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Title: A correct and authentic narrative of the Indian war in Florida - with a description of Maj. Dade's massacre, and an account - of the extreme suffering, for want of provision, of the - army—having been obliged to eat horses' and dogs' flesh, - &c, &c.
Author: Barr, Capt. James
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A correct and authentic narrative of the Indian war in Florida - with a description of Maj. Dade's massacre, and an account - of the extreme suffering, for want of provision, of the - army—having been obliged to eat horses' and dogs' flesh, - &c, &c." ***

           |Some typographical errors have been corrected;|
           |          a list follows the text.            |
           |        (etext transcriber's note)            |


                         CORRECT AND AUTHENTIC


                                OF THE

                        INDIAN WAR IN FLORIDA,

                                WITH A



                         MAJ. DADE’S MASSACRE,

                                AND AN



                         BY CAPT. JAMES BARR.

                               NEW YORK:

                    J. NARINE, PRINTER, 11 WALL ST.



                                OF THE

                       SEMINOLE WAR IN FLORIDA.

In the beginning of January, 1836, the inhabitants of New Orleans
received tidings from Florida of a very alarming and distressing nature.
An able and brave, but unscrupulous chieftain, named Powell, had been
for some time suspected of harboring designs to prevent the removal of
the Seminole Indians, beyond the Mississippi, according to treaty. For
this or some such cause, Powell was arrested and thrown into double
irons, at Fort King, by General Thompson, the Indian agent. He was soon
released: the head chief of the tribe, Attemottely, (I know not if I
spell his name properly) pledging himself that Powell should raise no
disturbances. Powell repaid him with the blackest ingratitude: he was no
sooner free from his confinement, than he with a party of his warriors,
killed Attemottely, who was in favor of fulfilling the terms of the
treaty, and thus obtained for himself the consequence he now enjoys in
the nation. Soon after this, Dalton, the carrier of the mail from Tampa
Bay to Fort King, was murdered, and his body found in the woods a few
miles from Fort Brooke. Next came the murder of the Indian agent,
General Thompson, and several of the officers of Fort King. This was
soon followed by the massacre of Major Dade’s command, and the
engagement of General Clinch, on the Ouithlacouchy. The houses of the
inhabitants were also burned, their plantations destroyed, their
property plundered, and they themselves, were, in many instances
murdered. On receipt of these tidings, the citizens of New Orleans held
a meeting, at which it was unanimously resolved to raise a regiment in
defence of their suffering friends in Florida.

Gen. Persifor F. Smith volunteered his services as Colonel, and Mr.
Lawson, as Lieut. Colonel: the latter gentleman, the head physician of
the United States, has since proved that the profession of arms is not
inconsistent with the duties of a follower of Æsculapius. The enlistment
was commenced on the 24th January, and a body of seven hundred men was
quickly raised. The citizens, with their usual liberality and
patriotism, supplied the troops with comfortable quarters, till the 3d
of February. Each intervening day the regiment was inspected in the
Custom House yard: on the 2nd February the troops received their
uniform, blankets and other necessaries, and on the 3rd were mustered in
the Barrack yard. Louisiana had done her part--she had raised a fine and
as was afterwards proved, an effective body of men. They received their
arms, colors and bounty, thirty dollars (the wages were ten dollars per
month) and marched, some that evening, others next morning, to the rail
road, where we found the cars in readiness and were soon embarked on
Lake Ponchartrain. Two steamboats, the Watchman and Merchant were
chartered to transport us to Tampa Bay, and the David Brown proceeded to
the same point, via the Balise. The Watchman reached Pensacola on the
6th without any adventure except being detained a few hours on a mud
bank. We took in wood and again put off, but the evening looked very
dirty and the vessel was any thing but a good sea boat. Our captain
accordingly determined not to go to sea, and lay too, close to the Fort,
which is a few miles below the town. Here we had comfortable quarters
for the night, and next morning again embarked. We arrived at Tampa Bay,
on the 9th, and landed on the 10th. The Merchant had been in a day
before us, and the David Brown arrived the day after. Here was a scene
well calculated to rouse the spirits of the lukewarm, (if any such were
among us). Almost every house in this beautiful spot had been torn down
or burnt, and the inhabitants had been compelled to fly for protection
to the vessels in the bay. We bivouacked outside the Fort, under the
boughs of the live oak trees, which are very numerous; the watch-fires
at night--the groups of men lying around them sleeping in their
blankets--the stack of arms--the flash reflected from the musket and
bayonet of the centinel as he stalked slowly by the fires; the _tout
ensemble_ had a very imposing, and in my eyes, a very military aspect.
We were twice alarmed on the second night; the first time from the
accidental discharge of a musket, and the second time from the mistake
of a Dutch centinel; he had been posted on the piquet guard, with orders
to hail any thing which should approach and to fire if he received no
answer to the third challenge. Minheer Dutchman heard some noise in the
bushes and called three times as he had been ordered, “Who goes dere?”
no answer, “Den I fire.” He did fire, and in an instant, the bugles
rang, the drums rattled, and we were soon in a posture to defend
ourselves; but the alarm was groundless, it served only to show that the
men were on the alert, it was soon found that a harmless dog had alarmed
the sturdy Dutchman. On the 12th, I received the unwelcome intelligence
that my company had been selected to remain in the Fort, to guard the
sick and baggage, and to my great mortification was compelled to march
inside the piquets. But I must describe Fort Brooke. It is situated at
the junction of Hillsborough river with Tampa, or rather Hillsborough
Bay. The Fort is a triangle, the hypothenuse or base of which rests on
the sea, in the apex are two block houses, which command two sides, and
are fortified with cannon, on the breeches of which their sorrowing
friends have painted the names of Dade, Gardiner and others who fell in
the massacre. The base is commanded by a lunetta, and the whole is
surrounded by a strong palisade, with sharp stakes on the top, amply
supplied with loop holes for the musketry, and port holes for the
cannon; outside the palisades, there has been dug a number of wolf
traps, with a strong, sharp stake, in the bottom of each on which the
enemy must be impaled, if they should succeed in approaching so near us.
There are eighty or ninety volunteers, and eighty regulars and marines,
in all about one hundred and sixty fighting men left in garrison: the
whole under command of Major Sandes, a fine soldier looking gentleman of
the regulars.

The army marched on the 13th, under command of General Gaines, of the
United States army. Each man was supplied with ten days provisions.
There were two battalions, one commanded by Lieut. Colonel Lawson, the
other by Major Marks. The regulars, about four hundred in number, were
led by Colonel Twiggs, Major Montfort, and other United States officers.
They marched in high spirits and seemed eager for a brush with the

I should have mentioned that on the morning previous to our arrival, the
friendly Indians had had a skirmish with the hostiles, in which two of
the friendly tribe were wounded, and one named Old John was missing.
This skirmish took place within four miles of Fort Brooke. We found two
Indians prisoners within the piquets: they had been taken in a manner
which might well grace even the romantic days of ancient chivalry. A
fine looking young Indian, named Yellow Hair, asked in marriage the
daughter of Black Dirt, a friendly chieftain. The old man declared that
none, save a warrior, need pretend to his daughter, and desired Yellow
Hair if he wished to prove himself one, to go into the woods and make
prisoners of three hostile Seminoles. Yellow Hair accordingly dashed
into the forests, and at three different times brought in a prisoner.
Two of them we found chained in the Fort; the third was killed by a
centinel, on the morning of our arrival, in a desperate attempt to
escape. He was a large, fierce looking man. His head has been secured
and submitted to skilful craneologists. Yellow Hair of course married
his black haired damsel, and a few days after, set out at the head of a
party of his countrymen to act as scout to General Gaines.

When the army had marched, we were a good deal employed in drilling at
the small and great guns. Seventeen men were detached from my company
for the artillery, and all lamented their inactive life, while their
companions were ranging the wild woods in search of the foe.

23d.--On this day we had a melancholy duty to perform, viz:--the burial
of one of the Louisiana volunteers; and on the day following we buried
two friendly Indians. One of the Indians died a natural death, the other
had been missing since the last skirmish with the hostile tribe, on the
8th inst. He was discovered on the 22d, by some hunters about six miles
from Fort Brooke, with two bullet holes in his body. He died a warrior’s
death, and received a warrior’s burial. When the body was laid in the
coffin, one of his tribe placed a small bag beside it, containing his
tobacco, ammunition, and other little articles which they suppose
needful on the journey to the “pleasant hunting grounds.” The coffin was
borne by the volunteers, preceded by the band, playing the dead march,
and the guard appointed to fire over the grave; the officers of the
garrison, with Major Sandes, the commander followed, and the sad
procession was closed by a few men and several women of the tribe. The
party halted beneath the flag staff; the flag was lowered half mast
high, the union-jack was flung over the bier, the band struck up and we
moved along to his “narrow resting place.” I could not help observing
the control which the Indians possess over their emotions, and for which
they are so remarkable. The men, indeed, are perfect stoics, but the
poor women could not resist the voice of nature. Some of them (perhaps
his wife and daughter) shed many and bitter tears, and when the coffin
was lowered into the grave, pressed forward to take a last look at what
had been so dear to them, and sobbed loudly and bitterly. When they had
indulged their grief for a short time, they were gently removed from the
grave, the guard fired three volleys over the body of the deceased
warrior, the band struck up a merry tune and the party dispersed,
forgetting most of them, that there had ever been such a being as old
Indian _John_.

26th--Received two hundred and sixty volunteers from St. Marks, under
the gallant Major Reed. He was too independent to place himself under
United States officers, but encamped on the other side of the river

29th--Buried another Louisiana volunteer, named Gray. On his arrival at
Tampa Bay, he had become extremely ill, and was left behind on the sick
list, when General Gaines marched; soon after, his malady turned to
madness, which was, I fear, confirmed by the treatment he received.
Instead of being properly attended to, he was chained by the leg,
outside the Fort, with nothing whatever to shade him from the burning
sun. He was kept in this state several days; he was at length admitted
into the hospital, but it was too late; he died soon after. Poor fellow!
He perished far from his friends and home, the victim of the grossest
negligence and brutality. Such conduct in the medical department should
not be _overlooked_.

March 5th--Alabama volunteers arrived, and the day after another company
from Louisiana; the whole amounting to twelve hundred men, was commanded
by Colonel Lindsay.

9 h--News was brought in early in the night, that a party of the enemy
was driving away cattle in the neighborhood. Major Reed crossed the
river with his command, at midnight, and was fired on, happily without
effect, by our piquet guard, who knew nothing of his movements. About
six o’clock, A. M. he came up with a small party of Indians, fast
asleep. Their dogs quickly roused them, and they themselves, when they
saw the white skins rushing on, threw away their rifles, blankets, and
other incumbrances, and jumped into a river close by, where four or
five of them were shot. Major Reed returned at twelve o’clock, bringing
with him a number of mess pans and spades, also several ponies and
blankets which they had left behind in their haste. He reported that
there was a large quantity of camp kettles, spades, &c., on the ground.
A party was immediately sent for them with a team and brought them in
before night. They had been buried by General Gaines army sometime
before, and were discovered and dug up by the Indians. We christened
this skirmish the battle of the Messpans.

13th--Buried a volunteer from Alabama, a fine young man. Colonel Lindsay
refused to allow him a glass of wine, from the sutler’s store, though
ordered by the doctor, a few hours before his death. This was carrying
his ideas of temperance a little too far. We also buried one of the
friendly Indians, who had been killed in a drunken fray the day before.
The camp of the friendly tribe is on the other side of the river. Two
Spaniards have been for some time supplying them with liquor, and they
have been more than a week in a state of beastly intoxication. I paid
them a visit yesterday, and saw among other curiosities a fine young
squaw with her nose and ears cropped off. I inquired the reason of an
old white lady, who lived close by, and learned that it is a summary
mode of proceeding with those errant damsels, who are convicted of being
too philanthropic.

An Indian chief who had gone out with General Gaines, arrived to day,
bringing news from the army, and on the day following Black Dirt also
arrived. The latter chief, though now the firm friend, was at one time
the inveterate enemy of the whites. I have been informed that he once
fought hand to hand with General Jackson, and was left for dead by the
hero of New Orleans. He wears a turban composed of five handkerchiefs,
and declares that each handkerchief shall cost Powell one hundred
dollars. I should have mentioned that Powell has set a price on his
head, offering five hundred dollars to any one who shall carry it to

15th--Colonel Lindsay’s command, amounting to one thousand two hundred
men, including Major Reed’s party, marched before breakfast. Early in
the morning some of the volunteers cropped the tail and mane of the
Colonel’s horse, and burned the Colonel himself in effigy. His whole
army was enraged with him, for forbidding the Sutler to sell them a
glass of liquor of any kind. His horse (which he had previously
selected, from a large number,) he was forced to exchange with one of
his officers amid the hooting and groaning of the troops. A party of
marines from the frigate Constellation, eighty in number, accompanied
him as a life guard.

16th--Buried two volunteers, one from Tuscaloosa, the other from
Louisiana, and on the following day another from Alabama. We have a
great number of sick in the Fort. Among them is one of the men who
escaped the massacre of Major Dade’s command. His account of the affair
is this:

Major Dade set out from Fort Brooke on the 23d December, 1835, for Camp
King, distant one hundred and ten miles, at the head of a party
consisting of one hundred and ten non-commissioned officers and
privates, and six commissioned officers, besides myself; among them was
one medical gentleman. They took with them one waggon, drawn by horses,
one six pounder, and an ox team; the latter obliged them to travel
slowly. They encamped the first night, on the Little Hillsborough, seven
miles from the Fort. Next day they crossed the Big Hillsborough,
afterwards the Little, and by Ouithlacouchy rivers, and on the night of
the 27th, camped near a pond called the Clayhole. Each night they raised
a small breastwork round their little camp. The ill fated party
breakfasted on the morning of the 28th before sunrise, and pursued their
journey; the road lying along the margin of the pond. They reached the
extreme end without any interruption. On one side was a large forest of
pine trees, on the other was the pond. Some of the party had passed
round its head when they were alarmed by the report of a rifle, and
immediately after a musket was discharged by one of the soldiers. The
party halted, and Mr. Clarke (my informant) looked earnestly at the
Major, expecting some command. A volley was here poured on them by their
unseen foe; the Major was in the act of turning when he and his horse
fell completely perforated with balls. Captain Frazer, Lieutenant Mudge,
and the advanced guard fell at the same time. The soldiers were
completely taken by surprise; some were so much flustered that they
fired in the air, but after a few shots they became cool enough. The six
pounder was now brought up and discharged two or three times, when the
army fled in all directions. Several hundreds of them were seen
collected on a mound, a mile and a half from the scene of action. This
gave the troops some breathing time; they commenced throwing up a
breastwork, but were not allowed to complete it. In about three quarters
of an hour the Indians moved from the knoll, and collected a half a mile
off. They then advanced coolly and deliberately to a second attack.
Captain Gardiner took the command within the breastwork; the men lay
down to load and kept up a constant fire until three o’clock, P. M.; but
their ranks were sadly thinned. Captain Gardiner had fallen covered with
wounds; Lieutenant Keys had both arms broken; Lieutenant Henderson had
his left arm broken, but loaded and fired forty rounds afterwards, and
Lieutenant Bassinger was also severely wounded. Mr. Clarke observed Dr.
Gatlin, as the Indians advanced to the second attack, posted behind a
log, with two double barrelled guns beside him. He heard the doctor say
he had four barrels for them. Mr. C. saw no more of him till he was
creeping out at night, when he passed by the corpse of the doctor,
stripped quite naked. Towards the close of the fight, Mr. C. received a
severe wound in the shoulder; he had been previously shot in the thigh,
arm and back, and one buckshot had grazed his temple. The last bullet
from a musket entered his shoulder and passed out through his back,
rendering him completely _hors de combat_. The fire soon after ceased;
all inside the breastwork were either killed or severely wounded. The
Indians broke in, and, strange to say, neither scalped the dead nor
abused the wounded. They contented themselves with pillaging all of
their arms, ammunition and provisions. When they had quit the field, a
body of negroes fifty or sixty in number, came up on horseback, entered
the enclosure, and commenced hacking and cutting the wounded, in a most
savage manner. They approached Lieutenant Bassinger, he sprang on his
feet and begged them to spare his life, but they knew not the voice of
mercy; they struck him down with a tomahawk, cut open his breast and
tore out his heart and lungs. They proceeded in the same brutal manner
with the rest of the wounded, stripping them all of their clothes. At
length they approached Mr. C. and stripped off his jacket, in the pocket
of which he had one hundred and twenty dollars; they also took off his
hat and boots and felt for his watch. One of the ruffians remarked that
he was alive and proposed to drive a bayonet through him but was
overruled by one of his comrades, who observed that the wound in his
head would certainly kill him, and that they should let him suffer as
much pain as possible before death. This saved him. The negroes soon
departed laden with plunder. The poor fellow lay on his face for some
time; at length he felt a hand on his shoulder, and one of his comrades
having ascertained that he was still alive, proposed to him to set out
immediately; he refused, stating that it was too soon. The other left
him and had not crept many yards when an Indian stepped from behind a
log and shot him. A dark cloud and a rain storm came on; this was a
moment too favorable to be lost. Mr. C. crept cautiously into the wood
and met another comrade attempting his escape; they travelled together.
Next morning they perceived an Indian in pursuit, gaining very fast on
them. They immediately separated, entering the woods, the one on the
right, the other on the left hand. The Indian pursued and killed one,
and returned in search of the other, who had concealed himself in some
thick palmettoes. He approached so near that he made the bushes rustle
over his intended victim; but he soon abandoned the search and returned
to the Black Swamp, the home of his people. Mr. Clarke travelled slowly
to Fort Brooke, which he reached in three days. The distance from the
battle field is sixty five miles. He was forced to creep on his hands
and knees nearly two thirds of the way. One of his comrades, named
Thomas, had arrived the day before, wounded in the thigh. Another named
Sprague, came in the day after, wounded in the arm, and these three were
the only survivors of one hundred and seventeen men. A small dog of
Captain Gardiner’s also arrived wounded in the neck. Black Dirt had
predicted the state of the party previous to its march from Fort Brooke,
and advised them not to go; but Major Dade treated the matter lightly;
he had no apprehensions, and the event unfortunately proved that the
prediction of the Indian was but too correct.

21st.--Colonel Lindsay returned with a part of his command to obtain
provisions. He had only been twenty-one miles distant from us on the Big
Hillsboro’ River, where he had built a Fort, called Fort Alabama,
somewhat similar to Fort Brooke. A few days before, he had dispatched a
man named Evans, to Fort King, with letters for the main army, and had
promised him a handsome reward, if he should succeed in escaping the
vigilence of the enemy. Evans was well mounted, he passed by their main
body asleep at night, and soon after fell in with a drove of their
ponies; his horse neighed, the Indians’ dogs barked, and they themselves
were soon on the _qui vive_--Evans perceived that he was surrounded, and
determined to return by the way he came; he accordingly charged back,
and was fired on from all sides without injury to himself or horse,
though the Indians killed several of their own ponies which were close

Colonel Lindsay returned, the day following, to Fort Alabama, whence his
intention was to march towards Gen. Gaines’ army.

26th.--A Cutter arrived from St. Marks, with several officers from Gen.
Gaines’ army, confirming the accounts we had previously received by the
seven days skirmish with the enemy, and the distress of the army for
provisions. Gen. Gaines had proceeded to New Orleans.

27th.--Two non-commissioned officers of the Fort, assistant Commissary
Sergeants, Turner and Sunderland, with two citizens, Messrs. Simmonds
and Stewart rode out, after dinner on horseback. They had been but a
short time gone, when we heard the reports of several rifles and two or
three distinct yells. In a few minutes after we saw one of them, Mr.
Turner, come in at full gallop, and a horse without his rider close
behind. Mr. Turner informed he had been fired on by the Indians one mile
from the Fort, and that the other three had been killed. He himself had
received a bullet through his cap. A party was immediately formed, and
marched towards the place of ambuscade; on the road they met Mr.
Sunderland with his right arm broken and Mr. Simmonds shot through the
back. Both their horses had been shot, but luckily carried their riders
two hundred yards or more, Mr. Simmonds’ horse fell on him, but in the
death plunge left him at liberty. Mr. Sunderland’s horse had fallen,
thrown his rider and made for his stable, but dropped dead before he
reached it. Mr. Stewart, the fourth of the party was found dead and
scalped; some of his clothes had been stripped off, and his body and
face were covered with wounds from bullets and knives. The savages had
dragged him fifty yards from the road and left him beside a tree, but a
faithful dog had remained close to him, and when the poor creature saw
the troops, it ran out and conducted them to its unfortunate master. The
body was carried into the Fort, a shocking spectacle. The bullet was
extracted from Mr. Simmonds’ shoulder without doing any injury, but Mr.
Sunderland lost his right arm. The operation was performed next day, at
his own request; he bore it with the resolution of a man and a Soldier.
Next day a scouting party marched out and scoured the adjacent hammocks,
but we saw nothing except the tracks and fires of the Indians.

April 4th.--Colonel Lindsay and Major Reed, returned with their
respective commands, much distressed for want of provisions. On their
march from Fort Brooke, they had lost one private of Capt. H. S. Marks’
company, raised partly in New Orleans, partly in Mobile. He was killed
and scalped six miles from the Fort. Capt. H. S. Marks who, by the by,
has used his company scandalously, had been left to garrison Fort
Alabama, and the Colonel proceeded in search of the enemy. At one day’s
march from the Fort, he met them and skirmished for three or four days;
he also burnt several villages and had a few men killed and wounded;
some of his friendly Indians killed and scalped an old Chief named
Kifixo:--He had on a coat pierced with fourteen bullet holes and nearly
covered with old clotted blood. It was taken from one of Major Dade’s
soldiers. The Colonel’s tardy motions by no means suited the bold
disposition of Major Reed. The men too, accused the Colonel of avoiding
the larger hammocks, where the enemy would naturally conceal themselves;
whereas, the Major was for charging through them. Major Reed appears
perfectly qualified for this species of warfare. He was constantly at
the head of his men; and the first to face any danger. He was present at
the battle of Ouithlacouchy, under Gen. Clinch where he was wounded in
the hip and had his horse shot under him. Had all the officers been like
him, the manes of Major Dades’ murdered Soldiers might have been long
since satisfied. The report of Gen Scott’s cannon on the Ouithlacouchy
were heard by Colonel Lindsay’s army, and Major Reed advised an
immediate advance to his assistance, but the Colonel’s timidity or
imbecility would not allow it, in consequence of which the gallant Major
declared he would neither camp with him, march with him, nor follow him,
and he kept his word.

Fort Alabama had been meanwhile attacked and gallantly defended by Capt.
H. S. Marks’ Company. Capt. M. Costa second man here. The Indians kept
up a fire with little intermission for more than two hours, some of them
climbing the trees and thence pouring in their volleys, one of them in
particular had sheltered himself behind a thick bough and was fired at
repeatedly, at each unsuccessful shot he shook his leg at the Fort, and
was heard to crow like a rooster. He was, however, brought down by a
rifle; and fell about thirty feet. Another contrived to conceal himself
behind a tree, within one hundred yards of the Fort, and fired a few
shots, but he soon attracted the notice of all eyes, and whenever his
arm or any part of his clothing appeared, more bullets whistled by him,
than would have let out the lives of half his tribe. At length he made a
tremendous bound and escaped. It was supposed that he was wounded, as he
fell three times, but he appeared like the giant of old, to gain new
vigour from each contact with the earth. The tree behind which he stood
and the logs of which the fort was built, were completely covered with
ball holes; after two hours firing, the Indians retired, carrying with
them their dead and wounded.

April 4th.--Colonel Lindsay and Major Reed, returned to Fort Brook and
camped, giving each other a wide berth. On the following day Gen.
Eustace arrived with a large body of horse from Georgia and South
Carolina. Gen. Scott also arrived with the army which had marched out
under Gen. Gaines. He encamped on the other side the river, for the sake
of water, and our friends soon gratified our curiosity, by giving us an
account of their campaign. They had marched on the 13th Feb. from Tampa
under command of Gen. Gaines. There were about seven hundred Volunteers
from Louisiana, and four hundred Regulars, each man was supplied with
ten days provisions; one half was carried in the knapsacks, the other on
the pack-horses. There were no field pieces, no baggage waggons, and
there were no means provided for carrying the sick or wounded. At some
miles distance, they passed by the ruined plantations of Mr. Simmonds
and others, who had either been murdered or had barely escaped with
their lives to Fort Brooke. They encamped one night near the Alafaiah
(yellow fire) river, where they received a boatload of provisions from
Fort Brooke, sent back several of the sick. On the 17th, they forded the
Hillsboro’ river, the bridge having been burnt down by the enemy, to
prevent any communication with Fort King; this was the case with all the
other bridges. The greatest credit is due to Colonel Twiggs and Major
Montfort, for the very efficient personal assistance they rendered in
the passage of the rivers. 18th.--They burned an Indian Village, having
first obtained from it a large quantity of Corn, Rice and Cooking
Utensils. They crossed the Ouithlacouchy, on the 19th, and spent the
night round Major Dade’s last camp; on the morning of the 20th, they
marched on, and soon reached the scene of his unfortunate massacre. Here
a spectacle never to be forgotten, was presented to their eyes; the
bodies of more than one hundred men lay within and around the
breastwork, shot, most of them, through the head, many gashed and
brutally mangled; they appeared not to have been disturbed since the
battle, or rather the massacre; the oxen lay within the breastwork,
still yoked together as they had been shot down, one soldier lay dead in
the cart, the gun-carriage and horse waggon had been burned, and the
piece itself carried off and concealed. The army halted and buried the
whole command with the honours of war. On the persons of the dead were
found several hundred dollars, which was handed over to the Commanding
Officer to be conveyed to their widows and orphan children. The arms and
ammunition had been carried off by the enemy. The field piece was
afterwards discovered sunk in a pond a few hundred yards distant. It was
raised and placed at the head of the Officer’s grave. After this
melancholy duty, they crossed the Ouithlacouchy, and on the 23d, reached
Camp King, much fatigued and in great want of provisions. Fort King was
garrisoned by sixty Regulars, who had only heard of Major Dade’s
massacre a few days before. Gen. Gaines encamped on a hill close to the
Fort, and on the following morning despatched the pack horses and three
companies of Regulars for provisions, to Fort Drane, twenty-four miles
distant. They returned with scarce eight days provisions; these were
issued, and orders given to prepare for a march.

27th--The army again moved on with one baggage waggon, one six pounder,
and two carts. They marched ten miles and halted for the night. Next
morning the bugles sounded forward, and at one o’clock, P. M., they
again sounded for a halt. The army was now within three miles of the
Ouithlacouchy, and close to General Clinch’s battle ground. The previous
night had been very wet, and the halt was ordered for an inspection of
arms. On their advance they burned a large village called Powelltown,
formerly the head quarters of the nation, and a little farther on,
halted at Clinch’s battle ground. While burying some of his dead who had
been disinterred and abused by the savages, the left wing was attacked,
the enemy firing from the other side of the river. Their fire was warmly
answered for three quarters of an hour, when the bugles sounded a
retreat from the banks of the river. One man was killed on our side and
six wounded; the loss of the enemy is not known. A breastwork was thrown
up, during the night, round that of General Clinch. Next morning the
troops marched down the river, in search of a fording place, in order to
cross over and come at close quarters, with the enemy. The advanced
guard reached the bank and received an unexpected volley while
attempting to sound the stream. Here fell Major Izard, the commander of
the advance, an officer universally respected and esteemed; he was on
horseback, a fair mark for the Indians, and received a bullet through
his head. There was one man besides the Major killed, and there were
several wounded; among the latter were Captain Saunders, chief of the
friendly Indians, the main guide, and Captain Armstrong, of the United
States schooner Motto. As it was impossible to ford the stream in the
face of the enemy’s fire, independent of its depth, the General took
measures for building a bridge. Some of the men were employed felling
pine trees, others hollowing them canoe fashion, while a third party
kept the Indians in play. Towards night all hands commenced a breastwork
a few yards from the river, and lay, I shall not say, slept within them.

March 1st--A party of one hundred and fifty men was sent out to
skirmish, while the main body was employed preparing the bridge. They
crept silently down the river, keeping a sharp lookout, each man posted
behind a tree or log. About eleven o’clock, A. M., an attack was
commenced by the Indians from the other side of the river, and in a few
minutes from all sides. They had crossed in two large bodies above and
below the camping ground, and poured in a volley from all quarters. The
fire was answered by the army, and the six pounder was used on the side
the enemy appeared to me strongest. At one time they set the woods on
fire to windward, expecting to burn down the breastwork, and conceal
themselves behind the smoke, but they were disappointed, when the fire
caught the breastwork, it was quickly extinguished by throwing water and
sand on it, and the grape and canister from the field piece soon routed
them from their lurking places; the wind too shifted suddenly and the
smoke was driven back on themselves. After an engagement of two hours
and three quarters they were forced to retreat. The loss in killed and
wounded was considerable. General Gaines himself was wounded in the

On the previous night he had despatched ten men on horseback to Fort
Drane, with an express to General Clinch, stating that the provisions
were nearly exhausted, and requesting a reinforcement, as he found the
Indians too numerous.

On the night of the 1st March, another express was forwarded to the same
purpose, with a report of the killed and wounded; the breastworks were
raised one log higher.

On the morning of the 2d March the enemy commenced a dropping fire from
small parties, which obliged our men to keep within the breastwork, as
the ammunition was nearly exhausted, and they could not afford to throw
away a single shot. At night the Indians lit large fires around the camp
and kept a strict look out. This game continued eight days. The troops
were totally destitute of provisions, during the last four days, and
were forced to subsist on horses, dogs and roots; the rations even of
these, were so small, that some of the men cleaned the very guts and
devoured them; the hind quarter of a dog sold for five dollars, and a
single biscuit was purchased at the same price. A third express was
dispatched to Fort Drane for provisions and reinforcements; all three
arrived safe.

On the night of the 8th, a stentorian voice was heard outside the
breastwork, stating that the Indians were tired of fighting, and were
desirous of a treaty. The herald asked if a flag of truce would be
respected, and on being answered in the affirmative, promised to return
in the morning, with provisions and other necessaries for a “dog feast.”
He returned in a half an hour saying that the chiefs would come in on
the following morning, at nine o’clock, and requested the General to
allow no work on that day.

9th--The chiefs, according to promise, came at the appointed time;
Powell, Alligator, Jumper and the interpreter, who was also the herald
of the preceding night, a very tall negro, rejoicing in the name of Dr.
Johnston. The Indians, about five hundred in number, were paraded a
short distance in rear of the camp; the chiefs approached within one
hundred and fifty yards, and requested an equal number of our people to
meet them for a talk. Adjutant Barron with the Interpreter and other
officers went out and parleyed with them for an hour and a half. One of
the chiefs asked the Adjutant if he was not hungry, and received an
answer far from the truth, with this addition, that there was plenty of
provisions within the breastwork. The chiefs rose and promised to return
in the evening with a decisive answer, at the same time requesting
General Gaines to give them some brandy and tobacco. He told them that
the last of the brandy had been served out that morning, and, to save
appearances, supplied them with some tobacco by levying a contribution
on the army. At four o’clock, P. M., they again made their appearance
and asked a longer time to deliberate, but General Gaines would not
consent. They were still talking and about to come to terms, when
General Clinch made his appearance with five hundred men. Jumper saw him
arrive, and noticed it to our officers. He then ordered his men to
retreat across the river immediately, and promised to return next
morning. General Clinch, seeing the Indians retreat, and not knowing
their object, fired on them with little effect, but our officers soon
explained to him the state of affairs.

He brought with him two hundred horsemen, three hundred foot, one
sixpounder, five or six carts, and better still, two days provisions,
besides live stock. At night, the sable ambassador, Doctor Johnston
again made his appearance, requesting a truce of three days, as Powell
had gone away to see his wife and collect his warriors. General Gaines
replied that if the enemy would not come in and surrender their arms on
the following morning, he himself would cross the river and attack them.
[_Exit, Dr. Johnston._]

10th--Ten o’clock came but no Indians. The troops remained a few days
longer in this encampment, which was called Camp Izard, from the death
of the Major, and subsequently Camp Misery, from the sufferings of the
people. At the expiration of a few days they marched with Clinch’s
command to Fort Drane where they halted several days, recruiting after
their fatigues. The post occupied by the regulars was called Camp
Twiggs, that held by the volunteers Camp Smith. The men complain heavily
of the commissary who had the conscience to sell them their _own_
biscuit at the exhorbitant price of ten dollars per barrel. Previous to
this, while Corporal Dyre of the Louisiana Greys, he had sold the
provisions of the company, to Mr. Simmonds of Tampa Bay, to pay for his
own board and that of a few friends; and the coffee and sugar belonging
to the company, he had appropriated to himself and the commissioned
officers, who neither drew nor bought provisions. He was afterwards
obliged to refund the bread and pork. This is but a small specimen of
the man: I need mention no more.

General Gaines left the army at Fort Drane, on account of some
misunderstanding between him and Scott. Scott had been lying for some
time at Picolata, and it was believed, might have materially assisted in
preventing the sufferings of the troops; but, obeying the dictates of
envy and jealousy, he said that as Gen. Gaines had got himself into his
present difficulties, he might extricate himself from them. Such
language, if true, cannot be too severely censured.

24th--The army marched from Fort Drane, under command of Gen. Scott,
increased by the junction of his troops and those of General Clinch, to
two thousand five hundred men.

On the night of the 26th, one of the carts which had dropped a few miles
behind was attacked and robbed by the Indians, who killed one negro, and
cut his throat from ear to ear. Another colored man brought in the news,
barely escaping with his life. His horse was wounded, and a bullet had
passed through the skirt of his coat.

28th.--They reached Camp Izard and fired the field piece, as a signal
for Gen. Eustace and Colonel Lindsay: it was not answered by either, but
was soon responded to by the Indians’ rifles from the opposite bank of
the river, giving notice that their “voice was still for war.” An
encampment was formed, and preparations made for constructing a bridge;
the work was continued through the night. In the morning orders were
issued for a march. The Ouithlacouchy, here thirty-five yards wide, was
crossed, the troops and waggons passing over in two flat boats, built by
Gen. Clinch for the purpose, at Fort Drane, and drawn to the river on
wheels. The Louisiana Volunteers with a small party of Regulars, were
the first to cross the river. A breastwork was constructed without any
molestation from the Indians. In the evening they fired on the rear
while crossing the river; but the two field pieces, which were placed on
the banks to cover the passage, were quickly brought to bear on them,
and soon sent them to the right about. They continued, however, to fire
a few dropping shots from a considerable distance, which did no
mischief. On the 30th, the army reached the Black Swamp, the great
hiding place of the Savages, and no place could be better chosen for
such a purpose. It is nearly twelve miles square, and is full of ponds,
rivers and hammocks. A halt was ordered, and a detail of three hundred
men, was left to guard the baggage. The main body advanced into the
Swamp, in pursuit of the enemy, who had been already seen. They had not
marched far, when they gave chase to two Indians, and pressed them so
hard, that they were forced to throw away their packs, and escape with
their rifles only. The troops marched six miles into the Swamp, carrying
with them nothing except one day’s rations. They surrounded and scoured
the hammocks on the way, and encamped towards evening. Soon after,
several Indians were observed at a short distance from the camp, making
signs for some of our people to go out and talk with them. The
Interpreter and a few friendly Indians were sent for the purpose. The
enemy begged a peace, requesting General Scott to remain quiet for a few
days, until the return of Powell from the Gulf of Mexico. The General
would not listen to the proposal, but marched the next morning (31st,)
and attacked them in their hammock, whilst preparing breakfast. They
fled precipitately, abandoning their provisions, which were speedily
devoured by the almost starving troops. The pursuit was continued,
firing occasionally as the Indians appeared crossing from one hammock to
another, until at length after wading a pond three feet deep, the army
came to a hammock thicker than the rest, where the enemy had halted,
thinking themselves more secure, and from which they poured a well
directed volley on our men. The fire was answered from the whole
battalion. The regulars were ordered to charge into the hammock, hut
evinced very little willingness to obey. The order was then given to the
Louisiana Volunteers; they rushed in like so many wolves, disregarding
every obstacle, and pursued the enemy to the banks of the river,
following them by the blood which had flowed in streams. No Indians were
seen on the banks, and the Volunteers returned to the main body, at the
recall of the bugle. This skirmish cost them four men killed and many
wounded. The enemy’s loss was not known, as they are very careful in
carrying off their dead and wounded. The usual signal gun was fired by
the baggage guard, and was answered by General Eustace and Colonel
Lindsay, at a great distance. The main body returned to the baggage,
carrying with them their dead and wounded. The dead were buried on the
same day with the honours of war.

April 1st.--Provisions being nearly out, General Scott ordered a march
towards Fort Brooke, along the borders of the Swamp, burning and
destroying all the Villages on the way. On the morning of the 2d, they
made an early start, and at 10 o’clock, left three hundred and fifty
men, composed of the Georgia Volunteers, to build and garrison a Fort,
called Fort Cooper. They were supplied with one six pounder, and
nineteen days’ provisions. This post was afterwards attacked fifteen
days successively, and sustained but little loss. The General made a
forced march, and at night occupied the vacant breastwork built by
Colonel Lindsay a few days before.

3d.--The advanced Guard, the Georgia Volunteer Cavalry, discovered some
Indians in a prairie, and instead of attacking them, returned and
applied for the assistance of the Louisiana Volunteers, which gave them
(the Louisiana Volunteers) the trouble of charging through a large
hammock, without the satisfaction of seeing a single Indian.

Next day, after a fatiguing march, they arrived at Tampa Bay, and camped
a few miles from Fort Brooke, on the other side of the river. The men
looked very different from the gay, gallant set of fellows who had
marched away three months before, their clothes were torn, their shoes
worn out, and they themselves were thin and dirty. General Scott gave
them the highest praise, and promised to send them home direct from
Tampa. 8th.--An order was issued, that my company which had remained in
garrison, should return to the Louisiana Volunteers. We immediately
crossed the river, and were once more with our regiment. On the morning
of the 9th, an Indian prisoner was brought to Fort Brooke by one of the
Revenue Cutters. He had been taken in the following manner: some days
before a party of seamen, commanded by Lieutenant Powell, had been
dispatched from the Sloop of War Vandalia, to Charlotte’s harbour, in
consequence of some outrages committed by the Indians in that quarter.
The seamen had built a Fort large enough to accommodate themselves and
the families of several Spanish fishermen. The Collector of Customs had
been murdered a short time before by the Indians, and the Spaniards were
much alarmed. The prisoner was the particular object of their terror and
aversion. He was known to be a determined fellow, was a suspected
accomplice in the Custom house Officer’s murder, and had sworn vengeance
against several of the Spaniards. His sister, (a reputed prophetess,)
was married to one of them. Lieutenant Powell went with his party to a
house at night, and demanded admittance; some one within, shouted Hallo!
and immediately after the door was opened, and out rushed three Indians.
Two of them were shot down, and three sailors seized the third, but he
made a desperate struggle, and succeeded in escaping: the men might have
killed him, but the orders were to take him alive. His retreat, a well
chosen one, was discovered a few days after:--A tree grew on the outer
end of a sand bar, which was covered with water at flood tide; the tree
was then a mile from the shore, and the water was scarce a foot deep.
The Indian had rigged a very convenient sleeping place for himself,
among the boughs, whence he would observe every thing passing around,
with very little danger of discovery. He was, however, watched by the
Spaniards, who dreaded him, his retreat was reported to Lieutenant
Powell, and he himself was seized, whilst asleep, and conducted to Tampa
Bay. He reported that there were a considerable number of Indians,
besides Negroes, and a large quantity of ammunition, in the
neighbourhood of Charlotte’s harbour, and declared his readiness to
conduct a party to the spot, stipulating, that he should afterwards
recover his freedom. General Smith, immediately volunteered the services
of himself and Regiment; his offer was accepted, and on Sunday the 10th,
we embarked in the brigantine Calvin and the Schooner Cumberland, for
Charlotte’s harbour, distant seventy or eighty miles. We had light
winds, and were not landed till the Sunday following. Five days’ rations
of provisions were then issued, and orders given for a march on the
following day. The men were much dissatisfied: their clothes and shoes
were worn out, their feet blistered, and General Scott, having first
expressed his perfect satisfaction at their conduct, had promised to
them, home direct from Tampa Bay. A statement to this effect was sent in
to General Smith, on the evening previous to our march; but was not
noticed. Next morning (18th,) we started with five days’ provisions, and
marched seven or eight miles. The day was very hot, and the men dropped
behind in considerable numbers. We halted at 12 o’clock, and the General
gave orders, that all who chose to go forward, should step on in front,
and that the others should return to our camping ground, at the
_embouchure_ of the Maijaka river. About one hundred and twenty
volunteers stepped out, making with the seamen from the Sloop of War
Vandalia and the Revenue Cutter, one hundred and sixty men; too small a
party to face the enemy; but General Smith was willing to expose his
life on this, and indeed all other occasions, and it was our duty to
follow. Those who remained behind had every reason to do so: some were
unwell, some had no shoes or canteens: they had all undergone much
fatigue, and the General told them, it was no disgrace to return. They
shared their provisions with us, and wished us success. The bugle
sounded forward, and we soon struck the river, where we found a fleet of
canoes, waiting to receive our baggage. One half of the party ascended
the stream in boats to a convenient camping ground, and the rest
marched through the woods towards the same point, with the Indian for a
guide; he was strictly watched, although he showed no desire to attempt
an escape. The march was longer than we expected, and some of the
officers were very impatient with and suspicious of the guide, his
language was a mixture of Spanish and Indian, and no one of the party
could understand him correctly: the road, too, winded circuitously
through the hammocks and along the bayous, with which the banks of the
river are indented, and we were forced to march several miles, to gain
one in the right direction. About 10 o’clock at night, we came to a
hammock which seemed scarce penetrable: the guide said that General
Smith with the boats, lay half an hour’s march on the other side; but
the officers suspected treachery, and determined to halt. We placed a
strict guard over the prisoner, built our fires, and spent the night
round them. We started early next morning, and in half an hour’s walk,
came on the General’s camping ground, as the Indian had told us the
previous night. The whole party here embarked in the canoes, the right
under command of Lieutenant Lawson, the left under Captain Ross of the
mariners. Our object was supposed to be the burning of an Indian village
in the interior. The river was very beautiful, and for the most part
deep; there is some excellent land on the banks, and plenty of timber.
The Live Oak, Pine, Pickon and Cabbage Trees, are most numerous. It is
no wonder that the red men are so unwilling to depart from the land of
their fathers. It is a perfect Eden. The woods abound with game, the
rivers with fish, and the soil produces almost spontaneously the few
articles of food needed by the Indian.

We sailed and rowed many miles up the river, and halted at a pretty
spot, called afterwards Live Oak Camp. Here we found evident signs of
Indians; the ashes of fire recently extinguished, green hides, two live
fowls, which were quickly smoking in the General’s quarters, and several
razors and other articles supposed to have been the property of the
murdered collector of customs.

20th--Again embarked and rowed a few miles up the stream, but were
forced to return on account of the obstructions. We left the boats at
Live Oak Camp, with a few men to guard them, shouldered our knapsacks
and tramped through the woods. We expected to fall in with some live
stock but were disappointed. We marched up the river through the best
land we had yet seen, and observed the recent tracks of cattle, horses
and dogs. Towards night we fell in with an old Indian encampment close
to a brook of excellent water. We built ourselves huts of palmettoes and
boughs and slept comfortably in spite of the rain. We called this spot
Camp Cowpens, from a large cattle pen close by.

21st--Passed through several large prairies; near one of them we
observed the figure of an Indian rudely carved in the bark of a tree. We
soon after waded the river nearly four feet deep; the guide followed by
the General, leading the way. A halt was called on the other side and
the people amused themselves swimming.

A Dutchman who could not swim, contrived to get out of his depth and was
seen struggling very hard. He sank several times and at length raised
his head and shouted alligator. The river abounds with them. Captain
Green of the revenue cutter, Lieutenant Powell and General Smith, who
were ashore, jumped in and brought him out alive but nearly exhausted.
We saw no Indians or village on that or the following day, and the
provisions being out, returned to Live Oak Camp on the morning of the
23d. At a short distance from it the advance guard fired on a deer,
while the rear were threading their way through a hammock. We all
thought the Philistines were surely upon us, and rushed forward as fast
as possible. The deer bounded along the whole line and offered a mark to
almost every man, but escaped uninjured.

We had suffered not a little from hunger; our expectation was to return
in a day at farthest, to Live Oak Camp; we therefore left most of our
provisions with the boats, and felt the want of them severely as we were
absent three days.

After breakfast we again embarked and descended the river to the camping
ground of the regiment. We had every reason to congratulate ourselves on
our return in safety. The expedition might have proved as disastrous as
that of Major Dade: a small body of the enemy might have cut us off on
the river, which is in some places not twenty yards wide. They might
have fired on us with perfect security to themselves.

The summer, indeed, is scarcely the fit time for attacking them; the
leaves are then so numerous that it is impossible to see them, and the
weather is so hot that it is as impossible to carry the knapsack,
provisions and accoutrements. The expedition has answered one good
purpose; it has given some knowledge of a very interesting and before
unknown section of the territory. The land is excellent and the river
may be made navigable for steamboats at a very trifling expense; it is
besides adjacent to the Orleans market.

We embarked on the 24th, and reached Tampa Bay on the 27th. On the
following morning Colonel Chisme returned to the Fort with a party
composed of the fourth Regular Infantry, commanded by Colonel Foster,
and the Alabama volunteers. Colonel Chisme had been despatched to bring
in the garrison and military stores from Fort Alabama, which was
considered untenable.

The Colonel carried off or destroyed the stores and placed a spring gun
in the magazine, disposed in such a manner that on opening the door, the
magazine itself should explode. The army had not marched more than a
mile, when a tremendous explosion was heard, and there is little doubt
that many of the red-skins were despatched to the hunting grounds of
their great Manitto. On the same day (27th) fourteen miles from Fort
Brooke, the army seven or eight hundred in number, was attacked by the
Indians from a hammock. The regulars complain that the Alabama troops
were not as willing to charge the hammocks as their old friends from
Louisiana. Some of them acted like brave men, but the greater part hung
back and lost the most favorable opportunity yet presented, of paying
the Indians for old scores. The regulars charged the hammock and beat
them off. The loss on our side was five killed and fourteen or fifteen
wounded. Major Sandes had his horse shot under him. The horse of one of
the Alabama volunteers was shot and fell on his rider: an Indian rushed
from the hammock, intending to scalp him, but the gallant fellow though
entangled beneath his horse, contrived to shoot the Indian, and reload
his piece for a second enemy, but he was soon discovered, and relieved
from his painful situation. If all his regiment had acted with the like
resolution, the Indians would have had but little to boast of.

May 1st--General Scott had proceeded to the Ouithlacouchy, on his return
to Fort Drane, and had left the following order:

Head Quarters of the Army of Florida, }
TAMPA BAY, _April 16th, 1836_.        }

                            ORDER--No. 37.

The Louisiana Regiment of Volunteers, under the gallant Colonel Persifor
F. Smith, will on its return to this place, immediately proceed to New
Orleans, in the best transports the Quarter Master’s department can
supply. It will first turn into store the arms and other property of the
United States, in its possession, and which may not be necessary to the
comfort of the regiment on its passage home.

At New Orleans, Major Clarke or other United States officer, shall
muster the regiment out of the service of the United States, and it will
at the same time be paid by the paymaster of the army, stationed in that

What may be the result of the expedition to Charlotte’s harbor and Pees
creek, in which the Regiment is at present engaged, cannot be known to
the Commanding General in some weeks. Judging from the past, the result
cannot fail to be highly honorable to the Colonel, the officers and men
of that efficient corps, which is already entitled to the thanks of the
country. Doctor Lawson, the senior Surgeon of the United States army,
who under a commission from the state of Louisiana, has served as
Lieutenant Colonel of the regiment, and who has superadded the
distinction of arms to his high medical reputation, will temporarily
take charge of the general Hospital at this place. As soon as the great
body of the sick shall have been restored and sent off to their
respective States, Surgeon Lawson will return to his proper station.

(Signed)      WINFIELD SCOTT.

By command of Major General Scott,


Aid de Camp and Act’g Ass’t Adj’t General.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following order was issued by General Smith:

CAMP GEORGIA, _April 28th, 1836_.    }
Head Quarters, Louisiana Volunteers. }

ORDER--No. 18

The Regiment having completed the duties assigned to it by the
Commanding General, he has ordered it to be transported to New Orleans,
and there honorably discharged: the arms and accoutrements being
deposited here.

The transports furnished are the schooners Emeline and Cumberland, the
brigs Calvin, Martha and Caroline, and a steamboat. The troops are
assigned to these transports as follows:

  To the schr. Emeline,     Capts. Mark’s and Edwards’ Company.
     “    “    Cumberland,    “    Kerr and Williams’     “
     “   brig  Calvin,        “    Abodi and Burt’s       “
     “    “    Martha,        “    Lee and Barr’s         “
  Steamboat    Magee,         “    Rogers, Smith and Thistle’s  “

     Major Marks and Dr. Cushman will embark in the schooner Cumberland;
     Adjutant Barron, and Serg’t Major Hand, in the Emeline; Surgeon
     Harrall and the Quarter Master Sergeant in the brig Calvin, and
     Lieut. Colonel Lawson with Lieuts. Balls and Dyer in the steamboat.

     Fifteen days provisions will embark with each detachment.

     As each transport arrives in New Orleans, the senior officer on
     board will require of the Quarter Master and Assistant Commissary
     the necessary quarters and provisions, until the troops are
     mustered out of the service.

By order of

       *       *       *       *       *

Colonel Smith left Tampa Bay on 30th April in the cutter Dallas to meet
General Scott at St. Marks, by order of the General.

May 1st--My company and that of Captain Lee received fifteen days
rations and embarked in the schooner Martha, Captain Baker: the brig
Calvin and schooners Emeline and Cumberland had sailed before us. We put
to sea on the second, and soon bid adieu to the shores of fair Florida,
with every prospect of soon exchanging the soldier’s bed of sand for the
citizen’s couch of down, without the laborious precaution of erecting a
breastwork, and of enjoying the luxury of lounging through the streets
without an ass load of provisions on our backs.

The following are among the orders issued after our arrival at Fort

Head Quarters, Western Department, }
FORT BROOKE, _10th Feb., 1836_.    }

                             ORDER--No. 4.

     I.--Captain E. A. Hitchcock, of the first Regiment United States
     Infantry, is hereby appointed to act as Assistant Inspector General
     of the Department.

     II.--The troops of this post, consisting of A. B. G. and H.
     companies of the second Regiment of Artillery, and A. B. E. G. H.
     I. and K. companies of the fourth Infantry, with the Louisiana
     volunteers under Adj’t General Smith, will constitute a brigade, to
     be designated the Light Brigade, and shall be commanded by Lieut.
     Colonel D. E. Twiggs of the fourth Infantry.

III.--Lieut. I. Izard of the Dragoons, will perform the duties of
Brigade Major and will report to Colonel Twiggs accordingly.

By order of Major General Gaines,
GEORGE A. M’CALL, Aid de Camp,
Acting Assistant Adjutant.

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters, Western Department,   }
FORT BROOKE, _Feb. 11th, 1836_.      }

                        SPECIAL ORDER--No. 10.

The Quarter Master, Captain Shannon, will furnish Howersacks or
materials for making them, together with such camp equipage as may be
necessary for the troops under command of Lieutenant Colonel Twiggs,
proper requisitions being made for the same.

By order of Major General Gaines,
G. A. M’CALL, A. D. C.,
Acting Assistant Adjutant.

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters, Light Brigade,            }
FORT BROOKE, FLORIDA, _Feb. 10th, 1836_. }

                             ORDER--No. 1.

1. In obedience to Western Department Order--No. 4, the undersigned
assumes the command of the Light Brigade.

2. Orders will be received through Lieutenant Izard and Buchanan, and
Battalion Adjutants will report for Orders, at the Head Quarters of the
Brigade, at the sound of the Adjutant’s Call.

3. The troops will be in readiness to march on the morning of the 12th
inst. They will take with them ten days’ rations, of which five shall be
carried in the knapsacks. Each man shall also take with him twenty extra
cartridges in his knapsack.

4. Where the strength of the Company is fifty or under, each shall take
with it eight axes and slings and eight spades, and where over fifty, a
proportioned number at that rate.

5. The officers and men shall not be permitted to leave their companies,
without special permission from the Commanders of their respective

Lieutenant Colonel Commanding.

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters, Light Brigade,            }
FORT BROOKE, FLORIDA, _Feb. 12th, 1836_. }

1. The troops of this Fort will march to-morrow morning, and Commandants
of Corps are directed to inspect their respective commands, and report
the condition of their companies by 4 o’clock this afternoon.

2. Brevet Major R. M. Sandes’ fourth Infantry will remain in command of
Fort Brooke. All the Regulars not able to march, together with one
hundred and fifty men and a suitable number of Officers, to be detailed
by Colonel Smith from his Regiment, will also remain. Assistant Surgeon
Heistell will determine what men of the sick are unable to march.

3. First Lieutenants S. M’Kenzie, second Artillery, and G. Morris,
fourth Infantry will remain at Fort Brooke, in discharge of their Staff
duties. Lieutenant M’Kenzie, will retain Sergeant Armstrong of H.
Company second Artillery, as the Ordnance Sergeant of the Post. Corporal
Sunderland of B. Company third Artillery, will remain and report himself
to Lieutenant J. C. Casey, second Artillery, acting Assistant Quarter
Master, upon his arrival at this post.

(Signed,)  D. E. TWIGGS,
Lieutenant Colonel Commanding.

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters, &c., }
_Feb. 12th, 1836_.  }

                            ORDER--No. 15.

The Regiment will be inspected at 12 o’clock to day, when every company
will be prepared to march in the morning. Each man is to have forty
rounds of ammunition, and ten days’ rations, five of which are to be
carried in the knapsacks.

By order of
A. G. BARROW, Adjutant.

       *       *       *       *       *

                            ORDER--No. 20.

The Regiment is organized in two Battalions, the first is composed of
the companies of Captains Burt, Lee, Williams, Rogers and Thistle, the
second of the companies of Captains Marks, Ker, Magee, Smith, Abodi and
Barr. Lieutenant Colonel Lawson is chief of the first Battalion, and
Major Marks of the second. The companies will form in the order here

By order of
A. G. BARRON, Adjutant.

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters, Western Department,                         }
FORT IZARD, on the Outhlacouchy, Florida, _March 9, 1836_. }

                             ORDER--No. 7.

1. Called to East Florida, by the savage massacre and conflagrations of
the 28th December, and the following month, the Commanding General
hastily collected together in Louisiana, the forces which accompany him
from that patriotic State. These forces have, in the short space of
thirty-six days, marched by land and sea, nearly eight hundred miles,
one hundred and forty of which was through the country occupied by the
enemy, whose principal force they have met, beaten, and forced to sue
for a peace.

2. These important objects of the campaign have been accomplished, with
the hearty and cordial co-operation of Brigadier General Clinch, to
whose sound judgment the defence of this frontier had been confided, and
by whose gallantry the enemy had been chastised on the 31st of December,
and since held in check, as far as his limited means would allow: the
troops from Louisiana are placed under his command, to guard against the
known faithlessness of the enemy, until the arrival of the forces with
the Officer charged with the diplomatic arrangements of the War
Department. Whenever, and so soon as that Officer shall mature his plan
of operations, and accomplish the duties assigned him, the forces from
Louisiana, will return to New Orleans.

3. The Commanding General cannot, consistently with his views of
propriety, take leave of the troops by whom he has been so manfully
sustained, without tendering to them his grateful acknowledgements, for
the constancy and courage with which they have performed every duty, and
borne privations, the recital of which could not fail to command the
admiration of the virtuous and the wise, in every section of the
Republic. The officers and soldiers, comprehending the whole force,
(including the Artillery from Tampa Bay,) acting as the Light Brigade,
under command of Lieutenant Colonel Twiggs, of the fourth Infantry, have
performed their duty so much to the satisfaction of the General, that he
cannot discriminate between the relative claim of officers or
individuals of corps, without the risk of invidious distinctions. All
did their duty cheerfully and gallantly, and when it became necessary to
meet the question, whether to eat the meat of their own horses, or to
abandon an important position, all cheerfully resolved to prefer this
unpleasant species of subsistence, to any movement which might endanger
the frontier. The horse meat was accordingly eaten by officers and men,
until the enemy was beaten, and sued for peace, when a timely supply of
subsistence arrived, escorted by the brave Georgians, Floridians and
Regulars, under General Clinch, at the moment the pacific proposals of
the enemy were being answered; and the Indians were fired on by the
General’s light troops, before he could be notified of the object of
their being so near the camp. They have since disappeared.

4. The General deeply regrets the fall of first Lieutenant I. F. Izard,
of the Dragoons, acting Brigade Major, and in command of the advanced
guard. He fell at the head of his corps, and, though mortally wounded,
had the heroic presence of mind to cry, “keep your position men, and lie
close.” Second Lieutenant Duncan, of the second Artillery, was slightly
wounded. Captain Sanders, commanding the friendly Indians, was severely
wounded, and Captain Armstrong, of the U. S. Schooner Motto, slightly.
The two last mentioned were in the advance, where their services had
been very useful. Lieutenant E. P. Smith, of Captain Williams’ company
of Louisiana Volunteers, received three wounds; this officer, and two
non-commissioned officers and soldiers of other companies of this
Regiment, evinced their gallantry by their good conduct, as well as by
their honourable wounds. The General is convinced, that he has never
commanded a finer corps; its chiefs would do honour to any service. The
officers of the medical department, meet the approbation of the General,
for the attention and skilful manner in which their duties were

  Killed--Sergeant F. Dunn, second Artillery,       1
                   L. Bohe, Louisiana Volunteers,   1
                   V. Beck,         do              1
                   H. Butler,       do              1

  Wounded, of non-commissioned and privates of Louisiana Volunteers,     29
     “              “                “                   Regulars,       13

By order of General Gaines,
A. D. C. Acting Assistant Adjutant General.

General Scott also had a few men killed and several wounded. The names
of the killed as far as I can ascertain, are, Roame, Bilson, Robinson,
of Captain Edwards’ company Louisiana Volunteers, and one Regular; there
were several wounded, some of them have since died. The country is now
in the hands of the savages, with the exception of Fort Brooke, Fort
King and Fort Drane. Forts Cooper and Alabama, have been evacuated, and
the Georgian and Alabamian Volunteers have returned home. The Indian may
exult in his exploits, and dance round the scalps of his victims, until
the approach of winter; then let the other States follow the example so
nobly set by Louisiana; let them raise such men as she sent out, and
like her place active and skilful Commanders over them: or if a cautious
Fabius be appointed, let him have a Major Reed for his Marcellus; they
may then cope with our Western Hannibal; but if the war must be
prolonged, for the benefit of Army Contractors and others, then let the
Fabian family come alone; “this the Seminoles wish, this Powell would
purchase at a great price.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Head Quarters of the centre of the Florida Army, }
FORT BROOKE, _April 7th, 1836_.                  }

                            ORDER--No. 22.

In pursuance of Order No. 19, dated this day, at the Head Quarters of
the Florida Army, the senior officer of the Louisiana Volunteers with
the troops of that command who were left at this post, on the 13th of
February last, and are now for duty, will join his Regiment.

The non-commissioned officers and privates, belonging to the Army are
included in said Order, with the exception of those on extra duty in the
Ordnance, Quarter Master’s and Subsistence Departments, and will join
their respective companies.

Lieutenant M’Kenzie, second Artillery, will relieve Captain Barr, in the
immediate command of the post.

The Quarter Master’s department will furnish the necessary

By order of Colonel W. Lindsay,
Commanding the centre of the Florida Army.
Acting Assistant Adjutant General.

[Illustration: INDIAN CHIEF POWELL.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

Gen. Porsifor F. Smith volunteered his services=> Gen. Persifor F. Smith
volunteered his services {pg 4 (Persifor Frazer Smith, 1798-1858)}

received tidings from Florida of a very alaming=> received tidings from
Florida of a very alarming {pg 3}

Colonel: the latter gentlemen, the head physician=> Colonel: the latter
gentleman, the head physician {pg 4}

The enlistment was commencad on the 24th January=> The enlistment was
commenced on the 24th January {pg 4}

he received no answer to he third challenge=> he received no answer to
the third challenge {pg 5}

hors du combat=> hors de combat {pg 10}

but the alarm was groudless=> but the alarm was groundless {pg 5}

had promissed him=> had promised him {pg 11}

his clothes had been striped off=> his clothes had been stripped off {pg

but the Colonels timidity=> but the Colonel’s timidity {pg 13}

from each cantact with the earth=> from each contact with the earth {pg

around the breatswork=> around the breastwork {pg}

and a single buiscuit=> and a single biscuit {pg 17}

28th.--They reached Camp Izzard=> 28th.--They reached Camp Izard {pg 19
[Camp Izard (1836-1842)]}

Fort Izzard=> Fort Izzard {pg 30 [Camp Izard (1836-1842)]}

III.--Lieut. I. Izzard of the Dragoons=> III.--Lieut. I. Izard of the
Dragoons {pg 28 [James Farley Izard: Born 1811. Mortally Wounded Feb.
28, 1836.]}

2. Orders will be received through Lieutenant Izzard=> 2. Orders will be
received through Lieutenant Izard {pg 28 [James Farley Izard: Born 1811.
Mortally Wounded Feb. 28, 1836.]}

4. The General deeply regrets the fall of first Lieutenant I. F.
Izzard,=> 4. The General deeply regrets the fall of first Lieutenant I.
F. Izard, {pg 31 [James Farley Izard: Born 1811. Mortally Wounded Feb.
28, 1836.]}

cannot, consitently with his views=> cannot, consistently with his views
{pg 30}

species of subsitence=> species of subsistence {pg 31}

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A correct and authentic narrative of the Indian war in Florida - with a description of Maj. Dade's massacre, and an account - of the extreme suffering, for want of provision, of the - army—having been obliged to eat horses' and dogs' flesh, - &c, &c." ***

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