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Title: Smokiana - Historical Ethnographical
Author: Pritchett, R. T. (Robert Taylor)
Language: English
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[Transcriber’s Note: This text was handwritten originally with many
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    [Illustration]

    A. 1586. D.

    HISTORICAL
    SMOKIANA.

    [Illustration]

    ETHNOGRAPHICAL.

    RALEIGH       DRAKE

    “JIST a draw
    noo.”

    Do you ken
    the muxture?

    R. T.
    PRITCHETT.  1890

    A · 1890 · D

    RIGHTS RESERVED



    To
    YE MEMORIE of
    KING JAMES 1^{st.}

    “counterblaste”
    of the past
    &
    To the ANTI·TOBACCO·FRATERNITY
    of the present day.
    The following ETHNOGRAPHICAL
    “PLEBESCITE”
    is respectfully dedicated.
    by their well wisher,

    The Author & Sinner
    RTP

[Illustration: SPERO

R·T·PRITCHETT]



Ye PREFACE.


    To
    The Courteous Reader.  =LONDON.=

Greeting

The stream of Conquest has generally flowed from North to South. The
Triumph progress of the Goddess Nicotina has been from West to East
starting in the 16^{th.} century she has now girdled our little orb
with devotees burning continuous incense. The Instruments connected
herewith are objects of Historical & Ethnographical interest hence are
brought together authentic Portraits of the “Pipe Family”. Briar root
and Branch “who judge from the favor in which they are now held.” “At
home & abroad” they seem likely to flourish for ever. I cannot close
without expressing my thanks to Mr. Bernard Quaritels for placing then
before you in their present Garb.

    Your faithful Sinner & Author,
    _Robt. Pritchett._

    _A.D._
    _1890_



List of Illustrations.

[Illustration]


    Page

      9      Tobacco Plant 1669 ·A·D

     11      “NICOTIANA” flower.

     13      German Woodcut 1616. AD.

     15      Rich old Clays.

     17      Broseley Clays.

     19      Churchwardens.

     21      Dutch Pipe Gear.

     23      German Pipes.

     25      Danish & N. Europe.

     27      Algeria.

     29      W. Africa.

     31      Lagos & Ashantee.

     33      Dahomy & Niger.

     35      Wild Hemp smoking

     37      Equatoria.

     39      Stanley Exped^{n.}

     41      East Africa.

     43      Bushmen.

     45      Soap Stone Pipes.

     47      Turkey.

     49      Persian. 1669. A·D

     51      Hookah. India.

     53      Hookah. Cashmere.

     55      Indian Red clay.

     57      Scinde.

     59      Madras.

     61      Narghile. Indore.

     63      Yarkand. Asia.

     65      Gourd Pipe.

     67      Assam & Burmah.

     69      China & Corea.

     71      Opium Gear.

     73      Japanese ditto

     75      Borneo.

     77      Sumatra & Java

     79      Australia.

     81      New Zealand.

     83      New Guinea.

     85      S. America.

     87      N. America.

     89      N. AMER. Stone Pipes

     91      Canada.

     93      Nootka Sound.

     95      Arctic Pipes.


    =IGNITION.=

     97      Sumatra & Borneo.

     99      S. America.

    101      England old
             &
             _New._



[Illustration]



Tobacco Plants & their Varieties.

[Illustration]


Although Smoking is generally associated with Tobacco only, yet there
are other plants whose leaves are used for similar purposes & these
will be referred to as we come to the different means of using them.
Our first Woodcut of Tobacco is from STELLA—ROMA 1669. a work of

[Illustration: D·B

STELLA ROMA.

A·D 1669.

“ILTABACCO”

TABACCO LATIFOGLIO.

PRIMA specie.

DELLA SECONDA Specie.

TAB. ANGUSTIFOGLIO.

TERZA SPECIE.]

great value as giving Pipes & the Hookah of Persia as well as Plants
but we will start with some of the growths now most generally known of
the “NICOTIANA” Family which is very widely spread over the face of the
Earth & has of late made great strides in Borneo & Sumatra.

NICOTIANA “_TABACUM_”. (The mother of the family) Height 5 ft. Leaf
12^{in} to 14^{in.} Corolla Pink. Virginia manilla.

N. “_RUSTICA_”. Height 3 to 4 ft. Leaf 10^{in.} to 12^{in.} Corolla
Greenish into Yellow. Turkey & India.

N. “_REPANDA_”. Small. Corolla white. Havannah.

N. “_PERSICA_”.—or Bombay, all used in Persia by the Royal Family.
(SHIRAZ tobacco).

N. “_AFFINIS_” is our Garden Plant with long tube 3½^{in.} with Corolla
White. Very fragrant. Habitat. Isle of Pines. S. PACIFIC.

[Illustration: NICOTIANA FRAGRANS WHITE.

N. TABACUM.

PINK.

RTP.]

We are greatly indebted to old German woodcuts for solid information
anent details of Habits & customs of the 16^{th.} Century which our own
people have not handed down to us, take for instance “Hans Sachs.” Book
of Trades. Had smoking been in vogue in his day he would have given
it—or rather Jost Ammon would have illustrated it so here in _1616
·A·D_ we find a Sturdy German, blowing a tremendous cloud. It is taken
from an old work now in Frankfurt—viz

    “Völler Von Gellhausen (ULRICUS).”

    Das ist

    “Ein. Blumenbuck.”

    Small Folio.

    Franckfurt
    am Mayne.

    M. Weixner. Formscheider und Mahler. _A·D 1616._

[Illustration: VÖLLER

VON GELLHAUSEN

A·D 1616.

49

Tabact.

FRANKFURT AM MAYN.]



Pipes.

[Illustration]


We have heard much of late of The “STONE” Period. The “Bronze” Period
& the “Iron” Period & some one has gone so far as to say this is
the “Brass Tin” Period. on all these scores “SMOKIANA” is strongly
represented bringing forward The “Brass” Pipes of SUMATRA. It is
surprising how widely diffused is “STONE” especially “Soap stone.”
Amongst the following specimens will be found our “Gourd.” Period—but
as there is “no place like Home” we will begin with “English clays,” of
which some are shown on the opposite page enriched by Tobacco of recent
years..

[Illustration: ENGLAND

RICH OLD CLAYS

1689 A·D

1575 A.D.

1600 A.D.

FULLSIZE.]


BROSELEY. SALOP.

The various stamps & names of early makers of Tobacco Pipes are most
satisfactorily corroborated by the Parish Register and the families
seem to have gone on prospering, but the sickle “of Old Time” has been
put in & . & old things have passed away making room for new. The Four
stamps given on the opposite Page are amongst the Earliest known. & of
great interest. The quality of the Clay must have attracted the makers
to that spot—after the introduction of Pipes to London, which had a
Pipe maker’s Company _.A·D. 1619_ & still continues establishments at
Bow.. The “Old Cock” Tavern in Fleet Street had its own Token & its own
Pipe.

[Illustration: IOHN IAMS

1600 AD

IOHN IONES

AD 1590

BROSELEY CLAYS. SALOP.

& their stamps.

TC HB

YE “COCK” TAVERN. 1660

1689

A·D 1608

MOR RIS DECON

A·D. 1687

IOHN LEGG 1687.]

and old London as revealed in digging old foundations has yielded a
great harvest of Pipe produce.. The museum at Guildhall has a very good
collection. The “Churchwarden” Clay was the Pipe of the early part of
this century & is still in the Country. It was considered right always
to have a clean pipe hence they were stacked together in a double
ring & sent to “The Bake-house” for Purification. The “Irish Dudean”
originated the rich “old clay” most probably & the Scotch followed with
Cutties, & The French with “Fiolets” bien “Cullottées”—of Forty years
ago. “Milo” in the Strand was the man for “Colouring Clays” which he
made his Specialty.

[Illustration: THE FAMILIAR CHURCHWARDEN

BROSELEY.

SALOP.

SCOTCH CUTTY

“off to the Bakehouse.”

OLD ITALIAN. “STELLA”

A·D. 1669.

ROMA.]


HOLLAND.

The Dutch have always been great Smokers, how often does Ostade
introduce clay Pipes into his pictures & when they favored us with a
visit in 1689. how many records have been dug up from time to time
wherever they were located. The Typical Pipe of Holland is that of
“_GOUDA_” make. & The Pipe enters largely into Wedding ceremonies thus
they have for the Copper wedding, the long clay Pipe of some 36^{in.}
decorated with Copper leaves. The Silver Wedding Silver leaves & The
Golden Wedding Gold & finally The Diamond—for the 75^{th.} now Cigars
are smoked by every one, even by little Hollanders going to school

9·A·M·

[Illustration: DUTCH GEAR.

full size.]


GERMANY.

As a Nation of Smokers The Germans have always carried the palm & do
still & with them Smoke & Song were ever inseparable. Imagine a German
Student without his Pipe, & his Corps Cap we should not know him. The
Leading feature in German Pipes is decidedly The long Bowl of Porcelain
generally adorned with some Beauty on the front of it in medallion
form. The stems are of great lengths some four feet or so with flexible
tubing leading up to the mouth piece. These may be considered House
Pipes for travelling, naturally they are shorter. The Tobacco Bags are
objects of great care & interest.

[Illustration: GERMAN]


NORTH EUROPE.

The Island of “AMAGER” near Copenhagen has retained its costumes &
customs so faithfully that we have confidence in the Pattern Pipes
which are now still in use. The Long one. 4 ft 8 in is the House, the
shorter one 6^{in.} in the bowl contains the allowance of Tobacco for
the day, this is the constant companion of the out-door worker.

In Norway small blocks of meerschaum seem to be most in vogue.

The Hungarian Pipes are of red clay. & show asiastic influence in form.

The Tyrolese Pipes look very workman like mostly of wood with Roebuck
horn—introduced as ornament—

[Illustration: DANISH.

ARMAGER ISLAND.

AMAGER. NORWAY.

BUDAPESTH.

AUSTRIAN TYROL.]


ALGERIA.

We are now in a new sphere of Pipe-Land: a Kind of slack water between
European & Asiatic systems—in which the Turkish type predominates
thus the upper Red clay bowl on the opposite page is quite Turkish &
the handsome Arab Pipe of a form seen often smoked riding on a Camel
shews us how decoration will now be introduced in a new form. The
Stem of this Pipe is beautiful in Colour, the Ivory having a very
beautiful arabesque pattern upon it, the red colour of which harmonises
delightfully with the dark wood & bowl. The Large bowl is decidedly for
House or Tent service.

[Illustration: ALGERIA.]


AFRICA.

Everywhere in the Dark Continent the habit of smoking something or
somehow has been met with by our most energetic explorers even in the
dense forests of new Equatoria. The Pigmies find it desirable to have
something to smoke. Paul Du Chaillu in 1856 brought to our notice the
Pipes shewn at the top of the next page. These are used by _The Fans_,
a fierce Cannibal tribe—great in the mystery of Iron work, and are
generally made of red or very dark clay. The Specimen from _SANKURU
River LAT 5° S_ is of wood & very beautifully carved.—The Bone Pipe is
very like a Cigar Holder

[Illustration: West COAST of AFRICA.

FANS

TRIBE CANNIBAL.

BONE PIPE.

R. SANKURU. AFF of R. KASSAI.

WOMENS PIPE TUBES

S. AFRICA]


LAGOS and Ashantee.

The Three Bowls of the dark clay bowl are certainly a striking object
to any smoker.. and again the small bowl from the larger one in fact
“Bowl major.” “Bowl Minor”—this plurality we shall find in India,
still that does not very clearly explain the why & wherefore—unless it
emanates from mere love of being unlike others.. The Light coloured Red
Clay of the Ashantee Pipes is very striking—& the form of the Bowls
still more so. There is a decidedly Classical character about them.. as
if started from Roman Lamps & Pompeian ideas & then supplied to their
Colonies—.

[Illustration: AFRICA. W. COAST

LAGOS.

ASHANTEE.

BRITISH MUSEUM. COLL^{n.}]


AFRICA

EAST.

DAHOMEY is associated in our minds with the most ghastly & cruel scenes
of useless blood-shed. & yet “TOBACCO” is smoked there and gradually
is the Symbol of Peace asserting its gentle influence & Dahomey is now
more humane than when Capt. Burton first visited it. To him we are
indebted for the specimens opposite. The long peculiarly formed bowl
like a “nepenthes” or Pitcher Plant is of Iron & has prongs or spurs
of Iron. Length of stem, 33 in. The Hanging tufts are of Red Indian
character. The upper pipe is carved wood & the double one, Iron.

[Illustration: DAHOMEY.

W. AFRICA

Brought by Cap^{t.} BURTON.

BRITISH MUS^{m.}

IDDAH. LOWER NIGER]


AFRICA

We now come to newly opened up country, for Livingstone is of our time
& Bishop MacKenzie in the Zambesi river also: The wooden Pipe with the
Curious board in front of the Bowl is used by the LOMWE Tribe of MAKUAS
on the _LUKUGU River_ which runs into the “LAKE TANGANYIKA”—W. and a
very curious arrangement it is the front of the board being elaborately
carved. The Two lower Pipes are large & cumbersome & used to smoke
Wild Hemp or “Cannabis Indica” sometimes called Banghi, but generally,
“Bang”—In India we find the same name applied to a spirit obtained from
Palms into pots & collected in the Deccan.

[Illustration: E. AFRICA.

WILD HEMP.

(CANNABIS) INDICA

LUKUGU RIVER. E. AFRICA.

BHANGI HEMP PIPE.

ALOLO TRIBE

LAKE SHIRWA

EAST AFRICA

BRITISH. MUS^{m.}

Horn]


AFRICA.

The recent explorations in Africa have developed our Geographical
Knowledge so much that a very special interest is imparted to many of
these specimens by giving carefully the situations from which they
have been procured—thus. The Ivory pipe of King MTESA from _UGANDA_
Victoria nyanza is from a new Country & the ornamentation very refined
& delicate. next the long one 8 ft. presented by the Khedive to the
British Museum is from the _MONBUTTOO tribe_ N. W. of the _ALBERT
NYANZA_. The Lower one is from the SHIRÉ River near the Murchison Falls
& used for Wild Hemp by the Manganja people.

[Illustration: CENTRAL AFRICA.

EQUATORIA.

IVORY PIPE of KING MTESA. UGANDA. VICTORIA NYANZA

SHIRE RIVER.

MANGANJA people near. MURCHISON FALLS.

    MONBUTTOO. TRIBE. N W of ALBERT NYANZA.

    —presented by the KHEDIVE to the British MUSEUM. 1878.

CASE. 111. 112.]


STANLEY. EXPEDITION.

Central AFRICA & Equatoria.

For this most interesting page we are indebted to Surgeon Parke who
very kindly took the trouble to make sketches of the bowls & wrote the
names under each. what better authority could we have than this.. it
makes the page historically interesting. The hard clay of the sticky
ant heaps takes a beautiful polish see the _KAVALLI_ bowl Albert
NYANZA. The most original is from _AREWENI & ITURI_ Forest where the
little people take the mid rib of the “Banana” which is cellular & by
pushing a reed down they get the bore required, cut a hole & rolling up
a piece of Banana leaf.. like a Grocer’s paper insert that for a Bowl &
smoke.

[Illustration: STANLEY EXPEDITION.

SURGEON · T · HEAZLE PARKE.

FORT BODO. ITURI · RIVER.

BAMBOO

MAZAMBONIS COUNTRY · ALBERT NYANZA

Banana Leaf for Bowl.

KAVALLI · COUNTRY ALBERT · NYANZA

AREWENI · ITURI FOREST.

ANKORI · Baked Clay polished.

CENTRAL AFRICA.

EQUATORIAL.]


AFRICA

Zanzibar at the present moment is a centre of public interest and the
example given on the next page is an exceedingly good one, it is of
carved wood & has much of the ARAB character in its form. The Large
one is of wood also with good ornamentation, the Bowl is 4^{in.} in
diam and the total length 12^{in.} this is used for smoking Wild Hemp
or Bang—and sometimes known as. “_LIAMBA_.”—it is from _NYASSA. LAT 9°
S. LONG. 31.^{E.}_ This is a pipe of mixed features as the arrangement
is strongly allied to the Bushmen on the next page. it is however from
N. W of Victoria nyanza UGANDA · NYASSA LAND. The Bowl is of dark clay
with a gourd body. HABITAT doubtful

[Illustration: E. AFRICA.

ZULU.

ZANZIBAR.

KAFFIR

N.W. of VICTORIA NYANZA.

UGUNDA. NYASSA-LAND

BANG

NYASSA

LIAMBA or Wild Hemp. CANNABIS. INDICA. BAND or BANGUE. SMOKING.]


BUSHMEN · S. AFRICA.

Now we arrive at the full swing of the Stone Bowls of Soap stone
or “_STEATITE_” and the link with the last “UGANDA” Pipe will at
once be recognised. The whole machine is most cumbersome& the size
therefore—The Horn being some 18^{in.} must make it bad for Bushwork.
Altho the tube can be unshipped most readily The Stone Bowls are carved
with great care, the favorite form reminds us of the maces or “Martel
de Fer” used in the real Iron Period.—There is found also the Duplex
Bowl also in Steatite.

[Illustration: Bushmen. S. AFRICA

STEATITE BOWLS.

STONE BOWLS]


South Africa.

The “Steatite” Bowls now show decidedly European influence, altho the
most striking feature is the under disc which is probably added to
give strength as the Steatite itself is very friable, its form reminds
one of the inverted comb on the skull of a Gorilla which is very
African. These specimens like many others are from that Great Store
House of information The British Museum which happily secured many of
the interesting examples collected by the late M^{r.} Bragg F.S.A. We
can but regret that so complete a collection should ever have been
dispersed—Sic transit.

[Illustration: SOAP Stone Pipes. S. AFRICA.

Wood

Wood.

SOAP STONE.

Wood

BRITISH MUSEUM.]


TURKEY

Turkish tobacco is such a familiar form & so comprehensive in its light
varieties that Turkish pipes must at once be called “_CHIBOUQUES_” &
“_HOOKAHS_”. The red clay bowl of the former is generally 2 in. in
diameter. The stem of Cherry or of Iasmine 5 ft long. When the Bowl
is primed it is covered with thin paper & prepared for lighting. The
Smoker at a range of 5 ft gives the signal & the light is applied—The
mouth piece of clouded amber is very rounded & therefore only put to
the lips.. The Red clay Hand Hubble of Benares is very simple.

[Illustration: TURKEY.

CHIBOUQUE

BENARES.. HAND HUBBLE.]


PERSIAN.

    A. D. 1669     “HOOKAH.”

STELLA of ROME, here is again useful to shew us the “Hookah” of Persia
in his day. his book was published 1669 and as travelling from TEHERAN
to the HOLY CITY was less rapid than nowadays, we may fairly accept
this illustration as representing a well-established object. The action
of the “Hookah” or “Hubble bubble” is to draw the smoke through the
water—& so cool & purify the fumes of the Tobacco Being made of Glass.
This is called a “_SHISHEH_” & in it is smoked the. Persian “_TOMBAK_”
exclusively grown at _CHIRAZ_ is the best & consumed by the Members of
the Imperial family.

[Illustration: PERSIAN.

Hookah

p. 213. D·B STELLA

ROMA 1669 A·D

SHISHEH. or Glass.

for TOMBAK Tobacco

“CHIRAZ.”]


INDIA.

The Persian Fashion doubtless soon took India by storm & the maharajahs
found in Hookahs a new object of luxury & one capable of unbounded
decoration, in fact a new field for native talent to embellish &
enrich. The upper bowl which contains the tobacco is called

    “_The Chillum_”

whatever the material whether richly embossed or the simple red clay
which tries one’s lips at _BENARES_. These State Hookahs are of
considerable height running to Thirty inches & Three feet—with coils of
tubing—which terminates in a silver mouth-piece.

[Illustration: THE GREAT HOOKAH of INDIA

SILVER]


CASHMERE.

Naturally one would expect to find something of special beauty in the
fine collection of The Indian Museum where the art of the various
Provinces is so well represented in all kinds of metal work beautiful
form & rich Colour. _SRINUGGER CASHMERE_ yields a very lovely
specimen of a Hookah. Copper gilt with very rich deep blue and green
enamel produces a very noble result of harmonious colour. The “CHILLUM”
is a choice work of art & crowns a very fine work of

    CASHMERE ART

Height 30 inches.

[Illustration: HOOKAH Proper

from SRINUGGER CASHMERE]


INDIA.

Of all the dreadful materials ever introduced in any land to the
mouth of a smoker. The Red clay of India is certainly the worst & the
roughest. Both these examples are Hand Hubble bubbles or HOOKAHS used
by the Natives in India and the Red dotted lines shew where the Chillum
to carry the tobacco is fitted on.

The sizes are given in each case otherwise the proportions would be a
dead letter. The Tobacco, if tobacco at all, that is smoked in these
specimens is of the roughest description.

[Illustration: RED WARE.

INDIA]


SCINDE.

This is one of the Giants of the Red ware Race is India. 18 inches in
height and is used in this north west Province as a Village welcome to
travellers & is generally found in the _DAK Bungelow_. In some parts of
India a native may be seen with his Public “Hookah” all alight ready
for the passer-by to take a few whiffs—on paying a “consideration” for
the privilege & refresher. The lower form was given to the writer by
D^{r.} Watts it is used by the Hill Tribes of “_CHITTAGONG_”: & was
brought over here for the Colonial Exhibition in _1886_.

[Illustration: SCINDE

HOOKAH Red Ware.

Village welcome.

CHITTAGONG.]


MADRAS

As we are now leaving the “HOOKAH” family & coming to the “_NARGHILES_”
it will be well to emphasize the distinction between the two—which is
this—“NARGHILE” is the native term for Cocoanut, hence all smoking
mediums of that kind such as must be laid down & will not stand erect
are called “NARGHILE”s especially of Cocoanut shape. All “Hookahs”
stand by themselves. This bowl from _N. ARCOT MADRAS_ is made of a
Bronzed Ware somewhat heavy but good form. The Five topped Chillum is
only seen in the Bazaars not in general use.

[Illustration: N. ARCOT. MADRAS

Bronzed. WARE.

Five topped CHILLVM]


PROVINCE INDORE.

This is a true, good & faithful representative of the “_NARGHILE_”
Family, a real Cocoanut pipe, mounted in Silver with good native work.
The shell has evidently been selected for its graceful shape. & the
native artificer has done his work lovingly.. The “Chillums” beneath
are of different material that on the left is of Silver & although Sir
Walter Raleigh smoked a pipe of silver still in these days in Europe
all metals are avoided for bowls. The Chillum on the right is from
“_LUCKNOW_” perforated rim of glazed Pottery. Biscuit colour ground
with green pattern & Ruby spots or Knobs.

[Illustration: “NARGHILE.”

INDORE.

COCOANUT. mounted in SILVER.

Wood stem in.

CHILLUM. BENGAL SILVER

glazed Pottery LUCKNOW.]


YARKAND.

As Pipes are made out of every conceivable material we cannot be
surprised that where “Iade” has its habitat that there its services
should be enlisted & utilized—& so it is: The “_Yarkand_” River has
much Iade but to work it & bore it for a pipe must not only involve
great care & consummate skill, but necessitate rarity of production The
wooden & more humble confrere is much more general & very easily made
anywhere. The Dark clay “chillum” belongs to a Gourd Pipe.

[Illustration: JADE OF YARKAND

BOKHARA.

full size Pipes]


YARKAND & BOKHARA.

Having noticed the exceptional Iade we come to the more common Gourd
Pipe in fact our “_Gourd Period_”. They are doubtless received with
favor on account of their lightness and the example given is from
one in the India Museum where they seem to be of much the same
character. The Gourd of about 12 inches in length. The wooden. Bowl
carrier curiously turned in rings & the Bowl itself of dark clay The
ornamentation is in some cases very elaborate in this case a mixture of
Persian & Chinese.

[Illustration: YARKUND BOKHARA.

GOURD PIPE. dark clay chillum.

Gourd

mixture of Persian & Chinese ornament.

INDIAN MUSEUM.]


ASSAM · KHYBER & BURMAH.

Bamboo is wonderfully useful in so many ways & now it comes before us
as the very simplest of Pipe Bowls, the joint forming the base. This is
north “Assam.”

The Pipe of the _AFRIDI_ tribe at the South entrance to the _KHYBER
PASS_ has a very small brass bowl. Two pieces of wood are scooped out
for the bore & bound together with leather. This pipe is promoted to a
Wooden Case with carved ornamentation. The Pipe of KAKHYEN N. IRRAWADDY
RIV. _BURMAH_ has a very long bowl, the lower held in the hand & the
bent Bamboo example is so formed to be carried on the arm.

[Illustration: ASSAM.

N. ASSAM.

KAKHYEN.

IRRAWADDY. BURMAH

BURMAH.

AFRIDI—PIPE & Case. KHYBER PASS.

BRIT · MUS]


CHINA & COREA.

Still working to the Eastward we come to the land the ancient land
of Iohn China-man, a land of small bowls & jade mouthpieces & _water
pipes_ in the shops for the inveigling of undecided customers and for
the more definite explanation of small bowls the full sizes are now
traced here for reference..—Diams.

[Illustration: Full sizes.

White metal

A·D 1820 Brass.

White metal]

The Pipes of _Corea_ have longer stems & the Bowls are flatter as shewn
& they are brass..

[Illustration: CHINA & COREA.

COREA.

BRASSEY MUSEUM.]


OPIUM

[Illustration]

This is a serious matter to approach especially as it has a very bad
character—and has been black balled all round & generally tabooed.
After careful research & unbiased study of its merits & demerits
we must confess that it is unduly maligned, as the most useful of
Colonists, The Chinese, work in all the hottest & most unhealthy parts
of the world. & are generally very healthy which may be attributed
to the _moderate use_ of the so called Demon =OPIUM=. The largest
employers of Chinese labour never object to the use of it & It is made
from the White Poppy. “_PAPAYER SOMNIFERUM_.”

[Illustration: Y/E OPIUM SMOKE.

YE LAMP.

BOWL. POTTERY

Stem]


JAPAN.

[Illustration]

This most delightful country with its kindly inhabitants are great
Smokers in a small measure if the regulation size of the generally
used bowl be taken as a standard. Many people fancy that the little
Jap. bowls the real size being thus.—are used for Opium—not at all.
The Tobacco they use is very light in Colour & very fine cut indeed.
The full size of the general pipe is given on the opposite page at the
foot. Their Tobacco pouchs are very artistically worked & ornamented
their Pipe cases suspended from the Girdle by carefully carved
“_NITSUKES_” are lovely.

[Illustration: JAPAN.

A·D 1889

MOUTH PIECE

FULL SIZE PIPE

Reed stem

PIPE BOWL.

TOBACCO POUCH & TOGGLE.

FULL SIZE METAL PIPE]


BORNEO.

It always adds very greatly to the value & interest of any object for a
collection if it has been well used & especially if acquired from the
original owner when using it. Such was the Case with the specimen of
_Dyak Pipe_ & Tobacco Box now given. The Bamboo stem is rather large
according to our idea in proportion to the Bowl. The Dyak is equal to
the occasion & regulates the draft by putting dry grass therein. The
wooden Bowl is very small. The wire at the side is to slip into his
girdle. The Tobacco Box is a very rich brown, the outer skin of the
Bamboo being Cut away to shew the pattern.

[Illustration: BORNEO.

A. D. 1889

TOBACCO BOX.

Pipe of Dyaks.]


SUMATRA.

The Iava museum at Batavia is a grand collection & one of the most
instructive from the care with which it has formed & the admirable
Catalogue well compiled. _SUMATRA_ is of course well represented:
The ACHEEN section a little thin. & the large brass pipes from
_Batak-landen_ are very welcome. The British Museum has one a little
longer than the Iava specimen. The Pin cushion arrangement on the
wooden Bowl for the Pricker to be stuck into is very original & the
steel at the end of the pipe is original also.

[Illustration: SUMATRA

BATAK-LANDEN.

BRITISH MUS.

BRITISH MUS. JAVA MUSEUM BATAVIA.]


AUSTRALIA. NOV. HOLL.

NEW HOLLAND, aborigines have not been found worshippers of the Goddess
“NICOTINA” altho a sort of Wild tobacco was discovered near Port
Jackson.—The European cutty came in with the Gold Digger & this plug
Tobacco—in vain have we sought a native Pipe but we have one now before
us adapting Nature’s work to a new use for man’s convenience. _The EMU_
(Dromæus. NOVIÆ HOLLANDIÆ.) is requisitioned & Heathen Chinee or more
likely MALAY—has produced the Smoking apparatus on the opposite page.

[Illustration: EMU FOOT

(DROMÆUS NOVIÆ HOLLANDIÆ.)

AUSTRALIA]


New ZEALAND.

Pipes seem to be a general register of the art of the Country in which
they are made and in this case it is especially useful at a transition
period like the present as when this class of ornamentation is fast
passing away. This carved work on the basis of a real Briar structure
assumes a new type—below the carving—as it goes off as a spike to
stick into the ground like a linstock of old with the match ever ready
& burning. The wood of this example is very hard & takes therefore a
splendid polish, again “The British museum” has saved a good specimen.

[Illustration: ANTIPODES

BRITISH MUSEUM.

IRON WOOD

NEW ZEALAND

(To stick into the ground.)]


NEW GUINEA.

Bamboo is the material now in vogue and the mouth piece is cunningly
arranged by making a small hole at the joint for the draught & bore.
The Tobacco tube which cannot be called a bowl but rather a cigar or
cigarette holder is always at right angles to the thick stem which
averages 14^{in} & 15^{in.} in length. The ornamentation like that of
“CHINAM” cases is very delicate & refined. The South Pacific affords us
a shell pipe and from _SAVO_ & the _SOLOMON ISLANDS._ we have a very
simple contribution one would have expected colour from them certainly
as well as from New Guinea

[Illustration: NEW GUINEA

FLY RIVER: N·G

MELANESIA

SAVO

SHELL PIPE. SOLOMON ISLANDS.]


SOUTH AMERICA

& Paraguay River.

The Spanish influence in South America has not been likely to
contribute to the developement of Pipe smoking, but we find native
specimens of considerable interest Beginning from the South in Magellan
Straits. The _Patagonians._ use the small short form which was in Mr.
Braggs collection above that is quite a new feature a square pipe of
13^{in.} in length used on Great State occasions—the sides ornamented
with a Key pattern & steps as on HUACA · POTTERY in Peru. The large
Bowl with small bone mouth piece is from River _UCAYALI · Peru._ & Fish
tail of wood is from MATACO Indians. _GRAN·CHACA_

[Illustration: S. AMERICA

UCAYALI. R. PERU.

PARAGUAY. RIVER.

BRITISH MUSEUM. BONE

MATACO INDIAN GRAN. CHACA.

PATAGONIA]


NORTH AMERICA.

We have now come round to the original home of Tobacco & smoking: to
the Land of the “CALUMET of PEACE” & the “_TOMAHAWK PIPE_” & where
Sir Iohn Hawkins & Raleigh. Drake first saw the “Weed” in use. The
despisers of the “Weed” may chuckle may they hear the old Proverb “that
ill Weeds grow apace” for it has grown & must be very infectious nor is
there any falling off for “Steamers” go & there The Goddess NICOTINA
will surely take root such is the experience up to the present time—

[Illustration: N. AMERICAN INDIAN.

PARAGUAY AMER·S.

SOAP STONE

TOMAHAWK PIPE

TEHUELCHE INDIANS

PATAGONIA. S. AMERICA.

BRITISH MUSEUM

CATLIN’S COLL^{n.}]


N. AMERICA.

There is hardly room to do justice to a good north American “Pipe of
Peace” on these small pages but those who are really interested in the
Pipe customs & functions of the Indian tribes will derive much pleasure
& information too from consulting “CATLINs” works on those subjects.
The best pipes have flat stems much ornamented & the Bowls of elaborate
design are very quaint & original the simpler ones are red the more
curious in a dark slate & a kind of green stone. The British museum
has naturally a very fine collection of all the varieties of both
materials—.

[Illustration: NORTH AMERICA.

Flat stems for Pipes.]


N·AMERICA

The Indian graves have supplied specimens of very great antiquity
from all parts of N. America and a fine collection of _MOUND PIPES_
was presented some years ago to the City of Salisbury. Those on the
opposite page will give a general idea of the character of these real
antiquities in which the bird is a prominent object probably some
sacred Bird—in vogue amongst the tribe at the time they were made but
we must not surmise “FACTA” “non Verba” is true ARCHÆOLOGY.

[Illustration: N. AMERICA.

STONE MOUNDS of OHIO.

CANADA

From Indian Grave.

BRITISH MUSEUM.]


N. AMERICA.

Stone pipes still predominate & the upper one from South Carolina has
a new form with a cut-water or fore-foot suggestive that it should be
held by that part when being smoked.

The “NOOTKA SOUND” example is another variety & to our modern eye
w^{d.} appear to have been designed by a carpenter still the bowl
itself carries a decidedly modern impress The modern N. American pipes
are most carved in Slate and some are quite processional in design and
length.

[Illustration: N. AMERICA.

SOUTH CAROLINA.

NOOTKA SOUND.

MEXICO.

PERU.

BRITISH MUSEUM.]


ARCTIC PIPES

& LAPLAND.

In this part of the world there is not much material for the making
of Pipes for the only wood is generally brought up by the kindly Gulf
Stream from the West Indies even to NOVA ZEMBLA still the sparse
Inhabitants fall back on the tooth of the “_Walrus_” & very comely
looking pipes are the result. The Laplanders pipe is generally made of
thin iron which may be accounted for by the proximity of the once very
famous “_SWEDISH_” Iron.

[Illustration: ARCTIC PIPES & LAPLAND.

CAPE BATHURST.

SIBERIA WALRUS TOOTH.

LAP. PIPE·IRON. SWEDISH IRON

“CAPE BATHURST” is from Lord Lonsdale’s Collection]


IGNITION.

BORNEO.

After the Tobacco, & the Pipes, very naturally occurs the Question as
to getting a Light. The friction of Two dry pieces of Wood is the most
primitive method still in vogue where modern methods are still unknown
and the light “HIBISCUS” wood is the easiest of all to obtain fire from
but in _BORNEO_. The Dyaks of the _KYAN tribe_ are most scientific they
produced it by compressed air & do still & we only know of two other
places _SUMATRA_ & the North of _BURMAH_ where this method is known &
in use.

[Illustration: FIRE TUBES.

BORNEO.

DYAK KYAN TRIBE

SUMATRA.]


S. AMERICA.

“MACHEROS” FLINT & STEEL.

Doubtless, The Spaniards carried with them all through their Conquests
of S. AMERICA their “MACHEROS” which is a tube to carry the match. To
the tube is generally attached a chain leading to a hook which the top
pulls out with the match for the purpose of lighting with the _flint
& steel_. Some 50 years ago the Peruvian & Chilian Ladies worked very
beautiful match with Lace let in. Some MACHEROS were of Gold, some of
Silver. In _India_ they are larger and are called “_RAMASWAMI_.”

[Illustration: S. AMERICAN.

POTOSI.

MACHEROS Gold.

STEEL

LA PAZ 1820

FIRE STICKS STANLEY (ITURI RIVER)

Inside THUMB

outside 1 & 2 Finger]


THE ANTEPENULTIMATE of IGNITION.

The Flint & Tinder Pistol combination was a very great advance when
first introduced, striking a light in the dark with a Flint & steel
is not easy & all who have tried will say so, then the old Brimstone
flat matches were odorous, next we had French “Amadou” & a match like
a walking stick topped with Brimstone explosive matter, then smaller
ones followed by “TANDSTIKERS” & now hand in hand “VESUVIANS” of the
delightful Wax “VESTAS.”

[Illustration: “FIAT LUX”

O.V.

Flint & Tinder Box. Brimstone matches.

“AMADOU”

BRYANT & MAY TANDSTIK

1890.]

[Illustration: HISTORICAL

“SMOKYANA”

“PAX” “VOBISCUM”

Ethnographical

Up to Date 1890 A·D

by RTP] * * * * *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Very few edits were made to this book with the exception of trying to
remove what seemed to be editing dots vs. actual periods, fullstops,
commas and em-dashes, and adding quotation marks now and then to
balance them. Ellipses are two .. in this text. The remaining changes
are listed below.

Page 32, repeated word “of” removed from text. Original read (cruel
scenes of of useless)

Page 64, “mixturr” changed to “mixture” (this case a mixture)

Page 90, “he” changed to “the” (years ago to the)





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