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Title: Florizel's Folly
Author: Ashton, John
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Florizel's Folly" ***

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 Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. each.




 MODERN STREET BALLADS. With 57 Illustrations.

        *       *       *       *       *

 SOCIAL LIFE IN THE REIGN OF QUEEN ANNE. With 84 Illustrations. Crown
 8vo., cloth. 3s. 6d.

 London: CHATTO & WINDUS, 111 St. Martin's Lane.

[Illustration: _M^{rs} Fitzherbert_  1792]




    ETC., ETC.

    [Illustration: Decorative motif]



[Illustration: Decorative scroll]



 Early history of Brighthelmstone--Domesday Book--The
 Flemings--The French harry the South Coast--At
 Brighthelmstone--Defences of the town--Rumours of
 the Spanish Armada--Armament of the town                   1-13


 Escape of Charles II. to France--The story of it--The
 'Royal Escape'--Brighton in 1730--In 1736--In 1761--Forty-five
 different ways of spelling the name of the
 town                                                      14-27


 Brighton becomes fashionable--Duke of Cumberland there--His
 character--The Royal Marriage Act--His influence
 over the Prince of Wales--The Duke and the
 King--Bad conduct of the Prince of Wales                  28-39


 Mrs. Robinson--Her story of Florizel and Perdita--Her
 after-career--Coming of age of the Prince of Wales--His
 new establishment--His first visit to Brighton--His
 and Colonel Hanger's adventure                            40-51


 Memoir of, and anecdotes about, George Hanger             52-64


 The Prince goes to Brighton for his health--Description
 of Brighton in 1784--Royal visitors--The Prince takes
 a house--Weltje--Sam House--Fox and the Prince--Brighton
 in 1785                                                   65-80


 The Prince's acquaintance with Mrs. Fitzherbert--His
 courtship and marriage--Satirical prints thereon          81-94


 The Prince's debts--Appeal to the King--His retrenchments--'The
 Jovial Crew, or Merry Beggars'--Satirical
 prints--Help from Parliament--Schedule of his debts      95-108


 Fox's denial of the marriage--Once more at Brighton--Again
 in 1788--The Prince at a fatal prize-fight--His
 birthday--Dress at Brighton--The Prince leases his
 house at Brighton--Unfilial conduct of the Prince--Probability
 of a Regency                                            109-122


 The Prince as a musician--A _bon-mot_ of his--Lady Lade--Her
 husband, Sir John--The Prince's pecuniary difficulties--His
 dealings with his jeweller--The latter's
 story--Another financial mess                           123-134


 Rowlandson and Brighton--Poem on the Prince's birthday,
 1790--Lord Barrymore--Anecdotes respecting
 him and his family                                      135-148


 The Duke of Norfolk, and anecdotes respecting him--The Duke
 of Queensberry, and anecdotes--Charles
 Morris--The Prince out shooting--A grand review--French
 _émigrés_--Smuggling--The Prince's birthday,
 1792--Poem on the _émigrés_                             149-161


 The _émigrés_--Duchesse de Noailles--The nuns--Camp at
 Brighton--The Prince as a soldier--His debts--Interview
 with the King--Breaks with Mrs. Fitzherbert--Her
 account--Satirical prints--Newspaper paragraphs         162-179


 Another camp at Brighton--The Prince's second marriage--His
 debts--Parliamentary debate thereon--Prince
 and Princess at Brighton--'Moral Epistle from the
 Pavilion at Brighton to Carlton House'--Manners at
 Brighton, 1796--Description of the town                 180-193


 Reconciliation of the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert--Her
 scruples, etc.--The Prince at Brighton--Satirical
 prints--The Prince and the Pavilion--Increase of
 income--The Prince and his regiment--A race--Guests
 at the Pavilion--The Prince and his daughter            194-208


 The case of Miss Seymour--Satirical prints thereon--The
 Prince at Brighton, 1806--His birthday--The Green
 Man--Visit of the Princess Charlotte                    209-222


 Final rupture between the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert--That
 lady and William IV.--Her kindly relations with
 the Royal Family--Her death--The King's illness--The
 Regency--Visitors at the Pavilion--Queen Charlotte
 there--The 'Royal Rantipoles'                           223-243


 The Regent and Admiral Nagle--A quiet time at the
 Pavilion--The Regent's extravagance--His yacht--Sham
 fight, and caricature thereon--A cruise to the
 French coast--Royal visitors--The Regent's statues--'High
 Life Below Stairs,' etc.--Satirical prints--Closing
 days--Last appearance at the Pavilion                   244-260


 The books by Nash and Brayley on the Pavilion--Description
 and history of the building--Its exterior--Entrance
 hall--Red Drawing-room                                  261-272


 The Chinese Gallery--The Music Room--The Yellow
 Drawing-room--The Saloon--The Green Drawing-room        273-284


 The Banqueting Room--The Library--Royal Bedroom--North
 and South Galleries--Queen Adelaide's apartments--Great
 House                                                   285-300


 Visit of William IV.--Alterations contemplated--Visit of
 the King and Queen--Story of the Duke of Cambridge--Alterations
 in the Pavilion--The Royal Family snowed
 up Queen Victoria's first visit--Second visit--Third,
 with the Royal children--Fourth, and last--The
 Pavilion dismantled--Sold to the Corporation of
 Brighton                                                301-308

[Illustration: Decorative motif]

[Illustration: Decorative scroll]


 MRS. FITZHERBERT. _Condé, after Cosway._ 1792.

    1545                                           _To face p._ 9

    unknown._) _February 1, 1782_                     "        36

 GEORGEY IN THE COALHOLE. _Gillray._ _July 1,
    1800_                                             "        53

    18, 1784_                                         "        72

    CONTINENT. _Gillray._ _March 27, 1786_            "        92

 LOVE'S LAST SHIFT. _Gillray._ _February 26,
    1787_                                             "       102

 CAPTAIN MORRIS. _Gillray._ _July 23, 1790_           "       157

    DIGESTION. _Gillray._ _July 2, 1792_              "       167

 THE RAGE. _Newton_ or _O'Keefe_ del.,
    _W. Hintin_ sculpt. _November 22, 1794_           "       177

 THE GUARDIAN ANGEL. _Gillray._ _April 22,
    1805_                                             "       211

 HIGH LIFE BELOW STAIRS. _J. R. Cruikshank._
    _March 25, 1819_                                  "       256

    1825                                              "       271

[Illustration: Decorative motif]

[Illustration: Decorative motif]



 Early history of Brighthelmstone--Domesday Book--The Flemings--The
 French harry the South Coast--At Brighthelmstone--Defences of the
 town--Rumours of the Spanish Armada--Armament of the town.

We who live in these latter days, when Brighton, the
'London-on-the-Sea,' has a standing population of 115,873,[1] and
contains 19,543 houses, can hardly realize its small beginnings. That
it was known to the Romans there can be no doubt, for, about 1750, an
urn was dug up near the town, which contained a thousand _denarii_,
ranging from Antoninus Pius to Philip; and others have since been
found. In the Anglo-Saxon time Brighthelmstone was a manor, and the
great Earl Godwin succeeded in the lordship of it to his father,
Ulnoth. On his banishment from the kingdom, this manor, with his other
possessions, was seized by King Edward, but, afterwards, he recovered
it, and held it until his death, on April 14, 1053, when it lapsed into
the hands of his son Harold, who held it until his death at the Battle
of Senlac, on October 14, 1066.

I should rather say that Harold held two of the three manors of
Brighthelmstone, for his father, Godwin, had given the other to a
man named Brictric, for his life only. This was the manor called
'Brighthelmstone-Lewes;' the other two were 'Michel-ham' and
'Atlyngworth.' It is thus described in Domesday Book, A.D. 1086:

'Radulfus ten. de Will'o, Bristelmestane. Brictric tenuit de dono
Godwini. T. R. E. et m^o, se def'd p. 5 hid' et dimid'. Tra' e' 3 car.
In d'nio e' dimid' car. et 18 vill'i et 9 bord' cu' 3 car. et uno
servo. De Gablo 4 mill' aletium. T. R. E. val't 8 lib. et 12 sol. et
post c. sol., modo 12 lib.

'In ead' villa, ten^t Widardus de Will'o 6 hid' et una v^a et p'tanto
se defd'.

'Tres aloarii tenuer' de Rege E., et potuer' ire quolibet. Un^o ex eis
habuit aula': et vill'i tenuer' partes alior' duor. T'ra e' 5 car. et
est in uno M. In d'nio un' car. et dim', et 13 vill'i, et 21 bord', cu'
3 car. et dimid': ibi 7 ac' p'ti et silva porc. In Lewes 4 hagæ. T. R.
E. val't 10 lib., et post 8 lib., modo 12 lib.

'Ibide' ten' Wills. de Watevile Bristelmestune de Willo. Ulovard
tenuit de Rege E. T'c et modo se defd' p. 5 hid' et dim'. T'ra e' 4
car. In d'nio e' 1 car. et 13 vill'i, et 2 bord' cu' una car'. Ibi

'T. R. E. val't 10 lib'. et post 8 lib', modo 12 lib'.'


'Ralph holds of William (de Warren[2]) Bristelmestune. Brictric held
it from the gift of Earl Godwin. In the time of King Edward, and now,
it defends itself for 5 hides[3] and a half. The (arable) land is 3
carucates.[4] In demesne is half a carucate, and 18 villeins[5] and 9
bordars.[6] Of the Gabel (customary payment) 4 thousands of herrings.
In the time of King Edward it was worth 8 pounds and 12 shillings, and,
afterwards, 100 shillings. Now, 12 pounds.

'In the same vill,[7] Widard holds of William 6 hides and 1 virgate;[8]
and, for so much, it defends itself.

'Three aloarii (customary tenants) held it of King Edward, and could
go where they pleased. One of them had a hall, and the villeins held
the portions of the other two. The land is 5 carucates, and is in one
manor. In demesne one carucate and a half, and 14 villeins and 21
bordars, with 3 carucates and a half; there are 8 acres of meadow, and
a wood for hogs. In Lewes 4 hagæ.[9] In the time of King Edward it was
worth 10 pounds, and, afterwards, 8 pounds; now 12 pounds.

'In the same place William de Wateville holds Bristelmestune of
William. Ulward held it of King Edward. Then, and now, it defends
itself for 5 hides and a half. The land is 4 carucates. In demesne is 1
carucate, and 13 villeins, and 2 bordars with one plough.[10] There is
a church.

'In the time of King Edward it was worth 10 pounds, and, afterwards, 8
pounds; now, 12 pounds.'

We thus see how small was the population of the three manors in the
time of William the Conqueror, and it is useful to note that there
is no mention whatever of fisheries or fishermen except the Gabel of
herrings. Concerning this matter Lee[11] propounds a very interesting
theory. He says:

'From the surnames of some of the most ancient families in the town
of _Brighthelmston_, the phrase and pronunciation of the old natives,
and some peculiar customs there, it has, with great probability, been
conjectured, that the town had, at some distant period, received a
colony of _Flemings_. This might have happened soon after the Conquest,
for we read of a great inundation of the sea, about that time, in
_Flanders_; and such of the inhabitants of the deluged country
as wanted new habitations could not have anywhere applied with a
greater likelihood of success than in _England_. _Matilda_, Queen of
_William_ the _Conqueror_, was their countrywoman, being daughter to
_Baldwin_, Earl of _Flanders_. At her request, _William de Warren_,
her son-in-law, would have readily given a band of those distrest
emigrants a settlement on one of his numerous manors; and, as they had
been inhabitants of the maritime part of _Flanders_, and lived chiefly
by fishing, _Brighthelmston_ was the most desirable situation for them
within the territory of that nobleman.

'The _Flemings_, thus settled at _Brighthelmston_, were led, by habit
and situation, to direct their chief attention to the fishery of the
Channel. Besides obtaining a plentiful supply of fresh fish of the best
kind and quality for themselves and their inland neighbours, they,
every season, cured a great number of herrings, and exported them to
several parts of the Continent, where the abstinence of Lent, vigils,
and other meagre days, insured them a constant market. The inhabitants
of the town, now classed into _landsmen_ and _seamen_, or _mariners_,
profited respectively by the advantages of their situation. The former,
whose dwellings covered the _Cliff_, and part of the gentle acclivity
behind it, drew health and competence from a fertile soil. The latter,
residing in two streets under the _Cliff_, found as bountiful a
source of subsistence and profit in the bosom of the sea. In process
of time the _mariners_ and their families had increased so far as to
compose more than two-thirds of the population of the town, and had
a proportionate share of the offices and internal regulation of the

The people of Brighthelmstone were subject, in common with all the
coast, to invasion and reprisals to the English raids on France, and
their ships and boats were occasionally taken, and their fishery
interrupted. In 1377 the French harried the South Coast, spoiled the
Isle of Wight, and burnt Rye, Portsmouth, Dartmouth, Plymouth, and
Hastings. There is no record of Brighthelmstone being attacked, but
the French came parlously near, as Holinshed tells us: 'Winchelsie
they could not win, being valiantlie defended by the abbat of Battell
and others. After this, they landed, one day, not far from the abbeie
of Lewes, at a place called Rottington (Rottingdean), where the prior
of Lewes and two knights, the one named sir Thomas Cheinie, and the
other, sir John Falleslie, having assembled a number of the countrie
people, incountred the Frenchmen, but were overthrowen; so that there
were slaine about an hundred Englishmen; and the prior, with the two
knights, and an esquier called John Brokas, were taken prisoners,
but yet the Frenchmen lost a great number of their owne men at this
conflict, and so, with their prisoners, retired to their ships and
gallies, and, after, returned into France.'

As far as I have read, Brighthelmstone had peace until 1514, when
Holinshed tells us: 'About the same time, the warres yet continuing
betweene England and France, Prior Jehan (of whom ye have heard before
in the fourth yeere of this King's reigne), a great capteine of the
French navie, with his gallies and foists[12] charged with great
basilisks[13] and other artillerie, came on the borders of Sussex, in
the night season, at a poore village there, called Brighthelmston, and
burnt it, taking such goods as he found. But, when the people began to
gather, by firing the becons, Prior Jehan sounded his trumpet, to call
his men aboord, and by that time it was daie. Then certeine archers
that kept the watch, folowed Prior Jehan to the sea, and shot so fast,
that they beat the gallie men from the shore; and wounded manie in the
foist; to the which Prior Jehan was constreined to wade, and was shot
in the face with an arrow, so that he lost one of his eies, and was
like to have died of the hurt; and, therefore, he offered his image of
wax before our ladie at Bullongne, with the English arrow in the face
for a miracle.'

These archers, who so stoutly resisted the French, were, according to
Lee, the land-owners and others of the adjacent country, as well as
the inhabitants of the sea-coast, who were obliged to keep _watch_
and _ward_ whenever there was the least appearance of danger. The
_Watch_, called _Vigiliæ minutæ_, in the King's mandate to the Sheriff,
was nocturnal, and seldom exacted, unless an immediate descent was
apprehended. The _Ward_ consisted of men-at-arms, and _hobilers_, or
_hoblers_. The latter were persons who seem to have been bound to
perform that service by the nature of their tenure. They were a sort
of light cavalry, dressed in jackets called _hobils_, and mounted on
fleet horses. The bold stand made against the French who landed at
Rottingdean in 1377 was principally by the _Watch_ and _Ward_ of this
coast, which had been divided into districts, entrusted to the care of
some baron or religious house by certain Commissioners called _Rectores
Comitatus_. Thus it was that the Prior of Lewes and the Abbot of Battle
were placed at several times at the head of an armed power, to oppose
actual or threatened invasion. Certain hundreds and boroughs were
also obliged, under pain of forfeiture, or other penalty, to keep the
beacons in proper condition, and to fire them at the approach of an
enemy, in order to alarm and assemble the inhabitants of the Weald.

Brighthelmstone had yet another hostile visit from the French, and to
this we are indebted for the earliest recorded view of the town. It
occurred in 1545, and Holinshed gives us the following short and pithy
account of the affair.

'After this, the eighteenth of Julie, the admerall of France, monsieur
Danebalte, hoised up sailes, and with his whole navie came forth into
the seas, and turned on the coast of Sussex before Bright Hampsteed;
and set certein of his soldiers on land, to burne and spoile the
countrie: but the beacons were fired, and the inhabitants thereabouts
came downe so thicke, that the Frenchmen were driven to flie with losse
of diverse of their numbers; so that they did little hurt there.'


The French then tried the Isle of Wight, and got the worst of it, so
returned to Sussex. 'The French Capteins having knowledge by certeine
fishermen, whom they tooke, that the King was present, and so huge
a power readie to resist them, they disanchored, and drew along the
coast of Sussex; and a small number of them landed againe in Sussex,
of whome, few returned to their ships: for diverse gentlemen of
the countrie, as sir Nicholas Pelham and others, with such power as
was raised upon the sudden, tooke them up by the waie, and quickelie
distressed them. When they had searched everie where by the coast, and
saw men still readie to receive them with battell, they turned sterne,
and so got them home againe without anie act acheived worthie to be
mentioned. The number of the Frenchmen was great, so that diverse of
them that were taken prisoners in the Ile of Wight, and in Sussex, did
report that they were three score thousand.'

This descent on Brighthelmstone is admirably shown in a water-colour
drawing on parchment in the MS. Department of the British Museum
(Cotton MSS., Aug. 1, vol. i. 18), which measures 3 feet by 2 feet; it
is here reproduced. A tracing of it was engraved in 'Archæologia,' vol.
xxiv., p. 298, as an illustration of a paper read by Sir Henry Ellis
before the Society of Antiquaries, April 14, 1831.

Here we find the town, _apparently_, just where it is now, with a
'felde in the midle of the towne,' but with some houses on the beach
opposite what is now Pool Valley, on the east side of which houses the
French are landing. The following are the explanations inserted in the

'The Bekon of the Town.'

'The Wynde Mylles.'

'The towne of Brithampton.'

'Hoove Church.'

'Hove Village.'

'A felde in the midle of the Town.'

'The town Fyre Cage.'

'The Valley coming from Ponyng betwixt Brithampton and the village

'Upon this west parte may lond [ML over C] persons unletted by any
provisions there.'

'The east parte of Brithampston rising only on Cleves (cliffs) high.'

'Here landed the Galeys.'

'Shippes may ride all somer within di. a myle the towne in V fathome

'These grete Shippes ryding hard abord shore by shoting into the hille
and valies over the towne, so sore oppresse the towne that the Countrey
dare not adventure to reskue it.'

In consequence of this attack, Lee says that 'The town of
_Brighthelmston_, thus harassed by frequent alarm, and the desultory
attacks of an active enemy, resolved to erect fortifications, which
might afford them some protection in future. Accordingly, at a Court
Baron held for the manor of Brighthelmstone-Lewes, on the 27th of
September, 1558, the Lords of the manor granted to the inhabitants of
the town, a parcel of land on the cliff between Blacklyon street and
Ship street, and about two hundred and sixteen yards westward from the
lower end of East street, thirteen feet in length and sixteen feet
in breadth, to build thereon a storehouse for armour and ammunition,
afterwards called the _Blockhouse_. This parcel, however, was only part
of the site of that building; for, at a Court Baron held for the Manor
of _Atlyngworth_, on the 3rd day of January 1613, the homage presented
that the north side of the said building stood on the demesne lands of
that manor. The _Blockhouse_, the walls of which were about eight feet
in thickness, and eighteen feet in height, was circular, and measured
50 feet in diameter. Several arched apartments in its thick walls were
repositories for the powder and other ammunition for the defence of the
town. In front of it, towards the sea, was a little battery called the
_Gun Garden_, on which were mounted four pieces of large iron ordnance.
Adjoining the _Blockhouse_, on the east, stood the _Townhouse_, with a
dungeon under it for the confinement of malefactors. From the summit of
this building rose a turret, on which the town clock was fixed.

'At the same time, with the _Blockhouse_, were erected four Gates
of freestone (three of which were arched) leading from the Cliff to
that part of the town which lay under it; _viz._ the _East-gate_ at
the lower end of _East-street_; the _Portal_, vulgarly miscalled
the _Porter's-gate_, which was less than any of the others, and
stood next the _East-gate_; the _Middle-gate_, opposite the end of
_Middle-street_, commonly called the _Gate of all nations_; and
the _West-gate_, which stood at the end of _West-street_. From the
_East-gate_, westward, there was, at the same time, a wall built about
fifteen feet high, and four hundred feet long, where the _Cliff_ was
most easy of ascent: and, from the termination of that wall, a parapet,
three feet high, was continued on the verge of the _Cliff_ to the
_West-gate_, with embrasures for cannon. The _Blockhouse_ was built
at the expense of the mariners of the town; but the gates and walls
seem to have been erected partly, if not wholly, at the expense of

'The upland part of the town, thus effectually secured on the south,
might also, in case of any emergency, be rendered pretty secure on
its three other sides, by cutting trenches at the ends of the streets
which led into the town; or barring the enemy's entrance with lumber
carriages and household furniture, while the inhabitants annoyed them
from every quarter.'

From 1545 to 1586 Brighthelmstone lived in peace; but when rumours
of the Spanish Armada, which was in preparation, began to be bruited
about, the town's folk had a scare, for a fleet of fifty vessels were
descried off the town, apparently waiting for a favourable opportunity
of landing. The terrified inhabitants lit the beacons, and sent off,
post haste, to Lord Buckhurst, the Lord Lieutenant of the county, for
assistance and protection. His lordship immediately attended with as
many armed men as he could hurriedly muster, and posted them on the
brow of the cliff between Brighthelmstone and Rottingdean, so that he
might oppose the enemy should they try to land at either place. During
the ensuing night, his force increased to the number of 1,600 men, and
a considerable number of Kentish men were on their march to join him.
However, when morning dawned, the ships were still there, but no one on
board seemed to show any disposition to land; so a few boats belonging
to the town plucked up heart of grace, and ventured out a little way to
reconnoitre this fleet, when they discovered, to their very great joy,
that it only consisted of Dutch merchantmen, laden with Spanish wines,
detained in the Channel by contrary winds!

But at the end of July, 1558, when the Armada was an accomplished fact,
Brighthelmstone went to work in earnest to defend itself; and they then
had in the town belonging to the Government, six pieces of great iron
ordnance and ten 'qualivers.'[14] Luckily, they were not needed, and
after the memorable storms of 1703 and 1705 the sea so encroached, that
the _Blockhouse_ and Gun Garden, together with the walls and gates,
were sapped, and finally disappeared through stress of weather.

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[1] Census, 1891.

[2] Earl of Surrey, son-in-law of William the Conqueror.

[3] A hide is an indeterminate quantity of land, varying from 20 to
4,000 acres. Eyton says it was a fiscal value, and not a superficial

[4] As much land as eight oxen could plough in a season--80 to 144

[5] Peasants, not serfs.

[6] Lord Coke says they were 'Boors holding a little house, with some
land of husbandry, bigger than a cottage.'

[7] Manor.

[8] A perch of 16½ feet, or 5½ square yards.

[9] Haga was a house in a city or borough--some think a shop.

[10] Eight oxen.

[11] 'Ancient and Modern History of Lewes and Brighthelmstone,' etc.,
printed for W. Lee, the editor and proprietor, Lewes, 1795, p. 458.

[12] A foist was a light galley, a vessel propelled both by oars and

[13] Heavy ordnance, which, in the fifteenth century, could carry stone
balls of 200 lb. weight.

[14] Or caliver, a kind of harquebuse or musket--the lightest firearm,
except the pistol, and it was used without a rest.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Escape of Charles II. to France--The story of it--The 'Royal
 Escape'--Brighton in 1730--In 1736--In 1761--Forty-five different ways
 of spelling the name of the town.

There is nothing particularly noteworthy with regard to Brighthelmstone
until we come to the embarkation of Charles II. in July, 1651, from
that place for France, the culmination of his wanderings after the
disastrous Battle of Worcester. There are several accounts of this
event, including one dictated by the King himself to Samuel Pepys;
but the one that is considered most reliable is Colonel Gounter's
narrative, a manuscript which was found in a secret drawer of an old
bureau, formerly in possession of the Gounter family, and purchased by
a Mr. Bartlett of Havant, when their old seat at Racton was dismantled
about the year 1830. It is now in the British Museum (Add. MSS.,
9,008), and is entitled, 'The last Act in the Miraculous Storie of His
M^{ties} Escape, being a true and perfect relation of his Conveyance,
through many obstacles and after many dangers, to a safe harbour
out of the reach of his tyrannical enemies. By Colonell Gounter, of
Rackton, in Sussex, who had the happines to be instrumentall in the
busines (as it was taken from his mouth by a person of worth, a little
before his death).'

The following is the portion relating to Brighthelmstone:

'When we were come to Beeding, a little village where I had provided a
treatment for the King (one Mr. Bagshall's house), I was earnest that
his majesty should stay there a while till I had viewed the coast;
but my Lord Wilmot would by no means, for fear of those soldiers, but
carried the King out of the road, I knew not whither; so we parted.
They where they thought safest, I to Brightemston, being agreed they
should send to me when fixed anywhere and ready.

'Being come to the said Brightemston, I found all clear there, and the
inn (the George) free from all strangers at that time. Having taken the
best room in the house, and bespoke my supper, as I was entertaining
myself with a glass of wine, the King, not finding accommodation to his
mind,[15] was come to the inn: and up comes mine host (one Smith by
name). "More guests," saith he to me. He brought them up into another
room, I taking no notice. It was not long, but, drawing towards the
King's room, I heard the King's voice, saying aloud to my lord Wilmot,
"Here, Mr. Barlow, I drink to you." "I know that name," said I to mine
host, now by me. "I pray inquire whether he was not a major in the
King's army." Which done, he was found to be the man whom I expected,
and presently invited (as was likely) to the fellowship of a glass of

'From that I proceeded, and made a motion to join company; and, because
my chamber was largest, that they would make use of it, which was
accepted, and, so, we became one company again.

'At supper, the King was cheerful, not shewing the least sign of fear
or apprehension of any danger, neither then, nor at any time during the
whole course of this business, which is no small wonder, considering
that the very thought of his enemies, so great and so many, so diligent
and so much interested in his ruin, was enough, as long as he was
within their reach; and, as it were, in the very midst of them, to have
daunted the stoutest courage in the world, as if God had opened his
eyes, as he did Elisha's servant at his master's request, and he had
seen an heavenly host round about him to guard him, which, to us, was
invisible; who, therefore, though much encouraged by his undauntedness
and the assurance of so good and glorious a cause, yet were not without
secret terrors within ourselves, and thought every minute, a day, a
month, till we should see his sacred person out of their reach.

'Supper ended, the King stood with his back against the fire, leaning
over a chair. Up came mine host (upon some jealousy, I guess, not my
certain knowledge); but up comes he, who called himself Gaius, runs
to the King, catcheth his hand, and kissing it, said, "It shall not be
said but I have kissed the best man's hand in England."

'He had waited at table at supper time, where the boatman also sat with
us, and were there present. Whether he had seen, or heard anything that
could give him any occasion of suspicion, I know not; in very deed,
the King had a hard task so to carry himself in all things, that he
might be in nothing like himself, majesty being so natural unto him,
that, even when he said nothing, did nothing, his very looks (if a man
observed) were enough to betray him.

'It was admirable to see how the King (as though he had not been
concerned in these words, which might have sounded in the ears of
another man as the sentence of death) turned about in silence, without
any alteration of countenance, or taking notice of what had been said.

'About a quarter of an hour after, the King went to his chamber, where
I followed him, craved his pardon with earnest protestation, that I
was as innocent, so altogether ignorant of the cause how this had
happened. "Peace, peace, colonel," said the King, "the fellow knows me,
and I him; he was one (whether so, or not, I know not, but so the King
thought at the time) that belonged to the back stairs to my father. I
hope he is an honest fellow."

'After this, I began to treat with the boatman (Tettersfield,[16] by
name), asking him in what readiness he was. He answered he could not be
off that night, because, for more security, he had brought his vessel
into creek, and the tide had forsaken it, so that it was on ground.

'It is observable, that all the while the business had been in
agitation to this very time, the wind had been contrary. The King, then
opening the window, took notice that the wind had turned, and told the
master of the ship; whereupon, because of the wind and a clear night, I
offered £10 more to the man to get off that night; but that could not
be: however, we agreed he should take in his company that night.

'But it was a great business that we had in hand, and God would have us
to know so, both by the difficulties that offered themselves, and, by
his help, he afforded to remove them.

'When we thought we had agreed, the boatman starts back, and saith,
no, except I would insure the bark. Argue it we did with him, how
unreasonable it was, being so well paid, etc., but to no purpose, so
that I yielded at last, and £200 was his valuation, which was agreed

'But then, as though he had been resolved to frustrate all by
unreasonable demands, he required my bond; at which, moved with much
indignation, I began to be as resolute as he; saying, among other
things, there were more boats to be had besides his; and, if he would
not act, another should, and made as though I would go to another.

'In this contest, the King happily interposed, "He saith right," (saith
his majesty), "A gentleman's word, especially before witnesses, is as
good as his bond." At last, the man's stomach came down, and carry them
he would, whatsoever came of it: and, before he would be taken, he
would run his boat under the water: so it was agreed that about two in
the night they should be aboard. The boatman, in the meantime, went
to provide necessaries, and I persuaded the King to take some rest; he
did, in his clothes, and my Lord Wilmot with him, till towards two of
the night. Then I called them up, shewing them how the time went by my

'Horses being led by the back way towards the beach, we came to the
boat and found all ready, so I took my leave, craving his majesty's
pardon if anything had happened through error, not want of will or
loyalty; how willingly I would have waited further, but for my family
(being many) which would want me, and I hoped his majesty would not,
not doubting but in a very little time he should be where he would.

'My only request to his majesty was, that he would conceal his
instruments; wherein their preservation was much concerned.

'His majesty promised nobody should know. I abided there, keeping the
horses in readiness in case anything unexpected had happened.

'At eight of the clock, I saw them on sail, and it was the afternoon
before they went out of sight.

'The wind (oh Providence) held very good till next morning, to ten of
the clock brought them to a place in Normandy, called Fackham,[17] some
three miles off Havre de Grace, Wednesday, Oct. 15.

'They were no sooner landed, but the wind turned, and a violent storm
did arise, insomuch that the boatman was forced to cut his cable, and
lost his anchor to save his boat, for which he required of me £8, and
had it.'[18]

On the King's restoration, Tattersal shared the fate of most of those
who had helped the King in his need; but he must have either had good
interest or was very pertinacious in his claim, for his coal-brig,
ornamented and enlarged, was taken into the Royal Navy as a fifth-rate,
under the name of the _Royal Escape_, and on September 4, 1671, the
Duke of York, as Lord High Admiral, appointed Tattersal to be her
captain (a sinecure post), with pay as such, and an extra pension of
£100 per annum. On August 29, 1672, the King granted the reversion
of this appointment to his son Nicholas, to take effect after the
death of Tattersal senior, which took place on May 20, 1674. He was
buried near the south side of Brighton Church, under a marble slab,
commemorative of his virtues. The _Royal Escape_ was for some years
moored off Whitehall; afterwards she was relegated to Deptford, where
she gradually decayed, and was broken up for firewood in 1791.

We get an account of Brighton in 1730 in 'Magna Britannia' (pp. 510
and 511), which states that it is 'an indifferent large and populous
town, chiefly inhabited by fishermen, and having a good Market weekly
on Thursday, and a Fair yearly. The Situation is very pleasant, and
generally accounted healthful; for, tho' it is bounded on the North
side by the _British Channel_, yet it is encompassed on the other Parts
with large Cornfields and fruitful Hills, which feed great Flocks of
Sheep, bearing Plenty of Wooll, which is thought by some concern'd in
the Woollen Manufacture, to be of the finest Sort in _England_....
About 90 Years ago, this Town was a very considerable Place for
Fishing, and in a flourishing Condition, being, then, one of the
principal Towns of the County, containing nearly six hundred Families;
but since the Beginning of the Civil Wars, it hath decay'd much for
want of a Free Fishery, and by very great Losses by Sea, their Shipping
being very often taken from them by the Enemy: Nay, it is the Opinion
of the most judicious Inhabitants that, had not Divine Providence in
a great Measure protected them by their Town being built low, and
standing on a flat Ground, the _French_ would several Times have quite
demolish'd it, as they had attempted to do; but the low Situation of
it prevented their doing it any considerable Damage, the Cannon Balls
usually flying over the Town; But the greatest Damage to the Buildings
has been done by the breaking in of the Sea, which, within these 40
Years, hath laid Waste above 130 Tenements; which Loss, by a modest
Computation, amounts to near £40,000; and, if some speedy Care be not
taken to stop the Encroachments of the Ocean, it is probable that the
Town will, in a few Years, be utterly depopulated; the Inhabitants
being already diminished one third less than they were, and those that
remain are many of them Widows, Orphans, decrepid Persons, and all very
poor; insomuch that the Rates for their Relief are at the Rack Rent
of 8^d in the Pound, for there are but few Charities given for their

Groynes, however, were introduced early in the eighteenth century, with
such good effect as to do away with the above dismal apprehensions.
Indeed, it was beginning to be a place for visitors to come to for the
benefit of the bathing and sea-air, as we may see by the following
letter from the Rev. William Clarke (grandfather of the celebrated
traveller, Edward Daniel Clarke (1769-1822)), to his friend Mr.

  '_July 22, 1736_.

 'We are now sunning ourselves upon the beach at Brighthelmstone, and
 observing what a tempting figure this Island made formerly in the eyes
 of those gentlemen who were pleased to civilize and subdue us. The
 place is really pleasant; I have seen nothing in its way that outdoes
 it. Such a tract of sea; such regions of corn; and such an extent of
 fine carpet, that gives your eye the command of it all. But then,
 the mischief is that we have little conversation besides the _clamor
 nauticus_, which is, here, a sort of treble to the plashing of the
 waves against the cliffs. My morning business is bathing in the sea,
 and then buying fish; the evening is riding out for air, viewing the
 remains of old Saxon camps, and counting the ships in the road, and
 the boats that are trawling.

 'Sometimes we give the imagination leave to expatiate a little; fancy
 that you are coming down, and that we intend to dine one day next
 week at Dieppe in Normandy; the price is already fixed, and the wine
 and lodging there tolerably good. But, though we build these castles
 in the air, I assure you we live here _almost under ground_. I fancy
 the architects here usually take the altitude of the inhabitants, and
 lose not an inch between the head and the ceiling, and then dropping
 a step or two below the surface: the second story is finished
 something under 12 feet. I suppose this was a necessary precaution
 against storms, that a man should not be blown out of his bed into New
 England, Barbary, or God knows where.

 'But, as the lodgings are _low_, they are cheap; we have _two
 parlours_, _two bed chambers_, _pantry_, _etc._, for 5s. per week;
 and if you will really come down you need not fear a bed of proper

 'And, then, the coast is safe; the cannons all covered with rust and
 grass; the ships moored, and no enemy apprehended. Come and see.'

Lee tells us that about 1736 the delightful situation of
Brighthelmstone began to attract some visitors of distinction as early
in the summer as the deep miry Sussex roads were in some way passable.
Hunting, horse-racing, and water-parties were then the chief, or
sole, attractions; and a few indifferent inns their only places of

But Dr. Richard Russell, having removed from Mailing, near Lewes, to
this town about the year 1750, called attention to the benefit of
sea-bathing, having written a treatise, which was translated into
English, and went through several editions--'De Tabe Glandulari,
sive de usu aquæ marinæ in morbis glandularum dissertatio,' Oxford,
1750, 8vo. This brought visitors to Brighthelmstone; the erection of
lodging-houses became a profitable speculation, and the town began to
increase in population and celebrity.

Dr. Russell's successor, Dr. A. Relhan, wrote, in 1761, 'A Short
History of Brighthelmston, with Remarks on its Air, and an Analysis of
its Waters, particularly of an uncommon Mineral one, long discovered,
though but lately used.' In this tract he thus describes the
Brighthelmstone of his time:

'The town, at present, consists of six principal streets, many lanes,
and some spaces surrounded with houses, called by the inhabitants
Squares. The great plenty of flint stones on the shore, and in the
cornfields near the town, enabled them to build the walls of their
houses with that material when in their most impoverished state; and
their present method of ornamenting the windows and doors with the
admirable brick which they burn for their own use, has a very pleasing
effect. The town improves daily, as the inhabitants, encouraged by the
late great resort of Company, seem disposed to expend the whole of what
they acquire in the erection of new buildings, or making the old ones
convenient. And, should the increase of these, in the next seven years,
be equal to what it has been in the last, it is probable there will be
but few towns in England that will exceed this in commodious buildings.

'Here are two public rooms, the one convenient, the other not only so,
but elegant; not excelled, perhaps, by any public room in England, that
of York excepted: and the attention of the proprietor in preparing
everything that may answer for the conveniency and amusement of the
company is extremely meritorious.

'The men of this town are busied almost the whole year in a succeeding
variety of fishing; and the women industriously dedicate part of their
time, disengaged from domestic cares, to the providing of nets adapted
to the various employments of their husbands.

'The spring season is spent in dredging for Oysters, which are mostly
bedded in the Thames and Medway, and, afterwards, carried to the
London market: the Mackerel fishery employs them during the months of
May, June, and July; and the fruits of their labour are always sent
to London; as Brighthelmston has the advantage of being its nearest
fishing sea coast, and the consumption of the place, and its environs,
is very inconsiderable. In the early part of this fishery, they
frequently take the red Mullet; and, near the close of it, abundance of
Lobsters and Prawns. August is engaged in the Trawl fishery, when all
sorts of flat fish are taken in a net called by that name. In September
they fish for Whiting with lines: and in November the Herring fishery
takes place, which is the most considerable and growing fishery of the
whole. Those employed in this pursuit show an activity and boldness
almost incredible, often venturing out to Sea in their little boats in
such weather as the largest ships can scarce live in. Part of their
acquisition in this way is sent to London, but the greatest share of
it is either pickled, or dried and made red. These are mostly sent to
foreign markets, making this fishery a national concern....

'From this account of the fishery of this town, the reader will be
satisfied that it must supply a constant and good article in provision
to the inhabitants. And although there are complaints made of the
inconveniences experienced in the want of a regular and daily market;
yet, as few who come here to take the waters can long want an appetite,
and as fish of different sorts, excellent mutton, beef, and veal
tolerably good, with all kinds of fowl, may be had in plenty twice
or thrice a week, the rarities of a London market may be resigned
unregretted for a few months.'

It is probable that very few towns have so many variations on their
names as Brighton, which modernized form began somewhere about 1775;
at least, that is the earliest date I have met with. F. E. Sawyer,
Esq., F.M.S., in an article on the 'Ecclesiastical History of Brighton'
in the 'Sussex Archæological Collections,' vol. xxix., pp. 182, 183,
gives forty-five different readings of the name, together with the
authorities whence they are derived, and he repeated them in _Notes and
Queries_, vi. S. ii. 376, with the dates of the authorities. They are
as follow:

                  {ston               1252 and 18th cent.
                  {stone                            1340.
                  {eston                            1415.
  Brighthelm      {estone                           1460.
                  {iston                            1616.
                  {yston                   1535 and 1411.
                  {sted                           Camden.

  Brighthelnisted                                   1616.

  Brightehelmston                                   1621.

                  {lmeston                          1440.
                  {lmiston                          1616.
  Brighte         {lmyston                           _ib._
                  {elneston                           ?
                  {elniston                         1616.

  Brytthalmston                                     1340.

  Brittelmston                                        ?

                  {            {etune               1086.
                  {elm         {estune               _ib._
                  {            {eston                 ?
  Brist           {            {estona           Dugdale.
                  {alnerston                        1292.
                  {halmestone                         ?
                  {helmstone                          ?

                  {            {pston            1509-14.
                  {hem         {son                 1628.
                  {            {sted                1629.
                  {            {stone               1609.
  Bright          {henstone                      1509-14.
                  {Hampstead                        Stow.
                  {healmertun                      Saxon.
                  {on                             Modern.

  Brighelm        {ston                             1292.
                  {eston                            1397.

  Brihtelmston                                      1438.

  Brithelm        {ston                               ?
                  {eston                            1404.

  Brythelmston                                      1397.

  Bryst           {elmstone                         1438.
                  {helmeston                          ?

  Brishelmeston                                       ?

  Brichelmston                                      1292.

  Brett           {Hempston                         1637.
                  {hempstone                         _ib._

  Bredhemston                                       1724.

  Brogholmestune                                      ?

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


[15] This hardly agrees with Lee's account (p. 475), who says he 'was
conducted at last to the house of a Mrs. Maunsell of Ovingdean, by Lord
Wilmot and Colonel Gunter.... At Ovingdean the King lay concealed for
a few days, as local tradition still relates, within a false wall or
partition, while his friends were contriving the best means for his
escape to France.'

[16] Tattersal.

[17] Fécamp.

[18] The spelling of the MS. has been modernized.

[19] 'The Brighton Ambulator,' by C. Wright, London, 1818, p. 25.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Brighton becomes fashionable--Duke of Cumberland there--His
 character--The Royal Marriage Act--His influence over the Prince of
 Wales--The Duke and the King--Bad conduct of the Prince of Wales.

Brighton rapidly became fashionable, and we find the announcement
on June 1, 1761, of Lord Abergavenny, Lord Bruce, Mr. and Lady Jane
Evelyn, Lady Sophia Egerton, etc.; and on June 25, 1775, arrived here
the Duke and Duchess of Richmond, Duke and Duchess of Marlborough,
Ladies Caroline and Eliza Spencer, etc. In 1782 it was patronized by
Royalty, for the somewhat eccentric Princess Amelia Sophia Eleonora,
the second daughter of George II., paid the town a visit, and Henry
Frederick, brother to George III. and Duke of Cumberland, took up
his residence there at Grove House. An extract from a letter from
Brighthelmstone published in the _Morning Herald_, September 28, 1782,
describes the state of society there at that time:

'_Sep. 26._--This place is, at last, as full as an egg, but the company
is a motley groupe, I assure you. The Duke of C---- is at the head of
the whole, and condescendingly associates with all, from the _Baron_
down to the _Blackleg_!--_Play_ runs high, particularly at Whist;
his Royal Highness has touched a few hundreds by betting adverse to
Major B----gs, who, apparently, is not like to make a very profitable
campaign of it. We have every kind of amusement that fancy can desire
for the train of folly and dissipation; and all are crowded beyond
measure! _Barthelemon_ has had two or three _boreish concerts_ entirely
of _his own_ music, by which he has made much more than he merited.
Lady _Worsley_, who is among us, is the life and soul of _equestrian
parties_, riding _sixteen miles within the hour_ every morning with
all imaginable ease! Her Ladyship made a match the other day to ride
over our revived course for fifty guineas, p. or p. against her aide
du camp, Miss V----rs, and mounted her buckskins and half boots
accordingly; but, to the mortification of a great number of spectators,
who assembled to see this exhibition of _female jockeyship_, she
declared off at the moment they were expected to start! Few people
think of stirring from hence at present, so that it is probable we
shall have a jolly season till the staghounds come down, about the
middle of next month.'

This Duke of Cumberland (born 1744, died 1790) was the reverse of
estimable in character. He was a confirmed gambler, and never missed a
great horse-race when he was in England. In 1770 Lord Grosvenor brought
an action against him, and obtained £10,000 damages from him on account
of Lady G.; and in 1771 he married Lady Anne Luttrell, the widow of Mr.
Christopher Horton, of Derbyshire, a lady much older than himself.
This so enraged George III. that he forbade them the Court, and he
sent a message to Parliament, recommending a legislative provision for
preventing any of the Royal Family marrying without the consent of the
King. Hence arose The Royal Marriage Act (12 George III., c. xi.),
which was passed in 1772. By this Act none of the descendants of George
II., unless of foreign birth, can marry under the age of twenty-five
without the consent of the King. At and after that age, after twelve
months' notice given to the Privy Council, they may contract such
marriage, which shall be good unless both Houses of Parliament
disapprove. Walpole gives us a ballad on the Marriage Act, a few verses
of which I reproduce:



           *       *       *       *       *

    'The Duke was restored to his brother's high favour,
    And continued, as usual, his wanton behaviour;
    For adultery at Court was not thought an unfitness,
    As a twice married maiden of honour can witness.

    'But Hymen, indignant to see his laws broke,
    Determined to bend the loose youth to his yoke;
    So a votary true, a bright widow, he chose,
    And the pert little Prince was soon caught in the noose.

    'But, oh! all ye Gods, who inspire ballad-singers,
    Ye Muses, with nine-times-ten ivory fingers,
    I invoke ye to guide both my voice and my pen,
    While I sing of the fury that seized King and Queen.

    'King and Queen, when they heard how th'undutiful whelp
    Had disgraced the great houses of Mecky and Guelp,
    Swore and cried, curs'd and fainted, and calling for Bute,
    Of your Luttrell connexion, cried George, see the fruit.

    'This Irish alliance my projects all bilks,
    I'd as lief he had married the daughter of Wilkes;
    While to humour my mother and you I conspire,
    I am out of the frying-pan into the fire.

           *       *       *       *       *

    'From the Duke's breach of duty, my act shall receive
    The highest-flown doctrines of prerogative;
    Plantagenets, Tudors, nay, Stuarts I'll quote,
    And what law cannot prove, shall be proved by a vote.

    'To marry, unmarry, son, brother, or heir,
    Has been always his right, our good King shall declare;
    Though as far from the truth as the north from the south,
    It is not the first lie we have put in his mouth.

    'They may burn and be damn'd, but they never shall marry:
    George the Third as despotic, shall be, as Eighth Harry:
    He shall cut off the heads of his sons and his spouses,
    For we'll have no more war between red and white roses.'

           *       *       *       *       *

The Duke was ultimately reconciled to the King, but, during the time of
his displeasure, the former was a very bad Mentor to the young Prince
of Wales, with whom he was most intimate to the day of his death. We
learn a great deal about them from Walpole. The following occurred in
1780, when the Prince was eighteen years old:[20] 'Two days afterwards
the Duke told me the Prince of Wales had said to him: "I cannot come to
see you now without the King's leave, but in three years I shall be of
age, and then I may act for myself. I will declare I will visit you."'

Again[21] (1781): 'But an event soon happened that changed that
aspect, and made Cumberland House naturally the headquarters of at
least part of the Opposition. The Duchess of Cumberland and the
Luttrells openly countenanced the amour of the Prince of Wales, and
Mrs. Armstead ... joined that faction, and set themselves in open
defiance of the King.

'The first project was to make a ball for the Prince at Cumberland
House; but the King forbad his servants going thither. The Duke then
made a great dinner for the Prince's servants, to which, as I have
said, the King would not permit them to go. The Duke was so enraged,
that he wrote a most insolent letter to the King, in which he told
him he would go abroad, for this country was not fit for a gentleman
to live in. The Duke, however, went to the Drawing-room again, and
continued to go, the Duchess having certainly told him that if he
absented himself he would lose his influence over the Prince of Wales.

'To the Queen's ball, as I have said, the Duke was not invited, yet
went to Court the next day. At that ball the Prince got drunk, which
threw him into a dangerous fever, but such a general irruption over
his whole face and body of the humours in his blood came out, that it
probably saved his life.

'At this moment the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester came to town from
Weymouth. The King, as usual, vented his complaints to the Duke of
Gloucester. The King told the Duke that though, on the reconciliation,
he had told the Duke of Cumberland that all his doors would be opened
to him, "yet," said the King, "he comes to the Queen's house fourteen
times a week to my son, the Prince, and passes by my door, but never
comes in to me; and, if he meets me there, or when we are hunting,
he only pulls off his hat, and walks, or rides away. I am ashamed,"
continued he, "to see my brother paying court to my son." The King
resented it, and, though he invited the principal persons who hunted,
to dinner, he never invited the Duke of Cumberland. The Prince of Wales
seemed to be very weak and feeble. He drank hard, swore, and passed
every night in----: such were the fruits of his being locked up in the
palace of piety!

'The King further informed the Duke of Gloucester of his brother
Cumberland's outrageous letter, and said, "He has forced himself every
day into my son's company, even when he was at the worst." The Duke
said he wondered his Majesty had suffered it. "I don't know," replied
the King, "_I do not care to part relations_."'

'_May 4, 1781._[22]--The conduct of the Prince of Wales began already
to make the greatest noise, and proved how very bad his education had
been, or, rather, that he had had little or none; but had only been
locked up, and suffered to keep company with the lowest domestics;
while the Duke of Montague, and Hurd, Bishop of Lichfield, had thought
of nothing but paying court to the King and Queen, and her German
women. The Prince drank more publicly in the Drawing room, and talked
there irreligiously and indecently, in the openest manner (both which
were the style of the Duchess of Cumberland). He passed the nights in
the lowest debaucheries, at the same time bragging of intrigues with
women of quality, whom he named publicly. Both the Prince and the Duke
talked of the King in the grossest terms, even in his hearing, as he
told the Duke of Gloucester, who asked him why he did not forbid his
son seeing his brother. The King replied that he feared the Prince
would not obey him.

'The Duke of Cumberland dropped that he meant by this outrageous
behaviour to force the King to yield to terms in favour of his Duchess,
having gotten entire command over the Prince. The latter, however, had
something of the duplicity of his grandfather, Prince Frederick, and,
after drawing in persons to abuse the King, would betray them to the
King. Nor in other respects did his heart turn to good. In his letters
to Mrs. Robinson, his mistress, he called his sister, the Princess
Royal, a poor child, "_that bandy-legged b--- h, my sister_;" and,
while he was talking of Lord Chesterfield in the most opprobrious
terms, he was sending courier after courier to fetch him to town. That
Lord's return produced a scene that divulged all that till now had been
only whispered.

'One night, as soon as the King was gone to bed, the Prince, with
St. Leger and Charles Windham, his chief favourites, and some of his
younger servants, the Duke of Cumberland, and George Pitt, son of Lord
Rivers, went to Blackheath to sup with Lord Chesterfield, who, being
married, would not consent to send for the company the Prince required.
They all got immediately drunk, and the Prince was forced to lie down
on a bed for some time. On his return, one of the company proposed as
a toast, "_A short reign to the King_." The Prince, probably a little
come to himself, was offended, rose and drank a bumper to "_Long
live the King_." The next exploit was to let loose a large fierce
house-dog, and George Pitt, of remarkable strength, attempted to tear
out its tongue. The dog broke from him, wounded Windham's arm, and
tore a servant's leg. At six in the morning, when the Prince was to
return, Lord Chesterfield took up a candle to light him, but was so
drunk that he fell down the steps into the area, and, it was thought,
had fractured his skull. That accident spread the whole history of the
debauch, and the King was so shocked that he fell ill on it, and told
the Duke of Gloucester that he had not slept for ten nights, and that
whenever he fretted, the bile fell on his breast. As he was not ill
on any of the disgraces of the war, he showed how little he had taken
them to heart. Soon after this adventure, the King being to review a
regiment on Blackheath, Lord Chesterfield offered him a breakfast, but
the late affair had made such a noise that he did not think it decent
to accept it.



    'Drink _like_ a Lord, and _with_ him, if you will.
    Deep be the bumper: let no liquor spill;
    No _daylight_ in the glass, though through the night
    You soak your senses till the morning light;
    Then stupid rise, and with the rising sun
    Drive the high car, a second _Phaeton_.
    Let these exploits your fertile wit evince:
    _Drunk as a Lord, and happy as a Prince!_'

'_Nov. 28, 1781._[23]--The Duke of Gloucester had come to town, as
usual, on the opening of Parliament, and stayed five days, in which
he was three times with the King, who, as if he had not used the Duke
ill, opened his mind to him on his son, the Prince of Wales, and his
own brother, the Duke of Cumberland, the latter of whom, he said,
was governed by Charles Fox and Fitzpatrick, and governed the Prince
of Wales, whom they wanted to drive into opposition. "When we hunt
together," said the King, "neither my son nor my brother speak to me;
and, lately, when the chace ended at a little village where there was
but a single post chaise to be hired, my son and brother got into it,
and drove to London, leaving me to go home in a cart, if I could find
one." He added, that when at Windsor, where he always dined at three,
and in town at four, if he asked the Prince to dine with him, he always
came at four at Windsor, and in town at five, and all the servants saw
the father waiting an hour for the son. That since the Court was come
to town, the Duke of Cumberland carried the Prince to the lowest places
of debauchery, where they got dead drunk, and were often carried home
in that condition.'

[Illustration: GEORGE IV. AS PRINCE OF WALES, 1 FEB. 1782.]

'_Feb. 20, 1782._[24]--The hostilities of the Prince of Wales were
supposed to be suggested by his uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, who
had now got entire influence over him. The Prince, though, at first,
he did not go openly to her, frequently supped with the Duchess of
Cumberland; and, in a little time, they openly kept a faro bank for
him--not to their credit; and the Duke of Cumberland even carried
bankers and very bad company to the Prince's apartments in the Queen's
house. This behaviour was very grating to the King, and the offences
increased. The Duke of Cumberland twice a day passed by the King's
apartment to his nephew's, without making his bow to his Majesty; and
the brothers, at last, ceased to speak. On hunting-days the Duke was
not asked to dine with the King. He returned this by instilling neglect
into his nephew. The King complained of this treatment to the Duke of
Gloucester, who asked why he bore it. "What can I do?" said the King;
"if I resent it, they will make my son leave me, and break out, which
is what they wish."

'But it was not long before the folly and vulgarity of the Duke of
Cumberland disgusted the Prince. His style was so low that, alluding
to the Principality of Wales, the Duke called his nephew _Taffy_.
The Prince was offended at such indecent familiarity, and begged it
might not be repeated--but in vain. Soon after, Mr. Legge, one of the
Prince's gentlemen, and second son of the Earl of Dartmouth, growing a
favourite, inflamed the Prince's disgusts; and the coolness increasing,
the Duke of Cumberland endeavoured to counteract the prejudice by
calling Legge to the Prince "Your _Governor_"--but as the Governor had
sense, and the uncle none, Legge's arrows took place, the others did
not. Yet, though the Prince had too much pride to be treated vulgarly,
he had not enough to disuse the same style. Nothing was coarser than
his conversation and phrases; and it made men smile to find that in
the palace of piety and pride his Royal Highness had learned nothing
but the dialect of footmen and grooms. Still, if he tormented his
father, the latter had the comfort of finding that, with so depraved
and licentious a life, his son was not likely to acquire popularity.
Nor did he give symptoms of parts, or spirit, or steadiness. A tender
parent would have been afflicted--a jealous and hypocritic father might
be vexed, but was consoled too.'

One more quotation from Walpole,[25] which shows us the Prince of Wales
after he had attained his eighteenth year, when he had his own suite of
apartments in the Queen's House (now Buckingham Palace):

'_Feb., 1781._--A new scene now began to open, which drew most of the
attention of the public, at least of the town. Since the family of
the Prince of Wales had been established, and that he was now past
eighteen, it was impossible to confine him entirely. As soon as the
King went to bed, the Prince and his brother Prince Frederick went to
their mistresses, or to----. Prince Frederick, who promised to have
the most parts, and had an ascendant over his brother, was sent abroad
on that account, and thereby had an opportunity of seeing the world,
which would only make him more fit to govern his brother (contrary to
the views of both King and Queen) or the nation, if his brother should
fail, and which was not improbable.

'The Prince of Wales was deeply affected with the scrofulous humour
which the Princess of Wales had brought into the blood, and which
the King kept down in himself by the most rigorous and systematical
abstinence. The Prince, on the contrary, locked up in the palace,
and restrained from the society of women, had contracted a habit of
private drinking, and this winter the humour showed itself in blotches
all over his face. His governor, the Duke of Montague, was utterly
incapable of giving him any kind of instruction, and his preceptor,
Bishop Hurd, was only a servile pedant, ignorant of mankind. The Prince
was good-natured, but so uninformed that he often said, "I wish anybody
would tell me what to do; nobody gives me any instructions for my
conduct." He was prejudiced against all his new servants, as spies set
on him by the King, and showed it by never speaking to them in public.
His first favourite had been Lord Malden, son of the Earl of Essex, who
had brought about his acquaintance with Mrs. Robinson.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[20] 'Journal of the Reign of King George the Third, from the Year 1771
to 1783,' by Horace Walpole, London, 1859, vol. ii., p. 416.

[21] _Ibid._, p. 449.

[22] Walpole, vol. ii., p. 457.

[23] Walpole, vol. ii., p. 480.

[24] Walpole, vol. ii., p. 502.

[25] Vol. ii., p. 446.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Mrs. Robinson--Her story of Florizel and Perdita--Her
 after-career--Coming of age of the Prince of Wales--His new
 establishment--His first visit to Brighton--His and Colonel Hanger's

Who was this Mrs. Robinson? She was of Irish extraction, and was born
in Bristol in 1758. In 1774 she married an attorney's clerk, named
Robinson; and, owing to pecuniary difficulties, she went on the stage,
appearing at Drury Lane as Juliet on December 10, 1770, a part for
which her fascinating beauty well fitted her. On December 3, 1779,
Garrick's adaptation of Shakespeare's _Winter's Tale_ was produced by
royal command, and Mrs. Robinson appeared in the part of Perdita. It
was then that she was seen and admired by the Prince of Wales. Let her
tell her own story as to that night, and what came of it.

'The play of the Winter's Tale was, this season, commanded by their
Majesties. I never had performed before the royal family; and the first
character in which I was destined to appear was that of Perdita. I had
frequently played the part, both with the Hermione of Mrs. Hartley and
of Miss Farren: but I felt a strange degree of alarm when I found my
name announced to perform it before the royal family.

'In the green-room I was rallied on the occasion; and Mr. Smith,
whose gentlemanly manners and enlightened conversation rendered him
an ornament to the profession, who performed the part of Leontes,
laughingly exclaimed, "By Jove, Mrs. Robinson, you will make a conquest
of the Prince; for to-night you look handsomer than ever." I smiled at
the unmerited compliment, and little foresaw the vast variety of events
that would arise from that night's exhibition!

'As I stood in the wing opposite the Prince's box, waiting to go on the
stage, Mr. Ford, the manager's son, and now a respectable defender of
the laws, presented a friend who accompanied him; this friend was Lord
Viscount Malden, now Earl of Essex.

'We entered into conversation during a few minutes, the Prince of
Wales all the time observing us, and frequently speaking to Colonel
(now General) Lake, and to the Honourable Mr. Legge, brother to Lord
Lewisham, who was in waiting on his Royal Highness. I hurried through
the first scene, not without much embarrassment, owing to the fixed
attention with which the Prince of Wales honoured me. Indeed, some
flattering remarks which were made by his Royal Highness met my ear as
I stood near his box, and I was overwhelmed with confusion.

'The Prince's particular attention was observed by everyone, and I was
again rallied at the end of the play. On the last curtsey, the royal
family condescendingly returned a bow to the performers; but, just as
the curtain was falling, my eyes met those of the Prince of Wales; and
with a look that I _never shall forget_, he gently inclined his head a
second time; I felt the compliment, and blushed my gratitude.

'During the entertainment Lord Malden never ceased conversing with me:
he was young, pleasing, and perfectly accomplished. He remarked the
particular applause which the Prince had bestowed on my performance;
said a thousand civil things; and detained me in conversation till the
evening's performance was concluded.

'I was now going to my chair, which waited, when I met the royal family
crossing the stage. I was again honoured with a very marked and low bow
from the Prince of Wales. On my return home, I had a party to supper;
and the whole conversation centred in encomiums on the person, graces,
and amiable manners of the illustrious Heir apparent.

'Within two or three days of this time, Lord Malden made me a morning
visit. Mr. Robinson was not at home, and I received him rather
awkwardly. But his Lordship's embarrassment far exceeded mine. He
attempted to speak,--paused, hesitated, apologized; I knew not why. He
hoped I would pardon him; that I would not mention something he had
to communicate; that I would consider the peculiar delicacy of his
situation, and then act as I thought proper. I could not comprehend his
meaning, and therefore requested he would be explicit.

'After some moments of evident rumination, he tremblingly drew a small
letter from his pocket. I took it, and knew not what to say. It was
addressed to PERDITA. I smiled, I believe, rather sarcastically, and
opened the billet. It contained only a few words, but those expressive
of more than common civility: they were signed FLORIZEL.

'"Well, my lord, and what does this mean?" said I, half angrily.

'"Can you not guess the writer?" said Lord Malden.

'"Perhaps yourself, my lord," cried I, gravely.

'"Upon my honour, no," said the Viscount. "I should not have dared so
to address you on so short an acquaintance."

'I pressed him to tell me from whom the letter came. He again
hesitated; he seemed confused, and sorry that he had undertaken to
deliver it.

'"I hope I shall not forfeit your good opinion," said he; "but----"

'"But what, my lord?"

'"I could not refuse--for the letter is from the Prince of Wales."

'I was astonished; I confess that I was agitated; but I was, also,
somewhat sceptical as to the truth of Lord Malden's assertion. I
returned a formal and a doubtful answer, and his lordship shortly after
took his leave.'

It is not worth while pursuing the details of this woman's fall; she
says her husband was neglectful of her, and unfaithful; and, besides,
the Prince gave her a bond for £20,000, payable when he came of age.
He soon tired of her, and terminated the connection in 1781. The lady
seems to have been far from inconsolable, for in 1782 she was under
the protection of Colonel Tarleton, and a caricature, said to be by
Gillray, called 'The Thunderer' (August 20, 1782), thus shows the then

The engraving shows a dragoon officer (Colonel Tarleton) standing
before the door of the 'Whirligig' Chop-house, with a drawn sword,
boasting his wondrous feats of arms. Beside him stands a figure having
a plume of three feathers instead of a head (the Prince of Wales). The
sign, the 'Whirligig,' is Mrs. Robinson. The _Morning Post_, September
21, 1782, says: 'Yesterday, a messenger arrived in town, with the very
interesting and pleasing intelligence of the Tarleton, armed ship,
having, after a chace of some months, captured the Perdita frigate,
and brought her safe into Egham port. The Perdita is a prodigious fine
clean bottomed vessel, and had taken many prizes during her cruize,
particularly the Florizel, a most valuable ship belonging to the Crown,
but which was immediately released, after taking out the cargo. The
Perdita was captured some time ago by the Fox, but was, afterwards,
retaken by the Malden, and had a sumptuous suit of new rigging, when
she fell in with the Tarleton. Her manœuvring to escape was admirable;
but the Tarleton, fully determined to take her, or perish, would not
give up the chace; and at length, coming alongside the Perdita, fully
determined to board her, sword in hand, she instantly surrendered at

The scandal about her being connected with Fox has, I think, no
foundation in fact. He was infatuated with Mrs. Armstead, who
afterwards became his wife; and the foundation for the rumour was,
probably, that Fox was the agent from the Prince to negotiate the
return of the £20,000 bond from Perdita, which he succeeded in
effecting, on condition that she was paid an annuity of £500 for
life. Still, the caricaturist T. Colley gives us (December 17, 1782),
'Perdito and Perdita, or the Man and Woman of the People,' which shows
Mrs. Robinson driving Fox in her chariot. This must have been a very
smart affair, if we may trust a newspaper cutting of 1782.

'_Dec. 4._--Mrs. Robinson now sports a carriage, which is the
admiration of all the _charioteering_ circles in the vicinity of St.
James's; the body Carmelite and silver, ornamented with a French
mantle, and the cypher in a wreath of flowers: the carriage scarlet
and silver, the seat-cloth richly ornamented with silver fringe. Mrs.
Robinson's livery is green, faced with yellow, and richly trimmed with
broad silver lace; the harness ornamented with stars of silver, richly
chased and elegantly finished. The inside of the carriage is lined with
white silk, embellished with scarlet trimmings.'

The _Morning Herald_, June 16, 1783, says: 'The _Perdita's_ new
_vis-a-vis_ is said to be the aggregate of a few stakes laid at
Brooke's, which the competitors were not able to decide. Mr. _Fox_
therefore proposed that as it could not be better applied than to the
above purpose, that the _Perdita_ should be presented with an elegant
carriage. The ill-natured call it _Love's Last Stake_, or The Fools of

It is not worth while following her career until her death on December
26, 1800; and, indeed, unconnected as she was with the Prince and
Brighton, the episode would not have been introduced were it not to
tell the story of how the Prince got the name of Florizel, which stuck
to him all his life.

The Prince came of age on August 12, 1783, but there were no great
festivities over the event. The Court was quiet, because the Queen had
just been confined, and the account we have of the doings at Windsor
are very meagre. The _Morning Chronicle_ of August 14 tells us that--

'_Windsor, 13 Aug._--Yesterday, being the day on which his Royal
Highness George, Prince of Wales, came of age, the same was observed,
at this place, with every demonstration of joy, as far as could
be consistent with the situation of Her Majesty. The Prince came
down about eight in the morning, waited upon the King, with whom
he breakfasted, and received the compliments from his brothers and
sisters, the Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Montague, Lord Aylesbury, etc.
After breakfast, his Highness retired to his own apartments, and, at
noon, had a Levee; Colonel Dalrymple, with all the officers belonging
to the regiment, were introduced to the Prince, and gave him joy of the
day. Several of the nobility and gentry around the country waited upon
his Royal Highness, and were very politely received.

'The Prince had ordered a dinner for his own suite, from Clode's, at
the White Hart, and had a turtle dressed in London, which was brought
down by Weltje, of St. James's Street. His Royal Highness dined with
his Majesty, three of his brothers, five of his sisters, the Duke of
Montague, Lord Aylesbury, and Lady Charlotte Finch. After the cloth was
removed, and a few glasses had gone round, the Prince went to his own
apartments, and sat for some time with Lord Southampton, Lord Lewisham,
Lord Boston, Lord Chewton and the rest of his suite. His Majesty
went upon the Terrace at half past six; the Prince of Wales and his
attendants soon followed. It is said, more genteel company scarce ever
met on that spot.

'The Duchess of Ancaster, Lady Ferrers, the beautiful Miss Hudson, and
a variety of women of rank, did honour to the day. It was quite dark
before the company retired from the Terrace. The Duke of Queensbury
joined his Royal Highness and his suite. The carriages were so numerous
that they filled both Castle Yards.'

There were illuminations at Windsor and in London, where His Royal
Highness's tradesmen and the Hon. Artillery Company (of which he was
Captain-General) held good cheer; but it was felt that the coming of
age had not been celebrated in a sufficiently national style, and a
fête later on was talked of, which never came to pass. Perhaps the
Prince's character had something to do with it, for the _Morning
Herald_ of August 15 says: 'The broad faced dissipation of a certain
young gentleman, gives the most general disgust. Extravagance in the
_extreme_, but ill suits the present state of the British empire.' They
were outspoken in those days!

The Prince is now launched in life. He is Colonel of the 10th Light
Dragoons, has £50,000 per annum allowed him by Parliament, and the
revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall, about £13,000 more. He has Carlton
House fitting up for him; he is his own master, being no longer under
paternal control, and his soul yearns towards his _âme damnée_, the
Duke of Cumberland. This Prince was at Brighthelmstone, and thither
Florizel went. Every authority but one says that the Prince of Wales
paid a visit to the Duke in 1782; but I think that the one which has
not slavishly copied from other sources is right, for two reasons:
first, that in 1782 he was under strict paternal control, and could
stir nowhere without his governor, and a visit to that uncle whom the
King so disliked was the last thing to be thought of; and, secondly,
we see (on p. 28) in the description of Brighton in 1782, 'The Duke of
C. is at the head of the whole.' If the heir to the throne had been
there, the Duke would have taken 'a back seat,' and the papers would
have given due prominence to the visit; and therefore I incline to the
opinion that, since the days of his childhood, his first visit to the
watering-place he afterwards made so famous was in September, 1783,
on which occasion the town was illuminated and there was a display of
fireworks. During his stay of eleven days, he hunted, went to a ball,
and to the theatre, besides the ordinary amusements of the place. In
fact, his visit seems so to have impressed him, that from that date he
made Brighthelmstone his abiding-place for, at least, a portion of the
year. Huish,[26] however, gives another version for his liking for the

'The Prince had now begun to manifest that predilection for Brighton,
which induced him at a future period to make that town his residence.
The report, however, which was current at the time, and which is
actually founded on truth, goes so far as to state, that it was neither
the marine views, nor the benefit of change of air, nor the salubrity
of the place, which possessed, in the eyes of his Royal Highness, at
this time, any great attractions; but that he was drawn thither by
the angelic figure of a sea nymph, whom he, one day, encountered
reclining on one of the groins on the beach. In this amour, however,
his Royal Highness was completely the dupe. As far as personal charms
extended, Charlotte Fortescue was of "the first order of fine forms";
but, as far as mental qualifications were to be considered, she was
one of the most illiterate and ignorant of human beings. In artifice
and intrigue she was unparalleled; and, withal, she knew how to throw
such an air of simplicity and innocence over her actions, as would have
deceived even a greater adept than his Royal Highness, in the real
nature of her character. She soon discovered the exalted station of the
individual whom she believed she had captivated by her charms; and, on
the principle that the thing is of little value which is cheaply or
easily obtained, she, for a time, frustrated every attempt of his Royal
Highness to obtain a private interview with her. She kept her residence
a complete secret, and, for some days, she was neither seen nor heard
of. On a sudden, she would make her appearance, and then, suffused in
tears, would speak of her approaching marriage, and her consequent
departure from the country; and could that idea be borne by her royal
lover? Heaven and earth were to be moved to avert such a direful
calamity; a regular elopement was proposed, and, in order to give the
affair a highly romantic air, it was arranged that the dress of a
footman was to be procured for the beautiful fugitive, and that the
Prince was to have a postchaise in waiting a few miles on the London
road, to bear away his valuable prize. There is, however, an old adage
which says, that much falls between the cup and the lip, and, in this
instance, the truth of it was fully confirmed. The hour was anxiously
looked for which was to bring the lovers into the undisturbed society
of each other; but, as the Prince was dressing for dinner, the arrival
of George Hanger, who had just then begun his career of eccentricity
and profligacy in the fashionable circles, was announced. The Prince
invited him to dine; excusing himself, however, at the same time, for
the early hour at which he would be obliged to leave him, as he had
most important business to transact that night in the metropolis.
Dinner being over, the Prince inquired the business which had brought
his visitor to Brighton in so unexpected a manner.

'"A hunt, a hunt, your Royal Highness," said Hanger, "I am in chace of
a d----d fine girl, whom I met with at Mrs. Simpson's in Duke's Place;
and, although I have taken private apartments for her in St. Anne's
East, yet the hussy takes it into her head every now and then to absent
herself for a few days; and I have now been given to understand that
she is carrying on some intrigue with a _fellow_ in this place. Let me
but catch him, and I will souse him over head and ears in the ocean."

'The Prince now inquired what kind of a lady he was in pursuit of;
and, by the description given, he doubted not for a moment, that the
lady with whom he was to elope that very evening, on account of her
approaching marriage, was the identical lady who had eloped from the
protection of his visitor, and he began to consider how he could
extricate himself with the best possible grace from the dilemma in
which he was involved. That he was a dupe to the artifices of a
cunning, designing girl, was now apparent to him; and, therefore, it
would be his greatest pride and joy to outwit her. He, therefore,
disclosed the whole of his intrigue with the runaway, and it was
resolved that Hanger should put on one of the coats in which she was
accustomed to see her royal lover, and take his seat in the chaise,
instead of the Prince. The whole affair was well managed; the Prince
remained at Brighton; Hanger bore off his lady to London, not a little
chagrined at such an unexpected termination of her romantic elopement;
but not many months elapsed before the lady gained an opportunity of
repaying the Prince tenfold for the trick which he had played her.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[26] 'Memoirs of George IV.,' by Robert Huish, 8vo., vol. i., p. 80;
London, 1831.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Memoir of, and anecdotes about, George Hanger.

The Hon. George Hanger (afterwards the fourth and last Lord Coleraine)
was at one time an especial friend of the Prince. He was educated
at Eton and Göttingen, and was for some little time an officer in
the first regiment of foot guards, which regiment he soon left in
disgust at someone being promoted over his head. He then received
an appointment from the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel as Captain in the
Hessian Jäger Corps, then serving in America, and he was with this
corps throughout the war. He, afterwards (in 1782), was made a Major
in Tarleton's Light Dragoons, which was disbanded the following year,
and he retired on half-pay. It was then that he joined the Prince's
set, and received the appointment of equerry at a salary of £300 per
annum, and this, combined with raising recruits for the East India
Company, enabled him for a time to vie with the jovial crew with which
he associated. But evil days fell upon him, and he dwelt in the
King's Bench Prison from June 2, 1798, to April, 1799, and in 1800
set up for a time as a coal-merchant, and was nicknamed the Knight of
the Black Diamond. He appears in many of Gillray's caricatures, but
the most savage pictorial satire on him (by Cruickshank) was issued
with the _Scourge_ for November 2, 1812, where he is represented as
a tall, full-faced man, wearing a long drab-coloured coat with a
cape, and a star upon his right breast. Each of his arms encircles a
gin-drinking old woman, and at his feet, one of which is cloven like
a satyr's, sprawls a young woman who applies a bottle to her lips. A
dandy, standing near, inspects the scene through his quizzing glass,
and observes: 'Hang her! She's quite drunk.' A label issuing from the
mouth of the principal person makes him observe: 'As for me, my name is
sufficient; I am known by the title of the Paragon of Debauchery, and I
only claim to be the [Prince]s _Confidential Friend_.' The letterpress
description of the caricature contains the following illustrative


'A tall, strapping-looking person, shabbily, but buckishly attired,
with a peculiar cast of countenance, now stepped forward, and cried
out, "My _name_ is sufficient. Whoever has heard of ---- must know that
I am without a rival in the annals of debauchery. I claim no higher
honour than to be my _Prince's friend_."'

On the death of his brother, on December 11, 1814, he succeeded to the
title of Lord Coleraine, but he never assumed the title, and disliked
being addressed by it. On his death, unmarried, on March 31, 1824, at
the age of seventy-three, the barony of Coleraine became extinct.

Huish tells several stories about Hanger.[27] 'It is well known that
the above-mentioned person was the particular companion of his late
Majesty, when Prince of Wales, and many of the youthful improprieties
which he committed were ascribed, by the King, to the company which he
kept; and, particularly, to the society of Sheridan and Major Hanger.
On a particular occasion, when the latter was raising recruits, the
King, hearing that the Prince was taken from place to place, by him
and others in high life, collecting mobs, and throwing money to them
in large quantities, for the sake of creating the fun of seeing a
scramble, and other worse purposes, he, with much feeling, exclaimed,
"D--n Sherry, and I must hang--hang--Hanger, for they will break my
heart, and ruin the hopes of my country."'

The following will be read as a rich treat to the lovers of fun and
mischief: it shows the extraordinary gaiety of the Prince of Wales's
disposition, and the familiar manner in which he lived with his

It was at the celebration of her Majesty's birthday, 1782, that Major
Hanger made his first appearance at Court; and it may be said to have
been a début which proved a source of infinite amusement to all who
were present, and to no one more so than the Prince of Wales, who
was no stranger to the singularity of his character, and the general
eccentricity of his actions. Being a Major in the Hessian service,
he wore his uniform at the ball, which was a short blue coat with
gold frogs, with a belt, unusually broad, across his shoulders, from
which his sword depended. This dress, being a little particular, when
compared with the full-trimmed suits of velvet and satin about him,
though, as professional, strictly conformable to the etiquette of the
Court, attracted the notice of his Majesty and his attendants; and
the buzz, 'Who is he?' 'Whence does he come?' etc., etc., was heard
in all parts of the room. Thus he became the focus of attraction,
and especially when the contrast presented itself of his selecting
the beautiful Miss Gunning as his partner. He led her out to dance
a minuet, but when, on the first crossing of his lovely partner, he
put on his hat, which was of the largest Kevenhüller kind, ornamented
with two large black and white feathers, the figure which he cut was
so truly ridiculous and preposterous, that even the gravity of his
Majesty could not be restrained: the grave faces of the Ministers
relaxed into a smile, and the Prince of Wales was actually thrown
into a convulsive fit of laughter. There was such an irresistible
provocation to risibility in the _tout ensemble_ of his appearance and
style of movement, that his fair partner was reluctantly obliged to
lose sight of good manners, and could scarcely finish the minuet; but
Hanger himself joined in the laugh which was raised at his expense,
and thereby extricated his partner from her embarrassment. This is,
perhaps, the first time that the _pas grave_ of a minuet has been
considered as a mighty good jest, but there are moments when even the
most serious circumstances serve only to produce a comic effect.

The Major now stood up to dance a country dance, but here his
motions were so completely antic, and so much resembling those of a
mountebank, that he totally discomfited his partner, put the whole set
into confusion, and excited a degree of laughter throughout the room
such as had never before been witnessed in a royal drawing-room.

On the following day the subject of the Major's ludicrous début at
Court became the topic of conversation at the convivial board at
Carlton House, when the Prince proposed that a letter should be
written to the Major, thanking him in the name of the company which
had assembled in the drawing-room, for the pleasure and gratification
which he had afforded them. The joke was considered a good one. Writing
materials were ordered, and the Prince himself indited the following
letter, which was copied by Sheridan, with whose handwriting the Major
was unacquainted:

  '_Sunday morning_.

 'The Company who attended the Ball on Friday last, at S^t James's,
 present their compliments to Major Hanger, and return their unfeigned
 thanks for the variety with which he enlivened the insipidity
 of that evening's entertainment. The _gentlemen_ want words to
 describe their admiration of the truly grotesque and humourous
 figure which he exhibited: and the _ladies_ beg leave to express
 their acknowledgements for the lively and animated emotions that his
 stately, erect, and perpendicular form could not fail to excite in
 their delicate and susceptible bosoms. His gesticulations and martial
 deportment were truly admirable, and have raised an impression that
 will not be soon effaced at S^t James's.'

This letter produced a highly humorous scene, which often excited a
laugh when the Prince related it to his guests, as one of the most
humorous which had occurred to him during his life.

On the day subsequent to the receipt of this letter, the Prince
purposely invited George Hanger to dine at Carlton House, and it formed
part of the plot of his Royal Highness, that Sheridan should not be
invited. After dinner the conversation turned, designedly, upon the
leading circumstances of the late ball; and, on the Prince ironically
complimenting the Major on the serious effect which his appearance must
have had on the hearts of the ladies, he, in a very indignant manner,
drew from his pocket the letter which he had received, declaring
that it was a complete affront upon him, and that the sole motive of
the writer was to insult him, and turn him into ridicule. The Prince
requested permission to read the letter, and, having perused it, he
fully coincided in the opinion of the Major, that no other motive could
have actuated the writer than to offer him the greatest affront.

The Major's anger rose. 'Blitz und Hölle!' he exclaimed; 'if I could
discover the writer he should give me immediate satisfaction.'

'I admire your spirit,' said the Prince; 'how insulting to talk of your
grotesque figure.'

'And then to turn your stately, erect and perpendicular form into
ridicule,' said Mr. Fox.

'And to talk of your gesticulations,' said Captain Morris.

'Sapperment!' exclaimed the Major, 'but the writer shall be

'Have you not the slightest knowledge of the handwriting?' asked the
Prince; 'the characters are, I think, somewhat familiar to me. Allow me
to peruse the letter again.' The letter was handed to the Prince. 'I am
certain that I am not mistaken,' he said; 'this is the handwriting of
that mischievous fellow, Sheridan.'

'Sheridan!' exclaimed the Major. 'Impossible--it cannot be!'

'Hand the letter to Fox,' said the Prince; 'he knows Sheridan's
handwriting well.'

'This is undoubtedly the handwriting of Sheridan,' said Fox, looking at
the letter.

'Then he shall give me immediate satisfaction,' said the Major, rising
from the table; and, addressing himself to Captain Morris, requested
him to be the bearer of his message to Mr. Sheridan. Having written
the note, in which a full and public apology was demanded, or a place
of meeting appointed, Captain Morris was despatched with it; and in
the meantime he (the Major) would retire to his lodgings to await
the answer from Mr. Sheridan. The Prince now pretended to interfere,
expressing his readiness to be a mediator between the parties, but
at the same time he contrived, every now and then, to increase the
flame of the Major's resentment by some artful insinuations as to the
grossness of the affront, and complimenting him on the spirited manner
in which he had behaved on the occasion. The Major was determined not
to be appeased, and he left the room, muttering, 'D--n the impudent
fellow! grotesque figure! perpendicular form! gesticulations!'

The Major had no sooner retired than the whole party burst into a loud
laugh. The Prince had brought him to the very point he wished, and
in about an hour Captain Morris arrived with Sheridan, who entered
immediately into the spirit of the adventure. It was then agreed
that Sheridan should accept the challenge, appointing the following
morning at daybreak in Battersea Fields, and that Mr. Fox should be the
bearer of Mr. Sheridan's answer to the offended Major, Mr. Sheridan
undertaking, on his part, to provide the necessary surgical assistance.

On the following morning the parties were punctually on the spot; the
Major, accompanied by Captain Morris, Mr. Sheridan by Mr. Fox, the
Prince of Wales, disguised as a surgeon, being seated in the carriage
which conveyed the latter gentlemen. The customary preliminaries being
arranged, the parties took their stations. The signal to fire was
given; no effect took place. The seconds loaded the pistols a second
time; the parties fired again; still no effect was produced.

'D--n the fellow!' said the Major to his second, 'I can't hit him.'

'The third fire generally takes effect,' said Captain Morris, who with
the utmost difficulty could keep his risible faculties in order, whilst
the Prince, in the carriage, was almost convulsed with laughter at the
grotesque motions of the Major.

The signal to fire was given the third time. The effect was decisive;
Mr. Sheridan fell, as if dead, on his back.

'Killed, by G--d!' said Captain Morris. 'Let us fly instantly;' and,
without giving the Major time to collect himself, he hurried him to
the carriage, which immediately drove away towards town. The Prince
descended from the carriage, almost faint with laughter, and joined
Sheridan and Fox, the former of whom, as soon as the Major's carriage
was out of sight, had risen from his prostrate position, unscathed as
when he entered the field, for, to complete the farce, it had been
previously arranged that no balls should be put into the pistols, and
that Sheridan was to fall on the third fire. The Prince, with his two
associates, immediately drove off to town, and a message was sent to
Major Hanger, desiring his immediate attendance at Carlton House. The
Major obeyed the summons, and he entered the apartment of the Prince
with a most dolorous countenance.

'Bad business this,' said the Prince--'a very bad business, Hanger; but
I have the satisfaction to tell you that Sheridan is not materially
hurt, and if you will dine with me this day, I will invite a gentleman
who will give you an exact account of the state in which your late
antagonist lies. Remain here till dinner-time, and all may yet be well.'

The Prince, from goodness of heart, and not wishing that the Major
should have the painful impression on his mind that he had been
the instrument of the death of a fellow-creature and one of the
most convivial of their companions, had imparted to the Major the
consolatory information that his antagonist was not seriously injured,
and the Major looked forward to the hour of dinner with some anxiety,
when he was to receive further information on the subject. The hour
came. The party was assembled in the drawing-room.

'Now, Hanger,' said the Prince, 'I'll introduce a gentleman to you who
shall give you all the information you can wish.'

The door opened, and Sheridan entered. The Major started back in wonder.

'How--how--how is this?' he stammered. 'I thought I had killed you.'

'Not quite, my good fellow,' said Sheridan, offering the Major his
hand. 'I am not yet quite good enough to go to the world above; and,
as to that below, I am not yet fully qualified for it, therefore I
considered it better to defer my departure from this to a future
period; and, now, I doubt not, that his Royal Highness will give you an
explicit explanation of the whole business--but I died well, did I not,

The Prince now declared that the whole plot was concocted by himself,
and hoped that when the Major next fought such a duel, he might be in
a coach to view it. Conviviality reigned throughout the evening; the
song and glass went round; the Prince singing the parody on 'There's a
difference between a beggar and a queen,' which was composed by Captain
Morris, and which is to be found in the twenty-fourth edition of 'Songs
Political and Convivial,' by that first of lyric poets.

One more anecdote of the Prince and George Hanger, from the same
source,[28] and I have done with him.

'That the immense losses which the Prince of Wales sustained at
the gaming table were not, always, the consequence of a run of ill
luck, may be easily conjectured. Scheme after scheme was devised by
which a heavy drain was to be made upon his finances; and he became,
eventually, the dupe of a set of titled sharpers, who fattened on his
credulity, and who, by acts of the most deliberate villainy, reduced
him to a state of comparative pauperism. As a proof of the inventive
spirit of these associates of the Prince, we have only to mention the
celebrated wager between the turkeys and the geese, which emanated
from the prolific head of George Hanger, and on the issue of which the
Prince found himself minus several thousand pounds.

'During one of the convivial parties at Carlton House, George Hanger
designedly introduced the subject of the travelling qualifications of
the turkey and the goose, and he pronounced it as his opinion (although
directly contrary to his real one), that the turkey would outstrip the
goose. The Prince, who placed great reliance on the judgment of George
Hanger on subjects of that nature, backed Hanger's opinion; and, as
it may be supposed, there were some of the party who were willing to
espouse the part of the goose: the dispute ended in the Prince making
a match of twenty turkeys against twenty geese for a distance of ten
miles, the competitors to start at four o'clock in the afternoon. The
race was to be run for £500; and, as George Hanger and the turkey party
hesitated not to lay two to one in favour of their bird, the Prince did
the same to a considerable amount, not in the least suspecting that the
whole was a deep laid plan to extract a sum of money from his pockets,
for his chance of winning, from the natural propensity of the turkey,
was wholly out of the question.

'The Prince took great interest in this extraordinary wager, and
deputed George Hanger to select twenty of the most wholesome and high
feathered birds which could be procured; and, on the day appointed,
the Prince and his party of turkeys and Mr. Berkeley and his party
of geese, set off to decide the match. For the first three hours
everything seemed to indicate that the turkeys would be the winners,
as they were, then, two miles in advance of the geese; but, as night
came on, the turkeys began to stretch out their necks towards the
branches of the trees which lined the sides of the road. In vain
the Prince attempted to urge them on with his pole, to which a bit
of red cloth was attached: in vain George Hanger dislodged one from
its roosting-place, before he saw three or four others comfortably
perching among the branches--in vain was barley strewn upon the road;
no art, no stratagem, no compulsion, could prevent them taking to their
roosting-place! whilst, in the meantime, the geese came waddling on,
and in a short time passed the turkey party, who were all busy in the
trees, dislodging their obstinate birds; but, as to further progress,
it was found impossible, and the geese were declared the winners.

'Trifling as this circumstance may appear, it will have the tendency of
exposing the characters of the intimates of the Prince of Wales, and
the singular expedients to which they had recourse to restore their
shattered fortunes at the expense of his character and fortune.'

On the death of Lord Coleraine, a contemporary[29] thus sums up his
character: 'He was, formerly, admitted amongst the convivial companions
of his present Majesty; but, as the Prince advanced in life, the
eccentric manners of the Colonel became somewhat too free and coarse
for the Royal taste, and the broad vivacity of the facetious Humourist
gave way to associates of a more refined description. But, though
the Colonel was free in his manners, he never was inclined to give
intentional offence, and the peculiarity of those manners precluded all
idea of resentment, and laughter, rather than anger, was the result of
his most extravagant sallies.

'He was capable of serious exertions of friendship, not by pecuniary
sacrifices, for, of such, his situation hardly ever admitted, but by
persevering zeal when he was likely to effect a beneficial purpose.
He was well acquainted with military duty, and was never wanting in
courage, or the spirit of enterprise. He is generally acknowledged
to have been a very handsome man in early life, but his person
was disguised by the singularity of his dress. Though disposed to
participate in all the dissipations of higher life, he yet contrived
to devote much of his time to reading, and was generally well provided
with topics for the usual conversations of the table, even in the
most convivial circles. He was so marked a character that he might be
considered as one of the prominent features of his time, and he was
courted as well for the peculiarity, as for the harmless tendency of
his humour.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[27] Vol. i., p. 97, etc.

[28] Huish, vol. i., 164.

[29] _Gentleman's Magazine_, 1824, part i., 457, 458.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Prince goes to Brighton for his health--Description of Brighton in
 1784--Royal visitors--The Prince takes a house--Weltje--Sam House--Fox
 and the Prince--Brighton in 1785.

In 1784 the Prince of Wales had a somewhat serious illness, and we read
in the _Morning Herald_ of July 16 that 'His Royal Highness, the Prince
of Wales, having been advised by his Physicians to sea bathing, we are
informed from good authority, that his Royal Highness will set out on
Monday next for Brighthelmstone. Mr. Weltje, the Clerk of the Kitchen,
and Mr. Gill, the Purveyor of the Stables, are now at Brighthelmstone,
preparing everything for his Royal Highness's reception.'

He left London on the evening of July 22, and the following are some
newspaper cuttings which describe his visit and the general gaieties of
that season at Brighton:

'_Brighthelmstone_ will certainly prove the summer residence of the
_loves_ and _graces_, on account of the temporary residence there
of the Heir apparent: not a cock loft but what is taken by some
_expectant fair_, who means to make an _innocent conquest_, or an
_illicit sacrifice_!--The _Knights of the Dice box_ are collecting
there from all quarters, hoping for a plentiful harvest in so singular
a season for universal _gul-_ as well as _cul-libility_! A pretty
sprinkling of Princes of the _Gallic blood_ is, likewise, hourly
expected to complete the curious _dramatis personæ_.'[30]

'_Extract from a letter from Brighthelmstone, July 25._ The Prince
of Wales is here quite as a private gentleman, attended by Colonel
Leigh, etc. He walks frequently upon the Steine, and behaves with great
affability and politeness.'[31]

'BRIGHTHELMSTONE INTELLIGENCE. _Brighthelmstone_ is the center
_luminary_ of the _system_ of pleasure: Lymington, Southampton and
all other places within the _sphere_ of its _attraction_, lose their
gayest visitants, who fly to that resort:--the women, the pretty women,
all hasten to see the _Paris_ of the day!--On Monday last, the Dukes
of _Chartres_ and _Lauzun_, the Marquis _de Conflans_, the Comte _de
Seguir_, and others, arrived to be present at the races. They came
from France by the way of Dover, but had all their equipage sent over
from _Dieppe_. The lively and engaging Comtesse _de Coniac_ was to
have met them by the latter route at Brighthelmstone; but some dæmon,
unfriendly to gallantry, and to this place, interposed, and procured
an _arret_ to be expedited from the Queen of France's bedchamber,
just as the sprightly belle was casting a longing eye from _Dieppe_
over to the British coast, and preparing to step into the pacquet.
This is a prodigious disappointment to the company, and particularly
to the _Prince_. His Highness gave an elegant dinner at his house on
the _Steine_. The _Duc de Chartres_ and his friends were present: the
meeting was festive and social. In the evening, this convivial party
visited the Rooms: the company was genteel and numerous. The Prince
danced with Lady _Elizabeth Conway_, and was acknowledged the best
performer present.

'On Tuesday, the _Brighton Races_ began, which afforded but very
little sport. The Duke of Queensberry's was the favourite horse, but
lost; and the _Duc de Chartres_, who betted him against the field,
got rid of a good deal of money on the occasion. The sport was not
better the next day, but rather worse, on account of the badness of
the weather. All the Ladies attended both days, mostly in carriages.
Lady _Charlotte Bertie_ was the Constellation, or superior luminary of
the course. _Micavit inter omnes, quantum inter ignes Luna minores._
Lady _Lincoln_, and her sister Lady _Betty Conway_, drove about in a
phaeton, to the great annoyance of the beaux.

'The public entertainments at Brighthelmstone are, balls at the rooms
twice a week, alternately at the _Ship_, and _Castle_, and plays,
the other four nights, at the theatre. The balls are on Monday and
Thursday; and no dress is required except in those that dance minuets.
The rooms are, besides, open all the other nights for card parties, and
on _Sunday_ for a promenade. The Prince has not yet missed the Play
house once, when there has been a performance at it, since his arrival.
The pleasurable daughters of the place, have at their head, Mrs.
_Smith_, Mrs. _Elliot_, and Mrs. _Walker_; between whom an equipoise
of rivalship and jealousy prevails, and what one has in a _dimple_, is
counteracted by the lip, or the eye of the others.'[32]

'LEWES RACES. The _Prince of Wales_ is so regardless of weather,
that a shower of rain is never known to interrupt his excursions.
His Highness's indifference on this head, reminds us of a remark of
_Henry the Great_, "that fate does not depend upon a sunbeam!"--The
example of the British prince was followed by his _insular_ friends
and _Parisian_ visitors. The road from Brighthelmstone to Lewes, was
crowded by _gentlemen jockies_ and _jockey sharpers_; carriages of
various denominations, and a company of all descriptions. The _Steine_
was depopulated of all save a few _living caricatures_, consisting of
antique Females, and _balloonified_ squires from the City, too awkward
and unwieldy to wear boots, or venture on horseback: to this class of
beings, the ball room was relinquished.

'The Course ground continued, during the races, frequented by
fashionable guests. Besides the English and French princes, were
present the Duc _de Lauzun_, Marquis _de Conflans_, Count _Seguir_, the
Russian minister, and several others from the Continent. The Duke of
Queensberry, Lord Cholmondeley, Lord Foley, and many more of the Jockey
Club were on the ground.

'The Bets were high, though the sport was indifferent; the Duke de
Chartres, Duke of Queensberry and Sir Charles Bunbury, were principally
engaged in the success of the day. The _Gallic Duke_ was in such
spirits, that it was said his Highness would have mounted an _Air
balloon_ had one been present.

'A _Pedestrian Race_ was, also, proposed between a _fat gentleman_, and
a _lean one_: but the former complaining that the atmosphere was low,
gave up the contest as he was fearful he should be _hard blowed_!'[33]

The Prince being at Brighton made all the difference in the gaiety
of the place, and his occasional absence in London is thus commented
upon: 'Brighthelmstone, comparatively speaking, within these few days,
has become almost a desert; scarce a person of fashion remains; the
whole company now consists of _antiquated virgins_, _emaciated beaux_,
and wealthy citizens, with their wives and daughters; the latter of
whom have some _weight_ in continuing a few needy adventurers, who are
as watchful as lynxes, for an opportunity of carrying off the golden

Note how this all changes when he returns. 'Extract from a Letter from
Brighthelmstone, dated Sep. 5. We are all alive and merry here. Besides
the honour of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales's company, we are
favoured with those of the Duchess of Ancaster, Lady Charlotte Bertie,
Lady Mary Brudenell, the Bishop of Winchester, Lord and Lady Beauchamp,
the Right Hon. Mr. Fox, with many others; and, last night, the Right
Hon. Mr. Pitt, accompanied by Mr. Steele, of the Treasury, arrived here.

'The Prince of Wales was, last night, at the Theatre, accompanied by
the Hon. Mr. Erskine, and the Hon. Mr. Onslow, to see the Beggar's
Opera, the principal parts of which were represented by gentlemen, and
well represented they were. Captain Ash's _Macheath_ much exceeded
many of the professional men on either of your London theatres. It was
succeeded by a well-timed address, written and spoken by Mr. Bonner,
craving the friendly attendance of the company to the future benefits
of the several performers.'[35]

We also learn by a newspaper paragraph[36] that 'the house that the
Prince of Wales has at Brighthelmstone, is that which formerly belonged
to Lord Egremont's brother, Mr. Wyndham. The Duke of Cumberland had it
last year. The house is, or ought to be, the best in the place.'

This is the house which we have seen was negotiated for the Prince by
Weltje, his clerk of the kitchen; at least, this was his nominal title,
but in reality he was the Prince's purveyor of his household, and was
much mixed up in his financial matters. Louis Weltje was a German
of obscure origin, and it is said, at one time, sold cakes in the
streets. However, he must have had something in him, and must also have
been thrifty, for in the newspapers of 1782 and 1783 we find several
mentions of Weltje's Club, and he had a famous pastry-cook's shop and
restaurant in St. James Street, and afterwards in Pall Mall. In the
satirical prints in the British Museum for 1783, drawn by Captain
Hays, is 'Mr. Weltjee's Fruit Shop, Pall Mall.' Madame Weltje, a large
woman, is seated at a horseshoe counter, on which is a variety of
fruit. In the window are displayed pines, grapes, bottles, and jars. A
manuscript note says her shop was 'next door neighbour to Mr. Neville.'
He served the Prince for some years, but was at last superseded. On
his retirement he bought a large house at Hammersmith, formerly in
the occupation of Lord Allington, the supporters of whose arms, two
talbots, decorated the gate-posts. In this house, which he bequeathed
to his brother Christopher, he died, probably of apoplexy, in 1810,
and was buried in Hammersmith Churchyard. His name still exists in the
neighbourhood in Weltje Road, which runs from the Upper Mall to King
Street West, and consists of sixty-eight houses.

We have seen that Fox was at Brighton in 1784. Fox, who was the 'guide,
philosopher, and friend' of Prince Florizel, was at this time a man
of about thirty-five or thirty-six, having been born in 1749. By his
birth, education, and talents he should have been a fitting companion
for the Prince, but he was lax in his morals, an inveterate gambler,
and a hard drinker, and a worse comrade for a young man could scarcely
be found. Indeed, at the end of the Westminster election of 1784
Gillray caricatured him in a satirical print entitled 'Preceptor and
Pupil' as a loathsome toad with a fox's brush, who is whispering into
the ear of the sleeping (or drunken) Prince: 'Abjure thy country and
thy parents, and I will give thee dominion over many powers. Better to
rule in Hell than serve in Heaven!'

Apropos of this election, which lasted forty days, and brought Fox in
second at the poll, it is perhaps as famous as any in our electoral
history. Much to the disgust of his parents, the Prince threw himself
heart and soul into the fray, wearing a 'Fox cockade' at Ranelagh, and
allowing members of his household to canvas for his boon companion.
During the election, Gillray produced a satirical print (April 18,
1784) called 'Returning from Brooks's,' where the Prince, exceedingly
drunk, and wearing the 'Fox cockade,' is being helped along by Fox and
Sam House, a publican who kept a house, called The Intrepid Fox, at the
corner of Peter Street and Wardour Street. 'Honest Sam House,' as he
was called, was a violent politician and Whig, and during this election
kept open house at his own expense. House figures in many caricatures
of the time, and his fame was even enshrined in verse:

        'See the brave Sammy House, he's as still as a mouse,
          And does canvas with prudence so clever;
        See what shoals with him flocks, to poll for brave Fox:
    Give thanks to Sam House, boys, for ever, for ever, for ever!
          Give thanks to Sam House, boys, for ever!

        'Brave bald-headed Sam, all must own, is the man,
          Who does canvas for brave Fox so clever:
        His aversion, I say, is to _small beer_ and _Wray_:[37]
    May his bald head be honour'd for ever, for ever, for ever!
          May his bald head be honour'd for ever!'

There is another satirical print, which is dated January, 1785, by an
unknown artist, called 'Fox singing a Song to the P----e of W--l--s.'
Fox and the Prince are playing cards and drinking. Fox sings:


    'Tho' matters at present go cross in the realm,
    You will one day be K--g, Sir, and I at the helm;
    So let us be jovial, drink, gamble and sing,
    Nor regard it a straw, tho' we're not yet the thing.
                Tol de rol, tol, tol, tol de rol.


    'The proverb informs us, each dog has his day,
    So those that oppose us, this fate must obey;
    But time's on our side, Sir, and now on the wing,
    To make me a statesman, and you, Sir, the K--g.
                Tol de rol, etc.


    'In vain are harangues, I as well may be dumb,
    And let motions alone, till our day, Sir, is come;
    Then Thurlow and Pitt from their state we will fling,
    They may go below stairs, Sir, so we are the thing.
                Tol de rol, etc.


    'Thus seated in state, Sir, we'll fill all our soul,
    At the fountain of Venus, at Bacchus's bowl;
    In all that we please, Sir, we'll take a full swing,
    For who's to controul a Prime Statesman and K--g?
                Tol de rol, etc.'
The Prince remarks: 'Fox, are you not the shuffler?'


'The Prince of Wales has again taken a house at Brighton for the
season,' says the _Morning Post_ of June 11, 1785, and he left
London for his seaside residence on the 22nd of the same month. The
same newspaper of June 28 reports that 'the visit of a certain gay,
illustrious character at Brighton, has frightened away a number of
old maids, who used constantly to frequent that place. The history of
the gallantries of the last season, which is in constant circulation,
has something in it so voluminous, and tremendous to boot, that the
old tabbies shake in their shoes whenever his R----l H----ss is

'_Lewes, July 2._--The Prince of Wales, on Monday last, at
Brighthelmstone, amused himself for some time, in attempting to shoot
doves with single balls, but with what success, we have not learnt;
though we hear that his Royal Highness is esteemed a most excellent
shot, and seldom presents his piece without doing some execution. The
Prince, in the course of his diversion, either by design, or accident,
lowered the tops of several of the chimnies of the Hon. Mr. Wyndham's

A few paragraphs from the _Morning Post_ of this year will give us a
good insight into the Brighton of the period.

_July 6._--'The _Brighthelmstone intelligence_ has no novelty to
recommend it; merely a repetition of the old story; _morning rides_,
_champaigne_, _dissipation_, _noise_ and _nonsense_: jumble these
phrases together, and you have a complete account of all that's passing
at _Brighthelmstone_!'

_July 8._--'A correspondent says, Brighthelmstone is much altered from
what it was last season. Neither money, nor any speculating jewellers
who give good _tick_, and discount upon a _gentle feeling_. The ---- has
been tried and found wanting--all about him is not sterling--but one
good _endorser_ in the whole set, and he abroad. Times are bad.

'Mrs. Johnson and Windsor have undertaken to provide for the
necessities of Brighton this year. The _female adventurers_ of last
season were totally ruined: even _Bet Cox_, who made as good a hand of
it as any, swears she will not run the risk again, and that, _though as
how_ she was with the Prince, one night when he was drunk, yet that did
not compensate her for the wear and tear with his attendants. We have
not yet heard Mrs. _Smith's_ opinion on the subject; but, as she was
nearer the fire, she could not well escape being scorched.'

_August 4._--'Brighthelmstone is at present very thin of company,
few females arriving there but the _corps d'amour_. Women of virtue
and character shun these scenes of debauchery and drunkenness, ever
attendant on the spot which is the temporary residence of a----.'

_August 18._--'His Royal Highness the Prince is so attached to his
bathing residence, Brighthelmstone--he has so many sea nymphs there,
rising from Old Ocean every morning to greet him; that, in the true
spirit of an _English Prince_, his sole desire appears to _rule the
waves_: and, when he comes to Town, he is actually like _a fish out of

_August 25._--'Plague upon the _skippers_ that they do not understand
the navigation of their own coasts! for, surely, some of the Margate
Hoys have blundered by both the North and South Foreland, and landed
their cargoes on the Sussex Shore. Never were there such a set
of curmudgeonly knaves and dowdies, before, in Brighton, say the
conscientious keepers of the subscription books! The lodging-houses
are full, the streets well frequented, and the Steyne crowded--but who
bathes, who raffles, and who subscribes? They vow that they never had
so little Gold in their Autumn crop, since they were obliged to content
themselves with the profits of their fishing, to wash their smocks upon
the beach, and to live on crabs and pickled herrings!

'In fact, the visitors of this place are either a wiser, or a poorer
sort than formerly. _Snug_ is the word with most of them; they give as
little into amusements, dissipation and extra expences, as they can
well avoid--hence, the obvious policy of the inhabitants to render
the necessary ones as high and as productive as possible--they treat
Londoners in their town as we treat Dutchmen and others, in our charge
for lights and landmarks--make them come down handsomely, as it is
to be done but seldom. The innkeepers here, are a kind of beasts of
prey, whose rapacity is in proportion to their former abstinence: they
are leeches, who think a plethora of the purse is no less dangerous
than that of the body; and, though you come here only to have your
constitution put to rights, they will, also, gladly take charge of your

'An Irish gentleman being asked, the other day, by a friend, which
Inn he thought the best, observed that they were both bad enough; at
one you were _imposed upon_; at the other, _cheated_. The Rooms have
been pretty well frequented on a Sunday, when it is the Vauxhall price
of admission. The play house must, long since, have shut up, were it
not for the _extraordinary abilities_ and _fertile resources_ of Mr.
_Fox_,[39] and the patronage of the fair emigrants from Cleveland Row,
Jermyn Street, and King's Place--there have been no gentlemen enactors,
this year; so much the worse. With deference, be it said, to the
judgement of certain titled ladies, who, adding to their _purity_ by
every successive plunge into the salt water, pronounced the mixture of
gentlemen with professed actors, a perfect contamination. Better sense,
however, and more extra liberality prevail at present; for ladies now
ride to the Downs to see Earls and great folks play at cricket, with
footmen and drivers, without having their delicacy wounded, or their
finer feelings deranged. That game has become the favourite amusement
with the young men of fashion here. Mr. _St. John_ is the best bowler;
Lord _Darnley_ and _George Hanger_ the best bats; _Bob_ the postillion,
the best stopper behind the wicket. As to his Royal Highness, he is but
a young cricketer; the ladies, however, commend his agility; and, since
M^{rs} _J--n's_ squad arrived, he has been famous for catching and

'On Saturday last, the _Marquis de Conflans_ took his departure for
_Dieppe_. The Prince and his company went to see the Marquis embark,
when a very extraordinary and humorous scene was presented. It being
low water, the boat could not approach the shore--the Marquis was
anxious to get on board, and stood, for some time, in suspence, when
the Prince, to show him that persons of their rank should not have
the propensities of cats, or the frippery of _petits maîtres_, taking
one of his companions by the hand, rushed at once into the water.
The Marquis, _pour l'honneur de la France_, could not do otherwise
than follow him; the line advanced with resolution, but could not
long withstand the force of the waves, which overset them; they then
rolled like porpoises in the water, till they got the Marquis aboard
the packet; when they despatched him, in a proper state, to pay his
respects to the _Dauphin_. _Vive l'amour et l'allegresse, et bon
voyage, M. le Marquis!_'

_September 10._--'The flux and reflux of company not being so great
here as at some other places, there has been very little novelty since
my last intelligence. The lodging-houses are, still, in general, full,
though there are some occasionally to be disposed of at the following
reasonable rates: for a house upon the Steine, eight guineas a week,
or the same faced with blue and buff,[40] for the trifling addition of
two guineas (for which you may have the credit of being a member of
that party).[41] Two beds, with a dining-room or parlour (the former,
perhaps, being supplied with a good _live stock_) for three guineas;
and, for a guinea per week, a single gentleman may be accommodated
with an apartment, where, if he finds himself streightened for want
of room, he may be gratified, at least, with a prospect of better
things, and have the view of a large piece of water, commonly called
the English Channel. Hence, too, he may form some idea of our naval
grandeur, by contemplating the fleet, as it lies at anchor before the
town, consisting, at least, of an hundred sail--of fishing smacks;
or, he may indulge in a peep of the ladies dipping into the water, or
bobbing at a wave in rough weather; for the Master of the Ceremonies
has judiciously assigned them the place nearest to the houses, and has
sent the gentlemen, for _decency's sake_, two hundred yards further to
the westward.

'If we may believe _the printed list_, half the fashionable persons,
and about one-fourth of the w----s of London, have visited Brighton
in the course of the summer; but, for those of the most consideration,
who are to be seen in their shoes, as well as upon the List of the
Company, take the following names: His Royal Highness and suite, more
respectable, though not as numerous as last year; the Earl and Dowager
Countess of Darnley, with her family; Earl and Countess of Clermont;
Lord and Lady Beauchamp; the Countess of Shaftesbury and family; Baron
and Baroness Nolcken; Lord Belgrave; Lord Lucan, with his family; Lord
and Lady Lisle; Lord Gage; Sir Sampson and Lady Gideon; Sir Eardley
Wilmot; Earl and Countess of Sefton; Lord Herbert; Sir Godfrey Webster;
Mr. Wyndham; Mr. T. Townsend; Mr. St. John. Some city beaux sport their
gigs upon the downs, and their persons upon the Steine: they would fain
be thought men of fashion, but their very best airs in the ballroom
partake of Coachmaker's Hall; the City dancing-masters being ten years
behindhand in the refinements of their profession. There is very little
show of beauty in the Rooms. Among the young ladies of family, _Miss
Bingham_, daughter of Lord Lucan, is almost the only one that deserves
notice in that particular; and, however singular, in this place, it
is a fact that one of the ladies who has been most distinguished for
elegance, is a Miss I----s, from _Cow Lane_, West Smithfield!

'The Rooms, as I hinted before, have been almost deserted, except
on particular nights. At the last ball but one, at the _Ship_, only
seven couple stood up, and the lady who took the lead, according to
the etiquette established in pride and folly, was _pro_ NUMMORUM
_atque hominum fidem credite_!--no less a person than Mrs. Tr----d,
daughter of the naval baronet, who, in his lifetime, gained many signal
advantages over the tribes of Benjamin and Levi. The _Castle_ has been
somewhat more fortunate. But Fox, the manager, has been so successful,
as to excite the envy of his rivals, who have it in contemplation to
set up a theatre in opposition to his. It was for this purpose that
_Signor Grimaldi's_ journey was undertaken, which, by the newspaper
accounts, proved so fatal to him; and, as he, with Mr. _Spencer_, the
harlequin, is to have the principal concern, we may expect that the
prime parts of the entertainment at the new Theatre, will be pantomime,
with _grinning_ and _jumping_ in abundance. If Mr. _Grimaldi_ should
bring down his young pupils from the Circus, it will, perhaps, be
necessary for Mr. Fox to engage the General Jackoo, or the Dancing
Dogs. At present, he confines his attempts to Comic Opera, Comedy, and
Farce; and, for these, it must be confessed, he has good materials. His
company may be called a good one--for the country--though the greatest
part are recruits, and want drilling. Yet, why for _the country_, when
there are so many London performers without engagements in the summer.

'The most extraordinary event that has happened lately, was a violent
gale on Tuesday, which caused many sad accidents. The wind blew with
prodigious force from the southward, and brought an uncommonly high
tide with it. This rendered it necessary to draw up all the small
craft, and the machines upon the Steine, where most of the Company,
particularly the Londoners, assembled to gaze at a sea storm. The
Prince's curiosity got him a ducking, and an old man and his ass were
drowned under the Cliff.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[30] _Morning Herald_, July 27.

[31] _Parker's General Advertiser_, July 28.

[32] _Morning Herald_, August 9.

[33] _Morning Herald_, August 10.

[34] _Ibid._, August 21.

[35] _Morning Herald_, September 9.

[36] _Ibid._, August 27.

[37] Sir Cecil Wray, one of the candidates.

[38] _Morning Post_, July 8, 1785.

[39] The lessee and manager.

[40] The builders have, since last year, erected a row of houses on the
Steyne, with bricks of these colours, in compliment, I imagine, to the
Prince's uniform.

[41] Whig.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Prince's acquaintance with Mrs. Fitzherbert--His courtship and
 marriage--Satirical prints thereon.

This year was exceedingly fateful to Prince Florizel, for, in it, he
made the acquaintance of a lady whose connection with him influenced
his whole life. This was Maria Anne Fitzherbert, daughter of Walter
Smythe, Esq., of Brambridge, in the county of Hants, second son of
Sir John Smythe, Bart., of Eske, in the county of Durham, and Acton
Burnell, in Shropshire. She was born in July, 1756, and married, in
July, 1775, Edward Weld, Esq., of Lulworth Castle, county Dorset, who
died in the course of the same year. She married, secondly, Thomas
Fitzherbert, Esq., of Swinnerton, county Stafford, in the year 1778.
This gentleman only survived their union three years, losing his life
in consequence of his exertions during the Lord George Gordon Riots.
Being much heated, he bathed, and brought on the malady which, soon
after, occasioned his death.

Behold her, then, in 1785 a fascinating young widow with a competent
fortune, moving in the highest society, and of so much importance as
to be made the subject of newspaper paragraphs long before she met
the Prince. _Morning Herald_, March 20, 1784.--'Mrs. _Fitzherbert_
is arrived in London for the winter.' And again, _Morning Herald_,
July 27, 'A new _constellation_ has lately made an appearance in the
_fashionable hemisphere_, that engages the attention of those whose
hearts are susceptible to the power of beauty. The widow of the late
Mr. F--h--t has in her train half our young Nobility: as the lady has
not, as yet, discovered a partiality for any of her admirers, they are
all animated with hopes of success.'

Cosway painted a charming picture of her, which, engraved by Condé, is
reproduced as the frontispiece to this volume.

Huish[42] gives an erroneous account of the acquaintance of the Prince
and Mrs. Fitzherbert, but I give it so that the reader may contrast
it with that of Lord Stourton,[43] who was her intimate friend and
near connection. 'The first time that the Prince of Wales saw Mrs.
Fitzherbert, was in Lady Sefton's box at the Opera; and the novelty of
her face, more than the brilliancy of her charms, had the usual effect
of enamouring the Prince. But in this instance he had not to do with
a raw inexperienced girl, but with an experienced dame, who had been
twice a widow, and who, consequently, was not likely to surrender upon
common terms. She looked forward to a more brilliant prospect which her
ambition might artfully suggest, founded upon the feeble character of
an amorous young Prince; and, when his Royal Highness first declared
himself her admirer, she gave him not the slightest hopes of success;
but, in the true spirit of the finished coquette, she turned away from
his protestations; and, in order to avoid his importunities, quitted
the kingdom, and took up her residence at Plombiers, in Lorrain, in
France. The lovely idol knew that an object which is easily gained,
is seldom esteemed or prized: the Prince, indeed, from his peculiar
situation as Heir apparent, could not follow her, although it is
stated, in an anonymous letter preserved in the British Museum, that
his Royal Highness did once travel to Paris incog. and that he had,
there, an interview with Mrs. Fitzherbert, the consequence of which
was, her immediate return to England. As there is no other authority
for this act of his Royal Highness, and taking the improbability of the
event into consideration, it must be left with all the doubt attached
to it, acknowledging, at the same time, that the preponderancy leans to
the side of its being a fiction.'

Now let us hear Lord Stourton's version, which bears the impress of
truth upon it, judging by the almost universal testimony as to Mrs.
Fitzherbert's character:

'In the midst of the afflictions, both of body and mind, which weighed
down the latter years of Mrs. Fitzherbert, the thought which most
soothed her pains, and assuaged her grief, was the consoling testimony
which would be borne to her character, when she should be no more; when
all the actors in this extraordinary drama being removed by the hand of
death, the veil might be drawn aside which had prompted secrecy during
her life; and her character might be shown to posterity in the light
which it appeared to herself, unsullied by crime, and even untarnished
by interestedness or ambition. With this view, she almost insisted,
in our confidential communications, upon my requiring from her every
information respecting her conduct, from her first connection with
George the Fourth, down to his death--as evidence to satisfy my mind of
the strictest propriety of every portion of her conduct, that I might
deem doubtful, or objectionable.

'After disclosures so intimate, and, to my judgment, so satisfactory,
I should not wish to descend into the tomb myself, leaving her
reputation to the doubtful testimony of others, less informed, even
if equally disposed to render her justice. Associated with some, in
the custody of a few important papers relative to her history, I stand
single in a nearer relationship to this distinguished person, in some
important and intimate connections, and was, therefore, selected by
her on that account, to be honoured with communications of so very
delicate and confidential a nature. Having deliberately accepted the
proffered confidence, I should not feel happy to leave to the chances
of ill-advised or mercenary biographers the portraiture of one so
difficult to pencil in her true and accurate lineaments.

'Mrs. Fitzherbert was first acquainted with the Prince when residing
on Richmond Hill, and soon became the object of his most ardent
attentions. During this period she was made the subject of a popular
ballad, which designated her, under the title of the "Sweet Lass of
Richmond Hill."

    '"I'd crowns resign to call her mine,
    Sweet lass of Richmond Hill."

She was, then, the widow of Mr. Fitzherbert, in possession of an
independent fortune of nearly £2,000 a year, admired and caressed by
all who were acquainted with her character and singular attractions.

'Surrounded by so many personal advantages, and the widow of an
individual to whom she had been singularly attached, she was
very reluctant to enter into engagements fraught with so many
embarrassments; and, when viewed in their fairest light, exposing their
object to great sacrifices and difficulties. It is not, therefore,
surprising that she resisted, with the utmost anxiety and firmness,
the flattering assiduities of the most accomplished Prince of his age.
She was well aware of the gulf that yawned beneath those flattering
demonstrations of royal adulation.

'For some time her resistance had been availing, but she was about to
meet with a species of attack so unprecedented and alarming, as to
shake her resolution, and to force her to take that first step, which,
afterwards, led by slow (but on the part of the Prince, successful)
advances, to that union which he so ardently desired, and to obtain
which he was ready to risk such personal sacrifices. Keit (Keate),
the surgeon, Lord Onslow, Lord Southampton, and Mr. Edward Bouverie,
arrived at her house in the utmost consternation, informing her that
the life of the Prince was in imminent danger--that he had stabbed
himself, and that only _her_ immediate presence would save him.[44]
She resisted, in the most peremptory manner, all their importunities,
saying that nothing should induce her to enter Carlton House. She was,
afterwards, brought to share in the alarm, but, still, fearful of some
stratagem derogatory to her reputation, insisted upon some lady of
high character accompanying her, as an indispensable condition: the
Duchess of Devonshire was selected. They four drove from Park Street to
Devonshire House, and took her along with them. She found the Prince
pale, and covered with blood. The sight so overpowered her faculties,
that she was almost deprived of all consciousness. The Prince told her
that nothing would induce him to live unless she promised to become
his wife, and permitted him to put a ring round her finger. I believe
a ring from the hand of the Duchess of Devonshire was used upon the
occasion, and not one of his own. Mrs. Fitzherbert being asked by me,
whether she did not believe that some trick had been practised, and
that it was not really the blood of his Royal Highness, answered in the
negative; and said she had frequently seen the scar, and some brandy
and water was near his bedside when she was called to him on the day he
wounded himself.

'They returned to Devonshire House. A deposition was drawn up of what
had occurred, and signed and sealed by each one of the party; and, for
all she knew to the contrary, might still be there. On the next day,
she left the country, sending a letter to Lord Southampton, protesting
against what had taken place, as not being then a free agent. She
retired to Aix la Chapelle, and, afterwards, to Holland. The Prince
went down into the country to Lord Southampton's, for change of air.

'In Holland, she met with the greatest civilities from the Stadtholder
and his family, lived upon terms of intimacy with them, and was
received into the friendship of the Princess of Orange, who, at that
time, was the object of negotiation with the Royal Family of England,
for the Heir apparent. Frequent inquiries were made about the Prince
and the English Court, in confidential communications between her and
the Princess, it being wholly unknown to the Princess that she was her
most dangerous rival. She said she was often placed in circumstances
of considerable embarrassment; but, her object being to break through
her own engagements, she was not the hypocrite she might have appeared
afterwards, as she would have been very happy to have furthered this
alliance. She afterwards saw this Princess in England, and continued to
enjoy her friendship, but there was always a great coolness on the part
of the Stadtholder towards her.

'She left Holland in the Royal Barge, and spent above another year
abroad, endeavouring to "fight off" (to use her own phrase) a union
fraught with such dangerous consequences to her peace and happiness.
Couriers after couriers passed through France, carrying the letters
and propositions of the Prince to her in France and Switzerland. The
Duke of Orleans was the medium of this correspondence. The speed
of the couriers exciting the suspicion of the French Government,
three of them were, at different times, put into prison. Wrought
upon, and fearful, from the past, of the desperation of the Prince,
she consented, formally and deliberately, to promise that she would
never marry any other person; and, lastly, she was induced to return
to England, and agree to become his wife, on those conditions which
satisfied her own conscience, though she could have no legal claim to
be the wife of the Prince.

'I have seen a letter of thirty-seven pages, written, as she informed
me, not long before this step was taken, entirely in the handwriting
of the Prince; in which it is stated by him that his Father would
connive at the union. She was then hurried to England, anticipating
too clearly and justly, that she was about to plunge into inextricable
difficulties; but, having insisted upon conditions, such as would
satisfy her conscience, and justify her in the eyes of her own Church,
she abandoned herself to her fate. Immediately after her return, she
was married to the Prince, according to the rites of the Catholic
Church in this country; her uncle Harry Errington and her brother Jack
Smythe being witnesses to the contract, along with the Protestant
clergyman who officiated at the ceremony.[45] No Roman Catholic priest
officiated. A certificate of this marriage is extant in the handwriting
of the Prince, and with his signature and that of Maria Fitzherbert.
The witnesses' names were added; but, at the earnest request of the
parties, in a time of danger, they were afterwards cut out by Mrs.
Fitzherbert herself, with her own scissors, to save them from the peril
of the law.[46]

'This, she afterwards regretted; but a letter of the Prince, on her
return to him, has been preserved, to supply any deficiency, in which
he thanks God, that the witnesses to their union were still living;
and, moreover, the letter of the officiating clergyman is still
preserved, together with another document with the signature and seal,
but not in the handwriting, of the Prince, in which he repeatedly terms
her his wife.'

As a matter of fact, these papers are now deposited in Coutts's Bank,
sealed up in a cover under the seals of the Duke of Wellington, Sir
William Knighton, the Earl of Albemarle, and Lord Stourton. All other
correspondence was destroyed, on the death of George IV., by Mrs.
Fitzherbert herself in the presence of the Duke of Wellington and the
Earl of Albemarle. The packet consists of:

1. The mortgage on the palace at Brighton.

2. The certificate of the marriage, dated December 21, 1785.

3. A letter from George IV. relating to the marriage (signed).

4. A will written by George IV.

5. Memorandum written by Mrs. Fitzherbert, attached to a letter written
by the clergyman who performed the marriage ceremony.

With regard to this mortgage on the Pavilion, Lord Stourton says:[47]
'To the Duke of York and the Queen, Mrs. Fitzherbert was indebted for
£6,000 a year in a mortgage deed, which they procured for her on the
Palace at Brighton; being aware, as she said, that till that period,
she had no legal title to a single shilling should she survive the
Prince. Indeed, at one period, she had debts upon her own jointures,
incurred principally on account of the Prince; and, when the Duke of
Wellington, as executor to George IV., asked her if she had anything to
show, or claim upon the personalty of the deceased Sovereign, she told
him she had not even a scrap of paper, for that she had never, in her
life, been an interested person.'

We have seen that the marriage took place on December 21, 1785; but
it was noised about before then, as we may see by the two following
cuttings from the _Morning Post_, December 16, 1785: 'It is whispered
in the circles of gallantry, that a certain illustrious character has
made a delicate and honourable engagement with a Lady of superior
accomplishments; that she is to have the full direction of his
household, with a settlement of £8,000 a year, the ---- 's liveries,
with an engagement to create her a Duchess, if ever he should have the

_December 17, 1785._--'A very extraordinary treaty is on the tapis,
between a beautiful young Widow, who resides about ten miles from
London, in the county of Surrey, and a Gentleman of _high rank_, in the
neighbourhood of St. James's. Fame speaks highly of the Lady's virtues,
and her accomplishments; and, as conscious of her value, she has taken
care to set a very high price upon her person: the terms are that she
should be the mistress of the young Gentleman's town house, to preside
at his table, to have a settlement of Six thousand pounds per annum:
her equipages and liveries to be the same as her lover's; and, when it
shall be _in his power_, the Lady to be created a Duchess in her own
right:--These conditions, it is said, are already agreed to; and, in a
very short time, the amorous treaty will be signed and sealed.'

The caricaturist did not linger long afterwards, and the earliest of
the satirical prints bearing on this subject is one dated March 13,
1786, supposed to be drawn by 'Fitz,' called 'The Follies of a Day, or
the Marriage of Figaro.' The Prince is just putting the ring on Mrs.
Fitzherbert's hand. They are being married by a sham parson--Weltje,
in fact, as is evidenced by the corkscrew which he wears in lieu of a
crucifix, whilst out of his pocket appears a scroll endorsed 'Weltjie's
Nat(uralizatio)^n Bill.' The book from which he reads is 'Hoyle's
Games,' and the page is headed 'Matrimony.' George Hanger is the sole

Others follow, and they are all as wide of the real facts of the case
as is this one.

_March 20, 1786_--'The Royal Toast--Fat, Fair, and Forty,' is a fancy
portrait of Mrs. Fitzherbert, very stout, a fact as truthful as her
age, which was but thirty.

_March 21, 1786_--'Wedding Night, or the Fashionable Frolic.' The
Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert are dancing, and George Hanger is playing
the 'Black Joke' on a fiddle. A marriage certificate, torn up, lies on
the floor.

_March 21, 1786_--'The Lovers' Leap.' The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert
are preparing to jump over a broom (which is said to be the gipsies'
marriage ceremony), which lies on the floor between them. George
Hanger is pushing the Prince on, and a cat is jumping out of a bag.

Another version of this, by Gillray, was published on the same date,
and is thus described in Wright and Grego's 'Gillray':

'_21 Mar., 1786._--_'Twas nobody saw the Lovers' Leap and let the Cat
out of the Bag._ This title, which refers to the first disclosure
of the scandal, is literally treated in the print. Fox appears as
"nobody," and a cat is seen escaping from a bag. The Whig chief, with
whom, as the occasional companion of the young Prince's excesses,
the public were not slow to connect the transaction, is encouraging
Florizel to "leap over the broomstick" with Mrs. Fitzherbert. The ex
favourites, in a second apartment, surmounted by the Prince's crest,
tranquilly regard the coming change. "All I desire of mortal man is
to love whilst he can," says Perdita. "Well said, Robby," remarks a
gentleman at table: "his father will broomstick him!"'

The best etching on the subject is dated March 27, 1786, and is called
'Wife and no Wife; or, A Trip to the Continent.' The Prince is about to
put the ring on Mrs. Fitzherbert's hand, and Fox is giving her away.
Hanger and Sheridan are witnesses. Burke, as a Jesuit, is reading the
marriage service, and Lord North, as a coachman, is fast asleep.


Then we have on May 1, 1786, 'The April Fool, or the Follies of a
Night, as performed at the Theatre Royal, C----n House, for the
Benefit of the Widow Wadman.' The Prince, Mrs. Fitzherbert, and
George Hanger are dancing, while Fox is drumming with a pistol on a
warming-pan, exclaiming, 'Damme, but 'tis sublime;' and Burke, who
says, 'Burn the pan, is it not beautiful?' plays on a gridiron with a
pair of tongs. On the walls are two scenes from _Hamlet_: one where
Polonius says to the King, 'I will be brief, your noble son is mad;'
the other where Hamlet says to Ophelia:

          'He may not, as inferior persons do,
    Carve for himself, for on his choice depends
    The sanity and health of the whole state.'

On the ground lie two plays, 'A Bold Stroke for a Wife'[48] and 'The
Clandestine Marriage.'[49]

_May 1, 1786._--'An Extravaganza, or Young Solomon besieging
Fitzhubbub, the Governess of the Fort and Garrison of Fitzhubbub, after
a political resistance of time proper, surrenders to the besieger,
as by the articles of capitulation.' The Prince is kneeling before
Mrs. Fitzherbert, who, seated on a sofa, points to 'Articles of
Capitulation, £8,000 per annum. A Duchess in my own right. The mockery
of MARRIAGE by a Priest and a Parson.'

_May 3, 1786._--'The Introduction of F---- to St. James's.' A view
of the gateway of St. James's Palace. The Prince is carrying Mrs.
Fitzherbert on his shoulders, preceded by George Hanger beating a drum,
and by Fox and Captain Morris playing on trumpet and horn, whilst Burke
brings up the rear playing on a flageolet.

The Prince, personally, took no heed of these pictorial satires;
but others thought differently of them, as we learn by the _Morning
Post_, April 24, 1786: 'His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales has
been frequently entreated to take legal cognizance of the numerous
libellous prints, and other scandalous reports, which have lately been
in circulation; but, with a magnanimity of soul congenial with the
spirit of British freedom, he constantly declined it, with expressions
of jocularity: at the same time, thinking the authors unworthy of
his notice. The laws of his country have, at last, interfered, and
common decency requires that the most rigorous measures should now be
pursued to punish the offenders.--Indictments have been preferred, and
the Bills were found, on Friday last, at the Guildhall, Westminster,
against--_Ford_, of Piccadilly, for having published and circulated
some infamous prints, with an intent to satyrize and libel his Royal
Highness, the Prince of Wales; which prints, we understand, were shown
to a great law Lord, by an indifferent person; and, in consequence, his
Lordship pronounced them most infamous libels, and ordered the present
prosecutions to be instituted against the publishers thereof.'

The newspapers notice the new opera-box of Mrs. Fitzherbert, and also
her new house in St. James's Square, formerly in the occupation of Lord

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[42] 'Memoirs of George IV.,' vol. i., p. 125.

[43] 'Memoirs of Mrs. Fitzherbert,' etc., by the Hon. Charles Langdale;
London, 1856, 8vo., p. 115.

[44] At this time the great mooncalf would go to Fox's house at St.
Ann's Hill, near Chertsey, and there blubber his love-woes into the
sympathizing ears of Bridget Cane, alias Armistead, or Armstead, a
woman of good manners and some education, who was said to have been
waiting-woman to Mrs. Abington, the actress, but who was then Fox's
mistress, and afterwards his wife.

[45] It is said that the Rev. Mr. Burt, of Twickenham, on his death-bed
acknowledged marrying the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert, and that he
received £500 for his fee.

[46] She was married in her own drawing-room.

[47] Langdale's 'Memoirs of Mrs. Fitzherbert,' p. 141.

[48] By Mrs. Centlivre.

[49] By George Colman and D. Garrick.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Prince's debts--Appeal to the King--His retrenchments--'The
 Jovial Crew, or Merry Beggars'--Satirical prints--Help from
 Parliament--Schedule of his debts.

Early in 1786 matters financial came to a crisis with Florizel.
Notwithstanding his income of nearly £70,000, he had managed in
less than three years to get some £300,000 in debt. Harassed by his
creditors, he had no resource left but to apply to his father, but from
him he got naught but good counsel. In this dilemma Pitt was applied
to, and asked to furnish £250,000. This not being forthcoming, the
King was written to, who replied, asking for a detailed statement of
liabilities. This was furnished, and so astonished the King that he
declined the proposal, and declared that he would never sanction an
increase to his son's income. Then Florizel wrote another letter to his
father, announcing his determination to retrench violently, and set
aside £40,000 a year towards the payment of his debts. To which the
King replied, that if he chose to take a rash step, he must likewise
take the consequences. Then the Prince once more took his pen in hand,
and wrote a letter to his father, which closed the correspondence:


 'I have had the honour of receiving your Majesty's written message,
 transmitted to me by Lord Southampton, and am greatly concerned
 that my poor sentiments cannot coincide with those of your Majesty,
 in thinking that the former message which I had the honour of
 receiving, in your Majesty's own hand, was not a refusal. After
 having repeatedly sent in various applications to your Majesty, for
 two years successively, representing that a partial reduction out
 of so incompetent an income as mine, was to no purpose towards the
 liquidation of a debt, where the principal and interest were so
 considerable, I, this year, humbly requested your Majesty that you
 would be graciously pleased (having previously laid my affairs before
 you, Sir, for your inspection, and painted them in the distressed
 colours which they so justly merited), whenever it suited your
 conveniency, to favour me with a decisive answer; as the various
 delays which have occurred, through the course of this business, have,
 in reality, proved more pernicious to me in the situation in which I
 have been for some time past involved, than the original embarrassment
 of the debt. To not only these, but to any future delays, would I
 have, most willingly, submitted, had they really rested upon my
 own patience; but the pressing importunities of many indigent and
 deserving creditors (some of them whose very existence depends upon
 a speedy discharge of their accounts), made too forcible an appeal
 to the justice becoming my own honour, and to the feelings of my
 heart, to be any longer delayed. Another consideration is, that any
 further procrastination might have exposed me to legal insults, as
 humiliating to me, as, I am persuaded, they would be to your Majesty.
 I, therefore, previously to my having the honour of receiving that
 message, had determined, that, should I not be so fortunate as to meet
 with that relief from you, Sir, with which I had flattered myself,
 and which I thought I had the greatest reason to expect, I would
 exert every nerve to render that just redress and assistance to my
 creditors, which I cannot help thinking is denied to me. These are the
 motives, Sir, that have actuated my conduct in the step I have taken,
 of reducing every expence in my family, even those to which my birth
 and rank entitle me (and which, I trust, will ever continue to be the
 principle and guide of my conduct), till I have totally liberated
 myself from the present embarrassments which oppress me; and the more
 so, as I am persuaded that such a line, when pursued with consistency,
 will meet with the approbation of every candid and dispassionate mind.

 'I will not trespass any further on your Majesty's time, but have the
 honour to subscribe myself,


  'Your Majesty's most dutiful and obedient
  'Son and Subject,

  'GEORGE, P.'

 '_July 9, 1786._'

After the despatch of this letter he immediately acted on it; gave
orders to curtail his household, to stop all building and decoration
of Carlton House, and to sell his race and carriage horses, with a very
few reservations, and go and ruralise at Brighton, which he reached
on July 11. The newspapers and caricaturists, of course, immediately
made capital out of it, _vide_ the _Morning Post_, July 13, 1786: 'A
morning paper of yesterday says that the _Prince of Wales_ set off for
_Brighton_ in a _hired chaise_ and _hack horses_; but we are informed
by authority, which we trust will meet with _equal credit_, that his
Royal Highness was an _outside passenger_ by the _Brighton Dilly_.'

And the caricaturist followed quickly in the wake of the newspaper
men with a satirical print published on July 15, called 'A Trip
to Brighton, or the P---- and his reduced Household returning for
the summer season.' The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert are inside the
carriage, and the latter is studying the 'Principles of Œconomy.' The
carriage is laden with household effects, vegetables, meat, etc., and
with small beer and raisin wine. One of the footmen is Fox, the other
George Hanger, who is reading, 'For Sale, at Tattersall's, the Prince's
Stud.' Weltje, 'Purveyor, Coachman, Cook and Butler,' is driving.

There is another, which, although not dated, is evidently of the same
period, called 'The Brighton Stud,' in which is seen a groom leading
three donkeys--George Hanger, Fox, and Sheridan. The Prince rides
another donkey (Mrs. Fitzherbert), and Lord Derby (as another) looks
on. This evidently refers to the sale of the Prince's stud, which
realized somewhat over £7,000. Mrs. Fitzherbert went to Brighton
immediately after the Prince.

There is a very amusing satirical print dated August 23, 1786, the best
part of which is the verse attached. It is called 'The Jovial Crew, or
Merry Beggars. A Comic Opera, as performed at Brighton by the Carleton
Company.' The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert occupy the centre of the
picture. The Prince has a hat full of money, '£7,586. By sale of the
Stud,' and Mrs. Fitzherbert carries a child on her back. The other
beggars, who are mostly on crutches, are on either side.

      '1ST BEGGAR,   }  I once was a poet at London,
       MR. S----.    }    I kept my heart still full of glee;
     (_Sheridan._)      There's no man can say that I'm undone,
                          For begging's no new trade to me.

      '2ND BEGGAR,   }  In London I once shone with eclat,
       THE ----.     }    A Stud and brave Household could boast;
  (_Prince of Wales._)  Give me a brisk wench in clean straw,
                          And I value not who rules the roast.

      '3RD BEGGAR,   }  A widow I was, buxom and bold,
       MRS. F----.   }    So clos'd with a Royal attack;
      (_Fitzherbert._)  Tho' 'tis said the marriage won't hold,
                          But, ecod, I'll stick to his back.

      '4TH BEGGAR,   }  Here comes a patriot polite, Sir,
       MR. F----.    }    Who flatter'd the K---- to his face;
        (_Fox._)        Now, railing is all his delight, Sir,
                          Because he's turn'd out of his place.

      '5TH BEGGAR,   }  I was a Jesuitical preacher,
       MR. B----.    }    I turn'd up my eyes when I pray'd;
      (_Burke._)        But my hearers half starved their teacher,
                          For they believ'd not a word that I said.

      '6TH BEGGAR,   }  I still am a merry song maker,
       CAP. M----.   }    My heart never yet felt a qualm;
      (_Morris._)       Tho' poor, I can fiddle and caper,
                          And sing any tune but a psalm.

      '7TH BEGGAR,   }  Make room for a soldier in buff,
       COL. H----.   }    Who valiantly strutted about;
      (_Hanger._)       And, if the Peace should be breaking off,
                          Why, then he'll, most wisely, sell out.

      '8TH BEGGAR,   }  De Beggar vos I in Germany,
       MR. W----.    }    But alms vos here better agree;
      (_Weltje._)       For, by begging in coot company,
                          Begging vos de making of me.

      '9TH BEGGAR,   }  Since, Beggars, then, we are happy and free,
       L. N----.     }    Pray talk no more of state axes;
      (_North._)        For, by the War, you'll surely agree,
                          That, all, I have beggar'd with Taxes.'

There is a very clever satirical print which refers to the breaking up
of the Prince's establishment. It is called 'The School for Scandal,'
and parodies the scene from Sheridan's play, in which Charles Surface
helps to knock down the portraits of his ancestors. George Hanger is
the auctioneer, and Lot 1 is a picture of the King and Queen, 'Farmer
George and his Wife.' Hanger cries out, 'Going for no more than one
Crown!' and the Prince thus encourages the Colonel, 'Careless, knock
down the Farmer.' One of the audience bids five shillings for the
royal pair. Lot 2 is a portrait of Mrs. Fitzherbert, and Lot 3 one of
Perdita. Through the open door is seen Tattersall's, where the Prince's
stud, etc., were sold. A carriage is numbered Lot 1,000 to show the
extravagance of the Prince's stable arrangements.

A piece of gossip about the Prince at Brighton appears in the _Morning
Post_ of September 25, 1786: 'We hear that the Prince of Wales, a
few days since, was suddenly indisposed at Brighthelmstone; and, at
the same time, several gentlemen who had dined with the Prince at a
friend's table, the preceding day, were seized with symptoms similar
to those of his Royal Highness. They were all more or less affected,
according to the quantity each eat of a particular dish at table.
Happily for his Royal Highness, he eat but moderately; and we have the
pleasure to add, he has now quite recovered. Mr. Keate, the Prince's
surgeon, has been sent for from London; and the business terminated so
favourably, no other assistance was called in.'

During his stay this year he was very quiet, only going to the races,
and superintending the alterations to his house, which were completed
the ensuing spring. He left Brighton for the season on October 17.

The Prince kept his promise of retrenchment for nine long months, and
was sorely put to it for money--a fact of which the caricaturist took
full advantage. Thus, on January 18, 1787, we have 'The Prodigal Son,'
in which the Prince is depicted as seated on the bare ground, feeding
swine; his coat is out at elbows and breeches unfastened; his Garter
has gone, and his three feathers lie on the ground.

Then, on February 26 there is 'Love's Last Shift,' which represents the
Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert in the last stage of poverty. The Prince
sits before a fire, turning a sheep's head, which hangs by a string,
and rocking a cradle in which a child lies sleeping, an event which,
happily, did not occur during his connection with Mrs. Fitzherbert. He
has no breeches on, because Mrs. Fitzherbert is mending them. Weltje
has just brought in some potatoes, and George Hanger has a small
measure of beer.

The Prince's friends felt that this could not go on longer. It was
resolved to appeal to Parliament for aid, and Mr. Nathaniel Newnham,
a merchant, Alderman, and an M.P. for the City of London, was chosen
to open the matter, which he did on April 20, 1787, by asking Mr. Pitt
whether it was his intention to bring forward any proposition to rescue
the Prince of Wales from his embarrassed and distressed situation.
Being answered by the Minister that he had no commands to that purpose
from the King, the Alderman gave notice that, on Friday, May 4, he
would bring forward a motion upon that subject for the consideration of
the House.

[Illustration: LOVE'S LAST SHIFT.]

As a matter of fact, the motion was brought before the House on April
27, and again on April 30, when Fox supported the Prince, and in the
course of his speech, referring to the rumour of the Prince being
married to Mrs. Fitzherbert (a Roman Catholic), said: 'With respect to
the allusion to something full of "danger to the Church and State,"
made by the hon. gentleman, one of the members of the County of
Devon, till that gentleman thought proper to explain himself, it was
impossible to say with any certainty to what that allusion referred;
but he supposed it must be meant in reference to that miserable
calumny, that low, malicious falsehood, which had been propagated
without doors, and made the wanton sport of the vulgar. In that House,
where it was known how frequent and common the falsehoods of the times
were, he hoped a tale, only fit to impose on the lowest order of
persons in the streets, would not have gained the smallest portion of
credit; but, when it appeared that an invention so monstrous, a report
of a fact which had not the smallest degree of foundation, a report of
a fact actually impossible to have happened, had been circulated with
so much industry, as to have made an impression on the minds of the
members of that House, it proved, at once, the uncommon pains taken
by the enemies of his Royal Highness to propagate the grossest and
most malignant falsehoods, with a view to depreciate his character,
and injure him in the opinion of his country.... The whole of the debt
the Prince was ready to submit to the investigation of the House; and
he was equally ready to submit the other circumstance to which he had
alluded, to their consideration, provided that the consideration of a
House of Parliament could, consistently with propriety and decency, be
applied to such a subject. Nay, his Royal Highness had authorised him
to declare that, as a Peer of Parliament, he was ready in the other
House to submit to any of the most pointed questions which could be
put to him respecting it, or to afford his Majesty, or his Majesty's
ministers, the fullest assurances of the utter falsehood of the fact in
question, which never had, and which common sense must see, never could
have happened.'

In a later part of the debate 'Mr. Fox answered, that he did not deny
the calumny in question merely with regard to the effect of certain
existing laws, alluded to by the hon. gentleman; but he denied it
_in toto_, in point of fact, as well as of law. The fact not only
never could have happened legally, but never did happen in any way
whatsoever, and had, from the beginning, been a base and malicious

The debate was again resumed on May 4, when Mr. Alderman Newnham rose,
and said: 'Sir, I am extremely happy that the motion which I was to
have had the honour of making, this day, is no longer necessary; and it
is with the most sincere and heartfelt satisfaction that I inform the
House that I decline bringing it forward.'

The following is a note to p. 1074 of vol. xxvi. of Hansard: 'On
Sunday the 29th, or Monday the 30th of April, an intimation was given
at Cumberland House, that, if the Prince had no objection, Mr. Dundas
would be glad to have an interview with his Royal Highness. On this
being communicated to the Prince, he sent back word that he was ready
to see him whenever he should call at Carlton House. Accordingly, on
Wednesday, the 2nd of May, late in the evening, Mr. Dundas had a long
general conversation with the Prince, which ended with Mr. Dundas
requesting that the Prince would permit Mr. Pitt himself to wait upon
him. To that, his Royal Highness assented; and Mr. Pitt, in conformity,
was with the Prince at Carlton House, the next day, for more than
two hours: in this long conversation, the Prince stated all his
circumstances to Mr. Pitt, who then promised to lay the same before his
Majesty, and to return an answer as speedily as possible.

'Mr. Pitt thence went immediately to the King, and the same evening a
Cabinet Council was held at nine o'clock, which sat until midnight;
when an answer in writing, by his Majesty's command, was dispatched by
Mr. Pitt to the Prince, informing him in general terms, that, in case
his Royal Highness thought proper to withdraw the motion intended to
be made, the next day, in the House of Commons, everything should be
settled to his Royal Highness's satisfaction. Agreeably to this, the
motion was, the next day, withdrawn by Alderman Newnham, as being no
longer necessary; after which, to the infinite surprise of the House,
the Minister rose up in his place, and said that he could not see, for
his own part, that the motion was then either more or less necessary,
than it ever had been; and added, in answer to Mr. Rolle's question,
that no terms of any kind were settled, but that matters remained _in
statu quo_.

'This proceeding, being related to the Prince, his Royal Highness, the
same night, wrote a letter, with his own hand, to Mr. Pitt, requiring
an immediate explanation of the extraordinary speech delivered that day
in the House of Commons. Mr. Pitt, in answer, requested leave again
to wait upon his Royal Highness. Accordingly the Minister went on
Saturday, at noon, to Carlton House, and had another long conference
with the Prince, in which his Royal Highness (in order to prevent any
more mistakes) gave to Mr. Pitt, in writing, his proposals, which were
in substance:--1. The Prince of Wales to have his debts paid off, in
part, at least. 2. To have a sum granted sufficient to finish Carlton
House. 3. To have such moderate increase made to his annual income, as
may be sufficient to prevent his running in debt in future.

'With these propositions Mr. Pitt took his leave, and on Sunday,
despatched them by a special messenger to Windsor, to the King; who,
on Monday last, returned his answer, signed in form by his Majesty's
own hand. This answer was on the same day delivered by Mr. Pitt to the
Prince at Carlton House, and is nearly to the following effect:--1.
That his Majesty was glad to find the Prince of Wales ready to submit
his accounts to inspection. 2. That it would be necessary for the
Prince, not only to ascertain the whole amount of his debts, but,
also, the particulars thereof, with an exact account of how each debt
was incurred. 3. That the Prince shall engage not to run in debt in
future. 4. That, upon the specifications above required, would depend
his Majesty's determining upon whether he should agree to the payment
of the whole, or any part of the Prince of Wales's debts. 5. That his
Majesty cannot think any increase of income necessary, so long as the
Prince of Wales shall remain unmarried. This answer cannot be supposed
to have been, in any way, satisfactory to the Prince of Wales.

'However, nothing was said upon the business in the House, either
on Monday, or Tuesday, and nothing on those days was done farther
than that the Prince, on Tuesday, sent his commissioners, Colonels
Lake and Hulse, with Mr. Lyte, his Treasurer, to Mr. Pitt, with all
his accounts, etc., etc., for the inspection and information of his

The account of the Prince's debts which was furnished to the House is
as follows:


  Bonds and debts                           £13,000
  Purchase of houses                          4,000
  Expenses of Carlton House                  53,000
  Tradesmen's bills                          90,804


  Household, etc.                 £29,277
  Privy purse                      16,050
  Payments made by Col. Hotham,
    particulars delivered to His
    Majesty                        37,203
  Other extraordinaries            11,406
                                   ------   £93,936
  Salaries                        £54,734
  Stables                          37,919
  Mr. Robins, etc.                  7,059
                                   ------   £99,712

On May 21 the King sent a message to the Commons, in which he says,
'His Majesty could not, however, expect, or desire the assistance
of the House, but on a well grounded expectation that the Prince
will avoid contracting any new debts, in future. With a view to this
object, and from an anxious desire to remove every possible doubt of
the sufficiency of the Prince's income to support amply the dignity of
his situation, his Majesty has directed a sum of £10,000 per annum to
be paid out of his civil list, in addition to the allowance which his
Majesty has hitherto given him; and his Majesty has the satisfaction
to inform the House that the Prince of Wales has given his Majesty the
fullest assurances of his firm determination to confine his future
expences within his income; and has, also, settled a plan for arranging
those expences in the several departments, and for fixing an order of
payment under such regulations as his Majesty trusts will effectually
secure the due execution of the Prince's intentions.'

The King's message was considered on the 24th, and part of the
Commons' reply runs thus: 'That his Majesty may depend on the zeal and
affectionate attachment of his faithful Commons, to afford his Majesty
the assistance he desires for the discharge of his Royal Highness's
debts, and that, in full reliance on the assurances which his Majesty
has received, this House humbly desires that his Majesty will be
graciously pleased to direct the sum of £161,000 to be issued out of
his Majesty's Civil List for that purpose, and the sum of £20,000 on
account of the works of Carlton House, as soon as an estimate shall be
formed, with sufficient accuracy, of the whole expence for completing
the same in a proper manner, and to assure his Majesty that his
faithful Commons will make good the same.'

Of course there was the inevitable satirical print, 'The Prince in
Clover' (June 2, 1787). The Prince has his hands full of purses,
with which he is, somewhat theatrically, paying his creditors. Three
Ministers--Pitt, Dundas, and Thurlow--are abjectly grovelling behind
him, to the intense delight of Fox, Sheridan, Burke and Lord North.

[Illustration: Decorative motif]

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Fox's denial of the marriage--Once more at Brighton--Again in
 1788--The Prince at a fatal prize-fight--His birthday--Dress at
 Brighton--The Prince leases his house at Brighton--Unfilial conduct of
 the Prince--Probability of a Regency.

But how about Fox's denial of the Prince's marriage with Mrs.
Fitzherbert? was that to pass unnoticed? Certainly not, and there was a
slight disturbance in Florizel's matrimonial establishment, which may
as well be told in Lord Stourton's suave diction.

'The first signal interruption to this ill-fated engagement arose from
the pecuniary difficulties of his Royal Highness, when, on the question
of the payment of his debts, Mr. Fox thought himself justified by some
verbal, or written permission of the Prince, to declare to the House
of Commons that no religious ceremony had united the parties. This
public degradation of Mrs. Fitzherbert so compromised her character
and her religion, and irritated her feelings, that she determined to
break off all connection with the Prince, and she was only induced to
receive him again into her confidence, by repeated assurances that Mr.
Fox had never been authorised to make the declaration; and the friends
of Mrs. Fitzherbert assured her, that, in this discrepancy as to the
assertion of Mr. Fox and the Prince, she was bound to accept the word
of her husband. She informed me that the public supported her, by their
conduct, on this occasion; for, at no period of her life, were their
visits so numerous to her house, as on the day which followed Mr. Fox's
memorable speech; and, to use her own expression, the knocker of her
door was never still during the whole day.

'I told her that I understood there was a scrap of paper from the
Prince to Mr. Fox; that Sir John Throckmorton, a friend of his, had
assured me of the fact of the Prince wishing much to obtain possession
of it; but, though written on a dirty scrap of paper, it was much too
valuable to be parted with. She said that she rather doubted the fact.
I think that the difference between the assertions of the Prince and
Mr. Fox may be accounted for under a supposition (which I have also
heard) either that there was some ambiguity in the expressions used, or
that Mr. Fox might have referred to what had passed, antecedently, at
Devonshire House, without being privy to their subsequent more formal

'However this may be, an accommodation took place between Mrs.
Fitzherbert and the Prince, though she, ever afterwards, resolutely
refused to speak to Mr. Fox. She was, however, obliged to see him
sometimes, and was much urged by the Prince to a reconciliation;
but, though of a forgiving disposition upon other occasions, and
even benefiting some who most betrayed her confidence, she was
inflexible on this point, as it was one of the only means left her to
protect her reputation. She thought she had been ill-used, in a most
unjustifiable manner, by this public declaration before the House of
Commons; especially as she had been waited upon by Mr. Sheridan, who
had informed her, that some explanation would, probably, be required by
Parliament, on the subject of her connection with the Heir apparent.
She then told him, that they knew she was like a dog with a log round
its neck, and they must protect her. She went so far with respect to
Mr. Fox, that when, afterwards, during his administration, he made
overtures to her, in order to recover her good will, she refused,
though the attainment of the rank of Duchess was to be the fruit of
their reconciliation. On naming this circumstance to me, she observed
that she did not wish to be another Duchess of Kendal.'[50]

Gillray published a satirical print on May 21, 1787, entitled 'Dido
Forsaken. _Sic transit gloria Reginæ._' Mrs. Fitzherbert, crucifix in
hand, is seated on a heap of ruins, in utter despair, whilst a breeze,
blown by Pitt and Dundas, carries away her crown, orb, sceptre, and
coronet, as Princess of Wales. In a boat named _Honor_, bound for
Windsor, sail away the Prince, Fox (who steers), Lord North, and Burke.
The Prince says, 'I never saw her in my life.' Fox clinches this
with, 'No, never in his life, Damme.' North and Burke asseverate 'No,
never.' On the ground lie fetters, an axe, rods, and a harrow, 'for the
conversion of heretics,' being a delicate allusion to Mrs. Fitzherbert
being a Roman Catholic.

However, the difference between the couple was made up, and they were
in Brighton together early in July. The Prince evidently used some
of his newly-got money on his seaside residence, for we read in the
_Morning Herald_ for July 3, 1787: 'Last Tuesday morning (26 June) as
the painters were beautifying the great dome of the Prince of Wales's
house at Brighthelmstone, the scaffolding broke down, whereby several
of the workmen were killed, and others terribly wounded. His Royal
Highness has caused enquiry to be made into the condition of their
families, in order to give them relief.'

We hear very little of his stay at Brighton during this year. The
_Morning Herald_ of July 24 tells us: 'The _Prince_, we are happy to
say, has derived much benefit from the air of Brighthelmstone, and the
exercise which he has taken in its environs. We have never seen his
_Royal Highness_ in better health, or more apparent spirits than in
his evening walks on the Steyne. His companions in these promenades,
exclusive of the gentlemen of his suite, are, in general, Mrs. F----,
with the Countess of Talbot, and Lady Stawell.'

In the same newspaper of August 6, we find under the heading
'BRIGHTHELMSTONE, Aug. 3. This scene feels, at present, a temporary
desertion from the general resort of the visitants to the races of
Lewes. The Prince has also left it this morning, on hearing of the
arrival of his brother, the Duke of York, from the Continent.

'The races above mentioned derived more celebrity from the brilliant
attendance with which they were honoured, than from the sport which
they afforded. The betting on the first day was so generally on the
side of _Marplot_ that eighty guineas to sixty, and immediately before
starting sixty to forty were offered and refused. Mr. Fox took the
odds that were offered against _Balloon_, to the amount of about five
hundred pounds, and Mr. Tetherington is said to have cleared upwards of
a thousand by the success of his horse _Marplot_.

'Amongst those present were the Prince, the Duke and Duchess
of Cumberland, the Princesse de Lamballe, who was particularly
distinguished through the day by the _enviable_ attentions of the Duke
of Queensberry. The Duchess of Rutland, the Countess of Talbot, Lord
and Lady Abergavenny, Mrs. Fitzherbert, Lord Clermont, Lord Grosvenor,
Sir John Lade, Sir Richard Heron, Mr. Fox, Mr. Wyndham, Mr. Pelham,
Col. Fitzpatrick, etc., added to the fashion of the group.

'After the first race, the Prince, with a select party, retired to
partake of an entertainment provided for them at the seat of Mr.
Wyndham, near Lewes.'

In 1788 the Prince went to Brighton for the season on July 1, and very
shortly, when driving with Mrs. Fitzherbert, they were both upset.
Neither could have been much hurt, for the _Morning Post_ of July 5
says that the Prince came to town the previous day, and that 'Mrs.
Fitzherbert is totally recovered from the effects of her accident.'
Still, this trivial event gave food to the caricaturist, 'The Prince's
Disaster, or a fall in Fitz.' They have been for a drive in an open
carriage, which has broken down. Mrs. F---- lies on the ground, and the
Prince is being thrown out.

That their mutual relations were cordial is evidenced by a satirical
print, April 3, 1788, where Mrs. Fitzherbert is seen leading the Prince
in chains. She says, 'Who can behold without transport "the glass of
fashion and the mould of form, the observ'd of all observers," smiling
in chains?' He replies, 'Delightful slavery! A day, an hour, of such
sweet bondage is worth an eternity of celestial happiness!'

We get a glimpse of what Brighton was, at this time, by the two
following newspaper cuttings. _Morning Post_, July 14: 'Brighton,
with the Prince, and such Company as follow the Prince, will do very
well, though, of late years, it has not been so crowded as formerly.
Many reasons have been assigned for this change--we, however, for
_propriety's sake_, shall give none.' _Ibid._, July 21: 'Brighton,
notwithstanding the return of the Prince, does not bear the appearance
of pleasure and fashion.'

And it can hardly be wondered at, for the Prince had relapsed, since
he had got his debts paid, and kept very bad company. He always was
fond of seeing prize-fights, and he and the Duc d'Orleans saw the fight
between Humphries and Martin at Newmarket, on May 3, 1786; but he had
more than he bargained for at Brighton Races this year. The event
is thus recorded in _Boxiana_ (vol. i., p. 219, ed. 1818): '_Tyne_
next entered the lists with _Earl_, upon a stage erected near the
stand on the Brighton Race ground, on August 6, 1788. Never were more
fashionables assembled at a boxing match than the above; the town of
Brighthelmstone was literally drained of its company, and the race
stand was crowded to excess with nobility and gentry; among whom was
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. _Earl_ was a tall, strong man,
and, in point of appearance, the favourite, and was actually becoming
so from his exertions, when _Tyne_ put in a blow upon his temple, that
made him reel against the rail of the stage, and he instantly dropped
down dead: which unfortunate circumstance produced a most afflicting
scene; and the Prince declared he would never witness another battle.
His Royal Highness, with great humanity and consideration, settled an
annuity on Mrs. _Earl_ and family. It appeared by the evidence before
the Coroner's jury that _Earl_ had been for some time previous to the
battle engaged in an election contest at Covent Garden, and had been
in one continued state of inebriety during the whole of it. It was the
opinion of professional men, that the vessels being so overcharged with
blood was the immediate cause of his death.'

The _Morning Post_ of August 9 has the following from Brighton: 'The
Prince of Wales gains many hearts by his great affability and good
humour. His company is much better than it used to be, and he is
certainly more sparing of his libations to Bacchus.

'Mrs. F----t looks more elegant than ever. One can, indeed, hardly
help exclaiming with the army of Mahomet the Second, when he showed
them his Irene--"Such a woman is worth a kingdom!"

'The Prince of Wales has won money on the races--more money than one
would wish a Prince of Wales to win.'

The same newspaper of August 15 says: BRIGHTHELMSTONE.--The celebration
of the Prince's birthday was in a style of the utmost gaiety and
conviviality, the more general and uniform, from the contracted circle
in which it shone. The Prince gave a most sumptuous entertainment
at the MARINE PAVILION,[51] of which all the Nobility and Gentry in
the town and neighbourhood partook by invitation. In the evening the
illuminations were general, and some of them conspicuous for taste,
particularly the Castle, the front of which was covered with various
coloured lamps. A Ball was given by the Jockey Club, in honour of the
Prince, who honoured several ladies with his hand during the course of
the evening.'

_Ibid._, _September 6._--'The Prince of Wales does not slumber in dull
indolence at his retreat at Brighton, but promotes and participates
in many manly exercises. Cricket is, at present, the chief amusement
patronized by his Royal Highness, who is dexterous and indefatigable.
Most of the young noblemen in the neighbourhood join in this vigorous
and wholesome exercise, in which the domestics of the Prince are
permitted to partake.'

We get a good glimpse of our great grandfathers and grandmothers
at Brighton in the _Morning Post_ of September 18: 'DRESS AT
BRIGHTON.--The fashionable bathing dress at Brighton is chiefly a pair
of buff trousers, and a slight jacket.

'This is adopted by all the young men of the place, and such a number
of idle, sauntering _land lubbers_ meet the eye, every morning, on the
Steyne, that one cannot help wishing for a sturdy press gang to give
them useful employment, or, at least, keep them out of mischief.

'After breakfast, they are then accoutred for the sports of the field.

'The sporting dress is a brown jacket, with a multiplicity of pockets
on each side, that reach from the bottom to the top, so that, from this
appearance, it is somewhat difficult to determine which the fashionable
tribe most resemble, a set of _grooms_, or a company of _smugglers_.

'When the dinner hour arrives, after these sprightly and heroic
gentlemen have _slain their thousands and ten thousands_, according to
their own account, in the field, with as little winking and blinking as
_Major Sturgeon_ himself, they then attire themselves in order to enjoy
the pleasures of the table; and, however deranged they may, afterwards,
be by convivial excess, they march, or stagger away to the _Rooms_, as
circumstances may determine, and entertain the Ladies with _elegant_
and _decent_ gallantry.

'The Ladies have no particular dress for the morning, but huddle away
to the bathing-place, in close caps and gipsy bonnets, so that they
look like a set of wandering _fortune tellers_, who have just had the
opportunity of pillaging the contents of a _frippery warehouse_, with
which they have bedecked themselves in haste.

'It is to be remarked that the Ladies do not atone for the negligence
of the morning, by neatness and elegance during the rest of the day,
but _shuffle_ on _something_ by dinner time, covering themselves with
an enormous nondescript bonnet, which, to the confusion of all order,
they, afterwards, think a proper garb for the assembly.

'If a spectator, not cognizant in the fanciful and capricious
variations of _ton_, were to cast his eyes on the motley groupe
contained in the Rooms, of an evening; far from supposing them persons
of the first fashion attired for a Ball, he would consider them as a
band of _Bedlamites_; or, at best, conclude that the whole presented
the extravagant vagaries of a Masquerade.'

This year Mrs. Fitzherbert moved into a house in Pall Mall, which
had a private entrance into the grounds of Carlton House. There was
a question put in the _Morning Post_ of October 10 which was never
answered. 'A QUESTION, What is the reason that Mrs. FITZHERBERT, who is
a lady of fortune and fashion, never appears at Court? She is visited
by _some_ ladies of high rank--has been in public with them--and, yet,
never goes to the Drawing Rooms at St. James's. This question is sent
for publication by a person who pays no regard to the idle reports of
the day, and wishes to have the mystery cleared up.'

The house which Weltje had taken for His Royal Highness had the Castle
Tavern on one side of its grounds, and Grove House on the other, and
considerable alterations were made in it since it was leased to Weltje
from Mr. Kempe for £150 per annum with the option of purchase (which
was exercised) for £3,000, and the house and gardens were leased by
Weltje to the Prince for a term of twenty-one years from Christmas,

When the King was taken ill with his first attack of mental aberration,
in November, 1788, the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert came up to London,
a fact which the pictorial satirist soon got hold of; and a print
was published in that month, in which the King was depicted as being
in bed, a Bishop reading prayers for his restoration to health. This
solemn group is interrupted by the Prince of Wales bursting into the
room, calling out, 'Damme, come along, I'll see if the old fellow's----
or not!' Following him are George Hanger, with a bottle, and Sheridan.
To point this satire the more, a picture of the Prodigal Son hangs on
the wall.

Miss Burney gives us an account of the King's seizure and of the
arrival of the Prince, and although his conduct was not as heartless
as shown in the etching, it was bad enough. 'Soon after, suddenly
arrived the Prince of Wales. He came into the room. He had just quitted
Brighthelmstone. Something passing within seemed to render this meeting
awfully distant on both sides. She (the Queen) asked him if he should
not return to Brighthelmstone. He answered, yes, the next day.'

But this he did not do, as there were already rumours of a Regency, yet
his conduct towards his father seems to have been very bad. Grenville,
writing to his brother, the Duke of Buckingham, November 23, 1788,
says: 'Think of the Prince of Wales introducing Lord Lothian into the
King's room when it was darkened, in order that he might hear his
ravings at the time that they were at the worst. Do not let this fact
come from you; it begins to be pretty well known here, and, no doubt,
will find its way to Ireland; but it is important that we should not
seem to spread the knowledge of anything which can injure his Royal
Highness's character in public opinion.'[52]

There was much intriguing as to a Regency, the Ministry at first
suggesting that the Government should be carried on by a Commission;
but on December 30, 1788, Pitt wrote a letter to the Prince of Wales,
stating that His Majesty's Ministers had come to the conclusion to
offer him the Regency of the kingdom, under certain restrictions.

The Prince replied at once, expressing his sorrow at the occasion
of his proposed elevation, but accepting the trust. Of course, this
suggestion of the Government could not be acted upon without mature
deliberation, and it was not until January 30, 1789, that the following
resolutions of the Lords and Commons were presented to the Prince
of Wales: 'That his Royal Highness be empowered to exercise the
Royal authority under the title of Regent.'--'That the power given,
should not extend to the granting of any Peerage, except to the Royal
issue.'--'Nor to the grant of any office in reversion, or any office,
salary, or pension, than during his Majesty's pleasure; or to the
granting his Majesty's real, or personal estates.'--'That the care of
his Majesty be committed to the Queen, who should nominate all persons
to the offices in the household.'

Needless to say, the Prince made no objections, and by February 12
the Regency Bill had gone through all its stages in the House of
Commons, and was ordered to be sent to the Lords. But the proverbial
'slip 'twixt cup and lip' occurred. On February 19 the Lord Chancellor
informed the House of Lords that, according to the report of his
physicians, the King's health was steadily mending, and they therefore
abstained from further consideration of the Regency Bill.

The physicians' hopes were fully justified; the King got better
rapidly, and on February 27 his perfect recovery was announced,
the prayer for the same was discontinued, and a form of prayer of
thanksgiving for his restoration to health was ordered to be read in
all churches and chapels throughout England and Wales. Rejoicings and
illuminations were the order of the day, and on April 23, the day of
general thanksgiving, the King, Queen, and Royal Family went in state
to St. Paul's Cathedral, to return thanks to God for His mercy in
giving the King his health and reason once again.

Naturally, there were satirical prints going about, but not so many as
might be thought. There was one in February, 1789, called 'The Rival
Queens. _A Political Heat for Lege and Grege._' Madame Schwellenburg,
the Queen's Mistress of the Robes, armed with the Lord Chancellor's
mace, is making a desperate onslaught on Mrs. Fitzherbert, who defends
herself with a crucifix. Pitt officiates as second to the German lady,
and Florizel performs the same office towards his wife.

On April 29 appeared 'The Funeral Procession of Miss Regency,' in which
are numerous figures. On the coffin are a dice-box and two dice, the
Prince of Wales's coronet, and an empty purse. The chief mourner is
Mrs. Fitzherbert, who is in deep grief at the loss of her position.
Of course Fox and Sheridan are among the mourners, as are also the
Prince's household, amongst whom is the 'Clerk of the Dish Clouts,'
Weltje, who laments:

    'Vor by Got, ve do pine, and in sadness ve tink
    Dat it's long till de Prince vear de Crown.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[50] Mistress of George II.

[51] This is the first instance I have met with in which it is so
called.--J. A.

[52] 'Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets of George III.,' by the Duke of
Buckingham and Chandos; London, 1853, vol. ii., p. 11.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Prince as a musician--A _bon-mot_ of his--Lady Lade--Her husband,
 Sir John--The Prince's pecuniary difficulties--His dealings with his
 jeweller--The latter's story--Another financial mess.

The King being ordered to Weymouth, the Prince left, early in July, for
Brighton. We do not hear much of him there, and more of what we read is
pleasant. Fitzgerald[53] says: 'On one of the evenings at the Pavilion
(one of Sir P. Francis's daughters reports) his Royal Highness,
after dinner, having proposed music, and being actively engaged in
performing, with Mr. Francis and some other person, the pretty hunting
trio of "Azioli," of which the burden is _Ritorneremo a Clori_. But the
story is amusing, and bears such a favourable testimony to the Prince's
good humour, that the lady must be allowed to tell it herself.

'"It is well known that, to an excessive love of music, he added much
real taste as an amateur, and some power as a performer; but his
execution was not particularly good, and Mr. Francis, Sir Philip's
son, with whom he frequently sang, was, sometimes, comically struck
by the loudness of his voice, and his peculiar manner. On one of the
above-mentioned evenings at the Pavilion, his Royal Highness, after
dinner, having proposed music, and being actually engaged in performing
with Mr. Francis and some other person the pretty hunting trio of
'Azioli,' of which the burden is _Ritorneremo a Clori al tramontar
del di_, Mr. Francis suddenly found the full face of the Prince,
somewhat heated by the eagerness of his performance, in immediate
contact with his own; and this circumstance, combined with that of
the loud bass tones in which his Royal Highness was singing the words
_Ritorneremo a Clori_, striking him in some ludicrous point of view,
he became absolutely unable to resist the effect on his nerves, and
burst out laughing. The Prince evidently perceived that his own singing
had produced the unseasonable laughter; but, instead of showing a
displeasure at a rudeness which, however involuntary, would have been
resented by many far less illustrious persons, he only called the
offender to order with the words 'Come, come, Philip!' his countenance
betraying, at the same time, a strong inclination to join in the laugh
himself; and the trio proceeded to a conclusion. Sir Philip (adds his
daughter) by his original humour, and great powers of conversation,
was, often, the life of the Pavilion; though his temperate habits made
the excesses occasionally committed at the Prince's table distasteful
to him; and his royal host, perceiving him ready to drop asleep when
the revels were long protracted, would say, 'We must carry grandpapa
away to bed.'"'

The same ready good humour is shown in a pleasant scene which took
place at the Pavilion. Cricket was often played on the lawn, and
the dinner which followed was served in a marquee. On one of these
occasions the Duke of York and Sheridan fell into dispute on some point
of the game. Sheridan at length angrily told the Duke 'that he was not
to be talked out of his opinion there, or anywhere else; and that, at
play, all men were on a par.' The Duke was evidently about to make some
peculiarly indignant reply, when the Prince stood up and addressed them

Dr. Croly, in his 'Life of George IV.,' tells the remainder of the
story: 'The narrator of the circumstance, a person of rank, who was
present, himself one of the most attractive public speakers of the day,
has often declared that he never, on any occasion, saw any individual,
under the circumstances, acquit himself with more ability. The speech
was of some length--ten or fifteen minutes; it was alternately playful
and grave, expressed with perfect self-possession, and touching on the
occurrence of the game, the characters of both disputants, and the
conversation at the table, with the happiest delicacy and dexterity.
Among other points, the Prince made a laughing apology for Sheridan's
use of the phrase "on a par," by bidding his brother remember that
the impressions of school were not easily effaced; that Dr. Parr
had inflicted learning upon Sheridan; and that, like the lover in
_The Wonder_,[54] who mixes his mistress's name with everything,
and calls to his valet, "Roast me these Violantes," the name of Parr
was uppermost in Sheridan's sleep: he then ran into a succession of
sportive quotations of the word _par_, in the style of _Ludere par
impar, equitare in arundina longâ_, until the speech was concluded in
general gaiety, and the dispute was thought of no more.'

The rupture between the Prince and his father was complete, the Prince
refusing to visit him while he was stopping at Weymouth, but sending
the Duke of York instead; he pursued his course of folly at Brighton,
where Fox visited him, and they went to Lewes Races, where the Prince
was received by the High Sheriff of the county, attended by a host of
javelin men. Three ladies were conspicuous at these races for their
equipages, each drawn by four gray ponies--Mrs. Fitzherbert, the
Duchess of Rutland, and Lady Lade.

This latter was no fit companion for any decent woman. The first heard
of her was in St. Giles's, where she was said to be the mistress of
Jack Rann, commonly known as Sixteen String Jack, a highwayman, who was
executed in 1774. She married Sir John Lade, a boon companion of the
Prince, and his tutor in the art of driving. She was famous for her bad
language and skill in riding and driving. Of her the following lines
were written:

    'More than one steed Letitia's empire feels,
    Who sits triumphant o'er the flying wheels;
    And, as she guides them through th' admiring throng,
    With what an air she smacks the silken thong!
    Graceful as John, she moderates the reins;
    And whistles sweet her diuretic strains;
    Sesostris like, such charioteers as these,
    May drive six harness'd monarchs, if they please.'

Sir John Lade, of Haremere, was a mere country squire who, when he came
of age, inherited a fair fortune, which he soon dissipated. Mrs. Thrale
was his guardian, and it was when he attained his majority in 1780 that
Dr. Johnson wrote the following prophetic verses:

    'Long expected one and twenty,
      Ling'ring year, at length, is flown;
    Pride and pleasure, pomp and plenty,
      Great Sir John, are now your own.

    'Loosen'd from the minor's tether,
      Free to mortgage, or to sell;
    Wild as wind, and light as feather,
      Bid the sons of thrift farewell.

    'Call the Betsies, Kates and Jennies,
      All the names that banish care;
    Lavish of your grandsire's guineas,
      Show the spirit of an heir.

    'All that prey on vice and folly,
      Joy to see their quarry fly;
    There the gamester, light and jolly,
      There the lender, grave and sly.

    'Wealth, my lad, was made to wander,
      Let it wander as it will;
    Call the jockey, call the pander,
      Bid them come and take their fill.

    'When the bonny blade carouses,
      Pockets full--and spirits high--
    What are acres? What are houses?
      Only dirt, or wet and dry.

    'Should the guardian friend or mother
      Tell the woes of wilful waste;
    Scorn their counsels, scorn their pother,
      You can hang, or drown, at last.'

He kept race-horses, and lost. He gambled and betted on anything. One
of his bets is somewhat amusing. It is in the _Times_ of October 2,
1795: 'A curious circumstance occurred here (Brighton) yesterday. Sir
JOHN LADE, for a trifling wager, undertook to carry Lord CHOLMONDELY,
on _his back_, from opposite the Pavilion, twice round the Steine.
Several ladies attended to be the spectators of this extraordinary
feat of the dwarf carrying a giant. When his Lordship declared
himself ready, Sir JOHN desired him to STRIP. "Strip!" exclaimed the
other: "why, surely you promised to carry me in my clothes!" "By no
means," exclaimed the Baronet. "I engaged to carry _you_, but not an
inch of clothes. So, therefore, my Lord, make ready, and let us not
_disappoint_ the ladies." After much laughable altercation, it was, at
length, decided that Sir JOHN had won his wager, the Peer declining to
exhibit _in puris naturalibus_.'

When he got poor, I presume the Prince cut him, for he ended his days
as groom and coachman to the Earl of Anglesey.

The two following paragraphs from the _St. James's Chronicle_ for 1789
tell us something about the Prince's doings at Brighton:

_August 13-15._--'The Prince of Wales's birthday, on Thursday, was very
splendidly celebrated at Brighthelmstone.--_St. George_, the famous
fencing master, exhibited several trials of his skill, with two French
masters, before the Prince and a large company, in a pavilion and
marquees pitched about a mile from the town: an ox was roasted whole,
and given to the populace. The Duke of Clarence gave prizes to several
sailing boats, which afforded much diversion--the company dined in
the pavilion, and the evening concluded with a supper and ball at the
Castle Inn, given by the Dukes of York and Clarence.--The illuminations
were universal and elegant.'

_September 5-8._--'The foundation for the Prince's dog-kennel was laid,
last week, in the _North fields_ near Brighton.--Six or seven acres of
these fields are to be inclosed as a paddock, with the building in the
centre, which is to be finished in a month.'

Yes, the repentant prodigal had forgotten all his promises of never
again running into debt. He was deeply dipped, and yet he kept altering
his 'Marine Pavilion,' and now was building most expensive stables.
He tried to borrow money on post-obits, and Weltje was the go-between
with the money-lenders. A Mr. Cator lent £10,000 on condition of being
repaid treble the amount, and about £30,000 was raised in £100 bonds,
repayable in twelve years, which bonds were signed by the Prince,
the Duke of York, and Prince William. They then tried to raise about
£350,000 abroad on the security of the Duchy of Cornwall and the
Bishopric of Osnaburg, and it is said they received over £100,000 in
cash and jewels; but the story of this loan is a long one, and does not
come within the scope of this book.

Here is a story of his dealings with his jeweller Jefferys, whom he
eventually ruined by not paying him, told by himself.[55] He was
appointed jeweller to the Prince in 1788 or 1789.

'About the period to which I allude, the Prince of Wales (upon Mr.
Gray[56] requiring a settlement of the great demands he had upon his
Royal Highness) was so much displeased at that circumstance, as to
cease giving him farther employment. His Royal Highness then sent for
me to Carlton House, and conferred upon me (most unfortunately) the
favour which he had withdrawn from Mr. Gray. From this time, not a day
passed, for several years, in which, neglecting any general business, I
did not spend half my time at Carlton House; and in which some entries
were not made in my books of large amounts for goods sold to his Royal

       *       *       *       *       *

'On the twenty eighth day of January, One Thousand Seven Hundred and
Ninety, the Prince of Wales sent for me to Carlton House, at a much
earlier hour in the morning than he was accustomed to do; and, taking
me into an inner apartment, with very visible marks of agitation in
his countenance and manner, said, he had a great favour to ask of me,
which, if I could accomplish, would be doing him the greatest service,
and he should ever consider it accordingly. I replied, that I feared
what his Royal Highness might consider a great favour done towards him,
must be more than my limited means could accomplish; but, in all that
I could do, I was entirely at his service, and requested his Royal
Highness to name his commands.

'His Royal Highness then proceeded to state, that a creditor of Mrs.
Fitzherbert had made a very peremptory demand for the payment of about
sixteen hundred pounds: that Mr. Weltje had been sent by his Royal
Highness to the creditor making such demand, to desire that it might
be placed to the Prince's account: this, the creditor refused to do,
on the ground that Mrs. Fitzherbert, _being a woman of no rank, or
consideration, in the eye of the law, as to personal privilege, was
amenable to an immediate process_, which was not the case with his
Royal Highness. This, the Prince stated, to have caused in his mind the
greatest uneasiness, for fear of the consequences that might ensue; as
it was not in the power of his Royal Highness to pay the money then,
or to name an earlier period for so doing than three or four months.
The request, therefore, that his Royal Highness had to make to me was,
that I would interfere upon the occasion, and prevent, if possible, any
personal inconvenience to Mrs. Fitzherbert, which would be attended
with extreme mortification to the feelings of his Royal Highness.

'I assured his Royal Highness that I would do all I could in the
business; and I was appointed to attend, with the result of my
endeavours, at Carlton House, the next morning. I did attend, as
appointed, and presented the Prince of Wales with a receipt for the
whole sum:--_fifteen hundred and eighty-five pounds, eleven shillings,
and sevenpence, which I had, that morning, paid, being the only
effectual means of pacifying the creditor, and removing from the mind
of his Royal Highness, the anxiety he appeared so strongly to labor

'His Royal Highness was unbounded in his expressions of satisfaction at
what I had so promptly accomplished, and in his assurances of future
support, a support so strongly made, and so frequently repeated, as
well as accompanied with such _apparent_ marks of sincerity, as to have
fixed my faith, (even had it been wavering) in the entire confidence I
might place in all his promises and assurances.

'But what will the world think, or say, when I inform them, that in ten
long years of the most bitter adversity, occasioned by a continuance of
similar confidence, I have repeatedly applied, in vain, to his Royal
Highness for relief, even in any degree to which he might have been
induced, or enabled to have afforded it me, but he has ever been deaf
to my entreaties.

'The moment misfortune overtook me, the Prince of Wales totally
deserted me; and my services, and his promises, were then alike

       *       *       *       *       *

'In the afternoon of the same day on which I had so highly gratified
the Prince, and heard from his lips such kind expressions of regard;
the Prince of Wales came to my house, in Piccadilly, and brought with
him, Mrs. Fitzherbert, for the express purpose, as His Royal Highness
condescendingly said, that she might, herself, thank me for the great
and essential service I had, that morning, rendered to her, by the
relief my exertions had produced on the minds of his Royal Highness and
Mrs. Fitzherbert. And his Royal Highness continued to repeat the same
expressions of satisfaction, and assurances of support, which he had
so abundantly made use of, in the former part of the day.'

Huish[57] is responsible for the following: 'The person of Mrs.
Fitzherbert was, one morning, taken in execution for a debt of £1,825,
_the Prince of Wales being in the house at the time_. The writ being
returnable on the morrow, and no bail being available, the money must
be paid, or the lady conveyed to prison. The Prince lost not a moment
in making the application to his customary resources, but they appeared
to be, most unaccountably, hermetically closed against him. In some
instances, the most shallow excuses were returned; in others, the
impossibility of supplying so large a sum on so short a notice; all of
which the Prince knew to be false, and, therefore, he began, justly,
to suspect that there was some secret machinery at work to prevent the
necessary supplies from being advanced.

'In this emergency, Mr. C----l was despatched to an eminent pawnbroker
in Fleet Street, who at that time was in the habit of lending large
sums of money to the nobility, on their plate and jewels, and who
was the actual holder of the celebrated jewels of the Duchess of
Devonshire, the publicity of which hurried her prematurely to the
grave. On the present occasion, Mr. Parker, the pawnbroker, lost no
time in repairing to Park Lane, where the unfortunate lady was in
the custody of the sheriff's officers; and, here, a new difficulty
presented itself in the way of her emancipation. The harpies of the
law objected to any part of the plate or jewels being deposited in
the hands of Mr. Parker, until their demand was satisfied. On the
other hand, the wily pawnbroker refused to advance the money until
the property was placed in his hands, as he did not know but what
there might be other actions in reserve, for the liquidation of
which the property in the house might prove inadequate. Under these
circumstances, C----l was secretly despatched to Carlton House,
with instructions to bring away with him a particular casket, which
contained the Prince's state jewels, which, although exceeding in value
ten times the amount of the sum which he had to pay, was borne away by
the pawnbroker to his depository in Fleet Street, but which, however,
was redeemed on the following day by an advance which the Prince
obtained from the wealthy Jew in St. Mary Axe.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[53] 'Life of George IV.,' by Percy Fitzgerald; London, 1881, 8vo.,
vol. i., p. 238.

[54] By Mrs. Centlivre, 1714. Revived by Garrick in 1757.

[55] 'A Review of the Conduct of the Prince of Wales in his various
transactions with Mr. Jefferys,' by N. Jefferys; London, 1806, 8vo.,
eighth edition.

[56] The Prince's former jeweller.

[57] 'Memoirs of George IV.,' vol. i., p. 266.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Rowlandson and Brighton--Poem on the Prince's birthday, 1790--Lord
 Barrymore--Anecdotes respecting him and his family.

From the pencil of Rowlandson the caricaturist, who with his friend
Wigstead, a Bow Street magistrate, went a trip to Brighton in 1789, we
have an excellent picture of the Pavilion, as it then was, and a view
of the Steyne.

Their opinion of the building is that 'the _tout ensemble_ is, in
short, perfect Harmony. The whole was executed by Mr. Holland, under
the immediate inspection and Direction of Mr. Weltjie, whose Attachment
to his Royal Master was faithful and disinterested.' In the same book
Rowlandson gives us a sketch of the beach at Brighton at the same

On July 23, 1790, the Prince went to Brighton for the season, being
preceded by a day or two by the Duke of York, and his birthday was kept
on August 17 in a most festive fashion, immortalized in verse in the
_Sussex Weekly Advertiser_ of August 23:

    'HAIL BRIGHTON'S DOWN! Your velvet green,
    Hill, ocean, dale, each varying scene,
    The distant flock, the sloping mount,
    And spring, of sparkling HEALTH, the fount;
    But chief, the dimpling Sea, where lave
    A thousand _Naiads_ in the wave.
    Whilst, rising from th' abyss below,
    The quicken'd vitals warmer glow,
    And nerves, new strung, with vigour dance,
    And every pleasing thought enhance,
    And make men fonder of their lives,
    And of their SWEETHEARTS, and their--WIVES--
      These are the common joys and boast
    Of BRIGHTON'S full frequented coast,
    So honoured by the gay and fair,
    By _Britain's_ Princes, and her HEIR.
      The Morning breaks--of jocund bells
    The wat'ry sound melodious tells
    The sports, that banishing delay,
    Are treasured for the chosen day.
      See, borne upon the smiling tide,
    The Mariner triumphant ride,
    And Cricketers, in Royal Match,
    Pray Fortune for a tingling catch.
      Two roasting steers, with novel sight
    The neighbourhood to feast invite;
    Groan solid beams beneath the weight,
    Hinds crowding round, with joy elate.
    And now they're done--from knives and cleavers
    Some fill their _pockets_--some their _beavers_;
    Loaves plentiful, in show'rs are thrown,
    And pails of ale wash clean all down.
    Better, like manna, loaves to rain,
    Than flams prepare 'gainst haughty Spain;
    Cannons to ram, but their mouths muzzle,
    And even _Solomon_ to puzzle:
    And like poor mice, when caught by cats,
    Britons to turn to _Baltic_ rats.
      Meanwhile the FOUNDER circles round,
    Six jetty steeds before him bound;
    And while the jolly huzzahs rise,
    Of joy unfeign'd, and reach the skies,
    Glad shiv'ring transports round him fly
    And the tear trembles in his eye;
    And YORK'S high Duke, with lively glee
    Views, turned to spits, a mighty tree.
      Now, music of two princely bands,
    Sudden, attention mute commands;
    Alternate strains float sweet in air,
    And thrill the breast of every Fair,
    Bears to each manly heart their charms,
    And all the trembling soul alarms.
      When evening mild, at length invades
    And spreads o'er earth and sea her shades,
    Chequer well fancied lights her face,
    Tell _Britain's charming Hope and Grace_.
    Then hasten some to laugh their hour,
    At the gay Stage's mirthful pow'r;
    Whilst gentry of the nobler sort
    To a grand dance and treat resort.
      Ah! what avail the CASTLE'S rays,
    Of British beauty to the blaze,
    Or the bright show of mimic fire,
    To living flames of high desire?
    See, cull'd from Cytherea's dove,
    Thick, nodding feathers scatter love;
    Beware the gem, the artful wreath
    Where all Arabia's spices breathe,
    The envious glove, the melting eye;
    Nor dare the heaving neck descry,
    Nor quiv'ring ancle's sprightly bound
    To Harmony's enraptured sound--
    Or, vent'rous youths, too sure you'll find
    Your _hearts_ and _souls_ are left behind.
      Did _Anstie's_ Muse to me belong,
    _Brighton_ should rival _Bath_ in song;
    Since, ocean sprung, great Beauty's Queen
    Delights to trip along the _Steine_.'

It was in this year that one of the Prince's boon companions, Richard
Barry, seventh Lord Barrymore, made himself somewhat notorious at
Brighton. He had just come of age, and into a fortune of £20,000
a year, of which he tried to make ducks and drakes as quickly as
possible, especially on the turf. A characteristic anecdote of him is
related in the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_, of June 21, 1790: 'Lord
Barrymore had his watch taken from him at Ascot Heath races. He missed
it immediately, and followed the fellow, who stopped, and entered into
conversation with a well-known _boxer_. As soon as the conversation
between these _gentlemen_ ended, his Lordship went to the _champion
of the fist_, and took his watch. The latter expostulating, Lord
Barrymore informed him that his _friend_ had just taken his watch,
and that, if he would recover it, he should have his own. The _Knight
of the Knuckle_ soon regained his Lordship's watch from the pupil of
_Barrington_, and retrieved his own.'

In compliment to his manners and language, his lordship was generally
known as _Hell-gate_; his next brother, the Hon. and Rev. Augustus
Barry, was called _Newgate_, because he had been 'in prisons oft';
and their younger brother, the Hon. Henry Barry,[58] _Cripple-gate_,
because of some physical deformity. To complete this delightful
family, there was a sister, who from her habit of swearing was called

We read in the _St. James's Chronicle_, July 29-31, 1790: 'A
pugilistick _rencontre_ took place, a few days since, at Brighton,
between Lord Barrymore and young Fox, son to the manager of the
Theatre, in which the conduct of some of the parties is represented
as very little to their credit.' The _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_,
August 2, says: 'The Rencounter which took place on the Steine at
Brighton, on Monday evening last, and the cause of it have been grossly
misrepresented in the London papers; they were set out with the wrong
day: but, as Lord Barrymore has, through the goodness of the Prince,
forgiven the insult he received, we shall not revive it by a relation
of its attendant circumstances.'

The caricaturist soon caught hold of it, and we have 'SCRUB and
BONIFACE, or, Three Brave Lads, against one poor Roscius--London,
pub. Aug. 9 by Steine Briton, Newgate Inv^t, Cripple-gate Direxit,
Hell-gate Fecit.' Mr. Fox, son to the manager of the Brighton theatre
is on the ground, calling out, 'Foul, foul.' The Earl of Barrymore
is still raining blows upon him, and kicking him, encouraged by his
two brothers, one of whom says, 'B----t me, I'll lay 3 to 1 we lick
him.' The other calls out, 'Bloody Newgate to me, if I don't take his
father's licence.' Sheridan deprecates with, 'Dam it, Newgate, fight
like a man, no kicking.' The Duke of York, looking on, thus alludes to
his duel with Colonel Lenox, 'Fie donc--If he had hit my head, instead
of my curl, I would have fought fair.'

_The World_ of August 2, 1790, says: 'A report was circulated in town,
that it was CHARLES FOX, and not the Manager's Son, who fought Lord
Barrymore at Brighton. The report gained credit from the addition that
the parties, immediately after the battle, _coalesced_.'

But fisticuffs were fashionable, _vide_ the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_
of August 9, 1790: 'Between the heats, on Saturday, a Boxing Match took
place between a young man of this town, and one of the _black legged
society_; which, after a contest of about half an hour, terminated in
favour of the latter. The number of spectators, we should think, were
not less than 2,000.

'In making the ring, several scuffles ensued, that had like to have
produced more battles. Captain Aston, who, lately, fought a duel, was
with difficulty prevented in engaging in a conflict of the knuckle.

'One gentleman, who had struck a youth, as was supposed by some others
that saw it, without provocation, was set upon, and had his shirt
almost torn from his back.

'We could but both admire and applaud the singular good humour of
the Duke of York, during the above battle. His Royal Highness, with
a degree of freedom and politeness that might not have been expected
even from a private gentleman, permitted _any one who chose it_, to
take the benefit of his lofty Phaeton to see the fight, and actually
accommodated, in, upon, and about it, near 30 persons, himself holding
the reins, and observing the utmost care that the horses did not
move forward, to endanger their lives and limbs, as on that, alone,
depended the safety of many, who, either to gratify their Broughtonian
curiosity, or ambitious desire to partake of so much of the Royal
favour, had placed themselves on the wheels and every other part of
the carriage, till it was completely covered.

'On the race-ground, on Saturday, Mr. Beeby, of Ringmer, near this
town, feeling himself affronted at some words spoken by Lord Barrymore,
told his Lordship, he should, in consequence, expect to see him the
next morning. But an explanation, we hear, afterwards took place,
and the matter was amicably adjusted; the offensive words not being
directed to Mr. Beeby.'

Here is another of his fights recorded in the same paper of September
19, 1791: 'A circumstance occurred, last week, near the Steine at
Brighton, that precipitated Lord Barrymore and Mr. Donadieu, a
perfumer, in London, into a pugilistic encounter; but his Lordship,
after a few rounds, being likely to obtain no advantage in single
combat, an interference ensued, that soon brought Mr. Donadieu into
a situation so perilous, that he summoned the assistance of the
spectators by the cry of _murder_, which so operated on the humanity
of a young man, a linen draper, present, that he remonstrated on the
violence offered to Mr. D., and, in consequence, got very roughly
handled. The matter, we hear, has since been compromised with the
perfumer to his satisfaction. But the linen draper, we understand,
is seeking redress through the medium of the law.' There is another
paragraph in the next week's paper, confirming the intention of the
linen-draper to go to law.

The same newspaper of September 26 gives the following story, which has
been universally credited to Lord Barrymore: 'A coffin has been borne
about by men, through the streets of Brighton, for several evenings,
in dismal annoyance to the peaceable inhabitant, and valetudinarian
visitant. The _Merry Mourners_ happened, unfortunately, to call at
one, among many other houses, where pregnancy gave a natural increase
of sensibility to the nerves of a poor woman, who opened the door at
their wanton summons, and, soon after, by miscarriage, produced a
premature candidate for a coffin, in melancholy earnest. An Italian,
who, having heard, or, perhaps read, that Thespis, daubed with wine
lees, squeaked his satire from a cart, got into this comic coffin, in
order to _grin_ a death's head moral to mortality. When his horizontal
site got tiresome, Signor Cataletto resigned in favour of another, a
dependent of the same household, who was conveyed in the coffin to
the churchyard, whither, by consent between the parties, one of them,
soon after, conducted a fair companion. On taking their stand near the
coffin, Master _Dead-alive_ rose, and sat up therein. The affrighted
_Rep_, thinking it was some ghost which rose to avenge the profanation
intended, scoured over the tombs with the pace of _Camilla_. Mr. O.
a gentleman, having been honoured, one evening, with a visit by this
drear procession, sallied out with a brace of pistols. They fled--but
the bearers were, at last, obliged to drop their sable burden. The
spirited pursuer soon brought the cased menial to own, that though so
confined, he was yet alive, and belonged to the Wargrave[59] family.'

One who knew him well thus describes him: 'His Lordship was alternately
between the gentleman and the black guard, the refined wit and the most
vulgar bully were equally well known in St. James's and St. Giles's.
He could fence, dance, drive, or drink, box, or bet with any man in
the kingdom. He could discourse slang as trippingly as French, relish
porter after port, and compliment her ladyship, at a ball, with as much
ease and brilliance, as he could bespatter in blood in a cider cellar.'

Henry Angelo,[60] the fencing master, tells many anecdotes of him;
and, as he was very frequently in his company, owing to their mutual
taste for amateur theatricals, they may be taken as authentic. I will
only transcribe two of them: 'The year after I played Mother Cole,
at Brighton, I received an invitation from Lord Barrymore to his
house, then upon the Steyne. One night, when the champagne prevented
the evening finishing tranquilly, Lord Barrymore proposed, as there
was a guitar in the house, that I should play on it. I was to be
the musician, and he, dressed in the cook-maid's clothes, was to
sing "Ma chère amie." Accordingly, taking me to another part of the
Steyne, under Mrs. Fitzherbert's window, (it was then three o'clock)
he sang, whilst I played the accompaniment. The next day, he told me
(quizzing, I should think,) that the Prince said, "Barrymore, you may
make yourself a fool as much as you please; but, if I had known it was
Angelo, I would have horsewhipped him into the sea."'[61]

'Lord Barrymore's fondness for eccentricities ever engaged his mind.
Whether in London, or at Wargrave, 'twas all the same, always in high
spirits, thinking of what fun he should have during the day. I shall
begin with London. Seated, after dinner, at eleven o'clock, on one of
the hottest evenings in July, he proposed that the whole party should
go to Vauxhall. The carriage being ordered, it was directly filled
inside; and the others, outside, with more wine than wit, made no
little noise through the streets. We had not been long at Vauxhall,
when Lord Barrymore called out to a young clergyman, some little
distance from us; who, when he approached, and was asked, "Have you
had any supper?" to our surprise, he answered, "Vy, as how, my Lord,
I have not, as yet, had none." A waiter passing by at the time, Lord
Barrymore said, "You know me; let that gentleman have whatever he calls
for:" when he told the parson to fall to, and call for as much arrack
punch as he pleased. "Thank ye, my Lord," said he, "for I begins to be
hungry, and I don't care how soon I pecks a bit."

'Lord Barrymore had, that morning, unknown to us, contrived to dress
Tom Hooper, the tin man, (one of the first pugilists at that time), as
a clergyman, to be in waiting at Vauxhall, in case we should get into
any dispute. This fistic knight now filled the place of a lacquey, and
was constantly behind the carriage, a sworn votary of black eyes and
disfigured faces. His black clothes, formal hat, hair powdered and
curled round, so far disguised him, that he was unknown to us all,
at first, though Hooper's queer dialect must soon have discovered
him to the waiters. This was a _ruse de guerre_ of Lord Barrymore's.
About three o'clock, whilst at supper, Lord Falkland, Henry Barry, Sir
Francis Molineux, etc., were of our party; there was, at this time,
a continual noise and rioting, and the arrack punch was beginning to

'On a sudden, all were seen running towards the orchestra, the whole
garden seemed to be in confusion, and our party, all impatience,
sallied out, those at the farther end of the box, walking over the
table, kicking down the dishes. It seems that the effects of the punch
had not only got into Hooper's head, but had exerted an influence
over his fists, for he was for fighting with everybody. A large ring
was made; and, advancing in a boxing attitude, he threatened to fight
anyone; but all retired before him.

'Felix M'Carthy, a tall, handsome Irishman, well known by everybody at
that time, soon forced his way through the crowd, and collared him, at
the same time saying, "You rascal, you are Hooper the boxer; if you
don't leave the garden this instant, I'll kick you out." The affrighted
crowd, who, before, retreated when he approached them, now came
forward; when Hooper, finding himself surrounded, and hearing a general
cry of "Kick him out," made his retreat as fast as possible, thus
avoiding the fury of those who would not have spared him out of the
gardens, if he had been caught. We found him, at five in the morning,
behind Lord Barrymore's carriage, with the coachman's great coat on,
congratulating himself upon having avoided the vengeance of those to
whom, a short time previously, he had been an object of fear.'[62]

Lord Barrymore met with a sad fate on March 6, 1793, at the early age
of twenty-four. He was an officer in the 2nd or Queen's Regiment, and,
in pursuance of his duty, was escorting some French prisoners to Dover.
He had kindly halted by the wayside, and treated everybody at an inn,
when, on resuming the march, being tired, he got into his curricle,
driven by his servant, he himself smoking a pipe of tobacco. A loaded
gun which was placed between them, slipping down to the bottom of the
carriage, by some mischance went off, and lodged its contents in his
head, the charge entering at his cheek and coming out at the upper part
of his skull. He was buried at Wargrave, and the _Annual Register_ says
of him: 'He died in a few minutes, and so finished a short, foolish,
and dissipated life, which had passed very discreditably to his rank as
a peer, and still more so as a member of society.'

He was succeeded in his title by his brother Henry (Cripplegate), who
had neither the brains nor the _bonhomie_ of Hellgate. He is thus
described by Captain Gronow:[63]

'This nobleman came of a very old family, and, when of age, succeeded
to a fine estate. He acquired no small degree of notoriety from his
love of pugilism and cockfighting; but his _forte_ lay in driving, and
few coachmen on the northern road could "tool" a four-in-hand like him.
His Lordship was one of the founders of the "Whip Club." The first time
I ever saw Lord Barrymore was, one fine evening, while taking a stroll
in Hyde Park. The weather was charming, and a great number of the
_bon-ton_ had assembled to witness the departure of the Four-in-hand
Club. Conspicuous among all the "turn-outs" was that of his Lordship,
who drove four splendid greys, unmatched in symmetry, action and
power. Lord Barrymore was, like Lord Byron and Sir Walter Scott,
club-footed. I discovered this defect, the moment he got off his box to
arrange something wrong in the harness. If there had been a competitive
examination, the prize of which would be given to the most proficient
in slang and vulgar phraseology, it would have been safe to back his
Lordship as the winner, against the most foul-mouthed of costermongers;
for the way he blackguarded his servants, for the misadjustment of
a strap, was horrifying. On returning home, I dressed, and went to
the Club to dine, where I alluded to the choice morsels of English
vernacular that had fallen from the noble whip's mouth, in addressing
his servants, and was assured that such was his usual language when out
of temper.

'In addition to his "drag" in the Four-in-hand Club, Lord Barrymore
sported a very pretty "Stanhope," in which he used to drive about town,
accompanied by a little boy, whom the world denominated his "tiger." It
was reported that Lord Barrymore had, in his younger days, been taken
much notice of by the Prince Regent; in fact, he had been the boon
companion of his Royal Highness, and had assisted at the orgies that
used to take place at Carlton House, where he was a constant visitor.
Notwithstanding this, Lord Barrymore was considered by those intimately
acquainted with him, to be a man of literary talents. He, certainly,
was an accomplished musician, a patron of the drama, and a great
friend of Cooke, Kean and the two Kembles; yet I have heard a host of
crimes attributed to his Lordship. This, if not a libel, showed that
the connection existing between the Prince Regent and this nobleman
could not have been productive of good results, and tends to confirm
the impression that the profligate life led by his Royal Highness, and
those admitted to his intimacy, was such, as to make it a matter of
wonder that such scandalous scenes of debauchery could be permitted in
a country like ours. Indeed, his acquaintance with the Prince ruined
Lord Barrymore both in mind, body and estate. While participating
in the Regent's excesses, he had bound himself to do his bidding,
however palpably iniquitous it might be; and, when he was discarded, in
accordance with that Prince's habit of treating his favourites, he left
Carlton House ruined in health and reputation.

'Lord Barrymore, during his last years, was a martyr to gout and other
diseases: and, on his deathbed, he was haunted by the recollection of
what he had been, and the thought of what he might have become: indeed,
the last scene of his profligate life, when tortured by the inward
reproaches of his accusing conscience, was harrowing in the extreme.'

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


[58] Gillray caricatured them on November 1, 1791, as 'Les Trois
Magots'--The Three Scamps.

[59] An allusion to Lord Barrymore's country house at Wargrave, near

[60] 'Reminiscences of Henry Angelo,' etc.; London, 1830, 8vo.

[61] _Ibid._, vol. ii., p. 94.

[62] 'Reminiscences of Henry Angelo,' etc.; London, 1830, 8vo., vol.
ii., p. 80.

[63] Captain Gronow's 'Last Recollections'; London, 1866, 8vo., p. 97.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Duke of Norfolk, and anecdotes respecting him--The Duke of
 Queensberry, and anecdotes--Charles Morris--The Prince out shooting--A
 grand review--French _émigrés_--Smuggling--The Prince's birthday,
 1792--Poem on the _émigrés_.

Another of the Prince's companions, until they quarrelled, was Charles
Howard, eleventh Duke of Norfolk, who possessed all the habits and
attributes of a hog.[64] Slovenly and dirty in his attire, he was
rarely washed, but when he was drunk, and then by his servants; and the
story is told that one day he was complaining to Dudley North that he
suffered terribly from rheumatism, for which he could find no cure, and
was answered by the question, 'Pray, my lord, did you ever try a clean

Hear what the anonymous writer of 'The Clubs of London,' says of the
old glutton, when writing of the Beefsteak Club. Speaking of a visit to
that club in 1799, he says:

'I do not recollect all who were present on that day, but I
particularly remarked John Kemble, Cobb of the India House, his Royal
Highness the Duke of Clarence, Sir John Cox Hippisley, Charles Morris,
Ferguson of Aberdeen, and his Grace of Norfolk. This nobleman took the
chair when the cloth was removed. It is a place of dignity, elevated
some steps above the table, and decorated with the various insignia of
the Society; amongst which was suspended the identical small cocked-hat
in which Garrick used to play the part of Ranger. As soon as the clock
strikes fives, a curtain draws up, discovering the kitchen, in which
the cooks are dimly seen plying their several offices, through a sort
of grating, with this appropriate motto from Macbeth inscribed over it


'But the steaks themselves;--they were of the highest order, and I
can never forget the goodwill with which they were devoured. In this
respect, no one surpassed the Duke of Norfolk. He was _totus in illis_.
Eyes, hands, mouth, were all intensely exercised; not a faculty played
the deserter. His appetite, literally, grew by what it fed on. Two or
three succeeding steaks, fragrant from the gridiron, rapidly vanished.
In my simplicity, I thought that his labours were over. I was deceived,
for I observed him rubbing a clean plate with a shallot, to prepare it
for the reception of another.

'A pause of ten minutes ensued, and his Grace rested upon his knife
and fork; but it was only a pause, and I found that there was a good
reason for it. Like the epic, a rump of beef has a beginning, a middle,
and an end. The palate of an experienced beef steaker can discern all
its progressive varieties, from the first cut to the last; and he
is a mere tyro in the business, who does not know, that towards the
middle, there lurks a fifth essence, the perfect ideal of tenderness
and flavour. Epicurism itself, in its fanciful combinations of culinary
excellence, never dreamed of anything surpassing it. For this cut, the
Duke had wisely tarried, and, for this, he re-collected his forces.
At last he desisted, but more, I thought, from fatigue than satiety:
_lassatus non satiatus_. I need not hint, that powerful irrigations of
port encouraged and relieved, at intervals, the organs engaged in this
severe duty.

'Nor could I help admiring that his Grace, proverbially an idolater
of the table, should have dined with such perfect complacency upon
beef steaks:--he, whose eyes and appetite roved every day amidst the
rich variety of a ducal banquet, to which ocean, air and earth, paid
their choicest contingents. His palate, I thought, would sigh, as
in captivity, for the range in which it was to expatiate. A member,
who sat next me, remarked that in beef steaks there was considerable
variety, and he had seen the most finished gourmands about town quite
delighted with the simple repast of the Society. But, with regard to
the Duke of Norfolk, he hinted that it was his custom, on a beef steak
day, to eat a preliminary dish of fish in his own especial box at the
Piazza, and then adjourn time enough for the beef steaks. He added
also, and I heartily concurred in his remark, that a mere dish of fish
could make no more difference to the iron digestion of his Grace, than
a tenpenny nail, more or less, in that of an ostrich.

'After dinner, the Duke was ceremoniously ushered to the chair, and
invested with an orange coloured ribbon, to which a silver medal, in
the form of a gridiron, was appended.... I was astonished to see how
little effect the sturdy port wine of the Society produced on his
adamantine constitution; for the same abhorrence of a vacuum, which had
disposed him to do such ample justice to his dinner, showed itself no
less in his unflinching devotion to the bottle.'[65]

Sir N. Wraxall, in his 'Historical Memoirs of My Own Time ... 1772 to
1784,' writes thus of him: 'Drunkenness was in him an hereditary vice,
transmitted down, probably, by his ancestors from the Plantagenet
times, and inherent in his formation. His father indulged equally
in it, but he did not manifest the same capacities as his son, in
resisting the effects of wine. It is a fact that, after laying his
father and all the guests under the table at the Thatched House Tavern
in St. James's Street, he has repaired to another festive party in the
vicinity, and there recommenced the unfinished convivial rites.'

The caricaturists openly made fun of his hoggish propensities, as did
the public press, _vide_ these two extracts from the _Times_ (March 1,


    'On one side, Duke Norfolk pushed forward with strife,
    FOR HE NEVER LIKED WATER throughout his whole life.'

_February 17, 1794._--'The Duke of NORFOLK is attacked by the
_Hydrophobia_, he can't bear the sight of _water_. His physicians have
prescribed WINE. The Marquis of _Stafford_, Marquis of _Bath_, and Lord
_Thurlow_ who were present, sanctified this prescription with their
most hearty consent.'

And yet it is over this wretched old sensualist that Thackeray, in his
'Four Georges,' gets maudlinly sentimental!

'And now I have one more story of the bacchanalian sort, in which
Clarence and York, and the very highest personage of the realm, the
great Prince Regent, all play parts. The feast took place at the
Pavilion at Brighton, and was described to me by a gentleman who was
present at the scene. In Gillray's caricatures, and amongst Fox's jolly
associates, there figures a great nobleman, the Duke of Norfolk, called
Jockey of Norfolk in his time, and celebrated for his table exploits.
He had quarrelled with the Prince, like the rest of the Whigs; but a
sort of reconciliation had taken place; and now, being a very old man,
the Prince invited him to dine and sleep at the Pavilion, and the old
Duke drove over from his Castle of Arundel with his famous equipage of
grey horses, still remembered in Sussex.

'The Prince of Wales had concocted, with his royal brothers, a notable
scheme for making the old man drunk. Every person at table was enjoined
to take wine with the Duke--a challenge which the old toper did not
refuse. He soon began to see that there was a conspiracy against him;
he drank glass for glass; he overthrew many of the brave. At last, the
First Gentleman of Europe proposed bumpers of brandy. One of the royal
brothers filled a great glass for the Duke. He stood up and tossed off
the drink. "Now," says he, "I will have my carriage, and go home." The
Prince urged upon him his previous promise to sleep under the roof
where he had been so generously entertained. "No," he said, he had had
enough of such hospitality. A trap had been set for him; he would leave
the place at once, and never enter its doors more.

'The carriage was called, and came; but, in the half hour's interval,
the liquor had proved too potent for the old man: his host's generous
purpose was answered, and the old man's grey head lay stupefied on the
table. Nevertheless, when his post chaise was announced, he staggered
to it as well as he could, and stumbling in, bade the postilions
drive to Arundel. They drove him for half an hour round and round
the Pavilion lawn; the poor old man fancied he was going home. When
he awoke that morning he was in bed at the Prince's hideous house at
Brighton. You may see the place now for sixpence: they have fiddlers
there every day; and, sometimes, buffoons and mountebanks hire the
Riding House, and do their tricks and tumbling there. The trees are
still there, and the gravel walks round which the poor old sinner was
trotted. I can fancy the flushed faces of the royal princes as they
support themselves at the portico pillars, and look on at old Norfolk's
disgrace; but I can't fancy how the man who perpetrated it continued to
be called a gentleman.'

Another of the Prince's intimates and visitor to the Pavilion was that
disreputable old roué William Douglas, third Earl of March and fourth
Duke of Queensberry, commonly called 'Old Q,' well known on the turf
as a racehorse-owner and betting man, a thorough gambler and finished

    'And there, insatiate yet with folly's sport,
    That polished, sin-worn fragment of the Court,
    The shade of Queensb'ry should with Clermont meet,
    Ogling and hobbling down St. James's Street.'

Nearly forty years older than the Prince, he was his Mentor in every
kind of vice, and rooked him of thousands of pounds at play and in

Thackeray, in 'The Virginians,' portrays him under no pseudonym. He
is called simply by his title of Lord March. In Chapter XXVI. Mr.
Warrington is at the White Horse Tavern, where are Lords Chesterfield
and March:

'"My Lord Chesterfield's deuce is deuce ace," says my Lord March. "His
Lordship can't keep away from the cards, or dice."

'"My Lord March has not one, but several devils. He loves gambling,
he loves horse-racing, he loves betting, he loves drinking, he loves
eating, he loves money, he loves women, and you have fallen into bad
company, Mr. Warrington, when you lighted upon his Lordship. He will
play you for every acre you have in Virginia."

'"With the greatest pleasure in life, Mr. Warrington!" interposes my

'"And for all your tobacco, and for all your spices, and for all your
slaves, and for all your oxen and asses."

       *       *       *       *       *

'"Unfortunately, my Lord, the tobacco, and the slaves, and the
asses, and the oxen, are not mine, as yet. I am just of age, and my
mother--scarce twenty years older--has quite as good chance of long
life as I have."

'"I will bet that you survive her. I will pay you a sum now, against
four times the sum to be paid at her death. I will set a fair sum over
this table against the reversion of your estate in Virginia at the old
lady's departure."'

Certainly, it is pleasant to turn from such companions of Florizel's to
another, whose only fault was his conviviality. I mean Captain Charles
Morris, punch-maker and bard to the Beefsteak Society, where he met
with the Prince, at his admission into the society, in 1785; and the
author of the 'Clubs of London' thus describes him:

[Illustration: CAPTAIN MORRIS.]

'But Charles Morris--can anyone think of the Beefsteaks without
including thy revered image in the picture? The faculties of man are
not equal to an abstraction so metaphysical. For many, many years,
during which several of man's autumnal generations have fallen, he has
been faithful to his post. He is the bard of the Society, who, in the
person of this, her favourite disciple, may still boast _non caret vate
sacro_, fortune has not yet struck this old deer of the forest. You
should have seen him, as was his wont at the period I am speaking of,
making the Society's punch, his ancient and rightful office. It was
pleasing to see him at his laboratory at the side board, stocked with
the varied products that enter into the composition of that nectareous
mixture; then, smacking an elementary glass, or two, and giving a
significant nod, the fiat of its excellence; and what could exceed the
extasy with which he filled the glasses that thronged round the
bowl; joying over its mantling beauties with an artist's pride, and
distributing the fascinating draught

  '"That flames and dances in its crystal bound."'

Morris's songs, which after his death were published in two volumes,
under the title of 'Lyra Urbanica,' rendered him a welcome guest at
Carlton House and the Pavilion; and, strange to say, he enjoyed the
favour and countenance of Florizel, both as Prince and King, until the
death of his royal patron.

We have a very good portrait of Captain Morris, dated July 1, 1789,
with the lines:

    'When the fancy stirring Bowl
      Wakes its World of pleasure,
    Glowing Visions gild my Soul,
      And Life's an endless treasure.'

These were some of the more notorious of the Prince's intimates at that
time; some of the minor ones may be mentioned later on.

We hear very little of the Prince at Brighton in 1791. He went there,
for the season, on June 13, and he soon had his old set round him. I
can only find one record of their doings, and that is in the _Sussex
Weekly Advertiser_ of September 26: 'Between six and seven o'clock,
on Monday morning last, the Prince, accompanied by Sir John Lade, in
his curricle, drove through this town, on a shooting excursion, to
Haremere, an estate belonging to Sir John; but no day ever proved more
unfavourable to the sport, for the gamekeeper who attended on the
occasion, with all his diligence, was unable to spring more than one
solitary bird. About seven in the evening his Royal Highness returned
here, and, after taking fresh horses, which were in readiness at the
White Hart, proceeded on to Brighton.

'Lady Lade and the Barrys had the honour to be of the party. Her
Ladyship, in rallying the Prince and Sir John, on their bad success,
observed she thought even an object as large as a goose, might, with
great safety, come in their way; but was, soon after, convinced of her
error, by being presented with a goose, which the Prince and Sir John
had shot in a neighbouring pond. The joke was accompanied with great
pleasantry; and the farmer, who owned the goose, had the benefit of it,
by receiving a handsome present from the Royal purse.'

In 1792 the Prince went down to Brighton earlier than usual--in
April--and his regiment was quartered there for the defence of the
coast; things on the Continent were very disturbed, and war with France
broke out the next year. We read in the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_ of
May 21: 'On Friday the 10th Regiment of Light Dragoons had a grand
field day, in honour of the Prince; after which, his Royal Highness
honoured the officers with his company to dinner, at the Old Ship
tavern; and, the next morning, set out for town. The Prince is expected
at Brighton this day, previous to the grand review of his regiment
to-morrow, by Gen. Lascelles, on the Downs, near that place. On Friday
next, the above regiment is to have another field day, in review order,
at which the Duke and Duchess of York are expected to be present.'

The French Revolution was seething, and prudent people were leaving
France. We read in the same newspaper: 'There has been, lately, a great
importation of _French Emigrants_ to Brighthelmstone. Last Wednesday,
twelve of them, seemingly persons of distinction, passed through this
town, in four post chaises, on their route to Dover, in order to embark
there for Brussels. Another cargo of the same quality, has also been
smuggled in an open boat to Bulverhithe,[66] on our coast, likewise on
their way to the ex-Princes.'

_En passant_, let me just give one anecdote of the manners and customs
of Brighton at this time _re_ smuggling (_Sussex Weekly Advertiser_,
August 27, 1792): 'On Wednesday last, a smuggling cutter, having been
closely chased at sea, in order to lighten her lading, threw 300 tubs
of spirits overboard, and, by means thereof, escaped her pursuers. The
Brighton fishermen seeing many of the tubs float on a very rough sea
before that town, swam out at the hazard of their lives and saved some
of them. Two Revenue officers, who looked on while these hardy sons of
Neptune buffeted the angry waves for the sake of their favourite grog,
endeavoured to seize the fruits of their labour. But, one of them, in
pursuing a woman, who had received a tub from her husband, or brother,
fell down the bank and broke one of his legs, in a manner that the
bone appeared through his stocking. The other, having gone down on the
beach, in order more effectually to intercept his prey, was hustled by
the crowd off one of the groins, and broke three of his ribs in the
fall. Honest Jack, seeing his foes thus disabled, secured every tub
that fell in his way, and in his dripping jacket, drank confusion to

On August 27 Florizel gave a fête to celebrate his birthday, and this
is a contemporary account of it (_Sussex Weekly Advertiser_, September
3): 'At the Prince's fête on Brighton Level, last Monday, no fewer than
four thousand persons were supposed to have attended; the majority to
feast their eyes, while the others feasted more substantially on a fine
ox, with a proportionate quantity of bread and strong beer prepared for
the occasion. The ox was taken from the fire about 3 o'clock, and very
skilfully dissected by Mr. Russel, at the bottom of a large pit, while
the spectators and expectants stood, in theatric gradation, on its
sloping sides. The day proved very favourable to this rustic festivity.
His Royal Highness's guests were very accommodating and good humoured
to each other, until the strong beer began to operate. The Prince and
Mrs. Fitzherbert looked on for a considerable time with great good
humour, and had the satisfaction of hearing that no accident nor injury
occurred in so large a concourse, except a few blackeyes and bloody
noses, at the close of the evening.'

The French Revolution grew apace. On August 10 the Royal Swiss Guards
were cut to pieces and 5,000 persons massacred. On August 26 there was
a decree of the National Assembly against the priests, and 40,000 of
them were exiled. From September 2 to 5 there was a fearful massacre in
Paris; the prisons were broken open, and 1,200 persons, including 100
priests, were slain.

Of these priests Charlotte Smith speaks in her poem called 'The

 'SCENE--_On the Cliffs to the Eastward of the Town of Brighthelmstone,
 in Sussex_.

 'TIME--_A morning in November, 1792_.

       *       *       *       *       *

      'Behold, in witness of this mournful truth,
    A group approach me, whose dejected looks,
    Sad Heralds of distress! proclaim them Men,
    Banish'd for ever, and for Conscience' sake,
    From their distracted Country, whence the name
    Of Freedom misapplied, and much abus'd
    By lawless Anarchy, has driven them far
    To wander; with the prejudice they learn'd
    From Bigotry (the Tut'ress of the blind),
    Thro' the wide World unshelter'd; their sole hope,
    That German spoilers, thro' that pleasant land
    May carry wide the desolating scourge
    Of War and Vengeance; yet unhappy Men,
    Whate'er your errors, I lament your fate:
    And, as disconsolate and sad ye hang
    Upon the barrier of the rock, and seem
    To murmur your despondence, waiting long
    Some fortunate reverse that never comes;
    Methinks, in each expressive face, I see
    Discriminated anguish; there droops one,
    Who in a moping cloister long consum'd
    This life inactive, to obtain a better,
    And thought that meagre abstinence, to wake
    From his hard pallet with the midnight bell,
    To live on eleemosynary bread,
    And to renounce God's works, would please that God.
    And now the poor pale wretch receives, amaz'd,
    The pity, strangers give to his distress;
    Because these strangers are, by his dark creed,
    Condemn'd as Heretics--and, with sick heart,
    Regrets his pious prison, and his beads,' etc.[67]


[64] Gillray caricatured him (May, 1792) in 'Le Cochon et ses deux
Petites,' where, holding a tumbler of wine in his hand, he is toying
with two very fleshly ladies.

[65] 'The Clubs of London,' etc.; London, 1828, 8vo., vol. ii. p. 27.

[66] One mile from St. Leonards Station, and two miles west of
Hastings. It is supposed to be the landing-place of Julius Cæsar.

[67] 'The Emigrants: a Poem,' by Charlotte Smith; London, 1793, 4to.,
p. 7.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The _émigrés_--Duchesse de Noailles--The nuns--Camp at Brighton--The
 Prince as a soldier--His debts--Interview with the King--Breaks with
 Mrs. Fitzherbert--Her account--Satirical prints--Newspaper paragraphs.

About this time the _émigrés_ poured into Brighton, and happy were
those who could thus save their lives. Here is a contemporary account,
given in the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_, September 3, 1792:

'Brighton once favoured the escape of a sovereign from his enraged
subjects. The former town is now become the refuge of the persecuted
_noblesse_ of a neighbouring state. The former returned to his country
and kingdom, untaught by affliction, and ungrateful to loyalty that
had bled in his service. And it is to be feared, that if the bayonets
of combined despotism restore the latter to their late rank and power,
petty tyranny will revive, and human nature, exhausted in the unequal
struggle for freedom, again lick the feet of her oppressors, in
debility and despair.

'On Wednesday last (_Aug. 29_) Madame (_Duchesse de_) Noailles arrived
at Brighton from France, and was received with the most polite and
cordial hospitality, by his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and
Mrs. Fitzherbert. Her husband being a counter revolutionist, she
found it very unsafe to remain any longer in Paris, or any other part
of France, and sent her child and nurse before her, who took their
passages from Dieppe to Brighton, where they arrived about a week ago.
The lady, herself, had more difficulty in leaving her native land; but
we are far from vouching for the reality of all the sufferings which
are said to have attended her emigration. Travelling in breeches[68]
was no very great distress; but the coil of cable which is said to have
enclosed her for _fourteen hours_, smells not less of the _marvellous_,
than the _tar_. This, in the hands of a novelist, might be spun out to
something _monstrous pathetic_.

'It is also said that the Marchioness de Bouillé (? Beaulé), whose
safety in France might have been no less precarious than that of
the other fair fugitive, hired an open boat at Dieppe, in which she
committed herself to the mercy of the winds and waves; and, after a
very tempestuous passage, arrived safe, on Wednesday last, at Brighton.

'Some Frenchmen, seemingly of distinction, landed last Wednesday
morning, after a very rough passage, in an open boat, at Newhaven; and,
on Friday, went post from this town for the Capital.'

_September 10._--'On Wednesday and Thursday last, no less than _one
hundred and seventy_ French emigrants, mostly priests, were landed
from the packets, and an open boat at Brighton. More are daily
arriving; and, many of them being observed to labour under very
distressed circumstances, we hear a subscription has been opened for
their relief, at Mr. Crawford's library.

'On Friday and Saturday last, near three hundred unfortunate Frenchmen
of the above description were put on shore at Eastbourne, many of whom
were hospitably received by Lord George Cavendish, Lord Bayham, A.
Piggott, Esq^{re}, and many other of the Nobility and Gentry of that
place. They, afterwards, took different routes for the Metropolis.
Many, from the above place and Brighton, came to this town, and such
as could not get places on the stage coach, hired carts for their
conveyance. Five of them, seemingly of a superior order, who brought a
letter of recommendation to a gentleman of this town, have fixed their
abode there.

       *       *       *       *       *

'Mrs. Fitzherbert, the Duchess de Noailles, and many other ladies of
distinction, were present at the Cricket match, and dined in a marquee
pitched on the ground, for that purpose. The Prince's band of music
attended, and played during the whole time the ladies were at dinner.
In the evening, Mrs. Fitzherbert, the Duchess, Lady Clermont, and Miss
Piggott, walked round the ground, seemingly the better to gratify the
spectators with a sight of the French lady.

'The Duchess de Noailles appears to be 21, or 22 years of age, is very
handsome, and her figure and deportment are remarkably interesting.'

_September 17, 1792._--'Upwards of five hundred unfortunate emigrants
were, last week, landed on our coast, who have had the fury of the
elements to contend with, after escaping that of their barbarous
countrymen. The Brighton packets, heavily laden with them, were driven
by the winds far eastward of their usual track; and, with difficulty,
made Hastings, Pevensey, and Eastbourne. At the former place, on
Wednesday morning, _seventy six_, all ecclesiastics, came on shore;
among whom were the _Bishop of Avranches_, the _Dean of Rouen_, and
several other dignitaries. The Bishop, with great difficulty, escaped
from _Avranches_ with the assistance of one of his Grand Vicars, who,
with one of his domestics, accompanied him to _Rouen_, where they were,
for some days, concealed. The populace, however, having discovered
them, they were, again, obliged to fly. They travelled thence, on foot,
in disguise, to _Dieppe_, at which place they arrived in the night, and
took refuge, for a few hours, at a hotel. Thence, at the time appointed
for the departure of the packet, they ran to the sea side, and, as it
was, providentially for them, high water, they were enabled to put off,
and instantly get out of the reach of the rabble, who, in less than one
minute afterwards, pursued them to the shore, and, with savage fury,
declared that it was their intention to have murdered them on the spot.

'The Bishop and his Grand Vicar were hospitably received at Hastings
by the Rev. Mr. Whitear, who entertained them till Saturday, when they
left that place for London. It is the duty of every Magistrate and
Gentleman to prevent the lower classes in this country from imposing
upon these poor fugitives. We are sorry to learn that, at Hastings,
the _exactions_ of the boatmen, on Wednesday last, were shameful in the
extreme. They refused to bring any of the Frenchmen on shore for less
than four _shillings_ a man; and some even raised their fare to _five
shillings_.--Among _English_ mariners, we thought that such _unjust_
and _unfeeling_ wretches were not to be found.'

A notice of the nuns who took refuge here must close this episode:

_October 29, 1792._--'The Nuns, whose arrival at Brighthelmstone was
mentioned in our last paper, were driven from a convent at _Lisle_.
At the time of their debarkation they had only about thirty pounds in
specie remaining, all the valuables of their convent having been seized
on by the _regenerate_ French. The Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert paid
them a very long visit at the New Ship Inn; after which, his Royal
Highness set on foot a subscription for their relief, which, in a short
time, amounted to upwards of one hundred pounds.

'The above ladies, on the evening of their arrival, celebrated High
Mass, with great solemnity, in an apartment at their inn.

''Twas remarkable that no two of the above nuns could be prevailed on
to sleep in one bed.'

_October 1, 1792._--'The Prince, we hear, has it in contemplation, to
take down, and entirely rebuild, on a much larger scale, his Marine
Pavilion at Brighthelmstone;' but he did not do it just then, as he was
woefully hard up.


Of course, during the year the Prince did not escape the pencil of the
satirist, and there was a print published on May 23, to understand
which it must be premised that formerly, at the opening of Courts of
Assize and Quarter Sessions in England, a proclamation against vice
and immorality was always read. This print is called 'VICES OVERLOOKED
IN THE NEW PROCLAMATION,' in which are depicted the King and Queen as
AVARICE, the Prince as DRUNKENNESS, the Duke of York as GAMBLING, and
the Duke of Clarence and Mrs. Jordan as DEBAUCHERY.

Another, published July 2, is 'A Voluptuary under the Horrors of

This is an excellent likeness of the Prince, who, with unbuttoned
waistcoat, lolls in an armchair, picking his teeth with a fork. On the
ground are dice, a Newmarket List, Debts of Honour unpaid, and Faro
partnership Account, Self, Archer,[69] Hobart and Co.

In February, 1793, war was declared between France and England, and
volunteers were enrolled for the defence of their country. Camps
were formed at different parts of the coast, and there was one at
Brighton in August of that year. Needless to say that the Prince's
regiment was quartered there, and he himself showed in great force.
A contemporary[70] gives us an account of this camp, written by a

'_Brighton Camp, August 22._--On the Monday, whatever mistakes (if
commanders can make any) had prolonged the order of march from
Waterdown, they were removed, and the line reached Chailey in good
time. With equal glee and regularity, they set off, the next morning,
for Brighton: about four miles before they arrived on their ground,
their regiments were formed in battalions, in which order they
moved, keeping good wheeling distance. The irregularity of the Downs
frequently gave an opportunity of seeing every regiment with a _coup
d'œil_. Numbers of people came out to meet us. The town, with the sea
and the music, and the universal animation around, somewhat dissipated
the fatigue of a long march. Conspicuous among the spectators, was
the Prince of Wales, in the honourable garb of his regiment, looking
both the Soldier and the Prince. We marched by his Royal Highness by
divisions, officers saluting, and then wheeled round the town to our
new ground, which appeared a little Paradise, in comparison.

'The water at our former stations had too much chalybeate in it to be
pleasant. On Chailey common it was good; and, on our arrival here, we
had the luxury of finding it could not be better. This necessary part
of the comforts of life, with the delightful ground we are encamped
upon, a full advantage of the sea breeze, and the lively scene
continually passing and repassing in our front, make us hope we shall
have more opportunities of frequenting the Steine Parade than we had of
visiting Tunbridge Wells. Besides, the Commander in Chief wonderfully
gave us an overslaugh from Wednesday until Monday; on which day we were
out six hours and a half; five of the hours dragged on with the usual
having nothing to do. We then began to form columns and lines. This
intention was by way of drilling in the new system. General Dundas, the
modeller of it, gave his personal assistance; and I could not help
remarking how gracefully and expeditiously he moved his sun burnt hand,
explanatory of his formation of the divisions into battalion. I dare
say, when we have brought his theory to practical perfection, we shall
never be a hair's breadth out. Old officers, who have been accustomed
to fight after the old school, find great fault with many parts of this
celebrated system.'

This camp consisted of about 10,000 men, regulars, militia, and
volunteers, and was situated at Hove, where it continued till October
28. Two new batteries were built, one on the west cliff, which mounted
eight twenty-four pounders, and the other on the east cliff, where were
four guns of the same weight.

The _Annual Register_, August 21, gives the following: 'Last Sunday,
the Rev. Dr. Knox (a gentleman well known in the literary world as the
author of several essays) preached at Brighton church. He took his
text from St. Luke; "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace
and good will towards men!" In enlarging on this subject, he spoke in
very strong terms of the calamities of war, and said that the tinsel
of military parade was but a poor compensation for the innumerable
miseries that were the too sure attendants upon a state of warfare;
that the voice of religion was but little heard amidst the roar of
cannon, the shouts of conquerors, and the splendour of victory. In
another part of his discourse, he said that religion and philosophy
seemed to have but little weight in the councils of the rulers of the

'Several military officers in the church, officiously took upon
themselves to think that the sermon was an attack upon the constitution
of the country, and that it contained improper reflections upon the
profession to which they belonged.

'Last night, Dr. Knox and his family being in one of the boxes at the
theatre, there were, also, several officers in the house. At the end of
the play, a note was handed by the boxkeeper, to Dr. Knox, stating that
it was the desire of several gentlemen then present, that he should
withdraw. The note being without a signature, Dr. Knox took no notice
of it. Several officers then stood up, and insisted on his leaving the
house immediately.

'A scene of much confusion, nearly bordering on personal violence,
ensued. Dr. Knox attempted to speak, but was, absolutely, forcibly
hindered from proceeding; and himself, Mrs. Knox, and two or three of
their little children, were compelled to leave the house, to avoid
_military_ coercion.'

Florizel, commanding his regiment, and playing at soldiers, was in his
element, as the following extracts from the _St. James's Chronicle_

_August 13-15._--'Monday, being the anniversary of the Prince of Wales'
birth, the same was celebrated at Brighton; the morning was ushered in
by the ringing of bells; and, at one o'clock, the guns of the salute
battery were fired. Several of the nobility, who went down to pay their
compliments to the Prince, visited his Royal Highness in the Pavilion,
who gave a very superb entertainment to the officers of his regiment,
etc., in his Marquee. In the evening there was a grand ball in the
Castle, which was numerously attended.'

_September 5-7._--'In the high winds of Wednesday night, the Prince of
Wales's Marquee, in the Camp at Brighton, was blown down; his Royal
Highness, however, suffered nothing; for, except on the nights when he
is Colonel of the Camp, his residence is in the Pavilion. Many of the
officers and men had their tents blown down on the same night.'

This marquee was a very splendid and spacious affair, with a kitchen
and all sorts of conveniences attached. Indeed, Florizel was ever
attentive to his own comfort, _vide_ the following account of his new

_August 22-24._--'The Prince of Wales has just built a long carriage
for travelling--it is so constructed, that, in a few moments, it forms
a neat chamber, with a handsome bed, and every other convenience for
passing the night in it, on the road, or in a camp.'

It is all very nice to have travelling-carriages and marquees, and
whatever one's soul desires, but if the income is a fixed one, albeit
over £70,000 a year, there must be a limit to expenditure. Poor
Florizel was deeply in debt, and one of his best friends, the Earl of
Malmesbury, tells us about it:[71]

'Landed at Dover on Saturday, June 2nd, 1792.... Saw Prince of Wales
early the 4th--he was very well pleased with what I had done at Berlin,
thanked me for it, etc.--Stated his affairs to me as more distressed
than ever--Several executions had been in his house--Lord Rawdon had
saved him from one--that his debts amounted to £370,000. He said he
was trying, through the Chancellor, to prevail on the King to apply to
Parliament to increase his income.

'On the Wednesday following, I was with him by appointment. He repeated
the same again; said that if the King would raise his revenue to
£100,000 a year, he would appropriate £35,000 of it to pay the interest
of his debts, and establish a Sinking fund. That, if this could not be
done, he must break up his establishment, reduce his income to £10,000
a year, and _go abroad_. He _made a merit_ of having given up the turf,
and blamed the Duke of York for remaining on it. He said (which I
well knew before), that his racing stable cost him upwards of £30,000
yearly. He was very anxious, and, as is usual on these occasions,
nervous and agitated. He said (on my asking him the question), that he
did not stand so well with the King, as he did some months ago, but
that he was better than ever with the Queen--that _she_ had advised him
to press the King, through the Chancellor, to propose to Mr. Pitt to
bring an increase of the Prince's income before Parliament, and that,
if this was done, she would use her influence to promote it.

'I strongly recommended his pressing the Queen. He suggested the idea
of going to Mr. Pitt _directly_ through the Chancellor, etc. I doubted
both the consent of the Chancellor to such a step, at the moment he
was going out, and his influence and weight if he did consent to it.
I took the liberty of disapproving his going abroad, on any terms,
and, particularly, under the circumstances he mentioned; said, that
if he should, unfortunately, be reduced to the necessity of lowering
his income to the degree he had mentioned, it would be much better
to live in England, than _out_ of it. That the showing, in England,
that he _could_ reduce his expences, and live economically, would do
him credit, prove him in earnest, and if he kept up to such a plan,
would, in the event, be much more likely to induce the public to take
his situation into consideration, than any attempts through Ministry,
Opposition, or even the Queen herself.

'I saw the Prince again on the 7th June, at Carlton House, as before.
He repeated the same things, and added, that, if he could not obtain
some assurance from the King that he would apply to Parliament in
the next Session of Parliament, before this ended, that he should be
ruined, and _must go abroad_--I, again, combated this idea; but he
appeared to have a wish and some whim about going abroad, I could not
discover.--He talked coldly and unaffectionately about the Duke and
Duchess of York, and very slightingly of the Duke of Clarence.

'Colonel St. Leger called on me on the 8th June. He said the Prince
was more attached to Mrs. Fitzherbert than ever; that he had been
living with Mrs. Crouch[72]; that she (Mrs. Fitzherbert) piqued him by
treating this with ridicule, and coquetted on her side. This hurt his
vanity, and brought him back; and he is, now, more under her influence
than ever.'

And yet he could sacrifice her, in order to get his debts paid, and
himself have a larger income to squander. There was but one way out of
his mess: that he must commit bigamy, and deliberately repudiate his

On August 24, 1794, the King wrote thus to Pitt from Weymouth:

 'Agreeable to what I mentioned to Mr. Pitt before I came here, I have
 this morning seen the Prince of Wales, who has acquainted me with
 his having broken off all connection with Mrs. Fitzherbert, and his
 desire of entering into a more creditable line of life, by marrying;
 expressing, at the same time, that his wish is that my niece, the
 Princess of Brunswick, may be the person. Undoubtedly she is the
 person who, naturally, must be most agreeable to me. I expressed my
 approbation of the idea, provided his plan was to lead a life that
 would make him appear respectable, and, consequently, render the
 Princess happy. He assured me that he perfectly coincided with me in
 opinion. I then said that till Parliament assembled, no arrangement
 could be taken, except my sounding my sister, that no idea of any
 other marriage may be encouraged.

  'G. R.'

At this time Lady Jersey, a lady of mature age, had great influence
over the Prince, and this probably made his rupture with Mrs.
Fitzherbert the easier. The caricaturist (this time J. Cruikshank), who
always seems to have been as well posted up in any Court scandal as one
of our Society papers, has a picture, August 26, 1794, 'MY GRANDMOTHER,
alias the JERSEY JIG, alias the RIVAL WIDOWS.' Old Lady Jersey, who is
taking snuff, sits on the knee of the Prince, who says:

    'I've kissed & I've prattled with fifty Grand Dames,
      And changed them as oft, do you see;
    But of all the Grand Mammys that dance on the Steine,
      The Widow of Jersey give me.'

Mrs. Fitzherbert, one hand clasping her forehead, and in the other
holding a bond for £6,000 per annum, cries distractedly: 'Was it for
this Paltry Consideration I sacrificed my--my--my--? for this only I
submitted to--to--? Oh! shame for ever on my ruin'd Greatness!!!'

It came very suddenly. Both Mrs. Fitzherbert and the Prince were to
dine with the Duke of Clarence; the lady was there, but Florizel was
not; instead, a letter from him was handed to his wife repudiating her.
Lord Stourton had the story from her own lips. Let him tell it:

'Her first separation from the Prince was preceded by no quarrel, or
even coolness, and came upon her quite unexpectedly. She received,
when sitting down to dinner at the table of William the Fourth, then
Duke of Clarence, the first intimation of the loss of her ascendancy
over the affections of the Prince; having, only the preceding day,
received a note from his Royal Highness, written in his usual strain
of friendship, and speaking of their appointed engagement to dine at
the house of the Duke of Clarence. The Prince's letter was written from
Brighton, where he had met Lady Jersey. From that time she never saw
the Prince, and this interruption of their intimacy was followed by
his marriage with Queen Caroline; brought about, as Mrs. Fitzherbert
conceived, under the twofold influence of the pressure of his debts
on the mind of the Prince, and a wish on the part of Lady Jersey to
enlarge the Royal Establishment, in which she was to have an important

'Upon her speaking to me of this union (confiding in her own desire
that I should disguise from her nothing that I might conceive to be
of doubtful character as affecting her conduct to the Prince), I told
her I had been informed that some proposals had been made to her
immediately preceding the marriage of the Prince, of which her uncle,
Mr. Errington, had been the channel, offering some terms upon which his
Royal Highness was disposed to give up the match. She told me there
was no truth whatever in the report; that a day or two preceding the
marriage, he had been seen passing rapidly on horseback before her
house at Marble Hill, but that his motive for doing so, was unknown to
her; and that, afterwards, when they were reconciled, she cautiously
abstained from alluding to such topics; as the greatest interruptions
to their happiness, at that period, were his bitter and passionate
regrets and self accusations for his conduct, which she always met by
saying--"We must look to the present and the future, and not think of
the past."

'I ventured, also, to mention another report, that George the Third,
the day before the marriage, had offered to take upon himself the
responsibility of breaking off the match with the Princess of
Brunswick, should the Prince desire it. Of this, too, she told me, she
knew nothing; but added, that it was not improbable, for the King was
a good and religious man. She owned, that she was deeply distressed
and depressed in spirits at this formal abandonment, with all its
consequences, as it affected her reputation in the eyes of the world.

[Illustration: THE RAGE.]

'One of her great friends and advisers, Lady Claremont, supported her
on this trying occasion, and counselled her to rise above her own
feelings, and to open her house to the town of London. She adopted the
advice, much as it cost her to do so; and all the fashionable world,
including all the Royal Dukes, attended her parties. Upon this, as upon
all other occasions, she was principally supported by the Duke of York,
with whom, through life, she was always united in the most friendly
and confidential relations. Indeed, she frequently assured me, that
there was not one of the Royal family who had not acted with kindness
to her. She particularly instanced the Queen; and, as for George the
Third, from the time she set foot in England, till he ceased to reign,
had he been her own father, he could not have acted towards her with
greater tenderness and affection. She had made it her constant rule
to have no secrets of which the Royal Family were not informed by
frequent messages, of which, the Duke of York was, generally, the organ
of communication, and, to that rule, she attributed, at all periods,
much of her own contentment and ease in extricating herself from
embarrassments which would, otherwise, have been insurmountable.'

Compare this paragraph with the ideas of the pictorial satirist on her
abandonment. Take, for instance, 'The Rage,' published November 21,
1794. Here we see Mrs. Fitzherbert, having thrown off her Princess of
Wales's coronet, with clenched fists and dishevelled hair, sparring at
the new Princess of Wales.

Another, which is of the same date, and is called 'Penance for past
Folly,' shows Mrs. Fitzherbert weeping, and on her knees, before a
Roman Catholic priest, who holds a birch rod in his hand.

The newspapers had an early inkling of the state of affairs between
Mrs. Fitzherbert and the Prince, and the following cuttings from the
_Times_ of 1794 do not redound much to the paper's credit, or knowledge:

_July 21._--'A CERTAIN LADY has not been so improvident as the
beauteous harlot in the days of EDWARD. She has, wisely, laid up ample
provision for a rainy day; and, therefore, her approach, unlike to that
of SHORE, is still as likely as ever to make "a little holiday!"'

_July 23._--'We have, hitherto, forborne to mention the report in
circulation for many days past, of the FINAL SEPARATION between a
GENTLEMAN of the most DISTINGUISHED RANK, and a LADY who resides in
_Pall Mall_, until we had an opportunity to ascertain the FACT beyond
all doubt.

'We are now enabled to state from the most undoubted authority, that
a final separation between the parties in question has ACTUALLY TAKEN
PLACE; that the agreements formerly entered into, have been given up
by mutual consent; that a new contract has been signed, by which the
lady is _secured_ in the possession of £4,000 per annum, for her life,
besides retaining her house in Pall Mall, plate, jewels, etc.

'Mrs. FITZHERBERT has no intention of retiring into Switzerland, as has
been reported. She is looking out for a house at, or near, Margate,
where she means to reside for six months, in the society of the Duchess
of CUMBERLAND, Lady E. LUTTRELL, Mrs. CONCANNON,[73] and others of her
old acquaintance.'

_August 5._--'Mrs. FITZHERBERT, we learn, wished to have a title and
£4,000 annuity settled on her, but this was peremptorily refused.'

_August 7._--'Much has been said respecting the jointure settled on
Mrs. FITZHERBERT, in consequence of a late separation; but the precise
fact has never been hitherto stated.--The truth is this:--When the
incumbrances of a certain GREAT PERSONAGE were put in a state of
settlement, two, or three years since, £3,000 a year was allotted out
of his revenues, for Mrs. FITZHERBERT, which has been punctually paid
by Mr. COUTTS, the banker. This sum has been lately settled on the lady
for life; which, with her own private fortune of £1,800 annually, will
make her present income £4,800 a year. Unincumbered as she now is, the
lady will, probably, be a happier woman than she has ever been.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[68] She was disguised in male attire.

[69] Lady Archer and Mrs. Hobart, both notorious keepers of high-class

[70] _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxiii., part ii., p. 785.

[71] 'Diaries and Correspondence of James Harris, first Earl of
Malmesbury;' London, 1844, vol. ii., p. 450, etc.

[72] Anna Maria Crouch, actress and famous singer; born 1763, died
1805. Separated from her husband in 1791.

[73] All notorious gamblers and keepers of faro-tables.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Another camp at Brighton--The Prince's second marriage--His
 debts--Parliamentary debate thereon--Prince and Princess at
 Brighton--'Moral Epistle from the Pavilion at Brighton to Carlton
 House'--Manners at Brighton, 1796--Description of the town.

Early in the summer of 1794 another encampment took place at Brighton,
about a mile and a half to the west of the town, as it then was. It
consisted of about 7,000 men, and did not break up until the second
week in November. The Prince was at the Pavilion in May, but not much
afterwards. Mrs. Fitzherbert did not go there this year.

The King, in his speech in opening the session of Parliament, on
December 30, 1794, said: 'I have the greatest satisfaction in
announcing to you the happy event of the conclusion of a treaty
for the marriage of my son, the Prince of Wales, with the Princess
Caroline, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick; the constant proofs of
your affection for my person and family persuade me that you will
participate in the sentiments I feel on an occasion so interesting to
my domestic happiness, and that you will enable me to make provision
for such an establishment, as you may think suitable to the rank and
dignity of the Heir apparent to the crown of these kingdoms.'

As soon as possible afterwards the pictorial satirist has (January 24,

    'A thousand virtues seem to lackey her,
    Driving far off each thing of sin and guilt.'


The Prince is represented as asleep in bed, and dreaming of his
coming bride, who is descending from heaven, accompanied by Cupids,
and driving away Bacchus, Fox, the Jews, Mrs. Fitzherbert and fiends,
racehorses, etc.; and by the bedside are the King and Queen, the former
holding a bag labelled £15,000 per annum.

Much Florizel cared for reforming his character; he only wanted to get
clear of debts, and have an increased income; and, not caring how he
obtained this relief, he committed bigamy on April 8, 1795, in order to
obtain the longed-for relief. His debts were, according to a schedule
presented to Parliament, up to April 5, as follows:

  Debts on various securities, and
      bearing interest                  £500,571  19  1
  Amount of tradesmen's bills unpaid      86,745   0  0
  Tradesmen's bills and arrears of
      establishment (from October 10,
      1794, to April 5, 1795)             52,573   5  3
                                        £639,890   4  4

On April 27 the King sent a message to his faithful Commons respecting
an establishment for the Prince and Princess of Wales, and in the
last paragraph he says: 'Anxious as his Majesty must necessarily be,
particularly under the present circumstances, to relieve the Prince
of Wales from these difficulties, his Majesty entertains no idea of
proposing to his Parliament to make any provision for this object,
otherwise than by the application of a part of the income which may be
settled on the Prince; but he earnestly recommends it to the House, to
consider of the propriety of thus providing for the gradual discharge
of these incumbrances, by appropriating and securing, for a given
term, the revenues arising from the Duchy of Cornwall, together with a
proportion of the Prince's other annual income; and his Majesty will
be ready and desirous to concur in any provisions which the wisdom of
Parliament may suggest for the purpose of establishing a regular and
punctual order of payment in the Prince's future expenditure, and of
guarding against the possibility of the Prince being again involved in
so painful and embarrassing a situation.'

On May 14 the House went into Committee on the subject. Pitt pointed
out that fifty years previously the Prince's grandfather, as Prince of
Wales, had an annual income of £100,000. 'He, therefore, now proposed,
that the income of his Royal Highness should be £125,000, exclusive
of the Duchy of Cornwall, which was only £25,000 a year more than was
enjoyed 50 years ago. This being the only vote he had to propose, he
should merely state, in the nature of a notice, those regulations
which were intended to be made hereafter. The preparations for the
marriage would be stated at £27,000 for jewels and plate; and £25,000
for finishing Carlton House. The jointure of the Princess of Wales, he
proposed to be £50,000 a year, being no more than had been granted on a
similar occasion.'

The addition to the Prince's income was carried by 241 to 100.

In the course of the debate Pitt proposed that the revenues of the
Duchy of Cornwall and part of the income of £125,000 should be applied
to the payment of the interest of the debts, and to the gradual
discharge of the principal; that the sum so taken should be vested
in the hands of Commissioners. From the income of £125,000 a year
he should propose that £25,000 should be deducted annually for the
payment of the debts at 4 per cent., and that the revenues of the Duchy
of Cornwall should be appropriated as a sinking fund, at compound
interest, to discharge the principal of the debts, which they would do
in twenty-seven years.

Finally, by an Act which received the royal assent on June 27, 1795
(35 Geo. III., c. 129), £60,000 per annum was to be set apart and
vested with Commissioners from the Prince's income, as well as £13,000
per annum from the Duchy of Cornwall, to pay the Prince's debts, a
proceeding which found small favour in Florizel's sight.

Of the wretched marriage nothing need be said. Public appearances were
kept up until the birth of the Princess Charlotte, and the Prince and
his consort visited Brighton together, as we see from the following
extracts from the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_:

_June 22, 1795._--'Their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of
Wales arrived at Brighton between one and two o'clock on Thursday
morning last. They alighted at the house of Mr. Hamilton, on the
Steine, which is to be made the Royal residence, till the alterations
that are going forward at the Pavilion, can be completed.

'In the evening the whole town was illuminated, in honour of their
Royal Highnesses' arrival; but the effect of the illumination was
greatly lessened by the wetness of the night, as it prevented the lamps
with which the Castle, the Libraries, and other houses were decorated,
from burning.

'The Prince, we are informed, perambulated the town, in his great coat,
to view the different devices.

'Though the untowardness of the weather has, hitherto, obscured
the beauties of Brighton from the Princess of Wales, it has had no
effect whatever on her Royal Highness's spirits; on the contrary, her
cheerfulness and pleasantry strongly bespeak her approbation of the

'The Prince, about noon yesterday, set off for town, but we understand
his Royal Highness signified his intention of returning to Brighton
some time in the course of this day.

'On Wednesday morning, should the weather prove favourable, the Prince
and Princess of Wales intend visiting the Camp, when the whole line
will be drawn up, and fire a Royal salute, on the occasion. After
which, there will be a grand field day.'

_June 29._--'The Prince and Princess of Wales did not visit the Camp,
last Wednesday, as was expected, owing to the absence of his Royal
Highness, who, on that day, went to town, in order to attend the Privy
Council. The whole line was, nevertheless, out, and had a field day.

'On Saturday morning, however, their Royal Highnesses honoured the
Camp with their promised visit, when the whole line was drawn up in
readiness to receive them; after which, the troops marched to Goldstone
Bottom, where they had a very grand field day, and fired a Royal
salute, on the occasion.

'We are glad to hear, from the best authority, that the air of Brighton
proves extremely agreeable to the above illustrious Princess. Since
her arrival at that place, her Royal Highness has enjoyed an excellent
flow of spirits, and has frequently been heard to declare she had
never before experienced so good an appetite. Her Royal Highness has
signified her intention of continuing at Brighton, the whole of the

_July 6._--'The Prince and Princess of Wales removed from Mr.
Hamilton's house, on the Steine, to the Royal Pavilion, on Thursday

They stopped at Brighton till November, and Queen Caroline never again
revisited it, as, after the birth of the Princess Charlotte (January 7,
1796), the royal couple separated for good.

The Prince went to Brighton for the season on July 28, 1796, and
the Pavilion, as it then was, is thus described in a contemporary

'The Pavilion is built principally of wood; it is a nondescript monster
in building, and appears like a mad house, or a house run mad, as it
has neither beginning, middle, nor end; yet, to acquire this design, a
miserable bricklayer was despatched to Italy, to gather something equal
to the required magnificence, and actually charged two thousand guineas
for his expenses.--There are four pillars in _scagliola_, in a sort of
oven, where the Prince dines; and, when the fire is lighted, the room
is so hot, that the parties are nearly baked and incrusted: the ground
on which it is erected was given to the Prince by the town, for which
he allows them fifty pounds yearly, to purchase grog and tobacco; and
has so far mended their ways, as to make a common sewer to hold the
current filth of the parish.'

The same pamphlet contains 'A Moral Epistle from the Pavilion at
Brighton to Carlton House, London,' which gives an account of the style
of company kept there:

      'When he first nestled here, he was handsome and thin,
    No razor had then mown his stubbleless chin:
    He was sportive and careless, bland, upright and young,
    And I smiled on his feats when he said, or he sung:
    Then youth bore its own pardon, while stumbling o'er ill,
    As the passions o'erthrew what was meant by the will.

           *       *       *       *       *

      I have seen him inwove with a pestilent crew,
    Who, nine tenths came undone, and the rest to undo!
    When those caitiffs came thund'ring in impudent state,
    And drew up their _tandems_ and _gigs_ at my gate,
    Full of wrath at their daring, I rav'd and I swore,
    Then I let in an Eddy that slamm'd to the door:
    But, alas! it avail'd not--'twas open'd again,
    And the P---- rose, and welcom'd the toad eating train!
    He, urbane, smil'd on all, where 'twas sin to look sad,
    As God's light aids, in common, the good and the bad.
    I tore off Folly's cloak, to exhibit the wrong;
    How I toil'd to advise, but was stunn'd with a song:
    I made signs on my plaster to rally them all,
    But no _Daniel_ was there to decipher the wall.--
    Ah! I know his large heart, and beneficent plan;
    Though he's run from the course, yet HE FEELS LIKE A MAN:
    Though he dissipates seeds of an undeserv'd sorrow,
    And, gaily, puts off half his ills till the morrow,
    His radical nobleness knows no decay;
    He will act, but not cant;--he'll relieve ere he'll pray:
    As Charity's retinue own, while embrac'd,
      When their mirth grew to madness, and jests met the ear,
    Which Philosophy scorns, and no maiden should hear,
    Convuls'd with disdain, I soon alter'd their note,
    For I shut up the principal valve of my throat;
    Till the smoke, in vast volumes, pour'd into the room,
    And enwrapp'd the loud mob in a horrible gloom,
    More fœtid than Vulcan inhal'd with his breath;
    More thick than e'er pass'd o'er the threshold of Death;
    More choking than Cyclops drank in at their forge;
    More rank than the reptile of Thebes could disgorge:
    As they gasp'd, it rush'd down their intestines, and clogg'd 'em,
    And from _pharynx_ to _rectum_ begrim'd and befogg'd 'em:
    While, hoarsely, they growl'd at the house, and the smother,
    Though, by knowing the cause, they had curs'd one another.
    'Mid their baneful carousals, I've fum'd and I've fretted,
    Till from kitchen to garret, I've croak'd, and I've sweated;
    By pressure, I made my joints crack--I can't bawl--
    And drops, drawn from my heart, ran from every wall:
    But, his H----s, not knowing my woes, or displeasure,
    Renew'd the broad catch, and refill'd every measure;
    While the rascals around him, revil'd the damp mansion,
    And my marrow, scorch'd up by the fire's expansion:
    Which so heated my fibres and bones--I mean wood--
    That a putrescent fever polluted my blood;
    Which settled behind the bed's head of the P----e,
    And I've not had my health, or my ease, ever since;
    Yet I'm sure he would grieve, his politeness is such,
    Had he known that a lady had suffered so much.
    Thus they swill'd and re-swill'd, and repeated their boozings,
    Till their shirts became dy'd with purpureal oozings.
    When the _taster_ sought wine of a primary sort,
    I have cough'd 'neath the bin, and shook all the old port,
    Till 'twas muddy as WILL B----CK'S brains--yet each varlet
    Said 'twas as bright as a ruby, and toasting some harlot,
    Would then smack his lips, in despite of my labour!
    Oh, ye Gods! how I wish'd for a fist and a sabre,
    To cut down the hiccupping roist'rers with glee,
    That is, if their heads could be injur'd by me.
    When WELTJE has cook'd for the half famish'd group,
    How oft have I belch'd pecks of soot in his soup:
    Yet e'en that could not drive them from board, or from bed,
    Though 'twas render'd as black as an Ethiop's head:
    When I've made it as foul as a Scot's ragged tartan,
    The rogues gulp'd it down, and all swore it was Spartan.
    When they've sat near the fire, in knee squeezing rows,
    I have spit out a coal, and demolished their hose:
    All my grates have breath'd sulphur to stifle their powers;
    I'd a watch at my side to beat minutes and hours:
    When I've seen a Blight glide 'twixt the earth and the skies,
    I've coax'd in the demon, and ruin'd their eyes:
    I've edg'd down a poker on legs swell'd with gout,
    Till the miscreant has roar'd like swine stuck in the snout;
    When Lord---- from my windows was making a beck,
    I have hurl'd down my sashes, and wounded his neck;
    Though my rage could but bruise him black, yellow and blue,
    'Twas a hint that might show what the nation should do:
    But each knave all the arts of my anger withstood,
    For the leeches will suck while the body has blood.
    I'd have prophecied much, had I Cerberus' three tongues;
    I would fulminate oaths, but, alas! I've no lungs.
    When they thought 'twas an earthquake that palsied my walls,
    It was I who was shudd'ring to witness their brawls.
    There's no office so dirty but they would fulfil;
    There's no sense of debasement could alter their will:
    When the munching of immature codlings might gripe him,
    They would tear out the leaves of the Psalter to wipe him.
    Yet these summer fed vermin will fly him, if e'er
    His wintery fortunes should leave his trunk bare;
    Then he'll know that but virtue can keep the soul great,
    As they'd make their past meanness the _cause_ of their hate!
    I have dropp'd lumps of lime in their glasses while drinking;
    I've made thieves in the candle to move him to thinking;
    I have clatter'd my casements and chairs to confound 'em;
    I have let in the dews and the blast all around 'em;
    I have elbow'd my timbers 'gainst many a head;
    I have stirr'd up the sewers to stink 'em to bed:
    Yet this mass of antipathy marr'd my own liver,
    And my tears fill'd the gutter like Egypt's deep river.
    --My eyes, my dear Coz, are exhausted with crying;
    So I'll give o'er at present--I'm yours till I'm dying.


We learn what the society at Brighton was like at this time by the
following excerpt from the _Times_ of July 13, 1796:

'BRIGHTON.--The Prince and Princess of WALES'S arrival has been talked
of much in London; but, as yet, we have no signs of it here. The Duke
and Duchess of MARLBOROUGH pass their time in a very retired manner
indeed. His Grace walked for some time yesterday evening upon the
_Steyne_; the company consisted chiefly of opulent Jews, needy fortune
hunters, broken down Cyprians, fishermen's daughters, and several fat
city dowdies, from the environs of Norton Folgate. Her Grace commands
the play on Friday evening, which will be her _first appearance_ in
public, here, for this season. The Officers of the Blues are the _great
dashers_ of the place; they associate with no one but their own Corps.
The most of them keep their blood horses, their curricles, and their
girls. At one o'clock they appear on the parade, to hear the word of
command given to the Subaltern Guard: afterwards, they toss off their
_goes_ of brandy, dine about five, and come about eight to the Theatre.
_Vivent L'Amour et Bacchus._'

The latter part of this quotation seems to be borne out by the first
of 'TWELVE GOLDEN RULES _for young Gentlemen of Distinction, to be
observed at Brighton for the year 1796_':

'Young and inexperienced officers must confederate with several of
their mess, as young as themselves, and reel into the theatre, during
the performance, in a state of assumed intoxication, and be sure to
disturb the audience in the most important part of the drama, by taking
liberties with any of those Cyprian nymphs who harbour in the green
boxes, and are, unhappily, devoted to insult: by this manœuvre, if
dexterously managed, they will gain three enormous points;--the first
is, the credit of having consumed more wine than their income will
allow; the second is, a disposition for unlimited intrigue; and the
third is, an opportunity of displaying their contempt for good manners,
without any hazard of personal danger.--This behaviour will be totally
out of character if any of the parties have seen service, or arrived at
the years of discretion.

'N.B.--All descendants, or members of the tribes of Israel, must
neither mention lottery tickets, _omnium_, _bonus_, scrip, navy, nor
exchequer bills; they must pay their tradesmen on Saturdays, laugh at
the paschal, eat swine, and shave every day.'

Let us look at Brighton as shown us by a contemporary publication[75]:

'There are two taverns, namely, the Castle, and the Old Ship, where
the richer visitors resort; and, at each of these houses, a weekly
assembly is held, where a master of the ceremonies attends, to arrange
the parties, not according to the scale of morality, but that of
aristocracy. There is a ball every Monday at the Castle, and, on
Thursdays, at the Old Ship; every subscriber pays three shillings and
sixpence, and every non-subscriber, five shillings; for which they
are entitled to a beverage which they call _tea_ and _coffee_.--The
masters of the respective inns receive the profits, except on those
nights appointed for the benefit of the Master of the Ceremonies; to
whom, all who wish to be arranged as people of distinction, subscribe
one guinea--and who would not purchase distinction at so cheap a
rate!--Independently of this vain _douceur_, they must pay most
liberally for their tickets! The card assemblies are on Wednesdays and
Fridays.--There is a hotel, which was intended for a country Hummums,
or grand dormitory; but, in my weak opinion, the establishment is
somewhat inefficient, unless it can be supposed that the tumultuous
equipment of stage coaches, at the dawn of day, is contributory to the
purposes of rest.--There is a theatre, commodious, and, generally,
well directed; the nights of performance are Tuesdays and Wednesdays,
Fridays and Saturdays.--At the lower end of North Street is a sort
of Birmingham Vauxhall, called the _Promenade Grove_; it is a small
inclosure of a paddock, tormented from its native simplicity, befringed
with a few gawky poplars, and decorated with flowers, bowers, zigzag
alleys, a ditch, and a wooden box for the minstrels.--The coast is
like the greater part of its visitors, bold, saucy, intrusive, and
dangerous.--The bathing machines, even for the ladies, have no awning,
or covering, as at Weymouth, Margate, and Scarborough; consequently,
they are all severely inspected by the aid of telescopes, not only as
they confusedly ascend from the sea, but as they kick and sprawl and
flounder about its muddy margin, like so many mad Naiads in flannel
smocks;--the shore is so disastrously imperfect, that those beginners
who paddle in, are injured by the shocking repulsion of the juices
to the brain; and, of those who are enabled to plunge in, and swim
beyond the surge, it is somewhat less than an even bet, that many never
return--in truth, the loss of lives here, every season, would make
any society miserable, who were not congregating in the mart of noisy
folly.--There is a Subscription House, or Temple of Fortune, on the
Steyne, where the minor part of our blessed nobility are accustomed
to reduce their characters and their estates in the same period;--the
signal for admission is _habeo_,--for rejection, _debeo_.--There are
lodgings of all descriptions and fitness, from twenty pounds per week,
on the Cliffs, to half a crown per night in a stable--the keepers of
the lodging houses, like the keepers of madhouses, having but one
common point in view--to _bleed_ the parties sufficiently.--There are
carriages and caravans of all shapes and dimensions, from a waggon to
a fish cart; in which you may move like a king, a criminal, or a crab,
that is, forwards, backwards, or laterally.--There are two libraries on
the Steyne, replete with every flimsy species of novels, involving the
prodigious intrigues of an imaginary society; this kind of recreation
is termed _light reading_; perhaps, from the certain effect it has
upon the brains of my young country women, of making them _light
headed_!--There is a parish church, where the _canaille_ go to pray;
but, as this is on a hill, and the gentry found their Sabbath visit to
the Almighty very troublesome, the amiable and accommodating _master_
priest has consigned the care of his common _parish mutton_ to his
_journeyman_, the curate, and has kindly raised a Chapel Royal for the
_lambs of fashion_, where a certain sum is paid for every seat; and
this, it must be admitted, is as it should be; as a well bred Deity
will, assuredly, be more attentive to a reclining Duchess, parrying
the assaults of the devil, behind her fan, than the vulgar piety of
a plebeian on his knees.--There were books open in the circulating
libraries, where you were requested to contribute your mite of charity
to the support of the rector, as his income is somewhat less than seven
hundred pounds a year; the last incumbent died worth thirty thousand

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[74] 'The New Brighton Guide;' London, 1796, 8vo., p. 16.

[75] 'New Brighton Guide,' 1796.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Reconciliation of the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert--Her scruples,
 etc.--The Prince at Brighton--Satirical prints--The Prince and
 the Pavilion--Increase of income--The Prince and his regiment--A
 race--Guests at the Pavilion--The Prince and his daughter.

It was in this year that the separation of the Prince and the titular
Princess of Wales was complete, and Florizel's heart (if he had such a
thing) went back to his wife. Let us hear Lord Stourton's account of
their reconciliation:

'When she thought her connection with the Prince was broken off for
ever, by his second union, she was placed by him in difficulties from
the same earnest and almost desperate pursuit, as she had been exposed
to during the first interval of his attachment. Numbers of the Royal
Family, both male and female, urged a reconciliation, even upon a
principle of duty.

'However, as she was, by his marriage with Queen Caroline, placed in a
situation of much difficulty, involving her own conscience, and making
it doubtful whether public scandal might not interfere with her own
engagements, she determined to resort to the highest authorities of her
own Church upon a case of such extraordinary intricacy. The Rev. Mr.
Nassau, one of the chaplains of Warwick Street Chapel, was, therefore,
selected to go to Rome and lay the case before that tribunal, upon
the express understanding that, if the answer should be favourable,
she would again join the Prince; if otherwise, she was determined
to abandon the country. In the meantime, whilst the negotiation was
pending, she obtained a promise from his Royal Highness that he would
not follow her into her retreat in Wales, where she went to a small
bathing place. The reply from Rome, in a Brief, which, in a moment
of panic, she destroyed, fearful of the consequences during Mr.
Percival's administration, was favourable to the wishes of the Prince;
and, faithful to her own determination to act, as much as possible,
in the face of the public, she resisted all importunities to meet him
clandestinely. The day on which she joined him again at her own house,
was the same on which she gave a public breakfast to the whole town of
London, and to which he was invited.

'She told me, she hardly knew how she could summon resolution to pass
that severe ordeal, but she thanked God she had the courage to do so.
The next eight years were, she said, the happiest of her connection
with the Prince. She used to say that they were extremely poor, but
as merry as crickets; and, as a proof of their poverty, she told me
that once, on their returning to Brighton from London, they mustered
their common means, and could not raise £5 between them. Upon this,
or some such occasion, she related to me, that an old and faithful
servant endeavoured to force them to accept £60, which he said he had
accumulated in the service of the best of Masters and Mistresses. She
added, however, that even this period, the happiest of their lives, was
much embittered by the numerous political difficulties which frequently
surrounded the Prince.'

We can scarcely, nowadays, when the judicial separation of man and
wife is an everyday occurrence, and divorce is rendered as easy as
possible, properly conceive Mrs. Fitzherbert's feelings in this matter
of reconciliation. We must, however, remember that she was a strict
Catholic, that her Church teaches that marriage is indissoluble, except
by death, and that she invoked and followed the highest ecclesiastical
authorities for guidance. Let us hear a modern opinion of her conduct.
It occurs in the _Dublin Review_ of October, 1854, p. 21, in a
criticism of 'Lord Holland's Memoirs':

'The doctrine of the Catholic Church regarding marriage is plain
and simple. She teaches that the marriage contract itself, which is
perfected by the words, "I take thee for my wife," on the part of the
man, and "I take thee for my husband," on the part of the woman, or by
any other words, or signs, by which the contracting parties manifest
their intention of taking each other for man and wife, is a sacrament.
Protestants are apt to fall into the mistake that it is the priest
who administers the sacrament to the wedded pair. He does no such
thing. As far as the validity of the contract and of the sacrament
is concerned, even when the contracting parties are both Catholics,
the priest need not utter a word. His presence is only necessary as a
_witness_ to the contract between the parties. Up to the time of the
Council of Trent, the presence of a priest was not necessary for the
validity of either the contract, or the sacrament. Nor was it by any
means to confer the sacrament that the Council enacted a law requiring
his presence. The law was made in consequence of the abuses which
arose from clandestine marriages, because an immoral person who had
married without witnesses, could, afterwards, deny the existence of the
contract, and wed another publicly, and in the face of the Church. To
prevent this abuse, the Council of Trent enacted that the parish priest
of one of the contracting parties, or some other priest deputed by him,
and two other witnesses should, _for the future_ (_in posterum_), be
present (_præsente parocho_) at the marriage contract. The presence of
the two other witnesses is required exactly in the same way as that of
the parish priest. The law is simply that marriage should be contracted
in the presence of three witnesses, one of whom should, necessarily, be
the parish priest.

'Nor was this law made, at once, obligatory, even on Catholics. By an
ordinance of the Council, it was not to have effect _in any parish_
until thirty days after it had been published there. This allowed
a large discretion to each bishop with regard to the time of its
publication in his diocese, and, in fact, it is not long since it has
been introduced into England.

'But it does not, and never did apply to any marriage in these
countries, where one of the parties is not a Catholic. Neither in such
marriages, which are called mixed, nor in those contracted between
parties, neither of whom belong to the Catholic Church, is the presence
of any priest required for the validity of either the contract, or
sacrament. It is not even necessary that the contracting parties should
_know_ that marriage is a sacrament. The sacrament exists wherever
Christians marry as Christ intended; and, if they be properly disposed,
they will receive grace to live happily together, and to bring up their
children in the fear and love of God.

'Mrs. Fitzherbert's marriage was, therefore, perfectly valid, both as a
contract and as a sacrament, in the eyes of the whole Catholic Church,
and to imagine that she alone, of all those who professed the same
faith, should look upon it as invalid, is monstrously absurd. Neither
the Pope, nor the whole Church could have annulled it, nor allowed her
to marry another.

'But it was illegal! Why, so was the whole Catholic religion, at the
same period. It was, not very long ago, unlawful to celebrate Mass, but
the sacrifice was not, therefore, invalidly offered. To say that Mrs.
Fitzherbert considered the marriage ceremony to be nonsense, because
it was illegal, at the time when the penal code against Catholics--and
especially that part of it which regarded matrimony--was in full
operation, is about as reasonable, as to prove that she did not believe
in transubstantiation, because the law declared it to be damnable and

For the next two or three years we hear little about the Prince, the
newspapers leaving his doings unrecorded. We learn (May 15, 1797) that
'On last Thursday evening, the Prince of Wales, accompanied by a single
gentleman, arrived at his Pavilion at Brighton. His Royal Highness,
the next day, reviewed the Monmouth and Brecon Militia, on the Downs,
near the above place. To-day, we hear, the Prince leaves Brighton,
having come there only for a few days, by the advice of Dr. Warren, for
the benefit of the sea air. His Royal Highness has lost much of his
corpulence since he was last at Brighton.'

He went again, on July 24, to be present at the races, and it is
recorded that, on October 23, 'The Prince of Wales amused himself
with a day's shooting at Petworth, on an invitation from the Earl of
Egremont. The next day, his Royal Highness being on his way to London,
with post horses, very narrowly escaped being overturned, about a mile
and a half on the other side of Cuckfield, where the horses, by some
means, took the carriage off the main road to the side of a bank, and
with an inclination that threatened its overturn, for the space of many
yards, but fortunately, and owing to the lowness of the carriage, it
was kept upon its wheels.'

He was present at the races on August 1, 2, and 3, 1798, and a
newspaper remarks that 'The change of society and manners which has
taken place at the Pavilion, gives the most heartfelt satisfaction to
every lover of his country; it is, now, every way worthy of the Heir
apparent of the British Empire.'

In 1799 we hear of him being at Brighton, both in July and October. In
1800 he was at the races in August, when his horse Knowsley won a race.
In the 'Brighton New Guide,' fourth edition, there is a good view of
the Pavilion as it was in 1800, with the following text:

'Adjoining to Marlborough House stands the MARINE PAVILION, built by
his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in the year 1784.

'This handsome structure extends upwards of 200 feet in front, towards
the Steyne; the centre is a circular building, with a lofty dome,
supported by pillars; on each side are two elegant rooms on the ground
floor, with bed chambers over them: in addition to these, in the spring
of 1802, two wings were added, which gives a light, airy appearance to
the building; gravel walks, grass plats, and plantations towards the
Steyne, add a great degree of elegance to the whole.

'The front, towards the street, forms a square, with a handsome
colonnade in the middle, supported by columns; in the wings are
commodious apartments for his Royal Highness's suite; in the court is
the figure of a negro supporting a dial, executed in a superior style
of beautiful sculpture.'

The Prince was at Brighton in 1801. _Vide_ the following extract from a

'_Rejoicings for Peace._ _Oct. 14._--On Monday, the joyful tidings of
Peace were celebrated here; the bells rang from six in the morning
till twelve at night; never was the satisfaction of the people
more fully displayed. Young and old wore ribbons emblematic of the
occasion--_Peace and Plenty!_ The sea fencibles fired a _feu de joie_,
marched from thence to the Prince's house, and gave him three loud
huzzas: with that liberality which has ever marked our Royal guest,
he ordered them two hogsheads of beer. Brilliant illuminations took
place in the evening; the whole town appeared in a blaze. The most
distinguished were those of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales,
flambeaux burning round his house, and every window lighted. This happy
day closed with a ball and supper at the Castle, attended by near five
hundred visitors; at one o'clock the room was opened with the most
sumptuous entertainment; every delicacy that could be procured.'

The Prince was in Brighton in 1802, and in the latter part of the year
hunted almost daily with his harriers, and had concerts at the Pavilion
two or three times a week. He left it for the season on December 27.

A newspaper cutting tells us that 'The charitable donations and willing
assistance which Mrs. Fitzherbert has bestowed, and continues to bestow
on the unfortunate individuals of this place, have justly endeared her
to the inhabitants of every description.'

But the miserable caricaturist, who knew nothing of her noble nature,
depicts her in a scurrilous drawing (October 21, 1802), entitled 'A
Lade are at breakfast; Mrs. Fitzherbert is pouring Hollands into a
huge tumbler labelled 'Comfort,' and says, 'Won't you take another
Comforter? We must make haste, I expect Noodle here presently.' Lady
Lade, who takes Brandy, says, 'I think your Comforters are bigger than
my John's.'

The next day brought out another satirical print, indicative of the
Prince's intimacy with the Lades. It is called 'Birds of a Feather
Flock Together; Diversions of Brighton.' Sir John Lade and the
Prince are on the box of an open carriage, in which are seated Mrs.
Fitzherbert and a lady (Miss Snow). Sir John is lashing one of the four
horses, and says to the Prince, 'There, B----t it, don't you see?
that's the Cut.' Miss Snow observes to Mrs. Fitzherbert, 'Did Noodle
bring your physic this morning?' To which she replies, 'Oh, yes, he
calls regularly every morning.'

We read in the _Sussex Weekly Advertiser_ (February 28, 1803) that
'The Prince's Pavilion at Brighton is undergoing other considerable
alterations and improvement, under the direction of Mr. Holland, the
architect; and is ordered to be got ready for the residence of his
Royal Highness, at an early part of the ensuing season.'

On October 14, 1800, just before Weltje died, the Prince took from him
a lease of the Pavilion for ninety-nine years at a rent, annually,
of £1,150, and on April 18, 1803, he went to Brighton to see how the
alterations were getting on. 'His Royal Highness slept at the house,
late Weltje's, adjoining the Pavilion, the repairs and alterations of
which are not yet completed. The Prince, after minutely inspecting the
works going on, returned to town on Thursday.'

In this extravagance he was somewhat justified, for on February 16 the
Chancellor of the Exchequer brought before the House of Commons the
following message from the King:


 'His Majesty having taken into consideration the period which has
 elapsed since the adoption of those arrangements which were deemed,
 by the wisdom of Parliament, to be necessary for the discharge of
 the incumbrances of the Prince of Wales; and, having adverted to the
 progress which has been made in carrying them into effect, recommends
 the present situation of the Prince to the attention of this House.

 'Notwithstanding the reluctance and regret which his Majesty must
 feel in suggesting any addition to the burthens of his people, he is
 induced to resort, in this instance, to the experienced liberality and
 attachment of his faithful Commons, in the persuasion that they will
 be disposed to take such measures, as may be calculated to promote the
 comfort, and support the dignity of so distinguished a branch of his
 Royal Family.'

On February 23 the House went into Committee to consider the King's
message; and the Chancellor of the Exchequer (Addington) pointed out
that on the 5th of the previous January £563,895 had been paid off the
Prince's debt of £650,000, and that the whole would be discharged in
July, 1806. He moved 'That his Majesty be enabled to grant a yearly
sum, or sums of money, out of the Consolidated Fund of Great Britain,
not exceeding, in the whole, the sum of Sixty thousand pounds; to
take place, and be computed from the 5th day of January, 1803, and to
continue until the 5th day of July, 1806, towards providing for the
better support of the station and dignity of his Royal Highness, the
Prince of Wales.' This resolution was agreed to.

In September, 1803, the royal stables, now the Dome, were commenced,
and that the Prince was there in October we have evidence in the
following newspaper cutting:

'_Oct. 2._--The Prince of Wales, at the conclusion of the Concert at
the Pavilion, some time after midnight, on Thursday last, addressing
himself to Colonel Leigh, expressed an anxious desire to know in how
short a time his regiment of dragoons could be under arms, and ready to
face the enemy, should necessity require their exertions in the night.
The Colonel immediately proposed, as the best method of satisfying
his Royal Highness, instantly to ride to, and order an alarm to be
sounded at the barracks; and, afterwards, to return, and give his Royal
Highness a correct account of the conduct of his troops. This measure
being approved by the Prince, the Colonel's horse was soon brought to
the door, and he set off, with all possible speed to see it carried
into effect.

'On reaching the advanced guard at the entrance of the barracks, the
Colonel commanded a black trumpeter on duty, to sound to arms. The
man, in obedience to the mandate, raised the trumpet to his lips; but
the surprise of the moment so greatly overpowered him, that he wanted
breath to put it in execution. An English trumpeter, who overheard the
order, as he lay in bed, in an instant arose, dashed open the window
of his room, and without waiting for further advice, put the bugle to
his mouth, gave the proper signal, and the troops, in every part, were,
in an instant, in motion. The greater part of the soldiers had been in
bed many hours; the whole of them were properly accoutred, and on their
horses, together with the flying artillery, in readiness to depart, in
time sufficient to have reached Brighton within 15 minutes after the
bugle gave the alarm. The barracks are situated something better than a
mile and a half to the north of the town.'

The following excerpt from the _Annual Register_ shows the diversions
of Brighton:

'_Aug. 20, 1803._--A whimsical exhibition took place on the race ground
at Brighton. Captain Otto, of the Sussex Militia, booted, and mounted
by a grenadier of 18 stone weight, was matched to run 50 yards, against
a poney, carrying a feather, to run 150; but Capt. Otto's rider tumbled
over his neck, which he was very near cracking; and, consequently,
he lost the bet. The next match was, the same gentleman, mounted by
the same grenadier, to run 50 yards, against a noble lord, carrying
a feather, who was to run 100. He was considerably distanced by the

The following is taken from the _Times_ of September 7, 1804:

'BRIGHTON ANECDOTE.--Some ill timed pleasantry was played off, a few
days ago, at Brighton, on a respectable _Law Officer_ and his wife, who
have made a summer excursion there. An invitation, couched in due form,
and bearing all the marks of authenticity, was sent to them, desiring
their company at the Pavilion in the evening. The Gentleman and Lady,
justly proud of the distinguished honour thus conferred on them, they
knew not how, attended at the hour appointed, and were ushered into
the Saloon, in which were many persons of distinction, to whom they
were wholly unknown. Some embarrassment necessarily ensued, but it
was increased to a ten fold degree, when they were announced to the
_illustrious_ Master of the house, who had no recollection either of
his guests, or the invitation in his name; an explanation ensued, and
his Royal Highness, with all that urbanity that distinguishes him as
the most finished Gentleman in Europe, was pleased to declare "that he
felt himself much indebted to the ingenious person, who (by forging
his invitation, in order, perhaps, to sport with their feelings) had
afforded him the pleasure of their society and acquaintance, however
unexpected; and that he was perfectly happy in the opportunity of
receiving them." His Royal Highness conducted himself towards them
during the whole of the evening with the most liberal and marked
attention, and thus converted a _rencontre_, which was produced by
the most malignant motives, into a source of honour and perfect

Of the Prince's connection with Brighton in 1804 we have very little
trace. He was averse to having his doings chronicled, probably because
they were immediately pictorially satirized; but we have a very fine
one by Gillray, called THE RECONCILIATION, published on November 20,

The Prince and the King had been at daggers drawn, principally as
to the guardianship of the little Princess Charlotte. A peace was
temporarily patched up between them, and the King wrote on November 7
to the Chancellor that he was ready to receive the Prince. The letter
being forwarded to the latter, he at once replied:

  '_Nov. 8, 1804_.

 'The Prince of Wales, without delay, acknowledges the receipt of
 the Chancellor's letter; and will, in consequence of the gracious
 intention signified from his Majesty, be in London to-morrow evening,
 with Lord Moira, who has just arrived at Brighthelmstone. The Earl of
 Moira is authorised by the Prince to wait upon the Chancellor at any
 hour on Saturday morning, that his lordship may please to appoint.'

The meeting between father and son took place on November 12, and next
day the King wrote to the Princess of Wales:

  '_Nov. 13, 1804_.


 'Yesterday, I and the rest of the family had an interview with
 the Prince of Wales, at Kew. Care was taken on all sides to avoid
 all subjects of altercation, or explanation, consequently, the
 conversation was neither instructive, nor entertaining; but it leaves
 the Prince of Wales in a situation to show whether his desire to
 return to the family, is only verbal, or real, which time, alone,
 can prove. I am not idle in my endeavours to make inquiries that may
 enable me to communicate some plan for the advantage of the dear
 child. You and I, with so much reason, must interest ourselves; and
 its effecting my having the happiness of living more with you, is no
 small incentive to my forming some ideas on the subject, but you may
 depend on their not being decided upon, without your thorough and
 cordial concurrence; for your authority as a mother, it is my object
 to support.

    'Believe me, at all times,
    'My dearest daughter and niece,
    'Your most affectionate Father in Law and Uncle,

    'GEORGE R.'

Nothing really came of this so-called 'Reconciliation,' and soon father
and son were as much estranged as ever. Gillray gives us a picture of
the Prodigal Son's return. '_And he arose and came to his Father; and
his Father saw him, and had compassion and ran, and fell on his neck,
and kissed him._' The Prince of Wales is in tatters, with his empty
pockets turned inside out, his stockings slipping down, and his shoes
down at heel. Lord Moira and Pitt stand by, looking on, and Queen
Charlotte, with her arms outspread, and two of the Princesses, are
beaming with delight.

[Illustration: Decorative motif]

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The case of Miss Seymour--Satirical prints thereon--The Prince at
 Brighton, 1806--His birthday--The Green Man--Visit of the Princess

In 1805 the Prince was much at Brighton, but we hear but little of him
except in connection with Mrs. Fitzherbert's guardianship of Miss Mary
Seymour, a child of whom the Prince of Wales was very fond, and Lord
Stourton tells the story in a pleasant way:

'A circumstance now took place, which ended by blasting all her happy
prospects, and, finally, terminated in a rupture with the Prince, which
lasted till the end of his life. One of the dearest friends of Mrs.
Fitzherbert, Lady Horatia Seymour, in the last stage of decline, was
advised to go abroad, to seek, in change of climate, her only chance of
recovery. She had, at that time, an infant, and, not being able to take
it with her, she entrusted her treasure to the care of her attached
friend, Mrs. Fitzherbert, who, having no child of her own, soon became
devotedly attached to the precious child, and her affection for the
child increased with the loss of the parent. Some time afterwards, one
of the near relatives of the family, desirous of having the education
of the child placed in other hands, and being jealous of the religion
of its protectress, applied to the Chancellor to obtain possession of
Miss Seymour, as guardian. Mrs. Fitzherbert, now more than ever devoted
to the child, and sharing, in this affection, with the Prince himself,
exerted every means to retain the custody of it; and, after all others
had failed, had, at last, recourse to Lady Hertford, with whom she was,
formerly, intimately acquainted. She requested her to intercede with
Lord Hertford, as head of his house, to come to her aid; and, demanding
for himself the guardianship of the child, to give it up to her,[76]
upon certain conditions as to its education.'

The satirical prints, of course, were to the fore on this subject,
although it was a purely private matter. First of all comes (January 9,
1805) 'TO BE, OR NOT TO BE, A PROTESTANT.' Miss Seymour is sitting on
a sofa, holding in her hand a book, '_Mother's advice to her Daughter,
respecting the true principles of the Protestant religion_'; Mrs.
Fitzherbert, wearing a rosary and crucifix, and having in her hand
a book, '_Directions from the clergy, respecting the Duty of a true
Catholic, in converting all, etc._,' says: 'I say I have the undoubted
right to have the care of her, and to bring her up as I like. Do I not
Rule the Roast?' At an open door appears a monk, who says: 'Well done,
my Child, you are now serving our holy religion; you shall next use
your influence to procure us Emancipation.'

[Illustration: THE GUARDIAN ANGEL.]

subject (February 18, 1805). Mrs. Fitzherbert, who has been reading
'The Reign of Queen Mary,' is seated at a table with a monk, who is
making a hearty meal of roast beef and port wine. She says: 'Oh,
Father, they want to rob me of my charge, I will not part with her;
entrusted to my care, I have the will and the power to make her as mine
own, and save one Heretic, at least. I know my power, and will exert it
for our cause.' Says the monk: 'Dear Child! the labours of the faithful
claim their due regard. That thou hast laboured to promote our cause,
full well I know, and have my brethren well informed. Emancipation is
at hand, and all _depends on thee_.'

But the best print is 'THE GUARDIAN ANGEL. The print taken from the
Rev. Mr. Peter's sublime Idea of an Angel conducting the Soul of
a Child to Heaven.' Mrs. Fitzherbert, with an apron full of 'play
things,' such as rosaries, monstrances, thuribles, service-books, etc.,
is the angel, who, ascending from the Pavilion at Brighton, with Miss
Seymour in her arms, points to an altar surrounded by lighted candles,
flowers, etc., and surmounted by a Virgin and Child. All round are
cherubs--Fox, Sheridan, Earl of Derby, etc., all friends of the Prince.

We learn the following from a newspaper cutting in 1805:

'On Friday and Saturday, the Prince, attended by Col. Leigh and Col.
Hanger, rode for several hours. Soon after six o'clock, on the former
evening, his Royal Highness, in his carriage, left the Pavilion to
dine with the Marchioness of Downshire, at Westfield Lodge. Among the
_elegantes_ present, on this occasion, were, Lord and Lady Harrington,
the beautiful and accomplished Lady Ann Maria Stanhope, Mrs.
Fitzherbert, Baron Eben, Col. Hanger, Col. Leigh, etc., forming, on the
whole, a select and sociable party of fourteen. About nine o'clock, the
Prince, the Marchioness, and the whole of her guests from Westfield
Lodge, removed to the Pavilion, where a most splendid entertainment,
consisting of a ball and supper, etc., was given by the Prince, and
of which the greater part of the most distinguished persons, here
at present, partook, in number somewhat exceeding one hundred and
sixty.... On the night following (Saturday) it being the natal day of
the interesting little _protégée_ of Mrs. Fitzherbert, Miss Seymour,
this young lady gave a ball and supper to a party of juvenile nobility,
at the Pavilion.'

The Prince's birthday in 1806 was celebrated at Brighton with great

'_Aug. 12._--At the Pavilion dinner yesterday, the Prince entertained
five of his Royal brothers, the Dukes of York, Clarence, Kent, Sussex,
and Cumberland. Of the splendid party were also the Duke of Orleans,
M. Beaujolais, the Marquis of Winchester, Count Stahremberg, Mr.
Sheridan, Colonels Turner and Lee, etc. This being the natal day of the
Heir apparent, the morning was ushered in by the ringing of bells, and
the flag was hoisted on the tower of the church. Two oxen, _pro bono
publico_, are roasting whole, on the Level. Such an agreeable bustle
as this town at present exhibits, was never witnessed here before.
Business is totally given up, and pleasure is the standing order of
the day. At ten o'clock a.m., the _Otter_ sloop of war, decorated with
the colours of all nations, hoisted the Royal Standard at the main,
and announced the event by a discharge of her guns. The _Gallant_ and
_Calypso_, armed brigs, and Earl Craven's yacht, were, also, dressed
out with colours. About this time, the Carabineers from Shoreham, and
the Fourth Dragoons, passed to the north and south of the town for the
Downs. The Artillery, the King's Dragoons, and the Nottingham and South
Gloucestershire Militias were under arms as early as four o'clock in
the morning. At half past twelve, the Prince of Wales, habited as a
Field Marshal, a star at his breast, accompanied by his Royal brothers,
and a numerous suite of noblemen, etc., and mounted on a grey charger,
splendidly caparisoned, left the Pavilion for the Downs. The Royal
brothers were all in regimentals, with stars at their breasts. The Duke
of Sussex wore his Highland uniform. The Earl of Moira, General White,
Count Beaujolais, Lord E. Somerset, the Earl of Barrymore, etc., were
in the Prince's suite. Lady Haggerstone, and Miss Seymour, the Lord
Chancellor, Lord Headfort, Mr. Sheridan, and Mrs. Smith were in the
Prince's landau. Mrs. Fitzherbert was detained at home by indisposition.

'As soon as the Royal cavalcade was distinguished by the military
on the Downs, signal guns were discharged, and every necessary
adjustment was, in an instant, made for its reception. The Royal
party now advanced, and passed down the centre of the line, each
regiment saluting, and the bands alternately playing "God save the
King." Having reached the extremity of the line, the cavalcade turned
back, and the Commander in Chief and staff, took their stations in
the centre of the line, the Prince and the other Royal Dukes facing
them. The whole line now saluted the Prince. This ended, the line
passed the Prince, in review order, to slow time; the bands of each
regiment wheeling off, and playing until the regiment to which they
were attached, had gone by. The regiments again passed in quick time,
the Duke of York, etc., having stationed themselves by the Prince of
Wales. The line was again formed, when a _feu de joie_ was fired in
a very capital style. Huzzas and "God save the King" concluded the
proceedings, this day, on the hill, when a signal was hoisted at the
Telegraph, for the shipping to salute, which was instantly obeyed;
and every house in the town was shaken by the explosion. The Princes
returned to the Pavilion about half past three o'clock. At six, all
the splendour and fashion of Brighton were assembled to dine at the

'_Tuesday Evening._--The crowd on the Level in number are many
thousands; and his Royal Highness's butcher, Russell, habited in a
white jacket, the sleeves ornamented with buff and blue ribbons, and
a blue sash containing the words "Long live the Royal Brothers," with
a white apron, and steel, and a fanciful cap to correspond, has just
given the signal for the grand carver to do his duty. The acclamations
of the multitude are deafening, and all, now, is confusion, expectation
and joy. The Nottingham Militia, whose encampment adjoins the public
kitchens, are busy actors in this scene. They distinguish themselves
manfully, and many a heavy joint, after severe struggles for
victory, is borne by them, triumphantly, to their tents. Amongst the
splendid party at the Pavilion are, the six Royal Brothers, the Lord
Chancellor, Earl Moira, Count Beaujolais, Mr. Sheridan, Mr. Tierney,
with a numerous assemblage of persons, the most distinguished for
their rank and talents. Two bands of music, the Prince's own, and the
South Gloucester, play alternately on the Lawn. The Steyne is crowded
with pedestrians. The town is generally illuminated; Pollard's and
Donaldson's libraries have, both, a very brilliant appearance. The
Theatre, Fisher's lounge, Mr. Russell's, the Old Ship, the New Inn,
the Coach Offices, Blaker's, Alexander's, and the greater part of the
houses at the bottom of North Street, are, also, lit up in a very
radiant style.

'At ten o'clock, the Princes and the whole of the Royal dinner party
left the Pavilion, for the ball at the Castle. The rooms had a good
show of company as early as half past eight, but, towards nine, they
began to arrive in crowds. Carriages with four and six horses rattled
through the town from Worthing, Rottingdean, Lewes and Eastbourne.
Before ten o'clock, not less than four hundred persons were present;
and, before eleven, the assemblage had received an addition of two
hundred, at least. The crowd occasioned heat, and many ladies nearly
fainted, though every possible precaution was taken to prevent it.

'When the Royal Brothers entered the ball room, the band (the Prince's)
struck up, "God save the King," all the company standing until they had
passed down the room. All the rank, elegance, fashion and beauty in
Sussex were present. A few minutes subsequent to the arrival of the
Princes, dancing commenced with the _Honey Moon_. About fifty couple
stood up; who led off, it was impossible correctly to ascertain. This
dance was succeeded by _Lord Macdonald's reel_; at the end of which,
about half an hour after midnight, the Prince and his Royal brothers
removed to the supper rooms: tables were laid in three separate rooms,
but the company was so numerous, that many could not be accommodated
with seats; and, consequently, _sans_ refreshment, they were compelled
to remain in the ball room. The tables were decorated with every
delicacy of the season. The ladies were dressed in an unusual style
of elegance; such a rich display of diamonds we never saw at a public
entertainment before, and such a fascinating display of beautiful
women, in one house, was not to be found, perhaps, in any other part
of the world. The Princes were all in regimentals, and all appeared
in high health and spirits. The attention paid by those illustrious
personages to the company was highly flattering. They entered into
conversation with all they knew; and the ladies were highly gratified
with the marked attention which was so peculiarly bestowed upon them;
and all ultimately retired, highly gratified with the entertainment
they had received.'

My readers must pardon my introducing an episode unconnected with this
book, except as regards Brighton; but it is so curious that I cannot
refrain. It is chronicled in the _Annual Register_ for 1806:

'_Oct. 25._--Among the personages who lately attracted public notice
at Brighton, was an original, or _would be_ original, generally known
by the appellation of THE GREEN MAN. He dressed in green pantaloons,
green waistcoat, green frock, green cravat: and, though his ears,
whiskers, eyebrows, and chin were powdered, his countenance, no doubt,
from the reflection of his clothes, was also green. He ate nothing
but greens, fruits and vegetables; had his rooms painted green, and
furnished with green sofa, green chairs, green tables, green bed, and
green curtains. His gig, his livery, his portmanteau, his gloves and
his whip were all green. With a green silk handkerchief in his hand,
and a large watch chain with green seals, fastened to the green buttons
of his green waistcoat, he paraded every day on the Steine.

'This morning, at six o'clock, this gentleman leaped from the window
of his lodging, on the south parade, into the street, ran thence to
the verge of the cliff nearly opposite, and threw himself over the
precipice, to the beach below. The height of the cliff whence he
precipitated himself, is about 20 feet perpendicular. From the general
demeanour of the above gentleman, it is supposed he is deranged. His
name, we understand, is Henry Cope, and that he is related to some
highly distinguished families.'

There were some contemporary verses on Mr. Cope:

    'A spruce little man in a doublet of _green_,
    Perambulates, daily, the streets and the Steyne.
    _Green_ striped is his waistcoat, his small clothes are _green_,
    And, oft, round his neck a green 'kerchief is seen.
    _Green_ watch string, green seals, and, for certain, I've heard,
    (Tho' they're powdered) _green_ whiskers, and eke a _green_ beard;
    _Green_ garters, _green_ hose, and, deny it who can,
    The Brains, too, are _green_, of this little green man.'

Another account of him says:

'Mr. Cope, at four o'clock, walked on the Steyne; he wore a huge
cocked hat, with gold tassels. He was surrounded with company, who
expressed their surprise at the size of his hat: when he answered that
he was then performing a different character from that of the preceding
day. He is the gaze of Brighton.'

In 1807 the Princess Charlotte was staying at Worthing, and paid a
surprise visit to the good folks of Brighton.

'_July 27._--About eight o'clock yesterday evening, an open barouche,
with four horses, halted for a few minutes nearly opposite to the
Pavilion, and, shortly afterwards, it was ascertained that the carriage
contained the Princess Charlotte of Wales. The carriage at length moved
for the Buff and Blue houses, and, afterwards, down the North and
South Parades, followed by an immense confluence of people, anxious to
obtain a view of the interesting blossom of royalty. As if to gratify
the populace, the carriage moved but slowly, and, on the North Parade,
it again halted for a few moments. Her Royal Highness was habited in
a very plain and simple style, white frock and slouch straw hat. She
appeared in charming health, and much pleased with the respectful
notice she obtained. Her extreme likeness to her Royal parent was
loudly spoken of, and, on that subject, there could be but one opinion.
Her Royal Highness, prior to her arrival here, yesterday, had paid a
visit to Lewes. She returned from hence to Worthing.'

The Prince liked to spend his birthdays at Brighton, and 1807 was no
exception. Here is a contemporary account of the festivities:

'_Aug. 12._--His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales's birthday
was announced, this morning, by the ringing of bells, and every
demonstration of joy: colours were hoisted on the church. The gun
brig, the Strenuous, and Earl Craven's boat, were dressed in national
colours, and placed in a situation to be seen from the Pavilion. By
eight o'clock, the whole town was in motion, the Marine Parade was
lined with company, the balconies were full of beauty and fashion, and
all the telescopes were in use. At ten o'clock, the gun brig fired
a royal salute, which was answered by Earl Craven's boat. His Royal
Highness the Prince of Wales's band, in full uniform, played on the
lawn in front of the Pavilion; and, on the outside of the railing, the
carriages formed a complete line, the ladies sitting on the boxes,
surrounded by a vast number of gentlemen on horseback, viewing the lawn
in front of the Pavilion, where all the Royal Dukes were walking.

'At eleven o'clock, her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales
arrived at the Pavilion from Worthing, in one of her Royal father's
carriages, drawn by four beautiful bays. Her Royal Highness was dressed
in white muslin, trimmed with point lace, Vandyked at the edges, and
wore a Leghorn gipsy hat, with wreaths of small roses round the edge
of the leaf, and a second row round the crown. Her Royal Highness
looked most charmingly, and was received at the grand entrance by her
Royal father and uncles, who conducted her to the Chinese apartment,
with which she appeared greatly delighted. The Pavilion was surrounded
on all sides by a most numerous concourse of spectators, who waited
anxiously to see the Royal party proceed to the ground, where the
grand review was to take place.

'At twelve o'clock, a Royal salute was fired from the batteries; and,
immediately after, two of the Royal carriages came out, the first,
drawn by four bays, with two postilions dressed in blue striped
jackets, and brown beaver hats; in this carriage were Viscount and
Viscountess Melbourne, Lord Erskine, and Mr. Dalmy; in the second,
her Royal Highness, the Princess Charlotte of Wales, attended by the
Dowager Lady De Clifford, and another lady; the carriage was drawn
by six fine bay horses; after which, followed his Royal Highness the
Prince of Wales, mounted on a beautiful iron grey charger. His Royal
Highness was most superbly dressed in the hussar uniform, and wore a
diamond belt, with a diamond crown on his breast: the feather in his
cap was most superb, encircled with diamonds round the bottom, and
fixed in a diamond loop: never did we witness his Royal Highness in
better health and spirits. The accoutrements of his charger were most
superb. They proceeded slowly to the ground, where the troops were
formed in a line, which was on the beautiful hills at the four mile
course, which command a grand view of the sea.

'At within half a mile from the ground, his Royal Highness the Duke of
York galloped up to the line, extended upwards of a mile, and passed
them without any form. At half past twelve the whole of the Royal party
arrived on the ground, and took their station in the centre of the
line; her Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales's carriage
stood just behind her Royal father. As soon as the party had taken
their station, a royal salute of twenty one guns was fired from the
horse artillery; the ranks formed into open order, when the Royal party
went down the front of the line, returned by the rear, and retook their
station in the centre, when the whole of the line passed in ordinary
and quick time, the different bands playing "God save the King." Some
ships passing at the time, received signals from the telegraph; they
immediately fired a Royal salute, and hoisted a Royal Standard.

'There was, also, a sham fight on the sea with small boats, which had a
very pretty effect. The day was uncommonly fine, and not one accident
occurred to damp the joy manifested on this happy occasion. A good
deal of mirth was occasioned by the firing, several of the horses that
had been taken from the carriages, having broken loose, and run in all
directions, leaving many of the company fixed in their carriages until
the horses were caught.

'At half past three the Royal party returned to the Pavilion, where the
Prince of Wales's band was playing to receive them. Her Royal Highness,
the Princess Charlotte of Wales, after partaking of some refreshments,
walked on the lawn with her Royal uncles, who seemed to vie with each
other in attention to her. The Duke of Cambridge danced with her on the
lawn, and at six o'clock she returned to Worthing. At eight o'clock the
Royal party, the Duke of St. Albans, the Marquis of Headford, Earls
Berkeley, Craven, Dursley, Bathurst and Barrymore, Viscount Melbourne,
Lords Petersham, Erskine, and Charles, Edward and Arthur Somerset,
and several military officers, sat down to dinner. The Pavilion was
most brilliantly lighted, and the South Gloucester band played on
the Steyne. The illuminations were splendid. The Prince attended the
ball at the Castle in the evening, which was crowded with fashion and
beauty, but none of the Royal party joined in the dance. The supper was
of the first description, but would have been better enjoyed had the
company been less numerous. The Prince retired at an early hour.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[76] An arrangement which was satisfactorily effected.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 Final rupture between the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert--That lady
 and William IV.--Her kindly relations with the Royal Family--Her
 death--The King's illness--The Regency--Visitors at the
 Pavilion--Queen Charlotte there--The 'Royal Rantipoles.'

The episode of Miss Seymour indirectly led to the final separation of
the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert, which was mainly brought about by
her false friend, Lady Hertford. Lord Stourton, speaking of the Mary
Seymour incident, says:

'This long negotiation, in which the Prince was the principal
instrument, led him, at last, to those confidential relations which,
ultimately, gave to Lady Hertford, an ascendancy over him, superior
to that possessed by Mrs. Fitzherbert herself; and, from a friend,
converted her into a successful rival. Lady Hertford, anxious for
the preservation of her own reputation, which she was not willing to
compromise with the public, even when she ruled the Prince with the
most absolute sway, exposed Mrs. Fitzherbert, at this time, to very
severe trials, which, at last, almost, as she said, ruined her health
and destroyed her nerves. Attentions were required from her towards
Lady Hertford herself, even when most aware of her superior influence
over the Prince, and these attentions were extorted by the menace of
taking away her child. To diminish her apparent influence in public, as
well as in private, was now the object. When at Brighton, the Prince,
who had passed part of his mornings with Mrs. Fitzherbert on friendly
terms at her own house, did not even notice her in the slightest manner
at the Pavilion on the same evenings, and she, afterwards, understood
that such attentions would have been reported to her rival.

'She was frequently on the point of that separation which afterwards
took place, but was prevented by the influence of the Royal Family from
carrying her resolution into effect. A dinner, however, given to Louis
XVIII.[77] brought matters, at last, to a conclusion; and, satisfied
of a systematic intention to degrade her before the public, she then,
at last, attained the reluctant assent of some of the members of the
Royal Family, to her determination of finally closing her connection
with the Prince, to whom, in furtherance of this decision, she never,
afterwards, opened the doors of her house. Upon all former occasions,
to avoid etiquette in circumstances of such delicacy as regarded her
own situation with reference to the Prince, it had been customary to
sit at table, without regard to rank. Upon the present occasion, this
plan was to be altered, and Mrs. Fitzherbert was informed, through her
friends at Court, that, at the Royal table, the individuals invited
were to sit according to their rank.

'When assured of this novel arrangement, she asked the Prince, who had
invited her with the rest of his company, where she was to sit. He
said, "You know, Madam, you have no place." "None, Sir," she replied,
"but such as you choose to give me." Upon this, she informed the Royal
Family that she would not go. The Duke of York, and others, endeavoured
to alter the preconcerted arrangement, but the Prince was inflexible;
and, aware of the peculiar circumstances of her case, and the
distressing nature of her general situation, they no longer hesitated
to agree with her, that no advantage was to be obtained by further
postponement of her own anxious desire to close her connection with the
Prince, and to retire once more into private life. She told me, she
often looked back with wonder that she had not sunk under the trials of
those two years.

'Having come to this resolution, she was obliged, on the very evening,
or on that which followed the Royal dinner, to attend an assembly
at Devonshire House, which was the last evening she saw the Prince
previously to their final separation. The Duchess of Devonshire, taking
her by the arm, said to her, "You must come and see the Duke in his own
room, as he is suffering from a fit of the gout, but he will be glad to
see an old friend." In passing through the rooms, she saw the Prince
and Lady Hertford in a _tête-à-tête_ conversation, and nearly fainted
under all the impressions which then rushed upon her mind; but, taking
a glass of water, she recovered, and passed on.[78]

'Thus terminated this fatal, ill-starred connection, so unfortunate,
probably, for both the parties concerned. Satisfied as I was with the
very full explanation of all the circumstances, and of the propriety,
and almost necessity of the course which Mrs. Fitzherbert was compelled
to pursue, I yet felt, that her intimate relations with the Prince
might have imposed upon her some duties during his last illness, the
non-fulfilment of which would have left my mind not fully satisfied.
I, therefore, again availed myself of the confidence which had been so
repeatedly urged upon me, to inquire of her, whether any communication
had taken place previous to his demise. She told me "Yes," and that
she would show me the copy of a letter which she had written to the
King, a very short time before his death, which, she said, had been
safely delivered by a friendly hand; the person assuring her, that the
King had seized it with eagerness, and placed it immediately under his
pillow; but, that she had not received any answer. She was, however,
informed that, on the few last days of his life, he was very anxious to
be removed to Windsor Cottage.

'"Nothing," she said, "had so cut her up," to use her own expression,
as not having received one word in reply to that last letter. It
is true, she observed, that she had been informed by the Duke of
Wellington, that he, more than once, expressed his anxiety that a
particular picture should be hung round his neck, and deposited with
him in the grave; and it seemed to be the opinion of his Grace, that
this portrait was one which had been taken of her in early life, and
was set round with brilliants. It appeared the more likely, as this
portrait was afterwards missing when the others were returned to her.
The copy of the letter, which, in answer to my question, she went
into her bedroom to fetch, she put into my hands to read. It was an
expression of her fears that the King was very ill, and an affecting
tender of any services she could render him, in a strain which I could
not read without sympathising deeply in her distress.

'Soon after his death, she left town for Brighton. There, she, a second
time, received the kindest messages from William the Fourth; but, upon
his inquiry, why she did not come to see him, she stated the peculiar
difficulties of her situation, and a wish, if it was not asking too
much from his condescension, that he would graciously honour her with a
personal communication at her own house, previously to her visit to the

'The King complied with her request, without delay, and she told him
that she could not, in her present circumstances, avail herself of the
honour of waiting upon his Majesty, without asking his permission to
place her papers before him, and requesting his advice upon them. Upon
her placing in his hands the Documents which have been preserved, in
justification of her character, and, especially, the certificate of
her marriage, and another, and most interesting paper, this amiable
Sovereign was moved to tears by their perusal, and expressed his
surprise at so much forbearance with such Documents in her possession,
and under pressure of such long and severe trials. He asked her what
amends he could make her, and offered to make her a Duchess. She
replied, that she did not wish for any rank; that she had borne through
life the name of Mrs. Fitzherbert; that she had never disgraced it, and
did not wish to change it; that, therefore, she hoped his Majesty would
accept her unfeigned gratitude for his gracious proposal, but that he
would permit her to retain her present name.

'"Well, then," said he, "I shall insist upon your wearing my livery,"
and ended by authorising her to put on weeds for his Royal brother. He
added, "I must, however, soon see you at the Pavilion"; and, I believe,
he proposed the following Sunday, a day on which his family were more
retired, for seeing her at dinner, and spending the evening at the
Pavilion. "I shall introduce you myself to my family," said he, "but
you must send me word of your arrival."

'At the appointed hour, upon her reaching the Pavilion, the
condescending monarch came himself and handed her out of her carriage,
and introduced her to his family, one after the other, as one of
themselves. He, ever after, treated her in the same gracious manner,
and, on one occasion, upon her return from Paris, made her a present of
some jewels, which he said he had had some time, but would not send
them to her abroad, as he wished to give them to her himself, on her
return to England. He afterwards entered into conversation on matters
relating to her dearest interests, and to sanction the custody of such
papers as were thought most available in support of her honour and fair
reputation with posterity.

'Mrs. Fitzherbert told me that, the first day, when, in compliance
with the commands of the King, she went to the Pavilion, and was
presented by him to the Queen and Royal Family, she was, herself, much
surprised at the great composure with which she was able to sustain
a trial of fortitude which appeared so alarming at a distance; but
she believed the excitement had sustained her. It was not so the next
dinner at which she was present in the same family circle; and the many
reflections which then oppressed her mind, very nearly overpowered her.
Afterwards, she frequently attended the King's small Sunday parties at
Brighton, and then, as upon all other occasions, she was received with
uniform kindness and consideration.

'Many letters of hers, even when writing from abroad to fight off her
marriage, had been preserved by the King. Some were in the possession
of Sir William Knighton,[79] who had obtained possession of the King's
correspondence, either as being his executor, or from having Colonel
MacMahon's letters in his custody. She had, also, various letters of
her own, from the Prince. It was, therefore, agreed, by the friends of
both parties, that, with a few exceptions, the whole correspondence
should be destroyed.

'In this arrangement, William the Fourth kindly concurred, and it
was carried into effect; only such papers being preserved as Mrs.
Fitzherbert thought fit to select to bear witness to her character.

       *       *       *       *       *

'Upon one memorable exception, only, she was called upon by the Prince;
and, indeed, expressly sent for to Brighton, to give her opinion on a
step of great political importance which he was about to take, but her
influence, then, had been, some time, on the wane. He told her that he
had sent for her to ask her opinion, and that he demanded it of her,
with regard to the party to which he was about, as Regent, to confide
the administration of the country. At his commands, she urged in the
most forcible manner that she was able, his adherence to his former
political friends. Knowing all his engagements to that party, she used
every argument and every entreaty to induce him not to sever himself
from them. "Only retain them, Sir, six weeks in power. If you please,
you may find some pretext to dismiss them at the end of that time; but
do not break with them without some pretext or other." Such was her
request to him. He answered, "It was impossible, as he had promised";
but, at the same time, she observed that he seemed much overpowered by
the effort it cost him. Finding that resistance to a determination so
fixed was unavailing, she asked to be allowed to return to Brighton,
which she did; but, previously to leaving him, she said that, as he
had done her the honour of imposing upon her his commands of freely
declaring her sentiments upon this occasion, she hoped he would permit
her, before she left him, to offer one suggestion, which she trusted
he would not take amiss.

'She then urged upon him, as strongly as she was able, the
disadvantages which must accrue to his future happiness from treating
his daughter, the Princess Charlotte, with so little kindness. "You,
now, Sir," she said, "may mould her at your pleasure, but, soon, it
will not be so; and she may become, from mismanagement, a thorn in your
side, for life." "That is your opinion, Madam," was his only reply.

'I must, here, also add that, not only with the Royal Family, but,
also, with the Princess Caroline, Mrs. Fitzherbert was always on the
best terms. As to the Princess Charlotte, Mrs. Fitzherbert said,
the Prince was much attached to her for some years; indeed, he was
generally fond of children and young people, and it was only when
the Princess Charlotte became the subject of constant altercation
betwixt him and those who took part with Queen Caroline, that he, at
last, began to see her with more coolness. Upon one occasion, Mrs.
Fitzherbert told me, she was much affected by the Princess Charlotte
throwing her arms round her neck, and beseeching her to speak to her
father, that he would receive her with greater marks of his affection;
and she told me that she could not help weeping with this interesting

She spent the latter part of her life almost entirely at Brighton,
beloved by the townsfolk for her goodness and charity, and whilst she
lived her servants invariably wore the Royal livery. She died in 1837,
and was buried in the Old Catholic Church[80] at Brighton, where a
handsome monument was erected to her memory by the Hon. Mrs. Lionel
Dawson Damer, whom we have known as Miss Mary Seymour. It bears the
following inscription:

 'In a vault near this spot, are deposited the remains of Maria
 Fitzherbert. She was born on the 26th July, 1756, and expired at
 Brighton, on the 29th March, 1837. One, to whom she was more than a
 parent, has placed this monument to her revered and beloved memory, as
 a humble tribute of her gratitude and affection.'

On her wedding-finger are three rings, in allusion to her three

The Prince was more or less at Brighton in 1808, 1809, and 1810, when
came the death of the Princess Amelia, and the mental aberration of the
poor old King. On February 11, 1811, the Prince of Wales was sworn in
as Regent, and for the next two or three years Brighton saw little of
him; only the Pavilion was always growing bigger. Marlborough House was
purchased, in 1812, for £9,000, and in 1813 a series of improvements
and additions were made, which lasted till 1818. In 1814 the King of
Prussia and the Emperor of Russia came to England on a visit--the
former, in passing through Brighton, spending ten minutes at the
Pavilion for refreshment, and the latter going all over it, besides
walking on the Steine.

Queen Charlotte paid a visit to the Prince Regent at the Pavilion on
October 24, 1814, accompanied by the Princesses Elizabeth and Mary,
and they stopped until the 29th, visiting, during their stay, various
parts of the town, and expressing themselves much satisfied with the
situation and appearance of the place, and the general respectability
and conduct of the inhabitants. Before her Majesty left the town, she
ordered £50 to be distributed among the poor, and became the patroness
of the Dollar Society for their relief, towards which both she and the
Princesses liberally subscribed.

They paid another visit to Brighton the next year, as the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ for 1815 records:

'_Brighton. Dec. 14._--Her Majesty and the two Princesses arrived on a
visit to the Prince Regent, at the Pavilion. The principal inhabitants,
having received permission, went to Patcham, dressed in buff and
mounted, to escort her Majesty; a dutiful address was presented on
the occasion, to which her Majesty returned a gracious verbal answer.
Her Majesty, on entering Brighton, seemed to be highly pleased with
the attention paid her, and repeatedly bowed to the gentlemen who
escorted her. The Prince Regent remained from three o'clock until the
arrival of his august mother, outside the gate of the Pavilion, with
the Duke of Clarence and several of the nobility, to receive the Queen
and Princesses.--On the 16th, her Majesty, accompanied by the Duke of
Clarence, with the two Princesses, in a carriage, passed through the
principal streets of the town, notwithstanding the dampness of the
atmosphere, and was every where received with the most marked respect
and homage.'

It was of this visit that the following satire[81] (believed to have
been written by C. F. Lawler) was penned. I can only give a portion, as
it is too long; but I give it, as it exhibits the popular belief of the
doings at the Pavilion:


    '"I'll stick to state affairs no more,
      But banish toil and sorrow;
    So order, Mac,[82] my coach and four
      And we'll away to-morrow.

    '"Of Rhenish take an ample store;
      Be careful how you pack it;
    My whiskers, too, my hearty cock;
      And eke my shooting jacket.

    '"I mean to pass a month or so,
      'Midst rural scenes so pleasant;
    In waging war with buck and doe,
      With partridge, hare and pheasant.

    '"The pockets of the coach well cram
      With brandy, gin and carraway
    That we may take a social dram,
      When snugly riding far away."

    'Thus spake the Prince, a demi-god,
      The pink of earthly Regents,
    Who shakes three nations with his nod,
      And bows them to obedience.

           *       *       *       *       *

    'Thro' Brighton streets the carriage rolls,
      Loud greeted by the million,
    Who, crowding thick as herring shoals,
      Block'd up the gay Pavilion.

    'Now from his carriage Cæsar hopp'd,
      (No second Master Ellar[83])
    Just like a butt of porter dropp'd
      Into an alehouse cellar.

    'Then happy Cæsar cry'd "Huzza!
      As sure as thou'rt a sinner,
    Since here we are, Mac, here we'll stay,
      And eat our Christmas dinner.

    '"And we will sport and feast away,
      In one unbroken revel;
    Venus all night, and wine all day,
      We'll play the very devil."

           *       *       *       *       *

    'The next day came a group of lords,
      And eke of ladies plenty;
    Deck'd out in jewels, wigs and swords,
      Of each not less than twenty.

    'High at the head of this gay throng
      Shone mighty Cæsar's mother;
    And, like a pine, the shrubs among,
      Stood Y--k, his favourite brother.

    'And brother K--t, too, shew'd his face;
      And Austria's budding roses,[84]
    To swell th' attractions of the place,
      Thrust in their royal noses.

    'And Cæsar's glorious sisters came,
      Each like a butter firkin,
    A round, unwieldy, greasy dame,
      With visage gay and smirking.

    'And H----d,[86] too, the prince of peers,
      The monarch of the stables.
    Who, like a glutton leech, for years
      Had suck'd the royal tables.

    'And H----d's frisky Mar----ss,[85]
      The very pink of beauty,
    Came, Cæsar's banquet to caress,
      And pay her humble duty.

    'And then came quibbling Cast----gh,[86]
      And C----h's proud spousy;[86]
    And placemen green, and placemen grey,
      And many a Lady Blowsy.

    'But sure some dire mishap befel
      Red-headed Whiskerandos,[87]
    Or frolick'd he with wanton belle,
      In that fam'd street call'd _Chandos_?

    'Or had he some contusion gain'd
      While at the Fives court sparring?
    Or, murky thought! a scratch obtain'd
      In some domestic jarring?

    'No, truth to tell, for truth will out,
      Cæsar and this hot stager,
    Had quarrell'd, as the thing fell out,
      About some trifling wager.

    'Says Redhead, "One to five, this pea
      (And in the fire he cast it);
    Will bounce against your Grace's knee,
      As soon as fire shall blast it."

    '"Done!" Cæsar cry'd.--The hot pea bounc'd,
      Outrageously disloyal,
    And with most trait'rous aim it pounc'd
      Against the forehead royal.

    '"Knave!" Cæsar roar'd, and Cæsar look'd
      With most prodigious fury;
    And said--"Such pranks shall not be brook'd,
      No, Redhead, I assure ye!"

    'Then Redhead swore his Highness jok'd,
      And seem'd but to be fluster'd;
    At which his Grace grew more provok'd,
      And still more loudly bluster'd.

    'And then he d----d the pea so vile,
      And d----d poor Redhead's folly;
    Whilst he stood staring all the while,
      Quite dumb with melancholy.

    'And from that hour, as courtiers say,
      High ran the mutual malice;
    Nor was hot Redhead, from that day,
      Seen in the Royal Palace.

           *       *       *       *       *

    'Then Cæsar quoth--"My friends, give ear:
      This Christmas, to my thinking,
    Is the fit season for good cheer,
      For frolic, fun, and drinking:

    '"And, since my Mother will not stay
      A week for recreation,
    Our Christmas sports will have, to-day,
      A sweet anticipation:

    '"So, pray you, name, some lord or gent,
      How we may all make merry,
    How best the moments may be spent,
      How we dull care may bury."

    'Then quoth the Q--n, and with her snuff,
      Rais'd thick terrestrial vapours--
    "Suppose we play at blindman's buff,
      Or cut some country capers."

    '"Faith" (Cæsar cry'd) "catch who catch can,
      I'll do my best endeavour;
    So blind my eyes; 'ware maid and man,
      And blindman's buff for ever!"

    'Queen Dollalolla[88] straightway bound
      Round Cæsar's eyes the linen,
    And three times thrice she turn'd him round,
      While all the group sat grinning.

    '"Now!" cry'd the Q--n; and, at the word,
      Off hood-wink'd Cæsar started;
    While lady, from his grope, and lord,
      With cunning archness darted.

    'Now, Cæsar's hand profanely press'd
      The bosom of his mother;
    Now, grasp'd this fair one's naked breast,
      Now wandered to another.

    'Now, on some lady's carmine cheek,
      His erring fingers lighted,
    But not one timid shrug, nor shriek,
      Told that the fair was frighted.

    'At length, with am'rous fire, he seized
      Round her white neck, his sister;
    And clasp'd her to his heart, well pleas'd,
      And, still mistaking, kiss'd her.

    'And Heaven alone knows when and where
      Had paus'd the panting Cæsar,
    But the dame whisper'd in his ear--
      "'Tis Mary; pray don't teaze her."

    'Then Cæsar quick relax'd his hold,
      And grip'd to find another;
    And, soon, with hand most lewd and bold,
      He clasp'd his wither'd mother.

    'But she, too old for am'rous guile,
      For Cupid's conflagration,
    Felt his embrace, and stood the while
      Secure from perturbation.

    'Yes, like a stock or stone, she stood,
      While naughty Cæsar linger'd,
    Her gay attire and attitude,
      Her varying graces finger'd.

    'But gay, good temper'd Y--k, just by,
      Felt for his brother's blunder,
    And, whisp'ring in his ear, so sly,
      Soon tore the pair asunder.

    '"Take care, the belles!" then Cæsar cry'd,--
      "I'll hug 'em if I reach 'em!"
    Then Cæsar made a desp'rate stride,
      And caught young Lady B----mp.[89]

    'Young Lady B----mp, strange to tell,
      Was much attached to virtue;
    And scream'd, and Cæsar said, "Sweet belle,
      I'll tickle, but not hurt you."

    'And, then, his wicked fingers stray'd
      About the fair one's graces;
    The neck and bosom of the maid,
      And such forbidden places.

    'Then, in the maiden's eyes, a tear
      Glisten'd, and seem'd to linger;
    And then, she loudly cry'd "O, dear!"
      And pinch'd the Royal finger.

    'But, still, the Royal finger stay'd
      And shew'd no signs of flinching;
    But, further in the lab'rinth stray'd,
      In spite of sighs and pinching.

    'So high then grew the maiden's fears,
      Lest scandal should traduce her;
    That hard she box'd great Cæsar's ears,
      And called him "_Vile Seducer!_"

    'Then, dumb with anger and surprise,
      And not without much reason,
    Cæsar unveil'd his royal eyes,
      To see who did the treason.

    'Then Lady B----mp's mother rush'd,
      Nor lords, nor ladies heeding,
    And vow'd to Cæsar that she blush'd
      To see the girl's ill breeding.

    'But, if his Highness would, for once,
      Benignantly forget her,
    She would take home the silly dunce,
      And teach the rustic better.

    'Queen Dollalolla interpos'd,
      To wipe off the transgression,
    And Cæsar's wounds, at length, were clos'd
      By this most vile concession.'

Then they played at 'hunt the slipper,' and would have tried forfeits,
only none of the gentlemen could be found with wit enough to invent the
penalties, and--

    'Now wearied Cæsar call'd for wine,
      And Y-- his brother Gracchus,
    With Momus cut, and left his shrine,
      To pay his vows to Bacchus.

    'The peers, of sport and frolic cur'd,
      Soon put their chairs in motion,
    And join'd, by high example lur'd,
      The jolly god's devotion.

    'Then rose the dame of mighty mind,
      The graceful Dollalolla,
    And walk'd across the room, and sign'd
      The peeresses to follow.

    'But whether, as the Frenchman notes,
      They went to closet handy,
    To wet their pretty little throats,
      And glut themselves with brandy:

    'Or, whether, as the aforesaid saith,
      Adjourning to their houses,
    They went to plan their plans of death
      Against their thoughtless spouses:

    'Of this, the bard relateth not,
      Nor with the ladies went he,
    But chose to stay (far happier lot!)
      Where claret flow'd in plenty.

    'Now Cæsar at the head took place,
      With Y-- and K-- beside him;
    And those who said he shew'd no grace,
      Most wofully belied him.

    'Quoth he, when in his brain, a rout
      The wine began to kick up,
    Tho' lamely hopp'd the language out,
      Delay'd by many a hiccup.

    'Quoth he--"Upon my soul, Lord L.,[90]
      You are a funny fellow,
    And it would please me vastly well
      If you a song would bellow;

    '"Or, if Lord C.[91] and you will try
      To sing my favourite duet,
    I'll dub you dukes before you die,
      So mind and keep me to it."

    'Then did Lord C---- most gravely swear,
      For songs he could not hum 'em;
    For sharps and naturals made him stare,
      He could not overcome 'em.

    '"And," said Lord L----, "I gravely vow
      By him the blessed Saviour,
    I, never, from my youth, could know
      A crotchet from a quaver."

    'Then Cæsar cry'd--"Well, sing in flats,
      I want no grace nor science;
    And, if you mew like two Tom Cats,
      I'll have a prompt compliance."

    'When these two nobles saw 'twas vain,
      To oppose his R----l Highness,
    They pick'd them out a simple strain,
      Suited to birds of shyness.

    'The key once pitch'd, they puff'd their cheeks,
      And gave the ears a griper,
    Like the discordant sound that breaks
      From an old Scotch bagpiper.

    'But L----l soon got before,
      And C----h jogg'd after,
    While all their friends were in a roar,
      And Cæsar shook with laughter.

    'Cry'd Cæsar--"Of your notes be spare,
      A little economic;
    For though a vastly tragic air,
      Your genius makes it comic.

    '"When next, with long, Munchausen hop,
      The Post[92] your praise is ringing,
    Your politics the knave should drop,
      And blazon out your singing."

    'Then Cæsar volunteer'd a song,
      And volunteer'd it gaily;
    And bellow'd out, in cadence strong,
      "Unfortunate Miss Bailey!"

    'But, as his voice approach'd the close,
      Its tones began to woddle;
    The claret fumes so quickly rose,
      While reaching to the noddle.

    'Dimly the lights began to burn,
      And care appear'd a bubble,
    And ev'ry noble, in his turn,
      Saw wine and glasses double.

    'Now Cæsar from his cushion popp'd,
      And none to help were able;
    For, one by one, the whole group dropp'd,
      Like logs, beneath the table.

    'And now, God bless all men who breathe,
      And shield the Royal _crania_,
    That they may never break beneath
      The Bacchanalian mania.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[77] On June 19, 1811.

[78] On June 1, 1812, _Town Talk_ published a satirical print, Worse
and Worse, or the Sports of the 19th Century.' Mrs. Fitzherbert and
Lady Hertford are playing at shuttlecock with the Prince of Wales's
feathers. Mrs. F. says, 'This shuttlecock is too light for me. I'll
have no more to do with it.' Lady H. calls out, 'You have play'd with
it till you are tired, but it suits me to a nicety; the game's mine.
Y--h, take care of the shuttlecock.' Lord Yarmouth, who is behind Mrs.
F., says, 'O yes, Ma'am, I'll take care of the shuttlecock, I warrant

[79] Physician-in-ordinary to George IV.

[80] St. John the Baptist in Upper St. James's Street.

[81] 'Royal Rantipoles; or the Humours of Brighton.' A poem, by Peter
Pindar, Esq.; London, 1816, 8vo.

[82] Colonel MacMahon, the Regent's Privy Purse.

[83] A famous equestrian at Astley's Amphitheatre.

[84] The Archdukes John and Lewis, who spent a few days at Brighton
with the Prince.

[85] Marquess and Marchioness of Hertford.

[86] Lord and Lady Castlereagh.

[87] Lord Yarmouth, who had red hair and was a notable bruiser.

[88] According to the novelist Fielding, in his play of 'Tom Thumb,'
1730, Dollalolla was the consort of King Arthur, very fond of stiff
punch, but scorning 'vulgar sips of brandy, gin and rum.'

[89] Beauchamp, pronounced 'Beacham.'

[90] Liverpool.

[91] Castlereagh.

[92] The _Morning Post_.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Regent and Admiral Nagle--A quiet time at the Pavilion--The
 Regent's extravagance--His yacht--Sham fight and caricature
 thereon--A cruise to the French coast--Royal visitors--The Regent's
 statues--'High life below stairs,' etc.--Satirical prints--Closing
 days--Last appearance at the Pavilion.

The Regent was always being satirized by the publication of some of
his own puerilities, or those of his suite, who, of course, took their
tone from him. The _Brighton Herald_ is responsible for the following

'A gallant Admiral (Nagle) residing at the Pavilion, was, a few days
since, presented by a certain Great Personage, with a beautiful milk
white mare, which, it was stated, had just arrived from Hanover.
Nothing was talked of but this fine creature; and every one seemed
anxious to have her merits put to the test. The Admiral mounted,
tried her in all her paces, and, though he could but approve, yet he
pronounced her to be greatly inferior to a favourite black mare of
his own. The present, however, coming from so high a quarter, was, of
course, received with every expression of duty and thankfulness. The
long switching tail of the animal not exactly suiting the Admiral's
taste, he sent her to a farrier to have it cropped--when, lo! he
speedily received intelligence that it was a _false_ tail, and that,
beneath it appeared a short black one. This curious fact led to a
minute inspection, when it was discovered that this _beautiful white
Hanoverian horse_ was no other than the good humoured Admiral's
own _black mare_, which had been painted in a manner to elude his

This anecdote is probably true, as Captain Gronow ('Reminiscences,'
second series, p. 212) tells a similar story, only he changes the venue
from Brighton to Carlton House:

'Admiral Nagle was a great favourite of George the Fourth, and passed
much of his time with his Majesty. He was a bold, weather beaten tar,
but, nevertheless, a perfect gentleman, with exceedingly pleasing
manners, and possessed of much good nature and agreeability.

'The late Duke of Cambridge, on one occasion, sent his brother a cream
coloured horse from the Royal stud at Hanover, and the King gave the
animal to Colonel Peters, the riding master. Admiral Nagle ventured to
express a hope that, if his Majesty received a similar present from
Hanover, he would graciously make him a present of it; upon which the
King replied, "Certainly, Nagle, you shall have one."

'The Admiral was, shortly afterwards, sent to Portsmouth, to
superintend the building of the Royal Yacht, during which time
Strohling, the fashionable painter of the day, was summoned, and
ordered to paint the Admiral's favourite hack, to make it appear like
one of the Hanoverian breed. The horse was, accordingly, placed in the
riding school, and, in an incredibly short period, the metamorphosis
was successfully completed. In due time the Admiral returned from
Portsmouth, and, as usual, went to the Royal Stables, and was charmed
to see that his Majesty had fulfilled his promise. He lost no time in
going to Carlton House to return thanks, when the King said, "Well,
Nagle, how do you like the horse I sent you?" "Very much," was the
reply, "but I should like to try his paces before I can give your
Majesty a decided opinion about him." "Well, then, let him be saddled,
though it does rain, and gallop him round the park and return here,
and let me know what you think of him." It rained cats and dogs; the
paint was gradually washed off the horse, to the Admiral's great
astonishment, and he returned to Carlton House, where the King and
his friends had watched his departure and arrival with the greatest
delight. The Admiral was welcomed with roars of laughter, which he took
with very great good humour; and, about a month afterwards, the King
presented him with a real Hanoverian horse of great value.'

These Christmas festivities probably produced a fit of gout, which
brought the Queen and Princesses, together with the Princess Charlotte,
to the Pavilion, on a visit, from January 6, 1816, to January 20--a
visit which covered the birthdays of the Princess Charlotte and Her
Majesty, both of which were nobly celebrated.

This seems to have been a quiet time at the Pavilion, if we may credit
a letter from the Dowager Countess of Ilchester to Lady Harriet
Frampton, dated from Cranborne Lodge, February 2, 1816:[93]

'... I must tell you that the fortnight at Brighton has had a very
happy effect on Princess Charlotte's health and spirits.... You have
no idea how her manners are daily softened by witnessing the address
of the Queen and Princesses, with whom she went regularly round the
circle, paying individual attention to the company, and she looked,
really, very handsome, being always elegantly dressed, and every one
seemed delighted to have her under her father's roof.

'It certainly was a great satisfaction to the Prince to find it gave so
much pleasure to the Princess, for he had been led to suspect she did
not like to come--a complete mistake, of which he is now convinced....
The Chinese room is gay beyond description, and I am sure you would
admire it, as well as the rest of the Pavilion, though the extreme
warmth does not suit every one.

'In the morning, all the guests were free from Court restraint, and
met only at six o'clock, punctually, for dinner, to the number of
between thirty and forty daily; in the evening, about as many more
were invited. A delightful band played till half past eleven, when the
Royal family retired, and the rest of the company dispersed, after
partaking of sandwiches: the evenings were not in the least formal. As
soon as the Queen sat down to cards, every one moved about as they
pleased, and made their own backgammon, chess, or card party, but
lounging up and down the gallery was most favoured. All the rooms open
into the beautiful gallery, which is terminated at both extremities
by the lightest and prettiest Chinese staircases you can imagine, and
illuminated by the gayest lanterns. There are mandarins and pagodas in
abundance, and plenty of Japanese and Chinese sofas. In the centre of
the gallery is a skylight. Each staircase opens into a large room, one
of these communicating with the Queen's suite of rooms, and the other
with that of the Princess and mine. The effect of the central room
is very good. There was a bright fire, and it is supplied with books
and newspapers, and from one set of rooms to the other is a private

Prince Leopold also stopped at the Pavilion for some time previous to
his marriage with the Princess Charlotte, which took place May 2, 1816.

In spite of the enormous taxation, the dearness of bread, etc., the
extravagances of Florizel knew no bounds. What cared he, so long as
every whim and wish of his was gratified, who found the money for it?
In three years he had spent £160,000 on furniture for Carlton House;
the previous year china cost £12,000, ormolu nearly £3,000, and during
three years he owed his silversmith £130,000. He had £100,000 allotted
him for an outfit when he came to the Regency; that had to go to pay
some of his debts, and Lord Castlereagh was obliged to admit that the
Prince's debts amounted to £339,000!

Yet, forsooth, the great baby must have another toy at the expense
of the nation--a yacht, all over gilding. William Hone published a
single-sheet broadside (August 26, 1816) with a picture and description
of this rococo vessel. Here is his 'DESCRIPTION OF THE REGENT'S NEW

'This superb yacht, the _Royal Sovereign_, was launched from Deptford
Yard on Thursday, the 8th of August, 1816, having been newly copper
bottomed, and entirely new _gilt_, and fitted up throughout.--She
is between three and four hundred tons burthen, has three masts, is
ship rigged, and is the most splendid vessel, beyond all comparison,
ever launched in England.--The bust of his Majesty forms the head,
_richly gilt_; surmounted by a canopy, painted crimson, with fringe
and tassels in _gold_.--The head rails have carved figures of Peace
and _Plenty_(!) which _support_ the bust, with a frieze of devices to
the bows, carved and _gilt_.--Above the channels is a frieze--boys
supporting the Cardinal Virtues, united by festoons of laurel, _all
gilt_. The quarter badge, representing the Star and Garter, supported
by the Lion and Unicorn, is a complete blaze of _gilding_. The stern is
most superbly _gilt_--in the centre of the taffrel is a King's Coat of
Arms, supported by Prudence and Fame, carved and _gilt_. Fortitude and
Truth are carved at the sides of the stern, richly _gilt_. The lower
counter is an emblematical painting, _gilt_. On the right of the rudder
is Neptune, drawn by four Sea Horses, a painting, _gilt_. On the left
of the rudder is Britannia, pointing to the Arts, a painting, _gilt_.
Above the rudder is a Star, presumed to be the Star of Brunswick, as if
presiding,--_gilt_. The upper counter is Cupids with laurel, painted
and _gilt_. Over the poop are three magnificent lanterns, in blue and
_gold_, with stars on the top, _gilt_. The quarter deck is separated
from the main deck by a rich carved breast rail, _gilt_. The sides of
the quarter deck are devices painted in compartments, _gilt_.

'The gallery is fitted up for a kitchen, with steam boilers and other
cooking apparatus. Adjoining it is the Lord's room, in white, with
panel mouldings _gilt_--the roof supported by fluted pilasters, with
Ionic caps, all _gilt_. The passages are white and _gold_. The roof
of the King's room is panelled mahogany and _gold_; the sides crimson
damask panels, the framings _gold_; twenty carved emblematical figures,
the four Elements, etc., are on pedestals with Ionic caps of mahogany
and _gold_. Round the rudder case are three beautiful plates of looking
glass, entirely concealing the wood, in frames to correspond, _gilt_.
The Queen's room is fitted up, in every respect, with the same grandeur
as to materials and _gilding_. The descent to the State rooms is by
a superb mahogany winding staircase, the balustrades richly carved
and _gilt_; the sides panelled with mahogany and _gold_. The ceilings
and doors to the State rooms are of the finest mahogany, in panels,
with carved borders, richly _gilt_. The doors in the centre cabin are
covered with mirrors. The chairs and sofas are of crimson damask, in
mahogany frames, _gilt_. The windows are of plate glass, and draw up
and down, like those of a coach, the sides painted a deep vermilion,
the edges _gilt_. To suspend the tables, that they may swing with the
vessel, chains descend from the ceilings, as if for lamps, elegantly
_gilt_. The side windows, one on each side the stern, are two immense
concaves of plate glass, like mirrors; from each of which, on the
outside the vessel, rays diverge, to form a splendid star, superbly
_gilt_. The predominant feature of the decorations is _costly gilding_;
even the blocks carrying the ladders and the rigging, are fully _gilt_.
The vessel has been put in its present state, for the Prince Regent, at
an estimated expence of SIXTY THOUSAND POUNDS; the _gilding_, alone,
is supposed to have cost nearly _Thirteen Thousand, Five Hundred
Pounds_! She now lies off the Dockyard at Deptford, with the workmen
on board; and, when completed, will, with the Divine permission, sail
to Brighton, for his Royal Highness's use. Her apparatus for roasting,
baking, boiling, frying, stewing, broiling, etc., is complete. And it
is remarkable that the Cardinal Virtues are amongst the most prominent
decorations _outside_.'

This new plaything was at Brighton in the summer of 1817, and we read
in a newspaper cutting that:

'On the 10th September, for the Regent's especial delectation, a sham
fight took place at sea, immediately off the town, the vessels taking
part in it being the _Inconstant_ and _Tigris_ frigates, the _Grecian_
armed schooner, and the _Rosario_ brig. The Channel was thickly dotted
with packets and pleasure boats, and every species of floating craft,
each and all crowded with spectators, anxious to witness the coming
conflict; the cliffs from one end of the town to the other were also
thronged. The Prince Regent embarked at 10 a.m., and, as soon as the
Royal barge was afloat, simultaneous salutes were fired from the ships
of war, and were repeated as soon as his Royal Highness was on board
his yacht was announced, by the Royal standard being hoisted at the

'The order of battle was, that the _Inconstant_ and the _Grecian_ were
to defend the yacht against the designs of the supposed enemy, in
the _Tigris_ and the _Rosario_. The vessels, respectively, were most
skilfully manœuvred, and broadside after broadside sent their rattling
reports to land. At length, the escape of the yacht was effected; but
the enemy still stood to their guns. In fact, the conflict between
the frigates became still more severe, during which, within pistol
shot of each other, many discharges of musketry marked the apparently
determined progress of the action. The spectacle was grand, and wrought
the feelings of the spectators to the highest pitch. The battle over,
which ended in the retreat of the enemy, the _Royal George_ stood in,
and the whole returned to the roadstead about 2 p.m. In the evening a
boat was sent ashore, to announce the Regent's intention of remaining
on board all night.'

Apropos of this naval engagement, a humorous print was published in
October, 1817, entitled, 'Fun at Sea--the sham fight off Brighton,
and the capture of the Knight of the Larder, Privateer, or, the
Alderman in Chains.' Alderman Sir William Curtis is brought on board
the Regent's yacht a prisoner, bound in chains of sausages,[94]
accompanied by sailors bearing turtles, fowls, soup, etc., whilst an
officer exhibits a scroll of Ammunition Stores taken in the Larder
Sloop. Ammunition--500 Forced meat _balls_, 5 Barrels Curry _Powder_,
2 casks whole Pepper, 200 Bottles Sauce piquant.--Stores--1 whole
Calf, 25 Sheep, 12 dozen Capons, 50 Haunches of Venison,--Westphalia
Hams, 2 cwt. of Sausages, 100 Rounds of Beef, 100 Sir Loins, 150 doz.
of Pigeons, 50 Sucking pigs.' Sir William Curtis is kneeling, and,
offering the Regent a carving knife and ladle, he says:

        'Great conqueror, see your captive kneel;
        Your clemency now let him feel!
        Here's all my arms, upon my life,
        My Ladle and my Carving Knife.
        My Vessel Fame "the Larder" calls,
        My Ammunition Forced meat balls,
        My Powder, Curry, whole Pepper, Shot,
        All, by my Capture, going to Pot:
        Then, let me hope you'll grant this Boon,
        _Release me speedily, and soon_!
    I'm bit of a poet, you see, this is rare fun.'

The Regent, looking at him, says, 'What! we have caught you, have we?
and in arms against your Sovereign! We'll just drench you with grog,
and keelhaul you--and then release you, my old buck. You love fun!'

Sir William was fond of the sea, and the Whig and Radical wits were
never tired of laughing at the sumptuous fittings of his yacht, in
which the Regent often accompanied him in his cruises. He was very
badly educated, and is said to have been the author of the famous
'Three R's: Reading, Riting and Rithmetic.'

According to the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1817, the Regent had quite
a cruise in his new toy:

'_Monday, Sept. 15._--The Prince Regent arrived last night at Carlton
House from Brighton, having, during the week, been four days, and
three nights at sea! The Prince commenced his aquatic excursions on
Monday, when His R.H. remained at sea ten hours; and, on Wednesday,
accompanied by Admirals Sir George Campbell, and Sir Edmund Nagle,
Lord William Gordon, Sir William Keppel, the Hon. Capt. Paget, and
Capt. Horace Seymour, His R.H. embarked in the _Royal George_ yacht
on a second voyage, under salutes from the _Tigris_, _Inconstant_,
_Rosario_, _Grecian_, _Viper_ and _Hound_: and, at half past one, the
ships of war went through all the manœuvres of an engagement. At night,
the vessels proceeded to sea; and, the next day, they stood over to the
coast of France, and were off Dieppe, close in with the land, early on
Friday morning; where, communication being had, the yacht and squadron
cruised across the Channel again, and reached Brighton at one o'clock
on Saturday, when the Prince landed, regretting that his presence being
required in town, he was obliged to disembark.

'His Royal Highness was gratified beyond description, and enjoyed
the highest state of health and spirits during the excursion. On
disembarking, the Prince presented the Hon. Capt. Paget with a most
elegant snuff box, in testimony of his high gratification and esteem;
and so ardent and perfect was the pleasure that His R.H. felt, that,
among other gracious intimations of his attachment to the Naval
service, he said that, if he should land at any other place besides
Brighton, it was his intention to wear the full dress uniform of
an Admiral, and which he should continue to wear, at his _levées_,
alternately with the dress of the army.'

On January 15, 1817, the Grand-Duke Nicholas (afterwards Emperor) of
Russia visited the Prince at the Pavilion, and stayed four days.

Directly after the funeral of the Princess Charlotte, who died on
November 5, the Prince went to Brighton, and stayed there eleven weeks.

In September, 1818, the Grand-Duke Michael of Russia paid a visit
to the Pavilion, which in that month was lit by gas. '_The Brighton
Ambulator_,' by C. Wright (_London and Brighton_, 1818) gives a very
good description of the Pavilion, and mentions that 'a statue of the
Prince of Wales, by Rossi, 7 feet high, on a pedestal 11 feet high,
was, in the year 1802, placed in front of the Royal Crescent. The
Prince is represented as dressed in his regimental uniform, with his
arm extended towards the sea. This statue cost upwards of £300. The
likeness is not considered very striking, and, since it has been
injured by the loss of one of the arms, it is not even deemed a
pleasing ornament.'

In 1821 it was proposed to erect, on some conspicuous spot in the
town, a large bronze statue of George IV., and £3,000 was very quickly
subscribed for it. For this sum Chantrey agreed to produce it, and pay
for the casting; but he made a bad bargain, as it cost nearly double
the sum. It was unveiled on October 11, 1828.

The alterations to the Pavilion were not altogether finished; yet the
Prince made shift somehow, as he was most certainly there in March,
1819, for we read in the _Times_ of March 15:

'ROYAL CONDESCENSION.--We are assured that, a few nights ago, the
PRINCE REGENT, in a merry mood, determined to sup in the kitchen of
the Pavilion. A scarlet cloth was thrown over the pavement, a splendid
repast was provided, and the good humoured PRINCE sat down, with a
select party of his friends, and spent a joyous hour. The whole of the
servants, particularly the female part, were, of course, delighted with
this mark of condescension (_Brighton Herald_).'

Then the pictorial satirists swooped down upon him, and curious were
their different conceptions of the event. I give the one I consider
best, as it is the least offensive, and the Regent is so 'royally
drunk.' It is by J. R. Cruikshank, and was published on March 25. It
is called 'HIGH LIFE BELOW STAIRS! a new Farce, as lately perform'd
at the Theatre Royal, Brighton, for the edification and amusement of
the Cooks, Scullions, Dishwashers, Lick trenchers, Shoe blacks, Cinder
sifters, Candle snuffers, etc., etc., of that Theatre, but which was
unfortunately Damn'd the first night by Common Sense!'


Others are (all in the same month), 'ROYAL KITCHEN STUFF! or a Great
Man _come down_ to visit his most Obed^t humble Servants!!! (vide the
amusements of Brighton).' The Prince has a fat cook round the neck,
kissing her, and saying, 'Don't be alarmed, my dear! I only want to
see how my private affairs get on below here, so show me your Kitchen
Stuff.' The cook, who beats him with a ladle, says, 'La, Sir! what will
the people say when they hear of your meddling so often with things
beneath you? Depend upon it, you'll be call'd over the Coals, and
finely roasted for this.' A maid-servant has hold of his coat-tails,
and calls out, 'Baste him well! Give him Goose without Gravy!' On
the floor lie two papers--one, 'Theatre Royal, Brighton, By Command of
the Prince Regent, High life below Stairs, with Animal Magnetism'; the
other is,

    'When _Bottle the eighth_, I get through,
      I make love in a style so bewitching,
    That most female hearts I subdue,
      From the Drawing-room down to the Kitchen.'

Another is, 'He stoops to Conquer, or the Royal George _Sunk_. This
is not the Royal George that was sunk at Spithead, this was sunk at
Brighton.' A third is entitled 'Beauties of Grease, or Luxuries of the
Kremlin'; and a fourth is, 'Royal George in the Kitchen, or High life
below Stairs.' The Prince, with a bumper in his hand, nurses a cook on
his knee, to whom he remarks:

    'You may baste meat at leisure,
      It's my will and pleasure
    Distinctions between you and me,
      Henceforward shall cease,
    In love, and in peace,
      The P--e and his Cook shall agree.'

It would seem, also, that he gave a servants' ball at Christmas, 1820,
at the Pavilion, for there is a satirical print, published January 24,
1821, called 'LOW LIFE ABOVE STAIRS, _or the Humours of the_ Great Baby
_at_ B...ht.n.' The King is dancing with a fat kitchenmaid, whilst
Lady Conyngham looks on in rage and wonder.

    'Releas'd from all the toils of State,
      From care and sorrow free,
    The humorous Wag of pond'rous weight,
      Gives way to mirth and glee.

    '"To all the Servants of my house,"
      Said G--e, "I'll give a ball;
    Haste, mirth and revelry let loose,
      Come forward, one and all.

    '"I've supped within my Kitchen range,
      But I'll descend no more;
    The scene, this night, I'll wholly change,
      Upstairs invite uproar.

    '"No virtuous women visit me--
      They dread to lose their name--
    I'll condescend--with those make free
      Who never blush'd with shame.

    '"'Twas wrong when C----e[95] eat, perchance,
      With Vassali and Bergami,
    I'll eat with Cooks, with Scullions dance--
      I can't do wrong, G--d d--n me."

    'The Orchestra made noble sport,
      Old Bags,[96] the bag-pipes squeez'd,
    A ricketty Cabinet pianoforte
      Old Sid[97] and L----l[98] teaz'd.

    'The R-y-l Host, in livery clad,
      (An honour long design'd her),
    Waltz'd with his scullion, nearly mad,
      To _Terry O, the grinder_.

    'Ben Bloomy[99] and the fat old Cook,
      Herself a perfect larder,
    A simple jig together took,
      The tune was _Shave the Barber_.

    'And Cunning-one[100] mov'd not a limb
      But stood amazed with wonder!
    To see the K--'s disgraceful whim,
      And vow'd she'd pull'm asunder.

    'The fiddlers play'd, the dancers scream'd,
      And all was in commotion;
    Like waves they roll'd--the noise it seem'd
      Just like a troubled ocean.

    'Great G--e at supper next attends,
      Amidst his new compeers;
    When drunk "Low life above Stairs" ends
      With thrice three times three cheers.'

In the beginning of January, 1820, the inhabitants of Brighton were
allowed, for a fortnight, to visit the Pavilion and view its wonders,
as far as it was then completed; on the 29th of the same month the
old King died, and Florizel, then in his fifty-ninth year, succeeded
him, as George IV. He came to the Pavilion at the end of February, and
stayed at Brighton nearly the whole of March.

A satirical print represents him as being at the Pavilion in November
of this year. It is called 'MOMENTS OF PAIN.' The scene is an apartment
in the Pavilion, and the surroundings are all Chinese. The King is
dressed in full Chinese costume, the great 'Fum' bird being embroidered
on his bosom; he is very ill, and a physician is feeling his pulse.
On the floor lies a huge roll of a 'List of Addresses presented to
Caroline, Queen of England,' and an attendant is trying to prevent
the entrance of a messenger, who brings the news of 'The Bill turned
out.' This was the Bill of pains and penalties brought into Parliament
against her by Lord Liverpool on July 5, 1820; the trial began on
August 19, and the Bill was abandoned on November 18.

The King spent his Christmas at Brighton, and as he was a full-fledged
monarch, his ideas expanded as to his country residence, and the
assembly-room of the Castle Tavern was absorbed into the building, and
converted into a chapel. Then also was arranged the alterations which
have made the Pavilion the extraordinary conglomeration of buildings it
now is. The chapel was consecrated on January 1, 1822.

He left Brighton in April, went to Scotland in August, and returned
to Brighton in October. In January, 1823, he had a terrible attack of
gout, and he did not leave the Pavilion till April. Naturally, now that
he was King, he had to spend much of his time in London; but he spent
the Christmas of 1824 at Brighton, and stayed there till the following
February. He never made but one more visit to Brighton--from January
23, 1827, to March 7--and Florizel's stupendous Folly knew him no more.

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[93] 'The Journal of Mary Frampton from 1779 to 1846,' 8vo., pp. 264,
265; London, 1885.

[94] A turkey hung round with festoons of sausages is called 'an
Alderman in Chains.'

[95] Queen Caroline.

[96] Lord Eldon.

[97] Viscount Sidmouth.

[98] Earl of Liverpool.

[99] Sir Benjamin (afterwards Lord) Bloomfield.

[100] Lady Conyngham.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The books by Nash and Brayley on the Pavilion--Description and history
 of the building--Its exterior--Entrance hall--Red Drawing-room.

He left behind him a more abiding monument of his 'folly' than the
building itself in a magnificent folio volume of etchings, plain
and coloured, a task which he entrusted to Nash, the architect, who
employed the artistic assistance of Wilks, Moore, and the elder Pugin,
especially the latter, and it took five years (1820 to 1825) to

I have reserved the description of this building until the end of my
book, because it ended only with the King's life. The Lord alone knows
what it might have become had he lived longer! And I transcribe the
best description, that of E. W. Brayley,[101] who in the spring of
1836 made a careful survey of the Pavilion, which had but very slightly
been altered since the death of George IV.



'This Edifice, which, in respect to architectural form, has no parallel
in Europe, nor perhaps on the globe, is indebted for its origin to his
late Majesty GEORGE THE FOURTH, who, when Prince of Wales, first went
to Brighton in the autumn of the year 1782 (?), on a visit to his uncle
the late Duke of Cumberland, then residing at his house, near the south
end of the Steyne, and not far from the cliff. The consequences of that
visit have been extraordinary.

       *       *       *       *       *

'The greatly increased and still augmenting prosperity of this town,
however, is almost wholly due to the patronage which it received from
the late Prince of Wales, who, whilst the guest of his uncle, as above
noticed, became so pleased with the situation and air, and the bold,
open, and diversified character of the downs and neighbouring country,
that he, again, visited Brighton in the following summer, and in the
next year (1784) the Prince commenced the erection of the _Marine
Pavilion_, now the Royal Palace, for the purpose of forming a distinct
and appropriate habitation for himself and suite.

'The _éclat_ attending the residence of such an illustrious person as
the Heir apparent to the Crown, attracted a great resort of company
to Brighton, and numerous respectable mansions and rows of houses
were quickly built for the accommodation and entertainment of those
continually flocking thither. The impulse thus given cannot be said to
have yet ceased; and, though the town has been so greatly extended,
that it already covers full six times as much ground as when it
first engaged the notice of the Prince of Wales, scarcely a year
passes without a considerable augmentation, both in the number of its
inhabitants, and of its buildings. A still further increase is also
contemplated, to which the projected _Railway_ from the metropolis
(that occasioned so much controversial enquiry during the sitting of
Parliament in 1837) is expected essentially to contribute, by the
superior accommodation it will afford for speedy intercourse. Having,
thus, briefly adverted to the vast change in the state of Brighton,
which has resulted from princely patronage and abode, we shall proceed
to the immediate object of this work, _viz._, the description of the
Palace itself.

'The _Marine Pavilion_, as it was originally called, was commenced in
1784, under the superintendence of the late Henry Holland Esq^{re},
architect, whose professional talents were, afterwards, so eminently
displayed by the magnificent Drury Lane Theatre, which was destroyed by
fire in February, 1809. In its first state, the Pavilion, as completed
by Mr. Holland in 1787, consisted of a circular edifice, attached by
semicircular projections to two adjoining buildings, forming wings.
The central part (which was crowned by a dome, or cupola, and fronted
by an Ionic colonnade and entablature, supporting statues), and the
north wing, were new erections, but the south wing was merely altered
from the villa which had been first hired for the occasional residence
of the Prince of Wales, and was, subsequently, purchased by his Royal
Highness. In succeeding years, and, particularly, in 1801 and 1802,
additional buildings were raised by the same architect, or, rather,
by his pupil, Mr. F. P. Robinson, F.S.A., who was stationed at the
Pavilion, and, during Mr. Holland's absence on some mining affairs in
Cornwall, had the special direction of the works in progress.

'Whilst the improvements were going on, in the year 1802, several
pieces of very beautiful Chinese paper were presented to the Prince,
who, for a time, was undecided in what way to make use of them. As the
Eating room and the Library, which were between the Saloon and the new
Northern wing, were no longer required for their original purposes, Mr.
Robinson, on being consulted, advised the Prince to have the partition
removed, and the interior formed into a Chinese gallery. This was
immediately agreed to; the walls were hung with the paper described,
and the other parts of the Gallery were painted and decorated in a
corresponding style. About the same time, the passage room between what
was, then, called the Small Drawing Room, and the New Conservatory,
or Music room, at the south end of the Pavilion, was constructed in a
singular manner. A space was enclosed within it, measuring twelve feet
by eight, the sides and upper part of which were entirely formed of
stained glass, of an oriental character, and exhibiting the peculiar
insects, fruits, flowers, etc., of China. It was illuminated from
without; and through it, as through an immense Chinese lantern, the
communication was carried on; its effect is stated to have been
extremely beautiful. Such, then, were the circumstances under which the
Eastern style of decoration was first adopted at the Pavilion; and,
soon afterwards, between the years 1803 and 1805, the same principle
was extended to its architecture; the new Stables, which were then
erected by Mr. William Porden, being considered as designed in the
Hindû style.

'Although the Pavilion itself had been much enlarged, and had,
recently, undergone extensive alterations, the Prince had still further
changes in contemplation; and, in 1805, he issued his commands to
Mr. H. Repton (who was much celebrated for his judicious practice in
landscape gardening, and had already been employed in improving the
grounds at Brighton), to deliver his opinion "concerning what style
of architecture would be most suitable for the Pavilion." The result
was made known to the Prince early in the ensuing year; and, in the
spring of 1808, was communicated to the public in a folio work of
much interest, which includes a series of coloured plates of proposed
improvements, both in the House and Grounds. Though Mr. Repton's
designs in respect to the Pavilion were never carried into effect,
the arguments which he employed for giving it an Eastern character,
had, doubtless, considerable influence over its present form; a short
extract from his work will, therefore, be admissible.

'Mr. Repton ingenuously owns that his knowledge of the various forms
of Hindû architecture was derived from communications first made to
him by the proprietor of Sesincot, in Gloucestershire (Sir Charles
Cockerell, who had been long resident in the interior of India); and,
afterwards, corroborated by the accurate sketches and drawings made on
the spot by his ingenious friend, Mr. Thomas Daniell. He then says,
"Immediately after I had reconciled my mind to the adoption of this new
style at Sesincot, I received the Prince's commands to visit Brighton,
and there saw, in some degree, realised, the new forms which I had
admired in the drawings. I found, in the Gardens of the Pavilion, a
stupendous and magnificent building, which, by its lightness, its
elegance, its boldness of construction, and the symmetry of its
proportions, does credit both to the genius of the Artist, and the good
taste of his Royal employer. Although the outline of the Dome resembles
rather a Turkish Mosque than the buildings of Hindûstan, yet, its
general character is distinct from either Grecian or Gothic, and must
both please and surprise every one not bigoted to the forms of either.

'"When, therefore, I was commanded to deliver my opinion concerning
the style of architecture best adapted to the additions and Garden
front for the Pavilion, I could not hesitate in agreeing that neither
the Grecian, nor the Gothic style could be made to assimilate with
what had so much the character of an Eastern building. I considered
all the different styles of different countries, from a conviction of
the danger of attempting to invent anything entirely new. The Turkish
was objectionable, as being a corruption of the Grecian; the Moorish,
as a bad model of the Gothic; the Egyptian, as too cumbrous for the
character of a Villa; the Chinese, too light and trifling for the
outside; however it may be applied to the interior; and specimens from
Ava were still more trifling and extravagant. Thus, if any known style
were to be adopted, no alternative remained, but to combine from the
architecture of Hindûstan such forms as might be rendered applicable to
the purpose."

'Acting on this principle, Mr. Repton produced the series of drawings
which have been referred to; and it is but just to add, that his
designs for the Pavilion evince a clearness of conception, and a
boldness and accuracy of outline, and combination of forms in the Hindû
style, which far surpass the anomalous conceptions that determined the
external character of the present edifice.

'The Plan of Brighton, published in 1809, shews that the Pavilion was
still in a state of progressive enlargement. Several neighbouring
houses had been previously bought, and annexed to the premises, and the
whole assumed, in a great measure, the form and arrangement represented
by the Ground Plan in Plate I., in which state it remained until the
late John Nash, Esq^{re}, architect, commenced his alterations in the
year 1817. Those alterations were carried on during a considerable
time, under the direct _surveillance_ of the Prince himself, whose own
facility of invention, and correctness of taste, tended greatly to
increase the elegance of the interior. Numerous additions were also
made to the buildings, until, at length, about the year 1824, the
edifice was completed in the manner in which it now appears. Instead
of the plain and humble character of a _Marine_ abode, it assumes, in
its external architecture, the varied characteristics of an Oriental
style, and domes, and cones, and minarets spring from its roofs to a
considerable altitude.

'In the general design of this _unique_ edifice, much fancy is
exhibited, and great ingenuity and professional skill are displayed
in the construction of its domes and conical cupolas; yet there is
little in the composition, exteriorly, that would elicit praise from an
admirer of classic elegance. There is, however, ornament in profusion,
and this, in combination with the singular aspect of the entire fabric,
makes a considerable impression on the eye, and especially so, if the
spectator be unacquainted with the details of classic architecture;
this effect would, doubtless, be stronger, if the Pavilion stood upon
elevated ground. With the exception of the minarets, pinnacles, and
minor ornaments, which are of Bath stone, nearly the whole building is
of brick, stuccoed.

'The expense of completing and furnishing this building was very great;
and, independently of many lavish sums issued for those purposes from
the Civil List, upwards of £100,000 was paid from the Privy purse
of its magnificent founder in aid of the charges for furniture and
decorations. On the accession of the Prince Regent to the Crown, after
the decease of his father, in January, 1820, the Pavilion became a
Royal Palace; and, on his own decease, in 1830, it descended, together
with the succession, to his brother, the Duke of Clarence, the late
King William the Fourth. It, afterwards, became a favourite residence
of this sovereign (and his now dowager, Queen Adelaide), who passed
some portion of every year there until his death in June, 1837. During
a few weeks in the past autumn, the Palace was inhabited by his
successor, VICTORIA, her present Majesty; WHOM GOD PRESERVE!


'The Ground-plot forms a long parallelogram; the extent of the building
from north to south being 480 feet, and from east to west, about 125
feet: of this space, upwards of two thirds is occupied by the Royal
apartments and their appendages; and the remainder by the great
kitchen, chapel, servants' rooms, and domestic offices.

'Since the Pavilion was first built, it has been greatly and
progressively enlarged, as above detailed, and, together with the
adjoining grounds and stabling, it now occupies an extensive plot of
ground, nearly in the centre of the town, and immediately contiguous to
the far famed Steyne and Parade. The whole of the demesne comprises ten
acres, the principal part of which was obtained by purchase, and the
rest by grant from the manorial owners and town's people.

'The principal, or eastern front of the Palace, opens on to a lawn,
which is merely separated from the Steyne Parade by a low wall and
dwarf enclosure, at the distance, from the building, of 170 feet.
On the north side are shrubberies; and, on the west, which includes
the main entrance, are the pleasure grounds and carriage drive. The
southern extremity, comprehending the Chapel Royal and offices,
projects into Castle Square.

'From this Plate, it would seem that this front might be described as
consisting of seven parts; namely, a centre, of a curvilinear form,
connected by adjoining divisions to two wings, and those again flanked
by square buildings, forming returns to the north and south: yet
this is not strictly the case, the southern return never having been
completed. In all other respects the Elevation is correct.

'The Centre division which includes the _Rotunda_, or _Saloon_, and has
a semicircular arcade in front, is crowned by a vast dome, presenting
the appearance of an inverted balloon, tapering upwards into a lofty
pinnacle, the point of which is more than one hundred feet from the
ground. The dome is surrounded by a horizontal band of twenty eight
conjoined ovals (crossing a similar number of vertical ribs), most of
which are pierced as windows to the several small apartments contained
in its concavity. It is also flanked by two octagonal minarets, and
appears to rise from a basement cone, faced with scale work. Smaller
domes, of a more compressed form, surmount the semicircular recesses
which adjoin the Saloon; these have ornamental bands and vertical ribs,
but no windows. The arcade spandrils are filled up with curvilinear
trellis work, inclosing quatrefoils; and, over the middle part, is the
Prince of Wales's crest, and this inscription:

  '"H.R.H. GEORGE. P.W.


'Similar domes to those last described, surmount the _Green_ and
_Yellow Drawing Rooms_ (as they are now called), which connect the
Saloon with the wings, and are each curved at the ends. The upper
chambers recede, and before each range is a balcony and pierced
parapet. The wings, which are of a square form, are surmounted by
lofty cones, rising to the height of about ninety feet; at the angles
are minarets. In front of both wings is an open arcade, composed of
seven arches, separated from each other by octagonal columns, and
ornamented by similar trellis work to that of the Saloon arcade. The
Southern extremity terminates in a square tower crowned by a dome, and
minarets corresponding with those already described. A sort of running
battlement, with very narrow embrasures, surmounts the upper line of
the whole building.

[Illustration: WEST FRONT OF THE PAVILION, 1825.]

'The _West Front_ of this edifice is shewn in all its variety of
detail. In its general character it corresponds with the Steyne front,
but there are many differences in the minor ornaments. The Perspective
View (drawn from a North West point) exhibits this front in nearly its
entire length; the octagon tower in the distance is that which encloses
the water reservoir.

'The principal entrance to the palace is constituted by a Porch and
Vestibule, which open from the drive on the western side of the
building. The Porch, which forms a square of about twenty two feet,
is supported at each angle by three oriental columns, and crowned by
a small dome in the general style of those already described. Over
the cornice is the following inscription, recording the date when the
alterations at the Pavilion were commenced by Mr. Holland:

  '"H.R.H. GEORGE. P.W.


'The Porch leads directly to the Vestibule, which is of an octagonal
form, and about twenty feet in diameter. It is surmounted by a tented
roof, neatly decorated, and a Chinese lantern is suspended from the

'The Entrance Hall forms a square of twenty six feet, exclusive of an
angular recess which slopes to the Vestibule. The recess has a tented
roof, supported by two columns in the oriental style, and pierced by
a horizontal sky light, illumined, in parts by tinted glass; there
are also two side windows in the recess, independently of its glazed
doors. The square of the Hall is surmounted by an ornamental cornice,
supporting the ceiling, which resembles an azure sky, diversified by
fleecy clouds. On the entrance side, below the cornice, is neatly
painted a long range of dragonish forms and other devices; and four
globular lamps, similarly embellished, are suspended from the angles
of the ceiling. The walls are of a delicate pale green, relieved by
circular and vertical compartments, in which dragons and serpents are
depicted in subdued colouring. The chimney piece is of white marble,
neatly executed.

'The RED DRAWING ROOM, which is chiefly used as a Breakfast Room,
adjoins the Entrance Hall on the south side; its length is about thirty
feet, and its breadth twenty two feet, independently of a considerable
recess towards the north. The timbers which cross the ceiling are
sustained by reeded columns in imitation of bamboo. A number of small
Chinese pictures, mostly of a bluish tone, exhibiting domestic or
family scenes, ornament the walls, which are painted in resemblance of
the crimson japan.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]


[101] 'Illustrations of Her Majesty's Palace at Brighton, formerly the
Pavilion; executed by command of King George the Fourth, under the
superintendence of John Nash, Esq., architect. To which is prefixed a
History of the Palace by Edward Wedlake Brayley, Esq., F.S.A.' London,
1838, fol.

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Chinese Gallery--The Music Room--The Yellow Drawing-room--The
 Saloon--The Green Drawing-room.

'The CHINESE GALLERY which ranges immediately behind the Saloon and its
communicating apartments, is 162 feet in length, and 17 feet wide. This
space is partially separated into five divisions, of unequal extent and
elevation, by trellis work in imitation of bamboo.

'The central division is surrounded by a Chinese Canopy of similar
trellis work, hung with bells, and surmounted by a coved ornamental
ceiling, which projects through the upper floor, and is illumined by a
horizontal light of stained glass, measuring twenty two feet in length,
and eleven feet in width. On this light is represented _Lin-Shin_,
the god of thunder, surrounded by his drums, and flying, as described
in the mythology of China. His right hand wields a mace, or sceptre,
"wherewith to strike the drums, and arouse the thunder"; and, with his
left, he apparently upholds an elegant glass lamp, ornamentally tinted
and enriched by clusters of brilliant drops. Other sections of the
light exhibit the Imperial five clawed dragon, amidst fancy borderings
of different hues. Vertical transparencies, in a similar style, in
imitative frames of bamboo, enrich the ends immediately below the
ceiling, and corresponding embellishments are painted on each side.

'On the west side, beneath the canopy, and directly facing the
middle entrance, is a curiously designed chimney piece worked in
brass and iron to imitate bamboo; and, over it, is a looking glass
of considerable magnitude. At a little distance, right and left, are
two large niches, lined with yellow marble, containing cabinets; and,
on them, in erect positions, are plaster casts, painted, of a male
and female Chinese figure, in their proper costume. There are, also,
four similar niches in the other divisions of the gallery, occupied
by Indian cabinets, etc.; as well as two recesses, each containing a
pagoda of six stories, wrought in porcelain. At various angles of the
ceiling, in place of the Chinese standards, to which they were formerly
attached, tasteful lanterns of stained glass are suspended, exhibiting,
on their respective sides, mythological devices, with flowers, birds,
insects and other ornaments, tinted in a very effective and striking

'The walls are battened, and the canvas is painted throughout with a
delicate peach blossom, as a ground colour, on which rocks, trees,
shrubs, birds and other embellishments in the Chinese style are very
neatly pencilled in a subdued tone of pale blue. There are three
fire places, over which stand beautiful jars and vases of china and
porcelain, intermingled with open tulips and lotus flowers of stained
glass, inclosing branches for lights. Many large jars and other vessels
and figures of China ware, are, also, distributed throughout the
gallery, the furniture of which is entirely of an oriental description.
All the couches and chairs, which are numerous, are of ivory, curiously
figured; and, in some instances, variegated with black.

'The extreme compartments to the north and south, are occupied by
double Staircases, rendered light and airy in appearance by the steps
being fronted with perforated brass and iron work; the railings are of
cast iron, wrought and painted to resemble bamboo. These compartments
are illumined by horizontal lights of stained glass, of similar
elevation and accordant adornments to that of the central division
of the Gallery; the southern one exhibiting the Imperial five clawed
dragon, surrounded by flying bats, and the northern one the Chinese
bird of Royalty called the _Fum_, with other ornaments. Above the
landing place, at the north end, are also three windows, each being
embellished with a full sized representation, in stained glass, of a
Chinese god; and corresponding imitative windows are depicted over the
southern landing place. The staircases lead into an upper gallery, or
corridor, which communicates with the superior bed rooms and other
apartments. When the doors at the ends of the Gallery, which are
fronted with looking glass, are closed, an almost magical illusion is
produced, the perspective appearing interminable. The carpeting is
of English manufacture, and accords, in decoration, with the other
furniture. From the respective extremities of this Gallery, access is
obtained to the Music Room and the Banqueting Room.


'No verbal description, however elaborate, can convey to the mind, or
imagination of the reader, an appropriate idea of the magnificence
of this apartment; and even the creative delineations of the pencil,
combined with all the illusions of colour, would scarcely be adequate
to such an undertaking. Yet, luxuriously resplendent and costly as the
adornments are, they are so intimately blended with the refinements of
an elegant taste, that every thing appears in keeping, and in harmony.

'The ground plan of this apartment forms a square of forty two feet,
enlarged to the north and south by rectangular recesses, ten feet in
depth; thus extending the entire length to sixty two feet. The square
part, at the height of twenty three feet, is surrounded by a splendid
canopy, or cornice, ornamented with carved shield work, flower drops,
stars, etc.; and supported, at the angles, by slender, reticulated,
tree like columns, richly gilt. Immediately above this is an octagon
gallery, ten feet high, formed by a series of eight elliptical arches,
pierced by windows of a similar shape, and connected by intervening
spandrils. The windows, which are so contrived as to be illumined from
the exterior, are enriched with stained glass displaying numerous
Chinese devices, and similar decorations, in green gold, surround them.
A convex cove, four feet in elevation, forms the next architectural
feature, and, upon that, is based a very elegant dome, or cupola
(thirty feet in diameter), which is faced, throughout, with scale
work, in green gold, resembling escallop shells; these ornaments, by
decreasing in size as they ascend, add much to the apparent height of
the room, which, at this point, is forty one feet.

'At the apex, expanding in bold relief and vivid colouring, is a vast
foliated ornament, bearing a general resemblance to a sunflower, with
many smaller flowers issuing from it, in all the luxuriancy of seeming
cultivation. From this, apparently projected from the calyx, depends
a very beautiful lustre of cut glass, designed in the pagoda style,
and sustaining, by its chain work, an immense lamp in the form of the
_Nelumbrium_, or Water-lily. The upper leaves are of white ground
glass, edged with gold, and enriched with transparent devices derived
from the mythology of the Chinese; the lower leaves are of a pale
crimson hue. At the bottom are golden dragons, in attitudes of flight.
Eight smaller lamps, but of corresponding forms and decoration, are
suspended from the projecting angles of the canopy; adding greatly to
the general effect when illumined for evening parties.

'On the eastern side of this room, light is admitted by five windows,
the draperies of which, composed of blue and crimson satins, and yellow
silks, richly fringed, are upheld by golden dragons, and supported,
at the sides, by large serpents of a silvery hue. In front of the
intervening piers (on elevated pedestals, manufactured by Spode) stand
four pagoda towers of oriental porcelain, each of which consists
of eight stories, and is fifteen feet in height; the pedestals are
embellished with varied landscapes and flowers. Many other rare and
valuable specimens of oriental china and jasper, in large jars, vases,
etc., are included among the ornamental furniture of this room.

'On the west side is a magnificent chimney piece, of statuary marble,
designed by Westmacott, and very beautifully wrought. The sweep of
cornice in the centre is supported on the expanded wings of a finely
sculptured dragon; and each of the jambs, which are, in fact, short,
circular columns, having bases and capitals of conjoined lotus leaves,
is surrounded by eight small columns of _ormolu_, and otherwise
enriched. The stove, fender, fire irons, etc., which were manufactured
by Cutler, in a superior style of workmanship to most others, are of
polished steel and _ormolu_. Over the chimney piece is an effulgent
looking glass, measuring nearly twelve feet by eight, surmounted by
a tasteful and glittering canopy, supported by tree like columns of
radiant gold. In front, stands a superb time piece, of curious and
elaborate design; the base exhibits a rock and a palm-tree; around
the latter a dragon entwines, and appears to be darting its sting at
a figure behind, who wields an uplifted spear. At the top are Venus
and Cupid, with the peacock of Love; and, below them, is the god Mars,
who is climbing upwards, as though to view the beauties of the Paphian
queen. Large and elegant China vases, with golden branches for lights,
are placed on each side the time piece, together with other vessels of
rich jasper.

'The walls, where not otherwise adorned, are covered with paintings,
in imitation of the crimson japan. The subjects introduced are twelve
in number, and consist of views in China principally taken in the
neighbourhood of that "far famed, but little known, metropolis" Pekin;
they are of a bright yellow colour, heightened with gold; and, in
delicacy of execution, and beauty of pencilling, are scarcely to be
exceeded by the best miniature paintings. Much fancy is displayed in
the framework; the inner borderings being composed of a running pattern
of rich foliage, and the outer ones of blue and yellow fret work,
heightened with gold: at the upper corners are flying dragons.

'The recesses at the north and south ends are each canopied by a
convex curve representing rows of bamboos, confined by ribands, and
terminating in the square of the room; these are partly sustained by
large columns of crimson and flowered gold, which are entwined by
enormous serpents, depicted in all their glowing diversity of colour,
and vivid expression of animal power. Similar columns, but of greater
height, are ranged on the western side of this apartment. Within the
northern recess, and a separate room extending behind it to the depth
of twenty feet, stands a large organ, which was built by Lincoln in
the year 1818, and is celebrated both for great powers, and peculiar
delicacy of tone. It has three rows of keys, twenty eight stops, and
twenty pedals; and its compass extends from C.C.C. with a double
diapason throughout.

'There are two entrances to this apartment, one from the Chinese
Gallery, and the other from the Yellow Drawing-room, each under a
superb canopy of crimson and gold, ornamented with dragons and musical
bells, and supported by golden columns entwined by dragons. There is no
outlet on the opposite side, but the general uniformity is preserved
by apparent entrances, corresponding in embellishments with those

'The carpet, which was manufactured in Axminster, to fit the room, is
one of the largest in the kingdom, its dimensions being sixty one feet
by forty, and its weight about 1,700 lbs. It is wrought with Chinese
subjects in gold colour, on a light blue ground, including suns, stars,
serpents, dragons, birds, insects, and other forms. The sofas and
chairs, which are of yellow satin and gold, accord with the surrounding
objects; the arm chairs are partially dove coloured.

'THE YELLOW DRAWING ROOM, has been so much altered since it was fitted
up by the Prince of Wales, that it now bears little resemblance to
Pugin's drawing of it. As there delineated, the walls displayed a
series of pictures in the Chinese style, intermingled with other
characteristic embellishments, and numerous Chinese lanterns were
suspended from flying dragons issuing from the cornice.

'This is the intervening apartment between the Saloon and the Music
Room, and is the one that usually becomes the sitting room of the
Royal party when residing at the Palace. Its length is fifty six feet,
and its extreme breadth, to the windows, about thirty three feet. The
ceiling is partly supported by two oriental columns, of white and
gold, enwreathed by serpents, and branching into umbrella capitals
hung with bells. The Cornice, or Canopy, which surrounds the room,
is also diversified by pendent bells. The draperies, etc., are of
striped satin; and the walls are panelled in white, with richly gilt
borderings. The principal chairs and sofas are covered to match the
drapery; and, on the back of every chair, is a small Chinese figure,
seated, with a bell in each hand. There are five windows on the east
side (besides two others in the semicircular returns), and, in front
of each intermediate pier, is a sexagon stand of porcelain, sustaining
branch lights. The chimney piece, which is of brown coloured marble,
is elegantly designed; at the angles are small columns, and within
a niche in each jamb is a Chinese figure. On the mantel shelf is a
handsome dial, by Vulliamy, with ornamental accessories, including
Chinese figures of white china, in draperies enriched with gold. Among
the furniture are Buhl tables, with grotesque borderings, beautifully
inlaid. On the side and end tables are many jars and vases of Asiatic
and Sèvres porcelain; several of which are of a pale sea green colour,
elegantly wrought with flowers, butterflies, and other forms. The doors
are panelled with plate glass.

'THE SALOON, which forms the centre of the suite in the eastern front,
is magnificently decorated, almost every part being effulgent with
gold. Its general plan is a circle, thirty five feet in diameter,
surmounted by a cupola, and enlarged to the north and south by
coved semicircular recesses (of a ten feet radius), which include
the entrances from the apartments communicating with the Music and
Banqueting rooms. The Cupola springs from a boldly projecting cornice,
composed of various mouldings, apparently, of massive gold, crowned
by a running ornament of flowers, and pendent bells. The ceiling
represents a lightly clouded sky (the sun being dimly seen); in the
centre of which is a gorgeous bird, in full relief, with wings of
flowered gold and silver, enwreathed with serpents, resplendently
coloured crimson and green. This sustains one of the most elaborate
and finely devised lustres, of cut glass, that was ever executed. Its
height is about eighteen feet, and its varying and brilliant tiers
of glittering drops are surrounded, towards the bottom, by radiant
burners, the light of which is softened and diffused around by globes
of ground glass. Four smaller lustres, but of corresponding fancy and
workmanship, are pendent from the ceilings of the recesses.

'On the eastern side are three large windows, splendidly adorned
with festooned curtains of flowered satin, crimson and gold; and the
panels, and other divisions, are enriched with corresponding drapery.
Between the windows are two very large pier glasses, reaching nearly
from the ground to the cornice; and other large glasses surmount the
entrance doorways; all the framework is of an elegantly conceived
pattern, designed from the lotus leaf; and every frame has a rich
canopy, springing from dragons' heads. On the west side is a sumptuous
chimney piece of statuary marble, with enrichments of _ormolu_; and,
in each jamb, within a niche, stands a Chinese figure; these figures,
which are of metal, are highly painted and varnished, and the dresses
are finely pencilled. Over the chimney piece is a vast looking glass,
thirteen feet high, and eight feet wide, in front of which stands an
elegant dial by Vulliamy; this is supported by couchant dragons of blue
porcelain, and enclosed in a China case surrounded by golden wreaths of
the lotus and sunflower plants. Surmounting the dial, is a Chinese male
figure seated, with a boy on his shoulder, a girl at his side, and a
dog on his lap.

'At the sides of the recesses are enriched pilasters; each shaft
of which exhibits a kind of caduceus, enwreathed by double headed
serpents, in gold. The doors, which are folding, and also double, are
beautifully ornamented in Japan work, in panels, curiously embossed
with flowering shrubs, birds of different kinds (including peacocks,
parrots, and cockatoos), rabbits, a porcupine frightened by snakes,
insects, etc., in variously coloured gold. On the side piers, between
the doors, are represented pagodas in rockery scenery, together
with a lake teeming with water flowers of many species, and, in the
sky, flying dragons. Great invention and very skilful execution are
displayed by all these designs.

'Large vases of china, and other vessels in rich settings, beautifully
wrought with sundry kinds of insects, in low relief, constitute a part
of the ornamental furniture of the Saloon; which, also, includes some
fine cabinets, and splendid ottomans of ruby coloured silk, fringed
with gold, with couches and chairs of corresponding elegance. The
carpet, which is of Axminster manufacture, is wrought on a circular
plan, to fit the room, accords with the other decorations. In the
centre is a dragon and two serpents, surrounded by lotus flowers
and leaves; roses, stars, serpents, and other forms, in alternating
succession, diversify the borderings.

the Banqueting Room with the Saloon, was originally called the _Blue
Drawing Room_, from the general tone of its decorations. Chinese
lanterns were suspended from the cornice and ceiling, and paintings
of Chinese scenery and trellis work covered the walls; but it was,
subsequently, altered, and scarcely a vestige of its former state
remains except the stoves and chimney pieces. It is now called the
_Green Drawing Room_, from the prevalent hue of its draperies, which
are of richly woven silks, of a pale green colour, tastefully wrought
with groups of fruit and flowers.

'This apartment is fifty two feet in length, and about thirty three
feet in extreme breadth. The ceiling, which is surrounded by an
enriched cornice, is partly sustained by two oriental columns, crowned
with spreading foliage. The walls are panelled white, with broad fret
like borders, in gold; and, on the west side, under a festooned canopy,
is a recess for a couch, with fluted drapery at the back, radiating
from a central flower. On the same side, surmounted by large looking
glasses, are two handsome chimney pieces of white marble, having
ornamental accessories in _ormolu_ and bronze. A clock by Vulliamy, and
two beautiful jars of porcelain, upholding branch lights, stand on each
shelf; and many other rich vessels of china and porcelain are ranged on
Indian cabinets and side tables, in different parts of the room. But
the most _récherché_ of all, are two vases, and two ewers of Chinese
manufacture, which occupy high pedestals in front of the window piers;
they approach to the Egyptian form, and are of a sea green colour,
variegated with gold; each of these vessels is about three feet in
height. Several of the tables are of rosewood inlaid with _ormolu_; and
one table is of rich tortoise shell, similarly embellished. The door
panels are of looking glass.'

[Illustration: Decorative motif]

[Illustration: Decorative panel]


 The Banqueting Room--The Library--Royal Bedroom--North
 and South Galleries--Queen Adelaide's apartments--Great
 Kitchen--Chapel--Stables--Riding House.


'In its general plan, dimensions, and principal architectural
features, this apartment nearly corresponds with the Music Room; but
the decorations and ornamental work are entirely different, although
equally impressive in effect, from the good taste displayed in their
well harmonized combinations, and in the professional ability which
pervades the whole.

'Like the Music Room, the square of this apartment, at the height of
twenty three feet, is bounded by a most elegant cornice, apparently
inlaid with pearl and gold: the upper members exhibit the lotus leaf,
and the lower ones are adorned with pendent trefoils, alternating with
silver bells. This is supported, at the angles, by golden columns, each
surrounded, in two divisions, by fasces of lances and darts entwined
by serpents. Over each side of the cornice extends an elliptical arch,
about seven feet high in the clear, having, in the central part, a
narrow, oblong window of stained glass (so contrived as to be illumined
from without), and, in smaller arched compartments, at the extremities,
golden dragons of various forms. The windows, which are glazed lozenge
wise, include in their embellishments radiant suns within circles,
on a blue ground, involving dragons and serpents in their blaze, in
accordance with oriental imagery. Cove-like spandrils, faced with
ornamental fret work, connect the elliptical arches with a cupola of
an unique, yet graceful form; the base being a regular cone, about six
feet in height, and the surmounting part composed of curves struck from
different centres, and partly convex. The cove is bordered with gold
mouldings, and faced with scale work of a whitish-green colour, studded
with golden flowerets. An Eastern sky, partially obscured by the broad
and branching foliage of a luxuriant and fruited plantain tree, is
depicted in the upper part; and, from this, appears to issue a vast
dragon, finely carved, and most brilliantly coloured, the wings and
scales being redolent of metallic green and silver.

'From a ring, environed by the claws of the dragon, was, formerly,
suspended a magnificent lustre, of unparalleled size and beauty;
but this was taken down, about three years ago, under the express
command of his late Majesty, King William, who was fearful lest, from
its immense weight, the supports should give way, and some fatal
accident occur. It is still, however, carefully preserved, and may
be replaced, whenever desirable. Its height is thirty feet, its
extreme diameter about twelve feet, and its weight about one ton.
This elaborate specimen of ingenious art consists of two divisions,
connected with each other by chains richly gilt. The upper division is,
apparently, formed of conjoined links of pearls and rubies diverging
to a horizontal star; below which is a radiant circle of open flowers
and bands of pearls, etc., combined with festoons of sparkling
jewellery. The lower division consists of a vast bulb, gradually
expanding, composed of seeming pearls, and connected with four large
and glittering dragons, from whose upturned mouths proceed as many
lotus flowers (of ground glass slightly tinted), "the expressive
Eastern emblems of perfection and brightness." Festoons of pearls, with
rosettes, stars, etc., and tassels of brilliant drops, complete the
form of this unique ornament.

'Four other lustres, designed in a style of corresponding elegance, but
much smaller, and more simple in construction, are suspended from an
equal number of beautifully carved figures of the Chinese _Fum_, which
appears to issue, in the act of flight, from the spandrils beneath the
cupola, and are richly and variously coloured to resemble nature. Each
minor lustre displays only a single lotus flower, which crowns the
lower division, and appears studded, at the joining of the leaves, with
superb jewels; twenty four burners are contained within the cup of each

'Of the enchanting effect produced by the diffusive rays of these
lustres, when fully illumined, it is scarcely possible to conceive an
adequate idea. "Creating," (if the figure may be allowed), "in mid
air, a diamond blaze, yet so chastened by the semi-transparent medium
through which it streams, that the eye gazes on the beauteous scene,
undazzled; the effulgence assumes the character of an artificial day."

'The recesses to the north and south of this apartment are united to
the main cornice by convex curves (rising from a subordinate cornice
enriched with gold and pendent bells), each of which is divided into
five semi-elliptic compartments, curiously embellished with a variety
of shadowy mythological forms, in pale gold, on a slate coloured
ground. The intervening spaces above the cornice, are crimson and gold,
with silver studs.

'On the east side are five spacious windows, the draperies of which
are of the richest crimson silks, adorned with gold, and sustained
by flying dragons. The dividing piers are covered by fluted silks
of celestial blue; and, in front of each pier, is a beautiful
candelabrum, about ten feet in height. Each of the latter consists of a
circular pedestal (including descending dragons, in relief, among its
ornaments), supporting a cylindrical vase of blue porcelain, resembling
lapis lazuli, surmounted by a lotus flower, of seven leaves, slightly
tinged with red, and having its stem entwined by golden dragons.
Similar candelabra, but with varied pedestals, stand before the main
piers on the opposite side. The windows are glazed with plate glass
in large panes, set in frames of dark wood, with gold beadings, and
borders of amber coloured glass; the jambs are black and red, edged
with gold ornamental work.

'There are four entrances to this apartment (_viz._, two at each
end), all of which are uniform in character and decoration. They
have folding doors embellished in imitation of Japan work; each
leaf presenting an elegant pagoda, embossed with gold of different
hues, and hung with silver bells. Small columns ornament the sides
of the doorways, and each impost exhibits two finely carved dragons,
apparently of solid gold. Above these, in an arched compartment, is a
group of dragons, issuing from an expanded flower cup, expressive of
the chimæra of oriental mythology: these, also, are richly gilt, and
beautifully sculptured.

'The walls above the dado (independently of a general decoration of
silver chequer work, heightened with flowered crosses, on a deep blue
ground) are divided into compartments of large size, containing a
series of beautiful paintings in illustration of the domestic manners
and costume of the Chinese people. The grouped subjects are eleven in
number, and there are four others of single figures, holding screens
of peacock's feathers. The ground of these masterly productions is an
imitation of inlaid pearl, richly and ingeniously wrought with all the
varied forms of the mythology of China; yet so delicately executed
as scarcely to intrude upon the eye. The central picture on the west
side represents the conveyance home of a Chinese bride. She is seated
in a palanquin, under a parasol canopy, with a peacock by her side,
and carried by six bearers in rich habits. An attendant with cymbals,
and two boys, respectively carrying a banner and a trumpet, lead the
procession. In the adjoining are a lady looking at a vase containing
gold fish, which an attendant is feeding, and a Chinese grandee giving
audience to a suitor. On the same side, but within the recesses, family
parties are represented, in one of which is a female on a settee, with
two children, and, at her knee, a boy playfully holding a macaw. Among
the other subjects represented are, a lady playing on a guitar, with a
much pleased child, kneeling at her side, and listening; a lady, with
a peacock fan, receiving fruit from a boy; a lady and child tending
flowers; and a child amusing itself with a tame snake, in the presence
of its parents. These paintings are executed with a precision and
delicacy equal to miniature, and the colouring is extremely brilliant:
the figures are nearly the size of life; and the dresses are richly
embroidered. They are all inclosed within painted framings of trellis
work, edged by narrow gold mouldings. On the west side are, also,
painted two Chinese standards, hung with pennons, and guarded, at the
base, by dragons.

'At each end of this room (facing each other) is a chimney piece of the
finest statuary marble, ornamented with _ormolu_, and having canopied
niches in the jambs, occupied by Chinese figures, richly gilt. Above
each is a looking glass, extending to the cornice, and measuring ten
feet in height, by five feet nine inches in width. Before the northern
glass stands a time piece, of most excellent design and workmanship.
The dial forms the centre of an opening sunflower, on each side of
which, as though reposing in the shade of its exuberant and varied
foliage (chased in gold), is a Chinese figure, male and female, the one
with a bow, the other with a fan. These figures are of brass, highly
coloured in beautiful Japan work; and the garments are enriched with
golden ornaments, finely pencilled. On the opposite chimney piece is a
thermometer, of similar design and execution as the time piece: each
dial is surmounted by a peacock, or _Fum_.

'There are five sideboards of rose wood in this apartment, ornamented
with _ormolu_ and Chinese emblems. The dining table, which is of the
best mahogany, is forty two feet in length, and seven feet six inches
in width. The seats and backs of the chairs are covered with red

'Among the other furniture appropriate to a dining room, are five
Chinese Cisterns, mounted in _ormolu_, of superior workmanship; and
numerous jars and vessels of blue porcelain, of great brilliancy and
excellence; the latter are of Staffordshire manufacture, and were
provided by Spode and Copeland. The carpeting, which is of Axminster
manufacture, and made expressly for the room, consists of a large
square, and two end pieces to correspond. A dragon, with three serpents
coiled round, and involving it, forms the central ornament: this is
surrounded by circles, diversely wrought, and increasing in diameter
towards the border.

'The illustration represents the Banqueting Room as it appeared during
one of the splendid entertainments given there, by the Prince Regent;
whose portrait may be distinctly recognised among the company.

'On the same side, at the end of the dining table, is his Royal
brother, the late King, when Duke of Clarence. The table is set out
with rich plate, splendid candelabra, and elegant and costly statuary.


'Behind the Music Room, and, partly, forming the north west of this
edifice, are the private apartments which were occupied by his late
Majesty, George the Fourth. They consist of a Library, Bed room, Bath,
Sitting and Dressing rooms, and several offices.

'The Library comprehends two rooms, the largest of which is thirty
five feet in length, by twenty feet in breadth, and the other, about
half those dimensions. Divided into three compartments, _viz._ a
square and two oblongs, the ceiling of the large room is painted to
represent an azure sky, diversified by light clouds; and, in the
oblong compartments, are delineations of Chinese standards. The square
part is surrounded by a gilt cornice, supported, at the angles, by
fluted pillars, crowned with capitals of fan-like tracery. Dragons of
grotesque and varied forms, combined with flowers and other devices, on
a green ground, are curiously painted on the walls. The hangings are
composed of rich yellow coloured drapery. Over the chimney piece, which
is of statuary marble, and very elegant, is a splendid looking glass;
and another is fixed over the chimney piece in the smaller room. Though
still called the Library, these apartments present but few indications
of that appropriation, all the books having been removed during the
residence, here, of William the Fourth. A great variety of China jars,
and other vessels, form a part of the ornamental furniture, and, in
the smaller room, is a very pretty Indian Cabinet, containing numerous
articles of _bijouterie_ and _vertû_.


'This apartment adjoins to the Library, on the north side: it forms
a square of about forty feet, with a recess for a bed on the eastern
side. A kind of dado of trellis work surrounds the lower part, and
the upper parts are decorated with dragons, stars, flowers, etc.,
pencilled in white, on a light green ground: the doors, also, are
painted to correspond. The adjoining _Bath Room_ is lined white marble:
the principal bath, which is sixteen feet long, ten feet wide, and six
feet deep, is supplied with salt water from the sea, by a succession
of pipes, and other machinery. In the Ante room (or Page's room) are
eighteen small paintings, very neatly executed, of Chinese Landscapes,
and other subjects connected with China.

'THE NORTH AND SOUTH GALLERIES, or LOBBIES, as they are now called,
serve as avenues of communication with the adjoining apartments.
From the trellis work and general style of fitting up, they have a
light and airy appearance, and the furniture is correspondent. Each
doorway is flanked by two half columns, ornamented by lozenge-shaped
reticulations, and crowned by dragons' heads in relief. Several models
of Chinese ships and Pagodas, finely carved in ivory, are preserved
here, and exhibit extraordinary examples of patient labour and
dexterity in that branch of art.

'QUEEN ADELAIDE'S APARTMENTS, are very neatly fitted up, though with
little splendour; being far more adapted for domestic comfort than
for state display; for which, indeed, they were never designed. Both
the Drawing and Bed-rooms are battened with a very handsome paper,
teeming with flowers upon a yellow ground, and including many beautiful
parrots and other birds and insects among its other ornaments. Several
Indian cabinets, and an elegant Buhl table, form part of the Drawing
room furniture; and, in the adjoining Lady's Room, is a fine head, by
Lawrence, of his late Majesty, William the Fourth. These apartments
open to the balcony in the West Wing, over the Library.


'Nearly the whole of the south end of the Palace is occupied by the
various offices belonging to the establishment,--of which, both in
appearance, and interest, the _Great Kitchen_ must be regarded as the
principal. Its form is rectangular; the extent from east to west is
about forty-five feet, and, from north to south, thirty-six feet. It
has a lantern roof, which is supported by four iron columns, in the
shape of palm trees, and is carried up to a considerable elevation. The
interior of this necessary adjunct to social comfort is to be seen in a
contemporary illustration, wherein its busy inmates are seen in active
preparation for a Royal entertainment. The dishes, when placed on the
central table, are kept hot by a steam apparatus, until everything
is ready for the banquet. Several smaller kitchens, and two larders,
are attached to the principal one; and, on the western side of the
servants' corridor, are two pastry rooms and a confectionary. Some
alterations were made here about two years ago, during a repair. It is
scarcely necessary to add, that all the arrangements, fittings up and
furniture of these offices, as well as the great variety of articles
of culinary use, are of the best and most convenient description. In
an open court, there is, also, an octagon tower, containing a water
reservoir; the water is raised and supplied for domestic purposes, by
ingenious and powerful machinery.


'Near the south east angle of the palace is a large building of red
brick, forming part of Castle Square. This was, originally, the Castle
Inn; but, it having been purchased by the Prince Regent, the Ball
room was converted into a CHAPEL for the Royal household, soon after
his accession to the Crown. It was consecrated with great solemnity,
on the 1st of January, 1822, by the late Dr. John Buckner, Bishop of
Chichester, in the presence of the King and his suite, and a numerous
congregation. The interior forms a rectangle of eighty feet by forty;
the height is about thirty feet. The Royal gallery, which is at the
north end, is supported by fluted columns and pilasters, and hung with
crimson drapery: it includes three divisions, the central one being
for the sovereign, and those to the right and left, for the attendant
ladies and gentlemen. At the south end is a large organ gallery, with
seats for the household servants. The area is appropriated to a general
congregation, but no person is admitted without a ticket: the number
of tickets issued is about 400. The chapel is neatly wainscoted; and
has two fire places on each side: it communicates with the Palace by a
covered passage leading to an apartment adjoining the Banqueting room.
The original Chapel Royal was in Prince's Place, North Street, at a
short distance westward from the Pavilion; and it is still occupied
as a Chapel of ease to Brighton. It was erected in 1793, under the
patronage of the Prince of Wales, who deposited the first stone; and
contains accommodation for about 1,000 persons.


'It has already been stated that the Pavilion Stables were erected from
the designs of the late William Porden, Esq^{re}, between the years
1803 and 1805. They stand on the northern side of the pleasure grounds,
at the distance of about ninety or one hundred yards from the Palace
itself, and occupy a part of the site of the Elm, or Promenade Grove,
which had, for some years, been used as a place of public recreation,
and was purchased by the Prince of Wales, in 1800. Shortly afterwards,
the adjoining shrubberies and grounds of Grove House, belonging to
the Duke of Marlborough, were also purchased; and, in consequence
of those acquisitions, the _New Road_, connecting North Street with
Church Street, was made. The thoroughfare connecting East Street with
the North Steyne (which had, previously, run immediately behind the
Pavilion) was then closed up, and the intervening space annexed to the

'The arrangement and construction of this extensive pile are highly
honourable to the professional skill of its talented architect, who
was the first person in this country that adopted the Oriental style
in modern composition; at least, on an enlarged scale. In the boldness
of the design, particularly of the dome crowned Rotunda, and in the
judicious allocation of the parts, "which" (as was justly remarked by a
contemporary writer), "while they produce all the conveniences in the
contemplation of his Royal Highness, contribute, equally, to advance
the general effect," the architect has been eminently successful; yet,
as correct specimens of Oriental composition, neither the Pavilion,
nor Stables, will be ever regarded as examples for imitation. The
expense of erecting this building was upwards of £70,000.

'The principal entrance to the Royal Stables is from Church Street,
and leads through a wide and lofty arch, of the pointed form, into a
spacious quadrangular court, containing the coach houses, coach house
stabling, and various servants' rooms and offices. Opposite to this,
is another archway, conducting to the area of the Rotunda, which is a
circle of 249 feet in circumference, surrounded by the stables for the
saddle horses, and an open gallery; and the whole of which receives its
light through the glazed compartments of the vast cupola by which it is
surmounted. From the extent and height of this interior, and the lofty
elevation of the four arches which open from it towards the cardinal
points, an impressive effect, associated with surprise and admiration,
is produced on the mind of every spectator.

'The Dome, or Cupola, which surmounts the Rotunda, combines strength
and lightness in an extraordinary degree. Although upwards of eighty
feet diameter in the clear, its thickness is only twelve inches at
the bottom, and nine inches at the top. It is constructed on the same
principle as was the celebrated Cupola of the _Halle au Blé_ at Paris,
and it was the first example of that mode of construction, in this
country, upon a large scale. The main ribs, which are twenty-four in
number, are twelve inches by nine inches at the bottom, diminishing
to nine inches square at the top; they are each constructed of three
thicknesses of fir planks, in lengths of nine feet, breaking joint, and
firmly bolted together, every three feet; the whole planed smooth,
and the heading joints fitted together with the greatest accuracy. Of
the space between the ribs, by far the largest proportion is divided
into sixteen glazed compartments, spreading fan wise, which diffuse an
abundant light throughout the Rotunda. The remaining eight compartments
are embellished with panels in stucco work, instead of glass, which
adds variety, without destroying the symmetry, and relieves the eye
from the repulsive glare that a skylight of that magnitude must,
otherwise, produce. In the middle of the Cupola is a circular opening,
surmounted by a lantern, which forms a ventilator for the Rotunda and
Stabling, and is wrought, exteriorly, in the form of a coronet. Where
not interrupted by the skylights, the ribs are connected by horizontal
purlins, and further strengthened by iron chains surrounding the whole
contour. The curvilinear plate, or curb, at the springing of the dome,
measures twelve inches by nine inches, and that at the top, nine inches
by nine; both are constructed in thicknesses in the same manner as the
ribs above described.

'The great arches on the east and west of the Rotunda lead to the
Riding House, and to a new wing of stablings, erected in 1832, for
Queen Adelaide, on the site of what had been intended for a Tennis
Court. They, also, contain the staircases connected with the gallery,
around which are the Harness and Saddle rooms, and numerous apartments
for the grooms and other servants. The southern arch opens to the
pleasure grounds, and the view through the arches, from the entrance
gateway, across the Rotunda, is singularly striking. The stables,
surrounding the area, forty-four in number, are so arranged that, when
the doors are open, a spectator, standing under the central part of
the Cupola, may see into every stall, without changing his situation.
The fronts of the stables, and the arcades of the surmounting gallery,
are finished in a corresponding manner to the dome, and this gives an
harmonious character to the whole interior.

'It has been frequently stated that the ventilation of the Royal
stables, though aided by extensive archways connected with the
Rotunda, was inadequate to disperse the heat attracted, and retained,
by the glass and lead work covering the dome; and, that the health
of all horses kept there for any length of time was much injured in
consequence. These assertions, however, are contrary to facts; the
writer having been recently assured by the chief groom, who has held
his situation many years, that no stabling in the kingdom can be more
healthful, nor better adapted for its purpose than this.

'The RIDING HOUSE, which is to the west of the Rotunda, is a very
capacious building; its length being 176 feet, its width 58 feet 6
inches, and its height 34 feet, in the clear. It is covered with a
roof of a peculiar construction, differing, probably, from every other
example. For the purpose of gaining as much height as possible, this
roof was constructed without the beams, the main timbers, of twelve
inches by nine inches scantling, being built in the form of an arch, of
forty-seven feet six inches radius, in three thicknesses of fir plank;
precisely in the same manner as the ribs of the dome, above described.
These curvilinear beams rest on plates of fir, and are further
strengthened by curvilinear oak struts, of ten feet three inches
radius, forming the ceiling into an elliptical arch 58 ft. 6 in. in the
span (as before stated), and of 15 feet rise; with groins 15 ft. 4 in.
wide over each of the five windows on the west front, and corresponding
groins on the east side. Over the arched beams are principal rafters,
framed at the top with a king post, in the usual manner; and, at the
bottom, forming tangents with the beams, and connected with them by
keys and iron straps. The main trusses of the roof are 18 ft. 5 in.
apart over the windows, and 6 ft. 9 in. over the piers, measuring from
centre to centre; and the number of main beams is eighteen, or three
over each pier.'




 Visit of William IV.--Alterations contemplated--Visit of the
 King and Queen--Story of the Duke of Cambridge--Alterations in
 the Pavilion--The Royal Family snowed up--Queen Victoria's first
 visit--Second visit--Third, with the royal children--Fourth, and
 last--The Pavilion dismantled--Sold to the Corporation of Brighton.

George the Magnificent was buried on July 16, 1830, and at the earliest
opportunity his brother and successor William the Fourth visited the
Pavilion (August 16), and at once began to plan alterations. The
following is the account, from the _Brighton Herald_ of August 21, of
his reception:

'On Monday last, it being generally known that his Majesty would arrive
at the Palace on that day, the town, at an early hour, was in full
bustle and active preparation for receiving the Sovereign; and, by two
o'clock, the various public bodies and institutions were assembled,
and proceeded to take up their stations on the line of road by which
the King would pass, as allotted to them by a Committee appointed at
a public meeting, on Saturday, to conduct the various matters. By
three o'clock, Brighton had poured forth its thousands of every grade,
and dense masses of people flanked the road, from the Palace gates
to Preston, and even beyond; while vehicles of every description,
from the gay barouche of the Peer, to the humble hackney fly, formed
a continuous line for nearly a mile. The manner in which the various
authorities were stationed to receive his Majesty, was as follows:

'At the Palace gates,--the local Magistrates, the High Constable, and
the Clergy, in their Canonicals; at St. George's Place, the body of
the Commissioners and their officers; opposite St. Peter's Church, the
Overseers, Directors, and Guardians; at the Elephant and Castle, the
Revenue Officers; at the Hare and Hounds, the Friendly and Benefit
Societies of the town; and, from the Dairy to Preston, the children of
the various Charity Schools.

'Precisely at half past four o'clock, a gun, fired from the battery,
announced to the expectant multitude that their Royal Prince was
approaching; and, soon after, one of the Royal carriages, containing
his Majesty's pages, arrived. Twenty minutes elapsed, when the
acclamations of the distant throng made known that the King, himself,
had appeared.

'At Preston, the King, in his travelling chariot, (the glasses of which
were down) accompanied by Sir Frederick Watson, entered, amidst huzzas,
the line which had been formed, when his Majesty, to meet the wishes of
his delighted people, directed the postilions to proceed at a walking

'The King, who looked extremely well, and was in the highest spirits,
acknowledged the loyal gratulations and respectful obeisances, with
which he was, on both sides, saluted, frequently bending to the elegant
and beautiful females who filled the balconies and windows, waving
their handkerchiefs as he passed.

'The line of road was pretty well kept, until his Majesty had nearly
cleared Marlborough Place, when the anxiety of the crowd, who stood
in the back ground, in Church Street, to see the King, was not to be
withstood; and, despite the endeavour of the Headborough and Committee,
the populace rushed in, and the Royal carriage was literally beset: and
it was with extreme difficulty that the postilions wended their way
through the dense crowds, who rent the air with deafening acclamations,
which were continued for a considerable time after the King had entered
the Palace Gates.

'_Never was a monarch more heartily and joyfully welcomed, than
was William the Fourth, on Monday last, by the inhabitants of this

Poor Florizel! only absent a little more than three years from the
town which he had made; superseded in a moment by another rising sun,
and all but clean forgotten; and even his own brother, as soon as he
possibly could, began alterations on poor Florizel's Folly!

'His Majesty, as early as nine o'clock the next morning after his
arrival, attended by Sir Frederick Watson, and Mr. Nash, walked from
the Palace Grounds to the gravelled space outside the south gate
of the Palace, fronting East Street, where he continued for some
time, familiarly conversing, and marking the ground with his stick,
evidently suggesting certain alterations; after which, his Majesty
and attendants retired into the Palace. It is conjectured that the
unsightly boards, which hide from public view the western front of the
Palace, and the beautiful grounds, will be removed, and a light iron
fence and gates, extending from Messrs. Brewster and Seabrook's to the
Royal Kitchen, will be substituted in lieu thereof.'

A few days afterwards (on August 30), the King, with Queen Adelaide,
visited Brighton, and stayed at the Pavilion until October 25. Anent
this visit, I cannot refrain from quoting an anecdote of the present
Duke of Cambridge, who was then not twelve years old.

_Brighton Herald, October 2, 1830._--'The following has been related to
us as a fact: A few days since, Prince George of Cambridge went into
a saddler's shop, in the King's Road, and requested to be shewn some
whips. An assortment being produced, his Royal Highness selected one of
costly manufacture, and enquired the price. The cautious shopkeeper,
ignorant of the rank of his visitor, stated the charge, and added:
"Perhaps, Sir, you had better consult your friends before you purchase
so expensive an article." The Prince, with infinite good humour,
acquiesced, and left the shop; and a servant was, soon after, sent
for the whip, and announced to the astonished saddler the name of his

The Pavilion was altered and added to according to the King's
instructions; in 1831 the southern gateway and the dormitories were
completed, as were the northern gateway and Queen Adelaide's stables
in the next year. The Queen was very fond of Brighton, and the royal
visits were frequent. None, however, deserve a notice, except,
perhaps, that which commenced on October 19, 1836, the only noteworthy
episode in which was that on Saturday, December 24, the whole royal
establishment were unable to stir forth owing to the very heavy fall
of snow. Several people were frozen to death; the theatre was closed,
and no carriages, except in cases of absolute necessity, left the town.
One short paragraph out of a long account in the _Brighton Patriot_ of
December 27, 1836, will suffice to show the severity of the storm:

'The King's messenger left the Palace, with despatches, for London, on
Sunday evening; but, when he had arrived at Patcham, he was compelled
to leave the carriage; he then took horse, and proceeded towards
London. A gentleman left in a postchaise and pair, about the same
time, in spite of the most pressing remonstrances. On the other side
of Clayton Hill, the carriage and horses were buried in the snow. The
gentleman and driver, it is understood, with great difficulty reached
the Friar's Oak, leaving the horses in the snow; and it is said, they
have both perished. The London Mail left on the same evening, at the
usual time; but, having got to Patcham, it returned, the road being
impassable; but the mail bags were taken on by a man on horseback.'

The old King was then ill with the gout, and he died on June 20, 1837,
and it was not long after her accession that Queen Victoria visited the
Pavilion. She came to Brighton on October 4, and left November 4. It
is needless to say that she received an ovation, which may be tersely
expressed in the following acrostic taken from the _Brighton Gazette_
of October 5, 1837:

    'View now the crowds who throng the joyous scene,
    In anxious hope to greet our youthful Queen;
    Can loyal hearts their joy now fail to show?
    To Heaven the shouts ascend of all below.
    O! may thy reign with every bliss be crowned,
    Round the vast world may thy renown abound,
    In Brighton, may'st thou health and peace acquire,
    And Heaven grant thee all thy heart's desire.'

Her Majesty's next visit to the Pavilion was in the following year,
arriving on December 18, and keeping Christmas there. The Queen married
in 1840, but did not visit Brighton until February 10, 1842, when she
and Prince Albert, together with the Prince of Wales and the Princess
Royal, paid a visit to the Pavilion. A notice of this visit, in the
_Brighton Herald_ of February 12, says:

'In the third carriage came the infant Prince of Wales and the Princess
Royal, for whose failing health, it is said, this journey has been
made: and never has it been our lot to witness a more interesting
scene. The Prince, a fine chubby little fellow, was held up by his
nurse to the right window, so as to be visible to every one, and he
appeared to return the gaze of the thousands who were looking on him
and hailing him, with almost as much joy as they felt. On the opposite
side, the Princess Royal was displayed in a similar manner, and
received with equal enthusiasm. Indeed, her Majesty must feel that she
enjoys a double existence in these Royal infants, who call forth from
her subjects so large a share of loyalty and love.'

This visit terminated on March 8.

In September, 1843, the Queen and Prince Albert paid visits to the
Kings of France and Belgium, and the royal children were sent to
Brighton; but the Queen and Prince Albert paid them a visit at the
Pavilion on September 7, stopping till the 12th. This was the Queen's
fourth and last visit to Brighton.

The royal children--the Prince of Wales, the Princess Alice, and Prince
Alfred--were sent to the Pavilion next year, on September 10, and
stopped till October 2. This was the last time the building was used as
a royal residence.

A marine palace with greater privacy was considered necessary, and, as
Osborne fulfilled the requirements, the Pavilion was doomed. In August,
1846, it was rumoured it was to be sold, and we see, from the following
cutting from _Punch_ of August 22, what was thought of it:

'RUBBISH FOR SALE.--As there is a doubt about a purchaser coming
forward to bid for the Pavilion at Brighton, we suggest that it be
bought up for the Chinese Collection, unless No. One St. Paul's[103]
should purchase it for their tea establishment. We know of no other
purpose it could be turned to; and, with a few paper lanterns, and
a real native at the door, we feel confident a deal of business in
selling tea, or exhibiting curiosities, might be done. If it is pulled
down, it will be a fine specimen of broken china.'

From 1846 to 1848 the Pavilion was quietly dismantled, and in the
latter year the organ was presented to the town. In June, 1849, leave
was given to bring a Bill into the House of Commons for its sale, and
the town was given the option of purchasing it for £53,000, although
Messrs. Cubitt were prepared to give £100,000 for the site for building
purposes. On June 13, 1850, the town paid £53,000 to the Commissioners
of Woods and Forests, and possession was given them on June 19.
Thackeray, speaking of it in 1861, says:

'You may see the place now for sixpence: they have fiddlers there every
day; and, sometimes, buffoons and mountebanks hire the Riding House and
do their tricks and tumbling there.'


[102] The _italics_ are mine.--J. A.

[103] Then Alderman Dakin's tea warehouse.



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected.

Variations in spelling, punctuation, accents and hyphenation are as in
the original.

Italics are represented thus _italic_.

On page 20 Brighton is described thus:

"The Situation is very pleasant, and generally accounted healthful;
for, tho' it is bounded on the North side by the _British Channel_,"

This geographical error (Brighton is on the South coast) has been left

Italics are represented thus _italic_.

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