, which developed into ụ probably
during the literary period: _dolōrem_ > dolọr, _spōnsa_ > espọsa,
_flōrem_ > flọr; _bŭcca_ > bọca, _gŭla_ > gọla.

    1. An irregular ǫ, which is found in some words, goes back
    to Vulgar Latin: cǫbra = _re-cŭperat_, cǫsta (also ọ) =
    _cōnstat_, nǫra = _nŭra_, ǫu = _ōvum_, plǫia = _plŭvia_,
    redǫbla = ✱_redŭplat_, sǫbra = _sŭperat_, suefre = _sŭffero_.
    V. L. ✱_cŏperat_ may be regarded as a fusion of _cŭperat_
    and ✱_cŏperit_ (§ 40, 1; cf. _Rom._ XXXI, 9); ✱_cŏstat_ is
    unexplained; ✱_nŏra_ shows the influence of _sŏror_ and
    _sŏcĕra_; the _ŏ_ of ✱_ŏvum_ has been explained as due to
    differentiation from the following _v_; ✱_plŏia_ is to be
    connected with the popular _plŏvĕre_ (cf. Meyer-Lübke,
    _Einf._, § 142); ✱_sŏperat_ follows the analogy of ✱_cŏperat_;
    ✱_sŏffero_ evidently follows _ŏffero_. Redǫbla (also ọ) is
    not accounted for. If trǫba has anything to do with _tŭrbat_,
    it was perhaps influenced by _prŏbat_ (cf. _Zs._, XXVIII, 50).
    Engǫissa < V. L. ✱_angŏstia_ = _angŭstia_. See A. Thomas,
    _Nouveaux essais de philologie française_, 1904, 339.

    2. Some words have ü: iüs (also iọs) < _deōrsum_ shows the
    influence of süs < _sūrsum_; lür (usually lọr) < _illōrum_
    (cf. _lur_ in the dialects of Navarre and Aragon) comes through
    an ✱_illūrum_ due to the analogy of _illūi_ = _illi_; melhüra
    (ọ), peiüra (ọ) perhaps follow aüra < ✱_a(u)gūrat_; rancüra
    is a mixture of _rancōrem_ and _cūra_; üis is from V. L.
    _ūstium_ = _ōstium_ (cf. _Zs._, XXV, 355); üpa < _ŭpŭpa_ is due
    to onomatopœia.

    3. The adverbs _ar_, _ara_, _er_, _era_, _eras_, meaning ‘now,’
    are hardly to be connected with _hōra_. Meyer-Lübke takes
    _era_, etc., from a Latin ✱_era_ corresponding to Greek άρα;
    _ara_, _ar_ may come directly from άρα, άρ: cf. _Gr._, III,
    552, note.

    4. _Tonleu_, ‘tariff,’ from τελώνιον, shows double metathesis.
    For _adoutz_, ‘fount,’ see A. Thomas, _Essais de philologie
    française_, 1897, 205.

34. Before tš, dž (and it, id), before n´, and before final i, an ọ
becomes ü in various dialects: _cōgĭtat_ > cüia cüida, ✱_stŭdiat_ >
estüia, _fŭgit_ > füg, _refŭgium_ > refüg; _jŭngĕre_ > iünher, _ŭngĕre_
> ünher, _pŭgnum_ > pünh; _dŭī_ > düi, _sŭm_ > sọ + i > süi. The ü
before tš, dž apparently occurs everywhere except in Dauphiné; before
n´ it is to be found in nearly all the dialects of the north and west;
before final i it seems to be limited to Bordeaux, Auvergne, and a part
of Languedoc.


35. Cl. L. ŏ > V. L. ǫ > Pr. ǫ: _cŏr_ > cǫr, _cŏrpus_ > cǫrs, _mŏrtem_
> mǫrt, _ŏpĕra_ > ǫbra, _rŏta_ > rǫda.

    1. For demọra (also ǫ) < ✱demŏrat, see Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._,
    I, 204, § 220. For prọa (also prǫa, prueva) < _prŏbat_, see
    _Rom._, XXXI, 10, footnote 3.

36. Before a nasal, in most of the dialects of Limousin, Languedoc,
and Gascony, ǫ became ọ: _bŏnum_ > bọn, _fŏntem_ > fọnt, _pŏntem_
> pọnt. Cf. E. Levy in _Mélanges de philologie romane dédiés à Carl
Wahlund_, 1896, p. 207.

    1. If the nasal was n´, the vowel remained open in most or all
    of these dialects: _cŏgnĭta_ > _coinda_ _cuenda_ _cuenhda_,
    _lŏnge_ > _lonh_ _luenh_, _sŏmnium_ > _sonh_ _suenh_.

37. Early in the history of Provençal, before u, a labial consonant, a
g or a k, an i, or one of the palatal consonants l´, n´, r´, s´, z´, y,
tš, dž, an ǫ broke, in most dialects, into a diphthong which developed
into ue, üo, üe, or ü[22]: _bŏvem_ > bǫu büọu büeu, ✱_ŏvum_ > ǫu üou
üeu, _nŏvus_ > nǫus nüous nüeus; ✱_cŏpero_ > cǫbri cüebre[23], _nŏva_
> nǫva nüeva, _ŏpus_ > ǫps üops, _prŏbat_ > prǫa prüeva, ✱_trŏpo_? >
trǫp trüeb; _cŏquus_ > cǫcs cüocs cüex, _fŏcum_ > fǫc füoc füec füc,
_crŏcus_ > grǫcs grüocs grüecs, _jŏcum_ > iǫc iüoc iüec iüc, _lŏcus_
> lǫcs lüocs lüecs, _lŏcat_ > lüoga, _pŏtui_ > püec, _sŏc(ĕ)rum_
> (sǫzer) sǫgre süegre (fem. süegra); ✱_ingrŏssiat_ > engrǫissa
engrüeissa, ✱_angŏstia_ > engǫissa engüeissa, _nŏctem_ > nǫit nüoit
nüeit, _ŏcto_ > ǫit üeit, _pŏstea_ > pǫissas püeissas, _prŏximus_ >
prǫymes prüeymes; _fŏlia_ > fǫlha füolha füelha fülha, _ŏcŭlus_ _ŏclus_
> ǫlhs üolhs üelhs ülhs, _lŏnge_ > lǫnh lüenh, _sŏmnium_ > sǫnh süenh,
_cŏrium_ > cǫr cüer, _pŏstea_ > pües, _prŏximum_ > prǫsme prüesme,
✱_plŏia_ > plǫia plüeia plüia, ✱_inŏdiat_ > enǫia enüeia enüia,
✱_pŏdiat_ > pǫia püeia püia, _nŏctem_ > nüoch nüech nüh, _ŏcto_ > üeg.

The breaking was probably due to a premature lifting of the tongue
under the influence of a following high vowel or a palatal or
velar consonant, or to a premature partial closure of the lips
in anticipation of a following labial. Before i or a palatal the
diphthong was at the start presumably üo; before u or a labial or velar
consonant, uo: from these two types, the first of which influenced the
second, came the later developments. Ü is a reduction of üo or üe; it
apparently does not occur before u.

The dialect conditions are mixed, the development in each region
depending somewhat on the following sound. In the southwest, ǫ and ue
seem to prevail; in the northwest, ü; in the west, in Limousin, and in
Auvergne, üe; in Languedoc, üo; in the east and south, üe, üo, ǫ.

The date of breaking is discussed in § 30.

    1. In some words where a diphthong would be expected, none
    is found, although it may have existed: mǫu < _mŏvet_, nǫu <
    _nŏvem_, plǫu < ✱_plŏvit_; trǫp < _þrop_; brǫcs < ✱_brŏccus_,
    iǫgon < _jŏcunt_, lǫgui < _lŏco_. The form püoc or püec <
    _pŏtui_ is regularly reserved for the first person, _pŏtuit_
    being represented by pǫc.

    2. A few cases of irregular breaking are easily explained:
    püosc püesc (= _pŏssum_) and püosca püesca (= _pŏssim_) owe
    their diphthong either to earlier forms with s´ or to the
    analogy of püec; sǫfre süefre süfre (= _sŭffert_) are from
    ✱_sŏfferit_, formed upon ✱_ŏfferit_ = _ŏffert_ (cf. § 33, 1);
    vüelc (= _vŏlui_) follows the analogy of vüelh (< ✱_vŏleo_ =
    _vŏlo_) and of püec.


38. Cl. L. ū > V. L. ụ > Pr. ü: ✱_habūtus_ > avütz, _jūstum_ > iüst,
_mūrum_ > mür, _mūtus_ > mütz, _nūdus_ > nütz, _plūs_ > plüs.

The date of the change of ụ into ü is not known; there is no ü in
Catalan, and there may have been none in early Gascon. It seems likely
that the Celts, when they adopted Latin, pronounced ū a little further
forward in the mouth than did the Romans; that their ụ continued to
advance gradually toward the front of the mouth until it became ü; and
that this ü spread to the parts of France that were not originally
Celtic.[24] In the literary period the sound was probably ü in most or
all of the Provençal dialects.

    1. Pr. ọnze represents a V. L. ✱_ŭndĕcim_, which in Gaul and
    Spain replaced _ūndĕcim_. Lọita lücha, trọcha trücha probably
    go back to Latin double forms, ✱_lŭcta lūcta_, ✱_trŭcta trūcta_.

    2. Nǫssas < ✱_nŏptias_ = _nūptias_, by analogy of ✱_nŏvius_,
    ‘bridegroom,’ from _nŏvus_.

    3. Before u, Pr. ü apparently became i: _nūbem_ > ✱nüu > niu,
    _pūlĭcem_ > ✱püuze > piuze. See §§ 63, (4); 74, (2).


39. Cl. L. au > V. L. au > Pr. au: _aurum_ > aur, _gaudium_ > gaug,
_paucum_ > pauc, _thesaurus_ > tesaurs.

    1. _Bloi_ < _blauþr_, _ioi_, _ioia_, _ioios_, _lotia_ <
    ✱_laubja_, _noiza_, _onta_ < _hauniþa_, _or_, _sor_, _tesor_,
    etc., are French or Poitevin; _ioi_ is a good Poitevin form.
    _Iai_, ‘joy,’ seems to be a fusion of _ioi_ and Pr. _iai_ =

    2. _Anta_ < _hauniþa_ is unexplained.


40. (1) The fate of an unaccented vowel depended largely upon the
syllable in which it stood: in general, unstressed vowels in the
initial syllable remained intact, while all vowels, except a, fell (at
different dates) in the other syllables. The fall of unaccented vowels
resulted in many new consonant groups: _collocáre_ > colcár, _hóminem_
> ómne, _sábbatum_ > sápte.

(2) The vowels e̯ and i̯, instead of falling or remaining unchanged,
became y in Vulgar Latin, early in our era: _alea_ > alya, _diŭrnus_ >
dyųrnus, _mĕdium_ > mędyu. Similarly u̯ became w: _placui_ > placwi,
_tĕnuis_ > tęnwis.

    1. Apparently, however, e̯é, i̯é > e; o̯ó, u̯ó > o:
    _prĕhĕndĕre_ > _prĕndĕre_; _abĭĕtem_ > ✱_abētem_, _facĭēbat_
    > ✱_facēbat_, _parĭĕtem_ > _parētem_, _quĭētus_ > _quētus_;
    _cŏhŏrtem_ > _cōrtem_, _cŏŏpĕrit_ > _cōpĕrit_ ✱_cŏpĕrit_;
    _dŭŏdĕcim_ > ✱_dōdĕcim_. The short e and o in _prĕndĕre_ and
    ✱_cŏpĕrit_ are not accounted for. In _mulĭĕrem_[25] > Pr.
    molhęr the i̯ remained long enough (perhaps under the influence
    of the nominative _mŭlier_) to palatalize the l.


41. Usually, in the literary language, Latin a > Pr. a; Latin æ, œ, and
e, i (without regard to quantity) > Pr. e; Latin o, u (long or short)
> Pr. o; Lat. au > Pr. au, unless the next syllable contained an ú, in
which case the au was reduced (in the Vulgar Latin time) to a. Ex.:
_amīcum_ > amic, _caballus_ > cavals; _æquālem_ > egal, ✱_pœnĭtĕre_
> penẹdre, _dēbēre_ > devẹr, _mĕliōrem_ > melhọr, _dīlĕctum_ >
delęit, _dīvīnum_ > devin, _dīvīdĕre_ > devire, _fīnīre_ > fenir,
_mĭnōrem_ > menọr; _plōrāre_ > plorar, _sōlātium_ > solatz, _cŏlōrem_
> colọr, ✱_vŏlēre_ > volẹr, _mūstēla_ > mostẹla, _sŭbĭnde_ > sovẹn;
_aucĕllum_ > auzęl, _audīre_ > auzir, _augŭstum_ > aọst, ✱_augūrium_ >

    1. An initial vowel is occasionally lost, either through
    elision with the article (✱_eclĕsia_ > ✱eglęisa, la eglęisa >
    la glęisa) or through the dropping of a prefix (_ingĕnium_ >
    engẹnh gẹnh): _epĭscŏpus_ > _bisbes_, _alauda_ > _lauzeta_,
    _occasiōnem_ > _ocaiso_ _caiso_.

    2. In a few words the vowel of the initial syllable
    disappeared, for some unknown reason, before r in Vulgar
    Latin: ✱_cŏrrŏtŭlāre_ > ✱_crŏtŭlāre_ > _crollar_, _dīrēctus_ >
    _drēctus_[26] > _dreitz_, _quĭrītāre_ > ✱_crītāre_ > _cridar_.

    3. _Domne_, used familiarly as a proclitic (§ 19), lost its
    first syllable, and, before a vowel, was reduced to _n_. The
    combinations _de n_, _que n_ (followed by a proper name) were
    understood as _d’en_, _qu’en_; hence the title _en_, ‘Sir.’
    See Schultz-Gora in _Zs._, XXVI, 588; Elise Richter in _Zs._,
    XXVII, 193; V. Cescini, _Manualetto provenzale_, 2d ed., 1905,
    168 ff.

    4. The proclitic ọ probably comes from a V. L. _ot_, not from

42. The vowel of the initial syllable, especially in verbs, was
extremely subject to the influence of analogy: cülhir (ǫ) through
cülh (ǫ) < _cŏllĭgit_, dizẹn < _dīcĕntem_ through dire < _dīcĕre_,
dürar through dür < _dūrum_ and düra < _dūrat_, finir through fin <
_fīnem_, fivęla through fibla < _fībula_, puęiar (ǫ) through puęia (ǫ)
< ✱_pŏdiat_.

    1. Avangęli (e) is perhaps influenced by _avan_; blisọ (e) <
    _blas_ may possibly have been influenced by _tiso_; gazardọ
    < _wiðarlôn_ shows the influence of _gazanhar_; in piucęla
    (pülcęla) < ✱_pūellicĕlla_ (_Zs._, XXV, 343) the püu of the
    first syllable was changed to piu just as _pūlĭcem_ became
    _piuze_ (see § 38, 3); in _vas_ = _ves_ < _ve(r)sus_ the a
    is due to the analogy of _az_ < _ad_; _vais_ is unexplained,
    _vaus_ follows _daus_ (§ 44, 6). If dessẹ is from _de exín_,
    the first syllable is irregular. Beside _maniar_ < _manducare_
    are unexplained forms _meniar miniar_. In _duptar_ (_o_),
    _suritz_ (_o_) the _u_ doubtless represents ụ or ọ, not ü.
    _Girofle_ < Καρυόφυλλον and _olifan orifan_ < _elephantem_ are

43. Sometimes the initial syllable was altered by a change of prefix
or a false idea of etymology: aucire < _occīdĕre_ (cf. the Italian and
Rumanian forms), diman (e) < _de máne_ (cf. di < _dīem_), dementre
< _dum ĭntĕrim_ (cf. de < _de_), engǫissa < ✱_angŭstia_ (cf. en <
_in_), envanezir < _evanēscĕre_, escür < _obscūrum_ (cf. es- < _ex_-),
preọn prefọn (o) < _profŭndum_, redọn < _rotŭndum_ (_re-_ in V.
L.: Schuchardt, _Vokalismus des Vulgärlateins_, II, 213), trabalh <
_trepalium_ (cf. tra- < _tra-_ = _trans-_). _Dimenge_ (also _ditmenge_)
is from _dīe domĭnĭco_.

    1. On the same principle are doubtless to be explained such
    double forms as _evori_ (_a_), _saboros_ (_e_), _socors_ (_e_),
    _somondre_ (_e_), _soror_ (_e_). _Serori_ occurs in a Latin

    2. The prefix _eccu-_, under the influence of _ac_ and _atque_,
    became ✱_accu-_ in southern Gaul and elsewhere: _aco_ <
    ✱_accu’hoc_, _aquel_ < ✱_accu’ĭllum_, _aquest_ < ✱_accu’ĭstum_,
    _aqui_ < ✱_accu’hīc_. _Eissi_ < _ecce hīc_ sometimes becomes
    _aissi_ through the analogy of _aissi_ < _ac sīc_.

    3. In such forms as _tresanar_, the prefix _tres-_ is French.

44. Local or partial phonetic changes affected the initial syllable
of many words: demandar (do-) < _demandāre_, emplir (üm-) < _implēre_;
ciutat cieutat < _cīvĭtātem_; eissir issir < _exīre_, getar gitar <
✱_jĕctāre_; crear criar < _creāre_; mercẹ (mar-) < _mercēdem_; delgat
(dal-) < _delicātum_.

    1. Nearly everywhere there is a tendency to change e to o, u,
    or ü before a labial, especially before m: _premier_ _promier_
    _prumier_, _remas_ _romas_, _semblar_ _somblar_, _trebalh_
    _trubalh_. So _de ves_ > ✱_do ves_ > _dous_.

    2. In the 13th century, nearly everywhere, iu > ieu: _piucela_

    3. Many dialects of the north and west change ei and e to i:
    _deissendre_ _dissendre_, _eissam_ _issam_, _eissi_ _issi_,
    _eissilh_ _issilh_, _leisso_ _lisso_, _meitat_ _mitat_;
    _degerir_ (_i_), _denhar_ (_i_), _disnar_, _en_ _in_, _enfern_
    (_i_), _entrar_ (_i_), _envers_ (_i_), _escien_ _icient_,
    proclitic _est_ _ist_, _estar_ (_i_), _estiers_ (_i_), _Felip_
    (_i_), _gelos_ (_i_), _genhos_ (_i_), _genolh_ (_i_), _gequir_
    (_i_), _guereiar_ (_i_), _guerensa_ (_i_), _i(n)vern_, _isnel_
    _irnel_, _peior_ _pigor_, proclitic _per_ _pir_, _premier_
    (_i_), _semblar_ (_i_), _serven_ (_i_), _serventes_ (_i_),
    _sevals_ (_i_), _trebalhar_ (_i_), _tremblar_ (_i_). In
    _disnar_, _ivern_, _isnel_ only i is found. In some dialects
    there is an alternation of e and i, e being used when there
    is an í in the next syllable, i when there is none, _fenít_,
    _sirvén_. In _vezí_ < _vīcīnum_ the e probably goes back to V.
    L.: cf. Fr.

    4. In a few dialects e in hiatus with a following vowel becomes
    i: _crear_ _criar_, _leal_ _lial_, _prear_ _priar_, _preon_
    _prion_, _real_ _rial_.

    5. In many dialects of the north and west e has a tendency to
    become a before r: _guerentia_ _garensa_, _merce_ _marce_,
    _pergamen_ _pargamen_.

    6. In some dialects there is a tendency to assimilate e to an
    á in the next syllable: _delgat_ _dalgat_, _gigant_ _iaian_,
    _deman_ (_a_), _semblar_ (_a_), _serrar_ (_a_), _tremblar_
    (_a_). So _de vás_ (§ 42, 1) > _da vás_ > _dávas_; hence
    _daus_, under the influence of _deus_ > _de ves_.


45. The term _intertonic_ is applied to the syllable that follows
the secondary (§ 18) and precedes the primary accent. In this
position all vowels, except a, regularly disappeared in popular
words, probably between the 5th and the 8th century[27]; a apparently
remained: ✱_bŭllĭcāre_ > boiar (bollegar), _bŏnĭtātem_ > bontat,
✱_carrĭcāre_ > carcar cargar, _caballĭcāre_ > cavalcar cavalgar,
_cĕrĕbĕllum_ > cervęl, _cīvĭtātem_ > ciutat, _cŏllŏcāre_ > colcar
colgar, _dēlĭcātum_ > delcat delgat, _excommūnĭcāre_ ✱_excommĭnĭcāre_
> escomeniar, _vĕrēcŭndia_ > vergọnha; _calamĕllum_ > calamęl,
_invadĕre_ ✱_invadīre_ > envazir, _margarīta_ > margarida, _mīrabĭlia_
> miravilha, _parav(e)rēdus_ > palafrẹs.

    1. The vowel is preserved in a number of words in which it
    originally bore the secondary accent (§ 18): _abbréviáre_ >
    _abreuiar_, _calúmniáre_ > _caloniar_, ✱_eríciónem_ > _erisso_;
    on the other hand, ✱_cominítiáre_ (through ✱_comín’tiáre_) >
    _comensar_, _partítiónem_ (through ✱_pártiónem_) > _parso_.
    Cf. _Zs._, XXVII, 576, 684, 693, 698, 701, 704. When kept,
    the vowel is sometimes altered: ✱_carōnea_ ✱_caróneáta_
    > _caraunhada_, ✱_cupídietósus_ > _cobeitos_ _cobitos_,
    _papíliónem_ > _pabalho_.

    2. The prefix _mĭnus-_ was reduced to _mis-_ (or _mes-_)
    in Gaul, perhaps at the close of the Vulgar Latin period:
    ✱_mínus-prétiat_ > _mespreza_. _Menes-_ was used also. Cf. P.
    Marchot, _Phon._, pp. 43, 44.

    3. _Mostier_ is from ✱_monistĕrium_, altered, by the influence
    of _ministĕrium_, from _monastērium_. _Comprar_ is from V. L.
    _comperare_. _Calmelh_ _calmelha_ (cf. _calamel_ above) are
    Provençal formations from _calm_. _Caresma_ or _caresme_ seems
    to be from V. L. ✱_quarrēsĭma_ = _quadragēsĭma_. _Anedier_ <
    _anatarium_ shows the influence of _anét_ _ánet_ < _anătem_ (§
    48, 1).

    4. In learned words the vowel is generally preserved:
    _irregulár_, _irritár_, _pelicán_, _philozophía_. The vowel
    is, however, often altered, the exchange of e and i being
    particularly frequent: _esperít_, _femeníl_, _orifán_,
    _peligrí_ (_e_), _soteirán_ (_sotrán_) < _subterraneum_
    influenced by _dereirán_ and _primeirán_.

46. Very often the intertonic vowel was preserved by the analogy
of some cognate word or form in which that vowel was stressed:
dev_i_nár through _devín_, fin_i_mén through _finír_, guerr_e_iár
through _guerréia_, noir_i_dúra through _noirír_, obl_i_dár through
_oblít_, pert_u_sár through _pertúsa_, re_u_sar through _reúsa_,
serv_i_dór through _servíre_.

1. In such cases the preserved vowel is sometimes altered, the exchange
of e and i being especially common: _avinén_, _covinén_, _sovinénsa_,
cf. _venír_, _ven_; _enginhár_, _enginhós_, cf. _genh_; _envelzír_,
cf. _vil_; _gememén_, cf. _gemír_; _issarnít_ (_eissernít_), from
_excĕrnĕre_; _randóla_, from _hirŭndŭla_, perhaps influenced by
_randón_; _temerós_ (_o_), from ✱_timorōsus_, influenced by _temér_;
_traazó_ (_i_), from _traditiōnem_, with a substitution of suffix;
_volentiérs_, from _voluntarius_, under the influence of _volén_ <


47. (1) The vowel of the penult of proparoxytones fell in many words in
Vulgar Latin, especially between a labial and another consonant, and
between two consonants one of which was a liquid: ✱_avĭca_ > ✱_auca_,
_cŏm(i)tem_, _cŏmp(u)tum_, _dēb(i)tum_, _dŏm(i)nus_[29]; _alt(e)ra_,
_vĭg(i)lat_, _cal(i)dus_, _vĭr(i)dem_; _frig(i)dus_, _nĭtĭdus_ >
✱_nĭttus_, _pŏs(i)tus_, _pūtĭdus_ > ✱_pūttus_.

(2) The classic Latin _-culus_ comprises an original _-clus_ (_sæclum_)
and an original _-culus_ (_aurĭcŭla_). In popular Latin both were
_-clus_ (✱_macla_, _ŏclus_, etc.), to which was assimilated _-tŭlus_ in
current words (_vĕtŭlus_ > _vĕclus_, etc.).

(3) Many popular words which in Vulgar Latin had very generally lost
the vowel were for some reason introduced into southern Gaul in their
classical forms, and not a few were adopted both in the uncontracted
and in the syncopated state: _fragĭlem_ > frágel (cf. Fr. _fraile_, It.
_frale_), _jŭvĕnem_ > iọve (cf. Fr. _iuevne_); _clĕrĭcum_ > clęrgue
_clĕr’cum_ > clęrc, _dēbĭtum_ > dẹute _dēb’tum_ > dẹpte, _flēbĭlem_ >
frẹvol _flēb’lem_ > frẹble, _mal’habĭtum_ > malaute _mal’hab’tum_ >
malapte, _nĭtĭdum_ > nẹde ✱_nĭttum_ > nẹt, _hŏmĭnem_ > ome _hŏm’nem_
> omne, _pŏpŭlum_ > pǫbol _pŏp’lum_ > pǫble.

    1. _Cŏgnĭtum_ seems to have become ✱_cónhede_, whence _coinde_
    _cuende_ _conge_. Cf. § 79, Gnd, Gnt.

48. The unaccented penult vowels that had not already fallen
disappeared, in most cases, in the transition from Latin to Provençal:
✱_carrĭcat_ > carca, _cŏllŏcat_ > cǫlca, _cŭrrĕre_ > cọrre, _spathŭla_
> espatla, ✱_ĕssĕre_ (= _ĕsse_) > ęstre, _ī(n)sŭla_ isla, _pĕssĭmum_ >
pęsme, _pōnĕre_ > pọnre, ✱_rīdĕre_ > rire, _tabŭla_ > taula, _tŏllĕre_
> tǫlre.

    1. A apparently was more tenacious than other vowels, and
    frequently remained as an indistinct e: _anătem_ > ánet,
    which, being associated with the diminutive ending _-ét_,
    became anét (cf. modern Pr. _anèdo_); _cannăbim_ > cánebe
    (learned?); _cŏlăphum_ > ✱cólebe > cǫlbe, but _cŏl’phum_ >
    cǫlp; _Stĕphănum_ > Estęve; _lampăda_ > lámpeza; _ŏrgănum_ >
    órguene (later orguéne) órgue; _ŏrphănum_ > ǫrfe; _raphănum_ >
    ráfe; _Rhŏdănum_ > Rǫzer; ✱_sēcăle_ (= _sĕcāle_) > séguel (but
    cf. modern _segle_ _selho_). Cf. A. Thomas in the _Journal des
    savants_, June, 1901, p. 370. See also P. Marchot, _Phon._,
    pp. 90-94. Cf. § 45, footnote. It is noteworthy that ✱cólebe
    ultimately lost its penult, while the other words lost the
    final syllable or none.

49. Under certain conditions, however, a vowel which had not fallen
in the Latin of southern Gaul was often kept in Provençal. It was
then probably indistinct in sound, and was written usually _e_, but
occasionally _o_.

(1) After c´, g´, or y the vowel was apparently retained in some
dialects and lost in others. When the c´, g´, or y was intervocalic,
forms with and without the vowel are about equally common; when the c´,
g´, or y was preceded by a consonant, forms with the vowel predominate,
and after cons. + c´ the vowel was apparently never lost. After
intervocalic c´: _cŏcĕre_ (= _cŏquĕre_) > cǫire cǫzer, _dīcĕre_ > dire
dízer, _dūcĕre_ > düire ✱düzer (condücir dedüzir), _facĕre_ > faire
✱fázer (fazedọr, etc.), _gracĭlem_ > graile, ✱_nŏcĕre_ (= _nŏcēre_)
> nǫire nǫzer, _placĭtum_ > plach, _sŏcĕrum_ > sǫzer (sǫgre is from
_sŏcrum_), ✱_vŏcĭtum_ (= _vacuum_) > vuech. After intervocalic g´ or y:
_bajŭlus_ > bailes, _fragĭlem_ > frágel, _imagĭnem_ > imáge, _lĕgĕre_
> lęire legír (through ✱lęger?), _rĭgĭdum_ > rẹide rẹge, _rĭgĭda_ >
rẹgeza, ✱_tragĕre_ (= _trahĕre_) > traire tragír (through ✱tráger?).
After cons. + c´: _carcer_ > cárcer, _crēscĕre_ > crẹisser, _nascĕre_
> náisser, _pascĕre_ > páisser, _parcĕre_ > párcer, ✱_tŏrcĕre_ (=
_tŏrquēre_) > tǫrzer. After cons. + g´ or y: _angĕlum_ > ángel
(learned?), ✱_cŏll’gĕre_ (= _cŏllĭgĕre_, through _cŏllĭgo_ etc.) >
cǫlre cuelher colhír, ✱_dē-ēr’gĕre_ (= _ērĭgĕre_) > dẹrdre dẹrzer,
✱_fŭlgĕrem_ (from _fŭlger_ = _fŭlgur_) > fọuzer, _jŭngĕre_ > iọnher,
_margĭnem_ > marge, _plangĕre_> planher, _vĭrgĭnem_ > vẹrgena vẹrge.

(2) After ks, s, ss, and sy the vowel was apparently retained in some
dialects and lost in others: _dīxĕrunt_ > diron dissęron (through
✱dísseron)[30], _dūxĕrunt_ > düystrent düissęron (✱dúisseron),
_fraxĭnum_ > fraisne fraisse, _traxĕrunt_ > traissęron (✱tráisseron),
_tŏxĭcum_ > tuęissec; _asĭnum_ > asne ase, _mĭsĕrum_ > miser (learned),
✱_prē(n)sĕrunt_ > prẹson prezęron (✱prẹzeron), _rema(n)sĕrunt_ >
remastrent remasęron (✱remáseron); ✱_ĕssĕre_ (= _ĕsse_) > ęstre ęsser
(used in Rouergue, Limousin, Marche, and Dauphiné), ✱_mĭssĕrunt_ (=
_mīsĕrunt_) > mestrunt (mẹsdren) mesęron (✱mẹsseron), _passĕrem_
> pásser; ✱_cō(n)sĕre_ (= _consuĕre_) > coser (cozír is from V. L.

(3) Between a labial and a dental the vowel was apparently kept:
_cŭpĭdum_ > cọbe,[31] _fēmĭna_ > fẹmena fẹme (but _fēm’na_ >
fẹmna), _jŭvĕnem_ > iọve, ✱_lūmĭnem_ > lüme (_lūmen_ > lüm),
_hŏmĭnem_ > ómen óme (but _hŏm’nĕm_ > omne), _tĕpĭdum_ > tębe,[31]
_tĕrmĭnum_ > tęrme. Cf. § 48, 1.

(4) Between a dental and a guttural the vowel remained long enough for
the guttural to become y (§ 52; § 65, G): _mĕdĭcum_ > ✱mędegu > ✱mędeye
> mędže (= _mege_). If the first consonant was a liquid or a nasal, the
vowel apparently allowed the guttural to become y in some dialects, but
not in others: ✱_carrĭcat_ > caria carga, _clĕrĭcum_ > clęrie clęrgue,
_mŏnăchum_ > monie mongue. _Caballĭcat_ > cavalga, _cŏllŏcat_ > cǫlca
cǫlga show an earlier fall. In _clĕr´cum_ > clęrc the fall goes back to
Latin times.

(5) Between lv and r the vowel was kept in some dialects and lost
in others: _sŏlvĕre_ > sǫlver sǫlvre, _vŏlvĕre_ > vǫlver vǫlvre,
_pŭlvĕrem_ > polvęra.

50. Some learned proparoxytones kept for a while both post-tonic vowels
(usually written _e_), but most of them ultimately either shifted
their accent to the penult (§ 17, 1) or dropped their final syllable:
_domĕstĭcum_ > domęstegue, _lacrĭma_ > lágrema, _mĕrĭtum_ > męrite,
_hŏrrĭda_ > ǫreza, _rēgĭmen_ > régeme; _fĭstŭla_ > festóla, _fragĭlem_
> fragíl, _mĕrĭtum_ > merít, _tĕrmĭnum_ > termíni; _diacŏnum_ > diágue,
_flēbĭlem_ > frẹvol (cf. _flēb´lem_ > frẹble), _nĭtĭdum_ > nẹde (cf.
✱_nĭttum_ > nẹt), _ōrdĭnem_ > órde, _pŏpŭlum_ > pǫbol (cf. _pŏp´lum_ >
pǫble), _prīncĭpem_ > príncep prínce. Cf. § 47, (3).


51. As early as the 8th century, in popular words, the vowels of final
syllables fell, the fall occurring first, perhaps, after liquids:
_hĕrĭ_ > ęr, _malĕ_ > mal; _bŏnŭs_ > bos, _cŏlăphŭm_ > cǫlp, _cōgĭto_ >
cüg, _panĕm_ > pan, _prĕtiŭm_ > prętz.

(1) Latin a, however, remained, being generally pronounced ạ: _audiăm_
> auiạ, _bŏnă_ > bonạ, _fīliās_ > filhạs.[32]

(2) Latin final ī probably remained in all dialects later than the
8th century, and in some until the beginning of the literary period:
_hábuī_ > águi > aguí. Before it fell, it changed an accented ẹ in the
preceding syllable to ị: see § 27.

(3) Latin i and u remained if they were immediately preceded by an
accented vowel: _fuī_ > füi, _mĕī_ > męi, _sŭī_ > sọi; _cavum_ ✱_caum_
> chau, _dĕus_ > dęus, _ĕgo_ ✱_ĕo_ ✱_ĕu_ > ęu, _rīvum_ _rīum_ > riu. In
such cases the two vowels formed a diphthong.

(4) Before final nt Latin e, u remained as e, o: _cantent_ > canten,
_vēndunt_ > vẹndon.

    1. In Aude, Tarn, Aveyron, Corrèze, and a part of
    Haute-Garonne, final ī was preserved as late as the 12th
    century: _pagadi_, _salvi_, _soli_. See _Rom._, XIV, 291-2 and
    XXXIV, 362. Such forms occur also in Vaud and Dauphiné. Cf.
    _Gram._, II, p. 82.--In the dialect of some texts, _-ī_, before
    falling, palatalized a preceding l (or ll), n (or nn), nd, nt,
    or t: _annī_ > _anh_, _bellī_ > _beill_, ✱_infantī_ > _efanh_,
    ✱_spiritī_ > _esperih_, _mundī_ > _monh_. See _Rom._, XXXIV,

    2. In the extreme east there are traces of final _-ōs_:
    _aquestos_, _ellos_, _tantos_.

    3. _Grau_ for _gra_ < _gradum_, _niu_ for _ni_ < _nīdum_ are
    Catalan. _Amiu_ for _amic_ < _amīcum_, _chastiu_ for _chastic_
    < _castīgo_ belong to the dialect of Forez, and point to a very
    early fall of the guttural in that dialect. Cf. § 65, D, G.

    4. _Aire_, _vaire_, beside _air_ < _aĕrem_, _vair_ < _varium_,
    probably show the influence of the numerous nouns in _-aire_
    (_amaire_, etc.); cf. § 52, (1). _Fores_ beside _fors_ <
    _fŏris_, _nemes_ beside _nems_ < _nĭmis_, _senes_ beside _sens_
    < _sĭne_ probably developed the _e_ when the next word began
    with a consonant: see § 62, (3). For _colbe_, see § 48, 1.
    _Reide_ _rede_ perhaps owes its -e to _rege_: § 49, (1). Beside
    _volp_ < _vŭlpem_ there is a _volpe_.

    5. _Coma_, beside _com_, _con_, _co_ < _quōmŏ(do)_, apparently
    owes its -a to the analogy of the adverbs _bona_ and _mala_ and
    other adverbs of manner. For a different explanation, see J.
    Vising in the _Tobler Festschrift_ (_Abhandlungen Herrn Prof.
    Dr. Tobler… dargebracht_, 1895), p. 113.

    6. E seems to have been inserted in the second person singular
    of some verbs, to distinguish it from the third person:
    co(g)nōscis > conọisses, _co(g)nōscit_ > conọis.

52. When the fall of the vowel would have resulted in an undesirable
consonant group at the end of a word, the vowel was retained as an
indistinct e: _dŭbĭto_ > dọpte, _lŭcrum_ > lọgre.

The principal groups that call for a supporting vowel are: (1)
a consonant and a liquid; (2) a labial and a dental; (3) in
proparoxytones, a consonant and a c´ or c originally separated by the
vowel of the penult; (4) in proparoxytones, a consonant and an m or n
originally separated by the vowel of the penult. Ex.: _ĭnter_ > ẹntre;
_aptum_ > apte; ✱_dōdĕcim_ > dọtze, _jūdĭco_ > iütge; ✱Jacŏmus >
Iacmes, _asĭnum_ > asne.

If the word was a paroxytone, and the first consonant was a palatal and
the second an r, the supporting vowel stood between the two: _major_ >
maier, _mĕlior_ > męlher, _mŭlier_ > mọlher, _pĕjor_ > pęier, _sĕnior_
> sęnher. Otherwise the supporting vowel followed the consonant group.

The four classes of groups (aside from the palatal + r just mentioned)
will now be examined in detail:--

(1) Examples: _alter_ > autre, _Carŏlus_ > Carles, _dŭplus_ > dọbles,
✱_ĕssĕre_ > ęstre, _fabrum_ > fabre, ✱_mĕr(ŭ)lum_ > męrle, _nŏster_
> nǫstre, _pauper_ > paubre, _pŏp(ŭ)lum_ > pǫble, _pōnĕre_ > pọnre,
_recĭpĕre_ > recẹbre, _rŭmpĕre_ > rọmpre, _tŏllĕre_ > tǫlre,
_vŏlvĕre_ > vǫlvre; _mascŭlum_ > mascle, etc.; _flēb(ĭ)lem_ > frẹble,
etc. Under this head is included r-r (_cŭrrere_ > cọrre, _quærĕre_
> quęrre), but not ll and rr (_bĕllum_ > bęl, _fĕrrum_ > fęr). In
Provençal the first element was often changed, later than the 8th
century, into a vowel, original b and v becoming u, and d, t, c, g,
and y being turned to i: _bĭbĕre_ > bẹure, _scrībĕre_ > escriure,
✱_mŏvĕre_ > mǫure, _plŏvĕre_ > plǫure, _vīvĕre_ > viure; _latro_ >
laire, _matrem_ > maire, _radĕre_ > raire, ✱_rīdĕre_ > rire, _vĭtrum_
> vẹire; _desīdĕro_ > desire, etc.; _amātor_ > amaire, _servītor_ >
servire, etc.; _dīcĕre_ > dire, _dūcĕre_ > düire, _facĕre_ > faire,
_gracĭlem_ > graile, ✱_tacĕre_ > taire; _frīgĕre_ > frire, _weigăro_
gaire, _lĕgĕre_ > lęire; _bajŭlum_ > baile. Apparent exceptions to the
rule are intervocalic cl, gl, which were probably reduced to single
consonants before the 8th century: _ŏc(ŭ)lum_ > ǫlh, _vĭg(ĭ)lo_ >

    1. The rare forms _frair_, _mair_, _pair_, _Peir_ (still
    used in Gascony), beside regular _fraire_, _maire_, _paire_,
    _Peire_, are probably due to proclitic use; so _sor_ beside
    _sorre_ < _sŏror_, and possibly _faur_ beside _faure_ <
    _faber_. The learned _albir_ = _albire_ < _arbĭtrium_ may
    be due to the analogy of other double forms. _Dimerc_ for
    _dimercre_ (§ 17, 2) perhaps follows _dimenc_.

    2. Rr requires a vowel in a few dialects: _corre_ = _cor_
    < _cŭrrit_, _ferre_ = _fer_ < _fĕrrum_, _torre_ = _tor_ <

(2) Examples: _cŭbĭtum_ > cọde; _cŏmĭtem_ > comte; _dēbĭtum_ > dẹpte
dẹute, § 47, (3); _dŏmnum_ > domne; _dŭbĭto_ > dọpte; _hŏspĭtem_ >
ǫste; _sabbătum_ > sapte.

    1. _Azaut_ seems to be post-verbal from _azautar_ < _adaptāre_.
    _Escrit_ < _scrīptum_ shows the influence of _dit_ < _dīctum_.
    _Malaut_, beside _malaute_ _malapte_ < _mal´habĭtum_, is
    reconstructed from the feminine _malauta_ on the model of
    _aut_, _auta_. _Set_ < _sĕptem_ must have developed as a

(3) Examples: _jūdicem_ > iütge[33]; _pŏllĭcem_ > pǫuze; _quīndĕcim_ >
quinze; _salĭcem_ > sauze; _sēdĕcim_ > sẹdze;--_canŏnĭcum_ > canonge
canọrgue,[34] § 49, (4); _clĕrĭcum_ > clęrge clęrgue (§ 48, 2);
_mĕdĭcum_ > mętge; _mŏnăchum_ > monge mongue mǫrgue,[34] § 49, (4);
_vĭndĭco_ > vẹnie; _viatĭcum_ > viatge, etc.

    1. The forms _poutz_, _sautz_, beside _pouse_, _sauze_, would
    seem to indicate that lc´ did not require a supporting vowel in
    all dialects.

    2. ✱_Ficotum_ (= _jēcur_), a fusion of συκωτόν (‘fig-fattened’)
    and _fīcus_, combined with ✱_hēpăte_ (= _hēpar_), became
    ✱fẹ́catu ✱fẹcitu ✱fẹgidu, and then, through the influence of
    the familiar ending -igu (= _ĭcum_), ✱fẹdigu > fẹtge. See G.
    Paris in _Miscellanea linguistica in onore di G. Ascoli_, 1901,
    p. 41; H. Schuchardt in _Zs._, XXV, 615, and XXVIII, 435; L.
    Clédat in _Revue de philologie française et de littérature_,
    XV, 235. _Pege_, for _peich_ < _pĕctus_, seems to be due to the
    analogy of _fetge_.

(4) Examples: _æstĭmo_ > esme; _dĕcĭmum_ > dęsme; _fraxĭnum_ > fraisne;
_incūdĭnem_ > enclütge (cf. § 80, Dn); ✱_metĭpsĭmum_ > medẹsme;
_pĕssĭmum_ > pęsme; _prŏxĭmus_ > prǫsmes.

    1. Faim < _facĭmu(s)_ doubtless lost its -e through the analogy
    of the alternative form fazẹm < ✱_facímu(s)_ and of the usual
    endings -ám, -ẹm.

(5) In some dialects, at least, by, mby, mny, py, rny required a
supporting vowel: _rŭbeum_ > rọtge, _cambio_ > camie, _sŏmnium_ >
songe suenh, _apium_ > ache api, ✱_Arvĕrnium_[35] > Alvęrnhe; ratge (=
_rabiem_) is probably French. Original lm, rm, sm required a supporting
vowel in some dialects but not in others: _hëlm_ > ęlme ęlm, _ŭlmum_ >
ọlme ọlm, _palmum_ > palm; ✱_ĕrmum_ ἔρημον > erm, _fĭrmum_ > fẹrm,
_gĕrmen_ > gęrme; _spasmum_ > espasme.

(6) Many verbs regularly have an -e in the first person singular of
the present indicative: desire, dọpte, iütge, etc. By the analogy of
these, -e often appears in the first person singular of verbs which
need no supporting vowel: _remīro_ > remir remire. By the analogy of
the preterit (águi, füi, etc.), -i is very often substituted for this
-e: azọr azọri, cant canti, prętz pręzi, etc.

53. Many late words preserve the final vowel as _-e_: benigne, bisbe <
_epĭscŏpum_, digne (cf. denhar), mixte (cf. mẹst), regne (cf. reing),
signe (cf. sẹnh). Cf. § 50; (for cǫlbe) § 48, 1; and (for cǫinde,
etc.) § 47, 1. Learned formations from nouns in _-ium_ usually end in
_-i_, simply dropping the _-um_: capitǫli, edifici, empęri, iüzízi,
martíri (martíre), negǫci, ofíci, periüri, remęzi, servízi, vici.
Similar forms in _-i_ were sometimes taken from the accusative of
nouns and adjectives in _-ius_: Boęci < _Boëthium_, prǫpri (prǫpre) <
_prŏprium_, savi < _sabium_.

    1. It should be remembered that the Latin words, at the time
    of their adoption, had undergone various phonetic changes
    in the clerical pronunciation: cf. § 15. A form _remezi_,
    for instance, presupposes a pronunciation of _remĕdium_ as


54. The Latin consonants which we have to consider are: b, c (= k), d,
f, g, h, j (= y), l, m, n, p, qu (= kw), r, s, t, v (= w), x (= ks). To
these we must add the Vulgar Latin w coming from u̯, and y coming from
e̯, i̯: see § 40, (2). Furthermore, in words borrowed from Germanic
dialects we find b, ð, h, k, þ, w, which call for special notice; and,
in words borrowed from Greek, ch, k, ph, th, z.

The Latin d, f, j, l, p, t call for no remark at present. Latin h,
in popular speech, became silent very early (_hŏc_ > _ŏc_, _hŏmo_ >
_ŏmo_), and, although an attempt was made to restore it in polite
speech, it left no trace in the Romance languages: cf. _Rom._, XI, 399.
Double consonants were pronounced distinctly longer than single ones:
_annus_, _ĭlle_, _ŏssum_, _tĕrra_.

55. Latin b, c, g, m, n, qu, r, s, v, w, x, y show the following
developments in popular Latin speech:--

B between vowels became, through failure to close the lips tightly, β
(bilabial v), from the 1st to the 3d century of our era: _habēre_ >
aβẹre. The same change took place, to a certain extent, when the b was
not intervocalic, but we have few, if any, traces of it in Provençal.
Between vowels, even in learned words, the clerical pronunciation was
probably β or v until the 7th century. Cf. V.

C before a front vowel (e, i), as early as the 3d century, doubtless
had, in nearly all the Empire, a front or palatal articulation;
that is, it was formed as close as possible to the following
vowel[36]: _cĕntum_ > c´ĕntu, _dūcĕre_ > dūc´ĕre. The next step was
the introduction of an audible glide, a brief y, between the c´ and
the vowel[37]: c´yęntu, dục´yere. By the 5th century this c´y had
developed into a kind of ty, the c´ having been drawn still further
forward: t´yęntu dụt´yere. Through a modification of the y-glide,
the group then became, in the 6th or 7th century, tš or ts: tšęntu
tsęntu. See H. Schuchardt, _Voc._, I, 151, and _Ltblt._, XIV, 360; P.
E. Guarnerio, in _Supplementi all’ Archivio glottologico italiano_, IV
(1897), pp. 21-51 (cf. _Rom._, XXX, 617); G. Paris, in the _Journal
des savants_, 1900, 359, in the _Annuaire de l’École pratique des
Hautes-Études_, 1893, 7, in the _Comptes rendus des séances de
l’Académie des Inscriptions_, 1893, 81, and in _Rom._, XXXIII, 322;
W. Meyer-Lübke, _Einf._, pp. 123-126; F. G. Mohl, _Zs._, XXVI, 595;
P. Marchot, _Phon._, pp. 51-53; W. Meyer-Lübke, in _Bausteine zur
romanischen Philologie_, 313. Cf. G and X.[38]

G between vowels, before the accent, disappeared in some words in at
least a part of the Empire: _le(g)ālis_, _li(g)āmen_, _re(g)ālis_,
(_realis_ is attested for the 8th century); _ĕgo_, generally used as
a proclitic, everywhere lost its g; on the other hand, g was kept in
_castigāre_, _fatigāre_, _ligāre_, _negāre_, _pagānus_. G before a
front vowel (e, i), by the 1st or 2d century, was pronounced g´ (cf.
C): _gĕntem_ > g´ĕnte, _fragĭlis_ > frag´ĭlis. As early as the 4th
century this g´, through failure to form a close articulation, opened
into y[39]: yęnte, fráyilis. Before an accented e or i an intervocalic
y disappeared, in the greater part of the Empire, being fused with
the vowel: _magĭster_ > mayįster > maẹster, ✱_pagēnsis_ > payẹsis >
paẹsis, _regīna_ > reyịna > reịna.[38]

M and n, when final, were weak and indistinct from the earliest times,
except in monosyllables; by the 3d or 4th century they had probably
disappeared altogether from the end of polysyllables: damnu, nọme; but
jam, non.

N before spirants (f, j, s, v), except in the prefixes _con-_ and
_in-_, became silent during the Republican period, the preceding vowel,
if it was short, being lengthened by compensation[40]: _mē(n)sis_,
_pē(n)sare_. If the syllable _con-_ or _in-_ was not recognized as a
prefix, the n fell: _co(n)sul_, _co(n)ventum_, _i(n)fas_. In learned
and newly constructed words the _n_ was pronounced. Cf. M.

Qu, gu before o or u were reduced to c, g in the 1st or 2d century: see

R before s, in a number of words, became s in the Republican period:
_deōrsum_ > deōssum, _dŏrsum_ > dŏssum, _sūrsum_ > sūssum; so, in a
part of the Empire, _pĕrsĭca_ > pĕssĭca, _vĕrsus_ (preposition) >
vĕssus. Early in our era ss after a long vowel was reduced to s: deōsu,

S was probably always voiceless, or surd, in classic Latin, but became
voiced between vowels, in Gaul, at the end of the Vulgar Latin period:
_casa_. To initial s + consonant an i or e was prefixed, at first, no
doubt, after a word ending in a consonant: _in schŏla_ > in iscŏla;
this process began in the 2d century and had become general by the 4th.

V, originally pronounced w, became β probably in the 1st century:
_vīvĕre_ > βīβĕre. Before u, _v_ regularly disappeared, but it was
restored by analogy in many words: _flavus_ > flaus, _ōvum_ > ŏum,
_rīvus_ > rīus; but also _ŏvum_, _rīvus_, by the analogy of _ova_,
_rivi_. In the greater part of the Empire v apparently fell also before
an accented o: _pavōnem_ > paōne, _pavōrem_ > paōre. Cf. W. When a
β, representing either b or v, became contiguous to a following
consonant, it changed to u: ✱_avĭca_ > aβĭca > auca, _gabăta_ > gaβata
> gauta, ✱_flavĭtat_ > flaβĭtat > flautat. In several words rv became
rb in Latin: _vervēcem_ > berbēce berbīce, _cŏrvus_ > cŏrbus, _cŭrvus_
> cŭrbus.

W coming, in the 2d or 3d century, from u̯ (§ 40) differed from Latin
_v_, then pronounced β, but was probably identical with Germanic _w_:
_dēbuī_ > dẹbwị, _placuī_ > placwị, _sapuit_ > sapwit, _tĕnuis_ >
tęnwis. W fell between a consonant and o or u: _antīquus_ > antịcus,
_battuo_ > batto, _carduus_ > cardus, _cŏquus_ > cǫcus, _distĭnguo_ >
distįngo, _mŏrtuus_ > mǫrtus; so _eccu’hŏc_ > Pr. acǫ. Cf. Qu.

X (= ks) was reduced to s, in the 2d or 3d century, before a consonant
or at the end of a word of more than one syllable: _sĕstus_, _sĕnes_;
but _sĕx_. So the prefix _ex-_ > es- before any consonant but s:
✱_exgaudēre_ > Pr. esiauzir, ✱_exlucēre_ < Pr. esluzir, ✱_exmĭttĕre_
> Pr. esmẹtre; _excernĕre_ > ✱_escernīre_ > Pr. _eissernir_. Ex-
+ s apparently became either ex- or ess-: ✱_exsanguinātum_ > Pr.
eissancnat, ✱_exsaritāre_ > Pr. eissartar, ✱_exsĕquĕre_ > Pr. essęgre,
✱_exsŭrgĕre_ > Pr. essọrger, ✱_exsūcāre_ > Pr. eissügar essügar.

Y coming, in the 2d or 3d century, from e̯ or i̯, (§ 40) coincided with
Latin _j_: _habeam_ > abya, _eāmus_ > yamus, _tĕneat_ > tęnyat; _audio_
> audyo, _fīlia_ > fịlya, _vĕniat_ > vęnyat. As early as the 4th
century the groups dy, gy were reduced to y; and ly, ny probably became
l´, n´: _mĕdius_ > mędyus > męyus, _corrĭgia_ > corrįgya > corrẹya;
_mĕlior_ > męlyor > męl´or, _tĕneo_ > tęnyo > tęn´o.

56. Germanic b, ð, h, k, þ, w call for special mention:--

B did not participate in the change of Latin intervocalic b to β:
_roubôn_ > Pr. raubar. The words containing it were evidently adopted
after this phonetic law had ceased to operate.

ð, þ were pronounced by the Latins as d, t: ✱_waiðanjan_ > ✱_wadanyāre_
> Pr. gazanhar (It. guadagnare), _þrëscan_ > ✱trescāre > Pr. trescar.

H, at the beginning of a word, was lost in the greater part of the
Empire, including southern Gaul: _hapja_ > ✱apya > Pr. apcha. H between
vowels was lost in some words and replaced by kk in others: _spëhôn_
> Pr. espiar, _fëhu_ > Pr. fęu, _jëhan_ > ✱yekkīre > Pr. gequir. Ht
was regularly replaced by tt: _slahta_ > ✱sclatta > Pr. esclata; but
_wahta_, perhaps borrowed at a different period, became Pr. gaita.

K, in southern Gaul, did not take the palatal pronunciation
before front vowels: _skërnon_ > Pr. esquernir, _skina_ > Pr.
esquina, _skiuhan_ > Pr. esquivar, ✱_rîk-ĭtia_ > Pr. riquẹza;
only the derivatives of _Franko_ (doubtless Latinized early) show
palatalization, as ✱_Francia_ > Pr. Fransa. G, however, seems to have
been palatalized: _gîga_ > Pr. giga, _geisla_ > Pr. giscle. Before a,
in words introduced early, k and g were treated like Latin c and g:
_kausjan_ > Pr. cauzir chauzir, _gâhi_ > Pr. gai iai; see § 11, (1).

W was vigorously pronounced, and, through reinforcement of its velar
element, came to be sounded gw: _warjan_ > ✱warīre gwarīre > Pr. garir,
_wërra_ > ✱węrra gwęrra > Pr. guęrra.

57. Greek ζ, θ, κ, φ, χ did not exactly correspond to any Latin

Z, whatever may have been its original pronunciation, received in
Vulgar Latin the value dy, which then, like any other dy, became
y: ✱_zelōsus_ (from ζῆλος) = dyelọsus yelọsus > Pr. gelọs. The
infinitive ending -ίζειν, introduced in such words as βαπτίζειν, >
_baptizāre_ = bapti(d)yāre, became very common in the form -įdyāre
-įyāre, and was used to make new verbs: _wërra_ + ίζειν > ✱werrįdyāre
gwerrįyāre > Pr. guerrẹiar.

θ, in the popular speech of Rome, was replaced by t: similarly χ was
replaced by c: σπαθή > _spatha_ = spata; χορδή > _chŏrda_ = cǫrda.

κ was apparently intermediate in sound between Latin c and g; it was
generally replaced by the former, but sometimes by the latter: κατά >
_cata_, κυβερνᾰν > _gubernare_.

φ, in Greek, was in early times (perhaps until the 4th century of
our era) a strongly explosive p; it then developed into f. In words
borrowed by the Romans in the early period it was replaced by p; in
later words it was sounded f: κόλαφος > _cŏlăphus_ = cǫlapus, φασίολος
> _phaseŏlus_ _faseŏlus_.

58. The fate of all these consonants in Provençal depended largely on
their position in the word: we must therefore distinguish _initial_,
_medial_, and _final_ consonants. In a general way, the first tended
to remain unchanged, the second to weaken, the third to disappear.
Furthermore we must separate single consonants from consonant groups:
the latter resisted change better than the former; but a group
consisting of dissimilar elements tended to assimilate them.


59. A consonant preceded by a prefix was treated as an initial
consonant as long as the character of this preceding syllable was
recognized: _de-cadĕre_ > decazẹr, _de-pĭngĕre_ > depẹnher,
_præ-parāre_ > preparar, _re-cordāre_ > recordar, _re-patriāre_ >
repairar, _re-pausāre_ > repausar, _se-dūcĕre_ > sedüire. If, however,
the initial syllable ceased to be recognized as a prefix, the following
consonant was treated as a medial consonant: _præpŏsĭtum_ > prebǫst,
_retŏrta_ > redǫrta; so, perhaps, _profŭndum_ > preọn. The rare
rebọnre (beside repọnre) < _re-pōnĕre_ has the special sense ‘to


60. B, d, l, m, n, p, r, s, t underwent no change: ben, dọn, lǫc, mẹ,
nau, pauc, rius, si, tü.

    1. For _cremetar_ < ✱_tremitāre_, see Meyer-Lübke, _Einf._, §
    194. For _granolha_ < ✱_ranŭcŭla_, see Körting, _ranuculus_.

61. C, c´, f, g, g´, β, y suffered some change. C, g must be
distinguished from c´, g´: § 55, C, G.

C, g before o, u remained unchanged: _colōrem_ > colọr, _cūra_ > cüra;
_gŭla_ > gọla, _gŭtta_ > gọta. Before a they changed only in the
north and northeast, where they became (perhaps from the 7th to the 9th
century) respectively tš and dž: _campus_ > camps champs; _gaudēre_ >
gauzir iauzir.

C´ > ts, which just before and during the literary period was reduced
to s: cælum > cęl sęl, _cīvitātem_ > ciutat ciptat siptat. For g´, see

Y, comprising Latin dy, g´, gy, j, and z, became dž (except in Béarn,
where it remained y): _diurnālem_ > iornal (yornal), _deō(r)sum_ >
iọs; _gĕlus_ > gęls, _gentīlem_ > gentil (yentil), _gȳrāre_ > girar;
_jam_ > ia, _jŏcum_ > iǫc (yǫc), _jŭvĕnem_ > iọve; ✱_zelōsus_ > gelọs.

F remained unchanged, except in Béarn and a part of Gascony, where it
became h: _famem_ > fam ham, _fĭdem_ > fẹ hẹ, _fŏcum_ > fǫc hüc,
_fŏlia_ > fuelha huelha.

β > v (the dentilabial spirant), except in Béarn, Gascony, and parts of
Languedoc, where it became b: _vĕnit_ > ven be, _vĕntum_ > vent bent,
_vĕrsus_ (§ 55, R) > vęs bęs, _vōs_ > vọs bọs.

    1. In a few words β, owing to Germanic influence, was replaced
    by w > gw: _vadum_ + _watan_ > _gua_, _vastare_ + _wôst_ >
    _guastar_. So _vagīna_ > _guaína_, _Vascŏnia_ > _Gasconha_. Cf.
    gw below.


62. There are three classes of groups: those ending in l or r, those
ending in w, and those beginning with s:--

(1) Bl, br, cl, cr, dr, gl, gr, pl, pr, tr underwent no change:
_blasphemāre_ > blasmar, _brĕvem_ > bręu, _clarus_ > clars, _crŭcem_ >
crọtz, _drappus_ > draps, _glaciem_ > glatz, _gradum_ > gra, _plēnum_
> plẹn, _precāre_ > pregar, _trans_ > tras. Gras is from _grassus_, a
fusion of _crassus_ and _grossus_. For grǫcs < κρόκος see § 57, κ.

(2) Gw (Germanic w) and kw (Latin qu) were reduced, perhaps in the 10th
century, to g and k, except in the west, where the w was retained:
_wahta_ > gaita guaita, _warjan_ > garir guarir, _wërra_ > gęrra
guęrra, _wīsa_ > gisa guisa; _quando_ > can quan, _quare_ > car quar.
It should be noted that the _u_ was commonly kept in the spelling
(especially before e and i) after it had ceased to be pronounced, _gu_
and _qu_ being regarded merely as symbols for “hard” g and c. For cinc
< _quīnque_, see § 87, kw. Sw remained in _suavem_ > suau.

(3) To groups beginning with s a vowel had been prefixed in Vulgar
Latin (§ 55, S); this vowel appears in Provençal as e. Sc´ apparently
did not occur in any popular word; sl early became scl; the other
groups (sc, scl, scr, sp, st, str) remained unchanged, except that in
the north and northeast sc > stš before a: _scala_ > escala eschala,
_schŏa_ > escǫla, _slahta_ > ✱_sclatta_ > esclata, _scrībĕre_ >
escriure, _spīna_ > espina, _stare_ > estar, _strĭngĕre_ > estrẹnher.


63. (1) It is well to note at the outset that when, through the fall
of an unaccented vowel (§ 51), an early Provençal b, d, dz, dž, g, z,
or ž was made final or contiguous to a final s, it became voiceless:
_ŏpus_ > ǫbus > ǫbs ǫps, _ŏrbum_ > ǫrbu > ǫrb ǫrp: _datum_ > dadu > dad
dat, _vĭrĭdem_ _vĭrdem_ > vẹrde > vẹrd vẹrt; _prĕtium_ > prędzu >
prędz pręts (written _pretz_), _vōcem_ > vọdze > vọdz vọts (written
_votz_); _mĕdium_ > męyu mędžu > mędž mętš (written _meg_ or _mech_);
_amīcus_ > amigus > amigs amics, _largum_ > largu > larg larc; _rīsum_
> rizu > riz ris; _basium_ > bažu > baiž baiš (bais). The combination
tšs, however, loses either its second or its third element: ✱_gaudios_
> gautšs > gautš or gauts (both of them often written _gaugz_); so
_nŏctes_ > nuetšs > nuetš or nuets (_nuegz_). For local variations of
g, see (6). For _apud_ > _ab_ _ap_ _am_ _an_, see § 65, P. 2.

(2) Under the same conditions, y became i: _vĭdeo_ > vẹyo > vẹy vẹi,
_pĕjus_ > pęyus > pęys pięis.

(3) Under the same conditions, ð, coming from intervocalic d, fell
when final, but became t before s: _audit_ > auði > auð au; _crūdus_
> cruðus > cruds crüts. So _crūdum_ > crü, _fĭdem_ > fẹ, _fraudem_
> frau, _gradum_ > gra, _nīdum_ > ni, _nōdum_ > nọ, _pĕdem_ > pę,
_sapidum_ > sabe, _tĕpidum_ > tębe; _grados_ > grats, _nōdus_ > nọts,
_nūdus_ > nüts, _pĕdes_ > pęts. The two sets of forms influenced each
other: hence _degras_, _fes_,[41] _nis_, _pes_, etc.; _crut_, _grat_,
_not_, _nut_,[41] etc.

(4) Under the same conditions, β, coming from v or from intervocalic b,
became u if preceded by a vowel, but fell if preceded by a consonant:
_bĭbit_ > bẹβi > bẹβ bẹu, _vīvit_ > βịβi > βịβ vịu, _claves_ >
claβes > claβs claus, _vīvus_ > βīβus > βịβs vịus; _salvet_ > sal,
_salvum_ > sal, _sĕrvit_ > siẹr, _nĕrvos_ > nęrs, _salvus_ > sals,
_sĕrvus_ > sęrs. Sometimes, however, final β preceded by a consonant,
instead of falling, became f: _salvet_ > salf, _salvum_ > salf,
_sĕrvit_ > sięrf, _vŏlvit_ > vǫlf; it may be that these are the only
regular forms for cons. + β _when final_, and that _sal_, _sier_ are
due to the analogy of _sals_, _siers_.

(5) Under the same conditions, final n, if preceded by a vowel, was
kept in the extreme west, parts of the north, and all the southeast and
east, but fell everywhere else; n before s was generally kept only in
the southeast and east: _bĕne_ > be ben, _canem_ > ca can, _sŏnum_ > so
son[42]; _bŏnus_ > bos bons, _mansiōnes_ > maisọs maisọns. In _mĭnus_
> mẹns the n was kept, perhaps through the analogy of menọr. If the
n was preceded by a consonant (r), the fall seems to have been even
commoner: _cŏrnu_ > cǫr cǫrn, _tŏrno_ > tọr tọrn; _diŭrnus_ > iọrs
iọrns. For iọrnh < _diŭrnī_, see § 51, 1. Provençal n coming from nn
never falls: _annus_ > ans.

(6) Under the same conditions, g, representing original c or g, became
c after o or u, and after other vowels either became c or was changed
to i (which fused with a preceding i): _fŏcum_ > fǫc, _lŏcus_ > lǫcs,
_paucum_ > pauc, _Hūgo_ > Uc; _Aureliācum_ > Aurelhac, _dīco_ > dic di,
_Henrīcum_ > Enric Enri, ✱_trago_ > trac trai. The forms with c are the
commoner; they have been most persistent in the west.

(7) The vocalization of l before s (_malus_ > maus) is a different
phenomenon from the foregoing. See § 65, L.

(8) An m or an n that becomes contiguous to final s often develops into
mp or nt, but oftener (judging from the spellings) does not: _nĭmis_ >
_nems_ _nemps_; _annos_ > _ans_ _anz_.

(9) Between a liquid or a nasal and a final s, a b or a p generally
fell, unless supported by the analogy of a form in which the b or p was
final: _ambos_ > _ams_ _ambs_, _cŏrpus_ > _cors_, _tĕmpus_ > _tems_
_temps_; cf. _balbs_ (_balb_), _orbs_ (_orb_).

    1. The d, n, t of the proclitics _ad_, _quid_, _in_, _aut_,
    _et_ will be treated under Final Consonants.

64. Final ts from any source, in Provence, Limousin, and a part of
Languedoc and Gascony, was reduced, during the literary period, to s:
_amātis_ > amatz amas, _habētis_ > avętz avęs, _dīcit_ > ditz dis,
_grandes_ > granz grans, _latus_ > latz las, _prĕtium_ > prętz pręs.
On the other hand, in a part of Limousin (especially in Limoges), and
also in Dauphiné, -ts, in the second person plural of verbs, became t:
habētis > avęt.


65. The single medial consonants will now be considered separately, in
alphabetical order:--

β, coming from b or v, became v; except in the west and a part of the
centre, where, if it remained intervocalic, it changed to b: _habētis_
> avętz abętz, _debēre_ > devẹr debẹr, _faba_ > fava faba; _avārum_
> avar, _æstīva_ > estiva, _brĕvem_ > bręu,[43] _clavem_ > clau, _dīe
Jŏvis_ > diiǫus, _lĕvat_ > lęva, _novĕlla_ > novęla nabęra (Gascon),
_vīvus_ > vius. When the preceding or following vowel was o or u, a β
before the accent fell in most dialects, being fused with the vowel:
_abŭndare_ > aondar abondar, _gŭbĕrnare_ > goernar governar, proclitic
_ŭbĭ_ > ọ, _prŏbare_ > proar, _sŭbĭnde_ > soẹn sovẹn sobẹn,
_trĭbūtum_ > treüt; _Lŭdovīcus_ > Lozoics, _Provĭncia_ > Proẹnsa
Provẹnsa, _novĕllum_ > noęl novęl, _novĕmbrem_ > noembre novembre,
_pavōnem_ > paọn, _pavōrem_ > paọr (cf. § 55, V).

    1. The perfect endings _-avi_ etc., _-ivi_ etc. had lost their
    v in Latin. For avia, etc., see § 87, β.

    2. _Abans_, beside _avanz_, _avan_ < _ab_ _ante_, apparently
    shows the influence of Pr. _ab_ = _apud_. _Abet_ < _abiĕtem_
    (§ 40, 1) is unexplained: cf. Italian _abete_. _Abora_ is a
    Provençal compound of _ab_ and _ora_. _Trap_, beside _trau_ <
    _trabem_, is doubtless from the nominative _traps_ < _trabs_,
    which seems to have been differentiated in meaning from the V.
    L. nominative _trabis_.

    3. _Brey_, _grey_, _ney_, beside _breu_ < _brĕvem,_ _greu_
    < ✱_grĕvem_, _neu_ < _nĭvem_ (cf. § 25, 1, e), have been
    subjected to the attraction of _grey_ < _grĕgem_, _ley_ <
    _lēgem_. _Greug_ is a post-verbal noun from _greuiar_ <

    4. _Natiz_ = _natius_ < _natīvus_ seems to have been influenced
    by _mestis_ < _mixtīcius_. _Massis_ is from ✱_massīcius_.

    5. _Paziment_ = _pavamen_ owes its z perhaps to the analogy of

    6. In purely learned words, _b_ and _v_ were written as in
    Latin: _diabol_, _diluvi_.

C, from the 4th to the 6th century, was voiced to g, and then developed
like any other g. See G.

    1. After au, apparently, c did not change: ✱_auca_ (< ✱_avĭca_
    < _avis_) > _auca_, _pauca_ > _pauca_, _rauca_ > _rauca_,
    ✱_traucare_ (? < ✱_trabucare_) > traucar. Cf. § 65, P, 3.

    2. In purely learned words, c remained unchanged: _vocal_.
    _Alucar_ _aluchar_, _aluc_ seem to be learned formations
    patterned after _antelucānus_ and Low Latin _lucānus_.

C´, when it became contiguous to a consonant, through the fall of the
unaccented vowel of the penult, was reduced to i: _cŏcĕre_ > cǫire,
_dīcĕre_ > diire dire, _dīcĭtis_ > ditz, _facĕre_ > faire, _facĭmu(s)_
> faim, _facĭtis_ > faitz, _fēcĕram_ > fẹira, _fēcĕrunt_ > fẹiron,
_gracĭlem_ > graile. When it remained intervocalic, it was assibilated
during the transition period (§ 55, C); in most of the Provençal
territory it became dz, which during the literary period was simplified
to z; but in some dialects of the south and the northwest it resulted
in idz (later iz), an i-glide having developed before the consonant
while it was still palatal: _aucĕllum_ > auzęl, _jacēre_ > iazẹr,
_lĭcēre_ > lezẹr, _lūcēre_ > lüzẹr lüzir lüisir, _placēre_ > plazẹr
plaizẹr; _crŭcem_ > crọz crọiz crọis (see §§ 63, 64), _dīcere_ >
dízer, _dīcit_ > ditz dis, _dūcit_ > dütz düs, _facit_ > fatz fas,
_jacet_ > iatz ias iays, _pacem_ > patz pas pais, _placet_ > platz plas
plais, _verācem_? > verais, _vōcem_ > vọtz vọiz.

    1. _Aucel_, beside _auzel_, perhaps belongs to a dialect in
    which c´ was not voiced after au: cf. C, 1. See § 80, Bc´.

    2. _Iasser_, beside _iazer_, seems to be due to _ias_ < _jacet_
    and _iassa_ < _jaceat_.

    3. For _desma_ _deima_, see S, 1.

    4. In purely learned words, c´ > ts: _acĭdum_ > aci.

D, in a part of the west, remained unchanged; elsewhere, during the
Vulgar Latin period, it opened into ð, which fell in the 11th century
and earlier in parts of the north and east, and in the rest of the
Provençal territory became z as early as the first part of the 12th
century: _audīre_ > auzir auir audir,[44] _audit_ > au,[45] _cadit_ >
ca, _crudēlem_ > cruzęl cruęl crudęl, _fīdat_ > fia, ✱_gaudo_ > gau,
_hŏrrĭda_ > ǫreza, _hŏrrĭdum_ > ǫre, _laudo_ > lau, _alauda_ > lauzẹta
laudẹta, _rīdat_ > ria, _tradĕre_ > trazir trair tradir, _vidēre_
> vezẹr vẹr vedẹr, _vĭdet_ > vẹ. When ð became contiguous to a
following consonant (except final s), it changed to i: _divīdĕre_ >
divire,[46] _traditōrem_ > traidọr (which, influenced by _traïr_, was
pronounced traïdọr).[47]

    1. _Crey_, beside _cre_ < _crēdo_, follows _dei_ < _dēbeo_,
    _vei_ < _vĭdeo_. _Mercey_, beside _merce_ < _mercēdem_, shows
    the influence of _grey_ < _grĕgem_, _lei_ < _lēgem_, and
    perhaps French _fei_ < _fĭdem_. Cf. β, (3).

    2. _Grau_ = _gra_ < _gradum_, _niu_ = _ni_ < _nīdum_ belong to
    the Catalan dialect, in which ð fell before the 8th century:
    _gradum_ > _graðu_ > _gra-u_ > _grau_, the u being preserved
    through combining into a diphthong with the a.

    3. In purely learned words, d remained: _odi_ < _ŏdium_.

F is very rare (cf. § 59). The few examples appear to show that f
(presumably in the 6th century or earlier) became β, and then developed
like any other β (see β): _Stĕphănum_ > Estęve, _co(n)fortāre_? >
✱coβortar > ✱coortar > conortar (through the common use of the double
forms, _con-_, _co-_), _gryphum_ > griu, _raphănum_ > rave rafe,
✱_refusāre_ > rehusar refusar, ✱_prefŭndum_ (= _pro-_) > preọn.
Nevertheless, cofịn < _cŏphĭnum_, defǫrs < _de fŏris_, grifọ, profięg
< _profĕctum_, rafe, would seem to indicate that in some words,
possibly less popular at the outset, f was retained.

    1. In purely learned words, f was kept: _antifona_, _Caifas_,

G, representing original c and g, had a varied development.[48] For the
fall of g in some words in Vulgar Latin, see § 55, G.

(1) Before a, g remained in the greater part of the territory, but in
the north and east it early became y; and this y was generally retained
in the eastern dialects (often fusing with a preceding i), while in
most of the northern it developed into dž (cf. Y): _amīca_ > amiga
amiia amia, _dīcam_ > diga dia, _mīca_ > miga miia mia,[49] _pacāre_ >
pagar paiar, _precāre_ > pregar preiar; _castigāre_ > castigar castiar,
_legālem_ > leial leyal lial, _ligāmen_ > liam, _lĭgātum_ > legat liat,
_plaga_ > plaga plaia, _regālem_ > reial, _rūga_ > rüa.[50]

(2) Before o and u (ü), g was preserved, except in a few words which
(doubtless in Vulgar Latin times) lost it either in all or in many
dialects: _acūtum_ > agüt, _secŭndum_ > segọn, _secūrus_ > segürs;
✱_a(u)gūrium_ > agür aür, _a(u)gŭstum_ > agọst[51] ahọst, proclitic
_ĕgo_ > ęu, ✱_fagŏttum_ > fagǫt, _figūra_ > figüra, _Hugōnem_ > Ugọ.
For a g that becomes final or contiguous to final s, see § 63, (6):
_amīcus_ > amics amis, _Auriācum_ > Auriac, _cŏcum_ (= _cŏquum_) > cǫc,
_jŏcus_ > iǫcs, _Ludovīcum_ > Lozoic Lozoi, _prĕco_ > pręc; _castīgo_ >
chastic chasti.

(3) Between the last two vowels of a proparoxytone, g, early in the
Provençal period, became y, which developed into dž before the literary
epoch; cf. § 49, (4): _clĕrĭcum_ > clęrge, ✱_coratĭcum_ > coratge,
_domĭnĭcum_ > dimẹnge, _manĭca_ > mania, _mĕdĭcum_ > męge, _mŏnăchum_
> monge, ✱_paratĭcum_ > paratge, _viatĭcum_ > viatie. In some dialects,
however, the vowel of the penult, after liquids and nasals, fell too
early for the g to become y: clęrgue,[52] esta(t)ga, mętgue, mongue.

    1. _Amiu_, _chastiu_ belong to the dialect of Forez; so perhaps
    _fau_ < _fagum_, _preu_ < _prĕco_. These forms indicate a very
    early fall of the g in the dialect to which they belong. Cf. §
    51, 3.

    2. In purely learned words, Latin g remains unchanged:
    _paganōrum_ > _paganor_.

G´ became y during the Vulgar Latin period (§ 55, G). See Y.

    1. In purely learned words the letter _g_ was retained, but it
    was doubtless pronounced dž: _astrologia_.

L remained: _colōrem_ > colọr, _male_ > mal, ✱_volēre_ (= _velle_) >
volẹr. Before final s, l became u in most dialects, in some as early
as the 10th century: _malos_ > maus, _talis_ > taus; _l_ was written,
however, long after l had been vocalized. Under the influence of forms
in which -ls > -us, final l became u in the southwest and in some
other regions: _Aprīlem_ > abriu. Cf. § 74, (2). Au < -al is common in
William of Poitiers.

    1. For Gascon l > r, see § 10.

    2. _Orifan_, beside _olifan_ < _elephantem_, is probably French.

L´ will be considered, as ly, under Groups, § 73, Ly.

M remained: _amāre_ > amar, _hŏmo_ > om, _timōrem_ > temọr.

    1. Occasionally _-am_ rhymes with _-an_ (_afan_: _fam_,
    _portam_: _avan_); this seems to show an indistinct
    pronunciation of the final nasal in some dialects. Cf. _aven_ =
    _avem_ < _habēmu(s)_ in the _Nobla Leyczon_. Cf. § 167, 2.

N remained: _bŏnas_ > bonas, _donāre_ > donar, _lūna_ > lüna. For n
final or contiguous to final s, see § 63, (5): _fīnis_ > fis fins,
_panem_ > pa pan.

    1. In _canorgue_, _dimergue_, _morgue_, etc., beside _canonge_,
    _dimenge_, _monge_, etc., the r may be explained partly by
    dissimilation, partly by the analogy of _clergue_ and of words
    with double forms (§ 87).

    2. _Menhs_ _meins_, beside regular _mens_ < _mĭnus_, show the
    influence of the alternative forms _genhs_ _geins_ and _gens_
    from _ingĕnium_ (see § 73, Ny).

    3. _Iassey_ (= _iasse_, the latter part of which may be
    from _exín_ = _exĭnde_), _tey_ (= _te_ < _tĕnet_), used by
    Marcabru, are doubtless due either to a mistaken imitation of
    conventional borderland forms (see § 25, 3) or to the analogy
    of _crei_ = _cre_ < _crēdo_ (_crei_ itself being due to the
    analogy of _dei_ < _dēbeo_, _vei_ < _vĭdeo_).

N´ will be considered, as ny, under Groups, § 73, Ny.

P, from the 4th to the 6th century, was voiced to b: _capĭllum_ >
cabẹl, _rīpa_ > riba, ✱_sapēre_ (= _sapĕre_) > sabẹr, _trepalium_ >
trebalh; _capit_ > cap (§ 63), _sapis_ > saps.

    1. In some borderland dialects p > v, as in French: _saver_.
    _Evescat_, _evesque_, beside _bisbat_, _bisbe_, are French.

    2. _Apud_, used as a proclitic, became for some reason in
    Vulgar Latin ✱_apu_, which developed regularly into ✱_abu_
    and, after the fall of intertonic vowels, _ab_. This _ab_
    assimilated its b more or less to a following consonant,
    becoming _ap_ before voiceless consonants, _am_ before nasals;
    _am_, used before dentals, became _an_: hence we have four
    forms, _ab_, _ap_, _am_, _an_. _Amb_ perhaps developed first
    from _am_ before l, as in _am l’autre_; when used before a
    consonant with which mb did not readily combine, it expanded
    into _ambe_. See Elise Richter, _Zs._, XXVI, 532; J. Huber,
    _Zs._, XXX, 583.

    3. In some dialects, apparently, p was not voiced after au:
    _sapuĕrunt_ ✱_sapwĕrunt_ ✱_saupĕrunt_ > _saubron_ _saupron_.
    Cf. § 65, C, 1.

    4. In purely learned words, p remains: _epifania_.

R remained: _amāra_ > amara, _durāre_ > dürar, _ĕrat_ > ęra. Final
rs was reduced to s, in most dialects, during and after the literary
period: _priōres_ > priọrs priọs (_Girart_); the reduction apparently
began in Limousin as early as the 12th century (Bertran de Born rhymes
iọs and flọrs).

    1. Final r began to fall in many dialects in the 14th century.
    At present it has disappeared all through the south and west:
    _amōrem_ > _amou_, _flōrem_ > _flou_.

    2. In some dialects (especially those of Gard and Hérault)
    intervocalic r and z were confused, probably during the
    literary period: _gyrāre_ > _girar_ _gisar_; conversely
    _audīre_ > _auzir_ _aurir_. Cf. _Revue des langues romanes_,
    XL, 49, 121.

S was voiced to z, probably from the 4th to the 6th century: _pausa_ >
pausa, _presĕntem_ > presen; _rīsum_ > ris (§ 63).

    1. An s that became contiguous to n was changed, in a few
    dialects, to r: _almosna_ _almorna_, _disnar_ _dirnar_.
    In modern Limousin and some of the dialects of Dauphiné,
    Languedoc, and Gascony, s has disappeared before nasals: _asne_
    _ane_, _caresma_ _carema_, _disnar_ _dinar_ (so _blasmar_
    _blamar_, _desma_ _dema_); the fall began during the literary
    period. S before a consonant in many of the modern dialects,
    and final s in some, has become i: _asne_ _aine_, _caresma_
    _careima_ (so perhaps _desma_ _deima_, _pruesme_ _prueime_);
    some traces of this change occur in texts of the literary
    period. Cf. _Zs._, XXIII, 413. _Isla_, in Limousin, became
    _ilha_ (perhaps through _iyla_): cf. _Zs._, XXIII, 414. Cf. §

    2. In some southeastern dialects intervocalic z after au has
    changed to v: _causa_ _cauva_ (so _auzir_ _auvir_); possibly
    the _auvent_ of the _Boeci_, v. 23, is to be connected with

T, from the 4th to the 6th century, was voiced to d: _amāta_ > amada,
_natālis_ > nadals, _servitōrem_ > servidọr; _habētis_ > avętz avęs
avęt (§§ 63, 64), _latus_ > latz las, _natum_ > nat. For a t which
became contiguous to r (_amātor_ > amaire), see § 52, (1), and § 70,

    1. In some dialects of the south and southeast, final t
    fell shortly after the literary period: _amātum_ > _amat_
    _ama_.--_Appoestat_ is French.

    2. _Tōtus_, in Gaul, became _tōttus_ as early as the 4th
    century: hence Pr. _tota_ _totas_. For _meteis_ < _met-ĭpse_
    see § 131, (2).

    3. _Espaza_ (beside _espada_) < _spatha_, was perhaps
    influenced in its pronunciation by the spelling of the Latin
    word.[53] _Ez_, coming from _et_ before a vowel, shows the
    influence of _az_ (< _ad_ + vowel) and _quez_ (< _quĭd_
    + vowel). _Grazal_, ‘grail’, is perhaps a cross between
    ✱_cratella_ < _crater_ and _gradale_, ‘service-book’; so
    _grazalet_. _Grazir_ _grazire_ (cf. _agradar_) is perhaps
    altered from an earlier ✱_grazar_ < ✱_gratiare_. _Mezeis_
    < _met-ĭpse_, _mezesmes_, _meesmes_ (beside _medesmes_) <
    ✱_met-ĭpsĭmus_ have been subjected to the analogy of _ez_ <
    _et_ and _quez_ < _quĭd_ or of _ĭd ĭpsum_: § 131, (2).

    4. In some dialects _tī_ became a sound written _h_: _peccatī_
    > _peccah_. See § 51, 1.

    5. In purely learned words, t remains: _eternal_.

W will be considered, as gw, under Groups, § 72, βw.

X is a symbol for ks: see Groups, § 79, Ks.

Y, representing Latin dy, g´, gy, j, and z (cf. § 55, G, Y; § 57, Z)
had a varied development.

(1) When it became contiguous to a following consonant (§§ 45, 49) it
changed to i: _adjutāre_ > _ayudāre_ > ay’dar > aidar, _medietātem_
> meitat; _cōgitāre_ > cüidar, _frīgĕre_ > frire, _lĕgĕre_ > lęyre,
_propagĭnem_ > probaina, _rĭgĭda_ > rẹida, ✱_tragĕre_ > traire;
_bajŭlus_ > bailes.

(2) When it remained intervocalic, it became dž in most of the
territory, but in the northeast and parts of the north it was not
changed:[54] _audiam_ > auia, _in-ŏdiare_ > enoiar, _invĭdia_ >
envẹia, _invĭdiōsus_ > enveiọs enveyọs, ✱_gladia_ > glaya,
_mediānum_ > meian, ✱_pŏdiāre_ > poiar, _radiāre_ > raiar, _sordĭdior_
> sordẹier, _vĭdeat_ > vẹia; _fragĭlem_ > fragel; ✱_exagiāre_ >
assatiar essaiar essayar, _corrĭgia_ > corrẹia corrẹya, _fagea_ >
faia faya, _regiōnem_ > reiọ; _dīe Jŏvís_ > diiǫus, _major_ > maier,
_pĕjor_ > pięier, _pejōrem_ > peiọr, _trŏja_ > trǫia; _baptizāre_ >
bateiar. For a dž or a y that became final or contiguous to final s,
see § 63, (1), (2): _audio_ > auch, _in ŏdio_ > enuęg (plural enuętz
enuęg) enǫi, _gaudium_ > gauch, _gladium_ > glai, _mĕdium_ > męg męi,
_hŏdie_ > ǫi, _pŏdium_ > puęg pǫi, _radium_ > rai; _fŭgit_ > füg füi,
_grĕgem_ > gręy, _lēgem_ > lẹg (pl. lẹitz) lẹi, _lĕgit_ > lięg,
_magis_ mais,[55] _rēgem_ > rẹi, _exagium_ > essai; _pĕjus_ > pięis.

(3) Before accented e or i, y disappeared (doubtless in Vulgar Latin: §
55, G), except in some western dialects, where it became dž: _vagīna_
> guaīna, ✱_legīre_ (= _lĕgĕre_) > legir,[56] _magĭster_ > maẹstre
maiẹstre magẹstre, ✱_pagē(n)sis_ > paẹs pagẹs, _regīna_ > reïna,
_sagĭtta_ > saẹta saiẹta sagẹta.

    1. _Detz_ _ditz_ > _dĭgĭtus_ are irregular and unexplained. The
    word is irregular in some other Romance languages, notably in
    Italian. Cf. Gröber’s _Grundriss_, I, p. 507.

    2. _Glavi_, beside _glai_ (and learned _glazi_) < _gladium_, is
    supposed by some to show the influence of Celtic _cládibo_. Cf.
    Körting; also H. Schuchardt, _Zs._, XXV, 345.

    3. _Messér_ seems to be a contraction (due to proclitic
    use) of ✱_messeyer_ = _mes_, ‘my’, + ✱_seyer_? < ✱_sĕyor_ =
    _sĕnior_ (cf. A. Lindström, _L’analogie dans la déclinaison des
    substantifs latins en Gaule_, 1897-8, pp. 292-3).

    4. In purely learned words, _di_, _g_, _gi_, _z_ are retained,
    the _g_ being pronounced presumably as dž, the _z_ as z: _odi_,
    _fragil_, _regio_, _canonizar_.


66. Medial groups may be conveniently classified as follows:--A.
_Double Consonants_ (1); B. _Groups of Dissimilar Consonants_: groups
ending in l (2), groups ending in r (3), groups ending in w (4), groups
ending in y (5), groups beginning with l, m, n, r, or s and not
ending in l, r, w, or y (6), all other groups (7). This order will be

    1. It should be noted that the prefixes _ad-_, _sub-_
    regularly assimilate their d or b to the following consonant:
    ✱_ad-rīpāre_ > _arribar_, _sub-venīre_ > _sovenir_. _Sosrire_,
    _sosterrar_, _sostraire_ show a substitution of prefix, due, no
    doubt, to the analogy of _sospirar_, _sostener_.


67. In general, the double consonants became single, in the 9th or 10th
century (perhaps earlier before the accent), but underwent no other
change save those described in §§ 63, 64: _abbātem_ > abat, _sĭccum_
> sẹc, _rĕddo_ > ręt, _affībulāre_ > afiblar, _aggregāre_ > agregar,
_flamma_ > flama, _pĭnna_ > pẹna, _cappa_ > capa, _passum_ > pas,[58]
_mŭttum_ > mọt, _advenīre_ ✱_avvenīre_ > avenir.

(1) Cc before a, in the east and northeast, became tš; elsewhere, c;
_bŭcca_ > bọca bọcha, _vacca_ > vaca vacha.

(2) Ll, in some southern dialects, became l´; elsewhere, l: _capĭllum_
> cabẹl cabẹlh, _grȳllum_ > gril grilh, _mantĕllum_ > mantęl
mantęlh, _villānus_ > vilas vilhas. It is possible, however, that -llī
regularly became l´ in Limousin, while ll before other vowels was not
palatalized: _caballum_ > caval, _caballī_ > cavalh; _ĭllī_ > ilh,
_ĭllōs_ > ẹls; this would account in part for the frequent occurrence
of _lh_ in the poems. So in some dialects -nnī > n´: _annī_ > anh. Cf.
§ 51, 1. For final ls and l, see § 65, L: _ĭllos_ > ẹls ẹus, _vallem_
> val vau. For Gascon l > r, see § 10: _appĕllat_ > apęla apęra.

(3) Rr, when intervocalic, seems generally to have been distinguished
from r during the literary period and later: _cŭrrĕre_ > cọrre,
✱_corrŭptiāre_ > corrossar, _errāre_ > errar, _tĕrra_ > tęrra.
Occasionally, however, rr is found in rhyme with r.


68. The groups of two consonants will be treated in alphabetical order.
It will be seen that bl, rl, sl remained unchanged; ml developed a
glide consonant between its two members; pl, tl, βl and yl respectively
voiced, assimilated, and vocalized their first element; while cl, gl
were fused into l´. For an explanation of this last phenomenon, see §

Bl > bl: _nĕbŭla_ > nębla, ✱_oblītāre_ > oblidar, _sabulōnem_ >

βl > ul: _fabŭla_ ✱_faβla_ > faula, _sibilāre_ ✱_siβlāre_ > siular,
_tabŭla_ ✱_taβla_ > taula.

Cl > l´: _genŭcŭlum_ > genọlh, _ŏcŭlum_ > ǫlh, _sĭtŭla_ ✱_sĭcla_[60] >
sẹlha, _vĕtŭla_ _vĕcla_[60] > vęlha. In learned words we find gl, cl:
✱_e(c)clĕsia_ > glęiza, _joculārem_ > ioglar, _sæcŭlum_ > sęgle sęcle.

C´l > il: _gracĭlem_ > graile.

Dl > dl, which during the literary period became ll and then l:
_mŏdŭlum_ > ✱mǫdle mǫlle.

Gl > l´: _rēgŭla_ > rẹlha, ✱_strĭgŭla_ > estrẹlha, _vĭg(ĭ)lat_
> vẹlha. Lẹula < _lĕgŭla_, tẹula < _tēgŭla_ are irregular: cf.
_Archivio glottologico italiano_, XIII, 439, 459.

Ml > mbl: _sĭmĭlāre_ > semblar, _trĕmŭlat_ > trẹmbla. In _sembrar_ we
find an r < l due perhaps to the analogy of membrar < _memorāre_. _In
semel_ gives ensẹmble essẹms.

Pl > bl: _cōpŭla_ > cọbla, _dŭplum_ > dọble. Learned words have pl:

Rl > rl: _Carŏlus_ > Carles, _hōrolŏgium_ > orlǫi, ✱_paraulare_ >

Sl > sl: _ī(n)sŭla_ > isla. For _ilha_, see § 65, S, 1.

Tl > tl, which during the literary period became ll and then l:
_rŏtŭlum_ > rǫtle rǫlle, _spathūla_ > espatla espalla espala. In really
popular words tl had become cl in Vulgar Latin.[61]

Yl > il: _bajŭlus_ > bailes. Cf. § 65, Y, (1).

69. A group of three consonants remained unchanged, except that double
consonants became single: _ambulāre_ > amblar, _implēre_ > emplir,
_avŭncŭlus_ > avọncles, _cĭrcŭlus_ > cẹrcles, _mascŭlus_ > mascles,
✱_afflammāre > aflamar_, _inflāre_ > enflar, _ŭngŭla_ > ọngla,
_emplastrum_ > emplastre.

    1. _Selcle_, beside _cercle_, seems to show an assimilation
    of the r to the l of the next syllable. _Empastre_, beside
    _emplastre_, has been influenced by _pasta_. _Emblar_ is
    probably from V. L. ✱_imbolare_ = _involare_.


70. The groups of two consonants will be treated in alphabetical order.
It will be seen that br, gr, lr, nr generally remained unchanged; mr,
sr, zr (and sometimes lr, nr) developed a glide consonant; cr, pr
voiced, and βr, c´r, dr, tr, yr vocalized their first element.

Br > br, also ur, occasionally ir (through ür): _fabrum_ > fabre
faure[62], _fĕbrem_ > fębre fęure, _lībra_ > liura; _Octōbrem_ >
ochọyre. For brg, see § 80.

βr > ur, occasionally ir: _bĭbĕre_ > bęure, débēr’ hábḙo > deβr’áyo >
deurái, ✱_rōbŏrem_ > rọure rọire; ✱_mŏvĕre_ (= _mŏvēre_) > mǫure,
_plŏvĕre_ > plǫure.

Cr > gr: _acrem_ > agre, _lacrĭma_ > lagrema, _lŭcrum_ > lọgre,
_macrum_ > magre, _sacrāre_ > sagrar, _sŏcrum_ > sǫgre.[63] In late
learned words we find cr: _secret_.

C´r > ir: _cŏcĕre_ > cǫire, _dīcĕre_ > dire, _dūcere_ > düire, _facĕre_
> faire. Cf. § 49, (1).

Dr > ðr > ir: _divīdĕre_ > devire, _quadrum_ > caire, vídēr’ hábe̯o
> veð’r-áyo > veirái. After au, apparently, ð simply disappeared:
_claudĕre_ > claure. Late learned words have dr: _quadrupedi_.

Gr, in popular words, was reduced to r in Vulgar Latin in parts of
the Empire _fra(g)rāre_ > ✱frarar ✱flarar flazar, _intĕ(g)rum_ >
entęr entięr, _nĭ(g)rum_ > nęr nięr,[64] _pere(g)rīnum_ > peleri,
_pĭ(g)rĭtia_ > perẹza; these forms occur in Gascony, Rouergue, and
Limousin, but forms with gr are found in the same region. Elsewhere, in
these same words, and everywhere, in more bookish words, gr remained
in Vulgar Latin; this gr was kept in most of the Provençal territory,
but was changed to ir in Dauphiné, Auvergne, and Languedoc: _fragrāre_
> flairar, _integrāre_ > enteirar, _intĕ́grum_ > entęgre entęir,[65]
_nĭgrēscĕre_ > negrezir, _nĭgrum_ > nẹgre nẹir,[65] _peregrīnum_ >
pelegri, _pĭgrĭtia_ > pigręza. Purely learned words have gr everywhere:

G´r: see Yr.

Lr usually remained unaltered, but in some dialects became ldr[66]:
vălēr’ hábe̯o > valrai valdrai, ✱vólēr’ hábe̯o > volrai voldrai.

Mr > mbr: _camĕra_ > cambra, _memorāre_ > membrar, _nŭmĕrum_ > nọmbre.

Nr usually remained unaltered, but in some dialects became ndr[66]
_cĭnĕrem_ > cẹnre cẹndre, _dīe Vĕnĕris_ > divenres divendres,
_in-gĕnerāre_ > engenrar, _Henrīcum_ > Enric, _expōnĕre_ > espọnre
espọndre, ✱_gĕnĕrem_ (= _gĕnus_) > genre, _gĕnĕrum_ > genre gendre,
_honorāre_ > onrar ondrar, _tenēr’ habeo_ > tenrai tendrai, _venīr’
habeo_ > venrai vendrai.

Pr > br: _capra_ > cabra, _cŭperāre_ > cobrar, _erĭpĕre_ > erẹbre,
_ŏpĕra_ > ǫbra, _pauper_ > paubre, ✱_pĭperāta_ > pebrada, _recĭpĕre_
> recẹbre, _sŭperāre_ > sobrar, _sŭper_ > sọbre. Purely learned
words have pr: _caprin_. It is uncertain whether _paupre_ (beside the
usual _paubre_) is a Latinism or represents some dialect in which au
prevented voicing.

Sr > str: ✱_ĕssĕre_ (= _ĕsse_) > ęstre. For ęsser, see § 49, (2).

Tr > dr > ðr > ir: _amātor_ > amaire, _fratrem_ > fraire, _latro_ >
laire, _mater_ > maire, _ŭtĕrem_ > ọire, _pĕtra_ > pęira, _Pĕtrus_ >
Pęires, _petrōnem_ > peirọ, _petrōsus_ > peirọs, _pre(s)by̆tĕrum_
(_Einf._, § 140) > prevẹire, _servītor_ > servire, _vĭtrum_ > vẹire.
Learned words have dr and tr: ✱_poenĭtĕre_ > _penedre_ (_penedir_),
_impetrāre_ > _impetrar_.

Yr > ir: _frīgĕre_ > frire, _lĕgĕre_ > lęyre.

Zr > zdr: _mīsĕrunt_ + ✱_mĭssĕrunt_ > ✱mẹzron mẹsdron.

    1. _Redebre_ (beside _rezemér_) < _redĭmere_ has apparently
    been influenced by _recebre_. The Burgundian _sor_ for _sobre_
    comes from the prefix _sŭr-_ (_sŭr-rīdēre_, etc.). _Perri_ <
    ✱_pētrīnum_ is probably French.

71. A group of three consonants nearly always remained unchanged,
except that double consonants became single: _ŭmbra_ > ọmbra,
_arbŏrem_ > arbre, _sepŭlcrum_ > sepulcre, ✱_canc(e)rōsus_ > cancrọs,
✱_addīrēctum_ > adrẹit, _fŭndĕre_ > fọndre, _ardĕre_ > ardre,
✱_offerīre_ > offrir, ✱_Hungaría_ > Ongria, _rŭmpĕre_ > rọmpre,
_apprĕssum_ > apręs, _asprum_ > aspre, _ŭltra_ > ọltra, _intrāre_ >
entrar, _mo(n)strāre_ > mostrar, _mĭttĕre_ > mẹtre. Lβr and rg´r,
however, regularly became ldr and rdr, and llr became ldr to the same
extent as lr (q. v.): _absŏlvĕre_ > absǫldre (_absolvre_ is probably a
Latinism), _pŭlvĕrem_ > pọldre; ✱_dē-ēr’ gĕre_ > dẹrdre; _tollĕre_
> tǫlre tǫldre. Rmr became rbr in _marmor_ > marbre (also marme).
Prendre often became penre (perhaps to distinguish it from pendre <
_pĕndĕre_) through the analogy of genre gendre, etc.; the first r
having been lost by dissimilation.

    1. The four-consonant group sbtr is reduced to str in _prestre_
    < _prĕsby̆ter_. _Prever_ is perhaps a proclitic syncopation of
    a V. L. ✱_preβiter_. Cf. § 78, 1.


72. This class includes not only Latin gu̯, qu̯, but all combinations
of consonant + u̯, cf. § 40, (2). A w thus evolved seems to have
developed like Germanic w (cf. § 56, W): it became gw (assimilating the
preceding consonant, unless that consonant was a liquid or a nasal),
and then was reduced, before the literary period, to g, cf. § 62, (2).
Pw, however, had a quite different history, owing, on the one hand,
to the affinity of its two labial elements, and, on the other, to the
stability of the voiceless stop, which prevented the assimilation that
we find in βw > ww.

    1. G. Körting (_Zs._, XXII, 258) would explain through the
    analogy of the perfects in _-cui_ all other perfect forms which
    in Provençal have g and c corresponding to Latin _-ui_ etc.

ßw > ww > gw > g: _habuĭssem_ > aguẹs, _dēbuit_ > dẹc (§ 63);
✱_co(g)nōvuit_ (cf. Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, II, p. 357) > conọc,
✱_crevuĭstī_ > creguist, ✱_movuĭsset_ > mogues, ✱_plŏvuit_ > plǫc. We
seem to have the same combination in Germanic _treuwa_ > tręgua tręga
(_treva_ is probably French).

    1. The diphthong of _aic_ = _habuī_ is probably not a phonetic
    development. The first and third persons of the preterit, _aic_
    and _ac_ (< _habuit_), have been differentiated after the
    pattern of the present--_ai_ and _a_.

Dw > gw > g: ✱_sĕduit_ > sęc.

    1. _Vezoa_ < _vĭdua_ must be an early learned word: _veuva_ is
    perhaps from _veua_ < _veuða_ < _veðua_.

Kw > gw > g: _antīqua_ > antiga, _ĕqua_ > ęga, _æquālem_ > egal
(_engal_ has received through a mistake in etymology the prefix _en-_
or _e-_ < _in-_), _nŏcuit_ > nǫc, _placuĭstī_ > plaguist, ✱_sĕquĕre_ (=
_sĕqui_) > sęgre, ✱_sequīre_ > seguir, _tacuĭssem_ > taguẹs.

    1. Several words show a different development: cf. _Ltblt._,
    XXIV, 335; _Zs._, XXVIII, 381. In _aqua_ (or _acqua_) and
    _aquĭla_ (or ✱_acquĭla_) the first consonant became, for some
    reason, a spirant, which later changed to i: aχwa > aiwa >
    aigua aiga, áχwila > áiwila > áigwila > aigla. So _aiglentina_.
    These same words show irregularities in other languages.
    Perhaps the dialect form _eigal_ (Auvergne, Arles) for _egal_
    is to be explained in the same way; but the _ei_ here may be

    2. In several words kw was reduced to c (or c´) in Vulgar
    Latin: _coquĕre_ (+ _cŏcus_) > _cŏcĕre_ > cǫzer, _tŏrquēre_
    ✱_tŏrquĕre_ (+ ✱_tŏrco_ ✱_tŏrcunt_) > ✱_tŏrcĕre_ > tǫrser. Cf.
    § 55, W.

Lw > lgw > lg: _caluit_ > calc, ✱_toluĭstī_ > tolguist, _valuĭssem_ >
valguẹs, _vŏluĕrunt_ (§ 16, 2) > vǫlgron.

Nw, ngw, nkw > ngw > ng: _tĕnuit_ > tẹnc, ✱_venuĭsset_ > venguẹs;
_sanguem_ > sanc; _cīnque_ (= _quinque_) > cinc.

    1. Tęuns < _tĕnuis_ is probably a learned word; the
    transposition of u and n may have been due originally to
    a misreading of the letters. _Ianuer_, _manual_, etc.
    are learned. _Maneira_ is apparently from a Vulgar Latin
    ✱_man(u)aria_ from _manuarius_. For _enquerre_ < _inquærĕre_,
    see § 59.

    2. _Exstĭnguĕre_ (+ ✱_exstĭngo_ ✱_exstĭngunt_) > ✱_estĭngĕre_ >

Pw > upw > up > ub: _sapuĭsset_ > saubẹs, _recĭpuit_ > recẹup.

    1. _Saupes_ apparently belongs to a dialect in which au
    prevented voicing. Cf. § 65, P, 3.

Rw > rgw > rg: _mĕruit_ > męrc.

Sw seems to have been reduced early to s in _consuetūdĭnem_ ✱_costūmen_
> costüm (costüma). _Cōnsŭo_ apparently became ✱_cōsio_, whence an
infinitive ✱_cōsĕre_ or ✱_cosīre_ (Pr. cǫzer, cosir).

Tw > dw > gw > g: _pŏtuit_ > pǫc.

    1. _Ba(t)tuo_, _qua(t)tuor_ were reduced to _batto_, ✱_quattor_
    in Vulgar Latin: Pr. _bat_, _quatre_.


73. This class contains: 1st, combinations of consonant + y < e̯ or
i̯, cf. § 40, (2); 2d, consonant + g´ > y (§ 55, G), the g´ having
been in some cases always contiguous to the preceding consonant, in
others originally separated from it by a vowel; 3d, consonant + g >
y, the g representing an original c or g between the last two vowels
of a proparoxytone, cf. § 65, G, (3). It does not include dy and gy,
which early became y: see § 65, Y. See § 63, (1). The groups will be
considered in alphabetical order:--

Bry > bry in _ebriācum_ > ebriac (_iure_ is probably French).

βy was early reduced to y in _habeo_ _habeam_ etc. and _dēbeo_ _dēbeam_
etc., partly, no doubt, through the proclitic use of these words,
partly under the influence of _audio_ > ✱_auyo_ _audiam_ > ✱_auya_ and
_video_ > ✱_veyo_ _vĭdeam_ > ✱_veya_; this y, like any other medial
y (§ 65, Y), became džy̆ or remained y: ai (for some reason there
seems to have been no form ✱_ach_), aia; dẹi dẹch, dẹia. Aside from
these words, βy > udž and uy apparently in the north; elsewhere uy,
by, vy--uy prevailing in the west, by and vy in the south and east.
When the y became final, it changed to i, which, after a consonant,
was syllabic. Ex.: _abbrĕviat_ > abręuia, ✱_aggrĕviat_ > agrẹuia,
_allĕviat_ > alęuia, _avĭŏ́lum_ > aviǫl aiǫl, _cavĕa_ > gabia cauia,
_labia_ > lavia-s, ✱_leviarius_ > leugięrs, ✱_rabiam_ (= _rabiem_) >
rabia rauia,[67] ✱_rabiāre_ > rabiar, _rabiōsus_ > rabiọs rauiọs,
_rŭbeum_ > rọg rọi,[68] ✱_sabium_ > savi sabi, _atavia_ > tavia,
_vidŭvium_ > vezọig bedọi.[68] In purely learned words, Latin _bi_,
_vi_, etc., are kept: _abiurament_, _fluvial_. _Brĕvio_ > bręy: cf. §
65, β, 3.

Cc´y: see C´y.

Cly > l´: _coclearium_ > cuilhięr.

Cty > is: _factiōnem_ > faissọ, _lectiōnem_ > leissọ, _suspectiōnem_
> sospeissọ. In purely learned words we find the spellings _cti_,
_cci_, which doubtless indicate ktsy or ksy: _electio_, _accio_. Cf.

C´y, cc´y, kwy > ts; this ts, when it remained medial, was reduced,
before and during the literary period, to s: _bracchia_ > brassa,
_bracchium_ > bratz bras (§ 64), _faciam_ > faza fassa, _faciem_ > fatz
fas, _glaciem_ > glatz glas[69], _laqueāre_ > lassar, _laqueum_ > latz
las, ✱_pĕcia_ > pęssa, _placeam_ > plassa. Learned words have _zi_ and
_ci_, doubtless pronounced at first dzi, tsi, later zi, si (cf. A.
Horning, _Zs._, XXIV, 545; XXV, 736): _iuzizi iudici, edifici, Grecia_.
Cf. Pty.

D-g > dž: _jūdĭco_ > iütge, _mĕdĭcum_ > męge, ✱_sĕdĭcum_ > sęie[70].

Dy: see § 55, Y and § 65, Y.

Gdy: see § 80, Gd.

Gy: see § 55, Y and § 65, Y.

Kwy: see Cy.

Lc´y > lts > uts > us: _calceāre_ > caussar. Cf. Lty. See § 74, (2).

Lg´ apparently became ldz > udz > uz in ✱_fŭlgĕrem_ (= _fŭlgur_) >

Ll-g´ > l´ in _cŏllĭgit_ > cuęlh. Cf. Ly.

Lly: see Ly.

Lny > n´: _balneum_ > banh.

Lty > lts >uts > us: ✱_altiāre_ > auçar aussar. Cf. Lc´y. See § 74, (2).

Lvy > lby > uby in _salvia_ > saubia (Gascon).

Ly, lly > l´: _consĭlium_ > cossẹlh, _fīlium_ > filh, _fīlia_ > filha,
_nūllī_ + vowel > nülh. Learned words have _li_: _familiarmens_. _Lili_
_liri_ _lire_ < _līlium_ are doubtless learned; _lis_ is French.

Mby > mby, mdž, and ndž; mdž being the usual form in the literary
language: _cambiāre_ > camiar caniar cambiar.

Mmy > my, mdž, and ndž: _commeātus_ > comiatz coniatz.

Mny > n´ in Limousin and in the extreme east and southwest, elsewhere
ndž: _somniāre_ > sonhar soniar. _Somni_, beside _suenh_ _songe_, is

Mply > mply in _ampliāre_ > ampliar, probably learned.

My > my and n´: _sīmia_ > simia, _vindēmia_ > vendẹmia vendanha.

Nc´y > nts > ns: ✱_Francia_ > Fransa. Cf. Nty.

Nd-g > ndž: ✱_pĕndĭcat_ > penia, _vĭndĭco_ > vẹnie. Similarly
_mandūcāre_ > ✱_mandugare_ _manduyare_ _mandyare_ > maniar[71].

Ndy > n´: ✱_Burgŭndia_ > Borgọnha, _verecŭndia_ > vergọnha.

N-g > ndž: ✱_excommĭnĭco_ (= _excommūnĭco_) > escomẹnie[71],
_mŏnăchum_ > monie.

Ng´ > n´ and ndž: _jŭngĕre_ > iọnher iọnger, _ŭngĕre_ > ọnher
ọnger, _plangĕre_ > planher planger, _pŭngĕre_ > pọnher pọnger.
_Angel_ is probably learned.

Ng´y > ndž: _spŏngia_ > esponia.

Nny > n´: _stanneum_ > estanh.

Nty > nts > us: _cantiōnem_ > cansọ, _comĭn(i)tiāre_ > comensar,
_sperantia_ > esperansa. Purely learned words have _nti_: _essentia_.
Cf. Nc´y.

Ny > n´: _extraneum_ > estranh, _tĕneo_ > tenh, _vĕniat_ > venha.
Before or during the literary period final n´ or n´s lost its palatal
quality in many dialects: _ingĕnium_ > genh gen. If _estraniar_ comes
from _extraneāre_ (and not from ✱_extranicāre_), it must be a word of
later adoption; so _estrangier_. In _sotran_ < _subterraneum_ there is
probably a change of suffix.

Pry probably became regularly bry: _capreŏlum_ > ✱cabriǫl cabirǫl
(cabrǫl seems to be a new formation from _cabra_). _Coyre_ <? _cŭpreum_
is unexplained.

Pty > ts, which, when it remained medial, was reduced, before and
during the literary period, to s: ✱_captiāre_ > cassar, ✱_corrŭptiāre_
> corrossar, _nĕptia_ > nęssa, ✱_nŏptias_ (§ 38, 2) > nǫssas. Cf. C´y.

Py remained py in the west and a part of the south, and elsewhere
became ptš, later tš: _apium_ > ache api, ✱_apprŏpiat_ (< _prŏpe_) >
aprǫpcha aprǫcha aprǫpia, _sapiam_ > sapcha sacha sapia, _sapiĕntem_
> sachent sapient, _sēpia_ > sẹpia. _Asabentar_ is from sabẹn.
_Piion_ < _pipiōnem_ is French. Learned words have _pi_: _copia_; but
_mancĭpium_ > _mancip massip_.

Rc´y > rts (> rs?): _urceŏ́lum_ (_Zs._, XXVI, 668) > orzǫl.

Rdy > rdz: ✱_dis-tardiat_ > destarza. Ordi = _hŏrdeum_ is perhaps from
the genitive _hŏrdeī_, as in _tres modii hordei_, etc.

R-g > rdž: _clĕrĭcus_ > clęries.

Rg´ > rdž and rdz (> rz): _argĕntum_ > argen, ✱_burgē(n)sis_ > borgẹs
borzẹs (also _borgues_, under the influence of _borc_), ✱_dē-ērĭgit_
> dẹrs, ✱_dē-ē(i)gĕre_ > dẹrzer (also _derdre_: § 71), _sŭrgĕre_ >
sọrger sọrzer, _sŭrgit_ > sọrtz.

Rny > rn´: ✱_Arvĕrnium_ > Alvęrnhe.

Rr-g > rdž: ✱_carrĭcat_ > caria.

Rry > ir: _porrum_ > ✱_porreum_ > poyre; but ✱_horrearium_? > orgięr
(cf. Körting).

Rt-g > rdž and rts (> rs): ✱_excŏrtĭcat_ > escǫria escǫrsa.

Rty > rts > rs ✱_fortiāre_ > forsar, _tĕrtium_ > tęrz tęrs. _Convercio_
is learned.

Rvy > rvy rby: ✱_cĕrvia_ > cervia cerbia.

Ry > r´, which developed into ir when it remained medial, but became
r at the end of a word[72]: ✱_exclariāre_ > esclairar, ✱_donatōria_
> donadọira, ✱_fĕria_ > fęira fięira, _fĕriat_ > fęira, _matĕria_
> madęira, ✱_mŏriat_ > mǫira, _primaria_ > premęira premięira (§
23, 1), ✱_punitōria_ > punidọira, _varia_ > vaira, _variāre_ >
vairar; ✱_a(u)gūrium_ > aür, _cŏrium_ > cuęr, ✱_donatōrium_ >
donadọr, _impĕrium_ > empięr, _mĭnistĕrium_ > mestięr, ✱_mŏrio_ >
mǫr muęr, _monastĕrium_ > mostięr (§ 45, 3), _primarius_ > premięrs,
✱_punitōrius_ > punidọrs. If the ry is preceded by au, it apparently
remains unchanged: _Auriācum_ > Auriac (_Zs._, XXVII, 559). Learned
words have _ri_: _bori_ < _ebŏreum_, _contrari_.

    1. Adjectives in _-er_ (_-ier_) and _-or_, coming from _-arium_
    and _-ōrium_, regularly have feminines in _-eira_ (_-ieira_)
    and _-oira_. By the analogy of the masculine, there is a
    feminine in _-era_ in parts of the west; by the analogy of the
    feminine, there is a masculine in _-eir_ in Auvergne. The i of
    _vair_ probably comes from the feminine _vaira_ and from the
    verb _vairar_. The noun _feira_ sometimes becomes _fiera_ like
    a feminine adjective.

Sc´y: see Ssy.

Ssy, sc´y, sty > s´, which in most of the territory became is, but
in the west and the extreme east developed into i(t)š and (t)š:
✱_bassiāre_ > baissar baichar bachar, ✱_angŭstia_ > engọissa,
✱_ingrŏssiat_ > engruęissa, _fascia_ > faissa, ✱_grassiāre_ > graissar,
_pŏstea_ > puęissas pueih püch, _ūstium_ > üis.

Sty: see Ssy.

Sy > z´, which in most of the territory became iz, but in parts of the
northeast, north, and west developed into i(d)ž and (d)ž, and in some
scattered dialects gave y and z: _basium_ > bais bai (§ 63), _basiare_
> baisar baiiar baiar bayar basar, _quasi_ + vowel > cais quaish,
_camisia_ (cf. _Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie_, XII, 265) >
camiza, _cerĕsea_ (_Einf._, § 103) > ciręiza cirięiia cerięya cerięza,
_ma(n)siōnem_ > maisọn maiiọn maiọn mayọ, _occasiōnem_ > ochaizọ,
_pre(hen)siōnem_ > preisọ (cf. enpreyọna, ‘imprisons’), _quĭd se_ +
vowel > quẹis, Ger. _sazjan_ > saisir, _to(n)siōnem_ > toisọ.

T-g > dž: ✱_coratĭcum_ > corage, ✱_paratĭcum_ > parage, _viaticum_ >
viatie. For _messatgue_, etc., see § 65, (3).

Try apparently became ir: _atrium_? > aire, _arbĭtrium_ > albire.

Tty > ts > s: ✱_plattĕa_ > plassa.

Ty > apparently t´ > d´ > generally d´z´,[73] which in most of the west
and north became dz, but in the south and east developed into idz; dz
and idz, when they remained medial, were reduced, before and during
the literary period, to z and iz: ✱_altĭtia_ > altẹza, ✱_bellĭtia_
> belẹza, _malĭtia_ > malẹza, _pigrĭtia_ > perẹza, ✱_prĕtiat_ >
pręza, ✱_rikĭtia_ > riquẹza; _palatium_ > palatz palaitz palais (§
64), _pŭteum_ > pọtz püis, _prĕtium_ > prętz pręs, _solatium_ > solatz
solas; _potiōnem_ > pozọn poizọn, ✱_pretiāre_ > prezar, _ratiōnem_
> razọ raizọn, _s(t)atiōnem_ > sazọ saizọn. The forms without i
prevail in the literary language, and in words in which the dz comes
after the accent (especially in the ending -ẹza) they seem to have
encroached largely upon the ground of the others.[74] According to
some philologists, the development of ty differed according to its
position before or after the accent: for a brief bibliography of the
discussion, see _Zs._, XXVII, 689. In learned words we find _zi_,
_ci_, _çi_, _ti_: _estimatio_, _iustizia_ _-icia_ _-ecia_ _-eçia_,
_natio_ _nacio_, _negoci_, _servizi_ _-ici_ (cf. A. Horning, Zs., XXIV,
545, XXV, 736, XXXI, 200).

    1. _Palai_ (beside _palatz_ _-aitz_ _-ais_) may have been made
    from _palais_ (used by Bertran de Born and in _Flamenca_) by
    dropping the s which was regarded as an inflectional ending.
    It was perhaps influenced by such words as _bais_ _bai_: cf.
    Sy. A clerical Latin ✱_palasium_, however, would account, not
    only for _palai_ _palais_, but also for French _palais_ and for
    Italian _palagio_.

    2. Modern _poijon_ (Alps) and _rajo_ (Limousin) have perhaps
    followed the analogy of such words as _maison_ _maijon_
    _majon_: cf. Sy.

    3. _Escoisson_ < _excŭtiunt_ seems to follow ✱_escois_
    < _excŭtio_. It was perhaps influenced by _conoisson_ <

    4. Some of the modern western dialects have d in _radon_,
    _sadon_, etc. = _razo_, _sazo_, etc.


74. (1) Of the groups beginning with l (and not ending in l, r, w, or
y), the following remained unchanged (except that c before a became
tš in the north and northwest).-- lb, lc (and llc), lg (llg), lm,
lp, lv: _alba_ > alba; _calcāre_ > calcar, _collocāre_ ✱_colcāre_ >
colcar (-char); _collocare_ ✱_collogare_ ✱_colgare_ > colgar; _hëlm_ >
ęlm, _ŭlmum_ > ọlm; _cŏlăphum_ ✱_cŏlpum_ > cǫlp (κόλπος > gọlfe is
unexplained); _calvum_ > _calv_ (= calf?), _salvāre_ > salvar. Ld, ls
(lls), lt (llt) were regularly unchanged except for the vocalization of
the l: see below. Lc´ (llc´) became lts, and then the l was vocalized:
see below. Lc´p became lp in _calce pīsāre_ > calpisar. Lg´, llg´,
have been treated in § 73. Lvs, lvt became ls, lt, and then the l was
vocalized: see below.

(2) L became u before the dental consonants d, s, t in most of the
dialects. The vocalization seems to have begun in the 8th century
and to have progressed through the literary period and later. It
is difficult to trace it, as _l_ long continued to be written for
u. In modern Provençal, ls remains in Languedoc, lt in Rouergue.
_Auça_ occurs in the _Boeci_. The l was probably first retracted, to
differentiate it from the following dental; and then this velar l was
opened into u. Ex.: _cal(ĭ)daria_ > caudiera, _cal(ĭ)dum_ > caut,
_sŏl(ĭ)dum_ > sǫlt sǫut; _falsum_ > fals faus, _malos_ > mals maus,
_valles_ > vals vaus; ✱_fallĭta_ > fauta, _mŭltum_ > mọlt mọut,
✱_tŏllĭtum_ > tǫlt tǫut; _dŭlcem_ > dọlz dọutz dọus, _pŏllĭcem_ >
pǫutz, _salĭcem_ > sautz; _calvus_ > ✱cals caus, ✱_vŏlvĭta_ > vǫlta
vǫuta. So ✱_altiat_ > auça aussa, ✱_calceare_ > cauçar caussar: cf. §
73, Lc´y, Lty. In dọs (= dọus) and mọt (= mọut) the ọ seems to
have absorbed the u. Cf. § 65, L.

    1. The final t of _molt_ seems to have been lost sometimes
    before a consonant: hence _mul_, which, influenced by _man_,
    ‘many’, became _mon_.

    2. _Altretal_ (also _autretal_) became _atretal_ by
    dissimilation; hence we have also _atressi_ for _altressi_
    (_autressi_). _Aital_, _aitan_ seem to be made up of _tal_,
    _tan_ with the first syllable of _aissi_ (< _ac sīc_), regarded
    as a prefix meaning ‘just’.

    3. _Pallĭdus_ > _palles_ (through the feminine ✱_páleza_).

    4. _Fouzer_ is from _fŭlger_ or ✱_fŭlgerem_ = _fŭlgur_.

75. Of the groups beginning with m (and not ending in l, r, w, or
y), the following usually remained unchanged--mb, md, mf, mp, ms,
mt: _gamba_ > gamba (if _bobansa_ is from βόμβος, it is irregular);
✱_semitarium_ ✱_semidarium_ > semdięr; _triumphāre_ > triomfar;
_lampas_ ✱_lampa_ > lampa; ✱_camisīle_? > camsil (dialectically cansil;
so Samson, Sanso); _cŏmĭtem_ > comte (dialectically conte). For mbd
in _ambo dŭos_ see § 111, 2. Mn in the literary language generally
remained unchanged (often spelled _mpn_), but in some dialects it was
assimilated into nn, which was locally simplified into n: _dŏmĭna_
_dŏmna_ > dompna domna donna dona, _damnāre_ > dampnar damnar dannar
danar, _fēmĭna_ ✱_fēmna_ > fẹmna fẹnna (_feme_ is from _fémena_ <
_fēmĭna_),[75] _hŏmĭnem_ ✱_hŏmnem_ > omne (_ome_ is from ✱_ómene_ <
_hŏmĭnem_).[75] When final, it regularly became n, occasionally m:
_damnum_ > dan, _somnum_ > son som.[76] Mnc´ > ndz nz in ✱_domnicĭlla_
> donzẹla. Mpt mt > mt, dialectically nt: _computāre_ > comtar contar,
_temptāre_ > temptar tentar; _domitāre_ > domptar.[77]

76. (1) Of the groups beginning with n (and not ending in l, r, w,
or y), the following generally remained unchanged (except that c, g
before a became tš, dž in the north and northeast)--nc, nd, ng, nm,
nt: _hanka_ > anca, _blank-_ > blanc (-ca -cha), _franko_ > franc
(-ca -cha); _mandāre_ > mandar, _ŭnda_ > ọnda; _lŏngum_ > lonc (-ga
-ia), _plango_ > planc, _rĭng_ > rẹnc; _anĭma_ > anma (also, by
dissimilation, arma); _sentīre_ > sentir. For _final_ nd, nt, see
(2) below. Nc´ > nts ns: ✱_francē(n)sis_ > francẹs, _mancĭpium_ >
mansip (also massip: cf. ns below), _vĭncere_ > vẹncer vẹnser. Nct
became in different dialects n´ int nt ntš: _jŭnctum_ > iọnh ioint
iọnt iọnch, _ŭnctūra_ > onchüra, ✱_pĭnctūra_ > peintüra penchüra,
_planctum_ > planh planch, _sanctum_ > sanh saint sant. Ndc´ became,
in different dialects, ndz (later nz), nts, ndž: _quīndĕcim_ > quinze
quintze quinge. Ndt > nd nt: ✱_rendĭta_ > renda renta. Nf remained in
some dialects, while in others it became ff, then f: _confŭndit_ >
confọn cofọn, _infantem_ > enfant effant efant, _infĕrnum_ > enfęrn
efęrn. Ng > ng: _mŏnăchum_ ✱_mon’gu_ > mongue (_manĭcum_ > margue by
dissimilation). Ns, in learned words and new formations (see § 55, N),
remained in most dialects, while in others (especially those of the
centre) it became ss, then s; _consĭlium_ > consẹlh cossẹlh, _in
sĭml_ > ensẹm essẹm, ✱_insignāre_ > ensenhar essenhar, _pensāre_ >
pensar pessar, _sensus_ > sens; for _final_ ns, see § 63, (5). Ntc´ >
nts ns in _pantĭcem_ > pansa. Nv remained in some dialects, while in
others it became vv, then v: _convenīre_ > convenir covenir. Ndc, ndg,
n-g, ng´ have been treated under § 73.

(2) Final nd remained as nt in the eastern and central part of the
territory, became n in the west and a part of Limousin, and disappeared
altogether in a part of Languedoc and Gascony: _amando_ > aman,
_descĕndit_ > deissẹn, _grandem_ > grant gran gra, _mŭndum_ > mọnt
mọn, _vēndit_ > vẹnt bẹn, _profŭndum_ > preọn, _quando_ > quant
quan. Final nt remained in most of the territory, but in a part of
Languedoc and Gascony became n or disappeared: _fŏntem_ > font fon fo,
_mŏntem_ > mont mon, _quantum_ > quant quan, _vĕntum_ > vent bent be.

For _efanh_, _parenh_, _monh_ < _mŭndi_, etc., see § 51, 1.

77. Of the groups beginning with r (and not ending in l, r, w, or y),
the following remained unchanged (except that c, g before a became
tš, dž in the north and northeast)--rb, rc, rd, rf, rg, rm, rn,
rp, rs, rt, rv: _barba_ > barba, _cŏrbum_ > corp; _barca_ > barca,
_cĭrcāre_ > cercar, _clĕrĭcum_ ✱_clĕrcum_ > clęrc, _fŭrca_ > fọrca
fọrcha, _mercātum_ > mercat; _ardĕntem_ > arden, ✱_perdūtum_ > perdüt,
_vĭr(ĭ)dem_ > vẹrt; _ŏrphănum_ > ǫrfe; ✱_carricāre_ ✱_carrigāre_
✱_cargāre_ > cargar cariar, _largum_ > larc (-ga -ia), _sērĭca_
✱_sēr’ga_ > sẹrga; _ĕ́rēmum_ > ęrm, _fōrma_ > fọrma; _hibĕrnum_ >
ivęrn, _tabĕrna_ > tavęrna, _tornāre_ > tornar; _wërpan_ > guerpir;
_arsum_ > ars, _cŭrsum_ > cọrs (for _vĕrsus_ > vęs, see § 55, R);
_artem_ > art, _fŏrtem_ > fǫrt; _servīre_ > servir. For _final_ rn,
rs, see § 63, (5); § 65, R. Rc´> rts rs: _parcĕre_ > parcer, _parcit_
> partz, ✱_tŏrcĕre_ > tǫrser. Rdc´ became, in different dialects,
rdz (later rz), rts, rdž: _quatuŏrdĕcim_ ✱_quattōrdĕcim_ > quatọrze
quatọrtze quatọrge. Rdg before a > rg, rdž: _vĭridicantem_
✱_vĭrdigantem_ > verguan verian. Rdt > rd: _perdĭta_ > pęrda. Rps > rs:
✱_escarpsus_ (= _excerptus_) > escars. Rtm > rtm or rm: _fŏrti mĕnte_ >
fortmen formen. For rg´ see § 73.

78. Of the groups beginning with s (and not ending in l, r, w, or y),
the following usually remained unchanged through the literary period
(except that c before a became tš in the north and northeast)--sc,
sm (ssm), sn, sp, st: ✱_bŭscum_ (? = _bŭxum_)? > bọsc, ✱_lŭscum_
> lọsc, _pascha_ > pasca pascha, _pĕrsĭca_ _pĕssĭca_ ✱_pĕsca_ >
pęsca, _piscātor_ > pescaire, _piscarium_ > pesquier peschier,
_þrëscan_ ✱_trescāre_ > trescar; _ex-mĭttĕre_ ✱_esmĭttĕre_ (§ 55, X)
> esmẹtre, _pĕssĭmus_ > pęsmes; _eleemŏsy̆na_ > almǫsna, _asĭnum_ >
asne; _expōnĕre_ ✱_espōnĕre_ > espọnre, _gaspildjan_? > guespilhar;
_præpŏsĭtum_ > prebǫst, _trīstem_ > trist. For _final_ scs, sts, see 2
below. Sc´ became, in most of the territory, is; in parts of the north
and northeast, s; in the west and the extreme east, i(t)š and (t)š
(cf. § 73, Ssy): _co(g)nōscĕre_ > conọisser, _crēscĕre_ > crẹisser,
_ex-cĕrnĕre_ ✱_escĕrnīre_ > eissernir, ✱_ex-cerebellāre_ ✱_es-_ >
esservelar, _fascem_ > fais, _nascĕre_ > naisser nasser naicher
nacher, _pĭscem_ > pẹis pẹich pẹch. Scb became sb in _epĭscŏpus_
✱_ebíscobus_ > bisbes (also bispes and ebesques). Spm became sm in
_blasphemāre_ > blasmar. Spt > st: _hŏspĭtem_ > ǫste (also ǫsde). Stg
became sg and sdž in _domesticāre_ ✱_-gāre_ > domesgar domesiar. Stm
became sm in _asthma_ > asma. For the later history of the s in all
these groups, see § 65, S, 1.

    1. _Prĕsby̆ter_ became regularly pręstre: § 71, 1. But beside
    _prĕsby̆ter_ there existed in Vulgar Latin _prebĭter_ (_Einf._,
    § 140), the syllable _pres-_ being replaced by the Latin
    prefx _præ-_ or _pre-_, through the analogy of such words as
    _præbĭtor_, _præposĭtus_. From the accusative _prebĭtĕrum_ we
    have regularly prevẹire. Pręire is a cross between pręstre and

    2. Final sts, in nearly all the territory, was reduced to ts:
    _finïstis_ > finitz, _hŏstis_ > ǫz (accusative ǫst), _trīstes_
    > tritz (sg. trist); but sts was kept in ẹstz < _ĭstos_ and
    in its derivative aquẹstz. Similarly final scs was generally
    reduced to cs: ✱_bŭscus_? > (bǫcs) bǫcs (accusative bǫsc),
    _quĭsquis_ > quẹcs.

    3. _Conois_ etc. < _co(g)nōsco_ etc. (beside _conosc_ etc.)
    are doubtless due to the second and third persons (_conoisses_
    _conois_ etc.). Some of the modern eastern dialects have
    _-isso_ corresponding to _-sca_ (_freisso_ etc.): this seems to
    indicate an old metathesis of sc in that region.


79. Of the groups not yet discussed, the most important are ct, gd, gn,
ks, which show palatalization. It is now generally assumed that the
Celts, who had turned their native ct into χt, pronounced Latin ct in
the same way when they learned Latin (Meyer-Lübke, _Einf._, § 186), and
likewise substituted χs for ks (Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, I, § 650), and
probably χd, χn for gd, gn. The χ was attracted into a palatal spirant
by the following dental, and the dental itself was then palatalized.
Most philologists explain the development of cl, gl into l´ (cf. § 68)
in a similar way. Inasmuch as Indo-European pt had also been changed to
χt in Celtic, it is not unlikely that the Celts substituted χt, χs for
Latin pt, ps in a few words; the χ replacing p may sometimes have been

    1. To account for palatalization in the non-Celtic parts
    of southern Gaul, we may assume either that the spirant
    pronunciation spread from the Celtic to the other regions, or
    that in the latter the palatalization came about simply through
    the mutual attraction of the guttural and the dental.

80. The groups will now be discussed in alphabetical order:--

Bc > (✱pc), ptš (before a): ✱_reprŏb(ĭ)cat_ > reprǫpcha.

Brg > rg or urg in _fabrĭca_ ✱_fabrĭga_ > farga faurga. Cf. § 70, Br.

Bs > bs in the learned words _absens_, _absensa_.

Bsc > sc: _obscūrus_ > escürs.

Bst > st: _sŭbstat_ > sọsta.

Bt > bt, t: _subtīlem_ > sobtil sotil. See also βt below.

Bts > ts: _sŭbtus_ > sọtz.

βc > uc: ✱_avĭca_ ✱_aβca_ > auca.

βc´ > udz or uts, later uz, us: _avicĕllum_ ✱_aβcĕllu_ > auzęl aucęl.
Cf. § 65, C´, 1.

βd > ud, in the west bd: _dēbĭtum_ ✱_dēβĭdu_ ✱_deβdu_ > dẹude,
_mal’habĭtum_ ✱_malaβĭdu_ ✱_malaβdu_ > malaude; _cīvitātem_ ✱_cīβidāde_
✱_ciβdad_ > cibdat. Cf. βt below.

βt > ut, in the west pt: _dēbĭtum_ ✱_dēβtu_ > dẹute dẹpte, _dŭbĭto_
✱_dŭβto_ > dọute dọpte, _mal’habĭtum_ ✱_malaβtu_ > malaute malapte;
_cīvitātem_ ✱_cīβtate_ > ciutat (later cieutat: § 44, 2) ciptat,
✱_mŏvĭta_ ✱_mŏβta_ > mǫuta, ✱_remōvĭtum_? > remọute (_Girart_).
_Depte_, _malapte_ are not confined to the west (modern Limousin
_dete_, Dauphiné _malate_); they come also from Latin _dēb’tum_,
_mal’hab’tum_: cf. § 47, (3).

Cc´ > its > is; in the west and the extreme east itš or tš: _ecc’hīc_ >
eici eissi eichi achi.

Cm > cm, m: ✱_Jácomus_ > Iacmes Iames (also, perhaps borrowed, Iaimes,

C´m > im or sm: _dĕcĭmum_ > dęime dęsme, _facĭmu(s)_ > faim. Cf. § 52,

Ct > tš in most of the territory; but in the north and northeast, and
in the southwest, it became, as in French, it: _coctāre_ > cochar
coitar, _dīctum_ > dig dit, _factum_ > fag fait, _lacte_ > lag
lait, _lĕctum_ > lięg lęit, _lūcta_ > lücha, _nŏctem_ > nuęg nuęit,
_pactum-a_ > pacha, _pĕctus_ > pięg pęitz, _ŏcto_ > uęich[78] uęit. The
ct of _(e-)jectāre_ > getar does not show popular treatment; the word
is similarly irregular in most of the other languages.

C´t seems to give the same results as ct, namely tš and it: _dīcĭtis_
> ditz, ✱_explĭcitāre_ > esplechar espleitar, _facĭtis_ > faitz,
_placĭtum_ > plach plait, (hence _plaieiamen_, _plaideiar_), ✱_vŏcĭtum_
(= _vacuum_) > vuęch vǫig[79] vǫh (hence _voiar_; _voidar_ would appear
to presuppose a form ✱vǫit).

DC, dg: see § 73, D-g.

DC´, in the greater part of the territory, became dz, later z; but
in Auvergne and some western dialects it became ts, and in parts of
the southeast and southwest it gave dž: _duŏdĕcim_ ✱_dōdĕcim_ > dọze
dọtze dọge, _jūdĭcem_ > iütge, _radicīna_ > razina, _sēdĕcim_ > sẹze
sẹtze sẹtge. _Iütge_ may have been influenced by iütiar.

Dn developed peculiarly in _consuetūdĭnem_ ✱_costūmen_ > costüm,
_incūdĭnem_ ✱_inclūd-_? > enclütge.

Gd > dž and id, corresponding to the tš and it from ct: ✱_frĭgdum_ (=
_frīgdum_) > frẹg frẹit (fem. frẹia frẹida).[80] The irregularity
in _amy̆gdăla_ > amandola goes back to Vulgar Latin. _Frezir_ _freizir_
is perhaps from ✱_fre(i)zar_ (cf. Italian _frizzare_) < ✱_frigdiare_.

G’d: see Yd.

Gm > m: _pigmĕntum_ > pimen. _Fragment_ is learned. Greek γμ became um:
_phlĕgma_ > flęuma, _sagma_ > sauma.

Gn > n´: _agnĕllum_ > anhęl, _pŭgnum_ > pọnh. According to the rhymes,
final n´ would seem to have become n in many dialects. _Stagnum_ >
estanc, _rēgnum_ > rẹnc (also _reing_) show an early metathesis. When
_gnōsco_ lost its _g_, _cognōsco_ became ✱_conōsco_ in popular Latin.

Gnd > n´d, later, in different dialects, ind, n´d, nd, ndž: _cŏgnĭtum_
✱_cŏn´ĭdu_ > ✱cǫnhede ✱cǫnhde, then cǫinde, cuęnde, cǫnge. Cf. Gnt
below. See § 47, 1.

Gnt > n´t, later, in different dialects, int, n´t, nt: _cŏgnĭtum_ >
✱_cŏn´ĭtu_ > ✱cǫnhete (the t being due to clerical influence) > cǫinte
cǫnte; _dĭgnitātem_ ✱_dĭn´tāte_ > denhtat. Cf. Gnd above.

Ks > is, in most of the territory; in Auvergne and in the extreme east
it became itš or tš: _ac sīc_ > aissi, _exāmen_ > eissam eicham echam,
_exĭlium_ > eissilh, _exīre_ > eissir eichir ichir, ✱_exorbāre_ >
eissorbar, _laxat_ > laissa, _uxōrem_ > oissọr, _tŏxĭcum_ > tuęissec.
In _essaiar_, _essemple_, _essilh_, the prefix became es- through the
analogy of ex- before consonants: cf. § 55, X.

Ksc > sc; before a, in the north and northeast, stš: ✱_laxicāre_ >
laschar, _toxicāre_ > toscar.

Ksm > s´m, later sm: _prŏxĭmum_ > prǫsme pruęsme. For the later history
of the s (pruęime), see § 65, S, 1.

Kss > is: ✱_exsanguinātum_ > eissancnat, ✱_exsūcāre_ > eissügar
(_essugar_ presupposes a Vulgar Latin es-: see § 55, X).

Pf > f: _sapphīrum_ > safir.

Ppc > (✱pc), ptš (before a): ✱_cloppicāre_ > clopchar.

Ps, in some dialects, remained unaltered; but in most of the territory
it changed (through χs: § 79) to is, iš, š, s, and us; iš and š
belonging especially to the west, us to the east: _capsa_ > capsa
caissa caisha casha, _ĭpse_ > ẹps ẹis, _ĭpsa mĕnte_ > epsament
eissamen ichamens, _met-ĭpse_ > medẹis mezẹish medẹs mezẹus,
_ne-ĭpse_ > neẹps nẹis nẹus. The ps forms seem to have been crowded
out by the others, especially by those with is.

Pt > pt, later t (except in parts of Languedoc and Gascony); in a few
words, ut, it: ✱_accaptāre_ (or ✱_accapitāre_?) > acaptar achatar,
_aptum_ > apte, _adaptāre_ > azautar (hence _azaut_) through ✱aðaχtāre
(§ 79), _baptizāre_ > baptegar (_g_ = dž) bateiar, _capitāle_ > captal
catal chatal, _captīvum_ > captiu catiu and more commonly caitiu
chaitiu (through ✱caχtīβu: § 79), _rŭpta_ > rọta, _septimāna_ >
septmana setmana, _sĕptem_ > sęt. _Escrich_ _escrit_ (= _scrīptum_) are
based on _dich_ _dit_.

Td > t (through V. L. tt): _nĭtĭdum_ > nẹt, _pūtĭdum_ > püt. Cf. § 47,

Tm: _marĭtĭma_ > marẹdma.

Tn: if _renha_, ‘rein’, is connected with _rĕtĭne_ (see Körting), it
must have been influenced by _renhar_ < _regnāre_.

Ts: _et sīc_, under the influence of _ac sīc_, became ✱_ec sīc_ > eissi
eichi ichi.

Yd > dž and id: _cōgĭto_ ✱_cōyĭdo_ > cüg cüit, _cōgitāre_ ✱_cōyidare_
> cüiar cüidar, _rĭgĭdum_ ✱_rĭyĭdu_ > rẹide (§ 50, 1). _Rede_ and the
feminine _reza_ are peculiar. Cf. § 49, (1).


81. The only single consonants that occur in Latin at the end of a word
are b, c, d, l, m, n, r, s, t. The only groups (in words preserved) are
ks, nt, st.


82. D, n, r, t at the end of proclitics (_ad_, _in_, _per_, _et_) are
really medial consonants and must be distinguished from final n, r, t
in independent words (_nōmen_, _frater_, _amat_); final d occurs only
in proclitics. The consonants will be treated in alphabetical order:--

B appears as b in Iacǫb, p in Iǫp, both learned.

C apparently fell after all vowels in some dialects; in others it
fell only after back vowels, and became i after a and front vowels:
_eccu’hŏc_ (§ 55, W) > acǫ (§ 43, 2), _ecce hŏc_ > aissǫ çǫ sǫ, _hŏc_ >
ǫ meaning ‘it’ (while ǫc, ‘yes’ probably comes from ✱_hocque_: cf. A.
Thomas in _Rom._, XXXVII, 322); _fac_ > fai, _illác_ (§ 16, 4) > lai
la, _ecce hac_ > sai sa; _dīc_ > di, _ecce hīc_ > eici, _sīc_ > si.
Düi < _dūc_ may perhaps be explained as due to the analogy of _düire_
and of _fai_. Cf. § 63, (6).

D in _apud_ fell early: see § 65, P, 2. In the proclitics _ad_, _quĭd_,
the d disappeared before a consonant, and before a vowel became in most
dialects ð > z (cf. § 65, D): a, quẹ; að az, quẹð quẹz.

L fell in _in sĭmul_ > essẹm. It remained in the learned Abęl,
tribunal. It is believed by some that _sivals_, ‘at least’, comes from
_sī vel_.

M fell in Vulgar Latin at the end of a word of more than one syllable
(§ 55, M): _crēdam_ _crēda_ > crẹza, _dōnum_ _dōnu_ > dọn, _fŏrtem_
_fŏrte_ > fǫrt; _Adam_ is learned. At the end of an independent
monosyllable, it fell in some dialects and in others became n (cf.
§ 65, N): _jam_ > ia, _rĕm_ > rẹ rẹn (Marcabru uses rẹy for the
rhyme), _sŭm_ (verb) > sọ sọn. At the end of proclitics, m was
probably kept at first before vowels and labials, while it became n
before dentals, ŋ before gutturals, and disappeared before spirants;
but the n forms (helped by the analogy of _en_, _non_) and those
without a final consonant replaced m before vowels and partly before
labials, and probably took the place of ŋ before gutturals; we find,
then, sometimes m before labials, but either no consonant or n before
all other sounds: _quĕm_ > que, _sŭm_ (verb) > sọ sọn, _sŭm_ (=
_sŭum_) > sọ sọn sọm, ✱_tŭm_ (= _tŭum_) > tọ tọn tọm.

N fell in Vulgar Latin at the end of a word of more than one syllable
(§ 55, M): _nōmen_ _nōme_ > nọm. At the end of proclitics we generally
find n before a vowel, a form without n before spirants, both forms
before other consonants, but often m before a labial: _ĭn_ > en (_en
amar_, _en cant_), e (_e Fransa_, _e ls_), em (_em breu_); _nōn_ > non
(_non es_, _non ges_), no (_no falh_, _no tol_), nom (_nom plagues_).

R remained: _amātor_ > amaire, _cŏr_ > cǫr, _marmor_ > marbre (_marme_
shows dissimilation), _sŏror_ > sǫrre (_sor_ through proclitic use). So
in proclitics: _per_ > per, _sŭper_ > sọbre.

    1. A Provençal final r began to fall in the west and south in
    the 14th century: cf. § 65, R, 1.

S remained: _amīcus_ > amics, _cŏrpus_ > cǫrs, _facias_ > fassas,
_fŏrtes_ > fǫrtz, _ŏpĕras_ > ǫbras, _sŭbtus_ > sọtz. Between a
palatal, or an n that did not fall, and an s, a t developed in some
dialects: _annos_ > anz, _fīlios_ > filz; cf. § 63, (1), (8).

    1. Final s began to fall or to become i in many dialects as
    early as the 14th century: cf. § 65, S, 1. In _mai_, beside
    _mais_, the fall was earlier.

    2. Final ts > t, in the second person plural of verbs, in parts
    of Limousin and Dauphiné: _habētis_ > avęt. Cf. § 64. In all
    first person plural forms (except esmes) final s fell very
    early: _amāmus_ _amāmu’_ > amám. Cf. § 167.

    3. Through the influence of such common adverbs as _entz_ <
    _ĭntus_, _fors_ < _fŏris_, _ios_ < _deōrsum_, _mais_ < _magis_,
    _mens_ < _mĭnus_, _nemps_ < _nĭmis_, _plus_ < _plūs_, _sotz_
    < _sŭbtus_, _sus_ < _sūrsum_, s, coming to be regarded as
    an adverbial ending, was often added to the suffix _-men_
    (_belamens_), to many other adverbs, as _ensem-s_, _era-s_,
    _onca-s_, _poissa-s_, and to some prepositions, as _sen-s_ (cf.
    _tras_, _vers_, etc.). By the analogy of such double forms, we
    have _for_, _men_ beside _fors_, _mens_.

    4. _Magis_, used as a proclitic, probably became in Vulgar
    Latin ✱_mais_ and ✱_mas_, whence Provençal _mais_ and _mas_.
    For _mai_, see 1 above.

T, in independent words, fell very early, except in the preterit of
verbs; there it was retained in most dialects in weak preterits of the
first and third conjugations, in many dialects in weak preterits of the
fourth, but disappeared in strong preterits: _amat_ > ama, _cantābat_
> cantava, _dar_’ ✱_hat_ > darạ, _dōnet_ > dọn, _stat_ > estạ,
_partībat_ > partia, _placet_ > platz, _tenēr_’ + _-ē_(_b_)_at_ >
tenria, _vĕnit_ > ven; _donāvit_ > donęt donę, _vēndĭdit_ ✱_vendĕ́dit_
> vendęt vendę, _partīvit_ _partīt_ > partị partịt, _placuit_ >
plac, _vīdit_ > vi. In the proclitics _et_ and ✱_ot_ (= _aut_), the t
fell before consonants; before vowels it became d, which, under the
influence of _ad_ and _quĭd_, developed like an original d: _et_ > e,
eð ez; ✱_ot_ > o, oð oz; later, e and o came to be used often before
vowels also.


83. Ks remained in Vulgar Latin at the end of monosyllables only (§ 55,
X); there it became, in Provençal, is: _rēx_ > rẹis, _sĕx_ > sęis.
_Grecx_, _nicx_ are Latinisms.

Nt was generally reduced to n; but in the extreme north and some parts
of the south the t was retained in _-ant_: _amant_ > aman, _habē(b)ant_
> avian aviant; _cantent_ > canten; _vēndunt_ > vẹndon. In some
dialects the n fell after o, u (vẹndo, au); _-on_ and _-o_ were used
concurrently by the poets.

St > s in _ĕst_ > ęs. Cf. § 28, 5.


84. For certain consonant changes no laws have been established.[81]
Some of them doubtless originate in the language of children, which is
governed by principles different from those which regulate the speech
of adults. Others are due to vague associations of sound or sense.
Borrowed and learned words are especially exposed to such whimsical


85. The insertion (or addition) of a consonant, in such cases as those
mentioned below, is probably always due to some false association or
wrong etymology, but the specific cause often cannot be ascertained;
the added consonant seems to be generally a liquid or a nasal:--

    alhọnd_r_e -s < _aliŭnde_: V. L. ✱_aliŭnder_?

    co_n_si = _cossi_ < _eccu’ sīc_: analogy of the prefix _co-_
    _con-_. Cf. § 76, (1), nf, ns.

    enc_l_utge < _incūdĭnem_: cf. French _enclume_.

    e_n_gal = _egal_ < _æquālem_: analogy of the prefix _e-_ _en-_.
    Cf. § 76, (1), nf, ns.

    i_n_vęrn = _ivern_ < _hibĕrnum_: _hi-_ mistaken for the prefix
    _in-_; cf. Italian _inverno_, etc.

    par_v_en (hence _parvensa_) < _parĕntem_ (_parēre_): analogy of
    _ferven_, _serven_, or of _espaven_, _espavensa_, or influence
    of _parui_, etc.?

    pe_n_chenar < _pectināre_: analogy of _pencheire_, _penchura_?

    perd_r_is = _perditz_ < _perdīcem_: progressive assimilation?
    Cf. French _perdrix_.

    pǫuze_r_ = _pouze_ < _pŏllĭcem_: confusion with _polgar_ <

    ref_r_eitọr = _refeitor_ < _refectōrium_: association with
    _refreidar_ (_freit_).

    re_n_linquir = _relinquir_ < _relĭnquĕre_: analogy of _e-_
    _en-_; cf. _reforsar_ and French _renforcer_.


86. Metathesis is not very common in Provençal, although a few texts
offer many examples; it is apparently restricted to liquids and

    cabi_r_ǫl = ✱_cabriol_ < _capreŏ́lum_.

    cocod_r_illa < _crocodīlum_: cf. Italian _coccodrillo_.

    c_r_aba = _cabra_ < _capra_.

    enf_r_ondar = ✱_enfondrar_ < French _effondrer_

    esc_r_emir < _skirmôn_: cf. French _escrimer_.

    esta_n_c < _stagnum_: cf. French _étang_.

    estu_r_men = _estrument_ < _instrumĕntum_: cf. Italian

    fo_r_mir = _fromir_ < _frumjan_: cf. French _formir_, etc.

    f_r_eïr = _ferir_ < _ferīre_.

    g_r_ada = _garda_ < ✱_warda_.

    g_r_epir = _guerpir_ < _wërpan_.

    lhu_n_ = _nulh_ < _nūllum_: analogy of _negun_. Cf. Fr. _nune
    part_ (Balzac).

    p_r_esseguier (also _pess-_) < ✱_préssega_ < _pĕrsĭca_.

    rẹ_n_c (also _regne_) < _rēgnum_.

    t_r_ida < τίγριδα.

    t_r_onar < _tonitruāre_ + _thrŏnus_.

    t_r_uǫill < _tŏrculum_.

    t_r_obar <?_tŭrbāre_: see Körting.

    1. In _ginhol_ = _genolh_ < _genŭcŭlum_ the palatalization is
    shifted from the liquid to the nasal. In _lunh_ = _nulh_ <
    _nullum_, on the other hand, the palatalization remains at the
    end of the word, but the liquid and the nasal change places.


87. Dissimilation, like the other irregular phenomena, affects mainly
liquids and nasals, particularly r; it is not, however, entirely
confined to these classes. The two nasals, m and n, are similar enough
to undergo dissimilation. Some of the cases go back to Vulgar Latin,
while others are peculiar to Provençal or to Provençal and French.
In the table below, a dash indicates the total disappearance of the
consonant in question.

β + β > β + -- (v + --): _habēbam_ > ✱_aβēa_ > avia, ✱_vivāciārium_ >
viacier, _vivācius_ > viatz. _Vianda_, whatever its ultimate origin may
be, was probably borrowed from French.

kw + kw > k + kw: _quīnque_ > _cīnque_ > cinc.

l + l > r + l, -- + l, d + l: _calamĕllum_ > calamęl caramęl,
✱_umbilīcŭlum_ > emborígol, _flēbĭlem_ > flẹble frẹble fẹble,
_ŭlulāre_ > ulular udolar. Perhaps püs = plüs < _plūs_ is to be
explained by dissimilation, occurring in such phrases as _plus larc_,
_plus lonc_.

m + m > n + m: _memorāre_ > membrar nembrar (renembransa).

m + n > m + r: ✱_comĭnicāre_ > comenegar comergar, ✱_indomĭnicātum_ >
endomeniat endomergat, _mancĭpium_ > mansip massip marsip, _manĭcum_ >
margue, _mŏnăchum_ > mongue morgue.

n + m > r + m: _anĭma_ > anma arma, ✱_mĭnimāre_ > mermar.

n + n > n + r, r + n; ? d + n: _canŏnĭcum_ > canónegue canorgue,
_venēnum_ > verin; _nec ūnum_ > negün degün? (cf. Andalusian and
Asturian _dengun_, Catalan _dingu_, apparently from _nec ūnum_ +

r + r > r + --, -- + r, l + r: ✱_Bernhardum_ > Bernart Bernat,
_marmor_ > marbre marme, _prŏprium_ > prǫpri prǫpi; _dīe Mércūrī_
(influenced by _dīe Vénĕris_) > dimęrcres dimęcres, _grandem_ _rem_ >
granrẹ ganrẹ, _pr(eh)ĕndĕre_ > prenre penre, _prĕsby̆ter_ > pręstre
pęstre; _arbĭtrium_ > albire, ✱_Arvĕrnium_ > Alvęrnhe, _peregrīnus_ >
_pele(g)rīnus_ > peleris, _pŭrpŭra_ > pọlpra.

s + s > -- + s: ✱_spasmāre_ > (espasme) pasmar (cf. French _pâmer_),
perhaps through confusion of the initial es- with the prefix ex-.

t + t? > -- + t: _statiōnem_? > sazọ (cf. French _saison_, Spanish

y + y > y + --: ✱_disjejūnāre_ > ✱_disjeunāre_ > ✱_disy’nāre_ > dis´nar


88. The most important morphological developments are common to all, or
nearly all, the Romance languages. They may therefore be ascribed, in
their early stages, to Vulgar Latin, although direct evidence of their
beginnings is scanty.



89. (1) During the late Vulgar Latin and early Romance period neuter
nouns gradually became masculine; this change was doubtless due in
part to phonetic developments which obliterated distinctive endings:
_dōnum_ > dọn, m.; _nōmen_ > nọm, m. _Mare_, however, became almost
always feminine in Gaul: la mar. Some neuter plurals in _-a_, used
mainly in a collective sense, were preserved and eventually became
feminine singulars: _fŏlium_ _fŏlia_ > fǫlha, f. sg.; _lĭgnum_ _lĭgna_
> lẹnha, f. sg.; so luǫgua, pọma, prada, beside lǫc, pọm, prat (and,
by analogy, grasa, beside gras < _gradus_); similarly _labia_ > lavias,
f. pl.

(2) Masculine and feminine nouns usually kept their original gender.
Abstract nouns in _-or_, however, regularly became feminine in Gaul,
other abstract nouns being mostly feminine in Latin: _honōrem_ >
onọr, f.; _sapōrem_ > sabọr, f. With the exception of _manus_,
which generally retained its gender, feminine nouns of the second and
fourth declensions, unless they passed into the first declension
(_pĭrus_ > pẹra), became masculine, to conform to the usual _-us_
type: _fraxĭnus_ > fraisnes, m.; _pīnus_ > pins, m. Attracted by such
words as these, _arbor_ became masculine. There were some other less
important shifts.

    1. _Juventus_, passing into the second declension, became
    masculine (_ioven_); but we find also _ioventut_, f. _Laus_
    became masculine in Provençal; _fin_, on the other hand, is
    always feminine. _Mĕrŭla_ > _merle_, m. _Correitz_, _linh_,
    both m., occur beside _correia_ < _corrĭgia_, _linha_ <
    _līnea_. Other similar changes might be noted. Pr. _dia_ (also
    _di_), like Latin _dīes_, is usually masculine.

90. Some nouns passed from the fourth to the second declension in the
classic Latin period (_dŏmus_, _fīcus_); the rest doubtless followed in
Vulgar Latin (_frūctus_,[82] _gradus_, _manus_). Fifth declension nouns
in _-ies_ went over, for the most part, to the first declension:[83]
_dīes_ > dia, _facies_ > fassa, _glacies_ > glassa, _rabies_ > rabia;
but we find also di, fatz, glatz (ratge is probably French), following
the third declension type. Fifth declension nouns which did not
shift to the first came to be declined after the model of the third
(_fides_, _res_, _spes_). The five declensions were therefore reduced
to three, presumably in Vulgar Latin times. Among these there were some
exchanges: polvera, vergena; cf. § 89, (1), (2), 1.

91. The use of cases became more and more restricted in Vulgar Latin,
prepositional constructions taking the place of pure case distinction.
At the beginning of the Romance period, nouns probably had, in
unstudied speech, only two cases in constant use: a nominative and
an accusative or accusative-ablative. These two cases were generally
retained in Provençal, for the second and third declensions, until the
literary period: we may call them _nominative_ and _objective_.

(1) The locative, which had almost vanished in classic Latin, lingered
in Vulgar Latin only in names of places. It has left no sure traces in

(2) The vocative, in classic Latin, was like the nominative for most
words; in Vulgar Latin it probably disappeared, except in Church
phrases, such as _mī dŏmĭne_. In Provençal we find the nominative
regularly used in address (chanzọs, companh, emperaire, ioglars,
Papiols), although the objective occasionally occurs in its stead
(barọns pl., ioglar malastrüc, trachọr).

(3) The genitive, in the popular language, was little by little
replaced by other constructions--commonly by the ablative with _de_ or
by the dative; the beginnings of this substitution may be observed as
early as Plautus. Among Provençal nouns--aside from such learned forms
as ancianọr, christianọr, companhọr, paianọr, parentọr--we find
remnants of the genitive only in a few compound words, as diiǫus < _dīe
Jŏvis_, and in the standing phrase ẹs mestięr < _est ministĕrii_.

(4) The dative, which in most words had the same ending as the
ablative, came to be replaced, in the greater part of the Empire, by
the accusative with _ad_; this construction, too, goes back as far as
Plautus. Provençal nouns retain no traces of the dative.

(5) The ablative, after the fall of final m (§ 55, M) and the loss
of quantitive distinctions in unstressed syllables (§ 21), differed
little or not at all from the accusative in the singular of nearly all
nouns: _causăm_ _causā_, _dōnŭm_ _dōnō_, _patrĕm_ _patrĕ_, _frūctŭm_
_frūctū_, _dīĕm_ _dīē_. Furthermore, some prepositions (especially
_in_) were used both with the accusative and with the ablative. It
was inevitable, then, that the two cases should be confounded in the
singular, and we have evidence of such confusion as early as the
first century of our era; this led gradually to a substitution of the
accusative for the ablative in the plural, the accusative plural being
somewhat commoner and frequently simpler than the ablative. We may,
therefore, take the accusative as the basis of the Provençal objective,
remembering, however, that this accusative has been more or less
blended with the ablative.

(6) The two-case declension remained theoretically in use in Provençal
literature through the 14th century; but in texts later than the 12th,
cases are often confused. From the spoken language the declension
disappeared, in the west (as in Catalan), before the literary period;
in the centre and east, probably in the 12th century; in the north, in
the 13th. The case preserved was usually the objective, but sometimes
the nominative. Some nouns in _-aire_ _-adọr_ kept both forms, with a
differentiation of meaning.

92. In the discussion of declensions some phonetic peculiarities must
not be overlooked:--

(1) In the nom. pl. of the 2d declension, a stressed ẹ, followed in
the next syllable by final -ị, would regularly give ị (cf. § 27, 1);
but the ẹ is preserved by the analogy of the nom. and obj. sg. and the
obj. pl.: _capĭllī_ > cabẹl, _mĭssī_ > mẹs, _quētī_ > quẹt, _sērī_
> sẹr. We do, however, find cabil, and (perhaps by analogy) auzil <

(2) In the nom. pl. of the 2d declension, a c or g before the final -ị
would regularly be palatalized (cf. § 55, C, G); but it is preserved
from palatalization by the analogy of the other three forms: _amīcī_ >
amic, _lŏngī_ > lonc.

(3) For the development of a t between a palatal or an n and a final s,
see § 82, S: _annos_ > anz, _fīlios_ > filz.

(4) For the simplification of final scs, sts to cs, ts, see § 78, 2:
✱_bŭscus?_ > bǫcs, _trīstes_ > tritz.

(5) For the history of _-arius_ and _-tōrius_, see § 23, 1 and § 73,
Ry, 1.

93. (1) Nouns whose objective singular ended in s were invariable in
the earlier part of the literary period; _bracchium_ > bratz, _cŏrpus_
> cǫrs, _imperatrīcem_ > emperairitz, _fascem_ > fais, _latus_ > latz,
_lūcem_ > lütz, _mĭssum_ > mẹs, _nasum_ > nas, _ŏpus_ > ǫps, _ŭrsum_ >
ọrs, _pĭscem_ > pẹis, _pĕctus_ > pęitz, _prĕtium_ > prętz, _tĕmpus_ >
tems, _vĕrsum_ > vęrs, _vīsum_ > vis, _vōcem_ > vọtz. Later, however,
a plural (originally obj. pl.) was made for such words by adding
-es, generally at a time when final ts had been reduced to s (§ 64):
brasses, cǫrses, mẹsses, pẹisses, vęrses; examples occur as early as
the end of the 12th century.

(2) Other invariable nouns are midons, sidons, and often laus and rẹs;
the last two sometimes have an objective lau, rẹ. Midons comes from
the Church Latin _mī dŏmĭne_, which was popularized by the substitution
of the Provençal don for _dŏmĭne_ and the addition of the nom. -s; the
term was transferred from religious to feudal, and thence to amatory
use, and came to mean ‘my lady.’ _Mi domina_ was common in Church
Latin. Sidons is formed on the model of midons.

(3) For nouns in tš, see § 63, (1): ✱_disdūctum_ > desdüg, _frūctum_
> früch, _gaudium_ > gaug, _nŏctem_ > nuech. Such words were very
often written in the plural with _-gz_, which was pronounced either ts
or tš. The pronunciation ts is attested by such rhymes as _malfagz_:

94. Infinitives used substantively conformed to the 2d declension
type: lauzars lauzar (like fǫcs fǫc), rire-s rire (like fabre-s fabre):
see § 96. The same thing is true of masculine post-verbal nouns:
(getar) gętz gęt, (guidar) guitz guit, (lansar) lans (invariable).


95. This declension came to include a part of the fifth and also some
neuter plurals of the second and third. With the exception of dia
(nearly always masculine) and of a few learned words, it contained only
feminine nouns. As the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular
early became identical, leaving only one form in the singular, the
plural forms were reduced to one, the accusative crowding out the
nominative; this substitution, which must have been begun before the
Provençal period, was doubtless helped by the identity of nominative
and accusative plural in feminine nouns of the third declension.
_Causa_ will serve as a model:--

  _causa_            > causa
  _causam_           > causa
  _causæ_ ✱_causas_  > causas
  _causas_           > causas

    1. _Dia_ sometimes has a nom. sg. _dias_, following the example
    of other masculine nouns.

    2. Many feminine proper names, in Gaul and elsewhere, developed
    a Low Latin declension _-a_ _-āne(m)_ or _-a_ _-ēne(m)_, as
    _Anna_ _Annāne_. Provençal has few traces of this inflection.
    The word _putana_ <?_pūtĭda_ + _ānem_ + _a_ may be a remnant
    of it. Cf. Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, II, p. 27; E. Philipon, _Les
    accusatifs en_ -on _et en_ -ain, _Rom._, XXXI, 201.


96. This declension came to include the fourth. With the exception of
mas, ‘hand’ (generally feminine), it contained only masculine nouns.
The different types may be illustrated by _fŏcus_, _dōnum_, _faber_:--

  _fŏcus_ > fǫcs   _dōnum_ ✱_dōnus_ > dọns  _faber_  > faure fabre fabres

  _fŏcum_ > fǫc    _dōnum_          > dọn   _fabrum_ > fabre

  _fŏcī_  > fǫc    _dōna_ ✱_dōnī_   > dọn   _fabrī_  > fabre

  _fŏcos_ > fǫcs   _dōna_ ✱_dōnos_  > dọns  _fabros_ > fabres

For the c of _fŏcī_, see § 92, (2). For ✱_dŏnus_, etc., see § 89 (1).
Nom. fabre is due to the analogy of the other three cases; the s of
fabres is borrowed from the prevailing fǫcs type.

    1. Neuters which long preserved their gender often have no
    _-s_ in the nom. sg.: _segle_ or _segles_. Nouns in _-age_
    from _-aticum_ commonly have no _-s_: _corage_, _damnage_,
    _message_, _senhorage_; but forms with _-s_ occur also. Learned
    nouns in _-i_ from _-ium_ regularly have no _-s_: _breviari_,
    _emperi_, _iuzizi_, _testimoni_. Post-verbal nouns, on the
    other hand, usually take the nom. -s: _albires_, _blasme-s_,
    _consires_, _desires_ (cf. § 94). By the analogy of the
    _fabre-s_, _segle-s_, _blasme-s_ types, many masculines in _-e_
    sometimes drop the _-s_: _clergue-s_, _diable-s_, _morgue-s_,
    _oncle-s_, _poble-s_. _Maestre_, _prestre_ regularly have no

    2. Most proper names are declined like common nouns: _Arnautz_
    _Arnaut_, _Boecis_ _Boeci_, _Enrics_ _Enric_, _Lozoics_
    _Lozoic_, _Peire-s_ _Peire_. Many proper names, however,
    developed in Gaul and elsewhere, from the 9th century on, a Low
    Latin declension _-us_ _-ōne(m)_, as _Petrus_ _Petrōnis_ (cf.
    § 95, 2): hence _Carle-s_ _Carló_, _Peire-s_ _Peiró_, etc.; so
    _Bergonhs_ _Bergonhó_, etc.

    3. _Mas_, being usually feminine, has a nom. pl. _mas_.

    4. For _pagadi_, _salvi_, _soli_, etc., and _beill_, _peccah_,
    _efanh_, etc., see § 51, 1.


97. This declension absorbed a part of the fifth: cf. § 90.

98. Nouns whose stem was different in the nominative and the accusative
singular, reconstructed the nominative to correspond to the accusative,
the new form being similar to the original genitive: _papĭlio_
_papiliōnem_ > _papiliōnis_ _papiliōnem_, _pēs_ _pĕdem_ > _pĕdis_
_pĕdem_. The change began in the Vulgar Latin period. Exceptions to
the rule are names of persons, unless they ended in _-ans_ or _-ens_:
_nĕpos_ _nepōtem_ > nęps nebọt; but _amans_ _amantem_ > ✱_amantis_
_amantem_ > amáns amán.

    1. _Carnis_ for _caro_ is used by classic writers. _Grūis_ for
    _grūs_ occurs in the _Appendix Probi_ III, belonging perhaps
    to the 3d century. _Papiliōnis_, _pĕdis_, _travis_ = _trabs_,
    and some others are found in the 8th century _Glossary of

99. Masculine nouns of the third declension, early in the Provençal
period, made their nominative plural conform to the second declension
type, thus distinguishing it from the objective plural: _pater_
_patrem_ _patres_ _patres_ > paire paire paire paires (cf. Old French
and Italian). Feminines, on the other hand, kept the nominative plural
in -s: _mater_ _matrem_ _matres_ _matres_ > maire maire maires maires.

100. A few neuter nouns, becoming masculine in Vulgar Latin, developed
distinctively masculine forms in the singular: _gĕnus_ _gĕnus_ >
✱_gĕneris_ ✱_gĕnĕrem_ > genres genre; so _fŭlgur_ (> _fŭlger_) >
✱_fŭlgĕrem_ > fọuzer. Most neuters, however, kept in the singular
their original stem: _sēmen_ > sẹm, _tĕmpus_ > tems. But those
in _-men_ regularly, and those in _-r_ sometimes, took an -s in
the nominative singular: _flūmen_ _flūmen_ > flüms flüm, _marmor_
_marmor_ > marme-s marme; cǫr, in the literary language, usually has
no nominative -s. In the plural most neuters brought their forms
into harmony with the masculine type, but those in _-us_ kept the -s
throughout: (_caput_ >) _capus_ ✱_capum_ _capĭta_ _capĭta_ > caps cap
cap caps, _cŏr_ _cŏr_ _cŏrda_ _cŏrda_ > cǫr cǫr cǫr cǫrs, _nōmen_
_nōmen_ _nōmĭna_ _nōmĭna_ > nọms nọm nọm nọms; but _cŏrpus_
_cŏrpus_ _cŏrpŏra_ _cŏrpŏra_ > cǫrs cǫrs cǫrs cǫrs. _Mare_, becoming
feminine, was declined thus: mars mar mars mars.

    1. _Gĕnus_ also became _ges_, which was used as an adverb.

101. The third declension comprises three principal types: (1) nouns
which in Latin had no difference of stem or of accent between
the nominative and the accusative singular; (2) those which had a
difference of stem but not of accent; (3) those which had a difference
of accent.

(1) Nouns with no difference of stem or of accent:--


  _canis_ > cas     _pater_  > paire-s    _sōl_   > sọ-s
  _canem_ > ca      _patrem_ > paire      _sōlem_ > sọ
  _canes_ > ca      _patres_ > paire      _sōles_ > sọl
  _canes_ > cas     _patres_ > paires     _sōles_ > sọls


  _fīnis_[84] > fis   _mater_  > maire    _fĭdes_ > fẹs
  _fīnem_     > fi    _matrem_ > maire    _fĭdem_ > fẹ
  _fīnes_     > fis   _matres_ > maires   _fĭdes_ > fẹs
  _fīnes_     > fis   _matres_ > maires   _fĭdes_ > fẹs

    1. Masculine nouns of this type which etymologically had no -s
    in the nom. sg., often took one, even in the earliest times.

    2. _Laus_ and _res_ were often invariable, but were sometimes
    declined like _sols_ and _fes_.

(2) Nouns with a difference of stem but not of accent:--

  MASCULINE                  FEMININE                    NEUTER

  _pōns_ ✱_pŏntis_ > ponz   _pars_ ✱_partis_ > partz  _lūmen_  > lüm-s
  _pŏntem_         > pon    _partem_         > part   _lūmen_  > lüm
  _pŏntes_         > pon    _partes_         > partz  _lūmĭna_ > lüm
  _pŏntes_         > ponz   _partes_         > partz  _lūmĭna_ > lüms


  _cŏmes_   > coms              _hŏmo_    > om
  _cŏmĭtem_ > comte             _hŏmĭnem_ > ome omne[85]
  _cŏmĭtes_ > comte             _hŏmĭnes_ > ome omne
  _cŏmĭtes_ > comtes            _hŏmĭnes_ > omes omnes

    1. For other neuter types, see § 100.

    2. _Om_ later developed an inflection _oms_ _om_ _om_ _oms_.

    3. _Lex_, _rex_ became _leis_ _lei_ _leis_ _leis_, _reis_ _rei_
    _rei_ _reis_.

(3) Nouns with a difference of accent:--

  MASCULINE                        FEMININE

  _sĕrmo_ ✱_sermōnis_ > sermọs    _ratio_ ✱_ratiōnis_ > razǫs
  _sermōnem_          > sermọ     _ratiōnem_          > razọ
  _sermōnes_          > sermọ     _ratiōnes_          > razọs
  _sermōnes_          > sermọs    _ratiōnes_          > razọs


  _amans_ ✱_amantis_ > amáns            _parens_ ✱_parĕntis_ > paréns
  _amantem_          > amán             _parĕntem_           > parén
  _amantes_          > amán (f. amáns)  _parĕntes_           > parén
                                                              (f. paréns)
  _amantes_          > amáns            _parĕntes_           > paréns


  _amātor_   > amaire    _sĕnior_   > sęnher  _mŭlier_      > mọler
  _amatōrem_ > amadọr    _seniōrem_ > senhọr  _muliĕ́rem_[86]> molhęr
  _amatōres_ > amadọr    _seniōres_ > senhọr  _muliĕ́res_    > molhęrs
  _amatōres_ > amadọrs   _seniōres_ > senhọrs _muliĕ́res_    > molhęrs

  _servītor_   > servire   _baro_    > bar    _sŏror_   > sǫrre sǫr[87]
  _servitōrem_ > servidọr  _barōnem_ > barọ   _sorōrem_ > sorọr
  _servitōres_ > servidọr  _barōnes_ > barọ   _sorōres_ > sorọrs
  _servitōres_ > servidọrs _barōnes_ > barọs  _sorōres_ > sorọrs

    1. After the same pattern as _senher_, we have pastor
    _pastōrem_ > _pastre_ _pastór_, etc.; after the _bar_ pattern,
    ✱_companio_ (_Einf._, § 43) ✱_companiōnem_ > _companh_
    _companhó_, ✱_fĭllo_ (Körting) ✱_fillōnem_? > _fel_ _feló_,
    _glŭtto_ (= _glūto_) _gluttōnem_ > _glot_ _glotó_, _latro_
    _latrōnem_ > _laire_ _lairó_, _lĕo_ (treated like the name of a
    person) _leōnem_ > _leu_ _leó_, etc. On the model of _amaire_,
    _servire_, we find _trobaire_ _trobadór_, etc., _iauzire_
    _iauzidór_, etc.; and, for the second and third conjugations,
    _teneire_ _tenedór_, etc., _beveire_ _bevedór_, etc. The
    inflection of such words became much confused, and some of them
    eventually developed double declensions: _bars_ _bar_ _bar_
    _bars_, _barós_ _baró_ _baró_ _barós_; _emperaires_ _emperaire_
    _emperaire_ _emperaires_, _emperadórs_ _emperadór_ _emperadór_
    _emperadórs_. Some proper names follow the _bar_ model: _Bret_
    _Bretó_, _Folc-s_ (_Folques_) _Folcó_ (later _Folcós_ _Folcó_),
    _Gasc_ _Gascó_, _Uc_ _Ugó_, (later _Ucs_ _Uc_); cf. § 96, 2.


102. What has been said concerning the inflection of nouns applies also
to adjectives: see §§ 91-101. For pronominal adjectives see §§ 114 ff.

    1. The operation of phonetic laws sometimes results in a
    difference in stem between the m. and the f.: _bos_ _bona_,
    _larcs_ _larga_, _nutz_ _nuda_, _preon_ _preonda_; _mut_
    _muda_, _prezat_ _prezada_. For _pauc_ _pauca_, _rauc_ _rauca_,
    see § 65, C, 1. For _-arius_ _-aria_, _-tōrius_ _-tōria_, see §
    23, 1; § 73, Ry, 1.

    2. Adjectives in -s or -š are undeclinable in the m.
    sg.: _glorios_, _perfieg_. Those in -s originally had no
    inflectional ending in the m. pl., but later they sometimes
    added -es: _divers_ _diverses_, _frances_ _franceses_. For the
    pl. of those in š, see § 93, (3).

103. We must recognize two classes of adjectives: (1) those which in
Latin distinguish the feminine from the masculine; (2) those which do

    1. Adjectives like _acer_, which, though inflected after the 3d
    declension type, could distinguish the m. from the f. in the
    nom. sg., fell into one or the other--usually the first--of
    the following classes (_agre_ _agra_, _alegre_ _alegra_;
    _terrestre_ _terrestre_).

(1) Masculine and feminine different:--

  MASCULINE                 FEMININE
  _bĕllus_   > bęls        _bĕlla_             > bęlla
  _bĕllum_   > bęl         _bĕllam_            > bęla
  _bĕlli_    > bęl         _bĕllæ_ ✱_beĕllas_  > bęlas
  _bĕllos_   > bęls        _bĕllas_            > bęlas

  _pauper_   > paubre-s    _paupĕra_           > paubra
  _paupĕrum_ > paubre      _paupĕram_          > paubra
  _paupĕi_   > paubre      _paupĕræas_         > paubras
  _paupĕros_ > paubres     _paupĕras_          > paubras

(2) Masculine and feminine alike:--

  MASCULINE                 FEMININE
  _gentīlis_ > gentils     _gentīlis_ > gentils
  _gentīlem_ > gentil      _gentīlem_ > gentil
  _gentīles_ > gentil      _gentīles_ > gentils
  _gentīles_ > gentils     _gentīles_ > gentils

    1. Some adjectives of the second class were attracted into the
    first either in Vulgar Latin or in Provençal; this happened
    to all adjectives in _-és_, _-able_, _-ible_, and also to
    _comun_, _dous_, _fol_, _freble_, _graile_, _len_, _mol_,
    _noble_, _paubre_ (early), _rude_, _trist_: _cortes_ _cortesa_,
    _durable_ _durabla_; _comuna_, _doussa_, etc. Some kept both
    inflections: _dolens_, _dolens_ or _dolenta_; _grans_, _grans_
    or _granda_, etc.

104. In impersonal constructions we frequently find a nominative
singular without -s, which is apparently a survival of the Latin
neuter: _m’es bel_ (_greu_, _parven_, _semblan_, etc.) _que_.… But the
form with -s sometimes occurs in the same constructions: _m’es greus

    1. For _es mestier_, see § 91, (3).

105. Most adverbs of manner were formed by adding -men (-ment, -mens,
or -menz) to the feminine singular of the adjective: belamen. These
adverbs were originally ablative phrases: _serēna mĕnte_, etc. In
Provençal the specific meaning of the -men was forgotten, but the two
parts might still be separated by an intervening word: ẹpsa… ment.
When two adverbs in -men were used together, the ending was generally
affixed to only one, oftener the first. Bona and mala could be used as
adverbs without the suffix.

    1. For the adverbial ending -s, see § 82, S, 3.


106. Adjectives and adverbs regularly formed their comparative by
prefixing plüs to the positive, and their superlative by prefixing the
definite article to the comparative: cara, plüs cara, la plüs cara.
This method of comparison goes back to Vulgar Latin times.

    1. ‘Than’ is expressed by _que_ and _de_.

107. Some adjectives preserved their old comparative in _-ior_. These
comparatives had an inflection similar to that of sęnher: cf. § 101,
(3) and § 101, (3), 1.


  _altus_:                   aut        ----                  aussọr
  ✱_bellātus_ = _bĕllus_:    ----       bellaire bellázer-s   bellazọr
  _gĕnĭtus_:                 gen        génser-s              gensọr
  ✱_grĕvis_ = _gravis_:      gręu       gręuger               ----
  _grŏssus_:                 grǫs       gruęysser             ----
  _laið_:                    lai        láiger                ----
  _largus_:                  larc       ----                  largọr
  _lĕvis_:                   lęu        lęuger                ----
  _lŏngus_:                  lonc       ----                  lonhọr
  (_grandis_):               (gran)     máier                 maiọr
  (_bŏnus_):                 (bon)      męlher                melhọr
  (_paucus_):                (pauc)     mẹnre-s               menọr
  _nūgālis_:                 ----       ----                  nüalhọr
  (_malus_):                 (mal)      pęier                 peiọr
  (_mŭltus_):                (mọlt)     ----                  plüsọr[88]
  _sŏrdĭdus_:                sorde      sordẹier              sordeiọr

108. The following neuter comparatives were used as adverbs: gensẹis
gensẹs gensẹtz (< génser influenced by longẹis, sordẹis); longẹis
longẹitz <?✱longĭtius (< longĭter + lŏngius); mais < _magis_; męlhs
< _mĕlius_; mẹns < _mĭnus_; pęitz < _pĕjus_; sordẹis < _sordĭdius_;
viatz < _vivacius_. Mais, męlhs, mẹns, pęitz were used also as neuter
pronouns. Viatz lost its comparative sense.

109. A few adjectives, most or all of them learned, preserved the old
superlative form with an intensive sense: altisme, carisme, pęsme,
prǫsme, santisme.


110. The cardinal numerals are:--

  sętze, sędze
  dętz e sęt
  dętz e uęg
  dętz e nǫu
  vint, vin
  vint e ün
  vint e dọs
  quatre vint
  cent, cen
  quatre cen
  cinc cens (de)
  dọs milia
  trẹs melia
  quatre mila
  cinc millięrs (de)
  cent miria

111. The first two numbers were inflected as follows:--

  ü(n)s   üna       düi     dọi    dọas  dọs
  ü(n)    üna       dọs  (düi)     dọas  dọs

Düi dọi are from Vulgar Latin _dŭī_ = _dŭo_; dọs is from _dŭos_,
dọas from _dŭas_. Trẹs has a form trẹi (originally nom. m.),
patterned after düi, and a form trẹis, which seems to be a cross
between trẹs and trẹi. For the dialect forms of ọnze--sętze, see
§ 76, (1), Ndc´, and § 80, Dc´. Cen, multiplied by another number,
took a plural form when used substantively; when used adjectively, it
generally did not, but we find dozentas with a feminine noun. Mil had
four plurals, milia miria melia mila; millięrs is a noun.

    1. As an example of a longer compound numeral, we have _cen e
    quatre vint e ueg_.

    2. From _ambo_ we have the obj. forms, m. and f., _ams_,
    _ambas_. _Ambo_ combined with _dŭī_ (_dŭos_ _dŭas_), and
    perhaps influenced by Pr. _ab_ (§ 65, P, 2), had this

  _amdui_     _andui_     _abdui_      _ambedui_       _amdoas_
  _amdos_     _andos_     _abdos_      _ambedos_       _amdoas_

112. The ordinal numerals had separate forms for the two genders; the
masculine forms followed the second declension type, the feminine
forms, the first declension. After 5th, they were made by adding to the
cardinal numeral the originally distributive ending _-ēnus_ _-ēna_.

  primięr,  primięra
  segọn(t), segọnda
  tęrz,     tęrza
  quart,    quarta
  quint,    quinta
  seizẹ(n), seizẹna
  setẹ(n),  setẹna
  ochẹ(n),  ochẹna
  novẹ(n),  novẹna
  dezẹ(n),  dezẹna
  onzẹ(n),  onzẹna
  dozẹ(n),  dozẹna
  vintẹ(n), vintẹna
  centẹ(n), centẹna
  milẹ(n),  milẹna

113. Beside primięr we find premięr prümier promięr (§ 44, 1, 3), and
also prim and primeiran; for the developments of the ending -ięr, see §
23, 1 and § 73, Ry, 1. Tęrz, tęrza regularly became tęrs, tęrsa (§ 73,
Rty). Such forms as secọnda, tęrcia, sęxta, octava, nọna, dęcima are

    1. As an example of a compound ordinal numeral, we have
    _vintena tersa_.


114. Under this head will be treated not only pronouns and pronominal
adjectives, but also articles.

115. In popular Latin the personal, possessive, and demonstrative
pronouns and adjectives had two sets of forms, according as they
were accented or unaccented (§ 19). _Ille_, when stressed and used
pronominally, became a disjunctive personal pronoun of the third
person; when unstressed and used pronominally, it furnished the
conjunctive forms of the third person; when unstressed and used
adjectively, it developed into a definite article. _Ipse_ had similar
uses. These differentiations must have begun in Vulgar Latin times.

116. The declension of _ĭlle_ was considerably altered in Vulgar Latin.
The neuter _ĭllud_ disappeared, being replaced by _ĭlium_. Through the
influence of _quī_ _cūjus_ _cūī_, ✱_ĭllī_ _illūjus_[89] _illūī_[89]
came to be used beside _ĭlle_ _illīus_ _ĭllī_. The feminine had, beside
_illīus_ _ĭllī_, a genitive and dative _ĭllæ_; through the analogy of
_illūjus_ _illūī_, _ĭllæ_ was expanded into _illæjus_[89] _illæi_.[89]
_Illīus_ then went out of use. In the plural, _illōrum_ (which in some
regions, by the analogy of _illūjus_ _illūī_, had a form ✱_illūrum_)
crowded out _illārum_; this _illōrum_ came to be used also as a dative.

_Ipse_ and _ĭste_ followed in the main the same course as _ĭlle_.


117. The indefinite article comes from _ūnus_, which seems to have been
occasionally so used even in classic Latin:--

  ü(n)s   üna
  ü(n)    üna

118. (1) The definite article comes from unaccented _ĭlle_, which,
being used as a proclitic, regularly lost its first syllable (§ 19).
_Ille_ (✱_ĭllī_), _ĭllum_, _ĭllī_, _ĭllos_, _ĭlla_, _ĭllas_ became
respectively le (li), lo, li or lhi,[90] los, la, las. Le, lo, li, lhi,
la frequently elided their vowel before another vowel (l’an, l’arma),
becoming l or lh. Furthermore, le, lo, li, lhi, los, in the intertonic
position after a vowel (vé lo páire), regularly lost their vowel (vẹl
páire)[91]; and, by analogy, la and las were sometimes reduced to l
and ls. We have, then, beside the full forms, the proclitics l, lh,
and the enclitics l, lh, ls. Inasmuch as l might be vocalized before
a dental,[92] the enclitics l and ls sometimes became u and us (a͡u
portęr, e͡uz dias antix).

(2) The particles e and que, with the enclitic l, formed combinations
ẹl and quẹl. Quẹl, being understood as _qu’el_, gave rise to a form

(3) In the f. nom. sg. there is a form li or lhi, which is hard to
explain. The most likely theory is that when the masculine _quī_ took
the place of the feminine _quæ_ (see § 133), the masculine ✱_ĭllī_ came
to be used beside _ĭlla_,[93] for the feminine. The Provençal feminine
li (lhi) which resulted was strongly supported by the analogy of a
feminine possessive mi, beside ma (see § 127).[94]

(4) The regular forms are, therefore, the following:--

               MASCULINE          FEMININE
  Sg. {_nom._: lẹ  li  l  ẹl      la  li lhi l lh
      {_obj._: lọ  l   u  ẹl      la  l

  Pl. {_nom._: li  lhi l  lh      las
      {_obj._: lọs ls  us         las ls

In many texts the objective forms lo, los, ls are used in the

    1. The m. obj. sg. _le_, obj. pl. _les_, which occur in a few
    texts, are doubtless French. So is the enclitic form _s_ for
    _ls_ or _us_: _de s_, _entre s_, _e s_.

    2. The enclitic forms combine as follows with the prepositions
    _a_, _con_, _de_, _en_, _entre_, _iosta_, _per_, _sus_, and
    with the conjunctions _e_, _ni_, _o_, _que_, _si_: _al_ _au_
    _als_ _aus_, _col_, _del_ _deu_ _dels_ _deus_ (_des_), _enl_
    _el_ _els_ _eus_, _entrels_, _iostal_, _pel_ _pels_, _sul_
    _suls_; _eil_ (= _e lhi_) _el_ (= _e lo_), _nils_, _oill_ (=
    _o lhi_), _quel_, _sil_. They combine freely with other words:
    _eral_ (= _era le_), _fals_ (= _fa los_), etc.

119. In some southwestern and some southeastern dialects we find forms
sọ, sọs, sa, sas, coming from _ĭpse_.


120. In Vulgar Latin _ĕgo_ lost its g (§ 55, G). The dative, _mĭhi_,
was preserved only in its contracted form, _mī_. After the pattern of
_mī_, ✱_tī_ and ✱_sī_ were created for the other persons.

121. Provençal has no nominative forms that are regularly unaccented.
In the conjunctive forms of the third person (not reflexive), the
direct object is distinguished from the indirect; elsewhere there is no
such distinction.


122. Latin _mē_ > mẹ, _mī_ > mi, _nōs_ > nọs; _tē_ > tẹ, ✱_tī_ >
ti, _vōs_ > vọs; _sē_ > sẹ, ✱_sī_ > si. Me mi, te ti, se si, used as
proclitics before a vowel, or as enclitics after a vowel, were reduced
to m, t, s: m’ama, t’apela, s’es; o͡m, be͡t, cosi͡s. Nọs and vọs,
used as enclitics after a vowel, became respectively ns and us; que͡ns,
no͡us; _sī vōs_ > sius, later sieus (§ 32). The forms (all objective)
for the first and second persons and for the third person reflexive
are, then:--

  _Sg._: mẹ  mi m        tẹ  ti t       sẹ  si s
  _Pl._: nọs ns          vọs us         sẹ  si s

    The pronouns of the first and second persons could, of course,
    be used reflexively.

123. The conjunctive forms of the third person (not reflexive) come
in the main from the proclitic _ĭlle_: _ĭllī_, _ĭllum_, _illōrum_
(✱_illūrum_), _ĭllos_, _ĭlla_, _ĭllas_ became respectively li or lhi,
lo, lọr (lür), lọs, la, las. When used proclitically or enclitically,
under the conditions described in § 118, (1), li (lhi), lo, los were
reduced to l (lh), l, ls; and l was sometimes vocalized. O < _hŏc_ was
employed also, meaning ‘it.’ The adverb _ĭnde_ became ẹnt ẹn n (and,
through the analogy of me m, te t, se s, also ne), which was often used
as a pronoun with the sense ‘of it’, ‘of them’, sometimes ‘of him’,
‘of her’; nọs ẹn > nọn, vọs ẹn > vọn. The adverb _hīc_ became i,
meaning ‘here’ or ‘there,’ which served also as a dative pronoun, ‘to
it,’ ‘to them’; it was then always an enclitic, forming a diphthong
with a preceding vowel; it regularly took the place of li in the
constructions lọi = lo li, lai = la li. The forms are:--

                MASCULINE           FEMININE           NEUTER

  Sg. { _gen._: ẹnt  ẹn  n  nẹ      ẹnt  ẹn  n  nẹ     ẹnt  ẹn  n  nẹ
      { _dat._: li   lhi l  lh  i   li   lhi l  lh     i   i
      { _acc._: lọ   l   u          la                 lọ   l     ǫ

  Pl. { _gen._: ẹnt  ẹn  n  nẹ      ẹnt  ẹn  n  nẹ
      { _dat._: lọr  lür            lọr  lür
      { _acc._: lọs  ls             las

    1. _Les_ for _los_ is doubtless French. _Los_, _ls_ were
    occasionally used for m. _lor_; _lors_, which occurs rarely for
    _lor_, looks like a cross between _lor_ and _los_.

    2. The following combinations illustrate the use of the
    enclitic forms: _aura i_, _be i_, _e l_, _laissa n_, _no i_,
    _qui ll_, _si ls_.


124. Vulgar Latin ✱_ĕo_ or ✱_ĕu_ > ęu ięu (§ 30), which before an
enclitic became ę ię (ę͡l, ię͡n). The other forms explain themselves.
The nominative tü, from the beginning of the 13th century, was
sometimes used for tẹ after prepositions; this use may have been
suggested by the existence of lü = ‘him’; § 125, (1). Nọs + ẹn >
nọn, vọs + ẹn > vọn.

  Sg. { _nom._: ęu ięu ę- ię-    tü
      { _obj._: mẹ mi            tẹ (ti?) tü     sẹ si

  Pl. { _nom._: nọs              vọs
      { _obj._: nọs              vọs             sẹ si

    1. We find, besides, the French or borderland forms _ie_ _iou_
    _iu_ _yo_ for _eu_ (_gi_ and _iey_ have been noted also), _mei_
    _tei_ _sei_ for _me_ _te_ _se_.

125. The disjunctive pronouns of the third person (not reflexive) come
from accented _ĭlle_, with the exception of ǫ from _hŏc_. _Illūi_,
_illōrum_, _illæjus_, _illæi_ lost their first syllable, perhaps
through elision after a vowel; _illūjus_ disappeared. _Ille_, ✱_ĭllī_
gave ẹl ẹlh, il ilh; ẹl sometimes vocalized its l. _Illūī_ became
lüi, in some dialects reduced to lü. _Illum_ became ẹl ẹlh. _Illōrum_
(✱_illūrum_) gave lọr (lür). _Illos_ became ẹls (often ẹus) ẹlhs.
_Illa_, _ĭllam_ both gave ẹla ẹlha. _Illæjus_ became lęis lięis (in
some dialects reduced to lięs).[96] _Illæi_ gave lęi (dialectically lę)
lięi. _Illas_ became ẹlas ẹlhas.

(2) In the feminine singular nominative there is, beside ẹla ẹlha,
a form ilh il. This is probably to be explained, like the feminine
article lhi li, as coming from the masculine nominative ✱ĭllī
introduced into the feminine, and supported by the feminine possessive
mi: see § 118, (3).

(3) Some dialects preserve the final -i of ẹli (m. pl. nom.) and ilhi
ili (f. sg. nom.): see § 51, 1.

(4) Occasionally the conjunctive li (f. sg. obj.) and lo (neuter sg.
nom.) were used as disjunctive forms. And sometimes the masculine lüi
lü was used for the feminine.

(5) The forms are, therefore, the following:--

                MASCULINE             FEMININE                  NEUTER
  Sg. { _nom._: ẹl ẹu ẹlh il ilh      ẹla ẹlha ilh il ilhi ili  ẹl lọ
      { _obj._: lüi lü ẹl ẹlh         lęis lięis lięs lęi lięi  ǫ
                                      lę ẹla li lüi lü

  Pl. { _nom._: il ilh ẹl ẹlh ẹli     ẹlas ẹlhas
      { _obj._: lọr lür ẹls ẹus ẹlhs  lọr lür ẹlas ẹlhas

In many texts the objective forms ẹls ẹlhs, lęis lęi are used in the
nominative. We then find occasionally a new objective, ẹlses.


126. Beside _mĕus_ _mĕa_, _tŭus_ _tŭa_, _sŭas_ _sŭa_, there existed
in popular Latin the shorter forms ✱_mĕs_? ✱_ma_, ✱_tŭs_ ✱_ta_, _sŭs_
_sa_. Of the two forms _vĕster_ and _vŏster_, only the latter was used.
To supply the lack of a third person possessive denoting a plural
possessor, _illōrum_ came to be employed as a possessive.


127. (1) The primarily atonic possessives come from the shorter Latin
forms. The original masculine singular forms of the first person were
displaced by mọs mọ, made on the analogy of tọs tọ, sọs sọ,
which come regularly from ✱_tŭs_ ✱_tŭm_, _sŭs_, _sŭm_; so in the
objective plural we find mọs, corresponding to tọs < ✱_tōs_, sọs <
_sōs_. _Mĕī_, _tŭī_, _sŭī_ gave męi, tọi tüi, sọi süi (§ 34), which,
however, were often replaced by the objective forms. ✱_Ma_ ✱_mam_
✱_mas_, ✱_ta_ ✱_tam_ ✱_tas_, _sa_ _sam_ _sas_ became ma mas, ta tas, sa
sas; ma, ta, sa often elided their a before a vowel. The formation of
_midons_ has been explained in § 91, (2); § 93, (2); § 118, (3): from
it came a feminine singular possessive mi, and, by analogy, ti and si.

(2) The forms are:--


  Sg. { _nom._: mọs    ma mi   tọs         ta  ti  sọs         sa si
      { _obj._: mọ mọn ma mi   tọ tọn      ta  ti  sọ sọn      sa si

  Pl. { _nom._: me̯i mọs mas    tọi tüi tọs tas     sọi süi sọs sas
      { _obj._: mọs     mas    tọs tas             sọs         sas

They are generally used only adjectively, and without the definite
article. In some early texts, however, tọs and sọs, preceded by the
article, are used substantively.

128. (1) The primarily tonic possessives come from the longer Latin
forms. _Mĕus_ _mĕum_ _mĕi_ _mĕos_ > męus męu męi męus, which regularly
became mięus etc. (§ 30); an analogical form mięu is found beside
mięi. In the feminine of the first person we have, instead of ✱męa,
mięua and mia: the first of these two forms is evidently made up from
the masculine; the second may be due partly to the analogy of mi,
partly to a proclitic use of the word (§ 44, 4).[97] In the second and
third persons the masculine forms are mainly, and the feminine forms
partially, replaced by analogical formations based on the possessive of
the first person; _tŭi_, _sŭi_, _tŭa_, _sŭa_, however, give regularly
tọi tüi, sọi süi, tọa tua, sọa sua (§ 8).

(2) The forms follow, those of the third person (which correspond
exactly to those of the second) being omitted:--

                     FIRST PERSON                SECOND PERSON

  Sg. {_nom._: męus mięus     mia mięua    tęus tięus   tọa tua tięua tia
      {_obj._: męu mięu       mia mięua    tęu tięu     tọa tua tięua tia

  Pl. {_nom._: męi mięi mięu  mias mięuas  tọi tüi tęi  tọas tuas tięuas
                                           tięi tięu    tias
      {_obj._: męus mięus     mias mięuas  tęus tięus   tọas tuas tięuas

They may be used adjectively or substantively, with or without the
definite article.

    1. We occasionally find a neuter sg. nom. form without final
    _-s_: _lo mieu_.


129. _Nŏster_, _vŏster_ developed regularly after the _pauper_ model:
§ 103, (1). The masculine singular nominative often took an -s: cf.
§ 96; § 101, (1). Some southeastern dialects preserved the -i of nǫstri:
cf. § 51, 1. Beside vǫstra we occasionally meet vǫstri, due to the
analogy of feminine mi, ti, si.

                FIRST PERSON         SECOND PERSON          THIRD PERSON

  Sg. {_nom._: nǫstre-s      nǫstra  vǫstre-s vǫstra vǫstri lọr lür lọr lür
      {_obj._: nǫstre        nǫstra  vǫstre   vǫstra vǫstri lọr lür lọr lür

  Pl. {_nom._: nǫstre nǫstri nǫstras vǫstre   vǫstras       lọr lür lọr lür
      {_obj._: nǫstres       nǫstras vǫstres  vǫstras       lọr lür lọr lür

These forms are used adjectively or substantively, with or without the
definite article.

    1. In later times _lor_ came to be inflected like a one-gender
    adjective: § 103, (2).


130. Latin _īdem_ went out of use. Latin _ĭs_ was preserved only in
the phrase _ĭd ĭpsum_ (_ad ĭd ĭpsum_ > adęs), and in the combination
_ĕccum_, in which it ceased to be recognized, so that _ĕccu’_ was
regarded as a synonym of _ĕcce_.

131. (1) The demonstrative particles _ĕcce_ and _ĕccu’_ were often
prefixed to pronouns in Vulgar Latin. Being thus proclitically used,
they frequently lost their first syllable (§ 19); sometimes, however,
under the influence of _ac_ (as in _ac sīc_ > aissi), they preserved
it, assuming the vowel of _ac_: _ecce ĭlla_ > aicẹla, _eccu’ ĭsta_ >
aquẹsta; cf. § 43, (2).

(2) The suffix _-met_ was used in Vulgar Latin as an intensive prefix.
Its change of place was probably due to such phrases as _sēmet ĭpsum_,
understood as _sē metĭpsum_. The _-t_, before a vowel, regularly
gives -d- (_met-ĭpsum_ > mẹdes); but we find, besides, -z- (< Lat.
_d_), introduced perhaps through the analogy of _ĭd_ in _ĭd ĭpsum_
(✱_medĭpsum_ > mezẹis); and also -t- (< Lat. _tt_), which may be
the result of a combination of _met-_ and _ĭd-_ (_met-ĭd-ĭpsum_ >
✱_metdĭpsu_ > metẹis).

132. The pronouns preserved, either in their simple form or combined
with a prefix, are the following:--

(1) Of _hīc_ only the neuter, _hŏc_, was kept _Hŏc_ > ǫ; _ecce hŏc_
> aiçǫ aissǫ, and çǫ so; _eccu’ hŏc_ > aquŏ acŏ. All of these are

(2) _Ipse_ appears as ẹps ẹpsa, ẹus ẹussa, ẹis ẹissa (with a m.
pl. ẹisses and a neuter ẹis); the last forms are the commonest; for
the development of the _ps_, see § 79 and § 80, Ps. _Met-ĭpse_ gives
(medips) medẹs, (metẹish) metẹis, and, more commonly, mezẹis (f.
mezẹissa, neuter mezẹis); see § 131, (2). ✱_Met-ĭpsĭmus_ becomes
medẹsme-s, mesẹsme-s, meẹsme-s (§ 65, D), with feminine forms in -a.
Unaccented _ĭpsum_ is probably one source of the neuter sǫ: cf. § 132,
(1). For the article (so, sa), see § 119.

(3) _Ille_, uncombined, developed into an article (§ 118) and a
personal pronoun (§§ 123, 125), but went out of use as a demonstrative.
Combined with _ecce_ and _eccu’_ it gave: aicẹl aissẹl, cẹl, sẹl;
aquẹl. Echẹl (pronounced ekẹl?) seems to come from _eccu’ ĭlle_
with its original initial vowel preserved. _Ipse ĭlle_ perhaps gave
rise also to a sẹl, which ultimately coincided with the form coming
from _ecce ĭlle_. There is a neuter aicelo, perhaps aicẹl + ǫ. Cẹl
will illustrate the inflection of all these words; the forms are to be
explained like those of the disjunctive personal pronoun (§ 125):--

                MASCULINE              FEMININE

  Sg. {_nom._:  cẹl cẹu cẹlh cẹls[98]  cẹla celha cil cilh cilha[99]
      {_obj._:  cẹl cẹu cẹlh cellüi    cẹla cẹlha celęi celęis
                                       celięis cilh

  Pl. {_nom._: cil cilh cẹlh cẹls[100] cẹlas cẹlhas
      {_obj._: cẹls cẹlhs[101]         cẹlas cẹlhas

(4) _Iste_ gave ẹst, ẹstz, ẹsta, ẹstas. _Ecce ĭste_ became aicẹst
(not common) and cẹst sẹst; _eccu’ ĭste_ became aquẹst echẹst, and
chẹst. Aquẹst will illustrate the inflection; the forms are to be
explained like those of cẹl:--

               MASCULINE          FEMININE

  Sg. {_nom._: aquẹst             aquẹsta  aquist   aquisti
      {_obj._: aquẹst             aquẹsta

  Pl. {_nom._: aquist   aquisti   aquẹstas
      {_obj._: aquẹstz  aquẹtz    aquẹstas


133. The interrogative and relative pronouns were confused and combined
in Vulgar Latin, _quī_ taking the place of _quĭs_, and _quĭd_ gradually
encroaching on _quŏd_. Furthermore, the masculine forms were used
instead of the feminine, which disappeared. We have in Provençal no
evidence of the survival of any other cases than the nominative,
dative, and accusative singular and the nominative plural:--


  Sg. {_nom._: _quī_  > qui    _quĭd_ > que, (_before vowel_) quez
      {_dat._: _cūī_  > cüi    _cūī_  > cüi
      {_acc._: _quĕm_ > que    _quĭd_ > que, (_before vowel_) quez

  Pl. _nom._: _quī_   > qui    _quæ_  > que

The distinction between que < _quĕm_, que quez < _quĭd_, and que <
_quæ_ could not be maintained; we have, then, simply three forms: a
nom. sg. or pl. qui, a nom.-acc. sg. or pl. quẹ (quẹz), a dat. sg. or
pl. cüi (sometimes written _qui_).

134. We have also _qualis_, which came to be inflected like fezẹls:
see § 103, (2); the feminine singular, however, often dropped its -s,
and sometimes took the ending -a (cal, cala). _Quīnam_ apparently
became quina, which, understood as a feminine form, developed a
masculine, quin. There seems to have been also a ✱_quīniam_ (cf.
_quŏniam_?), which gave quinh, quinha. Cf. D. Behrens in the
_Zeitschrift für französische Sprache_, XVII, ii, 67-8, footnote. The
phrase _de ŭnde_ became dọnt, dọn, which was often used with the
meaning ‘of which’, ‘of whom’.

135. (1) In Provençal the interrogative pronouns are: qui, ‘who’ or
‘whom’; que quez, ‘what’; cüi, ‘to whom’ or ‘whom’, ‘to what’ or
‘what’ (obj.); cals (either alone or preceded by the definite article,
inflected as in § 134), ‘which’; quin quinh, quina quinha, ‘which’.
Cals is used also as an adjective.

(2) The relative pronouns are: qui, ‘one who’, indefinite (used also,
in early texts and in southwestern Languedoc, as the regular relative
pronoun for persons); que quez, ‘who’ or ‘whom’, ‘which’; cüi, ‘whom’,
‘which’ (generally used as indirect object of a verb, or after a
preposition); lo cals (inflected as in § 134), ‘who’ (‘whom’), ‘which’;
don dont, ‘of which’, ‘of whom’.


136. The following words call for special mention:--

(1) Alcüs < ✱_alĭqu’ ūnus_ = _alĭquī ūnus_, ‘someone’. Inflection:
alcüs, alcü(n); alcüna.

(2) Alquant < _aliquantum_, _aliquanti_, ‘somewhat’, ‘some’;
diminutive, alquantet.

(3) Alques alque < _alĭquĭd_, used as an invariable neuter pronoun
or adverb, ‘something’, ‘somewhat’. The -s form, which originally
developed before a vowel, was preferred because of the analogy of
other neuter pronouns and adverbs. The preservation of the e is due to
association with quez que. Alque was sometimes used as an adjective.

(4) Als al au, used as an invariable neuter pronoun, ‘something else’.
Al (au) may have been detached from alques, understood as al ques.
Meyer-Lübke, however, takes it, as well as Old French el, from ✱_alum_
= _aliud_: _Gram._, II, p. 649. Als owes its -s to the analogy of other
neuter pronouns, such as alques, ẹis, mais, męlhs, mẹns, pęis, etc.

(5) Altre autre < _alter_, ‘other’, pronoun and adjective. A dative
✱_altrūī_, following _illūī_, goes back to Vulgar Latin. The Provençal
forms autrüs, autrü show the influence of alcüs and negüs; autri
belongs to the southeastern dialects (cf. aquẹli, ẹli, nǫstri, tüti,
etc.). Inflection:--

               MASCULINE                FEMININE

  Sg. {_nom._: autre   autres  autrüs   autra
      {_obj._: autre   autrüi  autrü    autra

  Pl. {_nom._: autre   autri            autras
      {_obj._: autres                   autras

(6) Altretals autretals < _alter talis_; by dissimilation, atretals:
by substitution of ai- (first syllable of aissi < _ac sīc_) for atre-,
aitals; by fusion of aitals and atretals, aitretals; through analogy of
atressi, atrestals. Cf. § 74, 2. Inflection like that of cals (§ 134).

(7) Altretan atretan aitan atrestan etc. < _alter_ + _tantum_: see

(8) Cada un < κατά + _ūnum_,‘every one’. The Greek preposition κατά was
introduced into the Latin territory, probably by Greek merchants, in
stating prices: καθ᾽ἕνα = _cata ūnum_, κατά τρεῐς = _cata trēs_; hence
cada ün, cada trẹi. Inflection: cada üs, cada ü(n); cada üna.

(9) Calacom qualacom qualaquom, ‘something’, ‘a little’, seems to be a
Provençal compound of cal and acǫ (§ 132), the last syllable of which
was perhaps understood as cọm cọ < _quōmŏ_(_do_). Cf. quezacom below.
There is a diminutive calacomet, which helped to maintain the m of

(10) Cals que quals que, cal que qual que, ‘whoever’, is a Provençal

(11) Cant quant can quan < _quantum quanti_, ‘how much’, ‘how many’.
Cant, inflected like bęl (§ 103), is used also as an adjective and as a
masculine and feminine pronoun.

(12) Cascüs chascüs, ‘everyone’, ‘every’, appears to be a fusion of
cada üs and ✱cescüs < ✱_cisqu’ ūnus_ = _quĭsque ūnus_ = _ūnus quĭsque_.
Inflection: cascüs, cascü(n); cascüna.

(13) Ent en n ne < _ĭnde_,‘some’: cf. § 123.

(14) Maint mant man manh < Celtic ✱_mantî_, ‘many’, ‘many a’, ‘many a
one’. Obj. pl. in -s, f. sg. in -a, f. pl. in -as.

(15) Molt mout mot mul mon < _mŭltum_, ‘much’. For mọt, mul, mọn, see
§ 74, (2) and § 74, 1. Mọlt, inflected like bęl (§ 103), is used also
as an adjective and as a masculine and feminine pronoun.

(16) Negüs < _nĕc ūnus_, ‘no one’. Inflection: negüs, negü(n); negüna.
Beside negün we find degün, apparently through dissimilation.

(17) Nüls < _nūllus_, ‘no’, ‘none’. Inflection: nüls, nül, nül, nülh,
nüls; nüla, nülas. From nülh < _nūllī_ comes a set of forms with lh:
see § 67, (2). Hence, by metathesis suggested by the analogy of negün,
lhün. A fusion of nülh and lhün results in lünh, whence a set of forms
with nh.

(18) Om < _hŏmo_, ‘one’.

(19) Pauc < _paucum_, _pauci_, ‘little’, ‘few’. There is also a regular
adjective, paucs, ‘small’.

(20) Que que, ‘whatever’, is a Provençal compound.

(21) Quecs < _quĭsquis_ (§ 78, 2), ‘everyone’. From quẹcs were formed
an objective quẹc and a feminine quẹga (cf. amics amic amiga).

(22) Quesacom (diminutive quesacomet), ‘something’, ‘a little’, is
formed like calacọm above, the first element in this case being either
quẹs < _quĭd_ or quẹ s = quẹ es.

(23) Qui que, ‘whoever’, is a Provençal compound.

(24) Res re, ‘anything’, ‘something’.

(25) Tals < _talis_, ‘such’, inflected like cals (§ 134).

(26) Tamanh < _tam magnum_, ‘so great’; f. tamanha.

(27) Tant tan ta < _tantum_, _tanti_, ‘so much’, ‘so many’. Tant,
inflected like bęl (§ 103), is used also as an adjective and as a
masculine and feminine pronoun.

(28) Totz < _tōttus_ = _tōtus_ (_Gram._, I, § 547), ‘all’, had a
regular inflection: tọtz, tọt, tọt, tọtz; tọta, tọtas. In the
masculine nominative plural, however, we find oftener the forms tüch
tüich tüit tüt tüti, which point to a Latin ✱_tūctī_ (cf. Italian
_tutti_); for this no satisfactory explanation has been discovered (see
Nigra, _Rom._, XXXI, 525). Hence we occasionally have in the singular
tütz, tüt, and in the objective plural tügz tütz; the last form occurs
also as a nominative plural. Tọt is frequently used as a neuter
pronoun and as an adverb.

(29) Üs, ‘some’; from _ūnus_, used as an indefinite adjective or
pronoun, we have the plural forms; ü(n), ü(n)s; ünas.



137. (1) In Vulgar Latin there were some shifts, the verbs of the
second and third conjugations being particularly unstable: _cadĕre_,
_capĕre_, _sapĕre_, for instance, often passed into the second,
while _mŏvēre_, _rīdēre_ frequently followed the third, and _mŏri_,
_sĕqui_ usually went into the fourth. _Pŏsse_, _vĕlle_, with the new
infinitives ✱_potēre_, ✱_volēre_, were made to conform with more or
less regularity to the second conjugation type. Beside _do_, _dant_,
_sto_, _stant_, there came into use the forms ✱_dao_, ✱_daunt_,
✱_stao_, ✱_staunt_. Beside _facĕre_ there doubtless existed a verb
✱_fare_,[102] strongly influenced by _dare_ and _stare_; the first
suggestion of shortening probably came from the monosyllabic imperative
singular _fac_ (or _fa_[103]), which must have led to a plural ✱_fate_
beside _facĭte_. _Habēre_ and _vadĕre_[103] also came under the
influence of _dare_ and _stare_; the former adopted, beside _habeo_,
_habes_, _habet_, _habent_, the forms ✱_ho_, ✱_has_, ✱_hat_, ✱_hant_ or
✱_haunt_. _Vadĕre_ generally lost its past tenses, which were replaced
by _īre_ and, in southern Gaul, by _annare_.[104]

(2) In Provençal the first conjugation was well preserved, and the
fourth lost but little. The second and the third lost many verbs
(especially learned words) to the fourth: delir, emplir, envazir,
espandir, fugir, iauzir, merir, regir, relinquir, reluzir, vertir;[105]
cọzer cozir < _consuĕre_,[106] devire devezir < _divīdĕre_, dire dir
< _dīcĕre_, lęire legir (also lire lir) < _lĕgĕre_, quęrre querir <
_quærĕre_, sęgre seguir < _sĕqui_, tenẹr tenir[107] < _tenēre_.
Moreover, the second and third conjugations, which in Provençal
differed practically only in the infinitive, were much confused:
cabẹr, cazẹr, mǫrdre, rire, sabẹr; cọrre accorrẹr, mentavẹr
mentaure < _mente habēre_, movẹr mǫure, quęrre querẹr, redẹbre
rezemẹr < _redĭmĕre_. Uc Faidit, a 13th century grammarian, enumerates
about 500 verbs in -ar, about 100 in -er and -re, and a little over 100
in -ir.

138. The inchoative ending _-scĕre_ lost its original sense. The
_-īsc-_ type, for verbs of the fourth conjugation, was very widely
extended, the _-isc-_ becoming a part of the regular present stem of
the fourth conjugation, and disappearing from the infinitive: _finīre_,
✱_finīsco_ > finir, finisc. An obscure substitute for the Latin
_-ēsc-_ type produced an ending -eissir -ezir -zir (_dis-pigrēscĕre_ =
despereissir, _evanēscĕre_ = envanezir[108]), which was used in forming
some new verbs: enfolezir[109] < fǫl, envelhezir < vęlh, envelzir <
vil, esclarzir < clar, escürzir < escür oscür, espaorzir < paọr.[110]
The _-āsc-_ and _-ōsc-_ types appear in old verbs: _irāscĕre_ >
iráisser, _co(g)nōscĕre_ > conọisser.[111]

139. New verbs were formed, in late Vulgar Latin and in Provençal,
only in the first and fourth conjugations. The commonest suffixes were
_-āre_, _-iāre_, _-icāre_, _-idiāre_ (< -ίζειν: § 57, Z), _-īre_:
✱_oblītāre_ > oblidar, ✱_altiāre_ > aussar, ✱_carricāre_ > cargar,
✱_werridiāre_ > guerreiar, ✱_abbellīre_ > abelir. Germanic verbs
generally went into the first conjugation, except those in _-jan_, most
of which entered the fourth: _roubôn_ > raubar (also raubir), _wîtan_ >
guidar; _furbjan_ > forbir.


140. The Latin perfect passive took the sense of a present; _amātus
est_, for instance, under the influence of such phrases as _carus
est_, came to mean ‘he _is_ loved’. This led to the establishment of
an entire passive inflection made up of the perfect participle and the
parts of the verb _ĕsse_; and the old passive forms were gradually
abandoned, leaving no trace (save the perfect participle and possibly
the gerundive) in the Romance languages. So the passive is constructed
in Provençal as in French: ẹs amatz, ęra amatz, fọ amatz, será amatz,
etc.; the participle regularly agrees with the subject in gender and
number. Latin deponent verbs became active: _mŏri_ > morir, _sĕqui_ >

141. (1) Such phrases as _ĭd habeo factum_ shifted their meaning
from ‘I have it done’, etc., to ‘I have done it’, etc. The Latin
perfect came to be restricted to its aorist sense, and the perfect was
expressed by compounds of _habēre_ with the perfect participle. In
the Romance languages all compound tenses were eventually formed in
this way: ai cantat, avia cantat, aurai cantat, etc. In Provençal the
auxiliary is sometimes ęsser, instead of avẹr, if the main verb is
reflexive, passive, or neuter; ęsser is particularly common with neuter
verbs of motion: sọi vengütz.[112] A participle used with avẹr may
agree in gender and number with the direct object, if there is one: ai
cantat _or_ cantada la cansọ.

(2) The Latin perfect indicative continued to be used as an aorist, and
is the source of the preterit in Provençal, as in the other Romance
languages: _vīdī_ > vi, ‘I saw’. The pluperfect indicative survived in
some regions; in Provençal it is used with the sense of a conditional:
_fŭĕrat_ > fọra,‘he would be’. The future perfect indicative and the
perfect subjunctive did not remain in Provençal: _amavĕro_ = aurai
amat, _amavĕrim_ = aia amat. The pluperfect subjunctive assumed the
functions of the imperfect, which disappeared from nearly every part of
the Romance territory: _audīssem_ (for _audīrem_) > auzis. The perfect
infinitive left no trace: _audīsse_ = avẹr auzit.

142. The Latin future, which was not uniform in the four conjugations,
and, in the third and fourth, was liable to confusion with the
present subjunctive, was gradually replaced by various periphrastic
constructions: instead of _faciam_ people said _factūrus sum_, _dēbeo
facĕre_, _vŏlo facĕre_, _habeo_ (_ad_) _facĕre_, etc. The construction
that prevailed in the greater part of the Empire was _facĕre habeo_, a
combination of the infinitive with the present indicative of _habēre_.
The verb _ĕsse_ was the only one that ultimately retained the old
future beside the new: Pr. ęr, ęrs, ęr, beside serái serás será; in
the plural, only serẹm, serẹtz, serán. The new composite future was
occasionally used by Tertullian, St. Jerome, and St. Augustine, and
became common in Italy by the 6th century.[113]

(2) As an imperfect of the future, there was evolved a combination of
the infinitive and the imperfect or perfect indicative. To correspond
to _dīcit quod venīre habet_, was constructed _dīxit quŏd venīre
habēbat_ (or _habuit_); to match _sī pŏssum, venīre habeo_, was made
_sī potuĭssem, venīre habēbam_ (or _habuī_). In Gaul, as in most of
the Empire, only the imperfect of _habēre_ was used for this purpose.
Traces of such a construction are found as early as the 3d century.
This form is generally called the _conditional_, and it existed in
Provençal side by side with the conditional described in § 141, (2):
sería, serías, sería, etc., beside fọra, fọras, fọra, etc. The
Romance languages developed also a perfect conditional: auría agüt = ‘I
should have had’.

143. (1) The present participle remained in use as an adjective:
_fīlias placentes_ > filhas plazẹns; cf. § 101, (3). In its verbal
function it was replaced by the ablative of the gerund: _vĕnit
accŭrrens_ > _vĕnit accŭrrendo_ > ven acorrẹn. In most Provençal
dialects, however, the present participle and the gerund coincided
in form (_amantem_ and _amando_ both > amán), the gerund being
distinguished from the participle only by its lack of inflection: see §
76, (2).

(2) The gerund retained only the ablative case, the use of which was
considerably extended: see above. In its other cases it was replaced
by the infinitive: _artem dīcendī_ > _artem dīcĕre_ > art de dire. The
supine, too, was replaced by the infinitive: _vīsum vĕnit nōs_ > _vĕnit
nōs vĭdēre_ > ven nọs (a) vezẹr.


144. The infinitive endings _-āre_, _-ēre_, _-īre_ regularly became
-ar, -ẹr, -ir; _-ĕre_ became -re or -er: see § 48, (1) and § 52, (1).
Ex.: _amāre_ > amár, _vĭdēre_ > vezẹr, _audīre_ > auzir; _tŏllĕre_
> tǫlre, _nascĕre_ > náisser, _dīcere_ > dire dízer. For shifts of
conjugation, see § 137.

    1. The fourth conjugation verbs _enantir_, _gauzir_, _grazir_,
    _murir_, _servir_ sometimes took a final _e_ by the analogy of
    _devire_ (< _divīdĕre_), _dire_, _rire_. On the other hand,
    _dire_ occasionally lost its _-e_ by the analogy of the fourth
    conjugation. _Lire_ for _leire_ (< _lĕgĕre_) is probably
    French, and _lir_ is to be explained like _dir_.

    2. _Far_ beside _faire_ doubtless comes from ✱_fare_ =
    _facĕre_: see § 137, (1). _Trar_ beside _traire_ (< ✱_tragĕre_)
    follows _far_.

    3. _Escriure_ (< _scrībĕre_) sometimes became _escrire_ through
    the analogy of _dire_.

    4. Some verbs that passed from the second to the third
    conjugation preserved the old infinitive as a noun: _debēre_ >
    _deure_ _devér_, _placēre_ > _plaire_ _plazér_.

145. The endings _-antem_ _-ando_, _-ĕntem_ _-ĕndo_ regularly became
-an or -ant, -en or -ent: § 76, (2). See § 143, (1). The endings
_-iĕntem_ _-iĕndo_ lost their i in Vulgar Latin (§ 40, 1), and were
thus reduced to _-entem_ _-endo_. Ex.: _amantem_ _amando_ > amán
(or amánt), _vidĕntem_ _vidĕndo_ > vezén (or vezént), _credĕntem_
_credĕndo_ > crezén (or crezént); _sapiĕntem_ _sapiĕndo_ > ✱_sapĕntem_
✱_sapĕndo_ > sabén (or sabént), _partiĕntem_ _partiĕndo_ > ✱_partentem_
✱_partendo_ > partén (or partént). Fourth conjugation verbs which
adopted the inchoative -sc- (§ 138), generally introduced it into the
present participle and the gerund: florir, florissẹn. Cf. § 155. For
the declension of the present participle, see § 101, (3).


146. The Provençal past participle comes from the Latin perfect
participle. It is to be noted that verbs which originally had no
perfect participle were obliged to create one in order to form their
compound tenses: see § 141, (1). Past participles in Provençal, when
inflected, were declined like bęl: §§ 102; 102, 1; 103, (1). See § 141,

147. In the first and fourth conjugations the endings were _-ātum_
and _-ītum_, which regularly became -at and -it: _cantātum_ > cantát,
_finītum_ > fenít. The first conjugation verbs which had a form in
_-ĭtum_ discarded it for _-ātum_: _crepāre_ _crĕpĭtum_ = crebár crebát.
On the other hand, _aperīre_ and _operīre_ preserved their participle
in _-ĕrtum_: cubrir (< _cooperīre_), cubęrt (also cubrít); ubrír (<
_aperīre_ + _cooperīre_), ubęrt. By the analogy of these, sufrir (<
_suffĕrre_) and ufrir (< _offĕrre_) have sufęrt (also sufrít), ufęrt.
Tenẹr tenir keeps its Provençal second conjugation ending, tengüt (see
§ 148); and venir, following the analogy of tenir, has vengüt.

148. (1) Most Latin verbs of the second and third conjugations
had no accented ending, but a few had an ending _-ūtum_, which
corresponded very well to the _-ātum_ and _-ītum_ of the first and
fourth: _arguĕre_, _argūtum_; _consuĕre_, _consūtum_; _sĕqui_,
_secūtum_; _solvĕre_, _solūtum_; _volvĕre_, _volūtum_. This ending was
considerably extended in Vulgar Latin, especially to verbs having a
perfect in _-ŭī_: _habēre_, _habŭī_, _habĭtum_ ✱_habūtum_. In Provençal
it spread still further: cazẹr, cazęc, cazegüt. Inasmuch as it was
closely associated with the perfect, it came to be attached, more and
more frequently, to the stem of that tense.

(2) Of the Provençal verbs of the second and third conjugations, about
half adopted the ending -üt. In some the -üt is added to the stem of
the infinitive: crezüt, defendüt, escondüt, molüt, perdüt, resemüt,
respondüt, rompüt, vendüt, vezüt veüt. Most of the verbs, however,
attach the -üt to the stem of the preterit: nasc, nascüt; pasc, pascüt;
tems, temsüt; tesc, tescüt, venc, vencüt (from vẹnser); visc, viscüt.
A few have both forms: agüt avüt; cazegüt cazüt; vengüt venüt. It
is to be noted, in the case of verbs that add -üt to the preterit,
that if the third person singular of the preterit ends in a voiceless
consonant preceded by a vowel or l or n, that consonant is voiced in
the participle: ac, agüt; bẹc, begüt; cazęc, cazegüt; conọc, conogüt;
crẹc, cregüt; dẹc, degüt; elęc, elegüt; mǫc, mogüt; nǫc, nogüt;
plac, plagüt, plǫc, plogüt; pǫc, pogüt; remas, remazüt; saup, saubüt;
sęc, següt; tẹnc, tengüt; tǫlc, tolgüt; valc, valgüt; vẹnc, vengüt
(from venir); vǫlc, volgüt. Exceptions are ceupüt, saupüt (beside
saubüt), and vencüt (from vẹnser): for ceupüt, saupüt, cf. § 65, P, 3;
in vencüt the c was perhaps kept to distinguish the word from vengüt

(3) The other half of the second and third conjugation verbs generally
preserved the old participle with no accented ending: ars, cẹing,
claus, dich, düit, estrẹit, fach, iọinch, mẹs, ọnh, pǫst, prẹs,
trach, etc. Some of these have also forms in -üt: defẹs defendüt,
elig eslęit elegüt, escọs escondüt, mǫut molüt, nat nascüt, remas
remazüt, rọt rompüt, vis vezüt. A few verbs made up new forms without
a stressed ending: conquęrre, conquẹs conquis; redemer rezemer,
redems (rezemüt); sọrger, sọrs; tǫlre, tǫlt tǫut; vezẹr, vist (vis
vezüt veüt); vǫlvre, vǫut. _Mĭttĕre_ probably had beside _mĭssum_ a
form ✱_mīsum_ (cf. _mīsī_); hence mẹtre, mẹs mis. By the analogy of
this, prendre has beside prẹs a form pris. ęstre borrowed estát from
estar < _stare_. Escriut, from escriure, is probably influenced by the
infinitive; escrich follows dich. So, probably, does elig = eslęit,
from elegir eslire eslir.

    1. For sọi agütz (= ai estat), which is found not only in some
    Provençal dialects, but also in southeastern France, French
    Switzerland, and parts of northern Italy, see § 141, (1),
    footnote 1.


149. For the formation of these parts, see § 142, (1), (2). Ex.:
amarái, creisserái, florirái. Verbs of the second conjugation
regularly, and verbs of the fourth very often, syncopate the e or i of
the infinitive: remanrái, volrás; partrái, venría. Third conjugation
infinitives with final e drop this e before the ending; those in -er
keep the e: vẹndre, vendrái; náisser, naisserái. First conjugation
infinitives regularly keep the a (§ 45), but in a few texts
(especially the _Girart_ and the _Rasos de trobar_) the a is changed to
e: cantarái, sonaría, trobarẹm; blasmerán, comterá.

    1. _Esser_ keeps the old future forms _er_, _ers_, _er_, beside
    _serái_, _serás_, _será_ (_serém_, _serétz_, _serán_).

150. For the phonetic changes exemplified in a_u_ría, de_u_rái,
mo_u_rá; pla_i_ría; ca_i_rá, ve_i_rái; val_d_rái; reman_d_rém,
ten_d_ría; po_i_ría, see § 70, βr, C´r, Dr, Lr, Nr, Tr. Anar (<
_annāre_) has beside anarái a form irái from ir (< _īre_). ęsser drops
its first syllable (serái), perhaps through elision (tu ’sserás, etc.),
perhaps in accordance with the general principle stated in § 19. Faire
far always makes its future and conditional from the latter form
(farái). Sabẹr has beside sabrái a form saubrái, due no doubt to the
combined influence of aurái and the preterit saup < _sapuit_. Vezẹr,
following the analogy of beurái, deurái, viurái, has veurái beside the
regular veirái.

151. The composite nature of the future and conditional was still
sufficiently felt, in the literary period, to admit of the separation
of the component parts: amar vos ái, dar n’ẹtz, donar lo t’ái, tornar
nos ẹm, tornar s’en ía.


152. For the 1st pers. sg., the Provençal verb used the form ✱_ayo_ >
ai (§ 73, βy); for the 2d and 3d pers. sg. and the 3d pers. pl., the
forms ✱_has_ > as, ✱_hat_ > a (§ 82, T), ✱_hant_ ✱_haunt_ > an aun (§
83, Nt): see § 137, (1). In the 1st and 2d pers. pl., _habēmu’_(§ 82,
S, 2), _habētis_ naturally gave avẹm, avẹtz (§ 64); but inasmuch as
the other four terminations were monosyllabic, the av- was dropped
when avẹm, avẹtz came to be understood merely as future endings. The
future is, therefore, inflected as follows:--

  cantar-ái    cantar-ẹm
  cantar-ás    cantar-ẹtz, -ẹs, -ẹt
  cantar-á     cantar-án, -ánt, -áun, -áu

    1. In Gascony and Languedoc we find -ęi for -ai: see §§ 23,
    2; 162, (4). In Gascon and in the modern dialects of some
    other regions -am is used for ẹm. In some dialects of Béarn,
    Languedoc, Provence, and Dauphiné, -ẹm becomes -ẹn: cf. § 65,
    M, 1; also § 167, 2.


153. _Habēbam_ > aβẹβa > (probably through dissimilation: § 87, β)
aβẹa > avía (§ 26); so avías, avía, aviám, aviátz, avían. But inasmuch
as the conditional was formed in imitation of the future, and none
of the future forms retained the av-, the conditional endings were
reduced to -ía, -ías, -ía, -iám, -iátz, -ían. Some dialects, which
substituted -on for -an, introduced -íon into the conditional: § 169.
The conditional is, therefore, inflected as follows:--

  cantar-ía    cantar-iám
  cantar-ías   cantar-iátz, -iás, -iát
  cantar-ía    cantar-ían, -íon, -ío

    1. In verse these endings are sometimes counted as
    monosyllabic: poiri͡a. Guiraut Riquier uses -íatz for -iátz. In
    some dialects of Béarn, Languedoc, Provence, and Dauphiné, -iám
    becomes -ián: cf. § 65, M, 1; also § 167, 2.


154. The personal endings will be discussed separately in §§ 164-169.

155. The Provençal present indicative and subjunctive come, in the
main, directly from the corresponding parts of the Latin verb:--

  _amo_  > am        _amāmu’_  > amám
  _amas_ > amas      _amaātis_ > amátz
  _amat_ > ama       _amant_   > áman

  _faciam_ > fassa   _faciāmu’_ > fassám
  _facias_ > fassas  _faciātis_ > fassátz
  _faciat_ > fassa   _faciant_  > fássan

In the 4th conjugation, however, most verbs have adopted the originally
inchoative -sc- (§ 138) and incorporated it into the inflection of the
present, except in the 1st and 2d pers. pl. of the indicative:--

  _florīsco_  > florísc            _florēmu’_    > florẹm[114]
  _florīscis_ > florís florísses   _florētis_    > florętz[114]
  _florīscit_ > florís             _florīscunt_  > floríscon

  _florīscam_ > florísca           _floriscāmu’_ > floriscám
  _florīscas_ > floríscas          _floriscātis_ > floriscátz
  _florīscat_ > florísca           _florīscant_  > floríscan

We occasionally find such forms as florissẹm, florissętz, and florám,

    1. The s coming from sc´ was of course originally palatal; it
    is sometimes written _sh_. The sc of the 1st pers. sg., the 3d
    pers. pl., and the whole pres. subjunctive was replaced, in
    some dialects, by s or sh: floris florish, florisson florishon,
    florissa florisha.

156. Of the Latin imperative forms, only the present active, 2d pers.
sg. and pl., remained in use. The Provençal verb kept the sg., but
substituted for the pl. the 2d pers. pl. of the present indicative:--

  _ama_                      > ama
  _amāte_ _amātis_           > amátz

  _tĕne_                     > ten
  _tenēte_ _tenētis_         > tenętz

  _crēde_                    > crẹ
  _crēdĭte_ ✱_crēdĭ́tis_[115] > crezętz

  _partī_                    > part
  _partīte_ _partītis_       > partętz[115]

  _fīnīsce_                  > finís
  _finīte_ _finītis_         > finętz[115]

In negative commands the present subjunctive is generally used instead
of the plural imperative, and sometimes the infinitive is employed
instead of sg. or pl. The verbs auzir, avẹr, dire, ęsser, sabẹr,
vezẹr, volẹr regularly took their imperative forms from the present
subjunctive: áuias, digátz, veiátz, etc.

    1. _Fait_ < _facĭte_ (beside _faitz_) seems to come directly
    from the Latin form.

    2. Before _vos_ the pl. drops final _-tz_ (or _-t_?): _departe
    vos_, _vene vos_. _Ve vos_ becomes _veus_; a fusion of _ve vos_
    and _ec_ < _eccum_ results in _vecvos_.


157. Differences in accentuation and in the environment of vowels or
consonants regularly developed different stems in different parts of
some verbs. For instance, _ádjūtā́re_ > aidar (§ 45), while _adjū́tat_
> aiüda.

158. Sometimes, as above, an intertonic vowel disappeared: _mándūcā́re_
> maniar, _mandūco_ > ✱mandüc manüc; ✱_parabolāre_ ✱_páraulā́re_ >
parlar, ✱_parabŏlat_ ✱_paraulat_ > paraula. In such cases the shortened
stem usually prevailed: mania, parla. But in _adjutare_ the longer one
was preferred: aiüdar.

159. (1) A vowel which breaks in one part of a verb may be unstressed,
and therefore remain unbroken, in another part: _probāre_ > proar,
_prŏbat_ > prueva,[116] ✱_sequīre_ > sęguir, ✱_sĕquit_ > sięc.[117] In
such cases the phonetic development is generally undisturbed.

(2) A vowel which breaks in one part of a verb may, with different
environment, remain unbroken even in another part in which it is
stressed: ✱_volēre_ > volẹr, ✱_vŏleo_ > vuelh, ✱_vŏlet_ > vǫl. If
the breaking occurs in the 1st pers. sg., the phonetic development is
regularly undisturbed; if it occurs in the 2d and 3d pers. sg., it is
generally carried into the other forms in which the vowel is stressed:
_cŏllĭgit_ > cuęlh, hence cuęlh = _collĭgo_; _ĕxit_ > ięis, hence ięsc,
ięscon, ięsca.

160. A consonant may be followed by e̯ or i̯, and so palatalized, in
one part of the verb, and not in another: ✱_cadeo_ > chai, ✱_cadēmu’_
> chazẹm; _dēbeo_ > dẹch dẹi (§ 73, βy), _dēbet_ > dẹu; _faciat_
> fassa, _facĕre_ > faire; _fŭgio_ > füi, _fugĕre_ > fugir; _jaceam_
> iassa, _jacēre_ > iazẹr[118]; _placeāmu’_ > plassám, _placēmu’_ >
plazẹm; _sapiam_ > sapcha, _sapit_ > sap; _tĕneo_ > tenh, _tĕnet_
> ten; _valeo_ > valh, _vales_ > vals; _vĕniat_ > venha, _venīre_
> venir; _vĭdeam_ > vẹia, _vidētis_ > vezẹtz; ✱_vŏleo_ > vuęlh,
✱_vŏlet_ > vǫl. Verbs in _-eo_ generally keep this distinction; but we
find mǫva, somóna, tẹma = _mŏveam_, _submŏneam_, _tĭmeam_. Most verbs
in _-io_, on the other hand, dropped the i̯ in Vulgar Latin: _partio_
✱_parto_ > part, _partiunt_ ✱_partunt_ > parton, _partiam_ ✱_partam_
> parta; sen, senton, senta; sięrf, sięrvon, sięrva; etc. A few verbs
show forms both with and without the e̯ or i̯: _audio_ > auch (_audiam_
> auia), ✱_audo_ > au; _crēdo_ > crẹ, ✱_crēdeo_ > crẹi[119]; _vĭdeo_
> vẹi[119], ✱_vĭdo_ > vẹ.

161. Verbs in -ng- naturally developed a palatal consonant before e
or i (§ 73, Ng´), but not before other vowels: _cĭngĕre_ > cẹnher,
_cĭngo_ > cẹnc, _cĭngit_ > cẹnh, _cĭngam_ > cẹnga; so fẹnher,
ọnher, plánher, pọnher, etc. The palatal was carried by analogy into
the parts that were originally without it: hence the double forms cẹnc
cẹnh, cẹngon cẹnhon, cẹnga cẹnha, etc. These double forms led
tenẹr, venir to adopt tenc, venc, tenga, venga, beside the regular
tenh, venh, tenha, venha. Such forms as these, supported by dẹrc
< _de-ērĭgo_, dic < _dīco_, pręc < _prĕco_, sęc < ✱_sequo_, trac <
✱_trago_, etc., afforded a starting-point for an ending -c, adopted
by some other verbs in the 1st pers. sg. of the present indicative:
_pĕrdo_ > pęrt pęrc, _pr(eh)ĕndo_ > pren prenc, _remaneo_ > remanh
remanc, etc.


162. The following verbs have individual peculiarities that call for
special mention:--

    (1) Anar (< _annāre_), ‘to go’, takes most of its present
    from _vadĕre_: indicative, _vau_ _vauc_ (analogy of _estau_
    _estauc_), _vas_, _va_ _vai_ (analogy of _fai_), _anám_,
    _anátz_, _van_ _vaun_ (analogy of _estan_ _estaun_);
    subjunctive, _an_ or _vaza_ (< _vadam_) _vaia_ (analogy of
    _vai_ and of _traia_), _vaga_ (analogy of _traga_), etc.;
    imperative, _vai_ (analogy of _fai_), _anátz_.

    (2) Aucire (< _occīidĕre_: § 43) has in the pres. indicative
    3d sg. _auci_ (< _occīdit_) and _aucis_ (analogy of _aucizém_,
    _aucizétz_). Cf. _auzir_, _caire_, _rire_, _traire_, _vezér_.
    These forms were doubtless helped by the analogy of _ditz_ (<
    _dīcit_), _dütz_, _fatz_, _iatz_, _letz_ (< _lĭcet_), _platz_,

    (3) Auzir (< _audīre_) has in the pres. indicative 3d sg. _au_
    (< _audit_) and _aus_ (analogy of _auzém_, _auzétz_). Cf.
    _aucire_, _caire_, _rire_, _traire_, _vezér_. See also § 160.

    (4) Aver (< _habēre_) has in the pres. indicative: _ai_ (<
    _habeo_: § 73, βy), _as_, _a_, _avém_, _avétz_ (see §§ 167,
    168), _an_ _aun_; see § 137, (1). There is no trace of ✱_ho_.
    Instead of _ai_, the dialects of Aude, Tarn, Tarn et Garonne,
    and Haute-Garonne have _ei_ (cf. _Gram._, II, p. 304), which
    probably developed first in the future (§ 152, 1) through the
    analogy of the preterit ending _-ei_ which took the place of
    _-ai_: _amāvi_ ✱_amai_ > ✱_amai_ _amei_ (§ 175), then _amarai_
    > _amarei_, then _ai_ > _ei_. The pres. subjunctive is _aia_ (<
    _habeam_: § 73, βy). For the imperative, see § 156.

    (5) Caire cazér (< _cadĕre_ ✱_cadēre_) has in the pres.
    indicative 3d sg. _ca_ (< _cadit_) _cai_ (analogy of _brai_ <
    ✱_bragit_, _fai_, _trai_ < ✱_tragit_, _vai_) _cas_ (analogy of
    _cazém_, _cazétz_: cf. _aucire_, _auzir_, _rire_, _traire_,

    (6) Conóisser (< _cognōscĕre_) has in the pres. indicative 1st
    sg. _conosc_ (< _cognōsco_) and _conóis_ (analogy of 2d and 3d
    sg., _conóisses_, _conóis_).

    (7) Creire (< _crēdĕre_): pres. subjunctive _creza_ (<
    _crēdam_) and _crega_ (analogy of _diga_, _sega_, _traga_). See
    also § 160.

    (8) Créisser (< _crēscĕre_): pres. subjunctive _cresca_ (<
    _crēscam_) and _crega_ (analogy of _diga_, _sega_, _traga_, and
    of the imperfect subjunctive _cregués_).

    (9) Dar (< _dare_): _dau_ (< ✱_dao_), _daun_ (< ✱_daunt_); see
    § 137, (1).

    (10) Destruire (< ✱_destrūgĕre_ = _destruĕre_): analogy of
    _agĕre_, _tĕgĕre_, etc. Cf. _traire_. ✱_Destrūgit_ > _destrüi_.

    (11) Dever (< _debēre_) has in the pres. indicative 1st sg.,
    beside _dech_ _dei_ (§ 160), _dec_ (analogy of _dic_, _prec_,
    _sec_, _trac_, and perhaps of the preterit _dec_).

    (12) Dire (< _dīcĕre_): _dic_ (< _dīco_) _diu_ (cf. § 51, 3; §
    65, G, 1); _ditz_ (< _dīcit_) _di_ (analogy of _fai_, _trai_,
    and of imperative _di_ < _dīc_); _dízon_ (analogy of _ditz_,
    _dizém_, _dizétz_); _diga_ _dia_ (both < _dīcam_: § 65, G). For
    the imperative, see § 156.

    (13) Düire (< _dūcĕre_): _dütz_ (< _dūcit_) _düi_ (analogy of
    _destrüi_, _trai_).

    (14) Eissir (< _exīre_): _iesc_, _iescon_, _iesca_, analogy of
    _conosc_, _florisc_, etc.; for vowel, see § 159, (2).

    (15) Ésser estre (< ✱_ĕssĕre_ = _ĕsse_). Pres. indicative:
    _sŭm_ > sọn sọ (§ 82, M), then, by the analogy of _ai_ and
    _füi_, sọi süi; _ĕs_ became ęst ięst, perhaps through _ĕs tu_
    > ęs-t-u > ęst-tü, supported by the analogy of the preterit
    ending of the 2d sg. (vọs vendętz, tü vendęst or vendięst, so,
    to match vọs ętz, a form tü ęst or ięst); _ĕst_ became ẹs,
    probably through such combinations as quẹ’s (understood as
    qu’ẹs); _sīmu’_, which existed in Latin beside _sŭmus_ (Rom.,
    XXI, 347), gave sẹm, while from _ĕstis_ there was constructed
    an ✱_ĕsmus_ > ęsmes (rare), and from ętz a form ẹm (very
    common); _ĕstis_ > ęstz ętz (§ 78, 2); _sŭnt_ > sọn sǫ (§
    83, Nt). Pres. subjunctive: _sĭm_, _sīs_, etc., were replaced
    in V. L. by ✱_sĭam_, ✱_sĭas_, etc. (on the analogy of _fiam_,
    _faciam_, etc.), which gave sía sías sía siám siátz, sían síon;
    we find also sẹia, etc., formed apparently on _deia_, _veia_.
    Imperative borrowed from subjunctive.

    (16) Estar (< _stare_). Pres. indicative: _estáu_ (< ✱_stao_)
    _estáuc_ (§ 161); _estás_ (< _stas_); _está_ (< _stat_) _estái_
    (analogy of _fai_, _trai_); _estám_ (< _stamu’_); _estátz_
    (< _statis_) _estáitz_ (after _faitz_); _están_ (< _stant_)
    _estáun_ (< ✱_staunt_); see § 137 (1). Pres. subjunctive:
    _estía_, etc., _estéia_, etc., patterned on _sia_, _seia_; also
    _estéi_, perhaps a cross between _esteia_ and ✱_esté_ < _stem_.
    Imperative: _está_, _estáitz_.

    (17) Faire far (< _facĕre_ ✱_fare_): § 137, (1). Pres.
    indicative: _fatz_ (< _facio_) _fau_ (analogy of _dau_,
    _estau_) _fac_ _fauc_ (§ 161); _fas_ (< ✱_fas_); _fatz_ (<
    _facit_) _fa_ (< ✱_fat_) _fai_ (influence of _faire_, _faim_,
    _faitz_, and of _trai_); _faim_ (< _facĭmu’_: § 167, 1) _fam_
    (< ✱_famu’_) _fazém_ (see _fazétz_); _faitz_ (< _facĭtis_)
    _fatz_ (< ✱_fatis_) _fazétz_ (analogy of regular verbs,
    _crezétz_, etc.); _fan_ (< ✱_fant_) _faun_ (analogy of _daun_,
    _estaun_). Pres. subjunctive: _faça_ _fassa_, etc. (< _faciam_,
    etc.). Imperative: _fai_ (< _fac_); _fatz_ _faitz_ (borrowed
    from indicative) _fait_ (< _facĭte_).

    (18) Iazér (< _jacēre_), also _iassér_ (influence of _ias_
    < _iatz_ < _jacet_, and of _iassa_?): _iatz_ (< _jacet_)
    _iai_ (analogy of _fai_, _trai_); _iassa_ (< _jaceam_) _iaia_
    (analogy of _traia_, _vaia_).

    (19) Movér móure (< _movēre_ ✱_mŏvĕre_): _mova_ (< ✱_mŏvam_ =
    _mŏveam_) _moga_ (analogy of _traga_).

    (20) Partir (< _partīre_): _part_ (< ✱_parto_ = _partio_)
    _parc_ (§ 161); so _parta_ _parga_.

    (21) Perdre (< _pĕdĕre_): _pert_ _perc_, _perda_ _perga_; see §

    (22) Plazér plaire (< _placēre_ ✱_placĕre_): _platz_ (<
    _placet_) _plai_ (analogy of _fai_, _trai_); _plassa_ (<
    _placeam_) _plaia_ (analogy of _traia_, _vaia_).

    (23) Podér (< ✱_potēre_ = _pŏsse_): see § 137, (1). Pres.
    indicative: _posc_ (< _pŏssum_ influenced by _cognōsco_)
    _puosc_ _puesc_ (analogy of _puoc_ _puec_ < _pŏtui_), _puecs_
    (? < ✱_pots_ < ✱_pŏtsum_ + _puesc_), _pois_ (< ✱_pŏsseo_);
    _potz_ (< _pŏtes_); _pot_ (< _pŏtet_ = _pŏtest_); _podém_ (<
    ✱_potēmu’_); _podétz_ (< ✱_potētis_); _póden_ (< ✱_potent_)
    _pódon_, _pon_ (analogy of _potz_, _pot_, and _son_ < _sŭnt_).
    Pres. subjunctive: _posca_ _puosca_ _puesca_ (like _posc_
    _puosc_ _puesc_), etc.; _poissa_ (< ✱_pŏsseam_), etc.

    (24) Prendre (_prĕndĕre_ = _prehĕndĕre_) penre (see § 71, end):
    _pren_ (< _prĕndo_) _prenh_ (analogy of _tenh_, _venh_) _prenc_
    (§ 161); so _prenda_ _prenha_ _prenga_.

    (25) Rire (< ✱_rīdĕre_): _ri_ (< _rīdet_) _ritz_ (analogy of
    _rizém_, _rizétz_: cf. _aucire_, _auzir_, _caire_, _traire_,
    _vezér_); _ria_ (< _rīdeam_?).

    (26) Sabér (< ✱_sapēre_): see § 137, 1. Pres. indicative:
    _sai_ _sei_ (analogy of _ai_ _ei_ from _avér_); _saps_; _sap_;
    _sabém_ (< ✱_sapēmu’_); _sabétz_ (< ✱_sapētis_); _sáben_ (<
    ✱_sapent_) _sábon_. Pres. subjunctive: _sapcha_ (< _sapiam_).
    Imperative from subjunctive.

    (27) Tazér taire (< _tacēre_ ✱_tacĕre_): _tatz_ (< _tacet_)
    _tai_ (analogy of _taire_ and of _fai_, _trai_).

    (28) Tenér (< _tenēre_): _tenh_ (< _tĕneo_) _tenc_ (§ 161); so
    _tenha_ _tenga_.

    (29) Traire (< ✱_tragĕre_, perhaps also ✱_tracĕre_, =
    _trahĕre_): _trac_ (< ✱_trago_ or ✱_traco_) _trai_ (§ 63,
    6)[120]; _trai_ (< ✱_tragit_) _tra_ (analogy of _da_, _esta_,
    _fa_, _va_) _tratz_ (< ✱_tracit_?: cf. _aucire_, _auzir_,
    _caire_, _rire_, _vezér_); _trázon_ (analogy of _tratz_);
    _traga_ _traia_ (both < ✱_tragam_).

    (30) Vezér (< _vidēre_): _vei_ (< _vĭdeo_) _vec_ (§ 161);
    _ve_ (< _vĭdet_) _ves_ (analogy of _vezém_, _vezétz_: cf.
    _aucire_, _auzir_, _caire_, _rire_, _traire_). Imperative from

    (31) Volér (< ✱_volēre_ = _vĕlle_): see § 137, (1). Pres.
    indicative: _vuelh_ (< ✱_vŏleo_); _vols_ (< ✱_vŏles_); _vol_
    (< ✱_vŏlet_); _volém_ (< ✱_volēmu’_)[121]; _volétz_ (<
    ✱_volētis_); _vólon_ (< ✱_vŏlent_). Pres. subjunctive: _vuelha_
    (< ✱_vŏleam_), _vuelhas_, _vuelha_, _vulhám_, _vulhátz_,
    _vuelhan_. Imperative from subjunctive.

163. In verse the present subjunctive ending -ia sometimes counts as
one syllable: si͡atz. Cf. § 153, 1.


164. (1) In the first person singular final _-o_ and _-em_ regularly
disappeared: _amo_ > am, _amem_ > am. When, however, the _-o_ or _-em_
was preceded by a consonant group requiring a supporting vowel (§ 52),
the ending was regularly retained as -e: _dŭbĭto_ > dọpte, _sŭffĕro_ >
suffre, _trĕmŭlem_ > tremble.

Through the analogy of ai, crẹi, dẹi, sọi, vẹi, and the 1st pers.
sg. of the preterit, this -e was in the indicative generally changed at
an early date to -i: ✱_cŏpĕro_ > cǫbre cǫbri, ✱_opĕro_ > ǫbre ǫbri; so
_ĭmpleo_ ✱_ĭmplo_ > ompli. This -i (occasionally -e) was then taken as
a distinctive ending of the 1st pers. sg., and was added to many verbs
that needed no supporting vowel: auzir, au auze; azorar, azọr azọri;
cantar, can canti; cọrre, cọr cọrri; mẹtre, mẹt mẹti; prezar,
prętz pręzi; remirar, remir remire remiri; respondre, respon respondi;
sentir, sen senti; vẹndre, vẹn vẹndi.

In the subjunctive, when a final vowel was required, -e was usually
kept; it was also extended to some verbs that did not need it: acabe,
dọne, mire, plọre. Very rarely an unnecessary -i was added instead of
-e: laissar, lais laissi.

(2) The ending _-am_ regularly gave -a: _audiam_ > auia.

165. In the second person singular final _-as_ regularly remained, and
_-ēs_ and _-ī̆s_ became -s (or, when a supporting vowel was required,
-es): _amas_ > amas; _valēs_ > vals, _sapĭs_ > saps, _partīs_ > partz;
_dŭbĭtēs_ > dọptes. Cf. § 82, S. Sometimes, especially in late texts,
-s is expanded into -es: canz cantes, partz partes, saps sabes, vals
vales; so floris florisses, etc.

Final _-a_ remained, and _-ē̆_ and _-ī_ fell: _ama_ > ama, _tĕne_ >
ten, _crēde_ > crẹ, _partī_ > part.

166. In the third person singular final _-at_ became -a, _-ĕt_ and
_-ĭt_ fell (but remained as -e when a supporting vowel was needed):
_amat_ > ama, _amet_ > am, _tĕnet_ > ten te, _vĕnit_ > ven ve;
_trĕmŭlet_ > tremble. Cf. § 82, T.

167. In the first person plural the final _-s_ disappeared early, _s_
being perhaps regarded as a distinctively second person ending[123].
The rare form ęsmes = _sŭmus_ is the only one that retains the _s_: cf.
§ 162, (15).

Then _-āmu’_, _-ēmu’_ gave regularly -am, -ẹm: _cantāmus_ > cantám,
_habēmus_ > avẹm. Likewise _-ĭmu’_, through the analogy of _-āmu’_,
_-ēmu’_, came to take the accent on its penult, and then regularly
developed into -ẹm: _crēdĭmus_ ✱_credĭ́mu’_ > crezẹm. This -ẹm of
the second and third conjugations passed into the fourth, and entirely
displaced the -im that would have been the regular representative of
_-īmu’_: _partīmus_ > ✱partím partẹm.

    1. In _faim_ < _facĭmu’_ the old accentuation apparently
    survives: cf. § 52, (4), 1.

    2. In some dialects of Béarn, Languedoc, Provence, and
    Dauphiné, _-m_ apparently becomes _-n_: _devén_, _havén_,
    _volén_; so _aurián_, _trobarén_, _segrián_ (cf. § 152, 1; §
    153, 1). Cf. § 65, M, 1.

168. In the second person plural _-ātis_ regularly gave -atz: _amātis_
> amatz, _audiātis_ > auiatz. The regular form from _-ētis_ is -ẹtz,
which we find kept in the future (veirẹtz) and in the present
subjunctive (cantẹtz); in the present indicative it was replaced by
-ętz, probably through the analogy of ętz < _ĕstis_: _habētis_ > avẹtz
avętz, ✱_potētis_ > podẹtz podętz, so sezętz, valętz, etc.; the rare
avẹtz and podẹtz are the only forms that preserve ẹ. The ending
_-ĭtis_, taking the accent on its penult (cf. § 167), became ✱-ẹtz,
then -ętz: _crēdĭtis_ > crezętz. This -ętz also displaced the -itz that
would have been regular in the fourth conjugation: _partītis_ > partętz.

The final -tz was reduced, in some of the principal dialects, to -s
(§ 64): cantás, sezęs, partęs. In other dialects it was replaced very
early by -t (§ 64): auiát, avęt, passát, podęt; so partirẹt, etc.

    1. In _faitz_ < _facĭtis_ the old accentuation apparently

169. In the third person plural _-ant_, _-ent_, _-unt_ gave
respectively -an -ant, -en, -on -o (§ 83, Nt): _amant_ > áman ámant,
_audiant_ > áuian áuiant; _valent_ > válen, _ament_ > ámen; _vēndunt_
> vẹndon vẹndo. In Languedoc -an was replaced by -on or -o in the
13th century; in other regions, later: ámon, chanto ls, coménso l.
The _Boeci_ has -en for -an: amen, monten. In Gascony and some of the
Limousin territory -en partially displaced -on (floríssen, párten,
vẹnden), elsewhere -on or -o displaced -en (válon).


170. In the first conjugation _-abam_ regularly gave _-ava_. In the
second, through the analogy of _aβéa_ < _habēbam_ (§ 153), _-ēbam_ came
to be replaced, in southern Gaul, by _-éa_, which regularly changed to
_-ía_ (§ 26). In the third, _-iēbam_ regularly became _-ēbam_ (§ 40,
1); and this and original _-ēbam_ were replaced by the _-éa_ > _-ía_
of the second conjugation. In the fourth, _-ībam_, which had in the
accented syllable the characteristic vowel of the conjugation, crowded
out _-iēbam_; _-ībam_ then lost its β through the analogy of the second
and third conjugations. We have, then, in Provençal, only two sets of
endings: _-áva_, etc., in the first conjugation; _-ía_, etc., in the
second, third, and fourth.

  amáva       vezía         fazía         partía
  amávas      vezías        fazías        partías
  amáva       vezía         fazía         partía
  amavám      veziám        faziám        partiám
  amavátz     veziátz       faziátz       partiátz
  amávan      vezían        fazían        partían

    1. In poetry _ía_ is sometimes counted as one syllable:
    _avi͡an_, _devi͡an_.

    2. For some subsequent developments of western dialects, see
    Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, II, p. 326.

    3. For the personal endings, see §§ 164-169.

    4. _Esser_ has: ęra, ęras, ęra, erám, erátz erás, ęran ęron ęro.


171. These parts are all formed from the same stem, that of the Latin
perfect: cf. § 141, (2). Ex.: cantęi, cantęra, cantęs; vendęi, vendęra,
vendęs; partí, partíra, partís; vi, vira, vis; dẹc, dẹgra, deguẹs.


172. Preterits which stress the ending throughout are called _weak_;
those which do not stress the ending throughout are called _strong_:
part_í_, part_íst_, part_í_, part_ím_, part_ítz_, part_íron_ is weak;
saup, saub_íst_, saup, saub_ém_, saub_étz_, sáub_ron_ is strong. Verbs
of the first and fourth conjugations regularly have weak preterits
(amęi, finí). Verbs of the second and third, with very few exceptions,
originally had strong preterits (_placuī_ > plac, _fēcī_ > fis): many
of them, however, developed weak preterits either in Vulgar Latin or in
Provençal (irasquęi, nasquęi, tessęi tesquęi, visquęi); some assumed a
weak form in -í in the 1st pers. sg. (dis dissí, pris prenguí, remas
remanguí, trais traguí: cf. §§ 173, 177); quęrre, on the other hand,
substituted a strong preterit (quis, etc.) for a weak one.

173. (1) Final _-ī_, in the first pers. sg., doubtless remained
through the earlier stages of Provençal (_habuī_ > águi, _dīxī_ >
díssi): cf. § 51, (2). Before it fell, it changed an accented ẹ in
the preceding syllable to i (_vēnī_ ✱_vēnuī_ > ✱vẹngui vinc): cf. §
27; occasionally, however, the ẹ was kept, through the analogy of
the other persons (pris prẹs). Sometimes, instead of falling, the -i
took the accent (following the analogy of the fourth conjugation) and
remained: águi > ac or aguí, díssi > dis or dissí (cf. § 177).

When the -i was immediately preceded by an accented vowel, it regularly
formed a diphthong with that vowel, and did not fall (_fuī_ > füi): cf.
§ 51, (3); but -íi was simplified to -i (_partīvī_ _partīī_ > partí).

Before enclitic l, -ei -iei were often reduced to -e -ie: cantiel.

(2) In the 2d pers. sg., _-stī_ became -st, a preceding ẹ being
changed to i (§ 27): _partīstī_ > partíst, _debuĭstī_ > deguíst;
sometimes, through the analogy of the 2d pers. pl., ẹ remains
(venguẹst: cf. § 27, 2). Occasionally the final -t disappears: anięst
anięs, fezíst fezís.

(3) The _-t_ of the 3d pers. sg. was lost in strong preterits:
_placuit_ > plac, _vīdit_ > vi. In weak preterits, it was retained by
most dialects after é, and by many after í: donęt donę, vendęt vendę;
partí partít. Cf. § 82, T.

(4) In the 1st pers. pl., _-mus_ _-mu’_ (see § 167) was reduced to -m:
_vīdĭmu’_ > vim.

(5) The _-stis_ of the 2d pers. pl. regularly became -tz (§ 78, 2),
later in many dialects -s (§ 64): _debuĭstis_ > deguẹtz deguẹs.

(6) The _-runt_ of the 3d pers. pl. regularly gave -ron or -ro (§ 83,
Nt): _partīrunt_ > partíron partíro, _vīdĕrunt_ > viron viro. In some
dialects -en is substituted for -on: _fŭĕrunt_ > fọron fọren (cf. §

The _e_ before _-runt_, which in classic Latin was usually long, was
always short in Vulgar Latin when it was preserved at all: _amavĕrunt_
> _amārunt_, _fēcĕrunt_.


174. (1) In the first and fourth conjugations we find in Latin the
following endings:--

  _-āvī_    _-āī_   _-āvĭmus_   _-īvī_    _-īī_      _-īvĭmus_

  _-āvĭstī_ _-āstī_ _-āvĭstis_  _-īvĭstī_ _-īstī_    _-īvĭstis_ _-īstis_

  _-āvit_   _-aut_  _-āvēre_    _-īvit_ _-īit_ _-īt_ _-īvēre_ _-īvē̆runt_
  _-āvē̆runt_ _-ārunt_                                _-īrunt_

The popular speech preferred in every case the shortened form, and
generally reduced _-āvĭmus_, _-īvĭmus_ to _-āmus_, _-īmus_ (in southern
Gaul _-āmu’_, _-īmu’_: § 167), on the analogy of the 2d pers. sg. and

(2) In the second conjugation a few verbs (_delēre_, _flēre_, _nēre_,
_-olēre_, _-plēre_, _viēre_) had similar endings (_delēvī_, etc.),
which were doubtless contracted in like fashion in so far as these
words were in common use. Most verbs of this conjugation, however, had
strong preterits (_tacēre_, _tacuī_; _vidēre_, _vīdī_; etc.).

(3) The third conjugation had in classic Latin no weak endings
corresponding to those of the first, second, and fourth; but the
vulgar speech developed a set in the following manner. Compounds of
_dare_ formed their perfect in _-dĭdī_ (_perdĭdī_); this _-dĭdī_,
in accordance with the principle set forth in § 16, 3, came to
be pronounced -dę́dị (_condédi_); and -dędị, probably through
dissimilation[124], was shortened to -dęi (✱_credéi_). With this form
as a starting-point, a weak preterit was created on the analogy of
those of the other conjugations, the endings being something like -ęi,
-ęstị, -ęt, -ęmus -ęmu’, -ęstis, -ęrunt. This inflection was probably
extended to some verbs outside the _-dĕre_ class (✱_battéi_, etc.?).

175. (1) In Provençal the weak inflection disappeared from the second
conjugation, _delēre_ and _-plēre_ passing into the fourth, and the
other weak verbs going out of use.

(2) Verbs of the fourth conjugation (except venir) all took the weak
endings -í, -íst, -í, -ím, -ítz, -íron: partí, partíst, partí, partím,
partítz, partíron. Irregular verbs either disappeared or became regular
(_sensī_ = sentí), with the exception of _venīre_ > venir (vinc).[125]

(3) The new weak endings of the third conjugation developed into -ęi,
-ęst, -ęt, -ém, -ętz, -ęron: vendęi, vendęst, vendęt, vendém, vendętz,
vendęron. In the 1st pers. sg. the ę often broke (vendięi), and the
diphthong was sometimes carried into the 2d pers. sg. (vendięst).
These endings were considerably extended in Provençal (cazęt, etc.),
and were occasionally attached to a strong preterit stem (nasquęt,
tesquęt, venquęt, visquęt). Most verbs, however, kept their strong
preterit (mis, conọc). The _-īvī_ perfect disappeared from the third
conjugation: _quæsīvit_ > ✱_quæsit_ > quẹs.

(4) The first conjugation discarded its own weak endings, and
substituted those of the third: cantęi cantięi, cantęst cantięst,
cantęt, cantém, cantętz, cantęron. This strange phenomenon seems to
have originated as follows: _dare_, _dĕdī_ > dar, dęi; from dar the
ending -ęi was readily extended to estar (estęi); and from these two
very common verbs it spread to the whole first conjugation.

Irregular verbs (except _dare_, _stare_) either disappeared or became

    1. According to Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, II, p. 304, Latin _-ai_
    became by phonetic process -ęi in Vulgar Latin, and -ęi or -ięi
    in Provençal. There seems to be no evidence to support this
    theory. Cf. § 23, 2.

    2. In the dialects of Béarn and Catalonia the original _a_
    remains in some parts of the preterit.

176. A final -c, which developed in the strong _-ui_ preterits (§
184), often became attached to the 3d pers. sg. of weak preterits
of the fourth conjugation: floríc, fugíc, iauzíc, partíc.[126] It
was sometimes extended to other weak preterits: chantęc, entendęc,
nasquęc,[127] paręc.[128] We find also a 3d pers. pl. cazęgron, etc.,
and even a 1st pers. sg. ameguí, etc. In some western dialects the
final -c was adopted by the whole first conjugation: donęc, portęc, etc.

177. Some strong preterits occasionally assumed weak endings:--

(1) In the 1st pers. sg. several verbs in -s sometimes either added an
-í or shifted the stress to an originally unaccented final -i (cf. §§
172, 173): dis dissí, pris presí, quis quesí, respos respozí. A few
verbs in -c did the same: aic aiguí, bẹc beguí, conọc conoguí, saup
saubí, vinc venguí, vǫlc volguí. An ending -guí being thus established,
this syllable was sometimes added to preterits not of the -c class:
costrenguí, destrenguí, prenguí, remanguí, restrenguí, traguí.

(2) In the 3d pers. sg. weak endings are rare: ac aguęt, vẹnc venguęt.

(3) In the 3d pers. pl. the weak ending is not uncommon in -s
preterits: diron dissęron, düistrent düissęron, mẹsdren mezęron,
prẹson presęron, remastrent remazęron, traissęron. We probably have to
deal here, as in (1), with a shift of accent--_dīxĕrunt_ > ✱dísseron
> dissęron, etc.: see § 49, (2). The same thing may be true of such a
form as aguęron, beside ágron, from ✱_áβwerunt_ = _habuĕrunt_; such a
form as visquęron, on the other hand, is doubtless imitative.


178. (1) The reduplicative perfects were discarded in Vulgar Latin,
with the exception of _dĕdi_ (and its compounds) and _stĕti_, whose
reduplicative character was no longer apparent. _Cecĭdī_ became
✱_cadui_ or ✱_cadéi_; the rest either disappeared or passed into the
_-sī_ class: _cucŭrrī_ > ✱_cŭrsī_, _momŏrdī_ > ✱_mŏrsī_, _pepĕndī_ >
✱_pē(n)sī_, _pupŭgī_ > ✱_punxī_, _tetĕndī_ > ✱_tē(n)sī_, _tetĕgī_ >
✱_taxī_ ✱_tanxī_.

(2) The _-i_ perfects were greatly reduced in number in Vulgar Latin.
Some disappeared (_ēgī_), some became weak (_fūgī_ > ✱_fugīī_ >
fügí); others passed into the _-sī_ or the _-uī_ class: _prehĕndī_ >
✱_prē(n)sī_ > pris; _bĭbit_ > ✱_bĭbuit_ > bẹc, _vēnit_ > ✱_vēnuit_ >
vẹnc. In Provençal only three _-ī_ verbs remained: _fēcī_ > fis, _fuī_
> füi, _vīdī_ > vi.

(3) Of the _-sī_ class (including _-ssī_ and _-xī_) over twenty verbs
were preserved in Vulgar Latin (_dīxī_, _excŭssī_, _mīsī_, _traxī_,
etc.), and about the same number passed into this class from others
(_absco(n)sī_, ✱_fraxī_ ✱_sŭrsī_, etc.): cf. (1) and (2) above. In
Provençal nearly half the verbs of the second and third conjugations
have _-sī_ preterits: _rema(n)sī_ > remas, ✱_respō(n)sī_ > respọs[129].

(4) The _-uī_ class held its own very well in Vulgar Latin (_placuī_,
etc.) and received some additions (_natus sum_ > ✱_nacuī_, _sustŭlī_ >
✱_tŏluī_, _vēnī_ > ✱_vēnuī_, _vīcī_ > ✱_vĭncuī_, _vīxī_ > ✱_vīscuī_,
etc.)[130]. To this class belonged, in Vulgar Latin (and, according
to Meyer-Lübke[131], in classic Latin also), all perfects in _-vī_,
this ending being pronounced -wŭī, later -wwị or -βwị: _cognōvī_ >
✱_conōvuī_ > conọc, _crēvit_ > ✱_crēvuit_ > crẹc, _mōvī_ > ✱_mŏvuī_ >
mǫc. Cf. § 148. In Provençal not far from half the verbs of the second
and third conjugations have _-uī_ preterits. For a combination of a -c
< _-uī_ stem with a weak ending, see § 175, (3). For the extension of
-c < _-uī_ to other conjugations, see § 176.

179. In the 1st pers. pl. the accent was shifted to the ending, to
make this form correspond to the 2d pers. sg. and pl.: _fēcĭmus_ >
✱_fēcĭ́mu’_ > fezẹm (cf. _fecĭstī_ > fezist, _fecĭstis_ > fezẹtz),
✱_prē(n)sĭmus_ > ✱_presĭ́mu’_ > prezẹm, _debŭĭmus_ > _deβwĭ́mu’_ >
deguẹm. Exceptions are _fŭĭmus_ > fọm, _vīdĭmus_ > vim; in these
verbs the 2d pers. forms also are monosyllabic (füst, fọtz; vist,

180. We find in some verbs an irregular 3d pers. pl. without -r-, made
by adding -on or -en to the 3d pers. sg., the final consonant of which
is voiced in all verbs in which it is voiced in the other persons
of the plural: (aucire) aucis, aucíson; (plánher) plais, pláisson;
(prenre) prẹs, prẹson; (remanre) remas, remáson; (venir) vẹnc,
vẹnguen; (volẹr) vǫlc, vǫlgon.

    1. _Prenre_ has _preiron_ (beside _preson_ _preseron_),
    probably through the analogy of _feiron_ < _fēcĕrunt_.
    _Mairon_, from _maner_, is perhaps to be explained in the same

181. (1) Through the change of -e- to -i- by the influence of a final
-ī, as described in § 173, (1), a distinction was established between
the first and the third person singular of some preterits: _crēvī_
> cric, _crēvit_ > crẹc; _fēcī_ > fis, _fēcit_ > fẹs; ✱_prē(n)sī_
> pris, ✱_prē(n)sit_ > prẹs; _tĕnuī_ ✱_tēnuī_[132] > tinc, _tĕnuit_
✱_tēnuit_ > tẹnc; _vēnī_ ✱_vēnuī_[132] > vinc, _vēnit_ ✱_vēnuit_
> vẹnc. Mẹtre, also, has mis, mẹs, which may come from ✱_mĭssī_
✱_mĭssit_ (cf. _mĭssum_) = _mīsī_, _mīsit_; or perhaps mis comes from
_mīsī_ and mẹs is analogical. Through the analogy of such forms,
quęrre has quis, quẹs. In the preterit of podẹr, both _pŏtuī_ and
_pŏtuit_ would regularly have given pǫc puǫc puęc (§ 37), but pǫc
was kept for the 3d person, and puǫc puęc was used for the 1st. The
preterit of volẹr differentiates the two persons similarly--vuęlc,
vǫlc; here the diphthong (perhaps under the influence of puęc) is
borrowed from the present, where we have ✱_vŏleo_ > vuęlh, ✱_vŏlet_ >
vǫl (§ 37). Avẹr, likewise, borrows a distinction from the present:
aic, ac reproduce the vowels of ai, a; aic + aguí > aiguí.

(2) For -í as a characteristic of the first person, see § 177, (1).

(3) For -c as a distinctive mark of the third person, see § 176.

182. The three -ī perfects developed in Provençal as follows:--

(1) _Facĕre_ > faire (✱_fare_ > far) has:

  _fēcī_    > fis, fezí      _fēĭmus_ ✱_fēcĭ́mu’_ > fezẹm
  _fēcĭ́stī_ > fezíst fezís   _fēcĭstis_          > fezẹtz fezẹs
  _fēcit_   > fẹtz fẹs       _fēcĕrunt_          > fẹiron fẹiro

    1. We do not find, in the 1st pers. sg., as we should expect
    (§ 65, C´), _fitz_ beside _fis_; doubtless the form came early
    under the influence of _mis_, _pris_, _quis_, etc. For _fezí_,
    see § 177, (1). There is also a form _fi_, due, perhaps, to the
    analogy of _vi_ < _vīdī_; corresponding to _fi_ are 3d pers.
    sg. _fe_, and pl. _fem_, _fes_, _feron_. A rare _figuí_ is
    evidently made on the model of _aiguí_, etc. In the 3d pers.
    sg. we find also _fei_, which seems to be patterned after
    _feiron_ or after the present _fai_.

(2) _Esse_ (> ✱_ĕssĕre_ > ęsser ęstre) had originally a long _u_ in
the perfect. In literary Latin the _u_ was shortened, but the popular
speech seems to have kept _ū_ beside _ŭ_. The Provençal 1st and 2d
pers. sg. apparently come from _fūī_, ✱_fūstī_ = _fuĭstī_ (although Pr.
füi might be taken from _fŭī_), while the other forms presuppose _ŭ_:

  _fūī_             > füi            _fŭĭmus_ ✱_fŭmu’_   > fọm
  _fūĭstī_ ✱_fūstī_ > füst füs       _fŭĭstis_ ✱_fŭstis_ > fọtz fọs
  _fŭit_ ✱_fŭt_     > fọ, fọn, fọnc  _fŭĕrunt_ ✱_fŭrunt_ > fọron fọro,

    1. A rare _fo_ in the 1st pers. sg. seems to be simply borrowed
    from the 3d. In the 3d pers. sg., _fon_ beside _fo_ is due
    to the analogy of _-on_ _-o_ in the 3d pers. pl., and, in
    general, of such double forms as _bon_ _bo_, _mon_ _mo_, _son_
    _so_, _ton_ _to_: cf. § 63, (5). _Fonc_ shows the influence of
    _tenc_, _venc_.

(3) _Vidēre_ > vezẹr has:

  _vīdī_    >✱viði ✱við vi, vic _vīdĭmus_ ✱_vīdĭmu’_ >✱viðmu ✱viim vim
  _vīdĭstī_ >vist vis           _vīdĭstis_           >vitz vis
  _vīdit_   >✱við vi, vit, vic  _vīdĕrunt_           >✱viðrun viron viro

    1. The 1st pers. sg. _vic_ is patterned upon _aic_ < _habuī_,
    _cric_ < _crēvi_, etc. The 2d pers. forms are irregular, as
    we should expect ✱_vezist_, ✱_vezetz_: evidently the 2d pers.
    followed the analogy of the 1st and 3d. In the 3d pers. sg.,
    _vit_ and _vic_ follow the model of _partit_, _partic_, etc.:
    see § 173, (3), and § 176.

183. In the -sī perfect the 3d pers. pl. presented difficulties. If the
-e- of the penult fell, an s or z and an r were brought together. Most
dialects apparently preserved the -e-, and shifted the accent to it
(aucizęron, condüissęron, dissęron, prezęron, remazęron, traissęron),
or else borrowed outright the weak ending (respondęron): cf. § 49,
(2), and § 177, (3). Dialects which lost the -e- too early to follow
this method, generally suppressed the sibilant (aucíron, diron, mẹron
from mẹtre, remáron), or omitted the -r- and formed the 3d pers. pl.
directly from the 3d pers. sg. (aucízon, pláisson, prẹzon, remázon: §
180), or else imitated a preterit of another class (mairon from manẹr,
prẹiron from prenre, doubtless patterned after fẹiron < _fēcĕrunt_);
some borderland dialects kept the sibilant and the r, and developed a
dental between them (düystrent < _dūxĕrunt_, mẹsdren < _mīsĕrunt_ +
✱_mĭssĕrunt_: § 70, Sr, Zr).

As examples of the _-sī_ perfect we may take the preterit of dire <
_dīcĕre_ and penre prenre < _pr(eh)ĕndĕre_:--

  (1) _dīxī_         > dis, dissí         _dīxĭmus_ ✱_dīxĭ́mu’_ > dissẹm
      _dīxĭstī_      > dissíst            _dīxĭstis_ > dissẹtz dissẹs
      _dīxit_        > dis                _dīxĕrunt_ > dissęron, diron

  (2) ✱_prē(n)sī_    > pris, prẹs, presí  ✱_prē(n)sĭmus_ ✱_prēsĭ́mu’_
                                           > presẹm
      ✱_prē(n)sĭstī_ > presíst            ✱_prē(n)sĭstis_
                                           > presẹtz presẹs
      ✱_prē(n)sit_   > prẹs               ✱_prē(n)sĕrunt_
                                           > presęron, prẹson, prẹiron

(3) Escriure < _scrībĕre_ has, beside escris < _scrīpsī_, a preterit
escrius (cf. p. p. escriut escrit escrich), in which the u is probably
due to the influence of the infinitive.

(4) For dissí, presí, quesí, respozí, see § 177, (1). For pris prẹs,
etc., see § 173, (1).

184. In the -uī perfect the development depends somewhat upon the
consonant preceding the _u_. The treatment of the various cons. + w
groups, which was discussed in § 72, may be illustrated by _ha_bu_it_
> ac[133], _crēvit_ ✱_crē_vu_it_ > crẹc[134]; _nŏ_cu_it_ > nǫc[135];
_sēdit_ ✱_sĕ_du_it_ > sęc, _pŏ_tu_it_ > pǫc; _va_lu_it_ > valc[136],
_tĕnuit_ ✱_tē_nu_it_ > tẹnc[137], _mĕ_ru_it_ > męrc; _sa_pu_it_ >
saup[138]: the noteworthy features are the change of _u_ to -c (through
w, gw, g), the absorption of the preceding consonant unless it be a
liquid, a nasal, or a _p_, the preservation of the liquid or nasal, and
the metathesis of the _p_.

Avẹr < _habēre_, podẹr < ✱_pŏtēre_ _pŏsse_, volẹr < ✱_vŏlēre_
_vĕlle_, sabẹr < ✱_sapēre_ _sapĕre_ will serve as examples (for the
accentuation of the 3d pers. pl., see § 16, 2):--

  (1) _habuī_    >ac, aguí, aic, aiguí  _habuĭmus_ ✱_aβwĭ́mu’_ > aguẹm
      _habuĭstī_ >aguíst                _habuĭstis_ >aguẹtz aguẹs
      _habuit_   >ac                    _habuĕrunt_ >ágron ágro, aguęron

    1. For _aguí_ (_beguí_, _conoguí_), see § 177, (1). For _aic_,
    _aiguí_, (_cric_), see § 181, (1). For _aguęron_ (_visquęron_),
    see § 177, (3).

  (2) _pŏtuī_    > pǫc puǫc puęc   _potuĭmus_ ✱_potwĭ́mu’_ > poguẹm
      _potuĭstī_ > poguíst         _potuĭstis_ > poguẹtz poguẹs
      _pŏtuit_   > pǫc, pǫt        _potuĕrunt_ > pǫgron pǫgro

    1. For _puoc_, see § 181, (1). _Pot_ is apparently due to the
    combined influence of weak preterits and the parts of _poder_
    in which the dental is preserved.

  (3) _vŏluī_ > vǫlc, vuęlc, volguí  _voluĭmus_ ✱_volwĭ́mu’_ > volguẹm
      _voluĭstī_ > volguíst          _voluĭstis_ > volguẹtz volguẹs
      _vŏluit_   > vǫlc              _voluĕrunt_ > vǫlgron vǫlgro

    1. For _vuelc_ (_tinc_, _vinc_), see § 181, (1); for _volguí_
    (_venguí_), § 177, (1).

  (4) _sapuī_    > saup, saubí  _sapuĭmus_ ✱_sapwĭ́mu’_ > saubẹm
      _sapuĭstī_ > saubíst      _sapuĭstis_ > saubẹtz saubẹs
      _sapuit_   > saup         _sapuĕrunt_ > sáubron sáubro, sáupron

    1. For _saubí_, see § 177, (1). For _sáupron_ (_sáupra_,
    _saupés_, _saupút_), see § 65, P, 3; cf. § 148, (2).


185. The old conditional came from the Latin pluperfect indicative,
which had been supplanted in its pluperfect sense by a compound
form, and was gradually restricted in its use to the functions of a
preterit, a perfect conditional, and a simple conditional: see § 141,
(2). In Provençal it had only the conditional meaning; and as the new
conditional rendered it superfluous, it fell into disuse (with the
exception of ágra and fọra) in the 13th and 14th centuries: see § 142,

186. In the fourth conjugation the old conditional comes from the
contracted form of the pluperfect (_audīram_ < _audīvĕram_). Weak verbs
of the third conjugation constructed a similar form (✱_vendęram_).
First conjugation verbs started with the contracted pluperfect
(_amāram_ < _amāvĕram_), but in Provençal substituted ę for á, as in
the preterit: § 175, (4). The Provençal types of the old conditional of
weak verbs are, therefore, represented by: amęra, vendęra, auzíra. The
inflection is as follows:--

  amęra       amerám
  amęras      amerátz
  amęra       amęran
  auzíra      auzirám
  auzíras     auzirátz
  auzíra      auzíran

187. Strong verbs of the _-ī_ and the _-uī_ classes regularly took
their old conditional directly from the Latin pluperfect: _fēcĕram_
> fẹira, _fŭĕram_ > fọra, _vīdĕram_ > vira; _habŭĕram_ ✱_áβwĕram_
(§ 16, 2) > ágra, _pŏtŭĕram_ > pǫgra, _vŏlŭĕram_ > vǫlgra, _sapŭĕram_
> sáubra sáupra (§ 65, P, 3). Of course the Latin pluperfect, and
therefore the Provençal conditional, followed the shift of the perfect
if it changed from one class to another: _vēnī_ > ✱_vēnuī_, hence
✱_vēnŭĕram_ > vẹngra. The inflection is as follows:--

  fọra      forám             ágra      agrám
  fọras     forátz forás      ágras     agrátz agrás
  fọra      fọran             ágra      ágran

    1. _Faire_ has _féra_ (cf. _feron_) beside _féira_.

    2. For _sáupra_, cf. § 148, (2), and § 184, (4), 1, and § 192.

    3. _Devér_ has beside _dégra_ a form _déura_, evidently
    influenced by the new conditional, _deuría_.

    4. _Páisser_, _plazér_ have beside _págra_, _plágra_ the forms
    _paisséra_, _plazéra_.

188. Strong verbs of the _-sī_ class regularly form their old
conditional on the same plan as the 3d pers. pl. of the preterit (§
183): (_dīxĕram_) díra, cf. díron; (✱_prēsĕram_) prẹira, cf. prẹiron;
(_arsĕram_) arsęra, cf. arsęron.

189. It will be noted that in all verbs, weak and strong, the old
conditional may be constructed from the 3d pers. pl. of the preterit by
changing -on to -a.


190. The Provençal imperfect subjunctive came from the Latin pluperfect
subjunctive, which in Vulgar Latin assumed the functions of the
imperfect and generally displaced it, its own place having been taken
by a compound form: see § 141, (2).

191. For weak verbs the basis was the contracted form of the first
and fourth conjugations (_amāssem_ < _amāvĭssem_, _audīssem_ <
_audīvĭssem_); weak verbs of third conjugation had a similar analogical
form (✱_vēndęssem_). First conjugation verbs substituted ę for á, as in
the perfect and the old conditional: § 175, (4); § 186. The Provençal
types are: amęs, vendęs, auzís. The inflection is:

  amęs        amessẹm              auzís     auzissẹm
  amęsses     amessẹtz -ẹs         auzísses  auzissẹtz -ẹs
  amęs        amęssen -on -o       auzís     auzíssen -on -o

192. Strong verbs regularly made their imperfect directly from the
Vulgar Latin form of the pluperfect: _fecĭssem_ > fezẹs, _fŭĭssem_
✱_fŭssem_ > fọs, _vidĭssem_ > vezẹs, _venĭssem_ ✱_venuĭssem_ >
venguẹs; _dixĭssem_ > dissẹs, ✱_pre(n)sĭssem_ > prezẹs; _habuĭssem_
> aguẹs, _potuĭssem_ > poguẹs, _voluĭssem_ > volguẹs, _sapuĭssem_ >
saubẹs saupẹs (§ 65, P, 3). The inflection is:--

  fọs     fossẹm          aguẹs    aguessẹm, acsẹm
  fọsses  fossẹtz -ẹs     aguẹsses aguessẹtz -ẹs, acsẹtz -ẹs
  fọs     fọssen -on -o   aguẹs    aguẹssen -on -o

    1. The syncopated forms in the 1st and 2d pers. pl. are common
    to the _-uī_ class: _decsém_, _iacsém_, _pocsém_, _saupsém_.

    2. In the 3d pers. pl. _-an_ sometimes takes the place of _-en_
    or _-on_: _mezéssan_, _saubéssan_. This ending is doubtless
    borrowed from the present subjunctive and the old conditional.

    3. _Vezér_ has _vis_ beside _vezés_. From _faire_ we find in
    the 3d pers. pl. _fésson_.

    4. _Metre_ has _mezés_, due, no doubt, to the analogy of _mes_
    and of _prezés_.

193. Some dialects have an ending -a, -as, -a, -ám, -átz, an, borrowed
from the present subjunctive and the old conditional, but added to
the stem of the imperfect subjunctive: chantęssa, vendęssa, floríssa;


[1] There should now be added: J. B. Beck, _Die Melodien der
Troubadours_, 1908.

[2] See B. Schädel in _Rom._, XXXVII, 140.

[3] See E. Bourciez, _Les Mots espagnols comparés aux mots gascons_.

[4] See C. Chabaneau, _la Langue et la littérature du Limousin_, in the
_Revue des langues romanes_, XXXV, 379.

[5] See G. Paris, _Origines de la poésie lyrique en France au moyen

[6] This h (coming from f) is peculiar to Gascon; the other dialects
have no h.

[7] _G_, _b_, _d_ are sounded k, p, t only at the end of a word or
before a final s.

[8] _G_, _b_, _d_ are sounded k, p, t only at the end of a word or
before a final s.

[9] Rr is generally distinguished from r, but there are a few examples
of their confusion in rhyme.

[10] Ts is usually written _c_ at the beginning of a word, _z_ or _tz_
at the end.

[11] _G_ has the sound of tš only at the end of a word or combined with
final _z_.

[12] Cf. French.

[13] Cf. Spanish.

[14] For some exceptions see _Rom._, XXXII, 591; P. Marchot, _Phon._,
p. 9.

[15] Cf. R. Karch, _Die nordfranzösischen Elemente im
Altprovenzalischen_, 1901.

[16] See § 175, (4).

[17] There is no diphthong in the preterit ending -ęc: cazęc, etc.

[18] This view is a modification of the theory developed by
C. Voretzsch in his admirable treatise, _Zur Geschichte der
Diphthongierung im Altprovenzalischen_, Halle, 1900. That ę is not
affected by an i in the following syllable is shown by such words as
empęri, evangęli, saltęri, which must have been adopted fairly early.
The same thing is true of ǫ: apostǫli, ǫli, etc.

[19] The diphthong of ǫ occurs, however, in this text, v. 203, in _uel_
< _ŏculi_.

[20] _Derrier_ (_derer_, _dereer_), beside _dereire_, is manifestly
due to the influence of _primier_. To the influence of the same ending
_-ier_, as in _carr(i)eira_, is to be ascribed the diphthong in
_cad(i)eira_ < _cathĕdra_.

[21] The things just said of ę are true of ǫ: there is no breaking
before u < l (tǫut = tǫlt) nor before ts, dz, s, z (_nŏcet_ > nǫtz,
✱_nŏptias_ > nǫssas).

[22] The conditions are not quite the same as for e: an ę does not
break before a labial (nęps) nor before n´ (vęnha). Breaking before g
and k seems more general for ǫ than for ę.

[23] So the second person forms _cuebres_, _uebres_, _uefres_, and the
third person forms _cuebre_, _uebre_, _uefre_; cf. cǫbron, ǫbri, etc.

[24] For a discussion of the date, see K. Nyrop, _Grammaire historique
de la langue française_ (Copenhagen, 1899-1903), I, § 187.

[25] For the accent, see § 16, 1.

[26] Spelled _drictus_: see Schuchardt, _Vokalismus des Vulgärlateins_,
II, 422.

[27] The period of the fall of the intertonic vowel covers, in part,
the period of the voicing of intervocalic surds (§ 65); sometimes the
vowel fell too soon for the surd to be voiced, sometimes it did not.
The relation of the fall of unstressed vowels to the development of
intervocalic consonants, in French, has been examined by L. Clédat in
the _Revue de philologie française_, in a series of articles beginning
XVII, 122. Cf. P. Marchot, _Phon._, pp. 84-90.

[28] Cf. H. Wendel, _Die Entwicklung der Nachtonvokale aus dem
Lateinischen ins Provenzalische_, 1906.

[29] _Domnus_ may be the older form.

[30] The change of accent, in this verb and others, was due to the
analogy of the first and fourth conjugations (cantęron, sentíron) and
to the influence of the second person plural (dissętz).

[31] The feminine forms _cobéza_, _tebéza_, etc., show a change of

[32] In most of the modern dialects (but not in Gascony and lower
Languedoc) this a has become o: _rosa_ > _roso_. But in the Limousin
dialects and some others -as > -a: _rosas_ > _rosa_.

[33] The _tg_ in this word is probably due to the influence of _iutiar_
< _jūdĭcāre_.

[34] The forms with _r_ may be due to dissimilation or to the influence
of _clergue_.

[35] Alvernia is attested: cf. _Zs._, XXVI, 123. The usual form is

[36] Compare, in English, the _c_ of _coo_ and the _k_ of _key_.

[37] Compare the old-fashioned pronunciation of words like _card_,

[38] For final _-ci_, _-gi_ in plurals, see § 92, (2).

[39] Before this, _frīgĭdus_ had become frįgdus in Italy and Gaul.

[40] It is natural to suppose that the n, in falling, nasalized the
vowel; but no trace of this nasality remains.

[41] _Fes_, _nut_, which quite supplanted the regular forms, perhaps
show the influence of _res_, _mut_.

[42] By analogy of such double forms, n is sometimes added to a few
words ending in a vowel: _fŭit_ > _fo_ _fon_, _prō_ > _pro_ _pron_.

[43] Cf. § 63, (4).

[44] Also _auvir_, probably a northern local development of _auir_; and
_aurir_, doubtless from _auzir_ in a dialect that confuses r and z. See
R, 2 and S, 2.

[45] Cf. § 63, (3).

[46] The i from ð fuses with the preceding i.

[47] _Trachor_ has been influenced by _trach_, past participle of

[48] Intervocalic c and g have been studied by H. Sabersky, _Zur
provenzalischen Lautlehre_, 1888, pp. 8-19.

[49] _Mica_ _micha_ are from ✱_micca_ = _mīca_ + _cīccum_.

[50] Original Latin g seems more prone to fall than g < c.

[51] For the reduction of _au_ to _a_ see § 41.

[52] _Clerc_ is from ✱_clĕrcum_, which must have existed
contemporaneously with _clĕrĭcum_.

[53] Possibly it comes from N. Greek σράδη: cf. _Romanische
Forschungen_, XV, 880.

[54] See _Zs._, XXXII, 434.

[55] _Magis_ was probably reduced to _mais_ in Vulgar Latin.

[56] _Legir_ may have been reconstructed on the basis of _leg_ <

[57] For the groups ending in y, cf. L. J. Juroszek, _Ein Beitrag zur
Geschichte der jotazierten Konsonanten in Frankreich_, in _Zs._, XXVII,
550 ff. The groups ending in y and those containing c or g have been
studied by H. Sabersky, _Zur provenzalischen Lautlehre_, 1888.

[58] S is generally written _ss_ between vowels, to distinguish it from
_s_ = _z_.

[59] Most of the words in this category are semi-learned: cf. _fabla_
and _faula_. See § 55, B.

[60] See § 47, (2).

[61] See § 47, (2).

[62] Also _faur_: cf. § 52, (1), 1.

[63] _Sozer_ < _sŏcĕrum_: cf. § 49, (1).

[64] For the vowel of nęr nięr, see § 25, 1, (_e_).

[65] _Enteir_, _neir_ seem to have lost final e under the influence of
numerous adjectives in _-er_ _-ier_ _-ieir_ < _-arium_.

[66] In the modern dialects the d is probably commoner than it was
in the old literary language; it occurs in Bordeaux, Languedoc, and

[67] _Ratie_ is perhaps French.

[68] After o, the u disappears.

[69] _Glai_ is due perhaps to the analogy of _ney_ (§ 65, β, 3),
perhaps to such double forms as _fatz fai_ = _facit_.

[70] _Seti_ (pronounced with two syllables) seems to be an improperly
constructed post-verbal noun from _assetiar_. For _metgue_, etc., see §
65, G, (3).

[71] Apparently _maniar_, _escomeniar_ developed in the region where g
became y before a: cf. § 65, G, (1).

[72] The r remained palatal long enough to cause breaking: cf. §§ 30,

[73] These sounds lost their palatal quality too early to cause
breaking: cf. §§ 30, 37. Cf. _Einf._, § 133.

[74] _Palaitz_, however, is used by Marcabru, A. Daniel, and P. Vidal.
_Poizon_ occurs in _Flamenca_ and in modern Limousin (beside _pozon_),
_raizo_ is found in the _Boeci_ and other texts.

[75] Cf. § 49, (3).

[76] _Daun_, etc., are Gascon.

[77] Such forms as _amda_ < _amĭta_, _comde_ _conde_ < _compŭtum_, show
a late fall of the medial vowel.

[78] The _i_ in _ueich_ seems to be merely graphic.

[79] The _i_ in _voig_ seems to be merely graphic.

[80] _Fret_, _freda_ occur also.

[81] The phenomena of dissimilation have been well classified by
M. Grammont in _La dissimilation consonantique dans les langues
indo-européennes et dans les langues romanes_, 1895. For metathesis,
see _Zs._, XXVIII, 1.

[82] Cato uses _fructi_.

[83] The process began in classic Latin: _materies_ _materia_, etc.

[84] See § 89, 1.

[85] See § 47, (3).

[86] See § 16, 1.

[87] See § 52, (1), 1.

[88] Perhaps from a fusion of _plūs_ and _pluriōres_ = _plūres_. Cf. Fr.

[89] These forms existed as early as the 1st century of our era. See
_Zs._, XXVI, 600, 619. _Ejus_, _ei_ may have had some influence.

[90] See § 67, (2).

[91] § 45.

[92] § 74, (2).

[93] Cf. Meyer-Lübke, _Gram._, II, p. 104.

[94] See Suchier in _Grundriss_, I, p. 627.

[95] Cf. A. von Elsner, _Ueber Form und Verwendung des
Personalpronomens im Altprovenzalischen_, 1886.

[96] Cf. Thomas in _Rom._, XII, 334; Meyer-Lübke in _Gram._, II, page
104. For a different explanation, see Ascoli in _Archivio glottologico
italiano_, XV, 314, 396.

[97] For a different explanation of _mia_, see _Gram._, I, pp. 246-248,
also Horning in _Zs._, XXV, 341. Cf. Fr. _moie_.

[98] _Cels_ shows the influence of masculine nouns and adjectives.

[99] _Aquel_ has also _aquilli_. _Cilha_ is evidently a combination of
_cilh_ and _celha_.

[100] _Aquel_ has also _aqueli_.

[101] _Aquel_ has also _aquelz_ and _aquelses_.

[102] See G. Rydberg, _Le développement de_ facere _dans les langues
romanes_, 1893.

[103] See A. Zimmermann in _Zs._, XXV, 735.

[104] See C. C. Rice in _Publications of the Modern Language
Association of America_, XIX, 217.

[105] Cf. § 138.

[106] Cf. § 72, Sw.

[107] According to Raimon Vidal, a 13th century grammarian, _tenir_ is

[108] _Esvanuir_ seems to come from the perfect, _evanuī_.

[109] _Enfolhetir_ shows the influence of _follet_.

[110] For two different explanations of this ending, see A. Thomas,
_Essais de philologie française_, 25, 281; E. Herzog, in _Bausteine zur
romanischen Philologie_, 481.

[111] See K. Sittl in _Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und
Grammatik_, I, 465.

[112] For _ai estat_ we sometimes find _soi agutz_. The confusion
arises perhaps from the use of both _es_ and _a_ in the sense of ‘there
is’: hence _es estat_ = _a agut_; and by a mixture of the two, _es
agut_. Cf. L. Gauchat, _Sone avuto_, in _Scritti vari di filologia_
(dedicated to E. Monaci), 1901, p. 61.

[113] Cf. P. Thielmann, _Archiv für lateinische Lexikographie und
Grammatik_, II, 48 and 157.

[114] For the accented vowels in these forms, see §§ 167, 168.

[115] See § 168.

[116] See § 37.

[117] See § 30.

[118] Also, by analogy, _iassér_.

[119] Raimon Vidal says that _crei_, _vei_ are the proper forms for the
1st pers. sg. of the pres. indicative.

[120] According to Raimon Vidal, _trac_ is the only correct form.

[121] _Volemus_ occurs repeatedly in 7th century Latin.

[122] Cf. O. Schmidt, _Ueber die Endungen des Præsens im
Altprovenzalischen_, 1887.

[123] The loss of _-s_ is not confined to the Provençal territory: it
occurs also in western France, Catalonia, and the Engadine.

[124] Cf. the reduction of _habēbam_ to _aβea_: § 153.

[125] _Tenér_ _tenír_ really belongs to the second conjugation.

[126] According to Raimon Vidal, this is the regular ending of the 3d
pers. sg. of the fourth conjugation.

[127] In _nasquec_ the _ui_ ending occurs twice.

[128] Beside parẹc, coming perhaps from a V. L. ✱_parēvit_ ✱_parēvuit_.

[129] All verbs in _-ndĕre_ took the perfect in _-sī_: _ascos_,
_defes_, _pris_, _respos_, etc. _Lĕgĕre_ took ✱_lĕxī_ > _leis_ through
the analogy of the p. p. _lĕctum_. So _fĭngĕre_ took ✱_fĭxī_ > _feis_
through _fĭctum_; _frangĕre_, _pĭngĕre_, _tangĕre_ did likewise
(_frais_, _peis_, _tais_); and in Provençal _cénher_ < _cĭngĕre_,
_esténher_ < _exstĭnguĕre_, _plánher_ < _plangĕre_ followed the example
of these (_ceis_, _esteis_, _plais_): hence all verbs in _-nher_ have
the preterit in _-s_.

[130] See _Zs._, XXVIII, 97.

[131] _Gram._, II, p. 357.

[132] _Tĕnuī_ and _vēnī_ influenced each other.

[133] So _bĭbuit_ > _bec_, _debuit_ > _dec_.

[134] So _cognōvit_ > _conoc_, _mōvit_ > _moc_.

[135] So ✱_cŏcuit_ > _coc_, _jacuit_ > _iac_, ✱_nascuit_ > _nasc_,
✱_pa(s)cuit_ > _pac_, _placuit_ > _plac_, _tacuit_ > _tac_, ✱_tescuit_
> _tesc_, ✱_vĭncuit_ > _venc_, ✱_vīscuit_ > _visc_.

[136] So _caluit_ > _calc_, ✱_tŏluit_ > _tolc_, _vŏluit_ > _volc_.

[137] So ✱_vēnuit_ > _venc_.

[138] So _erĭpuit_ > _ereup_, _recĭpuit_ > _receup_.


N.B.--The references are to paragraphs.

  a: 23-24.
    --ạ: 24.
    --Unaccented a: 40, (1); 45; 48, 1; 51, (1).

  _-a_ _-anem_: 95, 2.

  _ab_: 65, P, 2.

  _abans_: 65, β, 2.

  Abbreviations: p. VI.

  _abet_: 65, β, 2.

  Ablative: 91, (5).

  _abora_: 65, β, 2.

  _aβea_: 87, β.

  _ac_ (Lat.): 43, 2.

    --Primary: 16-17.
    --Secondary: 18; 45, 1.

  Accented Vowels: see Vowels.

  Accusative: 91, (5).

  _ad_: see _az_.

  _ad-_: 66, 1.

  _ades_: 25, 1, (_e_).

  Adjectives, 102-109.
    --Comparison: 106-109.
    --Declension: 102-104; 107.
    --Neuter: 104; 108; 128, 1.
    --Numeral: 110-113.
    --Pronominal: see Pronouns.

  _adoutz_: 33, 4.

  Adverbial _-s_: 82, S, 3.

  Adverbs: 82, S, 3; 105; 108.

  æ: 22.
    --Unaccented æ: 41.

  _-age_: see _-aticum_.

  _ai_ < _habeo_: 73, βy.

  _aigla_: 72, Kw, 1.

  _aiglentina_: 72, Kw, 1.

  _aigua_: 72, Kw, 1.

  _aire_: 51, 4.

  _-aire_ _-ador_: 91, (6); 101, (3); 101, (3), 1.

  _aital_: 74, 2;  136, (6).

  _aitan_: 74, 2; 136, (7).

  _albire_: 87, 1.

  _alcun_: 136, (1).

    --Phonetic: p. VII.
    --Provençal: 7; 9.

  _alquant_: 136, (2).

  _alques_: 136, (3).

  _als_: 136, (4).

  _altre_: 136, (5).

  _altretal_: 136, (6).

  _altretan_: 136, (7).

  _aluc_: 65, C, 2.

  _Alvernhe_: 87, 1.

  _amdui_: 111, 2.

  _amiu_: 51, 3; 65, G, 1.

  _ams_: 111, 2.

    --Initial Syllable: 42.
    --Intertonic Syllable: 46.

  _anar_: 137, (1); 150; 162, (1).

  _anedier_: 45, 3.

  _anet_: 48, 1.

  _anta_: 39, 2.

  _apud_: see _ab_.

  _aquestos_: 51, 2.

  _ar_, _ara_: 33, 3.

  _-arius_: 23, 1; 73, Ry, 1.

  _arma_: 87, n + m.

  _arnei_: 25, 3.

  Articles: 116-119.
    --Definite: 116; 118-119.
    --Indefinite: 117.

  _asabentar_: 73, Py.

  _-aticum_: 49, (4); 52, (3); 65, G, 3; 73, Tg.

  _atressi_: 74, 2.

  _atretal_: 74, 2; 136, (6).

  _atretan_: 74, 2; 136, (7).

    --Accented: 39.
    --Unaccented: 41.

  _auca_: 65, C, 1; 80, βc.

  _aucel_: 65, C´, 1; 80, βc´.

  _aucire_: 43; 162, (2).

  _aurir_: 65, D, footnote; 65, R, 2.

  _auvent_: 65, S, 2.

  _auvir_: 65, D, footnote; 65, S, 2.

  Auxiliary Verbs: 140-141.

  _auzil_: 28.

  _auzir_: 160; 162, (3); 164, (1); 168; 169; 186; 191.

  _aver_: 73, βy; 87, β; 137, (1); 148, (1), (2), 1; 150; 152; 162,
  (4); 167; 168; 170; 173, (1); 177, (1), (2), (3); 181, (1); 184,
  (1); 187; 192.

  _avia_: 87, β.

  _avinen_: 46, 1.

  _az_: 82, D.

  _azaut_: 52, (2), 1.

  b > β: 55, B.

  _bat_: 72, Tw, 1.

  _berbitz_: 25, 2, (_a_).

  _Bernat_: 87, r.

  _bisbes_: 41, 1.

  _borgues_: 73, Rg´.

  _brey_: 65, β, 3.

  _briu_: 28, 3.

  _broc_: 37, 1.

  c palatalized: 55; 61; 62, (3); 65, G; 67, (1); 70, C´r; 73, C´y,
  Dg, Lc´y, Nc´y, Ndg, Ng, Rc´y, Rg, Rrg, Rtg, Tg; 74; 76; 77; 78;
  80, Ksc, Ppc; 92, (2).

  _cabil_: 27, 1.

  _cabirol_: 86.

  _cada_: 136, (8).

  _caire_: see _cazer_.

  _caitiu_: 80, Pt.

  _calacom_: 136, (9).

  _calmelh_: 45, 3.

  _cal que_: 136, (10).

  _camisa_: 25, 2, (_a_).

  _can_: 136, (11).

  _canorgue_: 65, N, 1; 87, n + n.

  _cap_: 100.

  _caramel_: 87, 1.

  _caresma_: 45, 3.

  _cascun_: 136, (12).

  Case: 91.

  _cazer_: 137, (1); 148, (2); 150; 162, (5); 176; 178, (1).

  ch (Greek): 57, θ.

  _chastiu_: 51, 3; 65, G, 1.

  _cibdat_: 80, βd.

  _cieutat_: 44, 2.

  _cilh_: 25, 2, (_b_).

  _cinc_: 72, Nw; 87, kw.

  _ciptat_: 80, βt.

  _ciri_: 25, 2, (_c_).

  _ciutat_: 80, βt.

  _clerc_: 47, (3).

  _clerge_: 52, (3).

  _clergue_: 47, (3); 52, (3).

  _cobra_: 33, 1.

  _cointe_: 47, 1, 80, Gnt.

  _colbe_: 48, 1.

  _colp_: 22, 48, 1.

  _coma_: 51, 5.

  _comensar_: 45, 1.

  _comergar_: 87, m + n.

  Comparative: 106-108.

  Comparison: 106-109.

  _comprar_: 45, 3.

    --New: 142, (2); 149-151.
        Endings: 153.
    --Old: 141, (2); 185-189.
        Strong: 187-188.
        Weak: 186.

  _conge_: 47, 1; 80, Gnd.

  Conjugation: 137-193.
    --Auxiliary Verbs: 140-141.
    --Change of Conj.: 137.
    --Compound Tenses: 141.
    --Conditional: see Conditional.
    --Deponent Verbs: 140.
    --Future: 142, (1), 149-152.
        Endings: 152.
    --Gerund: 143; 145.
    --Imperative: 156.
    --Imperfect Indicative: 170.
    --Imperfect Subjunctive: 141, (2); 190-193.
        Strong: 192.
        Weak: 191.
    --Inchoative: 138, 145.
    --Infinitive: 144.
      Used as noun: 94; 144, 4.
    --New verbs: 139.
    --Passive: 140.
    --Participle: see Participle.
    --Perfect Tenses: 141.
    --Pluperfect: 141.
    --Present: see Present.
    --Preterit: see Preterit.

  _conois_ = _conosc_: 78, 3.

  _conoisser_: 78, 3; 80, Gn; 148, (2); 162, (6); 175, (3); 177,
  (1); 178, (4).

  _consi_: 85.

    --Dissimilation: 87.
    --Final: 81-83.
        Groups: 83.
        Single: 82.
    --Germanic: 56.
    --Greek: 57.
    --Initial: 59-62.
        Groups: 62.
        Single: 60-61.
    --Insertion: 85.
    --Latin: 54-55.
    --Medial: 63-80.
        Contiguous to _-s_ in Pr.: 63-64; 65, L, R; 78, 2.
        Final in Pr.: 63-64; 65, L; 65, M, 1; 65, R, 1; 76, (2).
        _Groups_: 66-80:
          Cons. + l, 68-69;
          Cons. + r, 70-71;
          Cons. + w, 72;
          Cons. + y, 73;
          Ct, gd, gn, ks, 79-80;
          Double Cons., 67;
          L + cons., 74;
          M + cons., 75;
          Miscellaneous, 79-80;
          N + cons., 76;
          Ps, pt, 79-80;
          R + cons., 77;
          S + cons., 78.
        _Single_: 65.
    --Metathesis: 86.
    --Sporadic Change: 84-87.

  _contranher_: 25, 4.

  _cor_: 100.

  _cors_: 100.

  _cossint_: 28, 2.

  _costa_: 33, 1.

  _costum_: 72, Sw; 80, Dn.

  _covinen_: 46, 1.

  _coyre_: 73, Pry.

  _cozer_ < _consuere_: 72, Sw; 137, (2).

  _cozer_ < _coquere_: 49, (1); 72, Kw, 2.

  _creire_: 145; 148, (2); 160; 162, (7); 167; 168.

  _creisser_: 49, (1); 162, (8).

  _cremedar_: 60, 1.

  _criar_: 44, 4.

  _cridar_: 41, 2.

  _crollar_: 41, 2; 68, Tl.

  _cruzel_: 25, 1, (_b_).

  _cuende_: 47, 1; 80, Gnd.

  _cug_: 80, Yd.

  _cuit_: 80, Yd.

  _-culus_: 47, (2); 68, Cl.

  _dalgat_: 44, 6.

  _dar_: 137, (1); 162, (9); 175, (4).

  Dative: 91, (4); 116; 120; 133.

  _daus_: 44, 6.

  _dec_: 27, 2.

  _dech_ < _debeo_: 162, (11).

  Declension: 89-136.
    --Adjectives: 102-104; 107.
    --Articles: 116-119.
    --Change of Decl.: Nouns, 90; Adj., 103, 1.
    --Disappearance of Decl.: 91, (6).
    --Fifth Decl.: 90; 97.
    --Final _-ci_, _-gi_: 92, (2).
    --Final _-i_: 92, (1).
    --First Decl.: 95.
    --Fourth Decl.: 90; 96.
    --Infinitives: 94.
    --Inflection -o -onem: 101, (3); 101, (3), 1.
    --Invariable Nouns and Adj.: 93.
    --New Inflections: -a -anem, 95, 2; -us -onem, 96, 2.
    --New nom. sg.: 98.
    --New plural: 93; 99; 102, 2.
    --Numerals: 111; 112.
    --Pronouns: 116; 120-136.
    --Second Decl.: 96.
    --Third Decl.: 97-101.

  Definite Article: 116; 118-119.

  _degun_: 87, n + n.

  _dei_ < _debeo_: 73, βy

  _-dei_: 174, (3).

  _deime_: 80, C´m.

  _dementre_: 43.

  Demonstratives: 130-132.

  _demora_: 35, 1.

  Deponent Verbs: 140.

  _depte_: 47, (3); 80, βt.

  _derrier_: 30, footnote.

  _desme_: 80, C´m.

  _destruire_: 162, (10).

  _deude_: 47, (3); 80, βd.

  _deute_: 47, (3); 80, βt

  _dever_: 27, 2; 73, βy; 144, 4; 148, (2); 150; 160; 162, (11);
  167, (2); 171; 173, (2), (5); 179; 187, (3); 192, 1.

  _dia_: 90; 95; 95, 1.

  Dialects: 3-8, 10-13.

  _-didi_: 174, (3).

  _diious_: 91, (3).

  _diman_: 43.

  _dimecres_: 87, r.

  _dimenge_: 43.

  _dimercres_:  17, 2.

  _dimergue_: 65, N, 1.

  _dins_: 25, 2, (_d_).

  _dintre_: 25, 2, (_d_).

  Diphthongs: see æ, au, œ.
    --Final Diphthongs: 51, (3).

  _dire_: 49, (1); 137, (2); 144, (1); 148, (3); 162, (12); 172;
  177, (1), (3); 183; 183, 1; 188; 192.

  _disnar_: 49, 3; 87, y.

  Dissimilation: 87.

  _dit_ = _det_: 25, 2, (_a_); 65, Y, 1.

  _dizer_: 49, (1); see _dire_.

  _don_: 134; 135, (2).

  _dos_ = _dous_: 74, (2).

  _dotze_: 40, 1; 80, Dc´.

  Double Consonants: see Consonants.

  _dreit_: 41, 2.

  _duire_: 148, (3); 162, (13); 177, (3); 183.

  Duration of Pr. Language: 1; 14.

  Duration of Pr. Literature: 1.

  ẹ: 25-27; 29; 41.
    --Before Nasal: 29.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  ę: 28-30; 41.
    --Breaking: 30.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  e̯: 40, (2); 55, Y; 61, Y; 65, Y; 73.

  e- before initial s + cons.: 62, (3).

  -e in 1st. pers. sg. of present: 52, (6); 164, (1).

  _ecce_: 131, (1); 132, (3), (4).

  _eccu_: 43, 2; 131, (1); 132, (3), (4).

  eé > e: 40, 1.

  _ei_ = _ai_: 23, 2; 152, 1; 162, (4); 175, (4).

  _-ei_ in pret.: 174, (3);  175, (3), (4).

  _eigal_: 72, Kw, 1.

  _-eire_ _-edor_: 101, (3), 1.

  _eis_: 80, Ps; 132, (2).

  _eissi_ < _ecce hīc_: 80, Cc´; 82, C.

  _eissi_ < _et sīc_: 80, Ts.

  _eissir_: 30, 2; 44, 3; 159, (2); 162, (14).

  _elig_: 28, 3.

  _emblar_: 69, 1.

  _empastre_: 69, 1.

  _en_ < _domine_: 41, 3.

  _en_ < _in_: 82, N.

  _en_ < _inde_: 123.

  Enclitics: 19; 118, (1), (2), 2; 122; 123; 123, 2.

  _enclutge_: 52, (4); 80, Dn; 85.

  Endings: see Personal Endings.

  _engal_: 72, Kw; 85.

  _engoissa_: 33, 1; 43.

  _enteir_: 70, Gr, footnote.

  _envanezir_: 43.

  _er_, _era_:  33, 3.

  _er_ < _ero_: 149, 1.

  _es_ < _est_: 28, 5; 83, St.

  _escoisson_: 73, Ty, 3.

  _escremir_: 86.

  _escrich_: 148, (3).

  _escrire_: 144, (3).

  _escrit_: 52, (2), 1.

  _escrius_: 183, (3).

  _escriut_: 148, (3).

  _escur_: 43.

  _espaza_: 65, T, 3.

  _espelh_: 28, 5.

  _esper_: 25, 1, (_d_).

  _esprit_: 17, 1.

  _essem_: 82, L.

  _esser_: 49, (2); 148, (3); 148, 1; 149, 1; 150; 162, (15); 167;
  170, 4; 173, (1); 179; 182, (2); 182, (2), 1; 187; 192; 193.

  _estanc_: 80, Gn; 86.

  _estar_: 137, (1); 162, (16); 175, (4).

  _estela_: 28, 5.

  _Esteve_: 48, 1.

  _estraniar_: 73, Ny.

  _estre_: see _esser_.

  _esturmen_: 86.

  _-ētis_ > _etz_: 25, 1, (_a_).

  Euphonic Vowel: 52; 164, (1); 165; 166.

  Extent of Pr. Territory: 2; p. VIII.

  _ez_: 65, T, 3; 82, T.

  _faim_: 52, (4), 1; 80, C´m.

  _faire_: 137, (1); 150; 148, (3); 156, 1; 160; 162, (17); 168, 1; 170;
  173, (2); 179; 181, 1; 182, (1); 182, (1), 2; 187; 187, 1; 192; 192, 3.

  _faitz_: 80, C´t.

  _far_: 137, (1); 144, 2; see _faire_.

  _fau_ < _fagum_: 65, G, 1.

  _feble_: 47, (3); 87, l; 103, 1.

  _fei_ = _fe_: 25, 3.

  _ferre_ = _fer_: 52, (1), 2.

  _fetge_: 52, (3), 2.

  _fier_: 30, 1.

  Final Consonants: see Consonants.

  _fizel_: 25, 1, (_b_).

  _Folco_: 101, (3), 1.

  _fontaina_: 23, 4.

  _fores_: 51, 4.

  _formir_: 86.

  _fouzer_: 74, (4); 100.

  _fragel_: 47, (3).

  _frair_: 52, (1), 1.

  _freble_: 47, (3); 87, l; 103, 1.

  _freg_: 31, 1; 80, Gd.

  _freit_: 31, 1; 80, Gd.

  _frevol_: 47, (3).

  Future: 142, (1); 149-152.
    --Endings: 152.

  g palatalized: 55; 61; 65, G, Y; 73, Lg´, Llg´, Ng´, Ng´y, Rg´;
  77; 92, (2).

  _ganre_: 87, r.

  _garensa_: 44, 5.

  Gascon: 3; 10; 23, 2; 38; 62, (2); 152, 1.

  _Gasconha_: 61, 1.

  _gazardo_: 42, 1.

  _gen_ = _genh_: 73, Ny.

  Gender: 89.

  Genitive: 91, (3); 116.

  Germanic Consonants: 56.

  Germanic Verbs: 139.

  Gerund: 143; 145.

  _ges_: 100, 1.

  _ginh_: 28, 3.

  _ginhol_: 86, 1.

  _gisar_: 65, R, 2.

  _gitar_: 44, 3; 80, Ct.

  _glai_ = _glatz_: 73, C´y, footnote.

  _glavi_: 65, Y, 2.

  _glieza_: 30; 41, 1.

  _granolha_: 60, 1.

  _grau_: 51, 3; 65, D, 2.

  _grazal_: 65, T, 3.

  _grazir_: 65, T, 3.

  Greek Consonants: 57.

  Greek Verbs: 139.

  Greek Vowels: 22.

  _greug_: 65, β, 3.

  _greuga_: 28, 8.

  _grey_: 65, β, 3.

  _gua_: 61, 1.

  _guaina_: 61, 1.

  _guastar_: 61, 1.

  _habebam_: 87, β.

  _hic_: 132, (1).

  i: 31-32; 41.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  i̯: 40, (2); 55, Y, 61, Y; 65, Y; 73.

  i < d, t: 65, D; 70, Dr, Tr.

  -ī: 27; 51, (2), (3); 92, (1); 125, (1); 131, (3), (4); 173, (1).

  -i, 1st pers. sg. of present: 52, (6); 164, (1).

  -i < _-ium_: 53; 96, 1.

  _ia_ < _jam_: 82, M.

  _Iacme_: 80, Cm.

  _iai_: 39, 1.

  _iasser_: 65, C´, 2; see _iazer_.

  _iassey_: 65, N, 2.

  _iazer_: 65, C´, 2; 160; 162, (18); 192, 1.

  ie < ę: 30.

  ié > e: 40, 1.

  _ier_: 30, 1.

  _-ier_: see _-arius_.

  ieu: 32; 44, 2.

  _ilha_: 65, S, 1.

  _illac_: 16, 4.

  _ille_: 115; 116, 118; 132, (3).

  _illic_: 16, 4.

  Imperative: 156; 165; 168.

  Imperfect Indicative: 170.

  Imperfect Subjunctive: 141, (2); 190-193.
    --Strong: 192.
    --Weak: 191.

  Impersonal Construction: 104.

  Inchoative: 138; 145.

  Indefinite Article: 117.

  Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives: 136.

  Indicative: see Conjugation.

  Inflection: see Conjugation and Declension.

  Initial Consonants: see Consonants.

  _ins_: 25, 2, (_d_).

  Insertion of Consonant: 85.

  Interrogatives: 133-135.

  Intervocalic Consonants: see Consonants, Medial, Single.

  Invariable Nouns: 93.

  _invern_: 85.

  _ioi_: 39, 1.

  _ióve_: 47, (3); 49, (3).

  _iovén_: 89, 1.

  _ipse_: 132, (2).

  _-ire_ _-idor_: 101, (3), 1.

  _-isc-_: 138; 145; 155; 156.

  _isme_: 28, 3.

  _isnel_: 44, 3.

  _issarnit_: 46, 1.

  _issir_: 44, 3; see _eissir_.

  _iste_: 132, (4).

  iu: 32.

  _iure_: 25, 2, (_c_).

  _ius_: 33, 2.

  _ivern_: 44, 3.

  -ίζειν: 57, 2; 139.

  j: see y.

  k: 57, K; 62, (1).

  l > u: 65, L; 67, (2); 73, Lc´y, Lty; 74, (2).

  Latin: 14; see Consonants and Vowels.

  _laus_: 89, 1; 93, (2); 101, (1), (2).

  _lauzeta_: 41, 1.

  Learned Words: 15.
    --Cf. also: 17, 1; 25, 1, (_c_); 25, 2, (_b_); 45, 4; 50; 65, β,
    6; 65, C, 2; 65, C´, 4; 65, D, 4; 65, F, 1; 65, G, 2; 65, G´, 1;
    65, P, 4; 65, T, 5; 65, Y, 4; 68, Bl, Pl; 70, Cr, Dr, Gr, Pr, Tr;
    72, Nw, 1; 73, βy, Cty, C´y, Ly, Nty, Py, Ry, Ty; 80, Bs; 82, B,
    L, M; 83, Ks; 84; 91, (3); 109; 113.

  _legir_: 65, Y, (3), footnote.

  _lei_: 101, (2), 3.

  _leis_: 125, (1).

  _leo_: 101, (3), 1.

  _lhun_: 86.

  Limousin: 5-6; 13, (1); 24.

  _lire_: 28, 1; 137, (2); 144, 1.

  ll > lh: 67, (2).

  Locative: 91, (1).

  _luenh_: 36, 1; 37.

  _lunh_: 86, 1.

  _lur_: 33, 2.

  _maint_: 136, (14).

  _mais_: 65, Y, (2), footnote; 82, S, 1, 4.

  _malapte_: 47, (3); 80, βt.

  _malaude_: 47, (3); 80, βd.

  _malaut_: 52, (2), 1.

  _malaute_: 47, (3); 80, βt.

  _man_: 96; 96, 3.

  _maneira_: 72, Nw, 1.

  _maniar_: 73, Ndg.

  _mar_: 100.

  _marbre_: 71.

  _margue_: 52, (3); 87, m + n.

  _marme_: 87, r; 100.

  _marsip_: 87, m + n.

  _massis_: 65, β, 4.

  Medial Consonants: see Consonants.

  _meesmes_: 65, T, 3.

  _mege_: 49, (4); 73, Dg.

  _melhura_: 33, 2.

  _-men_: 105.

  _menhs_: 65, N, 2.

  _meravilha_: 25, 2, (_b_).

  _mercey_: 65, D, 1.

  _mermar_: 87, n + m.

  _mes-_: 45, 2.

  _messer_: 65, Y, 3.

  _mestier_: 91, (3).

  _met-_: 131, (2).

  Metathesis: 86.

  _metre_: 148, (3); 181, (1); 183; 192, 2, 4.

  _mezeis_: 65, T, 3.

  _mezesmes_: 65, T, 3.

  _mica_: 65, G, footnote.

  _midons_: 91, (2); 93, (2).

  _mier_: 30, 1.

  _mint_: 28, 2.

  _molt_: 136, (15); see _mon_, _mot_, _mul_.

  _mon_ = _molt_: 74, 1.

  _monge_: 52, (3).

  _mongue_: 52, (3).

  Mood: see Conjugation.

  _morgue_: 52, (3); 65, N, 1; 87, m + n.

  _morir_: 137, (1).

  _mostier_: 25, 1, (e); 45, 3.

  _mot_ = _molt_: 74, (2).

  _mou_: 37, 1.

  _moure_: see _mover_.

  _mover_: 137, (2); 150; 159, (1); 160-162,  (19); 178, (4).

  _mul_ = _molt_: 74, 1.

  _mulierem_: 16, 1; 40, 1.

  _-mus_ > _-mu’_: 167.

  _natiz_: 65, β, 4.

  _nebla_: 28, 4.

  _nede_: 47, (1), (3).

  _negun_: 136, (16); see _degun_.

  _neir_: 70, Gr, footnote.

  _nembrar_: 87, m + m.

  _nemes_: 51, 4.

  _ner_: 25, 1, (_e_).

  _net_: 47, (1), (3); 80, Td.

  _neu_: 25, 1, (_e_)

  Neuter Adjectives: 104; 108; 128, 1.

  Neuter Nouns: 89; 96; 96, 1; 100.

  _ney_: 65, β, 3.

  _nible_: 28, 4.

  _niu_: 51, 3; 65, D, 2.

  _niula_: 28, 4.

  Nominative: 91, (6).

  _non_: 82, N.

  _nora_: 33, 1.

  _nossas_: 38, 2.

  _nou_: 37, 1.

  Nouns: 89-101; see Case, Declension, Gender.

  _nul_: 136, (17); see _lhun_, _lunh_.

    --Cardinal: 110-111.
    --Ordinal: 112-113.

  ọ: 33-34; 36; 41.
    --Before Nasal: 36.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  ǫ: 33, 1; 35-37; 41.
    --Irregular: 33, 1.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  _o_ < _hoc_: 82, C; 132, (1).

  _o_ < _aut_: 41, 4.

  _-o_ _-onem_: 101, (3); 101, (3), 1.

  _oc_: 82, C.

  œ: 22,41.
    --Unaccented: 41.

  _olifan_: 42, 1.

  _om_: 101, (2), 2; 136, (18).

  _ome_: 47, (3); 49, (3).

  _omne_: 47, (3); 49, (3).

  _onze_: 38, 1; 76, (1)

  oó > o: 40, 1.

  _orzol_: 73, Rc´y.

  _ou_: 33, 1.

  _oz_: 82, T.

  p between m and s: 63, (8); 75.

  _pair_: 52, (1), 1.

  _pais_: 25, 2, (_c_).

  _palafrei_: 25, 3.

  _palai_: 73, Ty, 1.

  Palatalization: 55, C, G, Y; 67, (2); 73.

  _palle_: 74, 3.

    --Past (= Perfect): 140; 141, (1); 146-148.
    --Present: 143, (1); 145.

  Particles: 19; see Enclitics, Proclitics.

  _partir_: 145; 160; 162, (20); 165; 167; 168; 169; 170; 171; 172;
  173, (2), (3); 175, (2); 176.

  _parven_: 85.

  _pasmar_: 87, s.

  Passive: 140.

  Past Participle: see Participle.

  _pauc_: 136, (19).

  _paziment_: 65, β, 5.

  _pege_: 52, (3), 2.

  _Peire_: 96, 2.

  _peiura_: 33, 2.

  _peleri_: 87, r.

  _penchenar_: 85.

  _penre_: 71; 87, r; see _prendre_.

  _perdre_: 162, (21); 174, (3).

  _perdris_: 85.

  Perfect: 141; see Preterit.

  Perfect Participle: see Participle.

  _perilh_: 25, 2, (_b_).

  _perquei_: 25, 3.

  _perri_: 70, (1).

  Personal Endings:
    --Conditional: New, 153; Old, 186-187.
    --Future: 152.
    --Imperfect: Indicative, 164-169; Subjunctive, 191-193.
    --Present: 164-169.
    --Preterit: 173.

  Personal Pronouns: 116; 120-125.

  ph: 57, φ.

  Phonetic Alphabet: p. VII.

  _piion_: 73, Py.

  _piucela_: 42, 1; 44, 2.

  _plach_: 80, C´t.

  _plaire_: see _plazer_.

  _plais_: 28, 6.

  _plait_: 80, C´t.

  _plazer_: 144, 4; 148, (2); 150; 160; 162, (22); 173, (3); 187, (4).

  _ploia_: 33, 1.

  _plou_: 37, 1.

  Pluperfect: 141.

  Plural: 93.

  _poder_: 137, (1); 148, (2); 150; 162, (23); 168; 181, (1); 184,
  (2); 184, (2), 1; 187; 192, 1.

  _polpra_: 87, r.

  Popular Words: 15.

  Possessives: 126-129.

  Post-verbal Nouns: 96, 1.

  _poutz_: 52, (3), 1.

  _pouzer_: 85.

  Prefix, Change of: 43.

  _preire_: 78, 1.

  _prendre_: 71; 87, r; 148, (3); 161; 162, (24); 172; 173, (1);
  177, (1), (3); 179; 180; 180, 1; 181, (1); 183; 183, (1); 188;

  _preon_: 43; 44, 4.

  Preposition + Article; 118, 2.

  Present: 154-169.
    --Double Stems: 155-161; -c, 161;
        Diphthong, 159; -nc -nh, 161;
        Palatal, 160-161; -sc-, 155-156.
    --Peculiar Forms: 162.
    --Personal Endings: 164-169.

  _presseguier_: 86.

  _prestre_: 71, 1; 87, r.

  Preterit: 141, (2); 171-184.
    --Personal Endings: 173.
    --Strong: 178-184.
        Accent in 1st pers. pl.: 179.
        Stem vowel change in 1st pers. sg.: 181, (1).
        Third pers. pl. without _r_: 180.
        Types: _-i_, 178, (2) and 182; reduplicative, 178, (1); _-si_,
        178, (3) and 183; _-ui_, 178, (4) and 184.
    --Strong and Weak: 172-177.
        Strong stems with weak endings, 177.
    --Weak: 174-177.
        Conjugations: 1st, 174, (1) and 175, (4); 2d, 174, (2) and 175,
        (1); 3d, 174, (3) and 175, (3); 4th, 174, (1) and 175, (2).
        Ending _-c_: 176.

  _preu_: 65, G, 1.

  _preveire_: 78, 1.

  _prever_: 71, 1.

  _proa_: 35, 1.

  Proclitics: 19; 118, (1); 122; 123.

  _profich_: 28, 1.

  _pron_: 63, (5), footnote.

  Pronominal Adjectives: see Pronouns.

  Pronouns: 114-136.
    --Demonstrative: 130-132.
    --Indefinite: 136.
    --Interrogative: 133-135.
    --Personal: 116, 120-125.
      --Conjunctive: 122-123.
      --Disjunctive: 124-125.
    --Possessive: 126-129.
        Plural possessor: 129.
        Singular possessor: 127-128.
    --Relative: 133-135.

  Pronunciation: 8-9.

  _propi_: 87, r.

      Dialects, 3-8, 10-13;
      Extent, p. VIII, 2-4;
      Sounds, 8-9;
      Spelling, 7 and 9.
    --Literature: 1.

  _puosc_: 37, 2.

  _pus_: 87, 1.

  _put_: 47, (1); 80, Td.

  _putana_: 95, 2.

  qu: 55, W; 62, (2); 72, Kw, Nw.

  _qual que_: 136, (10).

  _quan_: 136, (10).

  Quantity: 20-21.

  _quatre_: 72, Tw, 1.

  _quec_: 136, (21).

  _que que_: 136, (20).

  _quesacom_: 136, (22).

  _quet_: 25, 1, (d); 40, 1.

  _qui_: 133.

  _quier_: 30, 1.

  _qui que_: 136, (23).

  _quis_ (Lat.): 133.

  _quis_ (from _querre_): 28, 3; 181, (1).

  _rancura_: 33, 2.

  _randola_: 46, 1.

  _ratge_: 52, (5).

  _re_ (_ren_, _res_): 82, M; 93, (2); 101, (1), 2.

  _rede_: 51, 4; 80, Yd.

  _redebre_: 70, 1.

  _redobla_: 33, 1.

  _redon_: 43.

  _refreitor_: 85.

  _rege_: 49, (1).

  _rei_: 101, (2), 3.

  _reide_: 51, 4; 80, Yd.

  Relative Pronouns: 133-135.

  _renc_: 80, Gn; 86.

  _renha_: 80, Tn.

  _renlinquir_: 85.

  _rire_: 137, (2); 162, (25).

  Romance Languages: 14.

  rs > s: Latin, 55, R; Provençal, 65, R.

  s + nasal: 65, S, 1.

  _-s_ in adverbs: 82, S, 3.

  _saber_: 65, P, 3; 137, (1), (2); 145; 148, (2); 150; 160; 162,
  (26); 165; 172; 177, (1); 184; 184, (4); 187; 192; 192, 1, 2.

  _sauma_: 80, Gm.

  _sautz_: 52, (3), 1.

  _saver_: 65, P, 1; see _saber_.

  _sazo_: 87, t.

  _seguir_: 137, (1), (2); 148, (2); 159, (1); 167, (2).

  _selcle_: 69, 1.

  _sembrar_: 68, Ml.

  _senes_: 51, 4.

  _senestre_: 25, 1, (e).

  _sereisa_: 23, 3.

  _seror_: 43, 1.

  _set_: 52, (2), 1; 80, Pt.

  _seti_: 73, Dg, footnote.

  _seze_: 25, 1, (e); 80, Dc´.

  _sierf_: 30, 1.

  _sint_: 28, 2.

  _sobra_: 33, 1.

  _sogre_: 70, Cr.

  _soi agutz_: 141, (1), footnote; 148, 1.

  _somni_: 73, Mny.

  _son_ < _sum_: 82, M; 162, (15).

  _son_ < _suum_: 82, M; 126-127.

  _sor_ = _sobre_: 70, 1.

  _sor_ = _sorre_: 52, (1), 1.

  _sosrire_: 66, 1.

  _sosterrar_: 66, 1.

  _sostraire_: 66, 1.

  _sotran_: 73, Ny.

  _sozer_: 49, (1).

  Spelling: 7, 9.

  _sub_: 66, 1.

  Subjunctive: see Conjugation.

  _suefre_: 33, 1; 37, 2.

  _suenh_: 36, 1; 37; 73, Mny.

  Superlative: 106; 109.

  Supporting Vowel: 52; 164, (1); 165; 166.

  t between dental or palatal and s: 82, S.

  _taire_: see _tazer_.

  _tal_: 136, (25).

  _tamanh_: 136, (26).

  _tan_:  136, (27).

  _tapit_: 25, 2, (_e_).

  _tazer_: 162, (27).

  _tems_: 63, (8); 100.

  _tener_: 137, (2); 148, (2); 150; 160; 161; 162, (28); 166; 181,
  (1); 184.

  _tenir_: 137, (2); see _tener_.

  Tense: see Conjugation.

  _teula_: 68, Gl.

  _teun_; 72, Nw, 1.

  _tey_: 65, N, 3.

  th: 57, θ.

  _tinc_: 28, (3).

  _ton_ < _tuum_: 82, M; 126-127.

  _tonleu_: 33, 5.

  _torser_: 49, (1); 72, Kw, 2.

  _tot_: 65, T, 2; 136, (28).

  _trabalh_: 43.

  _trachor_: 65, D, footnote.

  _traire_: 148, (3); 162, (29); 172; 177, (1), (3).

  _trap_: 65, β, 2.

  _tres_ = _tras_: 23, 4; 43, 3.

  _treva_: 72, βw.

  _troba_: 33, 1; 86.

  _tronar_: 86.

  _trop_: 37, 1.

  _truoill_: 86.

  _-tulus_: 47, (2).

  ü: 34, 38, 41.
    --From ǫ: 34.
    --From ū: 38.
    --Unaccented: 41; see Vowels.

  u < l: see l > u.

  u̯: 40, (2); 55, W; 72.

  ue: 37.

  _uebre_: 23, 3.

  _Ugo_: 101, (3), 1.

  _uis_: 33, 2.

  _umplir_: 44, 1.

  _un_: 117; 136, (29).

  Unaccented Vowels: see Vowels.

  uo < ǫ: 37.

  uó > o: 40, 1; 55, W.

  _upa_: 33, 2.

  _-us_ -_onem_; 96, 2.

  _-ut_ in Past Participle: 148.

  uu > u: 55, W.

  v > β: 55, V.

  _vair_: 73, Ry, 1.

  _vaire_: 51, 4.

  _vas_: 42, 1.

  _vaus_: 42, 1.

  _vecvos_:  156, 2.

  _vei_: 160.

  _vendanha_: 25, 2, (_e_).

  Verbs: see Conjugation.

  _verin_: 25, 2, (_e_); 87, n + n.

  _veus_:  156, 2.

  _veuva_: 72, Dw, 1.

  _vezer_: 145; 148, (2), (3); 150; 156, 2; 160; 162, (30); 170;
  171; 173, (3), (4); 179; 182, (3); 182, (3), 1; 187; 192; 192, 3.

  _vezoa_: 72, Dw, 1.

  _vianda_: 28, 6; 87, β.

  _viatz_: 87, β;  108.

  _vint_: 27.

  Vocative: 91, (2).

  _voig_: 23, 3; 49, (1); 80, C´t.

  _volentiers_: 46, 1.

  _voler_: 137, (1); 148, (2); 159, (2); 160; 162, (31); 167, 2;
  177, (1); 180; 181, (1); 184, (3); 187; 192.

  _volon_: 28, 7.

    --Accented: 23-39;
        see a, ẹ, ę, i, ọ, ǫ, ü.
    --Greek: 22.
    --Latin: 20-22.
    --Prefixed to s + cons.: 62, (3).
    --Provençal: 8-9.
    --Unaccented: 40-53.
      _Final Syllable_: 51-53;
        learned words, 53;
        supporting vowel, 52.
      _Initial Syllable_: 41-44;
        analogy, 42;
        dialect, 44;
        false etymology, 43.
      _Intertonic Syllable_: 45-46;
        analogy, 46.
      _Penult_: 47-50;
        learned words, 50;
        Provençal, 48;
        vowel kept, 49;
        Vulgar Latin, 47.

  _vuech_: 23, 3; 49, (1); 80, C´t.

  _vuelc_: 37, 2; 181, (1).

  Vulgar Latin: 14.

  w: 55, W; 56, W; 62, (2); 72, βw; see u̯.

  x: 55, X.

  y < j: 55; 61, Y; 65, Y; 68, Yl.

  y < e, i: see ḙ, i̭.

  y < c, g: 55; 65, G, Y; 68, C´l; 70, C´r, Gr, Yr.

  z: 57, Z; 61, Y; 65, Y.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Outline of the Phonology and Morphology of Old Provençal" ***

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